WorldWideScience

Sample records for monotonic loading conditions

  1. Some Generalizations of Monotonicity Condition and Applications

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    虞旦盛; 周颂平

    2006-01-01

    @@ O Introduction It is well known that there are a great number of interesting results in Fourier analysis established by assuming monotonicity of coefficients, and many of them have been generalized by loosing the condition to quasi-monotonicity, O-regularly varying quasi-monotonicity, etc..

  2. Monotonic Loading of Circular Surface Footings on Clay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin

    2011-01-01

    Appropriate modeling of offshore foundations under monotonic loading is a significant challenge in geotechnical engineering. This paper reports experimental and numerical analyses, specifically investigating the response of circular surface footings during monotonic loading and elastoplastic beha...

  3. Monotonic loading of circular surface footings on clay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin [Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark)

    2011-12-15

    Appropriate modeling of offshore foundations under monotonic loading is a significant challenge in geotechnical engineering. This paper reports experimental and numerical analyses, specifically investigating the response of circular surface footings during monotonic loading and elastoplastic behavior during reloading. By using the findings presented in this paper, it is possible to extend the model to simulate the vertical-load displacement response of offshore bucket foundations.

  4. Martensitic Transformation in Ultrafine-Grained Stainless Steel AISI 304L Under Monotonic and Cyclic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heinz Werner Höppel

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The monotonic and cyclic deformation behavior of ultrafine-grained metastable austenitic steel AISI 304L, produced by severe plastic deformation, was investigated. Under monotonic loading, the martensitic phase transformation in the ultrafine-grained state is strongly favored. Under cyclic loading, the martensitic transformation behavior is similar to the coarse-grained condition, but the cyclic stress response is three times larger for the ultrafine-grained condition.

  5. Suction caissons subjected to monotonic combined loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Penzes, P.; Jensen, M.R.; Zania, Varvara

    2016-01-01

    Suction caissons are being increasingly used as offshore foundation solutions in shallow and intermediate water depths. The convenient installation method through the application of suction has rendered this type of foundation as an attractive alternative to the more traditional monopile foundation...... for offshore wind turbines. The combined loading imposed typically to a suction caisson has led to the estimation of their bearing capacity by means of 3D failure envelopes. This study aims to analyse the behaviour of suction caissons for offshore wind turbines subjected to combined loading. Finite element...... of the constitutive soil model is examined. The failure envelopes of a single suction caisson obtained by the numerical models are in good agreement with the corresponding ones suggested by closed-form expressions....

  6. L^p solutions of reflected BSDEs under monotonicity condition

    CERN Document Server

    Rozkosz, Andrzej

    2012-01-01

    We prove existence and uniqueness of L^p solutions of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with p-integrable data and generators satisfying the monotonicity condition. We also show that the solution may be approximated by the penalization method. Our results are new even in the classical case p=2.

  7. Effect of dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading on fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Kanji; Murayama, Kouichi; Ogata, Hiroyuki [and others

    1997-04-01

    The fracture behavior for Japanese carbon steel pipe STS410 was examined under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading through a research program of International Piping Integrity Research Group (EPIRG-2), in order to evaluate the strength of pipe during the seismic event The tensile test and the fracture toughness test were conducted for base metal and TIG weld metal. Three base metal pipe specimens, 1,500mm in length and 6-inch diameter sch.120, were employed for a quasi-static monotonic, a dynamic monotonic and a dynamic cyclic loading pipe fracture tests. One weld joint pipe specimen was also employed for a dynamic cyclic loading test In the dynamic cyclic loading test, the displacement was controlled as applying the fully reversed load (R=-1). The pipe specimens with a circumferential through-wall crack were subjected four point bending load at 300C in air. Japanese STS410 carbon steel pipe material was found to have high toughness under dynamic loading condition through the CT fracture toughness test. As the results of pipe fracture tests, the maximum moment to pipe fracture under dynamic monotonic and cyclic loading condition, could be estimated by plastic collapse criterion and the effect of dynamic monotonic loading and cyclic loading was a little on the maximum moment to pipe fracture of the STS410 carbon steel pipe. The STS410 carbon steel pipe seemed to be less sensitive to dynamic and cyclic loading effects than the A106Gr.B carbon steel pipe evaluated in IPIRG-1 program.

  8. Transient Monotonic and Cyclic Load Effects on Mono Bucket Foundations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Dam

    and when hitting the foundation they induce high impact loads with a short duration. It is important that the foundation is able to resists these huge loads. Fortunately, the conducted research showed that the capacity of the mono bucket foundation is high to impact loads. When exposed to a huge wave load...

  9. Mathematical Modeling of Column-Base Connections under Monotonic Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gholamreza Abdollahzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some considerable damage to steel structures during the Hyogo-ken Nanbu Earthquake occurred. Among them, many exposed-type column bases failed in several consistent patterns, such as brittle base plate fracture, excessive bolt elongation, unexpected early bolt failure, and inferior construction work, etc. The lessons from these phenomena led to the need for improved understanding of column base behavior. Joint behavior must be modeled when analyzing semi-rigid frames, which is associated with a mathematical model of the moment–rotation curve. The most accurate model uses continuous nonlinear functions. This article presents three areas of steel joint research: (1 analysis methods of semi-rigid joints; (2 prediction methods for the mechanical behavior of joints; (3 mathematical representations of the moment–rotation curve. In the current study, a new exponential model to depict the moment–rotation relationship of column base connection is proposed. The proposed nonlinear model represents an approach to the prediction of M–θ curves, taking into account the possible failure modes and the deformation characteristics of the connection elements. The new model has three physical parameters, along with two curve-fitted factors. These physical parameters are generated from dimensional details of the connection, as well as the material properties. The M–θ curves obtained by the model are compared with published connection tests and 3D FEM research. The proposed mathematical model adequately comes close to characterizing M–θ behavior through the full range of loading/rotations. As a result, modeling of column base connections using the proposed mathematical model can give crucial beforehand information, and overcome the disadvantages of time consuming workmanship and cost of experimental studies.

  10. Modelling the drained response of bucket foundations for offshore wind turbines under general monotonic and cyclic loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Gottardi, Guido; Govoni, Laura;

    2015-01-01

    The response of bucket foundations on sand subjected to planar monotonic and cyclic loading is investigated in the paper. Thirteen monotonic and cyclic laboratory tests on a skirted footing model having a 0.3 m diameter and embedment ratio equal to 1 are presented. The loading regime reproduces t...

  11. Inelastic behavior of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loading

    CERN Document Server

    Brünig, Michael

    2015-01-01

    This book presents studies on the inelastic behavior of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loads. It focuses on the description of new effects like purely thermal cycles or cases of non-trivial damages. The various models are based on different approaches and methods and scaling aspects are taken into account. In addition to purely phenomenological models, the book also presents mechanisms-based approaches. It includes contributions written by leading authors from a host of different countries.

  12. Characterisation of steel components under monotonic loading by means of image-based methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xavier, J.; Pereira, J. C. R.; de Jesus, A. M. P.

    2014-02-01

    Ductile damage behaviour of S185 structural steel is determined by coupling numerical and experimental analyses. Monotonic experimental tests are carried out in five different specimen configurations. These mechanical tests are coupled with image-based methods for assessing displacement and strain fields over the gauge section. Three different ductile damage models proposed in the literature for monotonic loading are analysed. Their governing parameters are determined by comparing experimental and numerical mechanical responses. Measurements provided by digital image correlation and feature-tracking methods are used for calibrating and validating non-linear finite element modelling. Numerical analyses built in ANSYS are carried out to compute the necessary parameters (stress-strain and triaxiality histories) to calibrate Johnson-Cook (JC) and Kanvinde-Deierlein (KD) fracture criteria. Also, a calibration of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model is performed based on an explicit finite element analysis in ABAQUS.

  13. Roughness’s shapes comparative analysis of some reinforced earth elements under monotonous loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed Khemissa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the experimental and numerical results of a series of pullout tests under monotonous loading performed on five steel strips presenting various forms of roughness (smooth, ribbed, punched, W-shaped, chain and embedded in the same dry sand massif constituting the backfill. The pullout tests were conducted by means of a small-scale model and the calculations carried out by using a finite elements computer program. Obtained results show a good agreement between the experimental and numerical data. They show in addition that the rough strips are more advantageous than the smooth strip. Among the rough strips considered, chain is most relevant.

  14. Shear Behavior of Novel Prestressed Concrete Beam Subjected to Monotonic and Cyclic Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余芳; 姚大立; 贾金青; 吴锋

    2014-01-01

    Prestressed steel ultrahigh-strength reinforced concrete (PSURC) beam is a new type of prestressed con-crete beam, which not only has a considerable compressive strength attributed to the ultrahigh strength concrete, but also ensures a certain degree of ductility at failure due to the existence of structural steel. Five of these beams were monotonically tested until shear failure to investigate the static shear performance including the failure pattern, load-deflection behavior, shear capacity, shear crack width and shear ductility. The experimental results show that these beams have superior shear capacity, crack control ability and shear ductility. To study the shear performance under repeated overloading, seven PSURC beams were loaded in cyclic test simultaneously. The overall shear performance of cycled beams is similar to that of uncycled beams at low load level but different at high load level. The shear capac-ity and crack control ability of cycled beams at high load level are reduced, whereas the shear ductility is improved. In addition, the influences of variables including the degree of prestress, stirrup ratio and load level on the shear perform-ance of both uncycled and cycled beams were also discussed and compared, respectively.

  15. Experimental Studies on Behaviour of Reinforced Geopolymer Concrete Beams Subjected to Monotonic Static Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madheswaran, C. K.; Ambily, P. S.; Dattatreya, J. K.; Ramesh, G.

    2015-06-01

    This work describes the experimental investigation on behaviour of reinforced GPC beams subjected to monotonic static loading. The overall dimensions of the GPC beams are 250 mm × 300 mm × 2200 mm. The effective span of beam is 1600 mm. The beams have been designed to be critical in shear as per IS:456 provisions. The specimens were produced from a mix incorporating fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag, which was designed for a compressive strength of 40 MPa at 28 days. The reinforced concrete specimens are subjected to curing at ambient temperature under wet burlap. The parameters being investigated include shear span to depth ratio (a/d = 1.5 and 2.0). Experiments are conducted on 12 GPC beams and four OPCC control beams. All the beams are tested using 2000 kN servo-controlled hydraulic actuator. This paper presents the results of experimental studies.

  16. Extended end-plate connection subjected to monotonic loading: Experimental analysis and FEM simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureşan, Ioana Cristina; Bâlc, Roxana

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents an experimental investigation of a statically monotonic loaded extended end-plate connection, with preloaded high strength bolts, that was carried out at Laboratory of Faculty of Civil Engineering from Cluj-Napoca. A finite element model using the software package Abaqus [1] was developed in parallel. In order to calibrate the numerical model, the results were analyzed on the basis of moment-rotation curves, stress distribution state and the failure mode of connection. Then, a study was conducted on the numerical model by using a high strength steel (HSS) and changing the stiffness and strength characteristics of some elements. Validation of the numerical modeling was performed against the experimental results and it can be seen that good agreements exist in general.

  17. Inelastic behavior of cold-formed braced walls under monotonic and cyclic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerami, Mohsen; Lotfi, Mohsen; Nejat, Roya

    2015-06-01

    The ever-increasing need for housing generated the search for new and innovative building methods to increase speed and efficiency and enhance quality. One method is the use of light thin steel profiles as load-bearing elements having different solutions for interior and exterior cladding. Due to the increase in CFS construction in low-rise residential structures in the modern construction industry, there is an increased demand for performance inelastic analysis of CFS walls. In this study, the nonlinear behavior of cold-formed steel frames with various bracing arrangements including cross, chevron and k-shape straps was evaluated under cyclic and monotonic loading and using nonlinear finite element analysis methods. In total, 68 frames with different bracing arrangements and different ratios of dimensions were studied. Also, seismic parameters including resistance reduction factor, ductility and force reduction factor due to ductility were evaluated for all samples. On the other hand, the seismic response modification factor was calculated for these systems. It was concluded that the highest response modification factor would be obtained for walls with bilateral cross bracing systems with a value of 3.14. In all samples, on increasing the distance of straps from each other, shear strength increased and shear strength of the wall with bilateral bracing system was 60 % greater than that with lateral bracing system.

  18. Time-dependent, non-monotonic response of warm convective cloud fields to changes in aerosol loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagan, Guy; Koren, Ilan; Altaratz, Orit; Heiblum, Reuven H.

    2017-06-01

    Large eddy simulations (LESs) with bin microphysics are used here to study cloud fields' sensitivity to changes in aerosol loading and the time evolution of this response. Similarly to the known response of a single cloud, we show that the mean field properties change in a non-monotonic trend, with an optimum aerosol concentration for which the field reaches its maximal water mass or rain yield. This trend is a result of competition between processes that encourage cloud development versus those that suppress it. However, another layer of complexity is added when considering clouds' impact on the field's thermodynamic properties and how this is dependent on aerosol loading. Under polluted conditions, rain is suppressed and the non-precipitating clouds act to increase atmospheric instability. This results in warming of the lower part of the cloudy layer (in which there is net condensation) and cooling of the upper part (net evaporation). Evaporation at the upper part of the cloudy layer in the polluted simulations raises humidity at these levels and thus amplifies the development of the next generation of clouds (preconditioning effect). On the other hand, under clean conditions, the precipitating clouds drive net warming of the cloudy layer and net cooling of the sub-cloud layer due to rain evaporation. These two effects act to stabilize the atmospheric boundary layer with time (consumption of the instability). The evolution of the field's thermodynamic properties affects the cloud properties in return, as shown by the migration of the optimal aerosol concentration toward higher values.

  19. Flexibility and electrical stability of polyester-based device electrodes under monotonic and cyclic buckling conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potoczny, G.A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bejitual, T.S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 26506, West Virginia (United States); Abell, J.S. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Sierros, K.A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 26506, West Virginia (United States); Cairns, D.R., E-mail: Darran.Cairns@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 26506, West Virginia (United States); Kukureka, S.N. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom)

    2013-01-01

    The flexibility and electrical stability of highly conductive and transparent amorphous indium tin oxide (a-ITO) films coated on polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylene naphthalate substrates were investigated by buckling tests with in situ monitoring of the electrical resistance. Monotonic and cyclic loading tests of the ITO/polymer systems were conducted. The results show that monotonic buckling in tension is more critical for electromechanical stability of ITO films than in compression (an increase in electrical resistance was observed at a critical radius of curvature, of ∼ 3 and ∼ 1 mm, respectively for both cases investigated). In contrast, cyclic loading tests show that the compression mode is more critical than the tensile mode which may be a result of the residual stress present in the film structure. Failure of the ITO film was caused by buckling-driven delamination observed using scanning electron microscopy after the tests. The presence of residual stress could mean that buckling-driven delamination is the dominant failure mode for ITO/polymer systems under repeated flexing. In general, comparable electromechanical stability was observed in both cases. Investigating the electromechanical response of such material systems is important for polymer substrate selection and life-time prediction of flexible polyester-based electronic devices. - Highlights: ► Cyclic buckling investigation of flexible electrodes. ► Importance of ITO surface compression mode as opposed to tension. ► Role of ITO residual stresses on controlled buckling investigations.

  20. Conditional stability versus ill-posedness for operator equations with monotone operators in Hilbert space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioan Boţ, Radu; Hofmann, Bernd

    2016-12-01

    In the literature on singular perturbation (Lavrentiev regularization) for the stable approximate solution of operator equations with monotone operators in the Hilbert space the phenomena of conditional stability and local well-posedness or ill-posedness are rarely investigated. Our goal is to present some studies which try to bridge this gap. So we present new results on the impact of conditional stability on error estimates and convergence rates for the Lavrentiev regularization and distinguish for linear problems well-posedness and ill-posedness in a specific manner motivated by a saturation result. Taking into account that the behavior of the bias (regularization error in the noise-free case) is crucial, general convergence rates, including logarithmic rates, are derived for linear operator equations by means of the method of approximate source conditions. This allows us to extend well-known convergence rate results for the Lavrentiev regularization that were based on general source conditions to the case of non-selfadjoint linear monotone forward operators for which general source conditions fail. Examples presenting the self-adjoint multiplication operator as well as the non-selfadjoint fractional integral operator and Cesàro operator illustrate the theoretical results. Extensions to the nonlinear case under specific conditions on the nonlinearity structure complete the paper.

  1. Influence of Compaction Temperature on Resistance Under Monotonic Loading of Crumb-Rubber Modified Hot-Mix Asphalts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo A. Rondón-Quintana

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of compaction temperature on resistance under monotonic loading (Marshall of Crumb-Rubber Modified (CRM Hot-Mix Asphalt (HMA was evaluated. The emphasis of this study was the application in Bogotá D.C. (Colombia. In this city the compaction temperature of HMA mixtures decreases, compared to the optimum, in about 30°C. Two asphalt cements (AC 60-70 and AC 80-100 were modified. Two particle sizes distribution curve were used. The compaction temperatures used were 120, 130, 140 and 150°C. The decrease of the compaction temperature produces a small decrease in resistance under monotonic loading of the modified mixtures tested. Mixtures without CRM undergo a lineal decrease in its resistance of up to 34%.

  2. Stability boundaries and sufficient stability conditions for stably stratified, monotonic shear flows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirota, Makoto; Morrison, Philip J.

    2016-05-01

    Linear stability of inviscid, parallel, and stably stratified shear flow is studied under the assumption of smooth strictly monotonic profiles of shear flow and density, so that the local Richardson number is positive everywhere. The marginally unstable modes are systematically found by solving a one-parameter family of regular Sturm-Liouville problems, which can determine the stability boundaries more efficiently than solving the Taylor-Goldstein equation directly. By arguing for the non-existence of a marginally unstable mode, we derive new sufficient conditions for stability, which generalize the Rayleigh-Fjørtoft criterion for unstratified shear flows.

  3. Condition-based inspection/replacement policies for non-monotone deteriorating systems with environmental covariates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao Xuejing [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); School of mathematics and statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fouladirad, Mitra, E-mail: mitra.fouladirad@utt.f [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Bordes, Laurent [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, LMA UMR CNRS 5142, 64013 PAU Cedex (France)

    2010-08-15

    The aim of this paper is to discuss the problem of modelling and optimising condition-based maintenance policies for a deteriorating system in presence of covariates. The deterioration is modelled by a non-monotone stochastic process. The covariates process is assumed to be a time-homogenous Markov chain with finite state space. A model similar to the proportional hazards model is used to show the influence of covariates on the deterioration. In the framework of the system under consideration, an appropriate inspection/replacement policy which minimises the expected average maintenance cost is derived. The average cost under different conditions of covariates and different maintenance policies is analysed through simulation experiments to compare the policies performances.

  4. Stability boundaries and sufficient stability conditions for stably stratified, monotonic shear flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hirota, Makoto, E-mail: hirota@dragon.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Morrison, Philip J. [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)

    2016-05-06

    Highlights: • New stability criteria of stably stratified shear flow are discovered. • Our criteria substantially improve the Howard–Miles criterion (1961). • Our criteria also generalize Rayleigh's inflection point theorem. • The novel approach we found is also efficient as a numerical approach. - Abstract: Linear stability of inviscid, parallel, and stably stratified shear flow is studied under the assumption of smooth strictly monotonic profiles of shear flow and density, so that the local Richardson number is positive everywhere. The marginally unstable modes are systematically found by solving a one-parameter family of regular Sturm–Liouville problems, which can determine the stability boundaries more efficiently than solving the Taylor–Goldstein equation directly. By arguing for the non-existence of a marginally unstable mode, we derive new sufficient conditions for stability, which generalize the Rayleigh–Fjørtoft criterion for unstratified shear flows.

  5. On the Kamke-Muller conditions, monotonicity and continuity for bi-modal piecewise-smooth systems

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donoghue, Yoann; Mason, Oliver; Middleton, Rick

    2012-01-01

    We show that the Kamke-Muller conditions for bimodal piecewise-smooth systems are equivalent to simple conditions on the vector elds dening the system. As a consequence, we show that for a specic class of such systems, monotonicity is equivalent to continuity. Furthermore, we apply our results to derive a stability condition for piecewise positive linear systems.

  6. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  7. Loading Conditions and Longitudinal Strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Herman

    1995-01-01

    Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength.......Methods for the calculation of the lightweight of the ship.Loading conditions satisfying draught, trim and intact stability requirements and analysis of the corresponding stillwater longitudinal strength....

  8. Application of a Reinforced Self-Compacting Concrete Jacket in Damaged Reinforced Concrete Beams under Monotonic and Repeated Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin E. Chalioris

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an experimental study on the application of a reinforced self-compacting concrete jacketing technique in damaged reinforced concrete beams. Test results of 12 specimens subjected to monotonic loading up to failure or under repeated loading steps prior to total failure are included. First, 6 beams were designed to be shear dominated, constructed by commonly used concrete, were initially tested, damaged, and failed in a brittle manner. Afterwards, the shear-damaged beams were retrofitted using a self-compacting concrete U-formed jacket that consisted of small diameter steel bars and U-formed stirrups in order to increase their shear resistance and potentially to alter their initially observed shear response to a more ductile one. The jacketed beams were retested under the same loading. Test results indicated that the application of reinforced self-compacting concrete jacketing in damaged reinforced concrete beams is a promising rehabilitation technique. All the jacketed beams showed enhanced overall structural response and 35% to 50% increased load bearing capacities. The ultimate shear load of the jacketed beams varied from 39.7 to 42.0 kN, whereas the capacity of the original beams was approximately 30% lower. Further, all the retrofitted specimens exhibited typical flexural response with high values of deflection ductility.

  9. Fracture characteristics of carbon fibre, ceramic and non-palladium endodontic post systems at monotonously increasing loads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ottl, P; Hahn, L; Lauer, H Ch; Fay, M

    2002-02-01

    A carbon fibre post system, three non-palladium and one palladium metal post systems, two ceramic post systems, and a metal post system with a ceramic core were studied in vitro. The control group consisted of root-filled test teeth without posts. The test teeth were identical artificial roots of an upper central incisor made from a posterior composite whose module of elasticity was similar to that of natural dentine. All posts were cemented in the roots using Panavia 21 TC. Subsequently, standardized full crowns were cemented onto all roots. On a universal testing machine, the test teeth were loaded palatally at monotonously increasing loads until root fracture. The highest mean fracture loads were found for the carbon fibre post system (312.5 +/- 58.8 N). The fracture load of non-palladium metal posts (242.3-300.4 N) did not differ significantly from that of the Perma-dor post (265.9 N), which does contain palladium. Values of 300.3 +/- 89.3 N (aluminium oxide ceramics) and 193.5 +/-57.0 N (zirconia ceramics) were found for the ceramic posts. The control group exhibited a fracture load of 228.8 +/- 35.7 N. The mean distance between the vestibular end of the fracture gap and the point of force application was between 10.1 +/- 2.3 and 14.7 +/- 1.2 mm.

  10. Risk of shoulder tendinitis in relation to shoulder loads in monotonous repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frost, P.; Bonde, J. P.; Mikkelsen, S.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Few studies relate the occurrence of shoulder disorders to quantified ergonomic exposures. This study evaluates the hypothesis that shoulder loads in repetitive work might contribute to the occurrence of shoulder tendinitis. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study of 1961 workers...... in repetitive work and 782 referents. Shoulder loads were quantified at task level and measures of exposures were assigned based on task distribution. Symptoms in combination with clinical criteria defined shoulder tendinitis. RESULTS: The prevalence of shoulder tendinitis was higher among exposed workers...... risk slightly (OR 1.6, 95% CI 1.0-2.6 per unit). CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that workers with repetitive tasks have increased risk of shoulder tendinitis, which partially can be attributed to force requirements...

  11. Sufficient Condition for Monotonicity in Constructing the Distribution Function With Bernoulli Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vedenyapin Aleksandr Dmitrievich

    2015-11-01

    by the function r(x, kmin: Pnk=Сnk[P(r(x, kmin]k[1-P(r(x, kmin]n-k. We defined the probability that the total index change will be in the section [x, nS] as the sum of the probabilities of incompatible events, for which the number of successes satisfies to entered inequality. Then obviously we defined the probability that the total index changing will be in the interval [nI, x. Then the function F(x was introduced, defined on the whole line, which is identical to the amount (probability that the total index changing will be in the interval in the interval (nI, nS], and is identical to zero and one in the additions. Some properties of the distribution function F(x are satisfied automatically. A sufficient condition for the monotonicity is presented in the form of Theorem 2.

  12. Mechanical Behavior of AZ31B Mg Alloy Sheets under Monotonic and Cyclic Loadings at Room and Moderately Elevated Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ngoc-Trung Nguyen

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Large-strain monotonic and cyclic loading tests of AZ31B magnesium alloy sheets were performed with a newly developed testing system, at different temperatures, ranging from room temperature to 250 °C. Behaviors showing significant twinning during initial in-plane compression and untwinning in subsequent tension at and slightly above room temperature were recorded. Strong yielding asymmetry and nonlinear hardening behavior were also revealed. Considerable Bauschinger effects, transient behavior, and variable permanent softening responses were observed near room temperature, but these were reduced and almost disappeared as the temperature increased. Different stress–strain responses were inherent to the activation of twinning at lower temperatures and non-basal slip systems at elevated temperatures. A critical temperature was identified to account for the transition between the twinning-dominant and slip-dominant deformation mechanisms. Accordingly, below the transition point, stress–strain curves of cyclic loading tests exhibited concave-up shapes for compression or compression following tension, and an unusual S-shape for tension following compression. This unusual shape disappeared when the temperature was above the transition point. Shrinkage of the elastic range and variation in Young’s modulus due to plastic strain deformation during stress reversals were also observed. The texture-induced anisotropy of both the elastic and plastic behaviors was characterized experimentally.

  13. Monotonicity Conditions for Multirate and Partitioned Explicit Runge-Kutta Schemes

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, Willem

    2013-01-01

    Multirate schemes for conservation laws or convection-dominated problems seem to come in two flavors: schemes that are locally inconsistent, and schemes that lack mass-conservation. In this paper these two defects are discussed for one-dimensional conservation laws. Particular attention will be given to monotonicity properties of the multirate schemes, such as maximum principles and the total variation diminishing (TVD) property. The study of these properties will be done within the framework of partitioned Runge-Kutta methods. It will also be seen that the incompatibility of consistency and mass-conservation holds for ‘genuine’ multirate schemes, but not for general partitioned methods.

  14. Universal non-monotonic structure in the saturation curves of MOT-loaded Na$^+$ ions stored in an ion-neutral hybrid trap: Prediction and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Blümel, R; Goodman, D S; Kwolek, J M; Smith, W W

    2015-01-01

    We predict that the steady-state ion number $N_s$ for radio-frequency (rf) traps, loaded at a rate of $\\lambda$ particles per unit time, shows universal non-monotonic behavior as a function of loading rate $\\lambda$. The shape of $N_s(\\lambda)$, characterized by four dynamical regions, is universal in the sense that it is predicted to manifest itself in all rf traps independently of the details of their construction. For $\\lambda\\ll$ 1 particles / rf cycle (Region I), as expected, $N_s(\\lambda)$ increases monotonically with $\\lambda$. However, contrary to intuition, at intermediate $\\lambda \\sim 1$ particles / rf cycle (Region II), $N_s(\\lambda)$ reaches a maximum, followed by a minimum of $N_s(\\lambda)$ (Region III). For $\\lambda\\gg 1$ particles / rf cycle (Region IV), $N_s(\\lambda)$ again rises monotonically. In Region IV numerical simulations, analytical calculations, and experiments show $N_s(\\lambda)\\sim \\lambda^{2/3}$. We confirm this prediction experimentally with MOT-loaded Na$^+$ ions stored in a hyb...

  15. Effects of temperature on monotonic and fatigue properties of carbon fibre epoxy cross ply laminates

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuhisa, Y.; King, J.

    1993-01-01

    The effects of test temperature on damage accumulation behaviour has been studied using "Torayca" T800H / #3631 in conditions of monotonic and fatigue loading. The damage accumulation behaviour was found to vary as a function of the test temperature, with the effect of temperature on the damage behaviour being different between monotonic and fatigue loading.

  16. Effects of temperature on monotonic and fatigue properties of carbon fibre epoxy cross ply laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsuhisa, Y. (Composite Materials Research Labs., Toray Industries Inc., Ehime (Japan)); King, J.E. (Composite Materials Research Labs., Toray Industries Inc., Ehime (Japan) Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))

    1993-11-01

    The effects of test temperature on damage accumulation behaviour has been studied using ''Torayca'' T800H/[3631] in conditions of monotonic and fatigue loading. The damage accumulation behaviour was found to vary as a function of the test temperature, with the effect of temperature on the damage behaviour being different between monotonic and fatigue loading. (orig.).

  17. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a class of functions and their reciprocals to be logarithmically completely monotonic

    OpenAIRE

    Lv Yu-Pei; Sun Tian-Chuan; Chu Yu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We prove that the function F α,β (x) = x α Γ β (x)/Γ(βx) is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β) : β > 0, β ≥ 2α + 1, β ≥ α + 1}{(α, β) : α = 0, β = 1} and that [F α,β (x)]-1 is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β ...

  18. Necessary and sufficient conditions for a class of functions and their reciprocals to be logarithmically completely monotonic

    OpenAIRE

    Lv Yu-Pei; Sun Tian-Chuan; Chu Yu-Ming

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We prove that the function F α,β (x) = x α Γ β (x)/Γ(βx) is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β) : β > 0, β ≥ 2α + 1, β ≥ α + 1}{(α, β) : α = 0, β = 1} and that [F α,β (x)]-1 is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β ...

  19. MONOTONIZATION IN GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU ZHIYOU; BAI FUSHENG; ZHANG LIANSHENG

    2005-01-01

    A general monotonization method is proposed for converting a constrained programming problem with non-monotone objective function and monotone constraint functions into a monotone programming problem. An equivalent monotone programming problem with only inequality constraints is obtained via this monotonization method. Then the existingconvexification and concavefication methods can be used to convert the monotone programming problem into an equivalent better-structured optimization problem.

  20. Modeling of STATCOM under different loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    George, G.J.; Ramachandran, Rakesh; Kowsalya, M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with the study and analysis of Flexible AC Transmission Systems (FACTS), mainly the modeling of STATCOM. Reactive Power Compensation plays a very important role in the transmission of Electric Power. A comparative study of how the reactive power is injected into the transmission ...... system with and without STATCOM under different loading condition is also illustrated in this paper. Simulations are performed using MATLAB/SIMULINK software. © 2012 IEEE....

  1. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-19

    Heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment must be right-sized to ensure energy performance and comfort. With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment that creates system efficiency, comfort, and cost penalties. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment that is oversized or inefficient and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of the needs of the multifamily building and attached single-family (duplex and townhouse) home market. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services for hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data that describe multifamily and attached single-family home characteristics. The U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America research team Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB) compiled and analyzed these data to outline the characteristics of low-load dwellings such as the heating and cooling design loads.

  2. Free Monotone Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Guionnet, A

    2012-01-01

    By solving a free analog of the Monge-Amp\\`ere equation, we prove a non-commutative analog of Brenier's monotone transport theorem: if an $n$-tuple of self-adjoint non-commutative random variables $Z_{1},...,Z_{n}$ satisfies a regularity condition (its conjugate variables $\\xi_{1},...,\\xi_{n}$ should be analytic in $Z_{1},...,Z_{n}$ and $\\xi_{j}$ should be close to $Z_{j}$ in a certain analytic norm), then there exist invertible non-commutative functions $F_{j}$ of an $n$-tuple of semicircular variables $S_{1},...,S_{n}$, so that $Z_{j}=F_{j}(S_{1},...,S_{n})$. Moreover, $F_{j}$ can be chosen to be monotone, in the sense that $F_{j}=\\mathscr{D}_{j}g$ and $g$ is a non-commutative function with a positive definite Hessian. In particular, we can deduce that $C^{*}(Z_{1},...,Z_{n})\\cong C^{*}(S_{1},...,S_{n})$ and $W^{*}(Z_{1},...,Z_{n})\\cong L(\\mathbb{F}(n))$. Thus our condition is a useful way to recognize when an $n$-tuple of operators generate a free group factor. We obtain as a consequence that the q-deforme...

  3. Monotone Boolean approximation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulme, B.L.

    1982-12-01

    This report presents a theory of approximation of arbitrary Boolean functions by simpler, monotone functions. Monotone increasing functions can be expressed without the use of complements. Nonconstant monotone increasing functions are important in their own right since they model a special class of systems known as coherent systems. It is shown here that when Boolean expressions for noncoherent systems become too large to treat exactly, then monotone approximations are easily defined. The algorithms proposed here not only provide simpler formulas but also produce best possible upper and lower monotone bounds for any Boolean function. This theory has practical application for the analysis of noncoherent fault trees and event tree sequences.

  4. Monotone Boolean functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korshunov, A D [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2003-10-31

    Monotone Boolean functions are an important object in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Topics related to these functions have been actively studied for several decades. Many results have been obtained, and many papers published. However, until now there has been no sufficiently complete monograph or survey of results of investigations concerning monotone Boolean functions. The object of this survey is to present the main results on monotone Boolean functions obtained during the last 50 years.

  5. Concrete under severe conditions. Environment and loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    The objective of the CONSEC Conferences is to focus on concrete infrastructures, either subjected to severe environment or severe loading, or any combination of severe conditions. Experience from the performance of existing concrete structures, and especially under severe environmental conditions, severe accidental loading or extended lifespan, has demonstrated the need for better integration of structural and durability design, new design concepts including reliability-based durability design, performance-based material requirements, structural robustness, and an improved basis for documentation of obtained construction quality and durability properties during concrete construction. An improved basis for operation and preventive maintenance of concrete structures including repairs and retrofitting is also very important. Premature corrosion of reinforcing steel, inadequate structural design for seismic or blast loading, are examples of reduced service life of concrete structures that not only represent technical and economical problems, but also a huge waste of natural resources and hence also, an environmental and ecological problem. Experience of structures effectively submitted to severe conditions represents a unique benchmark for quantifying the actual safety and durability margin of concrete structures. In fact for several reasons, most concrete design codes, job specifications and other requirements for concrete structures have frequently shown to yield insufficient and unsatisfactory results and ability to solve the above problems, as well as issues raised by specific very long-term or very severe requirements for nuclear and industrial waste management, or civil works of strategic relevance. Recently available high to ultra-high performance concrete may find rational and valuable application in such cases. It is very important, therefore, to bring people with different professional backgrounds together to exchange experience and develop multi

  6. Monotonic Allocation Schemes in Clan Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorneveld, M.; Tijs, S.H.; Grahn, S.

    2000-01-01

    Total clan games are characterized using monotonicity, veto power of the clan members, and a concavity condition reflecting the decreasing marginal contribution of non-clan members to growing coalitions.This decreasing marginal contribution is incorporated in the notion of a bi-monotonic allocation

  7. Low-Load Space Conditioning Needs Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Puttagunta, Srikanth [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings, Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2015-05-01

    With limited low-load options in the HVAC market, many new-construction housing units are being fitted with oversized equipment - thus facing penalties in system efficiency, comfort, and cost. To bridge the gap between currently available HVAC equipment and the rising demand for low-load HVAC equipment in the marketplace, HVAC equipment manufacturers need to be fully aware of multifamily buildings and single-family homes market needs. Over the past decade, Steven Winter Associates, Inc. (SWA) has provided certification and consulting services on hundreds of housing projects and has accrued a large pool of data. CARB compiled and analyzed these data to see what the thermal load ranges are in various multifamily apartments and attached single-family home types (duplex and townhouse). In total, design loads from 941 dwellings from SWA's recent multifamily and attached single-family work across the Northeast and Mid-Atlantic were analyzed. Information on the dwelling characteristics, design loads, and the specifications of installed mechanical equipment were analyzed to determine any trends that exist within the dataset.

  8. Monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero

    CERN Document Server

    Goulden, I P; Novak, Jonathan

    2012-01-01

    Hurwitz numbers count branched covers of the Riemann sphere with specified ramification data, or equivalently, transitive permutation factorizations in the symmetric group with specified cycle types. Monotone Hurwitz numbers count a restricted subset of the branched covers counted by the Hurwitz numbers, and have arisen in recent work on the the asymptotic expansion of the Harish-Chandra-Itzykson-Zuber integral. In this paper we begin a detailed study of monotone Hurwitz numbers. We prove two results that are reminiscent of those for classical Hurwitz numbers. The first is the monotone join-cut equation, a partial differential equation with initial conditions that characterizes the generating function for monotone Hurwitz numbers in arbitrary genus. The second is our main result, in which we give an explicit formula for monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero.

  9. Embankment loading analysis in laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoullah Namda

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The embankment model has been developed in laboratory conditions, considering actual embankment characteristics. The forces to which it is subjected in the model have been evaluated using shaking table experimental and analytical methods. Excess pore water pressure is measured through pore pressure sensors in the shaking table experiment and embankment stability has been assessed using analytical methods. The results revealed that the embankment suffered nonlinear collapse during increasing pore water pressure, and shaking table dynamic force on the embankment model was very sensitive but was open to failure mitigation. Embankment seismic simulation using shaking table experiments helped identify model stability. The embankment and subsoil pore water pressure theoretical and experimental analysis concluded that nonlinear liquefaction characteristics played a major role in model behaviour.   

  10. Topological recursion and a quantum curve for monotone Hurwitz numbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, Norman; Dyer, Alastair; Mathews, Daniel V.

    2017-10-01

    Classical Hurwitz numbers count branched covers of the Riemann sphere with prescribed ramification data, or equivalently, factorisations in the symmetric group with prescribed cycle structure data. Monotone Hurwitz numbers restrict the enumeration by imposing a further monotonicity condition on such factorisations. In this paper, we prove that monotone Hurwitz numbers arise from the topological recursion of Eynard and Orantin applied to a particular spectral curve. We furthermore derive a quantum curve for monotone Hurwitz numbers. These results extend the collection of enumerative problems known to be governed by the paradigm of topological recursion and quantum curves, as well as the list of analogues between monotone Hurwitz numbers and their classical counterparts.

  11. Combined grain size, strain rate and loading condition effects on mechanical behavior of nanocrystalline Cu under high strain rates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu-Ming Shen

    2012-01-01

    Molecular dynamics simulations of nanocrystalline Cu with average grain sizes of 3.1 nm,6.2 nm,12.4 nm and 18.6 nm under uniaxial strain and stress tension at strain rates of 108 s-1,109 s-1 and 1010 s-1 are performed to study the combined grain size,strain rate and loading condition effects on mechanical properties. It is found that the strength of nanocrystalline Cu increases as grain size increases regardless of loading condition.Both the strength and ductility of nanocrystalline Cu increase with strain rate except that there is no monotonic relation between the strength and strain rate for specimens under uniaxial strain loading.Moreover,the strength and ductility of specimens under uniaxial strain loading are lower than those under uniaxial stress loading.The nucleation of voids at grain boundaries and their subsequent growth characterize the failure of specimens under uniaxial strain loading,while grain boundary sliding and necking dominate the failure of specimens under uniaxial stress loading.The rate dependent strength is mainly caused by the dynamic wave effect that limits dislocation motion,while combined twinning and slipping mechanism makes the material more ductile at higher strain rates.

  12. The Monotonicity Puzzle: An Experimental Investigation of Incentive Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Brosig

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-monotone incentive structures, which - according to theory - are able to induce optimal behavior, are often regarded as empirically less relevant for labor relationships. We compare the performance of a theoretically optimal non-monotone contract with a monotone one under controlled laboratory conditions. Implementing some features relevant to real-world employment relationships, our paper demonstrates that, in fact, the frequency of income-maximizing decisions made by agents is higher under the monotone contract. Although this observed behavior does not change the superiority of the non-monotone contract for principals, they do not choose this contract type in a significant way. This is what we call the monotonicity puzzle. Detailed investigations of decisions provide a clue for solving the puzzle and a possible explanation for the popularity of monotone contracts.

  13. Conditional Stochastic Processes Applied to Wave Load Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jørgen Juncher

    2015-01-01

    The concept of conditional stochastic processes provides a powerful tool for evaluation and estimation of wave loads on ships and offshore structures. This article first considers conditional waves with a focus on critical wave episodes. Then the inherent uncertainty in the results is illustrated...

  14. Fault detection in reciprocating compressor valves under varying load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pichler, Kurt; Lughofer, Edwin; Pichler, Markus; Buchegger, Thomas; Klement, Erich Peter; Huschenbett, Matthias

    2016-03-01

    This paper presents a novel approach for detecting cracked or broken reciprocating compressor valves under varying load conditions. The main idea is that the time frequency representation of vibration measurement data will show typical patterns depending on the fault state. The problem is to detect these patterns reliably. For the detection task, we make a detour via the two dimensional autocorrelation. The autocorrelation emphasizes the patterns and reduces noise effects. This makes it easier to define appropriate features. After feature extraction, classification is done using logistic regression and support vector machines. The method's performance is validated by analyzing real world measurement data. The results will show a very high detection accuracy while keeping the false alarm rates at a very low level for different compressor loads, thus achieving a load-independent method. The proposed approach is, to our best knowledge, the first automated method for reciprocating compressor valve fault detection that can handle varying load conditions.

  15. Evaluation of the AZ31 cyclic elastic-plastic behaviour under multiaxial loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Components and structures are designed based in their material’s mechanical properties such as Young's modulus or yield stress among others. Often those properties are obtained under monotonic mechanical tests but rarely under cyclic ones. It is assumed that those properties are maintained during the material fatigue life. However, under cyclic loadings, materials tend to change their mechanical properties, which can improve their strength (material hardening or degrade their mechanical capabilities (material softening or even a mix of both. This type of material behaviour is the so-called cyclic plasticity that is dependent of several factors such as the load type, load level, and microstructure. This subject is of most importance in design of structures and components against fatigue failures in particular in the case of magnesium alloys. Magnesium alloys due to their hexagonal compact microstructure have only 3 slip planes plus 1 twining plane which results in a peculiar mechanical behaviour under cyclic loading conditions especially under multiaxial loadings. Therefore, it is necessary to have a cyclic elastic-plastic model that allows estimating the material mechanical properties for a certain stress level and loading type. In this paper it is discussed several aspects of the magnesium alloys cyclic properties under uniaxial and multiaxial loading conditions at several stress levels taking into account experimental data. A series of fatigue tests under strain control were performed in hour glass specimens test made of a magnesium alloy, AZ31BF. The strain/stress relation for uniaxial loadings, axial and shear was experimentally obtained and compared with the estimations obtained from the theoretical elastic-plastic models found in the state-of-the-art. Results show that the AZ31BF magnesium alloy has a peculiar mechanical behaviour, which is quite different from the steel one. Moreover, the state of the art cyclic models do not capture in

  16. Random accumulated damage evaluation under multiaxial fatigue loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Anes

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial fatigue is a very important physical phenomenon to take into account in several mechanical components; its study is of utmost importance to avoid unexpected failure of equipment, vehicles or structures. Among several fatigue characterization tools, a correct definition of a damage parameter and a load cycle counting method under multiaxial loading conditions show to be crucial to estimate multiaxial fatigue life. In this paper, the SSF equivalent stress and the virtual cycle counting method are presented and discussed, regarding their physical foundations and their capability to characterize multiaxial fatigue damage under complex loading blocks. Moreover, it is presented their applicability to evaluate random fatigue damage.

  17. Fretting fatigue crack propagation rate under variable loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gandiolle

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fretting fatigue experiments aim to represent industrial problems and most of them endure variable loading. Being able to assess lifetime of assemblies, especially for low propagation rate conditions, is essential as experimental validation is often too expensive. Both experimental and numerical approaches are proposed to follow the crack propagation rate of steel on steel cylinder/plane fretting fatigue contact submitted to variable loading conditions. An original experimental monitoring has been implemented on the fretting-fatigue test device to observe crack propagation using a potential drop technique. A calibration curve relating crack length and electrical potential was established for the studied contact. It allows direct knowledge of the crack length and crack propagation rate. It was applied to mixed load test showing crack arrest for the last loading condition. To explain this behavior, a 2-dimensional FE modeling was implemented to simulate the complexes multi-axial contact stressing. The crack propagation rate was formalized using an effective stress intensity factor amplitude ΔKeff coupled with Paris law of the material. The crack arrest condition for a given loading was related to ΔKeff along the expected crack path crossing the material crack arrest threshold ΔK0. The failure was related to ΔKeff reaching the critical stress intensity factor KIC. A good correlation with experiments was observed allowing to predict the crack arrest condition although the model tends to overestimate the final crack length extension.

  18. Free-edge delamination - Laminate width and loading conditions effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Pappu L. N.; Chamis, Christos C.

    1989-01-01

    The width and loading conditions effects on free-edge stress fields in composite laminates are investigated using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. This analysis includes a special free-edge region refinement or superelement with progressive substructuring (mesh refinement) and finite thickness interply layers. The different loading conditions include in-plane and out-of-plane bending, combined axial tension and in-plane shear, twisting, uniform temperature and uniform moisture. Results obtained indicate that: axial tension causes the smallest magnitude of interlaminar free edge stress compared to other loading conditions; free-edge delamination data obtained from laboratory specimens cannot be scaled to structural components; and composite structural components are not likely to delaminate.

  19. Free-edge delamination: Laminate width and loading conditions effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, P. L. N.; Chamis, C. C.

    1987-01-01

    The width and loading conditions effects on free-edge stress fields in composite laminates are investigated using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. This analysis includes a special free-edge region refinement or superelement with progrssive substructuring (mesh refinement) and finite thickness interply layers. The different loading conditions include in-plane and out-of-plane bending, combined axial tension and in-plane shear, twisting, uniform temperature and uniform moisture. Results obtained indicate that: axial tension causes the smallest magnitude of interlaminar free edge stress compared to other loading conditions; free-edge delamination data obtained from laboratory specimens cannot be scaled to structural components; and composite structural components are not likely to delaminate.

  20. Durability Study of SOFCs Under Cycling Current Load Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hagen, Anke; Hendriksen, Peter Vang; Frandsen, Henrik Lund;

    2009-01-01

    In fuel cell applications, the cells must be able to withstand varying operating conditions. Anode supported solid oxide fuel cells were tested under cycling current load in order to determine the durability and possibly identify degradation mechanisms. At 750 °C and a cycling between zero and 0.......75 A cm-2, the cell voltage degradation rate was similar to tests with the corresponding high constant current density. However, by analyzing the impedance spectra it was found that anode degradation was becoming more important when going from constant to cycling conditions. Running the cycling load tests...... at 850 °C, the cells degraded similarly as under the corresponding constant current load whereas, in some cases, cells failed mechanically after a few hundred hours. These cells did not experience severe additional degradation due to the cycling of the current density until the point of failure...

  1. Failure Loci of Suction Caisson Foundations Under Combined Loading Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Dong; JIN Xia

    2008-01-01

    Suction caissons are widely used to support offshore fixed platforms in coastal areas. The loadings transferred to suction caissons include the eccentric lateral force induced by waves and self weight of the platform structure. However, under this kind of combined loading conditions, the failure mechanism of caissons with shallow embedment depths is quite different from conventional deep foundations or onshore shallow footings. The behaviour of caissons subjected to combined loadings may be described with the "failure locus" in force resultant spaces. Here the failure loci of smooth caissons are studied by use of finite element approach, with the embedment ratio of caissons varying in the range of 0.25~1.0 and eccentricity ratio of horizontal loadings in 0~10. The platform settlement and tilt limits are involved into determination of failure loci, thus the platforms can avoid significant displacements for the combined loadings located inside the failure locus. Three families of loading paths are used to map out the locus. It is found that the shape of failure loci depends on 3 non-dimensional parameters, and the failure locus of a given caisson changes gradually from the elliptical curve to hooked curve with increasing shear strength of soil. The lateral capacity of short caissons may be enhanced by vertical forces, compared with the maximum lateral capacity of long caissons occurring at the vertical force being zero. The critical embedment ratios partitioning elliptical and hooked loci are proposed.

  2. 竹筋夯土墙单调水平荷载非线性有限元分析%Nonlinear FEM analysis of rammed-earth walls with bamboo bars under monotonic horizontal load

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文枚; 李洪昌; 李岩

    2011-01-01

    Numerical models of rammed-earth walls with bamboo bars under monotonic horizontal load were builded using Solid 65 and Link 8 in the commerical finite element software ANSYS, and then analyzed, lateral resistence capacities, crack shapes, loaddisplacement curves and ductilities of the rammed-earth walls with bamboo bans were reached.By means of comparing the analytical to experimental results,it can be concluded that analysis of rammed-earth walls with bamboo bars using FEM has a high precision.%应用有限元分析软件ANSYS中的Solid65和Link8单元建立竹筋夯土墙的数值分析模型,并对其进行单调荷载下的数值计算,得出了竹筋夯土墙的抗侧承载力、裂缝形态、荷载位移曲线和延性.将数值结果与试验结果进行对比,结果表明,有限元法分析竹筋夯土墙具有较高的精度.

  3. Stepsize Restrictions for Boundedness and Monotonicity of Multistep Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Hundsdorfer, W.

    2011-04-29

    In this paper nonlinear monotonicity and boundedness properties are analyzed for linear multistep methods. We focus on methods which satisfy a weaker boundedness condition than strict monotonicity for arbitrary starting values. In this way, many linear multistep methods of practical interest are included in the theory. Moreover, it will be shown that for such methods monotonicity can still be valid with suitable Runge-Kutta starting procedures. Restrictions on the stepsizes are derived that are not only sufficient but also necessary for these boundedness and monotonicity properties. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.

  4. On the monotonicity of multidimensional finite difference schemes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovyrkina, O.; Ostapenko, V.

    2016-10-01

    The classical concept of monotonicity, introduced by Godunov for linear one-dimensional difference schemes, is extended to multidimensional case. Necessary and sufficient conditions of monotonicity are obtained for linear multidimensional difference schemes of first order. The constraints on the numerical viscosity are given that ensure the monotonicity of a difference scheme in the multidimensional case. It is proposed a modification of the second order multidimensional CABARET scheme that preserves the monotonicity of one-dimensional discrete solutions and, as a result, ensures higher smoothness in the computation of multidimensional discontinuous solutions. The results of two-dimensional test computations illustrating the advantages of the modified CABARET scheme are presented.

  5. Gearbox Fatigue Load Estimation for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    The focus of the paper is on a design of a fatigue load estimator for predictive condition monitoring systems (CMS) of wind turbines. In order to avoid high-price measurement equipment required for direct load measuring, an indirect approach is suggested using only measurements from supervisory...... for the real time application. This paper presents results of the estimation of the gearbox fatigue load, often called shaft torque, using simulated data of wind turbine. Noise sensitivity of the algorithm is investigated by assuming different levels of measurement noise. Shaft torque estimations are compared...... with simulated data and as the obtained results are promising, further work will be on a validation of the method using real wind turbine data....

  6. Estimated Muscle Loads During Squat Exercise in Microgravity Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fregly, Christopher D.; Kim, Brandon T.; Li, Zhao; DeWitt, John K.; Fregly, Benjamin J.

    2012-01-01

    Loss of muscle mass in microgravity is one of the primary factors limiting long-term space flight. NASA researchers have developed a number of exercise devices to address this problem. The most recent is the Advanced Resistive Exercise Device (ARED), which is currently used by astronauts on the International Space Station (ISS) to emulate typical free-weight exercises in microgravity. ARED exercise on the ISS is intended to reproduce Earth-level muscle loads, but the actual muscle loads produced remain unknown as they cannot currently be measured directly. In this study we estimated muscle loads experienced during squat exercise on ARED in microgravity conditions representative of Mars, the moon, and the ISS. The estimates were generated using a subject-specific musculoskeletal computer model and ARED exercise data collected on Earth. The results provide insight into the capabilities and limitations of the ARED machine.

  7. Gearbox Fatigue Load Estimation for Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pedersen, Bo Juul; Kirkegaard, Poul Henning

    2012-01-01

    for the real time application. This paper presents results of the estimation of the gearbox fatigue load, often called shaft torque, using simulated data of wind turbine. Noise sensitivity of the algorithm is investigated by assuming different levels of measurement noise. Shaft torque estimations are compared......The focus of the paper is on a design of a fatigue load estimator for predictive condition monitoring systems (CMS) of wind turbines. In order to avoid high-price measurement equipment required for direct load measuring, an indirect approach is suggested using only measurements from supervisory...... with simulated data and as the obtained results are promising, further work will be on a validation of the method using real wind turbine data....

  8. Experimental study on material properties of Q460 high strength steel under monotonic and cyclic loading%Q460高强钢单调与反复加载性能试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙飞飞; 谢黎明; 崔嵬; 李国强; 陈素文; 王彦博

    2013-01-01

    通过对Q460高强钢进行单向拉伸与反复加载下材料性能试验,得到了各试件单调拉伸和反复加载下的应力-应变关系曲线,以及反复加载下的骨架曲线,并将试验结果与文献研究结果进行了对比.试验结果表明:单向拉伸材性试验中,11 mm厚Q460C高强钢板的平均断后伸长率为23.7%,屈强比为0.847; 21 mm厚钢板的平均断后伸长率为30.4%,屈强比为0.792;Q460钢的循环硬化程度比Q345钢明显减弱,主要原因是随着钢材强度的提高,钢材的屈强比增大,钢材的应变强化效应减小.根据钢材反复加载的滞回曲线,提出了Q460高强钢材的应力-应变滞回模型,用该模型计算得到的关系曲线与试验曲线对比,两者吻合较好.%By experimental study on the material properties of Q460 HSS under both monotonic and cyclic loading, Monotonie compressive loading and hysteretic curves of Q460 steel were obtained. The cyclic skeleton curves were compared with the existing research work. Results of the test show that, under monotonie loading, the average elongation rate of Q460C HSS plate with the thickness 11mm is 23. 7% , and the average yield to tensile strength ratio is 0. 847, while the average elongation rate of Q460 HSS plate with the thickness 21mm is 30. 4% , and the average yield to tensile strength ratio is 0. 792. The cyclic hardening property of Q345 is more obvious than that of Q460, since the increase of the strength of steel results in increased yield ratio while reduced strain hardening effect. By the hysteresis curve of Q460 obtained under cyclic loading, the stress-strain hysteresis model of Q460 HSS was proposed, which matched very well with experimental curves.

  9. Conditional load and store in a shared memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumrich, Matthias A; Ohmacht, Martin

    2015-02-03

    A method, system and computer program product for implementing load-reserve and store-conditional instructions in a multi-processor computing system. The computing system includes a multitude of processor units and a shared memory cache, and each of the processor units has access to the memory cache. In one embodiment, the method comprises providing the memory cache with a series of reservation registers, and storing in these registers addresses reserved in the memory cache for the processor units as a result of issuing load-reserve requests. In this embodiment, when one of the processor units makes a request to store data in the memory cache using a store-conditional request, the reservation registers are checked to determine if an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor unit. If an address in the memory cache is reserved for that processor, the data are stored at this address.

  10. Positivity and Monotonicity Preserving Biquartic Rational Interpolation Spline Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xinru Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A biquartic rational interpolation spline surface over rectangular domain is constructed in this paper, which includes the classical bicubic Coons surface as a special case. Sufficient conditions for generating shape preserving interpolation splines for positive or monotonic surface data are deduced. The given numeric experiments show our method can deal with surface construction from positive or monotonic data effectively.

  11. 水平荷载作用下裙式吸力基础承载性能研究%Bearing capacity of skirted suction caisson in sand under horizontal monotonic/cyclic loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李大勇; 曹立雪; 高盟; 刘炜炜

    2013-01-01

    Traditional suction caisson is an upside down bucket-shaped structure, which is widely used as an alternative to support offshore platforms and mooring floating structures. It currently acts extensively as the foundation of offshore wind turbines. Its lateral bearing capacity plays an important role in the design. To increase the lateral bearing capacity, a new type of suction caisson, the skirted suction caisson, is presented. The skirted suction caisson in sand is investigated in comparison with the traditional suction caisson by u-sing the finite element method under the monotonic and cyclic loading. The corresponding load-deformation curves are obtained. The results show that the horizontal bearing capacity is significantly enhanced to resist the static and cyclic loads due to the additional structure of the skirt.%传统吸力基础是一个单桶结构,被广泛作为海洋平台、漂浮结构的基础,近年来也被推广到海上风电塔架.作为风电塔架基础,要充分提高其水平承载能力.为此,提出一种改进的基础形式一裙式吸力基础.采用Z_SOIL有限元软件,针对砂土地基,从水平单调加载和循环加载两个方面,对传统单桶吸力基础和裙式吸力基础进行了承载性能对比研究,得到了相应的荷载-位移曲线.研究结果表明,裙式吸力基础由于设置了“裙”结构,显著提高了其抵抗水平静载和循环水平动力荷载的能力,并能有效控制基础的水平位移,是值得推广应用的一种新型海洋工程基础形式.

  12. Monotonic and Cyclic Bond Behavior of Deformed CFRP Bars in High Strength Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Tibet Akbas

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Composite reinforcing bars (rebars that are used in concrete members with high performance (strength and durability properties could have beneficial effects on the behavior of these members. This is especially vital when a building is constructed in an aggressive environment, for instance a corrosive environment. Although tension capacity/weight (or volume ratios in composite rebars (carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP, etc. are very high when compared to steel rebars, major weaknesses in concrete members reinforced with these composite rebars may be the potential consequences of relatively poor bonding capacity. This may even be more crucial when the member is subjected to cyclic loading. Although monotonic bond tests are available in the literature, only limited experimental studies exist on bond characteristics under cyclic loading conditions. In order to fill this gap and propose preliminary design recommendations, 10 specimens of 10-mm-diameter ribbed CFRP rebars embedded in specially designed high strength concrete (f’c = 70 MPa blocks were subjected to monotonic and cyclic pullout tests. The experimental results showed that cyclically loaded CFRP rebars had less bond strength than those companion specimens loaded monotonically.

  13. Monotone partitions and almost partitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bonanzinga, M.; Cammaroto, F.; van Mill, J.; Pansera, B.A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we are interested in monotone versions of partitionability of topological spaces and weak versions thereof. We identify several classes of spaces with these properties by constructing trees of open sets with various properties.

  14. Large Chip Production Mechanism under the Extreme Load Cutting Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Xianli; HE Genghuang; YAN Fugang; CHENG Yaonan; LIU Li

    2015-01-01

    There has existed a great deal of theory researches in term of chip production and chip breaking characteristics under conventional cutting and high speed cutting conditions, however, there isn’t sufficient research on chip formation mechanism as well as its influence on cutting state regarding large workpieces under extreme load cutting. This paper presents a model of large saw-tooth chip through applying finite element simulation method, which gives a profound analysis about the characteristics of the extreme load cutting as well as morphology and removal of the large chip. In the meantime, a calculation formula that gives a quantitative description of the saw-tooth level regarding the large chip is established on the basis of cutting experiments on high temperature and high strength steel 2.25Cr-1Mo-0.25V. The cutting experiments are carried out by using the scanning electron microscope and super depth of field electron microscope to measure and calculate the large chip produced under different cutting parameters, which can verify the validity of the established model. The calculating results show that the large saw-toothed chip is produced under the squeezing action between workpiece and cutting tools. In the meanwhile, the chip develops a hardened layer where contacts the cutting tool and the saw-tooth of the chip tend to form in transverse direction. This research creates the theoretical model for large chip and performs the cutting experiments under the extreme load cutting condition, as well as analyzes the production mechanism of the large chip in the macro and micro conditions. Therefore, the proposed research could provide theoretical guidance and technical support in improving productivity and cutting technology research.

  15. Edge crack sensitivity of lightweight materials under different load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoupis, I.; Merklein, M.

    2016-11-01

    This study addresses the analysis of edge crack sensitivity of DP800 steel and AA5182 aluminum alloy in dependency of punching and machining operation as well as load case of subsequent forming. The inserting of a round hole by punching with defined punch-to- die-clearance, milling and drilling is compared. Subsequent forming is performed by standardized hole expansion test and by Nakajima-tests with three different specimen geometries. Local strain distribution at the surface for Nakajima-tests is measured by optical strain measurement technique and investigated in order to evaluate local deformation before failure. Additionally, resulting hole expansion ratio λ is determined. Significant higher X as well as local strain values ε max are achieved by machined holes. This is directly coupled to higher local formability and stretchability for both materials. Furthermore, the load condition has a strong impact on the edge crack sensitivity of the material. Prior failure is observed with changing stress conditions using different specimen geometries also influencing the reachable maximum failure strain. Higher edge crack sensitivity is observed for DP800, which is in good accordance to the material properties in terms of ductility and strength. These data in dependency of the process parameter can be used for the design of automotive components.

  16. Action-Maslov Homomorphism for Monotone Symplectic Manifolds

    CERN Document Server

    Branson, Mark

    2009-01-01

    We explore conditions under which the action-Maslov homomorphism vanishes on monotone symplectic manifolds. Our strategy involves showing that the units in the quantum homology, and thus the Seidel element, have a very specific form. Then we use induction to show that other relevant Gromov-Witten invariants vanish. We prove that these conditions hold for monotone products of projective spaces and for the Grassmannian of 2-planes in $\\C^4$.

  17. Why Monotonous Repetition is Unsatisfying

    CERN Document Server

    Salingaros, Nikos A

    2011-01-01

    Human beings prefer ordered complexity and not randomness in their environment, a result of our perceptual system evolving to interpret natural forms. We also recognize monotonously repeating forms as unnatural. Although widespread in today's built environment, such forms generate reactions ranging from boredom to unease. Christopher Alexander has introduced rules for generating forms adapted to natural geometries, which show structured variation with multiple symmetries in a hierarchy of scales. It turns out to be impossible to generate monotonously repeating forms by following those rules. As it is highly probable that traditional artifacts, buildings, and cities were created instinctively using a version of the same rules, this is the reason we never find monotonously repeating forms in traditional cultures.

  18. Monotonicity of social welfare optima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave

    2010-01-01

    This paper considers the problem of maximizing social welfare subject to participation constraints. It is shown that for an income allocation method that maximizes a social welfare function there is a monotonic relationship between the incomes allocated to individual agents in a given coalition...... (with at least three members) and its participation constraint if and only if the aggregate income to that coalition is always maximized. An impossibility result demonstrates that there is no welfare maximizing allocation method in which agents' individual incomes monotonically increase in society......'s income. Thus, for any such allocation method, there are situations where some agents have incentives to prevent society in becoming richer....

  19. Selecting boundary conditions in physiological strain analysis of the femur: Balanced loads, inertia relief method and follower load.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyland, Mark; Trepczynski, Adam; Duda, Georg N; Zehn, Manfred; Schaser, Klaus-Dieter; Märdian, Sven

    2015-12-01

    Selection of boundary constraints may influence amount and distribution of loads. The purpose of this study is to analyze the potential of inertia relief and follower load to maintain the effects of musculoskeletal loads even under large deflections in patient specific finite element models of intact or fractured bone compared to empiric boundary constraints which have been shown to lead to physiological displacements and surface strains. The goal is to elucidate the use of boundary conditions in strain analyses of bones. Finite element models of the intact femur and a model of clinically relevant fracture stabilization by locking plate fixation were analyzed with normal walking loading conditions for different boundary conditions, specifically re-balanced loading, inertia relief and follower load. Peak principal cortex surface strains for different boundary conditions are consistent (maximum deviation 13.7%) except for inertia relief without force balancing (maximum deviation 108.4%). Influence of follower load on displacements increases with higher deflection in fracture model (from 3% to 7% for force balanced model). For load balanced models, follower load had only minor influence, though the effect increases strongly with higher deflection. Conventional constraints of fixed nodes in space should be carefully reconsidered because their type and position are challenging to justify and for their potential to introduce relevant non-physiological reaction forces. Inertia relief provides an alternative method which yields physiological strain results.

  20. Convergence for pseudo monotone semiflows on product ordered topological spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Taishan; Huang, Lihong

    In this paper, we consider a class of pseudo monotone semiflows, which only enjoy some weak monotonicity properties and are defined on product-ordered topological spaces. Under certain conditions, several convergence principles are established for each precompact orbit of such a class of semiflows to tend to an equilibrium, which improve and extend some corresponding results already known. Some applications to delay differential equations are presented.

  1. A Characterization of Generalized Monotone Normed Cones

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S.ROMAGUERA; E.A.S(A)NCHEZ-P(E)REZ; O.VALERO

    2007-01-01

    Let C be a cone and consider a quasi-norm p defined on it. We study the structure of the couple (C, p) as a topological space in the case where the function p is also monotone. We characterize when the topology of a quasi-normed cone can be defined by means of a monotone norm. We also define and study the dual cone of a monotone normed cone and the monotone quotient of a general cone.We provide a decomposition theorem which allows us to write a cone as a direct sum of a monotone subcone that is isomorphic to the monotone quotient and other particular subcone.

  2. Influence of linear profile modification and loading conditions on the dynamic tooth load and stress of high contact ratio gears

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chinwai; Lin, Hsiang Hsi; Oswald, Fred B.; Townsend, Dennis P.

    1990-01-01

    A computer simulation for the dynamic response of high-contact-ratio spur gear transmissions is presented. High contact ratio gears have the potential to produce lower dynamic tooth loads and minimum root stress but they can be sensitive to tooth profile errors. The analysis presented examines various profile modifications under realistic loading conditions. The effect of these modifications on the dynamic load (force) between mating gear teeth and the dynamic root stress is presented. Since the contact stress is dependent on the dynamic load, minimizing dynamic loads will also minimize contact stresses. It is shown that the combination of profile modification and the applied load (torque) carried by a gear system has a significant influence on gear dynamics. The ideal modification at one value of applied load will not be the best solution for a different load. High-contact-ratio gears were found to require less modification than standard low-contact-ratio gears. High-contact-ratio gears are more adversely affected by excess modification than by under modification. In addition, the optimal profile modification required to minimize the dynamic load (hence the contact stress) on a gear tooth differs from the optimal modification required to minimize the dynamic root (bending) stress. Computer simulation can help find the design tradeoffs to determine the best profile modification to satisfy the conflicting constraints of minimizing both the load and root stress in gears which must operate over a range of applied loads.

  3. Understanding the Dehumidification Performance of Air-Conditioning Equipment at Part-Load Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Don B. Shirey III; Hugh I. Henderson Jr; Richard A. Raustad

    2006-01-01

    Air conditioner cooling coils typically provide both sensible cooling and moisture removal. Data from a limited number of field studies (Khattar et al. 1985; Henderson and Rengarajan 1996; Henderson 1998) have demonstrated that the moisture removal capacity of a cooling coil degrades at part-load conditions--especially when the supply fan operates continuously while the cooling coil cycles on and off. Degradation occurs because moisture that condenses on the coil surfaces during the cooling cycle evaporates back into air stream when the coil is off. This degradation affects the ability of cooling equipment to maintain proper indoor humidity levels and may negatively impact indoor air quality. This report summarizes the results of a comprehensive project to better understand and quantify the moisture removal (dehumidification) performance of cooling coils at part-load conditions. A review of the open literature was initially conducted to learn from previous research on this topic. Detailed performance measurements were then collected for eight cooling coils in a controlled laboratory setting to understand the impact of coil geometry and operating conditions on transient moisture condensation and evaporation by the coils. Measurements of cooling coil dehumidification performance and space humidity levels were also collected at seven field test sites. Finally, an existing engineering model to predict dehumidification performance degradation for single-stage cooling equipment at part-load conditions (Henderson and Rengarajan 1996) was enhanced to include a broader range of fan control strategies and an improved theoretical basis for modeling off-cycle moisture evaporation from cooling coils. The improved model was validated with the laboratory measurements, and this report provides guidance for users regarding proper model inputs. The model is suitable for use in computerized calculation procedures such as hourly or sub-hourly building energy simulation programs (e

  4. Testing Monotonicity of Pricing Kernels

    OpenAIRE

    Timofeev, Roman

    2007-01-01

    In this master thesis a mechanism to test mononicity of empirical pricing kernels (EPK) is presented. By testing monotonicity of pricing kernel we can determine whether utility function is concave or not. Strictly decreasing pricing kernel corresponds to concave utility function while non-decreasing EPK means that utility function contains some non-concave regions. Risk averse behavior is usually described by concave utility function and considered to be a cornerstone of classical behavioral ...

  5. Diffusion of bed load particles subject to different flow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchetto, Martina; Cotterle, Luca; Tregnaghi, Matteo; Tait, Simon; Marion, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    An in-depth understanding of sediment motion in rivers has acquired increasing importance lately in order to plan restoration activities that provide ecological benefit. River beds constitute the interfacial environment where several species live and mass exchange of sediments/nutrients/pollutants can take place. Moving grains interacting with the bed deposit and can locally change the bed surface topography they can also act as carriers for contaminants associated with the grains. Study the motion of grains on the bed, in particular the extent and variability of their travel distance with regards to the flow conditions can provide information on the transport of grain associated contaminants. The results of a series of experimental tests, in which increasing levels of boundary shear stress were applied over a bed deposit of natural river gravel, are reported. Image databases consisted of a series of bed images acquired at a frequency of 45 Hz were collected. Analysis of the images has provided time and position data to plot the trajectories of more than 200 moving grains for each test. This data enables the derivation of the statistics of the un-truncated probability distribution of the detected particles' step length, which is consider as the distance moved by a particle from the moment it is entrained to the instant it stops on the bed. In recent studies the movement of bed load material has been indicated as diffusive, but little is known about the spatial and temporal scales of this diffusion. The analysis of the longitudinal and transverse trajectories for the tracked particles has here revealed three regimes of diffusion: a ballistic diffusion which takes place at the very beginning of particles motion, an anomalous intermediate regime, and a normal subdiffusion which occurs for larger times. Characteristic time scales separate these three diffusive regimes. Results show that in experiments with higher shear stresses the time scale separating the ballistic

  6. Distinct loading conditions reveal various patterns of right ventricular adaptation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgdorff, Marinus A. J.; Bartelds, Beatrijs; Dickinson, Michael G.; Steendijk, Paul; de Vroomen, Maartje; Berger, Rolf M. F.

    2013-01-01

    Right ventricular (RV) failure due to chronically abnormal loading is a main determinant of outcome in pulmonary hypertension (PH) and congenital heart disease. However, distinct types of RV loading have been associated with different outcomes. To determine whether the adaptive RV response depends o

  7. A Neurodynamic Model to Solve Nonlinear Pseudo-Monotone Projection Equation and Its Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eshaghnezhad, Mohammad; Effati, Sohrab; Mansoori, Amin

    2016-09-29

    In this paper, a neurodynamic model is given to solve nonlinear pseudo-monotone projection equation. Under pseudo-monotonicity condition and Lipschitz continuous condition, the projection neurodynamic model is proved to be stable in the sense of Lyapunov, globally convergent, globally asymptotically stable, and globally exponentially stable. Also, we show that, our new neurodynamic model is effective to solve the nonconvex optimization problems. Moreover, since monotonicity is a special case of pseudo-monotonicity and also since a co-coercive mapping is Lipschitz continuous and monotone, and a strongly pseudo-monotone mapping is pseudo-monotone, the neurodynamic model can be applied to solve a broader classes of constrained optimization problems related to variational inequalities, pseudo-convex optimization problem, linear and nonlinear complementarity problems, and linear and convex quadratic programming problems. Finally, several illustrative examples are stated to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our new neurodynamic model.

  8. Ultimate generalization to monotonicity for uniform convergence of trigonometric series

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Chaundy and Jolliffe proved that if {a n } is a non-increasing (monotonic) real sequence with lim n →∞ a n = 0, then a necessary and sufficient condition for the uniform convergence of the series ∑∞ n=1 a n sin nx is lim n →∞ na n = 0. We generalize (or weaken) the monotonic condition on the coefficient sequence {a n } in this classical result to the so-called mean value bounded variation condition and prove that the generalized condition cannot be weakened further. We also establish an analogue to the generalized Chaundy-Jolliffe theorem in the complex space.

  9. Monotonicity of chi-square test statistics

    OpenAIRE

    Ryu, Keunkwan

    2003-01-01

    This paper establishes monotonicity of the chi-square test statistic. As the more efficient parameter estimator is plugged into the test statistic, the degrees of freedom of the resulting chi-square test statistic monotonically increase.

  10. Experimental characterization of materials subjected to combined loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrusca, L.; Goanta, V.; Barsanescu, P. D.; Savin, A.

    2016-08-01

    In real life experience, machine and structure elements are subjected to complex loading history. Combined loading testes facilitate the understanding of materials behavior subjected to multiaxial stress state. In this paper are presented experimental investigations used to evaluate the influence of an initial type of loading on material properties which will be subsequently tested through another load type. Initial tests are tension tests, by different elongations, and subsequent tests are torsion tests, until break. Circular cross section specimens will be used in these tests. Tension tests have been performed on a universal testing machine. Subsequently torsion tests have been conducted through an attachable device. It was found that the energy associated with plastic deformation obtained by subsequent torsional tests has the dominant influence on the material total plastic energy, although initial test was tension.

  11. A novel control strategy for load converter of DC isolated distribution system under unbalanced loading conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. NOROOZIAN; M. ABEDI; G.B. GHAREHPETIAN; S. H. HOSSEINI

    2009-01-01

    A novel control strategy for the load converter supplying the unbalanced AC load in a DC isolated distribution system is presented. The control algorithm results in balanced and sinusoidal load voltages under unbalanced AC loading. The unbalanced load is characterized in the d-q-0 rotating coordinate based on symmetrical sequence components. Also, the mathematical model of the load converter in both a-b-c and d-q-0 coordinates is derived by using the average large signal model. Then, two control strategies for the load converter are presented. The first one uses the conventional d-q-0 controller to ensure the voltage and current regulation. The second one is a newly proposed control strategy based on the decomposition of the voltage and current into instantaneous positive, negative, and zero sequences. These three sequences are controlled independently in their own reference frames as DC signals. The performance of the load converter using these two control strategies is compared. Simulation results show the validity and capability of the newly proposed control strategy.

  12. A monotone framework for CCS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    The calculus of communicating systems, CCS, was introduced by Robin Milner as a calculus for modelling concurrent systems. Subsequently several techniques have been developed for analysing such models in order to get further insight into their dynamic behaviour. In this paper we present a static...... analysis for approximating the control structure embedded within the models. We formulate the analysis as an instance of a monotone framework and thus draw on techniques that often are associated with the efficient implementation of classical imperative programming languages. We show how to construct...

  13. FRP Composites Strengthening of Concrete Columns under Various Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azadeh Parvin

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a review of some of the progress in the area of fiber reinforced polymers (FRP-strengthening of columns for several loading scenarios including impact load. The addition of FRP materials to upgrade deficiencies or to strengthen structural components can save lives by preventing collapse, reduce the damage to infrastructure, and the need for their costly replacement. The retrofit with FRP materials with desirable properties provides an excellent replacement for traditional materials, such as steel jacket, to strengthen the reinforced concrete structural members. Existing studies have shown that the use of FRP materials restore or improve the column original design strength for possible axial, shear, or flexure and in some cases allow the structure to carry more load than it was designed for. The paper further concludes that there is a need for additional research for the columns under impact loading senarios. The compiled information prepares the ground work for further evaluation of FRP-strengthening of columns that are deficient in design or are in serious need for repair due to additional load or deterioration.

  14. Generalized convexity, generalized monotonicity recent results

    CERN Document Server

    Martinez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique; Volle, Michel

    1998-01-01

    A function is convex if its epigraph is convex. This geometrical structure has very strong implications in terms of continuity and differentiability. Separation theorems lead to optimality conditions and duality for convex problems. A function is quasiconvex if its lower level sets are convex. Here again, the geo­ metrical structure of the level sets implies some continuity and differentiability properties for quasiconvex functions. Optimality conditions and duality can be derived for optimization problems involving such functions as well. Over a period of about fifty years, quasiconvex and other generalized convex functions have been considered in a variety of fields including economies, man­ agement science, engineering, probability and applied sciences in accordance with the need of particular applications. During the last twenty-five years, an increase of research activities in this field has been witnessed. More recently generalized monotonicity of maps has been studied. It relates to generalized conve...

  15. Modeling the Responses of TSM Resonators under Various Loading Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandey, H.L.; Cernosek, R.W.; Hillman, A.R.; Martin, S.J.

    1998-12-04

    We develop a general model that describes the electrical responses of thickness shear mode resonators subject to a variety of surface loadkgs. The model incorporates a physically diverse set of single component loadings, including rigid solids, viscoelastic media and fluids (Newtonian or Maxwellian). The model allows any number of these components to be combined in any configuration. Such multiple loadings are representative of a variety of physical situations encountered in electrochemical and other liquid phase applications, as well as gas phase applications. In the general case, the response of the composite is not a linear combination of the individual component responses. We discuss application of the model in a qualitative diagnostic fashion, to gain insight into the nature of the interracial structure, and in a quantitative fashion, to extract appropriate physical parameters, such as liquid viscosity and density and polymer shear moduli.

  16. On the sample monotonization problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takhanov, R. S.

    2010-07-01

    The problem of finding a maximal subsample in a training sample consisting of the pairs “object-answer” that does not violate monotonicity constraints is considered. It is proved that this problem is NP-hard and that it is equivalent to the problem of finding a maximum independent set in special directed graphs. Practically important cases in which a partial order specified on the set of answers is a complete order or has dimension two are considered in detail. It is shown that the second case is reduced to the maximization of a quadratic convex function on a convex set. For this case, an approximate polynomial algorithm based on linear programming theory is proposed.

  17. 14 CFR 27.501 - Ground loading conditions: landing gear with skids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Ground loading conditions: landing gear... § 27.501 Ground loading conditions: landing gear with skids. (a) General. Rotorcraft with landing gear... exceed those obtained in a drop test of the gear with— (i) A drop height of 1.5 times that specified...

  18. Influence of wind conditions on wind turbine loads and measurement of turbulence using lidars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Variations in wind conditions influence the loads on wind turbines significantly. In order to determine these loads it is important that the external conditions are well understood. Wind lidars are well developed nowadays to measure wind profiles upwards from the surface. But how turbulence can be m

  19. Influence of wind conditions on wind turbine loads and measurement of turbulence using lidars

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sathe, A.R.

    2012-01-01

    Variations in wind conditions influence the loads on wind turbines significantly. In order to determine these loads it is important that the external conditions are well understood. Wind lidars are well developed nowadays to measure wind profiles upwards from the surface. But how turbulence can be

  20. Strong Stationary Duality for M\\"obius Monotone Markov Chains: Unreliable Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Lorek, Pawel

    2011-01-01

    For Markov chains with a partially ordered finite state space we show strong stationary duality under the condition of M\\"obius monotonicity of the chain. We show relations of M\\"obius monotonicity to other definitions of monotone chains. We give examples of dual chains in this context which have transitions only upwards. We illustrate general theory by an analysis of nonsymmetric random walks on the cube with an application to networks of queues.

  1. Driving performance impairments due to hypovigilance on monotonous roads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larue, Grégoire S; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Pettitt, Anthony N

    2011-11-01

    Drivers' ability to react to unpredictable events deteriorates when exposed to highly predictable and uneventful driving tasks. Highway design reduces the driving task mainly to a lane-keeping manoeuvre. Such a task is monotonous, providing little stimulation and this contributes to crashes due to inattention. Research has shown that driver's hypovigilance can be assessed with EEG measurements and that driving performance is impaired during prolonged monotonous driving tasks. This paper aims to show that two dimensions of monotony - namely road design and road side variability - decrease vigilance and impair driving performance. This is the first study correlating hypovigilance and driver performance in varied monotonous conditions, particularly on a short time scale (a few seconds). We induced vigilance decrement as assessed with an EEG during a monotonous driving simulator experiment. Road monotony was varied through both road design and road side variability. The driver's decrease in vigilance occurred due to both road design and road scenery monotony and almost independently of the driver's sensation seeking level. Such impairment was also correlated to observable measurements from the driver, the car and the environment. During periods of hypovigilance, the driving performance impairment affected lane positioning, time to lane crossing, blink frequency, heart rate variability and non-specific electrodermal response rates. This work lays the foundation for the development of an in-vehicle device preventing hypovigilance crashes on monotonous roads.

  2. Biotrickling filtration of isopropanol under intermittent loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San-Valero, Pau; Penya-Roja, Josep M; Sempere, Feliu; Gabaldón, Carmen

    2013-07-01

    This paper investigates the removal of isopropanol by gas-phase biotrickling filtration. Two plastic packing materials, one structured and one random, have been evaluated in terms of oxygen mass transfer and isopropanol removal efficiency. Oxygen mass transfer experiments were performed at gas velocities of 104 and 312 m h⁻¹ and liquid velocities between 3 and 33 m h⁻¹. Both materials showed similar mass transfer coefficients up to liquid velocities of 15 m h⁻¹. At greater liquid velocities, the structured packing exhibited greater oxygen mass transfer coefficients. Biotrickling filtration experiments were carried out at inlet loads (IL) from 20 to 65 g C m⁻³ h⁻¹ and empty bed residence times (EBRT) from 14 to 160 s. To simulate typical industrial emissions, intermittent isopropanol loading (16 h/day, 5 day/week) and intermittent spraying frequency (15 min/1.5 h) were applied. Maximum elimination capacity of 51 g C m⁻³ h⁻¹ has been obtained for the random packing (IL of 65 g C m⁻³ h⁻¹, EBRT of 50 s). The decrease in irrigation frequency to 15 min every 3 h caused a decrease in the outlet emissions from 86 to 59 mg C Nm⁻³ (inlet of 500 mg C Nm⁻³). The expansion of spraying to night and weekend periods promoted the degradation of the isopropanol accumulated in the water tank during the day, reaching effluent concentrations as low as 44 mg C Nm⁻³. After a 7-week starvation period, the performance was recovered in less than 10 days, proving the robustness of the process.

  3. Size monotonicity and stability of the core in hedonic games

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitrov, Dinko; Sung, Shao Chin

    2011-01-01

    We show that the core of each strongly size monotonic hedonic game is not empty and is externally stable. This is in sharp contrast to other sufficient conditions for core non-emptiness which do not even guarantee the existence of a stable set in such games.

  4. Relaxing monotonicity in the identification of local average treatment effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni

    In heterogeneous treatment effect models with endogeneity, the identification of the local average treatment effect (LATE) typically relies on an instrument that satisfies two conditions: (i) joint independence of the potential post-instrument variables and the instrument and (ii) monotonicity...

  5. Model-Based Load Estimation for Predictive Condition Monitoring of Wind Turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Perisic, Nevena; Pederen, Bo Juul; Grunnet, Jacob Deleuran

    for application in condition monitoring. Fatigue loads are estimated online using a load observer and grey box models which include relevant WTG dynamics. Identification of model parameters and calibration of observer are performed offline using measurements from WTG prototype. Signal processing of estimated load...... signal is performed online, and a Load Indicator Signal (LIS) is formulated as a ratio between current estimated accumulated fatigue loads and its expected value based only on a priori knowledge (WTG dynamics and wind climate). LOT initialisation is based on a priori knowledge and can be obtained using...... a high-fidelity aero-elastic simulation code as LACflex to increase LIS rate of convergence. Additionally, statistical uncertainties in the convergence of estimated fatigue loads due to climate parameters are taken into account in the LIS function. LIS may play a central role in condition maintenance...

  6. Conditions for enhanced performance of segmented thermoelectrics under load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angst, Sebastian; Wolf, Dietrich E.

    2017-08-01

    The Onsager-de Groot-Callen transport theory is used to investigate the performance of double segmented thermoelectrics as generators. We show that such an inhomogeneous device usually performs worse than predicted by the effective transport coefficients. This is caused by the difference of the open circuit Seebeck voltage and the Seebeck voltage under operating conditions. The electrical current and the related interface Peltier effect cause a self-organization of the temperature profile such that the temperature drop across the material with the higher absolute Seebeck coefficient is reduced. However, including Joule heating we derive conditions for the opposite effect resulting in an enhanced power.

  7. Preserving performance of concrete members under seismic loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry, Carolyn M.; Unzicker, Jacob

    1998-06-01

    Normal reinforced concrete lacks the ability to directly respond to the formation of cracking within its own cross section during dynamic loading. A way to introduce this ability is to apply self-healing concepts in the design of reinforced concrete members. Such members could then 'intelligently' react in the event of damaging forces -- by deriving the means of repair from within themselves. Self- healing involves the timed release of adhesive into the member at the time of cracking. Chemically inert encapsulations are filled with adhesive and cast within the cross section of the member. At the onset of cracking, the wall fractures, allowing adhesive to exit and penetrate the developing crack. With this method, adhesives with different characteristics could be applied to different areas of a monolithic, reinforced concrete structural system, in order to accomplish specific results. For example, high strength adhesive could be used in areas where increased stiffness was desired, and more flexible adhesive could be potentially be used to improve energy dissipation or damping. The method would be most appropriate for highly indeterminate structures, where moment redistribution between members tends to 'refocus' stress temporarily. This gives the adhesive time to repair the cracked section and improve local capacity against further damage.

  8. Effects of Simulated Functional Loading Conditions on Dentin, Composite, and Laminate Structures

    OpenAIRE

    Walker, Mary P.; Teitelbaum, Heather K.; Eick, J. David; Williams, Karen B.

    2009-01-01

    Use of composite restorations continues to increase, tempered by more potential problems when placed in posterior dentition. Thus, it is essential to understand how these materials function under stress-bearing clinical conditions. Since mastication is difficult to replicate in the laboratory, cyclic loading is frequently used within in vitro evaluations but often employs traditional fatigue testing, which typically does not simulate occlusal loading because higher stresses and loading freque...

  9. Provision of Supplementary Load Frequency Control via Aggregation of Air Conditioning Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhou

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The integration of large-scale renewable energy poses great challenges for the operation of power system because of its increased frequency fluctuations. More load frequency control (LFC resources are demanded in order to maintain a stable system with more renewable energy injected. Unlike the costly LFC resources on generation side, the thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs on the demand side become an attractive solution on account of its substantial quantities and heat-storage capacity. It generally contains air conditioners (ACs, water heaters and fridges. In this paper, the supplementary LFC is extracted by the modeling and controlling of aggregated ACs. We first present a control framework integrating the supplementary LFC with the traditional LFC. Then, a change-time-priority-list method is proposed to control power output taking into account customers’ satisfaction. Simulations on a single-area power system with wind power integration demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The impact of ambient temperature changes and customer preferences on room temperature is also involved in the discussion. Results show that the supplementary LFC provided by ACs could closely track the LFC signals and effectively reduce the frequency deviation.

  10. Monotone models for prediction in data mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velikova, M.V.

    2006-01-01

    This dissertation studies the incorporation of monotonicity constraints as a type of domain knowledge into a data mining process. Monotonicity constraints are enforced at two stages¿data preparation and data modeling. The main contributions of the research are a novel procedure to test the degree of

  11. Monotonic Stable Solutions for Minimum Coloring Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamers, H.J.M.; Miquel, S.; Norde, H.W.

    2011-01-01

    For the class of minimum coloring games (introduced by Deng et al. (1999)) we investigate the existence of population monotonic allocation schemes (introduced by Sprumont (1990)). We show that a minimum coloring game on a graph G has a population monotonic allocation scheme if and only if G is (P4,

  12. Monotonicity-preserving linear multistep methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hundsdorfer, W.; Ruuth, S.J.; Spiteri, R.J.

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we provide an analysis of monotonicity properties for linear multistep methods. These monotonicity properties include positivity and the diminishing of total variation. We also pay particular attention to related boundedness properties such as the total-variation-bounded (TVB) property

  13. Version Spaces and Generalized Monotone Boolean Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); T. Ibaraki

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe consider generalized monotone functions f: X --> {0,1} defined for an arbitrary binary relation <= on X by the property x <= y implies f(x) <= f(y). These include the standard monotone (or positive) Boolean functions, regular Boolean functions and other interesting functions as speci

  14. Version Spaces and Generalized Monotone Boolean Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.C. Bioch (Cor); T. Ibaraki

    2002-01-01

    textabstractWe consider generalized monotone functions f: X --> {0,1} defined for an arbitrary binary relation <= on X by the property x <= y implies f(x) <= f(y). These include the standard monotone (or positive) Boolean functions, regular Boolean functions and other interesting functions as

  15. Environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides under cyclic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castagna, A.; Alven, D.A.; Stoloff, N.S. [Rensselaer Polytechnic Inst., Troy, NY (United States)

    1995-08-01

    The tensile and fatigue crack growth behavior in air in hydrogen and in oxygen of an Fe-Al-Cr-Zr alloy is described. The results are compared to data for FA-129. A detailed analysis of frequency effects on fatigue crack growth rates of FA-129, tested in the B2 condition, shows that dislocation transport of hydrogen from the surface is the rate limiting step in fatigue crack growth.

  16. Method for acquiring part load distribution coefficient of air conditioning system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁勇; 李百战; 谭颖

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a method to acquire runtime distribution ratio of building air conditioning system under part load condition (part load coefficient of system) through practical energy consumption data. By utilizing monthly energy consumption data of the entire year as the analysis object,this paper identifies data distribution,verifies distribution characteristics and analyzes distribution probability density for the issue of running time distribution ratio of air conditioning system in part load zones in the whole operation period,thus providing a basic calculation basis for an overall analysis of energy efficiency of air conditioning system. In view of the general survey of public building energy consumption carried by the government of Chongqing,this paper takes the governmental office building as an example,the part load ratio coefficient corresponding to practical running of air conditioning system of governmental office building in Chongqing is obtained by utilizing the above probability analysis and the solving method of probability density function. By utilizing the ratio coefficient obtained using this method,the part load coefficient with any running ratio of air conditioning system can be obtained according to the requirement of analysis,which can be used in any load ratio for analyzing running energy efficiency of air conditioning system.

  17. Instantaneous angular speed monitoring of gearboxes under non-cyclic stationary load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, C. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2005-07-01

    Recent developments in the condition monitoring and asset management market have led to the commercialisation of online vibration-monitoring systems. These systems are primarily utilised to monitor large mineral mining equipment such as draglines, continuous miners and hydraulic shovels. Online monitoring systems make diagnostic information continuously available for asset management, production outsourcing and maintenance alliances with equipment manufacturers. However, most online vibration-monitoring systems are based on conventional vibration-monitoring technologies, which are prone to giving false equipment deterioration warnings on gears that operate under fluctuating load conditions. A simplified mathematical model of a gear system was developed to illustrate the feasibility of monitoring the instantaneous angular speed (IAS) as a means of monitoring the condition of gears that are subjected to fluctuating load conditions. A distinction is made between cyclic stationary load modulation and non-cyclic stationary load modulation. It is shown that rotation domain averaging will suppress the modulation caused by non-cyclic stationary load conditions but will not suppress the modulation caused by cyclic stationary load conditions. An experimental investigation on a test rig indicated that the IAS of a gear shaft could be monitored with a conventional shaft encoder to indicate a deteriorating gear fault condition.

  18. The first metatarsal bone under loading conditions: a finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristen, K-H; Berger, K; Berger, C; Kampla, W; Anzböck, W; Weitzel, S H

    2005-03-01

    An individual-based, three-dimensional finite element model of the first metatarsal (MT I) bone was created with fine CT. The three-dimensional model of the bone was fixed proximally at the metatarsocuneiform joint and load was applied on the metatarsal head. Loading conditions were simulated, including muscular forces as described for a normal metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint during three typical phases of gait as the combination of the load in the contact areas of the sesamoid bones and the base of the proximal phalanx. The resultant strain and stress distributions within the loaded MT I were calculated and visualized with the MTP in different positions.

  19. Method for modelling space conditioning aggregated daily load curves: Application to a university building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escriva-Escriva, Guillermo; Alvarez-Bel, Carlos; Valencia-Salazar, Ivan [Institute for Energy Engineering, Universidad Politecnica de Valencia, Camino de Vera, s/n, edificio 8E, escalera F, 2a planta, 46022 Valencia (Spain)

    2010-08-15

    Physically based load modelling methodologies have been widely developed and used because of their ability to predict the energy load dynamic response. Most building energy programs predict energy consumption and energy system performance through a whole building energy simulation as well as a global analysis of building thermal processes and heating, ventilation and air-conditioning (HVAC) system performance. A different approach is presented in this paper by introducing a new method for modelling the daily load profile of a group of air-conditioning systems. This method is based on the simulation of a single HVAC system, a set of end-use electrical measurements, and a detailed walk-through and energy audit. The basic methodology allows deducing the aggregated load of a group of space conditioning devices by the addition of the daily simulation of each individual physical system. As an application, the space conditioning daily demand curve of a university building is studied and results are presented. (author)

  20. An analysis of the stability and monotonicity of a kind of control models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LU Yifa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The stability and monotonicity of control systems with parameters are considered.By the iterative relationship of the coefficients of characteristic polynomials and the Mathematica software,some sufficient conditions for the monotonicity and stability of systems are given.

  1. Monotonicity of the CABARET scheme approximating a hyperbolic equation with a sign-changing characteristic field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovyrkina, O. A.; Ostapenko, V. V.

    2016-05-01

    The monotonicity of the CABARET scheme approximating a hyperbolic differential equation with a sign-changing characteristic field is analyzed. Monotonicity conditions for this scheme are obtained in domains where the characteristics have a sign-definite propagation velocity and near sonic lines, on which the propagation velocity changes its sign. These properties of the CABARET scheme are illustrated by test computations.

  2. Computation of displacements for nonlinear elastic beam models using monotone iterations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip Korman

    1988-01-01

    Full Text Available We study displacement of a uniform elastic beam subject to various physically important boundary conditions. Using monotone methods, we discuss stability and instability of solutions. We present computations, which suggest efficiency of monotone methods for fourth order boundary value problems.

  3. Measurement of buckling load for metallic plate columns in severe accident conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Byeongnam, E-mail: jo@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Sagawa, Wataru, E-mail: sagawa@vis.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Okamoto, Koji, E-mail: okamoto@n.t.u-tokyo.ac.jp

    2014-07-01

    Highlights: • Buckling load was experimentally measured in a wide range of temperature up to 1200 °C. • Two different test methods for measuring buckling failure load were suggested and compared. • Creep buckling under compressive load was performed to explain results of buckling tests. • Reduced buckling load was explained by effects of creep buckling, geometrical imperfection, and thermal stress. • Buckling processes were visualized by a high speed camera. - Abstract: In severe accidents, a reactor pressure vessel, its components, and piping have to be under extremely high temperature and high pressure conditions, which results in failure modes like rupture by internal pressure, buckling, creep, and their combinations. In this study, buckling (failure) load was experimentally measured for metallic columns under the compressive force from room temperature up to 1200 °C. A stainless steel was chosen to be a test material to measure the buckling load. Two different test methods were employed to explore the effect of thermal history of the material on the buckling load. Particularly, the effect of creep under a compressive load was considered as a reason for the reduced buckling load at high temperatures. Additionally, finite element simulations were also conducted to predict buckling load for both an ideal column and a column with geometrical imperfection as well. Moreover, buckling process was visualized using a high speed camera to understand buckling processes.

  4. Effects of Simulated Functional Loading Conditions on Dentin, Composite, and Laminate Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mary P.; Teitelbaum, Heather K.; Eick, J. David; Williams, Karen B.

    2008-01-01

    Use of composite restorations continues to increase, tempered by more potential problems when placed in posterior dentition. Thus, it is essential to understand how these materials function under stress-bearing clinical conditions. Since mastication is difficult to replicate in the laboratory, cyclic loading is frequently used within in vitro evaluations but often employs traditional fatigue testing, which typically does not simulate occlusal loading because higher stresses and loading frequencies are used, so failure mechanisms may be different. The present investigation utilized relevant parameters (specimen size; loading frequency) to assess the effects of cyclic loading on flexural mechanical properties and fracture morphology of (coronal) dentin, composite, and dentin-adhesive-composite “laminate” structures. Incremental monitoring of flexural modulus on individual beams over 60,000 loading cycles revealed a gradual increase across materials; post-hoc comparisons indicated statistical significance only for 1 versus 60k cycles. Paired specimens were tested (one exposed to 60k loading cycles, one to static loading only), and comparisons of flexural modulus and strength showed statistically significantly higher values for cyclically-loaded specimens across materials, with no observable differences in fracture morphology. Localized reorganization of dentin collagen and polymer chains could have increased flexural modulus and strength during cyclic loading, which may have implications toward the life and failure mechanisms of clinical restorations and underlying tooth structure. PMID:18823019

  5. Response Load Extrapolation for Wind Turbines during Operation Based on Average Conditional Exceedance Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toft, Henrik Stensgaard; Naess, Arvid; Saha, Nilanjan;

    2011-01-01

    The paper explores a recently developed method for statistical response load (load effect) extrapolation for application to extreme response of wind turbines during operation. The extrapolation method is based on average conditional exceedance rates and is in the present implementation restricted......-of-plane bending moment and the tower mudline bending moment of a pitch-controlled wind turbine. In general, the results show that the method based on average conditional exceedance rates predicts the extrapolated characteristic response loads at the individual mean wind speeds well and results in more consistent...

  6. Linear parameter varying control of wind turbines covering both partial load and full load conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard, Kasper Zinck; Stoustrup, Jakob; Brath, Per

    2009-01-01

    as a function of estimated wind speed. The dynamic control law is based on LPV controller synthesis with general parameter dependency by gridding the parameter space.The controller construction can, for medium- to large-scale systems, be difficult from a numerical point of view, because the involved matrix......This paper considers the design of linear parameter varying (LPV) controllers for wind turbines in order to obtain a multivariable control law that covers the entire nominal operating trajectory.The paper first presents a controller structure for selecting a proper operating trajectory...... operations tend to be ill-conditioned. The paper proposes a controller construction algorithm together with various remedies for improving the numerical conditioning the algorithm.The proposed algorithm is applied to the design of a LPV controller for wind turbines, and a comparison is made with a controller...

  7. Identification of loading conditions resulting in roller slippage in gearbox bearings of large wind turbines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dabrowski, Dariusz; Natarajan, Anand

    2017-01-01

    The dynamic loads on the rollers inside the bearings of large wind turbine gearboxes operating under transient conditions are presented with a focus on identifying conditions leading to slippage of rollers. The methodology was developed using a multi-body model of the drivetrain coupled with aero......The dynamic loads on the rollers inside the bearings of large wind turbine gearboxes operating under transient conditions are presented with a focus on identifying conditions leading to slippage of rollers. The methodology was developed using a multi-body model of the drivetrain coupled...

  8. Polyurethane foam loaded with sodium dodecylsulfate for the extraction of 'quat' pesticides from aqueous medium: Optimization of loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinhal, Jonas O; Lima, Claudio F; Cassella, Ricardo J

    2016-09-01

    The cationic herbicides paraquat, diquat and difenzoquat are largely used in different cultures worldwide. With this, there is an intrinsic risk of environmental contamination when these herbicides achieve natural waters. The goal of this work was to propose a novel and low-cost sorbent for the removal of the cited herbicides from aqueous medium. The proposed sorbent was prepared by loading polyurethane foam with sodium dodecylsulfate. The influence of several parameters (SDS concentration, HCl concentration and shaking time) on the loading process was investigated. The results obtained in this work demonstrated that all studied variables influenced the loading process, having significant effect on the extraction efficiency of the resulted PUF-SDS. At optimized conditions, the PUF was loaded by shaking 200mg of crushed foam with 200mL of a solution containing 5.0×10(-3)molL(-1) SDS and 0.25molL(-1) HCl, for 30min. The obtained PUF-SDS was efficient for removing the three herbicides from aqueous medium, achieving extraction percentages higher than 90%. The sorption process followed a pseudo second-order kinetics, which presented excellent predictive capacity of the amount of herbicide retained with time.

  9. Bone QUS measurement performed under loading condition, a more accuracy ultrasound method for osteoporosis diagnosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chengrui; Niu, Haijun; Fan, Yubo; Li, Deyu

    2012-10-01

    Osteoporosis is a worldwide health problem with enormous social and economic impact. Quantitative ultrasound (QUS) method provides comprehensive information on bone mass, microstructure and mechanical properties of the bone. And the cheap, safe and portable ultrasound equipment is more suitable for public health monitoring. QUS measurement was normally performed on bone specimens without mechanical loading. But human bones are subjected to loading during routine daily activities, and physical loading leads to the changes of bone microstructure and mechanical properties. We hypothesized that bone QUS parameters measured under loading condition differ from those measured without loading because the microstructure of bone was changed when loading subjected to bone. Furthermore, when loading was subjected on bone, the loading-lead microstructure change of osteoporosis bone may larger than that of health bone. By considering the high relationship between bone microstructure and QUS parameters, the QUS parameters of osteoporosis bone may changed larger than that of health bone. So osteoporosis may be detected more effectively by the combination of QUS method and mechanical loading.

  10. Viable harvest of monotone bioeconomic models

    CERN Document Server

    De Lara, Michel; Cabrera, Hector Ramirez

    2009-01-01

    Some monospecies age class models, as well as specific multi-species models (with so-called technical interactions), exhibit useful monotonicity properties. This paper deals with discrete time monotone bioeconomics dynamics in the presence of state and control constraints. In practice, these latter ``acceptable configurations'' represent production and preservation requirements to be satisfied for all time, and they also possess monotonicity properties. A state $\\state$ is said to belong to the viability kernel if there exists a trajectory, of states and controls, starting from $\\state$ and satisfying the constraints. Under monotonicity assumptions, we present upper and lower estimates of the viability kernel. This helps delineating domains where a viable management is possible. Numerical examples, in the context of fisheries management, for the Chilean sea bass (\\emph{Dissostichus eleginoides}) and Alfonsino (\\emph{Beryx splendens}) are given.

  11. Hyperbolic monotonicity in the Hilbert ball

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reich Simeon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We first characterize -monotone mappings on the Hilbert ball by using their resolvents and then study the asymptotic behavior of compositions and convex combinations of these resolvents.

  12. Modeling and Control of Aggregated Air Conditioning Loads Under Realistic Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Chin-Yao; Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-02-24

    Demand-side control is playing an increasingly important role in smart grid control strategies. Modeling the dynamical behavior of a large population of appliances is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various load control strategies. In this paper, a high accuracy aggregated model is first developed for a population of HVAC units. The model efficiently includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with heterogeneity, and accounts for a second-order effect necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Furthermore, the model takes into account the lockout effect of the compressor in order to represent the dynamics of the system under control more accurately. Then, a novel closed loop load control strategy is designed to track a desired demand curve and to ensure a stable and smooth response.

  13. Error detection in core loading in the condition of asymmetrical distribution of power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryzhov, Andrei; Pinegin, Anatoly [National Research Centre ' Kurchatov Institute' , Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-09-15

    The error detection in core loading in many cases happens in conditions of a significant asymmetry in the distribution of power density, which is caused by thermal mechanical deformations of reactor core, and temperature differences in the cold legs of coolant. The asymmetry of power distribution essentially decreases the effectiveness of algorithms used to detect errors in the core loading using ICIS data. The paper proposes the ways for solving this problem by means of special filtration algorithms.

  14. Global Attractivity Results for Mixed-Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Complete Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalabušić S

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove fixed point theorems for mixed-monotone mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces which satisfy a weaker contraction condition than the classical Banach contraction condition for all points that are related by given ordering. We also give a global attractivity result for all solutions of the difference equation , where satisfies mixed-monotone conditions with respect to the given ordering.

  15. Global Attractivity Results for Mixed-Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Complete Metric Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dž. Burgić

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove fixed point theorems for mixed-monotone mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces which satisfy a weaker contraction condition than the classical Banach contraction condition for all points that are related by given ordering. We also give a global attractivity result for all solutions of the difference equation zn+1=F(zn,zn−1, n=2,3,…, where F satisfies mixed-monotone conditions with respect to the given ordering.

  16. Vibration Analysis of Partially Damaged Rotor Bar in Induction Motor under Different Load Condition Using DWT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Rangel-Magdaleno

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The relevance of the development of monitoring systems for rotating machines is not only the ability to detect failures but also how early these failures can be detected. The purpose of this paper is to present an experimental study of partially damaged rotor bar in induction motor under different load conditions based on discrete wavelet transform analysis. The approach is based on the extraction of features from vibration signals at different level of damage and three mechanical load conditions. The proposed analysis is reliable for tracking the damage in rotor bar. The paper presents an analysis and extraction of vibration features for partially damaged rotor bar in induction motors. The experimental analysis shows the change in behavior of vibration due to load condition and progressive damage.

  17. Evaluation of antagonist coactivation strategies elicited from electrically stimulated muscles under load-moving conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, B H; Katz, S R; Baratta, R V; Solomonow, M; D'Ambrosia, R D

    1997-07-01

    Muscle coactivation strategies that produce ankle dorsiflexion and plantar flexion were elicited by electrical stimulation of the tibialis anterior (TA) and soleus (SOL) muscles of the cat, and examined under several loading conditions. Four different load types were used: free-limb motion (no load), fly-wheel, and two pendulums, each with a different lever arm. Three types of coactivation strategies were considered. The first coactivation strategy consisted of antagonist activity that decreased as the agonist activity increased. The second strategy consisted of increasing antagonist activity with increasing agonist activity. And, in the third strategy, antagonist coactivation decreased at low force levels, then increased at high force levels. The three strategies were evaluated based on the joint angle's peak-to-peak movement and its ability to track a linear input command given by the correlation coefficient of the output signal versus linear input. Results showed that increasing antagonist activity resulted in decreasing peak-to-peak angle and a decreased signal tracking capability for each load condition. The latter, however, was not as obvious in the flywheel load (as compared with free-moving and pendulum conditions). A decreasing peak-to-peak torque for pendulum loads was also observed with increasing antagonist activity. In all loading conditions, maximal peak-to-peak angle and torque were present when a moderate degree of antagonist activity was engaged, and signal tracking capability improved with earlier engagement of the antagonist muscles. It is suggested that strategies using a combination of low-level coactivation, as described in the physiological literature and previous functional electrical stimulation (FES) studies, could satisfactorily address the issues of controllability and efficiency while maintaining long-term joint integrity.

  18. Contact models of repaired articular surfaces: influence of loading conditions and the superficial tangential zone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, John R; Wayne, Jennifer S

    2011-07-01

    The superficial tangential zone (STZ) plays a significant role in normal articular cartilage's ability to support loads and retain fluids. To date, tissue engineering efforts have not replicated normal STZ function in cartilage repairs. This finite element study examined the STZ's role in normal and repaired articular surfaces under different contact conditions. Contact area and pressure distributions were allowed to change with time, tension-compression nonlinearity modeled collagen behavior in the STZ, and nonlinear geometry was incorporated to accommodate finite deformation. Responses to loading via impermeable and permeable rigid surfaces were compared to loading via normal cartilage, a more physiologic condition, anticipating the two rigid loading surfaces would bracket that of normal. For models loaded by normal cartilage, an STZ placed over the inferior repair region reduced the short-term axial compression of the articular surface by 15%, when compared to a repair without an STZ. Covering the repair with a normal STZ shifted the flow patterns and strain levels back toward that of normal cartilage. Additionally, reductions in von Mises stress (21%) and an increase in fluid pressure (13%) occurred in repair tissue under the STZ. This continues to show that STZ properties of sufficient quality are likely critical for the survival of transplanted constructs in vivo. However, response to loading via normal cartilage did not always fall within ranges predicted by the rigid surfaces. Use of more physiologic contact models is recommended for more accurate investigations into properties critical to the success of repair tissues.

  19. The speed control of DC motor under the load condition using PI and PID controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corapsiz, Muhammed Reşit; Kahveci, Hakan

    2017-04-01

    In this study, it was aimed to compare PI (Proportional-Integral) and PID (Proportional-Integral-Derivative) controllers for speed control of Permanent Magnet Direct Current (PMDC) motor under both load and without load. For this purpose, firstly, the mathematical model was obtained from the dynamic equations of the PMDC motor and the obtained mathematical model was transferred to the simulation environment and modeled using Matlab/SIMULINK. Following the modeling process, PI and PID controller structures were formed, respectively. Secondly, after these structures were formed, the PMDC motor was run without any controller. Then, the control of the PMDC motor with no load was provided by using PI and PID controllers. Finally, the PMDC motor were loaded under the constant load (TL = 3 N.m.) for each condition and selected time period (t = 3 s). The obtained result for each control operations was comparatively given by observing effects of loading process on systems. When the obtained results were evaluated for each condition, it was observed that PID controller have the best performance with respect to PI controller.

  20. Load Dependency of Postural Control--Kinematic and Neuromuscular Changes in Response to over and under Load Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramona Ritzmann

    Full Text Available Load variation is associated with changes in joint torque and compensatory reflex activation and thus, has a considerable impact on balance control. Previous studies dealing with over (OL and under loading (UL used water buoyancy or additional weight with the side effects of increased friction and inertia, resulting in substantially modified test paradigms. The purpose of this study was to identify gravity-induced load dependency of postural control in comparable experimental conditions and to determine the underlying neuromuscular mechanisms.Balance performance was recorded under normal loading (NL, 1 g, UL (0.16 g 0.38 g and OL (1.8 g in monopedal stance. Center of pressure (COP displacement and frequency distribution (low 0.15-0.5 Hz (LF, medium 0.5-2 Hz (MF, high 2-6 Hz (HF as well as ankle, knee and hip joint kinematics were assessed. Soleus spinal excitability was determined by H/M-recruitment curves (H/M-ratios.Compared to NL, OL caused an increase in ankle joint excursion, COP HF domain and H/M-ratio. Concomitantly, hip joint excursion and COP LF decreased. Compared to NL, UL caused modulations in the opposite direction: UL decreased ankle joint excursions, COP HF and H/M-ratio. Collaterally, hip joint excursion and COP LF increased. COP was augmented both in UL and in OL compared to NL.Subjects achieved postural stability in OL and UL with greater difficulty compared to NL. Reduced postural control was accompanied by modified balance strategies and compensatory reflex activation. With increasing load, a shift from hip to ankle strategy was observed. Accompanying, COP frequency distribution shifted from LF to HF and spinal excitability was enhanced. It is suggested that in OL, augmented ankle joint torques are compensated by quick reflex-induced postural reactions in distal muscles. Contrarily, UL is associated with diminished joint torques and thus, postural equilibrium may be controlled by the proximal segments to adjust the center of

  1. Monotone Rank and Separations in Computational Complexity

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Yang D

    2011-01-01

    In the paper, we introduce the concept of monotone rank, and using it as a powerful tool, we obtain several important and strong separation results in computational complexity. We show a super-exponential separation between monotone and non-monotone computation in the non-commutative model, and thus give the answer to a longstanding open problem posed by Nisan \\cite{Nis1991} in algebraic complexity. More specifically, we exhibit a homogeneous algebraic function $f$ of degree $d$ ($d$ even) on $n$ variables with the monotone algebraic branching program (ABP) complexity $\\Omega(n^{d/2})$ and the non-monotone ABP complexity $O(d^2)$. We propose a relaxed version of the famous Bell's theorem\\cite{Bel1964}\\cite{CHSH1969}. Bell's theorem basically states that local hidden variable theory cannot predict the correlations produced by quantum mechanics, and therefore is an impossibility result. Bell's theorem heavily relies on the diversity of the measurements. We prove that even if we fix the measurement, infinite amo...

  2. Aggregated Modeling and Control of Air Conditioning Loads for Demand Response

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Lian, Jianming; Chang, Chin-Yao; Kalsi, Karanjit

    2013-06-21

    Demand response is playing an increasingly important role in the efficient and reliable operation of the electric grid. Modeling the dynamic behavior of a large population of responsive loads is especially important to evaluate the effectiveness of various demand response strategies. In this paper, a highly-accurate aggregated model is developed for a population of air conditioning loads. The model effectively includes statistical information of the population, systematically deals with load heterogeneity, and accounts for second-order dynamics necessary to accurately capture the transient dynamics in the collective response. Based on the model, a novel aggregated control strategy is designed for the load population under realistic conditions. The proposed controller is fully responsive and achieves the control objective without sacrificing end-use performance. The proposed aggregated modeling and control strategies are validated through realistic simulations using GridLAB-D. Extensive simulation results indicate that the proposed approach can effectively manage a large number of air conditioning systems to provide various demand response services, such as frequency regulation and peak load reduction.

  3. Musculo-skeletal loading conditions at the hip during walking and stair climbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heller, M O; Bergmann, G; Deuretzbacher, G; Dürselen, L; Pohl, M; Claes, L; Haas, N P; Duda, G N

    2001-07-01

    Musculo-skeletal loading plays an important role in the primary stability of joint replacements and in the biological processes involved in fracture healing. However, current knowledge of musculo-skeletal loading is still limited. In the past, a number of musculo-skeletal models have been developed to estimate loading conditions at the hip. So far, a cycle-to-cycle validation of predicted musculo-skeletal loading by in vivo measurements has not been possible. The aim of this study was to determine the musculo-skeletal loading conditions during walking and climbing stairs for a number of patients and compare these findings to in vivo data. Following total hip arthroplasty, four patients underwent gait analysis during walking and stair climbing. An instrumented femoral prosthesis enabled simultaneous measurement of in vivo hip contact forces. On the basis of CT and X-ray data, individual musculo-skeletal models of the lower extremity were developed for each patient. Muscle and joint contact forces were calculated using an optimization algorithm. The calculated peak hip contact forces both over- and under-estimated the measured forces. They differed by a mean of 12% during walking and 14% during stair climbing. For the first time, a cycle-to-cycle validation of predicted musculo-skeletal loading was possible for walking and climbing stairs in several patients. In all cases, the comparison of in vivo measured and calculated hip contact forces showed good agreement.Thus, the authors consider the presented approach as a useful means to determine valid conditions for the analysis of prosthesis loading, bone modeling or remodeling processes around implants and fracture stability following internal fixation.

  4. The monotonic and fatigue behavior of CFCCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miriyala, N.; Liaw, P.K.; McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)

    1996-04-01

    Flexure tests were performed to study the fabric orientation effects on the monotonic and fatigue behavior of two commercially available continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites (CFCCs), namely (i) Nicalon fiber fabric reinforced alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix composite fabricated by a direct molten metal oxidation (DIMOX) process and, (ii) Nicalon fiber fabric reinforced silicon carbide (SiC) matrix composite fabricated by an isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI) process. The fabric orientation effects on the monotonic and fatigue behavior were strong in the Nicalon/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite, while they were relatively weak in the Nicalon/SiC composite.

  5. Weighted monotonicity inequalities for unbounded operators

    CERN Document Server

    Hoa, Dinh Trung

    2011-01-01

    Let $\\tau$ be a faithful normal semifinite trace on a von Neumann algebra $\\mathcal{M}$. For a continuous nonnegative convex monotone nondecreasing function $f$ on convex subset $\\Omega$ of $\\mathbb{R}$ and weight nonnegative Borel function $w$ we consider weighted monotonicity inequalities of the form {equation*} \\tau(w(A)^{1/2}f(A)w(A)^{1/2}) \\le \\tau (w(A)^{1/2}f(B)w(A)^{1/2}), {equation*} where $A$ and $B$ are unbounded operators affiliated with respect to algebra $\\mathcal{M}$.

  6. Criteria for Response Monotonicity Preserving in Approximation of Fractional Order Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad Saleh Tavazoei

    2016-01-01

    In approximation of fractional order systems,a significant objective is to preserve the important properties of the original system.The monotonicity of time/frequency responses is one of these properties whose preservation is of great importance in approximation process.Considering this importance,the issues of monotonicity preservation of the step response and monotonicity preservation of the magnitude-frequency response are independently investigated in this paper.In these investigations,some conditions on approximating filters of fractional operators are found to guarantee the preservation of step/magnitude-frequency response monotonicity in approximation process.These conditions are also simplified in some special cases.In addition,numerical simulation results are presented to show the usefulness of the obtained conditions.

  7. Kaolin and commercial fcc catalysts in the cracking of loads of polypropylene under refinary conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Ribeiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficiency of Commercial FCC catalysts (low, medium and high activities was evaluated by the catalytic cracking process of combined feeds of polypropylene (PP and vaseline, using a microactivity test unit (M.A.T. for the production of fuel fractions (gasoline, diesel and residue. The PP/vaseline loads, at 2.0% and 4.0% wt, were processed under refinery conditions (load/catalyst ratio and temperature of process. For the PP/vaseline load (4.0% wt, the production of the gasoline fraction was favored by all catalysts, while the diesel fraction was favored by PP/vaseline load (2.0% wt, showing a preferential contact of the zeolite external surface with the end of the polymer chains for the occurrence of the catalytic cracking. All the loads produced a bigger quantity of the gaseous products in the presence of highly active commercial FCC catalyst. The improvement in the activity of the commercial FCC catalyst decreased the production of the liquid fractions and increased the quantity of the solid fractions, independent of the concentration of the loads. These results can be related to the difficulty of the polymer chains to access the catalyst acid sites, occurring preferentially end-chain scission at the external surface of the catalyst.

  8. Effects of multiaxial cyclic loading conditions on the evolution of porous defects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbiakop Armel

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Multiaxial loading conditions are one of the important parameters in estimating the lifetime of structure both in high and low cycle fatigue ([1 3]. In order to understand the coupling between the macroscopic multiaxial loading and the microscopic defects, we propose to investigate the evolution of an elasto-plastic porous material up to failure under low cycle fatigue conditions. The analysis is performed numerically, using finite elements, on a periodic 3D unit-cell under the assumption of finite strains and subjected to various stress triaxialities, translated as ratios between deviatoric, hydrostatic stress and Lode angles. The present discussion introduces several novel factors in the analysis: (i 3D geometry in cyclic loading (ii finite strains (iii free evolving void shape (iiii different hardening laws. That one of the important factors is the void shape and that its evolution during cyclic loading depends on its multiaxiality. Moreover, these factors will equally influence the apparent macroscopic hardening or softening of the material and the initiation of localized shear zones at the microscopic level. The Lode angle has a significant impact on the evolution of the aspect ratios and the ellipsoidicity of the pores, but has only a weak influence on the evolution of macroscopic variables such as the stress or the porosity. As a consequence, the results show that multiaxiality of the loading have an important on the evolution and growth of defects, pores in the present case problem, but are less important in the definition of the yield surface.

  9. The flow field investigations of no load conditions in axial flow fixed-blade turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J.; Gao, L.; Wang, Z. W.; Zhou, X. Z.; Xu, H. X.

    2014-03-01

    During the start-up process, the strong instabilities happened at no load operation in a low head axial flow fixed-blade turbine, with strong pressure pulsation and vibration. The rated speed can not reach until guide vane opening to some extent, and stable operation could not be maintained under the rated speed at some head, which had a negative impact on the grid-connected operation of the unit. In order to find the reason of this phenomenon, the unsteady flow field of the whole flow passage at no load conditions was carried out to analyze the detailed fluid field characteristics including the pressure pulsation and force imposed on the runner under three typical heads. The main hydraulic cause of no load conditions instability was described. It is recommended that the power station should try to reduce the no-load running time and go into the high load operation as soon as possible when connected to grid at the rated head. Following the recommendations, the plant operation practice proved the unstable degree of the unit was reduced greatly during start up and connect to the power grid.

  10. A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT CONTRACTION METHODS FOR MONOTONE VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bingsheng He; Xiang Wang; Junfeng Yang

    2009-01-01

    It is interesting to compare the efficiency of two methods when their computational loads in each iteration are equal. In this paper, two classes of contraction methods for monotone variational inequalities are studied in a unified framework. The methods of both classes can be viewed as prediction-correction methods, which generate the same test vector in the prediction step and adopt the same step-size rule in the correction step. The only difference is that they use different search directions. The computational loads of each iteration of the different classes are equal. Our analysis explains theoretically why one class of the contraction methods usually outperforms the other class. It is demonstrated that many known methods belong to these two classes of methods. Finally, the presented numerical results demonstrate the validity of our analysis.

  11. Mesoscopic Modeling of Concrete under Different Moisture Conditions and Loading Rates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Ronnie

    2013-01-01

    We present a mesoscopic finite element model for simulating the rate- and moisture-dependent material behavior of concrete. The idealized mesostructure consists of aggregates surrounded by an interfacial transition zone embedded in the bulk material. We examine the influence of the most significa....... The results indicate that the loading rate has a stronger influence than the saturation level on fracture processes and global strength....... constitutive model parameters on global and local response. Different distributions and shapes of the aggregates are tested. Three model parameter sets, corresponding to different moisture conditions, are employed in the analysis of two specimens in which the applied loading rate is significantly different...

  12. Numerical investigations of rib fracture failure models in different dynamic loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fang; Yang, Jikuang; Miller, Karol; Li, Guibing; Joldes, Grand R; Doyle, Barry; Wittek, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Rib fracture is one of the most common thoracic injuries in vehicle traffic accidents that can result in fatalities associated with seriously injured internal organs. A failure model is critical when modelling rib fracture to predict such injuries. Different rib failure models have been proposed in prediction of thorax injuries. However, the biofidelity of the fracture failure models when varying the loading conditions and the effects of a rib fracture failure model on prediction of thoracic injuries have been studied only to a limited extent. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effects of three rib failure models on prediction of thoracic injuries using a previously validated finite element model of the human thorax. The performance and biofidelity of each rib failure model were first evaluated by modelling rib responses to different loading conditions in two experimental configurations: (1) the three-point bending on the specimen taken from rib and (2) the anterior-posterior dynamic loading to an entire bony part of the rib. Furthermore, the simulation of the rib failure behaviour in the frontal impact to an entire thorax was conducted at varying velocities and the effects of the failure models were analysed with respect to the severity of rib cage damages. Simulation results demonstrated that the responses of the thorax model are similar to the general trends of the rib fracture responses reported in the experimental literature. However, they also indicated that the accuracy of the rib fracture prediction using a given failure model varies for different loading conditions.

  13. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand

    2015-01-01

    We let heterogeneous firms face decisions on a number of complementary activities in a monopolistically-competitive industry. The endogenous level of competition and selection regarding entry and exit of firms introduces a wedge between monotone comparative statics (MCS) at the firm level and MCS...

  14. On a Monotone Ill-posed Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nguyen BUONG

    2005-01-01

    A class of a posteriori parameter choice strategies for the operator version of Tikhonovregularization (including variants of Morozov's and Arcangeli's methods) is proposed and used in investigating the rate of convergence of the regularized solution for ill-posed nonlinear equation involving a monotone operator in Banach space.

  15. Population Monotonic Path Schemes for Simple Games

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    A path scheme for a simple game is composed of a path, i.e., a sequence of coalitions that is formed during the coalition formation process and a scheme, i.e., a payoff vector for each coalition in the path.A path scheme is called population monotonic if a player's payoff does not decrease as the pa

  16. Monotone method for nonlinear nonlocal hyperbolic problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azmy S. Ackleh

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available We present recent results concerning the application of the monotone method for studying existence and uniqueness of solutions to general first-order nonlinear nonlocal hyperbolic problems. The limitations of comparison principles for such nonlocal problems are discussed. To overcome these limitations, we introduce new definitions for upper and lower solutions.

  17. Limit points of the monotonic schemes

    CERN Document Server

    Salomon, J

    2005-01-01

    Many numerical simulations in quantum (bilinear) control use the monotonically convergent algorithms of Krotov (introduced by Tannor), Zhu & Rabitz or the general form of Maday & Turinici. This paper presents an analysis of the limit set of controls provided by these algorithms and a proof of convergence in a particular case.

  18. REGULAR RELATIONS AND MONOTONE NORMAL ORDERED SPACES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU XIAOQUAN; LIU YINGMING

    2004-01-01

    In this paper the classical theorem of Zareckii about regular relations is generalized and an intrinsic characterization of regularity is obtained. Based on the generalized Zareckii theorem and the intrinsic characterization of regularity, the authors give a characterization of monotone normality of ordered spaces. A new proof of the UrysohnNachbin lemma is presented which is quite different from the classical one.

  19. Monotonicity and bounds on Bessel functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larry Landau

    2000-07-01

    Full Text Available survey my recent results on monotonicity with respect to order of general Bessel functions, which follow from a new identity and lead to best possible uniform bounds. Application may be made to the "spreading of the wave packet" for a free quantum particle on a lattice and to estimates for perturbative expansions.

  20. Strong monotonicity for analytic ordinary differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Walcher

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a necessary and sufficient criterion for the flow of an analytic ordinary differential equation to be strongly monotone; equivalently, strongly order-preserving. The criterion is given in terms of the reducibility set of the derivative of the right-hand side. Some applications to systems relevant in biology and ecology, including nonlinear compartmental systems, are discussed.

  1. A monotonic archive for pareto-coevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Edwin D

    2007-01-01

    Coevolution has already produced promising results, but its dynamic evaluation can lead to a variety of problems that prevent most algorithms from progressing monotonically. An important open question therefore is how progress towards a chosen solution concept can be achieved. A general solution concept for coevolution is obtained by viewing opponents or tests as objectives. In this setup known as Pareto-coevolution, the desired solution is the Pareto-optimal set. We present an archive that guarantees monotonicity for this solution concept. The algorithm is called the Incremental Pareto-Coevolution Archive (IPCA), and is based on Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization (EMOO). By virtue of its monotonicity, IPCA avoids regress even when combined with a highly explorative generator. This capacity is demonstrated on a challenging test problem requiring both exploration and reliability. IPCA maintains a highly specific selection of tests, but the size of the test archive nonetheless grows unboundedly. We therefore furthermore investigate how archive sizes may be limited while still providing approximate reliability. The LAyered Pareto-Coevolution Archive (LAPCA) maintains a limited number of layers of candidate solutions and tests, and thereby permits a trade-off between archive size and reliability. The algorithm is compared in experiments, and found to be more efficient than IPCA. The work demonstrates how the approximation of a monotonic algorithm can lead to algorithms that are sufficiently reliable in practice while offering better efficiency.

  2. Limit properties of monotone matrix functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Behrndt, Jussi; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk; Wietsma, Rudi

    2012-01-01

    The basic objects in this paper are monotonically nondecreasing n x n matrix functions D(center dot) defined on some open interval l = (a, b) of R and their limit values D(a) and D(b) at the endpoints a and b which are, in general, selfadjoint relations in C-n. Certain space decompositions induced b

  3. Concerns on Monotonic Imbalance Bounding Matching Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yatracos, Yannis G.

    2013-01-01

    Concerns are expressed for the Monotonic Imbalance Bounding (MIB) property (Iacus et al. 2011) and for MIB matching because i) the definition of the MIB property leads to inconsistencies and the nature of the imbalance measure is not clearly defined, ii) MIB property does not generalize Equal Percent Bias Reducing (EPBR) property, iii) MIB matching does not provide statistical information available with EPBR matching.

  4. Nonparametric confidence intervals for monotone functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Jongbloed, G.

    2015-01-01

    We study nonparametric isotonic confidence intervals for monotone functions. In [Ann. Statist. 29 (2001) 1699–1731], pointwise confidence intervals, based on likelihood ratio tests using the restricted and unrestricted MLE in the current status model, are introduced. We extend the method to the trea

  5. Competitive learning of monotone Boolean functions

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We apply competitive analysis onto the problem of minimizing the number of queries to an oracle to completely reconstruct a given monotone Boolean function. Besides lower and upper bounds on the competitivity we determine optimal deterministic online algorithms for the smallest problem instances.

  6. Nonparametric confidence intervals for monotone functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groeneboom, P.; Jongbloed, G.

    2015-01-01

    We study nonparametric isotonic confidence intervals for monotone functions. In [Ann. Statist. 29 (2001) 1699–1731], pointwise confidence intervals, based on likelihood ratio tests using the restricted and unrestricted MLE in the current status model, are introduced. We extend the method to the

  7. Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei

    2011-01-01

    of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the w most recent items in the stream for any w ≥ 1. We give a deterministic...

  8. New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)

    1996-12-31

    This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.

  9. Classification Trees for Problems with Monotonicity Constraints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Potharst (Rob); A.J. Feelders

    2002-01-01

    textabstractFor classification problems with ordinal attributes very often the class attribute should increase with each or some of the explaining attributes. These are called classification problems with monotonicity constraints. Classical decision tree algorithms such as CART or C4.5 generally do

  10. Inhomogeneous deformation in INCONEL 718 during monotonic and cyclic loadings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthem, D. W.; Robertson, I. M.; Socie, D. F.; Altstetter, C. J.; Leckie, F. A.

    1990-01-01

    The paper concentrates on the relation between microstructural observations of the dislocation structures and the macroscopic deformation responses of both aged and homogenized precipitate-hardened alloys at room temperature. The deformation responses are compared to the cyclic deformation response of an aged precipitate-hardened alloy. Early in the deformation, one deformation band per grain and little evidence of work hardening are observed; with increased deformation, work hardening begins, more bands nucleate, and their spacing becomes similar to that in the aged material. It is pointed out that the degree of coarseness of inhomogeneous deformation is not a result of a softening process within the bands due to precipitate shearing, but it is a function of the amount of work hardening within the bands.

  11. AN INVESTIGATION TO RESOLVE THE INTERACTION BETWEEN FUEL CELL, POWER CONDITIONING SYSTEM AND APPLICATION LOADS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudip K. Mazumder; Chuck McKintyre; Dan Herbison; Doug Nelson; Comas Haynes; Michael von Spakovsky; Joseph Hartvigsen; S. Elangovan

    2003-11-03

    Solid-Oxide Fuel Cell (SOFC) stacks respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry. However, this is not true for the thermal, mechanical, and chemical balance-of-plant subsystem (BOPS), where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy diminishes the reliability and performance of the electrode with increasing demand of load. Because these unwanted phenomena are not well understood, the manufacturers of SOFC use conservative schemes (such as, delayed load-following to compensate for slow BOPS response or expensive inductor filtering) to control stack responses to load variations. This limits the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications from a cost standpoint. Thus, a need exists for the synthesis of component- and system-level models of SOFC power-conditioning systems and the development of methodologies for investigating the system-interaction issues (which reduce the lifetime and efficiency of a SOFC) and optimizing the responses of each subsystem, leading to optimal designs of power-conditioning electronics and optimal control strategies, which mitigate the electrical-feedback effects. Equally important are ''multiresolution'' finite-element modeling and simulation studies, which can predict the impact of changes in system-level variables (e.g., current ripple and load-transients) on the local current densities, voltages, and temperature (these parameters are very difficult or cumbersome, if not impossible to obtain) within a SOFC cell. Towards that end, for phase I of this project, sponsored by the U.S. DOE (NETL), we investigate the interactions among fuel cell, power-conditioning system, and application loads and their effects on SOFC reliability (durability) and performance. A number of methodologies have been used in Phase I to develop the steady-state and transient

  12. Three dimensional damage mechanics analysis of real life reactor piping components under various loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durgaprasad, P.V.; Sahu, M.K.; Dutta, B.K. (Reactor Safety Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre Trombay, Mumbai (India)), e-mail: pvdp@barc.gov.in

    2009-07-01

    In this work, the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) damage mechanics model is used for the crack growth analysis of real life reactor piping components. The paper also addresses the challenges involved in such analyses. As a part of component integrity testing, a comprehensive experimental program has been pursued to generate the fracture behavior of reactor piping components. Several real life pipes and elbows with various flaw sizes have been tested under different loading conditions like temperature, pressure, bending etc. In the present work, some of the selected components have been analyzed numerically by using parallel in-house finite element code 'MADAM' with GTN constitutive model. The strength of the micro mechanical models has been demonstrated by comparing the numerical results like load v/s. load-line displacements, J-R curves with the experimental data

  13. Mechanical Characterization of the Human Lumbar Intervertebral Disc Subjected to Impact Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamison, David, IV

    Low back pain is a large and costly problem in the United States. Several working populations, such as miners, construction workers, forklift operators, and military personnel, have an increased risk and prevalence of low back pain compared to the general population. This is due to exposure to repeated, transient impact shocks, particularly while operating vehicles or other machinery. These shocks typically do not cause acute injury, but rather lead to pain and injury over time. The major focus in low back pain is often the intervertebral disc, due to its role as the major primary load-bearing component along the spinal column. The formation of a reliable standard for human lumbar disc exposure to repeated transient shock could potentially reduce injury risk for these working populations. The objective of this project, therefore, is to characterize the mechanical response of the lumbar intervertebral disc subjected to sub-traumatic impact loading conditions using both cadaveric and computational models, and to investigate the possible implications of this type of loading environment for low back pain. Axial, compressive impact loading events on Naval high speed boats were simulated in the laboratory and applied to human cadaveric specimen. Disc stiffness was higher and hysteresis was lower than quasi-static loading conditions. This indicates a shift in mechanical response when the disc is under impact loads and this behavior could be contributing to long-term back pain. Interstitial fluid loss and disc height changes were shown to affect disc impact mechanics in a creep study. Neutral zone increased, while energy dissipation and low-strain region stiffness decreased. This suggests that the disc has greater clinical instability during impact loading with progressive creep and fluid loss, indicating that time of day should be considered for working populations subjected to impact loads. A finite element model was developed and validated against cadaver specimen

  14. Validation of red cell sodium-lithium countertransport measurement--influence of different loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Besch, W; Schläger, D; Brahm, J

    1995-01-01

    for LiCl. Under these conditions saturating intracellular Li+ concentrations can be obtained much more rapidly than with LiCl loading, thereby minimising alterations of the cell membranes. LiHCO3 loading shortens the experimental time considerably and enables a greater number of samples to be screened......Increased sodium-lithium countertransport in erythrocytes from patients with long-standing type I (insulin-dependent) diabetes mellitus has been considered as an early marker of nephropathy. Since the activity and kinetics of the sodium-lithium countertransport may critically depend on loading...... with 150 mmol/l LiCl compared with those loaded with 150 mmol/l LiHCO3. Sodium-lithium countertransport activity was similar for both loading procedures, although the erythrocyte lithium content did significantly differ (mean +/- SEM, 7.0 +/- 0.5 for LiCl and 8.9 +/- 0.5 mmol/l of cells for 150 mmol/l Li...

  15. A Closed-Loop Control Strategy for Air Conditioning Loads to Participate in Demand Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoqing Hu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Thermostatically controlled loads (TCLs, such as air conditioners (ACs, are important demand response resources—they have a certain heat storage capacity. A change in the operating status of an air conditioner in a small range will not noticeably affect the users’ comfort level. Load control of TCLs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity in effect, and it can significantly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. The thermodynamic model of air conditioning can be used to study the aggregate power of a number of ACs that respond to the step signal of a temperature set point. This paper analyzes the influence of the parameters of each AC in the group to the indoor temperature and the total load, and derives a simplified control model based on the two order linear time invariant transfer function. Then, the stability of the model and designs its Proportional-Integral-Differential (PID controller based on the particle swarm optimization (PSO algorithm is also studied. The case study presented in this paper simulates both scenarios of constant ambient temperature and changing ambient temperature to verify the proposed transfer function model and control strategy can closely track the reference peak load shifting curves. The study also demonstrates minimal changes in the indoor temperature and the users’ comfort level.

  16. Risk Assessment of Heating, Ventilating, and Air-Conditioning Strategies in Low-Load Homes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poerschke, Andrew [IBACOS, Inc., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-02-17

    "Modern, energy efficient homes conforming to the Zero Energy Ready Home standard face the challenge of meeting high customer expectations for comfort. Traditional heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) sizing and control strategies may be insufficient to adequately condition each zone due to unique load patterns in each room caused by a number of factors. These factors include solar heat gains, occupant-related gains, and gains associated with appliances and electronics. Because of shrinking shell loads, these intermittent factors are having an increasingly significant impact on the thermal load in each zone. Consequently, occupant comfort can be compromised. To evaluate the impact of climate and house geometry, as well as HVAC system and control strategies on comfort conditions, IBACOS analyzed the results of 99 TRNSYS multiple-zone simulations. The results of this analysis indicate that for simple-geometry and single-story plans, a single zone and thermostat can adequately condition the entire house. Demanding house geometry and houses with multiple stories require the consideration of multiple thermostats and multiple zones.

  17. Effect of fiber fabric orientation on the flexural monotonic and fatigue behavior of 2D woven ceramic matrix composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chawla, N., E-mail: nchawla@asu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States); Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Lara-Curzio, E.; Ferber, M.K.; Lowden, R.A. [High Temperature Materials Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2012-11-15

    The effect of fiber fabric orientation, i.e., parallel to loading and perpendicular to the loading axis, on the monotonic and fatigue behavior of plain-weave fiber reinforced SiC matrix laminated composites was investigated. Two composite systems were studied: Nextel 312 (3M Corp.) reinforced SiC and Nicalon (Nippon Carbon Corp.) reinforced SiC, both fabricated by Forced Chemical Vapor Infiltration (FCVI). The behavior of both materials was investigated under monotonic and fatigue loading. Interlaminar and in-plane shear tests were conducted to further correlate shear properties with the effect of fabric orientation, with respect to the loading axis, on the orientation effects in bending. The underlying mechanisms, in monotonic and fatigue loading, were investigated through post-fracture examination using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

  18. Arm raising in humans under loaded vs. unloaded and bipedal vs. unipedal conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernazza-Martin, S; Martin, N; Cincera, M; Pedotti, A; Massion, J

    1999-10-30

    The aim of the present experiment was to study the central organization of equilibrium control during arm raising in the frontal plane. Nine adult subjects (five seniors and four young adults) were asked to raise their right arm to a horizontal position in the frontal plane in two support conditions (bipedal vs. unipedal) and two load conditions (unloaded vs. a 3.5-kg load added on the moving hand). No instructions were given concerning the movement speed. The movements were performed at about half the maximum speed achievable under reaction time conditions. The final lateral center of mass (CM) position 1 s after the movement offset, and the time course of the CM shift during the movement were studied in the four experimental conditions, using a CM compensation index. The electromyographic (EMG) pattern of the main muscles involved in the movement performance and in the postural control were studied in three out of nine subjects during movements performed at two velocities (at the preferred speed and as fast as possible). The results indicate that (1) the CM shift remains minimized in the frontal plane during the time course of the arm movement and during the final stabilization of the arm regardless of the stance and load conditions; (2) the time course of the CM compensation index remains stable during the first 400 ms after the movement onset, decreasing late in the movement and increasing again at the end of the stabilization stage. A modelisation suggests that the time course is the result of the interaction of two controls: a first one, putative feedforward, starting early and decreasing with time and a second one, putative feedback, starting late in the movement and increasing with time; (3) both early and late index values are influenced by the support and load conditions, the highest index values being observed during unipedal stance and load conditions; (4) activation of quadratus lomborum (QL) contralateral to the raising arm is time locked with the

  19. Numerical analysis of energy piles under different boundary conditions and thermal loading cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khosravi Ali

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The thermo- mechanical behavior of energy piles has been studied extensively in recent years. In the present study, a numerical model was adapted to study the effect of various parameters (e.g. heating/cooling temperature, head loading condition and soil stiffness on the thermo-mechanical behavior of an energy pile installed in unsaturated sandstone. The results from the simulations were compared with measurements from a thermal response test on a prototype energy pile installed beneath a 1-story building at the US Air Force Academy (USAFA in Colorado Springs, CO. A good agreement was achieved between the results obtained from the prototype and the numerical models. A parametric evaluation were also carried out which indicated the significance of the stiffness of the unsaturated sandstone and pile’s head loading condition on stress-strain response of the energy pile during heating/cooling cycles.

  20. Biofiltration of xylene using wood charcoal as the biofilter media under transient and high loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Kiran; Giri, B S; Sahi, Amrita; Geed, S R; Kureel, M K; Singh, Sanjay; Dubey, S K; Rai, B N; Kumar, Surendra; Upadhyay, S N; Singh, R S

    2017-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of wood charcoal as biofilter media under transient and high loading condition. Biofiltration of xylene was investigated for 150days in a laboratory scale unit packed with wood charcoal and inoculated with mixed microbial culture at the xylene loading rates ranged from 12 to 553gm(-3)h(-1). The kinetic analysis of the xylene revealed absence of substrate inhibition and possibility of achieving higher elimination under optimum condition. The pH, temperature, pressure drop and CO2 production rate were regularly monitored during the experiments. Throughout experimental period, the removal efficiency (RE) was found to be in the range of 65-98.7% and the maximum elimination capacity (EC) was 405.7gm(-3)h(-1). Molecular characterization results show Bacillus sp. as dominating microbial group in the biofilm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Condition Assessment and End-of-Life Prediction System for Electric Machines and Their Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parlos, Alexander G.; Toliyat, Hamid A.

    2005-01-01

    An end-of-life prediction system developed for electric machines and their loads could be used in integrated vehicle health monitoring at NASA and in other government agencies. This system will provide on-line, real-time condition assessment and end-of-life prediction of electric machines (e.g., motors, generators) and/or their loads of mechanically coupled machinery (e.g., pumps, fans, compressors, turbines, conveyor belts, magnetic levitation trains, and others). In long-duration space flight, the ability to predict the lifetime of machinery could spell the difference between mission success or failure. Therefore, the system described here may be of inestimable value to the U.S. space program. The system will provide continuous monitoring for on-line condition assessment and end-of-life prediction as opposed to the current off-line diagnoses.

  2. Mechanical Properties of a Unidirectional Basalt-Fiber-Reinforced Plastic Under a Loading Simulating Operation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobanov, D. S.; Slovikov, S. V.

    2017-01-01

    The results of experimental investigations of unidirectional composites based on basalt fibers and different marks of epoxy resins are presented. Uniaxial tensile tests were carried out using a specimen fixation technique simulating the operation conditions of structures. The mechanical properties of the basalt-fiber-reinforced plastics (BFRPs) were determined. The diagrams of loading and deformation of BFRP specimens were obtain. The formulations of the composites with the highest mechanical properties were revealed.

  3. A Network Approach to Fracture: The Effect of Heterogeneity and Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuschlé, T.

    Fracture in a heterogeneous solid is simulated on a triangular network of bonds which figure the potential cracks of the medium. Heterogeneity is introduced by assuming a statistical strength distribution for the bonds. External stresses are applied to the network and the evolution of the bond population is analyzed when the stresses are increased. Bond-breaking is controlled by the crack-exten sion force which takes into account crack interactions by using an iterative procedure. Crack propaga tion leads to the coalescence of broken bonds crack clusters are formed. By using this kind of approach which combines fracture mechanics and network modelling, we are able to simulate the rupture of a rock specimen under various loading conditions without heavy computation. We discuss physical properties of the rupture process by examining the rupture stress and the geometric properties of the macroscopic fracture and their dependence on loading conditions and heterogeneity. Analysis of the geometric characteristics shows that the number of broken bonds can be fitted by a power law of the lattice size, the exponent depending on the loading conditions. Furthermore, an approximate computation of the mechanical response of the network demonstrates that the threshold secant modulus may be a more legitimate choice for a damage parameter in terms of system size independence.

  4. On Peak Mooring Loads and the Influence of Environmental Conditions for Marine Energy Converters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violette Harnois

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Mooring systems are among the most critical sub-systems for floating marine energy converters (MEC. In particular, the occurrence of peak mooring loads on MEC mooring systems must be carefully evaluated in order to ensure a robust and efficient mooring design. This understanding can be gained through long-term field test measurement campaigns, providing mooring and environmental data for a wide range of conditions. This paper draws on mooring tensions and environmental conditions that have been recorded (1 for several months during the demonstration of an MEC device and (2 over a period of 18 months at a mooring test facility. Both systems were installed in a shallow water depth (45 m and 30 m, respectively using compliant multi-leg catenary mooring systems. A methodology has been developed to detect peak mooring loads and to relate them to the associated sea states for further investigation. Results indicate that peak mooring loads did not occur for the sea states on the external contour line of the measured sea states, but for the sea states inside the scatter diagram. This result is attributed to the short-term variability associated with the maximum mooring load for the given sea state parameters. During the identified sea states, MEC devices may not be in survival mode, and thus, the power take-off (PTO and ancillary systems may be prone to damage. In addition, repeated high peak loads will significantly contribute to mooring line fatigue. Consequently, considering sea states inside the scatter diagram during the MEC mooring design potentially yields a more cost-effective mooring system. As such, the presented methodology contributes to the continuous development of specific MEC mooring systems.

  5. Performance Analysis of Doubly Fed Induction Generator Based Wind turbine under Faulty and RLC Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rekha Parashar

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the performance of Doubly Fed Induction Generator based wind turbine system during different types of grid fault. The doubly fed induction generator (DFIG based wind turbine (WT system provides better power delivery towards the demand. The design and response of the DFIG based wind turbine system during different fault conditions, various load conditions and integrated system consisting of DFIG based WT system have been verified using MATLAB/ Simulink. The simulation results are shown with the model of DFIG based wind energy generation system.

  6. A surface crack in shells under mixed-mode loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, P. F.; Erdogan, F.

    1988-01-01

    The present consideration of a shallow shell's surface crack under general loading conditions notes that while the mode I state can be separated, modes II and III remain coupled. A line spring model is developed to formulate the part-through crack problem under mixed-mode conditions, and then to consider a shallow shell of arbitrary curvature having a part-through crack located on the outer or the inner surface of the shell; Reissner's transverse shear theory is used to formulate the problem under the assumption that the shell is subjected to all five moment and stress resultants.

  7. Monotone operators and "bigger conjugate" functions

    CERN Document Server

    Bauschke, Heinz H; Wang, Xianfu; Yao, Liangjin

    2011-01-01

    We study a question posed by Stephen Simons in his 2008 monograph involving "bigger conjugate" (BC) functions and the partial infimal convolution. As Simons demonstrated in his monograph, these function have been crucial to the understanding and advancement of the state-of-the-art of harder problems in monotone operator theory, especially the sum problem. In this paper, we provide some tools for further analysis of BC--functions which allow us to answer Simons' problem in the negative. We are also able to refute a similar but much harder conjecture which would have generalized a classical result of Br\\'ezis, Crandall and Pazy. Our work also reinforces the importance of understanding unbounded skew linear relations to construct monotone operators with unexpected properties.

  8. Convex functions, monotone operators and differentiability

    CERN Document Server

    Phelps, Robert R

    1993-01-01

    The improved and expanded second edition contains expositions of some major results which have been obtained in the years since the 1st edition. Theaffirmative answer by Preiss of the decades old question of whether a Banachspace with an equivalent Gateaux differentiable norm is a weak Asplund space. The startlingly simple proof by Simons of Rockafellar's fundamental maximal monotonicity theorem for subdifferentials of convex functions. The exciting new version of the useful Borwein-Preiss smooth variational principle due to Godefroy, Deville and Zizler. The material is accessible to students who have had a course in Functional Analysis; indeed, the first edition has been used in numerous graduate seminars. Starting with convex functions on the line, it leads to interconnected topics in convexity, differentiability and subdifferentiability of convex functions in Banach spaces, generic continuity of monotone operators, geometry of Banach spaces and the Radon-Nikodym property, convex analysis, variational princ...

  9. Complexity of Non-Monotonic Logics

    CERN Document Server

    Thomas, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Over the past few decades, non-monotonic reasoning has developed to be one of the most important topics in computational logic and artificial intelligence. Different ways to introduce non-monotonic aspects to classical logic have been considered, e.g., extension with default rules, extension with modal belief operators, or modification of the semantics. In this survey we consider a logical formalism from each of the above possibilities, namely Reiter's default logic, Moore's autoepistemic logic and McCarthy's circumscription. Additionally, we consider abduction, where one is not interested in inferences from a given knowledge base but in computing possible explanations for an observation with respect to a given knowledge base. Complexity results for different reasoning tasks for propositional variants of these logics have been studied already in the nineties. In recent years, however, a renewed interest in complexity issues can be observed. One current focal approach is to consider parameterized problems and ...

  10. Linear Inviscid Damping for Monotone Shear Flows

    CERN Document Server

    Zillinger, Christian

    2014-01-01

    In this article we prove linear stability, inviscid damping and scattering of the 2D Euler equations around regular, strictly monotone shear flows $(U(y),0)$ in a periodic channel under Sobolev perturbations. We treat the settings of an infinite channel, $\\mathbb{T} \\times \\mathbb{R}$, as well as a finite channel, $\\mathbb{T} \\times [0,1]$, with impermeable boundary. We first prove inviscid damping with optimal algebraic rates for strictly monotone shear flows under the assumption of controlling the regularity of the scattered vorticity. Subsequently, we establish linear stability of the scattering equation in Sobolev spaces under perturbations which are of not too large wave-length with respect to $x$, depending on $U''$.

  11. Improved selection in totally monotone arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansour, Y. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aiken Computation Lab.); Park, J.K. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Schieber, B. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Sen, S. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States))

    1991-01-01

    This paper's main result is an O(({radical}{bar m}lgm)(n lg n) + mlg n)-time algorithm for computing the kth smallest entry in each row of an m {times} n totally monotone array. (A two-dimensional A = a(i,j) is totally monotone if for all i{sub 1} < i{sub 2} and j{sub 1} < j{sup 2}, < a(i{sub 1},j{sub 2}) implies a(i{sub 2},j{sub 1})). For large values of k (in particular, for k=(n/2)), this algorithm is significantly faster than the O(k(m+n))-time algorithm for the same problem due to Kravets and Park. An immediate consequence of this result is an O(n{sup 3/2} lg{sup 2}n)-time algorithm for computing the kth nearest neighbor of each vertex of a convex n-gon. In addition to the main result, we also give an O(n lg m)-time algorithm for computing an approximate median in each row of an m {times} n totally monotone array; this approximate median is an entry whose rank in its row lies between (n/4) and (3n/4) {minus} 1. 20 refs., 3 figs.

  12. Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows

    CERN Document Server

    Chan, Ho-Leung; Lee, Lap-Kei; Pan, Jiangwei; Ting, Hing-Fung; Zhang, Qin

    2011-01-01

    Given a stream of items each associated with a numerical value, its edit distance to monotonicity is the minimum number of items to remove so that the remaining items are non-decreasing with respect to the numerical value. The space complexity of estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the $w$ most recent items in the stream for any $w \\ge 1$. We give a deterministic algorithm which can return an estimate within a factor of $(4+\\eps)$ using $O(\\frac{1}{\\eps^2} \\log^2(\\eps w))$ space. We also extend the study in two directions. First, we consider a stream where each item is associated with a value from a partial ordered set. We give a randomized $(4+\\epsilon)$-approximate algorithm using $O(\\frac{1}{\\epsilon^2} \\log \\epsilon^2 w \\log w)$ space. Second, we consider an out-of-order strea...

  13. Effects of Solar Loading and Other Environmental Conditions on Thermographic Imaging of Subsurface Defects in Concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Washer, G. A.; Fenwick, R. G.; Bolleni, N.; Harper, J.

    2009-03-01

    The detection of subsurface defects in concrete using infrared cameras relies on thermal variations in the ambient environment to provide heat flow. Solar loading can provide significant thermal energy that enables the imaging of subsurface defects. This paper presents results of a study to determine the optimum environmental conditions for conducting thermal inspection of concrete bridges. This study has included continuous monitoring of a large concrete specimen under ambient environmental condition in central Missouri. The thermal contrast of subsurface targets in the specimen has been analyzed to determine the optimum conditions and time for detection of subsurface features as a function of depth. Environmental conditions that result in the largest contrast in surface temperature are discussed.

  14. Monotonicity Formula and Regularity for General Free Discontinuity Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucur, Dorin; Luckhaus, Stephan

    2014-02-01

    We give a general monotonicity formula for local minimizers of free discontinuity problems which have a critical deviation from minimality, of order d - 1. This result allows us to prove partial regularity results (that is closure and density estimates for the jump set) for a large class of free discontinuity problems involving general energies associated to the jump set, as for example free boundary problems with Robin conditions. In particular, we give a short proof to the De Giorgi-Carriero-Leaci result for the Mumford-Shah functional.

  15. Stability of generalized monotonicity with respect to their characterizations

    CERN Document Server

    An, P T

    2002-01-01

    We show that known types of generalized monotone maps are not stable with respect to their characterizations (i.e., the characterizations are not maintained during an arbitrary map of this type is disturbed by an element with sufficiently small norm) then introduce s-quasimonotone maps, which are stable with respect to their characterization. For gradient maps, s-quasimonotonicity is related to s-quasiconvexity of the underlying function. A necessary and sufficient condition for a univariate polynomial to be s-quasimonotone is given. Furthermore, some stability properties of a-quasiconvex functions are presented.

  16. A time-frequency analysis approach for condition monitoring of a wind turbine gearbox under varying load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoniadou, I.; Manson, G.; Staszewski, W. J.; Barszcz, T.; Worden, K.

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the condition monitoring of wind turbine gearboxes under varying operating conditions. Generally, gearbox systems include nonlinearities so a simplified nonlinear gear model is developed, on which the time-frequency analysis method proposed is first applied for the easiest understanding of the challenges faced. The effect of varying loads is examined in the simulations and later on in real wind turbine gearbox experimental data. The Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) method is used to decompose the vibration signals into meaningful signal components associated with specific frequency bands of the signal. The mode mixing problem of the EMD is examined in the simulation part and the results in that part of the paper suggest that further research might be of interest in condition monitoring terms. For the amplitude-frequency demodulation of the signal components produced, the Hilbert Transform (HT) is used as a standard method. In addition, the Teager-Kaiser energy operator (TKEO), combined with an energy separation algorithm, is a recent alternative method, the performance of which is tested in the paper too. The results show that the TKEO approach is a promising alternative to the HT, since it can improve the estimation of the instantaneous spectral characteristics of the vibration data under certain conditions.

  17. Hippocampal NMDA receptors are involved in rats' spontaneous object recognition only under high memory load condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugita, Manami; Yamada, Kazuo; Iguchi, Natsumi; Ichitani, Yukio

    2015-10-22

    The possible involvement of hippocampal N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in spontaneous object recognition was investigated in rats under different memory load conditions. We first estimated rats' object memory span using 3-5 objects in "Different Objects Task (DOT)" in order to confirm the highest memory load condition in object recognition memory. Rats were allowed to explore a field in which 3 (3-DOT), 4 (4-DOT), or 5 (5-DOT) different objects were presented. After a delay period, they were placed again in the same field in which one of the sample objects was replaced by another object, and their object exploration behavior was analyzed. Rats could differentiate the novel object from the familiar ones in 3-DOT and 4-DOT but not in 5-DOT, suggesting that rats' object memory span was about 4. Then, we examined the effects of hippocampal AP5 infusion on performance in both 2-DOT (2 different objects were used) and 4-DOT. The drug treatment before the sample phase impaired performance only in 4-DOT. These results suggest that hippocampal NMDA receptors play a critical role in spontaneous object recognition only when the memory load is high.

  18. Transient pressure measurements at part load operating condition of a high head model Francis turbine

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    RAHUL GOYAL; CHIRAG TRIVEDI; B K GANDHI; MICHEL J CERVANTES; OLE G DAHLHAUG

    2016-11-01

    Hydraulic turbines are operating at part load conditions depending on availability of hydraulic energy or to meet the grid requirements. The turbine experiences more fatigue during the part load operating conditions due to flow phenomena such as vortex breakdown in the draft tube and flow instability in the runner.The present paper focuses on the investigation of a high head model Francis turbine operating at 50% load.Pressure measurements have been carried out experimentally on a model Francis turbine. Total six pressure sensors were mounted inside the turbine and other two pressure sensors were mounted at the turbine inlet pipe. It is observed that the turbine experiences significant pressure fluctuations at the vaneless space and the runner.Moreover, a standing wave is observed between the pressure tank outlet and the turbine inlet. Analysis of the data acquired by the pressure sensors mounted in the draft tube showed the presence of vortex breakdown corotating with the runner. The detailed analysis showed the rotating and plunging components of the vortex breakdown. The influence of the rotating component was observed in the entire hydraulic circuit includingdistributor and turbine inlet but not the plunging one.

  19. TALSPEAK EXTRACTION SYSTEM UNDER VARIABLE LOADING CONDITIONS - PART 2: SPECIATION STUDIES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Troy A.; Bryan, Samuel A.; Levitskaia, Tatiana G.

    2011-10-03

    The reported investigation was performed to gain structural information on the organic phase complex species in the Trivalent Actinide-Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorus reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) process under various loading conditions. In conjunction with the distribution studies of the TALSPEAK system constituents, presented in Part 1 of this investigation, loaded bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid (HDEHP)/isooctane was evaluated using various spectroscopic techniques including NMR, FTIR and visible absorbance spectroscopy. Liquid-liquid distribution and vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) aggregation results correlate with observed changes in the spectroscopic signatures as a function of organic phase loading and water partitioning. Explicit FTIR spectral interpretation of the HDEHP spectra is complex due to overlapping phosphorus absorbance bands, and in this work a combination of the spectroscopic techniques was utilized to elucidate the phosphorus-lanthanide complex structure and changes in speciation due to aggregation. The results from this research will benefit an overall improved prediction of the TALSPEAK process performance under flow conditions.

  20. Force Outputs during Squats Performed Using a Rotational Inertia Device under Stable versus Unstable Conditions with Different Loads.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo Vázquez-Guerrero

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to compare the force outputs achieved during a squat exercise using a rotational inertia device in stable versus unstable conditions with different loads and in concentric and eccentric phases. Thirteen male athletes (mean ± SD: age 23.7 ± 3.0 years, height 1.80 ± 0.08 m, body mass 77.4 ± 7.9 kg were assessed while squatting, performing one set of three repetitions with four different loads under stable and unstable conditions at maximum concentric effort. Overall, there were no significant differences between the stable and unstable conditions at each of the loads for any of the dependent variables. Mean force showed significant differences between some of the loads in stable and unstable conditions (P < 0.010 and peak force output differed between all loads for each condition (P < 0.045. Mean force outputs were greater in the concentric than in the eccentric phase under both conditions and with all loads (P < 0.001. There were no significant differences in peak force between concentric and eccentric phases at any load in either stable or unstable conditions. In conclusion, squatting with a rotational inertia device allowed the generation of similar force outputs under stable and unstable conditions at each of the four loads. The study also provides empirical evidence of the different force outputs achieved by adjusting load conditions on the rotational inertia device when performing squats, especially in the case of peak force. Concentric force outputs were significantly higher than eccentric outputs, except for peak force under both conditions. These findings support the use of the rotational inertia device to train the squatting exercise under unstable conditions for strength and conditioning trainers. The device could also be included in injury prevention programs for muscle lesions and ankle and knee joint injuries.

  1. Weak monotonicity inequality and partial regularity for harmonic maps

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈尧天; 严树森

    1999-01-01

    The notion of locally weak monotonicity inequality for weakly harmonic maps is introduced and various results on this class of maps are obtained. For example, the locally weak monotonicity inequality is nearly equivalent to the ε-regularity.

  2. Hard-on-hard lubrication in the artificial hip under dynamic loading conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Sonntag

    Full Text Available The tribological performance of an artificial hip joint has a particularly strong influence on its success. The principle causes for failure are adverse short- and long-term reactions to wear debris and high frictional torque in the case of poor lubrication that may cause loosening of the implant. Therefore, using experimental and theoretical approaches models have been developed to evaluate lubrication under standardized conditions. A steady-state numerical model has been extended with dynamic experimental data for hard-on-hard bearings used in total hip replacements to verify the tribological relevance of the ISO 14242-1 gait cycle in comparison to experimental data from the Orthoload database and instrumented gait analysis for three additional loading conditions: normal walking, climbing stairs and descending stairs. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing partners show superior lubrication potential compared to hard-on-hard bearings that work with at least one articulating metal component. Lubrication regimes during the investigated activities are shown to strongly depend on the kinematics and loading conditions. The outcome from the ISO gait is not fully confirmed by the normal walking data and more challenging conditions show evidence of inferior lubrication. These findings may help to explain the differences between the in vitro predictions using the ISO gait cycle and the clinical outcome of some hard-on-hard bearings, e.g., using metal-on-metal.

  3. Hard-on-hard lubrication in the artificial hip under dynamic loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonntag, Robert; Reinders, Jörn; Rieger, Johannes S; Heitzmann, Daniel W W; Kretzer, J Philippe

    2013-01-01

    The tribological performance of an artificial hip joint has a particularly strong influence on its success. The principle causes for failure are adverse short- and long-term reactions to wear debris and high frictional torque in the case of poor lubrication that may cause loosening of the implant. Therefore, using experimental and theoretical approaches models have been developed to evaluate lubrication under standardized conditions. A steady-state numerical model has been extended with dynamic experimental data for hard-on-hard bearings used in total hip replacements to verify the tribological relevance of the ISO 14242-1 gait cycle in comparison to experimental data from the Orthoload database and instrumented gait analysis for three additional loading conditions: normal walking, climbing stairs and descending stairs. Ceramic-on-ceramic bearing partners show superior lubrication potential compared to hard-on-hard bearings that work with at least one articulating metal component. Lubrication regimes during the investigated activities are shown to strongly depend on the kinematics and loading conditions. The outcome from the ISO gait is not fully confirmed by the normal walking data and more challenging conditions show evidence of inferior lubrication. These findings may help to explain the differences between the in vitro predictions using the ISO gait cycle and the clinical outcome of some hard-on-hard bearings, e.g., using metal-on-metal.

  4. An Investigation to Resolve the Interaction Between Fuel Cell, Power Conditioning System and Application Loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudip K. Mazumder

    2005-12-31

    Development of high-performance and durable solidoxide fuel cells (SOFCs) and a SOFC power-generating system requires knowledge of the feedback effects from the power-conditioning electronics and from application-electrical-power circuits that may pass through or excite the power-electronics subsystem (PES). Therefore, it is important to develop analytical models and methodologies, which can be used to investigate and mitigate the effects of the electrical feedbacks from the PES and the application loads (ALs) on the reliability and performance of SOFC systems for stationary and non-stationary applications. However, any such attempt to resolve the electrical impacts of the PES on the SOFC would be incomplete unless one utilizes a comprehensive analysis, which takes into account the interactions of SOFC, PES, balance-of-plant system (BOPS), and ALs as a whole. SOFCs respond quickly to changes in load and exhibit high part- and full-load efficiencies due to its rapid electrochemistry, which is not true for the thermal and mechanical time constants of the BOPS, where load-following time constants are, typically, several orders of magnitude higher. This dichotomy can affect the lifetime and durability of the SOFCSs and limit the applicability of SOFC systems for load-varying stationary and transportation applications. Furthermore, without validated analytical models and investigative design and optimization methodologies, realizations of cost-effective, reliable, and optimal PESs (and power-management controls), in particular, and SOFC systems, in general, are difficult. On the whole, the research effort can lead to (a) cost-constrained optimal PES design for high-performance SOFCS and high energy efficiency and power density, (b) effective SOFC power-system design, analyses, and optimization, and (c) controllers and modulation schemes for mitigation of electrical impacts and wider-stability margin and enhanced system efficiency.

  5. Effect of Ni Loading and Reaction Conditions on Partial Oxidation of Methane to Syngas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haitao Wang; Zhenhua Li; Shuxun Tian

    2003-01-01

    The partial oxidation of methane to synthesis gas is studied in this paper over Ni/Al2O3 catalysts under atmospheric pressure. The effects of Ni loading on the activity and stability of catalysts with 5 mm α-Al2O3 and θ-Al2O3 pellets as supports were measured in a continuous fixed bed reactor. It is found that the optimum Ni loading is 10%. And the effect of reaction conditions on partial oxidation of methane is also studied. The methane conversion and CO selectivity increase with the increase of the reaction temperature and the space velocity on 10%Ni/α-Al2O3 catalysts. The best CH4/O2 mole ratio is 2 for CO selectivity, and the optimum space velocity is 5.4×105 h-1.

  6. Pt-loaded zeolites for reducing exhaust gas emissions at low temperatures and in lean conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huuhtanen, Mika; Keiski, Riitta L. [University of Oulu, Department of Process and Environmental Engineering, P.O. Box 4300, FIN-90014 Oulu (Finland); Rahkamaa-Tolonen, Katariina; Maunula, Teuvo [ECOCAT Oy, Catalyst Research, Typpitie 1, FIN-90650 Oulu (Finland)

    2005-02-28

    In this study, pure and platinum-loaded zeolites, ZSM-5, Beta, zeolite Y and Ferrierite, were examined for the reduction of NO with propene in lean conditions and at low temperatures. The studies were carried out by utilising the FT-IR technique both in determination of surface species as well as concentrations in the gas flow at reactor outlet. The maximum in the intermediate formation can be observed at the light-off temperatures over all studied catalyst materials. The maximum conversions of NO were reached with 1wt% Pt-loaded Beta and Y zeolites in excess oxygen. The lowest light-off temperatures of NO as well as propene can be detected also with Beta and Y zeolite catalysts.

  7. Analytical assessment for stress corrosion fatigue of CANDU fuel elements under load following conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horhoianu, Grigore; Ionescu, Drags; Pauna, Eduard [Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti (Romania). Nuclear Fuel Engineering Lab.

    2012-03-15

    When nuclear power reactors are operated in a load following (LF) mode, the nuclear fuel may be subjected to step changes in power on weekly, daily, or even hourly basis, depending on the grid's needs. Two load following tests performed in TRIGA Research Reactor of Institute for Nuclear Research (INR) Pitesti were simulated with finite elements computer codes in order to evaluate Stress Corrosion Fatigue (SCF) of the sheath arising from expansion and contraction of the pellets in the corrosive environment. The 3D finite element analyses show that the cyclic strains give highly multiaxial stresses in the sheath at ridge region. This paper summarizes the results of the analytical assessment for SCF and their relation to CANDU fuel performance in LF tests conditions. (orig.)

  8. Influence of tool shape on lattice rearrangement under loading conditions reproducing friction stir welding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konovalenko, Ivan S.; Konovalenko, Igor S.

    2015-10-01

    Metal behavior under loading conditions that reproduce friction stir welding was studied on the atomic scale. Calculations were conducted based on molecular dynamics simulation with potentials calculated within the embedded atom method. The loading of the interface between two crystallites, whose structure corresponded to aluminum alloy 2024, was simulated by the motion of a cone-shaped tool along the interface with constant angular and translational velocities. The motion of the rotating tool causes fracture of the workpiece crystal structure with subsequent mixing of surface atoms of the interfacing crystallites. It is shown that the resistance force acting on the moving tool from the workpiece and the process of structural defect formation in the workpiece depend on the tool shape.

  9. Influence of tool shape on lattice rearrangement under loading conditions reproducing friction stir welding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konovalenko, Ivan S., E-mail: ivkon@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); Konovalenko, Igor S., E-mail: igkon@ispms.tsc.ru [Institute of Strength Physics and Materials Science SB RAS, Tomsk, 634055 (Russian Federation); National Research Tomsk Polytechnic University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    Metal behavior under loading conditions that reproduce friction stir welding was studied on the atomic scale. Calculations were conducted based on molecular dynamics simulation with potentials calculated within the embedded atom method. The loading of the interface between two crystallites, whose structure corresponded to aluminum alloy 2024, was simulated by the motion of a cone-shaped tool along the interface with constant angular and translational velocities. The motion of the rotating tool causes fracture of the workpiece crystal structure with subsequent mixing of surface atoms of the interfacing crystallites. It is shown that the resistance force acting on the moving tool from the workpiece and the process of structural defect formation in the workpiece depend on the tool shape.

  10. Wear Behavior of Uncoated and Coated Tools under Complex Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Wieland

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In automotive industry crash relevant structures of the body in white are manufactured using the direct hot stamping process. Due to the high temperature difference between the hot blank and the cold tool surfaces and the relative movement between the blank and the tool surfaces during the forming operation, high thermal and mechanical loads are applied on the tool leading to excessive wear in terms of adhesion on the tool surfaces. One possibility to reduce wear of hot stamping tools is the application of tool coating systems. In the scope of this work uncoated and coated tools are characterized under complex loading conditions with respect to adhesive layer build-up.

  11. Hub vortex instability within wind turbine wakes: Effects of wind turbulence, loading conditions, and blade aerodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashton, Ryan; Viola, Francesco; Camarri, Simone; Gallaire, Francois; Iungo, Giacomo Valerio

    2016-11-01

    The near wake of wind turbines is characterized by the presence of the hub vortex, which is a coherent vorticity structure generated from the interaction between the root vortices and the boundary layer evolving over the turbine nacelle. By moving downstream, the hub vortex undergoes an instability with growth rate, azimuthal and axial wavenumbers determined by the characteristics of the incoming wind and turbine aerodynamics. Thus, a large variability of the hub vortex instability is expected for wind energy applications with consequent effects on wake downstream evolution, wake interactions within a wind farm, power production, and fatigue loads on turbines invested by wakes generated upstream. In order to predict characteristics of the hub vortex instability for different operating conditions, linear stability analysis is carried out by considering different statistics of the incoming wind turbulence, thrust coefficient, tip speed ratio, and blade lift distribution of a wind turbine. Axial and azimuthal wake velocity fields are modeled through Carton-McWilliams velocity profiles by mimicking the presence of the hub vortex, helicoidal tip vortices, and matching the wind turbine thrust coefficient predicted through the actuator disk model. The linear stability analysis shows that hub vortex instability is strongly affected by the wind turbine loading conditions, and specifically it is promoted by a larger thrust coefficient. A higher load of the wind turbines produces an enhanced axial velocity deficit and, in turn, higher shear in the radial direction of the streamwise velocity. The axial velocity shear within the turbine wake is also the main physical mechanism promoting the hub vortex instability when varying the lift distribution over the blade span for a specific loading condition. Cases with a larger velocity deficit in proximity of the wake center and less aerodynamic load towards the blade tip result to be more unstable. Moreover, wake swirl promotes hub

  12. A-monotonicity and applications to nonlinear variational inclusion problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ram U. Verma

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available A new notion of the A-monotonicity is introduced, which generalizes the H-monotonicity. Since the A-monotonicity originates from hemivariational inequalities, and hemivariational inequalities are connected with nonconvex energy functions, it turns out to be a useful tool proving the existence of solutions of nonconvex constrained problems as well.

  13. On the strong monotonicity of the CABARET scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapenko, V. V.

    2012-03-01

    The strong monotonicity of the CABARET scheme with single flux correction is analyzed as applied to the linear advection equation. It is shown that the scheme is strongly monotone (has the NED property) at Courant numbers r ∈ (0,0,5), for which it is monotone. Test computations illustrating this property of the CABARET scheme are presented.

  14. Testing Manifest Monotonicity Using Order-Constrained Statistical Inference

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tijmstra, Jesper; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas

    2013-01-01

    Most dichotomous item response models share the assumption of latent monotonicity, which states that the probability of a positive response to an item is a nondecreasing function of a latent variable intended to be measured. Latent monotonicity cannot be evaluated directly, but it implies manifest monotonicity across a variety of observed scores,…

  15. General method allowing the use of 100% aqueous loading conditions in reversed-phase liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettersson, Sylvia Winkel; Persson, Börje S; Nyström, Mats

    2004-04-15

    Reversed-phase HPLC purification of peptides, using n-alkyl modified spherical silica, has become a widely used technique within the pharmaceutical industry. One drawback of these materials is the necessity of having at least 5% organic modifier in the mobile phase, in order to avoid de-wetting of the porous stationary phase. For some preparative reversed-phase separations, it is an advantage if the feed solution can be loaded onto the column under 100% aqueous conditions. This study describes the use of post-column pressure control to avoid de-wetting of regular reversed-phase stationary phases when operated under 100% aqueous conditions. The applicability of post-column pressure control as a means of maintaining the column fully wetted is demonstrated with various buffers and with packing materials having different alkyl-chain lengths. Two peptides, insulin and oxytocin, in overloaded quantities, were loaded under 100% aqueous conditions onto a regular C8 column, and then eluted by a acetonitrile gradient following standard procedures. The retention volume and the peak shape showed that the separation was satisfactory, and proved that post-column pressure control can be used to overcome wettability problems, which are otherwise often observed for reversed-phase packing materials with high ligand density.

  16. A piezoelectric actuator-driven loading device for mechanical condition during bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, C. Q.; Wu, H.; Dong, X.

    2008-10-01

    Bone cells live in an environment heavily influenced by mechanical forces. The researches of bone cell responses in hard scaffolds under differently mechanical conditions will be greatly beneficial to elucidating the mechanisms of bone mechanotransduction as well as applications of mechanical condition in bone tissue engineering. However, the appropriate device for the experiments is prerequisite. A loading device suitable to hard scaffold for study on mechanical responses of bone cells was made by usage of a kind of long-travel, high-load piezoelectric actuator. The device, which is so small enough to work in a standard incubator, can cause hard scaffolds with directly uniaxial compressive strains with more magnitudes, frequency components, and waveforms, including bone physiologically mechanical state, precisely controlled by a computer. The device achieves precise mechanical conditions by testing verification. The device may produce a model that will be suitable for investigating the influences of mechanical responses on bone cells in 3D hard scaffolds in vitro matching that in cancellous bone in vivo and may be applied during bone tissue engineering culture.

  17. Performance of biotrickling filters for hydrogen sulfide removal under starvation and shock loads conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lan-he ZHANG; Xiu-li MENG; Ying WANG; Li-dan LIU

    2009-01-01

    In the industrial operation of biotrickling filters for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) removal, shock loads or starvation was common due to process variations or equipment malfunctions. In this study, effects of starvation and shock loads on the performance of biotrickling filters for H2S removal were investigated. Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the changes of biomass and viable bacteria numbers in the biotrickling filters during a 24-d starvation. Compared to biomass, viable bacteria numbers decreased significantly during the starvation, especially when airflow was maintained in the absence of spray liquid. During the subsequent re-acclimation, all the bioreactors could resume high removal efficiencies within 4 d regardless of the previous starvation conditions. The results show that the re-acclimation time, in the case of biotrickling filters for H2S removal, is mainly controlled by viable H2S oxidizing bacteria numbers. On the other hand, the biotrickling filters can protect against shock loads in inlet fluctuating H2S concentration after resuming normal operation. When the biotrickling filters were supplied with H2S at an input of lower than 1700 mg/m3, their removal efficiencies were nearly 98% regardless of previous H2S input.

  18. Analysis of the Impact of Urban Microclimate on Air Conditioning Load Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hu Xiaoqing

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the presence of urban heat island effect (UHIE, high humidity and other urban microclimate, temperature of city central area rises. This causes that the actual air-conditioning energy consumption (ACEC in the urban central area is much higher than that in the suburbs. Load control of air-conditioners (ACs is considered to be equivalent to a power plant of the same capacity, and it can greatly reduce the system pressure to peak load shift. In this paper, a simplified second order transfer function control model of ACs is presented, and its parameters will be influenced by the ambient temperature and urban microclimate. The temperature is obtained by using the temperature inversion algorithm of the heat island effect. Then, the heat index is calculated by combining temperature and humidity. The ambient temperature index of urban central area is modified based on the above microclimate, and the second order linear time invariant model of aggregated ACs is upgraded to the linear time varying model. Furthermore, the consequent parameter changes of the second order transfer function model are studied and the influence of urban microclimate on AC load control is analyzed. The proposed method is verified on numerical examples

  19. Numerical Simulation and Validation of a High Head Model Francis Turbine at Part Load Operating Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyal, Rahul; Trivedi, Chirag; Kumar Gandhi, Bhupendra; Cervantes, Michel J.

    2017-07-01

    Hydraulic turbines are operated over an extended operating range to meet the real time electricity demand. Turbines operated at part load have flow parameters not matching the designed ones. This results in unstable flow conditions in the runner and draft tube developing low frequency and high amplitude pressure pulsations. The unsteady pressure pulsations affect the dynamic stability of the turbine and cause additional fatigue. The work presented in this paper discusses the flow field investigation of a high head model Francis turbine at part load: 50% of the rated load. Numerical simulation of the complete turbine has been performed. Unsteady pressure pulsations in the vaneless space, runner, and draft tube are investigated and validated with available experimental data. Detailed analysis of the rotor stator interaction and draft tube flow field are performed and discussed. The analysis shows the presence of a rotating vortex rope in the draft tube at the frequency of 0.3 times of the runner rotational frequency. The frequency of the vortex rope precession, which causes severe fluctuations and vibrations in the draft tube, is predicted within 3.9% of the experimental measured value. The vortex rope results pressure pulsations propagating in the system whose frequency is also perceive in the runner and upstream the runner.

  20. The effects of posterior cruciate ligament deficiency on posterolateral corner structures under gait- and squat-loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K-T.; Koh, Y-G.; Jung, M.; Nam, J-H.; Son, J.; Lee, Y.H.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives The aim of the current study was to analyse the effects of posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) deficiency on forces of the posterolateral corner structure and on tibiofemoral (TF) and patellofemoral (PF) contact force under dynamic-loading conditions. Methods A subject-specific knee model was validated using a passive flexion experiment, electromyography data, muscle activation, and previous experimental studies. The simulation was performed on the musculoskeletal models with and without PCL deficiency using a novel force-dependent kinematics method under gait- and squat-loading conditions, followed by probabilistic analysis for material uncertain to be considered. Results Comparison of predicted passive flexion, posterior drawer kinematics and muscle activation with experimental measurements showed good agreement. Forces of the posterolateral corner structure, and TF and PF contact forces increased with PCL deficiency under gait- and squat-loading conditions. The rate of increase in PF contact force was the greatest during the squat-loading condition. The TF contact forces increased on both medial and lateral compartments during gait-loading conditions. However, during the squat-loading condition, the medial TF contact force tended to increase, while the lateral TF contact forces decreased. The posterolateral corner structure, which showed the greatest increase in force with deficiency of PCL under both gait- and squat-loading conditions, was the popliteus tendon (PT). Conclusion PCL deficiency is a factor affecting the variability of force on the PT in dynamic-loading conditions, and it could lead to degeneration of the PF joint. Cite this article: K-T. Kang, Y-G. Koh, M. Jung, J-H. Nam, J. Son, Y.H. Lee, S-J. Kim, S-H. Kim. The effects of posterior cruciate ligament deficiency on posterolateral corner structures under gait- and squat-loading conditions: A computational knee model. Bone Joint Res 2017;6:31–42. DOI: 10.1302/2046-3758.61.BJR-2016-0184.R1

  1. Wehrl entropy, Lieb conjecture and entanglement monotones

    CERN Document Server

    Mintert, F; Mintert, Florian; Zyczkowski, Karol

    2004-01-01

    We propose to quantify the entanglement of pure states of $N \\times N$ bipartite quantum system by defining its Husimi distribution with respect to $SU(N)\\times SU(N)$ coherent states. The Wehrl entropy is minimal if and only if the pure state analyzed is separable. The excess of the Wehrl entropy is shown to be equal to the subentropy of the mixed state obtained by partial trace of the bipartite pure state. This quantity, as well as the generalized (R{\\'e}nyi) subentropies, are proved to be Schur--convex, so they are entanglement monotones and may be used as alternative measures of entanglement.

  2. Effects of tractor loads and tyre pressures on soil compaction in Tunisia under different moisture conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khemis, Chiheb; Abrougui, Khaoula; Ren, Lidong; Mutuku, Eunice Ann; Chehaibi, Sayed; Cornelis, Wim

    2017-04-01

    Vegetables in Tunisia demand frequent tractor traffic for soil tillage, cultural operations and phytosanitary treatment, resulting in soil compaction. This study evaluates the effects of four levels of compaction by using different loads and tyre pressures of tractors, i.e., load 1 (C1) = 1460 kg, load 2 (C2) = 3100 kg, tyre pressure 1 (C3) = 800 kg cm-2, tyre pressure 2 (C4) = 1500 kg cm-2 on the hydraulic and physical properties of a sandy loam (10% clay, 20% silt, 68% sand) under three natural moisture conditions H0, H1 (15 days later), H2 (30 days later). At H0 average water content between 0 and 30 cm depth varied from 0.04 to 0.06 kg kg-1, at H1 between 0.13 and 0.07 kg kg-1, and at H2 between 0.10 and 0.09 kg kg-1. Each test run was limited to one pass. Undisturbed soil cores were collected in the topsoil (0-10 cm), at 10-20 cm and in the subsoil (20-30 cm) below the trace of the wheel at sites in the Higher Institute of Agronomy of Chott Mariam, Sousse, Tunisia. Soil compaction level was determined by penetration resistance using a penetrologger. Porosity, bulk density and permeability were then determined to evaluate the impact of the four load/tyre pressure combinations at the three moisture conditions on soil compaction. Prior to the experiment (C0), bulk density was 1.4 Mg m-3. After the tractor pass, the highest degree of compaction was observed with tractor load C2 and tyre pressure C4 which significantly changed soil bulk density resulting in values of up to 1.71 Mg m-3 in the topsoil and compacted subsoil under H2, which is significantly above the critical value of 1.6 Mg m-3 for soils with clay content below 17.5%. The high degree of compaction significantly affected penetration resistance and porosity of both topsoil and subsoil layers accordingly. Permeability was significantly reduced as a result of the induced compaction. The results demonstrate that different degrees of soil compaction under different moisture levels could greatly influence

  3. RESEARCH INFLUENCE OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS ON THE MOVE OF CFA PILE UNDER STATIC LOADS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eschenko O. Y.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The article discusses the influence of boundary conditions on the numerical results of displacement CFA piles under static loads. Comparative evaluation of the results of calculation of single movements of CFA piles to the extent of the computational domain, the number of grid points, FEM convergence criterion calculation has been presented. The recommendations on the appointment of the size of the computational domain in the vertical and horizontal direction, the number of grid points, FEM numerical value and choice to apply the criteria of convergence have been listed. On the example of calculating the movements of a single CFA piles we have chosen the parameters of the numerical model, eliminating the influence of boundary conditions on the results of the calculation

  4. Constructing An Event Based Aerosol Product Under High Aerosol Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, R. C.; Shi, Y.; Mattoo, S.; Remer, L. A.; Zhang, J.

    2016-12-01

    High aerosol loading events, such as the Indonesia's forest fire in Fall 2015 or the persistent wintertime haze near Beijing, gain tremendous interests due to their large impact on regional visibility and air quality. Understanding the optical properties of these events and further being able to simulate and predict these events are beneficial. However, it is a great challenge to consistently identify and then retrieve aerosol optical depth (AOD) from passive sensors during heavy aerosol events. Some reasons include:1). large differences between optical properties of high-loading aerosols and those under normal conditions, 2) spectral signals of optically thick aerosols can be mistaken with surface depending on aerosol types, and 3) Extremely optically thick aerosol plumes can also be misidentified as clouds due to its high optical thickness. Thus, even under clear-sky conditions, the global distribution of extreme aerosol events is not well captured in datasets such as the MODIS Dark-Target (DT) aerosol product. In this study, with the synthetic use of OMI Aerosol Index, MODIS cloud product, and operational DT product, the heavy smoke events over the seven sea region are identified and retrieved over the dry season. An event based aerosol product that would compensate the standard "global" aerosol retrieval will be created and evaluated. The impact of missing high AOD retrievals on the regional aerosol climatology will be studied using this newly developed research product.

  5. ULTIMATE LOAD-BEARING CAPACITY OF CYLINDER DERIVED FROM AUTOFRETTAGE UNDER IDEAL CONDITION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ruilin

    2008-01-01

    According to the basic theory on autofrettage and according to the 4th strength theory, several parameters and their relations are studied under ideal condition, including σej/σy, the equivalent stress of total stresses at elastoplastic juncture; σei/σy, the equivalent stress of total stresses at inside surface; σej′/σy, the equivalent stress of residual stresses at elastoplastic juncture; σei′/σy, the equivalent stress of residual stresses at inside surface; and p/σy, load-bearing capaciσy of an autofrettaged σylinder. σy theoretical stuσy on relations between the parameters, noticeable results and laws are achieved: to satisσy |σei′|=σy, the relation between kj and k is, k2lnkj2-k2-kj2+2=0, when k→∞, 1.648 72, as based on the 3rd strength theoσy, where k is the outside/inside radius ratio of a σylinder, kj is the ratio of elastoplastic juncture radius to inside radius of a σylinder; If the plastic region covers the whole wall of a σylinder, for compressiveσyield not to occur after removing autofrettage pressure, the ultimate k is k=2.218 46 as based on the 3rd strength theoσy; With k=2.218 46, a σylinder's ultimate load-bearing capaciσy equals its entireσyield pressure, or p/σy=2lnk/; The maximum and optimum load-bearing capaciσy of an autofrettaged σylinder is just 2 times the loading which an unautofrettaged σylinder can bear elasticalσy, or p/σy=2(k2-1)/k2, and the limit of the load-bearing capaciσy of an autofrettaged σylinder is also just 2 times that of an unautofrettaged σylinder. The conclusions are the same as based on the 3rd strength theoσy, but some equations are different from each other.

  6. Pore Water Pressure Response of a Soil Subjected to Traffic Loading under Saturated and Unsaturated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cary, Carlos

    This study presents the results of one of the first attempts to characterize the pore water pressure response of soils subjected to traffic loading under saturated and unsaturated conditions. It is widely known that pore water pressure develops within the soil pores as a response to external stimulus. Also, it has been recognized that the development of pores water pressure contributes to the degradation of the resilient modulus of unbound materials. In the last decades several efforts have been directed to model the effect of air and water pore pressures upon resilient modulus. However, none of them consider dynamic variations in pressures but rather are based on equilibrium values corresponding to initial conditions. The measurement of this response is challenging especially in soils under unsaturated conditions. Models are needed not only to overcome testing limitations but also to understand the dynamic behavior of internal pore pressures that under critical conditions may even lead to failure. A testing program was conducted to characterize the pore water pressure response of a low plasticity fine clayey sand subjected to dynamic loading. The bulk stress, initial matric suction and dwelling time parameters were controlled and their effects were analyzed. The results were used to attempt models capable of predicting the accumulated excess pore pressure at any given time during the traffic loading and unloading phases. Important findings regarding the influence of the controlled variables challenge common beliefs. The accumulated excess pore water pressure was found to be higher for unsaturated soil specimens than for saturated soil specimens. The maximum pore water pressure always increased when the high bulk stress level was applied. Higher dwelling time was found to decelerate the accumulation of pore water pressure. In addition, it was found that the higher the dwelling time, the lower the maximum pore water pressure. It was concluded that upon further

  7. Performance of various types of containment support under quasi-static and dynamic loading conditions, Part I.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kuijpers, JS

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available of various tunnel support systems and components under dynamic loading conditions. Deficiencies in the performance of wire mesh were highlighted in the investigations conducted for this project. Investigations were limited to support systems consisting...

  8. Testing monotonicity of a hazard: asymptotic distribution theory

    CERN Document Server

    Groeneboom, Piet

    2011-01-01

    Two new test statistics are introduced to test the null hypotheses that the sampling distribution has an increasing hazard rate on a specified interval [0,a]. These statistics are empirical L_1-type distances between the isotonic estimates, which use the monotonicity constraint, and either the empirical distribution function or the empirical cumulative hazard. They measure the excursions of the empirical estimates with respect to the isotonic estimates, due to local non-monotonicity. Asymptotic normality of the test statistics, if the hazard is strictly increasing on [0,a], is established under mild conditions. This is done by first approximating the global empirical distance by an distance with respect to the underlying distribution function. The resulting integral is treated as sum of increasingly many local integrals to which a CLT can be applied. The behavior of the local integrals is determined by a canonical process: the difference between the stochastic process x -> W(x)+x^2 where W is standard two-sid...

  9. Physical properties, chemical composition, and cloud forming potential of particulate emissions from a marine diesel engine at various load conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, A; Weingartner, E; Hasselbach, J; Lauer, P; Kurok, C; Fleischer, F

    2010-05-15

    Particulate matter (PM) emissions from one serial 4-stroke medium-speed marine diesel engine were measured for load conditions from 10% to 110% in test rig studies using heavy fuel oil (HFO). Testing the engine across its entire load range permitted the scaling of exhaust PM properties with load. Emission factors for particle number, particle mass, and chemical compounds were determined. The potential of particles to form cloud droplets (cloud condensation nuclei, CCN) was calculated from chemical composition and particle size. Number emission factors are (3.43 +/- 1.26) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 85-110% load and (1.06 +/- 0.10) x 10(16) (kg fuel)(-1) at 10% load. CCN emission factors of 1-6 x 10(14) (kg fuel)(-1) are at the lower bound of data reported in the literature. From combined thermal and optical methods, black carbon (BC) emission factors of 40-60 mg/(kg fuel) were determined for 85-100% load and 370 mg/(kg fuel) for 10% load. The engine load dependence of the conversion efficiency for fuel sulfur into sulfate of (1.08 +/- 0.15)% at engine idle to (3.85 +/- 0.41)% at cruise may serve as input to global emission calculations for various load conditions.

  10. Simulation of the transient processes of load rejection under different accident conditions in a hydroelectric generating set

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, W. C.; Yang, J. D.; Chen, J. P.; Peng, Z. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, C. C.

    2016-11-01

    Load rejection test is one of the essential tests that carried out before the hydroelectric generating set is put into operation formally. The test aims at inspecting the rationality of the design of the water diversion and power generation system of hydropower station, reliability of the equipment of generating set and the dynamic characteristics of hydroturbine governing system. Proceeding from different accident conditions of hydroelectric generating set, this paper presents the transient processes of load rejection corresponding to different accident conditions, and elaborates the characteristics of different types of load rejection. Then the numerical simulation method of different types of load rejection is established. An engineering project is calculated to verify the validity of the method. Finally, based on the numerical simulation results, the relationship among the different types of load rejection and their functions on the design of hydropower station and the operation of load rejection test are pointed out. The results indicate that: The load rejection caused by the accident within the hydroelectric generating set is realized by emergency distributing valve, and it is the basis of the optimization for the closing law of guide vane and the calculation of regulation and guarantee. The load rejection caused by the accident outside the hydroelectric generating set is realized by the governor. It is the most efficient measure to inspect the dynamic characteristics of hydro-turbine governing system, and its closure rate of guide vane set in the governor depends on the optimization result in the former type load rejection.

  11. Strong convergence theorems for maximal monotone mappings in Banach spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zegeye, Habtu

    2008-07-01

    Let E be a uniformly convex and 2-uniformly smooth real Banach space with dual E*. Let be a Lipschitz continuous monotone mapping with A-1(0)[not equal to][empty set]. For given u,x1[set membership, variant]E, let {xn} be generated by the algorithm xn+1:=[beta]nu+(1-[beta]n)(xn-[alpha]nAJxn), n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1, where J is the normalized duality mapping from E into E* and {[lambda]n} and {[theta]n} are real sequences in (0,1) satisfying certain conditions. Then it is proved that, under some mild conditions, {xn} converges strongly to x*[set membership, variant]E where Jx*[set membership, variant]A-1(0). Finally, we apply our convergence theorems to the convex minimization problems.

  12. Ice thermal storage air conditioning system for electric load leveling; Denryoku heijunka to hyochikunetsu system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigenaga, Y. [Daikin Industries Ltd., Osaka (Japan)

    1998-08-15

    Thermal storage air conditioning system is the one to use energy stored into thermal storing materials by using night electric power and to operate effective air conditioning. Therefore, as load can be treated by the stored energy, volume of the apparatus can be reduced. And, by reduction of the consumed power at day time, it can contribute to leveling of electric power demand. In general, there are two types in the thermal storage method: one is a method to store as thermal energy, and the other is that to store as chemical energy. For conditions required for the storing materials, important elements on their actual uses are not only physical properties such as large thermal storage per unit and easy thermal in- and out-puts, but also safety, long-term reliability, and easy receiving and economics containing future. The ice thermal storage air conditioning system is classified at the viewpoint of type of ice, kind of thermal storing medium, melting method on using cooling and heating, kinds of thermal medium on cooling and heating. 3 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  13. Loading rate increases during barefoot running in habitually shod runners: Individual responses to an unfamiliar condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Nicholas; Astephen Wilson, Janie L; Coetzee, Devon R; van Pletsen, Leanri; Tucker, Ross

    2016-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of barefoot running on initial loading rate (LR), lower extremity joint kinematics and kinetics, and neuromuscular control in habitually shod runners with an emphasis on the individual response to this unfamiliar condition. Kinematics and ground reaction force data were collected from 51 habitually shod runners during overground running in a barefoot and shod condition. Joint kinetics and stiffness were calculated with inverse dynamics. Inter-individual initial LR variability was explored by separating individuals by a barefoot/shod ratio to determine acute responders/non-responders. Mean initial LR was 54.1% greater in the barefoot when compared to the shod condition. Differences between acute responders/non-responders were found at peak and initial contact sagittal ankle angle and at initial ground contact. Correlations were found between barefoot sagittal ankle angle at initial ground contact and barefoot initial LR. A large variability in biomechanical responses to an acute exposure to barefoot running was found. A large intra-individual variability was found in initial LR but not ankle plantar-dorsiflexion between footwear conditions. A majority of habitually shod runners do not exhibit previously reported benefits in terms of reduced initial LRs when barefoot. Lastly, runners who increased LR when barefoot reduced LRs when wearing shoes to levels similar seen in habitually barefoot runners who do adopt a forefoot-landing pattern, despite increased dorsiflexion.

  14. Structural Performance of a Hybrid FRP-Aluminum Modular Triangular Truss System Subjected to Various Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongdong Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel hybrid FRP-aluminum truss system has been employed in a two-rut modular bridge superstructure composed of twin inverted triangular trusses. The actual flexural behavior of a one-rut truss has been previously investigated under the on-axis loading test; however, the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to an off-axis load is still not fully understood. In this paper, a geometrical linear finite element model is introduced and validated by the on-axis loading test; the structural performance of the one-rut truss subjected to off-axis load was numerically obtained; the dissimilarities of the structural performance between the two different loading cases are investigated in detail. The results indicated that (1 the structural behavior of the off-axis load differs from that of the on-axis load, and the off-axis load is the critical loading condition controlling the structural performance of the triangular truss; (2 under the off-axis load, the FRP trussed members and connectors bear certain out-of-plane bending moments and are subjected to a complicated stress state; and (3 the stress state of these members does not match that of the initial design, and optimization for the redesign of these members is needed, especially for the pretightened teeth connectors.

  15. Reciprocating sliding wear behavior of alendronate sodium-loaded UHMWPE under different tribological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jie; Qu, Shuxin; Wang, Jing; Yang, Dan; Duan, Ke; Weng, Jie

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the tribological behaviors and wear mechanisms of ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) loaded with alendronate sodium (ALN), a potential drug to treat osteolysis, under different normal loads and lubrication conditions. A mixture of UHMWPE powder and ALN (1.0 wt.%) solution was dried and hot pressed. The static and dynamic friction coefficients of UHMWPE-ALN were slightly higher than those of UHMWPE except under normal load as 10 N and in 25 v/v % calf serum. The specific wear rates of UHMWPE-ALN and UHMWPE were the lowest in 25 v/v % calf serum compared to those in deionized water or physiological saline. In particular, the specific wear rate of UHMWPE-ALN was lower than that of UHMWPE at 50 N in 25 v/v % calf serum. The main wear mechanisms of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-ALN in deionized water and UHMWPE in physiological saline were abrasive. The main wear mechanism of UHMWPE-ALN in physiological saline was micro-fatigue. In 25 v/v % calf serum, the main wear mechanism of UHMWPE and UHMWPE-ALN was abrasive wear accompanied with plastic deformation. The results of Micro-XRD indicated that the molecular deformation of UHMWPE-ALN and UHMWPE under the lower stress were in the amorphous region but in the crystalline region at the higher stress. These results showed that the wear of UHMWPE-ALN would be reduced under calf serum lubricated, which would be potentially applied to treat osteolysis.

  16. A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL OF IN VIVO MOUSE TIBIAL COMPRESSION LOADING: INFLUENCE OF BOUNDARY CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hajar Razi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Though bone is known to adapt to its mechanical challenges, the relationship between the local mechanical stimuli and the adaptive tissue response seems so far unclear. A major challenge appears to be a proper characterization of the local mechanical stimuli of the bones (e.g. strains. The finite element modeling is a powerful tool to characterize these mechanical stimuli not only on the bone surface but across the tissue. However, generating a predictive finite element model of biological tissue strains (e.g., physiological-like loading encounters aspects that are inevitably unclear or vague and thus might significantly influence the predicted findings. We aimed at investigating the influence of variations in bone alignment, joint contact surfaces and displacement constraints on the predicted strains in an in vivo mouse tibial compression experiment. We found that the general strain state within the mouse tibia under compressive loading was not affected by these uncertain factors. However, strain magnitudes at various tibial regions were highly influenced by specific modeling assumptions. The displacement constraints to control the joint contact sites appeared to be the most influential factor on the predicted strains in the mouse tibia. Strains could vary up to 150% by modifying the displacement constraints. To a lesser degree, bone misalignment (from 0 to 20° also resulted in a change of strain (+300 µε = 40%. The definition of joint contact surfaces could lead to up to 6% variation. Our findings demonstrate the relevance of the specific boundary conditions in the in vivo mouse tibia loading experiment for the prediction of local mechanical strain values using finite element modeling.

  17. Bifurcation boundary conditions for current programmed PWM DC-DC converters at light loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chung-Chieh

    2012-10-01

    Three types of bifurcations (instabilities) in the PWM DC-DC converter at light loading under current mode control in continuous-conduction mode (CCM) or discontinuous-conduction mode (DCM) are analysed: saddle-node bifurcation (SNB) in CCM or DCM, border-collision bifurcation during the CCM-DCM transition, and period-doubling bifurcation in CCM. Different bifurcations occur in some particular loading ranges. Bifurcation boundary conditions separating stable regions from unstable regions in the parametric space are derived. A new methodology to analyse the SNB in the buck converter based on the peak inductor current is proposed. The same methodology is applied to analyse the other types of bifurcations and converters. In the buck converter, multiple stable/unstable CCM/DCM steady-state solutions may coexist. Possibility of multiple solutions deserves careful study, because an ignored solution may merge with a desired stable solution and make both disappear. Understanding of SNB can explain some sudden disappearances or jumps of steady-state solutions observed in switching converters.

  18. Attrition of limestones by impact loading in fluidized beds: The influence of reaction conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scala, Fabrizio [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Napoli (Italy); Salatino, Piero [Istituto di Ricerche sulla Combustione, Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche, Napoli (Italy); Dipartimento di Ingegneria Chimica, Universita degli Studi di Napoli Federico II, Napoli (Italy)

    2010-09-15

    The extent of attrition associated with impact loading was studied for five different limestones pre-processed in fluidized bed under different reaction conditions. The experimental procedure was based on the measurement of the amount and the particle size distribution of the debris generated upon impact of sorbent samples against a target at velocities between 10 and 45 m/s. The effect of calcination, sulfation and calcination/re-carbonation on impact damage was assessed. Fragmentation by impact loading of the limestones was significant and increased with the impact velocity. Lime samples displayed the largest propensity to undergo impact damage, followed by sulfated, re-carbonated and raw limestones. Fragmentation of the sulfated samples followed a pattern typical of the failure of brittle materials. On the other hand, the behaviour of lime samples better conformed to a disintegration failure mode, with extensive generation of very fine fragments. Raw limestone and re-carbonated lime samples followed either of the two patterns depending on the sorbent nature. The extent of particle fragmentation increased after multiple impacts, but the incremental amount of fragments generated upon one impact decreased with the number of successive impacts. (author)

  19. Time Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at a Wind Tunnel Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, Bil; Streett, Craig L; Glass, Christopher E.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    Using the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics code, an unsteady, time-accurate flow field about a Space Launch System configuration was simulated at a transonic wind tunnel condition (Mach = 0.9). Delayed detached eddy simulation combined with Reynolds Averaged Naiver-Stokes and a Spallart-Almaras turbulence model were employed for the simulation. Second order accurate time evolution scheme was used to simulate the flow field, with a minimum of 0.2 seconds of simulated time to as much as 1.4 seconds. Data was collected at 480 pressure taps at locations, 139 of which matched a 3% wind tunnel model, tested in the Transonic Dynamic Tunnel (TDT) facility at NASA Langley Research Center. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed agreement within 5% in terms of location for peak RMS levels, and 20% for frequency and magnitude of power spectral densities. Grid resolution and time step sensitivity studies were performed to identify methods for improved accuracy comparisons to wind tunnel data. With limited computational resources, accurate trends for reduced vibratory loads on the vehicle were observed. Exploratory methods such as determining minimized computed errors based on CFL number and sub-iterations, as well as evaluating frequency content of the unsteady pressures and evaluation of oscillatory shock structures were used in this study to enhance computational efficiency and solution accuracy. These techniques enabled development of a set of best practices, for the evaluation of future flight vehicle designs in terms of vibratory loads.

  20. Convex functions, monotone operators and differentiability

    CERN Document Server

    Phelps, Robert R

    1989-01-01

    These notes start with an introduction to the differentiability of convex functions on Banach spaces, leading to the study of Asplund spaces and their intriguing relationship to monotone operators (and more general set-values maps) and Banach spaces with the Radon-Nikodym property. While much of this is classical, some of it is presented using streamlined proofs which were not available until recently. Considerable attention is paid to contemporary results on variational principles and perturbed optimization in Banach spaces, exhibiting their close connections with Asplund spaces. An introductory course in functional analysis is adequate background for reading these notes which can serve as the basis for a seminar of a one-term graduate course. There are numerous excercises, many of which form an integral part of the exposition.

  1. Transmission path phase compensation for gear monitoring under fluctuating load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stander, C. J.; Heyns, P. S.

    2006-10-01

    Vibration can be monitored under fluctuating load conditions if provision is made for taking into account the fluctuation in machine speed, the response amplitude modulation caused by the change in input force, and the amplitude and phase effects on the measured response from the transmission path. Methodologies have been developed to compensate for the effects of fluctuating speed and amplitude modulation. However, this article investigates the effect of the transmission path phase. This is discussed in terms of the effect this phase has on synchronous averaging. A new approach is presented to resolve the influence that the transmission path phase has on synchronous averaging. The approach is used for the experimental data measured on a helical gear test rig. A significant improvement in the rate of convergence was obtained by adopting the new approach which compensates for the phase shifting in the measured structural response. This contrasts with conventional synchronous averaging with order tracking which does not compensate for structural response phase shifting.

  2. Reference-free fatigue crack detection using nonlinear ultrasonic modulation under various temperature and loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Hyung Jin; Sohn, Hoon; DeSimio, Martin P.; Brown, Kevin

    2014-04-01

    This study presents a reference-free fatigue crack detection technique using nonlinear ultrasonic modulation. When low frequency (LF) and high frequency (HF) inputs generated by two surface-mounted lead zirconate titanate (PZT) transducers are applied to a structure, the presence of a fatigue crack can provide a mechanism for nonlinear ultrasonic modulation and create spectral sidebands around the frequency of the HF signal. The crack-induced spectral sidebands are isolated using a combination of linear response subtraction (LRS), synchronous demodulation (SD) and continuous wavelet transform (CWT) filtering. Then, a sequential outlier analysis is performed on the extracted sidebands to identify the crack presence without referring any baseline data obtained from the intact condition of the structure. Finally, the robustness of the proposed technique is demonstrated using actual test data obtained from simple aluminum plate and complex aircraft fitting-lug specimens under varying temperature and loading variations.

  3. Power and loads for wind turbines in yawed conditions. Analysis of field measurements and aerodynamic predictions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boorsma, K. [ECN Wind Energy, Petten (Netherlands)

    2012-11-15

    A description is given of the work carried out within the framework of the FLOW (Far and Large Offshore Wind) project on single turbine performance in yawed flow conditions. Hereto both field measurements as well as calculations with an aerodynamic code are analyzed. The rotors of horizontal axis wind turbines follow the changes in the wind direction for optimal performance. The reason is that the power is expected to decrease for badly oriented rotors. So, insight in the effects of the yaw angle on performance is important for optimization of the yaw control of each individual turbine. The effect of misalignment on performance and loads of a single 2.5 MW wind turbine during normal operation is investigated. Hereto measurements at the ECN Wind Turbine Test Site Wieringermeer (EWTW) are analyzed from December 2004 until April 2009. Also, the influence of yaw is studied using a design code and results from this design code are compared with wind tunnel measurements.

  4. Prediction of pressure fluctuation of a hydraulic turbine at no-load condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, T. J.; Wu, X. J.; Liu, J. T.; Wu, Y. L.

    2015-01-01

    In order to study characteristics of pressure fluctuation of a turbine during the starting period, a turbine with guide vanes device at no-load condition was investigated using RNG k-epsilon turbulence model. The inner flow distribution and pressure fluctuation characteristics were analyzed. Results show that the pressure fluctuations in the region between the runner and guide vanes are different around the runner inlet. The dominant frequency of pressure fluctuation in the vaneless space close to the casing outlet is the blade passing frequency, while the dominant frequency at the rest region is the twice of the blade passing frequency. The increase of amplitude of pressure fluctuation close to the casing outlet can be attribute to the large scale stall at suction side of the runner inlet.

  5. Physiological responses related to moderate mental load during car driving in field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiberg, Henrik; Nilsson, Emma; Lindén, Per; Svanberg, Bo; Poom, Leo

    2015-05-01

    We measured physiological variables on nine car drivers to capture moderate magnitudes of mental load (ML) during driving in prolonged and repeated city and highway field conditions. Ecological validity was optimized by avoiding any artificial interference to manipulate drivers ML, drivers were alone in the car, they were free to choose their paths to the target, and the repeated drives familiarized drivers to the procedure. Our aim was to investigate if driver's physiological variables can be reliably measured and used as predictors of moderate individual levels of ML in naturally occurring unpredictably changing field conditions. Variables investigated were: heart-rate, skin conductance level, breath duration, blink frequency, blink duration, and eye fixation related potentials. After the drives, with support from video uptakes, a self-rating and a score made by external raters were used to distinguish moderately high and low ML segments. Variability was high but aggregated data could distinguish city from highway drives. Multivariate models could successfully classify high and low ML within highway and city drives using physiological variables as input. In summary, physiological variables have a potential to be used as indicators of moderate ML in unpredictably changing field conditions and to advance the evaluation and development of new active safety systems. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Gearbox Deterioration Detection under Steady State, Variable Load, and Variable Speed Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHAO Yimin; CHRIS K Mechcfske; OU Jiafu; HU Yumei

    2009-01-01

    Multiple dominant gear meshing frequencies are present in the vibration signals collected from gearboxes and the conventional spiky features that represent initial gear fault conditions are usually difficult to detect. In order to solve this problem, we propose a new gearbox deterioration detection technique based on autoregressive modeling and hypothesis testing in this paper. A stationary autoregressive model was built by using a normal vibration signal from each shaft. The established autoregressive model was then applied to process fault signals from each shaft of a two-stage gearbox. What this paper investigated is a combined technique which unites a time-varying autoregressive model and a two sample Kolmogorov-Smirnov goodness-of-fit test, to detect the deterioration of gearing system with simultaneously variable shaft speed and variable load. The time-varying autoregressive model residuals representing both healthy and faulty gear conditions were compared with the original healthy time-synchronons average signals. Compared with the traditional kurtosis statistic, this technique for gearbox deterioration detection has shown significant advantages in highlighting the presence of incipient gear fault in all different speed shafts involved in the meshing motion under variable conditions.

  7. Nonlinear dynamic analysis of a rotor-bearing-seal system under two loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hui; Li, Hui; Niu, Heqiang; Song, Rongze; Wen, Bangchun

    2013-11-01

    The operating speed of the rotating machinery often exceeds the second or even higher order critical speeds to pursue higher efficiency. Thus, how to restrain the higher order mode instability caused by the nonlinear oil-film force and seal force at high speed as far as possible has become more and more important. In this study, a lumped mass model of a rotor-bearing-seal system considering the gyroscopic effect is established. The graphite self-lubricating bearing and the sliding bearing are simulated by a spring-damping model and a nonlinear oil-film force model based on the assumption of short bearings, respectively. The seal is simulated by Muszynska nonlinear seal force model. Effects of the seal force and oil-film force on the first and second mode instabilities are investigated under two loading conditions which are determined by API Standard 617 (Axial and Centrifugal Compressors and Expander-compressors for Petroleum, Chemical and Gas Industry Services, Seventh Edition). The research focuses on the effects of exciting force forms and their magnitudes on the first and second mode whips in a rotor-bearing-seal system by using the spectrum cascades, vibration waveforms, orbits and Poincaré maps. The first and second mode instability laws are compared by including and excluding the seal effect in a rotor system with single-diameter shaft and two same discs. Meanwhile, the instability laws are also verified in a rotor system with multi-diameter shaft and two different discs. The results show that the second loading condition (out-of-phase unbalances of two discs) and the nonlinear seal force can mainly restrain the first mode instability and have slight effects on the second mode instability. This study may contribute to a further understanding about the higher order mode instability of such a rotor system with fluid-induced forces from the oil-film bearings and seals.

  8. Pressure measurements and high speed visualizations of the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition in a Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, K.; Müller, A.; Favrel, A.; Landry, C.; Avellan, F.

    2014-03-01

    In a hydraulic power plant, it is essential to provide a reliable, sustainable and flexible energy supply. In recent years, in order to cover the variations of the renewable electricity production, hydraulic power plants are demanded to operate with more extended operating range. Under these off-design conditions, a hydraulic turbine is subject to cavitating swirl flow at the runner outlet. It is well-known that the helically/symmetrically shaped cavitation develops at the runner outlet in part load/full load condition, and it gives severe damage to the hydraulic systems under certain conditions. Although there have been many studies about partial and full load conditions, contributions reporting the deep part load condition are limited, and the cavitation behaviour at this condition is not yet understood. This study aims to unveil the cavitation phenomena at deep part load condition by high speed visualizations focusing on the draft tube cone as well as the runner blade channel, and pressure fluctuations associated with the phenomena were also investigated.

  9. Strength and elastic properties of sandstone under different testing conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yun-ping; WANG Si-jing; WANG En-zhi

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory experimental program performed on Wuhan sandstones was presented under monotonic loading, partial cyclic loading during loading path and sine wave cyclic loading with different strain rates to compare uniaxial compression strength and elastic properties (elastic modulus and Poisson ratio) under different conditions and influence of pore fluid on them. When the loading strain rates are 10-5, 10-4 and 10-3/s, uniaxial compression strengths of dry sandstones are 82.3, 126.6 and 141.6 MPa,respectively, and that of water saturated sandstones are 70.5, 108.3 and 124.1 MPa, respectively. The above results show that the uniaxial compression strength increases with the increase of strain rate, however, variation of softening coefficient is insignificant.Under monotonic loading condition, tangent modulus increases with an increment of stress (strain) to a maximum value at a certain stress level, beyond which it starts to decline. Under the partial cyclic loading during loading path condition, unloading or reloading modulus is larger than loading modulus, and unloading and reloading moduli are almost constants with respect to stress level,especially unloading modulus. Under the sine wave cyclic loading condition, tangent modulus and Poisson ratio display asymmetric 'X' shape with various strain, and the average unloading modulus is larger than the average loading modulus.

  10. Loading and Boundary Condition Influences in a Poroelastic Finite Element Model of Cartilage Stresses in a Triaxial Compression Bioreactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kallemeyn, Nicole A; Grosland, Nicole M; Pedersen, Doug R; Martin, James A; Brown, Thomas D

    2006-01-01

    Background: We developed a poroelastic finite element (FE) model of cartilage in dynamic triaxial compression to parametrically analyze the effects of loading and boundary conditions on a baseline model. Conventional mechanical tests on articular cartilage such as confined and unconfined compression, indentation, etc., do not fully allow for modulation of compression and shear at physiological levels whereas triaxial compression does. A Triaxial Compression Bioreactor, or TRIAX, has been developed to study chondrocyte responses to multi-axial stress conditions under cyclic loading. In the triaxial setting, however, a cartilage explant's physical testing environment departs from the ideal homogeneous stress state that would occur from strict linear superposition of the applied axial and transverse pressure. Method of Approach: An axisymmetric poroelastic FE model of a cartilage explant (4 mm diameter, 1.5 mm thick) in cyclic triaxial compression was created. Axial and transverse loads (2 MPa at 1 Hz.) were applied via a platen and containment sheath. Parameters of interest included the rise time and magnitude of the applied load, in addition to the containment sheath modulus and the friction coefficient at the cartilage/platen interfaces. Metrics of interest in addition to whole explant axial strain included axial (surface normal) stress, shear stress, pore pressure, and the fluid load carriage fraction within the explant. Results: Strain results were compared to experimental data from explants tested in the TRIAX under conditions similar to the baseline model. Explant biomechanics varied considerably over numbers of load cycles and parameter values. Cyclic loading caused an increase in accumulated strain for the various loading and boundary conditions. Conclusions: Unlike what would be expected from linear superposition of the homogeneous stresses from the applied axial and transverse pressure, we have shown that the stress state within the TRIAX is considerably

  11. Stability of dynamical systems on the role of monotonic and non-monotonic Lyapunov functions

    CERN Document Server

    Michel, Anthony N; Liu, Derong

    2015-01-01

    The second edition of this textbook provides a single source for the analysis of system models represented by continuous-time and discrete-time, finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional, and continuous and discontinuous dynamical systems.  For these system models, it presents results which comprise the classical Lyapunov stability theory involving monotonic Lyapunov functions, as well as corresponding contemporary stability results involving non-monotonicLyapunov functions.Specific examples from several diverse areas are given to demonstrate the applicability of the developed theory to many important classes of systems, including digital control systems, nonlinear regulator systems, pulse-width-modulated feedback control systems, and artificial neural networks.   The authors cover the following four general topics:   -          Representation and modeling of dynamical systems of the types described above -          Presentation of Lyapunov and Lagrange stability theory for dynamical sy...

  12. Contribution of loading conditions and material properties to stress shielding near the tibial component of total knee replacements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Au, Anthony G; James Raso, V; Liggins, A B; Amirfazli, A

    2007-01-01

    This communication reports important preliminary results of a parametric analysis into the stress shielding effects of loading conditions and material properties of a total knee replacement (TKR) prosthesis. A previously developed finite element (FE) model of the proximal tibia that incorporated orthotropic and heterogeneous bone properties was used. Tibiofemoral joint compression and soft tissue (ligament and muscle) forces were also included to better represent the loading condition in the tibia. Stress shielding effects were studied for a prosthesis similar to a commercially available model. Results from the model show that the hypothesis of relatively higher Young's modulus of implant compared to bone as the primary cause of stress shielding is not sufficiently descriptive. Loading conditions as a result of altered bone or implant condylar surface geometry, load placement on the condylar surface, and load pattern created by the TKR are at least as important or, in some cases, more important factors in observed stress shielding immediately post-operation. This finding can be used to focus new implant design on altered loading conditions as well as material selection.

  13. MINLIP for the Identification of Monotone Wiener Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Pelckmans, Kristiaan

    2010-01-01

    This paper studies the MINLIP estimator for the identification of Wiener systems consisting of a sequence of a linear FIR dynamical model, and a monotonically increasing (or decreasing) static function. Given $T$ observations, this algorithm boils down to solving a convex quadratic program with $O(T)$ variables and inequality constraints, implementing an inference technique which is based entirely on model complexity control. The resulting estimates of the linear submodel are found to be almost consistent when no noise is present in the data, under a condition of smoothness of the true nonlinearity and local Persistency of Excitation (local PE) of the data. This result is novel as it does not rely on classical tools as a 'linearization' using a Taylor decomposition, nor exploits stochastic properties of the data. It is indicated how to extend the method to cope with noisy data, and empirical evidence contrasts performance of the estimator against other recently proposed techniques.

  14. Effects of Fusion Zone Size and Failure Mode on Peak Load and Energy Absorption of Advanced High Strength Steel Spot Welds under Lap Shear Loading Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xin; Stephens, Elizabeth V.; Khaleel, Mohammad A.

    2008-06-01

    This paper examines the effects of fusion zone size on failure modes, static strength and energy absorption of resistance spot welds (RSW) of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) under lap shear loading condition. DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds are considered. The main failure modes for spot welds are nugget pullout and interfacial fracture. Partial interfacial fracture is also observed. Static weld strength tests using lap shear samples were performed on the joint populations with various fusion zone sizes. The resulted peak load and energy absorption levels associated with each failure mode were studied for all the weld populations using statistical data analysis tools. The results in this study show that AHSS spot welds with conventionally required fusion zone size of can not produce nugget pullout mode for both the DP800 and TRIP800 welds under lap shear loading. Moreover, failure mode has strong influence on weld peak load and energy absorption for all the DP800 welds and the TRIP800 small welds: welds failed in pullout mode have statistically higher strength and energy absorption than those failed in interfacial fracture mode. For TRIP800 welds above the critical fusion zone level, the influence of weld failure modes on peak load and energy absorption diminishes. Scatter plots of peak load and energy absorption versus weld fusion zone size were then constructed, and the results indicate that fusion zone size is the most critical factor in weld quality in terms of peak load and energy absorption for both DP800 and TRIP800 spot welds.

  15. Contributions of the Stochastic Shape Wake Model to Predictions of Aerodynamic Loads and Power under Single Wake Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doubrawa, P.; Barthelmie, R. J.; Wang, H.; Churchfield, M. J.

    2016-09-01

    The contribution of wake meandering and shape asymmetry to load and power estimates is quantified by comparing aeroelastic simulations initialized with different inflow conditions: an axisymmetric base wake, an unsteady stochastic shape wake, and a large-eddy simulation with rotating actuator-line turbine representation. Time series of blade-root and tower base bending moments are analyzed. We find that meandering has a large contribution to the fluctuation of the loads. Moreover, considering the wake edge intermittence via the stochastic shape model improves the simulation of load and power fluctuations and of the fatigue damage equivalent loads. These results indicate that the stochastic shape wake simulator is a valuable addition to simplified wake models when seeking to obtain higher-fidelity computationally inexpensive predictions of loads and power.

  16. Tribological Evaluation of Candidate Gear Materials Operating Under Light Loads in Highly Humid Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellacorte, Christopher; Thomas, Fransua; Leak, Olivia Ann

    2015-01-01

    A series of pin-on-disk sliding wear tests were undertaken to identify candidate materials for a pair of lightly loaded timing gears operating under highly humid conditions. The target application involves water purification and thus precludes the use of oil, grease and potentially toxic solid lubricants. The baseline sliding pair is austenitic stainless steel operating against a carbon filled polyimide. The test load and sliding speed (4.9 N, 2.7 m/s) were chosen to represent average contact conditions of the meshing gear teeth. In addition to the baseline materials, the hard superelastic NiTiNOL 60 (60NiTi) was slid against itself, against the baseline polyimide, and against 60NiTi onto which a commercially deposited dry film lubricant (DFL) was applied. The alternate materials were evaluated as potential replacements to achieve a longer wear life and improved dimensional stability for the timing gear application. An attempt was also made to provide solid lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi by rubbing the polyimide against the disk wear track outside the primary 60NiTi-60NiTi contact, a method named stick or transfer-film lubrication. The selected test conditions gave repeatable friction and wear data and smooth sliding surfaces for the baseline materials similar to those in the target application. Friction and wear for self-mated stainless steel were high and erratic. Self-mated 60NiTi gave acceptably low friction (approx. 0.2) and modest wear but the sliding surfaces were rough and potentially unsuitable for the gear application. Tests in which 60NiTi pins were slid against DFL coated 60NiTi and DFL coated stainless steel gave low friction and long wear life. The use of stick lubrication via the secondary polyimide pin provided effective transfer film lubrication to self-mated 60NiTi tribological specimens. Using this approach, friction levels were equal or lower than the baseline polyimide-stainless combination and wear was higher but within data scatter observed

  17. Analysis of a wire-duct electrostatic precipitator under dust loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Hamouz, Zakariya, E-mail: zhamouz@kfupm.edu.s [Electrical Engineering Department, KFUPM, Dhahran 31261 (Saudi Arabia); El-Hamouz, Amer [Chemical Engineering Department, An Najah National University (Palestinian Territory, Occupied)

    2011-02-15

    A combined finite element based method (FEM) and a modified method of characteristics (MMC) is developed for the analysis and computation of the current density profiles, corona current and hence corona power loss associated with WDEP under particle loading conditions. To test the developed algorithm, comparison with experimental and numerical findings reported in the literature has been made. Comparisons showed high accuracy of the developed algorithm accompanied with a reduction in the number of iterations needed to converge. One major problem reported in the literature, namely, that the characteristic lines never follow the FE grid pattern, is eliminated in the present work. A proto-type design that represents a WDEP, which has been fabricated at the research institute of KFUPM (RI-KFUPM), is used to test the developed algorithm. Smoke of fired coal is used as a source of seed particles of PM10 category (with 75-80% of particles lying below 10 {mu}m). A group of experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions. The results show how different design parameters influenced the corona current and current density profiles.

  18. Stochastic Monotone Markov Integrated Semigroups%随机单调Markov积分半群

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    文兴易; 李扬荣

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we discuss the relationship between monotone of Markov integrated semigroups and transition functions,which are closely linked with each other for continuous time Markov chains.By this a necessary and sufficient condition for the minimal q-semigroup to be stochastic monotone is given in terms of their q-matrix only.%讨论了Markov积分半群的单调性和转移函数的单调性的等价性,并得到最小的Q半群是单调的充要条件.

  19. An inequality for correlations in unidimensional monotone latent variable models for binary variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Jules L

    2014-04-01

    It is shown that a unidimensional monotone latent variable model for binary items implies a restriction on the relative sizes of item correlations: The negative logarithm of the correlations satisfies the triangle inequality. This inequality is not implied by the condition that the correlations are nonnegative, the criterion that coefficient H exceeds 0.30, or manifest monotonicity. The inequality implies both a lower bound and an upper bound for each correlation between two items, based on the correlations of those two items with every possible third item. It is discussed how this can be used in Mokken's (A theory and procedure of scale-analysis, Mouton, The Hague, 1971) scale analysis.

  20. A Mathematical Model for Non-monotonic Deposition Profiles in Deep Bed Filtration Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    A mathematical model for suspension/colloid flow in porous media and non-monotonic deposition is proposed. It accounts for the migration of particles associated with the pore walls via the second energy minimum (surface associated phase). The surface associated phase migration is characterized...... by advection and diffusion/dispersion. The proposed model is able to produce a nonmonotonic deposition profile. A set of methods for estimating the modeling parameters is provided in the case of minimal particle release. The estimation can be easily performed with available experimental information...... condition for producing non-monotonic deposition profiles. The described physics by the additional equation may be different in different experimental settings....

  1. Creep of MDF panels under constant load and cyclic environmental conditions. Influence of surface coating

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernández-Golfín, J. I.

    1997-06-01

    Full Text Available Four different strategies of surface coating (based on 80 g m2 melamin impregnated papers were used on 19 mm thick commercial MDF panels to assess its reological behaviour under cyclic humidity conditions (20ºC 30 % rh-20ºC 90 % rh. Three different levels of stress (20 %, 30 % and 40 %, based on the ultimate load in bending, were used. Tests were conducted by means of the three points load system. For the same stress level, the relative creep of MDF panels was higher than that in particle boards with similar characteristics. This behaviour was just the opposite than the one exhibited by the panels when the comparison is made based on the same level of load (kg Melamin coating seems to strongly influence the creep behaviour of the raw material, especially when surface and edge coating were combined.

    Cuatro tipos de acabados superficiales distintos, aplicados sobre tableros MDF comerciales de 19 mm de espesor, son empleados en el estudio del comportamiento reológico de los tableros MDF ante condiciones alternantes de humedad relativa (20ºC/30 % hr-20ºC/90 % hr. Para el análisis del comportamiento reológico de los tableros se consideran tres niveles de tensión distintos (20 %, 30 %y 40 %, calculados en función de la carga última de rotura a flexión. Los ensayos son efectuados aplicando la carga en punto medio. La fluencia relativa de los tableros MDF resulta ser superior a la exhibida por los tableros de partículas de similares características, observándose que los revestimientos melamínicos aplicados superficialmente influyen eficazmente en la mejora de su comportamiento reológico. Cuando la comparación entre tableros MDF y de partículas se efectúa considerando idénticos niveles de carga aplicada en vez de tensión, el resultado de la comparación resulta ser, justamente, el contrario.

  2. Fatigue Crack Growth Analysis Under Spectrum Loading in Various Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikheevskiy, S.; Glinka, G.; Lee, E.

    2013-03-01

    model. The method can be also used to predict fatigue crack growth under constant amplitude and spectrum loading in various environmental conditions such as vacuum, air, and corrosive environment providing that appropriate limited constant amplitude fatigue crack growth data obtained in the same environment are available. The proposed methodology is equally suitable for fatigue analysis of smooth, notched, and cracked components.

  3. STRONG CONVERGENCE OF MONOTONE HYBRID METHOD FOR FIXED POINT ITERATION PROCESSES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongfu SU; Xiaolong QIN

    2008-01-01

    K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi in 2003 proved the strong convergence theorems for nonexpansive mappings, nonexpansive semigroups, and proximal point algorithm for zero point of monotone operators in Hilbert spaces by using the hybrid method in mathematical programming. The purpose of this paper is to modify the hybrid iteration method of K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi through the monotone hybrid method, and to prove strong convergence theorems. The convergence rate of iteration process of the monotone hybrid method is faster than that of the iteration process of the hybrid method of K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi. In the proofs in this article, Cauchy sequence method is used to avoid the use of the demiclosedness principle and Opial's condition.

  4. Grammatical Complexity of One—Dimensional Maps with Mutiple Monotone Intervals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YiWANG

    1999-01-01

    The piecewise monotonic maps on an interval are studied with the tools from the theory of formal language, A necessary and sufficient condition for the languages being regular is obtained.A result about the relation between languages and maps is proved for the continuous case.

  5. Monotone measures of ergodicity for Markov chains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Keilson

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The following paper, first written in 1974, was never published other than as part of an internal research series. Its lack of publication is unrelated to the merits of the paper and the paper is of current importance by virtue of its relation to the relaxation time. A systematic discussion is provided of the approach of a finite Markov chain to ergodicity by proving the monotonicity of an important set of norms, each measures of egodicity, whether or not time reversibility is present. The paper is of particular interest because the discussion of the relaxation time of a finite Markov chain [2] has only been clean for time reversible chains, a small subset of the chains of interest. This restriction is not present here. Indeed, a new relaxation time quoted quantifies the relaxation time for all finite ergodic chains (cf. the discussion of Q1(t below Equation (1.7]. This relaxation time was developed by Keilson with A. Roy in his thesis [6], yet to be published.

  6. Remarks on a monotone Markov chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Todorovic

    1987-01-01

    Full Text Available In applications, considerations on stochastic models often involve a Markov chain {ζn}0∞ with state space in R+, and a transition probability Q. For each x  R+ the support of Q(x,. is [0,x]. This implies that ζ0≥ζ1≥…. Under certain regularity assumptions on Q we show that Qn(x,Bu→1 as n→∞ for all u>0 and that 1−Qn(x,Bu≤[1−Q(x,Bu]n where Bu=[0,u. Set τ0=max{k;ζk=ζ0}, τn=max{k;ζk=ζτn−1+1} and write Xn=ζτn−1+1, Tn=τn−τn−1. We investigate some properties of the imbedded Markov chain {Xn}0∞ and of {Tn}0∞. We determine all the marginal distributions of {Tn}0∞ and show that it is asymptotically stationary and that it possesses a monotonicity property. We also prove that under some mild regularity assumptions on β(x=1−Q(x,Bx, ∑1n(Ti−a/bn→dZ∼N(0,1.

  7. Robust Monotone Iterates for Nonlinear Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boglaev Igor

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with solving nonlinear singularly perturbed boundary value problems. Robust monotone iterates for solving nonlinear difference scheme are constructed. Uniform convergence of the monotone methods is investigated, and convergence rates are estimated. Numerical experiments complement the theoretical results.

  8. Regularization and Iterative Methods for Monotone Variational Inequalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiubin Xu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available We provide a general regularization method for monotone variational inequalities, where the regularizer is a Lipschitz continuous and strongly monotone operator. We also introduce an iterative method as discretization of the regularization method. We prove that both regularization and iterative methods converge in norm.

  9. LIMITED MEMORY BFGS METHOD FOR NONLINEAR MONOTONE EQUATIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Weijun Zhou; Donghui Li

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we propose an algorithm for solving nonlinear monotone equations by combining the limited memory BFGS method (L-BFGS) with a projection method. We show that the method is globally convergent if the equation involves a Lipschitz continuous monotone function. We also present some preliminary numerical results.

  10. Transient two-phase CFD simulation of overload operating conditions and load rejection in a prototype sized Francis turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mössinger, Peter; Jung, Alexander

    2016-11-01

    An increasing shift in operating conditions of hydropower turbines towards peak load operations comes with the necessity for numerical methods to account for such operations. This requires modifications to state-of-the-art CFD simulations. In the first part of this paper a 1D hydroacoustic model to represent the pressure oscillations in the penstock was introduced and coupled with a commercial CFD solver. Based on previous studies, various changes in cavitation and turbulence modeling were done to influence the behavior of a cavitating vortex rope typically occurring at high load conditions of a Francis turbine. In the second part, mesh motion was added to this model to simulate a load rejection starting from full load conditions. It was shown that additional extensions to the 3D CFD model are compulsory to model specific operating conditions as well as transient operations. Thus, accordance with measurement data at overload operation was improved and only small deviations remained. For the load rejection the maximum overspeed was well captured and the comparison of guide vane torques with model test measurements showed a sufficient agreement. With the gained insights, occurring effects which influence the performance and the life-time can be detected and conclusions for the hydraulic design as well as the operating mode can be drawn. Upcoming studies will focus on evaluating the flow field in detail and on reducing the remaining deviations by further extending the mathematical model.

  11. Complete Monotonicity of a Difference Between the Exponential and Trigamma Functions and Properties Related to a Modified Bessel Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qi, Feng; Berg, Christian

    2013-01-01

    In the paper, the authors find necessary and sufficient conditions for a difference between the exponential function αeβ/t, α, β > 0, and the trigamma function ψ (t) to be completely monotonic on (0,∞). While proving the complete onotonicity, the authors discover some properties related to the fi...... to the first order modified Bessel function of the first kind I1, including inequalities, monotonicity, unimodality, and convexity....

  12. Integrated Behavior of Carbon and Copper Alloy Heat Sink Under Different Heat Loads and Cooling Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hua; Li Jiangang; Chen Junling; Hu Jiansheng

    2005-01-01

    An actively water-cooled limiter has been designed for the long pulse operation of an HT-7 device, by adopting an integrated structure-doped graphite and a copper alloy heat sink with a super carbon sheet serving as a compliant layer between them. The behaviors of the integrated structure were evaluated in an electron beam facility under different heat loads and cooling conditions. The surface temperature and bulk temperature distribution were carefully measured by optical pyrometers and thermocouples under a steady state heat flux of 1 to 5 MW/m2 and a water flow rate of 3 m3/h, 4.5 m3/h and 6 m3/h, respectively. It was found that the surface temperature increased rapidly with the heat flux rising, but decreased only slightly with the water flow rate rising. The surface temperature reached approximately 1200℃ at 5 MW/m2 of heat flux and 6 ms/h of water flow. The primary experimental results indicate that the integrated design meets the requirements for the heat expelling capacity of the HT-7 device. A set of numerical simulations was also completed, whose outcome was in good accord with the experimental results.

  13. Time-Accurate Unsteady Pressure Loads Simulated for the Space Launch System at Wind Tunnel Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Stephen J.; Brauckmann, Gregory J.; Kleb, William L.; Glass, Christopher E.; Streett, Craig L.; Schuster, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A transonic flow field about a Space Launch System (SLS) configuration was simulated with the Fully Unstructured Three-Dimensional (FUN3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code at wind tunnel conditions. Unsteady, time-accurate computations were performed using second-order Delayed Detached Eddy Simulation (DDES) for up to 1.5 physical seconds. The surface pressure time history was collected at 619 locations, 169 of which matched locations on a 2.5 percent wind tunnel model that was tested in the 11 ft. x 11 ft. test section of the NASA Ames Research Center's Unitary Plan Wind Tunnel. Comparisons between computation and experiment showed that the peak surface pressure RMS level occurs behind the forward attach hardware, and good agreement for frequency and power was obtained in this region. Computational domain, grid resolution, and time step sensitivity studies were performed. These included an investigation of pseudo-time sub-iteration convergence. Using these sensitivity studies and experimental data comparisons, a set of best practices to date have been established for FUN3D simulations for SLS launch vehicle analysis. To the author's knowledge, this is the first time DDES has been used in a systematic approach and establish simulation time needed, to analyze unsteady pressure loads on a space launch vehicle such as the NASA SLS.

  14. Shear zone nucleation and deformation transient: effect of heterogeneities and loading conditions in experimentally deformed calcite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, L. F. G.; Rybacki, E.; Dresen, G. H.; Kilian, R.

    2015-12-01

    In the Earth's middle to lower crust, strain is frequently localized along ductile shear zones, which commonly nucleate at structural and material heterogeneities. To investigate shear zone nucleation and development due to heterogeneities, we performed constant strain-rate (CSR) and constant stress (CS) simple shear (torsion) deformation experiments on Carrara marble samples containing weak (limestone) inclusions. The experiments were conducted in a Paterson-type gas deformation apparatus at 900 °C temperature and 400 MPa confining pressure and maximum bulk shear strains of 3. Peak shear stress was about 20 MPa for all the samples, followed by smooth weakening and steady state behavior. The strain is predominantly localized in the host marble within the process zone in front of the inclusion, defined by a zone of intense grain size reduction due to dynamic recrystallization. In CS tests a narrow shear zone developed in front of the inclusion, whereas in CSR experiments the deformation is more heterogeneously distributed, up to g=3.. In the later, secondary foliations oblique to the process zone and alternating thin, high-strain layers are common. In samples deformed at the same shear strain (g=1), the average recrystallized grain size in the process zone is similar for CS and CSR conditions. Crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) measurements shows that different grain sizes have slightly different CPO patterns. CPO strength varies for different grain sizes, with a CPO strength peak between 40-50 μm, decreasing progressively within smaller grain size, but with secondary peaks for different coarse-grained sizes. Our observations suggest that the initial formation and transient deformation of shear zones is strongly affected by loading conditions.

  15. Antifungal activity of Zataria multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles in-vitro condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahboobeh Nasseri

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: The aim of the present study was to prepare, characterize, and evaluate solid lipid nanoparticles (SLNs containing Zataria multiflora essential oil (ZEO. Materials and Methods: In this study, Z. multiflora essential oil-loaded solid lipid nanoparticles (ZE-SLNs were prepared to improve its efficiency in controlling some fungal pathogens. SLNs containing Z. multiflora essential oil were prepared by high shear homogenization and ultra sound technique. ZEO-SLNs contained 0.03% ZEO in 5% of lipid phase (Glyceryl monostearate-GMS and Precirol® ATO 5.Tween 80 and Poloxamer 188 (2.5% w/v were used as surfactant in the aqueous phase. The antifungal efficacy of ZE-SLNs and ZEO was compared under in vitro conditions. Results:The particle size of ZE-SLNs was around 255.5±3 nm with PDI of 0.369±0.05 and zeta potential was about -37.8±0.8 mV. Encapsulation efficacy of ZE-SLNs in crystalline form was 84±0.92%. The results showed that the ZEO and ZE-SLNs had 54 and 79% inhibition on the growth of fungal pathogens, respectively. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC under in vitro conditions for the ZEO on the fungal pathogens of Aspergillus ochraceus, Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus, Alternaria solani, Rhizoctonia solani, and Rhizopus stolonifer was 300, 200, 300, 200, 200 and 200 ppm, respectively, for ZE-SLNs, it was 200, 200, 200, 100, 50 and 50 ppm. The antifungal efficacy of ZE-SLNs was significantly more than ZEO. Conclusion: Our results showed that the SLNs were suitable carriers for Z. multiflora essential oil in controlling the fungal pathogens and merits further investigation.

  16. Monotone complete C*-algebras and generic dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Saitô, Kazuyuki

    2015-01-01

    This monograph is about monotone complete C*-algebras, their properties and the new classification theory. A self-contained introduction to generic dynamics is also included because of its important connections to these algebras. Our knowledge and understanding of monotone complete C*-algebras has been transformed in recent years. This is a very exciting stage in their development, with much discovered but with many mysteries to unravel. This book is intended to encourage graduate students and working mathematicians to attack some of these difficult questions. Each bounded, upward directed net of real numbers has a limit. Monotone complete algebras of operators have a similar property. In particular, every von Neumann algebra is monotone complete but the converse is false. Written by major contributors to this field, Monotone Complete C*-algebras and Generic Dynamics takes readers from the basics to recent advances. The prerequisites are a grounding in functional analysis, some point set topology and an eleme...

  17. Aerosol Properties and Radiative Forcing over Kanpur during Severe Aerosol Loading Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaskaoutis, D. G.; Sinha, P. R.; Vinoj, V.; Kosmopoulos, P. G.; Tripathi, S. N.; Misra, Amit; Sharma, M.; Singh, R. P.

    2013-11-01

    Atmospheric aerosols over India exhibit large spatio-temporal fluctuation driven by the local monsoon system, emission rates and seasonally-changed air masses. The northern part of India is well-known for its high aerosol loading throughout the year due to anthropogenic emissions, dust influence and biomass burning. On certain circumstances and, under favorable weather conditions, the aerosol load can be severe, causing significant health concerns and climate implications. The present work analyzes the aerosol episode (AE) days and examines the modification in aerosol properties and radiative forcing during the period 2001-2010 based on Kanpur-AERONET sun photometer data. As AEs are considered the days having daily-mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) above the decadal mean + 1 STD (standard deviation); the threshold value is defined at 0.928. The results identify 277 out of 2095 days (13.2%) of AEs over Kanpur, which are most frequently observed during post-monsoon (78 cases, 18.6%) and monsoon (76, 14.7%) seasons due to biomass-burning episodes and dust influence, respectively. On the other hand, the AEs in winter and pre-monsoon are lower in both absolute and percentage values (65, 12.5% and 58, 9.1%, respectively). The modification in aerosol properties on the AE days is strongly related to season. Thus, in post-monsoon and winter the AEs are associated with enhanced presence of fine-mode aerosols and Black Carbon from anthropogenic pollution and any kind of burning, while in pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons they are mostly associated with transported dust. Aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) calculated using SBDART shows much more surface (~-69 to -97 Wm-2) and Top of Atmosphere cooling (-20 to -30 Wm-2) as well as atmospheric heating (~43 to 71 Wm-2) during the AE days compared to seasonal means. These forcing values are mainly controlled by the higher AODs and the modified aerosol characteristics (Angstrom α, SSA) during the AE days in each season and may cause

  18. 76 FR 44245 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-25

    ... engine mounts and the supporting structures must be designed to withstand a ``limit engine torque load... of producing much higher transient loads on the engine mounts and supporting structures. As a result... deceleration events, the proposed standard would require engine mounts and structures to support...

  19. Control strategy for permanent magnet synchronous motor with contra-rotating rotors under unbalanced loads condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Shuangyin; Luo, Derong; Huang, Shoudao;

    2015-01-01

    is developed and the instability of the system with unbalanced loads is analysed. Based on the analysis, a control strategy which can keep synchronism of the two rotors under varying load is implemented. In addition, a method for starting the motor reliably is proposed, which is applicable to ship or under...

  20. Generic rules of mechano-regulation combined with subject specific loading conditions can explain bone adaptation after THA.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz D Szwedowski

    Full Text Available Bone adaptation after total hip arthroplasty is associated with the change in internal load environment, and can result in compromised bone stock, which presents a considerable challenge should a revision procedure be required. Under the assumption of a generic mechano-regulatory algorithm for governing bone adaptation, the aim of this study was to understand the contribution of subject specific loading conditions towards explaining the local periprosthetic remodelling variations in patients. CT scans of 3 consecutive THA patients were obtained and used for the construction of subject specific finite element models using verified musculoskeletal loading and physiological boundary conditions. Using either strain energy density or equivalent strain as mechano-transduction signals, predictions of bone adaptation were compared to DEXA derived BMD changes from 7 days to 12 months post-implantation. Individual changes in BMD of up to 33.6% were observed within the 12 month follow-up period, together with considerable inter-patient variability of up to 26%. Estimates of bone adaptation using equivalent strain and balanced loading conditions led to the best agreement with in vivo measured BMD, with RMS errors of only 3.9%, 7.3% and 7.3% for the individual subjects, compared to errors of over 10% when the loading conditions were simplified.This study provides evidence that subject specific loading conditions and physiological boundary constraints are essential for explaining inter-patient variations in bone adaptation patterns. This improved knowledge of the rules governing the adaptation of bone following THA helps towards understanding the interplay between mechanics and biology for better identifying patients at risk of excessive or problematic periprosthetic bone atrophy.

  1. A criterion for high-cycle fatigue life and fatigue limit prediction in biaxial loading conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ukasz Pejkowski; Dariusz Skibicki

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents a criterion for high-cycle fatigue life and fatigue strength estimation under periodic proportional and non-proportional cyclic loading. The cri-terion is based on the mean and maximum values of the second invariant of the stress deviator. Important elements of the criterion are: function of the non-proportionality of fatigue loading and the materials parameter that expresses the materials sensitivity to non-proportional loading. The methods for the materials parameters determination uses three S–N curves: tension–compression, torsion, and any non-proportional loading proposed. The criterion has been verified using experimental data, and the results are included in the paper. These results should be considered as promis-ing. The paper also includes a proposal for multiaxial fatigue models classification due to the approach for the non-proportionality of loading.

  2. Comparison of gait parameters across three attentional loading conditions during timed up and go test in stroke survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manaf, Haidzir; Justine, Maria; Ting, Goh Hui; Latiff, Lydia Abd

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the effects of attentional loading on performance of turning during walking in individuals with stroke. The authors used a cross-sectional experimental design to compare gait parameters in stroke survivors across 3 attentional loading conditions (single, dual-motor, and dual-cognitive conditions) during a Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. Data were collected from 20 stroke survivors (12 males, 8 females; mean age, 60.5 ± 10.6 years). We compared the number of steps and time measured during the TUG test under 3 attentional loading conditions and 2 turning directions (nonparetic and paretic sides). We further divided the TUG test into straight walking and turning phases. The number of steps and the time taken during TUG test increased significantly from single- to dual-task conditions (dual motor and dual cognitive). However, there were no significant differences in gait parameters between turning toward the nonparetic and paretic sides. These findings suggested that gait performance was compromised during dual-task conditions for individuals with stroke. Attentional loading may be incorporated into routine gait assessment and rehabilitation to ensure a successful recovery.

  3. Permanence of a general discrete-time two-species-interaction model with non-monotonic per capita growth rates

    CERN Document Server

    Kang, Yun

    2011-01-01

    Combined with all density-dependent factors, the per capita growth rate of a species may be non-monotonic. One important consequence is that species may suffer from weak Allee effects or strong Allee effects. In this paper, we study the permanence of a discrete-time two-species-interaction model with non-monotonic per capita growth rates for the first time. By using the average Lyapunov functions and extending the ecological concept of the relative nonlinearity, we find a simple sufficient condition for guaranteeing the permanence of systems that can model complicated two-species interactions. The extended relative nonlinearity allows us to fully characterize the effects of nonlinearities in the per capita growth functions with non-monotonicity. These results are illustrated with specific two species competition and predator-prey models of generic forms with non-monotone per capita growth rates.

  4. STUDIES OF ACOUSTIC EMISSION SIGNATURES FOR QUALITY ASSURANCE OF SS 316L WELDED SAMPLES UNDER DYNAMIC LOAD CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. RANGANAYAKULU

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic Emission (AE signatures of various weld defects of stainless steel 316L nuclear grade weld material are investigated. The samples are fabricated by Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG Welding Method have final dimension of 140 mm x 15 mm x 10 mm. AE signals from weld defects such as Pinhole, Porosity, Lack of Penetration, Lack of Side Fusion and Slag are recorded under dynamic load conditions by specially designed mechanical jig. AE features of the weld defects were attained using Linear Location Technique (LLT. The results from this study concluded that, stress release and structure deformation between the sections in welding area are load conditions major part of Acoustic Emission activity during loading.

  5. Operating and Loading Conditions of a Three-Level Neutral-Point-Clamped Wind Power Converter Under Various Grid Faults

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ma, Ke; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2014-01-01

    In order to fulfill the growing demands from the grid side, full-scale power converters are becoming popular in the wind turbine system. The low-voltage ride-through (LVRT) requirements may not only cause control problems but also result in overstressed components for the power converter. However......, the thermal loading of the wind power converter under various grid faults is still not yet clarified, particularly at megawatt power level. In this paper, the impacts by three types of grid faults to a three-level neutral-point-clamped (3L-NPC) wind power converter in terms of operating and loading conditions...... are analytically solved and simulated. It has been found that the operating and loading conditions of the converter under LVRT strongly depend on the types/severity values of grid voltage dips and also the chosen control algorithms. The thermal distribution among the three phases of the converter may be quite...

  6. The effect of connective tissue material uncertainties on knee joint mechanics under isolated loading conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaher, Yasin Y; Kwon, Tae-Hyun; Barry, Megan

    2010-12-01

    Although variability in connective tissue parameters is widely reported and recognized, systematic examination of the effect of such parametric uncertainties on predictions derived from a full anatomical joint model is lacking. As such, a sensitivity analysis was performed to consider the behavior of a three-dimensional, non-linear, finite element knee model with connective tissue material parameters that varied within a given interval. The model included the coupled mechanics of the tibio-femoral and patello-femoral degrees of freedom. Seven primary connective tissues modeled as non-linear continua, articular cartilages described by a linear elastic model, and menisci modeled as transverse isotropic elastic materials were included. In this study, a multi-factorial global sensitivity analysis is proposed, which can detect the contribution of influential material parameters while maintaining the potential effect of parametric interactions. To illustrate the effect of material uncertainties on model predictions, exemplar loading conditions reported in a number of isolated experimental paradigms were used. Our findings illustrated that the inclusion of material uncertainties in a coupled tibio-femoral and patello-femoral model reveals biomechanical interactions that otherwise would remain unknown. For example, our analysis revealed that the effect of anterior cruciate ligament parameter variations on the patello-femoral kinematic and kinetic response sensitivities was significantly larger, over a range of flexion angles, when compared to variations associated with material parameters of tissues intrinsic to the patello-femoral joint. We argue that the systematic sensitivity framework presented herein will help identify key material uncertainties that merit further research and provide insight on those uncertainties that may not be as relative to a given response.

  7. Model of wind shear conditional on turbulence and its impact on wind turbine loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dimitrov, Nikolay Krasimirov; Natarajan, Anand; Kelly, Mark C.

    2015-01-01

    We analyse high-frequency wind velocity measurements from two test stations over a period of several years and at heights ranging from 60 to 200 m, with the objective to validate wind shear predictions as used in load simulations for wind turbine design. A validated wind shear model is thereby...... is most pronounced on the blade flap loads. It is further shown that under moderate wind turbulence, the wind shear exponents may be over-specified in the design standards, and a reduction of wind shear exponent based on the present measurements can contribute to reduced fatigue damage equivalent loads...

  8. Non-local problems with integral gluing condition for loaded mixed type equations involving the Caputo fractional derivative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obidjon Kh. Abdullaev

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this work, we study the existence and uniqueness of solutions to non-local boundary value problems with integral gluing condition. Mixed type equations (parabolic-hyperbolic involving the Caputo fractional derivative have loaded parts in Riemann-Liouville integrals. Thus we use the method of integral energy to prove uniqueness, and the method of integral equations to prove existence.

  9. 76 FR 10213 - Special Conditions: Embraer Model EMB-135BJ (Legacy 650) Airplanes, Limit Engine Torque Loads for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-24

    ... engine mounts, pylons and adjacent supporting airframe structure must be designed to withstand 1g level... developed from these conditions are to be multiplied by a factor of 1.0 when applied to engine mounts and... 650) Airplanes, Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine Stoppage AGENCY: Federal...

  10. 76 FR 63822 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) Model G280 Airplane, Limit Engine Torque Loads...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-14

    ...These special conditions are issued for the Gulfstream Aerospace LP (GALP) model G280 airplane. This airplane will have a novel or unusual design feature associated with engine torque loads imposed by sudden engine stoppage. The applicable airworthiness regulations do not contain adequate or appropriate safety standards for this design feature. These special conditions contain the additional safety standards that the Administrator considers necessary to establish a level of safety equivalent to that established by the existing airworthiness standards.

  11. Boundary monotonicity formulae and applications to free boundary problems I: The elliptic case

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Georg S. Weiss

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available We derive a monotonicity formula at boundary points for a class of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations, including the obstacle problem case, quenching, a free boundary problem with Bernoulli-type free boundary condition as well as the blow-up case. As application model we prove - for Dirichlet boundary data satisfying certain assumptions - the global existence of a classical solution of the free boundary problem with Bernoulli-type free boundary condition in two and three dimensions.

  12. Differential evolutionary algorithm for distribution capacitor allocation considering varying load conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Mohammad

    2011-01-01

    Many loads in power systems are inductive loads then consume reactive power, this fact lead to drop voltage and in worst case blackout and collapse voltage. Best option in distribution networks for avoid of this problem is installation of capacitor bank. In capacitor installation, finding optimal location and size of capacitor have special importance. In this paper, Differential Evolutionary (DE) algorithm is proposed for optimal placement and sizing of capacitor. Our objective funct...

  13. The Number of Monotone and Self-Dual Boolean Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haviarova L.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present paper we study properties of pre-complete class of Boolean functions - monotone Boolean functions. We discuss interval graph, the abbreviated d.n.f., a minimal d.n.f. and a shortest d.n.f. of this function. Then we present a d.n.f. with the highest number of conjunctionsand we determinate the exact number of them. We count the number of monotone Boolean functions with some special properties. In the end we estimate the number of Boolean functionthat are monotone and self-dual at the same time.

  14. Ratio Monotonicity of Polynomials Derived from Nondecreasing Sequences

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, William Y C; Zhou, Elaine L F

    2010-01-01

    The ratio monotonicity of a polynomial is a stronger property than log-concavity. Let P(x) be a polynomial with nonnegative and nondecreasing coefficients. We prove the ratio monotone property of P(x+1), which leads to the log-concavity of P(x+c) for any $c\\geq 1$ due to Llamas and Mart\\'{\\i}nez-Bernal. As a consequence, we obtain the ratio monotonicity of the Boros-Moll polynomials obtained by Chen and Xia without resorting to the recurrence relations of the coefficients.

  15. Strength and behavior in shear of reinforced concrete deep beams under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adhikary, Satadru Das [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Li, Bing, E-mail: cbli@ntu.edu.sg [School of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, 639798 (Singapore); Fujikake, Kazunori [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, National Defense Academy, Yokosuka 239 8686 (Japan)

    2013-06-15

    Highlights: ► Effects of wider range of loading rates on dynamic shear behavior of RC deep beams. ► Experimental investigation of RC deep beam with and without shear reinforcements. ► Verification of experimental results with truss model and FE simulation results. ► Empirical equations are proposed to predict the dynamic increase factor of maximum resistance. -- Abstract: Research on reinforced concrete (RC) deep beams has seen considerable headway over the past three decades; however, information on the dynamic shear strength and behavior of RC deep beams under varying rates of loads remains limited. This paper describes the experimental results of 24 RC deep beams with and without shear reinforcements under varying rates of concentrated loading. Results obtained serve as useful data on shear resistance, failure patterns and strain rates corresponding to varying loading rates. An analytical truss model approach proves its efficacy in predicting the dynamic shear resistance under varying loading rates. Furthermore, three-dimensional nonlinear finite element (FE) model is described and the simulation results are verified with the experimental results. A parametric study is then conducted to investigate the influence of longitudinal reinforcement ratio, transverse reinforcement ratio and shear span to effective depth ratio on shear behavior. Subsequently, two empirical equations were proposed by integrating the various parameters to assess the dynamic increase factor (DIF) of maximum resistance under varying rates of concentrated loading.

  16. Effect of Thermal Bridges in Insulated Walls on Air-Conditioning Loads Using Whole Building Energy Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed F. Zedan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Thermal bridges in building walls are usually caused by mortar joints between insulated building blocks and by the presence of concrete columns and beams within the building envelope. These bridges create an easy path for heat transmission and therefore increase air-conditioning loads. In this study, the effects of mortar joints only on cooling and heating loads in a typical two-story villa in Riyadh are investigated using whole building energy analysis. All loads found in the villa, which broadly include ventilation, transmission, solar and internal loads, are considered with schedules based on local lifestyles. The thermal bridging effect of mortar joints is simulated by reducing wall thermal resistance by a percentage that depends on the bridges to wall area ratio (TB area ratio or Amj/Atot and the nominal thermal insulation thickness (Lins. These percentage reductions are obtained from a correlation developed by using a rigorous 2D dynamic model of heat transmission through walls with mortar joints. The reduction in thermal resistance is achieved through minor reductions in insulation thickness, thereby keeping the thermal mass of the wall essentially unchanged. Results indicate that yearly and monthly cooling loads increase almost linearly with the thermal bridge to wall area ratio. The increase in the villa’s yearly loads varies from about 3% for Amj/Atot = 0.02 to about 11% for Amj/Atot = 0.08. The monthly increase is not uniform over the year and reaches a maximum in August, where it ranges from 5% for Amj/Atot = 0.02 to 15% for Amj/Atot = 0.08. In winter, results show that yearly heating loads are generally very small compared to cooling loads and that heating is only needed in December, January and February, starting from late night to late morning. Monthly heating loads increase with the thermal bridge area ratio; however, the variation is not as linear as observed in cooling loads. The present results highlight the importance of

  17. Response of a continuous biomethanation process to transient organic shock loads under controlled and uncontrolled pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaai; Lee, Changsoo

    2015-04-15

    The organic loading rate (OLR) is a critical factor that controls the treatment efficiency and biogas production in anaerobic digestion (AD). Therefore, organic shock loads may cause significant process imbalances accompanied by a drop in pH and acid accumulation or even failure. This study investigated the response of a continuous mesophilic anaerobic bioreactor to a series of transient organic shock loads of the substrate whey permeate, a high-strength organic wastewater from cheese making. The reactor was subjected to organic shock loads of increasing magnitude (a one-day pulse of elevated feed organic concentration) under controlled (near 7) and uncontrolled pH conditions at a fixed HRT of 10 days. The reactor was resilient to up to a shock load of up to 8.0 g SCOD/L·d under controlled pH conditions but failed to recover from the serious imbalance caused by a 3.0-g SCOD/L·d shock load, thus indicating the critical effect of pH on system resilience. The acidified reactor was not restored by interrupted feeding under the acidic conditions that were formed (pH ≤ 4.5) but was successfully restored after pH adjustment to 7. The reactor subsequently reverted to continuous mode without pH control and showed a performance comparable to the stable performance at the design OLR of 1.0 g SCOD/L·d. The bacterial community structure shifted dynamically in association with disturbances in the reactor conditions, whereas the archaeal community structure remained simple and less variable during the shock loading experiments. The structural shifts of the bacterial community were well correlated with the process performance changes, and performance recovery was generally accompanied by recovery of the bacterial community structure. The overall results suggest that the reactor pH, rather than simply acting as an accumulation of organic acids, had a crucial effect on the resilience and robustness of the microbial community and thus on the reactor performance under organic

  18. An Extragradient Method and Proximal Point Algorithm for Inverse Strongly Monotone Operators and Maximal Monotone Operators in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plubtieng Somyot

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We introduce an iterative scheme for finding a common element of the solution set of a maximal monotone operator and the solution set of the variational inequality problem for an inverse strongly-monotone operator in a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space, and then we prove weak and strong convergence theorems by using the notion of generalized projection. The result presented in this paper extend and improve the corresponding results of Kamimura et al. (2004, and Iiduka and Takahashi (2008. Finally, we apply our convergence theorem to the convex minimization problem, the problem of finding a zero point of a maximal monotone operator and the complementary problem.

  19. An Extragradient Method and Proximal Point Algorithm for Inverse Strongly Monotone Operators and Maximal Monotone Operators in Banach Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somyot Plubtieng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce an iterative scheme for finding a common element of the solution set of a maximal monotone operator and the solution set of the variational inequality problem for an inverse strongly-monotone operator in a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space, and then we prove weak and strong convergence theorems by using the notion of generalized projection. The result presented in this paper extend and improve the corresponding results of Kamimura et al. (2004, and Iiduka and Takahashi (2008. Finally, we apply our convergence theorem to the convex minimization problem, the problem of finding a zero point of a maximal monotone operator and the complementary problem.

  20. On the Monotone Iterative Method for Set Valued Equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    This paper deals with the monotone iterative method for set- valued operator equation in ordered normed space. Some results for the case of single valued operator are generalized here, as an application, a discontinuous nonlinear differential equation problem is discussed.

  1. Monotone method for initial value problem for fractional diffusion equation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Shuqin

    2006-01-01

    Using the method of upper and lower solutions and its associated monotone iterative, consider the existence and uniqueness of solution of an initial value problem for the nonlinear fractional diffusion equation.

  2. Approximations for Monotone and Non-monotone Submodular Maximization with Knapsack Constraints

    CERN Document Server

    Kulik, Ariel; Tamir, Tami

    2011-01-01

    Submodular maximization generalizes many fundamental problems in discrete optimization, including Max-Cut in directed/undirected graphs, maximum coverage, maximum facility location and marketing over social networks. In this paper we consider the problem of maximizing any submodular function subject to $d$ knapsack constraints, where $d$ is a fixed constant. We establish a strong relation between the discrete problem and its continuous relaxation, obtained through {\\em extension by expectation} of the submodular function. Formally, we show that, for any non-negative submodular function, an $\\alpha$-approximation algorithm for the continuous relaxation implies a randomized $(\\alpha - \\eps)$-approximation algorithm for the discrete problem. We use this relation to improve the best known approximation ratio for the problem to $1/4- \\eps$, for any $\\eps > 0$, and to obtain a nearly optimal $(1-e^{-1}-\\eps)-$approximation ratio for the monotone case, for any $\\eps>0$. We further show that the probabilistic domain ...

  3. Development of chloride-induced corrosion in pre-cracked RC beams under sustained loading: Effect of load-induced cracks, concrete cover, and exposure conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Linwen [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, Toulouse (France); Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada); François, Raoul, E-mail: raoul.francois@insa-toulouse.fr [Université de Toulouse, UPS, INSA, LMDC, Toulouse (France); Dang, Vu Hiep [Hanoi Architectural University, Faculty of Civil Engineering, Hanoi (Viet Nam); L' Hostis, Valérie [CEA Saclay, CEA, DEN, DPC, SECR, Laboratoire d' Etude du Comportement des Bétons et des Argiles, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Gagné, Richard [Université de Sherbrooke, Quebec (Canada)

    2015-01-15

    This paper deals with corrosion initiation and propagation in pre-cracked reinforced concrete beams under sustained loading during exposure to a chloride environment. Specimen beams that were cast in 2010 were compared to specimens cast in 1984. The only differences between the two sets of beams were the casting direction in relation to tensile reinforcement and the exposure conditions in the salt-fog chamber. The cracking maps, corrosion maps, chloride profiles, and cross-sectional loss of one group of two beams cast in 2010 were studied and their calculated corrosion rates were compared to that of beams cast in 1984 in order to investigate the factors influencing the natural corrosion process. Experimental results show that, after rapid initiation of corrosion at the crack tip, the corrosion process practically halted and the time elapsing before corrosion resumed depended on the exposure conditions and cover depth.

  4. Determination of elasticity modulus and Poisson ratio of two onion varieties under different loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Jafari Malekabadi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Poisson ratio and modulus of elasticity are two fundamental properties of elastic and viscoelastic solids that use in solving all contact problems, including the calculation of stress, the contact surfaces and elastic deformation (Mohsenin, 1986; Gentle and Halsall, 1982. There are many published literature on Poisson ratio and elasticity modulus of fruit and vegetables. Shitanda et al. (2002 calculated Poisson ratio of rice by considering Boussinesq’s theory. They showed that the Poisson ratio is greater for shorter varieties. In another study, researchers used the instrumented bending beam to measure the lateral expansion of red beans. They were considered Poisson ratio as the ratio of transverse strain to the longitudinal strain (regardless of the geometry of the sample and were calculated modulus of elasticity with Hertz theory for convex bodies (Kiani Deh Kiani et al., 2009. Cakir et al. (2002 was determined the Poisson ratio and elastic modulus of some onion varieties. They used a simple formula to determine the transverse strain that developed by Sitkei (1986 for prism-shaped rod, regardless of the geometry of the product. Reviewed scientific literature shows that these parameters have not been studied according to the geometric shape of onions and was not used by a more accurate method, such as image processing to determine these parameters. The objective of this study was to evaluate the mechanical properties of two varieties of onions. Poisson ratio was determined with image processing. Considering shape of the onions and deformation value, and using Hertz’s theory with Poisson ratio, modulus of elasticity was calculated. The effects of loading directions (polar or equatorial, deformation value (5, 10 and 15 mm, loading speed (15 or 25 mm min-1 and onion varieties (Red and Yellow on the modulus of elasticity and apparent Poisson’s ratio were examined. Materials and Methods: The onions harvested in autumn, 20 days

  5. Monotone Semiflows Generated by Functional Differential Equations,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-02-01

    These results have been applied to ordinary differential equations in Rn (see e.g. [10,23]) where the well-known Kamke theorem applies and to nonlinear...sufficient condition (H) Whenever 0 - 0 and ,i(0) = i( 0) it follows that fi(0) ( fi(O). For those familiar with the Kamke (quasimonotone) condition for...ordinary differential equations, (H) will seem quite natural, it reduces to the Kamke condition. The order preserving property of a semiflow is not

  6. Completely monotonic functions related to logarithmic derivatives of entire functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg

    2011-01-01

    The logarithmic derivative l(x) of an entire function of genus p and having only non-positive zeros is represented in terms of a Stieltjes function. As a consequence, (-1)p(xml(x))(m+p) is a completely monotonic function for all m ≥ 0. This generalizes earlier results on complete monotonicity...... of functions related to Euler's psi-function. Applications to Barnes' multiple gamma functions are given....

  7. Isotonicity of the projection onto the monotone cone

    CERN Document Server

    Németh, A B

    2012-01-01

    A wedge (i.e., a closed nonempty set in the Euclidean space stable under addition and multiplication with non-negative scalars) induces by a standard way a semi-order (a reflexive and transitive binary relation) in the space. The wedges admitting isotone metric projection with respect to the semi-order induced by them are characterized. The obtained result is used to show that the monotone wedge (called monotone cone in regression theory) admits isotone projection.

  8. Layered neural networks with non-monotonic transfer functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katayama, Katsuki; Sakata, Yasuo; Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi

    2003-01-01

    We investigate storage capacity and generalization ability for two types of fully connected layered neural networks with non-monotonic transfer functions; random patterns are embedded into the networks by a Hebbian learning rule. One of them is a layered network in which a non-monotonic transfer function of even layers is different from that of odd layers. The other is a layered network with intra-layer connections, in which the non-monotonic transfer function of inter-layer is different from that of intra-layer, and inter-layered neurons and intra-layered neurons are updated alternately. We derive recursion relations for order parameters for those layered networks by the signal-to-noise ratio method. We clarify that the storage capacity and the generalization ability for those layered networks are enhanced in comparison with those with a conventional monotonic transfer function when non-monotonicity of the transfer functions is selected optimally. We also point out that some chaotic behavior appears in the order parameters for the layered networks when non-monotonicity of the transfer functions increases.

  9. Comparison of contractile responses of single human motor units in the toe extensors during unloaded and loaded isotonic and isometric conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Michael; Macefield, Vaughan G

    2015-08-01

    Much of the repertoire of muscle function performed in everyday life involves isotonic dynamic movements, either with or without an additional load, yet most studies of single motor units measure isometric forces. To assess the effects of muscle load on the contractile response, we measured the contractile properties of single motor units supplying the toe extensors, assessed by intraneural microstimulation of single human motor axons, in isotonic, loaded isotonic, and isometric conditions. Tungsten microelectrodes were inserted into the common peroneal nerve, and single motor axons (n = 10) supplying the long toe extensors were electrically stimulated through the microelectrode. Displacement was measured from the distal phalanx of the toe with either an angular displacement transducer for the unloaded (i.e., no additional load) and loaded (addition of a 4-g mass) isotonic conditions or a force transducer for the isometric conditions. Mean twitch profiles were measured at 1 Hz for all conditions: rise time, fall time, and duration were shortest for the unloaded isotonic conditions and longest for the isometric conditions. Peak displacements were lower in the loaded than unloaded isotonic conditions, and the half-maximal response in the loaded condition was achieved at lower frequencies than in the unloaded isotonic condition. We have shown that the contractile responses of single motor units supplying the human toe extensors are influenced by how they are measured: twitches are much slower when measured in loaded than unloaded isotonic conditions and slowest when measured in isometric conditions.

  10. Decompositions of Revised Monotone Signed Fuzzy Measures

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张强; 刘克

    2003-01-01

    The concept of fuzzy measure was introduced by Sugeno in 1974. A notion of signed fuzzy measure is introduced in this paper, and its elementary properties are briefly discussed. An analogue of Hahn decomposition theorem is established under the null-null-additive condition. A version of the Jordan decomposition theorem is proved under the null-additive condition.

  11. Relationship between the Presence of Bartonella Species and Bacterial Loads in Cats and Cat Fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) under Natural Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutiérrez, Ricardo; Nachum-Biala, Yaarit; Harrus, Shimon

    2015-08-15

    Cats are considered the main reservoir of three zoonotic Bartonella species: Bartonella henselae, Bartonella clarridgeiae, and Bartonella koehlerae. Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) have been experimentally demonstrated to be a competent vector of B. henselae and have been proposed as the potential vector of the two other Bartonella species. Previous studies have reported a lack of association between the Bartonella species infection status (infected or uninfected) and/or bacteremia levels of cats and the infection status of the fleas they host. Nevertheless, to date, no study has compared the quantitative distributions of these bacteria in both cats and their fleas under natural conditions. Thus, the present study explored these relationships by identifying and quantifying the different Bartonella species in both cats and their fleas. Therefore, EDTA-blood samples and fleas collected from stray cats were screened for Bartonella bacteria. Bacterial loads were quantified by high-resolution melt real-time quantitative PCR assays. The results indicated a moderate correlation between the Bartonella bacterial loads in the cats and their fleas when both were infected with the same Bartonella species. Moreover, a positive effect of the host infection status on the Bartonella bacterial loads of the fleas was observed. Conversely, the cat bacterial loads were not affected by the infection status of their fleas. Our results suggest that the Bartonella bacterial loads of fleas are positively affected by the presence of the bacteria in their feline host, probably by multiple acquisitions/accumulation and/or multiplication events.

  12. A cyclodissipativity characterization of power factor compensation of nonlinear loads under nonsinusoidal conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    del Puerto-Flores, D.; Ortega, R.; Scherpen, J. M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Recently, it has been established that power factor (PF) improvement for nonlinear loads with nonsinusoidal source voltage is equivalent to imposing the property of cyclodissipativity to the source terminals. Using this framework, the classical capacitor and inductor compensators were interpreted in

  13. Influence of different SSF conditions on ethanol production from corn stover at high solids loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three different kinds of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed pretreated corn stover with water-insoluble solids (WIS) content of 20% were investigated to find which one resulted in highest ethanol yield at high-solids loadings. The different methods were...

  14. 76 FR 25648 - Special Conditions: Gulfstream Model GVI Airplane; Limit Engine Torque Loads for Sudden Engine...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ..., the engine mounts and the supporting structures must be designed to withstand a ``limit engine torque... of producing much higher transient loads on the engine mounts and supporting structures. As a result... events, the proposed standard would require engine mounts and structures to support maximum...

  15. 77 FR 42949 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ..., four-passenger, composite airplane. The installation of winglets, as proposed by Tamarack, increases... design change will install winglets and an Active Technology Load Alleviation system (ATLAS). The addition of the ATLAS mitigates the negative effects of the winglets by effectively aerodynamically...

  16. 77 FR 28530 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-15

    ..., composite airplane. The installation of winglets, as proposed by Tamarack, increases aerodynamic efficiency... Group's modification. The design change will install winglets and an Active Technology Load Alleviation System (ATLAS). The addition of the ATLAS mitigates the negative effects of the winglets by...

  17. 78 FR 10055 - Special Conditions: Tamarack Aerospace Group, Cirrus Model SR22; Active Technology Load...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-13

    ... engine, four- passenger, composite airplane. The installation of winglets, as proposed by Tamarack... Aerospace Group's modification. The design change will install winglets and an Active Technology Load Alleviation System (ATLAS). The addition of the ATLAS mitigates the negative effects of the winglets...

  18. 78 FR 64415 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Ground Pivoting Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-29

    ... in static equilibrium, with the loads being applied at the ground contact points. (c) The limit..., between 9 a.m. and 5 p.m., Monday through Friday, except federal holidays. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...) Towing at the nose gear at the critical towing angle with no brakes applied, including cases with...

  19. Calculation and measurement of space charge in MV-size xxtruded cables systems under load conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morshuis, P.H.F.; Bodega, R.; Fabiani, D.; Montanari, G.C.; Dissado, L.A; Smit, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    A load current in dc high voltage cables results in a temperature drop across the insulation and hence a radial distribution of the insulation conductivity is found. Direct consequence is an accumulation of space charge in the bulk of the nsulation, that may significantly affect its reliability. Thi

  20. Bi-orthogonality conditions for power flow analysis in fluid-loaded elastic cylindrical shells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ledet, Lasse; Sorokin, Sergey V.; Larsen, Jan Balle

    2015-01-01

    The paper addresses the classical problem of time-harmonic forced vibrations of a fluid-loaded cylindrical shell considered as a multi-modal waveguide carrying infinitely many waves. Firstly, a modal method for formulation of Green’s matrix is derived by means of modal decomposition. The method...

  1. A two species thermodynamic Preisach approach for simulating superelastic responses of shape memory alloys under tension and bending loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doraiswamy, Srikrishna; Rao, Ashwin; Srinivasa, A. R.

    2013-04-01

    Modeling superelastic behavior of shape memory alloys (SMA) has received considerable attention due to SMAs ability to recover large strains with associated loading{unloading hysteresis enabling them to find many applications. In this work, a simple mechanics of materials modeling approach for simulating superelastic responses of SMA components under tension and bending loading conditions is developed. Following Doraiswamy, Rao and Srinivasa's1 approach, the key idea here would be in separating the thermoelastic and the dissipative part of the hysteretic response with a Gibbs potential based formulation which includes both thermal and mechanical loading in the same framework. The dissipative part is then handled by a discrete Preisach model. The model is formulated directly using tensile stress{strain or bending moment{curvature rather than solving for non-homogeneous stress and strains across the specimen cross-sections and then integrating the same especially for bending loading conditions. The model is capable of simulating complex superelastic responses with multiple internal loops and provides an improved treatment for temperature dependence associated with superelastic responses. The model results are verified with experimental results on SMA components like wires and beams at different temperatures.

  2. Effect of different percent loadings of nanoparticles and food processing conditions on the properties of nylon 6 films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allafi, Ahmad R.

    Nylon 6 organoclay nanocomposites were prepared by melt processing using a twin screw extruder. Five different films were produced with five different % loadings (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%). This study had three main objectives. The first was to investigate the effects of loading percentages on the barrier, thermal and mechanical properties of nylon 6 nanocomposite materials. The second was to study the effects of 0, 50 and 80% RH on the oxygen permeation of the nylon 6/nanocomposite films. The third was to investigate the properties of nylon 6 nanocomposite materials exposed to typical food processing conditions. These films were tested for their permeabilities to oxygen (OTR), carbon dioxide (CO2TR), and water vapor (WVTR). Thermal properties testing on the samples included differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA). Tensile strength at break, tensile modulus at break, and the percent elongation for the five films were examined using an INSTRON tester. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to investigate the morphology of the five films. Results showed that all gas barriers significantly increased with percent loading but there were no significant differences (P>0.05) between the 6 and 8% for the CO2TR. For the DMA, the storage modulus also significantly increased (P<0.05) with increasing loading except between the 2 and 4% concentrations. For the DSC analyses, enthalpy of fusion decreased slightly from an average of 39 J/g (control) to 32J/g (8% loading). The melt temperature also decreased from 227 to 222°C between those loadings. High pressure processed samples had the highest barrier against oxygen permeation when compared with the retorted and controls. Retorting seemed to reduce the tensile strength slightly; however, no significant changes in modulus and elongation occurred after retorting and HPP. These results showed that increasing percent loadings increased the stiffness of the material at the expense of its

  3. Thermal Modelling for the Motor in Semi-hermetic Screw Refrigeration Compressor under Part-load Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wenqing; Shen, Jiubing; He, Zhilong; Wu, Huagen; Xing, Ziwen

    2012-01-01

    Semi-hermetic screw refrigeration compressor is mostly driven by a three phase asynchronous induction motor with its squirrel cage rotor attached to the shaft of the compressor helical male rotor. The motor is cooled by low temperature refrigerant coming from evaporator before it is inspired into compressor suction port. In order to investigate cooling effects of the motor and performance of the compressor under part-load conditions, a lumped parameter model describing heat transfer character...

  4. Influence of Induction Machine and Mechanism Parameters on Starting Transient Processes in Case of Constant Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dimitar Spirov

    2005-10-01

    Full Text Available Two-phase induction machine dynamic model in a coordinate system which rotates at synchronous speed and one-mass dynamic model of mechanism driven in relative units describing transient processes when starting an induction machine in case of constant load conditions are developed.The influence of equivalent circuit parameters of induction machine and mechanism parameters on impact currents and torques and starting time of common used induction machines is studied by means of design of experiment method.

  5. Operator health risk evaluation of off-highway dump truck under shovel loading condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申焱华; 许敏; 金纯; 高玉; 魏福林

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the operator health risk exposed to whole-body vibration (WBV) while the electric-shovel loads the ore on the truck body, the semi-truck mathematical model and 3-D virtual prototype were built to simulate the high shockwave of truck cab under the shovel loading. Discrete element method was utilized to accurately estimate the impacting force on the truck body. Based on the ISO 2631-5 criteria, theSed is about 0.56 MPa in both models, which means that the dump operators have a high probability of adverse health effects over long-term exposure to these vibrations. The 4-DOF operator model was built to investigate the biodynamic response of seated-human body exposed to WBV in terms of the transmission of vibrations through the body. The results show that the response peak is in the frequency range of 4−6 Hz corresponding to the primary body resonant frequency.

  6. On the Boundary Limits of Monotone Sobolev Functions in Variable Exponent Orlicz Spaces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Toshihide FUTAMURA; Tetsu SHIMOMURA

    2013-01-01

    Our aim in this note is to deal with boundary limits of monotone Sobolev functions with ▽u ∈ Lp(·) logLq(·)(B) for the unit ball B (C) Rn.Here p(·) and q(·) are variable exponents satisfying the log-H(o)lder and the log log-H(o)lder conditions,respectively.

  7. Interior-point algorithm based on general kernel function for monotone linear complementarity problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yong; BAI Yan-qin

    2009-01-01

    A polynomial interior-point algorithm is presented for monotone linear complementarity problem (MLCP) based on:a class of kernel functions with the general barrier term, which are called general kernel functions. Under the mild conditions for the barrier term, the complexity bound of algorithm in terms of such kernel function and its derivatives is obtained. The approach is actually an extension of the existing work which only used the specific kernel functions for the MLCP.

  8. A projected gradient method with nonmonotonic backtracking technique for solving convex constrained monotone variational inequality problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Based on a differentiable merit function proposed by Taji,et al in "Mathematical Programming,1993,58: 369-383",a projected gradient trust region method for the monotone variational inequality problem with convex constraints is presented.Theoretical analysis is given which proves that the proposed algorithm is globally convergent and has a local quadratic convergence rate under some reasonable conditions.The results of numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.

  9. Risk-Sensitive Control of Pure Jump Process on Countable Space with Near Monotone Cost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suresh Kumar, K., E-mail: suresh@math.iitb.ac.in; Pal, Chandan, E-mail: cpal@math.iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Mathematics (India)

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we study risk-sensitive control problem with controlled continuous time pure jump process on a countable space as state dynamics. We prove multiplicative dynamic programming principle, elliptic and parabolic Harnack’s inequalities. Using the multiplicative dynamic programing principle and the Harnack’s inequalities, we prove the existence and a characterization of optimal risk-sensitive control under the near monotone condition.

  10. Monotone Regression and Correction for Order Relation Deviations in Indicator Kriging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Yan; Yang Yiheng

    2008-01-01

    The indicator kriging (IK) is one of the most efficient nonparametric methods in geo-statistics. The order relation problem in the conditional cumulative distribution values obtained by IK is the most severe drawback of it. The correction of order relation deviations is an essential and important part of IK approach. A monotone regression was proposed as a new correction method which could minimize the deviation from original quintiles value, although, ensuring all order relations.

  11. On an Iterative Method for Finding a Zero to the Sum of Two Maximal Monotone Operators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongwei Jiao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we consider a problem that consists of finding a zero to the sum of two monotone operators. One method for solving such a problem is the forward-backward splitting method. We present some new conditions that guarantee the weak convergence of the forward-backward method. Applications of these results, including variational inequalities and gradient projection algorithms, are also considered.

  12. Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on the Homogeneous Charge Combustion Process of n-Heptane at Different Load Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Dexin; FENG Hongqing; ZHENG Jincai; MILLER David L; CERNANSKY Nicholas P

    2005-01-01

    Effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on homogeneous charge combustion of n-heptane was studied through simulation and experiment. Experiments were carried out in a single cylinder, four-stroke, air cooled engine and a single cylinder, two-stroke, water cooled engine. In the four-stroke engine, experiments of the effects of EGR were examined using heated N2 addition as a surrogate for external EGR and modifying engine to increase internal EGR. The ignition timing was sensitive to EGR due to thermal and chemical effects. EGR or extra air is a key factor in eliminating knock during mid-load conditions. For higher load operation the only way to avoid knock is to control reaction timing through the use of spark ignition. Experimental and modeling results from the two-stroke engine show that auto-ignition can be avoided by increasing the engine speed. The two-stroke engine experiments indicate that high levels of internal EGR can enable spark ignition at lean conditions. At higher load conditions, increasing the engine speed is an effective method to control transition from homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation to non-HCCI operation and successful spark ignition of a highly dilute mixture can avoid serious knock.

  13. Effectiveness of oxytetracycline in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish (Labeo rohita, Hamilton) under laboratory culture condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Syed Ariful Haque; Md Shaheed Reza; Md Rajib Sharker; Md Mokhlasur Rahman; Md Ariful Islam

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effectiveness of most widely used antibiotic, oxytetracycline (OTC) in reducing the bacterial load in rohu fish under artificial culture condition in the laboratory.Methods:University, Mymensingh-2202. The fish were reared in 8 aquaria where fish in 5 aquaria were used for replication of the treatment (experimental group) and fish in remaining 3 aquaria were considered as a control (Control group). OTC was fed to the fish in the experimental aquarium at the rate of 2 g/kg through diet twice daily whereas fish reared under control condition was given feed without antibiotic for 20 d and bacterial content in the aquarium water, gills, skin and intestine of fish were estimated at every alternative day after onset of the experiment. The experiment was conducted in the Faculty Fisheries, Bangladesh Agricultural Results: Rearing the fish with OTC treated feed resulted in gradual decrease of bacterial load in the aquarium water, gills, intestine and skin of the fish whereas the content remain unchanged or little increased in the control group. Water quality parameters such as dissolved oxygen, pH and total hardness were within the suitable range in the experimental aquarium but not in control aquaria throughout the experimental period.Conclusions:bacterial load in fish and can be used commercially for maintaining the fish health in aquarium conditions. These results suggest that OTC could be a potential antibiotic to reduce the

  14. Direct Time Domain Numerical Analysis of Transient Behavior of a VLFS during Unsteady External Loads in Wave Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The transient response of the VLFS subjected to arbitrary external load is systematically investigated by a direct time domain modal expansion method, in which the BEM solutions based on time domain Kelvin sources are used for hydrodynamic forces. In the analysis, the time domain free-surface Green functions with sufficient accuracy are rapidly evaluated in finite water depth by the interpolation-tabulation method, and the boundary integral equation with a quarter VLFS model is established taking advantage of symmetry of flow field and structure. The validity of the present method is verified by comparing with the time histories of vertical displacements of the VLFS during a mass drop and airplane landing and takeoff in still water conditions, respectively. Then the developed numerical scheme is used in wave conditions to study the combined action taking into account the mass drop/airplane landing/takeoff loads as well as incident wave action. It is found that the elevation of structural waves due to mass drop load can be significantly changed near the impact region, while the vertical motion of runway in wave conditions is dominant as compared with that only generated by airplane.

  15. Characterization of wake effects and loading status of wind turbine arrays under different inflow conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiangyu

    The objective of the present work is to improve the accuracy of Actuator Line Modeling (ALM) in predicting the unsteady aerodynamic loadings on turbine blades and turbine wake by assessing different methods used to determine the relative velocity between the rotating blades and wind. ALM is incorporated into a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) solver in OpenFOAM (Open Field Operations and Manipulations). The aerodynamic loadings are validated by experiment results from National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Turbine wakes are validated by predictions of large eddy simulation using exact 3D blade geometries from a two-blade NREL Phase VI turbine. Three different relative velocity calculation methods are presented: iterative process in Blade Element Momentum (BEM) theory, local velocity sampling, and Lagrange-Euler Interpolation (LEI). Loadings and wakes obtained from these three methods are compared. It is discovered that LEI functions better than the conventional BEM with iterative process in both loading and wake prediction. Then LES-ALM with LEI is performed on a small wind farm deploying five NREL Phase VI turbines in full wake setting. The power outputs and force coefficients of downstream turbines are evaluated. The LES-ALM with LEI is also performed on a small wind farm deploying 25 NREL Phase VI turbines with different inflow angles (from full wake setting to partial wake setting). The power outputs and force coefficients of each turbine are evaluated under different inflow angles (the angle the rotor has to turn to make the rotor plane face the incoming wind) (0, 5, 15, 30 and 45 degree). The power coefficient distributions and thrust coefficient distributions of the wind farm under each inflow angle are compared. The range of inflow angle which is best for power generation is also discussed. The results demonstrate that the LES-ALM with LEI has the potential to optimize wind farm arrangement and pitch angle of individual turbines.

  16. Timoshenko beam-column with generalized end conditions on elastic foundation: Dynamic-stiffness matrix and load vector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arboleda-Monsalve, Luis G.; Zapata-Medina, David G.; Aristizabal-Ochoa, J. Darío

    2008-03-01

    The dynamic-stiffness matrix and load vector of a Timoshenko beam-column resting on a two-parameter elastic foundation with generalized end conditions are presented. The proposed model includes the frequency effects on the stiffness matrix and load vector as well as the coupling effects of: (1) bending and shear deformations along the member; (2) translational and rotational lumped masses at both ends; (3) translational and rotational masses uniformly distributed along its span; (3) axial load (tension or compression) applied at both ends; and (4) shear forces along the span induced by the applied axial load as the beam deforms according to the "modified shear equation" proposed by Timoshenko. The dynamic analyses of framed structures can be performed by including the effects of the imposed frequency ( ω>0) on the dynamic-stiffness matrix and load vector while the static and stability analyses can be carried out by making the frequency ω=0. The proposed model and corresponding dynamic-stiffness matrix and load vector represent a general solution capable to solve, just by using a single segment per element, the static, dynamic and stability analyses of any elastic framed structure made of prismatic beam-columns with semi-rigid connections resting on two-parameter elastic foundations. Analytical results indicate that the elastic behavior of framed structures made of beam-columns is frequency dependent and highly sensitive to the coupling effects just mentioned. Three comprehensive examples are presented to show the capacities and validity of the proposed method and the obtained results are compared with the finite element method and other analytical approaches.

  17. Swabbing often fails to detect amphibian Chytridiomycosis under conditions of low infection load.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaehyub Shin

    Full Text Available The pathogenic chytrid fungus, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (denoted Bd, causes large-scale epizootics in naïve amphibian populations. Intervention strategies to rapidly respond to Bd incursions require sensitive and accurate diagnostic methods. Chytridiomycosis usually is assessed by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR amplification of amphibian skin swabs. Results based on this method, however, sometimes yield inconsistent results on infection status and inaccurate scores of infection intensity. In Asia and other regions where amphibians typically bear low Bd loads, swab results are least reliable. We developed a Bd-sampling method that collects zoospores released by infected subjects into an aquatic medium. Bd DNA is extracted by filters and amplified by nested PCR. Using laboratory colonies and field populations of Bombina orientalis, we compare results with those obtained on the same subjects by qPCR of DNA extracted from swabs. Many subjects, despite being diagnosed as Bd-negative by conventional methods, released Bd zoospores into collection containers and thus must be considered infected. Infection loads determined from filtered water were at least 1000 times higher than those estimated from swabs. Subjects significantly varied in infection load, as they intermittently released zoospores, over a 5-day period. Thus, the method might be used to compare the infectivity of individuals and study the periodicity of zoospore release. Sampling methods based on water filtration can dramatically increase the capacity to accurately diagnose chytridiomycosis and contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between Bd and its hosts.

  18. Assessment of thermal load on transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, N S; Ayo, J O

    2012-03-01

    The major factor in the induction of physiological stress during road transportation of livestock is the complex fluctuations of the thermal transport microenvironment, encountered when animals are transported across different ecological zones. Recommended guidelines on optimum "on-board" conditions in which goats should be transported are lacking, and there are no acceptable ranges and limits for the thermal loads to which goats may be subjected during long-distance road transportation in hot-dry conditions. Panting score (PS), rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were employed as reliable stress indices to assess the effects of different thermal loads, measured as temperature humidity index (THI), encountered in the vehicle during 12 h of road transportation of 40 goats, and to suggest the administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA) as an ameliorating agent. The results obtained showed that the PS, RT, HR and RR rose above normal reference values with increase in the THI and journey duration. The rise in PS value, which is a visual indicator of the severity of thermal load, was the most pronounced. The results suggest that values of THI in the vehicle up to 94.6 constitute no risk, while at of 100 it presents a moderate risk and above 100 may result in severe stress. The relationships between the thermal load and the physiological variables were positive and significant (P < 0.05). They reflect the degree of stress imposed by each THI value during the transportation, and may be used as recommended ranges and limit thermal load values in transported goats. The results demonstrated that administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of AA before road transportation mitigated the risk of adverse effects of high THI values and other stress factors due to road transportation in goats.

  19. Assessment of thermal load on transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, N. S.; Ayo, J. O.

    2012-03-01

    The major factor in the induction of physiological stress during road transportation of livestock is the complex fluctuations of the thermal transport microenvironment, encountered when animals are transported across different ecological zones. Recommended guidelines on optimum "on-board" conditions in which goats should be transported are lacking, and there are no acceptable ranges and limits for the thermal loads to which goats may be subjected during long-distance road transportation in hot-dry conditions. Panting score (PS), rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were employed as reliable stress indices to assess the effects of different thermal loads, measured as temperature humidity index (THI), encountered in the vehicle during 12 h of road transportation of 40 goats, and to suggest the administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA) as an ameliorating agent. The results obtained showed that the PS, RT, HR and RR rose above normal reference values with increase in the THI and journey duration. The rise in PS value, which is a visual indicator of the severity of thermal load, was the most pronounced. The results suggest that values of THI in the vehicle up to 94.6 constitute no risk, while at of 100 it presents a moderate risk and above 100 may result in severe stress. The relationships between the thermal load and the physiological variables were positive and significant ( P < 0.05). They reflect the degree of stress imposed by each THI value during the transportation, and may be used as recommended ranges and limit thermal load values in transported goats. The results demonstrated that administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of AA before road transportation mitigated the risk of adverse effects of high THI values and other stress factors due to road transportation in goats.

  20. Canonical single field slow-roll inflation with a non-monotonic tensor

    CERN Document Server

    German, Gabriel; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Sussman, Roberto A

    2015-01-01

    We take a pragmatic, model independent approach to single field slow-roll canonical inflation by imposing conditions, not on the potential, but on the slow-roll parameter $\\epsilon$ and its derivatives $\\epsilon^{\\prime }$ and $\\epsilon^{\\prime\\prime }$, thereby extracting general conditions on the tensor $r$ and the running $n_{sk}$. Of particular interest is a non-monotonic $\\epsilon$ with a maximum where universality conditions are found among the observables. In models with a monotonically increasing $\\epsilon$ the running is expected to be always negative for positive $\\epsilon^{\\prime\\prime }$. To accommodate a large tensor that meets the limiting values allowed by the Planck data, we study a non-monotonic $\\epsilon$ decreasing during most part of inflation. Since at $\\phi_{H}$, at which the perturbations are produced, some $50$ $-$ $60$ $e$-folds before the end of inflation, $\\epsilon$ is increasing, we thus require that $\\epsilon$ develops a maximum for $\\phi > \\phi_{H}$ after which $\\epsilon$ decreas...

  1. X-ray scattering and spectroscopy studies on diesel soot from oxygenated fuel under various engine load conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, Andreas; Shah, N.; Huggins, Frank E.; Kelly, K.E.; Sarofim, A.; Jacobsen, C.; Wirick, S.; Francis, H.; Ilavsky, J.; Thomas, G.E.; Huffman, G.P.

    2005-01-01

    Diesel soot from reference diesel fuel and oxygenated fuel under idle and load engine conditions was investigated with X-ray scattering and X-ray carbon K-edge absorption spectroscopy. Up to five characteristic size ranges were found. Idle soot was generally found to have larger primary particles and aggregates but smaller crystallites, than load soot. Load soot has a higher degree of crystallinity than idle soot. Adding oxygenates to diesel fuel enhanced differences in the characteristics of diesel soot, or even reversed them. Aromaticity of idle soot from oxygenated diesel fuel was significantly larger than from the corresponding load soot. Carbon near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) spectroscopy was applied to gather information about the presence of relative amounts of carbon double bonds (CC, CO) and carbon single bonds (C-H, C-OH, COOH). Using scanning X-ray transmission microspectroscopy (STXM), the relative amounts of these carbon bond states were shown to vary spatially over distances approximately 50 to 100 nm. The results from the X-ray techniques are supported by thermo-gravimetry analysis and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. ?? 2005 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Characterization of failure processes in tungsten copper composites under fatigue loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yong-Suk; Verrilli, Michael J.; Gabb, Timothy P.

    1989-01-01

    A fractographic and metallographic investigation was performed on specimens of a tungsten fiber reinforced copper matrix composite (9 vol percent), which had experienced fatigue failures at elevated temperatures. Major failure modes and possible failure mechanisms, with an emphasis placed on characterizing fatigue damage accumulation, were determined. Metallography of specimens fatigued under isothermal cyclic loading suggested that fatigue damage initiates in the matrix. Cracks nucleated within the copper matrix at grain boundaries, and they propagated through cavity coalescence. The growing cracks subsequently interacted with the reinforcing tungsten fibers, producing a localized ductile fiber failure. Examinations of interrupted tests before final failure confirmed the suggested fatigue damage processes.

  3. Influence of different SSF conditions on ethanol production from corn stover at high solids loadings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gladis, Arne; Bondesson, Pia-Maria; Galbe, Mats

    2015-01-01

    In this study, three different kinds of simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) of washed pretreated corn stover with water-insoluble solids (WIS) content of 20% were investigated to find which one resulted in highest ethanol yield at high-solids loadings. The different methods were...... batch SSF, prehydrolysis followed by batch SSF and fed-batch SSF. Batch-SSF resulted in an ethanol yield of 75-76% and an ethanol concentration of 53 g/L. Prehydrolysis prior to batch SSF did not improve the ethanol yield compared with batch SSF. Fedbatch SSF, on the other hand, increased the yield...

  4. The effect of PTH(1-34) on fracture healing during different loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ellegaard, Maria; Kringelbach, Tina; Syberg, Susanne

    2013-01-01

    . Five days before fracture, half of the animals received Botulinum Toxin A injections in the muscles of the fractured leg to induce muscle paralysis (unloaded group), whereas the other half received saline injections (control group). For the following 8 weeks, half of the animals in each group received...... and control animals. PTH(1-34) treatment increased ultimate force of the fracture by 63% in both control and unloaded animals and no interaction of the two interventions could be detected. PTH(1-34) was able to stimulate bone formation in normally loaded as well as unloaded intact bone. In conclusion...

  5. Mechanism of Friction and Wear in MoS2 and ZDDP/F-PTFE Greases under Spectrum Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujay D. Bagi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Two different greases formulated using MoS2 and a combination of ZDDP and functionalized PTFE (F-PTFE were examined under spectrum loading conditions where loads, frequency, and duration of the steps were treated as variables. Combination of ZDDP and F-PTFE were synergistic resulting in a significant reduction in the wear and friction under spectrum loading condition. Decreasing the time step during the ramp up and ramp down cycles resulted in larger wear for the grease containing MoS2 particles in comparison to ZDDP/F-PTFE in grease. The tribofilm formed on the surface was analyzed using various characterization techniques like SEM, EDS, and Stereo Optical Microscopy. Tribofilms from MoS2 additives had extensive amounts of abrasive and adhesive wear and showed the formation of MoS2 on the surface on the other hand the tribofilms from ZDDP/F-PTFE had smaller amounts of severe wear and exhibited patchy tribofilms of Zn-phosphates as well as sulfides of Zn and Fe.

  6. Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bache, Peter Arendorf; Laugesen, Anders

    for the industry composition. The latter phenomenon is dened as rst-order stochastic dominance shifts in the equilibrium distributions of all activities across active rms. We provide sucient conditions for MCS at both levels of analysis and show that we may have either type of MCS without the other....... It is therefore possible that rm-level complementarities manifest themselves more clearly at the industry level than at the rm level during comparative statics. This turns out to be the case for a large number of models and shocks considered in the recent trade literature for which we provide strong, novel...

  7. Experimental study of ELM-like heat loading on beryllium under ITER operational conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spilker, B.; Linke, J.; Pintsuk, G.; Wirtz, M.

    2016-02-01

    The experimental fusion reactor ITER, currently under construction in Cadarache, France, is transferring the nuclear fusion research to the power plant scale. ITER’s first wall (FW), armoured by beryllium, is subjected to high steady state and transient power loads. Transient events like edge localized modes not only deposit power densities of up to 1.0 GW m-2 for 0.2-0.5 ms in the divertor of the machine, but also affect the FW to a considerable extent. Therefore, a detailed study was performed, in which transient power loads with absorbed power densities of up to 1.0 GW m-2 were applied by the electron beam facility JUDITH 1 on beryllium specimens at base temperatures of up to 300 °C. The induced damage was evaluated by means of scanning electron microscopy and laser profilometry. As a result, the observed damage was highly dependent on the base temperatures and absorbed power densities. In addition, five different classes of damage, ranging from ‘no damage’ to ‘crack network plus melting’, were defined and used to locate the damage, cracking, and melting thresholds within the tested parameter space.

  8. Estimating monotonic rates from biological data using local linear regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olito, Colin; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J; Barneche, Diego R

    2017-03-01

    Accessing many fundamental questions in biology begins with empirical estimation of simple monotonic rates of underlying biological processes. Across a variety of disciplines, ranging from physiology to biogeochemistry, these rates are routinely estimated from non-linear and noisy time series data using linear regression and ad hoc manual truncation of non-linearities. Here, we introduce the R package LoLinR, a flexible toolkit to implement local linear regression techniques to objectively and reproducibly estimate monotonic biological rates from non-linear time series data, and demonstrate possible applications using metabolic rate data. LoLinR provides methods to easily and reliably estimate monotonic rates from time series data in a way that is statistically robust, facilitates reproducible research and is applicable to a wide variety of research disciplines in the biological sciences. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  9. Monotone traveling wavefronts of the KPP-Fisher delayed equation

    CERN Document Server

    Gomez, Adrian

    2010-01-01

    In the early 2000's, Gourley (2000), Wu et al. (2001), Ashwin et al. (2002) initiated the study of the positive wavefronts in the delayed Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation. Since then, this model has become one of the most popular objects in the studies of traveling waves for the monostable delayed reaction-diffusion equations. In this paper, we give a complete solution to the problem of existence and uniqueness of monotone waves in the KPP-Fisher equation. We show that each monotone traveling wave can be found via an iteration procedure. The proposed approach is based on the use of special monotone integral operators (which are different from the usual Wu-Zou operator) and appropriate upper and lower solutions associated to them. The analysis of the asymptotic expansions of the eventual traveling fronts at infinity is another key ingredient of our approach.

  10. Monotonic and Cyclic Behavior of DIN 34CrNiMo6 Tempered Alloy Steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Branco

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at studying the monotonic and cyclic plastic deformation behavior of DIN 34CrNiMo6 high strength steel. Monotonic and low-cycle fatigue tests are conducted in ambient air, at room temperature, using standard 8-mm diameter specimens. The former tests are carried out under position control with constant displacement rate. The latter are performed under fully-reversed strain-controlled conditions, using the single-step test method, with strain amplitudes lying between ±0.4% and ±2.0%. After the tests, the fracture surfaces are examined by scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize the surface morphologies and identify the main failure mechanisms. Regardless of the strain amplitude, a softening behavior was observed throughout the entire life. Total strain energy density, defined as the sum of both tensile elastic and plastic strain energies, was revealed to be an adequate fatigue damage parameter for short and long lives.

  11. Robust Monotonically Convergent Iterative Learning Control for Discrete-Time Systems via Generalized KYP Lemma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Ding

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of P-type iterative learning control for a class of multiple-input multiple-output linear discrete-time systems, whose aim is to develop robust monotonically convergent control law design over a finite frequency range. It is shown that the 2 D iterative learning control processes can be taken as 1 D state space model regardless of relative degree. With the generalized Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov lemma applied, it is feasible to describe the monotonically convergent conditions with the help of linear matrix inequality technique and to develop formulas for the control gain matrices design. An extension to robust control law design against systems with structured and polytopic-type uncertainties is also considered. Two numerical examples are provided to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.

  12. Generalized monotone method and numerical approach for coupled reaction diffusion systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sowmya, M.; Vatsala, Aghalaya S.

    2017-01-01

    Study of coupled reaction diffusion systems are very useful in various branches of science and engineering. In this paper, we provide a methodology to construct the solution for the coupled reaction diffusion systems, with initial and boundary conditions, where the forcing function is the sum of an increasing and decreasing function. It is known that the generalized monotone method coupled with coupled lower and upper solutions yield monotone sequences which converges uniformly and monotonically to coupled minimal and maximal solutions. In addition, the interval of existence is guaranteed by the lower and upper solutions, which are relatively easy to compute. Using the lower and upper solutions as the initial approximation, we develop a method to compute the sequence of coupled lower and upper solutions on the interval or on the desired interval of existence. Further, if the uniqueness conditions are satisfied, the coupled minimal and maximal solutions converge to the unique solution of the reaction diffusion systems. We will provide some numerical results as an application of our numerical methodology.

  13. A structural colour ornament correlates positively with parasite load and body condition in an insular lizard species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Megía-Palma, Rodrigo; Martínez, Javier; Merino, Santiago

    2016-08-01

    Pigment-based ornaments in vertebrates may reflect the body condition or health status of the individual in correlation with environmental stress and hormonal balance. Among the environmental factors shaping sexual colouration, parasitic infections have been stressed as an important evolutionary pressure constraining the maintenance of pigment-based ornaments. However, the honesty of structure-based ornaments in vertebrates is still under debate. Structural UV-biased ornaments in Gallotia lizards were described as a trait used by conspecifics during mate and rival assessment suggesting the reliability of these signals. We investigated the relationship between parasitaemia, body condition and a structural-based ornament present in the cheek of the sexually dichromatic Canarian lacertid Gallotia galloti in a population with an almost 100 % prevalence of haemoparasites. Using spectrophotometric techniques, we found that males with higher values of cheek UV chroma were infected with more haemoparasites. No significant relationship was found between haemoparasite load and body condition. However, males with higher cheek UV chroma showed significantly better body condition. In addition, we found that cheek hue was significantly related to body condition of individuals in both sexes. In males, cheek reflectivity biased towards the UV range was significantly related to better body condition. In females, those individuals with better body condition showed more whitish cheeks with less UV suggesting that cheek hue serves as an intersexual signal for sex recognition. We conclude that the positive relationship between cheek chroma and parasite load in male lizards is compatible with both differential density of melanin and iridophore arrangement in the dermis conveying an individual's ability to cope with environmental stress.

  14. Study and simulation of irradiated zirconium alloys fracture under type RIA accidental loading conditions; Comprehension et modelisation de la rupture d'alliages de zirconium irradies en conditions accidentelles de type RIA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Saux, M. [CEA Saclay, Dept. des Materiaux pour le Nucleaire (DEN/DANS/DMN/SEMI), 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette (France)

    2008-07-01

    The thesis aims to study and simulate the mechanical behavior under Reactivity Initiated Accident loading conditions, of the Zircaloy 4 fuel claddings, irradiated or not. It also aims to characterize and simulate the behavior and the fracture under RIA loading conditions of hydrided Zircaloy 4 non irradiated. This study proposes an experimental approach and a simulation. (A.L.B.)

  15. Monotone viable trajectories for functional differential inclusions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haddad, Georges

    This paper is a study on functional differential inclusions with memory which represent the multivalued version of retarded functional differential equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient equations. The main result gives a necessary and sufficient condition ensuring the existence of viable trajectories; that means trajectories remaining in a given nonempty closed convex set defined by given constraints the system must satisfy to be viable. Some motivations for this paper can be found in control theory where F( t, φ) = { f( t, φ, u)} uɛU is the set of possible velocities of the system at time t, depending on the past history represented by the function φ and on a control u ranging over a set U of controls. Other motivations can be found in planning procedures in microeconomics and in biological evolutions where problems with memory do effectively appear in a multivalued version. All these models require viability constraints represented by a closed convex set.

  16. Monotone data visualization using rational trigonometric spline interpolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibraheem, Farheen; Hussain, Maria; Hussain, Malik Zawwar

    2014-01-01

    Rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric schemes are developed to conserve monotonicity of curve and surface data, respectively. The rational cubic function has four parameters in each subinterval, while the rational bicubic partially blended function has eight parameters in each rectangular patch. The monotonicity of curve and surface data is retained by developing constraints on some of these parameters in description of rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric functions. The remaining parameters are kept free to modify the shape of curve and surface if required. The developed algorithm is verified mathematically and demonstrated graphically.

  17. Monotone Data Visualization Using Rational Trigonometric Spline Interpolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farheen Ibraheem

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric schemes are developed to conserve monotonicity of curve and surface data, respectively. The rational cubic function has four parameters in each subinterval, while the rational bicubic partially blended function has eight parameters in each rectangular patch. The monotonicity of curve and surface data is retained by developing constraints on some of these parameters in description of rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric functions. The remaining parameters are kept free to modify the shape of curve and surface if required. The developed algorithm is verified mathematically and demonstrated graphically.

  18. Vector optimization and monotone operators via convex duality recent advances

    CERN Document Server

    Grad, Sorin-Mihai

    2014-01-01

    This book investigates several duality approaches for vector optimization problems, while also comparing them. Special attention is paid to duality for linear vector optimization problems, for which a vector dual that avoids the shortcomings of the classical ones is proposed. Moreover, the book addresses different efficiency concepts for vector optimization problems. Among the problems that appear when the framework is generalized by considering set-valued functions, an increasing interest is generated by those involving monotone operators, especially now that new methods for approaching them by means of convex analysis have been developed. Following this path, the book provides several results on different properties of sums of monotone operators.

  19. Normalized performance and load data for the deepwind demonstrator in controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Battisti

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Performance and load normalized coefficients, deriving from an experimental campaign of measurements conducted at the large scale wind tunnel of the Politecnico di Milano (Italy, are presented with the aim of providing useful benchmark data for the validation of numerical codes. Rough data, derived from real scale measurements on a three-bladed Troposkien vertical-axis wind turbine, are manipulated in a convenient form to be easily compared with the typical outputs provided by simulation codes. The here proposed data complement and support the measurements already presented in “Wind Tunnel Testing of the DeepWind Demonstrator in Design and Tilted Operating Conditions” (Battisti et al., 2016 [1].

  20. Examination of the damage and failure response of tantalum and copper under varied shock loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis - Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray Ill, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Neil [AWE-ALDERMASTON

    2010-12-16

    A number of plate impact experiments have been conducted on high purity polycrystalline tantalum and copper samples using graded flyer plate configurations to alter the loading profile. These experiments are designed in a way so that a broad range of damage regimes are probed. The results show that the nucleation of damage primarily occurs at the grain boundaries of the materials. This affords us the opportunity to propose a porosity damage nucleation criterion which begins to account for the length scales of the microstructure (grain size distribution) and the mechanical response of the grain boundary regions (failure stress distribution). This is done in the context of a G-T-N type model for the ductile damage and failure response of both the materials examined. The role of micro-inertial effects on the porosity growth process is also considered.

  1. Examination of the damage and failure response of tantalum and copper under varied shock loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronkhorst, Curt A [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Dennis - Koller, Darcie [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Cerreta, Ellen K [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Gray Ill, George T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Bourne, Neil [AWE-ALDERMASTON

    2010-12-16

    A number of plate impact experiments have been conducted on high purity polycrystalline tantalum and copper samples using graded flyer plate configurations to alter the loading profile. These experiments are designed in a way so that a broad range of damage regimes are probed. The results show that the nucleation of damage primarily occurs at the grain boundaries of the materials. This affords us the opportunity to propose a porosity damage nucleation criterion which begins to account for the length scales of the microstructure (grain size distribution) and the mechanical response of the grain boundary regions (failure stress distribution). This is done in the context of a G-T-N type model for the ductile damage and failure response of both the materials examined. The role of micro-inertial effects on the porosity growth process is also considered.

  2. Bed load size distribution and flow conditions in a high mountain catchment of Central Pyrenees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martínez-Castroviejo, Ricardo

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available The bed load size distribution caused by different types of flow are compared in a high mountain catchment located in the upper Gallego river basin (Central Spanish’ Pyrenees. Three kinds of hydrologic events could be defined: those triggered by heavy autumn rainfalls, those originated by isolated summer rainstorms and those promoted by snowmelting. Each one is characterized by a peculiar bed load size distribution. Thus, it could be demonstrated that the coarser fractions, above 30 mm in diameter, are up to six times more abundant, in percentage of total weight, in transports caused by heavy rainfalls than in the material collected after snowmelt flows. In its turn, bed load mobilized by snowmelt flows is mainly composed by medium and fine gravel, from 2 to 8 mm. These may amount up to 60 % of total weight of bed load. The reasons for these so different size distributions are discussed.

    [es] En una cuenca de alta montaña localizada en el alto valle del río Gallego (Pirineo central se comparan las distribuciones por tamaños de los acarreos movilizados por diferentes tipos de caudal. Tres tipos de eventos hidrológicos han podido ser caracterizados: los ocasionados por intensas lluvias de otoño, los originados por tormentas estivales aisladas y los producidos por la fusión de la nieve acumulada durante el invierno. Se concluye que cada uno de ellos lleva asociada una distribución por tamaños típica de la carga de fondo. Así, se ha comprobado que las fracciones más gruesas consideradas -superiores a los 30 mm de diámetro- son hasta seis veces más abundantes -en porcentaje sobre el peso total- en las exportaciones causadas por lluvias de gran intensidad que en las generadas por caudales de fusión. A su vez, las descargas ocasionadas por la fusión arrastran principalmente gravas de calibre medio y fino -entre 2y8 mm- que llegan a suponer el 60 % en peso del volumen movilizado. Este artículo discute las razones que provocan

  3. Structure and properties of loaded silica contacts during pressure solution: impedance spectroscopy measurements under hydrothermal conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noort, R. van; Spiers, C.J.; Peach, C.J.

    2011-01-01

    In order to investigate directly the structure and properties of grain boundaries in silicatematerials undergoing pressure solution, in situmeasurements of these properties are required. We report electrical impedance spectroscopy measurements, performed, under hydrothermal conditions,

  4. Universal, non-monotonic structure in the saturation curves of a linear Paul trap

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, James; Kwolek, Jonathan; Goodman, Douglas; Blümel, Reinhold; Smith, Winthrop

    2016-05-01

    A common technique to measure ion-atom collision rates in a hybrid trap if the ions have no optical transitions (e.g. alkalis) is to monitor the fluorescence of the neutrals in the presence of a saturated linear Paul trap (LPT). We present numerical simulations, analytical calculations, and experimental results that show that the steady-state ion capacity of an LPT, Ns, exhibits nonlinear, nonmonotonic behavior as a function of ion loading rate, Λ. The steady state as a function of loading rate, Ns(Λ) , shows four distinct regions. In Region I, at the lowest Λ, Ns(Λ) increases monotonically. Then, Ns(Λ) reaches a plateau in Region II, before decreasing to a local minimum in Region III. Finally, in Region IV, Ns(Λ) once again increases monotonically. This behavior appears universal to any Paul trap, regardless of geometry or species trapped. We examine this behavior experimentally as a function of the q stability parameter of the Paul trap and simulate numerically the effect of the particular trap geometry on the onset of each of the four regions. Funding from NSF Grant PHY-1307874.

  5. Effect of loading condition, specimen geometry, size-effect and softening function on double- fracture parameters of concrete

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Shailendra Kumar; S V Barai

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents numerical investigation of the influence of the specimen geometry, loading condition, size-effect and softening function of concrete on double- fracture parameters. The input data needed for computation of the double- fracture parameters are obtained from the well-known version of Fictitious Crack Model (FCM). FCM is developed for three standard specimens: three-point bend test, compact tension specimen and four-point bend test of size range 100–600 mm at relative size of initial crack length 0.3. The analysis of numerical results shows some interesting behaviour of double- fracture parameters.

  6. Steady and Unsteady Casingwall Flow Phenomena in a Single-Stage Low-Speed Compressor at Part-Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Saathoff

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available This article describes an investigation of the casingwall flow phenomena in a single-stage, axial-flow, low-speed compressor at part-load conditions, utilizing an oil-flow technique to visualize the boundary layer development and highfrequency sensors to measure ensemble-averaged velocity and flow-angle distributions as well as unsteady total pressure distributions. Representative results are shown and discussed. The results enable different sources of endwall blockage to be identified and changes with flow rate to be determined.

  7. Evaluation of ADCP apparent bed load velocity in a large sand-bed river: Moving versus stationary boat conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, E.C.; Rennie, C.D.; Jacobson, R.B.; Townsend, R.D.

    2011-01-01

    Detailed mapping of bathymetry and apparent bed load velocity using a boat-mounted acoustic Doppler current profiler (ADCP) was carried out along a 388-m section of the lower Missouri River near Columbia, Missouri. Sampling transects (moving boat) were completed at 5- and 20-m spacing along the study section. Stationary (fixed-boat) measurements were made by maintaining constant boat position over a target point where the position of the boat did not deviate more than 3 m in any direction. For each transect and stationary measurement, apparent bed load velocity (vb) was estimated using ADCP bottom tracking data and high precision real-time kinematic (RTK) global positioning system (GPS). The principal objectives of this research are to (1) determine whether boat motion introduces a bias in apparent bed load velocity measurements; and (2) evaluate the reliability of ADCP bed velocity measurements for a range of sediment transport environments. Results indicate that both high transport (vb>0.6 m/s) and moving-boat conditions (for both high and low transport environments) increase the relative variability in estimates of mean bed velocity. Despite this, the spatially dense single-transect measurements were capable of producing detailed bed velocity maps that correspond closely with the expected pattern of sediment transport over large dunes. ?? 2011 American Society of Civil Engineers.

  8. [Modelling of the knee joint loading conditions in the view of mechanics].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pustovoĭt, K B; Karpins'kyĭ, M Iu

    2013-02-01

    The results of mathematic modelling of work of femoropatellar joint in normal conditions and in the presence of dysplastic deformity were adduced. There was established, that a knee joint (KJ) by its external appearance and function constitutes a classic cam mechanism. Biomechanical scheme of interaction between the femoral bone processus and patella was elaborated. In accordance to scheme of cam mechanism its experimental roentgenometric investigations were performed. According to statistical analysis performed, in conditions of dysplasia in femoropatellar joint the changes in the KJ occur, which may cause its blockade; the patella position in the KJ depends on peculiarities of anatomical structure of the femoral bone processuses.

  9. Hybrid Proximal-Point Methods for Zeros of Maximal Monotone Operators, Variational Inequalities and Mixed Equilibrium Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kriengsak Wattanawitoon

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available We prove strong and weak convergence theorems of modified hybrid proximal-point algorithms for finding a common element of the zero point of a maximal monotone operator, the set of solutions of equilibrium problems, and the set of solution of the variational inequality operators of an inverse strongly monotone in a Banach space under different conditions. Moreover, applications to complementarity problems are given. Our results modify and improve the recently announced ones by Li and Song (2008 and many authors.

  10. Does Computer-Assisted Femur First THR Improve Musculoskeletal Loading Conditions?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tim A. Weber

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a novel, computer-assisted operation method for minimal-invasive total hip replacement (THR following the concept of “femur first/combined anteversion,” which incorporates various aspects of performing a functional optimization of the prosthetic stem and cup position (CAS FF. The purpose of this study is to assess whether the hip joint reaction forces and patient’s gait parameters are being improved by CAS FF in relation to conventional THR (CON. We enrolled 60 patients (28 CAS FF/32 CON and invited them for gait analysis at three time points (preoperatively, postop six months, and postop 12 months. Data retrieved from gait analysis was processed using patient-specific musculoskeletal models. The target parameters were hip reaction force magnitude (hrf, symmetries, and orientation with respect to the cup. Hrf in the CAS FF group were closer to a young healthy normal. Phase-shift symmetry showed an increase in the CAS FF group. Hrf orientation in the CAS FF group was closer to optimum, though no edge or rim-loading occurred in the CON group as well. The CAS FF group showed an improved hrf orientation in an early stage and a trend to an improved long-term outcome.

  11. Wind-wave affected phosphate loading variations and their relationship to redox condition in Lake Taihu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Variation of wind speed and the physico-chemical parameters, such as dissolved phosphate, ferrous and manganese in lake water were observed on site. Together with the chemistry analysis and simulated experiment in lab, the change of phosphate concentration in lake water was analyzed. The variation of ferrous/phosphate ratio explained that along with the enhancement of wind-wave effect and the oxidation ability of lake water, the effects of co-precipitation and removal of dissolved phosphate and iron in the lake water were reinforced. The ferrous/phosphate ratio in pore water was less than 2.0, demonstrating that the dissolved phosphate can be released into the overlying water. But, in the lake water, the stability of phosphate was controlled by the water dynamics.The phosphate release experiment showed that molecular release was only part of the whole and the direct discharge of phosphate in the pore water was also a part. The mineralization and biological process of suspended particulates in the water may be another important reason for the whole phosphate loadings.

  12. Proposal for progressive loading of the hip abductors under mechanically unstable conditions: An electromyography study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nejc Sarabon

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to test the effect of the stance width and asymmetry on muscle activation patterns during balancing on a tilt board. Eleven young healthy volunteers took part in the tests. After the standardized warm-up and customization protocol had been carried out, they balanced five times for 60 seconds on a tilt board, using a different foot position each time - (i wide symmetrical, (ii narrow symmetrical, (iii moderate asymmetrical, (iv extreme asymmetrical, and (v single leg. Pair of electromyographic electrodes was glued over the gluteus medius muscle on both sides from which signals were acquired. The average values of the pre-processed signals were normalized and quantified. Repeated measures analysis of variance and t-tests revealed a systematic effect of the foot positions on the amount of the gluteus medius activation. Its activation was significantly increased in both asymmetrical stances when the foot was moved closer to the tilt board`s axis of rotation and most prominently when the single leg stance was used. These results point out the importance of the foot positioning for the actual muscle function while balancing on a tilt board. We believe that different levels of feet positioning asymmetry should be used for gradual loading of the extremity and for provoking activity in hip side stabilizers.

  13. Damping efficiency of the Tchamwa-Wielgosz explicit dissipative scheme under instantaneous loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahéo, Laurent; Grolleau, Vincent; Rio, Gérard

    2009-11-01

    To deal with dynamic and wave propagation problems, dissipative methods are often used to reduce the effects of the spurious oscillations induced by the spatial and time discretization procedures. Among the many dissipative methods available, the Tchamwa-Wielgosz (TW) explicit scheme is particularly useful because it damps out the spurious oscillations occurring in the highest frequency domain. The theoretical study performed here shows that the TW scheme is decentered to the right, and that the damping can be attributed to a nodal displacement perturbation. The FEM study carried out using instantaneous 1-D and 3-D compression loads shows that it is useful to display the damping versus the number of time steps in order to obtain a constant damping efficiency whatever the size of element used for the regular meshing. A study on the responses obtained with irregular meshes shows that the TW scheme is only slightly sensitive to the spatial discretization procedure used. To cite this article: L. Mahéo et al., C. R. Mecanique 337 (2009).

  14. Tool life prediction under multi-cycle loading conditions: A feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan Xi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present research, the friction and wear behaviour of a hard coating were studied by using ball-on-disc tests to simulate the wear process of the coated tools for sheet metal forming process. The evolution of the friction coefficient followed a typical dual-plateau pattern, i.e. at the initial stage of sliding, the friction coefficient was relatively low, followed by a sharp increase due to the breakdown of the coatings after a certain number of cyclic dynamic loadings. This phenomenon was caused by the interactive response between the friction and wear from a coating tribo-system, which has not been addressed so far by metal forming researchers, and constant friction coefficient values are normally used in the FE simulations to represent the complex tribological nature at the contact interfaces. Meanwhile, most of the current FE simulations are single cycle, whereas most sheet metal forming operations are conducted as multi-cycle. Therefore, a novel friction/wear interactive friction model was developed to, simultaneously, characterise the evolutions of friction coefficient and the remaining thickness of the coating layer, to enable the wear life of coated tooling to be predicted. The friction model was then implemented into the FE simulation of a sheet metal forming process for feasibility study.

  15. MONOTONE ITERATION FOR ELLIPTIC PDEs WITH DISCONTINUOUS NONLINEAR TERMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zou Qingsong

    2005-01-01

    In this paper, we use monotone iterative techniques to show the existence of maximal or minimal solutions of some elliptic PDEs with nonlinear discontinuous terms. As the numerical analysis of this PDEs is concerned, we prove the convergence of discrete extremal solutions.

  16. Modeling non-monotone risk aversion using SAHARA utility functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. Chen; A. Pelsser; M. Vellekoop

    2011-01-01

    We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the distinguishing feature that it allows absolute risk aversion to be non-monotone and implements the assumption that agents may become less risk averse for very low values of wealth. The class contains the well-known exponential and

  17. On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciepliński Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the functional equation , , where are closed intervals, and , are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.

  18. A monotonic method for solving nonlinear optimal control problems

    CERN Document Server

    Salomon, Julien

    2009-01-01

    Initially introduced in the framework of quantum control, the so-called monotonic algorithms have shown excellent numerical results when dealing with various bilinear optimal control problems. This paper aims at presenting a unified formulation of such procedures and the intrinsic assumptions they require. In this framework, we prove the feasibility of the general algorithm. Finally, we explain how these assumptions can be relaxed.

  19. On Some Conjectures on the Monotonicity of Some Arithmetical Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    THE MONOTONICITY OF SOME ARITHMETICAL SEQUENCES ∗ Florian Luca † Centro de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, C.P. 58089...visit of P. S. to the Centro de Ciencias Matemáticas de la UNAM in Morelia in August 2012. During the preparation of this paper, F. L. was supported in

  20. Interval Routing and Minor-Monotone Graph Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.M.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Tan, R.B.; Leeuwen, J. van

    2006-01-01

    We survey a number of minor-monotone graph parameters and their relationship to the complexity of routing on graphs. In particular we compare the interval routing parameters κslir(G) and κsir(G) with Colin de Verdi`ere’s graph invariant μ(G) and its variants λ(G) and κ(G). We show that for all the k

  1. Multivariate Regression with Monotone Missing Observation of the Dependent Variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.; van der Genugten, B.B.; Moors, J.J.A.

    2002-01-01

    Multivariate regression is discussed, where the observations of the dependent variables are (monotone) missing completely at random; the explanatory variables are assumed to be completely observed.We discuss OLS-, GLS- and a certain form of E(stimated) GLS-estimation.It turns out that

  2. Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games and Population Monotonic Allocation Schemes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Norde, H.W.; Moretti, S.; Tijs, S.H.

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we present the Subtraction Algorithm that computes for every classical minimum cost spanning tree game a population monotonic allocation scheme.As a basis for this algorithm serves a decomposition theorem that shows that every minimum cost spanning tree game can be written as nonnegati

  3. Monotone missing data and repeated controls of fallible authors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raats, V.M.

    2004-01-01

    Chapters 2 and 3 focus on repeated audit controls with categorical variables. Chapter 4 and 5 introduce and analyse a very general multivariate regression model for (monotone) missing data. In the final Chapter 6 the previous chapters are combined into a more realistic model for repeated audit contr

  4. A POTENTIAL REDUCTION ALGORITHM FOR MONOTONE VARIATIONAL INEQUALITY PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A potential reduction algorithm is proposed for the solution of monotone variational inequality problems. At each step of the algorithm, a system of linear equations is solved to get the search direction and the Armijo's rule is used to determine the stepsize.It is proved that the algorithm is globally convergent. Computational results are reported.

  5. Incorporating "Unconscious Reanalysis" into an Incremental, Monotonic Parser

    CERN Document Server

    Sturt, P

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes an implementation based on a recent model in the psycholinguistic literature. We define a parsing operation which allows the reanalysis of dependencies within an incremental and monotonic processing architecture, and discuss search strategies for its application in a head-initial language (English) and a head-final language (Japanese).

  6. Interval Routing and Minor-Monotone Graph Parameters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, E.M.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Tan, R.B.; Leeuwen, J. van

    2006-01-01

    We survey a number of minor-monotone graph parameters and their relationship to the complexity of routing on graphs. In particular we compare the interval routing parameters κslir(G) and κsir(G) with Colin de Verdi`ere’s graph invariant μ(G) and its variants λ(G) and κ(G). We show that for all the

  7. Reasoning Biases, Non-Monotonic Logics, and Belief Revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dutilh Novaes, Catarina; Veluwenkamp, Herman

    2017-01-01

    A range of formal models of human reasoning have been proposed in a number of fields such as philosophy, logic, artificial intelligence, computer science, psychology, cognitive science etc.: various logics (epistemic logics; non-monotonic logics), probabilistic systems (most notably, but not exclusi

  8. Connection and disconnection transients for micro-grids under unbalance load condition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rocabert, J.; Azevedo, Gustavo M.S.; Candela, I.

    2011-01-01

    The recent grid integration of Distributed Energy Resources (DER) possibility the formation of intentional islands in the case of a grid fault conditions. For such island formation is required an active agent capable of governing the micro-grid connection state in a safe mode, especially in conne...

  9. Uniqueness conditions for constrained three-way factor decompositions with linearly dependent loadings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stegeman, Alwin; De Almeida, Andre L. F.

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we derive uniqueness conditions for a constrained version of the parallel factor (Parafac) decomposition, also known as canonical decomposition (Candecomp). Candecomp/Parafac (CP) decomposes a three-way array into a prespecified number of outer product arrays. The constraint is that

  10. Probabilistic Studies on Seismic Fragility of Different Pipe Sizes Based on Monotonic Experimental Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BuSeog Ju

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the seismic fragility of piping systems based on monotonic experimental tests. The fragility, conditional probability of failure for a given level of intensity measure, generally used to evaluate the structural safety and indentify the fault tree with respect to seismically induced failures. The nonlinear FE models of threaded T-joint systems based on monotonic experimental results were developed in OpenSees, using the ElasticPPGap material. In order to evaluate the seismic fragility of Tjoint piping systems, 1-inch and 2-inch threaded T-joint systems, were incorporated with main hospital piping system, and multiple nonlinear time history analyses related to Monte Carlo simulation were conducted. Consequently, seismic fragility of piping system at 1-inch and 2-inch threaded T-joint connections corresponding to ductility level was developed. It was interesting to observe that 2-inch threaded T-joint was more fragile rather than 1-inch threaded T-joint, based on the nonlinear FE model by monotonic tests and also location 1 was more fragile rather than location 2 for both 1-inch and 2-inch T-joint.

  11. Almost monotonicity formulas for elliptic and parabolic operators with variable coefficients

    KAUST Repository

    Matevosyan, Norayr

    2010-10-21

    In this paper we extend the results of Caffarelli, Jerison, and Kenig [Ann. of Math. (2)155 (2002)] and Caffarelli and Kenig [Amer. J. Math.120 (1998)] by establishing an almost monotonicity estimate for pairs of continuous functions satisfying u± ≥ 0 Lu± ≥ -1, u+ · u_ = 0 ;in an infinite strip (global version) or a finite parabolic cylinder (localized version), where L is a uniformly parabolic operator Lu = LA,b,cu := div(A(x, s)∇u) + b(x,s) · ∇u + c(x,s)u - δsu with double Dini continuous A and uniformly bounded b and c. We also prove the elliptic counterpart of this estimate.This closes the gap between the known conditions in the literature (both in the elliptic and parabolic case) imposed on u± in order to obtain an almost monotonicity estimate.At the end of the paper, we demonstrate how to use this new almost monotonicity formula to prove the optimal C1,1-regularity in a fairly general class of quasi-linear obstacle-type free boundary problems. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Positive Steady States of a Prey-predator Model with Diffusion and Non-monotone Conversion Rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rui PENG; Ming Xin WANG; Wen Yan CHEN

    2007-01-01

    In this paper,we study the positive steady states of a prey-predator model with di .usion throughout and a non-monotone conversion rate under the homogeneous Dirichlet boundary condition. We obtain some results of the existence and non-existence of positive steady states.The stability and uniqueness of positive steady states are also discussed.

  13. H∞ approach to monotonically convergent ILC for uncertain time-varying delay systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Deyuan; Jia, Yingmin; Du, Junping

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with iterative learning control (ILC) design for uncertain time-delay systems. Monotonic convergence of the resulting ILC process is studied, and a sufficient condition within an H∞-based framework is developed. It is shown that under this framework, delay-dependent conditions can be obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), together with formulas for gain matrices design. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the robust H∞-based approach to ILC designed via LMIs.

  14. Microbial Diversity and Parasitic Load in Tropical Fish of Different Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennersdorf, Philipp; Kleinertz, Sonja; Theisen, Stefan; Abdul-Aziz, Muslihudeen A; Mrotzek, Grit; Palm, Harry W; Saluz, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    In this study we analysed fecal bacterial communities and parasites of three important Indonesian fish species, Epinephelus fuscoguttatus, Epinephelus sexfasciatus and Atule mate. We then compared the biodiversity of bacterial communities and parasites of these three fish species collected in highly polluted Jakarta Bay with those collected in less polluted Indonesian areas of Cilacap (E. sexfasciatus, A. mate) and Thousand Islands (E. fuscoguttatus). In addition, E. fuscoguttatus from net cages in an open water mariculture facility was compared with free living E. fuscoguttatus from its surroundings. Both core and shared microbiomes were investigated. Our results reveal that, while the core microbiomes of all three fish species were composed of fairly the same classes of bacteria, the proportions of these bacterial classes strongly varied. The microbial composition of phylogenetically distant fish species, i.e. A. mate and E. sexfasciatus from Jakarta Bay and Cilacap were more closely related than the microbial composition of more phylogentically closer species, i.e. E. fuscoguttatus, E. sexfasciatus from Jakarta Bay, Cilacap and Thousand Islands. In addition, we detected a weak negative correlation between the load of selected bacterial pathogens, i.e. Vibrio sp. and Photobacterium sp. and the number of endoparasites. In the case of Flavobacterium sp. the opposite was observed, i.e. a weak positive correlation. Of the three recorded pathogenic bacterial genera, Vibrio sp. was commonly found in E. fuscoguttatus from mariculture, and lessly in the vicinity of the net cages and rarely in the fishes from the heavily polluted waters from Jakarta Bay. Flavobacterium sp. showed higher counts in mariculture fish and Photobacteria sp. was the most prominent in fish inside and close to the net cages.

  15. Preparation and Evaluations of Mangiferin-Loaded PLGA Scaffolds for Alveolar Bone Repair Treatment Under the Diabetic Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hao; Liao, Hongbing; Bao, Chongyun; Xiao, Yu; Wang, Qi

    2017-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to prepare and evaluate a sustained-release mangiferin scaffold for improving alveolar bone defect repair in diabetes. Mangiferin-loaded poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) scaffolds were prepared using a freeze-drying technique with ice particles as the porogen material. The produced scaffolds were examined using a scanning electron microscope (SEM). Drug content and drug release were detected using a spectrophotometer. Degradation behaviors were monitored as a measure of weight loss and examined using SEM. Then, the scaffolds were incubated with rat bone marrow stromal cells under the diabetic condition in vitro, and cell viability was assessed using an 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Afterward, the scaffolds were implanted into alveolar bone defects of diabetic rats, and bone repair was examined using hematoxylin and eosin staining. The fabricated scaffolds showed porous structures, with average pore size range from 111.35 to 169.45 μm. A higher PLGA concentration led to decreased average pore size. A lower PLGA concentration or a higher mangiferin concentration resulted in increased drug content. The prepared scaffolds released mangiferin in a sustained manner with relatively low initial burst during 10 weeks. Their degradation ratios gradually increased as degradation proceeded. The mangiferin-loaded scaffolds attenuated cell viability decrease under the diabetic condition in vitro. Moreover, they increased histological scorings of bone regeneration and improved delayed alveolar bone defect healing in diabetic rats. These results suggest that the produced mangiferin-loaded scaffolds may provide a potential approach in the treatment of impaired alveolar bone healing in diabetes.

  16. Critical System Cascading Collapse Assessment for Determining the Sensitive Transmission Lines and Severity of Total Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Ashida Salim

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a computationally accurate technique used to determine the estimated average probability of a system cascading collapse considering the effect of hidden failure on a protection system. This includes an accurate calculation of the probability of hidden failure as it will give significant effect on the results of the estimated average probability of system cascading collapse. The estimated average probability of a system cascading collapse is then used to determine the severe loading condition contributing to a higher risk of a system cascading collapse. This information is important because it will assist the utility to determine the maximum level of increase in the system loading condition before the occurrence of critical power system cascading collapse. Furthermore, the initial tripping of sensitive transmission line contributing to a critical system cascading collapse can also be determined by using the proposed method. Based on the results obtained from this study, it was found that selecting the accurate probability of hidden failure is very important as it will affect the estimated average probability of a system cascading collapse. Comparative study has been done with other techniques to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method used in the determination of sensitive transmission lines.

  17. Fuel sensor-less control of a liquid feed fuel cell under dynamic loading conditions for portable power sources (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.L. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000, Wunhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546 (China); National Taiwan University (China); Chen, C.Y.; Liou, D.H. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000, Wunhua Road, Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546 (China); Sung, C.C. [National Taiwan University (China)

    2008-07-15

    This work presents a novel fuel sensor-less control scheme for a liquid feed fuel cell system that operates under dynamic loading conditions and is suitable for portable power sources. The proposed technique utilizes the operating characteristics of a fuel cell, such as voltage, current and power, to control the supply of liquid fuel and regulate its concentration. As verified by systematic experiments, this scheme controls effectively the supply of fuel under dynamic loading conditions and pushes the system toward higher power output. The primary features and advantages of sensor-less fuel control are as follows. When the fuel concentration sensor is excluded, the cost of a liquid feed fuel cell system is decreased and system volume and weight are reduced, thereby increasing specific energy density and design simplicity, and shortening system response time. Notably, temperature compensation for measurement data is unnecessary. With a decreased number of components, the control scheme improves durability and reliability of liquid feed fuel cells. These advantages will help commercialization of liquid feed fuel cells as portable power sources. (author)

  18. Influence of Cooling to Heating Load Ratio on Optimal Supply Water and Air Temperatures in an Air Conditioning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karino, Naoki; Shiba, Takashi; Yokoyama, Ryohei; Ito, Koichi

    In planning an air conditioning system, supply water and air temperatures are important factors from the viewpoint of energy saving and cost reduction. For example, lower temperature supply water and air for space cooling reduce the coefficient of performance of a refrigeration machine, and increase the thickness of heat insulation material. However, they enable larger temperature differences, and reduce equipment sizes and power demand. It is also an important subject to evaluate the effect of the supply water and air temperatures on energy saving and cost reduction on the annual basis by considering not only cooling but also heating loads. The purposes of this paper are to propose an optimal planning method for an air conditioning system with large temperature difference, and to analyze the effect of supply water and air temperatures on the long-term economics through a numerical study for an office building. As a result, it is shown that the proposed method effectively determines supply water and air temperatures, and the influence of the cooling to heating load ratio on the long-term economics is clarified.

  19. The effect of defined auditory conditions versus mental loading on the laparoscopic motor skill performance of experts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conrad, Claudius; Konuk, Yusuf; Werner, Paul; Cao, Caroline G; Warshaw, Andrew; Rattner, David; Jones, Daniel B; Gee, Denise

    2010-06-01

    Music and noise are frequent occurrences in the operating room. To date, the effects of these auditory conditions on the performance of laparoscopic surgery experts have not been evaluated. Eight internationally recognized experts were recruited for a crossover study. The experts were randomized to perform three simple tasks on a laparoscopic simulator, SurgicalSIM VR. The tasks were equal in difficulty and performed under the following conditions: silence, dichaotic music (auditory stress), classical music (auditory relaxation), and mental loading (mental arithmetic tasks). Permutations of the conditions were created to account for a learning effect. The tasks were performed twice to test for memory consolidation and to accommodate baseline variability. Time until task completion and task accuracy via instrument tip trajectory (path of the tip through space) were recorded. Performance was correlated with responses on the Brief Musical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ). The study demonstrated that dichaotic music has a negative impact on time until task completion but not on task accuracy. In addition, memory consolidation of accuracy is negatively influenced. Classical music has a variable effect on experts' time until task completion, yet all the experts performed the tasks more accurately. Classical music had no effect on recall of a procedure. Mental loading increased time until completion, but did not affect accuracy or recall. The experience of music varied among experts and influenced how each of the conditions affected their performance. The study demonstrated that, contrary to common belief, proficiency in surgery does not protect against stressful auditory influences or the influence of mental preoccupation. Interestingly, relaxing auditory influences such as classical music can even have a positive impact on the accuracy of experts. Previous musical experience could help to identify surgeons whose performance may be specifically affected by music or noise.

  20. Determination of the elasticity of parachute materials under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Behr, V.L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Clements, P.J.; Silbert, M.N. [Salisbury State Univ., MD (United States). Henson School of Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    In the design of parachute systems it is important to use material properties that have been acquired under representative strain rates expected in flight. Without such data the designer is potentially forced to incorporate unrealistic safety margins resulting in a heavier and costlier than required design. Laboratory test data has generally been limited to that which can be acquired at quasi-steady strain rates. This paper investigates a technique, which takes advantage of advances in solid state electronics in the past ten years, to achieve an economical means of acquiring material properties under dynamic strain conditions. Data obtained with this technique is compared to standard test data for representative parachute materials.

  1. Numerical ductile tearing simulation of circumferential cracked pipe tests under dynamic loading conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Hyun Suk; Kim, Ji Soo; Ryu, Ho Wan; Kim, Yun Jae [Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Korea University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Weon [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, Chosun University, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    This paper presents a numerical method to simulate ductile tearing in cracked components under high strain rates using finite element damage analysis. The strain rate dependence on tensile properties and multiaxial fracture strain is characterized by the model developed by Johnson and Cook. The damage model is then defined based on the ductility exhaustion concept using the strain rate dependent multiaxial fracture strain concept. The proposed model is applied to simulate previously published three cracked pipe bending test results under two different test speed conditions. Simulated results show overall good agreement with experimental results.

  2. Element stacking method for topology optimization with material-dependent boundary and loading conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yoon, Gil Ho; Park, Y.K.; Kim, Y.Y.

    2007-01-01

    A new topology optimization scheme, called the element stacking method, is developed to better handle design optimization involving material-dependent boundary conditions and selection of elements of different types. If these problems are solved by existing standard approaches, complicated finite...... element models or topology optimization reformulation may be necessary. The key idea of the proposed method is to stack multiple elements on the same discretization pixel and select a single or no element. In this method, stacked elements on the same pixel have the same coordinates but may have...

  3. Monotonic and Cyclic Pushover Tests of Wood Beam-Column Connections: Ancient Chinese Tenon joint vs Typical and Simplified US Connections%Monotonic and Cyclic Pushover Tests of Wood Beam-Column Connections: Ancient Chinese Tenon Joint vs Typical and Simplified US Connections

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Zhenhua

    2011-01-01

    Wood beam-column frame is a popular structural system in United States and in ancient China.Chinese wood beam-column frame structures showed better seismic resistance properties than the US ones. The tenon joint is one of the reasons. This study performed monotonic and cyclic pushover tests to understand the behavior of Chinese tenon joints versus the behavior of the commonly used US wood beam-column connections.The test results indicate that the typical US wood beam-colunm connection is very strong under monotonic loads. The ancient Chinese tenon joint has the best behavior under cyclic loads.

  4. The effect of the elliptical ratio on the tubular energy absorber subjected to lateral loading under quasistatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroutaji, A.; Olabi, A. G.

    2010-06-01

    Tubular systems are proposed to be used as energy absorber because they are cheap and easy to manufacture; recently some researchers use the elliptical tube as energy absorber. In this work, the influence of elliptical ratio (r =D1/D2) on energy absorption capability and load carrying capacity and stress of mild steel elliptical tubes has been investigated both experimentally and numerically, the experimental analyses conducted by using Zwick Type BT1-FB050TN testing instrument. This machine is universal instrument for performing tensile test and compression test, Fig (1) and bending test and it is consider as an important machine for measuring the mechanical properties of materials and structures. The loading frame consist of two vertical lead screws, a moving crosshead and an upper and lower bearing plate which bears the load of the lead screws. The maximum capacity of the loading frame attached to the table mounted unit is 50KN In this study a velocity between 310mm/min was applied to the moving component to ensure the quasistatic conditions whereas velocities between 0.5mm/min and 15 mm/min have been used by many researchers to simulate the quasi-static lateral compression of tubes between various indenters [1-2]. In addition to the experimental work, computational method using ANSYS is used to predict the loading and response of such tubes where series of models was performed with elliptical ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. Comparison of numerical and experimental forcedeflection response is presented. It has been found that with changing the elliptical ratio of the tube the loaddeflection curve change and this leads to change the energy absorbed by tube, the changing of the geometrical shape of the tube leads to change the volume of this tube and hence the mass. By reducing the elliptical ratio to 0.5 the tube will absorb 43.3% more energy and the system will gain 102% more in terms of specific energy, fig (2).

  5. The effect of the elliptical ratio on the tubular energy absorber subjected to lateral loading under quasistatic conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olabi A.G.

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tubular systems are proposed to be used as energy absorber because they are cheap and easy to manufacture; recently some researchers use the elliptical tube as energy absorber. In this work, the influence of elliptical ratio (r =D1/D2 on energy absorption capability and load carrying capacity and stress of mild steel elliptical tubes has been investigated both experimentally and numerically, the experimental analyses conducted by using Zwick Type BT1-FB050TN testing instrument. This machine is universal instrument for performing tensile test and compression test, Fig (1 and bending test and it is consider as an important machine for measuring the mechanical properties of materials and structures. The loading frame consist of two vertical lead screws, a moving crosshead and an upper and lower bearing plate which bears the load of the lead screws. The maximum capacity of the loading frame attached to the table mounted unit is 50KN In this study a velocity between 310mm/min was applied to the moving component to ensure the quasistatic conditions whereas velocities between 0.5mm/min and 15 mm/min have been used by many researchers to simulate the quasi-static lateral compression of tubes between various indenters [1-2]. In addition to the experimental work, computational method using ANSYS is used to predict the loading and response of such tubes where series of models was performed with elliptical ratios ranging from 0.5 to 1.5. Comparison of numerical and experimental forcedeflection response is presented. It has been found that with changing the elliptical ratio of the tube the loaddeflection curve change and this leads to change the energy absorbed by tube, the changing of the geometrical shape of the tube leads to change the volume of this tube and hence the mass. By reducing the elliptical ratio to 0.5 the tube will absorb 43.3% more energy and the system will gain 102% more in terms of specific energy, fig (2.

  6. Compression creep rupture of an E-glass/vinyl ester composite subjected to combined mechanical and fire loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Steven Earl

    Polymer matrix composites are seeing increasing use in structural systems (e.g. ships, bridges) and require a quantitative basis for describing their performance under combined mechanical load and fire. Although much work has been performed to characterize the flammability, fire resistance and toxicity of these composite systems, an understanding of the structural response of sandwich type structures and laminate panels under combined mechanical and thermal loads (simulating fire conditions) is still largely unavailable. Therefore a research effort to develop a model to describe the structural response of these glass/vinyl esters systems under fire loading conditions is relevant to the continuing and future application of polymer matrix composites aboard naval ships. The main goal of the effort presented here is to develop analytical models and finite element analysis methods and tools to predict limit states such as local compression failures due to micro-buckling, residual strength and times to failure for composite laminates at temperatures in the vicinity of the glass transition where failure is controlled by viscoelastic effects. Given the importance of compression loading to a structure subject to fire exposure, the goals of this work are succinctly stated as the: (a) Characterization of the non-linear viscoelastic and viscoplastic response of the E-glass/vinyl ester composite above Tg. (b) Description of the laminate compression mechanics as a function of stress and temperature including viscoelasticity. (c) Viscoelastic stress analysis of a laminated panel ([0/+45/90/-45/0] S) using classical lamination theory (CLT). Three manuscripts constitute this dissertation which is representative of the three steps listed above. First, a detailed characterization of the nonlinear thermoviscoelastic response of Vetrotex 324/Derakane 510A--40 through Tg was conducted using the Time--Temperature--Stress--Superposition Principle (TTSSP) and Zapas--Crissman model. Second

  7. Evaluation of Human and Anthropomorphic Test Device Finite Element Models under Spaceflight Loading Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, Jacob P.; Untaroiu, Costin; Somers. Jeffrey

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to develop occupant protection standards for future multipurpose crew vehicles, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has looked to evaluate the test device for human occupant restraint with the modification kit (THOR-K) anthropomorphic test device (ATD) in relevant impact test scenarios. With the allowance and support of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration, NASA has performed a series of sled impact tests on the latest developed THOR-K ATD. These tests were performed to match test conditions from human volunteer data previously collected by the U.S. Air Force. The objective of this study was to evaluate the THOR-K finite element (FE) model and the Total HUman Model for Safety (THUMS) FE model with respect to the tests performed. These models were evaluated in spinal and frontal impacts against kinematic and kinetic data recorded in ATD and human testing. Methods: The FE simulations were developed based on recorded pretest ATD/human position and sled acceleration pulses measured during testing. Predicted responses by both human and ATD models were compared to test data recorded under the same impact conditions. The kinematic responses of the models were quantitatively evaluated using the ISO-metric curve rating system. In addition, ATD injury criteria and human stress/strain data were calculated to evaluate the risk of injury predicted by the ATD and human model, respectively. Results: Preliminary results show well-correlated response between both FE models and their physical counterparts. In addition, predicted ATD injury criteria and human model stress/strain values are shown to positively relate. Kinematic comparison between human and ATD models indicates promising biofidelic response, although a slightly stiffer response is observed within the ATD. Conclusion: As a compliment to ATD testing, numerical simulation provides efficient means to assess vehicle safety throughout the design process and further improve the

  8. Non-monotonic effect of confinement on the glass transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varnik, Fathollah; Franosch, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The relaxation dynamics of glass forming liquids and their structure are influenced in the vicinity of confining walls. This effect has mostly been observed to be a monotonic function of the slit width. Recently, a qualitatively new behaviour has been uncovered by Mittal and coworkers, who reported that the single particle dynamics in a hard-sphere fluid confined in a planar slit varies in a non-monotonic way as the slit width is decreased from five to roughly two particle diametres (Mittal et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 145901). In view of the great potential of this effect for applications in those fields of science and industry, where liquids occur under strong confinement (e.g. nano-technology), the number of researchers studying various aspects and consequences of this non-monotonic behaviour has been rapidly growing. This review aims at providing an overview of the research activity in this newly emerging field. We first briefly discuss how competing mechanisms such as packing effects and short-range attraction may lead to a non-monotonic glass transition scenario in the bulk. We then analyse confinement effects on the dynamics of fluids using a thermodynamic route which relates the single particle dynamics to the excess entropy. Moreover, relating the diffusive dynamics to the Widom’s insertion probability, the oscillations of the local dynamics with density at moderate densities are fairly well described. At high densities belonging to the supercooled regime, however, this approach breaks down signaling the onset of strongly collective effects. Indeed, confinement introduces a new length scale which in the limit of high densities and small pore sizes competes with the short-range local order of the fluid. This gives rise to a non-monotonic dependence of the packing structure on confinement, with a corresponding effect on the dynamics of structural relaxation. This non-monotonic effect occurs also in the case of a cone-plate type channel, where the degree

  9. Pulmonary venous flow determinants of left atrial pressure under different loading conditions in a chronic animal model with mitral regurgitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Jones, Michael; Shiota, Takahiro; Qin, Jian Xin; Kim, Yong Jin; Popovic, Zoran B.; Pu, Min; Greenberg, Neil L.; Cardon, Lisa A.; Eto, Yoko; Sitges, Marta; Zetts, Arthur D.; Thomas, James D.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of our study was to quantitatively compare the changes and correlations between pulmonary venous flow variables and mean left atrial pressure (mLAP) under different loading conditions in animals with chronic mitral regurgitation (MR) and without MR. METHODS: A total of 85 hemodynamic conditions were studied in 22 sheep, 12 without MR as control (NO-MR group) and 10 with MR (MR group). We obtained pulmonary venous flow systolic velocity (Sv) and diastolic velocity (Dv), Sv and Dv time integrals, their ratios (Sv/Dv and Sv/Dv time integral), mLAP, left ventricular end-diastolic pressure, and MR stroke volume. We also measured left atrial a, x, v, and y pressures and calculated the difference between v and y pressures. RESULTS: Average MR stroke volume was 10.6 +/- 4.3 mL/beat. There were good correlations between Sv (r = -0.64 and r = -0.59, P pressure in the MR and NO-MR groups. In velocity variables, Sv (r = -0.79, P <.001) was the best predictor of mLAP in both groups. The sensitivity and specificity of Sv = 0 in predicting mLAP 15 mm Hg or greater were 86% and 85%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Pulmonary venous flow variables correlated well with mLAP under altered loading conditions in the MR and NO-MR groups. They may be applied clinically as substitutes for invasively acquired indexes of mLAP to assess left atrial and left ventricular functional status.

  10. Impact of reduced exhaust and ventilation rates at ``no-load`` cooking conditions in a commercial kitchen during winter operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spata, A.J. [McDonald`s Corp., Oak Brook, IL (United States); Turgeon, S.M. [Premium Air Systems, Troy, MI (United States)

    1995-12-31

    While previous studies have examined the effect of reduced exhaust and ventilation rates on comfort levels and air-conditioning requirements in commercial kitchens when cooling of this space was required, no investigation had been performed to document energy savings that may be obtainable by a similar technique during periods when heating of make-up air was dictated. In addition, these prior studies examined the resultant kitchen conditions with lower exhaust and ventilation rates applied while the hooded appliances were actively being used for cooking. This paper presents the field evaluation findings by a major quick-service restaurant chain. These findings resulted from the reduction of exhaust and make-up air quantities during periods when heating of kitchen make-up air was required and no cooking was occurring on the grills. The initial results indicate that these reductions yield significant utility savings, with no detrimental effect on the environment within the kitchen, by minimizing the amount of outside air tempered by the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) equipment during ``no load`` cooking conditions.

  11. Relation between Coda-Q and stress loaded to an elastic body. -parameters of material conditions derived by stochastic measurement-

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, K.; Mikada, H.; Goto, T.; Takekawa, J.

    2010-12-01

    Seismic coda is formed by superposed signals caused by scatterers. When heterogeneous condition is changed due to crustal deformations, coda-Q should vary reflecting the physical state if the materials. When the spatial scale of scatters in a medium becomes comparable with or smaller then the wavelength of seismic waves traveling through, it becomes very difficult to analyze the coda-wave quantitatively in terms of the location of scatterers, scattering mechanisms, etc. For inhomogeneous medium, it is natural to deal with stochastic methodologies to interpret seismic data. In this regard coda-Q has been frequently used as a stochastic measure of the medium in which seismic waves propagate. Since objectives of recent structural surveys include spatiotemporal or time-lapse variation of physical properties of underground medium, we propose a new geophysical monitoring method using the stochastic parameters if these parameters reflect changes of physical state of the medium. Several observed examples are reported that the relationship between the coda-Q and the number of earthquakes (e.g., Aki,2004). Aki (2004) said that the interrelation between the coda-Q and the number of earthquakes might be a key to understand the change in the state of crustal stress field. Here, we hypothesize that the change of the coda- Q reflects that of the stress magnitude and direction and try to focus on the relationship between the coda-Q and loaded stress which could cause earthquakes. The purpose of this study is to relate this relationship to non-stochastic quantity of the underground physical state, i.e., the stress to test our hypothesis. We employ two methods to achieve our objectives. One is Finite Difference Method (FDM), and the other is Boundary Integral Equation Method (BIEM). FDM is superior in the calculation of large field and saving calculation time. BIEM is superior in the free shape of boundaries. These two methods are applied to a numerical model of elastic body

  12. Capacity fade modelling of lithium-ion battery under cyclic loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashwin, T. R.; Chung, Yongmann M.; Wang, Jihong

    2016-10-01

    A pseudo two-dimensional (P2D) electro-chemical lithium-ion battery model is presented in this paper to study the capacity fade under cyclic charge-discharge conditions. The Newman model [1,2] has been modified to include a continuous solvent reduction reaction responsible for the capacity fade and power fade. The temperature variation inside the cell is accurately predicted using a distributed thermal model coupled with the internal chemical heat generation. The model is further improved by linking the porosity variation with the electrolyte partial molar concentration, thereby proving a stronger coupling between the battery performance and the chemical properties of electrolyte. The solid electrolyte interface (SEI) layer growth is estimated for different cut-off voltages and charging current rates. The results show that the convective heat transfer coefficient as well as the porosity variation influences the SEI layer growth and the battery life significantly. The choice of an electrolyte decides the conductivity and partial molar concentration, which is found to have a strong influence on the capacity fade of the battery. The present battery model integrates all essential electro-chemical processes inside a lithium-ion battery under a strong implicit algorithm, proving a useful tool for computationally fast battery monitoring system.

  13. Modeling of a Cogeneration System with a Micro Gas Turbine Operating at Partial Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Dutra

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The integration of absorption chillers in micro-cogeneration systems based on micro-gas turbines can be useful as an appropriate strategy to increase the total system energy efficiency. Since it is an area intensive in technology, it is necessary to develop and use models of simulation, which can predict the behavior of the whole system and of each component individually, at different operating conditions. This work is part of a research project in high efficiency cogeneration systems, whose purpose at this stage is to model a micro-cogeneration system, which is composed of a micro gas turbine, Capstone C30, a compact cross flow finned tube heat exchanger and an absorption chiller. The entire model is composed of specifically interconnected models, developed and validated for each component. The simulation of the microturbine used a thermodynamic analytic model, which contains a procedure used to obtain the micro turbine characteristic performance curves, which is closed with the thermodynamic Brayton cycle model. In the cogeneration system discussed in this paper, the compact heat exchanger was used to heat thermal oil, which drives an absorption chiller. It was designed, characterized and installed in a cogeneration system installed at the Centre d'Innovació Tecnològica en Revalorització Energètica i Refrigeració, Universtat Rovira i Virgili. Its design led to the heat exchanger model, which was coupled with the micro turbine model. Presented in this work is a comparison between the data from the model and the experiments, demonstrating good agreement between both results.

  14. Insight into fiber Bragg sensor response at 100-MHz interrogation rates under various dynamic loading conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, George; Jaime, Marcelo; Mielke, Chuck H.; Balakirev, Fedor F.; Azad, Abul; Sandberg, Richard L.; Marshall, Bruce; La Lone, Brandon M.; Henson, Bryan F.; Smilowitz, Laura; Marr-Lyon, Mark; Sandoval, Tom

    2015-05-01

    A 100 MHz fiber Bragg grating (FBG) interrogation system is described and applied to strain, pressure, and shock position sensing. The approach relies on coherent pulse illumination of the FBG sensor with a broadband short pulse from a femtosecond modelocked erbium fiber laser. After interrogation of the FBG sensor, a long multi-kilometer run of single mode fiber was used for chromatic dispersion to temporally stretch the spectral components of the reflected pulse from the FBG sensor. Dynamic strain or pressure induced spectral shifts in the FBG sensor were detected as a pulsed time domain waveform shift after encoding by the chromatic dispersive line. Signals were recorded using a single 35 GHz photodetector and a 25 GHz bandwidth digitizing oscilloscope. Application of this approach to high-speed strain sensing of magnetic materials in pulsed magnetic fields to ~150 T is demonstrated. The FBG wavelength shifts were used to study magnetic field driven magnetostriction effects in LaCoO3. A sub-microsecond temporal shift in the FBG sensor wavelength attached to the sample under first order phase change appears as a fractional length change (strain: ΔL/L<10-4) in the material. A second application to FBG sensing of pressure dynamics to nearly 2 GPa in the thermal ignition of the high explosive PBX-9501 is also demonstrated. Then, as final demonstration, we use a chirped FBG (CFBG) to resolve shock propagation dynamics in 1-D from an explosive detonation that produces fragmentation in an inert confinement vessel. These applications demonstrate the use of this FBG interrogation system in dynamical extreme conditions that would otherwise not be possible using traditional FBG interrogation approaches that are deemed too slow to resolve such events.

  15. Regional trends in short-duration precipitation extremes: a flexible multivariate monotone quantile regression approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannon, Alex

    2017-04-01

    Estimating historical trends in short-duration rainfall extremes at regional and local scales is challenging due to low signal-to-noise ratios and the limited availability of homogenized observational data. In addition to being of scientific interest, trends in rainfall extremes are of practical importance, as their presence calls into question the stationarity assumptions that underpin traditional engineering and infrastructure design practice. Even with these fundamental challenges, increasingly complex questions are being asked about time series of extremes. For instance, users may not only want to know whether or not rainfall extremes have changed over time, they may also want information on the modulation of trends by large-scale climate modes or on the nonstationarity of trends (e.g., identifying hiatus periods or periods of accelerating positive trends). Efforts have thus been devoted to the development and application of more robust and powerful statistical estimators for regional and local scale trends. While a standard nonparametric method like the regional Mann-Kendall test, which tests for the presence of monotonic trends (i.e., strictly non-decreasing or non-increasing changes), makes fewer assumptions than parametric methods and pools information from stations within a region, it is not designed to visualize detected trends, include information from covariates, or answer questions about the rate of change in trends. As a remedy, monotone quantile regression (MQR) has been developed as a nonparametric alternative that can be used to estimate a common monotonic trend in extremes at multiple stations. Quantile regression makes efficient use of data by directly estimating conditional quantiles based on information from all rainfall data in a region, i.e., without having to precompute the sample quantiles. The MQR method is also flexible and can be used to visualize and analyze the nonlinearity of the detected trend. However, it is fundamentally a

  16. A Hybrid Approach to Proving Memory Reference Monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Oancea, Cosmin E.

    2013-01-01

    Array references indexed by non-linear expressions or subscript arrays represent a major obstacle to compiler analysis and to automatic parallelization. Most previous proposed solutions either enhance the static analysis repertoire to recognize more patterns, to infer array-value properties, and to refine the mathematical support, or apply expensive run time analysis of memory reference traces to disambiguate these accesses. This paper presents an automated solution based on static construction of access summaries, in which the reference non-linearity problem can be solved for a large number of reference patterns by extracting arbitrarily-shaped predicates that can (in)validate the reference monotonicity property and thus (dis)prove loop independence. Experiments on six benchmarks show that our general technique for dynamic validation of the monotonicity property can cover a large class of codes, incurs minimal run-time overhead and obtains good speedups. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.

  17. Measurement of non-monotonic Casimir forces between silicon nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, L.; Wang, M.; Ng, C. Y.; Nikolic, M.; Chan, C. T.; Rodriguez, A. W.; Chan, H. B.

    2017-01-01

    Casimir forces are of fundamental interest because they originate from quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Apart from controlling this force via the optical properties of materials, a number of novel geometries have been proposed to generate repulsive and/or non-monotonic Casimir forces between bodies separated by vacuum gaps. Experimental realization of these geometries, however, is hindered by the difficulties in alignment when the bodies are brought into close proximity. Here, using an on-chip platform with integrated force sensors and actuators, we circumvent the alignment problem and measure the Casimir force between two surfaces with nanoscale protrusions. We demonstrate that the force depends non-monotonically on the displacement. At some displacements, the Casimir force leads to an effective stiffening of the nanomechanical spring. Our findings pave the way for exploiting the Casimir force in nanomechanical systems using structures of complex and non-conventional shapes.

  18. A Monotonic Precise Current DAC for Sensor Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Horsky

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a 17 bit monotonic precise current DAC for sensor applications is described. It is working in a harsh automotive environment in a wide temperature range with high output voltage swing and low current consumption. To guarantee monotonicity current division and segmentation techniques are used. To improve the output impedance, the accuracy and the voltage compliance of the DAC, two active cascoding loops and one follower loop are used. The resolution of the DAC is further increased by applying pulse width modulation to one fine LSB current. To achieve low power consumption unused coarse current sources are switched off. Several second order technological effects influencing final performance and circuits dealing with them are discussed.

  19. Computation of Optimal Monotonicity Preserving General Linear Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2009-07-01

    Monotonicity preserving numerical methods for ordinary differential equations prevent the growth of propagated errors and preserve convex boundedness properties of the solution. We formulate the problem of finding optimal monotonicity preserving general linear methods for linear autonomous equations, and propose an efficient algorithm for its solution. This algorithm reliably finds optimal methods even among classes involving very high order accuracy and that use many steps and/or stages. The optimality of some recently proposed methods is verified, and many more efficient methods are found. We use similar algorithms to find optimal strong stability preserving linear multistep methods of both explicit and implicit type, including methods for hyperbolic PDEs that use downwind-biased operators.

  20. Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity

    KAUST Repository

    Loczi, Lajos

    2014-05-19

    We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.

  1. An Improved Control Strategy for a Four-Leg Grid-Forming Power Converter under Unbalanced Load Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Reza Miveh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an improved multiloop control strategy for a three-phase four-leg voltage source inverter (VSI operating with highly unbalanced loads in an autonomous distribution network. The main objective is to balance the output voltages of the four-leg inverter under unbalanced load conditions. The proposed control strategy consists of a proportional-integral (PI voltage controller and a proportional current loop in each phase. The voltage controller and the current control loop are, respectively, used to regulate the instantaneous output voltage and generate the pulse width modulation (PWM voltage command with zero steady-state tracking error and fast transient response. A voltage decoupling feedforward path is also used to enhance the system robustness. Since the outer voltage loop operates in the synchronous reference frame, tuning and stability analysis of the PI controller is far from being straightforward. In order to cope with this challenge, the stationary reference frame equivalent of the voltage controller in the rotating frame is derived. Subsequently, a systematic design based on a frequency response approach is provided. Simulation results are also carried out using the DIgSILENT PowerFactory software to verify the effectiveness of the suggested control strategy.

  2. Development of the applicability of simplified Henry's method for skewed multicell box-girder bridges under traffic loading conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Iman MOHSENI; A.R.Khalim RASHID

    2012-01-01

    Concrete precast multicell box-girder (MCB) bridges combine aesthetics with torsional stiffness perfectly.Previous analytical studies indicate that currently available specifications are unable to consider the effect of the twisting moment (torsional moment) on bridge actions.In straight bridges the effect of torsion is negligible and the transverse reinforced design is governed by other requirements.However,in the case of skewed bridges the effect of the twisting moment should be considered.Therefore,an in-depth study was performed on 90 concrete MCB bridges with skew angles ranging from 0° to 60°.For each girder the bridge actions were determined under the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials (AASHTO) live load conditions.The analytical results show that torsional stiffness and live load positions greatly affected the bridges' responses.In addition,based on a statistical analysis of the obtained results,several skew correction factors are proposed to improve the precision of the simplified Henry's method,which is widely used by bridge engineers to predict bridge actions.The relationship between the bending moment and secondary moments was also investigated and it was concluded that all secondary actions increase with an increase in skewness.

  3. On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Ciepliński

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions φ:I→J of the functional equation φ(f(x=F(φ(x, x∈I, where I,J are closed intervals, and f:I→I, F:J→J are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.

  4. Block Monotone Iterative Algorithms for Variational Inequalities with Nonlinear Operators

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming-hui Ren; Jin-ping Zeng

    2008-01-01

    Some block iterative methods for solving variational inequalities with nonlinear operators are proposed. Monotone convergence of the algorithms is obtained. Some comparison theorems are also established.Compared with the research work in given by Pao in 1995 for nonlinear equations and research work in given by Zeng and Zhou in 2002 for elliptic variational inequalities, the algorithms proposed in this paper are independent of the boundedness of the derivatives of the nonlinear operator.

  5. Monotonic Property in Field Algebra of G-Spin Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋立宁

    2003-01-01

    Let F be the field algebra of G-spin model, D(G) the double algebra of a finite group G and D(H) the sub-Hopf algerba of D(G) determined by the subgroup H of G. The paper builds a correspondence between D(H) and the D(H)-invariant sub-C*-algebra AH in F, and proves that the correspondence is strictly monotonic.

  6. Modeling argumentation based semantics using non-monotonic reasoning

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Argumentation theory is an alternative style of formalizing non-monotonic reasoning. It seems, argumentation theory is a suitable framework for practical and uncertain reasoning, where arguments support conclusions. Dung's approach is an unifying framework which has played an influential role on argumentation research and Artificial Intelligence. Even though the success of the argumentation theory, it seems that argumentation theory is so far from being efficiently implemented like the logic ...

  7. Nonparametric estimation for hazard rate monotonously decreasing system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han Fengyan; Li Weisong

    2005-01-01

    Estimation of density and hazard rate is very important to the reliability analysis of a system. In order to estimate the density and hazard rate of a hazard rate monotonously decreasing system, a new nonparametric estimator is put forward. The estimator is based on the kernel function method and optimum algorithm. Numerical experiment shows that the method is accurate enough and can be used in many cases.

  8. Stability and monotonicity of Lotka-Volterra type operators

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhamedov, Farrukh

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, we study Lotka-Volterra (LV) type operators defined in finite dimensional simplex. We prove that any LV type operator is a surjection of the simplex. After, we introduce a new class of LV-type operators, called $M$LV type. We prove convergence of their trajectories and study certain its properties. Moreover, we show that such kind of operators have totaly different behavior than ${\\mathbf{f}}$-monotone LV type operators.

  9. Effect of specimen size and loading conditions on indirect tensile test results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmona, S.

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Due to the difficulties inherent in the direct measurement of concrete tensile strength, experimental methods have been devised to determine this property indirectly. One such method, the splitting or indirect tensile test, also known as the Brazilian test, is widely used for its convenience and applicability to freshly moulded cubic and cylindrical specimens, as well as to hardened concrete core samples.Nevertheless, the strength values obtained with this method have been observed to differ with specimen size. Moreover, the strength values calculated with the formula proposed in the existing standards fail to reflect real test conditions and actually overestimate tensile strength.The experimental results reported in this article show that if the test set up is modified slightly and the equation for calculating strength is adjusted, consistent strength values are obtained, regardless of specimen size, in the range of diameters studied (45 - 294 mm.Debido a la dificultad que existe para caracterizar la resistencia a tracción del hormigón por medio del ensayo de tracción directa, se han validado métodos experimentales indirectos para determinar esa propiedad. Uno de esos métodos, el ensayo de tracción indirecta o ensayo Brasileño, se usa ampliamente por su facilidad de ejecución, por la posibilidad de determinarse sobre probetas cúbicas o cilíndricas moldeadas con hormigón fresco y porque también se pueden ensayar testigos de hormigón endurecido.No obstante, cuando se analizan detenidamente los resultados obtenidos con probetas de distintos tamaños, se observa que la resistencia depende del tamaño de la probeta. Por otra parte, los valores de la resistencia calculados con la expresión propuesta por las normas técnicas vigentes no reflejan las condiciones reales de ejecución del ensayo, sobreestimando la resistencia a la tracción del material.A partir de los resultados experimentales presentados en este artículo se observa que

  10. Monotone traveling wavefronts of the KPP-Fisher delayed equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Adrian; Trofimchuk, Sergei

    In the early 2000's, Gourley (2000), Wu et al. (2001), Ashwin et al. (2002) initiated the study of the positive wavefronts in the delayed Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation u(t,x)=Δu(t,x)+u(t,x)(1-u(t-h,x)), u⩾0, x∈R. Since then, this model has become one of the most popular objects in the studies of traveling waves for the monostable delayed reaction-diffusion equations. In this paper, we give a complete solution to the problem of existence and uniqueness of monotone waves in Eq. (*). We show that each monotone traveling wave can be found via an iteration procedure. The proposed approach is based on the use of special monotone integral operators (which are different from the usual Wu-Zou operator) and appropriate upper and lower solutions associated to them. The analysis of the asymptotic expansions of the eventual traveling fronts at infinity is another key ingredient of our approach.

  11. Solving the power flow equations: a monotone operator approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dvijotham, Krishnamurthy [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Low, Steven [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-07-21

    The AC power flow equations underlie all operational aspects of power systems. They are solved routinely in operational practice using the Newton-Raphson method and its variants. These methods work well given a good initial “guess” for the solution, which is always available in normal system operations. However, with the increase in levels of intermittent generation, the assumption of a good initial guess always being available is no longer valid. In this paper, we solve this problem using the theory of monotone operators. We show that it is possible to compute (using an offline optimization) a “monotonicity domain” in the space of voltage phasors. Given this domain, there is a simple efficient algorithm that will either find a solution in the domain, or provably certify that no solutions exist in it. We validate the approach on several IEEE test cases and demonstrate that the offline optimization can be performed tractably and the computed “monotonicity domain” includes all practically relevant power flow solutions.

  12. Development of an in vitro three dimensional loading-measurement system for long bone fixation under multiple loading conditions: a technical description

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilson David A

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The purpose of this investigation was to design and verify the capabilities of an in vitro loading-measurement system that mimics in vivo unconstrained three dimensional (3D relative motion between long bone ends, applies uniform load components over the entire length of a test specimen, and measures 3D relative motion between test segment ends to directly determine test segment construct stiffness free of errors due to potting-fixture-test machine finite stiffness. Intact equine cadaveric radius bones, which were subsequently osteotomized/ostectomized and instrumented with bone plates were subjected to non-destructive axial, torsion, and 4-point bending loads through fixtures designed to allow unconstrained components of non-load associated 3D relative motion between radius ends. 3D relative motion between ends of a 50 mm long test segment was measured by an infrared optical tracking system to directly determine its stiffness. Each specimen was then loaded to ultimate failure in either torsion or bending. Cortical bone cross-section diameters and published bone biomechanical properties were substituted into classical mechanics equations to predict the intact test segment theoretical stiffness for comparison and thus loading-measurement system verification. Intact measured stiffness values were the same order of magnitude as theoretically predicted. The primary component of relative motion between ends of the test segment corresponded to that of the applied load with the other 3D components being evident and consistent in relative magnitude and direction for unconstrained loading of an unsymmetrical double plate oblique fracture configuration. Bone failure configurations were reproducible and consistent with theoretically predicted. The 3D loading-measurement system designed: a mimics unconstrained relative 3D motion between radius ends that occurs in clinical situations, b applies uniform compression, torsion, and 4-point bending loads

  13. Structural-scale levels of development of inelastic martensitic deformation during isothermal loading of submicrocrystalline titanium nickelide in premartensitic condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakach, G. P.; Dudarev, E. F., E-mail: dudarev@spti.tsu.ru; Skosyrskii, A. B. [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Maletkina, T. Yu., E-mail: t.maletkina@yandex.ru [National Research Tomsk State University, Tomsk, 634050 (Russian Federation); Tomsk State University of Architecture and Building, Tomsk, 634003 (Russian Federation)

    2015-10-27

    The results are presented of an experimental investigation into the regularities and mechanisms of the development of thermoelastic martensitic transformation in submicrocrystalline alloy Ti{sub 49.4}Ni{sub 50.6} with different ways of thermo-power actions using the methods of optical microscopy in situ and X-ray diffraction. The peculiarities of localization of martensite transformation at the meso- and macroscale levels in this alloy with submicrocrystalline structure are considered. Experimental data on the relay mechanism of propagation of the martensitic transformation are presented. The interrelation between the localization of the martensitic transformation on the meso-and macroscale levels and deformation behavior under isothermal loading alloy Ti{sub 49.4}Ni5{sub 0.6} in submicrocrystalline condition are shown and discussed.

  14. Constructive techniques for zeros of monotone mappings in certain Banach spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diop, C; Sow, T M M; Djitte, N; Chidume, C E

    2015-01-01

    Let E be a 2-uniformly convex real Banach space with uniformly Gâteaux differentiable norm, and [Formula: see text] its dual space. Let [Formula: see text] be a bounded strongly monotone mapping such that [Formula: see text] For given [Formula: see text] let [Formula: see text] be generated by the algorithm: [Formula: see text]where J is the normalized duality mapping from E into [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] is a real sequence in (0, 1) satisfying suitable conditions. Then it is proved that [Formula: see text] converges strongly to the unique point [Formula: see text] Finally, our theorems are applied to the convex minimization problem.

  15. Monotone Approximations of Minimum and Maximum Functions and Multi-objective Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stipanovic, Dusan M., E-mail: dusan@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Coordinated Science Laboratory, Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering (United States); Tomlin, Claire J., E-mail: tomlin@eecs.berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (United States); Leitmann, George, E-mail: gleit@berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, College of Engineering (United States)

    2012-12-15

    In this paper the problem of accomplishing multiple objectives by a number of agents represented as dynamic systems is considered. Each agent is assumed to have a goal which is to accomplish one or more objectives where each objective is mathematically formulated using an appropriate objective function. Sufficient conditions for accomplishing objectives are derived using particular convergent approximations of minimum and maximum functions depending on the formulation of the goals and objectives. These approximations are differentiable functions and they monotonically converge to the corresponding minimum or maximum function. Finally, an illustrative pursuit-evasion game example with two evaders and two pursuers is provided.

  16. Positive and monotone solutions of an m-point boundary-value problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panos K. Palamides

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available We study the second-order ordinary differential equation $$ y''(t=-f(t,y(t,y'(t,quad 0leq tleq 1, $$ subject to the multi-point boundary conditions $$ alpha y(0pm eta y'(0=0,quad y(1=sum_{i=1}^{m-2}alpha_iy(xi_i,. $$ We prove the existence of a positive solution (and monotone in some cases under superlinear and/or sublinear growth rate in $f$. Our approach is based on an analysis of the corresponding vector field on the $(y,y'$ face-plane and on Kneser's property for the solution's funnel.

  17. Absolute Monotonicity of Functions Related To Estimates of First Eigenvalue of Laplace Operator on Riemannian Manifolds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Qi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The authors find the absolute monotonicity and complete monotonicity of some functions involving trigonometric functions and related to estimates the lower bounds of the first eigenvalue of Laplace operator on Riemannian manifolds.

  18. Non-monotonic reasoning in conceptual modeling and ontology design: A proposal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Casini, G

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available and modeling of defeasible information and non-monotonic reasoning services. Here we formalize a possible way of introducing non-monotonic reasoning into ORM2 schemas, enriching the language with special set of new constraints....

  19. Effect of Preparation Taper, Height and Marginal Design Under Varying Occlusal Loading Conditions on Cement Lute Stress: A Three Dimensional Finite Element Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tripathi, Siddhi; Amarnath, Gowdagere Shamanna; Muddugangadhar, Byrasandra Channapa; Sharma, Ashish; Choudhary, Suchismita

    2014-12-01

    To assess the effect of preparation taper, height and margin design under different loading conditions on cement lute stress. A 3-D FE model of an upper second premolar and molar was developed from CT scan of human skull using software programmes (MIMICS, Hypermesh and ANSYS). 10° and 30° taper, 3 and 5 mm preparation height and shoulder and chamfer finish lines were used. Type 1 Glass ionomer cement with 24 μm lute width was taken and the model was loaded under 100 N horizontal point load, vertical point load distributed axial load. The maximum shear stress and Von Mises stress within the cement lute were recorded. The maximum shear stresses ranged from 1.70 to 3.93 MPa (horizontal point loading), 0.66 to 3.04 MPa (vertical point loading), 0.38 to 0.87 MPa (distributed loading). The maximum Von Mises stresses ranged from 3.39 to 10.62 MPa (horizontal point loading), 1.93 to 8.58 MPa (vertical point loading) and 1.49 to 3.57 MPa (distributed loading). The combination of 10° taper and 5 mm height had the lowest stress field while the combination of 30° taper and 5 mm height had the highest stress field. Distributed axial loading shows least stress, better stress homogenization and gives a favorable prognosis for the fixed prostheses. Smaller preparation taper of 10° is biomechanically more acceptable than a 30° taper. It is desirable to decrease taper as height increases. The chamfer margin design is associated with greater local cement stresses toward the margins that could place the cement at greater risk for microfracture and failure.

  20. Monotonic and fatigue testing of spring-bridged freestanding microbeams application for MEMS

    CERN Document Server

    Lin, Ming-Tzer; Tong, Chi-Jia

    2008-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies are developing rapidly with increasing study of the design, fabrication and commercialization of microscale systems and devices. Accurate knowledge on the mechanical behaviors of thin film materials used for MEMS is important for successful design and development of MEMS. Here a novel electroplating spring-bridge micro-tensile specimen integrates pin-pin align holes, misalignment compensate spring, load sensor beam and freestanding thin film is demonstrated and fabricated. The specimen is fit into a specially designed micro-mechanical apparatus to carry out a series of monotonic tensile testing on sub-micron freestanding thin films. Certain thin films applicable as structure or motion gears in MEMS were tested including sputtered gold, copper and tantalum nitride thin films. Metal specimens were fabricated by sputtering; for tantalum nitride film samples, nitrogen gas was introduced into the chamber during sputtering tantalum films on the silicon wafer. The s...

  1. Mixed Monotonicity of Partial First-In-First-Out Traffic Flow Models

    OpenAIRE

    Coogan, Samuel; Arcak, Murat; Kurzhanskiy, Alexander A.

    2015-01-01

    In vehicle traffic networks, congestion on one outgoing link of a diverging junction often impedes flow to other outgoing links, a phenomenon known as the first-in-first-out (FIFO) property. Simplified traffic models that do not account for the FIFO property result in monotone dynamics for which powerful analysis techniques exist. FIFO models are in general not monotone, but have been shown to be mixed monotone - a generalization of monotonicity that enables similarly powerful analysis techni...

  2. Short-Term Creep Behavior of CFRP-Reinforced Wood Composites Subjected to Cyclic Loading at Different Climate Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojun Yang

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP was used to adhesively reinforce Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata wood specimens. This study examined the flexural static and creep performances of CFPR-reinforced wood composites that had been subjected to changes in moisture and stress levels. The major findings were as follows: 1 the cyclic creep was slightly lower for those specimens subjected to the cyclic stress condition than for those subjected to a constant stress level due to the deflection recovery under cyclic loading; 2 the environmental conditions of high temperature and high humidity assisted in accelerating the creep by increasing the moisture content of the composite and reducing the compressive strength of wood, causing the composite specimen to fail via damage in the wood layer from compressive crushing; 3 the stress level governed the creep of the CFRP-reinforced wood composite; and 4 the Burger model was able to accurately simulate the short-term creep performance of the CFPR-reinforced wood composite. It was suggested the maximum bending stress level should be limited to 40% for the CFRP-reinforced wood composites fabricated in this study.

  3. Fuel sensor-less control of a liquid feed fuel cell under dynamic loading conditions for portable power sources (II)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, C.L.; Chen, C.Y.; Liou, D.H.; Chang, C.Y.; Cha, H.C. [Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER), No. 1000, Wunhua Rd., Jiaan Village, Longtan Township, Taoyuan County 32546 (China); Sung, C.C. [National Taiwan University (China)

    2010-03-01

    This work presents a new fuel sensor-less control scheme for liquid feed fuel cells that is able to control the supply to a fuel cell system for operation under dynamic loading conditions. The control scheme uses cell-operating characteristics, such as potential, current, and power, to regulate the fuel concentration of a liquid feed fuel cell without the need for a fuel concentration sensor. A current integral technique has been developed to calculate the quantity of fuel required at each monitoring cycle, which can be combined with the concentration regulating process to control the fuel supply for stable operation. As verified by systematic experiments, this scheme can effectively control the fuel supply of a liquid feed fuel cell with reduced response time, even under conditions where the membrane electrolyte assembly (MEA) deteriorates gradually. This advance will aid the commercialization of liquid feed fuel cells and make them more adaptable for use in portable and automotive power units such as laptops, e-bikes, and handicap cars. (author)

  4. Mechanical behaviour of TWIP steel under shear loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vincze, G.; Butuc, M. C.; Barlat, F.

    2016-08-01

    Twinning induced plasticity steels (TWIP) are very good candidate for automotive industry applications because they potentially offer large energy absorption before failure due to their exceptional strain hardening capability and high strength. However, their behaviour is drastically influenced by the loading conditions. In this work, the mechanical behaviour of a TWIP steel sheet sample was investigated at room temperature under monotonic and reverse simple shear loading. It was shown that all the expected features of load reversal such as Bauschinger effect, transient strain hardening with high rate and permanent softening, depend on the prestrain level. This is in agreement with the fact that these effects, which occur during reloading, are related to the rearrangement of the dislocation structure induced during the predeformation. The homogeneous anisotropic hardening (HAH) approach proposed by Barlat et al. (2011) [1] was successfully employed to predict the experimental results.

  5. Experimental Assessment on the Flexural Bonding Performance of Concrete Beam with GFRP Reinforcing Bar under Repeated Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minkwan Ju

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study intends to investigate the flexural bond performance of glass fiber-reinforced polymer (GFRP reinforcing bar under repeated loading. The flexural bond tests reinforced with GFRP reinforcing bars were carried out according to the BS EN 12269-1 (2000 specification. The bond test consisted of three loading schemes: static, monotonic, and variable-amplitude loading to simulate ambient loading conditions. The empirical bond length based on the static test was 225 mm, whereas it was 317 mm according to ACI 440 1R-03. Each bond stress on the rib is released and bonding force is enhanced as the bond length is increased. Appropriate level of bond length may be recommended with this energy-based analysis. For the monotonic loading test, the bond strengths at pullout failure after 2,000,000 cycles were 10.4 MPa and 6.5 MPa, respectively: 63–70% of the values from the static loading test. The variable loading test indicated that the linear cumulative damage theory on GFRP bonding may not be appropriate for estimating the fatigue limit when subjected to variable-amplitude loading.

  6. Finite element analysis of different loading conditions for implant-supported overdentures supported by conventional or mini implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solberg, K; Heinemann, F; Pellikaan, P; Keilig, L; Stark, H; Bourauel, C; Hasan, I

    2017-03-10

    The effect of implants' number on overdenture stability and stress distribution in edentulous mandible, implants and overdenture was numerically investigated for implant-supported overdentures. Three models were constructed. Overdentures were connected to implants by means of ball head abutments and rubber ring. In model 1, the overdenture was retained by two conventional implants; in model 2, by four conventional implants; and in model 3, by five mini implants. The overdenture was subjected to a symmetrical load at an angle of 20 degrees to the overdenture at the canine regions and vertically at the first molars. Four different loading conditions with two total forces (120, 300 N) were considered for the numerical analysis. The overdenture displacement was about 2.2 times higher when five mini implants were used rather than four conventional implants. The lowest stress in bone bed was observed with four conventional implants. Stresses in bone were reduced by 61% in model 2 and by 6% in model 3 in comparison to model 1. The highest stress was observed with five mini implants. Stresses in implants were reduced by 76% in model 2 and 89% increased in model 3 compared to model 1. The highest implant displacement was observed with five mini implants. Implant displacements were reduced by 29% in model 2, and increased by 273% in model 3 compared to model 1. Conventional implants proved better stability for overdenture than mini implants. Regardless the type and number of implants, the stress within the bone and implants are below the critical limits.

  7. EIS Behavior of Experimental High-Strength Steel in Near-Neutral pH and Load Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Fierro, Jesus Israel; Serna-Barquera, Sergio Alonso; Campillo-Illanes, Bernardo Fabian; Castaneda, Homero

    2017-04-01

    Two thermomechanical heat treatments were applied to a high-strength low carbon steel with an experimental chemical composition, and as a result two different microstructures were obtained. Steel A had a ferritic microstructure, and steel B had a bainitic-martensitic one. The corrosion behavior was reviewed at long times in samples without load by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in a near-neutral pH (NNpH) environment. The results showed that the quantity and adherence of corrosion products on the sample surface at long times are different. Hence, the impedance was higher for steel B. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was applied to tempered samples of the two steels at 473 K, 673 K, and 873 K (200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C), and the corrosion behavior was acquired using EIS at the same time as the SSRT in NNpH conditions. This is a novel result because the tension samples were not electrically isolated from the rest of the load frame. The impedance for the ferritic steel was higher than the bainitic-martensitic one, while it slightly decreased for both steel over time. Tempering improved the corrosion resistance for steel A, while it was not modified for steel B. The corrosion behavior could be associated with the susceptibility of these steels to stress corrosion cracking. A transmission line model was proposed to show qualitatively the corrosion behavior of a crack in the steel, if there is a potential profile inside the crack. A hypothetical potential profile was acquired as well as different impedance behaviors based on electrochemical variables.

  8. Development of Mechanical Loading Device for testing the zirconium cladding under the pellet-cladding interaction conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Solonin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Currently, there is a tendency of transition to the long-term cycles of operation with fuel and to the new transitional modes. This fact requires extra experimental validation for design of fuel rods. New operating conditions are expanding operability requirements of claddings.To implement the experimental techniques the Mechanical Loading Device (MLD was developed, capable of providing the conditions of stress-strain state similar to the pellet-cladding interaction (PCI during operation of the reactor.Complex strain state of a fuel rod cladding is simulated by the impacting force on the plunger and then on the simulator of the fuel pellet. The simulator is made of interposer of zirconium and the inset made of ceramic - aluminum oxide. Mechanical properties of the aluminum oxide are similar to the material of the fuel pellet - uranium dioxide. Experiments conducted on the layout and the MLD as such have shown that a stress-strain state matches with that of under operating conditions of the fuel rod in the reactor.The developed device and test method allows us to simulate a wide range of reactor transient modes. Claddings can be used both in the delivered state, and with the further preparation, including the exposure in nuclear reactor. MLD design enables us to carry out experiments with the presence of an aggressive environment inside the cladding, simulating the presence of gaseous fission products in the fuel rod.For further the development of this research it is necessary to design the laboratory complex for MLD. Extra computational verification experiment is needed as well. In particular, stresses in the cladding achieved during the experiment ought to be calculated. Calculated stresses are required to make project justification on the performance capability of fuel rods.

  9. The influence of loading conditions on fracture initiation, propagation, and interaction in rocks with veins: Results from a comparative Discrete Element Method study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virgo, Simon; Abe, Steffen; Urai, Janos L.

    2016-03-01

    We present the results of a comparative study of loading conditions on the interactions between extension fractures and veins. We model the fracture behavior of brittle discrete element materials each containing a tabular vein body of variable orientation and strength in two different loading conditions. The first is uniaxial tension, applied with servo-controlled sidewalls. The second is a boudinage boundary condition in which a tensile triaxial stress state is induced in the brittle model volume by quasi-viscous extensional deformation in the adjacent layers. Most of the fracture- vein interactions observed in uniaxial tension also exists in boudinage boundary conditions. However, the importance of each interaction mechanism for a given configuration of relative strength and misorientation of the vein may differ according to the loading mechanism. Nucleation and internal deflection is under both boundary conditions the dominating fracture-vein interaction style in weak veins. In uniaxial tension models, strong veins tend to alter the fracture path by external deflection, while under boudinage loading these veins are more likely overcome by the fracture step over mechanism. Dynamic bifurcation of fractures was observed in uniaxial tension models but never for boudinage boundary conditions. This is because the acceleration of fracture tips in these conditions is suppressed by interaction with distributed fractures as well as viscous damping by the neighboring layers.

  10. On stability and monotonicity requirements of finite difference approximations of stochastic conservation laws with random viscosity

    KAUST Repository

    Pettersson, Per

    2013-05-01

    The stochastic Galerkin and collocation methods are used to solve an advection-diffusion equation with uncertain and spatially varying viscosity. We investigate well-posedness, monotonicity and stability for the extended system resulting from the Galerkin projection of the advection-diffusion equation onto the stochastic basis functions. High-order summation-by-parts operators and weak imposition of boundary conditions are used to prove stability of the semi-discrete system.It is essential that the eigenvalues of the resulting viscosity matrix of the stochastic Galerkin system are positive and we investigate conditions for this to hold. When the viscosity matrix is diagonalizable, stochastic Galerkin and stochastic collocation are similar in terms of computational cost, and for some cases the accuracy is higher for stochastic Galerkin provided that monotonicity requirements are met. We also investigate the total spatial operator of the semi-discretized system and its impact on the convergence to steady-state. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  11. The Non-Monotonic Effect of Financing Constraints on Investment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hirth, Stefan; Viswanatha, Marc

    We analyze investment timing in a discrete-time framework with two possible investment dates, which is an extension of the model by Lyandres (2007). While Lyandres could only show non-monotonicity of investment in market frictions, we derive an investment threshold that is U-shaped in the firm's ......'s liquid funds, a result similar to the infinite-horizon model by Boyle and Guthrie (2003). However, due to the tractability of our model, we can more clearly explain the relevant trade-offs leading to the U-shape....

  12. Contribution to the ergodic theory of piecewise monotone continuous maps

    OpenAIRE

    Faller, Bastien

    2008-01-01

    This thesis is devoted to the ergodic theory of the piecewise monotone continuous maps of the interval. The coding is a classical approach for these maps. Thanks to the coding, we get a symbolic dynamical system which is almost isomorphic to the initial dynamical system. The principle of the coding is very similar to the one of expansion of real numbers. We first define the coding in a perspective similar to the one of the expansions of real numbers; this perspective was already adopted by Ré...

  13. Deterministic homogenization of parabolic monotone operators with time dependent coefficients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Nguetseng

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available We study, beyond the classical periodic setting, the homogenization of linear and nonlinear parabolic differential equations associated with monotone operators. The usual periodicity hypothesis is here substituted by an abstract deterministic assumption characterized by a great relaxation of the time behaviour. Our main tool is the recent theory of homogenization structures by the first author, and our homogenization approach falls under the two-scale convergence method. Various concrete examples are worked out with a view to pointing out the wide scope of our approach and bringing the role of homogenization structures to light.

  14. Numerical prediction of 3-D periodic flow unsteadiness in a centrifugal pump under part-load condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴吉; 袁寿其; 李晓俊; 袁建平

    2014-01-01

    Numerical simulation and 3-D periodic flow unsteadiness analysis for a centrifugal pump with volute are carried out in whole flow passage, including the impeller with twisted blades, the volute and the side chamber channels under a part-load condition. The pressure fluctuation intensity coefficient (PFIC) based on the standard deviation method, the time-averaged velocity unsteadi-ness intensity coefficient (VUIC) and the time-averaged turbulence intensity coefficient (TIC) are defined by averaging the results at each grid node for an entire impeller revolution period. Therefore, the strength distributions of the periodic flow unsteadiness based on the unsteady Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (URANS) equations can be analyzed directly and in detail. It is shown that under the des.0.6Q condition, the pressure fluctuation intensity is larger near the blade pressure side than near the suction side, and a high fluctuation intensity can be observed at the beginning section of the spiral of the volute. The flow velocity unsteadiness intensity is larger near the blade suction side than near the pressure side. A strong turbulence intensity can be found near the blade suction side, the impeller shroud side as well as in the side chamber. The leakage flow has a significant effect on the inflow of the impeller, and can increase both the flow velocity unsteadiness intensity and the turbulence intensity near the wall. The accumulative flow unstea-diness results of an impeller revolution can be an important aspect to be considered in the centrifugal pump optimum design for ob-taining a more stable inner flow of the pump and reducing the flow-induced vibration and noise in certain components.

  15. DATA PREORDERING IN GENERALIZED PAV ALGORITHM FOR MONOTONIC REGRESSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oleg Burdakov; Anders Grimvall; Oleg Sysoev

    2006-01-01

    Monotonic regression (MR) is a least distance problem with monotonicity constraints induced by a partially ordered data set of observations. In our recent publication [In Ser.Nonconvex Optimization and Its Applications, Springer-Verlag, (2006) 83, pp. 25-33],the Pool-Adjacent-Violators algorithm (PAV) was generalized from completely to partially ordered data sets (posets). The new algorithm, called GPAV, is characterized by the very low computational complexity, which is of second order in the number of observations.It treats the observations in a consecutive order, and it can follow any arbitrarily chosen topological order of the poset of observations. The GPAV algorithm produces a sufficiently accurate solution to the MR problem, but the accuracy depends on the chosen topological order. Here we prove that there exists a topological order for which the resulted GPAV solution is optimal. Furthermore, we present results of extensive numerical experiments,from which we draw conclusions about the most and the least preferable topological orders.

  16. A Combined Isotropic, Kinematic and Cross Hardening Model for Magnesium AZ31B-H24 under Non-linear Strain Loading Path

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yueqian; Bai, Yuanli

    2016-08-01

    A fully modularized framework was established to combine isotropic, kinematic, and cross hardening behaviors under non-monotonic loading conditions. Three sets of state variables were defined and applied to consider the effects of, a) loading history, b) twinning and de-twinning and c) different pre-strain. Experiments under two types of non-proportional loading conditions were conducted along different orientations, 1) uniaxial compression-tension reversal loading with different amounts of compressive strains, and 2) two-step uniaxial tension, known as cross-loading conditions, with different pre-strains. No apparent cross-hardening effect was observed for this material. The calibrated new hardening model, with an anisotropic CPB06ex2 yield criterion and an eMMC anisotropic fracture model, has been implemented into Abaqus/ Explicit as a user material subroutine (VUMAT). Good correlation was observed between experimental and simulation results.

  17. Thermal–mechanical stress analysis of pressurized water reactor pressure vessel with/without a preexisting crack under grid load following conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohanty, Subhasish, E-mail: smohanty@anl.gov; Soppet, William K.; Majumdar, Saurin; Natesan, Krishnamurti

    2016-12-15

    Highlights: • Use of intermittent renewable-energy source in power grid is becoming a trend. • Gird load-following can leads to variable power demand from Nuclear power plant. • Reactor components can be stressed differently under gird load-following mode. • Estimation of stress–strain state under grid load-following condition is essential. - Abstract: In this paper, we present thermal–mechanical stress analysis of a pressurized water reactor pressure vessel and its hot-leg and cold-leg nozzles. Results are presented from thermal and thermal–mechanical stress analysis under reactor heat-up, cool-down, and grid load-following conditions. Analysis results are given with and without the presence of preexisting crack in the reactor nozzle (axial crack in hot leg nozzle). From the model results it is found that the stress–strain states are significantly higher in case of presence of crack than without crack. The stress–strain state under grid load following condition are more realistic compared to the stress–strain state estimated assuming simplified transients.

  18. Interlayer design for the graphite-like carbon film with high load-bearing capacity under sliding-friction condition in water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yongxin; Pu, Jibin; Wang, Jiafan; Li, Jinlong; Chen, Jianmin; Xue, Qunji

    2014-08-01

    GLC films with single Ti interlayer, single Cr interlayer, thickness gradient Cr/C interlayer and composition gradient Cr/C interlayer were fabricated by magnetron sputtering technique. The microstructures, mechanical properties and tribological performance under sliding friction in distilled water and seawater of the as-deposited GLC films were investigated. Results showed that the adhesion strength and the load-bearing capacity under sliding-friction condition in water of GLC film could be improved effectively by interlayer design. GLC film with composition gradient Cr/C interlayer exhibited highest adhesion strength and load-bearing capacity under sliding-friction conditions in water, which was closely related to nano-interlocked microstructure and hard carbide phase formations inside the interlayer. The adhesion strength in scratch test and the critical bearing load under sliding-friction in water of the GLC film with composition gradient Cr/C interlayer exceeded 50 N and 2.73 GPa, respectively.

  19. Fatigue strength evaluation of self-piercing riveted cold rolled steel joints under mixed mode loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KYUNG-MIN LEE

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Fatigue strength of cross-shaped specimens of SPR joints made of SPCC was evaluated at load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°. For the static strength at load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90°, the maximum loads were determined to be 4890N, 1969N, and 1611N, respectively. Regarding for the relationship between the load amplitude and the number of cycles (Nf, the results were Pamp = 2209.3N−f 0.014 , = 8610.8 −0.199 Pamp N f , and = 3459.3 −0.149 Pamp N f for the load angle of 0°, 45°, and 90°, respectively. On the basis of the lifetime of 106 cycles, the load amplitudes which correspond to the fatigue limit for load angles of 0°, 45°, and 90° were 38%, 28%, and 29% of the static strength, respectively. The effective stress intensity factor was not found to be appropriate in the evaluation of the fatigue lifetime due to the different fatigue fracture behavior of these specimens.

  20. Determination of chemical-constituent loads during base-flow and storm-runoff conditions near historical mines in Prospect Gulch, upper Animas River watershed, southwestern Colorado

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirt, Laurie; Leib, K.J.; Bove, D.J.; Mast, M.A.; Evans, J.B.; Meeker, G.P.

    1999-01-01

    Prospect Gulch is a major source of iron, aluminum, zinc, and other metals to Cement Creek. Information is needed to prioritize remediation and develop strategies for cleanup of historical abandoned mine sites in Prospect Gulch. Chemical-constituent loads were determined in Prospect Gulch, a high-elevation alpine stream in southwestern Colorado that is affected by natural acid drainage from weathering of hydro-thermally altered igneous rock and acidic metal-laden discharge from historical abandoned mines. The objective of the study was to identify metal sources to Prospect Gulch. A tracer solution was injected into Prospect Gulch during water-quality sampling so that loading of geochemical constituents could be calculated throughout the study reach. A thunderstorm occurred during the tracer study, hence, metal loads were measured for storm-runoff as well as for base flow. Data from different parts of the study reach represents different flow conditions. The beginning of the reach represents background conditions during base flow immediately upstream from the Lark and Henrietta mines (samples PG5 to PG45). Other samples were collected during storm runoff conditions (PG100 to PG291); during the first flush of metal runoff following the onset of rainfall (PG303 to PG504), and samples PG542 to PG700 were collected during low-flow conditions. During base-flow conditions, the percentage increase in loads for major constituents and trace metals was more than an order of magnitude greater than the corresponding 36 % increase in stream discharge. Within the study reach, the highest percentage increases for dissolved loads were 740 % for iron (Fe), 465 % for aluminum (Al), 500 % for lead (Pb), 380 % for copper (Cu), 100 % for sulfate (SO4), and 50 % for zinc (Zn). Downstream loads near the mouth of Prospect Gulch often greatly exceeded the loads generated within the study reach but varied by metal species. For example, the study reach accounts for about 6 % of the dissolved

  1. Effect of Feed Additives on Productivity and Campylobacter spp. Loads in Broilers Reared under Free Range Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muriel Guyard-Nicodème

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The poultry reservoir, especially broiler meat, is generally recognized as one of the most-important sources for human Campylobacteriosis. The measures to control Campylobacter targeted essentially the primary production level. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatments against natural Campylobacter colonization in a French experimental farm of free-range broilers during the whole rearing period. Five commercial products and a combination of two of them were tested and all the products were added to feed or to water at the dose recommended by the suppliers. Campylobacter loads in caeca and on carcasses of broilers at the slaughter were determined by culture methods. Natural contamination of the flock occurred at the end of the indoor rearing period between day 35 and day 42. At day 42, the multispecies probiotic added to the feed reduced the contamination of 0.55 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 but was not significant (p > 0.05 at the end of rearing at day 78. However, another treatment, a combination of a cation exchange clay-based product in feed and an organic acid mixture (formic acid, sodium formate, lactic acid, propionic acid in water, led to a slight but significant reduction of 0.82 ± 0.25 log10 CFU/g (p = 0.02 compared to the control group at day 78. Testing this combination in field conditions in several flocks is needed to determine if it is biologically relevant and if it could be a valuable measure to reduce Campylobacter in broiler flocks.

  2. The ecological effects of different loading rates of metalaxyl on microbial biomass in unplanted and planted soils under field conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mansourzadeh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Fungicides are most widely used pesticides in Iran and the world. Application of fungicides may affect the populations and activity of soil microorganisms, particularly fungi, with a consequence for soil fertility and crop growth. In the current study, the effects of different levels of metalaxyl on soil microbial biomass carbon (C and nitrogen (N, microbial biomass C/N ratio and metabolic quotient under field conditions were assessed. Two levels of metalaxyl (30 and 60 kg.ha-1 were applied in planted soils with corn and unplanted calcareous soils, using a split-plots experiment in a completely randomized design with three replications. The C and N contents in soil microbial biomass as well as metabolic quotient were measured at 30 and 90 days after the onset of the experiment. Results showed that in cultivated soils metalaxyl application at 30 kg.ha-1 increased (15-80% significantly (p≤0.01 the amounts of microbial biomass C and N at both intervals (except microbial biomass C at 90 days compared to the control soil (0 kg.ha-1, while in uncultivated soils both microbial biomass C and N reduced by almost 1-34%. Microbial biomass C/N ratios in unplanted soils decreased (15 and 53% with increasing loading rates of metalaxyl, without a clear effect in cultivated soils. On the other hand, metabolic quotient values reduced (48% at 30 and 60 kg.ha-1 metalaxyl in corn-cultivated soils when compared to untreated soils while in uncultivated soils metalaxyl rate at 30 kg.a-1 had the greatest values at 30 days, and increased with increasing the levels of metalaxyl at 90 days. In summary, application of metalaxyl can either reduce or increase soil biological indices, and the direction and changes are depended upon the application rate of metalaxyl, time elapsed since metalaxyl application and the presence or absence of plant.

  3. Clinical evaluation of a novel dental implant system as single implants under immediate loading conditions - 4-month post-loading results from a multicentre randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, Marco; Trullenque-Eriksson, Anna; Blasone, Rodolfo; Malaguti, Giuliano; Gaffuri, Cristiano; Caneva, Marco; Minciarelli, Armando; Luongo, Giuseppe

    To evaluate the safety and clinical effectiveness of a novel dental implant system (GENESIS Implant System, Keystone Dental, Massachusetts, USA) using another dental implant system by the same manufacturer as a control (PRIMA Implant System, Keystone Dental). A total of 53 patients requiring at least two single crowns had their sites randomised according to a split-mouth design to receive both implant systems at six centres. If implants could be placed with a torque superior to 40 Ncm they were to be loaded immediately with provisional crowns, otherwise after 3 months of submerged healing. Provisional crowns were replaced by definitive crowns 4 months after initial loading, when the follow-up period for the initial part of this study was completed. Outcome measures were crown/implant failures, complications, pink esthetic score (PES), peri-implant marginal bone level changes, plaque score, marginal bleeding, patients and preference of the clinician. In total 53 PRIMA and 53 GENESIS implants were placed. Three patients dropped out but all of the remaining patients were followed up to 4-months post-loading. No PRIMA implant failed whereas four GENESIS implants failed. Only two complications were reported for PRIMA implants. There were no statistically significant differences for crown/implant failures (difference in proportions = 0.080; P (McNemar test) = 0.125) and complications (difference in proportions = -0.04; P (McNemar test) = 0.500) between the implant systems. There were no differences at 4-months post-loading for plaque (difference = -0.54, 95% CI: -3.01 to 1.93; P (Paired t-test) = 0.660), marginal bleeding (difference = -3.8, 95% CI: -7.63 to 0.019; P (Paired t-test) = 0.051), PES (difference = 0.47, 95% CI: -0.56 to 1.50; P (Paired t-test) = 0.365) and marginal bone level changes (difference in mm = -0.04, 95% CI: -0.33 to 0.26; P (Paired t-test) = 0.795). The majority of the patients (46) had no

  4. Non-monotonic dependence of Pickering emulsion gel rheology on particle volume fraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaganyuk, M; Mohraz, A

    2017-03-29

    The microstructure of Pickering emulsion gels features a tenuous network of faceted droplets, bridged together by shared monolayers of particles. In this investigation, we use standard oscillatory rheometry in conjunction with confocal microscopy to gain a more comprehensive understanding of the role particle bridged interfaces have on the rheology of Pickering emulsion gels. The zero-shear elastic modulus of Pickering emulsion gels shows a non-monotonic dependence on particle loading, with three separate regimes of power-law and linear gel strengthening, and subsequent gel weakening. The transition from power-law to linear scaling is found to coincide with a peak in the volume fraction of particles that participate in bridging, which we indirectly calculate using measureable quantities, and the transition to gel weakening is shown to result from a loss in network connectivity at high particle loadings. These observations are explained via a simple representation of how Pickering emulsion gels arise from an initial population of partially-covered droplets. Based on these considerations, we propose a combined variable related to the initial droplet coverage, to be used in reporting and rationalizing the rheology of Pickering emulsion gels. We demonstrate the applicability of this variable with Pickering emulsions prepared at variable fluid ratios and with different-sized colloidal particles. The results of our investigation have important implications for many technological applications that utilize solid stabilized multi-phase emulsions and require a priori knowledge or engineering of their flow characteristics.

  5. An improved synchronous reference frame current control strategy for a photovoltaic grid-connected inverter under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naderipour, Amirreza; Asuhaimi Mohd Zin, Abdullah; Bin Habibuddin, Mohd Hafiz

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, renewable energy sources have been considered the most encouraging resources for grid and off-grid power generation. This paper presents an improved current control strategy for a three-phase photovoltaic grid-connected inverter (GCI) under unbalanced and nonlinear load conditions...

  6. A geometrical approach to determine reorientation start and continuation conditions in ferromagnetic shape memory alloys considering the effects of loading history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirani, M.; Kadkhodaei, M.

    2014-12-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys (FSMAs) and magnetic shape memory alloys (MSMAs) are metallic alloys that can undergo inelastic responses when exposed to magnetic fields. Several constitutive models have been proposed so far to model the behaviors of FSMAs. In this work, the effects of loading history on reorientation start conditions are considered, and it is shown that reorientation start conditions are not fixed values; rather, they change with respect to the amount of loading history. To consider the effects of loading history on reorientation start conditions, an available phase diagram in stress-field space is generalized to reorientation surfaces in stress-field-loading history space. Correspondingly, kinetic laws are derived in a continuum framework to be used with the reorientation surfaces to determine the amount of the martensitic variant 2 volume fraction. Based on the geometry of the reorientation surfaces, conditions that must be satisfied to ensure the continuation of reorientations are obtained. Available experimental findings validate the proposed model and the reorientation surfaces.

  7. Supported Load Condition and Life Analysis for Momentum Flywheel Bearing%动量飞轮轴承的受载情况及寿命分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    臧稳通; 李建华

    2000-01-01

    The momentum flywheel is a key operating mechanism of space aircraft.Under the space environment,it is vital for aircraft to keep the optimum operating state and long life.The paper analyzes loaded condition of momentum flywheel and life of angular contact ball bearing with preload.

  8. The regularized monotonicity method: detecting irregular indefinite inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garde, Henrik; Staboulis, Stratos

    2017-01-01

    In inclusion detection in electrical impedance tomography, the support of perturbations (inclusion) from a known background conductivity is typically reconstructed from idealized continuum data modelled by a Neumann-to-Dirichlet map. Only few reconstruction methods apply when detecting indefinite...... of approximative measurement models, including the Complete Electrode Model, hence making the method robust against modelling error and noise. In particular, we demonstrate that for a convergent family of approximative models there exists a sequence of regularization parameters such that the outer shape...... of the inclusions is asymptotically exactly characterized. Finally, a peeling-type reconstruction algorithm is presented and, for the first time in literature, numerical examples of monotonicity reconstructions for indefinite inclusions are presented....

  9. Convex analysis and monotone operator theory in Hilbert spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Bauschke, Heinz H

    2017-01-01

    This reference text, now in its second edition, offers a modern unifying presentation of three basic areas of nonlinear analysis: convex analysis, monotone operator theory, and the fixed point theory of nonexpansive operators. Taking a unique comprehensive approach, the theory is developed from the ground up, with the rich connections and interactions between the areas as the central focus, and it is illustrated by a large number of examples. The Hilbert space setting of the material offers a wide range of applications while avoiding the technical difficulties of general Banach spaces. The authors have also drawn upon recent advances and modern tools to simplify the proofs of key results making the book more accessible to a broader range of scholars and users. Combining a strong emphasis on applications with exceptionally lucid writing and an abundance of exercises, this text is of great value to a large audience including pure and applied mathematicians as well as researchers in engineering, data science, ma...

  10. Monotonic childhoods: representations of otherness in research writing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Marcos Bussoletti

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is part of a doctoral thesis entitled “Monotonic childhoods – a rhapsody of hope”. It follows the perspective of a critical psychosocial and cultural study, and aims at discussing the other’s representation in research writing, electing childhood as an allegorical and refl ective place. It takes into consideration, by means of analysis, the drawings and poems of children from the Terezin ghetto during the Second World War. The work is mostly based on Serge Moscovici’s Social Representation Theory, but it is also in constant dialogue with other theories and knowledge fi elds, especially Walter Benjamin’s and Mikhail Bakhtin’s contributions. At the end, the paper supports the thesis that conceives poetics as one of the translation axes of childhood cultures.

  11. PPA BASED PREDICTION-CORRECTION METHODS FOR MONOTONE VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    He Bingsheng; Jiang Jianlin; Qian Maijian; Xu Ya

    2005-01-01

    In this paper we study the proximal point algorithm (PPA) based predictioncorrection (PC) methods for monotone variational inequalities. Each iteration of these methods consists of a prediction and a correction. The predictors are produced by inexact PPA steps. The new iterates are then updated by a correction using the PPA formula. We present two profit functions which serve two purposes: First we show that the profit functions are tight lower bounds of the improvements obtained in each iteration. Based on this conclusion we obtain the convergence inexactness restrictions for the prediction step. Second we show that the profit functions are quadratically dependent upon the step lengths, thus the optimal step lengths are obtained in the correction step. In the last part of the paper we compare the strengths of different methods based on their inexactness restrictions.

  12. Convergence of the natural approximations of piecewise monotone interval maps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haydn, Nicolai

    2004-06-01

    We consider piecewise monotone interval mappings which are topologically mixing and satisfy the Markov property. It has previously been shown that the invariant densities of the natural approximations converge exponentially fast in uniform pointwise topology to the invariant density of the given map provided its derivative is piecewise Lipshitz continuous. We provide an example of a map which is Lipshitz continuous and for which the densities converge in the bounded variation norm at a logarithmic rate. This shows that in general one cannot expect exponential convergence in the bounded variation norm. Here we prove that if the derivative of the interval map is Holder continuous and its variation is well approximable (gamma-uniform variation for gamma>0), then the densities converge exponentially fast in the norm.

  13. A new non-monotone fitness scaling for genetic algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The properties of selection operators in the genetic algorithm (GA) are studied in detail. It is indicated that the selection of operations is significant for both improving the general fitness of a population and leading to the schema deceptiveness. The stochastic searching characteristics of GA are compared with those of heuristic methods. The influence of selection operators on the GA' s exploration and exploitation is discussed, and the performance of selection operators is evaluated with the premature convergence of the GA taken as an example based on One-Max function. In order to overcome the schema deceptiveness of the GA, a new type of fitness scaling, non monotone scaling, is advanced to enhance the evolutionary ability of a population. The effectiveness of the new scaling method is tested by a trap function and a needle-in-haystack (NiH) function.

  14. A new approximate proximal point algorithm for maximal monotone operator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE; Bingsheng(何炳生); LIAO; Lizhi(廖立志); YANG; Zhenhua(杨振华)

    2003-01-01

    The problem concerned in this paper is the set-valued equation 0 ∈ T(z) where T is a maximal monotone operator. For given xk and βk > 0, some existing approximate proximal point algorithms take xk+1 = xk such that xk +ek∈ xk + βkT(xk) and||ek|| ≤ηk||xk - xk||, where {ηk} is a non-negative summable sequence. Instead of xk+1 = xk, the new iterate of the proposing method is given by xk+1 = PΩ[xk - ek], where Ω is the domain of T and PΩ(@) denotes the projection on Ω. The convergence is proved under a significantly relaxed restriction supk>0 ηk < 1.

  15. Payoff-monotonic game dynamics and the maximum clique problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelillo, Marcello; Torsello, Andrea

    2006-05-01

    Evolutionary game-theoretic models and, in particular, the so-called replicator equations have recently proven to be remarkably effective at approximately solving the maximum clique and related problems. The approach is centered around a classic result from graph theory that formulates the maximum clique problem as a standard (continuous) quadratic program and exploits the dynamical properties of these models, which, under a certain symmetry assumption, possess a Lyapunov function. In this letter, we generalize previous work along these lines in several respects. We introduce a wide family of game-dynamic equations known as payoff-monotonic dynamics, of which replicator dynamics are a special instance, and show that they enjoy precisely the same dynamical properties as standard replicator equations. These properties make any member of this family a potential heuristic for solving standard quadratic programs and, in particular, the maximum clique problem. Extensive simulations, performed on random as well as DIMACS benchmark graphs, show that this class contains dynamics that are considerably faster than and at least as accurate as replicator equations. One problem associated with these models, however, relates to their inability to escape from poor local solutions. To overcome this drawback, we focus on a particular subclass of payoff-monotonic dynamics used to model the evolution of behavior via imitation processes and study the stability of their equilibria when a regularization parameter is allowed to take on negative values. A detailed analysis of these properties suggests a whole class of annealed imitation heuristics for the maximum clique problem, which are based on the idea of varying the parameter during the imitation optimization process in a principled way, so as to avoid unwanted inefficient solutions. Experiments show that the proposed annealing procedure does help to avoid poor local optima by initially driving the dynamics toward promising regions in

  16. Characterization of Strain-Induced Anisotropy in Titanium at Large Strains under Monotonic and Bauschinger Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-15

    hearth ), goniometer 4 circles of INEL mark; - A plane graphite monochromator (elimination of the Kß radiation), the value wavelength is: λ = 1.7902...determination of intermediate size of grains by optical microscopy) while avoiding an artificial activation of twinning during polishing (e.g

  17. A Similitude Theory for Bucket Foundations Under Monotonic Horizontal Load in Dense Sand

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foglia, Aligi; Ibsen, Lars Bo

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims at finding force-displacement relationships to be employed in the design of bucket foundations for offshore wind turbine. This is accomplished by combining small-scale tests and element tests within a theoretical framework. A similitude theory, regarding the lateral displacement o...

  18. STUDY OF CONSTITUTIVE MODELS TO PREDICT SOIL LIQUEFACTION UNDER MONOTONIC LOADING

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE LUIS CARDENAS GUILLEN

    2004-01-01

    Historicamente é sabido que muitas das rupturas ocorridas em barragens ou taludes naturais podem ser atribuídas ao fenômeno da liquefação de solos arenosos, causada pela ação de carregamentos dinâmicos gerados por explosão ou, mais freqüentemente, por terremotos. Quando liquefação ocorre, um súbito aumento da poropressão faz decrescer a resistência ao cisalhamento do solo e sua capacidade de suportar pontes e edifícios é significativamente reduzida. Solo liquef...

  19. STUDY OF CONSTITUTIVE MODELS TO PREDICT SOIL LIQUEFACTION UNDER MONOTONIC LOADING

    OpenAIRE

    JORGE LUIS CARDENAS GUILLEN

    2004-01-01

    Historicamente é sabido que muitas das rupturas ocorridas em barragens ou taludes naturais podem ser atribuídas ao fenômeno da liquefação de solos arenosos, causada pela ação de carregamentos dinâmicos gerados por explosão ou, mais freqüentemente, por terremotos. Quando liquefação ocorre, um súbito aumento da poropressão faz decrescer a resistência ao cisalhamento do solo e sua capacidade de suportar pontes e edifícios é significativamente reduzida. Solo liquef...

  20. Workhardening correlations based on state variables in some FCC metals in monotonic loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, M. A.; Hannula, S.-P.; Li, Che-Yu

    1985-03-01

    This paper reports an investigation of the workhardening properties of 316 stainless steel, commercial purity aluminum, and OFHC copper at room temperature by using a state-variable approach. Based on the results of experiments, it is proposed that a generalized workhardening correlation can be formulated by using two state variables only, the structural state parameter and the inelastic strain rate. Particularly, an absolute workhardening coefficient is proposed to be a product of two parts. The athermal part, which is structure dependent only, will be approached at low homologous temperatures and/or high strain rates, while the strain rate sensitive part describes a dynamic recovery contribution at high homologous temperatures and/or low strain rates. Correspondingly, based on this approach a new way of separating thermal and athermal contributions to workhardening rate are suggested. Moreover, it is shown that a single master curve can be constructed to display the dependence of workhardening coefficient on structure and strain rate.

  1. Workhardening correlations based on state variables in some FCC metals in monotonic loadings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korhonen, M.A.; Hannula, S.P.; Li, C.Y.

    1983-10-01

    This paper reports an investigation based on a state variable approach of workhardening properties of 316 stainless steel, commercial purity aluminium and OFHC copper at room temperature. It is proposed that a generalized workhardening correlation can be formulated by using two state variables only, the structural state parameter and the inelastic strain rate. Particularly, an absolute workhardening coefficient is proposed to be a product of two parts: the athermal part, which is structure dependent only, will be approached at low homologous temperatures and/or high strain rates, while the strain rate sensitive part describes a dynamic recovery contribution at high homologous temperatures and/or low strain rates. Moreover, it is shown that a single master curve can be constructed to display the dependence of workhardening coefficient on structure and strain rate.

  2. A System of Generalized Mixed Equilibrium Problems, Maximal Monotone Operators, and Fixed Point Problems with Application to Optimization Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pongsakorn Sunthrayuth

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative algorithm for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems, zero set of the sum of a maximal monotone operators and inverse-strongly monotone mappings, and the set of common fixed points of an infinite family of nonexpansive mappings with infinite real number. Furthermore, we prove under some mild conditions that the proposed iterative algorithm converges strongly to a common element of the above four sets, which is a solution of the optimization problem related to a strongly positive bounded linear operator. The results presented in the paper improve and extend the recent ones announced by many others.

  3. 单调q矩阵的Feller性质%The Feller Property for the Monotone q-Matrix

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀珍; 李扬荣

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a necessary and sufficient condition for a monotone q-matrix Q to be Feller is given in terms of (Q), where (Q) is the dual of 2. Then, the authors further point out that the minimal (Q)-function (P)(t) is the dual for the minimal Q-function P(t) if Q is monotone and zero-exit.%给出了单调q-矩阵Q是Feller的充分必要条件,进一步指出:若q-矩阵Q是单调零流出的且(Q)是Q的对偶,则最小(Q)-函数(Q)(t)是最小(Q)-函数P(t)的对偶.

  4. Comportement des poteaux mixtes acier-béton soumis aux sollicitations de type monotone. Étude expérimentale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Câmpian

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For more than one hundred years the construction system based on steel or composite steel -- concrete frames became one of the more utilized types of building in civil engineering domain. For an optimal dimensioning of the structure, the engineers had to found a compromise between the structural exigency for the resistance, stiffness and ductility, on one side, and architectural exigency on the other side. Three monotonic tests and nine cyclic tests according to ECCS loading procedure were carried out in Cluj Laboratory of Concrete. The tested composite columns of fully encased type were subject to a variable transverse load at one end while keeping a constant value of the axial compression force into them. An analytical interpretation is given for the calculus of column stiffness for the monotonic tests, making a comparation with the latest versions of the Eurocode 4 stiffness formula.

  5. Development and validation of a statistical shape modeling-based finite element model of the cervical spine under low level multiple direction loading conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Todd L Bredbenner

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Cervical spinal injuries are a significant concern in all trauma injuries. Recent military conflicts have demonstrated the substantial risk of spinal injury for the modern warfighter. Finite element models used to investigate injury mechanisms often fail to examine the effects of variation in geometry or material properties on mechanical behavior. The goals of this study were to model geometric variation for a set of cervical spines, to extend this model to a parametric finite element model, and, as a first step, to validate the parametric model against experimental data for low-loading conditions. Individual finite element models were created using cervical spine (C3-T1 CT data for five male cadavers. Statistical shape modeling was used to generate a parametric finite element model incorporating variability of spine geometry, and soft tissue material property variation was also included. The probabilistic loading response of the parametric model was determined under flexion-extension, axial rotation, and lateral bending and validated by comparison to experimental data. Based on qualitative and quantitative comparison of the experimental loading response and model simulations, we suggest that the model performs adequately under relatively low-level loading conditions in multiple loading directions. In conclusion, statistical shape modeling methods coupled with finite element analyses within a probabilistic framework, along with the ability to statistically validate the overall model performance, provide innovative and important steps towards describing the differences in vertebral morphology, spinal curvature, and variation in material properties. We suggest that these methods, with additional investigation and validation under injurious loading conditions, will lead to understanding and mitigating the risks of injury in the spine and other musculoskeletal structures.

  6. The Effect of Non-Contact Conditions in a Splinted Fixed Partial Denture on the Load Sharing Mechanism: A Finite Element Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M.Z.Bendjaballah

    2012-01-01

    A computer-aided design model for a fixed partial denture was constructed and used in a finite element analysis to study the overall load sharing mechanism between the fixed partial denture and oral structures while the denture base rested on the alveolar ridge.To investigate the consequences of non-contact conditions,three additional models were generated incorporating a uniform clearance of 0.125 mm,0.25 mm,and 0.5 mm,respectively.A 100 N static load located at the free end of the prosthesis was applied while the distal portion of the jaw was set fixed.The results show that whilst releasing the ridge almost entirely,the presence of the clearance drastically increased the load on the splinting teeth.A pull-out force on the canine tooth of about 44 N was computed,accompanied by a mesio-distal moment of about 500 N.cm.The combination of which was similar to the tooth extraction maneuver performed by the dentist.In contrast,the second premolar was found to bear a push-in force of almost 115N.The first molar,though barely solicited in the contact condition,became substantially loaded in non-contact conditions,which validates the choice of sacrificing three teeth to support the denture.

  7. Bearing Capacity of Foundations subjected to Impact Loads

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Jakobsen, Kim Parsberg

    1996-01-01

    In the design process for foundations, the bearing capacity calculations are normally restricted to monotonic loads. Even in cases where the impact load is of significance the dynamic aspects are neglected by use of a traditional deterministic ultimate limit state analysis. Nevertheless it is com......In the design process for foundations, the bearing capacity calculations are normally restricted to monotonic loads. Even in cases where the impact load is of significance the dynamic aspects are neglected by use of a traditional deterministic ultimate limit state analysis. Nevertheless...

  8. On a correspondence between regular and non-regular operator monotone functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gibilisco, P.; Hansen, Frank; Isola, T.

    2009-01-01

    We prove the existence of a bijection between the regular and the non-regular operator monotone functions satisfying a certain functional equation. As an application we give a new proof of the operator monotonicity of certain functions related to the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information.......We prove the existence of a bijection between the regular and the non-regular operator monotone functions satisfying a certain functional equation. As an application we give a new proof of the operator monotonicity of certain functions related to the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information....

  9. Non-monotonic dynamics and crosstalk in signaling pathways and their implications for pharmacology

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Wijk, Roeland; Tans, Sander J.; Wolde, Pieter Rein Ten; Mashaghi, Alireza

    2015-06-01

    Currently, drug discovery approaches commonly assume a monotonic dose-response relationship. However, the assumption of monotonicity is increasingly being challenged. Here we show that for two simple interacting linear signaling pathways that carry two different signals with different physiological responses, a non-monotonic input-output relation can arise with simple network topologies including coherent and incoherent feed-forward loops. We show that non-monotonicity of the response functions has severe implications for pharmacological treatment. Fundamental constraints are imposed on the effectiveness and toxicity of any drug independent of its chemical nature and selectivity due to the specific network structure.

  10. A MONOTONE DOMAIN DECOMPOSITION ALGORITHM FOR SOLVING WEIGHTED AVERAGE APPROXIMATIONS TO NONLINEAR SINGULARLY PERTURBED PARABOLIC PROBLEMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Igor Boglaev; Matthew Hardy

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents and analyzes a monotone domain decomposition algorithm for solving nonlinear singularly perturbed reaction-diffusion problems of parabolic type.To solve the nonlinear weighted average finite difference scheme for the partial differential equation,we construct a monotone domain decomposition algorithm based on a Schwarz alternating method and a box-domain decomposition.This algorithm needs only to solve linear discrete systems at each iterative step and converges monotonically to the exact solution of the nonlinear discrete problem. The rate of convergence of the monotone domain decomposition algorithm is estimated.Numerical experiments are presented.

  11. Monotone-short solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff-de Sitter equation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung; Makino, Tetu

    2016-09-01

    It is known that spherically symmetric static solutions of the Einstein equations with a positive cosmological constant for the energy-momentum tensor of a barotropic perfect fluid are governed by the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff-de Sitter equation. Some sufficient conditions for the existence of monotone-short solutions (with finite radii) of the equation are given in this article. Then we show that the interior metric can extend to the exterior Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on the exterior vacuum region with twice continuous differentiability. In addition, we investigate the analytic property of the solutions at the vacuum boundary. Our result (Theorem 1) can be considered as the de Sitter version of the result by Rendall and Schmidt [Classical Quantum Gravity 8, 985-1000 (1991)]. Furthermore, one can see that there are different properties of the solutions with those of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation (with zero cosmological constant) in certain situation.

  12. On complete monotonicity of the Prabhakar function and non-Debye relaxation in dielectrics

    CERN Document Server

    Mainardi, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    The three parameters Mittag--Leffler function (often referred as the Prabhakar function) has important applications, mainly in physics of dielectrics, in describing anomalous relaxation of non--Debye type. This paper concerns with the investigation of the conditions, on the characteristic parameters, under which the function is locally integrable and completely monotonic; these properties are essential for the physical feasibility of the corresponding models. In particular the classical Havriliak--Negami model is extended to a wider range of the parameters. The problem of the numerical evaluation of the three parameters Mittag--Leffler function is also addressed and three different approaches are discussed and compared. Numerical simulations are hence used to validate the theoretical findings and present some graphs of the function under investigation.

  13. Thermographic studies on IMI-834 titanium alloy during tensile loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, Jalaj [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India)], E-mail: k_jalaj@yahoo.com; Baby, Sony; Kumar, Vikas [Defence Metallurgical Research Laboratory, Hyderabad 500058 (India)

    2008-11-25

    To study the material deformation kinetics under monotonic loading conditions, infrared radiation thermography (IRT) has been used in the present investigation. Studies were performed on IMI-834 titanium alloy, which is used in the compressor module of an aeroengine. The compressor has variable states of stress triaxialities at different locations. The effect of stress triaxiality on material deformation was investigated with the use of smooth and axisymmetrically notched round tensile specimens of the alloy. Instantaneous surface temperatures were measured on specimens during tensile deformation through IRT technique. The notched specimen exhibited localized and higher rate of temperature evolution during loading. Using surface temperature evolution curves, thermoelastic and inelastic regions were identified for smooth and notched specimens. With the help of Lord Kelvin's equation, stresses were predicted for thermoelastic region. A good correlation was found between the predicted and experimental stresses for this region.

  14. Multistability of memristive Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiaobing; Zheng, Wei Xing; Cao, Jinde

    2015-11-01

    The problem of coexistence and dynamical behaviors of multiple equilibrium points is addressed for a class of memristive Cohen-Grossberg neural networks with non-monotonic piecewise linear activation functions and time-varying delays. By virtue of the fixed point theorem, nonsmooth analysis theory and other analytical tools, some sufficient conditions are established to guarantee that such n-dimensional memristive Cohen-Grossberg neural networks can have 5(n) equilibrium points, among which 3(n) equilibrium points are locally exponentially stable. It is shown that greater storage capacity can be achieved by neural networks with the non-monotonic activation functions introduced herein than the ones with Mexican-hat-type activation function. In addition, unlike most existing multistability results of neural networks with monotonic activation functions, those obtained 3(n) locally stable equilibrium points are located both in saturated regions and unsaturated regions. The theoretical findings are verified by an illustrative example with computer simulations.

  15. 78 FR 67323 - Special Conditions: Airbus, Model A350-900 Series Airplane; Transient Engine Failure Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...: 1. For turbine engine installations, the engine mounts, pylons, and adjacent supporting airframe... multiplied by a factor of 1.0 when applied to engine mounts and pylons and multiplied by a factor of 1.25...; Transient Engine Failure Loads AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Notice...

  16. Effects of a Specifically Designed Physical Conditioning Program on the Load Carriage and Lifting Performance of Female Soldiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-11-01

    52 18. Percent body fat measured by DEXA .............................. 53 19. Biceps skinfold...circumferences: neck, chest, upper arm, waist, hips, thigh, and calf skinfolds: subscapular, triceps, biceps , suprailiac, abdominal, thigh, and calf muscle...strain, hip strain, groin tendinitis . Maximal lift tests accounted for two injuries. The load carriage test and trailer pull each resulted in one injury

  17. Coupled Fixed Point Theorems for (φ,ψ-Contractive Mixed Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Metric Spaces and Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manish Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to establish the existence and uniqueness of coupled fixed points under a (φ, ψ-contractive condition for mixed monotone operators in the setup of partially ordered metric spaces. Presented work generalizes the recent results of Berinde (2011, 2012 and weakens the contractive conditions involved in the well-known results of Bhaskar and Lakshmikantham (2006, and Luong and Thuan (2011. The effectiveness of our work is validated with the help of a suitable example. As an application, we give a result of existence and uniqueness for the solutions of a class of nonlinear integral equations.

  18. Max-Sum Diversification, Monotone Submodular Functions and Dynamic Updates

    CERN Document Server

    Borodin, Allan; Ye, Yuli

    2012-01-01

    Result diversification has many important applications in databases, operations research, information retrieval, and finance. In this paper, we study and extend a particular version of result diversification, known as max-sum diversification. More specifically, we consider the setting where we are given a set of elements in a metric space and a set valuation function $f$ defined on every subset. For any given subset $S$, the overall objective is a linear combination of $f(S)$ and the sum of the distances induced by $S$. The goal is to find a subset $S$ satisfying some constraints that maximizes the overall objective. This problem is first studied by Gollapudi and Sharma for modular set functions and for sets satisfying a cardinality constraint. We consider an extension of the modular case to the monotone submodular case, for which the previous algorithm no longer applies. Interestingly, we are able to match the 2-approximation using a natural, but different greedy algorithm. We then further extend the problem...

  19. Non-monotonicity of trace distance under tensor products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maziero, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.maziero@ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica

    2015-10-15

    The trace distance (TD) possesses several of the good properties required for a faithful distance measure in the quantum state space. Despite its importance and ubiquitous use in quantum information science, one of its questionable features, its possible non-monotonicity under taking tensor products of its arguments (NMuTP), has been hitherto unexplored. In this article, we advance analytical and numerical investigations of this issue considering different classes of states living in a discrete and finite dimensional Hilbert space. Our results reveal that although this property of TD does not show up for pure states and for some particular classes of mixed states, it is present in a non-negligible fraction of the regarded density operators. Hence, even though the percentage of quartets of states leading to the NMuTP drawback of TD and its strength decrease as the system's dimension grows, this property of TD must be taken into account before using it as a figure of merit for distinguishing mixed quantum states. (author)

  20. Dynamical zeta functions for piecewise monotone maps of the interval

    CERN Document Server

    Ruelle, David

    2004-01-01

    Consider a space M, a map f:M\\to M, and a function g:M \\to {\\mathbb C}. The formal power series \\zeta (z) = \\exp \\sum ^\\infty _{m=1} \\frac {z^m}{m} \\sum _{x \\in \\mathrm {Fix}\\,f^m} \\prod ^{m-1}_{k=0} g (f^kx) yields an example of a dynamical zeta function. Such functions have unexpected analytic properties and interesting relations to the theory of dynamical systems, statistical mechanics, and the spectral theory of certain operators (transfer operators). The first part of this monograph presents a general introduction to this subject. The second part is a detailed study of the zeta functions associated with piecewise monotone maps of the interval [0,1]. In particular, Ruelle gives a proof of a generalized form of the Baladi-Keller theorem relating the poles of \\zeta (z) and the eigenvalues of the transfer operator. He also proves a theorem expressing the largest eigenvalue of the transfer operator in terms of the ergodic properties of (M,f,g).