Weighted monotonicity inequalities for unbounded operators
Hoa, Dinh Trung
2011-01-01
Let $\\tau$ be a faithful normal semifinite trace on a von Neumann algebra $\\mathcal{M}$. For a continuous nonnegative convex monotone nondecreasing function $f$ on convex subset $\\Omega$ of $\\mathbb{R}$ and weight nonnegative Borel function $w$ we consider weighted monotonicity inequalities of the form {equation*} \\tau(w(A)^{1/2}f(A)w(A)^{1/2}) \\le \\tau (w(A)^{1/2}f(B)w(A)^{1/2}), {equation*} where $A$ and $B$ are unbounded operators affiliated with respect to algebra $\\mathcal{M}$.
Monotone operators and "bigger conjugate" functions
Bauschke, Heinz H; Wang, Xianfu; Yao, Liangjin
2011-01-01
We study a question posed by Stephen Simons in his 2008 monograph involving "bigger conjugate" (BC) functions and the partial infimal convolution. As Simons demonstrated in his monograph, these function have been crucial to the understanding and advancement of the state-of-the-art of harder problems in monotone operator theory, especially the sum problem. In this paper, we provide some tools for further analysis of BC--functions which allow us to answer Simons' problem in the negative. We are also able to refute a similar but much harder conjecture which would have generalized a classical result of Br\\'ezis, Crandall and Pazy. Our work also reinforces the importance of understanding unbounded skew linear relations to construct monotone operators with unexpected properties.
Convex functions, monotone operators and differentiability
Phelps, Robert R
1993-01-01
The improved and expanded second edition contains expositions of some major results which have been obtained in the years since the 1st edition. Theaffirmative answer by Preiss of the decades old question of whether a Banachspace with an equivalent Gateaux differentiable norm is a weak Asplund space. The startlingly simple proof by Simons of Rockafellar's fundamental maximal monotonicity theorem for subdifferentials of convex functions. The exciting new version of the useful Borwein-Preiss smooth variational principle due to Godefroy, Deville and Zizler. The material is accessible to students who have had a course in Functional Analysis; indeed, the first edition has been used in numerous graduate seminars. Starting with convex functions on the line, it leads to interconnected topics in convexity, differentiability and subdifferentiability of convex functions in Banach spaces, generic continuity of monotone operators, geometry of Banach spaces and the Radon-Nikodym property, convex analysis, variational princ...
Convex functions, monotone operators and differentiability
Phelps, Robert R
1989-01-01
These notes start with an introduction to the differentiability of convex functions on Banach spaces, leading to the study of Asplund spaces and their intriguing relationship to monotone operators (and more general set-values maps) and Banach spaces with the Radon-Nikodym property. While much of this is classical, some of it is presented using streamlined proofs which were not available until recently. Considerable attention is paid to contemporary results on variational principles and perturbed optimization in Banach spaces, exhibiting their close connections with Asplund spaces. An introductory course in functional analysis is adequate background for reading these notes which can serve as the basis for a seminar of a one-term graduate course. There are numerous excercises, many of which form an integral part of the exposition.
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Plubtieng Somyot
2009-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract We introduce an iterative scheme for finding a common element of the solution set of a maximal monotone operator and the solution set of the variational inequality problem for an inverse strongly-monotone operator in a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space, and then we prove weak and strong convergence theorems by using the notion of generalized projection. The result presented in this paper extend and improve the corresponding results of Kamimura et al. (2004, and Iiduka and Takahashi (2008. Finally, we apply our convergence theorem to the convex minimization problem, the problem of finding a zero point of a maximal monotone operator and the complementary problem.
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Somyot Plubtieng
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce an iterative scheme for finding a common element of the solution set of a maximal monotone operator and the solution set of the variational inequality problem for an inverse strongly-monotone operator in a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space, and then we prove weak and strong convergence theorems by using the notion of generalized projection. The result presented in this paper extend and improve the corresponding results of Kamimura et al. (2004, and Iiduka and Takahashi (2008. Finally, we apply our convergence theorem to the convex minimization problem, the problem of finding a zero point of a maximal monotone operator and the complementary problem.
Stability and monotonicity of Lotka-Volterra type operators
Mukhamedov, Farrukh
2009-01-01
In the present paper, we study Lotka-Volterra (LV) type operators defined in finite dimensional simplex. We prove that any LV type operator is a surjection of the simplex. After, we introduce a new class of LV-type operators, called $M$LV type. We prove convergence of their trajectories and study certain its properties. Moreover, we show that such kind of operators have totaly different behavior than ${\\mathbf{f}}$-monotone LV type operators.
Vector optimization and monotone operators via convex duality recent advances
Grad, Sorin-Mihai
2014-01-01
This book investigates several duality approaches for vector optimization problems, while also comparing them. Special attention is paid to duality for linear vector optimization problems, for which a vector dual that avoids the shortcomings of the classical ones is proposed. Moreover, the book addresses different efficiency concepts for vector optimization problems. Among the problems that appear when the framework is generalized by considering set-valued functions, an increasing interest is generated by those involving monotone operators, especially now that new methods for approaching them by means of convex analysis have been developed. Following this path, the book provides several results on different properties of sums of monotone operators.
Block Monotone Iterative Algorithms for Variational Inequalities with Nonlinear Operators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Ming-hui Ren; Jin-ping Zeng
2008-01-01
Some block iterative methods for solving variational inequalities with nonlinear operators are proposed. Monotone convergence of the algorithms is obtained. Some comparison theorems are also established.Compared with the research work in given by Pao in 1995 for nonlinear equations and research work in given by Zeng and Zhou in 2002 for elliptic variational inequalities, the algorithms proposed in this paper are independent of the boundedness of the derivatives of the nonlinear operator.
Solving the power flow equations: a monotone operator approach
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Dvijotham, Krishnamurthy [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Low, Steven [California Inst. of Technology (CalTech), Pasadena, CA (United States); Chertkov, Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-07-21
The AC power flow equations underlie all operational aspects of power systems. They are solved routinely in operational practice using the Newton-Raphson method and its variants. These methods work well given a good initial “guess” for the solution, which is always available in normal system operations. However, with the increase in levels of intermittent generation, the assumption of a good initial guess always being available is no longer valid. In this paper, we solve this problem using the theory of monotone operators. We show that it is possible to compute (using an offline optimization) a “monotonicity domain” in the space of voltage phasors. Given this domain, there is a simple efficient algorithm that will either find a solution in the domain, or provably certify that no solutions exist in it. We validate the approach on several IEEE test cases and demonstrate that the offline optimization can be performed tractably and the computed “monotonicity domain” includes all practically relevant power flow solutions.
A POTENTIAL REDUCTION ALGORITHM FOR MONOTONE VARIATIONAL INEQUALITY PROBLEMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
A potential reduction algorithm is proposed for the solution of monotone variational inequality problems. At each step of the algorithm, a system of linear equations is solved to get the search direction and the Armijo's rule is used to determine the stepsize.It is proved that the algorithm is globally convergent. Computational results are reported.
Deterministic homogenization of parabolic monotone operators with time dependent coefficients
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Gabriel Nguetseng
2004-06-01
Full Text Available We study, beyond the classical periodic setting, the homogenization of linear and nonlinear parabolic differential equations associated with monotone operators. The usual periodicity hypothesis is here substituted by an abstract deterministic assumption characterized by a great relaxation of the time behaviour. Our main tool is the recent theory of homogenization structures by the first author, and our homogenization approach falls under the two-scale convergence method. Various concrete examples are worked out with a view to pointing out the wide scope of our approach and bringing the role of homogenization structures to light.
Convex analysis and monotone operator theory in Hilbert spaces
Bauschke, Heinz H
2017-01-01
This reference text, now in its second edition, offers a modern unifying presentation of three basic areas of nonlinear analysis: convex analysis, monotone operator theory, and the fixed point theory of nonexpansive operators. Taking a unique comprehensive approach, the theory is developed from the ground up, with the rich connections and interactions between the areas as the central focus, and it is illustrated by a large number of examples. The Hilbert space setting of the material offers a wide range of applications while avoiding the technical difficulties of general Banach spaces. The authors have also drawn upon recent advances and modern tools to simplify the proofs of key results making the book more accessible to a broader range of scholars and users. Combining a strong emphasis on applications with exceptionally lucid writing and an abundance of exercises, this text is of great value to a large audience including pure and applied mathematicians as well as researchers in engineering, data science, ma...
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Feng Qi
2014-10-01
Full Text Available The authors find the absolute monotonicity and complete monotonicity of some functions involving trigonometric functions and related to estimates the lower bounds of the first eigenvalue of Laplace operator on Riemannian manifolds.
A new approximate proximal point algorithm for maximal monotone operator
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
HE; Bingsheng(何炳生); LIAO; Lizhi(廖立志); YANG; Zhenhua(杨振华)
2003-01-01
The problem concerned in this paper is the set-valued equation 0 ∈ T(z) where T is a maximal monotone operator. For given xk and βk ＞ 0, some existing approximate proximal point algorithms take xk+1 = xk such that xk +ek∈ xk + βkT(xk) and||ek|| ≤ηk||xk - xk||, where {ηk} is a non-negative summable sequence. Instead of xk+1 = xk, the new iterate of the proposing method is given by xk+1 = PΩ[xk - ek], where Ω is the domain of T and PΩ(@) denotes the projection on Ω. The convergence is proved under a significantly relaxed restriction supk＞0 ηk ＜ 1.
On a correspondence between regular and non-regular operator monotone functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gibilisco, P.; Hansen, Frank; Isola, T.
2009-01-01
We prove the existence of a bijection between the regular and the non-regular operator monotone functions satisfying a certain functional equation. As an application we give a new proof of the operator monotonicity of certain functions related to the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information.......We prove the existence of a bijection between the regular and the non-regular operator monotone functions satisfying a certain functional equation. As an application we give a new proof of the operator monotonicity of certain functions related to the Wigner-Yanase-Dyson skew information....
Ioan Boţ, Radu; Hofmann, Bernd
2016-12-01
In the literature on singular perturbation (Lavrentiev regularization) for the stable approximate solution of operator equations with monotone operators in the Hilbert space the phenomena of conditional stability and local well-posedness or ill-posedness are rarely investigated. Our goal is to present some studies which try to bridge this gap. So we present new results on the impact of conditional stability on error estimates and convergence rates for the Lavrentiev regularization and distinguish for linear problems well-posedness and ill-posedness in a specific manner motivated by a saturation result. Taking into account that the behavior of the bias (regularization error in the noise-free case) is crucial, general convergence rates, including logarithmic rates, are derived for linear operator equations by means of the method of approximate source conditions. This allows us to extend well-known convergence rate results for the Lavrentiev regularization that were based on general source conditions to the case of non-selfadjoint linear monotone forward operators for which general source conditions fail. Examples presenting the self-adjoint multiplication operator as well as the non-selfadjoint fractional integral operator and Cesàro operator illustrate the theoretical results. Extensions to the nonlinear case under specific conditions on the nonlinearity structure complete the paper.
Cuong LE VAN; Morhaim, Lisa; Vailakis, Yiannis
2008-01-01
We propose a new approach to the issue of existence and uniqueness of solutions to the Bellman equation, exploiting an emerging class of methods, called monotone map methods, pioneered in the work of Krasnosel’skii (1964) and Krasnosel’skii-Zabreiko (1984). The approach is technically simple and intuitive. It is derived from geometric ideas related to the study of fixed points for monotone concave operators defined on partially order spaces.
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Boubakari Ibrahimou
2013-01-01
maximal monotone with and . Using the topological degree theory developed by Kartsatos and Quarcoo we study the eigenvalue problem where the operator is a single-valued of class . The existence of continuous branches of eigenvectors of infinite length then could be easily extended to the case where the operator is multivalued and is investigated.
A Multiscale Enrichment Procedure for Nonlinear Monotone Operators
Efendiev, Yalchin R.
2014-03-11
In this paper, multiscale finite element methods (MsFEMs) and domain decomposition techniques are developed for a class of nonlinear elliptic problems with high-contrast coefficients. In the process, existing work on linear problems [Y. Efendiev, J. Galvis, R. Lazarov, S. Margenov and J. Ren, Robust two-level domain decomposition preconditioners for high-contrast anisotropic flows in multiscale media. Submitted.; Y. Efendiev, J. Galvis and X. Wu, J. Comput. Phys. 230 (2011) 937–955; J. Galvis and Y. Efendiev, SIAM Multiscale Model. Simul. 8 (2010) 1461–1483.] is extended to treat a class of nonlinear elliptic operators. The proposed method requires the solutions of (small dimension and local) nonlinear eigenvalue problems in order to systematically enrich the coarse solution space. Convergence of the method is shown to relate to the dimension of the coarse space (due to the enrichment procedure) as well as the coarse mesh size. In addition, it is shown that the coarse mesh spaces can be effectively used in two-level domain decomposition preconditioners. A number of numerical results are presented to complement the analysis.
On extension results for n-cyclically monotone operators in reflexive Banach spaces
Bot, Radu Ioan
2009-01-01
In this paper we provide some extension results for n-cyclically monotone operators in reflexive Banach spaces by making use of the Fenchel duality. In this way we give a positive answer to a question posed by Bauschke and Wang in [4].
Iterative convergence theorems for maximal monotone operators and relatively nonexpansive mappings
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WEI Li; SU Yong-fu; ZHOU Hai-yun
2008-01-01
In this paper, some iterative schemes for approximating the common element of the set of zero points of maximal monotone operators and the set of fixed points of relatively nonexpansive mappings in a real uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space are proposed. Some strong convergence theorems are obtained, to extend the previous work.
Iterative Schemes for Generalized Equilibrium Problem and Two Maximal Monotone Operators
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Yao JC
2009-01-01
Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to introduce and study two new hybrid proximal-point algorithms for finding a common element of the set of solutions to a generalized equilibrium problem and the sets of zeros of two maximal monotone operators in a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space. We established strong and weak convergence theorems for these two modified hybrid proximal-point algorithms, respectively.
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Kamonrat Nammanee
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce hybrid-iterative schemes for solving a system of the zero-finding problems of maximal monotone operators, the equilibrium problem, and the fixed point problem of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings. We then prove, in a uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space, strong convergence theorems by using a shrinking projection method. We finally apply the obtained results to a system of convex minimization problems.
On an Iterative Method for Finding a Zero to the Sum of Two Maximal Monotone Operators
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Hongwei Jiao
2014-01-01
Full Text Available In this paper we consider a problem that consists of finding a zero to the sum of two monotone operators. One method for solving such a problem is the forward-backward splitting method. We present some new conditions that guarantee the weak convergence of the forward-backward method. Applications of these results, including variational inequalities and gradient projection algorithms, are also considered.
Almost monotonicity formulas for elliptic and parabolic operators with variable coefficients
Matevosyan, Norayr
2010-10-21
In this paper we extend the results of Caffarelli, Jerison, and Kenig [Ann. of Math. (2)155 (2002)] and Caffarelli and Kenig [Amer. J. Math.120 (1998)] by establishing an almost monotonicity estimate for pairs of continuous functions satisfying u± ≥ 0 Lu± ≥ -1, u+ · u_ = 0 ;in an infinite strip (global version) or a finite parabolic cylinder (localized version), where L is a uniformly parabolic operator Lu = LA,b,cu := div(A(x, s)∇u) + b(x,s) · ∇u + c(x,s)u - δsu with double Dini continuous A and uniformly bounded b and c. We also prove the elliptic counterpart of this estimate.This closes the gap between the known conditions in the literature (both in the elliptic and parabolic case) imposed on u± in order to obtain an almost monotonicity estimate.At the end of the paper, we demonstrate how to use this new almost monotonicity formula to prove the optimal C1,1-regularity in a fairly general class of quasi-linear obstacle-type free boundary problems. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Cominetti, R.; Peypouquet, J.; Sorin, S.
We consider the Tikhonov-like dynamics -u˙(t)∈A(u(t))+ɛ(t)u(t) where A is a maximal monotone operator on a Hilbert space and the parameter function ɛ(t) tends to 0 as t→∞ with ∫0∞ɛ(t) dt=∞. When A is the subdifferential of a closed proper convex function f, we establish strong convergence of u(t) towards the least-norm minimizer of f. In the general case we prove strong convergence towards the least-norm point in A(0) provided that the function ɛ(t) has bounded variation, and provide a counterexample when this property fails.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Xie-ping DING; Zhong-bao WANG
2009-01-01
A new system of the set-valued mixed quasi-variational-like inclusions (SS-MQVLI) involving H-η-monotone operators is studied in general Banach spaces without uniform smoothness. By using the resolvent operator technique of H-η-monotone opera-tors, a new iterative algorithm for finding approximate solutions to SSMQVLI is proposed. It is shown that the iterative sequences generated by the algorithm converge strongly to the exact solution of SSMQVLI under appropriate assumptions. These obtained new re-sults have extended and improved previous results.
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Kriengsak Wattanawitoon
2011-01-01
Full Text Available We prove strong and weak convergence theorems of modified hybrid proximal-point algorithms for finding a common element of the zero point of a maximal monotone operator, the set of solutions of equilibrium problems, and the set of solution of the variational inequality operators of an inverse strongly monotone in a Banach space under different conditions. Moreover, applications to complementarity problems are given. Our results modify and improve the recently announced ones by Li and Song (2008 and many authors.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2002-01-01
This paper studies the properties of solutions of quasilinear equations involving the plaplacian type operator in general Carnot-Carathéodory spaces.The authors show some comparison results for solutions of the relevant differential inequalities and use them to get some symmetry and monotonicity properties of solutions,in bounded or unbounded domains.
He Songnian; Liang Xiao-Lan
2010-01-01
Let be a real Hilbert space and let be a boundedly Lipschitzian and strongly monotone operator. We design three hybrid steepest descent algorithms for solving variational inequality of finding a point such that , for all , where is the set of fixed points of a strict pseudocontraction, or the set of common fixed points of finite strict pseudocontractions. Strong convergence of the algorithms is proved.
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Pongsakorn Sunthrayuth
2012-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce a new iterative algorithm for finding a common element of the set of solutions of a system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems, zero set of the sum of a maximal monotone operators and inverse-strongly monotone mappings, and the set of common fixed points of an infinite family of nonexpansive mappings with infinite real number. Furthermore, we prove under some mild conditions that the proposed iterative algorithm converges strongly to a common element of the above four sets, which is a solution of the optimization problem related to a strongly positive bounded linear operator. The results presented in the paper improve and extend the recent ones announced by many others.
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Yeol Je Cho
2008-03-01
Full Text Available Two iterative schemes for finding a common element of the set of zero points of maximal monotone operators and the set of fixed points of nonexpansive mappings in the sense of Lyapunov functional in a real uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space are obtained. Two strong convergence theorems are obtained which extend some previous work. Moreover, the applications of the iterative schemes are demonstrated.
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Cho YeolJe
2007-01-01
Full Text Available Two iterative schemes for finding a common element of the set of zero points of maximal monotone operators and the set of fixed points of nonexpansive mappings in the sense of Lyapunov functional in a real uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space are obtained. Two strong convergence theorems are obtained which extend some previous work. Moreover, the applications of the iterative schemes are demonstrated.
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He Songnian
2010-01-01
Full Text Available Let be a real Hilbert space and let be a boundedly Lipschitzian and strongly monotone operator. We design three hybrid steepest descent algorithms for solving variational inequality of finding a point such that , for all , where is the set of fixed points of a strict pseudocontraction, or the set of common fixed points of finite strict pseudocontractions. Strong convergence of the algorithms is proved.
The logarithmic negativity is a full entanglement monotone under measuring LOCC and PPT-operations
Plenio, M B
2005-01-01
It is proven that the logarithmic negativity does not increase on average under positive partial transpose preserving (PPT) operation including subselection (a set of operations that incorporate local operations and classical communication (LOCC) as a subset) and, in the process, a further proof is provided that the negativity does not increase on average under the same set of operations. Given that the logarithmic negativity is obtained from the negativity applying a concave function and is itself not a convex quantity this result is surprising as convexity is generally considered as describing the local physical process of losing information. The role of convexity and in particular its relation (or lack thereof) to physical processes is discussed in this context.
Formation of Non-Monotonic Potential Structure in the Detached Plasma
Ishiguro, Seiji; Pianpanit, Theerasarn; Hasegawa, Hiroki
2016-10-01
Plasma detachment has been investigated by means of PIC simulation which includes plasma-neutral collision and Coulomb collision. In our previous study, we have shown that a strong gradient in temperature appears in front of the target plate in the case that high density and low temperature neutral gas is introduced. It is observed that a potential hill is created in the neutral gas region where ions lose energy due to the elastic and charge exchange collision and, as a result, the ion density increases. This potential structure traps the low energy electrons and may play a role in the development of plasma detachment state. This work is supported by NIFS Collaboration Research Programs NIFS14KNXN279 and NIFS14KNSS059 and the NIFS/NINS project of Formation of International Scientific Base and Network.
Two Sequences of Operator Monotone Functions and Strictly Chaotic Order%两组算子单调函数序列与严格Chaotic序
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
张蕾; 姜健飞
2006-01-01
In this paper we introduce two sequences of operator functions and their dual functions: fk(t) = (tlogt)k-(t-1)k/logk+1 t (k = 1,2,…), gk(t) = (t-1)k-logkt/logk+1 t (k = 1,2,…) and f*k(t)=tklogk+1 t/(t log t)k-(t-1)k(k=1,2,…),g*k(t)= tk logk+1 t/(t-1)k-logkt(k = 1, 2, …) defined on (0,+∞). We find that they are all operator monotone functions with respect to the strictly chaotic order and some ordinary orders among positive invertible operators. Indeed, we extend the results of the operator monotone function tlog t-t+1/log2t, which is widely used in the theory of heat transfer of the heat engineering and fluid mechanics [1].
MONOTONIZATION IN GLOBAL OPTIMIZATION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WU ZHIYOU; BAI FUSHENG; ZHANG LIANSHENG
2005-01-01
A general monotonization method is proposed for converting a constrained programming problem with non-monotone objective function and monotone constraint functions into a monotone programming problem. An equivalent monotone programming problem with only inequality constraints is obtained via this monotonization method. Then the existingconvexification and concavefication methods can be used to convert the monotone programming problem into an equivalent better-structured optimization problem.
Monotone Boolean approximation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hulme, B.L.
1982-12-01
This report presents a theory of approximation of arbitrary Boolean functions by simpler, monotone functions. Monotone increasing functions can be expressed without the use of complements. Nonconstant monotone increasing functions are important in their own right since they model a special class of systems known as coherent systems. It is shown here that when Boolean expressions for noncoherent systems become too large to treat exactly, then monotone approximations are easily defined. The algorithms proposed here not only provide simpler formulas but also produce best possible upper and lower monotone bounds for any Boolean function. This theory has practical application for the analysis of noncoherent fault trees and event tree sequences.
Guionnet, A
2012-01-01
By solving a free analog of the Monge-Amp\\`ere equation, we prove a non-commutative analog of Brenier's monotone transport theorem: if an $n$-tuple of self-adjoint non-commutative random variables $Z_{1},...,Z_{n}$ satisfies a regularity condition (its conjugate variables $\\xi_{1},...,\\xi_{n}$ should be analytic in $Z_{1},...,Z_{n}$ and $\\xi_{j}$ should be close to $Z_{j}$ in a certain analytic norm), then there exist invertible non-commutative functions $F_{j}$ of an $n$-tuple of semicircular variables $S_{1},...,S_{n}$, so that $Z_{j}=F_{j}(S_{1},...,S_{n})$. Moreover, $F_{j}$ can be chosen to be monotone, in the sense that $F_{j}=\\mathscr{D}_{j}g$ and $g$ is a non-commutative function with a positive definite Hessian. In particular, we can deduce that $C^{*}(Z_{1},...,Z_{n})\\cong C^{*}(S_{1},...,S_{n})$ and $W^{*}(Z_{1},...,Z_{n})\\cong L(\\mathbb{F}(n))$. Thus our condition is a useful way to recognize when an $n$-tuple of operators generate a free group factor. We obtain as a consequence that the q-deforme...
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Korshunov, A D [S.L. Sobolev Institute for Mathematics, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)
2003-10-31
Monotone Boolean functions are an important object in discrete mathematics and mathematical cybernetics. Topics related to these functions have been actively studied for several decades. Many results have been obtained, and many papers published. However, until now there has been no sufficiently complete monograph or survey of results of investigations concerning monotone Boolean functions. The object of this survey is to present the main results on monotone Boolean functions obtained during the last 50 years.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
魏利; 周海云
2009-01-01
In this paper,two iterative schemes for approximating common element of the set of zero points of maximal monotone operators and the set of fixed points of a kind of generalized nonexpansive mappings in a real uniformly smooth and uniformly convex Banach space are proposed.Two strong convergence theorems are obtained and their applications on finding the minimizer of a kind of convex functiohal are discussed,which extend some previous work.
On a Monotone Ill-posed Problem
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Nguyen BUONG
2005-01-01
A class of a posteriori parameter choice strategies for the operator version of Tikhonovregularization (including variants of Morozov's and Arcangeli's methods) is proposed and used in investigating the rate of convergence of the regularized solution for ill-posed nonlinear equation involving a monotone operator in Banach space.
On the Monotone Iterative Method for Set Valued Equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2000-01-01
This paper deals with the monotone iterative method for set- valued operator equation in ordered normed space. Some results for the case of single valued operator are generalized here, as an application, a discontinuous nonlinear differential equation problem is discussed.
Regularization and Iterative Methods for Monotone Variational Inequalities
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Xiubin Xu
2010-01-01
Full Text Available We provide a general regularization method for monotone variational inequalities, where the regularizer is a Lipschitz continuous and strongly monotone operator. We also introduce an iterative method as discretization of the regularization method. We prove that both regularization and iterative methods converge in norm.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
刘新旺
2004-01-01
Based on the properties of ordered weighted averaging (OWA) operator and regular increasing monotone (RIM) quantifier, three methods for generating monotonic OWA operator weights are proposed. They are geometric OWA operator weights, equidifferent OWA operator weights and the modified RIM quantifier OWA weights. Compared with most of the common OWA methods for generating weights, the methods proposed in this paper are more intuitive and efficient in computation. And as there are more than one solution in most cases, the decision maker can set some initial condition and chooses the appropriate solution in the real decision process, which increases the flexibility of decision making to some extent. All these three OWA methods for generating weights are illustrated by numerical examples.%基于OWA算子和RIM模糊量化算子的性质, 提出了在给定orness水平的情况下, 生成单调OWA算子权值序列的3种方法, 分别是等比OWA算子、等差OWA算子和基于修正的模糊量化算子的权值生成方法. 与现有的大多数方法相比, 该系列方法符合直觉且计算简单. 该系列方法还可以使决策者给出一定的初始条件, 而得到其所期望形式的OWA权值序列, 在一定程度上增加了决策的灵活性. 每种方法都给出了具体算例以表明其有效性和合理性.
Monotone partitions and almost partitions
Bonanzinga, M.; Cammaroto, F.; van Mill, J.; Pansera, B.A.
2014-01-01
In this paper we are interested in monotone versions of partitionability of topological spaces and weak versions thereof. We identify several classes of spaces with these properties by constructing trees of open sets with various properties.
The potential uses of operational earthquake forecasting
Field, Ned; Jordan, Thomas; Jones, Lucille; Michael, Andrew; Blanpied, Michael L.
2016-01-01
This article reports on a workshop held to explore the potential uses of operational earthquake forecasting (OEF). We discuss the current status of OEF in the United States and elsewhere, the types of products that could be generated, the various potential users and uses of OEF, and the need for carefully crafted communication protocols. Although operationalization challenges remain, there was clear consensus among the stakeholders at the workshop that OEF could be useful.
Monotone complete C*-algebras and generic dynamics
Saitô, Kazuyuki
2015-01-01
This monograph is about monotone complete C*-algebras, their properties and the new classification theory. A self-contained introduction to generic dynamics is also included because of its important connections to these algebras. Our knowledge and understanding of monotone complete C*-algebras has been transformed in recent years. This is a very exciting stage in their development, with much discovered but with many mysteries to unravel. This book is intended to encourage graduate students and working mathematicians to attack some of these difficult questions. Each bounded, upward directed net of real numbers has a limit. Monotone complete algebras of operators have a similar property. In particular, every von Neumann algebra is monotone complete but the converse is false. Written by major contributors to this field, Monotone Complete C*-algebras and Generic Dynamics takes readers from the basics to recent advances. The prerequisites are a grounding in functional analysis, some point set topology and an eleme...
Complexity of Non-Monotonic Logics
Thomas, Michael
2010-01-01
Over the past few decades, non-monotonic reasoning has developed to be one of the most important topics in computational logic and artificial intelligence. Different ways to introduce non-monotonic aspects to classical logic have been considered, e.g., extension with default rules, extension with modal belief operators, or modification of the semantics. In this survey we consider a logical formalism from each of the above possibilities, namely Reiter's default logic, Moore's autoepistemic logic and McCarthy's circumscription. Additionally, we consider abduction, where one is not interested in inferences from a given knowledge base but in computing possible explanations for an observation with respect to a given knowledge base. Complexity results for different reasoning tasks for propositional variants of these logics have been studied already in the nineties. In recent years, however, a renewed interest in complexity issues can be observed. One current focal approach is to consider parameterized problems and ...
Why Monotonous Repetition is Unsatisfying
Salingaros, Nikos A
2011-01-01
Human beings prefer ordered complexity and not randomness in their environment, a result of our perceptual system evolving to interpret natural forms. We also recognize monotonously repeating forms as unnatural. Although widespread in today's built environment, such forms generate reactions ranging from boredom to unease. Christopher Alexander has introduced rules for generating forms adapted to natural geometries, which show structured variation with multiple symmetries in a hierarchy of scales. It turns out to be impossible to generate monotonously repeating forms by following those rules. As it is highly probable that traditional artifacts, buildings, and cities were created instinctively using a version of the same rules, this is the reason we never find monotonously repeating forms in traditional cultures.
Monotonicity of social welfare optima
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hougaard, Jens Leth; Østerdal, Lars Peter Raahave
2010-01-01
This paper considers the problem of maximizing social welfare subject to participation constraints. It is shown that for an income allocation method that maximizes a social welfare function there is a monotonic relationship between the incomes allocated to individual agents in a given coalition...... (with at least three members) and its participation constraint if and only if the aggregate income to that coalition is always maximized. An impossibility result demonstrates that there is no welfare maximizing allocation method in which agents' individual incomes monotonically increase in society......'s income. Thus, for any such allocation method, there are situations where some agents have incentives to prevent society in becoming richer....
A Characterization of Generalized Monotone Normed Cones
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
S.ROMAGUERA; E.A.S(A)NCHEZ-P(E)REZ; O.VALERO
2007-01-01
Let C be a cone and consider a quasi-norm p defined on it. We study the structure of the couple (C, p) as a topological space in the case where the function p is also monotone. We characterize when the topology of a quasi-normed cone can be defined by means of a monotone norm. We also define and study the dual cone of a monotone normed cone and the monotone quotient of a general cone.We provide a decomposition theorem which allows us to write a cone as a direct sum of a monotone subcone that is isomorphic to the monotone quotient and other particular subcone.
Testing Monotonicity of Pricing Kernels
Timofeev, Roman
2007-01-01
In this master thesis a mechanism to test mononicity of empirical pricing kernels (EPK) is presented. By testing monotonicity of pricing kernel we can determine whether utility function is concave or not. Strictly decreasing pricing kernel corresponds to concave utility function while non-decreasing EPK means that utility function contains some non-concave regions. Risk averse behavior is usually described by concave utility function and considered to be a cornerstone of classical behavioral ...
Monotonicity of chi-square test statistics
Ryu, Keunkwan
2003-01-01
This paper establishes monotonicity of the chi-square test statistic. As the more efficient parameter estimator is plugged into the test statistic, the degrees of freedom of the resulting chi-square test statistic monotonically increase.
Some Generalizations of Monotonicity Condition and Applications
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
虞旦盛; 周颂平
2006-01-01
@@ O Introduction It is well known that there are a great number of interesting results in Fourier analysis established by assuming monotonicity of coefficients, and many of them have been generalized by loosing the condition to quasi-monotonicity, O-regularly varying quasi-monotonicity, etc..
EARLINET: potential operationality of a research network
Sicard, M.; D'Amico, G.; Comerón, A.; Mona, L.; Alados-Arboledas, L.; Amodeo, A.; Baars, H.; Baldasano, J. M.; Belegante, L.; Binietoglou, I.; Bravo-Aranda, J. A.; Fernández, A. J.; Fréville, P.; García-Vizcaíno, D.; Giunta, A.; Granados-Muñoz, M. J.; Guerrero-Rascado, J. L.; Hadjimitsis, D.; Haefele, A.; Hervo, M.; Iarlori, M.; Kokkalis, P.; Lange, D.; Mamouri, R. E.; Mattis, I.; Molero, F.; Montoux, N.; Muñoz, A.; Muñoz Porcar, C.; Navas-Guzmán, F.; Nicolae, D.; Nisantzi, A.; Papagiannopoulos, N.; Papayannis, A.; Pereira, S.; Preißler, J.; Pujadas, M.; Rizi, V.; Rocadenbosch, F.; Sellegri, K.; Simeonov, V.; Tsaknakis, G.; Wagner, F.; Pappalardo, G.
2015-11-01
In the framework of ACTRIS (Aerosols, Clouds, and Trace Gases Research Infrastructure Network) summer 2012 measurement campaign (8 June-17 July 2012), EARLINET organized and performed a controlled exercise of feasibility to demonstrate its potential to perform operational, coordinated measurements and deliver products in near-real time. Eleven lidar stations participated in the exercise which started on 9 July 2012 at 06:00 UT and ended 72 h later on 12 July at 06:00 UT. For the first time, the single calculus chain (SCC) - the common calculus chain developed within EARLINET for the automatic evaluation of lidar data from raw signals up to the final products - was used. All stations sent in real-time measurements of a 1 h duration to the SCC server in a predefined netcdf file format. The pre-processing of the data was performed in real time by the SCC, while the optical processing was performed in near-real time after the exercise ended. 98 and 79 % of the files sent to SCC were successfully pre-processed and processed, respectively. Those percentages are quite large taking into account that no cloud screening was performed on the lidar data. The paper draws present and future SCC users' attention to the most critical parameters of the SCC product configuration and their possible optimal value but also to the limitations inherent to the raw data. The continuous use of SCC direct and derived products in heterogeneous conditions is used to demonstrate two potential applications of EARLINET infrastructure: the monitoring of a Saharan dust intrusion event and the evaluation of two dust transport models. The efforts made to define the measurements protocol and to configure properly the SCC pave the way for applying this protocol for specific applications such as the monitoring of special events, atmospheric modeling, climate research and calibration/validation activities of spaceborne observations.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Nielson, Hanne Riis; Nielson, Flemming
2009-01-01
The calculus of communicating systems, CCS, was introduced by Robin Milner as a calculus for modelling concurrent systems. Subsequently several techniques have been developed for analysing such models in order to get further insight into their dynamic behaviour. In this paper we present a static...... analysis for approximating the control structure embedded within the models. We formulate the analysis as an instance of a monotone framework and thus draw on techniques that often are associated with the efficient implementation of classical imperative programming languages. We show how to construct...
Monotone traveling wavefronts of the KPP-Fisher delayed equation
Gomez, Adrian
2010-01-01
In the early 2000's, Gourley (2000), Wu et al. (2001), Ashwin et al. (2002) initiated the study of the positive wavefronts in the delayed Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation. Since then, this model has become one of the most popular objects in the studies of traveling waves for the monostable delayed reaction-diffusion equations. In this paper, we give a complete solution to the problem of existence and uniqueness of monotone waves in the KPP-Fisher equation. We show that each monotone traveling wave can be found via an iteration procedure. The proposed approach is based on the use of special monotone integral operators (which are different from the usual Wu-Zou operator) and appropriate upper and lower solutions associated to them. The analysis of the asymptotic expansions of the eventual traveling fronts at infinity is another key ingredient of our approach.
EARLINET: potential operationality of a research network
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Sicard
2015-07-01
Full Text Available In the framework of ACTRIS summer 2012 measurement campaign (8 June–17 July 2012, EARLINET organized and performed a controlled exercise of feasibility to demonstrate its potential to perform operational, coordinated measurements and deliver products in near-real time. Eleven lidar stations participated to the exercise which started on 9 July 2012 at 06:00 UT and ended 72 h later on 12 July at 06:00 UT. For the first time the Single-Calculus Chain (SCC, the common calculus chain developed within EARLINET for the automatic evaluation of lidar data from raw signals up to the final products, was used. All stations sent in real time measurements of 1 h of duration to the SCC server in a predefined netcdf file format. The pre-processing of the data was performed in real time by the SCC while the optical processing was performed in near-real time after the exercise ended. 98 and 84 % of the files sent to SCC were successfully pre-processed and processed, respectively. Those percentages are quite large taking into account that no cloud screening was performed on lidar data. The paper shows time series of continuous and homogeneously obtained products retrieved at different levels of the SCC: range-square corrected signals (pre-processing and daytime backscatter and nighttime extinction coefficient profiles (optical processing, as well as combined plots of all direct and derived optical products. The derived products include backscatter- and extinction-related Ångström exponents, lidar ratios and color ratios. The combined plots reveal extremely valuable for aerosol classification. The efforts made to define the measurements protocol and to configure properly the SCC pave the way for applying this protocol for specific applications such as the monitoring of special events, atmospheric modelling, climate research and calibration/validation activities of spaceborne observations.
On the sample monotonization problem
Takhanov, R. S.
2010-07-01
The problem of finding a maximal subsample in a training sample consisting of the pairs “object-answer” that does not violate monotonicity constraints is considered. It is proved that this problem is NP-hard and that it is equivalent to the problem of finding a maximum independent set in special directed graphs. Practically important cases in which a partial order specified on the set of answers is a complete order or has dimension two are considered in detail. It is shown that the second case is reduced to the maximization of a quadratic convex function on a convex set. For this case, an approximate polynomial algorithm based on linear programming theory is proposed.
Potential radiation doses from 1994 Hanford Operations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Soldat, J.K.; Antonio, E.J.
1995-06-01
This section of the 1994 Hanford Site Environmental Report summarizes the potential radiation doses to the public from releases originating at the Hanford Site. Members of the public are potentially exposed to low-levels of radiation from these effluents through a variety of pathways. The potential radiation doses to the public were calculated for the hypothetical MEI and for the general public residing within 80 km (50 mi) of the Hanford Site.
Incorporating "Unconscious Reanalysis" into an Incremental, Monotonic Parser
Sturt, P
1995-01-01
This paper describes an implementation based on a recent model in the psycholinguistic literature. We define a parsing operation which allows the reanalysis of dependencies within an incremental and monotonic processing architecture, and discuss search strategies for its application in a head-initial language (English) and a head-final language (Japanese).
Relaxing monotonicity in the identification of local average treatment effects
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Huber, Martin; Mellace, Giovanni
In heterogeneous treatment effect models with endogeneity, the identification of the local average treatment effect (LATE) typically relies on an instrument that satisfies two conditions: (i) joint independence of the potential post-instrument variables and the instrument and (ii) monotonicity...
Monotonic Allocation Schemes in Clan Games
Voorneveld, M.; Tijs, S.H.; Grahn, S.
2000-01-01
Total clan games are characterized using monotonicity, veto power of the clan members, and a concavity condition reflecting the decreasing marginal contribution of non-clan members to growing coalitions.This decreasing marginal contribution is incorporated in the notion of a bi-monotonic allocation
Monotone models for prediction in data mining
Velikova, M.V.
2006-01-01
This dissertation studies the incorporation of monotonicity constraints as a type of domain knowledge into a data mining process. Monotonicity constraints are enforced at two stages¿data preparation and data modeling. The main contributions of the research are a novel procedure to test the degree of
Monotonic Stable Solutions for Minimum Coloring Games
Hamers, H.J.M.; Miquel, S.; Norde, H.W.
2011-01-01
For the class of minimum coloring games (introduced by Deng et al. (1999)) we investigate the existence of population monotonic allocation schemes (introduced by Sprumont (1990)). We show that a minimum coloring game on a graph G has a population monotonic allocation scheme if and only if G is (P4,
Monotonicity-preserving linear multistep methods
Hundsdorfer, W.; Ruuth, S.J.; Spiteri, R.J.
2002-01-01
In this paper we provide an analysis of monotonicity properties for linear multistep methods. These monotonicity properties include positivity and the diminishing of total variation. We also pay particular attention to related boundedness properties such as the total-variation-bounded (TVB) property
Version Spaces and Generalized Monotone Boolean Functions
J.C. Bioch (Cor); T. Ibaraki
2002-01-01
textabstractWe consider generalized monotone functions f: X --> {0,1} defined for an arbitrary binary relation <= on X by the property x <= y implies f(x) <= f(y). These include the standard monotone (or positive) Boolean functions, regular Boolean functions and other interesting functions as speci
Version Spaces and Generalized Monotone Boolean Functions
J.C. Bioch (Cor); T. Ibaraki
2002-01-01
textabstractWe consider generalized monotone functions f: X --> {0,1} defined for an arbitrary binary relation <= on X by the property x <= y implies f(x) <= f(y). These include the standard monotone (or positive) Boolean functions, regular Boolean functions and other interesting functions as
Monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero
Goulden, I P; Novak, Jonathan
2012-01-01
Hurwitz numbers count branched covers of the Riemann sphere with specified ramification data, or equivalently, transitive permutation factorizations in the symmetric group with specified cycle types. Monotone Hurwitz numbers count a restricted subset of the branched covers counted by the Hurwitz numbers, and have arisen in recent work on the the asymptotic expansion of the Harish-Chandra-Itzykson-Zuber integral. In this paper we begin a detailed study of monotone Hurwitz numbers. We prove two results that are reminiscent of those for classical Hurwitz numbers. The first is the monotone join-cut equation, a partial differential equation with initial conditions that characterizes the generating function for monotone Hurwitz numbers in arbitrary genus. The second is our main result, in which we give an explicit formula for monotone Hurwitz numbers in genus zero.
Resolvent for Non-Self-Adjoint Differential Operator with Block-Triangular Operator Potential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Aleksandr Mikhailovich Kholkin
2016-01-01
Full Text Available A resolvent for a non-self-adjoint differential operator with a block-triangular operator potential, increasing at infinity, is constructed. Sufficient conditions under which the spectrum is real and discrete are obtained.
Viable harvest of monotone bioeconomic models
De Lara, Michel; Cabrera, Hector Ramirez
2009-01-01
Some monospecies age class models, as well as specific multi-species models (with so-called technical interactions), exhibit useful monotonicity properties. This paper deals with discrete time monotone bioeconomics dynamics in the presence of state and control constraints. In practice, these latter ``acceptable configurations'' represent production and preservation requirements to be satisfied for all time, and they also possess monotonicity properties. A state $\\state$ is said to belong to the viability kernel if there exists a trajectory, of states and controls, starting from $\\state$ and satisfying the constraints. Under monotonicity assumptions, we present upper and lower estimates of the viability kernel. This helps delineating domains where a viable management is possible. Numerical examples, in the context of fisheries management, for the Chilean sea bass (\\emph{Dissostichus eleginoides}) and Alfonsino (\\emph{Beryx splendens}) are given.
Hyperbolic monotonicity in the Hilbert ball
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Reich Simeon
2006-01-01
Full Text Available We first characterize -monotone mappings on the Hilbert ball by using their resolvents and then study the asymptotic behavior of compositions and convex combinations of these resolvents.
Spectrum of a Differential Operator with Periodic Generalized Potential
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mehmet Sahin
2007-01-01
Full Text Available We study some spectral problems for a second-order differential operator with periodic potential. Notice that the given potential is a sum of zero- and first-order generalized functions. It is shown that the spectrum of the investigated operator consists of infinite number of gaps whose length limit unlike the classic case tends to nonzero constant in some place and to infinity in other place.
Monotone traveling wavefronts of the KPP-Fisher delayed equation
Gomez, Adrian; Trofimchuk, Sergei
In the early 2000's, Gourley (2000), Wu et al. (2001), Ashwin et al. (2002) initiated the study of the positive wavefronts in the delayed Kolmogorov-Petrovskii-Piskunov-Fisher equation u(t,x)=Δu(t,x)+u(t,x)(1-u(t-h,x)), u⩾0, x∈R. Since then, this model has become one of the most popular objects in the studies of traveling waves for the monostable delayed reaction-diffusion equations. In this paper, we give a complete solution to the problem of existence and uniqueness of monotone waves in Eq. (*). We show that each monotone traveling wave can be found via an iteration procedure. The proposed approach is based on the use of special monotone integral operators (which are different from the usual Wu-Zou operator) and appropriate upper and lower solutions associated to them. The analysis of the asymptotic expansions of the eventual traveling fronts at infinity is another key ingredient of our approach.
Computation of Optimal Monotonicity Preserving General Linear Methods
Ketcheson, David I.
2009-07-01
Monotonicity preserving numerical methods for ordinary differential equations prevent the growth of propagated errors and preserve convex boundedness properties of the solution. We formulate the problem of finding optimal monotonicity preserving general linear methods for linear autonomous equations, and propose an efficient algorithm for its solution. This algorithm reliably finds optimal methods even among classes involving very high order accuracy and that use many steps and/or stages. The optimality of some recently proposed methods is verified, and many more efficient methods are found. We use similar algorithms to find optimal strong stability preserving linear multistep methods of both explicit and implicit type, including methods for hyperbolic PDEs that use downwind-biased operators.
Monotone Rank and Separations in Computational Complexity
Li, Yang D
2011-01-01
In the paper, we introduce the concept of monotone rank, and using it as a powerful tool, we obtain several important and strong separation results in computational complexity. We show a super-exponential separation between monotone and non-monotone computation in the non-commutative model, and thus give the answer to a longstanding open problem posed by Nisan \\cite{Nis1991} in algebraic complexity. More specifically, we exhibit a homogeneous algebraic function $f$ of degree $d$ ($d$ even) on $n$ variables with the monotone algebraic branching program (ABP) complexity $\\Omega(n^{d/2})$ and the non-monotone ABP complexity $O(d^2)$. We propose a relaxed version of the famous Bell's theorem\\cite{Bel1964}\\cite{CHSH1969}. Bell's theorem basically states that local hidden variable theory cannot predict the correlations produced by quantum mechanics, and therefore is an impossibility result. Bell's theorem heavily relies on the diversity of the measurements. We prove that even if we fix the measurement, infinite amo...
由强单调T2空间导出的一类新算子%A New Class of Operator Which is Derived from Strongly Monotonically T2 Space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
赵斌
2005-01-01
We proved that if a strongly monotonically T2 space X is compact, then there is a function that assigns to each closed subset K and each n>n0(n0∈ω) a closed set δ(K,n) such that: (I)K=∩n≥n0δ(K,n); (ii) for every n≥n0,δ(K,n+1 )( )δ(K,n);(iii) if K( )H, then for every n>n0,δ(K,n)( )δ(H,n).%证明了若拓扑空间X是强单调T2紧的,则对X中的任意闭集K和任意的n>n 0(n0∈ω)存在一个闭集δ(K,n)满足:(i) K=∩n≥n0 δ(K,n);(ii)对任意n≥n0,δ(K,n+1)( )δ(K,n);(iii)如果K,H均是闭的且K( )H,则有δ( K,n)( )δ(H,n).
The monotonic and fatigue behavior of CFCCs
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Miriyala, N.; Liaw, P.K.; McHargue, C.J. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Snead, L.L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, TN (United States)
1996-04-01
Flexure tests were performed to study the fabric orientation effects on the monotonic and fatigue behavior of two commercially available continuous fiber reinforced ceramic composites (CFCCs), namely (i) Nicalon fiber fabric reinforced alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix composite fabricated by a direct molten metal oxidation (DIMOX) process and, (ii) Nicalon fiber fabric reinforced silicon carbide (SiC) matrix composite fabricated by an isothermal chemical vapor infiltration (ICVI) process. The fabric orientation effects on the monotonic and fatigue behavior were strong in the Nicalon/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composite, while they were relatively weak in the Nicalon/SiC composite.
Yamakoshi, T; Yamakoshi, K; Tanaka, S; Nogawa, M; Kusakabe, M; Kusumi, M; Tanida, K
2004-01-01
Monotonous automobile operation in our daily life may cause the lowering of what might be termed an activation state of the human body, resulting in an increased risk of an accident. We therefore propose to create a more suitable environment in-car so as to allow active operation of the vehicle, hopefully thus avoiding potentially dangerous situations during driving. In order to develop such an activation method as a final goal, we have firstly focused on the acquisition of physiological variables, including cardiovascular parameters, during presentation to the driver of a monotonous screen image, simulating autonomous travel of constant-speed on a motorway. Subsequently, we investigated the derivation of a driver's activation index. During the screen image presentation, a momentary electrical stimulation of about 1 second duration was involuntarily applied to a subject's shoulder to obtain a physiological response. We have successfully monitored various physiological variables during the image presentation, and results suggest that a peculiar pattern in the beat-by-beat change of blood pressure in response to the involuntary stimulus may be an appropriate, and feasible, index relevant to activation state.
Non-monotonic effect of confinement on the glass transition
Varnik, Fathollah; Franosch, Thomas
2016-04-01
The relaxation dynamics of glass forming liquids and their structure are influenced in the vicinity of confining walls. This effect has mostly been observed to be a monotonic function of the slit width. Recently, a qualitatively new behaviour has been uncovered by Mittal and coworkers, who reported that the single particle dynamics in a hard-sphere fluid confined in a planar slit varies in a non-monotonic way as the slit width is decreased from five to roughly two particle diametres (Mittal et al 2008 Phys. Rev. Lett. 100 145901). In view of the great potential of this effect for applications in those fields of science and industry, where liquids occur under strong confinement (e.g. nano-technology), the number of researchers studying various aspects and consequences of this non-monotonic behaviour has been rapidly growing. This review aims at providing an overview of the research activity in this newly emerging field. We first briefly discuss how competing mechanisms such as packing effects and short-range attraction may lead to a non-monotonic glass transition scenario in the bulk. We then analyse confinement effects on the dynamics of fluids using a thermodynamic route which relates the single particle dynamics to the excess entropy. Moreover, relating the diffusive dynamics to the Widom’s insertion probability, the oscillations of the local dynamics with density at moderate densities are fairly well described. At high densities belonging to the supercooled regime, however, this approach breaks down signaling the onset of strongly collective effects. Indeed, confinement introduces a new length scale which in the limit of high densities and small pore sizes competes with the short-range local order of the fluid. This gives rise to a non-monotonic dependence of the packing structure on confinement, with a corresponding effect on the dynamics of structural relaxation. This non-monotonic effect occurs also in the case of a cone-plate type channel, where the degree
MIXED MONOTONE ITERATIVE TECHNIQUES FOR SEMILINEAR EVOLUTION EQUATIONS IN BANACH SPACES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
王良龙; 王志成
2004-01-01
This paper is concerned with initial value problems for semilinear evolution equations in Banach spaces. The abstract iterative schemes are constructed by combining the theory of semigroups of linear operators and the method of mixed monotone iterations. Some existence results on minimal and maximal (quasi)solutions are established for abstract semilinear evolution equations with mixed monotone or mixed quasimonotone nonlinear terms. To illustrate the main results, applications to ordinary differential equations and partial differential equations are also given.
Monotone Comparative Statics for the Industry Composition
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Laugesen, Anders Rosenstand
2015-01-01
We let heterogeneous firms face decisions on a number of complementary activities in a monopolistically-competitive industry. The endogenous level of competition and selection regarding entry and exit of firms introduces a wedge between monotone comparative statics (MCS) at the firm level and MCS...
Population Monotonic Path Schemes for Simple Games
Ciftci, B.B.; Borm, P.E.M.; Hamers, H.J.M.
2006-01-01
A path scheme for a simple game is composed of a path, i.e., a sequence of coalitions that is formed during the coalition formation process and a scheme, i.e., a payoff vector for each coalition in the path.A path scheme is called population monotonic if a player's payoff does not decrease as the pa
Monotone method for nonlinear nonlocal hyperbolic problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Azmy S. Ackleh
2003-02-01
Full Text Available We present recent results concerning the application of the monotone method for studying existence and uniqueness of solutions to general first-order nonlinear nonlocal hyperbolic problems. The limitations of comparison principles for such nonlocal problems are discussed. To overcome these limitations, we introduce new definitions for upper and lower solutions.
Limit points of the monotonic schemes
Salomon, J
2005-01-01
Many numerical simulations in quantum (bilinear) control use the monotonically convergent algorithms of Krotov (introduced by Tannor), Zhu & Rabitz or the general form of Maday & Turinici. This paper presents an analysis of the limit set of controls provided by these algorithms and a proof of convergence in a particular case.
REGULAR RELATIONS AND MONOTONE NORMAL ORDERED SPACES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU XIAOQUAN; LIU YINGMING
2004-01-01
In this paper the classical theorem of Zareckii about regular relations is generalized and an intrinsic characterization of regularity is obtained. Based on the generalized Zareckii theorem and the intrinsic characterization of regularity, the authors give a characterization of monotone normality of ordered spaces. A new proof of the UrysohnNachbin lemma is presented which is quite different from the classical one.
Monotonicity and bounds on Bessel functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Larry Landau
2000-07-01
Full Text Available survey my recent results on monotonicity with respect to order of general Bessel functions, which follow from a new identity and lead to best possible uniform bounds. Application may be made to the "spreading of the wave packet" for a free quantum particle on a lattice and to estimates for perturbative expansions.
Strong monotonicity for analytic ordinary differential equations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Sebastian Walcher
2009-09-01
Full Text Available We present a necessary and sufficient criterion for the flow of an analytic ordinary differential equation to be strongly monotone; equivalently, strongly order-preserving. The criterion is given in terms of the reducibility set of the derivative of the right-hand side. Some applications to systems relevant in biology and ecology, including nonlinear compartmental systems, are discussed.
A monotonic archive for pareto-coevolution.
de Jong, Edwin D
2007-01-01
Coevolution has already produced promising results, but its dynamic evaluation can lead to a variety of problems that prevent most algorithms from progressing monotonically. An important open question therefore is how progress towards a chosen solution concept can be achieved. A general solution concept for coevolution is obtained by viewing opponents or tests as objectives. In this setup known as Pareto-coevolution, the desired solution is the Pareto-optimal set. We present an archive that guarantees monotonicity for this solution concept. The algorithm is called the Incremental Pareto-Coevolution Archive (IPCA), and is based on Evolutionary Multi-Objective Optimization (EMOO). By virtue of its monotonicity, IPCA avoids regress even when combined with a highly explorative generator. This capacity is demonstrated on a challenging test problem requiring both exploration and reliability. IPCA maintains a highly specific selection of tests, but the size of the test archive nonetheless grows unboundedly. We therefore furthermore investigate how archive sizes may be limited while still providing approximate reliability. The LAyered Pareto-Coevolution Archive (LAPCA) maintains a limited number of layers of candidate solutions and tests, and thereby permits a trade-off between archive size and reliability. The algorithm is compared in experiments, and found to be more efficient than IPCA. The work demonstrates how the approximation of a monotonic algorithm can lead to algorithms that are sufficiently reliable in practice while offering better efficiency.
Limit properties of monotone matrix functions
Behrndt, Jussi; Hassi, Seppo; de Snoo, Henk; Wietsma, Rudi
2012-01-01
The basic objects in this paper are monotonically nondecreasing n x n matrix functions D(center dot) defined on some open interval l = (a, b) of R and their limit values D(a) and D(b) at the endpoints a and b which are, in general, selfadjoint relations in C-n. Certain space decompositions induced b
Concerns on Monotonic Imbalance Bounding Matching Methods
Yatracos, Yannis G.
2013-01-01
Concerns are expressed for the Monotonic Imbalance Bounding (MIB) property (Iacus et al. 2011) and for MIB matching because i) the definition of the MIB property leads to inconsistencies and the nature of the imbalance measure is not clearly defined, ii) MIB property does not generalize Equal Percent Bias Reducing (EPBR) property, iii) MIB matching does not provide statistical information available with EPBR matching.
Nonparametric confidence intervals for monotone functions
Groeneboom, P.; Jongbloed, G.
2015-01-01
We study nonparametric isotonic confidence intervals for monotone functions. In [Ann. Statist. 29 (2001) 1699–1731], pointwise confidence intervals, based on likelihood ratio tests using the restricted and unrestricted MLE in the current status model, are introduced. We extend the method to the trea
Competitive learning of monotone Boolean functions
2014-01-01
We apply competitive analysis onto the problem of minimizing the number of queries to an oracle to completely reconstruct a given monotone Boolean function. Besides lower and upper bounds on the competitivity we determine optimal deterministic online algorithms for the smallest problem instances.
Nonparametric confidence intervals for monotone functions
Groeneboom, P.; Jongbloed, G.
2015-01-01
We study nonparametric isotonic confidence intervals for monotone functions. In [Ann. Statist. 29 (2001) 1699–1731], pointwise confidence intervals, based on likelihood ratio tests using the restricted and unrestricted MLE in the current status model, are introduced. We extend the method to the
Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Chan, Ho-Leung; Lam, Tak-Wah; Lee, Lap Kei
2011-01-01
of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the w most recent items in the stream for any w ≥ 1. We give a deterministic...
New concurrent iterative methods with monotonic convergence
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yao, Qingchuan [Michigan State Univ., East Lansing, MI (United States)
1996-12-31
This paper proposes the new concurrent iterative methods without using any derivatives for finding all zeros of polynomials simultaneously. The new methods are of monotonic convergence for both simple and multiple real-zeros of polynomials and are quadratically convergent. The corresponding accelerated concurrent iterative methods are obtained too. The new methods are good candidates for the application in solving symmetric eigenproblems.
Classification Trees for Problems with Monotonicity Constraints
R. Potharst (Rob); A.J. Feelders
2002-01-01
textabstractFor classification problems with ordinal attributes very often the class attribute should increase with each or some of the explaining attributes. These are called classification problems with monotonicity constraints. Classical decision tree algorithms such as CART or C4.5 generally do
The Efficiency Potential of ICT in Haulier Operations
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Sternberg, Henrik; Prockl, Günter; Holmström, Jan
2014-01-01
to invest in technologies that generate business benefits, yet there is a gap in the literature regarding the linking of technology to the actual efficiency improvement of hauliers. The purpose of this paper is to address this gap and consider the potential of ICT to improve the activities in road freight...... with the detailed time measurements of drivers’ activities in order to present potential improvement on this basis. This paper presents a unique contribution to ICT in the haulier industry and provides extensive measurements of how time is actually spent in road haulage operations.......What is the efficiency potential of Information Communication Technology (ICT) in haulier operations? Previous literature has focused on the aggregated level benefits that could be achieved once a large proportion of hauliers have introduced ICT in their trucks. In reality, hauliers are only ready...
Criteria for Response Monotonicity Preserving in Approximation of Fractional Order Systems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Mohammad Saleh Tavazoei
2016-01-01
In approximation of fractional order systems,a significant objective is to preserve the important properties of the original system.The monotonicity of time/frequency responses is one of these properties whose preservation is of great importance in approximation process.Considering this importance,the issues of monotonicity preservation of the step response and monotonicity preservation of the magnitude-frequency response are independently investigated in this paper.In these investigations,some conditions on approximating filters of fractional operators are found to guarantee the preservation of step/magnitude-frequency response monotonicity in approximation process.These conditions are also simplified in some special cases.In addition,numerical simulation results are presented to show the usefulness of the obtained conditions.
A new non-monotone fitness scaling for genetic algorithm
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2001-01-01
The properties of selection operators in the genetic algorithm (GA) are studied in detail. It is indicated that the selection of operations is significant for both improving the general fitness of a population and leading to the schema deceptiveness. The stochastic searching characteristics of GA are compared with those of heuristic methods. The influence of selection operators on the GA' s exploration and exploitation is discussed, and the performance of selection operators is evaluated with the premature convergence of the GA taken as an example based on One-Max function. In order to overcome the schema deceptiveness of the GA, a new type of fitness scaling, non monotone scaling, is advanced to enhance the evolutionary ability of a population. The effectiveness of the new scaling method is tested by a trap function and a needle-in-haystack (NiH) function.
Linear Inviscid Damping for Monotone Shear Flows
Zillinger, Christian
2014-01-01
In this article we prove linear stability, inviscid damping and scattering of the 2D Euler equations around regular, strictly monotone shear flows $(U(y),0)$ in a periodic channel under Sobolev perturbations. We treat the settings of an infinite channel, $\\mathbb{T} \\times \\mathbb{R}$, as well as a finite channel, $\\mathbb{T} \\times [0,1]$, with impermeable boundary. We first prove inviscid damping with optimal algebraic rates for strictly monotone shear flows under the assumption of controlling the regularity of the scattered vorticity. Subsequently, we establish linear stability of the scattering equation in Sobolev spaces under perturbations which are of not too large wave-length with respect to $x$, depending on $U''$.
Improved selection in totally monotone arrays
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mansour, Y. (Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA (United States). Aiken Computation Lab.); Park, J.K. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)); Schieber, B. (International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center); Sen, S. (AT and T Bell Labs., Murray Hill, NJ (United States))
1991-01-01
This paper's main result is an O(({radical}{bar m}lgm)(n lg n) + mlg n)-time algorithm for computing the kth smallest entry in each row of an m {times} n totally monotone array. (A two-dimensional A = a(i,j) is totally monotone if for all i{sub 1} < i{sub 2} and j{sub 1} < j{sup 2}, < a(i{sub 1},j{sub 2}) implies a(i{sub 2},j{sub 1})). For large values of k (in particular, for k=(n/2)), this algorithm is significantly faster than the O(k(m+n))-time algorithm for the same problem due to Kravets and Park. An immediate consequence of this result is an O(n{sup 3/2} lg{sup 2}n)-time algorithm for computing the kth nearest neighbor of each vertex of a convex n-gon. In addition to the main result, we also give an O(n lg m)-time algorithm for computing an approximate median in each row of an m {times} n totally monotone array; this approximate median is an entry whose rank in its row lies between (n/4) and (3n/4) {minus} 1. 20 refs., 3 figs.
Edit Distance to Monotonicity in Sliding Windows
Chan, Ho-Leung; Lee, Lap-Kei; Pan, Jiangwei; Ting, Hing-Fung; Zhang, Qin
2011-01-01
Given a stream of items each associated with a numerical value, its edit distance to monotonicity is the minimum number of items to remove so that the remaining items are non-decreasing with respect to the numerical value. The space complexity of estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a data stream is becoming well-understood over the past few years. Motivated by applications on network quality monitoring, we extend the study to estimating the edit distance to monotonicity of a sliding window covering the $w$ most recent items in the stream for any $w \\ge 1$. We give a deterministic algorithm which can return an estimate within a factor of $(4+\\eps)$ using $O(\\frac{1}{\\eps^2} \\log^2(\\eps w))$ space. We also extend the study in two directions. First, we consider a stream where each item is associated with a value from a partial ordered set. We give a randomized $(4+\\epsilon)$-approximate algorithm using $O(\\frac{1}{\\epsilon^2} \\log \\epsilon^2 w \\log w)$ space. Second, we consider an out-of-order strea...
Negative-potential operation of TMX-Upgrade
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Poulsen, P.; Allen, S.L.; Baldwin, D.E.
1982-04-06
A tandem-mirror configuration can be created by combining hot electron end-cell plasmas with neutral-beam pumping. A region of large negative potential formed in each end cell confines electrons in the central cell. The requirement of charge neutrality causes the central-cell potential to become negative with respect to ground in order to equate ion loss to electron loss. Start-up and formation of the axial potential distribution, neutral-beam pumping, hot electron feed, electron-cyclotron-resonance heating (ECRH) power requirements, and stability are discussed in general terms. Each of these considerations impose constraints on the operation of TMX as a negative machine. The start-up requirements and scenario are also presented. Work on the design and analysis of negative tandems is continuing. The status of work to date is presented here with problem areas for future work identified.
Weak monotonicity inequality and partial regularity for harmonic maps
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
沈尧天; 严树森
1999-01-01
The notion of locally weak monotonicity inequality for weakly harmonic maps is introduced and various results on this class of maps are obtained. For example, the locally weak monotonicity inequality is nearly equivalent to the ε-regularity.
Monotonic Loading of Circular Surface Footings on Clay
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin
2011-01-01
Appropriate modeling of offshore foundations under monotonic loading is a significant challenge in geotechnical engineering. This paper reports experimental and numerical analyses, specifically investigating the response of circular surface footings during monotonic loading and elastoplastic beha...
A-monotonicity and applications to nonlinear variational inclusion problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ram U. Verma
2004-01-01
Full Text Available A new notion of the A-monotonicity is introduced, which generalizes the H-monotonicity. Since the A-monotonicity originates from hemivariational inequalities, and hemivariational inequalities are connected with nonconvex energy functions, it turns out to be a useful tool proving the existence of solutions of nonconvex constrained problems as well.
On the strong monotonicity of the CABARET scheme
Ostapenko, V. V.
2012-03-01
The strong monotonicity of the CABARET scheme with single flux correction is analyzed as applied to the linear advection equation. It is shown that the scheme is strongly monotone (has the NED property) at Courant numbers r ∈ (0,0,5), for which it is monotone. Test computations illustrating this property of the CABARET scheme are presented.
Testing Manifest Monotonicity Using Order-Constrained Statistical Inference
Tijmstra, Jesper; Hessen, David J.; van der Heijden, Peter G. M.; Sijtsma, Klaas
2013-01-01
Most dichotomous item response models share the assumption of latent monotonicity, which states that the probability of a positive response to an item is a nondecreasing function of a latent variable intended to be measured. Latent monotonicity cannot be evaluated directly, but it implies manifest monotonicity across a variety of observed scores,…
[Evoked potentials in intracranial operations: current status and our experiences].
Nau, H E; Hess, W; Pohlen, G; Marggraf, G; Rimpel, J
1987-03-01
Intraoperative neuromonitoring, especially evoked potential monitoring, has gained interest in recent years for both the anesthesiologist evaluating cerebral function and the neurosurgeon wishing to avoid neuronal lesions during intracranial operations. Before evoked potential monitoring can be introduced as a routine method of intraoperative management, experience with this method particularly in intensive care units, is imperative. We recorded evoked potentials with the Compact Four (Nicolet) and Basis 8000 (Schwarzer Picker International) computer systems. Preoperative derivations should be done with the same apparatus used intraoperatively and parameters of peri- and intraoperative derivations should not be changed. The patient's head must be fixed in a Mayfield clamp in order to avoid artefacts during trepanation. The possible artefacts due to apparatus, patient, or anesthesia are summarized in the tables. The derivations of evoked potentials should be supervised by a person who is not involved in the anesthesia or the surgical procedure; this condition may change in the future with full automatization of the recording technique and alarms. Good communication between surgeon, anesthesiologist, and neurophysiological assistant is a prerequisite. The modality is chosen in accordance with the affected neuronal system: visual-evoked potential (VEP) monitoring in the management of processes affecting the visual pathway, brain stem auditory-(BAER) and somatosensory-evoked potential (SSEP) monitoring in lesions affecting these pathways, in particular space-occupying lesions of the posterior fossa. VEP monitoring may be useful, but we observed alterations of the responses without changes in the level of anesthesia or manipulation of the visual pathways. In space-occupying processes of the cerebellopontine angle, BAER could not be developed in nearly all cases because the large underlying tumor had caused the disappearance of waves II-V. In these cases SSEP monitoring
Network Warfare Operations: Unleashing the Potential. Part 1
2005-11-01
Operations SIO Special Information Operations USAF United States Air Force 39 Definitions computer network attack (CNA). Operations to disrupt, deny... special information operations. Defensive information operations ensure timely, accurate, and relevant information access while denying...offensive information operations, and special information operations. (JP 3- 13) 2. The integrated employment of the core capabilities of
Wehrl entropy, Lieb conjecture and entanglement monotones
Mintert, F; Mintert, Florian; Zyczkowski, Karol
2004-01-01
We propose to quantify the entanglement of pure states of $N \\times N$ bipartite quantum system by defining its Husimi distribution with respect to $SU(N)\\times SU(N)$ coherent states. The Wehrl entropy is minimal if and only if the pure state analyzed is separable. The excess of the Wehrl entropy is shown to be equal to the subentropy of the mixed state obtained by partial trace of the bipartite pure state. This quantity, as well as the generalized (R{\\'e}nyi) subentropies, are proved to be Schur--convex, so they are entanglement monotones and may be used as alternative measures of entanglement.
Topological recursion and a quantum curve for monotone Hurwitz numbers
Do, Norman; Dyer, Alastair; Mathews, Daniel V.
2017-10-01
Classical Hurwitz numbers count branched covers of the Riemann sphere with prescribed ramification data, or equivalently, factorisations in the symmetric group with prescribed cycle structure data. Monotone Hurwitz numbers restrict the enumeration by imposing a further monotonicity condition on such factorisations. In this paper, we prove that monotone Hurwitz numbers arise from the topological recursion of Eynard and Orantin applied to a particular spectral curve. We furthermore derive a quantum curve for monotone Hurwitz numbers. These results extend the collection of enumerative problems known to be governed by the paradigm of topological recursion and quantum curves, as well as the list of analogues between monotone Hurwitz numbers and their classical counterparts.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Erol, V. [Department of Computer Engineering, Institute of Science, Okan University, Istanbul (Turkey); Netas Telecommunication Inc., Istanbul (Turkey)
2016-04-21
Entanglement has been studied extensively for understanding the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known monotones for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. The study on these monotones has been a hot topic in quantum information [1-7] in order to understand the role of entanglement in this discipline. It can be observed that from any arbitrary quantum pure state a mixed state can obtained. A natural generalization of this observation would be to consider local operations classical communication (LOCC) transformations between general pure states of two parties. Although this question is a little more difficult, a complete solution has been developed using the mathematical framework of the majorization theory [8]. In this work, we analyze the relation between entanglement monotones concurrence and negativity with respect to majorization for general two-level quantum systems of two particles.
Erol, V.
2016-04-01
Entanglement has been studied extensively for understanding the mysteries of non-classical correlations between quantum systems. In the bipartite case, there are well known monotones for quantifying entanglement such as concurrence, relative entropy of entanglement (REE) and negativity, which cannot be increased via local operations. The study on these monotones has been a hot topic in quantum information [1-7] in order to understand the role of entanglement in this discipline. It can be observed that from any arbitrary quantum pure state a mixed state can obtained. A natural generalization of this observation would be to consider local operations classical communication (LOCC) transformations between general pure states of two parties. Although this question is a little more difficult, a complete solution has been developed using the mathematical framework of the majorization theory [8]. In this work, we analyze the relation between entanglement monotones concurrence and negativity with respect to majorization for general two-level quantum systems of two particles.
The operating room: architectural conditions and potential hazards.
Koneczny, Sonja
2009-01-01
Ergonomics is still not fully implemented in the design of operation rooms (ORs). The OR staff has to deal with various ergonomic deficiencies which may be associated with potential hazards for the patient and/or the OR team.Three surveys were conducted among German OR staff at major conferences. Two of them dealt with the working conditions in the OR and were conducted among surgeons and OR nurses. The third survey queried OR nurses about the electrical safety in the OR.In addition, a specially developed checklist was used to evaluate the work place OR in five German OR units and the staff of these OR units were queried with questionnaires adapted from the surveys. For this article a few of the deficiencies found in the ORs were chosen to serve as examples for the plethora of results gathered.Findings showed that there was a high potential for ergonomic improvement and therefore an increase in safety and comfort. Many of these deficiencies may be eased by simple means such as the reduction of the number of different devices and mandatory training in the use of the devices since device operation is one of the main causes leading to potential hazards in the OR. Other deficiencies, such as the cable routing in the OR, require more extensive intervention and/or the implementation of new techniques, for example the "wireless" OR. All these deficiencies demonstrate the need for better implementation of ergonomics into the OR and for individual solutions, as there is no such thing as an 'one-size-fits-all' solution for OR units.
The Monotonicity Puzzle: An Experimental Investigation of Incentive Structures
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jeannette Brosig
2010-05-01
Full Text Available Non-monotone incentive structures, which - according to theory - are able to induce optimal behavior, are often regarded as empirically less relevant for labor relationships. We compare the performance of a theoretically optimal non-monotone contract with a monotone one under controlled laboratory conditions. Implementing some features relevant to real-world employment relationships, our paper demonstrates that, in fact, the frequency of income-maximizing decisions made by agents is higher under the monotone contract. Although this observed behavior does not change the superiority of the non-monotone contract for principals, they do not choose this contract type in a significant way. This is what we call the monotonicity puzzle. Detailed investigations of decisions provide a clue for solving the puzzle and a possible explanation for the popularity of monotone contracts.
Unquenched QCD Dirac operator spectra at nonzero baryon chemical potential
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Akemann, G. [Department of Mathematical Sciences, Brunel University West London, Uxbridge UB8 3PH (United Kingdom); Osborn, J.C. [Physics Department, Boston University, Boston, MA 02215 (United States); Splittorff, K. [Nordita, Blegdamsvej 17, DK-2100, Copenhagen O (Denmark)]. E-mail: split@alf.nbi.dk; Verbaarschot, J.J.M. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, SUNY, Stony Brook, NY 11794 (United States)
2005-04-18
The microscopic spectral density of the QCD Dirac operator at nonzero baryon chemical potential for an arbitrary number of quark flavors was derived recently from a random matrix model with the global symmetries of QCD. In this paper we show that these results and extensions thereof can be obtained from the replica limit of a Toda lattice equation. This naturally leads to a factorized form into bosonic and fermionic QCD-like partition functions. In the microscopic limit these partition functions are given by the static limit of a chiral Lagrangian that follows from the symmetry breaking pattern. In particular, we elucidate the role of the singularity of the bosonic partition function in the orthogonal polynomials approach. A detailed discussion of the spectral density for one and two flavors is given.
One-loop potential with scale invariance and effective operators
Ghilencea, D M
2016-01-01
We study quantum corrections to the scalar potential in classically scale invariant theories, using a manifestly scale invariant regularization. To this purpose, the subtraction scale $\\mu$ of the dimensional regularization is generated after spontaneous scale symmetry breaking, from a subtraction function of the fields, $\\mu(\\phi,\\sigma)$. This function is then uniquely determined from general principles showing that it depends on the dilaton only, with $\\mu(\\sigma)\\sim \\sigma$. The result is a scale invariant one-loop potential $U$ for a higgs field $\\phi$ and dilaton $\\sigma$ that contains an additional {\\it finite} quantum correction $\\Delta U(\\phi,\\sigma)$, beyond the Coleman Weinberg term. $\\Delta U$ contains new, non-polynomial effective operators like $\\phi^6/\\sigma^2$ whose quantum origin is explained. A flat direction is maintained at the quantum level, the model has vanishing vacuum energy and the one-loop correction to the mass of $\\phi$ remains small without tuning (of its self-coupling, etc) bey...
Generalized convexity, generalized monotonicity recent results
Martinez-Legaz, Juan-Enrique; Volle, Michel
1998-01-01
A function is convex if its epigraph is convex. This geometrical structure has very strong implications in terms of continuity and differentiability. Separation theorems lead to optimality conditions and duality for convex problems. A function is quasiconvex if its lower level sets are convex. Here again, the geo metrical structure of the level sets implies some continuity and differentiability properties for quasiconvex functions. Optimality conditions and duality can be derived for optimization problems involving such functions as well. Over a period of about fifty years, quasiconvex and other generalized convex functions have been considered in a variety of fields including economies, man agement science, engineering, probability and applied sciences in accordance with the need of particular applications. During the last twenty-five years, an increase of research activities in this field has been witnessed. More recently generalized monotonicity of maps has been studied. It relates to generalized conve...
2012-01-01
We provide two weakly convergent algorithms for finding a zero of the sum of a maximally monotone operator, a cocoercive operator, and the normal cone to a closed vector subspace of a real Hilbert space. The methods exploit the intrinsic structure of the problem by activating explicitly the cocoercive operator in the first step, and taking advantage of a vector space decomposition in the second step. The second step of the first method is a Douglas-Rachford iteration involving the maximally m...
Travelling Wave Solutions in Delayed Reaction Diffusion Systems with Partial Monotonicity
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Jian-hua Huang; Xing-fu Zou
2006-01-01
This paper deals with the existence of travelling wave fronts of delayed reaction diffusion systems with partial quasi-monotonicity. We propose a concept of "desirable pair of upper-lower solutions", through which a subset can be constructed. We then apply the Schauder's fixed point theorem to some appropriate operator in this subset to obtain the existence of the travelling wave fronts.
STRONG CONVERGENCE OF MONOTONE HYBRID METHOD FOR FIXED POINT ITERATION PROCESSES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Yongfu SU; Xiaolong QIN
2008-01-01
K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi in 2003 proved the strong convergence theorems for nonexpansive mappings, nonexpansive semigroups, and proximal point algorithm for zero point of monotone operators in Hilbert spaces by using the hybrid method in mathematical programming. The purpose of this paper is to modify the hybrid iteration method of K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi through the monotone hybrid method, and to prove strong convergence theorems. The convergence rate of iteration process of the monotone hybrid method is faster than that of the iteration process of the hybrid method of K. Nakajo and W. Takahashi. In the proofs in this article, Cauchy sequence method is used to avoid the use of the demiclosedness principle and Opial's condition.
Enlargements of Monotone Operators Determined by Representing Function
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. Rezaei
2012-03-01
Full Text Available In this paper, we study a new enlargement of subdifferential for any proper lower semicontinuous function. We know that ε-subdifferential of any proper lower semicontinuous function is an enlargement of its subfifferential and any point from the graph of ε- subdifferential can be approximated by a point from the graph of sub- fifferential. This nice property, apart from its theoretical importance, gives also the possibility to use the enlargement of subdifferentials in finding approximate solutions of inclusions determined by subdifferentials. We define a new enlargement and observe, in the case subdifferentials, the relation between this new enlargement and the ε- subdifferentia
Stability of dynamical systems on the role of monotonic and non-monotonic Lyapunov functions
Michel, Anthony N; Liu, Derong
2015-01-01
The second edition of this textbook provides a single source for the analysis of system models represented by continuous-time and discrete-time, finite-dimensional and infinite-dimensional, and continuous and discontinuous dynamical systems. For these system models, it presents results which comprise the classical Lyapunov stability theory involving monotonic Lyapunov functions, as well as corresponding contemporary stability results involving non-monotonicLyapunov functions.Specific examples from several diverse areas are given to demonstrate the applicability of the developed theory to many important classes of systems, including digital control systems, nonlinear regulator systems, pulse-width-modulated feedback control systems, and artificial neural networks. The authors cover the following four general topics: - Representation and modeling of dynamical systems of the types described above - Presentation of Lyapunov and Lagrange stability theory for dynamical sy...
Stepsize Restrictions for Boundedness and Monotonicity of Multistep Methods
Hundsdorfer, W.
2011-04-29
In this paper nonlinear monotonicity and boundedness properties are analyzed for linear multistep methods. We focus on methods which satisfy a weaker boundedness condition than strict monotonicity for arbitrary starting values. In this way, many linear multistep methods of practical interest are included in the theory. Moreover, it will be shown that for such methods monotonicity can still be valid with suitable Runge-Kutta starting procedures. Restrictions on the stepsizes are derived that are not only sufficient but also necessary for these boundedness and monotonicity properties. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
On the monotonicity of multidimensional finite difference schemes
Kovyrkina, O.; Ostapenko, V.
2016-10-01
The classical concept of monotonicity, introduced by Godunov for linear one-dimensional difference schemes, is extended to multidimensional case. Necessary and sufficient conditions of monotonicity are obtained for linear multidimensional difference schemes of first order. The constraints on the numerical viscosity are given that ensure the monotonicity of a difference scheme in the multidimensional case. It is proposed a modification of the second order multidimensional CABARET scheme that preserves the monotonicity of one-dimensional discrete solutions and, as a result, ensures higher smoothness in the computation of multidimensional discontinuous solutions. The results of two-dimensional test computations illustrating the advantages of the modified CABARET scheme are presented.
Dynamical zeta functions for piecewise monotone maps of the interval
Ruelle, David
2004-01-01
Consider a space M, a map f:M\\to M, and a function g:M \\to {\\mathbb C}. The formal power series \\zeta (z) = \\exp \\sum ^\\infty _{m=1} \\frac {z^m}{m} \\sum _{x \\in \\mathrm {Fix}\\,f^m} \\prod ^{m-1}_{k=0} g (f^kx) yields an example of a dynamical zeta function. Such functions have unexpected analytic properties and interesting relations to the theory of dynamical systems, statistical mechanics, and the spectral theory of certain operators (transfer operators). The first part of this monograph presents a general introduction to this subject. The second part is a detailed study of the zeta functions associated with piecewise monotone maps of the interval [0,1]. In particular, Ruelle gives a proof of a generalized form of the Baladi-Keller theorem relating the poles of \\zeta (z) and the eigenvalues of the transfer operator. He also proves a theorem expressing the largest eigenvalue of the transfer operator in terms of the ergodic properties of (M,f,g).
Monotone measures of ergodicity for Markov chains
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
J. Keilson
1998-01-01
Full Text Available The following paper, first written in 1974, was never published other than as part of an internal research series. Its lack of publication is unrelated to the merits of the paper and the paper is of current importance by virtue of its relation to the relaxation time. A systematic discussion is provided of the approach of a finite Markov chain to ergodicity by proving the monotonicity of an important set of norms, each measures of egodicity, whether or not time reversibility is present. The paper is of particular interest because the discussion of the relaxation time of a finite Markov chain [2] has only been clean for time reversible chains, a small subset of the chains of interest. This restriction is not present here. Indeed, a new relaxation time quoted quantifies the relaxation time for all finite ergodic chains (cf. the discussion of Q1(t below Equation (1.7]. This relaxation time was developed by Keilson with A. Roy in his thesis [6], yet to be published.
Remarks on a monotone Markov chain
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Todorovic
1987-01-01
Full Text Available In applications, considerations on stochastic models often involve a Markov chain {ζn}0∞ with state space in R+, and a transition probability Q. For each x R+ the support of Q(x,. is [0,x]. This implies that ζ0≥ζ1≥…. Under certain regularity assumptions on Q we show that Qn(x,Bu→1 as n→∞ for all u>0 and that 1−Qn(x,Bu≤[1−Q(x,Bu]n where Bu=[0,u. Set τ0=max{k;ζk=ζ0}, τn=max{k;ζk=ζτn−1+1} and write Xn=ζτn−1+1, Tn=τn−τn−1. We investigate some properties of the imbedded Markov chain {Xn}0∞ and of {Tn}0∞. We determine all the marginal distributions of {Tn}0∞ and show that it is asymptotically stationary and that it possesses a monotonicity property. We also prove that under some mild regularity assumptions on β(x=1−Q(x,Bx, ∑1n(Ti−a/bn→dZ∼N(0,1.
Non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion and levitation effect: a mode-coupling theory analysis.
Nandi, Manoj Kumar; Banerjee, Atreyee; Bhattacharyya, Sarika Maitra
2013-03-28
We present a study of diffusion of small tagged particles in a solvent, using mode coupling theory (MCT) analysis and computer simulations. The study is carried out for various interaction potentials. For the first time, using MCT, it is shown that only for strongly attractive interaction potential with allowing interpenetration between the solute-solvent pair the diffusion exhibits a non-monotonic solute size dependence which has earlier been reported in simulation studies [P. K. Ghorai and S. Yashonath, J. Phys. Chem. B 109, 5824-5835 (2005)]. For weak attractive and repulsive potential the solute size dependence of diffusion shows monotonic behaviour. It is also found that for systems where the interaction potential does not allow solute-solvent interpenetration, the solute cannot explore the neck of the solvent cage. Thus these systems even with strong attractive interaction will never show any non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion. This non-monotonic size dependence of diffusion has earlier been connected to levitation effect [S. Yashonath and P. Santikary, J. Phys. Chem. 98, 6368 (1994)]. We also show that although levitation is a dynamic phenomena, the effect of levitation can be obtained in the static radial distribution function.
Robust Monotone Iterates for Nonlinear Singularly Perturbed Boundary Value Problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Boglaev Igor
2009-01-01
Full Text Available This paper is concerned with solving nonlinear singularly perturbed boundary value problems. Robust monotone iterates for solving nonlinear difference scheme are constructed. Uniform convergence of the monotone methods is investigated, and convergence rates are estimated. Numerical experiments complement the theoretical results.
LIMITED MEMORY BFGS METHOD FOR NONLINEAR MONOTONE EQUATIONS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Weijun Zhou; Donghui Li
2007-01-01
In this paper, we propose an algorithm for solving nonlinear monotone equations by combining the limited memory BFGS method (L-BFGS) with a projection method. We show that the method is globally convergent if the equation involves a Lipschitz continuous monotone function. We also present some preliminary numerical results.
Positivity and Monotonicity Preserving Biquartic Rational Interpolation Spline Surface
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Xinru Liu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available A biquartic rational interpolation spline surface over rectangular domain is constructed in this paper, which includes the classical bicubic Coons surface as a special case. Sufficient conditions for generating shape preserving interpolation splines for positive or monotonic surface data are deduced. The given numeric experiments show our method can deal with surface construction from positive or monotonic data effectively.
Payoff-monotonic game dynamics and the maximum clique problem.
Pelillo, Marcello; Torsello, Andrea
2006-05-01
Evolutionary game-theoretic models and, in particular, the so-called replicator equations have recently proven to be remarkably effective at approximately solving the maximum clique and related problems. The approach is centered around a classic result from graph theory that formulates the maximum clique problem as a standard (continuous) quadratic program and exploits the dynamical properties of these models, which, under a certain symmetry assumption, possess a Lyapunov function. In this letter, we generalize previous work along these lines in several respects. We introduce a wide family of game-dynamic equations known as payoff-monotonic dynamics, of which replicator dynamics are a special instance, and show that they enjoy precisely the same dynamical properties as standard replicator equations. These properties make any member of this family a potential heuristic for solving standard quadratic programs and, in particular, the maximum clique problem. Extensive simulations, performed on random as well as DIMACS benchmark graphs, show that this class contains dynamics that are considerably faster than and at least as accurate as replicator equations. One problem associated with these models, however, relates to their inability to escape from poor local solutions. To overcome this drawback, we focus on a particular subclass of payoff-monotonic dynamics used to model the evolution of behavior via imitation processes and study the stability of their equilibria when a regularization parameter is allowed to take on negative values. A detailed analysis of these properties suggests a whole class of annealed imitation heuristics for the maximum clique problem, which are based on the idea of varying the parameter during the imitation optimization process in a principled way, so as to avoid unwanted inefficient solutions. Experiments show that the proposed annealing procedure does help to avoid poor local optima by initially driving the dynamics toward promising regions in
Value of transcranial motor evoked potentials during spinal operations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
@@ To the Editor: We read the interesting recent article by Ding et al1 concerning the value of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEPs) in the diagnosis and prognosis of cervical spondylotic myelopathy, as well as the usefulness of monitoring intraoperative potentials in terms of safety and predictive factors.
Pain Report and Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Operantly Conditioned
Lousberg, Richel; Vuurman, Eric; Lamers, Theo; Breukelen, van Gerard; Jongen, Ellen; Rijnen, Heidi; Maessen, Christa; Hermens, Hermie
2005-01-01
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to answer the ques- tion whether pain report can be increased and decreased by operant conditioning. We predicted that the conditioned pain effects would remain significant after correction for social desirability and fantasy proneness. Furthermore, we
Pain Report and Pain-Related Evoked Potentials Operantly Conditioned
Lousberg, Richel; Vuurman, Eric; Lamers, Theo; van Breukelen, Gerard; Jongen, Ellen; Rijnen, Heidi; Maessen, Christa; Hermens, Hermanus J.
Objective: The purpose of the present study was to answer the ques- tion whether pain report can be increased and decreased by operant conditioning. We predicted that the conditioned pain effects would remain significant after correction for social desirability and fantasy proneness. Furthermore, we
The potential benefit ofpre-operative assesstnent of atnputation ...
African Journals Online (AJOL)
domly selected for pre-operative PtcO, measurement. PtcO, values were recorded ... and the amount of skin and muscle bleeding at the time of surgical incision. .... assessment, measure- ment ofmuscle pH, fluorescein dye angiographic exami-.
The Number of Monotone and Self-Dual Boolean Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Haviarova L.
2014-12-01
Full Text Available In the present paper we study properties of pre-complete class of Boolean functions - monotone Boolean functions. We discuss interval graph, the abbreviated d.n.f., a minimal d.n.f. and a shortest d.n.f. of this function. Then we present a d.n.f. with the highest number of conjunctionsand we determinate the exact number of them. We count the number of monotone Boolean functions with some special properties. In the end we estimate the number of Boolean functionthat are monotone and self-dual at the same time.
Ratio Monotonicity of Polynomials Derived from Nondecreasing Sequences
Chen, William Y C; Zhou, Elaine L F
2010-01-01
The ratio monotonicity of a polynomial is a stronger property than log-concavity. Let P(x) be a polynomial with nonnegative and nondecreasing coefficients. We prove the ratio monotone property of P(x+1), which leads to the log-concavity of P(x+c) for any $c\\geq 1$ due to Llamas and Mart\\'{\\i}nez-Bernal. As a consequence, we obtain the ratio monotonicity of the Boros-Moll polynomials obtained by Chen and Xia without resorting to the recurrence relations of the coefficients.
An Evaluation of Potential Operating Systems for Autonomous Underwater Vehicles
2013-02-01
conditions. Electromagnetic characteristics, density, salinity, temperature and motion of the water create a number of operational challenges ranging from...at the New Mexico Institute of Technology [32] and is now owned by Wind River systems. It runs a thin Linux microkernel that separates and...at hard real-time systems. It has been developed since 1986 and is aimed to be a modular OS with a small microkernel of core functionality, with extra
WEIGHTED ESTIMATES FOR COMMUTATORS OF POTENTIAL OPERATORS ON SPACES OF HOMOGENEOUS TYPE
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Wenming Li; Xiaowu Yu; Xuefang Yan
2009-01-01
We derive some strong type and weak type weighted norm estimates which relate the commutators of potential integral operators to the corresponding maximal operators in the context of spaces of homogeneous type.
Monotone method for initial value problem for fractional diffusion equation
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHANG Shuqin
2006-01-01
Using the method of upper and lower solutions and its associated monotone iterative, consider the existence and uniqueness of solution of an initial value problem for the nonlinear fractional diffusion equation.
Max-Sum Diversification, Monotone Submodular Functions and Dynamic Updates
Borodin, Allan; Ye, Yuli
2012-01-01
Result diversification has many important applications in databases, operations research, information retrieval, and finance. In this paper, we study and extend a particular version of result diversification, known as max-sum diversification. More specifically, we consider the setting where we are given a set of elements in a metric space and a set valuation function $f$ defined on every subset. For any given subset $S$, the overall objective is a linear combination of $f(S)$ and the sum of the distances induced by $S$. The goal is to find a subset $S$ satisfying some constraints that maximizes the overall objective. This problem is first studied by Gollapudi and Sharma for modular set functions and for sets satisfying a cardinality constraint. We consider an extension of the modular case to the monotone submodular case, for which the previous algorithm no longer applies. Interestingly, we are able to match the 2-approximation using a natural, but different greedy algorithm. We then further extend the problem...
Non-monotonicity of trace distance under tensor products
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Maziero, Jonas, E-mail: jonas.maziero@ufsm.br [Universidade Federal de Santa Maria (UFSM), RS (Brazil). Departamento de Fisica
2015-10-15
The trace distance (TD) possesses several of the good properties required for a faithful distance measure in the quantum state space. Despite its importance and ubiquitous use in quantum information science, one of its questionable features, its possible non-monotonicity under taking tensor products of its arguments (NMuTP), has been hitherto unexplored. In this article, we advance analytical and numerical investigations of this issue considering different classes of states living in a discrete and finite dimensional Hilbert space. Our results reveal that although this property of TD does not show up for pure states and for some particular classes of mixed states, it is present in a non-negligible fraction of the regarded density operators. Hence, even though the percentage of quartets of states leading to the NMuTP drawback of TD and its strength decrease as the system's dimension grows, this property of TD must be taken into account before using it as a figure of merit for distinguishing mixed quantum states. (author)
Approximations for Monotone and Non-monotone Submodular Maximization with Knapsack Constraints
Kulik, Ariel; Tamir, Tami
2011-01-01
Submodular maximization generalizes many fundamental problems in discrete optimization, including Max-Cut in directed/undirected graphs, maximum coverage, maximum facility location and marketing over social networks. In this paper we consider the problem of maximizing any submodular function subject to $d$ knapsack constraints, where $d$ is a fixed constant. We establish a strong relation between the discrete problem and its continuous relaxation, obtained through {\\em extension by expectation} of the submodular function. Formally, we show that, for any non-negative submodular function, an $\\alpha$-approximation algorithm for the continuous relaxation implies a randomized $(\\alpha - \\eps)$-approximation algorithm for the discrete problem. We use this relation to improve the best known approximation ratio for the problem to $1/4- \\eps$, for any $\\eps > 0$, and to obtain a nearly optimal $(1-e^{-1}-\\eps)-$approximation ratio for the monotone case, for any $\\eps>0$. We further show that the probabilistic domain ...
Biological processing in oscillatory baffled reactors: operation, advantages and potential
Abbott, M. S. R.; Harvey, A. P.; Perez, G. Valente; Theodorou, M. K.
2013-01-01
The development of efficient and commercially viable bioprocesses is essential for reducing the need for fossil-derived products. Increasingly, pharmaceuticals, fuel, health products and precursor compounds for plastics are being synthesized using bioprocessing routes as opposed to more traditional chemical technologies. Production vessels or reactors are required for synthesis of crude product before downstream processing for extraction and purification. Reactors are operated either in discrete batches or, preferably, continuously in order to reduce waste, cost and energy. This review describes the oscillatory baffled reactor (OBR), which, generally, has a niche application in performing ‘long’ processes in plug flow conditions, and so should be suitable for various bioprocesses. We report findings to suggest that OBRs could increase reaction rates for specific bioprocesses owing to low shear, good global mixing and enhanced mass transfer compared with conventional reactors. By maintaining geometrical and dynamic conditions, the technology has been proved to be easily scaled up and operated continuously, allowing laboratory-scale results to be easily transferred to industrial-sized processes. This is the first comprehensive review of bioprocessing using OBRs. The barriers facing industrial adoption of the technology are discussed alongside some suggested strategies to overcome these barriers. OBR technology could prove to be a major aid in the development of commercially viable and sustainable bioprocesses, essential for moving towards a greener future. PMID:24427509
Action-Maslov Homomorphism for Monotone Symplectic Manifolds
Branson, Mark
2009-01-01
We explore conditions under which the action-Maslov homomorphism vanishes on monotone symplectic manifolds. Our strategy involves showing that the units in the quantum homology, and thus the Seidel element, have a very specific form. Then we use induction to show that other relevant Gromov-Witten invariants vanish. We prove that these conditions hold for monotone products of projective spaces and for the Grassmannian of 2-planes in $\\C^4$.
Completely monotonic functions related to logarithmic derivatives of entire functions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Pedersen, Henrik Laurberg
2011-01-01
The logarithmic derivative l(x) of an entire function of genus p and having only non-positive zeros is represented in terms of a Stieltjes function. As a consequence, (-1)p(xml(x))(m+p) is a completely monotonic function for all m ≥ 0. This generalizes earlier results on complete monotonicity...... of functions related to Euler's psi-function. Applications to Barnes' multiple gamma functions are given....
Isotonicity of the projection onto the monotone cone
Németh, A B
2012-01-01
A wedge (i.e., a closed nonempty set in the Euclidean space stable under addition and multiplication with non-negative scalars) induces by a standard way a semi-order (a reflexive and transitive binary relation) in the space. The wedges admitting isotone metric projection with respect to the semi-order induced by them are characterized. The obtained result is used to show that the monotone wedge (called monotone cone in regression theory) admits isotone projection.
Monotonic loading of circular surface footings on clay
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ibsen, Lars Bo; Barari, Amin [Aalborg University, Aalborg (Denmark)
2011-12-15
Appropriate modeling of offshore foundations under monotonic loading is a significant challenge in geotechnical engineering. This paper reports experimental and numerical analyses, specifically investigating the response of circular surface footings during monotonic loading and elastoplastic behavior during reloading. By using the findings presented in this paper, it is possible to extend the model to simulate the vertical-load displacement response of offshore bucket foundations.
Convergence for pseudo monotone semiflows on product ordered topological spaces
Yi, Taishan; Huang, Lihong
In this paper, we consider a class of pseudo monotone semiflows, which only enjoy some weak monotonicity properties and are defined on product-ordered topological spaces. Under certain conditions, several convergence principles are established for each precompact orbit of such a class of semiflows to tend to an equilibrium, which improve and extend some corresponding results already known. Some applications to delay differential equations are presented.
Layered neural networks with non-monotonic transfer functions
Katayama, Katsuki; Sakata, Yasuo; Horiguchi, Tsuyoshi
2003-01-01
We investigate storage capacity and generalization ability for two types of fully connected layered neural networks with non-monotonic transfer functions; random patterns are embedded into the networks by a Hebbian learning rule. One of them is a layered network in which a non-monotonic transfer function of even layers is different from that of odd layers. The other is a layered network with intra-layer connections, in which the non-monotonic transfer function of inter-layer is different from that of intra-layer, and inter-layered neurons and intra-layered neurons are updated alternately. We derive recursion relations for order parameters for those layered networks by the signal-to-noise ratio method. We clarify that the storage capacity and the generalization ability for those layered networks are enhanced in comparison with those with a conventional monotonic transfer function when non-monotonicity of the transfer functions is selected optimally. We also point out that some chaotic behavior appears in the order parameters for the layered networks when non-monotonicity of the transfer functions increases.
Positivity, Betweenness, and Strictness of Operator Means
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pattrawut Chansangiam
2015-01-01
satisfying monotonicity, continuity from above, the transformer inequality, and the fixed-point property. It is well known that there are one-to-one correspondences between operator means, operator monotone functions, and Borel measures. In this paper, we provide various characterizations for the concepts of positivity, betweenness, and strictness of operator means in terms of operator inequalities, operator monotone functions, Borel measures, and certain operator equations.
Reverse estimation theory, Complementality between RLD and SLD, and monotone distances
Matsumoto, K
2005-01-01
Many problems in quantum information theory can be vied as interconversion between resources. In this talk, we apply this view point to state estimation theory, motivated by the following observations. First, a monotone metric takes value between SLD and RLD Fisher metric. This is quite analogous to the fact that entanglement measures are sandwiched by distillable entanglement and entanglement cost. Second, SLD add RLD are mutually complement via purification of density matrices, but its operational meaning was not clear. To find a link between these observations, we define reverse estimation problem, or simulation of quantum state family by probability distribution family, proving that RLD Fisher metric is a solution to local reverse estimation problem of quantum state family with 1-dim parameter. This result gives new proofs of some known facts and proves one new fact about monotone distances. We also investigate information geometry of RLD, and reverse estimation theory of a multi-dimensional parameter fam...
On the geometry of a class of N-qubit entanglement monotones
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levay, Peter [Department of Theoretical Physics, Institute of Physics, Budapest University of Technology and Economics, Budafoki u. 8, H-1111 Budapest (Hungary)
2005-10-14
A family of N-qubit entanglement monotones invariant under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) is defined. This class of entanglement monotones includes the well-known examples of the concurrence, the 3-tangle and some of the four-, five- and N-qubit SLOCC invariants introduced recently. The construction of these invariants is based on bipartite partitions of the Hilbert space in the form C{sup 2{sup }}N {approx_equal} C{sup L} x C{sup l} with L = 2{sup N-n} {>=} l = 2{sup n}. Such partitions can be given a nice geometrical interpretation in terms of Grassmannians Gr(L, l) of l-planes in C{sup L} that can be realized as the zero locus of quadratic polynomials in the complex projective space of suitable dimension via the Pluecker embedding. The invariants are neatly expressed in terms of the Pluecker coordinates of the Grassmannians.
On the geometry of a class of N-qubit entanglement monotones
Levay, P
2005-01-01
A family of N-qubit entanglement monotones invariant under stochastic local operations and classical communication (SLOCC) is defined. This class of entanglement monotones includes the well-known examples of the concurrence, the three-tangle, and some of the four, five and N-qubit SLOCC invariants introduced recently. The construction of these invariants is based on bipartite partitions of the Hilbert space in the form ${\\bf C}^{2^N}\\simeq{\\bf C}^L\\otimes{\\bf C}^l$ with $L=2^{N-n}\\geq l=2^n$. Such partitions can be given a nice geometrical interpretation in terms of Grassmannians Gr(L,l) of l-planes in ${\\bf C}^L$ that can be realized as the zero locus of quadratic polinomials in the complex projective space of suitable dimension via the Plucker embedding. The invariants are neatly expressed in terms of the Plucker coordinates of the Grassmannian.
Convergence of approximations of monotone gradient systems
Zambotti, Lorenzo
2006-01-01
We consider stochastic differential equations in a Hilbert space, perturbed by the gradient of a convex potential. We investigate the problem of convergence of a sequence of such processes. We propose applications of this method to reflecting O.U. processes in infinite dimension, to stochastic partial differential equations with reflection of Cahn-Hilliard type and to interface models.
Driving performance impairments due to hypovigilance on monotonous roads.
Larue, Grégoire S; Rakotonirainy, Andry; Pettitt, Anthony N
2011-11-01
Drivers' ability to react to unpredictable events deteriorates when exposed to highly predictable and uneventful driving tasks. Highway design reduces the driving task mainly to a lane-keeping manoeuvre. Such a task is monotonous, providing little stimulation and this contributes to crashes due to inattention. Research has shown that driver's hypovigilance can be assessed with EEG measurements and that driving performance is impaired during prolonged monotonous driving tasks. This paper aims to show that two dimensions of monotony - namely road design and road side variability - decrease vigilance and impair driving performance. This is the first study correlating hypovigilance and driver performance in varied monotonous conditions, particularly on a short time scale (a few seconds). We induced vigilance decrement as assessed with an EEG during a monotonous driving simulator experiment. Road monotony was varied through both road design and road side variability. The driver's decrease in vigilance occurred due to both road design and road scenery monotony and almost independently of the driver's sensation seeking level. Such impairment was also correlated to observable measurements from the driver, the car and the environment. During periods of hypovigilance, the driving performance impairment affected lane positioning, time to lane crossing, blink frequency, heart rate variability and non-specific electrodermal response rates. This work lays the foundation for the development of an in-vehicle device preventing hypovigilance crashes on monotonous roads.
Indefinite Eigenvalue Problems for p-Laplacian Operators with Potential Terms on Networks
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jea-Hyun Park
2014-01-01
Full Text Available We address some forward and inverse problems involving indefinite eigenvalues for discrete p-Laplacian operators with potential terms. These indefinite eigenvalues are the discrete analogues of p-Laplacians on Riemannian manifolds with potential terms. We first define and discuss some fundamental properties of the indefinite eigenvalue problems for discrete p-Laplacian operators with potential terms with respect to some given weight functions. We then discuss resonance problems, anti-minimum principles, and inverse conductivity problems for the discrete p-Laplacian operators with potential terms involving the smallest indefinite eigenvalues.
Estimating monotonic rates from biological data using local linear regression.
Olito, Colin; White, Craig R; Marshall, Dustin J; Barneche, Diego R
2017-03-01
Accessing many fundamental questions in biology begins with empirical estimation of simple monotonic rates of underlying biological processes. Across a variety of disciplines, ranging from physiology to biogeochemistry, these rates are routinely estimated from non-linear and noisy time series data using linear regression and ad hoc manual truncation of non-linearities. Here, we introduce the R package LoLinR, a flexible toolkit to implement local linear regression techniques to objectively and reproducibly estimate monotonic biological rates from non-linear time series data, and demonstrate possible applications using metabolic rate data. LoLinR provides methods to easily and reliably estimate monotonic rates from time series data in a way that is statistically robust, facilitates reproducible research and is applicable to a wide variety of research disciplines in the biological sciences. © 2017. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.
Dilger, Mathias Georg; Jovanović, Tanja; Voigt, Kai-Ingo
2017-08-01
Practice and theory have proven the relevance of energy co-operatives for civic participation in the energy turnaround. However, due to a still low awareness and changing regulation, there seems an unexploited potential of utilizing the legal form 'co-operative' in this context. The aim of this study is therefore to investigate the crowdfunding implementation in the business model of energy co-operatives in order to cope with the mentioned challenges. Based on a theoretical framework, we derive a Business Model Innovation (BMI) through crowdfunding including synergies and differences. A qualitative study design, particularly a multiple-case study of energy co-operatives, was chosen to prove the BMI and to reveal barriers. The results show that although most co-operatives are not familiar with crowdfunding, there is strong potential in opening up predominantly local structures to a broader group of members. Building on this, equity-based crowdfunding is revealed to be suitable for energy co-operatives as BMI and to accompany other challenges in the same way. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Monotone data visualization using rational trigonometric spline interpolation.
Ibraheem, Farheen; Hussain, Maria; Hussain, Malik Zawwar
2014-01-01
Rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric schemes are developed to conserve monotonicity of curve and surface data, respectively. The rational cubic function has four parameters in each subinterval, while the rational bicubic partially blended function has eight parameters in each rectangular patch. The monotonicity of curve and surface data is retained by developing constraints on some of these parameters in description of rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric functions. The remaining parameters are kept free to modify the shape of curve and surface if required. The developed algorithm is verified mathematically and demonstrated graphically.
Monotone Data Visualization Using Rational Trigonometric Spline Interpolation
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Farheen Ibraheem
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric schemes are developed to conserve monotonicity of curve and surface data, respectively. The rational cubic function has four parameters in each subinterval, while the rational bicubic partially blended function has eight parameters in each rectangular patch. The monotonicity of curve and surface data is retained by developing constraints on some of these parameters in description of rational cubic and bicubic trigonometric functions. The remaining parameters are kept free to modify the shape of curve and surface if required. The developed algorithm is verified mathematically and demonstrated graphically.
Ultimate generalization to monotonicity for uniform convergence of trigonometric series
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2010-01-01
Chaundy and Jolliffe proved that if {a n } is a non-increasing (monotonic) real sequence with lim n →∞ a n = 0, then a necessary and sufficient condition for the uniform convergence of the series ∑∞ n=1 a n sin nx is lim n →∞ na n = 0. We generalize (or weaken) the monotonic condition on the coefficient sequence {a n } in this classical result to the so-called mean value bounded variation condition and prove that the generalized condition cannot be weakened further. We also establish an analogue to the generalized Chaundy-Jolliffe theorem in the complex space.
Probabilistic Analysis of Pattern Formation in Monotonic Self-Assembly.
Moore, Tyler G; Garzon, Max H; Deaton, Russell J
2015-01-01
Inspired by biological systems, self-assembly aims to construct complex structures. It functions through piece-wise, local interactions among component parts and has the potential to produce novel materials and devices at the nanoscale. Algorithmic self-assembly models the product of self-assembly as the output of some computational process, and attempts to control the process of assembly algorithmically. Though providing fundamental insights, these computational models have yet to fully account for the randomness that is inherent in experimental realizations, which tend to be based on trial and error methods. In order to develop a method of analysis that addresses experimental parameters, such as error and yield, this work focuses on the capability of assembly systems to produce a pre-determined set of target patterns, either accurately or perhaps only approximately. Self-assembly systems that assemble patterns that are similar to the targets in a significant percentage are "strong" assemblers. In addition, assemblers should predominantly produce target patterns, with a small percentage of errors or junk. These definitions approximate notions of yield and purity in chemistry and manufacturing. By combining these definitions, a criterion for efficient assembly is developed that can be used to compare the ability of different assembly systems to produce a given target set. Efficiency is a composite measure of the accuracy and purity of an assembler. Typical examples in algorithmic assembly are assessed in the context of these metrics. In addition to validating the method, they also provide some insight that might be used to guide experimentation. Finally, some general results are established that, for efficient assembly, imply that every target pattern is guaranteed to be assembled with a minimum common positive probability, regardless of its size, and that a trichotomy exists to characterize the global behavior of typical efficient, monotonic self-assembly systems
Probabilistic Analysis of Pattern Formation in Monotonic Self-Assembly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Tyler G Moore
Full Text Available Inspired by biological systems, self-assembly aims to construct complex structures. It functions through piece-wise, local interactions among component parts and has the potential to produce novel materials and devices at the nanoscale. Algorithmic self-assembly models the product of self-assembly as the output of some computational process, and attempts to control the process of assembly algorithmically. Though providing fundamental insights, these computational models have yet to fully account for the randomness that is inherent in experimental realizations, which tend to be based on trial and error methods. In order to develop a method of analysis that addresses experimental parameters, such as error and yield, this work focuses on the capability of assembly systems to produce a pre-determined set of target patterns, either accurately or perhaps only approximately. Self-assembly systems that assemble patterns that are similar to the targets in a significant percentage are "strong" assemblers. In addition, assemblers should predominantly produce target patterns, with a small percentage of errors or junk. These definitions approximate notions of yield and purity in chemistry and manufacturing. By combining these definitions, a criterion for efficient assembly is developed that can be used to compare the ability of different assembly systems to produce a given target set. Efficiency is a composite measure of the accuracy and purity of an assembler. Typical examples in algorithmic assembly are assessed in the context of these metrics. In addition to validating the method, they also provide some insight that might be used to guide experimentation. Finally, some general results are established that, for efficient assembly, imply that every target pattern is guaranteed to be assembled with a minimum common positive probability, regardless of its size, and that a trichotomy exists to characterize the global behavior of typical efficient, monotonic
MONOTONE ITERATION FOR ELLIPTIC PDEs WITH DISCONTINUOUS NONLINEAR TERMS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zou Qingsong
2005-01-01
In this paper, we use monotone iterative techniques to show the existence of maximal or minimal solutions of some elliptic PDEs with nonlinear discontinuous terms. As the numerical analysis of this PDEs is concerned, we prove the convergence of discrete extremal solutions.
Modeling non-monotone risk aversion using SAHARA utility functions
A. Chen; A. Pelsser; M. Vellekoop
2011-01-01
We develop a new class of utility functions, SAHARA utility, with the distinguishing feature that it allows absolute risk aversion to be non-monotone and implements the assumption that agents may become less risk averse for very low values of wealth. The class contains the well-known exponential and
On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ciepliński Krzysztof
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions of the functional equation , , where are closed intervals, and , are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.
L^p solutions of reflected BSDEs under monotonicity condition
Rozkosz, Andrzej
2012-01-01
We prove existence and uniqueness of L^p solutions of reflected backward stochastic differential equations with p-integrable data and generators satisfying the monotonicity condition. We also show that the solution may be approximated by the penalization method. Our results are new even in the classical case p=2.
A monotonic method for solving nonlinear optimal control problems
Salomon, Julien
2009-01-01
Initially introduced in the framework of quantum control, the so-called monotonic algorithms have shown excellent numerical results when dealing with various bilinear optimal control problems. This paper aims at presenting a unified formulation of such procedures and the intrinsic assumptions they require. In this framework, we prove the feasibility of the general algorithm. Finally, we explain how these assumptions can be relaxed.
On Some Conjectures on the Monotonicity of Some Arithmetical Sequences
2012-01-01
THE MONOTONICITY OF SOME ARITHMETICAL SEQUENCES ∗ Florian Luca † Centro de Ciencias Matemáticas, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de México, C.P. 58089...visit of P. S. to the Centro de Ciencias Matemáticas de la UNAM in Morelia in August 2012. During the preparation of this paper, F. L. was supported in
Interval Routing and Minor-Monotone Graph Parameters
Bakker, E.M.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Tan, R.B.; Leeuwen, J. van
2006-01-01
We survey a number of minor-monotone graph parameters and their relationship to the complexity of routing on graphs. In particular we compare the interval routing parameters κslir(G) and κsir(G) with Colin de Verdi`ere’s graph invariant μ(G) and its variants λ(G) and κ(G). We show that for all the k
Multivariate Regression with Monotone Missing Observation of the Dependent Variables
Raats, V.M.; van der Genugten, B.B.; Moors, J.J.A.
2002-01-01
Multivariate regression is discussed, where the observations of the dependent variables are (monotone) missing completely at random; the explanatory variables are assumed to be completely observed.We discuss OLS-, GLS- and a certain form of E(stimated) GLS-estimation.It turns out that
Minimum Cost Spanning Tree Games and Population Monotonic Allocation Schemes
Norde, H.W.; Moretti, S.; Tijs, S.H.
2001-01-01
In this paper we present the Subtraction Algorithm that computes for every classical minimum cost spanning tree game a population monotonic allocation scheme.As a basis for this algorithm serves a decomposition theorem that shows that every minimum cost spanning tree game can be written as nonnegati
Size monotonicity and stability of the core in hedonic games
Dimitrov, Dinko; Sung, Shao Chin
2011-01-01
We show that the core of each strongly size monotonic hedonic game is not empty and is externally stable. This is in sharp contrast to other sufficient conditions for core non-emptiness which do not even guarantee the existence of a stable set in such games.
Monotone missing data and repeated controls of fallible authors
Raats, V.M.
2004-01-01
Chapters 2 and 3 focus on repeated audit controls with categorical variables. Chapter 4 and 5 introduce and analyse a very general multivariate regression model for (monotone) missing data. In the final Chapter 6 the previous chapters are combined into a more realistic model for repeated audit contr
Interval Routing and Minor-Monotone Graph Parameters
Bakker, E.M.; Bodlaender, H.L.; Tan, R.B.; Leeuwen, J. van
2006-01-01
We survey a number of minor-monotone graph parameters and their relationship to the complexity of routing on graphs. In particular we compare the interval routing parameters κslir(G) and κsir(G) with Colin de Verdi`ere’s graph invariant μ(G) and its variants λ(G) and κ(G). We show that for all the
Reasoning Biases, Non-Monotonic Logics, and Belief Revision
Dutilh Novaes, Catarina; Veluwenkamp, Herman
2017-01-01
A range of formal models of human reasoning have been proposed in a number of fields such as philosophy, logic, artificial intelligence, computer science, psychology, cognitive science etc.: various logics (epistemic logics; non-monotonic logics), probabilistic systems (most notably, but not exclusi
Influence of the floating potential on micro-hollow cathode operation
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levko, D. [Department of Aerospace Engineering and Engineering Mechanics, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Bliokh, Y. P.; Krasik, Ya. E. [Department of Physics, Technion, 32000 Haifa (Israel)
2015-06-15
The influence of a keeper electrode with a floating potential on the operation of a micro-hollow cathode is studied using the two-dimensional particle-in-cell Monte Carlo collisions model. The floating potential is determined self-consistently, taking into account the electron and ion charges collected by the keeper and the potential induced by the plasma non-compensated space charge. It is shown that the parameters of the micro-hollow cathode operation vary significantly, according to whether the keeper potential is floating or has a specified constant value.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Angelis, G I; Kotasidis, F A; Matthews, J C [Imaging, Proteomics and Genomics, MAHSC, University of Manchester, Wolfson Molecular Imaging Centre, Manchester (United Kingdom); Reader, A J [Montreal Neurological Institute, McGill University, Montreal (Canada); Lionheart, W R, E-mail: georgios.angelis@mmic.man.ac.uk [School of Mathematics, University of Manchester, Alan Turing Building, Manchester (United Kingdom)
2011-07-07
Iterative expectation maximization (EM) techniques have been extensively used to solve maximum likelihood (ML) problems in positron emission tomography (PET) image reconstruction. Although EM methods offer a robust approach to solving ML problems, they usually suffer from slow convergence rates. The ordered subsets EM (OSEM) algorithm provides significant improvements in the convergence rate, but it can cycle between estimates converging towards the ML solution of each subset. In contrast, gradient-based methods, such as the recently proposed non-monotonic maximum likelihood (NMML) and the more established preconditioned conjugate gradient (PCG), offer a globally convergent, yet equally fast, alternative to OSEM. Reported results showed that NMML provides faster convergence compared to OSEM; however, it has never been compared to other fast gradient-based methods, like PCG. Therefore, in this work we evaluate the performance of two gradient-based methods (NMML and PCG) and investigate their potential as an alternative to the fast and widely used OSEM. All algorithms were evaluated using 2D simulations, as well as a single [{sup 11}C]DASB clinical brain dataset. Results on simulated 2D data show that both PCG and NMML achieve orders of magnitude faster convergence to the ML solution compared to MLEM and exhibit comparable performance to OSEM. Equally fast performance is observed between OSEM and PCG for clinical 3D data, but NMML seems to perform poorly. However, with the addition of a preconditioner term to the gradient direction, the convergence behaviour of NMML can be substantially improved. Although PCG is a fast convergent algorithm, the use of a (bent) line search increases the complexity of the implementation, as well as the computational time involved per iteration. Contrary to previous reports, NMML offers no clear advantage over OSEM or PCG, for noisy PET data. Therefore, we conclude that there is little evidence to replace OSEM as the algorithm of choice
Fundamental solutions for Schrödinger operators with general inverse square potentials
Chen, Huyuan
2017-03-17
In this paper, we clarify the fundamental solutions for Schrödinger operators given as (Formula presented.), where the potential V is a general inverse square potential in (Formula presented.) with (Formula presented.). In particular, letting (Formula presented.),(Formula presented.) where (Formula presented.), we discuss the existence and nonexistence of positive fundamental solutions for Hardy operator (Formula presented.), which depend on the parameter t.
Helffer, Bernard
2008-01-01
The two-dimensional Schroedinger operator with a uniform magnetic field and a periodic zero-range potential is considered. For weak magnetic fields we reduce the spectral problem to the semiclassical analysis of one-dimensional Harper-like operators. This shows the existence of parts of Cantor structure in the spectrum for special values of the magnetic flux.
Monotonic and Cyclic Bond Behavior of Deformed CFRP Bars in High Strength Concrete
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
T. Tibet Akbas
2016-05-01
Full Text Available Composite reinforcing bars (rebars that are used in concrete members with high performance (strength and durability properties could have beneficial effects on the behavior of these members. This is especially vital when a building is constructed in an aggressive environment, for instance a corrosive environment. Although tension capacity/weight (or volume ratios in composite rebars (carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP, glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP, etc. are very high when compared to steel rebars, major weaknesses in concrete members reinforced with these composite rebars may be the potential consequences of relatively poor bonding capacity. This may even be more crucial when the member is subjected to cyclic loading. Although monotonic bond tests are available in the literature, only limited experimental studies exist on bond characteristics under cyclic loading conditions. In order to fill this gap and propose preliminary design recommendations, 10 specimens of 10-mm-diameter ribbed CFRP rebars embedded in specially designed high strength concrete (f’c = 70 MPa blocks were subjected to monotonic and cyclic pullout tests. The experimental results showed that cyclically loaded CFRP rebars had less bond strength than those companion specimens loaded monotonically.
Canonical single field slow-roll inflation with a non-monotonic tensor
German, Gabriel; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Sussman, Roberto A
2015-01-01
We take a pragmatic, model independent approach to single field slow-roll canonical inflation by imposing conditions, not on the potential, but on the slow-roll parameter $\\epsilon$ and its derivatives $\\epsilon^{\\prime }$ and $\\epsilon^{\\prime\\prime }$, thereby extracting general conditions on the tensor $r$ and the running $n_{sk}$. Of particular interest is a non-monotonic $\\epsilon$ with a maximum where universality conditions are found among the observables. In models with a monotonically increasing $\\epsilon$ the running is expected to be always negative for positive $\\epsilon^{\\prime\\prime }$. To accommodate a large tensor that meets the limiting values allowed by the Planck data, we study a non-monotonic $\\epsilon$ decreasing during most part of inflation. Since at $\\phi_{H}$, at which the perturbations are produced, some $50$ $-$ $60$ $e$-folds before the end of inflation, $\\epsilon$ is increasing, we thus require that $\\epsilon$ develops a maximum for $\\phi > \\phi_{H}$ after which $\\epsilon$ decreas...
Towards a Unified Recurrent Neural Network Theory:The Uniformly Pseudo-Projection-Anti-Monotone Net
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Zong Ben XU; Chen QIAO
2011-01-01
In the past decades, various neural network models have been developed for modeling the behavior of human brain or performing problem-solving through simulating the behavior of human brain. The recurrent neural networks are the type of neural networks to model or simulate associative memory behavior of human being. A recurrent neural network (RNN) can be generally formalized as a dynamic system associated with two fundamental operators: one is the nonlinear activation operator deduced from the input-output properties of the involved neurons, and the other is the synaptic connections (a matrix) among the neurons. Through carefully examining properties of various activation functions used, we introduce a novel type of monotone operators, the uniformly pseudo-projectionanti-monotone (UPPAM) operators, to unify the various RNN models appeared in the literature. We develop a unified encoding and stability theory for the UPPAM network model when the time is discrete.The established model and theory not only unify but also jointly generalize the most known results of RNNs. The approach has lunched a visible step towards establishment of a unified mathematical theory of recurrent neural networks.
Non-trapping condition for semiclassical Schr dinger operators with matrix-valued potentials.
Jecko, T
2004-01-01
We consider semiclassical Schr dinger operators with matrix-valued, long-range, smooth potential, for which different eigenvalues may cross on a codimension one submanifold. We denote by h the semiclassical parameter and we consider energies above the bottom of the essential spectrum. Under some invariance condition on the matricial structure of the potential near the eigenvalues crossing and some structure condition at infinity, we prove that the boundary values of the resolvent at energy lambda, as bounded operators on suitable weighted spaces, are O(1/h) if and only if lambda is a non-trapping energy for all the Hamilton flows generated by the eigenvalues of the operator's symbol.
Overlap Dirac operator at nonzero chemical potential and random matrix theory.
Bloch, Jacques; Wettig, Tilo
2006-07-07
We show how to introduce a quark chemical potential in the overlap Dirac operator. The resulting operator satisfies a Ginsparg-Wilson relation and has exact zero modes. It is no longer gamma5 Hermitian, but its nonreal eigenvalues still occur in pairs. We compute the spectral density of the operator on the lattice and show that, for small eigenvalues, the data agree with analytical predictions of non-Hermitian chiral random matrix theory for both trivial and nontrivial topology. We also explain an observed change in the number of zero modes as a function of chemical potential.
Visual evoked potentials monitoring in a case of transient post-operative visual loss
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marie Capon
2016-01-01
Full Text Available Post-operative visual loss (POVL is a rare, albeit potentially serious complication of general anaesthesia. This report describes the case of a 54-year-old woman who developed transient POVL after general anaesthesia following a left posterior parietal meningioma surgery in the prone position and discusses the usefulness of visual evoked potentials monitoring in such situations.
Dias, Nuno Costa; Jorge, Cristina; Prata, João Nuno
2016-04-01
Using an extension of the Hörmander product of distributions, we obtain an intrinsic formulation of one-dimensional Schrödinger operators with singular potentials. This formulation is entirely defined in terms of standard Schwartz distributions and does not require (as some previous approaches) the use of more general distributions or generalized functions. We determine, in the new formulation, the action and domain of the Schrödinger operators with arbitrary singular boundary potentials. We also consider the inverse problem, and obtain a general procedure for constructing the singular (pseudo) potential that imposes a specific set of (local) boundary conditions. This procedure is used to determine the boundary operators for the complete four-parameter family of one-dimensional Schrödinger operators with a point interaction. Finally, the δ and δ‧ potentials are studied in detail, and the corresponding Schrödinger operators are shown to coincide with the norm resolvent limit of specific sequences of Schrödinger operators with regular potentials.
A Hybrid Approach to Proving Memory Reference Monotonicity
Oancea, Cosmin E.
2013-01-01
Array references indexed by non-linear expressions or subscript arrays represent a major obstacle to compiler analysis and to automatic parallelization. Most previous proposed solutions either enhance the static analysis repertoire to recognize more patterns, to infer array-value properties, and to refine the mathematical support, or apply expensive run time analysis of memory reference traces to disambiguate these accesses. This paper presents an automated solution based on static construction of access summaries, in which the reference non-linearity problem can be solved for a large number of reference patterns by extracting arbitrarily-shaped predicates that can (in)validate the reference monotonicity property and thus (dis)prove loop independence. Experiments on six benchmarks show that our general technique for dynamic validation of the monotonicity property can cover a large class of codes, incurs minimal run-time overhead and obtains good speedups. © 2013 Springer-Verlag.
Measurement of non-monotonic Casimir forces between silicon nanostructures
Tang, L.; Wang, M.; Ng, C. Y.; Nikolic, M.; Chan, C. T.; Rodriguez, A. W.; Chan, H. B.
2017-01-01
Casimir forces are of fundamental interest because they originate from quantum fluctuations of the electromagnetic field. Apart from controlling this force via the optical properties of materials, a number of novel geometries have been proposed to generate repulsive and/or non-monotonic Casimir forces between bodies separated by vacuum gaps. Experimental realization of these geometries, however, is hindered by the difficulties in alignment when the bodies are brought into close proximity. Here, using an on-chip platform with integrated force sensors and actuators, we circumvent the alignment problem and measure the Casimir force between two surfaces with nanoscale protrusions. We demonstrate that the force depends non-monotonically on the displacement. At some displacements, the Casimir force leads to an effective stiffening of the nanomechanical spring. Our findings pave the way for exploiting the Casimir force in nanomechanical systems using structures of complex and non-conventional shapes.
A Monotonic Precise Current DAC for Sensor Applications
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. Horsky
2008-12-01
Full Text Available In this paper a 17 bit monotonic precise current DAC for sensor applications is described. It is working in a harsh automotive environment in a wide temperature range with high output voltage swing and low current consumption. To guarantee monotonicity current division and segmentation techniques are used. To improve the output impedance, the accuracy and the voltage compliance of the DAC, two active cascoding loops and one follower loop are used. The resolution of the DAC is further increased by applying pulse width modulation to one fine LSB current. To achieve low power consumption unused coarse current sources are switched off. Several second order technological effects influencing final performance and circuits dealing with them are discussed.
Rational functions with maximal radius of absolute monotonicity
Loczi, Lajos
2014-05-19
We study the radius of absolute monotonicity R of rational functions with numerator and denominator of degree s that approximate the exponential function to order p. Such functions arise in the application of implicit s-stage, order p Runge-Kutta methods for initial value problems and the radius of absolute monotonicity governs the numerical preservation of properties like positivity and maximum-norm contractivity. We construct a function with p=2 and R>2s, disproving a conjecture of van de Griend and Kraaijevanger. We determine the maximum attainable radius for functions in several one-parameter families of rational functions. Moreover, we prove earlier conjectured optimal radii in some families with 2 or 3 parameters via uniqueness arguments for systems of polynomial inequalities. Our results also prove the optimality of some strong stability preserving implicit and singly diagonally implicit Runge-Kutta methods. Whereas previous results in this area were primarily numerical, we give all constants as exact algebraic numbers.
On Uniqueness of Conjugacy of Continuous and Piecewise Monotone Functions
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Krzysztof Ciepliński
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We investigate the existence and uniqueness of solutions φ:I→J of the functional equation φ(f(x=F(φ(x, x∈I, where I,J are closed intervals, and f:I→I, F:J→J are some continuous piecewise monotone functions. A fixed point principle plays a crucial role in the proof of our main result.
Monotonic Property in Field Algebra of G-Spin Model
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
蒋立宁
2003-01-01
Let F be the field algebra of G-spin model, D(G) the double algebra of a finite group G and D(H) the sub-Hopf algerba of D(G) determined by the subgroup H of G. The paper builds a correspondence between D(H) and the D(H)-invariant sub-C*-algebra AH in F, and proves that the correspondence is strictly monotonic.
Modeling argumentation based semantics using non-monotonic reasoning
2005-01-01
Argumentation theory is an alternative style of formalizing non-monotonic reasoning. It seems, argumentation theory is a suitable framework for practical and uncertain reasoning, where arguments support conclusions. Dung's approach is an unifying framework which has played an influential role on argumentation research and Artificial Intelligence. Even though the success of the argumentation theory, it seems that argumentation theory is so far from being efficiently implemented like the logic ...
Nonparametric estimation for hazard rate monotonously decreasing system
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Han Fengyan; Li Weisong
2005-01-01
Estimation of density and hazard rate is very important to the reliability analysis of a system. In order to estimate the density and hazard rate of a hazard rate monotonously decreasing system, a new nonparametric estimator is put forward. The estimator is based on the kernel function method and optimum algorithm. Numerical experiment shows that the method is accurate enough and can be used in many cases.
Kuenzel, Thomas; Nerlich, Jana; Wagner, Hermann; Rübsamen, Rudolf; Milenkovic, Ivan
2015-01-01
Spherical bushy cells (SBCs) of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus (AVCN) receive input from large excitatory auditory nerve (AN) terminals, the endbulbs of Held, and mixed glycinergic/GABAergic inhibitory inputs. The latter have sufficient potency to block action potential firing in vivo and in slice recordings. However, it is not clear how well the data from slice recordings match the inhibition in the intact brain and how it contributes to complex phenomena such as non-monotonic rate-level functions (RLF). Therefore, we determined the input-output relationship of a model SBC with simulated endbulb inputs and a dynamic inhibitory conductance constrained by recordings in brain slice preparations of hearing gerbils. Event arrival times from in vivo single-unit recordings in gerbils, where 70% of SBC showed non-monotonic RLF, were used as input for the model. Model output RLFs systematically changed from monotonic to non-monotonic shape with increasing strength of tonic inhibition. A limited range of inhibitory synaptic properties consistent with the slice data generated a good match between the model and recorded RLF. Moreover, tonic inhibition elevated the action potentials (AP) threshold and improved the temporal precision of output functions in a SBC model with phase-dependent input conductance. We conclude that activity-dependent, summating inhibition contributes to high temporal precision of SBC spiking by filtering out weak and poorly timed EPSP. Moreover, inhibitory parameters determined in slice recordings provide a good estimate of inhibitory mechanisms apparently active in vivo.
Using crowd sourcing to combat potentially illegal or dangerous UAV operations
Tapsall, Brooke T.
2016-10-01
The UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicles) industry is growing exponentially at a pace that policy makers, individual countries and law enforcement agencies are finding difficult to keep up. The UAV market is large, as such the amount of UAVs being operated in potentially dangerous situations is prevalent and rapidly increasing. Media is continually reporting `near-miss' incidents between UAVs and commercial aircraft, UAV breaching security in sensitive areas or invading public privacy. One major challenge for law enforcement agencies is gaining tangible evidence against potentially dangerous or illegal UAV operators due to the rapidity with which UAV operators are able to enter, fly and exit a scene before authorities can arrive or before they can be located. DroneALERT, an application available via the Airport-UAV.com website, allows users to capture potentially dangerous or illegal UAV activity using their mobile device as it the incident is occurring. A short online DroneALERT Incident Report (DIR) is produced, emailed to the user and the Airport-UAV.com custodians. The DIR can be used to aid authorities in their investigations. The DIR contains details such as images and videos, location, time, date of the incident, drone model, its distance and height. By analysing information from the DIR, photos or video, there is a high potential for law enforcement authorities to use this evidence to identify the type of UAV used, triangulate the location of the potential dangerous UAV and operator, create a timeline of events, potential areas of operator exit and to determine the legalities breached. All provides crucial evidence for identifying and prosecuting a UAV operator.
Non-monotonic reasoning in conceptual modeling and ontology design: A proposal
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Casini, G
2013-06-01
Full Text Available and modeling of defeasible information and non-monotonic reasoning services. Here we formalize a possible way of introducing non-monotonic reasoning into ORM2 schemas, enriching the language with special set of new constraints....
Pettersson, Per
2013-05-01
The stochastic Galerkin and collocation methods are used to solve an advection-diffusion equation with uncertain and spatially varying viscosity. We investigate well-posedness, monotonicity and stability for the extended system resulting from the Galerkin projection of the advection-diffusion equation onto the stochastic basis functions. High-order summation-by-parts operators and weak imposition of boundary conditions are used to prove stability of the semi-discrete system.It is essential that the eigenvalues of the resulting viscosity matrix of the stochastic Galerkin system are positive and we investigate conditions for this to hold. When the viscosity matrix is diagonalizable, stochastic Galerkin and stochastic collocation are similar in terms of computational cost, and for some cases the accuracy is higher for stochastic Galerkin provided that monotonicity requirements are met. We also investigate the total spatial operator of the semi-discretized system and its impact on the convergence to steady-state. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.
Mixed Monotonicity of Partial First-In-First-Out Traffic Flow Models
Coogan, Samuel; Arcak, Murat; Kurzhanskiy, Alexander A.
2015-01-01
In vehicle traffic networks, congestion on one outgoing link of a diverging junction often impedes flow to other outgoing links, a phenomenon known as the first-in-first-out (FIFO) property. Simplified traffic models that do not account for the FIFO property result in monotone dynamics for which powerful analysis techniques exist. FIFO models are in general not monotone, but have been shown to be mixed monotone - a generalization of monotonicity that enables similarly powerful analysis techni...
Remarks on the Schroedinger operator with singular complex potentials. Technical summary report
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brezis, H.; Kato, T.
1978-08-01
Schroedinger operators of the form A = delta + V(x), where delta is the Laplacian and V is a scalar potential, arise in quantum mechanics and other areas. Delicate questions concerning what domain should be assigned to A must be settled in order to have a good theory. These questions are answered here for a very general class of potentials V which may even have complex values.
The potential impacts of sodium management on Frit Development for Coupled Operations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Johnson, F. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Edwards, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peeler, D. K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)
2015-06-10
In this report, Section 2.0 provides a description of sodium management and its impact on the glass waste form, Section 3.0 provides background information on phase separation, Section 4.0 provides the impact of sodium management on SB9 frit development efforts and the results of a limited scoping study investigating phase separation in potential DWPF frits, and Section 5.0 discusses potential technical issues associated with using a phase separated frit for DWPF operations.
Two-weight weak-type inequalities for potential type operators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Wen-ming; QI Jin-yun; ZHANG Ya-jing
2008-01-01
For the potential type operatorTΦf(x):∫Rn(x-y)f(y)dy,where Φis a non-negative locally integrable function Oil Rn and satisfies weak growth condition，a two-weight weak-type(p,q)inequality for T Φis obtained.
Animal waste disposal and odor control have become a major issue for animal production facilities. As an attempt to improve efficiency and profit margins, many livestock operations have become large concentrated rearing facilities. As a result, many concerns over potentially adverse environmental ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
L.V. Potrashkova
2013-12-01
Full Text Available The aim of the article. The aim of this research is to develope the mathematic model structure of result-oriented evaluation of corporate marketing potential in the context of management potential levels (operational, tactical and strategic that takes into account multiple possible uses of marketing resources and various options for the development of corporate environment. The results of the analysis. The new scientific result of this research is represented by the developed structure of the system of analytical mathematic models for assessing marketing potential of the company in the context of its management levels – operational, tactical and strategic. According to the proposed system of models every level of marketing potential (operational, tactical and strategic is described through a set of possible enterprise production sales volumes for different states of the environment parameters and the parameters of a certain level of marketing resources management at corresponding period of time (short, medium and long term. The proposed system of models has the following clue characteristics: marketing potential assessment is based on the result-oriented approach. It characterizes enterprise capability for creating demand for its products in different conditions of corporate environment and for different variants of managerial decisions concerning different parameters of production promotion and distribution (e.g. for different pricing options; different variants of corporate investment and innovations program; marketing potential assessment is implemented in the context of management levels of the potential – operational, tactical and strategic – so, it reflects operational, tactical and strategic capabilities of the company concerning production promotion and distribution; the models for assessing different levels of potential (operational, tactical and strategic differ in such of ways: by specification of the resources` characteristics
Using Operators to Expand the Block Matrices Forming the Hessian of a Molecular Potential
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Carlsen, Martin
2014-01-01
We derive compact expressions of the second-order derivatives of bond length, bond angle, and proper and improper torsion angle potentials, in terms of operators represented in two orthonormal bases. Hereby, simple rules to generate the Hessian of an internal coordinate or a molecular potential can...... be formulated. The algorithms we provide can be implemented efficiently in high-level programming languages using vectorization. Finally, the method leads to compact expressions for a second-order expansion of an internal coordinate or a molecular potential. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc....
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Medet Nursultanov
2017-01-01
Full Text Available We find asymptotic formulas for the eigenvalues of the Sturm-Liouville operator on the finite interval, with potential having a strong negative singularity at one endpoint. This is the case of limit circle in H. Weyl sense. We establish that, unlike the case of an infinite interval, the asymptotics for positive eigenvalues does not depend on the potential and it is the same as in the regular case. The asymptotics of the negative eigenvalues may depend on the potential quite strongly, however there are always asymptotically fewer negative eigenvalues than positive ones. By unknown reasons this type of problems had not been studied previously.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Żak Krzysztof
2017-06-01
Full Text Available This paper presents a comprehensive methodology for measuring and characterizing the surface topographies on machined steel parts produced by precision machining operations. The performed case studies concern a wide spectrum of topographic features of surfaces with different geometrical structures but the same values of the arithmetic mean height Sa. The tested machining operations included hard turning operations performed with CBN tools, grinding operations with Al2O3 ceramic and CBN wheels and superfinish using ceramic stones. As a result, several characteristic surface textures with the Sa roughness parameter value of about 0.2 μm were thoroughly characterized and compared regarding their potential functional capabilities. Apart from the standard 2D and 3D roughness parameters, the fractal, motif and frequency parameters were taken in the consideration.
Naloxone potentiates the disruptive effects of mescaline on operant responding in the rat.
Commissaris, R L; Moore, K E; Rech, R H
1980-10-01
Food-deprived male rats were trained to press a lever on a fixed ratio-40 (FR-40) operant schedule for food reinforcement. Administration of mescaline (4.0--10.0 mg/kg) immediately before the start of the operant session resulted in a cessation of responding for some portion of the 40-min period ("hallucinatory pause"). The duration of this pause was found to be dose-dependent. Although administration of naloxone alone (1.0-8.0 mg/kg, five minutes prior to the start of the session) had no effect on FR-40 responding per se, pretreatment with this agent significantly potentiated the disruptive effects of mescaline. This potentiation by naloxone was further shown to be dose-dependent. These data suggest that the effects of the phenethylamine hallucinogen mescaline are potentiated by pretreatment with the narcotic antagonist naloxone.
Monotonicity Formula and Regularity for General Free Discontinuity Problems
Bucur, Dorin; Luckhaus, Stephan
2014-02-01
We give a general monotonicity formula for local minimizers of free discontinuity problems which have a critical deviation from minimality, of order d - 1. This result allows us to prove partial regularity results (that is closure and density estimates for the jump set) for a large class of free discontinuity problems involving general energies associated to the jump set, as for example free boundary problems with Robin conditions. In particular, we give a short proof to the De Giorgi-Carriero-Leaci result for the Mumford-Shah functional.
The Non-Monotonic Effect of Financing Constraints on Investment
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Hirth, Stefan; Viswanatha, Marc
We analyze investment timing in a discrete-time framework with two possible investment dates, which is an extension of the model by Lyandres (2007). While Lyandres could only show non-monotonicity of investment in market frictions, we derive an investment threshold that is U-shaped in the firm's ......'s liquid funds, a result similar to the infinite-horizon model by Boyle and Guthrie (2003). However, due to the tractability of our model, we can more clearly explain the relevant trade-offs leading to the U-shape....
Contribution to the ergodic theory of piecewise monotone continuous maps
Faller, Bastien
2008-01-01
This thesis is devoted to the ergodic theory of the piecewise monotone continuous maps of the interval. The coding is a classical approach for these maps. Thanks to the coding, we get a symbolic dynamical system which is almost isomorphic to the initial dynamical system. The principle of the coding is very similar to the one of expansion of real numbers. We first define the coding in a perspective similar to the one of the expansions of real numbers; this perspective was already adopted by Ré...
Stability of generalized monotonicity with respect to their characterizations
An, P T
2002-01-01
We show that known types of generalized monotone maps are not stable with respect to their characterizations (i.e., the characterizations are not maintained during an arbitrary map of this type is disturbed by an element with sufficiently small norm) then introduce s-quasimonotone maps, which are stable with respect to their characterization. For gradient maps, s-quasimonotonicity is related to s-quasiconvexity of the underlying function. A necessary and sufficient condition for a univariate polynomial to be s-quasimonotone is given. Furthermore, some stability properties of a-quasiconvex functions are presented.
Two-loop scale-invariant scalar potential and quantum effective operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghilencea, D.M. [National Institute of Physics and Nuclear Engineering (IFIN-HH), Theoretical Physics Department, Bucharest (Romania); CERN, Theory Division, Geneva 23 (Switzerland); Lalak, Z.; Olszewski, P. [University of Warsaw, Faculty of Physics, Institute of Theoretical Physics, Warsaw (Poland)
2016-12-15
Spontaneous breaking of quantum scale invariance may provide a solution to the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems. In a scale-invariant regularization, we compute the two-loop potential of a Higgs-like scalar φ in theories in which scale symmetry is broken only spontaneously by the dilaton (σ). Its VEV left angle σ right angle generates the DR subtraction scale (μ ∝ left angle σ right angle), which avoids the explicit scale symmetry breaking by traditional regularizations (where μ = fixed scale). The two-loop potential contains effective operators of non-polynomial nature as well as new corrections, beyond those obtained with explicit breaking (μ = fixed scale). These operators have the form φ{sup 6}/σ{sup 2}, φ{sup 8}/σ{sup 4}, etc., which generate an infinite series of higher dimensional polynomial operators upon expansion about left angle σ right angle >> left angle φ right angle, where such hierarchy is arranged by one initial, classical tuning. These operators emerge at the quantum level from evanescent interactions (∝ ε) between σ and φ that vanish in d = 4 but are required by classical scale invariance in d = 4 - 2ε. The Callan-Symanzik equation of the two-loop potential is respected and the two-loop beta functions of the couplings differ from those of the same theory regularized with μ = fixed scale. Therefore the running of the couplings enables one to distinguish between spontaneous and explicit scale symmetry breaking. (orig.)
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Korte, N.E.; Muhr, C.A.; Greene, D.W.
1992-04-01
Certain manufacturing facilities formerly used large quantities of polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) fluids in heat transfer operations. At many of these locations, operations have also involved PCB-containing electrical equipment. Commonly, over many years of plant operations, spills and leaks have resulted in PCB soil contamination. Dioxins and furans have been associated with PCB contamination in both the technical and popular press. Consequently, the need for analyses for dioxins and furans must be evaluated at locations where soils are contaminated with PCBs. This report presents an evaluation of potential dioxin and furan soil contamination based on heat transfer operations and spills from electrical equipment. The following five scenarios were examined for dioxin and furan contamination: (1) impurities in heat transfer fluids, (2) formation during heat transfer operations, (3) pyrolysis of heat transfer fluids, (4) impurities in dielectric fluids, and (5) pyrolysis of dielectric fluids. The potential contamination with dioxins and furans was calculated and compared with a 20 ppb guideline that has been used by the Centers for Disease Control for dioxin in subsoil. The results demonstrated that dioxins are formed only under pyrolytic conditions and only from the trichlorobenzenes present in dielectric fluids. Furans are found as impurities in PCB fluids but, as with dioxins, are not formed in significant quantities except during pyrolysis. Fortunately, pyrolytic conditions involving PCB fluids and soil contamination are unlikely; therefore, analyses for dioxin and furan contamination in soils will rarely be needed.
Structured methods for identifying and correcting potential human errors in space operations.
Nelson, W R; Haney, L N; Ostrom, L T; Richards, R E
1998-01-01
Human performance plays a significant role in the development and operation of any complex system, and human errors are significant contributors to degraded performance, incidents, and accidents for technologies as diverse as medical systems, commercial aircraft, offshore oil platforms, nuclear power plants, and space systems. To date, serious accidents attributed to human error have fortunately been rare in space operations. However, as flight rates go up and the duration of space missions increases, the accident rate could increase unless proactive action is taken to identity and correct potential human errors in space operations. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) has developed and applied structured methods of human error analysis to identify potential human errors, assess their effects on system performance, and develop strategies to prevent the errors or mitigate their consequences. These methods are being applied in NASA-sponsored programs to the domain of commercial aviation, focusing on airplane maintenance and air traffic management. The application of human error analysis to space operations could contribute to minimize the risks associated with human error in the design and operation of future space systems.
A Neurodynamic Model to Solve Nonlinear Pseudo-Monotone Projection Equation and Its Applications.
Eshaghnezhad, Mohammad; Effati, Sohrab; Mansoori, Amin
2016-09-29
In this paper, a neurodynamic model is given to solve nonlinear pseudo-monotone projection equation. Under pseudo-monotonicity condition and Lipschitz continuous condition, the projection neurodynamic model is proved to be stable in the sense of Lyapunov, globally convergent, globally asymptotically stable, and globally exponentially stable. Also, we show that, our new neurodynamic model is effective to solve the nonconvex optimization problems. Moreover, since monotonicity is a special case of pseudo-monotonicity and also since a co-coercive mapping is Lipschitz continuous and monotone, and a strongly pseudo-monotone mapping is pseudo-monotone, the neurodynamic model can be applied to solve a broader classes of constrained optimization problems related to variational inequalities, pseudo-convex optimization problem, linear and nonlinear complementarity problems, and linear and convex quadratic programming problems. Finally, several illustrative examples are stated to demonstrate the effectiveness and efficiency of our new neurodynamic model.
Meridian electrical potential response to acupuncture stimulation between operator and subject.
Lee, Yongheum; Kim, Soobyung; Son, Taeyoon; Kang, Dongyeon; Jung, Byungjo
2010-12-01
The human body has a symmetric structure and maintains a physiological balance through the harmony of yin and yang. One of the fundamental principles of acupuncture is that unbalanced or abnormal bioenergetic conditions on the left and right meridians may be restored to a balanced, normal condition by acupuncture therapy. In this study, the electrical potential along the stomach meridian was measured to investigate the bioenergy consensus between the operator and subject during acupuncture stimulation, and the acupuncture response on opposite meridians was investigated by comparing the electric potential on the left and right stomach meridian during stimulation of the left side stomach meridian-36. When meridian electrical potential was simultaneously measured in both the operator and subject, opposite polarities were observed, which might indicate the transfer of bioenergy between operator and subject. In addition, the meridian electrical potentials of the subjects' left and right stomach meridians were also always of opposite polarity and presented three different signal patterns, which might have represented the condition of the associated meridian.
Testing monotonicity of a hazard: asymptotic distribution theory
Groeneboom, Piet
2011-01-01
Two new test statistics are introduced to test the null hypotheses that the sampling distribution has an increasing hazard rate on a specified interval [0,a]. These statistics are empirical L_1-type distances between the isotonic estimates, which use the monotonicity constraint, and either the empirical distribution function or the empirical cumulative hazard. They measure the excursions of the empirical estimates with respect to the isotonic estimates, due to local non-monotonicity. Asymptotic normality of the test statistics, if the hazard is strictly increasing on [0,a], is established under mild conditions. This is done by first approximating the global empirical distance by an distance with respect to the underlying distribution function. The resulting integral is treated as sum of increasingly many local integrals to which a CLT can be applied. The behavior of the local integrals is determined by a canonical process: the difference between the stochastic process x -> W(x)+x^2 where W is standard two-sid...
DATA PREORDERING IN GENERALIZED PAV ALGORITHM FOR MONOTONIC REGRESSION
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Oleg Burdakov; Anders Grimvall; Oleg Sysoev
2006-01-01
Monotonic regression (MR) is a least distance problem with monotonicity constraints induced by a partially ordered data set of observations. In our recent publication [In Ser.Nonconvex Optimization and Its Applications, Springer-Verlag, (2006) 83, pp. 25-33],the Pool-Adjacent-Violators algorithm (PAV) was generalized from completely to partially ordered data sets (posets). The new algorithm, called GPAV, is characterized by the very low computational complexity, which is of second order in the number of observations.It treats the observations in a consecutive order, and it can follow any arbitrarily chosen topological order of the poset of observations. The GPAV algorithm produces a sufficiently accurate solution to the MR problem, but the accuracy depends on the chosen topological order. Here we prove that there exists a topological order for which the resulted GPAV solution is optimal. Furthermore, we present results of extensive numerical experiments,from which we draw conclusions about the most and the least preferable topological orders.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Sestini, Stelvio; Castagnoli, Antonio [Ospedale Misericordia e Dolce, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Prato (Italy); Pupi, Alberto; Sciagra, Roberto [University of Florence, Department of Clinical Physiopathology, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Florence (Italy); Ammannati, Franco; Ramat, Silvia; Sorbi, Sandro [University of Florence, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Sciences, Florence (Italy); Mansi, Luigi [University II Naples, Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Nuclear Medicine Unit, Naples (Italy)
2010-01-15
The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive potential of pre-operative regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in the pre-supplementary motor area (pre-SMA) and clinical factors in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients treated with subthalamic nucleus (STN) stimulation. Ten patients underwent rCBF SPECT and motor Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (UPDRS) pre- and post-operatively during stimulation at 5 and 42 months. Statistical parametric mapping (SPM) was used to extract rCBF values in the pre-SMA because it is related with motor improvement. Post-operative outcomes included motor response to stimulation and percent improvement in UPDRS. Pre-operative predictors were explored by correlation test, linear regression and multivariate analyses. Higher pre-operative rCBF in the pre-SMA and younger age were associated with favourable outcomes at 5 and 42 months. Pre-operative rCBF results were significantly associated with baseline clinical factors. This study shows that PD patients with younger age have higher rCBF values in the pre-SMA and better outcome, thus giving the rationale to the hypothesis that STN stimulation could be considered early in the course of disease. (orig.)
Midya, Bikashkali; Roychoudhury, Rajkumar
2010-01-01
Here we have studied first and second-order intertwining approach to generate isospectral partner potentials of position-dependent (effective) mass Schroedinger equation. The second-order intertwiner is constructed directly by taking it as second order linear differential operator with position depndent coefficients and the system of equations arising from the intertwining relationship is solved for the coefficients by taking an ansatz. A complete scheme for obtaining general solution is obtained which is valid for any arbitrary potential and mass function. The proposed technique allows us to generate isospectral potentials with the following spectral modifications: (i) to add new bound state(s), (ii) to remove bound state(s) and (iii) to leave the spectrum unaffected. To explain our findings with the help of an illustration, we have used point canonical transformation (PCT) to obtain the general solution of the position dependent mass Schrodinger equation corresponding to a potential and mass function. It is...
An iterative method to compute the overlap Dirac operator at nonzero chemical potential
Bloch, J; Lang, B; Wettig, T
2007-01-01
The overlap Dirac operator at nonzero quark chemical potential involves the computation of the sign function of a non-Hermitian matrix. In this talk we present an iterative method, first proposed by us in Ref. [1], which allows for an efficient computation of the operator, even on large lattices. The starting point is a Krylov subspace approximation, based on the Arnoldi algorithm, for the evaluation of a generic matrix function. The efficiency of this method is spoiled when the matrix has eigenvalues close to a function discontinuity. To cure this, a small number of critical eigenvectors are added to the Krylov subspace, and two different deflation schemes are proposed in this augmented subspace. The ensuing method is then applied to the sign function of the overlap Dirac operator, for two different lattice sizes. The sign function has a discontinuity along the imaginary axis, and the numerical results show how deflation dramatically improves the efficiency of the method.
Aponso, Bimal; Coppenbarger, Richard A.; Jung, Yoon; Quon, Leighton; Lohr, Gary; O’Connor, Neil; Engelland, Shawn
2015-01-01
NASA's Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate (ARMD) collaborates with the FAA and industry to provide concepts and technologies that enhance the transition to the next-generation air-traffic management system (NextGen). To facilitate this collaboration, ARMD has a series of Airspace Technology Demonstration (ATD) sub-projects that develop, demonstrate, and transitions NASA technologies and concepts for implementation in the National Airspace System (NAS). The second of these sub-projects, ATD-2, is focused on the potential benefits to NAS stakeholders of integrated arrival, departure, surface (IADS) operations. To determine the project objectives and assess the benefits of a potential solution, NASA surveyed NAS stakeholders to understand the existing issues in arrival, departure, and surface operations, and the perceived benefits of better integrating these operations. NASA surveyed a broad cross-section of stakeholders representing the airlines, airports, air-navigation service providers, and industry providers of NAS tools. The survey indicated that improving the predictability of flight times (schedules) could improve efficiency in arrival, departure, and surface operations. Stakeholders also mentioned the need for better strategic and tactical information on traffic constraints as well as better information sharing and a coupled collaborative planning process that allows stakeholders to coordinate IADS operations. To assess the impact of a potential solution, NASA sketched an initial departure scheduling concept and assessed its viability by surveying a select group of stakeholders for a second time. The objective of the departure scheduler was to enable flights to move continuously from gate to cruise with minimal interruption in a busy metroplex airspace environment using strategic and tactical scheduling enhanced by collaborative planning between airlines and service providers. The stakeholders agreed that this departure concept could improve schedule
The Advantages, Potentials and Safety of VTOL Suborbital Space Tourism Operations
Ridzuan Zakaria, N.; Nasrun, N.; Abu, J.; Jusoh, A.; Azim, L.; Said, A.; Ishak, S.; Rafidi Zakaria, N.
2012-01-01
more risky for a suborbital vehicle to fly above such objects after taking off from a spaceport far away from the object, and later returning to the spaceport, the way to go is to have the operation of the suborbital vehicle near the exotic locations. Unfortunately, some exotic locations such as a tropical archipelago in the middle of a clear blue ocean or a permanent icecap on a mountain range with variety of vegetation around it due to differences in height may not have suitable runway to function as spaceport, and for such reason, VTOL (vertical take-off and landing) capability for suborbital tourism vehicle may be worth considered. VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle may not operate from a remote uneconomical location even though the location is near an exotic viewing target, but such vehicle may operate from a luxury super yacht that can sail to exotic locations around the world, and during the journey, the passengers can be trained and prepared for the flight of their life. Such is an advantage and potential of VTOL suborbital space tourism vehicle, but VTOL operation can be more complex than a conventional operation and therefore will increase the risk of operation, and for this reason the safety issue for such operation is very significant. This paper explores and discusses some advantages and potentials of VTOL suborbital space tourism operations and safety issues related to them. It also describes a couple of proposed concepts of VTOL suborbital tourism vehicles and potential exotic locations on Earth to be viewed from such vehicles.
Two-loop scale-invariant scalar potential and quantum effective operators
Ghilencea, D.M.
2016-01-01
Spontaneous breaking of quantum scale invariance may provide a solution to the hierarchy and cosmological constant problems. In a scale-invariant regularization, we compute the two-loop potential of a higgs-like scalar $\\phi$ in theories in which scale symmetry is broken only spontaneously by the dilaton ($\\sigma$). Its vev $\\langle\\sigma\\rangle$ generates the DR subtraction scale ($\\mu\\sim\\langle\\sigma\\rangle$), which avoids the explicit scale symmetry breaking by traditional regularizations (where $\\mu$=fixed scale). The two-loop potential contains effective operators of non-polynomial nature as well as new corrections, beyond those obtained with explicit breaking ($\\mu$=fixed scale). These operators have the form: $\\phi^6/\\sigma^2$, $\\phi^8/\\sigma^4$, etc, which generate an infinite series of higher dimensional polynomial operators upon expansion about $\\langle\\sigma\\rangle\\gg \\langle\\phi\\rangle$, where such hierarchy is arranged by {\\it one} initial, classical tuning. These operators emerge at the quantum...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LI Hong-gang; PAN Xian-bing
2008-01-01
We introduced a new class of fuzzy set-valued variational inclusions with (H,η)-monotone mappings. Using the resolvent operator method in Hilbert spaces, we suggested a new proximal point algorithm for finding approximate solutions, which strongly converge to the exact solution of a fuzzy set-valued variational inclusion with (H,η)-monotone. The results improved and generalized the general quasi-variational inclusions with fuzzy set-valued mappings proposed by Jin and Tian [Jin MM, Perturbed proximal point algorithm for general quasi-variational inclusions with fuzzy set-valued mappings, OR Transactions, 2005, 9(3): 31-38, (In Chinese); Tian YX, Generalized nonlinear implicit quasi-variational inclusions with fuzzy mappings, Computers & Mathematics with Applications, 2001, 42: 101-108].
Blom, E M; Verdaasdonk, E G G; Stassen, L P S; Stassen, H G; Wieringa, P A; Dankelman, J
2007-09-01
Verbal communication in the operating room during surgical procedures affects team performance, reflects individual skills, and is related to the complexity of the operation process. During the procedural training of surgeons (residents), feedback and guidance is given through verbal communication. A classification method based on structural analysis of the contents was developed to analyze verbal communication. This study aimed to evaluate whether a classification method for the contents of verbal communication in the operating room could provide insight into the teaching processes. Eight laparoscopic cholecystectomies were videotaped. Two entire cholecystectomies and the dissection phase of six additional procedures were analyzed by categorization of the communication in terms of type (4 categories: commanding, explaining, questioning, and miscellaneous) and content (9 categories: operation method, location, direction, instrument handling, visualization, anatomy and pathology, general, private, undefinable). The operation was divided into six phases: start, dissection, clipping, separating, control, closing. Classification of the communication during two entire procedures showed that each phase of the operation was dominated by different kinds of communication. A high percentage of explaining anatomy and pathology was found throughout the whole procedure except for the control and closing phases. In the dissection phases, 60% of verbal communication concerned explaining. These explaining communication events were divided as follows: 27% operation method, 19% anatomy and pathology, 25% location (positioning of the instrument-tissue interaction), 15% direction (direction of tissue manipulation), 11% instrument handling, and 3% other nonclassified instructions. The proposed classification method is feasible for analyzing verbal communication during surgical procedures. Communication content objectively reflects the interaction between surgeon and resident. This
The regularized monotonicity method: detecting irregular indefinite inclusions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garde, Henrik; Staboulis, Stratos
2017-01-01
In inclusion detection in electrical impedance tomography, the support of perturbations (inclusion) from a known background conductivity is typically reconstructed from idealized continuum data modelled by a Neumann-to-Dirichlet map. Only few reconstruction methods apply when detecting indefinite...... of approximative measurement models, including the Complete Electrode Model, hence making the method robust against modelling error and noise. In particular, we demonstrate that for a convergent family of approximative models there exists a sequence of regularization parameters such that the outer shape...... of the inclusions is asymptotically exactly characterized. Finally, a peeling-type reconstruction algorithm is presented and, for the first time in literature, numerical examples of monotonicity reconstructions for indefinite inclusions are presented....
Monotonic childhoods: representations of otherness in research writing
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Denise Marcos Bussoletti
2011-12-01
Full Text Available This paper is part of a doctoral thesis entitled “Monotonic childhoods – a rhapsody of hope”. It follows the perspective of a critical psychosocial and cultural study, and aims at discussing the other’s representation in research writing, electing childhood as an allegorical and refl ective place. It takes into consideration, by means of analysis, the drawings and poems of children from the Terezin ghetto during the Second World War. The work is mostly based on Serge Moscovici’s Social Representation Theory, but it is also in constant dialogue with other theories and knowledge fi elds, especially Walter Benjamin’s and Mikhail Bakhtin’s contributions. At the end, the paper supports the thesis that conceives poetics as one of the translation axes of childhood cultures.
PPA BASED PREDICTION-CORRECTION METHODS FOR MONOTONE VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
He Bingsheng; Jiang Jianlin; Qian Maijian; Xu Ya
2005-01-01
In this paper we study the proximal point algorithm (PPA) based predictioncorrection (PC) methods for monotone variational inequalities. Each iteration of these methods consists of a prediction and a correction. The predictors are produced by inexact PPA steps. The new iterates are then updated by a correction using the PPA formula. We present two profit functions which serve two purposes: First we show that the profit functions are tight lower bounds of the improvements obtained in each iteration. Based on this conclusion we obtain the convergence inexactness restrictions for the prediction step. Second we show that the profit functions are quadratically dependent upon the step lengths, thus the optimal step lengths are obtained in the correction step. In the last part of the paper we compare the strengths of different methods based on their inexactness restrictions.
Strong convergence theorems for maximal monotone mappings in Banach spaces
Zegeye, Habtu
2008-07-01
Let E be a uniformly convex and 2-uniformly smooth real Banach space with dual E*. Let be a Lipschitz continuous monotone mapping with A-1(0)[not equal to][empty set]. For given u,x1[set membership, variant]E, let {xn} be generated by the algorithm xn+1:=[beta]nu+(1-[beta]n)(xn-[alpha]nAJxn), n[greater-or-equal, slanted]1, where J is the normalized duality mapping from E into E* and {[lambda]n} and {[theta]n} are real sequences in (0,1) satisfying certain conditions. Then it is proved that, under some mild conditions, {xn} converges strongly to x*[set membership, variant]E where Jx*[set membership, variant]A-1(0). Finally, we apply our convergence theorems to the convex minimization problems.
Convergence of the natural approximations of piecewise monotone interval maps.
Haydn, Nicolai
2004-06-01
We consider piecewise monotone interval mappings which are topologically mixing and satisfy the Markov property. It has previously been shown that the invariant densities of the natural approximations converge exponentially fast in uniform pointwise topology to the invariant density of the given map provided its derivative is piecewise Lipshitz continuous. We provide an example of a map which is Lipshitz continuous and for which the densities converge in the bounded variation norm at a logarithmic rate. This shows that in general one cannot expect exponential convergence in the bounded variation norm. Here we prove that if the derivative of the interval map is Holder continuous and its variation is well approximable (gamma-uniform variation for gamma>0), then the densities converge exponentially fast in the norm.
A COMPARISON OF DIFFERENT CONTRACTION METHODS FOR MONOTONE VARIATIONAL INEQUALITIES
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Bingsheng He; Xiang Wang; Junfeng Yang
2009-01-01
It is interesting to compare the efficiency of two methods when their computational loads in each iteration are equal. In this paper, two classes of contraction methods for monotone variational inequalities are studied in a unified framework. The methods of both classes can be viewed as prediction-correction methods, which generate the same test vector in the prediction step and adopt the same step-size rule in the correction step. The only difference is that they use different search directions. The computational loads of each iteration of the different classes are equal. Our analysis explains theoretically why one class of the contraction methods usually outperforms the other class. It is demonstrated that many known methods belong to these two classes of methods. Finally, the presented numerical results demonstrate the validity of our analysis.
MINLIP for the Identification of Monotone Wiener Systems
Pelckmans, Kristiaan
2010-01-01
This paper studies the MINLIP estimator for the identification of Wiener systems consisting of a sequence of a linear FIR dynamical model, and a monotonically increasing (or decreasing) static function. Given $T$ observations, this algorithm boils down to solving a convex quadratic program with $O(T)$ variables and inequality constraints, implementing an inference technique which is based entirely on model complexity control. The resulting estimates of the linear submodel are found to be almost consistent when no noise is present in the data, under a condition of smoothness of the true nonlinearity and local Persistency of Excitation (local PE) of the data. This result is novel as it does not rely on classical tools as a 'linearization' using a Taylor decomposition, nor exploits stochastic properties of the data. It is indicated how to extend the method to cope with noisy data, and empirical evidence contrasts performance of the estimator against other recently proposed techniques.
Evaluation of the potential for operating carbon neutral WWTPs in China.
Hao, Xiaodi; Liu, Ranbin; Huang, Xin
2015-12-15
Carbon neutrality is starting to become a hot topic for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) all over the world, and carbon neutral operations have emerged in some WWTPs. Although China is still struggling to control its water pollution, carbon neutrality will definitely become a top priority for WWTPs in the near future. In this review, the potential for operating carbon neutral WWTPs in China is technically evaluated. Based on the A(2)/O process of a typical municipal WWTP, an evaluation model is first configured, which couples the COD/nutrient removals (mass balance) with the energy consumption/recovery (energy balance). This model is then applied to evaluate the potential of the organic (COD) energy with regards to carbon neutrality. The model's calculations reveal that anaerobic digestion of excess sludge can only provide some 50% of the total amount of energy consumption. Water source heat pumps (WSHP) can effectively convert the thermal energy contained in wastewater to heat WWTPs and neighbourhood buildings, which can supply a net electrical equivalency of 0.26 kWh when 1 m(3) of the effluent is cooled down by 1 °C. Photovoltaic (PV) technology can generate a limited amount of electricity, barely 10% of the total energy consumption. Moreover, the complexity of installing solar panels on top of tanks makes PV technology almost not worth the effort. Overall, therefore, organic and thermal energy sources can effectively supply enough electrical equivalency for China to approach to its target with regards to carbon neutral operations.
Nasim, V S; Al-Hakami, Ahmed; Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Al-Manea, Sulthan Ahmed; Al-Shehri, Mohammed Dahman; Al-Malki, Saleh Mohammed
2015-04-01
This study evaluates cellular phones for potential risk of nosocomial infection amongst dental operators and auxiliary staff in a dental school. Each participant's mobile phone was first cleaned with 70% isopropyl alcohol swab. Following the cleansing protocol, the partakers were asked to make a short phone call. The mobile phones were then washed aseptically by rotating damp cotton swabs with sterile normal saline. Bacterial growth was identified on sheep blood agar and McConkey's agar plates. Sabouraud dextrose agar media was used for fungi species. Descriptive statistics was established with the data statistically explored with SPSS version 17.0. About 50% of dental professionals had shown active bacterial and fungal growth in which 35% (n=35) were dental operators and 15% (n=15) were dental nurses. 53% Gram-positive organisms, 2% Gram-negative organisms, and 3% fungi were identified growths on cellular phones. Thus, it can be concluded that the cellular phones of dental operators as compared to auxiliaries can act as a potential source of nosocomial infection.
Nam, Joo-Youn
2011-08-01
Hydrogen production in a microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) can be achieved by either setting the anode potential with a potentiostat, or by adding voltage to the circuit with a power source. In batch tests the largest total gas production (46 ± 3 mL), lowest energy input (2.3 ± 0.3 kWh/m 3 of H2 generated), and best overall energy recovery (E+S = 58 ± 6%) was achieved at a set anode potential of EAn = -0.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl), compared to set potentials of -0.4 V, 0 V and 0.2 V, or an added voltage of Eap = 0.6 V. Gas production was 1.4 times higher with EAn = -0.2 V than with Eap = 0.6 V. Methane production was also reduced at set anode potentials of -0.2 V and higher than the other operating conditions. Continuous flow operation of the MECs at the optimum condition of EAn = -0.2 V initially maintained stable hydrogen gas production, with 68% H2 and 21% CH4, but after 39 days the gas composition shifted to 55% H2 and 34% CH 4. Methane production was not primarily anode-associated, as methane was reduced to low levels by placing the anode into a new MEC housing. These results suggest that MEC performance can be optimized in terms of hydrogen production rates and gas composition by setting an anode potential of -0.2 V, but that methanogen proliferation must be better controlled on non-anodic surfaces. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Strong Stationary Duality for M\\"obius Monotone Markov Chains: Unreliable Networks
Lorek, Pawel
2011-01-01
For Markov chains with a partially ordered finite state space we show strong stationary duality under the condition of M\\"obius monotonicity of the chain. We show relations of M\\"obius monotonicity to other definitions of monotone chains. We give examples of dual chains in this context which have transitions only upwards. We illustrate general theory by an analysis of nonsymmetric random walks on the cube with an application to networks of queues.
Schrödinger operators with Rudin-Shapiro potentials are not palindromic
Allouche, J.-P.
1997-04-01
We prove a conjecture of A. Hof, O. Knill and B. Simon [Commun. Math. Phys. 174, 149-159 (1995)] by showing that the Rudin-Shapiro sequence is not palindromic, i.e., does not contain arbitrarily long palindromes. We prove actually this property for all paperfolding sequences and all Rudin-Shapiro sequences deduced from paperfolding sequences. As a consequence and as guessed by the above authors, their method cannot be used for establishing that discrete Schrödinger operators with Rudin-Shapiro potentials have a purely singular continuous spectrum.
Sharma, A.; Mathijssen, S. G. J.; Bobbert, P. A.; de Leeuw, D. M.
2011-09-01
During prolonged application of a gate bias, organic field-effect transistors show a gradual shift of the threshold voltage towards the applied gate bias voltage. The shift follows a stretched-exponential time dependence governed by a relaxation time. Here, we show that a thermodynamic analysis reproduces the observed exponential dependence of the relaxation time on the oxidation potential of the semiconductor. The good fit with the experimental data validates the underlying assumptions. It demonstrates that this operational instability is a straightforward thermodynamically driven process that can only be eliminated by eliminating water from the transistor.
Weighted Norm Inequalities for Potential Type Operators%位势型算子的加权不等式
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李文明; 齐金云; 闫雪芳
2009-01-01
Let Ф be a non-negative locally integrable function on Rn and satisfy some weak growth conditions,define the potential type operator TФ by TФf(x)=frnФ(x-y)f(y)dy.The aim of this paper is to give several strong type and weak type weighted norm inequalities for the potential type operator TФ.
Non-monotonic dynamics and crosstalk in signaling pathways and their implications for pharmacology
van Wijk, Roeland; Tans, Sander J.; Wolde, Pieter Rein Ten; Mashaghi, Alireza
2015-06-01
Currently, drug discovery approaches commonly assume a monotonic dose-response relationship. However, the assumption of monotonicity is increasingly being challenged. Here we show that for two simple interacting linear signaling pathways that carry two different signals with different physiological responses, a non-monotonic input-output relation can arise with simple network topologies including coherent and incoherent feed-forward loops. We show that non-monotonicity of the response functions has severe implications for pharmacological treatment. Fundamental constraints are imposed on the effectiveness and toxicity of any drug independent of its chemical nature and selectivity due to the specific network structure.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Igor Boglaev; Matthew Hardy
2008-01-01
This paper presents and analyzes a monotone domain decomposition algorithm for solving nonlinear singularly perturbed reaction-diffusion problems of parabolic type.To solve the nonlinear weighted average finite difference scheme for the partial differential equation,we construct a monotone domain decomposition algorithm based on a Schwarz alternating method and a box-domain decomposition.This algorithm needs only to solve linear discrete systems at each iterative step and converges monotonically to the exact solution of the nonlinear discrete problem. The rate of convergence of the monotone domain decomposition algorithm is estimated.Numerical experiments are presented.
Analysis of potential impacts of Flaming Gorge Dam hydropower operations on archaeological sites
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Moeller, K.L.; Malinowski, L.M.; Hoffecker, J.F.
1955-12-01
An archaeological field study was conducted along the Green River in the areas of Little Hole and Browns Park in Utah and Colorado. The purpose of the study was to measure the potential for hydropower operations at Flaming Gorge Dam to directly or indirectly affect archaeological sites in the study area. Thirty-four known sites were relocated, and six new sites were recorded. Information was collected at each site regarding location, description, geomorphic setting, sedimentary context, vegetation, slope, distance from river, elevation above river level, and site condition. Matching the hydrologic projections of river level and sediment load with the geomorphic and sedimentary context at specific site locations indicated that eight sites were in areas with a high potential for erosion.
Variation of fermentation redox potential during cell-recycling continuous ethanol operation.
Thani, Arthit; Lin, Yen-Han; Laopaiboon, Pattana; Laopaiboon, Lakkana
2016-12-10
Fermentation redox potential was monitored during cell-recycling continuous ethanol operation. The cell-recycling system (CRS) was operated using two hollow fibre (HF) membranes (pore sizes 0.20 and 0.65μm) at three dilution rates (0.02, 0.04 and 0.08h(-1)). Saccharomyces cerevisiae NP 01 were recycled in the fermenter at a recycle ratio of 0.625. Aeration was provided at 2.5vvm for the first 4h and then further supplied continuously at 0.25vvm. As steady state was established, results showed that the fermentation redox potential was lower for processes employing CRS than those without. At the same dilution rates, the sugar utilization and ethanol production with CRS were higher than those without CRS. The highest fermentation efficiency (87.94g/l of ethanol, ∼90% of theoretical yield) was achieved using a 0.2-μm HF membrane CRS at a dilution rate of 0.02h(-1). It was found that 7.53-10.07% of the carbon derived from glucose was incorporated into the yeast. Further, at the same dilution rates, yeast in the processes with CRS incorporated less carbon into ethanol than in those grown without CRS. This result suggests that processes involving CRS utilize more carbon for metabolite synthesis than biomass formation. This indicated that the processes with CRS could utilize more carbon for metabolite synthesis than biomass formation.
Completely Monotone Multisequences, Symmetric Probabilities and a Normal Limit Theorem
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
J C Gupta
2000-11-01
Let G, be the set of all partial completely monotone multisequences of order and degree , i.e., multisequences (1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,k), 1, 2,$\\ldots$ , = 0, 1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,1 + 2 + \\$cdots$ + ≤ n, (0,0,$\\ldots$ ,0) = 1 and $(-1)^{_0}^{_0}$ (1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,)≥ 0 whenever 0 ≤ -(1 + 2 +$\\cdots$ +) where (1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,)=(1+1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,)+ (1,2+1,$\\ldots$ ,)+$\\cdots$ + (1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,+1)-(1,2,$\\ldots$ ,)$. Further, let $\\prod_{n,k}$ be the set of all symmetric probabilities on ${0, 1, 2,\\ldots ,k}^{n}$. We establish a one-to-one correspondence between the sets G, and $\\prod_{n, k}$ and use it to formulate and answer interesting questions about both. Assigning to G, the uniform probability measure, we show that, as → ∞ , any fixed section {(1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,), 1 ≤ $\\sum ≤ }, properly centered and normalized, is asymptotically multivariate normal. That is, $\\left\\{\\sqrt{\\left(\\binom{n+k}{k}\\right)}((1, 2,\\ldots ,)-c_0(1, 2,\\ldots ,), 1≤ _1+2+\\cdots +_k≤ m\\right\\}$ converges weakly to MVN[0,]; the centering constants 0(1, 2,$\\ldots$ ,) and the asymptotic covariances depend on the moments of the Dirichlet $(1, 1,\\ldots ,1; 1)$ distribution on the standard simplex in .
The global convergence of the non-quasi-Newton methods with non-monotone line search
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
The non-quasi-Newton methods for unconstrained optimization was investigated. Non-monotone line search procedure is introduced, which is combined with the non-quasi-Newton family. Under the uniform convexity assumption on objective function, the global convergence of the non-quasi-Newton family was proved.Numerical experiments showed that the non-monotone line search was more effective.
How to project onto the monotone nonnegative cone using Pool Adjacent Violators type algorithms
Németh, A B
2012-01-01
The metric projection onto an order nonnegative cone from the metric projection onto the corresponding order cone is derived. Particularly, we can use Pool Adjacent Violators-type algorithms developed for projecting onto the monotone cone for projecting onto the monotone nonnegative cone too.
An analysis of the stability and monotonicity of a kind of control models
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
LU Yifa
2013-06-01
Full Text Available The stability and monotonicity of control systems with parameters are considered.By the iterative relationship of the coefficients of characteristic polynomials and the Mathematica software,some sufficient conditions for the monotonicity and stability of systems are given.
Tijs, S.H.; Moretti, S.; Brânzei, R.; Norde, H.W.
2005-01-01
A new way is presented to define for minimum cost spanning tree (mcst-) games the irreducible core, which is introduced by Bird in 1976.The Bird core correspondence turns out to have interesting monotonicity and additivity properties and each stable cost monotonic allocation rule for mcst-problems i
A novel complex-system-view-based method for system effectiveness analysis: Monotonic indexes space
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2006-01-01
Based on the characteristics of the complex system, this paper presents a novel method, the monotonic indexes space method, for the effectiveness analysis of the complex system. First, it presents some basic concepts and assumption such as the monotonic indexes space, monotonic indexes requirement locus, etc. Second, based on the assumption that indexes are monotonic for the requirements, an algorithm is proposed and applied to numerical approximation of monotonic indexes requirement locus with hyperboxes. Third, this paper proposes two algorithms for acquiring intersection of several monotonic indexes requirement locus. Fourth, this paper proposes the monotonic-index- space based system analysis model such as the system evaluation model, the sensitivity analysis model for indexes. Based on the practical requirement, the concept of fuzzy monotonic indexes requirement locus and the corresponding analysis model are introduced. Finally, this paper applies the above-mentioned models to analyze the effectiveness of a notional anti-stealth-air-defense information system. And the outputs show that the method is promising.
Effects of temperature on monotonic and fatigue properties of carbon fibre epoxy cross ply laminates
Matsuhisa, Y.; King, J.
1993-01-01
The effects of test temperature on damage accumulation behaviour has been studied using "Torayca" T800H / #3631 in conditions of monotonic and fatigue loading. The damage accumulation behaviour was found to vary as a function of the test temperature, with the effect of temperature on the damage behaviour being different between monotonic and fatigue loading.
Effects of temperature on monotonic and fatigue properties of carbon fibre epoxy cross ply laminates
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Matsuhisa, Y. (Composite Materials Research Labs., Toray Industries Inc., Ehime (Japan)); King, J.E. (Composite Materials Research Labs., Toray Industries Inc., Ehime (Japan) Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgy, Univ. of Cambridge (United Kingdom))
1993-11-01
The effects of test temperature on damage accumulation behaviour has been studied using ''Torayca'' T800H/[3631] in conditions of monotonic and fatigue loading. The damage accumulation behaviour was found to vary as a function of the test temperature, with the effect of temperature on the damage behaviour being different between monotonic and fatigue loading. (orig.).
Tijs, S.H.; Moretti, S.; Brânzei, R.; Norde, H.W.
2005-01-01
A new way is presented to define for minimum cost spanning tree (mcst-) games the irreducible core, which is introduced by Bird in 1976.The Bird core correspondence turns out to have interesting monotonicity and additivity properties and each stable cost monotonic allocation rule for mcst-problems
Kovyrkina, O. A.; Ostapenko, V. V.
2016-05-01
The monotonicity of the CABARET scheme approximating a hyperbolic differential equation with a sign-changing characteristic field is analyzed. Monotonicity conditions for this scheme are obtained in domains where the characteristics have a sign-definite propagation velocity and near sonic lines, on which the propagation velocity changes its sign. These properties of the CABARET scheme are illustrated by test computations.
Tijs, S.H.; Moretti, S.; Brânzei, R.; Norde, H.W.
2005-01-01
A new way is presented to define for minimum cost spanning tree (mcst-) games the irreducible core, which is introduced by Bird in 1976.The Bird core correspondence turns out to have interesting monotonicity and additivity properties and each stable cost monotonic allocation rule for mcst-problems i
Computation of displacements for nonlinear elastic beam models using monotone iterations
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Philip Korman
1988-01-01
Full Text Available We study displacement of a uniform elastic beam subject to various physically important boundary conditions. Using monotone methods, we discuss stability and instability of solutions. We present computations, which suggest efficiency of monotone methods for fourth order boundary value problems.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Manish Jain
2014-01-01
Full Text Available The object of this paper is to establish the existence and uniqueness of coupled fixed points under a (φ, ψ-contractive condition for mixed monotone operators in the setup of partially ordered metric spaces. Presented work generalizes the recent results of Berinde (2011, 2012 and weakens the contractive conditions involved in the well-known results of Bhaskar and Lakshmikantham (2006, and Luong and Thuan (2011. The effectiveness of our work is validated with the help of a suitable example. As an application, we give a result of existence and uniqueness for the solutions of a class of nonlinear integral equations.
Clinical impact of FDG PET-CT in patients with potentially operable metastatic colorectal cancer
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Briggs, R.H. [Department of Radiology, Calderdale and Huddersfield NHS Foundation Trust, Huddersfield (United Kingdom); Chowdhury, F.U. [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Lodge, J.P.A. [HPB and Transplant Unit, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom); Scarsbrook, A.F., E-mail: andrew.scarsbrook@leedsth.nhs.uk [Departments of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, St James' s University Hospital, Leeds (United Kingdom)
2011-12-15
Aim: To assess the clinical impact of 2-[{sup 18}F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron-emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) in patients with potentially resectable metastatic colorectal cancer. Materials and methods: One hundred and two patients with potentially resectable metastatic colorectal cancer underwent FDG PET-CT in addition to conventional imaging over an 18-month period. The findings were compared to conventional imaging, with histological or clinico-radiological validation. The impact on subsequent management was evaluated using information from clinico-radiological databases. Results: Of 102 patients (mean age 67 years, range 27-85 years), 94 had liver, five had isolated lung, and three had limited peritoneal metastases. In 31 patients (30%) PET-CT had a major impact on subsequent management, by correctly clarifying indeterminate lesions on conventional imaging as inoperable metastatic disease in 16 patients, detecting previously unsuspected metastatic disease in nine patients, identifying occult second primary tumours in three patients, and correctly down-staging three patients. PET-CT had a minor impact in 12 patients (12%), no impact in 49 cases (48%), and a potentially negative impact in 10 cases (10%). Following PET-CT, 36 (35%) patients were no longer considered for surgery. Of those remaining operative 45 of 66 (68%) underwent potentially curative metastatic surgery. In this cohort PET-CT saved 16 futile laparotomies. Conclusion: FDG PET-CT has a valuable role in selected patients with metastatic colorectal cancer by improving staging accuracy and characterizing indeterminate lesions and helps triage patients to the appropriate treatment.
Kadiri, Margaret; Kay, David; Ahmadian, Reza; Bockelmann-Evans, Bettina; Falconer, Roger; Bray, Michaela
2013-04-01
In recent years there has being growing global interest in the generation of electricity from renewable resources. Amongst these, marine energy resource is now being considered to form a significant part of the energy mix, with plans for the implementation of several marine renewable energy schemes such as barrages and tidal stream turbines around the UK in the near future. Although marine energy presents a great potential for future electricity generation, there are major concerns over its potential impacts, particularly barrages, on the hydro-environment. Previous studies have shown that a barrage could significantly alter the hydrodynamic regime and tidal flow characteristics of an estuary, with changes to sediment transport (Kadiri et al., 2012). However, changes to nutrients have been overlooked to date. Hence, considerable uncertainty remains as to how a barrage would affect the trophic status of an estuary. This is particularly important because eutrophication can lead to algal toxin production and increased mortality of aquatic invertebrates and fish populations. Therefore, this study examines the impacts of the two different modes of operation of a barrage (i.e. ebb generation and flood-ebb generation) on the eutrophication potential of the Severn Estuary using a simplified model developed by the UK's Comprehensive Studies Task Team (CSTT). The model uses a set of equations and site-specific input data to predict equilibrium dissolved nutrient concentrations, phytoplankton biomass, light-controlled phytoplankton growth rate and primary production which are compared against CSTT set standards for assessing the eutrophic status of estuaries and coastal waters. The estuary volume and tidal flushing time under the two operating modes were estimated using a hydrodynamic model and field surveys were conducted to obtain dissolved nitrate and phosphate concentrations which served as input data. The predicted equilibrium dissolved nitrate and phosphate
Frederick, M. E.; Cox, E. L.; Friedl, L. A.
2006-12-01
NASA's Earth Science Theme is charged with implementing NASA Strategic Goal 3A to "study Earth from space to advance scientific understanding and meet societal needs." In the course of meeting this objective, NASA produces research results, such as scientific observatories, research models, advanced sensor and space system technology, data active archives and interoperability technology, high performance computing systems, and knowledge products. These research results have the potential to serve society beyond their intended purpose of answering pressing Earth system science questions. NASA's Applied Sciences Program systematically evaluates the potential of the portfolio of research results to serve society by conducting projects in partnership with regional/national scale operational partners with the statutory responsibility to inform decision makers. These projects address NASA's National Applications and the societal benefit areas under the IEOS and GEOSS. Prototyping methods are used in two ways in NASA's Applied Sciences Program. The first is part of the National Applications program element, referred to as Integrated Systems Solutions (ISS) projects. The approach for these projects is to use high fidelity prototypes to benchmark the assimilation of NASA research results into our partners' decision support systems. The outcome from ISS projects is a prototype system that has been rigorously tested with the partner to understand the scientific uncertainty and improved value of their modified system. In many cases, these completed prototypes are adopted or adapted for use by the operational partners. The second falls under the Crosscutting Solutions program element, referred to as Rapid Prototyping (RP) experiments. The approach for RP experiments is to use low fidelity prototypes that are low cost and quickly produced to evaluate the potential of the breadth of NASA research results to serve society. The outcome from the set of RP experiments is an
Bloch, Jacques C R; Frommer, Andreas; Heybrock, Simon; Schaefer, Katrin; Wettig, Tilo
2009-01-01
The overlap operator in lattice QCD requires the computation of the sign function of a matrix, which is non-Hermitian in the presence of a quark chemical potential. In previous work we introduced an Arnoldi-based Krylov subspace approximation, which uses long recurrences. Even after the deflation of critical eigenvalues, the low efficiency of the method restricts its application to small lattices. Here we propose new short-recurrence methods which strongly enhance the efficiency of the computational method. Using rational approximations to the sign function we introduce two variants, based on the restarted Arnoldi process and on the two-sided Lanczos method, respectively, which become very efficient when combined with multishift solvers. Alternatively, in the variant based on the two-sided Lanczos method the sign function can be evaluated directly. We present numerical results which compare the efficiencies of a restarted Arnoldi-based method and the direct two-sided Lanczos approximation for various lattice ...
Issue Paper Potential Water Availability Problems Associated with Geothermal Energy Operations
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
None
1982-02-19
The report is the first to study and discuss the effect of water supply problems of geothermal development. Geothermal energy resources have the potential of making a significant contribution to the U.S. energy supply situation, especially at the regional and local levels where the resources are located. A significant issue of concern is the availability and cost of water for use in a geothermal power operation primarily because geothermal power plants require large quantities of water for cooling, sludge handling and the operation of environmental control systems. On a per unit basis, geothermal power plants, because of their inherent high heat rejection rates, have cooling requirements several times greater than the conventional fossil fuel plants and therefore the supply of water is a critical factor in the planning, designing, and siting of geothermal power plants. However, no studies have been specifically performed to identify the water requirements of geothermal power plants, the underlying causes of water availability problems, and available techniques to alleviate some of these problems. There is no cost data included in the report. The report includes some descriptions of known geothermal areas. [DJE-2005
Fused Lasso Screening Rules via the Monotonicity of Subdifferentials.
Wang, Jie; Fan, Wei; Ye, Jieping
2015-09-01
Fused Lasso is a popular regression technique that encodes the smoothness of the data. It has been applied successfully to many applications with a smooth feature structure. However, the computational cost of the existing solvers for fused Lasso is prohibitive when the feature dimension is extremely large. In this paper, we propose novel screening rules that are able to quickly identity the adjacent features with the same coefficients. As a result, the number of variables to be estimated can be significantly reduced, leading to substantial savings in computational cost and memory usage. To the best of our knowledge, the proposed approach is the first attempt to develop screening methods for the fused Lasso problem with general data matrix. Our major contributions are: 1) we derive a new dual formulation of fused Lasso that comes with several desirable properties; 2) we show that the new dual formulation of fused Lasso is equivalent to that of the standard Lasso by two affine transformations; 3) we propose a novel framework for developing effective and efficient screening rules for fused Lasso via the monotonicity of the subdifferentials (FLAMS). Some appealing features of FLAMS are: 1) our methods are safe in the sense that the detected adjacent features are guaranteed to have the same coefficients; 2) the dataset needs to be scanned only once to run the screening, whose computational cost is negligible compared to that of solving the fused Lasso; (3) FLAMS is independent of the solvers and can be integrated with any existing solvers. We have evaluated the proposed FLAMS rules on both synthetic and real datasets. The experiments indicate that FLAMS is very effective in identifying the adjacent features with the same coefficients. The speedup gained by FLAMS can be orders of magnitude.
Local Monotonicity and Isoperimetric Inequality on Hypersurfaces in Carnot groups
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Francesco Paolo Montefalcone
2010-12-01
Full Text Available Let G be a k-step Carnot group of homogeneous dimension Q. Later on we shall present some of the results recently obtained in [32] and, in particular, an intrinsic isoperimetric inequality for a C2-smooth compact hypersurface S with boundary @S. We stress that S and @S are endowed with the homogeneous measures n????1 H and n????2 H , respectively, which are actually equivalent to the intrinsic (Q - 1-dimensional and (Q - 2-dimensional Hausdor measures with respect to a given homogeneous metric % on G. This result generalizes a classical inequality, involving the mean curvature of the hypersurface, proven by Michael and Simon [29] and Allard [1], independently. One may also deduce some related Sobolev-type inequalities. The strategy of the proof is inspired by the classical one and will be discussed at the rst section. After reminding some preliminary notions about Carnot groups, we shall begin by proving a linear isoperimetric inequality. The second step is a local monotonicity formula. Then we may achieve the proof by a covering argument.We stress however that there are many dierences, due to our non-Euclidean setting.Some of the tools developed ad hoc are, in order, a \\blow-up" theorem, which holds true also for characteristic points, and a smooth Coarea Formula for the HS-gradient. Other tools are the horizontal integration by parts formula and the 1st variation formula for the H-perimeter n????1H already developed in [30, 31] and then generalized to hypersurfaces having non-empty characteristic set in [32]. These results can be useful in the study of minimal and constant horizontal mean curvature hypersurfaces in Carnot groups.
Reece Roth, J.
2004-11-01
The majority of industrial plasma processing with glow discharges has been conducted at pressures below 10 torr. This tends to limit applications to high value workpieces as a result of the high capital cost of vacuum systems and the production constraints of batch processing. It has long been recognized that glow discharge plasmas would play a much larger industrial role if they could be generated at one atmosphere. The One Atmosphere Uniform Glow Discharge Plasma (OAUGDP), developed at the University of Tennessee's Plasma Sciences Laboratory, is a non-thermal RF plasma operating on displacement currents with the time-resolved characteristics of a classical low pressure DC normal glow discharge. As a glow discharge, the OAUGDP operates with maximum electrical efficiency at the Stoletow point, where the energy input per ion-electron pair is a minimum [1, 2]. Several interdisciplinary teams have investigated potential applications of the OAUGDP. These teams included collaborators from the UTK Textiles and Nonwovens Development Center (TANDEC), and the Departments of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Microbiology, and Food Science and Technology, as well as the NASA Langley Research Center. The potential applications of the OAUGDP have all been at one atmosphere and room temperature, using air as the working gas. These applications include sterilizing medical and dental equipment; sterilizable air filters to deal with the "sick building syndrome"; removal of soot from Diesel engine exhaust; subsonic plasma aerodynamic effects, including flow re-attachment to airfoils and boundary layer modification; electrohydrodynamic (EDH) flow control of working gases; increasing the surface energy of materials; improving the adhesion of paints and electroplated layers: improving the wettability and wickability of fabrics; stripping of photoresist; and plasma deposition and directional etching of potential microelectronic relevance. [1] J. R. Roth, Industrial Plasma Engineering
Maximum Potential Score (MPS: An operating model for a successful customer-focused strategy.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Cabello González, José Manuel
2015-11-01
Full Text Available One of marketers’ chief objectives is to achieve customer loyalty, which is a key factor for profitable growth. Therefore, they need to develop a strategy that attracts and maintains customers, giving them adequate motives, both tangible (prices and promotions and intangible (personalized service and treatment, to satisfy a customer and make him loyal to the company. Finding a way to accurately measure satisfaction and customer loyalty is very important. With regard to typical Relationship Marketing measures, we can consider listening to customers, which can help to achieve a competitive sustainable advantage. Customer satisfaction surveys are essential tools for listening to customers. Short questionnaires have gained considerable acceptance among marketers as a means to achieve a customer satisfaction measure. Our research provides an indication of the benefits of a short questionnaire (one/three questions. We find that the number of questions survey is significantly related to the participation in the survey (Net Promoter Score or NPS. We also prove that a the three question survey is more likely to have more participants than a traditional survey (Maximum Potential Score or MPS . Our main goal is to analyse one method as a potential predictor of customer loyalty. Using surveys, we attempt to empirically establish the causal factors in determining the satisfaction of customers. This paper describes a maximum potential operating model that captures with a three questions survey, important elements for a successful customer-focused strategy. MPS may give us lower participation rates than NPS but important information that helps to convert unhappy customers or just satisfied customers, into loyal customers.
Chun, Tae Yoon; Lee, Jae Young; Park, Jin Bae; Choi, Yoon Ho
2016-03-01
In this paper, we analyse the convergence and stability properties of generalised policy iteration (GPI) applied to discrete-time linear quadratic regulation problems. GPI is one kind of the generalised adaptive dynamic programming methods used for solving optimal control problems, and is composed of policy evaluation and policy improvement steps. To analyse the convergence and stability of GPI, the dynamic programming (DP) operator is defined. Then, GPI and its equivalent formulas are presented based on the notation of DP operator. The convergence of the approximate value function to the exact one in policy evaluation is proven based on the equivalent formulas. Furthermore, the positive semi-definiteness, stability, and the monotone convergence (PI-mode and VI-mode convergence) of GPI are presented under certain conditions on the initial value function. The online least square method is also presented for the implementation of GPI. Finally, some numerical simulations are carried out to verify the effectiveness of GPI as well as to further investigate the convergence and stability properties.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Adams, T.M.; Chang, K.C.; Campbell, T.E.
1982-01-01
General system design considerations such as functional requirements, valve types and operation, and various loading conditions are discussed. General guidelines for the piping layout, support design, and embedment selection are presented and discussed. Also presented and discussed are potential system operating problems which can arise from an improper design. 3 refs.
Rearrangement invariant optimal range for Hardy type operators
Soria, Javier; Tradacete, Pedro
2013-01-01
We characterize, in the context of rearrangement invariant spaces, the optimal range space for a class of monotone operators related to the Hardy operator. The connection between optimal range and optimal domain for these operators is carefully analyzed.
Patai, Zoltán; Guttman, András; Mikus, Endre G
2016-12-01
Drotaverine is considered an inhibitor of cyclic-3',5'-nucleotide-phophodiesterase (PDE) enzymes; however, published receptor binding data also support the potential L-type voltage- operated calcium channel (L-VOCC) blocking effect of drotaverine. Hence, in this work, we focus on the potential L-VOCC blocking effect of drotaverine by using L-VOCC-associated functional in vitro models. Accordingly, drotaverine and reference agents were tested on KCl-induced guinea pig tracheal contraction. Drotaverine, like the L-VOCC blockers nifedipine or diltiazem, inhibited the KCl-induced inward Ca(2+)- induced contraction in a concentration- dependent fashion. The PDE inhibitor theophylline had no effect on the KCl-evoked contractions, indicating its lack of inhibition on inward Ca(2+) flow. Drotaverine was also tested on the L-VOCC-mediated resting Ca(2+) refill model. In this model, the extracellular Ca(2+) enters the cells to replenish the emptied intracellular Ca(2+) stores. Drotaverine and L-VOCC blocker reference molecules inhibited Ca(2+) replenishment of Ca(2+)-depleted preparations detected by agonist-induced contractions in post-Ca(2+) replenishment Ca(2+)-free medium. Theophylline did not modify the Ca(2+) store replenishment after contraction. It seems that drotaverine, but not theophylline, inhibits inward Ca(2+) flux. The addition of CaCl2 to Ca(2+)-free medium containing the agonist induced inward Ca(2+) flow and subsequent contraction of Ca(2+)-depleted tracheal preparations. Drotaverine, similar to the L-VOCC blockers, inhibited inward Ca(2+) flow and blunted the slope of CaCl2-induced contraction in agonist containing Ca(2+)-free medium with Ca(2+)-depleted tracheal preparations. These results show that drotaverine behaves like L-VOCC blockers but, unlike PDE inhibitors using L-VOCC associated in vitro experimental models.
Demetriou, I. C.
2002-09-01
Methods are presented for least squares data smoothing by using the signs of divided differences of the smoothed values. Professor M.J.D. Powell initiated the subject in the early 1980s and since then, theory, algorithms and FORTRAN software make it applicable to several disciplines in various ways. Let us consider n data measurements of a univariate function which have been altered by random errors. Then it is usual for the divided differences of the measurements to show sign alterations, which are probably due to data errors. We make the least sum of squares change to the measurements, by requiring the sequence of divided differences of order m to have at most q sign changes for some prescribed integer q. The positions of the sign changes are integer variables of the optimization calculation, which implies a combinatorial problem whose solution can require about O(nq) quadratic programming calculations in n variables and n-m constraints. Suitable methods have been developed for the following cases. It has been found that a dynamic programming procedure can calculate the global minimum for the important cases of piecewise monotonicity m=1,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and piecewise convexity/concavity m=2,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 of the smoothed values. The complexity of the procedure in the case of m=1 is O(n2+qn log2 n) computer operations, while it is reduced to only O(n) when q=0 (monotonicity) and q=1 (increasing/decreasing monotonicity). The case m=2,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 requires O(qn2) computer operations and n2 quadratic programming calculations, which is reduced to one and n-2 quadratic programming calculations when m=2,q=0, i.e. convexity, and m=2,q=1, i.e. convexity/concavity, respectively. Unfortunately, the technique that receives this efficiency cannot generalize for the highly nonlinear case m[greater-or-equal, slanted]3,q[greater-or-equal, slanted]2. However, the case m[greater-or-equal, slanted]3,q=0 is solved by a special strictly
Potechin, Aaron
2011-01-01
L (Logarithmic space) versus NL (Non-deterministic logarithmic space) is one of the great open problems in computational complexity theory. In the paper "Bounds on monotone switching networks for directed connectivity", we separated monotone analogues of L and NL using a model called the switching network model. In particular, by considering inputs consisting of just a path and isolated vertices, we proved that any monotone switching network solving directed connectivity on $N$ vertices must have size at least $N^{\\Omega(\\lg(N))}$ and this bound is tight. If we could show a similar result for general switching networks solving directed connectivity, then this would prove that $L \
关于两个非线性算子的一个分裂方法%A SPLITTING METHOD FOR TWO NONLINEAR OPERATORS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
董云达
2010-01-01
This paper generalizes a class of projection type methods for monotone variational inequalities to general monotone inclusion. It is shown that when the normal cone operator in projection is replaced by any maximal monotone operator, the resulting method inherits all attractive convergence properties of projection type methods, and allows an adjusting step size rule. Weaker convergence assumption entails an extra projection at each iteration. Moreover, this paper also addresses applications of the resulting method to convex programs and monotone variational inequalities.
Monotone Iterative Technique for Duffie-Epstein Type Backward Stochastic Differential Equations
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
SUN Xiao-jun; WU Yue
2005-01-01
For Duffle-Epstein type Backward Stochastic Differential Equations, the comparison theorem is proved. Based on the comparison theorem, by monotone iterative technique, the existence of the minimal and maximal solutions of the equations are proved.
Monotonicity in the Sample Size of the Length of Classical Confidence Intervals
Kagan, Abram M
2012-01-01
It is proved that the average length of standard confidence intervals for parameters of gamma and normal distributions monotonically decrease with the sample size. The proofs are based on fine properties of the classical gamma function.
On the formation of localized peaks and non-monotonic tailing of breakthrough curves
Siirila, Erica R.; Sanchez-Vila, Xavier; Fernàndez-Garcia, Daniel
2014-05-01
While breakthrough curve (BTC) analysis is a traditional tool in hydrogeology to obtain hydraulic parameters, in recent years emphasis has been placed on analyzing the shape of the receding portion of the curve. A number of field and laboratory observations have found a constant BTC slope in log-log space, and thus it has been hypothesized that a power law behavior is representative of real aquifers. Usually, monotonicity of the late-time BTC slope is just assumed, meaning that local peaks in the BTC are not considered, and that a local (in time) increase or decrease of BTC slope is also not considered. We contend that local peaks may exist but are sometimes not reported for a number of reasons. For example, when BTCs are obtained from actual measurements, sub-sampling may mask non-monotonicity, or small peaks may be reported as measurement errors and thus smoothed out or removed. When numerical analyses of synthetic aquifers are performed, the simulation method may yield artificially monotonous curves as a consequence of the methods used. For example, Eulerian methods may suffer from numerical dispersion, where curves tend to become over-smoothed while Lagrangian methods may suffer from artificial BTC oscillations stemming from the reconstruction of concentrations from a limited number of particles. A paradigm shift in terms of the BTC shape must also accompany two major advancements within the hydrogeology field: 1) the increase of high frequency data and progression of data collection techniques that diminish the problems of under-sampling BTCs and 2) advancements in supercomputing and numerical simulation allowing for higher resolution of flow and transport problems. As more information is incorporated into BTCs and/or they are obtained in more spatial locations, it is likely that classical definitions of BTC shapes will no longer be adequate descriptors for future treatment of contaminant transport problems. For example, the presence of localized peaks in BTCs
The Complexity of Monotone Hybrid Logics over Linear Frames and the Natural Numbers
Göller, Stefan; Mundhenk, Martin; Schneider, Thomas; Thomas, Michael; Weiss, Felix
2012-01-01
Hybrid logic with binders is an expressive specification language. Its satisfiability problem is undecidable in general. If frames are restricted to the natural numbers or general linear orders, then satisfiability is known to be decidable, but of non-elementary complexity. In this paper, we consider monotone hybrid logics (i.e., the Boolean connectives are conjunction and disjunction only) over the natural numbers and general linear orders. We show that the satisfiability problem remains non-elementary over linear orders, but its complexity drops to PSPACE-completeness over natural numbers. We categorize the strict fragments arising from different combinations of modal and hybrid operators into NP-complete and tractable, and show that the latter cases are complete for NC1 or LOGSPACE. Interestingly, NP-completeness depends only on the fragment and not on the frame. For the cases above NP, satisfiability over linear orders is harder than over natural numbers, while below NP it is at most as hard. In addition ...
Fault-Tolerant Rate-Monotonic Scheduling of Imprecise Computation Tasks%非精确任务集的容错单调比率调度
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
陈宇; 熊光泽; 杨春
2002-01-01
Meeting deadline and geting high throughput are the main objective of real-time system.They are both important,but sometimes incompatible,such as reserving resource for fault tolerance.We describe a new scheme,through making use of the fualt-tolerant rate-monotonic scheduling and imprecise computation,a real-time system can get high throughput when operating normally and can meet the deadline of critical tasks when there are one or more transient error.
Monotone methods for solving a boundary value problem of second order discrete system
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Wang Yuan-Ming
1999-01-01
Full Text Available A new concept of a pair of upper and lower solutions is introduced for a boundary value problem of second order discrete system. A comparison result is given. An existence theorem for a solution is established in terms of upper and lower solutions. A monotone iterative scheme is proposed, and the monotone convergence rate of the iteration is compared and analyzed. The numerical results are given.
On the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a k-monotone density
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
WELLNER; Jon; A
2009-01-01
Bounds for the bracketing entropy of the classes of bounded k-monotone functions on [0,A] are obtained under both the Hellinger distance and the Lp(Q) distance,where 1 p < ∞ and Q is a probability measure on [0,A].The result is then applied to obtain the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a k-monotone density.
On the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a K-monotone density
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO FuChang; WELLNER Jon A
2009-01-01
Bounds for the bracketing entropy of the classes of bounded K-monotone functions on [0, A] are obtained under both the Hellinger distance and the LP(Q) distance, where 1 ≤ p < ∞ and Q is a probability measure on [0, A]. The result is then applied to obtain the rate of convergence of the maximum likelihood estimator of a K-monotone density.
Global Attractivity Results for Mixed-Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Complete Metric Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Kalabušić S
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We prove fixed point theorems for mixed-monotone mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces which satisfy a weaker contraction condition than the classical Banach contraction condition for all points that are related by given ordering. We also give a global attractivity result for all solutions of the difference equation , where satisfies mixed-monotone conditions with respect to the given ordering.
Global Attractivity Results for Mixed-Monotone Mappings in Partially Ordered Complete Metric Spaces
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Dž. Burgić
2009-01-01
Full Text Available We prove fixed point theorems for mixed-monotone mappings in partially ordered complete metric spaces which satisfy a weaker contraction condition than the classical Banach contraction condition for all points that are related by given ordering. We also give a global attractivity result for all solutions of the difference equation zn+1=F(zn,zn−1, n=2,3,…, where F satisfies mixed-monotone conditions with respect to the given ordering.
Totally Optimal Decision Trees for Monotone Boolean Functions with at Most Five Variables
Chikalov, Igor
2013-01-01
In this paper, we present the empirical results for relationships between time (depth) and space (number of nodes) complexity of decision trees computing monotone Boolean functions, with at most five variables. We use Dagger (a tool for optimization of decision trees and decision rules) to conduct experiments. We show that, for each monotone Boolean function with at most five variables, there exists a totally optimal decision tree which is optimal with respect to both depth and number of nodes.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Heinz Werner Höppel
2012-02-01
Full Text Available The monotonic and cyclic deformation behavior of ultrafine-grained metastable austenitic steel AISI 304L, produced by severe plastic deformation, was investigated. Under monotonic loading, the martensitic phase transformation in the ultrafine-grained state is strongly favored. Under cyclic loading, the martensitic transformation behavior is similar to the coarse-grained condition, but the cyclic stress response is three times larger for the ultrafine-grained condition.
Frayer, C; Mykytyuk, Ya V; Perry, P A
2009-01-01
This is the first in a series of papers on scattering theory for one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger operators with highly singular potentials $q\\in H^{-1}(R)$. In this paper, we study Miura potentials $q$ associated to positive Schr\\"odinger operators that admit a Riccati representation $q=u'+u^2$ for a unique $u\\in L^1(R)\\cap L^2(R)$. Such potentials have a well-defined reflection coefficient $r(k)$ that satisfies $|r(k)|<1$ and determines $u$ uniquely. We show that the scattering map $S:u\\mapsto r$ is real-analytic with real-analytic inverse. To do so, we exploit a natural complexification of the scattering map associated with the ZS-AKNS system. In subsequent papers, we will consider larger classes of potentials including singular potentials with bound states.
Khan-Mayberry, Noreen N.; Sundaresan, Alemalu
2009-01-01
Space Toxicology is a specialized discipline for spaceflight, space habitation and occupation of celestial bodies including planets, moons and asteroids [1]. Astronaut explorers face unique challenges to their health while working and living with limited resources for rescue and medical care during space operation. At its core the practice of space toxicology to identify, assess and predict potential chemical contaminants and limit the astronaut s exposure to these environmental factors in order to protect crew health. Space toxicologists are also charged with setting safe exposure limits that will protect the astronaut against a multitude of chemical exposures, in a physiologically altered state. In order to maintain sustained occupation in space, toxicological risks are gauged and managed within the context of isolation, continual exposures, reuse of air and water, limited rescue options, and the necessary use of highly toxic compounds required for propulsion. As the space program move towards human presence and exploration other celestial bodies in situ toxicological risks, such as inhalation of unusual and/or reactive mineral dusts must also be analyzed and controlled. Placing humans for long-term presence in space creates several problems and challenges to the long-term health of the crew, such as bone-loss and immunological challenges and has spurred research into acute, chronic and episodic exposure of the pulmonary system to mineral dusts [2]. NASA has demonstrated that lunar soil contains several types of reactive dusts, including an extremely fine respirable component. In order to protect astronaut health, NASA is now investigating the toxicity of this unique class of dusts. Understanding how these reactive components behave "biochemically" in a moisture-rich pulmonary environment will aid in determining how toxic these particles are to humans. The data obtained from toxicological examination of lunar dusts will determine the human risk criteria for lunar
Health inequality and non-monotonicity of the health related social welfare function.
Dutta, Indranil
2007-03-01
In a recent paper in this journal Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] have strongly argued for the use of a non-monotonic health related social welfare function. This note discusses both the limitations of the measure proposed by Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] and the problems associated with their empirics. We are able to show how non-monotonicity may lead to paradoxical results and policies. Further we examine the empirics of Abasolo and Tsuchiya [Abasolo, I., Tsuchiya, A., 2004. Exploring social welfare functions and violation of monotonicity: an example from inequalities in health. Journal of Health Economics 23, 313-329] and provide an alternative explanation to the observed patterns in the data that do not violate monotonicity. Finally we briefly mention why the Atkinson-Sen framework may be more appropriate as a way forward.
POTENTIAL OF CONFINED ANIMAL FEED OPERATIONS (CAFOS) TO CONTRIBUTE ESTROGENS TO THE ENVIRONMENT
Confined Animal Feed Operations (CAFOs) are a growing industry, with a trend towards fewer operations with higher concentrations of animals. Animals are either fed and/or treated with many different types of pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics and hormones, which can end up in...
Scattering potentials with LS-terms from first-order Casimir operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Levay, P. [Inst. of Phys., Tech. Univ. Budapest (Hungary)
1995-10-21
Using a first-order Casimir operator calculated in a non-standard realization for the so(3,1) algebra, we obtain a one-dimensional scattering problem with LS-type interaction terms. It is shown that for this realization the square of this operator can be expressed in terms of the usual quadratic Casimir. Due to this constraint the scattering states are completely specified by restricting the possible set of eigenvalues accordingly. The results show that the use of extra Casimir operators can provide additional insight into the group theoretical structure of the scattering problem. A generalization for the so(2n-1,1), n>2 case is also given. The underlying supersymmetry of the resulting Schrodinger equations is pointed out. The supersymmetric charge operators are related to our first-order Casimir operators. (author)
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Itsuki Banno; Kazumi Fujima
2007-01-01
A determinantal formula is developed for direct evaluation of transition amplitude without solving the wave equation in a one-dimensional potential scattering system. Our formulation is based on the principle that a desired quantity can be extracted from the wave operator, which is the master operator maintaining all the information of the system. This principle is tested in a simplified system, I.e., in a one-dimensional potential scattering system. We are now developing a formula for direct evaluation of near-field amplitude to design a system, in which local Geld enhancement is desired.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Zhiwen Liu
2012-07-01
Full Text Available Performance degradation assessment based on condition monitoring plays an important role in ensuring reliable operation of equipment, reducing production downtime and saving maintenance costs, yet performance degradation has strong fuzziness, and the dynamic information is random and fuzzy, making it a challenge how to assess the fuzzy bearing performance degradation. This study proposes a monotonic degradation assessment index of rolling bearings using fuzzy support vector data description (FSVDD and running time. FSVDD constructs the fuzzy-monitoring coefficient which is sensitive to the initial defect and stably increases as faults develop. Moreover, the parameter describes the accelerating relationships between the damage development and running time. However, the index with an oscillating trend disagrees with the irreversible damage development. The running time is introduced to form a monotonic index, namely damage severity index (DSI. DSI inherits all advantages of and overcomes its disadvantage. A run-to-failure test is carried out to validate the performance of the proposed method. The results show that DSI reflects the growth of the damages with running time perfectly.
Dualisation, decision lists and identification of monotone discrete functions
J.C. Bioch (Cor)
1998-01-01
textabstractMany data-analysis algorithms in machine learning, datamining and a variety of other disciplines essentially operate on discrete multi-attribute data sets. By means of discretisation or binarisation also numerical data sets can be successfully analysed. Therefore, in this paper we view/i
Dualisation, decision lists and identification of monotone discrete functions
J.C. Bioch (Cor)
1998-01-01
textabstractMany data-analysis algorithms in machine learning, datamining and a variety of other disciplines essentially operate on discrete multi-attribute data sets. By means of discretisation or binarisation also numerical data sets can be successfully analysed. Therefore, in this paper we
Hryniv, R O; Perry, P A
2009-01-01
This is the second in a series of papers on scattering theory for one-dimensional Schr\\"odinger operators with Miura potentials admitting a Riccati representation of the form $q=u'+u^2$ for some $u\\in L^2(R)$. We consider potentials for which there exist `left' and `right' Riccati representatives with prescribed integrability on half-lines. This class includes all Faddeev--Marchenko potentials in $L^1(R,(1+|x|)dx)$ generating positive Schr\\"odinger operators as well as many distributional potentials with Dirac delta-functions and Coulomb-like singularities. We completely describe the corresponding set of reflection coefficients $r$ and justify the algorithm reconstructing $q$ from $r$.
Amour, L.; Faupin, J.; Raoux, T.
2009-03-01
We pursue the analysis of the Schrödinger operator on the unit interval in inverse spectral theory initiated in the work of Amour and Raoux ["Inverse spectral results for Schrödinger operators on the unit interval with potentials in Lp spaces," Inverse Probl. 23, 2367 (2007)]. While the potentials in the work of Amour and Raoux belong to L1 with their difference in Lp (1≤p<∞), we consider here potentials in Wk,1 spaces having their difference in Wk,p, where 1≤p≤+∞, k ɛ{0,1,2}. It is proved that two potentials in Wk,1([0,1]) being equal on [a,1] are also equal on [0,1] if their difference belongs to Wk,p([0,a]) and if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently high. Naturally, this number decreases as the parameter a decreases and as the parameters k and p increase.
Amour, Laurent
2007-01-01
We consider the Schr\\"odinger operator on $[0,1]$ with potential in $L^1$. We prove that two potentials already known on $[a,1]$ ($a\\in(0,{1/2}]$) and having their difference in $L^p$ are equal if the number of their common eigenvalues is sufficiently large. The result here is to write down explicitly this number in terms of $p$ (and $a$) showing the role of $p$.
Maximizing the Potential of the Special Operations Forces and General Purpose Forces
2014-05-22
Operation to remove Panamanian dictator Manuel Noriega . The intervention followed a series of diplomatic challenges between the United States and... Noriega . Following the escalation of hostilities, US forces were deployed with the guidance to “Create an environment safe for Americans, Ensure the...integrity of the Panama Canal, Provide a stable environment for the freely elected Endara Government, and to bring Noriega to justice.”70 The operation
Differential operators on Hermite Sobolev spaces
Indian Academy of Sciences (India)
Suprio Bhar; B Rajeev
2015-02-01
In this paper, we compute the Hilbert space adjoint * of the derivative operator on the Hermite Sobolev spaces $\\mathcal{S}_{q}$. We use this calculation to give a different proof of the ‘monotonicity inequality’ for a class of differential operators (, ) for which the inequality was proved in Infin. Dimens. Anal. Quantum Probab. Relat. Top. 2(4) (2009) 515–591. We also prove the monotonicity inequality for (, ), when these correspond to the Ornstein–Uhlenbeck diffusion.
On Variational Inequalities with Multivalued Operators with Semi-Bounded Variation
Solonoukha, O V
1997-01-01
In this paper we explore solvability of steady-state variational inequalities with multivalued operators. Moreover, we are studying the connections between the class of radially semi-continuous operators with semi-bounded variation and classes of pseudo-monotone and monotone mappings, and some properties of this operators.
Januario, Leticia Bergamin; Moreira, Roberta de Fátima Carreira; Cid, Marina Machado; Samani, Afshin; Madeleine, Pascal; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz
2016-10-01
Active pauses have shown potentially beneficial effects to increase the variability of the electrical activation pattern of muscles. However, there is a lack of consensus as to how to design and implement those pauses and the processing methods of surface electromyography (EMG) data when evaluating low-level monotonous tasks. The aim of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidences regarding the way which active pauses have been applied, and the methods used to investigate the related EMG changes. PubMed-MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, Lilacs, Ebsco, and Scopus databases were searched. Two authors independently extracted data from the primary studies. The methodological quality was assessed using a list from van der Windt et al. (2000), and the level of evidence was synthesized through GRADE. The ISEK guideline for reporting EMG data was also applied as a checklist. Fifteen studies were included - 14 with high methodological quality. In general, active pauses were able to change the level of EMG activity in monotonous tasks. The level of evidence through GRADE was very low for all EMG processing methods, except RMS which was low. A vast heterogeneity concerning the methods applied to analyze EMG data contributed to decrease the quality of evidence synthesis, and the findings need to be carefully considered. The GRADE approach and the ISEK guideline contributed to identify important flaws in the literature. Future studies investigating active pauses in longitudinal studies and following the standard for recording and reporting EMG data care are warranted.
Dong, Xuebao; Suo, Puxia; Yuan, Xin; Yao, Xuefeng
2015-01-01
Auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) have been used as a measure of the depth of anesthesia during the intra-operative process. AEPs are classically divided, on the basis of their latency, into first, fast, middle, slow, and late components. The use of auditory evoked potential has been advocated for the assessment of Intra-operative awareness (IOA), but has not been considered seriously enough to universalize it. It is because we have not explored enough the impact of auditory perception and auditory processing on the IOA phenomena as well as on the subsequent psychological impact of IOA on the patient. More importantly, we have seldom tried to look at the phenomena of IOP from the perspective of consciousness itself. This perspective is especially important because many of IOA phenomena exist in the subconscious domain than they do in the conscious domain of explicit recall. Two important forms of these subconscious manifestations of IOA are the implicit recall phenomena and post-operative dreams related to the operation. Here, we present an integrated auditory consciousness-based model of IOA. We start with a brief description of auditory awareness and the factors affecting it. Further, we proceed to the evaluation of conscious and subconscious information processing by auditory modality and how they interact during and after intra-operative period. Further, we show that both conscious and subconscious auditory processing affect the IOA experience and both have serious psychological implications on the patient subsequently. These effects could be prevented by using auditory evoked potential during monitoring of anesthesia, especially the mid-latency auditory evoked potentials (MLAERs). To conclude our model with present hypothesis, we propose that the use of auditory evoked potential should be universal with general anesthesia use in order to prevent the occurrences of distressing outcomes resulting from both conscious and subconscious auditory processing during
Zhang, KeJia; Zhang, Long; Song, TingTing; Yang, YingHui
2016-06-01
In this paper, we propose certain different design ideas on a novel topic in quantum cryptography — quantum operation sharing (QOS). Following these unique ideas, three QOS schemes, the "HIEC" (The scheme whose messages are hidden in the entanglement correlation), "HIAO" (The scheme whose messages are hidden with the assistant operations) and "HIMB" (The scheme whose messages are hidden in the selected measurement basis), have been presented to share the single-qubit operations determinately on target states in a remote node. These schemes only require Bell states as quantum resources. Therefore, they can be directly applied in quantum networks, since Bell states are considered the basic quantum channels in quantum networks. Furthermore, after analyse on the security and resource consumptions, the task of QOS can be achieved securely and effectively in these schemes.
Scaling Effect of Area-Averaged NDVI: Monotonicity along the Spatial Resolution
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Hiroki Yoshioka
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Changes in the spatial distributions of vegetation across the globe are routinely monitored by satellite remote sensing, in which the reflectance spectra over land surface areas are measured with spatial and temporal resolutions that depend on the satellite instrumentation. The use of multiple synchronized satellite sensors permits long-term monitoring with high spatial and temporal resolutions. However, differences in the spatial resolution of images collected by different sensors can introduce systematic biases, called scaling effects, into the biophysical retrievals. This study investigates the mechanism by which the scaling effects distort normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI. This study focused on the monotonicity of the area-averaged NDVI as a function of the spatial resolution. A monotonic relationship was proved analytically by using the resolution transform model proposed in this study in combination with a two-endmember linear mixture model. The monotonicity allowed the inherent uncertainties introduced by the scaling effects (error bounds to be explicitly determined by averaging the retrievals at the extrema of theresolutions. Error bounds could not be estimated, on the other hand, for non-monotonic relationships. Numerical simulations were conducted to demonstrate the monotonicity of the averaged NDVI along spatial resolution. This study provides a theoretical basis for the scaling effects and develops techniques for rectifying the scaling effects in biophysical retrievals to facilitate cross-sensor calibration for the long-term monitoring of vegetation dynamics.
Booster main magnet power supply, present operation and potential future upgrades
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Bajon, E.; Bannon, M.; Marneris, I.; Danowski, G.; Sandberg, J.; Savatteri, S.
2011-03-28
The Brookhaven Booster Main Magnet Power Supply (MMPS) is a 24 pulse thyristor control supply, rated at 5500 Amps, +/-2000 Volts, or 3000 Amps, +/-6000 Volts. The power supply is fed directly from the power utility and the peak magnet power is 18 MWatts. This peak power is seen directly at the incoming ac line. This power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years. This paper will describe the present topology and operation of the power supply, the feedback control system and the different modes of operation of the power supply. Since the power supply has been in operation for the last 18 years, upgrading this power supply is essential. A new power supply topology has been studied where energy is stored in capacitor banks. DC to DC converters are used to convert the dc voltage stored in the capacitor banks to pulsed DC voltage into the magnet load. This enables the average incoming power from the ac line to be constant while the peak magnet power is pulsed to +/- 18 MWatts. Simulations and waveforms of this power supply will be presented.
Falk, Carl F; Cai, Li
2016-06-01
We present a semi-parametric approach to estimating item response functions (IRF) useful when the true IRF does not strictly follow commonly used functions. Our approach replaces the linear predictor of the generalized partial credit model with a monotonic polynomial. The model includes the regular generalized partial credit model at the lowest order polynomial. Our approach extends Liang's (A semi-parametric approach to estimate IRFs, Unpublished doctoral dissertation, 2007) method for dichotomous item responses to the case of polytomous data. Furthermore, item parameter estimation is implemented with maximum marginal likelihood using the Bock-Aitkin EM algorithm, thereby facilitating multiple group analyses useful in operational settings. Our approach is demonstrated on both educational and psychological data. We present simulation results comparing our approach to more standard IRF estimation approaches and other non-parametric and semi-parametric alternatives.
Scoping Calculations for Potential Groundwater Impacts from Operation of the APT Facility at SRS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Thibault, J.J.
1999-10-07
The purpose of this study was to determine the potential travel times and paths of the postulated activated groundwater beneath the facility and to examine the fate and transport of this activated groundwater.
CSIR Research Space (South Africa)
Rossouw, M
2012-01-01
Full Text Available Climate action has become a priority on the international agenda but the challenge facing the global community is both complex and considerable. Climate change poses a serious threat to human development and prosperity with potentially wide...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Schwer, R. K. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Riddel, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States)
2004-02-01
Nevada has a vast potential for electricity generation using solar power. An examination of the stock of renewable resources in Nevada proves that the state has the potential to be a leader in renewable-electric generation--one of the best in the world. This study provides estimates on the economic impact in terms of employment, personal income, and gross state product (GSP) of developing a portion of Nevada's solar energy generation resources.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garde, Henrik; Staboulis, Stratos
2016-01-01
demonstrate that for admissible choices of regularization parameters the inhomogeneities are detected, and under reasonable assumptions, asymptotically exactly characterized. Moreover, we rigorously associate this result with the complete electrode model, and describe how a computationally cheap monotonicity......The inverse problem of electrical impedance tomography is severely ill-posed, meaning that, only limited information about the conductivity can in practice be recovered from boundary measurements of electric current and voltage. Recently it was shown that a simple monotonicity property...... of the related Neumann-to-Dirichlet map can be used to characterize shapes of inhomogeneities in a known background conductivity. In this paper we formulate a monotonicity-based shape reconstruction scheme that applies to approximative measurement models, and regularizes against noise and modelling error. We...
Comparison of boundedness and monotonicity properties of one-leg and linear multistep methods
Mozartova, A.
2015-05-01
© 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. One-leg multistep methods have some advantage over linear multistep methods with respect to storage of the past results. In this paper boundedness and monotonicity properties with arbitrary (semi-)norms or convex functionals are analyzed for such multistep methods. The maximal stepsize coefficient for boundedness and monotonicity of a one-leg method is the same as for the associated linear multistep method when arbitrary starting values are considered. It will be shown, however, that combinations of one-leg methods and Runge-Kutta starting procedures may give very different stepsize coefficients for monotonicity than the linear multistep methods with the same starting procedures. Detailed results are presented for explicit two-step methods.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
JUN-FU ZHOU; WEI-WEI CHEN; GUI-ZHONG TONG
2003-01-01
Objective To estimate the impact of copying on the indoor air quality, and to investigatewhether ozone emitted during such a process induces pathological oxidative stress and potentialoxidative damage in the bodies of operators. Methods 67 copying operators (CO) and 67 healthyvolunteers (HV) were enrolled in a random control study, in which levels of lipoperoxide (LPO) inplasma and erythrocytes, and levels of vitamin C (VC), vitamin E (VE) and β-carotene (β-CAR) inplasma as well as activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathioneperoxidase (GPX) in erythrocytes were determined by spectrophotometric methods. ResultsCompared with the HV group, the average values of LPO in plasma and erythrocytes in the CO groupwere significantly increased (P＜0.0001), while those of VC, VE and β-CAR in plasma as well asthose of SOD, CAT and GPX in erythrocytes in the CO group were significantly decreased(P＜0.0001). Pearson product-moment correlation analysis showed that with increase of ozone level incopying sites and duration of exposure to ozone, the values of LPO in plasma and erythrocytes in thebodies of operators were gradually increased,while those of VC, VE, β-CAR, SOD, CAT and GPXwere decreased in the same manner. Odds ratio (OR) of risk of biochemical parameters reflectingpotential oxidative damage of the copying operators ranged from 4.440 to 13.516, and 95 % CI of ORwas from 2.113 to 34.061. Reliability coefficient (α) of the biochemical parameters used to reflect thepotential oxidative damage of the operators was 0.8156, standardized item α=0.9929, P＜0.0001.Conclusion Findings in the present study suggest that there exist a series of free radical chainreactions and pathological oxidative stress induced by high dose ozone in the operators, therebycausing potential oxidative and lipoperoxidative damages in their bodies.
Jarvis, P. D.
2014-05-01
We consider local unitary invariants and entanglement monotones for the mixed two qutrit system. Character methods for the local SU(3) × SU(3) transformation group are used to establish the count of algebraically independent polynomial invariants up to degree 5 in the components of the density operator. These are identified up to quartic degree in the standard basis of Gell-Mann matrices, with the help of the calculus of f and d coefficients. Next, investigating local measurement operations, we study a SLOCC qutrit group, which plays the role of a ‘relativistic’ transformation group analogous to that of the Lorentz group SL(2,{ {C}})_{ {R}}\\simeq SO(3,1) for the qubit case. This is the group SL(3,{ {C}})_{ {R}}, presented as a group of real 9 × 9 matrices acting linearly on the nine-dimensional space of projective coordinates for the qutrit density matrix. The counterpart, for qutrits, of the invariant 4 × 4 Minkowski metric of the qubit case, proves to be a certain 9 × 9 × 9 totally symmetric three-fold tensor generalizing the Gell-Mann d coefficient. Using this structure, we provide a count of the corresponding local special linear polynomial invariants using group character methods. Finally, we give an explicit construction of the lowest degree quantity (the cubic invariant) and its expansion in terms of SU(3) × SU(3) invariants, and we indicate how to construct higher degree analogues. These quantities are proven to yield entanglement monotones. This work generalizes and partly extends the paper of King et al (2007 J. Phys. A: Math. Theor. 40 10083) on the mixed two qubit system, which is reviewed in an appendix.
Dissipative eigenvalue problems for a Sturm-Liouville operator with a singular potential
Bodenstorfer, Bernhard; Dijksma, Aad; Langer, Heinz
2000-01-01
In this paper we consider the Sturm-Liouville operator d(2)/dx(2) - 1/x on the interval [a, b], a <0
Is the DHEAS/cortisol ratio a potential filter for non-operable constipated cases?
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
AM; El-Tawil
2010-01-01
Constipation is a significant manifestation of a number of psychological disorders.Published papers recommend using self-assessment questionnaires for discriminating psychological from non-psychological constipated patients before operating on them but reports from major surveys revealed that general practitioners failed to diagnose 70%of depressed patients using self-assessment questionnaires.Lower circulating concentrations of progesterone,17-hydroxyprogesterone,cortisol,testosterone,androstenedione,and d...
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
苏永福; 高俊宇; 周海云
2008-01-01
Matsushita,Takahashi[4]proved a strong convergence theorem for relatively nonexpansive mappings in a Banach space by using the hybrid method(C Q method)in mathematical programming.The purpose of this paper is to modify the hybrid method of Matsushita,Takahashi by monotone CQ method,and to prove strong convergence theorems for weak relatively nonexpansive mappings and maximal monotone operators in Banach spaces.The convergence rate of monotone CQ method is faster than the hybrid method of Matsushita,Takahashi.In addition,the Cauchy sequence method is used in this paper without using the Kadec-Klee property.The results of this paper modify and improve the results of Matsushita,Takahashi and some others.
The Role of Monotonicity in the Epistemic Analysis of Strategic Games
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jonathan A. Zvesper
2010-10-01
Full Text Available It is well-known that in finite strategic games true common belief (or common knowledge of rationality implies that the players will choose only strategies that survive the iterated elimination of strictly dominated strategies. We establish a general theorem that deals with monotonic rationality notions and arbitrary strategic games and allows to strengthen the above result to arbitrary games, other rationality notions, and transfinite iterations of the elimination process. We also clarify what conclusions one can draw for the customary dominance notions that are not monotonic. The main tool is Tarski’s Fixpoint Theorem.
Stochastic Monotone Markov Integrated Semigroups%随机单调Markov积分半群
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
文兴易; 李扬荣
2009-01-01
In this paper we discuss the relationship between monotone of Markov integrated semigroups and transition functions,which are closely linked with each other for continuous time Markov chains.By this a necessary and sufficient condition for the minimal q-semigroup to be stochastic monotone is given in terms of their q-matrix only.%讨论了Markov积分半群的单调性和转移函数的单调性的等价性,并得到最小的Q半群是单调的充要条件.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Garde, Henrik
2017-01-01
Detecting inhomogeneities in the electrical conductivity is a special case of the inverse problem in electrical impedance tomography, that leads to fast direct reconstruction methods. One such method can, under reasonable assumptions, exactly characterize the inhomogeneities based on monotonicity....... For a fair comparison, exact matrix characterizations are used when probing the monotonicity relations to avoid errors from numerical solution to PDEs and numerical integration. Using a special factorization of the Neumann-to-Dirichlet map also makes the non-linear method as fast as the linear method...
Xiao, Jie
2009-01-01
Two optimal monotone integral principles (equivalently for the Laplacian, two sharp iso-weighted-volume inequalities) are established through extending the first and second integral bounds of H. Weinberger for the Green functions (i.e., fundamental solutions) of uniformly elliptic equations in terms of the layer-cake formula, a one-dimensional monotone integral principle, and the isoperimetric and Jenson's inequalities with sharp constants. Surprisingly, a special setting of the first principle can be used to not only verify the low-dimensional P\\'olya conjecture for the principal eigenvalue of the Laplacian but also to characterize the geometry of the Nash inequality for a strong uniform elliptic equation.
Ellis, Jules L
2014-04-01
It is shown that a unidimensional monotone latent variable model for binary items implies a restriction on the relative sizes of item correlations: The negative logarithm of the correlations satisfies the triangle inequality. This inequality is not implied by the condition that the correlations are nonnegative, the criterion that coefficient H exceeds 0.30, or manifest monotonicity. The inequality implies both a lower bound and an upper bound for each correlation between two items, based on the correlations of those two items with every possible third item. It is discussed how this can be used in Mokken's (A theory and procedure of scale-analysis, Mouton, The Hague, 1971) scale analysis.
A Mathematical Model for Non-monotonic Deposition Profiles in Deep Bed Filtration Systems
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander
2011-01-01
A mathematical model for suspension/colloid flow in porous media and non-monotonic deposition is proposed. It accounts for the migration of particles associated with the pore walls via the second energy minimum (surface associated phase). The surface associated phase migration is characterized...... by advection and diffusion/dispersion. The proposed model is able to produce a nonmonotonic deposition profile. A set of methods for estimating the modeling parameters is provided in the case of minimal particle release. The estimation can be easily performed with available experimental information...... condition for producing non-monotonic deposition profiles. The described physics by the additional equation may be different in different experimental settings....
EFFECTS OF PROCESSING OPERATIONS ON ZETA POTENTIAL AND CATIONIC DEMAND OF PULPS
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Nishi K. Bhardwaj; Sanjay Kumar; Pramod K. Bajpai
2004-01-01
Thc zeta potential and cationic demands of various kraft pulps - unbleached, bleached and beaten to different freeness levels were determined in the laboratory. The zeta potential of pulp where the final stage was a lignin degrading and dissolving treatment such as alkaline extraction or hypochlorite was lower than the unbleached pulp. The cationic demand of unbleached pulp was higher compared to that of bleached pulp. Beaten pulps showed larger cationic demands than the unbeaten pulps, which can be attributed to the larger specific surface area of pulp components. Fibres become increasingly electronegative when beaten and therefore cationic demand of pulps increases with beating. When the zeta potential method is used with furnishes of different freeness,the linear relationship is observed. However, the slope is decreasing with the decrease in freeness of the pulp.
Bishop, Michael
2011-01-01
In this paper, we show the that the ground state energy of the one-dimensional Discrete Random Schr\\"{o}dinger Operator with Bernoulli Potential is controlled asymptotically as the system size N goes to infinity by the random variable, $\\ell_N$ the length the longest consecutive sequence of sites on the lattice with potential equal to zero. Specifically, we will show that with probability one the limit as the system size goes to infinity the ratio of the ground state energy with the energy of a half-sine wave converges to one.
Guthormsen, Amy M.; Fisher, Kristie J.; Bassok, Miriam; Osterhout, Lee; DeWolf, Melissa; Holyoak, Keith J.
2016-01-01
Research on language processing has shown that the disruption of conceptual integration gives rise to specific patterns of event-related brain potentials (ERPs)--N400 and P600 effects. Here, we report similar ERP effects when adults performed cross-domain conceptual integration of analogous semantic and mathematical relations. In a problem-solving…
Das Mahanta, Debasish; Patra, Animesh; Samanta, Nirnay; Luong, Trung Quan; Mukherjee, Biswaroop; Mitra, Rajib Kumar
2016-10-01
A combined experimental (mid- and far-infrared FTIR spectroscopy and THz time domain spectroscopy (TTDS) (0.3-1.6 THz)) and molecular dynamics (MD) simulation technique are used to understand the evolution of the structure and dynamics of water in its binary mixture with 1,2-dimethoxy ethane (DME) over the entire concentration range. The cooperative hydrogen bond dynamics of water obtained from Debye relaxation of TTDS data reveals a non-monotonous behaviour in which the collective dynamics is much faster in the low Xw region (where Xw is the mole fraction of water in the mixture), whereas in Xw ˜ 0.8 region, the dynamics gets slower than that of pure water. The concentration dependence of the reorientation times of water, calculated from the MD simulations, also captures this non-monotonous character. The MD simulation trajectories reveal presence of large amplitude angular jumps, which dominate the orientational relaxation. We rationalize the non-monotonous, concentration dependent orientational dynamics by identifying two different physical mechanisms which operate at high and low water concentration regimes.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Reich, N.H.; van Sark, W.G.J.H.M.; Turkenburg, W.C. [Department of Science, Technology and Society, Copernicus Institute for Sustainable Development and Innovation, Utrecht University, Heidelberglaan 2, 3584 CS Utrecht (Netherlands)
2011-02-15
Solar cell performance parameters (open circuit voltage, short circuit current, fill factor and efficiency) are derived for different solar cell types for the irradiance range 0.1-1000 W/m{sup 2}. Also it is demonstrated how spectral mismatch factors for indoor lighting conditions are calculated. The presented methods and particular results may aid product designers in selecting appropriate solar cells for Product Integrated PV (PIPV) operated indoors and allow for more certainty in energy balance estimations of PIPV design concepts. (author)
Northup, J; Fusilier, I; Swanson, V; Roane, H; Borrero, J
1997-01-01
We conducted reinforcer assessments for 3 boys with a diagnosis of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder who alternately received either placebo or previously prescribed methylphenidate. Our purpose was to evaluate whether methylphenidate altered the relative reinforcing effectiveness of various stimuli that are often used in classroom-based behavioral treatment programs (e.g., activities, tangible items). Results showed clear differences for some stimuli between reinforcer assessments conducted when participants had received methylphenidate compared to placebo. Results suggest that methylphenidate might act as an establishing operation for some common classroom reinforcers. Implications for the development and evaluation of behavioral treatments are discussed.
Bui, The Anh; D'Ancona, Piero; Duong, Xuan Thinh; Li, Ji; Ly, Fu Ken
2017-02-01
Let La be a Schrödinger operator with inverse square potential a | x|-2 on Rd, d ≥ 3. The main aim of this paper is to prove weighted estimates for fractional powers of La. The proof is based on weighted Hardy inequalities and weighted inequalities for square functions associated to La. As an application, we obtain smoothing estimates regarding the propagator e itLa.
Thallmair, Sebastian; Roos, Matthias K; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina
2016-06-21
Quantum dynamics simulations require prior knowledge of the potential energy surface as well as the kinetic energy operator. Typically, they are evaluated in a low-dimensional subspace of the full configuration space of the molecule as its dimensionality increases proportional to the number of atoms. This entails the challenge to find the most suitable subspace. We present an approach to design specially adapted reactive coordinates spanning this subspace. In addition to the essential geometric changes, these coordinates take into account the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates without the necessity of performing geometry optimizations at each grid point. The method is demonstrated for an ultrafast photoinduced bond cleavage in a commonly used organic precursor for the generation of electrophiles. The potential energy surfaces for the reaction as well as the Wilson G-matrix as part of the kinetic energy operator are shown for a complex chemical reaction, both including the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates on equal footing. A microscopic interpretation of the shape of the G-matrix elements allows to analyze the impact of the non-reactive coordinates on the kinetic energy operator. Additionally, we compare quantum dynamics simulations with and without the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates included in the kinetic energy operator to demonstrate its influence.
Thallmair, Sebastian; Roos, Matthias K.; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina
2016-06-01
Quantum dynamics simulations require prior knowledge of the potential energy surface as well as the kinetic energy operator. Typically, they are evaluated in a low-dimensional subspace of the full configuration space of the molecule as its dimensionality increases proportional to the number of atoms. This entails the challenge to find the most suitable subspace. We present an approach to design specially adapted reactive coordinates spanning this subspace. In addition to the essential geometric changes, these coordinates take into account the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates without the necessity of performing geometry optimizations at each grid point. The method is demonstrated for an ultrafast photoinduced bond cleavage in a commonly used organic precursor for the generation of electrophiles. The potential energy surfaces for the reaction as well as the Wilson G-matrix as part of the kinetic energy operator are shown for a complex chemical reaction, both including the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates on equal footing. A microscopic interpretation of the shape of the G-matrix elements allows to analyze the impact of the non-reactive coordinates on the kinetic energy operator. Additionally, we compare quantum dynamics simulations with and without the relaxation of the non-reactive coordinates included in the kinetic energy operator to demonstrate its influence.
On the potential of solar cells to efficiently operate at high temperature
Zeitouny, Joya; Lalau, Noémie; Katz, Eugene A.; Dollet, Alain; Vossier, Alexis
2017-09-01
The development of high temperature CPV/thermal (CSP) hybrid systems appears to be a promising route to improve the overall solar to electricity conversion efficiency. Moreover, such systems would not only use the residual heat stemming from the unconverted fraction of the incident solar radiation in PV cells, but they would also provide the advantage of storing energy as heat. However, the performances of such hybrid systems depend strongly on the temperature of the thermal receivers which are only effective at high temperatures (typically above 250°C) while solar cells typically operate at temperatures close to ambient. An appropriate strategy is to make PV cells efficiently operate at temperature levels significantly exceeding the normal range of temperatures for which they are commonly designed. The degradation of electrical performance associated with high working temperature is less pronounced when the cell is submitted to high sunlight concentrations. An efficient photovoltaic conversion at temperature levels exceeding the ambient may however require significant modifications in the architecture of the cells. In this work, we assessed the feasibility of this strategy by studying the electrical properties as well as the overall efficiency of the PV/CSP system at different temperatures and sunlight illuminations.
Potential removal of biochemical pollutants in biofilters operating with domestic sewage
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Maria Regilene de Freitas Costa Paiva
2011-12-01
Full Text Available The present study aimed to analyze the removal of Biochemical Oxygen Demand (BOD and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD in biofilters operating with domestic sewage. Experimental tests were conducted at the Universidade Federal de Viçosa (UFV, Viçosa-MG. The experiment was a split split plot scheme, and in the plots different rates of sewage (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 m3 m2 d-1 were applied, in the subplot, types of organic material (waste compost, sugar cane bagasse and sawdust were tested and in the subsubplots, five dates of measurements (August, September, October, November and December 2009 were evaluated, in a randomized block with three replications. Samples of domestic sewage were collected upstream and downstream of 27 biofilters for determination of BOD and COD, monthly for five months. The results showed that the effluent from biofilters meets the national standard for release in water streams, with regard to the BOD, after stabilization of the filter elements, and the use of biofilters for the treatment of domestic sewage is a viable technology for small scale because it has low cost, easy operation and good ability to remove biochemical pollutants.
The effects of halothane on somatosensory and flash visual evoked potentials during operations.
Wang, A D; Costa e Silva, I; Symon, L; Jewkes, D
1985-06-01
Intraoperative use of somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP's) to monitor intracranial aneurysm surgery and flash visual evoked potentials (F-VEP's) for parasellar surgery have been routinely employed in our clinic. We found that both EP modalities are sensitive to the changing concentration of our standard hypotensive agent, halothane. The prolongation of the N14-N20 interpeak latency to median nerve stimulation at the wrist, and prolongation of P100 latency with altered configuration of early VEP components to flash light stimulation, appear to be the results of direct pharmacological effects of the agent and not an effect of secondary hypotension. VEP is found easily abolished by halothane at a concentration of 2.0%, while the SEP is more resistant. Halothane is not ideal however when monitoring intraoperative VEP.
Precipitate Formation Potential of Resin Regeneration Effluent in the 100-HR-3 Operable Unit
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Cantrell, Kirk J.
2009-10-09
Calculations performed as part of this study indicate that injection of treated groundwater containing treated regenerant solution has a high potential for precipitate formation that could lead to plugging of formation porosity surrounding the injection well. In the worst case scenario, substantial plugging could occur within a year of the initiation of injection. Some uncertainty is associated with respect to this conclusion. The uncertainty results from the fact that equilibrium with the most stable mineral assemblage cannot always be assumed and that slow precipitation rates could occur and reliable estimates of precipitation kinetics under Hanford aquifer conditions are not available. It is recommended that the potential of calcium phosphate precipitation be investigated further using a combination of laboratory and field investigations.
Tanenbaum, Sandra J
2012-08-01
Consumer-operated service organizations (COSOs) are independent organizations whose administrative and financial control resides with consumers. Based on a 2008 mail survey and followup interviews conducted in 2009, this study depicts the internal characteristics and external relationships, as well as some relationships between the two, of COSOs in one state. Profiles include on the one hand, governance structures, services provided, sources and levels of funding, etc. and on the other, relationships between COSOs and other actors in the mental health system and the local community. COSOs emerge as more self-governing and community-based than required by certification requirements and as developing internally and externally in tandem. COSOs are not only adjunct or alternative service providers, but also civic associations and loci for the expression of citizenship by mentally ill people.
Harmful algae and their potential impacts on desalination operations off southern California.
Caron, David A; Garneau, Marie-Eve; Seubert, Erica; Howard, Meredith D A; Darjany, Lindsay; Schnetzer, Astrid; Cetinić, Ivona; Filteau, Gerry; Lauri, Phil; Jones, Burton; Trussell, Shane
2010-01-01
Seawater desalination by reverse osmosis (RO) is a reliable method for augmenting drinking water supplies. In recent years, the number and size of these water projects have increased dramatically. As freshwater resources become limited due to global climate change, rising demand, and exhausted local water supplies, seawater desalination will play an important role in the world's future water supply, reaching far beyond its deep roots in the Middle East. Emerging contaminants have been widely discussed with respect to wastewater and freshwater sources, but also must be considered for seawater desalination facilities to ensure the long-term safety and suitability of this emerging water supply. Harmful algal blooms, frequently referred to as 'red tides' due to their vibrant colors, are a concern for desalination plants due to the high biomass of microalgae present in ocean waters during these events, and a variety of substances that some of these algae produce. These compounds range from noxious substances to powerful neurotoxins that constitute significant public health risks if they are not effectively and completely removed by the RO membranes. Algal blooms can cause significant operational issues that result in increased chemical consumption, increased membrane fouling rates, and in extreme cases, a plant to be taken off-line. Early algal bloom detection by desalination facilities is essential so that operational adjustments can be made to ensure that production capacity remains unaffected. This review identifies the toxic substances, their known producers, and our present state of knowledge regarding the causes of toxic episodes, with a special focus on the Southern California Bight. (c) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
The role of monotonicity in the epistemic analysis of strategic games
Apt, K.R.; Zvesper, J.A.
2010-01-01
It is well-known that in finite strategic games true common belief (or common knowledge) of rationality implies that the players will choose only strategies that survive the iterated elimination of strictly dominated strategies. We establish a general theorem that deals with monotonic rationality no
Lesaja, G.; Roos, C.
2011-01-01
We present an interior-point method for monotone linear complementarity problems over symmetric cones (SCLCP) that is based on barrier functions which are defined by a large class of univariate functions, called eligible kernel functions. This class is fairly general and includes the classical logar
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
李中夫; 刘应明
1994-01-01
This paper discusses the problem of simple representation of multi-place functions from the viewpoint of "simple approximation". We prove that a class of associative functions, which have a wide range of applications, can be approximately represented by a monotone 1-place function and addition.
A Min-max Relation for Monotone Path Systems in Simple Regions
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Cameron, Kathleen
1996-01-01
A monotone path system (MPS) is a finite set of pairwise disjointpaths (polygonal arcs) in the plane such that every horizontal line intersectseach of the paths in at most one point. We consider a simple polygon in thexy-plane which bounds the simple polygonal (closed) region D. Let T and B betwo...
Grammatical Complexity of One—Dimensional Maps with Mutiple Monotone Intervals
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
YiWANG
1999-01-01
The piecewise monotonic maps on an interval are studied with the tools from the theory of formal language, A necessary and sufficient condition for the languages being regular is obtained.A result about the relation between languages and maps is proved for the continuous case.
Bifurcations of a predator-prey model with non-monotonic response function
Broer, H.W.; Naudot, Vincent; Roussarie, Robert; Saleh, Khairul
2005-01-01
A 2-dimensional predator-prey model with five parameters is investigated, adapted from the Volterra-Lotka system by a non-monotonic response function. A description of the various domains of structural stability and their bifurcations is given. The bifurcation structure is reduced to four organising
Computation of non-monotonic Lyapunov functions for continuous-time systems
Li, Huijuan; Liu, AnPing
2017-09-01
In this paper, we propose two methods to compute non-monotonic Lyapunov functions for continuous-time systems which are asymptotically stable. The first method is to solve a linear optimization problem on a compact and bounded set. The proposed linear programming based algorithm delivers a CPA1
Pospelov, A. I.
2016-08-01
Adaptive methods for the polyhedral approximation of the convex Edgeworth-Pareto hull in multiobjective monotone integer optimization problems are proposed and studied. For these methods, theoretical convergence rate estimates with respect to the number of vertices are obtained. The estimates coincide in order with those for filling and augmentation H-methods intended for the approximation of nonsmooth convex compact bodies.
Chen, Baojiang; Qin, Jing
2014-05-10
In statistical analysis, a regression model is needed if one is interested in finding the relationship between a response variable and covariates. When the response depends on the covariate, then it may also depend on the function of this covariate. If one has no knowledge of this functional form but expect for monotonic increasing or decreasing, then the isotonic regression model is preferable. Estimation of parameters for isotonic regression models is based on the pool-adjacent-violators algorithm (PAVA), where the monotonicity constraints are built in. With missing data, people often employ the augmented estimating method to improve estimation efficiency by incorporating auxiliary information through a working regression model. However, under the framework of the isotonic regression model, the PAVA does not work as the monotonicity constraints are violated. In this paper, we develop an empirical likelihood-based method for isotonic regression model to incorporate the auxiliary information. Because the monotonicity constraints still hold, the PAVA can be used for parameter estimation. Simulation studies demonstrate that the proposed method can yield more efficient estimates, and in some situations, the efficiency improvement is substantial. We apply this method to a dementia study.
On the Monotonicity and Log-Convexity of a Four-Parameter Homogeneous Mean
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Yang Zhen-Hang
2008-01-01
Full Text Available Abstract A four-parameter homogeneous mean is defined by another approach. The criterion of its monotonicity and logarithmically convexity is presented, and three refined chains of inequalities for two-parameter mean values are deduced which contain many new and classical inequalities for means.
Generic Form of Bayesian Monte Carlo For Models With Partial Monotonicity
Rajabalinejad, M.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a generic method for the safety assessments of models with partial monotonicity. For this purpose, a Bayesian interpolation method is developed and implemented in the Monte Carlo process. integrated approach is the generalization of the recently developed techniques used in safet
Generic form of Bayesian Monte Carlo for models with partial monotonicity
Rajabalinejad, M.; Spitas, C.
2012-01-01
This paper presents a generic method for the safety assessments of models with partial monotonicity. For this purpose, a Bayesian interpolation method is developed and implemented in the Monte Carlo process. integrated approach is the generalization of the recently developed techniques used in safet
Stochastic Approximations and Monotonicity of a Single Server Feedback Retrial Queue
2012-01-01
This paper focuses on stochastic comparison of the Markov chains to derive some qualitative approximations for an M/G/1 retrial queue with a Bernoulli feedback. The main objective is to use stochastic ordering techniques to establish various monotonicity results with respect to arrival rates, service time distributions, and retrial parameters.
Stochastic Approximations and Monotonicity of a Single Server Feedback Retrial Queue
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Boualem
2012-01-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on stochastic comparison of the Markov chains to derive some qualitative approximations for an M/G/1 retrial queue with a Bernoulli feedback. The main objective is to use stochastic ordering techniques to establish various monotonicity results with respect to arrival rates, service time distributions, and retrial parameters.
A cross-monotonic cost sharing method for the facility location game with service installation costs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
XU DaChuan
2009-01-01
In this paper, we consider the metric uncapacitated facility location game with service installation costs. Our main result is an 11-approximate cross-monotonic cost-sharing method under the assumption that the installation cost depends only on the service type.
A cross-monotonic cost sharing method for the facility location game with service installation costs
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2009-01-01
In this paper,we consider the metric uncapacitated facility location game with service installation costs. Our main result is an 11-approximate cross-monotonic cost-sharing method under the assumption that the installation cost depends only on the service type.
Variable selection in monotone single-index models via the adaptive LASSO.
Foster, Jared C; Taylor, Jeremy M G; Nan, Bin
2013-09-30
We consider the problem of variable selection for monotone single-index models. A single-index model assumes that the expectation of the outcome is an unknown function of a linear combination of covariates. Assuming monotonicity of the unknown function is often reasonable and allows for more straightforward inference. We present an adaptive LASSO penalized least squares approach to estimating the index parameter and the unknown function in these models for continuous outcome. Monotone function estimates are achieved using the pooled adjacent violators algorithm, followed by kernel regression. In the iterative estimation process, a linear approximation to the unknown function is used, therefore reducing the situation to that of linear regression and allowing for the use of standard LASSO algorithms, such as coordinate descent. Results of a simulation study indicate that the proposed methods perform well under a variety of circumstances and that an assumption of monotonicity, when appropriate, noticeably improves performance. The proposed methods are applied to data from a randomized clinical trial for the treatment of a critical illness in the intensive care unit.
Non-Payoff Monotonic Dynamics in an Evolutionary Game of Courtship
Chacoma, Andrés; Zanette, Damián H
2015-01-01
We propose an evolutionary coordination game to formalize a simplified model of the evolution of strategies during human courtship. The dynamics, derived from the consideration of experimental observations on human social behavior driven by self-esteem, turns out to be non-payoff monotonic. This property gives rise to nontrivial evolution in the players' strategies, which we study both numerically and analytically.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
H Nabavizade
2007-07-01
Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Allergic reactions to natural rubber latex have increased during past 10 years especially among health care workers and patients with high exposure to latex allergens. Allergic reaction to latex is related to many diseases like occupational asthma. This study was performed to determine the prevalence of allergy to natural rubber latex and potential cross reacting food in operation room staff in Shiraz hospitals. Materials & Methods: In this cross-sectional descriptive study five hundred eighty operation room staff of ten private and state hospitals in Shiraz completed latex allergy questionnaire. They were questioned about personal history and previous history of latex sensitivity, symptoms of latex reactivity and about other allergies particularly to foods that may cross react with latex. Informed consent was obtained and skin prick testing was performed with natural rubber latex. Skin prick tests were done with three potentially cross reacting food (banana, Kiwi, and potato. The obtained data were analyzed with SPSS software and Chi-square test. Results: Among the 580 operation room workers 104 (17.9 % of participants were positive to latex skin test. We found a significant association between positive skin test to latex in operation room staff and atopy, urticaria and food allergy. Positive skin test to latex related to positive kiwi skin test (p<0.05. The prevalence did not vary by sex, age, education, surgical and non surgical glove users, history of contact dermatitis or smoking status. Conclusion: Latex allergy has a high prevalence in personnel of operation room. Evaluation of present symptom and prediction of future disease necessitate screening test in individuals at risk.
Cement Based Batteries and their Potential for Use in Low Power Operations
Byrne, A.; Holmes, N.; Norton, B.
2015-11-01
This paper presents the development of an innovative cement-electrolyte battery for low power operations such as cathodic protection of reinforced concrete. A battery design was refined by altering different constituents and examining the open circuit voltage, resistor loaded current and lifespan. The final design consisted of a copper plate cathode, aluminium plate anode, and a cement electrolyte which included additives of carbon black, plasticiser, Alum salt and Epsom salt. A relationship between age, temperature and hydration of the cell and the current it produced was determined. It was found that sealing the battery using varnish increased the moisture retention and current output. Current was also found to increase with internal temperature of the electrolyte and connecting two cells in parallel further doubled or even tripled the current. Parallel-connected cells could sustain an average current of 0.35mA through a 10Ω resistor over two weeks of recording. The preliminary findings demonstrate that cement-based batteries can produce sufficient sustainable electrical outputs with the correct materials and arrangement of components. Work is ongoing to determine how these batteries can be recharged using photovoltaics which will further enhance their sustainability properties.
Cooper, Guy Paul; Yeager, Violet; Burkle, Frederick M; Subbarao, Italo
2015-06-29
Twitter, a popular communications platform, is identified as contributing to improved mortality and morbidity outcomes resulting from the 2013 Hattiesburg, Mississippi EF-4 Tornado. This study describes the methodology by which Twitter was investigated as a potential disaster risk reduction and management tool at the community level and the process by which the at-risk population was identified from the broader Twitter user population. By understanding how various factors contribute to the superspreading of messages, one can better optimize Twitter as an essential communications and risk reduction tool. This study introduces Parts II, III and IV which further define the technological and scientific knowledge base necessary for developing future competency base curriculum and content for Twitter assisted disaster management education and training at the community level.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Ghosh, D. [Centre de Sciences Humaines, New Delhi (India); Shukla, P.R. [Indian Inst. of Management, Vastrapur, Ahmedabad (India); Garg, A. [Winrock International India, New Delhi (India); Ramana, P.V. [Winrock International, Arlington, VA (United States)
2002-12-01
The future economic development trajectory for India is likely to result in rapid and accelerated growth in energy demand, with attendant shortages and problems. Due to the predominance of fossil fuels in the generation mix, there are large negative environmental externalities caused by electricity generation. The power sector alone has a 40 percent contribution to the total carbon emissions. In this context, it is imperative to develop and promote alternative energy sources that can lead to sustainability of the energy-environment system. There are opportunities for renewable energy technologies under the new climate change regime as they meet the two basic conditions to be eligible for assistance under UNFCCC mechanisms: they contribute to global sustainability through GHG mitigation; and, they conform to national priorities by leading to the development of local capacities and infrastructure. This increases the importance of electricity generation from renewables. Considerable experience and capabilities exist in the country on renewable electricity technologies. But a number of techno-economic, market-related, and institutional barriers impede technology development and penetration. Although at present the contribution of renewable electricity is small, the capabilities promise the flexibility for responding to emerging economic, socio-environmental and sustainable development needs. This paper discusses the renewable and carbon market linkages and assesses mitigation potential of power sector renewable energy technologies under global environmental intervention scenarios for GHG emissions reduction. An overall energy system framework is used for assessing the future role of renewable energy in the power sector under baseline and different mitigation scenarios over a time frame of 35 years, between 2000 to 2035. The methodology uses an integrated bottom-up modelling framework. Looking into past performance trends and likely future developments, analysis results
On the accuracy potential of focused plenoptic camera range determination in long distance operation
Sardemann, Hannes; Maas, Hans-Gerd
2016-04-01
Plenoptic cameras have found increasing interest in optical 3D measurement techniques in recent years. While their basic principle is 100 years old, the development in digital photography, micro-lens fabrication technology and computer hardware has boosted the development and lead to several commercially available ready-to-use cameras. Beyond their popular option of a posteriori image focusing or total focus image generation, their basic ability of generating 3D information from single camera imagery depicts a very beneficial option for certain applications. The paper will first present some fundamentals on the design and history of plenoptic cameras and will describe depth determination from plenoptic camera image data. It will then present an analysis of the depth determination accuracy potential of plenoptic cameras. While most research on plenoptic camera accuracy so far has focused on close range applications, we will focus on mid and long ranges of up to 100 m. This range is especially relevant, if plenoptic cameras are discussed as potential mono-sensorial range imaging devices in (semi-)autonomous cars or in mobile robotics. The results show the expected deterioration of depth measurement accuracy with depth. At depths of 30-100 m, which may be considered typical in autonomous driving, depth errors in the order of 3% (with peaks up to 10-13 m) were obtained from processing small point clusters on an imaged target. Outliers much higher than these values were observed in single point analysis, stressing the necessity of spatial or spatio-temporal filtering of the plenoptic camera depth measurements. Despite these obviously large errors, a plenoptic camera may nevertheless be considered a valid option for the application fields of real-time robotics like autonomous driving or unmanned aerial and underwater vehicles, where the accuracy requirements decrease with distance.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuan, Yue; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Hiyama, Atsuto; Miura, Goji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Yamaguchi Univ., Ube (Japan). School of Medicine
2002-10-01
The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether high-resolution CT (HRCT) could facilitate the preoperative diagnosis of one or two small nodules of 1 cm or less coexisting with a lung cancer, i.e., coexisting small nodule. This study included 27 coexisting small nodules in 24 potentially operable lung cancer patients. An observer study was performed by five radiologists. The observer performances in differentiating malignant from benign coexisting small nodules were evaluated on conventional CT and HRCT using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The area under the ROC curve of five observers was 0.731 on HRCT and 0.578 on conventional CT in the differential diagnosis of coexisting small nodules. A significant diagnostic improvement was found on HRCT (p=0.031). This was especially evident for nodules of ground-glass attenuation (p=0.005). HRCT plays an important role in determining the treatment of potentially operable lung cancer patients with coexisting small nodules. (author)
Lew, Beni; Cochva, Malka; Lahav, Ori
2009-03-15
Desalinated water is expected to become the major source of drinking water in many places in the near future, and thus the major source of wastewater to arrive at wastewater treatment plants. The paper examines the effect of the alkalinity value with which the water is released from the desalination plant on the alkalinity value that would develop within the wastewater treatment process under various nitrification-denitrification operational scenarios. The main hypothesis was that the difference in the alkalinity value between tap water and domestic wastewater is almost exclusively a result of the hydrolysis of urea (NH(2)CONH(2), excreted in the human urine) to ammonia (NH(3)), regardless of the question what fraction of NH(3(aq)) is transformed to NH(4)(+). Results from a field study show that the ratio between the alkalinity added to tap water when raw wastewater is formed (in meq/l units) and the TAN (total ammonia nitrogen, mole/l) concentration in the raw wastewater is almost 1:1 in purely domestic sewage and close to 1:1 in domestic wastewater streams mixed with light industry wastewaters. Having established the relationship between TAN and total alkalinity in raw wastewater the paper examines three theoretical nitrification-denitrification treatment scenarios in the wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The conclusion is that if low-alkalinity desalinated water constitutes the major water source arriving at the WWTP, external alkalinity will have to be added in order to avoid pH drop and maintain process stability. The results lead to the conclusion that supplying desalinated water with a high alkalinity value (e.g. > or =100 mg/l as CaCO(3)) would likely prevent the need to add costly basic chemicals in the WWTP, while, in addition, it would improve the chemical and biological stability of the drinking water in the distribution system.
Murat, Jean-Benjamin; Grenouillet, Frédéric; Reboux, Gabriel; Penven, Emmanuelle; Batchili, Adam; Dalphin, Jean-Charles; Thaon, Isabelle; Millon, Laurence
2012-01-01
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis, also known as "machine operator's lung" (MOL), has been related to microorganisms growing in metalworking fluids (MWFs), especially Mycobacterium immunogenum. We aimed to (i) describe the microbiological contamination of MWFs and (ii) look for chemical, physical, and environmental parameters associated with variations in microbiological profiles. We microbiologically analyzed 180 MWF samples from nonautomotive plants (e.g., screw-machining or metal-cutting plants) in the Franche-Comté region in eastern France and 165 samples from three French automotive plants in which cases of MOL had been proven. Our results revealed two types of microbial biomes: the first was from the nonautomotive industry, showed predominantly Gram-negative rods (GNR), and was associated with a low risk of MOL, and the second came from the automotive industry that was affected by cases of MOL and showed predominantly Gram-positive rods (GPR). Traces of M. immunogenum were sporadically detected in the first type, while it was highly prevalent in the automotive sector, with up to 38% of samples testing positive. The use of chromium, nickel, or iron was associated with growth of Gram-negative rods; conversely, growth of Gram-positive rods was associated with the absence of these metals. Synthetic MWFs were more frequently sterile than emulsions. Vegetable oil-based emulsions were associated with GNR, while mineral ones were associated with GPR. Our results suggest that metal types and the nature of MWF play a part in MWF contamination, and this work shall be followed by further in vitro simulation experiments on the kinetics of microbial populations, focusing on the phenomena of inhibition and synergy.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Foglia, Aligi; Gottardi, Guido; Govoni, Laura;
2015-01-01
The response of bucket foundations on sand subjected to planar monotonic and cyclic loading is investigated in the paper. Thirteen monotonic and cyclic laboratory tests on a skirted footing model having a 0.3 m diameter and embedment ratio equal to 1 are presented. The loading regime reproduces t...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wayne, David Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Rowland, Joel C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)
2015-02-01
The question of oxide containment during processing and storage has become a primary concern when considering the continued operability of the Plutonium Facility (PF-4) at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). An Evaluation of the Safety of the Situation (ESS), “Potential for Criticality in a Glovebox Due to a Fire” (TA55-ESS-14-002-R2, since revised to R3) first issued in May, 2014 summarizes these concerns: “The safety issue of fire water potentially entering a glovebox is: the potential for the water to accumulate in the bottom of a glovebox and result in an inadvertent criticality due to the presence of fissionable materials in the glovebox locations and the increased reflection and moderation of neutrons from the fire water accumulation.” As a result, the existing documented safety analysis (DSA) was judged inadequate and, while it explicitly considered the potential for criticality resulting from water intrusion into gloveboxes, criticality safety evaluation documents (CSEDs) for the affected locations did not evaluate the potential for fire water intrusion into a glovebox.
POTENTIAL IMPACT OF BLENDING RESIDUAL SOLIDS FROM TANKS 18/19 MOUNDS WITH TANK 7 OPERATIONS
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Eibling, R; Erich Hansen, E; Bradley Pickenheim, B
2007-03-29
High level waste tanks 18F and 19F have residual mounds of waste which may require removal before the tanks can be closed. Conventional slurry pump technology, previously used for waste removal and tank cleaning, has been incapable of removing theses mounds from tanks 18F and 19F. A mechanical cleaning method has been identified that is potentially capable of removing and transferring the mound material to tank 7F for incorporation in a sludge batch for eventual disposal in high level waste glass by the Defense Waste Processing Facility. The Savannah River National Laboratory has been requested to evaluate whether the material transferred from tanks 18F/19F by the mechanical cleaning technology can later be suspended in Tank 7F by conventional slurry pumps after mixing with high level waste sludge. The proposed mechanical cleaning process for removing the waste mounds from tanks 18 and 19 may utilize a high pressure water jet-eductor that creates a vacuum to mobilize solids. The high pressure jet is also used to transport the suspended solids. The jet-eductor system will be mounted on a mechanical crawler for movement around the bottom of tanks 18 and 19. Based on physical chemical property testing of the jet-eductor system processed IE-95 zeolite and size-reduced IE-95 zeolite, the following conclusions were made: (1) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite has a mean and median particle size (volume basis) of 115.4 and 43.3 microns in water. Preferential settling of these large particles is likely. (2) The jet-eductor system processed zeolite rapidly generates settled solid yield stresses in excess of 11,000 Pascals in caustic supernates and will not be easily retrieved from Tank 7 with the existing slurry pump technology. (3) Settled size-reduced IE-95 zeolite (less than 38 microns) in caustic supernate does not generate yield stresses in excess of 600 Pascals in less than 30 days. (4) Preferential settling of size-reduced zeolite is a function of the amount of
Macherey, Olivier; Carlyon, Robert P; Chatron, Jacques; Roman, Stéphane
2017-01-30
Most cochlear implants (CIs) activate their electrodes non-simultaneously in order to eliminate electrical field interactions. However, the membrane of auditory nerve fibers needs time to return to its resting state, causing the probability of firing to a pulse to be affected by previous pulses. Here, we provide new evidence on the effect of pulse polarity and current level on these interactions. In experiment 1, detection thresholds and most comfortable levels (MCLs) were measured in CI users for 100-Hz pulse trains consisting of two consecutive biphasic pulses of the same or of opposite polarity. All combinations of polarities were studied: anodic-cathodic-anodic-cathodic (ACAC), CACA, ACCA, and CAAC. Thresholds were lower when the adjacent phases of the two pulses had the same polarity (ACCA and CAAC) than when they were different (ACAC and CACA). Some subjects showed a lower threshold for ACCA than for CAAC while others showed the opposite trend demonstrating that polarity sensitivity at threshold is genuine and subject- or electrode-dependent. In contrast, anodic (CAAC) pulses always showed a lower MCL than cathodic (ACCA) pulses, confirming previous reports. In experiments 2 and 3, the subjects compared the loudness of several pulse trains differing in current level separately for ACCA and CAAC. For 40 % of the electrodes tested, loudness grew non-monotonically as a function of current level for ACCA but never for CAAC. This finding may relate to a conduction block of the action potentials along the fibers induced by a strong hyperpolarization of their central processes. Further analysis showed that the electrodes showing a lower threshold for ACCA than for CAAC were more likely to yield a non-monotonic loudness growth. It is proposed that polarity sensitivity at threshold reflects the local neural health and that anodic asymmetric pulses should preferably be used to convey sound information while avoiding abnormal loudness percepts.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Pengcheng Niu
2014-01-01
Full Text Available Let {X1,X2,…,Xm} be the basis of space of horizontal vector fields in a Carnot group G=(Rn;∘ (m
Feizi, H.; Shojaei, M. R.; Rajabi, A. A.
2012-04-01
In the case of spin symmetry and pseudospin symmetry, raising and lowering operators and the bound state solutions of the Dirac equation for the spherically Woods-Saxon potential are presented within the context of Supersymmetric Quantum Mechanics. The energy equation and corresponding two-component spinors of the two Dirac particles are obtained in the closed form for arbitrary spin-orbit quantum number k by using the Pekeris approximation. The Hamiltonian hierarchy method and the shape invariance property are used in the calculations.
Barrera Figueroa, V.
2016-03-01
In this work we present an effective way of finding the spectral singularities of the one-dimensional Schrödinger operator with a complex-valued potential defined in the half-axis [0, ∞). The spectral singularities are certain poles in the kernel of the resolvent, which are not eigenvalues of the operator. In this work, the spectral singularities are calculated from the real zeros of ϰ (ϱ) = 0, where ϰ (ϱ) is an analytic function of the complex variable ϱ, which is obtained by means of the Spectral Parameter Power Series Method. This representation is convenient from a numerical point of view since its numerical implementation implies truncating the series up to a M-th term. Hence, finding the approximate spectral singularities is equivalent to finding the real roots of a certain polynomial of degree 2M. In addition, we provide explicit formulas for calculating the eigenvalues of the operator, as well as the eigenfunctions and generalized eigenfunctions associated to both the continuous spectrum and the spectral singularities.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Salini, K. [School of Physics, IISER TVM, CET Campus, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala 695 016 (India); Prabhu, R.; Sen, Aditi [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India); Sen, Ujjwal, E-mail: ujjwal@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211 019 (India)
2014-09-15
Monogamy of quantum correlation measures puts restrictions on the sharability of quantum correlations in multiparty quantum states. Multiparty quantum states can satisfy or violate monogamy relations with respect to given quantum correlations. We show that all multiparty quantum states can be made monogamous with respect to all measures. More precisely, given any quantum correlation measure that is non-monogamic for a multiparty quantum state, it is always possible to find a monotonically increasing function of the measure that is monogamous for the same state. The statement holds for all quantum states, whether pure or mixed, in all finite dimensions and for an arbitrary number of parties. The monotonically increasing function of the quantum correlation measure satisfies all the properties that are expected for quantum correlations to follow. We illustrate the concepts by considering a thermodynamic measure of quantum correlation, called the quantum work deficit.
Estimation of a monotone percentile residual life function under random censorship.
Franco-Pereira, Alba M; de Uña-Álvarez, Jacobo
2013-01-01
In this paper, we introduce a new estimator of a percentile residual life function with censored data under a monotonicity constraint. Specifically, it is assumed that the percentile residual life is a decreasing function. This assumption is useful when estimating the percentile residual life of units, which degenerate with age. We establish a law of the iterated logarithm for the proposed estimator, and its n-equivalence to the unrestricted estimator. The asymptotic normal distribution of the estimator and its strong approximation to a Gaussian process are also established. We investigate the finite sample performance of the monotone estimator in an extensive simulation study. Finally, data from a clinical trial in primary biliary cirrhosis of the liver are analyzed with the proposed methods. One of the conclusions of our work is that the restricted estimator may be much more efficient than the unrestricted one.
Monotonic and Cyclic Behavior of DIN 34CrNiMo6 Tempered Alloy Steel
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ricardo Branco
2016-04-01
Full Text Available This paper aims at studying the monotonic and cyclic plastic deformation behavior of DIN 34CrNiMo6 high strength steel. Monotonic and low-cycle fatigue tests are conducted in ambient air, at room temperature, using standard 8-mm diameter specimens. The former tests are carried out under position control with constant displacement rate. The latter are performed under fully-reversed strain-controlled conditions, using the single-step test method, with strain amplitudes lying between ±0.4% and ±2.0%. After the tests, the fracture surfaces are examined by scanning electron microscopy in order to characterize the surface morphologies and identify the main failure mechanisms. Regardless of the strain amplitude, a softening behavior was observed throughout the entire life. Total strain energy density, defined as the sum of both tensile elastic and plastic strain energies, was revealed to be an adequate fatigue damage parameter for short and long lives.
Characterisation of steel components under monotonic loading by means of image-based methods
Xavier, J.; Pereira, J. C. R.; de Jesus, A. M. P.
2014-02-01
Ductile damage behaviour of S185 structural steel is determined by coupling numerical and experimental analyses. Monotonic experimental tests are carried out in five different specimen configurations. These mechanical tests are coupled with image-based methods for assessing displacement and strain fields over the gauge section. Three different ductile damage models proposed in the literature for monotonic loading are analysed. Their governing parameters are determined by comparing experimental and numerical mechanical responses. Measurements provided by digital image correlation and feature-tracking methods are used for calibrating and validating non-linear finite element modelling. Numerical analyses built in ANSYS are carried out to compute the necessary parameters (stress-strain and triaxiality histories) to calibrate Johnson-Cook (JC) and Kanvinde-Deierlein (KD) fracture criteria. Also, a calibration of the Gurson-Tvergaard-Needleman (GTN) model is performed based on an explicit finite element analysis in ABAQUS.
Bousquet, Nicolas
2010-01-01
This article deals with the estimation of a probability p of an undesirable event. Its occurence is formalized by the exceedance of a threshold reliability value by the unidimensional output of a time-consuming computer code G with multivariate probabilistic input X. When G is assumed monotonous with respect to X, the Monotonous Reliability Method was proposed by de Rocquigny (2009) in an engineering context to provide sequentially narrowing 100%-confidence bounds and a crude estimate of p, via deterministic or stochastic designs of experiments. The present article consists in a formalization and technical deepening of this idea, as a large basis for future theoretical and applied studies. Three kinds of results are especially emphasized. First, the bounds themselves remain too crude and conservative estimators of p for a dimension of X upper than 2. Second, a maximum-likelihood estimator of p can be easily built, presenting a high variance reduction with respect to a standard Monte Carlo case, but suffering ...
Non-monotonic relationships between emotional arousal and memory for color and location.
Boywitt, C Dennis
2015-01-01
Recent research points to the decreased diagnostic value of subjective retrieval experience for memory accuracy for emotional stimuli. While for neutral stimuli rich recollective experiences are associated with better context memory than merely familiar memories this association appears questionable for emotional stimuli. The present research tested the implicit assumption that the effect of emotional arousal on memory is monotonic, that is, steadily increasing (or decreasing) with increasing arousal. In two experiments emotional arousal was manipulated in three steps using emotional pictures and subjective retrieval experience as well as context memory were assessed. The results show an inverted U-shape relationship between arousal and recognition memory but for context memory and retrieval experience the relationship was more complex. For frame colour, context memory decreased linearly while for spatial location it followed the inverted U-shape function. The complex, non-monotonic relationships between arousal and memory are discussed as possible explanations for earlier divergent findings.
An analysis of single-index model with monotonic link function
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHU Li-ping; YANG Xiao-yan; YU Zhou; LIU Xiang-rong
2008-01-01
The single-index model with monotonic link function is investigated. Firstly,it is showed that the link function h(·) can be viewed by a graphic method. That is,the plot with the fitted response y on the horizontal axis and the observed y on the vertical axis can be used to visualize the link function. It is pointed out that this graphic approach is also applicable even when the link function is not monotonic. Note that many existing nonparametric smoothers can also be used to assess h(·). Therefore,the I-spline approximation of the link function via maximizing the covariance function with a penalty function is investigated in the present work.The consistency of the criterion is constructed. A small simulation is carried out to evidence the efficiency of the approach proposed in the paper.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jian Ding
2014-01-01
Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of P-type iterative learning control for a class of multiple-input multiple-output linear discrete-time systems, whose aim is to develop robust monotonically convergent control law design over a finite frequency range. It is shown that the 2 D iterative learning control processes can be taken as 1 D state space model regardless of relative degree. With the generalized Kalman-Yakubovich-Popov lemma applied, it is feasible to describe the monotonically convergent conditions with the help of linear matrix inequality technique and to develop formulas for the control gain matrices design. An extension to robust control law design against systems with structured and polytopic-type uncertainties is also considered. Two numerical examples are provided to validate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Mishima, J.; Sutter, S.L.; Hawley, K.A.; Jenkins, C.E.; Napier, B.A.
1986-02-01
The Geologic Disposal Alternative, the In-Place Stabilization and Disposal Alternative, and the Reference Disposal Alternative are being evaluated for disposal of Hanford defense high-level, transuranic, and tank wastes. Environmental impacts associated with disposal of these wastes according to the alternatives listed above include potential doses to the downwind population from operation during the application of the handling and processing techniques comprising each disposal alternative. Scenarios for operational accident and abnormal operational events are postulated, on the basis of the currently available information, for the application of the techniques employed for each waste class for each disposal alternative. From these scenarios, an upper-bound airborne release of radioactive material was postulated for each waste class and disposal alternative. Potential downwind radiologic impacts were calculated from these upper-bound events. In all three alternatives, the single postulated event with the largest calculated radiologic impact for any waste class is an explosion of a mixture of ferri/ferro cyanide precipitates during the mechanical retrieval or microwave drying of the salt cake in single shell waste tanks. The anticipated downwind dose (70-year dose commitment) to the maximally exposed individual is 3 rem with a total population dose of 7000 man-rem. The same individual would receive 7 rem from natural background radiation during the same time period, and the same population would receive 3,000,000 man-rem. Radiological impacts to the public from all other postulated accidents would be less than that from this accident; furthermore, the radiological impacts resulting from this accident would be less than one-half that from the natural background radiation dose.
Limero, Thomas; Jones, Jared; Wallace, William; Mudgett, Paul
2015-01-01
The air quality monitor (AQM) began operations on the International Space Station (ISS) in March 2013 and was validated for operational use in January 2014. The AQM is a gas chromatograph-differential mobility spectrometer that currently monitors 22 target compounds in the ISS atmosphere. Data are collected twice per week, although data collection can be more frequent in contingency situations. In its second year, the AQM has provided data to decision-makers on several ISS contaminant related issues in both air and water. AQM has been used in strictly air incidents, such as a potential ammonia leak, and to investigate air contaminants affecting the water processing (excess ethanol). In the latter case data from water monitors and AQM were compared to understand the issue with the water processor. Additionally, the AQM has been moved to different ISS modules to determine whether air is sufficiently mixed between modules so that a central LAB module location is representative of the entire ISS atmosphere. Historic data on the ISS atmosphere in different modules from archival samples (ground lab analysis) suggest that the atmosphere is usually homogenous. This presentation will briefly describe the technical aspects of the AQM operations and summarize the validation results. The main focus of the presentation will be to discuss the results from the AQM survey of the ISS modules and to show how the AQM data has contributed to an understanding of environmental issues that have arisen on ISS. Presentation of a potential ammonia leak (indicated by an alarm) in 2015 will illustrate the use and value of the AQM in such situations.
On the Boundary Limits of Monotone Sobolev Functions in Variable Exponent Orlicz Spaces
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Toshihide FUTAMURA; Tetsu SHIMOMURA
2013-01-01
Our aim in this note is to deal with boundary limits of monotone Sobolev functions with ▽u ∈ Lp(·) logLq(·)(B) for the unit ball B (C) Rn.Here p(·) and q(·) are variable exponents satisfying the log-H(o)lder and the log log-H(o)lder conditions,respectively.
Boundary monotonicity formulae and applications to free boundary problems I: The elliptic case
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Georg S. Weiss
2004-03-01
Full Text Available We derive a monotonicity formula at boundary points for a class of nonlinear elliptic partial differential equations, including the obstacle problem case, quenching, a free boundary problem with Bernoulli-type free boundary condition as well as the blow-up case. As application model we prove - for Dirichlet boundary data satisfying certain assumptions - the global existence of a classical solution of the free boundary problem with Bernoulli-type free boundary condition in two and three dimensions.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
LIU Yong; BAI Yan-qin
2009-01-01
A polynomial interior-point algorithm is presented for monotone linear complementarity problem (MLCP) based on:a class of kernel functions with the general barrier term, which are called general kernel functions. Under the mild conditions for the barrier term, the complexity bound of algorithm in terms of such kernel function and its derivatives is obtained. The approach is actually an extension of the existing work which only used the specific kernel functions for the MLCP.
Coloring intersection graphs of x-monotone curves in the plane
Suk, Andrew
2012-01-01
A class of graphs G is \\chi-bounded if the chromatic number of the graphs in G is bounded by some function of their clique number. We show that the class of intersection graphs of simple x-monotone curves in the plane intersecting a vertical line is \\chi-bounded. As a corollary, the class of intersection graphs of rays in the plane is \\chi-bounded.
Asian Option Pricing with Monotonous Transaction Costs under Fractional Brownian Motion
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Di Pan
2013-01-01
Full Text Available Geometric-average Asian option pricing model with monotonous transaction cost rate under fractional Brownian motion was established. The method of partial differential equations was used to solve this model and the analytical expressions of the Asian option value were obtained. The numerical experiments show that Hurst exponent of the fractional Brownian motion and transaction cost rate have a significant impact on the option value.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2008-01-01
Based on a differentiable merit function proposed by Taji,et al in "Mathematical Programming,1993,58: 369-383",a projected gradient trust region method for the monotone variational inequality problem with convex constraints is presented.Theoretical analysis is given which proves that the proposed algorithm is globally convergent and has a local quadratic convergence rate under some reasonable conditions.The results of numerical experiments are reported to show the effectiveness of the proposed algorithm.
Isochronous relaxation curves for type 304 stainless steel after monotonic and cyclic strain
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Swindeman, R.W.
1978-01-01
Relaxation tests to 100 hr were performed on type 304 stainless steel in the temperature range 480 to 650/sup 0/C and were used to develop isochronous relaxation curves. Behavior after monotonic and cyclic strain was compared. Relaxation differed only slightly as a consequence of the type of previous strain, provided that plastic flow preceded the relaxation period. We observed that the short-time relaxation behavior did not manifest strong heat-to-heat variation in creep strength.
Gollub, Caroline; Kowalewski, Markus; de Vivie-Riedle, Regina
2008-08-15
We present a modified optimal control scheme based on the Krotov method, which allows for strict limitations on the spectrum of the optimized laser fields. A frequency constraint is introduced and derived mathematically correct, without losing monotonic convergence of the algorithm. The method guarantees a close link to learning loop control experiments and is demonstrated for the challenging control of nonresonant Raman transitions, which are used to implement a set of global quantum gates for molecular vibrational qubits.
Risk-Sensitive Control of Pure Jump Process on Countable Space with Near Monotone Cost
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Suresh Kumar, K., E-mail: suresh@math.iitb.ac.in; Pal, Chandan, E-mail: cpal@math.iitb.ac.in [Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, Department of Mathematics (India)
2013-12-15
In this article, we study risk-sensitive control problem with controlled continuous time pure jump process on a countable space as state dynamics. We prove multiplicative dynamic programming principle, elliptic and parabolic Harnack’s inequalities. Using the multiplicative dynamic programing principle and the Harnack’s inequalities, we prove the existence and a characterization of optimal risk-sensitive control under the near monotone condition.
Diagnosis of constant faults in iteration-free circuits over monotone basis
Alrawaf, Saad Abdullah
2014-03-01
We show that for each iteration-free combinatorial circuit S over a basis B containing only monotone Boolean functions with at most five variables, there exists a decision tree for diagnosis of constant faults on inputs of gates with depth at most 7L(S) where L(S) is the number of gates in S. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Monotone Regression and Correction for Order Relation Deviations in Indicator Kriging
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Han Yan; Yang Yiheng
2008-01-01
The indicator kriging (IK) is one of the most efficient nonparametric methods in geo-statistics. The order relation problem in the conditional cumulative distribution values obtained by IK is the most severe drawback of it. The correction of order relation deviations is an essential and important part of IK approach. A monotone regression was proposed as a new correction method which could minimize the deviation from original quintiles value, although, ensuring all order relations.
Inelastic behavior of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loading
Brünig, Michael
2015-01-01
This book presents studies on the inelastic behavior of materials and structures under monotonic and cyclic loads. It focuses on the description of new effects like purely thermal cycles or cases of non-trivial damages. The various models are based on different approaches and methods and scaling aspects are taken into account. In addition to purely phenomenological models, the book also presents mechanisms-based approaches. It includes contributions written by leading authors from a host of different countries.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
BuSeog Ju
2015-08-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the seismic fragility of piping systems based on monotonic experimental tests. The fragility, conditional probability of failure for a given level of intensity measure, generally used to evaluate the structural safety and indentify the fault tree with respect to seismically induced failures. The nonlinear FE models of threaded T-joint systems based on monotonic experimental results were developed in OpenSees, using the ElasticPPGap material. In order to evaluate the seismic fragility of Tjoint piping systems, 1-inch and 2-inch threaded T-joint systems, were incorporated with main hospital piping system, and multiple nonlinear time history analyses related to Monte Carlo simulation were conducted. Consequently, seismic fragility of piping system at 1-inch and 2-inch threaded T-joint connections corresponding to ductility level was developed. It was interesting to observe that 2-inch threaded T-joint was more fragile rather than 1-inch threaded T-joint, based on the nonlinear FE model by monotonic tests and also location 1 was more fragile rather than location 2 for both 1-inch and 2-inch T-joint.
Generalized monotone method and numerical approach for coupled reaction diffusion systems
Sowmya, M.; Vatsala, Aghalaya S.
2017-01-01
Study of coupled reaction diffusion systems are very useful in various branches of science and engineering. In this paper, we provide a methodology to construct the solution for the coupled reaction diffusion systems, with initial and boundary conditions, where the forcing function is the sum of an increasing and decreasing function. It is known that the generalized monotone method coupled with coupled lower and upper solutions yield monotone sequences which converges uniformly and monotonically to coupled minimal and maximal solutions. In addition, the interval of existence is guaranteed by the lower and upper solutions, which are relatively easy to compute. Using the lower and upper solutions as the initial approximation, we develop a method to compute the sequence of coupled lower and upper solutions on the interval or on the desired interval of existence. Further, if the uniqueness conditions are satisfied, the coupled minimal and maximal solutions converge to the unique solution of the reaction diffusion systems. We will provide some numerical results as an application of our numerical methodology.
Non-monotonic effect of growth temperature on carrier collection in SnS solar cells
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chakraborty, R.; Steinmann, V.; Mangan, N. M.; Brandt, R. E.; Poindexter, J. R.; Jaramillo, R.; Mailoa, J. P.; Hartman, K.; Polizzotti, A.; Buonassisi, T. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Yang, C.; Gordon, R. G. [Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02138 (United States)
2015-05-18
We quantify the effects of growth temperature on material and device properties of thermally evaporated SnS thin-films and test structures. Grain size, Hall mobility, and majority-carrier concentration monotonically increase with growth temperature. However, the charge collection as measured by the long-wavelength contribution to short-circuit current exhibits a non-monotonic behavior: the collection decreases with increased growth temperature from 150 °C to 240 °C and then recovers at 285 °C. Fits to the experimental internal quantum efficiency using an opto-electronic model indicate that the non-monotonic behavior of charge-carrier collection can be explained by a transition from drift- to diffusion-assisted components of carrier collection. The results show a promising increase in the extracted minority-carrier diffusion length at the highest growth temperature of 285 °C. These findings illustrate how coupled mechanisms can affect early stage device development, highlighting the critical role of direct materials property measurements and simulation.
Sun, Dan
2011-10-24
Formic acid is a highly energetic electron donor but it has previously resulted in low power densities in microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Three different set anode potentials (-0.30, -0.15, and +0.15V; vs. a standard hydrogen electrode, SHE) were used to evaluate syntrophic interactions in bacterial communities for formic acid degradation relative to a non-controlled, high resistance system (1,000Ω external resistance). No current was generated at -0.30V, suggesting a lack of direct formic acid oxidation (standard reduction potential: -0.40V). More positive potentials that allowed for acetic acid utilization all produced current, with the best performance at -0.15V. The anode community in the -0.15V reactor, based on 16S rDNA clone libraries, was 58% Geobacter sulfurreducens and 17% Acetobacterium, with lower proportions of these genera found in the other two MFCs. Acetic acid was detected in all MFCs suggesting that current generation by G. sulfurreducens was dependent on acetic acid production by Acetobacterium. When all MFCs were subsequently operated at an external resistance for maximum power production (100Ω for MFCs originally set at -0.15 and +0.15V; 150Ω for the control), they produced similar power densities and exhibited the same midpoint potential of -0.15V in first derivative cyclic voltammetry scans. All of the mixed communities converged to similar proportions of the two predominant genera (ca. 52% G. sulfurreducens and 22% Acetobacterium). These results show that syntrophic interactions can be enhanced through setting certain anode potentials, and that long-term performance produces stable and convergent communities. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Kassotis, Christopher D.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Lin, Chung-Ho; McElroy, Jane A.; Nagel, Susan C.
2015-01-01
Background: Hydraulic fracturing technologies, developed over the last 65 years, have only recently been combined with horizontal drilling to unlock oil and gas reserves previously deemed inaccessible. While these technologies have dramatically increased domestic oil and natural gas production, they have also raised concerns for the potential contamination of local water supplies with the approximately 1,000 chemicals used throughout the process, including many known or suspected endocrine-disrupting chemicals.Objectives: We discuss the need for an endocrine component to health assessments for drilling-dense regions in the context of hormonal and anti-hormonal activities for chemicals used.Methods: We discuss the literature on 1) surface and ground water contamination by oil and gas extraction operations, and 2) potential human exposure, particularly in context of the total hormonal and anti-hormonal activities present in surface and ground water from natural and anthropogenic sources, with initial analytical results and critical knowledge gaps discussed.Discussion: In light of the potential for environmental release of oil and gas chemicals that can disrupt hormone receptor systems, we recommend methods for assessing complex hormonally active environmental mixtures.Conclusions: We describe a need for an endocrine-centric component for overall health assessments and provide supporting information that using this may help explain reported adverse health trends as well as help develop recommendations for environmental impact assessments and monitoring programs.
Cannon, Alex
2017-04-01
Estimating historical trends in short-duration rainfall extremes at regional and local scales is challenging due to low signal-to-noise ratios and the limited availability of homogenized observational data. In addition to being of scientific interest, trends in rainfall extremes are of practical importance, as their presence calls into question the stationarity assumptions that underpin traditional engineering and infrastructure design practice. Even with these fundamental challenges, increasingly complex questions are being asked about time series of extremes. For instance, users may not only want to know whether or not rainfall extremes have changed over time, they may also want information on the modulation of trends by large-scale climate modes or on the nonstationarity of trends (e.g., identifying hiatus periods or periods of accelerating positive trends). Efforts have thus been devoted to the development and application of more robust and powerful statistical estimators for regional and local scale trends. While a standard nonparametric method like the regional Mann-Kendall test, which tests for the presence of monotonic trends (i.e., strictly non-decreasing or non-increasing changes), makes fewer assumptions than parametric methods and pools information from stations within a region, it is not designed to visualize detected trends, include information from covariates, or answer questions about the rate of change in trends. As a remedy, monotone quantile regression (MQR) has been developed as a nonparametric alternative that can be used to estimate a common monotonic trend in extremes at multiple stations. Quantile regression makes efficient use of data by directly estimating conditional quantiles based on information from all rainfall data in a region, i.e., without having to precompute the sample quantiles. The MQR method is also flexible and can be used to visualize and analyze the nonlinearity of the detected trend. However, it is fundamentally a
ON SHAPE-PRESERVING PROPERTIES AND SIMULTANEOUS APPROXIMATION OF STANCU OPERATOR
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
Lianying Yun; Xueyan Xiang
2008-01-01
In the present paper,the shape-preserving properties and the monotonicity for convex functions of Stancu operator are given.Moreover,the simultaneous approximation problems of this operator are also considered.
Fitzgerald, Ryan; Karanassios, Vassili
2017-05-01
There are many applications requiring chemical analysis in the field and analytical results in (near) real-time. For example, when accidental spills occur. In others, collecting samples in the field followed by analysis in a lab increases costs and introduces time-delays. In such cases, "bring part of the lab to the sample" would be ideal. Toward this ideal (and to further reduce size and weight), we developed a relatively inexpensive, battery-operated, wireless data acquisition hardware system around an Arduino nano micro-controller and a 16-bit ADC (Analog-to- Digital Converter) with a max sampling rate of 860 samples/s. The hardware communicates the acquired data using low-power Bluetooth. Software for data acquisition and data display was written in Python. Potential ways of making the hardware-software approach described here a part of the Internet-of-Things (IoT) are presented.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Samuel J. G. Cooper
2013-06-01
Full Text Available This work considers the potential reduction in the carbon dioxide emissions associated with the operation of Air Source Heat Pump which could be achieved by using demand side management. In order to achieve significant reductions in carbon dioxide emissions, it is widely envisioned that electrification of the heating sector will need to be combined with decarbonisation of the electrical supply. By influencing the times at when electric heat pumps operate such that they coincide more with electricity generation which has a low marginal carbon emissions factor, it has been suggested that these emissions could be reduced further. In order to investigate this possibility, models of the UK electrical grid based on scenarios for 2020 to 2050 have been combined with a dynamic model of an air source heat pump unit and thermal models of a population of dwellings. The performance and carbon dioxide emissions associated with the heat pumps are compared both with and without demand side management interventions intended to give preference to operation when the marginal emissions factor of the electricity being generated is low. It is found that these interventions are unlikely to be effective at achieving further reductions in emissions. A reduction of around 3% was observed in scenarios based around 2035 but in other scenarios the reduction was insignificant. In the scenarios with high wind generation (2050, the DSM scheme considered here tends to improve thermal comfort (with minimal increases in emissions rather than achieving a decrease in emissions. The reasons for this are discussed and further recommendations are made.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Ivo Mulec
2012-06-01
Full Text Available Vojvodina is an autonomous region of Serbia, and has the potential tobecome a successful tourism destination. Twenty years of changes haveelapsed since the disintegration of Yugoslavia, and destination plannersin Vojvodina are now looking to accommodate visitors and generateservice related jobs. The method for collecting data was through surveyresponses from those in the travel industry. The objective for conductingthis research is to analyze the knowledge and awareness of the developingdestination of Vojvodina. From here, it is possible to get a senseof the region’s awareness, and role tour operators and travel agents actas opinion makers in promoting destinations to their clientele. Resultssuggest that Vojvodina is not known as a tourism destination amongforeign travel experts; furthermore, this would suggest that their clientelebase is not informed of this region of Serbia as a tourism destination.Although not known, this is better than having a negative image.With a non-image, tour operators and travel agents then have the abilityto creatively market and promote an image that will generate furtherawareness of the Vojvodina region as an emerging tourism destination.
Orbital motion theory and operational regimes for cylindrical emissive probes
Chen, Xin; Sanchez-Arriaga, G.
2017-02-01
A full-kinetic model based on the orbital-motion theory for cylindrical emissive probes (EPs) is presented. The conservation of the distribution function, the energy, and the angular momentum for cylindrical probes immersed in collisionless and stationary plasmas is used to write the Vlasov-Poisson system as a single integro-differential equation. It describes self-consistently the electrostatic potential profile and, consequently, the current-voltage (I-V) probe characteristics. Its numerical solutions are used to identify different EP operational regimes, including orbital-motion-limited (OML)/non-OML current collection and monotonic/non-monotonic potential, in the parametric domain of probe bias and emission level. The most important features of the potential and density profiles are presented and compared with common approximations in the literature. Conventional methods to measure plasma potential with EPs are briefly revisited. A direct application of the model is to estimate plasma parameters by fitting I-V measurements to the theoretical results.
Kang, Yun
2011-01-01
Combined with all density-dependent factors, the per capita growth rate of a species may be non-monotonic. One important consequence is that species may suffer from weak Allee effects or strong Allee effects. In this paper, we study the permanence of a discrete-time two-species-interaction model with non-monotonic per capita growth rates for the first time. By using the average Lyapunov functions and extending the ecological concept of the relative nonlinearity, we find a simple sufficient condition for guaranteeing the permanence of systems that can model complicated two-species interactions. The extended relative nonlinearity allows us to fully characterize the effects of nonlinearities in the per capita growth functions with non-monotonicity. These results are illustrated with specific two species competition and predator-prey models of generic forms with non-monotone per capita growth rates.
Voorspoels, Wouter; Navarro, Daniel J; Perfors, Amy; Ransom, Keith; Storms, Gert
2015-09-01
A robust finding in category-based induction tasks is for positive observations to raise the willingness to generalize to other categories while negative observations lower the willingness to generalize. This pattern is referred to as monotonic generalization. Across three experiments we find systematic non-monotonicity effects, in which negative observations raise the willingness to generalize. Experiments 1 and 2 show that this effect emerges in hierarchically structured domains when a negative observation from a different category is added to a positive observation. They also demonstrate that this is related to a specific kind of shift in the reasoner's hypothesis space. Experiment 3 shows that the effect depends on the assumptions that the reasoner makes about how inductive arguments are constructed. Non-monotonic reasoning occurs when people believe the facts were put together by a helpful communicator, but monotonicity is restored when they believe the observations were sampled randomly from the environment.
Lv Yu-Pei; Sun Tian-Chuan; Chu Yu-Ming
2011-01-01
Abstract We prove that the function F α,β (x) = x α Γ β (x)/Γ(βx) is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β) : β > 0, β ≥ 2α + 1, β ≥ α + 1}{(α, β) : α = 0, β = 1} and that [F α,β (x)]-1 is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β ...
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Qi, Feng; Berg, Christian
2013-01-01
In the paper, the authors find necessary and sufficient conditions for a difference between the exponential function αeβ/t, α, β > 0, and the trigamma function ψ (t) to be completely monotonic on (0,∞). While proving the complete onotonicity, the authors discover some properties related to the fi...... to the first order modified Bessel function of the first kind I1, including inequalities, monotonicity, unimodality, and convexity....
Lv Yu-Pei; Sun Tian-Chuan; Chu Yu-Ming
2011-01-01
Abstract We prove that the function F α,β (x) = x α Γ β (x)/Γ(βx) is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β) : β > 0, β ≥ 2α + 1, β ≥ α + 1}{(α, β) : α = 0, β = 1} and that [F α,β (x)]-1 is strictly logarithmically completely monotonic on (0, ∞) if and only if (α, β) ∈ {(α, β ...
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Alta Knizley
2015-12-01
Full Text Available This paper focuses on the analysis of a combined heat and power (CHP system utilizing two power generation units operating simultaneously under differing operational strategies (D-CHP on the basis of operational cost savings. A cost optimization metric, based on the facility monthly power-to-heat ratio (PHR, is presented in this paper. The PHR is defined as the ratio between the facility electric load and thermal load. Previous work in this field has suggested that D-CHP system performance may be improved by limiting operation of the system to months in which the PHR is relatively low. The focus of this paper is to illustrate how the facility PHR parameter could be used to establish the potential of a D-CHP system to reduce operational cost with respect to traditional CHP systems and conventional systems with separate heating and power. This paper analyzes the relationship between the PHR and the operational cost savings of eight different benchmark buildings. Achieving operational cost savings through optimal operation based on monthly PHR for these building types can enhance the implementation potential of D-CHP and CHP systems. Results indicate that the PHR parameter can be used to predict the potential for a D-CHP system to reduce the operational cost.
Horizontal Monotonicity of the Modulus of the Riemann Zeta Function and Related Functions
Matiyasevich, Yuri; Zvengrowski, Peter
2012-01-01
It is shown that the absolute values of Riemann's zeta function and two related functions strictly decrease when the imaginary part of the argument is fixed to any number with absolute value at least 8 and the real part of the argument is negative and increases up to 0; extending this monotonicity to the increase of the real part up to 1/2 is shown to be equivalent to the Riemann Hypothesis. Another result is a double inequality relating the real parts of the logarithmic derivatives of the three functions under consideration.
Short Time Uniqueness Results for Solutions of Nonlocal and Non-monotone Geometric Equations
Barles, Guy; Mitake, Hiroyoshi
2010-01-01
We describe a method to show short time uniqueness results for viscosity solutions of general nonlocal and non-monotone second-order geometric equations arising in front propagation problems. Our method is based on some lower gradient bounds for the solution. These estimates are crucial to obtain regularity properties of the front, which allow to deal with nonlocal terms in the equations. Applications to short time uniqueness results for the initial value problems for dislocation type equations, asymptotic equations of a FitzHugh-Nagumo type system and equations depending on the Lebesgue measure of the fronts are presented.
Non-monotonicity in the quantum-classical transition: Chaos induced by quantum effects
Kapulkin, A; Kapulkin, Arie; Pattanayak, Arjendu K.
2007-01-01
The transition from classical to quantum behavior for chaotic systems is understood to be accompanied by the suppression of chaotic effects as the relative size of $\\hbar$ is increased. We show evidence to the contrary in the behavior of the quantum trajectory dynamics of a dissipative quantum chaotic system, the double-well Duffing oscillator. The classical limit in the case considered has regular behavior, but as the effective $\\hbar$ is increased we see chaotic behavior. This chaos then disappears deeper into the quantum regime, which means that the quantum-classical transition in this case is non-monotonic in $\\hbar$.
An improved proximal-based decomposition method for structured monotone variational inequalities
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
无
2007-01-01
The proximal-based decomposition method was originally proposed by Chen and Teboulle (Math. Programming, 1994, 64:81-101 for solving convex minimization problems. This paper extends it to solving monotone variational inequalities associated with separable structures with the improvements that the restrictive assumptions on the involved parameters are much relaxed, and thus makes it practical to solve the subproblems easily. Without additional assumptions, global convergence of the new method is proved under the same mild assumptions on the problem's data as the original method.
Time-optimal monotonic convergent algorithms for the control of quantum systems
Lapert, M; Sugny, D
2012-01-01
We present a new formulation of monotonically convergent algorithms which allows to optimize both the control duration and the field fluence. A standard algorithm designs a control field of fixed duration which both brings the system close to the target state and minimizes its fluence, whereas here we include in addition the optimization of the duration in the cost functional. We apply this new algorithm to the control of spin systems in Nuclear Magnetic Resonance. We show how to implement CNOT gates in systems of two and four coupled spins.
Constructive techniques for zeros of monotone mappings in certain Banach spaces.
Diop, C; Sow, T M M; Djitte, N; Chidume, C E
2015-01-01
Let E be a 2-uniformly convex real Banach space with uniformly Gâteaux differentiable norm, and [Formula: see text] its dual space. Let [Formula: see text] be a bounded strongly monotone mapping such that [Formula: see text] For given [Formula: see text] let [Formula: see text] be generated by the algorithm: [Formula: see text]where J is the normalized duality mapping from E into [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] is a real sequence in (0, 1) satisfying suitable conditions. Then it is proved that [Formula: see text] converges strongly to the unique point [Formula: see text] Finally, our theorems are applied to the convex minimization problem.
H∞ approach to monotonically convergent ILC for uncertain time-varying delay systems
Meng, Deyuan; Jia, Yingmin; Du, Junping
2015-01-01
This paper deals with iterative learning control (ILC) design for uncertain time-delay systems. Monotonic convergence of the resulting ILC process is studied, and a sufficient condition within an H∞-based framework is developed. It is shown that under this framework, delay-dependent conditions can be obtained in terms of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs), together with formulas for gain matrices design. A numerical example is provided to illustrate the effectiveness of the robust H∞-based approach to ILC designed via LMIs.
Roughness’s shapes comparative analysis of some reinforced earth elements under monotonous loading
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Mohamed Khemissa
2015-09-01
Full Text Available This paper presents and analyzes the experimental and numerical results of a series of pullout tests under monotonous loading performed on five steel strips presenting various forms of roughness (smooth, ribbed, punched, W-shaped, chain and embedded in the same dry sand massif constituting the backfill. The pullout tests were conducted by means of a small-scale model and the calculations carried out by using a finite elements computer program. Obtained results show a good agreement between the experimental and numerical data. They show in addition that the rough strips are more advantageous than the smooth strip. Among the rough strips considered, chain is most relevant.
Monotone Approximations of Minimum and Maximum Functions and Multi-objective Problems
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Stipanovic, Dusan M., E-mail: dusan@illinois.edu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Coordinated Science Laboratory, Department of Industrial and Enterprise Systems Engineering (United States); Tomlin, Claire J., E-mail: tomlin@eecs.berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science (United States); Leitmann, George, E-mail: gleit@berkeley.edu [University of California at Berkeley, College of Engineering (United States)
2012-12-15
In this paper the problem of accomplishing multiple objectives by a number of agents represented as dynamic systems is considered. Each agent is assumed to have a goal which is to accomplish one or more objectives where each objective is mathematically formulated using an appropriate objective function. Sufficient conditions for accomplishing objectives are derived using particular convergent approximations of minimum and maximum functions depending on the formulation of the goals and objectives. These approximations are differentiable functions and they monotonically converge to the corresponding minimum or maximum function. Finally, an illustrative pursuit-evasion game example with two evaders and two pursuers is provided.
Monotonicity Conditions for Multirate and Partitioned Explicit Runge-Kutta Schemes
Hundsdorfer, Willem
2013-01-01
Multirate schemes for conservation laws or convection-dominated problems seem to come in two flavors: schemes that are locally inconsistent, and schemes that lack mass-conservation. In this paper these two defects are discussed for one-dimensional conservation laws. Particular attention will be given to monotonicity properties of the multirate schemes, such as maximum principles and the total variation diminishing (TVD) property. The study of these properties will be done within the framework of partitioned Runge-Kutta methods. It will also be seen that the incompatibility of consistency and mass-conservation holds for ‘genuine’ multirate schemes, but not for general partitioned methods.
Positive and monotone solutions of an m-point boundary-value problem
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Panos K. Palamides
2002-02-01
Full Text Available We study the second-order ordinary differential equation $$ y''(t=-f(t,y(t,y'(t,quad 0leq tleq 1, $$ subject to the multi-point boundary conditions $$ alpha y(0pm eta y'(0=0,quad y(1=sum_{i=1}^{m-2}alpha_iy(xi_i,. $$ We prove the existence of a positive solution (and monotone in some cases under superlinear and/or sublinear growth rate in $f$. Our approach is based on an analysis of the corresponding vector field on the $(y,y'$ face-plane and on Kneser's property for the solution's funnel.
Approximating the Influence of a monotone Boolean function in O(\\sqrt{n}) query complexity
Ron, Dana; Rubinfeld, Ronitt; Safra, Muli; Weinstein, Omri
2011-01-01
The {\\em Total Influence} ({\\em Average Sensitivity) of a discrete function is one of its fundamental measures. We study the problem of approximating the total influence of a monotone Boolean function \\ifnum\\plusminus=1 $f: \\{\\pm1\\}^n \\longrightarrow \\{\\pm1\\}$, \\else $f: \\bitset^n \\to \\bitset$, \\fi which we denote by $I[f]$. We present a randomized algorithm that approximates the influence of such functions to within a multiplicative factor of $(1\\pm \\eps)$ by performing $O(\\frac{\\sqrt{n}\\log...
A weakly monotonic backward induction algorithm on finite bounded subsets of vector lattices
Dragut, A. B.
2004-03-01
We present a new efficient and robust backward induction algorithm, which is weakly monotonic, working on bounded subsets without holes of lattices. We prove all its properties, give examples of applications, and illustrate its behavior, comparing it with the natural extension of the unidimensional algorithm presented in Puterman (Markov Decision Processes: Discrete Stochastic Dynamic Programming, Wiley, New York, 1994), in the sense of Topkis (Frontiers of Economic Research Series, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 1998) and White (Recent Developments in Markov Decision Processes, Academic Press, New York, 1980, 261) and showing, also experimentally, that it is much more efficient.
Song, Z. Q.; Ni, Y.; Peng, L. M.; Liang, H. Y.; He, L. H.
2016-03-01
Bioinspired discontinuous nanolaminate design becomes an efficient way to mitigate the strength-ductility tradeoff in brittle materials via arresting the crack at the interface followed by controllable interface failure. The analytical solution and numerical simulation based on the nonlinear shear-lag model indicates that propagation of the interface failure can be unstable or stable when the interfacial shear stress between laminae is uniform or highly localized, respectively. A dimensionless key parameter defined by the ratio of two characteristic lengths governs the transition between the two interface-failure modes, which can explain the non-monotonic size-dependent mechanical properties observed in various laminate composites.
Hirota, Makoto; Morrison, Philip J.
2016-05-01
Linear stability of inviscid, parallel, and stably stratified shear flow is studied under the assumption of smooth strictly monotonic profiles of shear flow and density, so that the local Richardson number is positive everywhere. The marginally unstable modes are systematically found by solving a one-parameter family of regular Sturm-Liouville problems, which can determine the stability boundaries more efficiently than solving the Taylor-Goldstein equation directly. By arguing for the non-existence of a marginally unstable mode, we derive new sufficient conditions for stability, which generalize the Rayleigh-Fjørtoft criterion for unstratified shear flows.
Monotone projected gradient methods for large-scale box-constrained quadratic programming
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHOU Bin; GAO Li; DAI Yuhong
2006-01-01
Inspired by the success of the projected Barzilai-Borwein (PBB) method for largescale box-constrained quadratic programming, we propose and analyze the monotone projected gradient methods in this paper. We show by experiments and analyses that for the new methods,it is generally a bad option to compute steplengths based on the negative gradients. Thus in our algorithms, some continuous or discontinuous projected gradients are used instead to compute the steplengths. Numerical experiments on a wide variety of test problems are presented, indicating that the new methods usually outperform the PBB method.
A predictor-corrector interior-point algorithm for monotone variational inequality problems
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
梁昔明; 钱积新
2002-01-01
Mehrotra's recent suggestion of a predictor-corrector variant of primal-dual interior-point method for linear programming is currently the interior-point method of choice for linear programming. In this work the authors give a predictor-corrector interior-point algorithm for monotone variational inequality problems. The algorithm was proved to be equivalent to a level-1 perturbed composite Newton method. Computations in the algorithm do not require the initial iteration to be feasible. Numerical results of experiments are presented.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
LaGory, K.E.; Van Lonkhuyzen, R.A. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States). Ecological Sciences Section
1995-06-01
Four hydropower operational scenarios at Flaming Gorge Dam were evaluated to determine their potential effects on riparian vegetation along the Green River in Utah and Colorado. Data collected in June 1992 indicated that elevation above the river had the largest influence on plant distribution. A lower riparian zone occupied the area between the approximate elevations of 800 and 4,200-cfs flows--the area within the range of hydropower operational releases. The lower zone was dominated by wetland plants such as cattail, common spikerush, coyote willow, juncus, and carex. An upper riparian zone was above the elevation of historical maximum power plant releases from the dam (4,200 cfs), and it generally supported plants adapted to mesic, nonwetland conditions. Common species in the upper zone included box elder, rabbitbrush, grasses, golden aster, and scouring rush. Multispectral aerial videography of the Green River was collected in May and June 1992 to determine the relationship between flow and the areas of water and the riparian zone. From these relationships, it was estimated that the upper zone would decrease in extent by about 5% with year-round high fluctuation, seasonally adjusted high fluctuation, and seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation, but it would increase by about 8% under seasonally adjusted steady flow. The lower zone would increase by about 13% for both year-round and seasonally adjusted high fluctuation scenarios but would decrease by about 40% and 74% for seasonally adjusted moderate fluctuation and steady flows, respectively. These changes are considered to be relatively minor and would leave pre-dam riparian vegetation unaffected. Occasional high releases above power plant capacity would be needed for long-term maintenance of this relict vegetation.
Mapping axonal density and average diameter using non-monotonic time-dependent gradient-echo MRI
Nunes, Daniel; Cruz, Tomás L.; Jespersen, Sune N.; Shemesh, Noam
2017-04-01
White Matter (WM) microstructures, such as axonal density and average diameter, are crucial to the normal function of the Central Nervous System (CNS) as they are closely related with axonal conduction velocities. Conversely, disruptions of these microstructural features may result in severe neurological deficits, suggesting that their noninvasive mapping could be an important step towards diagnosing and following pathophysiology. Whereas diffusion based MRI methods have been proposed to map these features, they typically entail the application of powerful gradients, which are rarely available in the clinic, or extremely long acquisition schemes to extract information from parameter-intensive models. In this study, we suggest that simple and time-efficient multi-gradient-echo (MGE) MRI can be used to extract the axon density from susceptibility-driven non-monotonic decay in the time-dependent signal. We show, both theoretically and with simulations, that a non-monotonic signal decay will occur for multi-compartmental microstructures - such as axons and extra-axonal spaces, which were here used as a simple model for the microstructure - and that, for axons parallel to the main magnetic field, the axonal density can be extracted. We then experimentally demonstrate in ex-vivo rat spinal cords that its different tracts - characterized by different microstructures - can be clearly contrasted using the MGE-derived maps. When the quantitative results are compared against ground-truth histology, they reflect the axonal fraction (though with a bias, as evident from Bland-Altman analysis). As well, the extra-axonal fraction can be estimated. The results suggest that our model is oversimplified, yet at the same time evidencing a potential and usefulness of the approach to map underlying microstructures using a simple and time-efficient MRI sequence. We further show that a simple general-linear-model can predict the average axonal diameters from the four model parameters, and
Non-monotonic swelling of surface grafted hydrogels induced by pH and/or salt concentration
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Longo, Gabriel S. [Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicoquímicas Teóricas y Aplicadas (INIFTA), CONICET, La Plata (Argentina); Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Olvera de la Cruz, Monica [Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Szleifer, I., E-mail: igal@northwestern.edu [Department of Biomedical Engineering, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Chemistry of Life Processes Institute, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States); Department of Chemistry, Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois 60208 (United States)
2014-09-28
We use a molecular theory to study the thermodynamics of a weak-polyacid hydrogel film that is chemically grafted to a solid surface. We investigate the response of the material to changes in the pH and salt concentration of the buffer solution. Our results show that the pH-triggered swelling of the hydrogel film has a non-monotonic dependence on the acidity of the bath solution. At most salt concentrations, the thickness of the hydrogel film presents a maximum when the pH of the solution is increased from acidic values. The quantitative details of such swelling behavior, which is not observed when the film is physically deposited on the surface, depend on the molecular architecture of the polymer network. This swelling-deswelling transition is the consequence of the complex interplay between the chemical free energy (acid-base equilibrium), the electrostatic repulsions between charged monomers, which are both modulated by the absorption of ions, and the ability of the polymer network to regulate charge and control its volume (molecular organization). In the absence of such competition, for example, for high salt concentrations, the film swells monotonically with increasing pH. A deswelling-swelling transition is similarly predicted as a function of the salt concentration at intermediate pH values. This reentrant behavior, which is due to the coupling between charge regulation and the two opposing effects triggered by salt concentration (screening electrostatic interactions and charging/discharging the acid groups), is similar to that found in end-grafted weak polyelectrolyte layers. Understanding how to control the response of the material to different stimuli, in terms of its molecular structure and local chemical composition, can help the targeted design of applications with extended functionality. We describe the response of the material to an applied pressure and an electric potential. We present profiles that outline the local chemical composition of the
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others
1994-06-01
Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL) and Sandia National Labs. (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The objective of this volume of the report is to document the approach utilized in the level-1 internal events PRA for the Surry plant, and discuss the results obtained. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1, which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis examining accidents initiated by internal events (including internal fire and flood) was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis.
Das, Tapas
2015-01-01
The second order $N$-dimensional Schr\\"odinger equation with pseudoharmonic potential is reduced to a first order differential equation by using the Laplace transform approach and exact bound state solutions are obtained using convolution theorem. Our results generalize all other previous works that done for various potential combinations in the case of lower dimensions.The Ladder operators are also constructed for the pseudoharmonic potential in $N$-dimensions.Lie algebra associated with these operators are studied and found that they satisfy the commutation relations for the SU(1,1) group. Matrix elements of different operators such as $z$, $z\\frac{d}{dz}$ are derived and finally the Casimir operator is discussed briefly.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Constantin E. Chalioris
2013-01-01
Full Text Available This paper presents the findings of an experimental study on the application of a reinforced self-compacting concrete jacketing technique in damaged reinforced concrete beams. Test results of 12 specimens subjected to monotonic loading up to failure or under repeated loading steps prior to total failure are included. First, 6 beams were designed to be shear dominated, constructed by commonly used concrete, were initially tested, damaged, and failed in a brittle manner. Afterwards, the shear-damaged beams were retrofitted using a self-compacting concrete U-formed jacket that consisted of small diameter steel bars and U-formed stirrups in order to increase their shear resistance and potentially to alter their initially observed shear response to a more ductile one. The jacketed beams were retested under the same loading. Test results indicated that the application of reinforced self-compacting concrete jacketing in damaged reinforced concrete beams is a promising rehabilitation technique. All the jacketed beams showed enhanced overall structural response and 35% to 50% increased load bearing capacities. The ultimate shear load of the jacketed beams varied from 39.7 to 42.0 kN, whereas the capacity of the original beams was approximately 30% lower. Further, all the retrofitted specimens exhibited typical flexural response with high values of deflection ductility.
An, J
2012-01-01
Under the separability assumption on the augmented density, a distribution function can be always constructed for a spherical population with the specified density and anisotropy profile. Then, a question arises, under what conditions the distribution constructed as such is non-negative everywhere in the entire accessible subvolume of the phase-space. We rediscover necessary conditions on the augmented density expressed with fractional calculus. The condition on the radius part R(r^2) -- whose logarithmic derivative is the anisotropy parameter -- is equivalent to R(1/w)/w being a completely monotonic function whereas the condition on the potential part is stated as its derivative up to the order not greater than 3/2-b being non-negative (where b is the central limiting value for the anisotropy parameter). We also derive the set of sufficient conditions on the separable augmented density for the non-negativity of the distribution, which generalizes the condition derived for the generalized Cuddeford system by ...
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Yuan, Yue; Matsumoto, Tsuneo; Hiyama, Atsuto; Miura, Goji; Tanaka, Nobuyuki; Emoto, Takuya; Kawamura, Takeo; Matsunaga, Naofumi [Department of Radiology, Yamaguchi University School of Medicine, 1-1-1 Minamikogushi, Ube, 755-8505, Yamaguchi (Japan)
2003-11-01
The aim of this study was to assess the probability of malignancy in one or two small nodules 1 cm or less coexisting with potentially operable lung cancer (coexisting small nodules). The preoperative helical CT scans of 223 patients with lung cancer were retrospectively reviewed. The probability of malignancy of coexisting small nodules was evaluated based on nodule size, location, and clinical stage of the primary lung cancers. Seventy-one coexisting small nodules were found on conventional CT in 58 (26%) of 223 patients, and 14 (6%) patients had malignant nodules. Eighteen (25%) of such nodules were malignant. The probability of malignancy was not significantly different between two groups of nodules larger and smaller than 0.5 cm (p=0.1). The probability of malignancy of such nodules within primary tumor lobe was significantly higher than that in the other lobes (p<0.01). Metastatic nodules were significantly fewer in clinical stage-IA patients than in the patients with the other stage (p<0.01); however, four (57%) of seven synchronous lung cancers were located in the non-primary tumor lobes in the clinical stage-I patients. Malignant coexisting small nodules are not infrequent, and such nodules in the non-primary tumor lobes should be carefully diagnosed. (orig.)
2015-07-01
Forces Battalions, expanding the Civil Affairs / Psychological Operations units, and establishing the Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command...Army Civil Affairs/ Psychological Operations Unit was transferred from U.S. Army Special Operations Command to the U.S. Army Reserve Command. This...Twitter, and YouTube. Subscribe to our RSS Feeds or E-mail Updates. Listen to our Podcasts . Visit GAO on the web at www.gao.gov. Contact: Website: http
Universal, non-monotonic structure in the saturation curves of a linear Paul trap
Wells, James; Kwolek, Jonathan; Goodman, Douglas; Blümel, Reinhold; Smith, Winthrop
2016-05-01
A common technique to measure ion-atom collision rates in a hybrid trap if the ions have no optical transitions (e.g. alkalis) is to monitor the fluorescence of the neutrals in the presence of a saturated linear Paul trap (LPT). We present numerical simulations, analytical calculations, and experimental results that show that the steady-state ion capacity of an LPT, Ns, exhibits nonlinear, nonmonotonic behavior as a function of ion loading rate, Λ. The steady state as a function of loading rate, Ns(Λ) , shows four distinct regions. In Region I, at the lowest Λ, Ns(Λ) increases monotonically. Then, Ns(Λ) reaches a plateau in Region II, before decreasing to a local minimum in Region III. Finally, in Region IV, Ns(Λ) once again increases monotonically. This behavior appears universal to any Paul trap, regardless of geometry or species trapped. We examine this behavior experimentally as a function of the q stability parameter of the Paul trap and simulate numerically the effect of the particular trap geometry on the onset of each of the four regions. Funding from NSF Grant PHY-1307874.
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
GAO ChangAn; ZHANG AiQian; LIN Yuan; YIN DaQiang; WANG LianSheng
2009-01-01
Particular non-monotonic dose-response curves of many endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) suggest the existence of diverse toxicity mechanisms at different dose levels. As a result, the biologi-cal activities of EDCs cannot be simply exhibited by unique EC/LD<,50. values, and the quantitative structure-activity relationship (QSAR) analysis for non-monotonic dose-response relationship be-comes an unknown field in the environmental science. In this paper, nine phenols with inverted U-shaped dose-response curves in lymphocyte proliferation test of Carassius auratus were selected. The binding interactions between the phenols and several typical EDCs-related receptors were then explored in a molecular simulation study. The estrogen receptor (ER), androgen receptor (AR), thyroid hormone receptor (TR), bacterial O2 sensing FixL protein (FixL), aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), and the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) were the target receptors in the study. Linear regression QSAR models for the low and high exposure levels of the compounds were developed separately. The results indicated that the lymphocyte proliferation in the low-dose range might involve ER-mediated process, while the proliferation inhibition in the high dose range was dominated by the acute toxicity of phenols due to receptor occupancy and cell damage.
Ergodic averages for monotone functions using upper and lower dominating processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie
2007-01-01
We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary ...... methods are studied in detail for three models using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and we also discuss various types of other models for which our methods apply.......We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary...... Markov chain and we eliminate the problem of whether an appropriate burn-in is determined or not. Moreover, when a central limit theorem applies, we show how confidence intervals for the mean can be estimated by bounding the asymptotic variance of the ergodic average based on the equilibrium chain. Our...
Ergodic averages for monotone functions using upper and lower dominating processes
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Møller, Jesper; Mengersen, Kerrie
We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary ...... methods are studied in detail for three models using Markov chain Monte Carlo methods and we also discuss various types of other models for which our methods apply.......We show how the mean of a monotone function (defined on a state space equipped with a partial ordering) can be estimated, using ergodic averages calculated from upper and lower dominating processes of a stationary irreducible Markov chain. In particular, we do not need to simulate the stationary...... Markov chain and we eliminate the problem of whether an appropriate burn-in is determined or not. Moreover, when a central limit theorem applies, we show how confidence intervals for the mean can be estimated by bounding the asymptotic variance of the ergodic average based on the equilibrium chain. Our...
Semiparametric approach for non-monotone missing covariates in a parametric regression model
Sinha, Samiran
2014-02-26
Missing covariate data often arise in biomedical studies, and analysis of such data that ignores subjects with incomplete information may lead to inefficient and possibly biased estimates. A great deal of attention has been paid to handling a single missing covariate or a monotone pattern of missing data when the missingness mechanism is missing at random. In this article, we propose a semiparametric method for handling non-monotone patterns of missing data. The proposed method relies on the assumption that the missingness mechanism of a variable does not depend on the missing variable itself but may depend on the other missing variables. This mechanism is somewhat less general than the completely non-ignorable mechanism but is sometimes more flexible than the missing at random mechanism where the missingness mechansim is allowed to depend only on the completely observed variables. The proposed approach is robust to misspecification of the distribution of the missing covariates, and the proposed mechanism helps to nullify (or reduce) the problems due to non-identifiability that result from the non-ignorable missingness mechanism. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator are derived. Finite sample performance is assessed through simulation studies. Finally, for the purpose of illustration we analyze an endometrial cancer dataset and a hip fracture dataset.
Semiparametric approach for non-monotone missing covariates in a parametric regression model.
Sinha, Samiran; Saha, Krishna K; Wang, Suojin
2014-06-01
Missing covariate data often arise in biomedical studies, and analysis of such data that ignores subjects with incomplete information may lead to inefficient and possibly biased estimates. A great deal of attention has been paid to handling a single missing covariate or a monotone pattern of missing data when the missingness mechanism is missing at random. In this article, we propose a semiparametric method for handling non-monotone patterns of missing data. The proposed method relies on the assumption that the missingness mechanism of a variable does not depend on the missing variable itself but may depend on the other missing variables. This mechanism is somewhat less general than the completely non-ignorable mechanism but is sometimes more flexible than the missing at random mechanism where the missingness mechansim is allowed to depend only on the completely observed variables. The proposed approach is robust to misspecification of the distribution of the missing covariates, and the proposed mechanism helps to nullify (or reduce) the problems due to non-identifiability that result from the non-ignorable missingness mechanism. The asymptotic properties of the proposed estimator are derived. Finite sample performance is assessed through simulation studies. Finally, for the purpose of illustration we analyze an endometrial cancer dataset and a hip fracture dataset.
Unlü, Ali
2008-05-01
This note provides a direct, elementary proof of the fundamental result on monotone likelihood ratio of the total score variable in unidimensional item response theory (IRT). This result is very important for practical measurement in IRT, because it justifies the use of the total score variable to order participants on the latent trait. The proof relies on a basic inequality for elementary symmetric functions which is proved by means of few purely algebraic, straightforward transformations. In particular, flaws in a proof of this result by Huynh [(1994). A new proof for monotone likelihood ratio for the sum of independent Bernoulli random variables. Psychometrika, 59, 77-79] are pointed out and corrected, and a natural generalization of the fundamental result to non-linear (quasi-ordered) latent trait spaces is presented. This may be useful for multidimensional IRT or knowledge space theory, in which the latent 'ability' spaces are partially ordered with respect to, for instance, coordinate-wise vector-ordering or set-inclusion, respectively.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Potoczny, G.A. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Bejitual, T.S. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 26506, West Virginia (United States); Abell, J.S. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom); Sierros, K.A. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 26506, West Virginia (United States); Cairns, D.R., E-mail: Darran.Cairns@mail.wvu.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, West Virginia University, Morgantown, 26506, West Virginia (United States); Kukureka, S.N. [School of Metallurgy and Materials, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, B15 2TT Birmingham (United Kingdom)
2013-01-01
The flexibility and electrical stability of highly conductive and transparent amorphous indium tin oxide (a-ITO) films coated on polyethylene terephthalate and polyethylene naphthalate substrates were investigated by buckling tests with in situ monitoring of the electrical resistance. Monotonic and cyclic loading tests of the ITO/polymer systems were conducted. The results show that monotonic buckling in tension is more critical for electromechanical stability of ITO films than in compression (an increase in electrical resistance was observed at a critical radius of curvature, of ∼ 3 and ∼ 1 mm, respectively for both cases investigated). In contrast, cyclic loading tests show that the compression mode is more critical than the tensile mode which may be a result of the residual stress present in the film structure. Failure of the ITO film was caused by buckling-driven delamination observed using scanning electron microscopy after the tests. The presence of residual stress could mean that buckling-driven delamination is the dominant failure mode for ITO/polymer systems under repeated flexing. In general, comparable electromechanical stability was observed in both cases. Investigating the electromechanical response of such material systems is important for polymer substrate selection and life-time prediction of flexible polyester-based electronic devices. - Highlights: ► Cyclic buckling investigation of flexible electrodes. ► Importance of ITO surface compression mode as opposed to tension. ► Role of ITO residual stresses on controlled buckling investigations.
Non-monotonic wetting behavior of chitosan films induced by silver nanoparticles
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Praxedes, A.P.P.; Webler, G.D.; Souza, S.T. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Ribeiro, A.S. [Instituto de Química e Biotecnologia, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Fonseca, E.J.S. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil); Oliveira, I.N. de, E-mail: italo@fis.ufal.br [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal de Alagoas, 57072-970 Maceió, AL (Brazil)
2016-05-01
Highlights: • The addition of silver nanoparticles modifies the morphology of chitosan films. • Metallic nanoparticles can be used to control wetting properties of chitosan films. • The contact angle shows a non-monotonic dependence on the silver concentration. - Abstract: The present work is devoted to the study of structural and wetting properties of chitosan-based films containing silver nanoparticles. In particular, the effects of silver concentration on the morphology of chitosan films are characterized by different techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). By means of dynamic contact angle measurements, we study the modification on surface properties of chitosan-based films due to the addition of silver nanoparticles. The results are analyzed in the light of molecular-kinetic theory which describes the wetting phenomena in terms of statistical dynamics for the displacement of liquid molecules in a solid substrate. Our results show that the wetting properties of chitosan-based films are high sensitive to the fraction of silver nanoparticles, with the equilibrium contact angle exhibiting a non-monotonic behavior.
Mixing times of monotone surfaces and SOS interfaces: a mean curvature approach
Caputo, Pietro; Toninelli, Fabio Lucio
2011-01-01
We consider stochastic spin-flip dynamics for: (i) monotone discrete surfaces in Z^3 with planar boundary height and (ii) the one-dimensional discrete Solid-on-Solid (SOS) model confined to a box. In both cases we show almost optimal bounds O(L^2polylog(L)) for the mixing time of the chain, where L is the natural size of the system. The dynamics at a macroscopic scale should be described by a deterministic mean curvature motion such that each point of the surface feels a drift which tends to minimize the local surface tension. Inspired by this heuristics, our approach consists in bounding the dynamics with an auxiliary one which, with very high probability, follows quite closely the deterministic mean curvature evolution. Key technical ingredients are monotonicity, coupling and an argument due to D.B. Wilson in the framework of lozenge tiling Markov Chains. Our approach works equally well for both models despite the fact that their equilibrium maximal height fluctuations occur on very different scales (logari...
Non-Monotonicity of Excited State Populations Observed in a Cu-He Hollow Cathode Discharge
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
ZHENG Xu-Tao
2005-01-01
@@ An interesting non-monotonic structure in the distribution of excited state populations is observed in a Cu-He hollow cathode discharge, and this is explained by l-changing collisions of the excited states with background gas atoms. At helium pressure of 0.1 Torr and cathode current of 200-300mA, relative populations of He I 1snp 1p (n = 2-16) states are measured with the corresponding VUV radiation intensities, and are plotted against excitation energies. As energy levels increase, populations of high-n (n ＞ 10) states are found to decrease much more quickly than low-n (n ＜ 7) populations. For intermediate states (n = 7-10), the declining tendency is interfered by population transfers from 1sns 1 S states due to l-changing collisions, and an obvious non-monotonic structure is formed at relatively low electric current. Measurements have also been carried out for He Ⅱ np 2 p (n = 2-14) series, in which the l-changing collisions are overwhelmed by Stark quenching of the n2S states and thus population interference does not occur.
Peláez-Fernández, M; Callejas-Fernández, J; Moncho-Jordá, A
2012-11-01
In this work we study the effective force between charged spherical colloids induced by the presence of smaller charged spheres using Monte Carlo simulations. The analysis is performed for two size ratios, q = R(s)/R(b), two screened direct repulsions, κ, and two small particle packing fractions, Ø(s). We specially focus on the effect of the charge of the big colloids (Z(b)), and observe that the repulsion between big particles shows a non-monotonic behaviour: for sufficiently small charge, we find an anomalous regime where the total repulsion weakens by increasing the big colloid charge. For larger charges, the system recovers the usual behaviour and the big-big interaction becomes more repulsive increasing Z(b). This effect is linked to the existence of strong attractive depletion interactions caused by the small-big electrostatic repulsion. We have also calculated the effective force using the Ornstein-Zernike equation with the HNC closure. In general, this theory agrees with the simulation results, and is able to capture this non-monotonic behaviour.
Sharp Thresholds for Monotone Non Boolean Functions and Social Choice Theory
Kalai, Gil
2010-01-01
A key fact in the theory of Boolean functions $f : \\{0,1\\}^n \\to \\{0,1\\}$ is that they often undergo sharp thresholds. For example: if the function $f : \\{0,1\\}^n \\to \\{0,1\\}$ is monotone and symmetric under a transitive action with $\\E_p[f] = \\eps$ and $\\E_q[f] = 1-\\eps$ then $q-p \\to 0$ as $n \\to \\infty$. Here $\\E_p$ denotes the product probability measure on $\\{0,1\\}^n$ where each coordinate takes the value $1$ independently with probability $p$. The fact that symmetric functions undergo sharp thresholds is important in the study of random graphs and constraint satisfaction problems as well as in social choice.In this paper we prove sharp thresholds for monotone functions taking values in an arbitrary finite sets. We also provide examples of applications of the results to social choice and to random graph problems. Among the applications is an analog for Condorcet's jury theorem and an indeterminacy result for a large class of social choice functions.
Denner, Fabian; van Wachem, Berend G. M.
2015-10-01
Total variation diminishing (TVD) schemes are a widely applied group of monotonicity-preserving advection differencing schemes for partial differential equations in numerical heat transfer and computational fluid dynamics. These schemes are typically designed for one-dimensional problems or multidimensional problems on structured equidistant quadrilateral meshes. Practical applications, however, often involve complex geometries that cannot be represented by Cartesian meshes and, therefore, necessitate the application of unstructured meshes, which require a more sophisticated discretisation to account for their additional topological complexity. In principle, TVD schemes are applicable to unstructured meshes, however, not all the data required for TVD differencing is readily available on unstructured meshes, and the solution suffers from considerable numerical diffusion as a result of mesh skewness. In this article we analyse TVD differencing on unstructured three-dimensional meshes, focusing on the non-linearity of TVD differencing and the extrapolation of the virtual upwind node. Furthermore, we propose a novel monotonicity-preserving correction method for TVD schemes that significantly reduces numerical diffusion caused by mesh skewness. The presented numerical experiments demonstrate the importance of accounting for the non-linearity introduced by TVD differencing and of imposing carefully chosen limits on the extrapolated virtual upwind node, as well as the efficacy of the proposed method to correct mesh skewness.
Qin, Jing; Garcia, Tanya P; Ma, Yanyuan; Tang, Ming-Xin; Marder, Karen; Wang, Yuanjia
2014-01-01
In certain genetic studies, clinicians and genetic counselors are interested in estimating the cumulative risk of a disease for individuals with and without a rare deleterious mutation. Estimating the cumulative risk is difficult, however, when the estimates are based on family history data. Often, the genetic mutation status in many family members is unknown; instead, only estimated probabilities of a patient having a certain mutation status are available. Also, ages of disease-onset are subject to right censoring. Existing methods to estimate the cumulative risk using such family-based data only provide estimation at individual time points, and are not guaranteed to be monotonic, nor non-negative. In this paper, we develop a novel method that combines Expectation-Maximization and isotonic regression to estimate the cumulative risk across the entire support. Our estimator is monotonic, satisfies self-consistent estimating equations, and has high power in detecting differences between the cumulative risks of different populations. Application of our estimator to a Parkinson's disease (PD) study provides the age-at-onset distribution of PD in PARK2 mutation carriers and non-carriers, and reveals a significant difference between the distribution in compound heterozygous carriers compared to non-carriers, but not between heterozygous carriers and non-carriers.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States); Holmes, B. [AEA Technology, Dorset (United Kingdom)] [and others
1994-06-01
Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chu, T.L.; Musicki, Z.; Kohut, P.; Yang, J.; Bozoki, G.; Hsu, C.J.; Diamond, D.J.; Wong, S.M. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States); Bley, D.; Johnson, D. [PLG Inc., Newport Beach, CA (United States)] [and others
1994-06-01
Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRA) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Some previous screening analyses that were performed for other modes of operation suggested that risks during those modes were small relative to full power operation. However, more recent studies and operational experience have implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The scope of the level-1 study includes plant damage state analysis, and uncertainty analysis. Volume 1 summarizes the results of the study. Internal events analysis is documented in Volume 2. It also contains an appendix that documents the part of the phase 1 study that has to do with POSs other than mid-loop operation. Internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Volumes 3 and 4. A separate study on seismic analysis, documented in Volume 5, was performed for the NRC by Future Resources Associates, Inc. Volume 6 documents the accident progression, source terms, and consequence analysis.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiersma, B.
2009-12-29
The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS&T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or Portland cement grout (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters does not provide a significant margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. It is recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. The R-reactor vessel contains significantly less aluminum and thus a Portland cement grout may be considered as well. For example, if the grout fill rate is less than 1 inch/min and the grout temperature is maintained at 70 C or less, the risk of hydrogen accumulation in the R-reactor vessel is very low for the Portland cement. Alternatively, if the grout fill rate is less than 0.5 inch/min and the grout is maintained
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiersma, B.
2009-10-29
The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D&D). D&D activities will consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS&T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D&D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or portland cement grout (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the R- and P- reactor vessels. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Conservative calculations estimate that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the R- and P- reactor vessels. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Although these calculations are conservative, there are some measures that may be taken to further minimize the potential for hydrogen evolution. (1) Minimize the temperature of the grout as much as practical. Lower temperatures will mean lower hydrogen generation rates. Grout temperatures less than 100 C should however, still provide an adequate safety margin for the pH 8 and pH 10.4 grout formulations. (2) Minimize the fill rate as much as
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Wiersma, B.
2010-05-24
The R- and P-reactor buildings were retired from service and are now being prepared for deactivation and decommissioning (D and D). D and D activities consist primarily of immobilizing contaminated components and structures in a grout-like formulation. Aluminum corrodes very rapidly when it comes in contact with the alkaline grout materials and as a result produces hydrogen gas. To address this potential deflagration/explosion hazard, the Materials Science and Technology Directorate (MS and T) of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) has been requested to review and evaluate existing experimental and analytical studies of this issue to determine if any process constraints on the chemistry of the fill material and the fill operation are necessary. Various options exist for the type of grout material that may be used for D and D of the reactor vessels. The grout formulation options include ceramicrete (pH 6-8), low pH portland cement + silica fume grout (pH 10.4), or Portland cement groupt (pH 12.5). The assessment concluded that either ceramicrete or the silica fume grout may be used to safely grout the P-reactor vessel. The risk of accumulation of a flammable mixture of hydrogen between the grout-air interface and the top of the reactor is very low. Portland cement grout, on the other hand, for the same range of process parameters does not provide a margin of safety against the accumulation of flammable gas in the reactor vessel during grouting operations in the P-reactor vessel. It is recommended that this grout not be utilized for this task. The R-reactor vessel cotnains significantly less aluminum based on current facility process knowledge, surface observations, and drawings. Therefore, a Portland cement grout may be considered for grouting operations as well as the other grout formulations. For example, if the grout fill rate is less than 1 inch/min and the grout temperature is maintained at 70 C or less, the risk of hydrogen accumulation during fill
Buccola, Norman L.; Rounds, Stewart A.; Sullivan, Annett B.; Risley, John C.
2012-01-01
achievement of downstream temperature goals requires that releases of warm water near the surface of the lake and cold water below the thermocline are both possible with the available dam outlets during spring, summer, and autumn. This constraint can be met to some extent with existing outlets, but only if access to the spillway is extended into autumn by keeping the lake level higher than called for by the current rule curve (the typical target water-surface elevation throughout the year). If new outlets are considered, a variable-elevation outlet such as a sliding gate structure, or a floating outlet in combination with a fixed-elevation outlet at sufficient depth to access cold water, is likely to work well in terms of accessing a range of water temperatures and achieving downstream temperature targets. Furthermore, model results indicate that it is important to release warm water from near the lake surface during midsummer. If not released downstream, the warm water will build up at the top of the lake as a result of solar energy inputs and the thermocline will deepen, potentially causing warm water to reach the depth of deeper fixed-elevation outlets in autumn, particularly when the lake level is drawn down to make room for flood storage. Delaying the drawdown in autumn can help to keep the thermocline above such outlets and preserve access to cold water. Although it is important to generate hydropower at Detroit Dam, minimum power-production requirements limit the ability of dam operators to meet downstream temperature targets with existing outlet structures. The location of the power penstocks below the thermocline in spring and most of summer causes the release of more cool water during summer than is optimal. Reducing the power-production constraint allows the temperature target to be met more frequently, but at the cost of less power generation. Finally, running the Detroit Dam, Big Cliff Dam, and North Santiam and Santiam River models in series allows dam operators
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Jo, J.; Lin, C.C.; Neymotin, L. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)] [and others
1995-05-01
During 1989, the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. The program includes two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL). Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The objectives of the program are to assess the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and to compare the estimated core damage frequencies, important accident sequences and other qualitative and quantitative results with those accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program includes that of a level-3 PRA. A phased approach was used in the level-1 program. In phase 1 which was completed in Fall 1991, a coarse screening analysis including internal fire and flood was performed for all plant operational states (POSs). The objective of the phase 1 study was to identify potential vulnerable plant configurations, to characterize (on a high, medium, or low basis) the potential core damage accident scenarios, and to provide a foundation for a detailed phase 2 analysis. In phase 2, mid-loop operation was selected as the plant configuration to be analyzed based on the results of the phase 1 study. The objective of the phase 2 study is to perform a detailed analysis of the potential accident scenarios that may occur during mid-loop operation, and compare the results with those of NUREG-1150. The results of the phase 2 level 2/3 study are the subject of this volume of NUREG/CR-6144, Volume 6.
Verification of mesoscopic models of viscoelastic fluids with a non-monotonic flow curve
Kuznetsova, Julia L.; Skul'skiy, Oleg I.
2016-02-01
The non-monotonic flow curve of a 1 wt.% polyacrylonitrile solution in dimethyl sulfoxide is described by two mesoscopic models: the modified Vinogradov-Pokrovsky model and the model proposed by Remmelgas, Harrison and Leal. To obtain an adequate description of the experimental curve, we have selected suitable internal parameters for these models. Analytical solutions for the Couette-Poiseuille flow problems are determined in parametric form, which allows us to plot the distribution of stress components and anisotropy tensor as well as the velocity profiles containing closed loops and weak tangential discontinuities. It is shown that both models predict a similar qualitative picture of structure evolution, but exhibit a significant discrepancy in the quantitative description of the magnitude of molecular chain stretching.
An Optimal Augmented Monotonic Tracking Controller for Aircraft Engines with Output Constraints
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Jiakun Qin
2017-01-01
Full Text Available This paper proposes a novel min-max control scheme for aircraft engines, with the aim of transferring a set of regulated outputs between two set-points, while ensuring a set of auxiliary outputs remain within prescribed constraints. In view of this, an optimal augmented monotonic tracking controller (OAMTC is proposed, by considering a linear plant with input integration, to enhance the ability of the control system to reject uncertainty in system parameters and ensure no crossing limits. The key idea is to use the eigenvalue and eigenvector placement method and genetic algorithms to shape the output responses. The approach is validated by numerical simulation. The results show that the designed OAMTC controller can achieve a satisfactory dynamic and steady performance and keep the auxiliary outputs within constraints in the transient regime.
A smoothing monotonic convergent optimal control algorithm for NMR pulse sequence design
Maximov, Ivan I; Salomon, Julien; Turinici, Gabriel
2010-01-01
The past decade has demonstrated increasing interests in using optimal control based methods within coherent quantum controllable systems. The versatility of such methods has been demonstrated with particular elegance within nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) where natural separation between coherent and dissipative spin dynamics processes has enabled coherent quantum control over long periods of time to shape the experiment to almost ideal adoption to the spin system and external manipulations. This has led to new design principles as well as powerful new experimental methods within magnetic resonance imaging, liquid-state and solid-state NMR spectroscopy. For this development to continue and expand, it is crucially important to constantly improve the underlying numerical algorithms to provide numerical solutions which are optimally compatible with implementation on current instrumentation and at same time are numerically stable and offer fast monotonic convergence towards the target. Addressing such aims, we ...
Non-monotonic resonance in a spatially forced Lengyel-Epstein model
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Haim, Lev [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Oncology, Soroka University Medical Center, Beer-Sheva 84101 (Israel); Hagberg, Aric [Center for Nonlinear Studies, Theoretical Division, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico 87545 (United States); Meron, Ehud [Physics Department, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Beer-Sheva 84105 (Israel); Department of Solar Energy and Environmental Physics, BIDR, Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, Sede Boqer Campus, Midreshet Ben-Gurion 84990 (Israel)
2015-06-15
We study resonant spatially periodic solutions of the Lengyel-Epstein model modified to describe the chlorine dioxide-iodine-malonic acid reaction under spatially periodic illumination. Using multiple-scale analysis and numerical simulations, we obtain the stability ranges of 2:1 resonant solutions, i.e., solutions with wavenumbers that are exactly half of the forcing wavenumber. We show that the width of resonant wavenumber response is a non-monotonic function of the forcing strength, and diminishes to zero at sufficiently strong forcing. We further show that strong forcing may result in a π/2 phase shift of the resonant solutions, and argue that the nonequilibrium Ising-Bloch front bifurcation can be reversed. We attribute these behaviors to an inherent property of forcing by periodic illumination, namely, the increase of the mean spatial illumination as the forcing amplitude is increased.
Topological monoids of almost monotone injective co-finite partial selfmaps of positive integers
Chuchman, Ivan
2010-01-01
In this paper we study the semigroup $I_\\infty^\\dnearrow(N)$ of partial co-finite almost monotone bijective transformations of the set of positive integers $\\mathbb{N}$. We show that the semigroup $I_\\infty^\\dnearrow(N)$ has algebraic properties similar to the bicyclic semigroup: it is bisimple and all of its non-trivial group homomorphisms are either isomorphisms or group homomorphisms. Also we prove that every Baire topology $\\tau$ on $I_\\infty^\\dnearrow(N)$ such that $(I_\\infty^\\dnearrow(N),\\tau)$ is a semitopological semigroup is discrete, describe the closure of $(I_\\infty^\\dnearrow(N),\\tau)$ in a topological semigroup and construct non-discrete Hausdorff semigroup topologies on $I_\\infty^\\dnearrow(N)$.
Semantic Matchmaking as Non-Monotonic Reasoning: A Description Logic Approach
Di Noia, T; Donini, F M; 10.1613/jair.2153
2011-01-01
Matchmaking arises when supply and demand meet in an electronic marketplace, or when agents search for a web service to perform some task, or even when recruiting agencies match curricula and job profiles. In such open environments, the objective of a matchmaking process is to discover best available offers to a given request. We address the problem of matchmaking from a knowledge representation perspective, with a formalization based on Description Logics. We devise Concept Abduction and Concept Contraction as non-monotonic inferences in Description Logics suitable for modeling matchmaking in a logical framework, and prove some related complexity results. We also present reasonable algorithms for semantic matchmaking based on the devised inferences, and prove that they obey to some commonsense properties. Finally, we report on the implementation of the proposed matchmaking framework, which has been used both as a mediator in e-marketplaces and for semantic web services discovery.
DasGupta, Bhaskar; Enciso, German Andres; Sontag, Eduardo; Zhang, Yi
2007-01-01
A useful approach to the mathematical analysis of large-scale biological networks is based upon their decompositions into monotone dynamical systems. This paper deals with two computational problems associated to finding decompositions which are optimal in an appropriate sense. In graph-theoretic language, the problems can be recast in terms of maximal sign-consistent subgraphs. The theoretical results include polynomial-time approximation algorithms as well as constant-ratio inapproximability results. One of the algorithms, which has a worst-case guarantee of 87.9% from optimality, is based on the semidefinite programming relaxation approach of Goemans-Williamson [Goemans, M., Williamson, D., 1995. Improved approximation algorithms for maximum cut and satisfiability problems using semidefinite programming. J. ACM 42 (6), 1115-1145]. The algorithm was implemented and tested on a Drosophila segmentation network and an Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor pathway model, and it was found to perform close to optimally.
Monotone-short solutions of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff-de Sitter equation
Hsu, Cheng-Hsiung; Makino, Tetu
2016-09-01
It is known that spherically symmetric static solutions of the Einstein equations with a positive cosmological constant for the energy-momentum tensor of a barotropic perfect fluid are governed by the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff-de Sitter equation. Some sufficient conditions for the existence of monotone-short solutions (with finite radii) of the equation are given in this article. Then we show that the interior metric can extend to the exterior Schwarzschild-de Sitter metric on the exterior vacuum region with twice continuous differentiability. In addition, we investigate the analytic property of the solutions at the vacuum boundary. Our result (Theorem 1) can be considered as the de Sitter version of the result by Rendall and Schmidt [Classical Quantum Gravity 8, 985-1000 (1991)]. Furthermore, one can see that there are different properties of the solutions with those of the Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff equation (with zero cosmological constant) in certain situation.
On complete monotonicity of the Prabhakar function and non-Debye relaxation in dielectrics
Mainardi, Francesco
2016-01-01
The three parameters Mittag--Leffler function (often referred as the Prabhakar function) has important applications, mainly in physics of dielectrics, in describing anomalous relaxation of non--Debye type. This paper concerns with the investigation of the conditions, on the characteristic parameters, under which the function is locally integrable and completely monotonic; these properties are essential for the physical feasibility of the corresponding models. In particular the classical Havriliak--Negami model is extended to a wider range of the parameters. The problem of the numerical evaluation of the three parameters Mittag--Leffler function is also addressed and three different approaches are discussed and compared. Numerical simulations are hence used to validate the theoretical findings and present some graphs of the function under investigation.
Monotonic and fatigue testing of spring-bridged freestanding microbeams application for MEMS
Lin, Ming-Tzer; Tong, Chi-Jia
2008-01-01
Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technologies are developing rapidly with increasing study of the design, fabrication and commercialization of microscale systems and devices. Accurate knowledge on the mechanical behaviors of thin film materials used for MEMS is important for successful design and development of MEMS. Here a novel electroplating spring-bridge micro-tensile specimen integrates pin-pin align holes, misalignment compensate spring, load sensor beam and freestanding thin film is demonstrated and fabricated. The specimen is fit into a specially designed micro-mechanical apparatus to carry out a series of monotonic tensile testing on sub-micron freestanding thin films. Certain thin films applicable as structure or motion gears in MEMS were tested including sputtered gold, copper and tantalum nitride thin films. Metal specimens were fabricated by sputtering; for tantalum nitride film samples, nitrogen gas was introduced into the chamber during sputtering tantalum films on the silicon wafer. The s...
Katushkina, O. A.; Alexashov, D. B.; Izmodenov, V. V.; Gvaramadze, V. V.
2017-02-01
High-resolution mid-infrared observations of astrospheres show that many of them have filamentary (cirrus-like) structure. Using numerical models of dust dynamics in astrospheres, we suggest that their filamentary structure might be related to specific spatial distribution of the interstellar dust around the stars, caused by a gyrorotation of charged dust grains in the interstellar magnetic field. Our numerical model describes the dust dynamics in astrospheres under an influence of the Lorentz force and assumption of a constant dust charge. Calculations are performed for the dust grains with different sizes separately. It is shown that non-monotonic spatial dust distribution (viewed as filaments) appears for dust grains with the period of gyromotion comparable with the characteristic time-scale of the dust motion in the astrosphere. Numerical modelling demonstrates that the number of filaments depends on charge-to-mass ratio of dust.
Madheswaran, C. K.; Ambily, P. S.; Dattatreya, J. K.; Ramesh, G.
2015-06-01
This work describes the experimental investigation on behaviour of reinforced GPC beams subjected to monotonic static loading. The overall dimensions of the GPC beams are 250 mm × 300 mm × 2200 mm. The effective span of beam is 1600 mm. The beams have been designed to be critical in shear as per IS:456 provisions. The specimens were produced from a mix incorporating fly ash and ground granulated blast furnace slag, which was designed for a compressive strength of 40 MPa at 28 days. The reinforced concrete specimens are subjected to curing at ambient temperature under wet burlap. The parameters being investigated include shear span to depth ratio (a/d = 1.5 and 2.0). Experiments are conducted on 12 GPC beams and four OPCC control beams. All the beams are tested using 2000 kN servo-controlled hydraulic actuator. This paper presents the results of experimental studies.
Monotonic quantum-to-classical transition enabled by positively correlated biphotons
Jin, Rui-Bo; Chen, Guo-Qun; Jing, Hui; Ren, Changliang; Zhao, Pei; Shimizu, Ryosuke; Lu, Pei-Xiang
2017-06-01
Multiparticle interference is a fundamental phenomenon in the study of quantum mechanics. It was discovered in a recent experiment [Y.-S. Ra et al., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 110, 1227 (2013), 10.1073/pnas.1206910110] that spectrally uncorrelated biphotons exhibited a nonmonotonic quantum-to-classical transition in a four-photon Hong-Ou-Mandel (HOM) interference. In this work, we consider the same scheme with spectrally correlated photons. By theoretical calculation and numerical simulation, we found the transition not only can be nonmonotonic with negatively correlated or uncorrelated biphotons, but also can be monotonic with positively correlated biphotons. The fundamental reason for this difference is that the HOM-type multiphoton interference is a differential-frequency interference. Our study may shed new light on understanding the role of frequency entanglement in multiphoton behavior.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Zhao Xuejing [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); School of mathematics and statistics, Lanzhou University, Lanzhou 730000 (China); Fouladirad, Mitra, E-mail: mitra.fouladirad@utt.f [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Berenguer, Christophe [Universite de Technologie de Troyes, Institut Charles Delaunay and STMR UMR CNRS 6279, 12 rue Marie Curie, 10010 Troyes (France); Bordes, Laurent [Universite de Pau et des Pays de l' Adour, LMA UMR CNRS 5142, 64013 PAU Cedex (France)
2010-08-15
The aim of this paper is to discuss the problem of modelling and optimising condition-based maintenance policies for a deteriorating system in presence of covariates. The deterioration is modelled by a non-monotone stochastic process. The covariates process is assumed to be a time-homogenous Markov chain with finite state space. A model similar to the proportional hazards model is used to show the influence of covariates on the deterioration. In the framework of the system under consideration, an appropriate inspection/replacement policy which minimises the expected average maintenance cost is derived. The average cost under different conditions of covariates and different maintenance policies is analysed through simulation experiments to compare the policies performances.
Non-monotonic wetting behavior of chitosan films induced by silver nanoparticles
Praxedes, A. P. P.; Webler, G. D.; Souza, S. T.; Ribeiro, A. S.; Fonseca, E. J. S.; de Oliveira, I. N.
2016-05-01
The present work is devoted to the study of structural and wetting properties of chitosan-based films containing silver nanoparticles. In particular, the effects of silver concentration on the morphology of chitosan films are characterized by different techniques, such as atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). By means of dynamic contact angle measurements, we study the modification on surface properties of chitosan-based films due to the addition of silver nanoparticles. The results are analyzed in the light of molecular-kinetic theory which describes the wetting phenomena in terms of statistical dynamics for the displacement of liquid molecules in a solid substrate. Our results show that the wetting properties of chitosan-based films are high sensitive to the fraction of silver nanoparticles, with the equilibrium contact angle exhibiting a non-monotonic behavior.
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Schjær-Jacobsen, Hans
2012-01-01
to the understanding of similarities and differences of the two approaches as well as practical applications. The probability approach offers a good framework for representation of randomness and variability. Once the probability distributions of uncertain parameters and their correlations are known the resulting...... uncertainty can be calculated. The possibility approach is particular well suited for representation of uncertainty of a non-statistical nature due to lack of knowledge and requires less information than the probability approach. Based on the kind of uncertainty and knowledge present, these aspects...... by probability distributions is readily done by means of Monte Carlo simulation. Calculation of non-monotonic functions of possibility distributions is done within the theoretical framework of fuzzy intervals, but straight forward application of fuzzy arithmetic in general results in overestimation of interval...
Mureşan, Ioana Cristina; Bâlc, Roxana
2017-07-01
This paper presents an experimental investigation of a statically monotonic loaded extended end-plate connection, with preloaded high strength bolts, that was carried out at Laboratory of Faculty of Civil Engineering from Cluj-Napoca. A finite element model using the software package Abaqus [1] was developed in parallel. In order to calibrate the numerical model, the results were analyzed on the basis of moment-rotation curves, stress distribution state and the failure mode of connection. Then, a study was conducted on the numerical model by using a high strength steel (HSS) and changing the stiffness and strength characteristics of some elements. Validation of the numerical modeling was performed against the experimental results and it can be seen that good agreements exist in general.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Hirota, Makoto, E-mail: hirota@dragon.ifs.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute of Fluid Science, Tohoku University, Sendai, Miyagi 980-8577 (Japan); Morrison, Philip J. [Department of Physics and Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78712 (United States)
2016-05-06
Highlights: • New stability criteria of stably stratified shear flow are discovered. • Our criteria substantially improve the Howard–Miles criterion (1961). • Our criteria also generalize Rayleigh's inflection point theorem. • The novel approach we found is also efficient as a numerical approach. - Abstract: Linear stability of inviscid, parallel, and stably stratified shear flow is studied under the assumption of smooth strictly monotonic profiles of shear flow and density, so that the local Richardson number is positive everywhere. The marginally unstable modes are systematically found by solving a one-parameter family of regular Sturm–Liouville problems, which can determine the stability boundaries more efficiently than solving the Taylor–Goldstein equation directly. By arguing for the non-existence of a marginally unstable mode, we derive new sufficient conditions for stability, which generalize the Rayleigh–Fjørtoft criterion for unstratified shear flows.
Using an inductive approach for definition making: Monotonicity and boundedness of sequences
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Deonarain Brijlall
2009-09-01
Full Text Available The study investigated fourth–year students’ construction of the definitions of monotonicity and boundedness of sequences, at the Edgewood Campus of the University of KwaZulu –Natal in South Africa. Structured worksheets based on a guided problem solving teaching model were used to help students to construct the twodefinitions. A group of twenty three undergraduateteacher trainees participated in the project. These students specialised in the teaching of mathematics in the Further Education and Training (FET (Grades 10 to 12 school curriculum. This paper, specifically, reports on the investigation of students’ definition constructions based on a learnig theory within the context of advanced mathematical thinking and makes a contribution to an understanding of how these students constructed the two definitions. It was found that despite the intervention of a structured design, these definitions were partially or inadequately conceptualised by some students.
opological monoids of almost monotone injective co-finite partial selfmaps of positive integers
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Chuchman I.Ya.
2010-06-01
Full Text Available In this paper we study the semigroup$mathscr{I}_{infty}^{,Rsh!!!earrow}(mathbb{N}$ of partialco-finite almost monotone bijective transformations of the set ofpositive integers $mathbb{N}$. We show that the semigroup$mathscr{I}_{infty}^{,Rsh!!!earrow}(mathbb{N}$ hasalgebraic properties similar to the bicyclic semigroup: it isbisimple and all of its non-trivial group homomorphisms are eitherisomorphisms or group homomorphisms. Also we prove that every Bairetopology $au$ on$mathscr{I}_{infty}^{,Rsh!!!earrow}(mathbb{N}$ such that$(mathscr{I}_{infty}^{,Rsh!!!earrow}(mathbb{N},au$ isa semitopological semigroup is discrete, describe the closure of$(mathscr{I}_{infty}^{,Rsh!!!earrow}(mathbb{N},au$ ina topological semigroup and construct non-discrete Hausdorffsemigroup topologies on$mathscr{I}_{infty}^{,Rsh!!!earrow}(mathbb{N}$.
MONOTONIC DERIVATIVE CORRECTION FOR CALCULATION OF SUPERSONIC FLOWS WITH SHOCK WAVES
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
P. V. Bulat
2015-07-01
Full Text Available Subject of Research. Numerical solution methods of gas dynamics problems based on exact and approximate solution of Riemann problem are considered. We have developed an approach to the solution of Euler equations describing flows of inviscid compressible gas based on finite volume method and finite difference schemes of various order of accuracy. Godunov scheme, Kolgan scheme, Roe scheme, Harten scheme and Chakravarthy-Osher scheme are used in calculations (order of accuracy of finite difference schemes varies from 1st to 3rd. Comparison of accuracy and efficiency of various finite difference schemes is demonstrated on the calculation example of inviscid compressible gas flow in Laval nozzle in the case of continuous acceleration of flow in the nozzle and in the case of nozzle shock wave presence. Conclusions about accuracy of various finite difference schemes and time required for calculations are made. Main Results. Comparative analysis of difference schemes for Euler equations integration has been carried out. These schemes are based on accurate and approximate solution for the problem of an arbitrary discontinuity breakdown. Calculation results show that monotonic derivative correction provides numerical solution uniformity in the breakdown neighbourhood. From the one hand, it prevents formation of new points of extremum, providing the monotonicity property, but from the other hand, causes smoothing of existing minimums and maximums and accuracy loss. Practical Relevance. Developed numerical calculation method gives the possibility to perform high accuracy calculations of flows with strong non-stationary shock and detonation waves. At the same time, there are no non-physical solution oscillations on the shock wave front.
Dealing with non-unique and non-monotonic response in particle sizing instruments
Rosenberg, Phil
2017-04-01
A number of instruments used as de-facto standards for measuring particle size distributions are actually incapable of uniquely determining the size of an individual particle. This is due to non-unique or non-monotonic response functions. Optical particle counters have non monotonic response due to oscillations in the Mie response curves, especially for large aerosol and small cloud droplets. Scanning mobility particle sizers respond identically to two particles where the ratio of particle size to particle charge is approximately the same. Images of two differently sized cloud or precipitation particles taken by an optical array probe can have similar dimensions or shadowed area depending upon where they are in the imaging plane. A number of methods exist to deal with these issues, including assuming that positive and negative errors cancel, smoothing response curves, integrating regions in measurement space before conversion to size space and matrix inversion. Matrix inversion (also called kernel inversion) has the advantage that it determines the size distribution which best matches the observations, given specific information about the instrument (a matrix which specifies the probability that a particle of a given size will be measured in a given instrument size bin). In this way it maximises use of the information in the measurements. However this technique can be confused by poor counting statistics which can cause erroneous results and negative concentrations. Also an effective method for propagating uncertainties is yet to be published or routinely implemented. Her we present a new alternative which overcomes these issues. We use Bayesian methods to determine the probability that a given size distribution is correct given a set of instrument data and then we use Markov Chain Monte Carlo methods to sample this many dimensional probability distribution function to determine the expectation and (co)variances - hence providing a best guess and an uncertainty for
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Chawla, N., E-mail: nchawla@asu.edu [Materials Science and Engineering, Arizona State University Tempe, AZ 85287-6106 (United States); Liaw, P.K. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Tennessee-Knoxville, Knoxville, TN 37996 (United States); Lara-Curzio, E.; Ferber, M.K.; Lowden, R.A. [High Temperature Materials Laboratory, Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States)
2012-11-15
The effect of fiber fabric orientation, i.e., parallel to loading and perpendicular to the loading axis, on the monotonic and fatigue behavior of plain-weave fiber reinforced SiC matrix laminated composites was investigated. Two composite systems were studied: Nextel 312 (3M Corp.) reinforced SiC and Nicalon (Nippon Carbon Corp.) reinforced SiC, both fabricated by Forced Chemical Vapor Infiltration (FCVI). The behavior of both materials was investigated under monotonic and fatigue loading. Interlaminar and in-plane shear tests were conducted to further correlate shear properties with the effect of fabric orientation, with respect to the loading axis, on the orientation effects in bending. The underlying mechanisms, in monotonic and fatigue loading, were investigated through post-fracture examination using scanning electron microscopy (SEM).
DEFF Research Database (Denmark)
Gardner, Richard J.; Kiderlen, Markus
A structural theory of operations between real-valued (or extended-real-valued) functions on a nonempty subset A of Rn is initiated. It is shown, for example, that any operation ∗ on a cone of functions containing the constant functions, which is pointwise, positively homogeneous, monotonic......, and associative, must be one of 40 explicitly given types. In particular, this is the case for operations between pairs of arbitrary, or continuous, or differentiable functions. The term pointwise means that (f ∗g)(x) = F(f(x), g(x)), for all x ∈ A and some function F of two variables. Several results in the same...... spirit are obtained for operations between convex functions or between support functions. For example, it is shown that ordinary addition is the unique pointwise operation between convex functions satisfying the identity property, i.e., f ∗ 0 = 0 ∗ f = f, for all convex f, while other results classify Lp...
Marco Bramanti
1992-01-01
In this paper we deal with a uniformly elliptic operator of the kind: Lu Au + Vu, where the principal part A is in divergence form, and V is a function assumed in a “Kato class”. This operator has been studied in different contexts, especially using probabilistic techniques. The aim of the present work is to give a unified and simplified presentation of the results obtained with non probabilistic methods for the operator L on a bounded Lipschitz domain. These results regard: con...
Majidi, Pasha; Pickup, Peter G.
2016-09-01
The authors regret that Equation (5) is incorrect and has resulted in errors in Fig. 4 and the efficiencies stated on p. 442. The corrected equation, figure and text are presented below. In addition, the title should be 'Sinusoidal potential cycling operation of a direct ethanol fuel cell to improve carbon dioxide yields', and the reversible cell potential quoted on p. 441 should be 1.14 V. The authors would like to apologise for any inconvenience caused.
Deau, E. A.; Spilker, L. J.; Flandes, A.
2011-01-01
We used well know phase functions of satellites and rings around the giant planets of our Solar System to study the morphology of the opposition effect (at phase angles alpha morphological model to retrieve the morphological parameters of the surge (A and HWHM). These parameters are found to have a non-monotonic variation with the single scattering albedo, similar to that observed in asteroids, which is unexplained so far. The non-monotonic variation is discussed in the framework of the coherent backscattering and shadow hiding mechanisms.
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
Marwan Amin Kutbi
2013-01-01
Full Text Available We introduce two new concepts of weakly relaxed η-α monotone mappings and weakly relaxed η-α semimonotone mappings. Using the KKM technique, the existence of solutions for variational-like problems with weakly relaxed η-α monotone mapping in reflexive Banach spaces is established. Also, we obtain the existence of solution for variational-like problems with weakly relaxed η-α semimonotone mappings in arbitrary Banach spaces by using the Kakutani-Fan-Glicksberg fixed-point theorem.
Wilson, Machelle D; Kerstin Lueck
2014-01-01
The imputation of missing data is often a crucial step in the analysis of survey data. This study reviews typical problems with missing data and discusses a method for the imputation of missing survey data with a large number of categorical variables which do not have a monotone missing pattern. We develop a method for constructing a monotone missing pattern that allows for imputation of categorical data in data sets with a large number of variables using a model-based MCMC approach. We repor...
广义Feller算子序列的单调性%On the monotonicity of gerneralizes Feller operators
Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)
付应雄
2002-01-01
运用概率方法,特别是逆鞅的定义证明{(sn)/(n),Fn,n≥m}为逆鞅,进一步由Jessen不等式讨论广义Feller算子Ln(f,x)=Efψ(sn)/(n)的整体性质中的单调性,得到在一定条件下广义Feller算子Ln(f,x)满足Ln(f,x)≥Ln+1(f,x)的结论,从而推知一类新算子的单调性.
Canonical single field slow-roll inflation with a non-monotonic tensor-to-scalar ratio
Germán, Gabriel; Herrera-Aguilar, Alfredo; Hidalgo, Juan Carlos; Sussman, Roberto A.
2016-05-01
We take a pragmatic, model independent approach to single field slow-roll canonical inflation by imposing conditions, not on the potential, but on the slow-roll parameter epsilon(phi) and its derivatives epsilon'(phi) and epsilon''(phi), thereby extracting general conditions on the tensor-to-scalar ratio r and the running nsk at phiH where the perturbations are produced, some 50-60 e-folds before the end of inflation. We find quite generally that for models where epsilon(phi) develops a maximum, a relatively large r is most likely accompanied by a positive running while a negligible tensor-to-scalar ratio implies negative running. The definitive answer, however, is given in terms of the slow-roll parameter ξ2(phi). To accommodate a large tensor-to-scalar ratio that meets the limiting values allowed by the Planck data, we study a non-monotonic epsilon(phi) decreasing during most part of inflation. Since at phiH the slow-roll parameter epsilon(phi) is increasing, we thus require that epsilon(phi) develops a maximum for phi > phiH after which epsilon(phi) decrease to small values where most e-folds are produced. The end of inflation might occur trough a hybrid mechanism and a small field excursion Δphie ≡ |phiH-phie| is obtained with a sufficiently thin profile for epsilon(phi) which, however, should not conflict with the second slow-roll parameter η(phi). As a consequence of this analysis we find bounds for Δphie, rH and for the scalar spectral index nsH. Finally we provide examples where these considerations are explicitly realised.
On some nonlinear potential problems
Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)
M. A. Efendiev
1999-05-01
Full Text Available The degree theory of mappings is applied to a two-dimensional semilinear elliptic problem with the Laplacian as principal part subject to a nonlinear boundary condition of Robin type. Under some growth conditions we obtain existence. The analysis is based on an equivalent coupled system of domain--boundary variational equations whose principal parts are the Dirichlet bilinear form in the domain and the single layer potential bilinear form on the boundary, respectively. This system consists of a monotone and a compact part. Additional monotonicity implies convergence of an appropriate Richardson iteration.
Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)
Brown, T.D.; Kmetyk, L.N.; Whitehead, D.; Miller, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Forester, J. [Science Applications International Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Johnson, J. [GRAM, Inc., Albuquerque, NM (United States)
1995-03-01
Traditionally, probabilistic risk assessments (PRAS) of severe accidents in nuclear power plants have considered initiating events potentially occurring only during full power operation. Recent studies and operational experience have, however, implied that accidents during low power and shutdown could be significant contributors to risk. In response to this concern, in 1989 the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) initiated an extensive program to carefully examine the potential risks during low power and shutdown operations. Two plants, Surry (pressurized water reactor) and Grand Gulf (boiling water reactor), were selected as the plants to be studied. The program consists of two parallel projects being performed by Brookhaven National Laboratory (Surry) and Sandia National Laboratories (Grand Gulf). The program objectives include assessing the risks of severe accidents initiated during plant operational states other than full power operation and comparing the estimated risks with the risk associated with accidents initiated during full power operation as assessed in NUREG-1150. The scope of the program is that of a Level-3 PRA. The subject of this report is the PRA of the Grand Gulf Nuclear Station, Unit 1. The Grand Gulf plant utilizes a 3833 MWt BUR-6 boiling water reactor housed in a Mark III containment. The Grand Gulf plant is located near Port Gibson, Mississippi. The regime of shutdown analyzed in this study was plant operational state (POS) 5 during a refueling outage, which is approximately Cold Shutdown as defined by Grand Gulf Technical Specifications. The entire PRA of POS 5 is documented in a multi-volume NUREG report (NUREG/CR-6143). The internal events accident sequence analysis (Level 1) is documented in Volume 2. The Level 1 internal fire and internal flood analyses are documented in Vols 3 and 4, respectively.