WorldWideScience

Sample records for monoterpenic phenol present

  1. [Effect of drying methods on monoterpenes, phenolic acids and flavonoids in Mentha haplocalyx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Shao-qing; Zhu, Zhen-hua; Guo, Sheng; Zhao, Yu-yang; Lu, Xue-jun; Sha, Xiu-xiu; Qian, Da-wei; Duan, Jin-ao

    2015-12-01

    To provide a scientific basis for the selection of the appropriate drying method for Mentha Haplocalyx Herba (MHH), determine 2 monoterpenes, 4 phenolic acids and 5 flavonoids in MHH by GC-MS and UPLC-TQ-MS methods, and investigate the effects of the drying methods on the changes in contents of these analytes. The qualities of products obtained with different drying methods were evaluated by the multivariate statistical method of Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution (TOPSIS). Results showed that the drying methods had the greatest impact on menthol, caffeic acid, and rosemary acid, which were followed by chlorogenic acid and diosmetin-7-O-glucoside. The contents in these analytes processed with hot-air-drying method were higher than those with microwave-drying and infrared-drying methods at the same temperatures. The contents in these analytes processed under low temperature (40-45 °C) were higher than those under higher temperature (60-70 °C). Above all, the contents in phenolic acids processed with microwave fixation (exposed under microwave at 100 °C for several minutes) were obviously higher than those of not being processed, showing an inhibition of some enzymes in samples after fixation. The TOPSIS evaluation showed that the variable temperature drying method of 'Hot-Air 45-60 °C' was the most suitable approach for the primary drying processing of MHH. The results could provide the scientific basis for the selection of appropriate drying method for MHH, and helpful reference for the primary drying proces of herbs containing volatile chemical components.

  2. Irreversible impacts of heat on the emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, phenolic BVOC and green leaf volatiles from several tree species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Kleist

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Climate change will induce extended heat waves to parts of the vegetation more frequently. High temperatures may act as stress (thermal stress on plants changing emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs. As BVOCs impact the atmospheric oxidation cycle and aerosol formation, it is important to explore possible alterations of BVOC emissions under high temperature conditions. Applying heat to European beech, Palestine oak, Scots pine, and Norway spruce in a laboratory setup either caused the well-known exponential increases of BVOC emissions or induced irreversible changes of BVOC emissions. Considering only irreversible changes of BVOC emissions as stress impacts, we found that high temperatures decreased the de novo emissions of monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOC. This behaviour was independent of the tree species and whether the de novo emissions were constitutive or induced by biotic stress.

    In contrast, application of thermal stress to conifers amplified the release of monoterpenes stored in resin ducts of conifers and induced emissions of green leaf volatiles. In particular during insect attack on conifers, the plants showed de novo emissions of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOCs, which exceeded constitutive monoterpene emissions from pools. The heat-induced decrease of de novo emissions was larger than the increased monoterpene release caused by damage of resin ducts. For insect-infested conifers the net effect of thermal stress on BVOC emissions could be an overall decrease.

    Global change-induced heat waves may put hard thermal stress on plants. If so, we project that BVOC emissions increase is more than predicted by models only in areas predominantly covered with conifers that do not emit high amounts of sesquiterpenes and phenolic BVOCs. Otherwise overall effects of high temperature stress will be lower increases of BVOC emissions than predicted by algorithms that do

  3. European emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes from the Last Glacial Maximum to present

    OpenAIRE

    Schurgers, G.; Hickler, T.; Miller, P. A.; Arneth, A.

    2009-01-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC), such as isoprene and monoterpenes, play an important role in atmospheric processes. BVOC species are oxidized in the atmosphere and influence levels of ozone. The less volatile amongst the BVOC and their oxidation products are important for the formation and growth of secondary biogenic aerosol. In this way, the earth's radiation balance is affected.

    Geographic distribution and temporal changes in BVOC emissions are highly uncer...

  4. European emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes from the Last Glacial Maximum to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schurgers

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, play an important role in atmospheric processes. BVOC species are oxidized in the atmosphere and influence levels of ozone. The less volatile amongst the BVOC and their oxidation products are important for the formation and growth of secondary biogenic aerosol. In this way, the Earth's radiation balance is affected.

    Geographic distribution and temporal changes in BVOC emissions are highly uncertain. Here we assessed changes in emission patterns across Europe since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM with a dynamic vegetation model. This model reproduces European tree species distribution and includes a process-based algorithm for terpenoid production. In a set of simulations the model was driven with paleoclimate anomalies and reconstructed CO2 concentrations. We quantified three main driving factors for the changes in emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes since the LGM: (1 the changes in climate, with temperature changes as the most important factor affecting plant physiology and terpenoid production in all plant species, (2 a change in species distribution related to the changes in climate, causing local shifts in emission characteristics of the vegetation, and (3 a change in CO2 concentration, causing opposing effects on the availability of different substrates for terpenoid production. The effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration is particularly uncertain, but sensitivity simulations showed an increase in European BVOC emissions in all sensitivity experiments irrespective of the use of a direct inhibition of terpenoid production by CO2. The effects of climate change on physiology and terpenoid production resulted in an overall relatively uniform increase of emissions in Europe over the simulation period, but regionally the effect of changes in species distribution and the related changes in emission capacities resulted

  5. European emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes from the Last Glacial Maximum to present

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schurgers

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC, such as isoprene and monoterpenes, play an important role in atmospheric processes. BVOC species are oxidized in the atmosphere and influence levels of ozone. The less volatile amongst the BVOC and their oxidation products are important for the formation and growth of secondary biogenic aerosol. In this way, the earth's radiation balance is affected.

    Geographic distribution and temporal changes in BVOC emissions are highly uncertain. Here we assessed changes in emission patterns across Europe since the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM with a dynamic vegetation model that reproduces European tree species distribution and in which a process-based algorithm for terpenoid production was incorporated. In a set of simulations the model was driven with paleoclimate anomalies and reconstructed CO2 concentrations. We quantified three main driving factors for the changes in emissions of isoprene and monoterpenes since the LGM: (1 the changes in climate, with temperature changes as the most important factor affecting plant physiology and terpenoid production in all plant species, (2 a change in species distribution related to the changes in climate, causing local shifts in emission characteristics of the vegetation, and (3 a change in CO2 concentration, causing opposing effects on the availability of different substrates for terpenoid production. The effect of atmospheric CO2 concentration is particularly uncertain, but sensitivity simulations showed an increase in European BVOC emissions in all sensitivity experiments irrespective of the use of a direct inhibition of terpenoid production by CO2. The effects of climate change on physiology and terpenoid production resulted in an overall relatively uniform increase of emissions in Europe over the simulation period, but regionally the effect of changes in species distribution and the related changes in emission

  6. Biosynthesis of the phenolic monoterpenes , thymol and carvacrol , by terpene synthases and cytochrome P450s in oregano and thyme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crocoll, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    Plants are sophisticated light-driven “green” factories able to synthesize an immense number of bio-active natural products (Jensen and Møller, 2010). These natural products are also referred to as secondary products or secondary metabolites since they are not directly essential for the basic pro...... by polyketides, polyacetylenes, saponins, phenolics and terpenes. Many of the secondary metabolites were found to serve plants as defenses against herbivores, pathogens and abiotic stresses (Huang et al., 2010)....

  7. Biological Activities of Phenolic Compounds Present in Virgin Olive Oil

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a trad...

  8. Every plant for himself; the effect of a phenolic monoterpene on germination and biomass of Thymus pulegioides and T. serpyllum.

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Catrine Grønberg; Ehlers, Bodil

    2009-01-01

    by thyme plants is found both within and among species. In Denmark two thyme species (Thymus pulegioides and T. serpyllum) are naturally occurring. The essential oil of T. pulegioides in Denmark is mainly dominated by one monoterpene; 'carvacrol'. In contrast, the essential oil of T. serpyllum constitutes......Thyme plants are known for their production of aromatic oils, whose main component is terpenes. The plants leach terpenes to their surroundings and thereby affect the seed germination and biomass of associated plants, but also potentially themselves. A variation in the dominant terpenes produced...

  9. Inhibitory effects of monoterpenes on seed germination and seedling growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kordali, Saban; Cakir, Ahmet; Sutay, Sunay

    2007-01-01

    Monoterpenes, the chemical constituents of essential oils found in plants, are known biologically active compounds. The present study was conducted to investigate the inhibitory effects of 30 monoterpenes including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated monoterpenes on seed germination and seedling growth of Amaranthus retroflexus, Chenopodium album and Rumex crispus under laboratory conditions. The monoterpenes were applied at contents of 10 and 20 microl for liquid compounds and 10 and 20 microg for solid compounds. The results show that most of the monoterpenes significantly inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of the tested plants. Oxygenated monoterpenes including beta-citronellol, nerol and terpinen-4-ol completely inhibited seed germination and seedling growth of all tested plants. Their inhibitory effects were also stronger than that of the herbicide 2,4-D. In general, monoterpenes were less effective against seed germination and seedling growth of C. album as compared with R. crispus and A. retroflexus. Phytotoxic effects of monoterpene hydrocarbons were found to be lower than those of oxygenated monoterpenes. The alcohol derivatives of oxygenated monoterpenes were also found to be more phytotoxic as compared with their acetate derivatives. Based on the present results, it can be concluded that the oxygenated monoterpenes can be used as potential bio-herbicides.

  10. Encapsulation of carvacrol, a monoterpene present in the essential oil of oregano, with β-cyclodextrin, improves the pharmacological response on cancer pain experimental protocols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guimarães, Adriana Gibara; Oliveira, Marlange Almeida; Alves, Rafael dos Santos; Menezes, Paula dos Passos; Serafini, Mairim Russo; Araújo, Adriano Antunes de Souza; Bezerra, Daniel Pereira; Quintans Júnior, Lucindo José

    2015-02-05

    Cancer pain is a major public health problem worldwide due to the strong impact on the quality of life of patients and side effects of the existing therapeutic options. Monoterpenes, as carvacrol (CARV), have been extensively studied about their therapeutic properties, especially their importance in the control of painful conditions and inflammation, which can be improved through the use of inclusion complexes of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). We evaluated the effect of encapsulation of CARV in β-CD (CARV/β-CD) on the nociception induced by tumor cells (Sarcoma 180) in rodents. Inclusion complexes were prepared in two different procedures and characterized through thermal analysis and scanning electron microscopy. CARV/β-CD complex was administered (50 mg/kg, p.o.) in mice with tumor on the hind paw and was able to reduce the hyperalgesia (von Frey) during 24 h, unlike the free CARV (100 mg/kg, p.o.), which promoted effects until 9 h. Administration on alternate days of complex of CARV/β-CD (12.5-50 mg/kg, p.o.) reduced hyperalgesia, as well as spontaneous and palpation-induced nociception. However, pure CARV (50 mg/kg) did not cause significant changes in nociceptive responses. Together, these results produced evidence that the encapsulation of carvacrol in β-cyclodextrin can be useful for the development of new options for pain management.

  11. Structural relationships and vasorelaxant activity of monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cardoso Lima Tamires

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background and purpose of the study The hypotensive activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and its main constituent, the monoterpene rotundifolone, have been reported. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect of monoterpenes found in medicinal plants and establish the structure-activity relationship of rotundifolone and its structural analogues on the rat superior mesenteric artery. Methods Contractions of the vessels were induced with 10 μM of phenylephine (Phe in rings with endothelium. During the tonic phase of the contraction, the monoterpenes (10-8 - 10-3, cumulatively were added to the organ bath. The extent of relaxation was expressed as the percentage of Phe-induced contraction. Results The results from the present study showed that both oxygenated terpenes (rotundifolone, (+-limonene epoxide, pulegone epoxide, carvone epoxide, and (+-pulegone and non-oxygenated terpene ((+-limonene exhibit relaxation activity. The absence of an oxygenated molecular structure was not a critical requirement for the molecule to be bioactive. Also it was found that the position of ketone and epoxide groups in the monoterpene structures influence the vasorelaxant potency and efficacy. Major conclusion The results suggest that the presence of functional groups in the chemical structure of rotundifolone is not essential for its vasorelaxant activity.

  12. Structural Relationships and Vasorelaxant Activity of Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamires Cardoso Lima

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose of the study The hypotensive activity of the essential oil of Mentha x villosa and its main constituent, the monoterpene rotundifolone, have been reported. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the vasorelaxant effect of monoterpenes found in medicinal plants and establish the structureactivity relationship of rotundifolone and its structural analogues on the rat superior mesenteric artery. Methods:Contractions of the vessels were induced with 10 muM of phenylephine (Phe in rings with endothelium. During the tonic phase of the contraction, the monoterpenes (10-8 - 10-3, cumulatively were added to the organ bath. The extent of relaxation was expressed as the percentage of Phe-induced contraction. Results:The results from the present study showed that both oxygenated terpenes (rotundifolone, (+- limonene epoxide, pulegone epoxide, carvone epoxide, and (+-pulegone and nonoxygenated terpene ((+-limonene exhibit relaxation activity. The absence of an oxygenated molecular structure was not a critical requirement for the molecule to be bioactive. Also it was found that the position of ketone and epoxide groups in the monoterpene structures influence the vasorelaxant potency and efficacy. Major conclusion The results suggest that the presence of functional groups in the chemical structure of rotundifolone is not essential for its vasorelaxant activity.

  13. Bioavailability of tyrosol, an antioxidant phenolic compound present in wine and olive oil, in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Covas, M I; Miró-Casas, E; Fitó, M; Farré-Albadalejo, M; Gimeno, E; Marrugat, J; De La Torre, R

    2003-01-01

    Tyrosol is a phenolic compound present in two of the traditional components of the Mediterranean diet: wine and virgin olive oil. The presence of tyrosol has been described in red and white wines. Tyrosol is also present in vermouth and beer. Tyrosol has been shown to be able to exert antioxidant activity in in vitro studies. Oxidation of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) appears to occur predominantly in arterial intima in microdomains sequestered from antioxidants of plasma. The antioxidant content of the LDL particle is critical for its protection. Thus, phenolics, which are able to bind LDL, could be effective in preventing lipid peroxidation and atherosclerotic processes. The ability of tyrosol to bind human LDL has been reported. We have demonstrated the bioavailability of tyrosol in humans from virgin olive oil in its natural form. Urinary tyrosol increased, reaching a peak at 0-4 h after virgin olive oil administration. Men and women showed a different pattern of urinary excretion of tyrosol. Moreover, tyrosol is absorbed in a dose-dependent manner after sustained and moderate doses of virgin olive oil. In summary, our results suggest that tyrosol from wine or virgin olive oil could exert beneficial effects on human health in vivo if its biological properties are confirmed in in vivo studies.

  14. Antitumor Activity of Monoterpenes Found in Essential Oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marianna Vieira Sobral

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer is a complex genetic disease that is a major public health problem worldwide, accounting for about 7 million deaths each year. Many anticancer drugs currently used clinically have been isolated from plant species or are based on such substances. Accumulating data has revealed anticancer activity in plant-derived monoterpenes. In this review the antitumor activity of 37 monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. Chemical structures, experimental models, and mechanisms of action for bioactive substances are presented.

  15. Environmental process for elimination of phenolic water present in refinery gasoline tanks; Processo ambiental para eliminacao de agua fenolica presente em tanques de gasolina de refinarias de petroleo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa Junior, Bentaci; Pedroso, Osmar V.; Furlan, Luis T. [PETROBRAS, SP (Brazil). Refinaria de Paulinia

    2004-07-01

    Gasoline production in petroleum refineries usually implies carrying high phenol contents in water after treatment systems. Phenols are powerful bactericides and, therefore, harmful to microorganisms present in wastewater treatment plants and in rivers. Due to this reason, usually controlled phenolic water drainage is performed, enabling gasoline quality improvement, without jeopardizing the biological treatment. Increase of phenolic contents in the effluent, due to operational disarray during the drainage of gasoline tanks may cause inhibition or even mortality of the existing microorganisms in the wastewater treatment plants. Aiming at changing the traditional treatment logic of environmental demands at the 'end of pipe', sending the phenolic water to the sour water treatment systems was proposed and implemented, which in turn, is reutilized by the latter in the crude desalination of the Distillation Units, where the phenols are reincorporated to the crude oil, preventing negative consequences to the wastewater treatment plant. The implemented process has demonstrated that premises were correct, enabling to implement process flows quite higher than drainage flows, what has meant productivity gains and environmental improvement. (author)

  16. Qualitative and quantitative variation in monoterpene co-occurrence and composition in the essential oil of Thymus vulgaris chemotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, John D; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Michet, André; Linhart, Yan B; Ehlers, Bodil

    2003-04-01

    Thymus vulgaris has a chemical polymorphism with six different chemotypes that show marked spatial segregation in nature. Although some populations have a single chemotype in majority, many have two or three chemotypes. In this study we analyze the quantitative variation among T. vulgaris populations in the percentage of oil composed of the dominant monoterpene(s) for each chemotype. In general, phenolic chemotypes (thymol and carvacrol), which occur at the end of the biosynthetic chain, have a significantly lower proportion of their oil composed of their dominant monoterpene than nonphenolic chemotypes (geraniol, alpha-terpineol, and linalool). This is due to the presence of high amounts of precursors (gamma-terpinene and paracymene) in the oil of phenolic chemotypes. The essential oil of the nonphenolic thuyanol chemotype has four characteristic monoterpenes that together make up a lower proportion of the oil than the single dominant monoterpene of the other nonphenolic chemotypes. For all chemotypes, the percentage composition of the dominant monoterpene decreased significantly at sites where the chemotype is not the majority type. This decrease is correlated with a significant increase in either the proportion of the two precursors for the thymol chemotype or the monoterpenes characteristic of the other chemotypes at the site. The latter result suggests that a plant with dominant genes is responsible for the production of different monoterpenes can produce several molecules.

  17. Monoterpene emission from ponderosa pine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lerdau, Manual; Dilts, Stephen B.; Westberg, Hal; Lamb, Brian K.; Allwine, Eugene J.

    1994-01-01

    We explore the variability in monoterpene emissions from ponderosa pine beyond that which can be explained by temperature alone. Specifically, we examine the roles that photosynthesis and needle monoterpene concentrations play in controlling emissions. We measure monoterpene concentrations and emissions, photosynthesis, temperature, and light availability in the late spring and late summer in a ponderosa pine forest in central Oregon. We use a combination of measurements from cuvettes and Teflon bag enclosures to show that photosynthesis is not correlated with emissions in the short term. We also show that needle monoterpene concentrations are highly correlated with emissions for two compounds, alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, but that Delta-carene concentrations are not correlated with emissions. We suggest that direct effects of light and photosynthesis do not need to be included in emission algorithms. Our results indicate that the role of needle concentration bears further investigation; our results for alpha-pinene and beta-pinene are explainable by a Raoult's law relationship, but we cannot yet explain the cause of our results with Delta-carene.

  18. Monoterpenes in essential oils. Biosynthesis and properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loza-Tavera, H

    1999-01-01

    Monoterpenes are compounds found in the essential oils extracted from many plants, including fruits, vegetables, spices and herbs. These compounds contribute to the flavor and aroma of plant from which they are extracted. Monoterpenes are acyclic, monocyclic, or bicyclic C30 compounds synthesized by monoterpene synthases using geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) as substrate. GPP is also the precursor in the synthesis of farnesyl pyrophosphate (FPP) and geranyl-geranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), two important compounds in cell metabolism of animals, plants and yeast. Monoterpene cyclases produce cyclic monoterpenes through a multistep mechanism involving a universal intermediate, a terpinyl cation which can be transformed to several compounds. Experimental studies, using animal cancer models, have demonstrated that some monoterpenes possess anticarcinogenic properties, acting at different cellular and molecular levels. From these discoveries it seems clear that monoterpenes could be considered as effective, nontoxic dietary antitumorigenic agents that hold promise as a novel class of anticancer drugs.

  19. Global isoprene and monoterpene emissions under changing climate, vegetation, CO2 and land use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hantson, Stijn; Knorr, Wolfgang; Schurgers, Guy

    2017-01-01

    .). It is therefore necessary to know how isoprene and monoterpene emissions have changed over the past and how future changes in climate, land-use and other factors will impact them. Here we present emission estimates of isoprene and monoterpenes over the period 1901–2 100 based on the dynamic global vegetation...... model LPJ-GUESS, including the effects of all known important drivers. We find that both isoprene and monoterpene emissions at the beginning of the 20th century were higher than at present. While anthropogenic land-use change largely drives the global decreasing trend for isoprene over the 20th century......, changes in natural vegetation composition caused a decreasing trend for monoterpene emissions. Future global isoprene and monoterpene emissions depend strongly on the climate and land-use scenarios considered. Over the 21st century, global isoprene emissions are simulated to either remain stable (RCP 4...

  20. Metabolic engineering of monoterpene biosynthesis in plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.

    2002-01-01

    Monoterpenes are a large group of compounds that belong to the terpenoid family of natural compounds in plants. They are small, volatile, lipophilic substances of which around one thousand different structures have been identified. Monoterpenes are

  1. Impact of Roasting on Fatty Acids, Tocopherols, Phytosterols, and Phenolic Compounds Present in Plukenetia huayllabambana Seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Chirinos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of roasting of Plukenetia huayllabambana seeds on the fatty acids, tocopherols, phytosterols, and phenolic compounds was evaluated. Additionally, the oxidative stability of the seed during roasting was evaluated through free fatty acids, peroxide, and p-anisidine values in the seed oil. Roasting conditions corresponded to 100, 120, 140, and 160°C for 10, 20, and 30 min, respectively. Results indicate that roasting temperatures higher than 120°C significantly affect the content of the studied components. The values of acidity, peroxide, and p-anisidine in the sacha inchi oil from roasted seeds increased during roasting. The treatment of 100°C for 10 min successfully maintained the evaluated bioactive compounds in the seed and quality of the oil, while guaranteeing a higher extraction yield. Our results indicate that P. huayllabambana seed should be roasted at temperatures not higher than 100°C for 10 min to obtain snacks with high levels of bioactive compounds and with high oxidative stability.

  2. Metabolism of monoterpenes in cell cultures of common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falk, K.L.; Gershenzon, J.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1990-08-01

    Leaves of common sage (Salvia officinalis) accumulate monoterpenes in glandular trichomes at levels exceeding 15 milligrams per gram fresh weight at maturity, whereas sage cells in suspension culture did not accumulate detectable levels of monoterpenes (<0.3 nanograms per gram fresh weight) at any stage of the growth cycle, even in the presence of a polystyrene resin trap. Monoterpene biosynthesis from (U-{sup 14}C)sucrose was also virtually undetectable in this cell culture system. In vitro assay of each of the enzymes required for the sequential conversion of the ubiquitous isoprenoid precursor geranyl pyrophosphate to (+){minus}camphor (a major monoterpene product of sage) in soluble extracts of the cells revealed the presence of activity sufficient to produce (+){minus}camphor at a readily detectable level (>0.3 micrograms per gram fresh weight) at the late log phase of growth. Other monoterpene synthetic enzymes were present as well. In vivo measurement of the ability to catabolize (+){minus}camphor in these cells indicated that degradative capability exceeded biosynthetic capacity by at least 1,000-fold. Therefore, the lack of monoterpene accumulation in undifferentiated sage cultures could be attributed to a low level of biosynthetic activity (relative to the intact plant) coupled to a pronounced capacity for monoterpene catabolism.

  3. Acyclic monoterpenes in tree essential oils as a shrinking agent for waste-expanded polystyrene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimotori, Yasutaka; Hattori, Kazuyuki; Aoyama, Masakazu; Miyakoshi, Tetsuo

    2011-01-01

    We examined the dissolution of polystyrene (PS) into acyclic monoterpenes present in tree essential oils, to develop an environmentally friendly shrinking agent for waste-expanded polystyrene (EPS). The dissolving powers of geranyl acetate, geranylacetone, and geranyl formate [221.8-241.2 g PS (100 g solvent)(-1)] compared favorably with that of (R)-limonene [181.7 g PS (100 g solvent)(-1)]. Their favorable dissolving powers for PS can be explained by their flexible linear structures, which may be more accessible to the inside of bulk PS compared with cyclic monoterpenes. These acyclic monoterpenes and PS were recovered almost quantitatively by simple steam distillation of the PS solution.

  4. Implementation of ozonation process in degradation of the phenols present in petrochemistry effluents; Aplicacao do processo de ozonizacao na degradacao de fenois presentes em efluentes petroquimicos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Fernanda Batista de; Souza, Antonio Augusto Ulson de; Souza, Selene Maria Arruda Guelli Ulson de [Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (UFSC), Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    The water contamination by the petrochemical pollutants with high toxicity, such as phenols, is a subject of interest of several researchers. The ozone is an alternative for the effluents treatment, being effective in environmental decontamination, reducing the COD and degrading the phenols. The ozone stability depends on the water pH, the type and content of organic matter. This study aimed to investigate in the phenol ozonation, evaluating the phenol and COD removal at different pHs. Ozone as injected in 5 L of phenol solution of 50 mg L-1 at pH = 2, 7 and 10, from 1 to 25 minutes, and then was measured the quantity of COD and phenol. It was found that in acid pH the ozone has increased the stability, because 82.19% of the ozone that enters in the column remains in solution. The phenol degradation was faster in alkaline solution (pH=10), where in 15 minutes of treatment, 99.7% of phenol was consumed. The COD removal increased from 7.3% in 6 minutes to 87.8% in 30 minutes, but the COD removal increases more slowly than that of phenol which was 53, 8% in 6 min, increasing to 99.2% at 25 min for pH=7. (author)

  5. Monoterpene biosynthesis potential of plant subcellular compartments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dong, L.; Jongedijk, E.J.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Krol, van der A.R.

    2016-01-01

    Subcellular monoterpene biosynthesis capacity based on local geranyl diphosphate (GDP) availability or locally boosted GDP production was determined for plastids, cytosol and mitochondria. A geraniol synthase (GES) was targeted to plastids, cytosol, or mitochondria. Transient expression in Nicotiana

  6. Microbial monoterpene transformations – A review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert eMarmulla

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Isoprene and monoterpenes constitute a significant fraction of new plant biomass. Emission rates into the atmosphere alone are estimated to be over 500 Tg per year. These natural hydrocarbons are mineralized annually in similar quantities. In the atmosphere, abiotic photochemical processes cause lifetimes of minutes to hours. Microorganisms encounter isoprene, monoterpenes and other volatiles of plant origin while living in and on plants, in the soil and in aquatic habitats. Below toxic concentrations, the compounds can serve as carbon and energy source for aerobic and anaerobic microorganisms. Besides these catabolic reactions, transformations may occur as part of detoxification processes. Initial transformations of monoterpenes involve the introduction of functional groups, oxidation reactions and molecular rearrangements catalyzed by various enzymes. Pseudomonas and Rhodococcus strains and members of the genera Castellaniella and Thauera have become model organisms for the elucidation of biochemical pathways. We review here the enzymes and their genes together with microorganisms known for a monoterpene metabolism, with a strong focus on microorganisms that are taxonomically validly described and currently available from culture collections. Metagenomes of microbiomes with a monoterpene-rich diet confirmed the ecological relevance of monoterpene metabolism and raised concerns on the quality of our insights based on the limited biochemical knowledge.

  7. Structural elucidation and quantification of phenolic conjugates present in human urine after tea intake

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hooft, van der J.J.J.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Mihaleva, V.; Bino, R.J.; Ridder, L.O.; Roo, de N.; Jacobs, D.M.; Duynhoven, van J.P.M.; Vervoort, J.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    In dietary polyphenol exposure studies, annotation and identification of urinary metabolites present at low (micromolar) concentrations are major obstacles. In order to determine the biological activity of specific components, it is necessary to have the correct structures and the quantification of

  8. A comparison of new measurements of total monoterpene flux with improved measurements of speciated monoterpene flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lee

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Many monoterpenes have been identified in forest emissions using gas chromatography (GC. Until now, it has been impossible to determine whether all monoterpenes are appropriately measured using GC techniques. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS coupled with the eddy covariance (EC technique to measure mixing ratios and fluxes of total monoterpenes above a ponderosa pine plantation. We compared PTR-MS-EC results with simultaneous measurements of eight speciated monoterpenes, β-pinene, α-pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpinene, camphene, and terpinolene, made with an automated, in situ gas chromatograph with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID, coupled to a relaxed eddy accumulation system (REA. Monoterpene mixing ratios and fluxes measured by PTR-MS averaged 30±2.3% and 31±9.2% larger than by GC-FID, with larger differences at night than during the day. Four unidentified peaks that correlated with β-pinene were resolved in the chromatograms and completely accounted for the daytime difference and reduced the nighttime difference to 19±3.4%. Measurements of total monoterpenes by PTR-MS-EC indicated that GC-FID-REA measured the common, longer-lived monoterpenes well, but that additional monoterpenes were emitted from the ecosystem that represented an important contribution to the total mixing ratio above the forest at night, and that must have been oxidized during the day before they escaped the forest canopy.

  9. Phenolic compounds present in Sardinian wine extracts protect against the production of inflammatory cytokines induced by oxysterols in CaCo-2 human enterocyte-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biasi, Fiorella; Guina, Tina; Maina, Marco; Cabboi, Barbara; Deiana, Monica; Tuberoso, Carlo I; Calfapietra, Simone; Chiarpotto, Elena; Sottero, Barbara; Gamba, Paola; Gargiulo, Simona; Brunetto, Vanessa; Testa, Gabriella; Dessì, Maria A; Poli, Giuseppe; Leonarduzzi, Gabriella

    2013-07-01

    Cholesterol auto-oxidation products, namely oxysterols, are widely present in cholesterol-rich foods. They are thought to potentially interfere with homeostasis of the human digestive tract, playing a role in intestinal mucosal damage. This report concerns the marked up-regulation in differentiated CaCo-2 colonic epithelial cells of two key inflammatory interleukins, IL-6 and IL-8, caused by a mixture of oxysterols representative of a high cholesterol diet. This strong pro-inflammatory effect appeared to be dependent on the net imbalance of red-ox equilibrium with the production of excessive levels of reactive oxygen species through the colonic NADPH-oxidase NOX1 activation. Induction of NOX1 was markedly while not fully inhibited by CaCo-2 cell pre-incubation with phenolic extracts obtained from well-selected wines from typical grape varieties grown in Sardinia. Oxysterol-dependent NOX1 activation, as well as interleukin synthesis, were completely prevented by Cannonau red wine extract that contains an abundant phenolic fraction, in particular phenolic acids and flavonoids. Conversely, cell pre-treatment with Vermentino white wine extract with smaller phenolic fraction showed only a partial NOX1 down-regulation and was ineffective in interleukin synthesis induced by dietary oxysterols. It is thus likely that the effects of Sardinian wine extracts against intestinal inflammation induced by dietary oxysterols are mainly due to their high phenolic content: low doses of phenolics would be responsible only for direct scavenging oxysterol-dependent ROS production. Besides this direct activity, an excess of phenolic compounds detectable in red wine, may exert an additional indirect action by blocking oxysterol-related NOX1 induction, thus totally preventing the pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory events triggered by dietary oxysterols. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. The Antigerminative Activity of Twenty-Seven Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura De Martino

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress, under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10−5 M, 10−6 M.

  11. The antigerminative activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Martino, Laura; Mancini, Emilia; de Almeida, Luiz Fernando Rolim; De Feo, Vincenzo

    2010-09-21

    Monoterpenes, the main constituents of essential oils, are known for their many biological activities. The present work studied the potential biological activity of twenty-seven monoterpenes, including monoterpene hydrocarbons and oxygenated ones, against seed germination and subsequent primary radicle growth of Raphanus sativus L. (radish) and Lepidium sativum L. (garden cress), under laboratory conditions. The compounds, belonging to different chemical classes, showed different potency in affecting both parameters evaluated. The assayed compounds demonstrated a good inhibitory activity in a dose-dependent way. In general, radish seed is more sensitive than garden cress and its germination appeares more inhibited by alcohols; at the highest concentration tested, the more active substances were geraniol, borneol, (±)-β-citronellol and α-terpineol. Geraniol and carvone inhibited, in a significant way, the germination of garden cress, at the highest concentration tested. Radicle elongation of two test species was inhibited mainly by alcohols and ketones. Carvone inhibited the radicle elongation of both seeds, at almost all concentrations assayed, while 1,8-cineole inhibited their radicle elongation at the lowest concentrations (10(-5) M, 10(-6) M).

  12. Dynamics of monoterpene emissions in Pinus sylvestris during early spring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeck, J.; Hari, P.; Juurola, E. [Department of Forest Ecology, University of Helsinki (Finland); Hakola, H. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Research and Development, Helsinki (Finland); Kulmala, M. [Department of Physical Sciences, University of Helsinki (Finland)

    2005-07-01

    The seasonal dynamics of biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) emissions, which can be related to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosols, represent an important but at the present poorly understood linkage between vegetation activity and climate. Although a close relationship between photosynthesis and terpenoid emissions has been proposed, high monoterpene emission rates for Scots pine shoots (Pinus sylvestris) are frequently recorded during spring, in times when photosynthetic activity is strongly inhibited due to inherent seasonal restrictions. We suggest that terpenoid emissions are related to either photosynthesis or photorespiration for precursors for terpenoid biosynthesis. We developed two dynamic models describing temporal fluctuations in Scots pine monoterpene emissions, calculating the emissions by using CO{sub 2} exchange and ambient climate data. The models accurately predicted the measured monoterpene flux, and especially in March-April, during the time when photosynthesis was negligible and ambient temperatures were between -5 and +15 C, a good agreement was found with measured emissions and the model involving photorespiration. (orig.)

  13. Cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio R. V. Santos

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The monoterpenes are secondary metabolites of plants. They have various pharmacological properties including antifungal, antibacterial, antioxidant, anticancer, anti-spasmodic, hypotensive, and vasorelaxant. The purpose of this research was to review the cardiovascular effects of monoterpenes. The data in this resarch were collected using the Internet portals Pubmed, Scopus, and ISI Web of Knowledge between the years 1987 and 2010. In the study 33 monoterpenes were included, which were related to each of the thirteen individual words: artery, cardiovascular, heart, myocyte, vasorelaxant, vessel, hypotension, hypotensive, cardiomyocyte, ventricular, vasodilatory, aorta, and aortic. The research utilized 22 articles published mainly in the journals Phytomedicine, Fundamental Clinical Pharmacology, Planta Medica, Life Science, European Journal of Pharmacology, and Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research. Of the 33 monoterpenes studied surveyed, sixteen of them had already been studied for their effects on the cardiovascular system: carvacrol, citronellol, p-cymene, eucalyptol (1,8-cineole, linalool, menthol, myrtenal, myrtenol, α-pinene, rotundifolone (piperitenone oxide, sobrerol, thymol, α-limonene, α-terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, and perillyl alcohol. The main effects observed were vasorelaxation, decreased heart rate and blood pressure. This review showed that the monoterpenes may be considered promising agents for prevention or treatment of diseases of the cardiovascular system.

  14. A comparison of new measurements of total monoterpene flux with improved measurements of speciated monoterpene flux

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Lee

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Many monoterpenes have been identified in forest emissions using gas chromatography (GC. Until now, it has been impossible to determine whether all monoterpenes are appropriately measured using GC techniques. We used a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS coupled with the eddy covariance (EC technique to measure mixing ratios and fluxes of total monoterpenes above a ponderosa pine plantation. We compared PTR-MS-EC results with simultaneous measurements of eight speciated monoterpenes, β-pinene, α-pinene, 3-carene, d-limonene, β-phellandrene, α-terpinene, camphene, and terpinolene, made with an automated, in situ gas chromatograph with flame ionization detectors (GC-FID, coupled to a relaxed eddy accumulation system (REA. Monoterpene mixing ratios and fluxes measured by PTR-MS averaged 30±2.3% and 31±9.2% larger than by GC-FID, with larger mixing ratio discrepancies between the two techniques at night than during the day. Two unidentified peaks that correlated with β-pinene were resolved in the chromatograms and completely accounted for the daytime difference and reduced the nighttime mixing ratio difference to 20±2.9%. Measurements of total monoterpenes by PTR-MS-EC indicated that GC-FID-REA measured the common, longer-lived monoterpenes well, but that additional terpenes were emitted from the ecosystem that represented an important contribution to the total mixing ratio above the forest at night.

  15. Docking, characterization and investigation of β-cyclodextrin complexed with citronellal, a monoterpene present in the essential oil of Cymbopogon species, as an anti-hyperalgesic agent in chronic muscle pain model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, Priscila L; Brito, Renan G; Oliveira, Marlange A; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Guimarães, Adriana G; Santos, Márcio R V; Menezes, Paula P; Serafini, Mairim R; Menezes, Irwin R A; Coutinho, Henrique D M; Araújo, Adriano A S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2016-08-15

    Citronellal (CT) is a monoterpene with antinociceptive acute effect. β-Cyclodextrin (βCD) has enhanced the analgesic effect of various substances. To evaluate the effect of CT both complexed in β-cyclodextrin (CT-βCD) and non-complexed, in a chronic muscle pain model (CMP) in mice. The complex containing CT in βCD was obtained and characterized in the laboratory. The anti-hyperalgesic effect of CT and CT-βCD was evaluated in a pre-clinical in vivo study in a murine CMP. The complex was characterized through differential scanning calorimetry, derivative thermogravimetry, moisture determination, infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Male Swiss mice were pre-treated with CT (50mg/kg, po), CT-βCD (50mg/kg, po), vehicle (isotonic saline, po) or standard drug (tramadol4 mg/kg, ip). 60 min after the treatment and then each 1h, the mechanic hyperalgesia was evaluated to obtain the time effect. In addition, the muscle strength using grip strength meter and hyperalgesia were also performed daily, for 7 days. We assessed by immunofluorescence for Fos protein on brains and spinal cords of mice. The involvement of the CT with the glutamatergic system was studied with molecular docking. All characterization methods showed the CT-βCD complexation. CT-induced anti-hyperalgesic effect lasted until 6h (p CT-βCD lasted until 8h (p CT from the 6th h). CT-βCD reduced mechanical hyperalgesia on all days of treatment (p CT showed favorable energy binding (-5.6 and -6.1) to GluR2-S1S2J protein based in the docking score function. We can suggest that βCD improved the anti-hyperalgesic effect of CT, and that effect seems to involve the descending pain-inhibitory mechanisms, with a possible interaction of the glutamate receptors, which are considered as promising molecules for the management of chronic pain such as CMP. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Highly oxygenated monoterpenes from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A A

    2000-07-01

    Three new monoterpenes (3-5) were isolated from an organic extract of the aerial parts of Chenopodium ambrosioides. Structures were established on the basis of MS and NMR spectroscopic ((1)H, (13)C, (1)H-(1)H COSY, HMQC and HMBC) data.

  17. Monoterpene Compositions of Three Forested Ecosystems in the Central Amazon Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jardine, A.; Fuentes, J. D.; Manzi, A. O.; Higuchi, N.; Chambers, J. Q.; Jardine, K.

    2014-12-01

    Monoterpenes play fundamental roles as secondary metabolites in forested ecosystems and as gas and liquid phase secondary organic aerosol (SOA) precursors in their surrounding atmospheres. While the chemical pathways involved in ozonolysis driven SOA formation from individual monoterpene precursors is known, local and regional chemical transport models are still lacking observations of speciated monoterpenes from forested atmospheres. Here, we present high vertically resolved mixing ratio profiles of speciated monoterpenes from the ambient air of three neighboring forested ecosystems in the central Amazon Basin. Two well-drained plateau primary forests and one seasonally flooded valley forest were sampled during the afternoon hours (13:00 - 16:30) on walkup towers from the initiation of the 2013-14 wet season through the onset of the 2014 dry season (Nov 2013 - Jul 2014). Ambient mixing ratios in all three ecosystems were greatest in the upper canopy with secondary sources of some monoterpenes within the sub-canopies. Relative vertical compositions of monoterpenes did not change significantly throughout the seasons for either ecosystem type. Both ecosystem types were dominated by d-limonene (up to 1.6 ppb) with equally strong mixing ratios of alpha-pinene in the valley compared to the much weaker a-pinene mixing ratios on the plateaus (up to 200 ppt). The highly reactive cis- and trans-beta-ocimene were consistently present in both ecosystems (up to 250 ppt) with the addition of equally high camphene mixing ratios in the valley forest (up to 200 ppt) which is present in the plateau ecosystems in low quantities (50 ppt). With respect to clean atmosphere mixing ratios of 10 ppb ozone, lifetimes are below 2 hours for camphene and below 30 minutes for ocimene, suggesting a potentially large impact on local and possibly regional ozonolysis and subsequent SOA composition.

  18. Highly Oxygenated Monoterpenes from Eupatorium fortunei

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A pair of epimers of highly-oxygenated monoterpenes were isolated from the traditional Chinese medicine Eupatorium fortunei. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of the spectral analysis as (1R*, 2S*, 3R*, 4R*, 6S*)-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrehydroxy-p-menthane (1) and (1S*,2S*, 3S*, 4R*, 6R*)-1, 2, 3, 6-tetrehydroxy-p-menthane (2).

  19. Performance of photocatalytic reactors using immobilized TiO2 film for the degradation of phenol and methylene blue dye present in water stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Chin Mei; Mohamed, Abdul Rahman; Bhatia, Subhash

    2004-11-01

    TiO2 thin film photocatalyst was successfully synthesized and immobilized on glass reactor tube using sol-gel method. The synthesized TiO2 coating was transparent, which enabled the penetration of ultra-violet (UV) light to the catalyst surface. Two photocatalytic reactors with different operating modes were tested: (a) tubular photocatalytic reactor with re-circulation mode and (b) batch photocatalytic reactor. A new proposed TiO2 synthesized film formulation of 1 titanium isopropoxide: 8 isopropanol: 3 acetyl acetone: 1.1 H2O: 0.05 acetic acid (in molar ratio) gave excellent photocatalytic activity for degradation of phenol and methylene blue dye present in the water. The half-life time, t1/2 of photocatalytic degradation of phenol was 56 min at the initial phenol concentration of 1000 microM in the batch reactor. In the tubular photocatalytic reactor, 5 re-circulation passes with residence time of 2.2 min (single pass) degraded 50% of 40-microM methylene blue dye. Initial phenol concentration, presence of hydrogen peroxide, presence of air bubbling and stirring speed as the process variables were studied in the batch reactor. Initial methylene blue concentration, pH value, light intensity and reaction temperature were studied as the process variables in the tubular reactor. The synthesized TiO2 thin film was characterized using SEM, XRD and EDX analysis. A comparative performance between the synthesized TiO2 thin film and commercial TiO2 particles (99% anatase) was evaluated under the same experimental conditions. The TiO2 film was equally active as the TiO2 powder catalyst.

  20. Suffruyabiosides A and B, Two New Monoterpene Diglycosides from Moutan Cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideyuki Shigemori

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Two new monoterpene diglycosides, suffruyabiosides A (1 and B (2, and seven known compounds 39 were isolated from Moutan Cortex (root cortex of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrews. The structures were elucidated on the basis of 2D NMR spectral data. Suffruyabiosides A (1 and B (2 are rare monoterpene diglycosides, including a cellobiose in the molecules. Salicylpaeoniflorin (4 had a antiproliferation effect similar to paeoniflorin (3 on human lung adenocarcinoma epitherial A549 cells. Galloylpaeoniflorin (8 and salicylpaeoniflorin (4 revealed a more pronounced radical scavenging effect than a-tocopherol (positive control. An increase in the number of phenolic hydroxyl groups produced a more effective radical scavenging effect [8 > mudanpioside E (6 > oxypaeoniflorin (5]. Comparison of the effects of 4 and 5 showed that o-substitution with a phenolic hydroxyl group was more effective than p-substitution. The results suggest that salicylpaeoniflorin (4 may be useful as a cytotoxic and a radical scavenging agent.

  1. Tyrosol, a main phenol present in extra virgin olive oil, increases lifespan and stress resistance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cañuelo, Ana; Gilbert-López, Bienvenida; Pacheco-Liñán, Pedro; Martínez-Lara, Esther; Siles, Eva; Miranda-Vizuete, Antonio

    2012-08-01

    Extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) consumption has been traditionally related to a higher longevity in the human population. EVOO effects on health are often attributed to its unique mixture of phenolic compounds with tyrosol and hydroxityrosol being the most biologically active. Although these compounds have been extensively studied in terms of their antioxidant potential and its role in different pathologies, their actual connection with longevity remains unexplored. This study utilized the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to investigate the possible effects of tyrosol in metazoan longevity. Significant lifespan extension was observed at one specific tyrosol concentration, which also induced a higher resistance to thermal and oxidative stress and delayed the appearance of a biomarker of ageing. We also report that, although tyrosol was efficiently taken up by these nematodes, it did not induce changes in development, body length or reproduction. In addition, lifespan experiments with several mutant strains revealed that components of the heat shock response (HSF-1) and the insulin pathway (DAF-2 and DAF-16) might be implicated in mediating tyrosol effects in lifespan, while caloric restriction and sirtuins do not seem to mediate its effects. Together, our results point to hormesis as a possible mechanism to explain the effects of tyrosol on longevity in C. elegans.

  2. Strategies for transgenic manipulation of monoterpene biosynthesis in plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahmoud, Soheil S; Croteau, Rodney B

    2002-08-01

    Monoterpenes, the C(10) isoprenoids, are a large family of natural products that are best known as constituents of the essential oils and defensive oleoresins of aromatic plants. In addition to ecological roles in pollinator attraction, allelopathy and plant defense, monoterpenes are used extensively in the food, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries. The importance of these plant products has prompted the definition of many monoterpene biosynthetic pathways, the cloning of the relevant genes and the development of genetic transformation techniques for agronomically significant monoterpene-producing plants. Metabolic engineering of monoterpene biosynthesis in the model plant peppermint has resulted in yield increase and compositional improvement of the essential oil, and also provided strategies for manipulating flavor and fragrance production, and plant defense.

  3. Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in everyday use spice plants by means of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stankevičius, Mantas; Akuņeca, Ieva; Jãkobsone, Ida; Maruška, Audrius

    2011-06-01

    Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds present in everyday use spice plants was carried out by means of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. Six spice plant samples, namely onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum) roots and leaves, celery (Apium graveolens) roots and leaves and leaves of dill (Anethum graveolens) were analyzed. Total amount of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity (RSA) was the highest in celery leaves and dill extracts and was the lowest in celery roots. Comparing commonly used spectrophotometric analysis of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) RSA of extracts with the results obtained using reversed-phase chromatographic separation with on-line post-column radical scavenging reaction detection, good correlation was obtained (R(2)=0.848). Studies using HPLC system with electrochemical detector showed that bioactive phytochemicals can be separated and antioxidant activities of individual compounds evaluated without the need of a complex HPLC system with reaction detector. The results obtained using electrochemical detection correlate with the RSA assayed using spectrophotometric method (R(2)=0.893).

  4. Phenolic Molding Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koizumi, Koji; Charles, Ted; de Keyser, Hendrik

    Phenolic Molding Compounds continue to exhibit well balanced properties such as heat resistance, chemical resistance, dimensional stability, and creep resistance. They are widely applied in electrical, appliance, small engine, commutator, and automotive applications. As the focus of the automotive industry is weight reduction for greater fuel efficiency, phenolic molding compounds become appealing alternatives to metals. Current market volumes and trends, formulation components and its impact on properties, and a review of common manufacturing methods are presented. Molding processes as well as unique advanced techniques such as high temperature molding, live sprue, and injection/compression technique provide additional benefits in improving the performance characterisitics of phenolic molding compounds. Of special interest are descriptions of some of the latest innovations in automotive components, such as the phenolic intake manifold and valve block for dual clutch transmissions. The chapter also characterizes the most recent developments in new materials, including long glass phenolic molding compounds and carbon fiber reinforced phenolic molding compounds exhibiting a 10-20-fold increase in Charpy impact strength when compared to short fiber filled materials. The role of fatigue testing and fatigue fracture behavior presents some insight into long-term reliability and durability of glass-filled phenolic molding compounds. A section on new technology outlines the important factors to consider in modeling phenolic parts by finite element analysis and flow simulation.

  5. Domain swapping of Citrus limon monoterpene synthases: impact on enzymatic activity and product specifity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamer, el M.K.; Lucker, J.; Bosch, D.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Schwab, W.; Tunen, van A.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Maagd, de R.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Monoterpene cyclases are the key enzymes in the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway, as they catalyze the cyclization of the ubiquitous geranyl diphosphate (GDP) to the specific monoterpene skeletons. From Citrus limon, four monoterpene synthase-encoding cDNAs for a P-pinene synthase named

  6. Domain swapping of Citrus limon monoterpene synthases: impact on enzymatic activity and product specifity.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamer, el M.K.; Lucker, J.; Bosch, D.; Verhoeven, H.A.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Schwab, W.; Tunen, van A.J.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Maagd, de R.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2003-01-01

    Monoterpene cyclases are the key enzymes in the monoterpene biosynthetic pathway, as they catalyze the cyclization of the ubiquitous geranyl diphosphate (GDP) to the specific monoterpene skeletons. From Citrus limon, four monoterpene synthase-encoding cDNAs for a P-pinene synthase named Cl(-)betaPIN

  7. Monoterpenes from thyme (Thymus vulgaris) as potential mosquito repellents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Byeoung-Soo; Choi, Won-Sik; Kim, Jeong-Han; Kim, Kap-Ho; Lee, Sung-Eun

    2005-03-01

    Five monoterpenes (carvacrol, p-cymene, linalool, alpha-terpinene, and thymol) derived from the essential oil of thyme (Thymus vulgaris) were examined for their repellency against the mosquito Culex pipiens pallens. All 5 monoterpenes effectively repelled mosquitoes based on a human forearm bioassay. Alpha-terpinene and carvacrol showed significantly greater repellency than a commercial formulation, N,N-diethyl-m-methylbenzamide (deet), whereas thymol showed similar repellency to that of deet. The duration of repellency after application for all these monoterpenes was equal to or higher than that of deet. These findings indicate that a spray-type solution containing 2% alpha-terpinene may serve as an alternative mosquito repellent.

  8. Diversification of the monoterpene synthase gene family (TPSb) in Protium, a highly diverse genus of tropical trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zapata, Felipe; Fine, Paul V A

    2013-09-01

    Plant monoterpenes are a diverse class of secondary metabolites mediating biotic and abiotic interactions with direct effects on plant fitness. To evaluate the hypothesis that monoterpene diversity is related to functional diversification after gene duplication, we reconstructed the evolutionary history of monoterpene synthases (TPSb)--the genes underlying monoterpene synthesis--in Protium, a taxonomically and chemically diverse genus of tropical trees. We isolated multiple copies of TPSb genes from chemically divergent Protium species, reconstructed the phylogeny of this gene family, used maximum-likelihood estimation of selection coefficients, and inferred residues evolving under positive selection. We found evidence for one ancient and multiple more recent duplication events giving rise to three, and potentially five, copies of TPSb genes currently present in Protium. There was evidence for adaptive evolution in one copy with a positively selected residue likely involved in protein folding and product specificity. All other copies were inferred to be evolving under a combination of stabilizing and/or relaxed selection. Although gene copy number is consistent with the extensive phenotypic diversity in monoterpenes shown in Protium, selection analyses suggest that not all copies are undergoing divergent selection consistent with a coevolutionary arms race with enemies, but instead may be under stabilizing and relaxed selection consistent with signaling or physiological stress functionality.

  9. Typical Monoterpenes as Insecticides and Repellents against Stored Grain Pests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suelen L. Reis

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Five monoterpenes naturally occurring in essential oils were tested for their insecticidal and repellent activities against the bruchid beetle Callosobruchus maculatus and the maize weevil Sitophilus zeamais. The monoterpenes were highly efficient as inducers of mortality or repellency against both insect species. They were more efficient in their fumigant activity against C. maculatus than against S. zeamais, while this profile of action was inverted when considering the repellent activities. Eugenol was one the most effective fumigants against both insects and one the most effective repellent against C. maculatus, while citronellal and geranial were one the most effective repellents against S. zeamais. Functional and positional isomerism of the monoterpenes pairs appears to exert little or no influence on theirs effects, especially in case of repellency. The validation of the insecticidal/repellent efficacy of isolated monoterpenes may permit a more advantageous, rapid, economic and optimized approach to the identification of promising oils for commercial formulations when combined with ethnobotanical strategies.

  10. Two New Monoterpene Diglycosides from Winchia calophylla A. DC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Ming ZHU; Bin Gui WANG; Wen Yi KANG; Xin HONG; Jun ZHOU; Xiao Jiang HAO

    2003-01-01

    Two new monoterpene diglycosides, wincaloside A (1) and wincaloside B (2), alongwith loganin (3) were isolated from the stem barks of Winchia calophylla A. DC. The structuresof 1 and 2 were established by spectroscopic and chemical methods.

  11. Organization of monoterpene biosynthesis in Mentha. Immunocytochemical localizations of geranyl diphosphate synthase, limonene-6-hydroxylase, isopiperitenol dehydrogenase, and pulegone reductase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Glenn W; Croteau, Rodney

    2004-12-01

    We present immunocytochemical localizations of four enzymes involved in p-menthane monoterpene biosynthesis in mint: the large and small subunits of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) geranyl diphosphate synthase, spearmint (Mentha spicata) (-)-(4S)-limonene-6-hydroxylase, peppermint (-)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase, and peppermint (+)-pulegone reductase. All were localized to the secretory cells of peltate glandular trichomes with abundant labeling corresponding to the secretory phase of gland development. Immunogold labeling of geranyl diphosphate synthase occurred within secretory cell leucoplasts, (-)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase labeling was associated with gland cell endoplasmic reticulum, (-)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase labeling was restricted to secretory cell mitochondria, while (+)-pulegone reductase labeling occurred only in secretory cell cytoplasm. We discuss this pathway compartmentalization in relation to possible mechanisms for the intracellular movement of monoterpene metabolites, and for monoterpene secretion into the extracellular essential oil storage cavity.

  12. High-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides in the root of Paeonia lactiflora

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Römpp, Andreas; Spengler, Bernhard

    2016-10-01

    High-resolution atmospheric-pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) at 10 μm pixel size was performed to unravel the spatio-chemical distribution of major secondary metabolites in the root of Paeonia lactiflora. The spatial distributions of two major classes of bioactive components, gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides, were investigated and visualized at the cellular level in tissue sections of P. lactiflora roots. Accordingly, other primary and secondary metabolites were imaged, including amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids and monoterpenes, indicating the capability of untargeted localization of metabolites by using high-resolution MSI platform. The employed AP-SMALDI MSI system provides significant technological advancement in the visualization of individual molecular species at the cellular level. In contrast to previous histochemical studies of tannins using unspecific staining reagents, individual gallotannin species were accurately localized and unequivocally discriminated from other phenolic components in the root tissues. High-quality ion images were obtained, providing significant clues for understanding the biosynthetic pathway of gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides and possibly helping to decipher the role of tannins in xylem cells differentiation and in the defence mechanisms of plants, as well as to investigate the interrelationship between tannins and lignins.

  13. Polyol monoterpenes isolated from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Shu-Qun; Li, Yan-Hong; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Li, Rong; Lu, Huai; Tian, Kai; Ruan, Rong-Sheng; Li, Yu-Kui

    2017-04-12

    Phytochemical study on the 95% ethyl alcohol extract of stems of Chenopodium ambrosioides resulted in the isolation of two new polyol monoterpenes, 4-hydroxy-4(α or β)-isopropyl-2-methyl-2-cyclohexen-1-one (1) and 1-methyl-4β- isopropyl-1-cyclohexene-4α,5α,6α-triol (2), together with five known compounds, (1S,2S,3R,4S)-1-methyl-4-(propan-2-yl)cyclohexane-1,2,3,4-tetrol (3), (1R,2S,3S,4S)- 1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxy-p-menthane (4), (1R,2S)-3-p-menthen-1,2-diol (5), (1R,4S)-p- menth-2-en-1-ol (6) and 1,4-dihydroxy-p-menth-2-ene (7). The structures of the new compounds were established on the basis of detailed spectroscopic evidence including extensive 1D and 2D NMR techniques. Compounds 1-7 were evaluated for their anti-inflammatory activity, and compound 1 showed moderate ability to inhibit NO production of LPS-stimulated RAW 264.7 macrophages with an IC50 value of 16.83 μM.

  14. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a south-east Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, as well as oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo during the Oxidant and Particle Photochemical Processes above a south-east Asian tropical rainforest (OP3 project in 2008. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt respectively, and with an average monoterpene toisoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlit hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission continued into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. The contributions of isoprene, monoterpenes and other classes of VOC to the volatile carbon budget and OH reactivity have been summarised for this rainforest location. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  15. Monoterpene synthases from common sage (Salvia officinalis)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney Bruce (Pullman, WA); Wise, Mitchell Lynn (Pullman, WA); Katahira, Eva Joy (Pullman, WA); Savage, Thomas Jonathan (Christchurch 5, NZ)

    1999-01-01

    cDNAs encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase from common sage (Salvia officinalis) have been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequences has been determined. Accordingly, isolated DNA sequences (SEQ ID No:1; SEQ ID No:3 and SEQ ID No:5) are provided which code for the expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase (SEQ ID No:2), 1,8-cineole synthase (SEQ ID No:4) and (+)-sabinene synthase SEQ ID No:6), respectively, from sage (Salvia officinalis). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase or (+)-sabinene synthase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant monoterpene synthases that may be used to facilitate their production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase in plants in order to enhance the production of monoterpenoids, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, 1,8-cineole synthase and (+)-sabinene synthase, or the production of their products.

  16. Factors affecting the emission of monoterpenes from red pine (Pinus densiflora)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokouchi, Y.; Ambe, Y.

    1984-08-01

    The mechanism of monoterpene emission from Pinus densiflora was studied using an environmentally controlled gas cabinet. It was found that monoterpene emission rate increases exponentially with temperature and is also influenced by light. These observations were explained reasonably by a mechanism whereby monoterpene emission rate depends on the monoterpene amount in the leaf oil and its saturated vapor pressure. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  17. Bark Beetles, Pityogenes bidentatus, Orienting to Aggregation Pheromone Avoid Conifer Monoterpene Odors When Flying but Not When Walking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Previous studies and data presented here suggest that odors from healthy host Scotch pine (Pinus sylvestris and nonhost Norway spruce (Picea abies, as well as major monoterpenes of these trees at natural release rates, significantly reduce the attraction of flying bark beetles, Pityogenes bidentatus, of both sexes to their aggregation pheromone components grandisol and cis-verbenol in the field, as tested by slow rotation of trap pairs. In contrast, P. bidentatus males and females walking in an open-arena olfactometer in the laboratory did not avoid monoterpene vapors at release rates spanning several orders of magnitude in combination with aggregation pheromone. The bark beetle may avoid monoterpenes when flying as a mechanism for avoiding nonhost species, vigorous and thus unsuitable host trees, as well as harmful resinous areas of hosts. Inhibition of this flight avoidance response in beetles after landing would allow them to initiate, or to find and enter, gallery holes with high monoterpene vapor concentrations in order to feed and reproduce.

  18. Do monoterpenes released from feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium) plants cause airborne Compositae dermatitis?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Paulsen, E.; Christensen, Lars Porskjær; Andersen, K.E.

    2002-01-01

    and parthenolide were tested with 15 selected monoterpenes and 2 sesquiterpenes. Of the 17 persons, 13 had positive and/or doubtful positive reactions to 1 or more monoterpenes. Only 1 person was allergic to several monoterpenes. Her history of gradually worsening Compositae dermatitis culminating in a probable...

  19. Lipid encapsulated phenolic compounds by fluidization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds exhibit antioxidant and antimicrobial activities with applications as functional food and feed additives. Ferulic acid, a phenolic compound present in grain crops and lignocellulose biomass, was encapsulated with saturated triglycerides using a laboratory fluidizer. Stability of t...

  20. Isoprene and Monoterpene Emissions from Duke Forest: A Comparison of Ambient and Elevated CO2 Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sive, B. C.; Varner, R. K.; Neilsen, C.; Russo, R. S.; Zhou, Y.; White, M. L.; Csakai, A.; Beckman, P.; Ambrose, J.; Wingenter, O. W.; Mao, H.; Talbot, R. W.

    2005-12-01

    A three week field campaign was conducted at the Duke Forest FACTS-1 Research Facility in Chapel Hill, NC, from September 8 through 28, 2004. A suite of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), organic and inorganic aerosols, CO2, O3, and NO were measured above the forest canopy under two different CO2 scenarios: (1) present day (Ring 1, 370 ppmv) and (2) elevated conditions (Ring 2, 570 ppmv). This study was conducted in order to determine how biogenic emissions may change in an elevated CO2 environment and what impact this will have on future air quality predictions. Approximately 700, 2-liter electropolished stainless steel canisters (University of California, Irvine) were filled hourly at both ambient CO2 (Ring 1) and elevated CO2 (Ring 2) of the FACTS-1 Research Facility. Two Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectrometer (PTR-MS) systems were also deployed at Duke Forest for on-line monitoring of VOCs, one was located at the Ameriflux tower (Ring 1) while the other was at the Ring 2 tower. Both PTR-MS systems continuously stepped through a series of 30 masses for VOC measurements. Each PTR-MS measured a suite of VOCs from two sampling heights (16 m and 20 m) at each ring. Both the canister samples and PTR-MS measurements revealed that isoprene levels were generally higher in Ring 2 than in Ring 1, and typically ranged from ~0-2 ppbv. On September 22 in Ring 2, levels of isoprene above the canopy from the PTR-MS measurements showed a maximum of ~6.3 ppbv. Isoprene mixing ratios in Ring 1 ranged from ~0.003 to 4.9 ppbv with mean and median values of 0.395 and 0.280 ppbv, respectively, while they varied over a wider range of 0.004-6.3 ppbv in Ring 2 with mean and median values of 0.459 and 0.287 pptv. Daily peaks appeared between 1500-2300 UT (11 AM - 7 PM LT) when the temperature and solar radiation intensity were highest. The daily maximum levels in Ring 2 were generally higher than in Ring 1, indicating enhanced isoprene emissions at the

  1. Monoterpene Glycosides from the Roots of Paeonia lactiflora

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao Ling WANG; Wei JIAO; Xun LIAO; Shu Ling PENG; Li Sheng DING

    2006-01-01

    A new monoterpene glycoside, together with nine known ones, 3-O-methylpaeoniflorin,mudanpioside J, paeoniflorin, benzoylpaeoniflorin, oxypaeoniflorin, benzoyloxypaeoniflorin,oxybenzoylpaeoniflorin, albiflorin and lactiflorin, was isolated from the roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pall.. The structure of the new compound was elucidated as galloylalbiflorin by the spectroscopic evidence including ESI-MS, 1D- and 2D-NMR spectra.

  2. A Concise Synthesis of Monoterpene Pyridine Alkaloid Aucubinine B

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨晓霞; 赵景瑞; 贾学顺; 杨力维; 翟宏斌

    2003-01-01

    Aucubinine B (4), a monoterpene alkaloid obtained from the metabolites of aucubin in the presence of human intestinal bacteria, has been synthesized from 3-bromo-4-pyridinecarboxaldehyde (5) in four steps with 39% overall yield. The construction of the cyclopenta[c]pyridine intermediate (7) was realized by an intramolecular Heck reaction.

  3. Investigation of Monoterpene Degradation in the Atmospheric Simulation Chamber SAPHIR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminski, Martin; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Bohn, Birger; Brauers, Theo; Dorn, Hans-Peter; Fuchs, Hendrik; Haeseler, Rolf; Hofzumahaus, Andreas; Li, Xin; Lutz, Anna; Nehr, Sascha; Rohrer, Franz; Tillmann, Ralf; Wegener, Robert; Wahner, Andreas

    2013-04-01

    Monoterpenes are the volatile organic compound (VOC) species with the highest emission rates on a global scale beside isoprene. In the atmosphere these compounds are rapidly oxidized. Due to their high reactivity towards hydroxyl radicals (OH) they determine the radical chemistry under biogenic conditions if monoterpene concentration is higher than isoprene concentration. Recent field campaigns showed large discrepancies between measured and modeled OH concentration at low NOx conditions together with high reactivity of VOC towards OH (Hofzumahaus et al. 2009) especially in tropical forest areas (Lelieveld et al. 2008). These discrepancies were partly explained by new reaction pathways in the isoprene degradation mechanism (Whalley et al 2011). However, even an additional recycling rate of 2.7 was insufficient to explain the measured OH concentration. So other VOC species could be involved in a nonclassical OH recycling. Since the discrepancies in OH also occurred in the morning hours when the OH chemistry was mainly dominated by monoterpenes, it was assumed that also the degradation of monoterpenes may lead to OH recycling in the absence of NO. (Whalley et al 2011). The photochemical degradation of four monoterpene species was studied under high VOC reactivity and low NOx conditions in a dedicated series of experiments in the atmospheric simulation chamber SAPHIR from August to September 2012 to overcome the lack of mechanistic information for monoterpene degradation schemes. α-Pinene, β-pinene and limonene were chosen as most prominent representatives of this substance class. Moreover the degradation of myrcene was investigated due to its structural analogy to isoprene. The SAPHIR chamber was equipped with instrumentation to measure all important OH precursors (O3, HONO, HCHO), the parent VOC and their main oxidation products, radicals (OH, HO2, RO2), the total OH reactivity, and photolysis frequencies to investigate the degradation mechanism of monoterpenes in

  4. Larvicidal efficacy of monoterpenes against the larvae of Anopheles gambiae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Eliningaya J.Kweka; Tamires Cardoso Lima; Chrian M.Marciale; Dami?o Pergentino de Sousa

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the larvicidal efficacy of eight volatile components of essential oils against 3rd instar larvae of Anopheles gambiae s.s.Methods:Larvicidal effects of each compound were evaluated in both laboratory and semi-field trials.Stock solution was prepared and serial dilutions were made in six concentrations for each compound.A total of 20 larvae were exposed to larvicides for each replicate and monitored at intervals of 12,24,48 and 72 h.Larvae monitoring was done on basis of dead and live larvae in all intervals.Results:All assayed compounds were larvicides and presented varying degrees of larval toxicity,with LC50 values ranging from 1.28 to 1 938.92 mg/L depending on the treatment time(12,24,48 or 72 h).(-)-Perillyl alcohol presented the strongest larvicidal activity towards Anopheles gambiae larvae,with LC50 values of 73.60,18.36,1.72 and1.28 mg/L after 12,24,48 and 72 h of exposure,respectively.The next strongest were(-)-isopulegol(LC50= 135.10,49.39,34.39 and 20.22 mg/L) and(-)-carvone epoxide(LC50= 168.86,124.74,80.84 and 23.46 mg/L).After 12,24 and 48 h of treatment,hydroxydihydrocarvone was the least toxic compound,with LC50 values of 1 938.92,1 172.18 and 401.03 mg/L,respectively.Conclusions:The data obtained in this study suggest that all evaluated monoterpenes,especially(-)-perillyl alcohol,have remarkable larvicidal effects and may be considered as potential sources for the development of suitable natural larvicides for mosquito management programs.Further small-scale field trials should be conducted.

  5. Monoterpene biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon) cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; Tamer, El M.K.; Schwab, W.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus limon possesses a high content and large variety of monoterpenoids, especially in the glands of the fruit flavedo. The genes responsible for the production of these monoterpenes have never been isolated. By applying a random sequencing approach to a cDNA library from mRNA isolated from the

  6. Monoterpene biosynthesis in lemon (Citrus limon) cDNA isolation and functional analysis of four monoterpene synthases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lücker, J.; El Tamer, M.K.; Schwab, W.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Plas, van der L.H.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Verhoeven, H.A.

    2002-01-01

    Citrus limon possesses a high content and large variety of monoterpenoids, especially in the glands of the fruit flavedo. The genes responsible for the production of these monoterpenes have never been isolated. By applying a random sequencing approach to a cDNA library from mRNA isolated from the pe

  7. Phenolic acids enzymatic lipophilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueroa-Espinoza, Maria-Cruz; Villeneuve, Pierre

    2005-04-20

    Lipophilization is the esterification of a lipophilic moiety (fatty acid or fatty alcohol) on different substrates (phenolic acid, sugar, protein, ...), resulting in new molecules with modified hydrophilic/lipophilic balance. This reaction can be obtained chemically or enzymatically using different enzymes. Phenolic acids possess interesting biological properties (antioxidant, chelator, free radical scavenger, UV filter, antimicrobial, ...), but because of their relatively low solubility in aprotic media, their application in oil-based products is limited. Therefore, the esterification of their carboxylic acid function with a fatty alcohol enhances their hydrophobicity and results in a multifunctional amphiphilic molecule. Enzymatic lipophilization of phenolic acids is nowadays studied for potential industrial applications. Different systems have been proposed to perform the reaction yield [free or immobilized enzymes (lipase, feruloyl esterase, tannase, etc.), free or added organic solvent, addition of surfactant, microemulsion system, etc.]. Some of the functional properties of these esters have been demonstrated. This review presents a panorama of the advances in this field.

  8. Bioavailability of dietary phenolic compounds: Review

    OpenAIRE

    Erick Gutiérrez-Grijalva Paul Gutiérrez-Grijalva; Dulce Libna Ambriz-Pérez; Nayely Leyva-López; Ramón Ignacio Castillo-López; José Basilio Heredia

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are ubiquitous in plant-based foods. High dietary intake of fruits, vegetables and cereals is related to a decreased rate in chronic diseases. Phenolic compounds are thought to be responsible, at least in part, for those health effects. Nonetheless, phenolic compounds bioaccessibility and biotransformation is often not considered in these studies; thus, a precise mechanism of action of phenolic compounds is not known. In this review we aim to present a comprehensive knowled...

  9. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds and complementary phenols from thyme.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Macià, Alba; Ramo, Tomás; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2012-03-28

    Besides affecting the oil's sensorial characteristics, the presence of herbs and spices has an impact on the nutritional value of the flavored oils. The aim of the study was to develop a new product based on the phenol-enrichment of a virgin olive oil with both its own phenolic compounds (secoiridoid derivatives) plus additional complementary phenols from thyme (flavonoids). We studied the effect of the addition of phenolic extracts (olive cake and thyme) on phenolic composition, oxidative stability, antioxidant activity, and bitter sensory attribute of olive oils. Results showed that flavonoids from thyme appeared to have higher transference ratios (average 89.7%) from the phenolic extract to oil, whereas secoiridoids from olive presented lower transference ratios (average 35.3%). The bitter sensory attribute of the phenol-enriched oils diminished with an increase of the concentration of phenols from thyme, which might denote an improvement in the consumer acceptance.

  10. Modulation of Phenol Oxidation in Cofacial Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon Jun; Huynh, Michael; Halbach, Robert L; Stubbe, JoAnne; Nocera, Daniel G

    2015-09-23

    The presentation of two phenols on a xanthene backbone is akin to the tyrosine dyad (Y730 and Y731) of ribonucleotide reductase. X-ray crystallography reveals that the two phenol moieties are cofacially disposed at 4.35 Å. Cyclic voltammetry reveals that phenol oxidation is modulated within the dyad, which exhibits a splitting of one-electron waves with the second oxidation of the phenol dyad occurring at larger positive potential than that of a typical phenol. In contrast, a single phenol appended to a xanthene exhibits a two-electron process, consistent with reported oxidation pathways of phenols in acetonitrile. The perturbation of the phenol potential by stacking is reminiscent of a similar effect for guanines stacked within DNA base pairs.

  11. Organization of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Mentha. Immunocytochemical Localizations of Geranyl Diphosphate Synthase, Limonene-6-Hydroxylase, Isopiperitenol Dehydrogenase, and Pulegone Reductase1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Glenn W.; Croteau, Rodney

    2004-01-01

    We present immunocytochemical localizations of four enzymes involved in p-menthane monoterpene biosynthesis in mint: the large and small subunits of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) geranyl diphosphate synthase, spearmint (Mentha spicata) (−)-(4S)-limonene-6-hydroxylase, peppermint (−)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase, and peppermint (+)-pulegone reductase. All were localized to the secretory cells of peltate glandular trichomes with abundant labeling corresponding to the secretory phase of gland development. Immunogold labeling of geranyl diphosphate synthase occurred within secretory cell leucoplasts, (−)-4S-limonene-6-hydroxylase labeling was associated with gland cell endoplasmic reticulum, (−)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase labeling was restricted to secretory cell mitochondria, while (+)-pulegone reductase labeling occurred only in secretory cell cytoplasm. We discuss this pathway compartmentalization in relation to possible mechanisms for the intracellular movement of monoterpene metabolites, and for monoterpene secretion into the extracellular essential oil storage cavity. PMID:15542490

  12. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Freire Vieira

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This dossier focuses on one of the essential debate topics today about the territorial dimension of the new development strategies concerned with the worsening of the global socioecological crisis, that is: the challenges related to the activation and integration in networks of localized agri-food systems. For its composition, some contributions presented and debated during the VI International Conference on Localized Agri-food System - The LAFS facing the opportunities and challenges of the new global context have been gathered. The event took place in the city of Florianópolis, from May 21th to 25th of 2013. The event was promoted by the Federal University of Santa Catarina (UFSC and by the Center for the International Cooperation on Agricultural Research for Development (CIRAD. Besides UFSC and CIRAD, EPAGRI, State University of Santa Catarina (UDESC, as well as research institutes and universities from other states (UFMG, IEA/SP, UFS, UFRGS and Mexican and Argentinian partners from the RED SIAL Latino Americana also participated in the organization of lectures, discussion tables and workshops.

  13. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Vicente

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present edition of Significação – Scientific Journal for Audiovisual Culture and in the others to follow something new is brought: the presence of thematic dossiers which are to be organized by invited scholars. The appointed subject for the very first one of them was Radio and the invited scholar, Eduardo Vicente, professor at the Graduate Course in Audiovisual and at the Postgraduate Program in Audiovisual Media and Processes of the School of Communication and Arts of the University of São Paulo (ECA-USP. Entitled Radio Beyond Borders the dossier gathers six articles and the intention of reuniting works on the perspectives of usage of such media as much as on the new possibilities of aesthetical experimenting being build up for it, especially considering the new digital technologies and technological convergences. It also intends to present works with original theoretical approach and original reflections able to reset the way we look at what is today already a centennial media. Having broadened the meaning of “beyond borders”, four foreign authors were invited to join the dossier. This is the first time they are being published in this country and so, in all cases, the articles where either written or translated into Portuguese.The dossier begins with “Radio is dead…Long live to the sound”, which is the transcription of a thought provoking lecture given by Armand Balsebre (Autonomous University of Barcelona – one of the most influential authors in the world on the Radio study field. It addresses the challenges such media is to face so that it can become “a new sound media, in the context of a new soundscape or sound-sphere, for the new listeners”. Andrew Dubber (Birmingham City University regarding the challenges posed by a Digital Era argues for a theoretical approach in radio studies which can consider a Media Ecology. The author understands the form and discourse of radio as a negotiation of affordances and

  14. VOC measurements within a boreal forest during spring 2005: the role of monoterpenes and sulphuric acid in selected intense nucleation events

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Eerdekens

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In this study we present measurements of selected trace gases and aerosol made in a boreal forest during the BACCI-QUEST IV intensive field campaign in Hyytiälä, Finland in April 2005. Several clear aerosol "nucleation events" were observed and characterized. One type of "event" occurred synchronously with huge increases in monoterpenes, while a second event type correlated instead with sulphuric acid. Here we elucidate the origin of these two distinct forms of aerosol production at the Hyytiälä site using the measurement data, airmass back trajectories and the optical stereoisomery of monoterpenes.

  15. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helmut Renders

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available We present to our esteemed readers the second edition of our journal for 2008. We have chosen the theme “The life and work of Prof. Dr. Jürgen Moltmann” as its special emphasis. It is our way to pay homage to J. Moltmann in the year the Universidade Metodista de São Paulo awards him an honorary Doctor Honoris Causa degree. Sincethe seventies, Moltmann and Latin America have been in dialog. In his emblematic work “A Theology of Liberation”, Gustavo Gutiérrez, the Catholic, discussed with Moltmann, the Reformed, the relationship between eschatology and history (GUTIÉRREZ, Gustavo.Teologia da Libertação. 5ª edição. Petrópolis, RJ: Vozes, 1985, p. 27, 137-139. A dialog held in the premises of IMS, which nowadays is called UMESP, has produced the little book “Passion for life” (MOLTMANN, Jürgen. Paixão pela vida. São Paulo, SP: ASTE - Associaçãode Seminários Teológicos Evangélicos, 1978.In the following years, the wide theological work of J. Moltmann went all the way from debates to congresses and has conquered the classrooms. Most probably, J. Moltmann is nowadays the most widely read European author in Brazilian theological seminaries. Thisrecognition can only be held in unison and the wide response to our request for articles confirms the huge repercussion that Moltmann’s work has been having up to today in Brazil. The ecumenical theologian J. Moltmann is ecumenically read. We believe that thisway we may be better equipped to answer to anyone who asks us for the reason there is hope in us. We have organized the articles on J. Moltmann’s theology according to the original publication date of the books dealt with in each essay. We also communicate that some articles which were originally requested for this edition of the journal will be published in the journal Estudos de Regilião in May 2009.As it is usual with the journal Caminhando, we have, besides this thematic emphasis, yet other contributions in the areas of

  16. Production of aromas and fragrances through microbial oxidation of monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. F. Rozenbaum

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Aromas and fragrances can be obtained through the microbial oxidation of monoterpenes. Many microorganisms can be used to carry out extremely specific conversions using substrates of low commercial value. However, for many species, these substrates are highly toxic, consequently inhibiting their metabolism. In this work, the conversion ability of Aspergillus niger IOC-3913 for terpenic compounds was examined. This species was preselected because of its high resistance to toxic monoterpenic substrates. Though it has been grown in media containing R-limonene (one of the cheapest monoterpenic hydrocarbons, which is widely available on the market, the species has not shown the ability to metabolize it, since biotransformation products were not detected in high resolution gas chromatography analyses. For this reason, other monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene and camphor were used as substrates. These compounds were shown to be metabolized by the selected strain, producing oxidized compounds. Four reaction systems were used: a biotransformation in a liquid medium with cells in growth b with pre-grown cultures c with cells immobilized in a synthetic polymer network and d in a solid medium to which the substrate was added via the gas phase. The main biotransformation products were found in all the reaction systems, although the adoption of previously cultivated cells seemed to favor biotransformation. Cell immobilization seemed to be a feasible strategy for alleviating the toxic effect of the substrate. Through mass spectrometry it was possible to identify verbenone and alpha-terpineol as the biotransformation products of alpha-pinene and beta-pinene, respectively. The structures of the other oxidation products are described.

  17. A Review on Anti-Inflammatory Activity of Monoterpenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damião Pergentino de Sousa

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the need to find new anti-inflammatory agents, great effort has been expended on the development of drugs for the treatment of inflammation. This disorder reduces the quality of life and overall average productivity, causing huge financial losses. In this review the anti-inflammatory activity of 32 bioactive monoterpenes found in essential oils is discussed. The data demonstrate the pharmacological potential of this group of natural chemicals to act as anti-inflammatory drugs.

  18. Biotransformations of monoterpenes by photoautotrophic micro-organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcerzak, L; Lipok, J; Strub, D; Lochyński, S

    2014-12-01

    Monoterpenes are widely used in food technology, cosmetic and pharmaceutical industries and as compounds of agricultural importance. It is known that compounds comprising this class can be transformed by a variety of organisms, namely by: bacteria, fungi, yeasts, plants or isolated enzymes. Biotransformations, as one of the most important tools of green chemistry, allow obtaining new products using whole cells of micro-organisms or isolated enzymes in mild reaction conditions. Therefore, biotransformations of monoterpenes, by different type of reaction such as: epoxidation, oxidation and stereoselective hydroxylation, resulted in the production of so desired, enantiomerically defined compounds that can be advised as natural seem to be interesting. Bearing in mind that such processes are carried out also by easy to maintain, photoautotrophic micro-organisms cultivated at large scale, this paper is focused on biotransformations of acyclic, monocyclic and bicyclic monoterpenes by freshwater or haliphylic cyanobacteria and microalgae on the way of mainly stereoselective hydroxylation. Moreover, aspects of potential industrial application of obtained products in medicine, perfume, cosmetics and food industry are discussed.

  19. Oxygenated VOC and monoterpene emissions from a boreal coniferous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taipale, R.; Rantala, P.; Kajos, M. K.; Patokoski, J.; Ruuskanen, T. M.; Aalto, J.; Kolari, P.; Bäck, J.; Hari, P.; Kulmala, M.; Rinne, J.

    2012-04-01

    Compared with terpenoids, emissions of oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from boreal ecosystems have been poorly characterized. We measured ecosystem scale emissions of three oxygenated compounds (methanol, acetaldehyde, and acetone) and monoterpenes from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland during the summers 2006-2008. The measurements were conducted using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. The contribution of the three oxygenated compounds to the measured total emissions was 40-60 %. The highest oxygenated VOC emissions were those of methanol, comprising 20-30 % of the total, followed by acetone with a share of 10-20 %. The acetaldehyde emissions were 5-10 % of the total. This emission composition will be compared with that obtained from shoot enclosure measurements. Methanol showed deposition during some periods although its overall flux was towards the atmosphere. The monoterpene emissions had a light dependent component, suggesting that part of the emissions originated directly from monoterpene biosynthesis. Diurnal, seasonal, and inter-annual variations in the emissions, along with temperature and light dependencies, will be discussed.

  20. Presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicanor Lopes

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The Journal Caminhando debuts with a new editorial format: eachmagazine will have a Dossier.In 2010 Christianity celebrated the centenary of Edinburgh. TheWorld Missionary Conference in Edinburgh in 1910 is regarded by manyas missiological watershed in the missionary and ecumenical movement.So the Faculty of Theology of the Methodist Church (FATEO decidedto organize a Wesleyan Week discussing the issue of mission. For anevent of this magnitude FATEO invited the Rev. Dr. Wesley Ariarajah,Methodist pastor and teacher of Sri Lanka with extensive experience inpastoral ministry in local churches and professor of History of Religionsand the New Testament at the Theological College of Lanka, maintainedby the Protestant Churches in Sri Lanka. In 1981 he was invited to jointhe World Council of Churches, where he presided for over ten years theCouncil of Interreligious Dialogue. From 1992 he served as Deputy GeneralSecretary of the WCC.The following texts are not the speeches of the Rev. Dr. WesleyAriarajah, for they will be published separately. Nevertheless, the journaldialogs with the celebrations of the centenary of Edinburgh, parting formthe intriguing theme: "Mission in the 21st century in Brazil". After all, howis it that mission takes place among us in personal, church, and communityactivities?Within the Dossier, as common to the journal, the textos are organizedas follows: Bible, Theology / History and Pastoral Care. Other items thatdo not fit within the Dossier, but, do articulate mission, can be found inthe section Declarations and Documents and Book Reviews.The authors of the Dossier have important considerations in buildinga contemporary missiological concept considering Brazilian reality.Anderson de Oliveira, in the Bible-Section, presents a significantexegeses of Matthew 26.6-13. What does it mean when Jesus is quotedwith the words: "For the poor always ye have with you, but me ye havenot always." Is this declaration challenging the gospels

  1. Host-Tree Monoterpenes and Biosynthesis of Aggregation Pheromones in the Bark Beetle Ips paraconfusus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John A. Byers

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A paradigm developed in the 1970s that Ips bark beetles biosynthesize their aggregation pheromone components ipsenol and ipsdienol by hydroxylating myrcene, a host tree monoterpene. Similarly, host α-pinene was hydroxylated to a third pheromone component cis-verbenol. In 1990, however, we reported that amounts of ipsenol and ipsdienol produced by male Ips paraconfusus (Coleoptera: Scolytinae feeding in five host pine species were nearly the same, even though no detectable myrcene precursor was detected in one of these pines (Pinus sabiniana. Subsequent research showed ipsenol and ipsdienol are also biosynthesized from smaller precursors such as acetate and mevalonate, and this de novo pathway is the major one, while host tree myrcene conversion by the beetle is the minor one. We report concentrations of myrcene, α-pinene and other major monoterpenes in five pine hosts (Pinus ponderosa, P. lambertiana, P. jeffreyi, P. sabiniana, and P. contorta of I. paraconfusus. A scheme for biosynthesis of ipsdienol and ipsenol from myrcene and possible metabolites such as ipsenone is presented. Mass spectra and quantities of ipsenone are reported and its possible role in biosynthesis of aggregation pheromone. Coevolution of bark beetles and host trees is discussed in relation to pheromone biosynthesis, host plant selection/suitability, and plant resistance.

  2. In situ measurements of isoprene and monoterpenes within a South-East Asian tropical rainforest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. E. Jones

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs emitted from tropical rainforests comprise a substantial fraction of global atmospheric VOC emissions, however there are only relatively limited measurements of these species in tropical rainforest regions. We present observations of isoprene, α-pinene, camphene, Δ-3-carene, γ-terpinene and limonene, and oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs of biogenic origin such as methacrolein, in ambient air above a~tropical rainforest in Malaysian Borneo. Daytime composition was dominated by isoprene, with an average mixing ratio of the order of ~1 ppb. γ-terpinene, limonene and camphene were the most abundant monoterpenes, with average daytime mixing ratios of 102, 71 and 66 ppt, respectively, and with an average monoterpene to isoprene ratio of 0.3 during sunlight hours, compared to 2.0 at night. Limonene and camphene abundances were seen to be related to both temperature and light conditions. In contrast, γ-terpinene emission occurred into the late afternoon/evening, under relatively low temperature and light conditions. We observe good agreement between surface and aircraft measurements of boundary layer isoprene and methacrolein above the natural rainforest, suggesting that the ground-level observations are broadly representative of isoprene emissions from this region.

  3. Monoterpene synthase from Dracocephalum kotschyi and SPME-GC-MS analysis of its aroma profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Saeidnia

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dracocephalum kotschyi (Lamiaceae, as one of the remarkable aromatic plants, widely grows and also is cultivated in various temperate regions of Iran. There are diverse reports about the composition of the oil of this plant representing limonene derivatives as its major compounds. There is no report on cloning of mono- or sesquiterpene synthases from this plant. In the present study, the aroma profile of D. kotschyi has been extracted and analyzed via Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction technique coupled with Gas Chromatography- Mass Spectroscopy. In order to determine the sequence of the active terpene synthase in this plant, first mRNA was prepared and cloning was performed by 3’ and 5’-RACEs-PCR method, then cDNA was sequenced and finally aligned with other recognized terpene synthases. The results showed that the plant leaves mainly comprised geranial (37.2%, limonene-10-al (28.5%, limonene (20.1% and 1,1-dimethoxy decane (14.5%. Sequencing the cDNA cloned from this plant revealed the presence of a monoterpene synthase absolutely similar to limonene synthase, responsible in formation of limonene, terpinolene, camphene and some other cyclic monoterpenes in its young leaves.

  4. Anxiolytic-like effect of the monoterpene 1,4-cineole in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Patrícia Bezerra; Feitosa, Mariana Lima; Silva, Maria Izabel Gomes; Noronha, Emmanuelle Coelho; Moura, Brinell Arcanjo; Venâncio, Edith Teles; Rios, Emiliano Ricardo Vasconcelos; de Sousa, Damião Pergentino; de Vasconcelos, Silvânia Maria Mendes; Fonteles, Marta Maria de França; de Sousa, Francisca Cléa Florenço

    2010-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that some monoterpenes exert anxiolytic- and depressant-like actions, however, these effects from monoterpene 1,4-cineole are still unknown. This work aimed to study the effects of 1,4-cineole in classic animal models for depression- and anxiety-like behavior, specifically the elevated plus maze (EPM), hole board, open field, pentobarbital sleeping time, forced swimming, tail suspension and rota rod tests. 1,4-Cineole was administered orally to mice (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), while diazepam (1 or 2 mg/kg) and imipramine (10 or 30 mg/kg) were used as standard drugs. 1,4-Cineole (400 mg/kg) modified all parameters observed in the EPM, while no significant variation was observed on general motor activity in the open-field test. In the hole-board assay, 1,4-cineole induced increase on the number of head dips. Forced swimming and tail suspension tests showed that cineole (200 and/or 400 mg/kg) was able to promote significant increase on the immobility time, while a decreased sleep latency was observed (200 and 400 mg/kg ) on the pentobarbital sleeping time. Cineole had no effect on the motor coordination of animals in the rota rod test. The results suggest that 1,4-cineole presents potential anxiolytic-like action consistent with possible general depression of the CNS.

  5. Isotopically sensitive branching in the formation of cyclic monoterpenes: proof that (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene are synthesized by the same monoterpene cyclase via deprotonation of a common intermediate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.B.; Wheeler, C.J.; Cane, D.E.; Ebert, R.; Ha, H.J.

    1987-08-25

    To determine whether the bicyclic monoterpene olefins (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene arise biosynthetically from the same monoterpene cyclase by alternate deprotonations of a common carbocationic intermediate, the product distributions arising from the acyclic precursor (10-/sup 2/H/sub 3/,1-/sup 3/H)geranyl pyrophosphate were compared with those resulting from incubation of (1-3H)geranyl pyrophosphate with (-)-pinene cyclase from Salvia officinalis. Alteration in proportions of the olefinic products generated by the partially purified pinene cyclase resulted from the suppression of the formation of (-)-beta-pinene (C10 deprotonation) by a primary deuterium isotope effect with a compensating stimulation of the formation of (-)-alpha-pinene (C4 deprotonation). (-)-Pinene cyclase as well as (+)-pinene cyclase also exhibited a decrease in the proportion of the acyclic olefin myrcene generated from the deuteriated substrate, accompanied by a corresponding increase in the commitment to cyclized products. The observation of isotopically sensitive branching, in conjunction with quantitation of the magnitude of the secondary deuterium isotope effect on the overall rate of product formation by the (+)- and (-)-pinene cyclases as well as two other monoterpene cyclases from the same tissue, supports the biosynthetic origin of (-)-alpha-pinene and (-)-beta-pinene by alternative deprotonations of a common enzymatic intermediate. A biogenetic scheme consistent with these results is presented, and alternate proposals for the origin of the pinenes are addressed.

  6. The effects of increasing atmospheric ozone on biogenic monoterpene profiles and the formation of secondary aerosols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinto, Delia M.; Tiiva, Päivi; Miettinen, Pasi; Joutsensaari, Jorma; Kokkola, Harri; Nerg, Anne-Marja; Laaksonen, Ari; Holopainen, Jarmo K.

    Monoterpenes are biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) which play an important role in plant adaptation to stresses, atmospheric chemistry, plant-plant and plant-insect interactions. In this study, we determined whether ozonolysis can influence the monoterpenes in the headspace of cabbage. The monoterpenes were mixed with an air-flow enriched with 100, 200 or 400 ppbv of ozone (O 3) in a Teflon chamber. The changes in the monoterpene and O 3 concentrations, and the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOA) were determined during ozonolysis. Furthermore, the monoterpene reactions with O 3 and OH were modelled using reaction kinetics equations. The results showed that all of the monoterpenes were unequally affected: α-thujene, sabinene and D-limonene were affected to the greatest extend, whereas the 1,8-cineole concentration did not change. In addition, plant monoterpene emissions reduced the O 3 concentration by 12-24%. The SOA formation was dependent on O 3 concentration. At 100 ppbv of O 3, virtually no new particles were formed but clear SOA formation was observed at the higher ozone concentrations. The modelled results showed rather good agreements for α-pinene and 1,8-cineole, whereas the measured concentrations were clearly lower compared to modelled values for sabinene and limonene. In summary, O 3-quenching by monoterpenes occurs beyond the boundary layer of leaves and results in a decreased O 3 concentration, altered monoterpene profiles and SOA formation.

  7. Volatile and non-volatile monoterpenes produced by elicitor-stimulated Cupressus lusitanica cultured cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Alwis, Ransika; Fujita, Koki; Ashitani, Tatsuya; Kuroda, Ken'ichi

    2009-05-01

    Elicitor treatment initiates defense responses in cultured Cupressus lusitanica cells. In order to investigate the defense mechanism with a yeast extract elicitor, we carried out solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography for monoterpene analysis. Ten hydrocarbon monoterpenes, including high amounts of sabinene and limonene, were detected in the gas phase of the elicitor-treated cell cultures. Six oxidized monoterpenes including beta-thujaplicin were also detected in the ether extract of the cells and the medium. Time-course profiles of volatile monoterpenes showed that one group of hydrocarbon monoterpenes was maximized on the second day after elicitation, while the other group was maximized on the third day. There were no oxidized monoterpenes that are structurally related to sabinene and limonene in the gas phase or cell extracts, suggesting that these compounds are produced exclusively for emission. Other monoterpenes, which are produced during later stages of elicitation, are metabolized into more complex compounds such as oxidized monoterpenes, including beta-thujaplicin. Although terpinolene synthase was the principal monoterpene synthase in these cell cultures, terpinolene was detected only as a minor compound in the gas phase. The time course for terpinolene synthase activity coincided with beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis. Thus, most of the terpinolene is metabolized rapidly to oxidized terpenes such as beta-thujaplicin rather than emitted.

  8. Assessment of the repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil and major monoterpenes on the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, A da Silva; Carvalho, J F de; Peixoto, M G; Blank, A F; Borges, L M F; Costa Junior, L M

    2016-03-01

    The control of Rhipicephalus microplus (Ixodida: Ixodidae) is achieved using synthetic acaricides. However, resistant tick populations are widespread around the world. Plant essential oils can act as repellents, keeping ticks away from hosts and decreasing the selection pressure on synthetic acaricides. The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro repellent effect of Lippia alba essential oil on R. microplus larvae. Leaves from two L. alba genotypes maintained under the same agronomic and environmental conditions were collected. Essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation and analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The major monoterpenes detected in the chemical analysis were commercially acquired and tested. For the repellency test, a glass rod was vertically fixed to measure active climbing of approximately 30 R. microplus larvae aged 14-21 days in response to essential oils and monoterpenes. Repellency was evaluated at 1 h, 3 h and 5 h after treatment. Variation in repellent action was detected between the genotypes. The major monoterpenes identified in the essential oils (limonene and carvone) showed low repellent effects in comparison with intact essential oils. Thus, the present results showed that L. alba essential oil contains bioactive compounds with great repellent activity against ticks that varies according to the plant genotype.

  9. Biological removal of phenol from wastewaters: a mini review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradeep, N. V.; Anupama, S.; Navya, K.; Shalini, H. N.; Idris, M.; Hampannavar, U. S.

    2015-06-01

    Phenol and its derivatives are common water pollutants and include wide variety of organic chemicals. Phenol poisoning can occur by skin absorption, inhalation, ingestion and various other methods which can result in health effects. High exposures to phenol may be fatal to human beings. Accumulation of phenol creates toxicity both for flora and fauna. Therefore, removal of phenol is crucial to perpetuate the environment and individual. Among various treatment methods available for removal of phenols, biodegradation is environmental friendly. Biological methods are gaining importance as they convert the wastes into harmless end products. The present work focuses on assessment of biological removal (biodegradation) of phenol. Various factors influence the efficiency of biodegradation of phenol such as ability of the microorganism, enzymes involved, the mechanism of degradation and influencing factors. This study describes about the sources of phenol, adverse effects on the environment, microorganisms involved in the biodegradation (aerobic and anaerobic) and enzymes that polymerize phenol.

  10. Toughening of phenolic foam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Hongbin

    2003-06-01

    Phenolic foam has excellent FST performance with relatively low cost, and thus is an attractive material for many applications. However, it is extremely brittle and fragile, precluding it from load-bearing applications. In order to make it tougher and more viable for structural purposes, an effective approach has been proposed and investigated in this study. Composite phenolic foam with short fiber reinforcements resulted in significant improvement in mechanical performance while retaining FST properties comparable to conventional phenolic foam. For example, composite phenolic foam with aramid fibers exhibited a seven-fold increase in peel resistance together with a five-fold reduction in friability. In shear tests, aramid composite foam endured prolonged loading to high levels of strain, indicating the potential for use in structural applications. On the other hand, glass fiber-reinforced phenolic foam produced substantial improvement in the stiffness and strength relative to the unreinforced counterpart. In particular, the Young's modulus of the glass fiber composite foam was increased by as much as 100% relative to the plain phenolic foam in the foam rise direction. In addition, different mechanical behavior was observed for aramid and glass fiber-reinforced foams. In an attempt to understand the mechanical behavior of composite foam, a novel NDT technique, micro-CT, was used to acquire information on fiber length distribution (FLD) and fiber orientation distribution (FOD). Results from micro-CT measurements were compared with theoretical distribution models, achieving various degrees of agreement. Despite some limitations of current micro-CT technology, the realistic observation and measurement of cellular morphology and fiber distribution within composite foams portend future advances in modeling of reinforced polymer foam. To explain the discrepancy observed in shear stiffness between traditional shear test results and those by the short sandwich beam test, a

  11. Process-based modelling of biogenic monoterpene emissions combining production and release from storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurgers, G.; Arneth, A.; Holzinger, R.; Goldstein, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Monoterpenes, primarily emitted by terrestrial vegetation, can influence atmospheric ozone chemistry, and can form precursors for secondary organic aerosol. The short-term emissions of monoterpenes have been well studied and understood, but their long-term variability, which is particularly importan

  12. Monoterpene fluxes measured above a Japanese red pine forest at Oshiba plateau, Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tani, A.; Nozoe, S.; Aoki, M.; Hewitt, C. N.

    Monoterpene fluxes above a Japanese red pine ( Pinus densiflora) forest in Japan were measured with a heat balance method from May to November 2000. The most abundant monoterpenes were α-pinene and limonene+ β-phellandrene. Degradation losses of the major monoterpenes by the reactions with ozone and OH during transfer between the two sampling heights were estimated to be negligibly small. The highest values of average fluxes were observed in June measurement period, with values for α-pinene and limonene+ β-phellandrene of 0.6 and 0.5 nmol m -2 s -1. Their average fluxes in September, October and November measurement periods were almost the same and lowest. Vertical profiles of monoterpene concentrations inside the forest suggest that large amounts of monoterpenes are accumulated in the aerial space in the forest and transferred to the atmosphere above. The difference between logarithms of measured and calculated total monoterpene fluxes, ln F mea-ln F cal, had positive values in many morning measurements and negative values in most late afternoon measurements, indicating that monoterpenes accumulated during the night were transported to the upper atmosphere the next morning and they began to accumulate again in the late afternoon, following a decrease of turbulent mixing. Leaf wetness effect was also considered and, finally, a simple model was proposed to explain controlling parameters for monoterpene flux above the forest.

  13. Host-tree monoterpenes and biosynthesis of aggregation pheromones in the bark beetle ips paraconfusus

    Science.gov (United States)

    In the 1970-80s, vapors of the common conifer tree monoterpenes, myrcene and a-pinene, were shown to serve as precursors of ipsenol, ipsdienol and cis-verbenol, aggregation pheromone components of Ips paraconfusus. A paradigm developed that Ips bark beetles utilize pre-formed monoterpene precursors ...

  14. Process-based modelling of biogenic monoterpene emissions combining production and release from storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schurgers, G.; Arneth, A.; Holzinger, R.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/337989338; Goldstein, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    Monoterpenes, primarily emitted by terrestrial vegetation, can influence atmospheric ozone chemistry, and can form precursors for secondary organic aerosol. The short-term emissions of monoterpenes have been well studied and understood, but their long-term variability, which is particularly importan

  15. Monoterpene emissions from boreal tree species: Determination of de novo and pool emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghirardo, Andrea; Koch, Kristine; Taipale, Risto; Zimmer, Ina; Schnitzler, Joerg-Peter; Rinne, Janne

    2010-05-01

    Boreal forests emit a large amount of monoterpenes into the atmosphere. Traditionally these emissions are assumed to originate as evaporation from large storage pools. Thus their diurnal cycle would depend mostly on temperature. However, there is indication that a significant part of the monoterpene emission would originate directly from de novo synthesis. By applying 13CO2 fumigation and analyzing the isotope fractions with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and classical GC-MS we studied the origin of monoterpene emissions from some major Eurasian boreal and alpine tree species. We determined the fractions originating from de novo biosynthesis and from large internal monoterpene storages for three coniferous tree species with specialized monoterpene storage structures and one dicotyledon species without such structures. The emission from dicotyledon species Betula pendula originated solely from the de novo synthesis. The origin of the emissions from coniferous species was mixed with varying fraction originating from de novo synthesis (Pinus sylvestris 58 %, Picea abies 33.5 %, Larix decidua 9.8 %) and the rest from large internal monoterpene storage pools. We have also measured the ecosystem scale monoterpene emission fluxes from a boreal Pinus sylvestris forest by disjunct eddy covariance technique. Application of the observed fraction of emission originating from de novo synthesis and large storage pools in a hybrid emission algorithm resulted in a better description of ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions, as compared to the measured fluxes.

  16. Signal transduction and metabolic flux of beta-thujaplicin and monoterpene biosynthesis in elicited Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jian; Matsunaga, Yoko; Fujita, Koki; Sakai, Kokki

    2006-01-01

    beta-Thujaplicin is an antimicrobial tropolone derived from geranyl pyrophosphate(GPP) and monoterpene intermediate. Yeast elicitor-treated Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures accumulate high levels of beta-thujaplicin at early stages and other monoterpenes at later stages post-elicitation. The different regulation of beta-thujaplicin and monoterpene biosynthesis and signal transduction directing metabolic flux to beta-thujaplicin firstly and then shifting metabolic flow from beta-thujaplicin to other monoterpene biosynthesis were investigated. The earlier rapid induction of beta-thujaplicin accumulation and a later stimulation of monoterpene biosynthesis by yeast elicitor are in well agreement with elicitor-induced changes in activity of three monoterpene biosynthetic enzymes including isopentenyl pyrophosphate isomerase, GPP synthase, and monoterpene synthase. Yeast elicitor induces an earlier and stronger beta-thujaplicin production and monoterpene biosynthetic enzyme activity than methyl jasmonate (MeJA) does. Profiling all monoterpenes produced by C. lusitanica cell cultures under different conditions reveals that beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis parallels with other monoterpenes and competes for common precursor pools. Yet beta-thujaplicin is produced pre-dominantly at early stage of elicitation whereas other monoterpenes are mainly accumulated at late stage while beta-thujaplicin is metabolized. It is suggested that yeast elicitor-treated C. lusitanica cells preferentially accumulate beta-thujaplicin as a primary defense and other monoterpenes as a secondary defense. Inhibitor treatments suggest that immediate production of beta-thujaplicin post-elicitation largely depends on pre-existing enzymes and translation of pre-existing transcripts as well as recruitment of precursor pools from both the cytosol and plastids. The later beta-thujaplicin and other monoterpene accumulation strictly depends on active transcription and translation. Induction of beta

  17. Seasonal variations of monoterpene emissions from Pinus densiflora in East Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun-Ho; Kim, Jo-Chun; Kim, Ki-Joon; Son, Youn-Suk; Sunwoo, Young; Han, Jin-Seok

    2008-09-01

    The emission rates and compositions of monoterpene from Pinus densiflora were investigated in the Gumsung (GM) and Worak (WM) mountains. The standard emission rates (ERs: ERs is the monoterpene emission rate at standard temperature, 30 degrees C) from P. densiflora ranged from 0.817 to 1.704 (microgC/gdw-h). The ERs and beta-values of total monoterpene were measured at the two study sites (GM and WM). In the spring and summer, the ERs were the highest, while relatively low values (densiflora were alpha-pinene, myrcene, beta-phellandrene, d-limonene and alpha-terpinene. The fractional compositions of individual monoterpene compounds were significantly different between the two test sites in the summer and winter. The ERs of the older group (31-40 years) were higher than those in the younger group (21-30 years). However, the monoterpene compositions were similar between the two age groups.

  18. Monoterpene hydroperoxides with trypanocidal activity from Chenopodium ambrosioides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiuchi, Fumiyuki; Itano, Yoshiaki; Uchiyama, Nahoko; Honda, Gisho; Tsubouchi, Akiko; Nakajima-Shimada, Junko; Aoki, Takashi

    2002-04-01

    Four monoterpene hydroperoxides were isolated from aerial parts of Chenopodium ambrosioides along with ascaridole (1), the anthelmintic principle of this plant, as anti-trypanosomal compounds. The structures of these monoterpenes were determined to be (-)-(2S,4S)- and (-)-(2R,4S)-p-mentha-1(7),8-dien-2-hydroperoxide (2a and 3a) and (-)-(1R,4S)- and (-)-(1S,4S)-p-mentha-2,8-dien-1-hydroperoxide (4a and 5a) on the basis of spectroscopic methods and chemical correlations. In vitro trypanocidal activities of ascaridole (1) and these hydroperoxides (2a-5a) against epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi were 23, 1.2, 1.6, 3.1, and 0.8 microM, respectively. Fresh leaves of C. ambrosioides also contained isomeric hydroperoxides 6a and 7a, and the content ratio of 2a-7a suggested that these hydroperoxides were formed through the singlet-oxygen oxidation of limonene.

  19. Do multiple herbivores maintain chemical diversity of Scots pine monoterpenes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iason, Glenn R; O'Reilly-Wapstra, Julianne M; Brewer, Mark J; Summers, Ron W; Moore, Ben D

    2011-05-12

    A central issue in our understanding of the evolution of the diversity of plant secondary metabolites (PSMs) is whether or not compounds are functional, conferring an advantage to the plant, or non-functional. We examine the hypothesis that the diversity of monoterpene PSMs within a plant species (Scots pine Pinus sylvestris) may be explained by different compounds acting as defences against high-impact herbivores operating at different life stages. We also hypothesize that pairwise coevolution, with uncorrelated interactions, is more likely to result in greater PSM diversity, than diffuse coevolution. We tested whether up to 13 different monoterpenes in Scots pine were inhibitory to herbivory by slugs (Arion ater), bank voles (Clethrionomys glareolus), red deer (Cervus elaphus) and capercaillie (Tetrao urogallus), each of which attack trees at a different life stage. Plants containing more α-pinene were avoided by both slugs and capercaillie, which may act as reinforcing selective agents for this dominant defensive compound. Herbivory by red deer and capercaillie were, respectively, weakly negatively associated with δ(3)-carene, and strongly negatively correlated with the minor compound β-ocimene. Three of the four herbivores are probably contributory selective agents on some of the terpenes, and thus maintain some, but by no means all, of the phytochemical diversity in the species. The correlated defensive function of α-pinene against slugs and capercaillie is consistent with diffuse coevolutionary processes.

  20. Evaluation of light dependence of monoterpene emission and its effect on surface ozone concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Hiroshi; Shimadera, Hikari; Kondo, Akira; Bao, Hai; Shrestha, Kundan Lal; Inoue, Yoshio

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated the effect of light intensity on monoterpene emission from the three dominant coniferous tree species in Japan (Cryptomeria japonica, Chamaecyparis obtusa and Pinus densiflora). Monoterpene emission experiments were conducted by using a growth chamber where temperature and light intensity can be controlled. In the experiments, air temperature was set at 30 °C and light intensity was set at 0, 500, 700, 850, 1200, and 1400 μmol m-2s-1. Because monoterpene emissions from the three tree species similarly increased with increasing light intensity, a new empirical equation considering light dependence was proposed to estimate monoterpene emission. In addition, monoterpene emission in the Kinki region of Japan was estimated with and without light dependence using meteorological field produced by the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF) in summer 2010. The monoterpene emissions estimated with light dependence were larger than those without light dependence in the daytime under clear sky conditions and consistently smaller in the nighttime. In order to evaluate the effect of light dependence of monoterpene emission on ozone concentration in the Kinki region, two cases of air quality simulations by the Community Multiscale Air Quality model (CMAQ) were conducted using the monoterpene emission data estimated with and without light dependence. Comparisons of the two cases showed that the monoterpene emission changes due to light dependence slightly but systematically affected ozone concentrations. Monoterpene generally played a role of reducing ozone concentration in the CMAQ simulations. Consequently, because of the light dependence, the mean daily maximum ozone concentrations decreased by 0.3 ppb on average with a maximum of 2.2 ppb, and the mean daily minimum values increased by 0.4 ppb on average with a maximum of 1.8 ppb in the Kinki region in summer 2010.

  1. Effects of biotic and abiotic stress on induced accumulation of terpenes and phenolics in red pines inoculated with bark beetle-vectored fungus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepzig, K D; Kruger, E L; Smalley, E B; Raffa, K F

    1995-05-01

    This study characterized the chemical response of healthy red pine to artificial inoculation with the bark beetle-vectored fungusLeptographium terebrantis. In addition, we sought to determine whether stress altered this induced response and to understand the implications of these interactions to the study of decline diseases. Twenty-five-year-old trees responded to mechanical wounding or inoculation withL. terebrantis by producing resinous reaction lesions in the phloem. Aseptically wounded and wound-inoculated phloem contained higher concentrations of phenolics than did constitutive tissue. Trees inoculated withL. terebrantis also contained higher concentrations of six monoterpenes,α-pinene,β-pinene, 3-carene, limonene, camphene, and myrcene, and higher total monoterpenes than did trees that were mechanically wounded or left unwounded. Concentrations of these monoterpenes increased with time after inoculation. Total phenolic concentrations in unwounded stem tissue did not differ between healthy and root-diseased trees. Likewise, constitutive monoterpene concentrations in stem phloem were similar between healthy and root-diseased trees. However, when stem phloem tissue was challenged with fungal inoculations, reaction tissue from root-diseased trees contained lower concentrations ofα-pinene, the predominant monoterpene in red pine, than did reaction tissue from healthy trees. Seedlings stressed by exposure to low light levels exhibited less extensive induced chemical changes when challenge inoculated withL. terebrantis than did seedlings growing under higher light. Stem phloem tissue in these seedlings contained lower concentrations ofα-pinene than did nonstressed seedlings also challenge inoculated withL. terebrantis. It is hypothesized that monoterpenes and phenolics play a role in the defensive response of red pine against insect-fungal attack, that stress may predispose red pine to attack by insect-fungal complexes, and that such interactions are involved

  2. Wine phenolics: looking for a smooth mouthfeel

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Each grape variety has its own phenolic profile. However, the concentration of the phenolic compounds present in wine mainly dependson winemaking processes. Phenolic compounds influence wine sensorial characteristics namely taste or mouthfeel, bitterness, astringency and color. Humans can perceive six basic tastes: sweet, salty; sour; umami; fat-taste and bitter taste. This last basic taste is considered as a defense mechanism against the ingestion of potential poisons. Some of the genes,enco...

  3. An NPF transporter exports a central monoterpene indole alkaloid intermediate from the vacuole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard M E; Xu, Deyang; Foureau, Emilien; Teto Carqueijeiro, Marta Ines Soares; Oudin, Audrey; Bernonville, Thomas Dugé de; Novak, Vlastimil; Burow, Meike; Olsen, Carl-Erik; Jones, D Marc; Tatsis, Evangelos C; Pendle, Ali; Ann Halkier, Barbara; Geu-Flores, Fernando; Courdavault, Vincent; Nour-Eldin, Hussam Hassan; O'Connor, Sarah E

    2017-01-13

    Plants sequester intermediates of metabolic pathways into different cellular compartments, but the mechanisms by which these molecules are transported remain poorly understood. Monoterpene indole alkaloids, a class of specialized metabolites that includes the anticancer agent vincristine, antimalarial quinine and neurotoxin strychnine, are synthesized in several different cellular locations. However, the transporters that control the movement of these biosynthetic intermediates within cellular compartments have not been discovered. Here we present the discovery of a tonoplast localized nitrate/peptide family (NPF) transporter from Catharanthus roseus, CrNPF2.9, that exports strictosidine, the central intermediate of this pathway, into the cytosol from the vacuole. This discovery highlights the role that intracellular localization plays in specialized metabolism, and sets the stage for understanding and controlling the central branch point of this pharmacologically important group of compounds.

  4. Changes in monoterpene mixing ratios during summer storms in rural New Hampshire (USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. B. Haase

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes are an important class of biogenic hydrocarbons that influence ambient air quality and are a principle source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA. Emitted from vegetation, monoterpenes are a product of photosynthesis and act as a response to a variety of environmental factors. Most parameterizations of monoterpene emissions are based on clear weather models that do not take into account episodic conditions that can drastically change production and release rates into the atmosphere. Here, the monoterpene dataset from the rural Thompson Farm measurement site in Durham, New Hampshire is examined in the context of a set of known severe storm events. While some storm systems had a negligible influence on ambient monoterpene mixing ratios, the average storm event increased mixing ratios by 0.59 ± 0.21 ppbv, a factor of 93% above pre-storm levels. In some events, mixing ratios reached the 10's of ppbv range and persisted overnight. These mixing ratios correspond to increases in the monoterpene emission rate, ranging from 120 to 1240 g km−2 h−1 compared to an estimated clear weather rate of 116 to 193 g km−2 h−1. Considering the regularity of storm events over most forested areas, this could be an important factor to consider when modeling global monoterpene emissions and their resulting influence on the formation of organic aerosols.

  5. Changes in monoterpene mixing ratios during summer storms in rural New Hampshire (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, K.B.; Jordan, C.; Mentis, E.; Cottrell, L.; Mayne, H.R.; Talbot, R.; Sive, B.C.

    2011-01-01

    Monoterpenes are an important class of biogenic hydrocarbons that influence ambient air quality and are a principle source of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Emitted from vegetation, monoterpenes are a product of photosynthesis and act as a response to a variety of environmental factors. Most parameterizations of monoterpene emissions are based on clear weather models that do not take into account episodic conditions that can drastically change production and release rates into the atmosphere. Here, the ongoing monoterpene dataset from the rural Thompson Farm measurement site in Durham, New Hampshire is examined in the context of a set of known severe storm events. While some storm systems had a negligible influence on ambient monoterpene mixing ratios, the average storm event increased mixing ratios by 0.59 ?? 0.21 ppbv, a factor of 93 % above pre-storm levels. In some events, mixing ratios reached the 10's of ppbv range and persisted overnight. These mixing ratios correspond to increases in the monoterpene emission rate, ranging from 120 to 1240 g km-2 h -1 compared to an estimated clear weather rate of 116 to 193 g km-2 h-1. Considering the regularity of storm events over most forested areas, this could be an important factor to consider when modeling global monoterpene emissions and their resulting influence on the formation of organic aerosols. ?? 2011 Author(s).

  6. Phenol removal pretreatment process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, Bonnie R.

    2004-04-13

    A process for removing phenols from an aqueous solution is provided, which comprises the steps of contacting a mixture comprising the solution and a metal oxide, forming a phenol metal oxide complex, and removing the complex from the mixture.

  7. Phenolic acids bioavailability

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    The daily intake of phenolic compounds does not necessarily reflect the dose at which they reach the physiological targets in the organisms. The biological activity of phenolic compounds metabolites found in blood, organs and target tissues, as a result of digestive and hepatic activity, may differ from those of the native forms of the substances. This review discusses the absorption and metabolism of phenolic acids, a class of phenolic compounds abundant in food, and the methodologies used f...

  8. Capturing of the monoterpene olefin limonene produced in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongedijk, Esmer; Cankar, Katarina; Ranzijn, Jorn; van der Krol, Sander; Bouwmeester, Harro; Beekwilder, Jules

    2015-01-01

    Monoterpene olefins such as limonene are plant compounds with applications as flavouring and fragrance agents, as solvents and potentially also in polymer and fuel chemistry. We engineered baker's yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to express a (-)-limonene synthase from Perilla frutescens and a (+)-limonene synthase from Citrus limon. Both proteins were expressed either with their native plastid targeting signal or in a truncated form in which the plastidial sorting signal was removed. The yeast host strain for expression was AE9 K197G, which expresses a mutant Erg20 enzyme. This enzyme catalyses the formation of geranyl diphosphate, which is the precursor for monoterpenes. Several methods were tested to capture limonene produced by the yeast. Extraction from the culture medium by pentane, or by the addition of CaCl2 followed by solid-phase micro-extraction, did not lead to detectable limonene, indicating that limonene is rapidly lost from the culture medium. Volatile terpenes such as limonene may also be trapped in a dodecane phase added to the medium during fermentation. This method resulted in recovery of 0.028 mg/l (+)-limonene and 0.060 mg/l (-)-limonene in strains using the truncated Citrus and Perilla synthases, respectively. Trapping the headspace during culture of the limonene synthase-expressing strains resulted in higher titres, at 0.12 mg/l (+)-limonene and 0.49 mg/l (-)-limonene. These results show that the volatile properties of the olefins produced require specific methods for efficient recovery of these molecules from biotechnological production systems.

  9. Biocatalytic trifluoromethylation of unprotected phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simon, Robert C.; Busto, Eduardo; Richter, Nina; Resch, Verena; Houk, Kendall N.; Kroutil, Wolfgang

    2016-11-01

    Organofluorine compounds have become important building blocks for a broad range of advanced materials, polymers, agrochemicals, and increasingly for pharmaceuticals. Despite tremendous progress within the area of fluorination chemistry, methods for the direct introduction of fluoroalkyl-groups into organic molecules without prefunctionalization are still highly desired. Here we present a concept for the introduction of the trifluoromethyl group into unprotected phenols by employing a biocatalyst (laccase), tBuOOH, and either the Langlois' reagent or Baran's zinc sulfinate. The method relies on the recombination of two radical species, namely, the phenol radical cation generated directly by the laccase and the CF3-radical. Various functional groups such as ketone, ester, aldehyde, ether and nitrile are tolerated. This laccase-catalysed trifluoromethylation proceeds under mild conditions and allows accessing trifluoromethyl-substituted phenols that were not available by classical methods.

  10. Emission of monoterpenes from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. as a function of light and temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Kesselmeier

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a dynamic branch enclosure technique European beech (Fagus sylvatica L. was characterised as a strong emitter of monoterpenes, with sabinene being the predominant compound released. Since monoterpene emission was demonstrated to be a function of light and temperature, application of light and temperature dependent algorithms resulted in reasonable agreement with the measured data. Furthermore, during high temperature periods the depression of net CO2 exchange during midday (midday depression was accompanied by a depression of monoterpene emission on one occasion. The species dependent standard emission factor and the light and temperature regulated release of monoterpenes is of crucial importance for European VOC emissions. All measurements were performed within the framework of the ECHO project (Emission and CHemical transformation of biogenic volatile Organic compounds during two intensive field campaigns in the summers of 2002 and 2003.

  11. A New Monoterpene Glucoside from the Leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A new monoterpene glucoside, (2E,6Z)-2,6-dimethyl-8-b-D-glucosyloxy-2,6-octadien- oic acid, was isolated from the leaves of Betula platyphylla Suk. The structure was established by spectroscopic data.

  12. Isotope ratio analysis by HRGC-MS of monoterpene hydrocarbons from citrus essential oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satake, Atsushi; Une, Akitoshi; Ueno, Takao; Ukeda, Hiroyuki; Sawamura, Masayoshi

    2003-03-01

    The isotope ratio of monoterpene hydrocarbons in citrus essential oils of different origins was measured by ordinary high-resolution gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HRGC-MS). The isotope ratio (Ir) was determined by the ratio of the isotope peak intensity (m/z 137) to the molecular mass peak intensity (m/z 136) of the monoterpene hydrocarbons. The accuracy of Ir was examined by measuring monoterpene hydrocarbon standards and 13C-labeled compounds. The isotope fingerprints based on the values of monoterpene hydrocarbons from lemon, lime and yuzu essential oils were determined. These citrus essential oils were also discriminated by a principal component analysis of their Ir data. The characteristic vectors showed that alpha-terpinene, beta-pinene and beta-phellandrene were important components for distinguishing between the citrus species. It is suggested that this technique will be applicable to evaluate the quality, genuineness and origin of citrus fruits and their products.

  13. Total Phenolics and Total Flavonoids in Selected Indian Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    C T Sulaiman; Indira Balachandran

    2012-01-01

    Plant phenolics and flavonoids have a powerful biological activity, which outlines the necessity of their determination. The phenolics and flavonoids content of 20 medicinal plants were determined in the present investigation. The phenolic content was determined by using Folin-Ciocalteu assay. The total flavonoids were measured spectrophotometrically by using the aluminium chloride colorimetric assay. The results showed that the family Mimosaceae is the richest source of phenolics, (Acacia ni...

  14. Isolation and characterization of three new monoterpene synthases from Artemisia annua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Xin eRuan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Artemisia annua, an annual herb used in traditional Chinese medicine, produces a wealth of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, including the well-known sesquiterpene lactone artemisinin, an active ingredient in the treatment for malaria. Here we report three new monoterpene synthases of A. annua. From a glandular trichome cDNA library, monoterpene synthases of AaTPS2, AaTPS5 and AaTPS6, were isolated and characterized. The recombinant proteins of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 produced multiple products with camphene and 1,8-cineole as major products, respectively, and AaTPS2 produced a single product, β-myrcene. Although both Mg2+ and Mn2+ were able to support their catalytic activities, altered product spectrum was observed in the presence of Mn2+ for AaTPS2 and AaTPS5. Analysis of extracts of aerial tissues and root of A. annua with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS detected more than 20 monoterpenes, of which the three enzymes constituted more than 1/3 of the total. Mechanical wounding induced the expression of all three monoterpene synthase genes, and transcript levels of AaTPS5 and AaTPS6 were also elevated after treatments with phytohormones of methyl jasmonate (MeJA, salicylic acid (SA and gibberellin (GA, suggesting a role of these monoterpene synthases in plant-environment interactions. The three new monoterpene synthases reported here further our understanding of molecular basis of monoterpene biosynthesis and regulation in plant.

  15. Monoterpene synthases of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) produce pinene isomers and enantiomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, M A; Savage, T J; Croteau, R

    1999-12-01

    The turpentine fraction of conifer oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene olefins and plays important roles in defense and in the mediation of chemical communication between conifer hosts and insect predators. The stereochemistry of the turpentine monoterpenes is critical in these interactions, influencing host recognition, toxicity, and potency of derived pheromones, and the stereochemical composition of these compounds lends insight into their biogenetic origin, with implications for the numbers and types of enzymes responsible and their corresponding genes. Analysis of the oleoresin from several tissues of loblolly pine (Pinus taeda) showed the derived turpentine to consist mainly of (+)-(3R:5R)-alpha-pinene and (-)-(3S:5S)-beta-pinene. Cell-free extracts from xylem tissue yielded three monoterpene synthases which together account for the monoterpene isomer and enantiomer content of the turpentine of this tissue. The major products of these enzymes, produced from the universal precursor of monoterpenes, geranyl diphosphate, were shown to be (+)-alpha-pinene, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, respectively. In most properties (molecular mass of approximately 60 kDa, K(m) for geranyl diphosphate of 3 microM, requirement for monovalent and divalent cations), these enzymes resemble other monoterpene synthases from conifer species.

  16. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available A headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS, 50/30 μm divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-PDMS. Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m−2 s−1 respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  17. Quantitative and enantioselective analysis of monoterpenes from plant chambers and in ambient air using SPME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Yassaa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available A solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS system has been developed for quantifying enantiomeric and nonenantiomeric monoterpenes in plant chamber studies and ambient air. Performance of this system was checked using a capillary diffusion system to produce monoterpene standards. The adsorption efficiency, competitive adsorption and chromatographic peak resolution of monoterpene enantiomer pairs were compared for three SPME fibre coatings: 75 μm Carboxen-PDMS (CAR-PDMS, 50/30 μm, divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane (DVB-CAR-PDMS and 65 μm divinylbenzene-polydimethyl-siloxane (DVB-PDMS. Key parameters such as the linearity and reproducibility of the SPME system have been investigated in this work. The best compromise between the enantiomeric separation of monoterpenes and competitive adsorption of the isoprenoids on the solid SPME fibre coating was found for DVB-PDMS fibres. The optimum conditions using DVB-PDMS fibres were applied to measure the exchange rates of monoterpenes in the emission of Quercus ilex using a laboratory whole plant enclosure under light and dark conditions, as well as in ambient air. With 592 and 223 ng m−2 s−1, respectively, β-myrcene and limonene were the predominant monoterpenes in the emission of Q. ilex. These values were closely comparable to those obtained using a zNose and cartridge GC-FID systems.

  18. Structural investigation of the β-cyclodextrin complexes with chiral bicyclic monoterpenes - Influence of the functionality group on the host-guest stoichiometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceborska, Magdalena

    2017-10-01

    The crystal structures of the complexes of β-cyclodextrin with (+)- and (-)-camphors are presented. The comparison of the obtained crystal structures with available data for other complexes of β-cyclodextrin with chiral bicyclic monoterpenes (hydrocarbon (+)-fenchene and alcohols: (-)-isopinocampheol, and (+)-, and (-)-borneols) obtained from Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) shows the trend of alcohols to form dimeric complexes of 2:3 stoichiometry, while hydrocarbons and ketones prefer to form 2:2 host-guest inclusion complexes.

  19. Isoprene and monoterpene emissions from an Inner Mongolia grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Jianhui; Baker, Bradly; Liang, Baosheng; Greenberg, James; Guenther, Alex

    Terpenoid emissions were measured at a grassland site in Inner Mongolia, China during four campaigns over a 2-year period. Emissions were strongly correlated with light and temperature and the variations could be simulated using a canopy emission model. Substantial seasonal and interannual variations in isoprene emissions were also observed. Area averaged isoprene emissions normalized to standard above-canopy temperature and light conditions (30 °C and 1500 μmol m -2 s -1) ranged from about 50 to 500 μg m -2 h -1. These rates are more than an order of magnitude higher than those previously reported for temperate grasslands but are lower than emission rates observed from ground cover vegetation at higher latitudes. Isoprene emissions from this Inner Mongolia grassland may be dominated by emissions from sedges, e.g. Carex appendiculata. Total monoterpene emissions normalized to a standard temperature of 30 °C were only about 3 μg m -2 h -1 and consisted primarily of carene and limonene with smaller contributions of α-pinene and β-pinene. A model sensitivity study showed that grass and other herbaceous ground cover can contribute >10% of the total isoprene emission from certain regions, such as Inner Mongolia, but are<4% on a global annual scale.

  20. Monoterpenes Released from Fruit, Plant, and Vegetable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Mohammad Asif; Kim, Ki-Hyun; Ahn, Jeong Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs) from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST)-thermal desorption (TD) method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS) and flame ionization detector (FID), consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99). This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V) samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris), tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice) marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37%) for carrot, while it was myrcene (31%) for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants. PMID:25268921

  1. Monoterpenes Released from Fruit, Plant, and Vegetable Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asif Iqbal

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To quantify the emission rate of monoterpenes (MTs from diverse natural sources, the sorbent tube (ST-thermal desorption (TD method was employed to conduct the collection and subsequent detection of MTs by gas chromatography. The calibration of MTs, when made by both mass spectrometric (MS and flame ionization detector (FID, consistently exhibited high coefficient of determination values (R2 > 0.99. This approach was employed to measure their emission rate from different fruit/plant/vegetable (F/P/V samples with the aid of an impinger-based dynamic headspace sampling system. The results obtained from 10 samples (consisting of carrot, pine needle (P. sylvestris, tangerine, tangerine peel, strawberry, sepals of strawberry, plum, apple, apple peel, and orange juice marked α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, R-limonene, γ-terpinene, and p-cymene as the most common MTs. R-limonene was the major species emitted from citrus fruits and beverages with its abundance exceeding 90%. In contrast, α-pinene was the most abundant MT (37% for carrot, while it was myrcene (31% for pine needle. The overall results for F/P/V samples confirmed α-pinene, β-pinene, myrcene, α-terpinene, and γ-terpinene as common MTs. Nonetheless, the types and magnitude of MTs released from fruits were distinguished from those of vegetables and plants.

  2. Formulation of sage essential oil (Salvia officinalis, L.) monoterpenes into chitosan hydrogels and permeation study with GC-MS analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kodadová, Alexandra; Vitková, Zuzana; Herdová, Petra; Ťažký, Anton; Oremusová, Jarmila; Grančai, Daniel; Mikuš, Peter

    2015-01-01

    This study deals with the formulation of natural drugs into hydrogels. For the first time, compounds from the sage essential oil were formulated into chitosan hydrogels. A sample preparation procedure for hydrophobic volatile analytes present in a hydrophilic water matrix along with an analytical method based on the gas chromatography coupled with the mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed and applied for the evaluation of the identity and quantity of essential oil components in the hydrogels and saline samples. The experimental results revealed that the chitosan hydrogels are suitable for the formulation of sage essential oil. The monoterpene release can be effectively controlled by both chitosan and caffeine concentration in the hydrogels. Permeation experiment, based on a hydrogel with the optimized composition [3.5% (w/w) sage essential oil, 2.0% (w/w) caffeine, 2.5% (w/w) chitosan and 0.1% (w/w) Tween-80] in donor compartment, saline solution in acceptor compartment, and semi-permeable cellophane membrane, demonstrated the useful permeation selectivity. Here, (according to lipophilicity) an enhanced permeation of the bicyclic monoterpenes with antiflogistic and antiseptic properties (eucalyptol, camphor and borneol) and, at the same time, suppressed permeation of toxic thujone (not exceeding its permitted applicable concentration) was observed. These properties highlight the pharmaceutical importance of the developed chitosan hydrogel formulating sage essential oil in the dermal applications.

  3. Preparation of Ecofriendly Formulations Containing Biologically Active Monoterpenes with Their Fumigant and Residual Toxicities against Adults of Culex pipiens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed E. I. Badawy

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Different mixtures of monoterpenes (ketone, alcohol, and alkene were loaded on paper discs and wax and their knockdown activities were evaluated against Culex pipiens adults. Some individual monoterpenes were also evaluated by residual toxicity technique. Citronella oil as a reference was also loaded separately or in combination with monoterpenes on paper discs and wax. The ketone monoterpenes mixture (camphor, menthone, carvone, and fenchone on paper discs was the most active (KT50 = 17.20 min followed by ketone monoterpenes with citronella oil (KT50 = 20.79 min and citronella oil alone (KT50 = 28.72 min. Wax formulations proved that the ketone and alcohol (geraniol, thymol, and menthol monoterpenes gave the most activity as knockdown (KT50 = 31.79 and 43.39 min, resp.. Alcohol monoterpenes formulation recorded KT50 = 43.39 min. Residual activity of tested individual monoterpenes reported that the menthol was more toxic than camphor and camphene. Generally, this study suggests that the monoterpenes have the properties, which make them used as eco-friendly compounds in the control programs of Cx. pipiens adult. The use of paper discs is more applicable than wax in the adulticidal formulations.

  4. Bromination of Phenol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talbot, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    This "Science note" examines the bromination of phenol, a reaction that is commonly taught at A-level and IB (International Baccalaureate) as an example of electrophilic substitution. Phenol undergoes bromination with bromine or bromine water at room temperature. A white precipitate of 2,4,6-tribromophenol is rapidly formed. This…

  5. Lipid encapsulated phenolics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic compounds have numerous health benefits when included in the human diet and have emerged as a functional food and feed additive. Current sources of phenolics include commodity grains such as corn, oat, and wheat but may also be obtained as a co-product from agricultural residues and other l...

  6. Determination of phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chao, G.K.J.; Suatoni, J.C.

    1982-01-01

    Details are given of a procedure for separation and identification of phenolic compounds in aqueous solution by high-performance liquid chromatography. It can also be applied to non-aqueous samples after preliminary isolation of a polar fraction containing the phenolic compounds.

  7. Menthol: a simple monoterpene with remarkable biological properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamatou, Guy P P; Vermaak, Ilze; Viljoen, Alvaro M; Lawrence, Brian M

    2013-12-01

    Menthol is a cyclic monoterpene alcohol which possesses well-known cooling characteristics and a residual minty smell of the oil remnants from which it was obtained. Because of these attributes it is one of the most important flavouring additives besides vanilla and citrus. Due to this reason it is used in a variety of consumer products ranging from confections such as chocolate and chewing gum to oral-care products such as toothpaste as well as in over-the-counter medicinal products for its cooling and biological effects. Its cooling effects are not exclusive to medicinal use. Approximately one quarter of the cigarettes on the market contain menthol and small amounts of menthol are even included in non-mentholated cigarettes. Natural menthol is isolated exclusively from Mentha canadensis, but can also be synthesised on industrial scale through various processes. Although menthol exists in eight stereoisomeric forms, (-)-menthol from the natural source and synthesised menthol with the same structure is the most preferred isomer. The demand for menthol is high and it was previously estimated that the worldwide use of menthol was 30-32,000 metric tonnes per annum. Menthol is not a predominant compound of the essential oils as it can only be found as a constituent of a limited number of aromatic plants. These plants are known to exhibit biological activity in vitro and in vivo such as antibacterial, antifungal, antipruritic, anticancer and analgesic effects, and are also an effective fumigant. In addition, menthol is one of the most effective terpenes used to enhance the dermal penetration of pharmaceuticals. This review summarises the chemical and biological properties of menthol and highlights its cooling effects and toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gastroprotective Mechanisms of the Monoterpene 1,8-Cineole (Eucalyptol.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Freire Rocha Caldas

    Full Text Available Recently, our research group identified and reported 1,8-cineole (CIN, a monoterpene that naturally occur in many aromatic plants, as one of the major constituent of the essential oil from leaves of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM, as well as characterized the gastroprotective action of this oil. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms of action involved in the antiulcer and healing activity of CIN, in order to confirm its correlation with the gastroprotective effect of EOHM. Wistar rats were exposed to different protocols (acute ulceration, gastrointestinal motility and antisecretory activity. In addition, were determinated the involvement of nitric oxide and sulphydryl groups; the levels of gastric mucus, lipid peroxidation, sulphydryl groups and myeloperoxidase activity. The healing ability was evaluated by acetic acid-induced chronic ulcer and histological and immunohistochemical analysis (PCNA, Ki-67 and BrdU. The treatment with CIN inhibited ethanol-, ethanol/HCl- and indomethacin-induced gastric lesions. The highest doses of CIN inhibited gastric emptying, but did not affect intestinal transit. CIN (100 mg/kg reduced the volume of basal but not stimulated acid secretion. CIN increased levels of mucus (89.3%, prevented depletion of -SH groups (62.6% and reduced the level of lipid peroxidation (55.3% and myeloperoxidase activity (59.4% in the gastric mucosa. In chronic ulcer model, CIN reduced in 43.1% the gastric area lesion, promoted significant regeneration and restoration of the levels of mucus in glandular cells as confirmed by histological analysis; and promoted increase in cell proliferation as evidenced by reactivity for PCNA, Ki-67 and BrdU. This findings demonstrate the role of 1,8-cineole as an important ulcer healing agent and indicate the involvement of antioxidant and cytoprotective mechanisms in the gastroprotective effect of compound. This study also provides evidence that 1,8-cineole is related to the

  9. Antiviral activity of monoterpenes beta-pinene and limonene against herpes simplex virus in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Astani

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils are complex mixtures containing compounds of several different functional- group classes. Depending on the structure, we can distinguish monoterpenes, phenylpropanes, and other components. Here in this study two monoterpene compounds of essential oils, i.e. β-pinene and limonene were examined for their antiviral activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1 in vitro.All antiviral assays were performed using RC-37 cells. Cytotoxicity was determined in a neutral red assay, antiviral assays were performed with HSV-1 strain KOS. The mode of antiviral action was evaluated at different periods during the viral replication cycle. Acyclovir was used as positive antiviral control.Beta-pinenene and limonenen reduced viral infectivity by 100 %. The mode of antiviral action has been determined, only moderate antiviral effects were revealed by monoterpenes when these drugs were added to host cells prior infection or after entry of HSV into cells. However, both monoterpenes exhibited high anti-HSV-1 activity by direct interaction with free virus particles. Both tested drugs interacted with HSV-1 in a dose-dependent manner thereby inactivating viral infection.These results suggest that monoterpenes in essential oils exhibit antiherpetic activity in the early phase of viral multiplication and might be used as potential antiviral agents.

  10. Seasonal variability of monoterpene emission factors for a ponderosa pine plantation in California

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Holzinger

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpene fluxes have been measured over an 11 month period from June 2003 to April 2004. During all seasons ambient air temperature was the environmental factor most closely related to the measured emission rates. The monoterpene flux was modeled using a basal emission rate multiplied by an exponential function of a temperature, following the typical practice for modelling temperature dependent biogenic emissions. A basal emission of 1.0 μmol h−1 m−2 (at 30°C, based on leaf area and a temperature dependence (β of 0.12°C−1 reproduced measured summer emissions well but underestimated spring and winter measured emissions by 60–130%. The total annual monoterpene emission may be underestimated by ~50% when using a model optimized to reproduce monoterpene emissions in summer. The long term dataset also reveals an indirect connection between non-stomatal ozone and monoterpene flux beyond the dependence on temperature that has been shown for both fluxes.

  11. A Systematic Review of the Wound-Healing Effects of Monoterpenes and Iridoid Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana S.S. Barreto

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for more effective and lower cost therapeutic approaches for wound healing remains a challenge for modern medicine. In the search for new therapeutic options, plants and their metabolites are a great source of novel biomolecules. Among their constituents, the monoterpenes represent 90% of essential oils, and have a variety of structures with several activities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and wound healing. Based on that, and also due to the lack of reviews concerning the wound-healing activity of monoterpenes, we performed this systematic review—which provides an overview of their characteristics and mechanisms of action. In this search, the terms “terpenes”, “monoterpenes”, “wound healing” and “wound closure techniques” were used to retrieve articles published in LILACS, PUBMED and EMBASE until May 2013. Seven papers were found concerning the potential wound healing effect of five compouds (three monoterpenes and two iridoid derivatives in preclinical studies. Among the products used for wound care, the films were the most studied pharmaceutical form. Monoterpenes are a class of compounds of great diversity of biological activities and therapeutic potential. The data reviewed here suggest that monoterpenes, although poorly studied in this context, are promising compounds for the treatment of chronic wound conditions.

  12. Tree water relations trigger monoterpene emissions from Scots pine stem during spring recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vanhatalo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Tree canopies are known to emit large amounts of VOCs (volatile organic compounds such as monoterpenes to the surrounding air. The main source for these is considered to be the green biomass, i.e. foliage, but emissions from the woody compartments have not been quantified. A VOC emission anomaly has been observed during transition from winter to summer activity. We analyzed if non-foliar components could partially explain the anomaly. We measured the VOC emissions from Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L. stems and shoots during the dehardening phase of trees in field conditions in two consecutive springs. We observed a large, transient monoterpene burst from stems, while the shoot monoterpene emissions and transpiration remained low. The burst lasted about 12 h. Simultaneously, an unusual night-time sap flow and an anomalous diurnal pattern of tree diameter were detected. Hence, we suggest that the monoterpene burst was a consequence of the recovery of the stem from winter-time. This indicates that the dominant processes and environmental drivers triggering the monoterpene emissions are different between stems and foliage.

  13. Phenolation of vegetable oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZORAN S. PETROVIĆ

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Novel bio-based compounds containing phenols suitable for the syn­thesis of polyurethanes were prepared. The direct alkylation of phenols with different vegetable oils in the presence of superacids (HBF4, triflic acid as ca­talysts was studied. The reaction kinetics was followed by monitoring the de­crease of the double bond content (iodine value with time. In order to under­stand the mechanism of the reaction, phenol was alkylated with model com­pounds. The model compounds containing one internal double bond were 9-oc­tadecene and methyl oleate and those with three double bonds were triolein and high oleic safflower oil (82 % oleic acid. It was shown that the best structures for phenol alkylation are fatty acids with only one double bond (oleic acid. Fatty acids with two double bonds (linoleic acid and three double bonds (lino­lenic acid lead to polymerized oils by a Diels–Alder reaction, and to a lesser extent to phenol alkylated products. The reaction product of direct alkylation of phenol with vegetable oils is a complex mixture of phenol alkylated with poly­merized oil (30–60 %, phenyl esters formed by transesterification of phenol with triglyceride ester bonds (<10 % and unreacted oil (30 %. The phenolated vegetable oils are new aromatic–aliphatic bio-based raw materials suitable for the preparation of polyols (by propoxylation, ethoxylation, Mannich reactions for the preparation of polyurethanes, as intermediates for phenolic resins or as bio-based antioxidants.

  14. Protective effect of immobilized ammonia oxidizers and phenol-degrading bacteria on nitrification in ammonia- and phenol-containing wastewater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morita, M.; Watanabe, A. [Environmental Science Research Laboratory, Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), Chiba (Japan); Kudo, N.; Shinozaki, H. [Materials Science Engineering, Tokyo Denki University, Tokyo (Japan); Uemoto, H.

    2007-12-15

    Phenol present in wastewaters from various industries has an inhibitory effect on nitrification even at low concentrations. Hence, the biological treatment of wastewater containing both phenol and ammonia involves a series of treatment steps. It is difficult to achieve nitrification capability in an activated sludge system that contains phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level. Batch treatment of wastewater containing various concentrations of phenol showed that the ammonia oxidation capability of suspended Nitrosomonas europaea cells, an ammonia oxidizer, was completely inhibited in the presence of more than 5.0 mg/L phenol. To protect the ammonia oxidizer from the inhibitory effect of phenol and to achieve ammonia oxidation capability in the wastewater containing phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level, a simple bacterial consortium composed of an ammonia oxidizer (N. europaea) and a phenol-degrading bacterial strain (Acinetobacter sp.) was used. Ammonia oxidation did not occur in the presence of phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level when suspended or immobilized N. europaea and Acinetobacter sp. cells were used in batch treatment. Following the acclimatization of the immobilized cells, accumulation of nitrite was observed, even when the wastewater contained phenol at concentrations above the inhibitory level. These results showed that immobilization was effective in protecting N. europaea cells from the inhibitory effect of phenol present in the wastewater. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  15. Production of beta-thujaplicin in Cupressus lusitanica suspension cultures fed with organic acids and monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, J; Fujita, K; Sakai, K

    2001-05-01

    Effects of some organic acids and monoterpenes on production of beta-thujaplicin were studied in Cupressus lusitanica suspension cultures. The fungal elicitor-induced biosynthesis of beta-thujaplicin was promoted by the feedings of malate, pyruvate, fumarate, succinate, and acetate. These results suggest some relationships between acetate/pyruvate metabolism and beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis, or between tricarboxylic acid cycle and beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis. Feedings of C. lusitanica suspension cultures with some monoterpenes inhibited elicitor-triggered beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis, but 2-carene and terpinyl acetate feedings significantly improved the beta-thujaplicin production of C. lusitanica suspension cultures. These results indicate a possible involvement of terpinyl acetate and 2-carene in beta-thujaplicin biosynthesis, as well as potential uses of these monoterpenes in large-scale beta-thujaplicin production.

  16. Monoterpene derivatives with anti-allergic activity from red peony root, the root of Paeonia lactiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Yan-Hong; Zhu, Shu; Ge, Yue-Wei; He, Yu-Min; Kazuma, Kohei; Wang, Zhengtao; Yoshimatsu, Kayo; Komatsu, Katsuko

    2016-01-01

    The methanolic extract and its subfractions from red peony root, the dried roots of Paeonia lactiflora Pallas showed potent antiallergic effects, as inhibition of immunoglobulin E (IgE)-mediated degranulation in rat basophil leukemia (RBL)-2H3 cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of 16 monoterpene derivatives, including 3 new compounds, paeoniflorol (1), 4'-hydroxypaeoniflorigenone (2) and 4-epi-albiflorin (3), together with 13 known ones (4-16). The chemical structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. Among the isolated monoterpene derivatives, nine compounds showed potent anti-allergic effects and compound 1 was the most effective. A primary structure-activity relationship of monoterpene derivatives was discussed.

  17. Composition and antimicrobial activities of Lippia multiflora Moldenke, Mentha x piperita L. and Ocimum basilicum L. essential oils and their major monoterpene alcohols alone and in combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassolé, Imaël Henri Nestor; Lamien-Meda, Aline; Bayala, Balé; Tirogo, Souleymane; Franz, Chlodwig; Novak, Johannes; Nebié, Roger Charles; Dicko, Mamoudou Hama

    2010-11-03

    Essential oils from leaves of Lippia multiflora, Mentha x piperita and Ocimum basilicum from Burkina Faso were analysed by GC-FID and GC-MS. Major components were p-cymene, thymol, b-caryophyllene, carvacrol and carvone for L. multiflora, menthol and iso-menthone for M. x piperita and, linalool and eugenol for O. basilicum. The essential oils and their major monoterpene alcohols were tested against nine bacterial strains using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The essential oils with high phenolic contents were the most effective antimicrobials. The checkerboard method was used to quantify the efficacy of paired combinations of essential oils and their major components. The best synergetic effects among essential oils and major components were obtained with combinations involving O. basilicum essential oil and eugenol, respectively. As phenolic components are characterized by a strong spicy aroma, this study suggests that the selection of certain combinations of EOs could help to reduce the amount of essential oils and consequently reduce any adverse sensory impact in food.

  18. Composition and Antimicrobial Activities of Lippia multiflora Moldenke, Mentha x piperita L. and Ocimum basilicum L. Essential Oils and Their Major Monoterpene Alcohols Alone and in Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamoudou Hama Dicko

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils from leaves of Lippia multiflora, Mentha x piperita and Ocimum basilicum from Burkina Faso were analysed by GC–FID and GC–MS. Major components were p-cymene, thymol, b-caryophyllene, carvacrol and carvone for L. multiflora, menthol and iso-menthone for M. x piperita and, linalool and eugenol for O. basilicum. The essential oils and their major monoterpene alcohols were tested against nine bacterial strains using the disc diffusion and broth microdilution methods. The essential oils with high phenolic contents were the most effective antimicrobials. The checkerboard method was used to quantify the efficacy of paired combinations of essential oils and their major components. The best synergetic effects among essential oils and major components were obtained with combinations involving O. basilicum essential oil and eugenol, respectively. As phenolic components are characterized by a strong spicy aroma, this study suggests that the selection of certain combinations of EOs could help to reduce the amount of essential oils and consequently reduce any adverse sensory impact in food.

  19. Process-based modelling of biogenic monoterpene emissions combining production and release from storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schurgers

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, primarily emitted by terrestrial vegetation, can influence atmospheric ozone chemistry, and can form precursors for secondary organic aerosol. The short-term emissions of monoterpenes have been well studied and understood, but their long-term variability, which is particularly important for atmospheric chemistry, has not. This understanding is crucial for the understanding of future changes.

    In this study, two algorithms of terrestrial biogenic monoterpene emissions, the first one based on the short-term volatilization of monoterpenes, as commonly used for temperature-dependent emissions, and the second one based on long-term production of monoterpenes (linked to photosynthesis combined with emissions from storage, were compared and evaluated with measurements from a Ponderosa pine plantation (Blodgett Forest, California. The measurements were used to parameterize the long-term storage of monoterpenes, which takes place in specific storage organs and which determines the temporal distribution of the emissions over the year. The difference in assumptions between the first (emission-based method and the second (production-based method, which causes a difference in upscaling from instantaneous to daily emissions, requires roughly a doubling of emission capacities to bridge the gap to production capacities. The sensitivities to changes in temperature and light were tested for the new methods, the temperature sensitivity was slightly higher than that of the short-term temperature dependent algorithm.

    Applied on a global scale, the first algorithm resulted in annual total emissions of 29.6 Tg C a−1, the second algorithm resulted in 31.8 Tg C a−1 when applying the correction factor 2 between emission capacities and production capacities. However, the exact magnitude of such a correction is spatially varying and hard to determine as a global average.

  20. Process-based modelling of biogenic monoterpene emissions: sensitivity to temperature and light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Schurgers

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, primarily emitted by terrestrial vegetation, can influence atmospheric ozone chemistry, and can form precursors for secondary organic aerosol. The short-term emissions of monoterpenes have been well studied and understood, but their long-term variability, which is particularly important for atmospheric chemistry, has not. This understanding is crucial for the understanding of future changes.

    In this study, two algorithms of terrestrial biogenic monoterpene emissions, the first one based on the short-term volatilization of monoterpenes, as commonly used for temperature-dependent emissions, and the second one based on long-term production of monoterpenes (linked to photosynthesis combined with emissions from storage, were compared and evaluated with measurements from a Ponderosa pine plantation (Blodgett Forest, California. The measurements were used to parameterize the long-term storage of monoterpenes, which takes place in specific storage organs and which determines the temporal distribution of the emissions over the year. The difference in assumptions between the first (emission-based method and the second (production-based method, which causes a difference in upscaling from instantaneous to daily emissions, requires roughly a doubling of emission capacities to bridge the gap to production capacities. The sensitivities to changes in temperature and light were tested for the new methods, the temperature sensitivity was slightly higher than that of the short-term temperature dependent algorithm.

    Applied on a global scale, the first algorithm resulted in annual total emissions of 29.6 Tg C a−1, the second algorithm resulted in 31.8 Tg C a−1 when applying the correction factor 2 between emission capacities and production capacities. However, the exact magnitude of such a correction is spatially varying and hard to determine as a global average.

  1. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a novel monoterpene epsilon-lactone hydrolase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt-Bergmans, van der C.J.B.; Werf, van der M.J.

    2001-01-01

    A monoterpene ε-lactone hydrolase (MLH) from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14, catalyzing the ring opening of lactones which are formed during degradation of several monocyclic monoterpenes, including carvone and menthol, was purified to apparent homogeneity. It is a monomeric enzyme of 31 kDa that is

  2. Toxicity of Monoterpene Structure, Diversity and Concentration to Mountain Pine Beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae: Beetle Traits Matter More.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Mary L; Sekhon, Jagdeep K; LaFramboise, Lanielle M

    2017-03-03

    A high diversity of plant defenses may be a response to herbivore diversity or may be collectively more toxic than single compounds, either of which may be important for understanding insect-plant associations. Monoterpenes in conifers are particularly diverse. We tested the fumigant toxicity of four monoterpenes, alone and in combination, to mountain pine beetles, Dendroctonus ponderosae, in the context of the beetles' individual body traits. Chemical structures of tested monoterpene hydrocarbons had modest effects on beetle survival, mass loss, water content and fat content, with (R)-(+)-limonene tending to be more toxic than (-)-α-pinene, (-)-β-pinene, and (+)-3-carene. Monoterpene diversity (all qualitative combinations of one to four monoterpenes) did not affect toxicity. Concentration (0 to 1200 ppm) of individual monoterpenes was a strong determinant of toxicity. Beetle body size and body condition index strongly and positively affected survival during monoterpene treatments. Larger beetles in better condition lost proportionally less mass during exposure, where proportion mass loss negatively affected survivorship. Toxicity was much more associated with water loss than with fat loss, suggesting that a main cost of detoxification is excretion, a process that has received little attention. These results provide insight into the determinants of beetle success in historic and novel hosts that differ in monoterpene composition and concentration. We also suggest that water availability will affect beetle success directly through their ability to tolerate detoxification as well as indirectly through host responses to drought.

  3. Genetic and biochemical characterization of a novel monoterpene e-lactone hydrolase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlugt-Bergmans, C.J.B. van der; Werf, M.J. van der

    2001-01-01

    A monoterpene ε-lactone hydrolase (MLH) from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14, catalyzing the ring opening of lactones which are formed during degradation of several monocyclic monoterpenes, including carvone and menthol, was purified to apparent homogeneity. It is a monomeric enzyme of 31 kDa that is

  4. Identification and characterization of phenol hydroxylase from phenol-degrading Candida tropicalis strain JH8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Yan; Yang, Sheng; Xie, Zhixiong; Cheng, Li

    2014-09-01

    The gene phhY encoding phenol hydroxylase from Candida tropicalis JH8 was cloned, sequenced, and expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene phhY contained an open reading frame of 2130 bp encoding a polypeptide of 709 amino acid residues. From its sequence analysis, it is a member of a family of flavin-containing aromatic hydroxylases and shares 41% amino acid identity with phenol hydroxylase from Trichosporon cutaneum. The recombinant phenol hydroxylase exists as a homotetramer structure with a native molecular mass of 320 kDa. Recombinant phenol hydroxylase was insensitive to pH treatment; its optimum pH was at 7.6. The optimum temperature for the enzyme was 30 °C, and its activity was rapidly lost at temperatures above 60 °C. Under the optimal conditions with phenol as substrate, the K(m) and V(max) of recombinant phenol hydroxylase were 0.21 mmol·L(-1) and 0.077 μmol·L(-1)·min(-1), respectively. This is the first paper presenting the cloning and expression in E. coli of the phenol hydroxylase gene from C. tropicalis and the characterization of the recombinant phenol hydroxylase.

  5. 2,2-Diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl as a screening tool for recombinant monoterpene biosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Monoterpenes are a class of natural C10 compounds with a range of potential applications including use as fuel additives, fragrances, and chemical feedstocks. Biosynthesis of monoterpenes in heterologous systems is yet to reach commercially-viable levels, and therefore is the subject of strain engineering and fermentation optimization studies. Detection of monoterpenes typically relies on gas chromatography/mass spectrometry; this represents a significant analytical bottleneck which limits the potential to analyse combinatorial sets of conditions. To address this, we developed a high-throughput method for pre-screening monoterpene biosynthesis. Results An optimised DPPH assay was developed for detecting monoterpenes from two-phase microbial cultures using dodecane as the extraction solvent. The assay was useful for reproducible qualitative ranking of monoterpene concentrations, and detected standard preparations of myrcene and γ-terpinene dissolved in dodecane at concentrations as low as 10 and 15 μM, respectively, and limonene as low as 200 μM. The assay could not be used quantitatively due to technical difficulties in capturing the initial reaction rate in a multi-well plate and the presence of minor DPPH-reactive contaminants. Initially, limonene biosynthesis in Saccharomyces cerevisiae was tested using two different limonene synthase enzymes and three medium compositions. The assay indicated that limonene biosynthesis was enhanced in a supplemented YP medium and that the Citrus limon limonene synthase (CLLS) was more effective than the Mentha spicata limonene synthase (MSLS). GC-MS analysis revealed that the DPPH assay had correctly identified the best limonene synthase (CLLS) and culture medium (supplemented YP medium). Because only traces of limonene were detected in SD medium, we subsequently identified medium components that improved limonene production and developed a defined medium based on these findings. The best limonene titres obtained

  6. Phenol and Its Toxicity: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahesh Chand Meena

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenol and its derivatives like dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol (carbolic acid are widely used as insecticides, but they are very toxic substances. Phenol is a general protoplasmic poison with corrosive local effects that denature proteins. Poisoning with phenol compounds may occur by ingestion, inhalation, and absorption through skin. In this report we presented the toxicity effects of Phenol and its derivatives like dinitrophenol and pentachlorophenol on humans. Case report: A 27-year-old married female was found unconscious at her residence in September 2013. She was expired after hospitalization in Lady Hardinge Medical College and its associated hospital on the same day after six hours. On examination, corrosion of skin, at angel of mouth and chin, and brown discoloration in mucosa of the esophagus were seen. Histological examination showed exfoliation of esophageal mucosa and coagulative necrosis of gastric mucosa. In toxicological analyses, carbolic acid was detected. Conclusion: Strict precautionary measures are advised when using this compound.

  7. Simple proxies for estimating the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kontkanen, Jenni; Paasonen, Pauli; Aalto, Juho; Bäck, Jaana; Rantala, Pekka; Petäjä, Tuukka; Kulmala, Markku

    2016-10-01

    The oxidation products of monoterpenes likely have a crucial role in the formation and growth of aerosol particles in boreal forests. However, the continuous measurements of monoterpene concentrations are usually not available on decadal timescales, and the direct measurements of the concentrations of monoterpene oxidation product have so far been scarce. In this study we developed proxies for the concentrations of monoterpenes and their oxidation products at a boreal forest site in Hyytiälä, southern Finland. For deriving the proxies we used the monoterpene concentration measured with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) during 2006-2013. Our proxies for the monoterpene concentration take into account the temperature-controlled emissions from the forest ecosystem, the dilution caused by the mixing within the boundary layer and different oxidation processes. All the versions of our proxies captured the seasonal variation of the monoterpene concentration, the typical proxy-to-measurements ratios being between 0.8 and 1.3 in summer and between 0.6 and 2.6 in winter. In addition, the proxies were able to describe the diurnal variation of the monoterpene concentration rather well, especially in summer months. By utilizing one of the proxies, we calculated the concentration of oxidation products of monoterpenes by considering their production in the oxidation and their loss due to condensation on aerosol particles. The concentration of oxidation products was found to have a clear seasonal cycle, with a maximum in summer and a minimum in winter. The concentration of oxidation products was lowest in the morning or around noon and highest in the evening. In the future, our proxies for the monoterpene concentration and their oxidation products can be used, for example, in the analysis of new particle formation and growth in boreal environments.

  8. Statistical analysis of the associations between phenolic monoterpenes and molecular markers, AFLPs and SAMPLs in the spice plant Oregano

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizi Ali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Molecular markers are the examples of the contribution of genome technology to medicinal plant breeding through marker-assisted selection (MAS for pharmaceutical quality.

  9. Analysis of nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods: the current state of the art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Jiménez, Jara; Torres, Josep Lluís

    2011-12-28

    More than 500 phenolic compounds have been reported as present in foodstuffs, and their intake has been related to the prevention of several chronic diseases. Most of the literature on phenolic compounds focuses on those present in the supernatant of aqueous-organic extractions: extractable phenolics. Nevertheless, significant amounts of phenolic compounds remain in the solid residues after such extractions. These nonextractable phenolics are mostly proanthocyanidins, phenolic acids, and hydrolyzable tannins that are closely associated with the food matrix. Studies of this fraction of dietary phenolic compounds are scarce, and the few there are usually refer to particular types of phenolics rather than to the fraction as a whole. The present review reports the state-of-the-art methods that currently exist for analyzing nonextractable phenolic compounds in foods.

  10. The use of modified phenol for chemical face peeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, P A

    1998-01-01

    This article reviews the results of 59 consecutive, modified phenol facial peels on 627 anatomic areas for the purpose of reducing fine to coarse rhytides, hyperpigmentation, and actinic keratoses. This work discusses the Venner-Kellson concentrated Lysol saponated formula containing 62.5% phenol; the Maschek-Truppman 53% phenol, nonsaponated glycerin formula; and the previously unpublished Gradé formulae I, II, and III with 49.5%, 60%, and 70% phenol, respectively. The new Stone formulae I, II, and III are introduced here. These new formulae are mixed from available reagents, thus obviating the need to melt potentially toxic phenol crystals, and are designed to achieve a range of clinical peel results on a wide variety of skin types. The ingredients, methods of preparation and application, as well as three postpeel occlusion techniques are presented. Clinical data including pH measurements, croton oil ratios, phenol concentrations, and preliminary biopsy data also are presented.

  11. Gene Coexpression Analysis Reveals Complex Metabolism of the Monoterpene Alcohol Linalool in Arabidopsis FlowersW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginglinger, J.F.; Boachon, B.; Hofer, R.; Paetz, C.; Kollner, T.G.; Miesch, L.; Lugan, R.; Baltenweck, R.; Mutterer, J.; Ullman, P.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 family encompasses the largest family of enzymes in plant metabolism, and the functions of many of its members in Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Gene coexpression analysis pointed to two P450s that were coexpressed with two monoterpene synthases in flowers and were thus

  12. Role of de novo biosynthesis in ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Taipale

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpene emissions from Scots pine have traditionally been assumed to originate as evaporation from specialized storage pools. More recently, the significance of de novo emissions, originating directly from monoterpene biosynthesis, has been recognized. To study the role of biosynthesis at the ecosystem scale, we measured monoterpene emissions from a Scots pine dominated forest in southern Finland using the disjunct eddy covariance method combined with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry. The interpretation of the measurements was based on a correlation analysis and a hybrid emission algorithm describing both de novo and pool emissions. During the measurement period May–August 2007, the monthly medians of daytime emissions were 200, 290, 180, and 200 μg m−2 h−1. The emissions were partly light dependent, probably due to de novo biosynthesis. The emission potential for both de novo and pool emissions exhibited a decreasing summertime trend. The ratio of the de novo emission potential to the total emission potential varied between 30 % and 46 %. Although the monthly changes were not significant, the ratio always differed statistically from zero, suggesting that the role of de novo biosynthesis was observable. Given the uncertainties in this study, we conclude that more accurate estimates of the contribution of de novo emissions are required for improving monoterpene emission algorithms for Scots pine dominated forests.

  13. The monoterpenes of Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunawardena, K; Rivera, S B; Epstein, W W

    2002-01-01

    Monoterpenes from three different members of the Anthemideae family, Artemisia tridentata ssp. vaseyana, Artemisia cana ssp. viscidula and Artemisia tridentata ssp. spiciformis were isolated and their structures determined using spectroscopic techniques. A total of 26 irregular and regular monoterpenes were identified. Among these, 20 had previously been identified in the Anthemideae family. Of the remaining six, four were known, but previously unidentified in this family. 2,2-Dimethyl-6-isopropenyl-2H-pyran, 2,3-dimethyl-6-isopropyl-4H-pyran and 2-isopropenyl-5-methylhexa-trans-3,5-diene-1-ol were isolated from both A. tridentata ssp. vaseyana and A. cana ssp. viscidula. The irregular monoterpene 2,2-dimethyl-6-isopropenyl-2H-pyran has a carbon skeleton analogous to the biologically important triterpene squalene. Two additional irregular monoterpenes, artemisia triene and trans-chrysanthemal were isolated from A. cana ssp. viscidula and lavandulol was isolated from A. tridentata ssp. spiciformis. This is the first time a compound possessing a lavandulyl-skeletal type has been found in the Anthemideae family.

  14. Comparative study of the antitumor effect of natural monoterpenes: relationship to cell cycle analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdeslam Jaafari

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes have been identified as responsible of important therapeutic effects of plant-extracts. In this work, we try to compare the cytotoxic effect of six monoterpenes (carvacrol, thymol, carveol, carvone, eugenol and isopulegol as well as their molecular mechanisms. The in vitro antitumor activity of the tested products, evaluated against five tumor cell lines, show that the carvacrol is the most cytotoxic monoterpene. The investigation of an eventual synergistic effect of the six natural monoterpenes with two anticancer drugs revealed that there is a significant synergy between them (p<5%. On the other hand, the effect of the tested products on cell cycle progression was examined by flow cytometry after DNA staining in order to investigate the molecular mechanism of their cytotoxic activity. The results revealed that carvacrol and carveol stopped the cell cycle progression in S phase; however, thymol and isopulegol stopped it in G0/G1 phase. Regarding carvone and eugenol, no effect on cell cycle was observed.

  15. Gene Coexpression Analysis Reveals Complex Metabolism of the Monoterpene Alcohol Linalool in Arabidopsis FlowersW

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ginglinger, J.F.; Boachon, B.; Hofer, R.; Paetz, C.; Kollner, T.G.; Miesch, L.; Lugan, R.; Baltenweck, R.; Mutterer, J.; Ullman, P.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2013-01-01

    The cytochrome P450 family encompasses the largest family of enzymes in plant metabolism, and the functions of many of its members in Arabidopsis thaliana are still unknown. Gene coexpression analysis pointed to two P450s that were coexpressed with two monoterpene synthases in flowers and were thus

  16. Xylem monoterpenes of some hard pines of Western North America: three studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard H. Smith

    1982-01-01

    Monoterpene composition was studied in a number of hard pine species and results were compared with earlier work. (1) Intratree measurements showed strong constancy of composition in both single-stemmed and forked trees of ponderosa, Jeffrey, Coulter, and Jeffrey x ponderosa pines. In grafts of these and other pines, the scion influenced the root stock, but not the...

  17. Nature of phenolic compounds in coffee melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Carina; Ribeiro, Miguel; Cruz, Ana C S; Domingues, M Rosário M; Coimbra, Manuel A; Bunzel, Mirko; Nunes, Fernando M

    2014-08-06

    Phenolic compounds are incorporated into coffee melanoidins during roasting mainly in condensed form (42-62 mmol/100 g) and also in ester-linked form (1.1-1.6 mmol/100 g), with incorporation levels depending on the green coffee chlorogenic acid content. The phenolic compounds are incorporated in different coffee melanoidin populations, but mainly in those soluble in 75% ethanol (82%), a significant correlation between the amount of phenolic compounds and the amount of protein and color characteristics of the different melanoidin populations being observed. The incorporation of phenolic compounds into coffee melanoidins is a significant pathway of chlorogenic acid degradation during roasting, representing 23% of the chlorogenic acids lost. These account for the nearly 26% of the material not accounted for by polysaccharides and proteins present in coffee melanodins. The cleavage mechanism and the efficiency of alkaline fusion used to release condensed phenolics from coffee melanoidins suggest that the phenolic compounds can be linked to the polymeric material by aryl-ether, stilbene type, and/or biphenyl linkages.

  18. Estimate of consumption of phenolic compounds by Brazilian population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanesa Gesser Corrêa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Estimate the intake of phenolic compounds by the Brazilian population. METHODS: To estimate the average per capita food consumption, micro data from the National Dietary Survey and from the Household Budget Survey from 2008 to 2009 was analyzed. The phenolic content in food was estimated from the base of Phenol-Explorer. It was chosen according to compatibility and variety of food items and usual method of preparation. RESULTS: The Brazilian population consumed, on average, 460.15 mg/day of total phenolic compounds, derived mainly from beverages (48.9%, especially coffee and legumes (19.5%. Since this analysis of classes of phenolics it was possible to observe an intake of 314 mg/day of phenolic acids, 138.92 mg/day of flavonoids and 7.16 mg/ day of other kinds of phenolics. Regarding the variables studied this present study shows that those men who live in the countryside and in the northeastern region of the country had a higher consumption of phenolic compounds. Besides, consumption was higher by adults and the elderly, the medium income classes, the population with incomplete and complete primary education and those with adequate nutrition and also overweight status. CONCLUSION: The intake of phenolic compounds can be considered low, especially where consumption of fruit and vegetables is insufficient. We can conclude that coffee and black beans were the best contributors to phenolic intake.

  19. Bioactivity of phenolic acids: Metabolites versus parent compounds: A review

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic acids are present in our diet in different foods. In particular, mushrooms are a good source of these molecules. Due to their bioactive properties, phenolic acids are extensively studied and there is evidence of their role in disease prevention. Nevertheless, in vivo, these compounds are metabolized and circulate in the organism as glucuronated, sulfated and methylated metabolites, displaying higher or lower bioactivity. To clarify the importance of the metabolism of phenolic acids, ...

  20. Bioactivity and phenolic composition from natural fermented table olives

    OpenAIRE

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Mendes, Patrícia; Fernandes, Fátima; Rodrigues, Nuno; Bento, Albino; PEREIRA, J. A.

    2014-01-01

    In the present work, the phenolic composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of twentyfour samples of naturally fermented table olives from the northeast of Portugal were evaluated. The analysis of phenolic composition was performed by HPLC/DAD, and ten compounds were identified, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside derivate and hydroxytyrosol glycol being the most abundant. Total phenolic content varied between 2.37 and 64.17 μg mg−1 of extract. The IC50 values from the an...

  1. Monoterpenes produced by Cupressus lusitanica cultured cells including a novel monoterpene (1R, 2S, 6S)-(+)-1,6-epoxy-4(8)-p-menthen-2-ol [corrected].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Yoko; Fujita, Koki; Yamada, Junko; Ashitani, Tatsuya; Sakai, Kokki

    2003-12-01

    A novel monoterpene,(1R, 2S, 6S)-(+)-1,6-epoxy-4(8)-p-menthen-2-ol [corrected], was isolated from an elicitor-treated cell culture of Cupressus lusitanica (Mexican cypress). Ten known monoterpenes--limonene, myrcene, beta-ocimene, sabinene, terpinolene, 4-terpineol, alpha-terpineol, 4(8)-p-menthen-1,2-diol, 4-hydroxyphellandric acid methylester and beta-thujaplicin methylether--were also identified. Regioselective metabolisms of monoterpenes were observed in this culture.

  2. Origin of monoterpene emissions from boreal tree species: Determination of de novo and pool emissions by 13CO2 labeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinne, J.; Ghirardo, A.; Koch, K.; Taipale, R.; Zimmer, I.; Schnitzler, J.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forests emit a large amount of monoterpenes into the atmosphere. Traditionally these emissions are assumed to originate as evaporation from large storage pools. Thus their diurnal cycle would depend mostly on temperature. However, there is indication that a significant part of the monoterpene emission would originate directly from de novo synthesis. By applying 13CO2 fumigation and analyzing the isotope fractions with proton transfer reaction mass spectrometry (PTR-MS) and classical GC-MS we studied the origin of monoterpene emissions from some major Eurasian boreal and alpine tree species. We determined the fractions originating from de novo biosynthesis and from large internal monoterpene storages for three coniferous tree species with specialized monoterpene storage structures and one dicotyledon species without such structures. The emission from dicotyledon species Betula pendula originated solely from the de novo synthesis. The origin of the emissions from coniferous species was mixed with varying fraction originating from de novo synthesis (Pinus sylvestris 58%, Picea abies 33.5%, Larix decidua 9.8%) and the rest from large internal monoterpene storage pools. Application of the observed fractions of emission originating from de novo synthesis and large storage pools in a hybrid emission algorithm resulted in a better description of ecosystem scale monoterpene emissions from a boreal Scots pine forest stand.

  3. Quantifying environmental stress-induced emissions of algal isoprene and monoterpenes using laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Sabolis, A.; Reed, R.; Kamykowski, D.

    2015-02-01

    We report here production rates of isoprene and monoterpene compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and d-limonene) from six phytoplankton monocultures as a function of irradiance and temperature. Irradiance experiments were carried out for diatom strains (Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana), prymnesiophyte strains (Pleurochrysis carterae), dinoflagellate strains (Karenia brevis and Prorocentrum minimum), and cryptophyte strains (Rhodomonas salina), while temperature experiments were carried out for diatom strains (Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana). Phytoplankton species, incubated in a climate-controlled room, were subject to variable light (90 to 900 μmol m-2 s-1) and temperature (18 to 30 °C) regimes. Compared to isoprene, monoterpene emissions were an order of magnitude lower at all light and temperature levels. Emission rates are normalized by cell count and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) content. Diatom strains were the largest emitters, with ~ 2 × 10-17 g(cell)-1h-1 (~ 35 μg (g Chl a)-1 h-1) for isoprene and ~ 5 × 10-19 g (cell)-1 h-1 (~ 1 μg (g Chl a)-1) h-1) for α-pinene. The contribution to the total monoterpene production was ~ 70% from α-pinene, ~ 20% for d-limonene, and 250 μmol m-2 s-1) irradiance. Measurements revealed different patterns for time-averaged emissions rates over two successive days. On the first day, most of the species showed a distinct increase in production rates within the first 4 h while, on the second day, the emission rates were overall higher, but less variable. The data suggest that enhanced amounts of isoprene and monoterpenes are emitted from phytoplankton as a result of perturbations in environmental conditions that cause imbalance in chloroplasts and force primary producers to acclimate physiologically. This relationship could be a valuable tool for development of dynamic ecosystem modeling approaches for global marine isoprene and monoterpene emissions based on phytoplankton

  4. Quantifying environmental stress induced emissions of algal isoprene and monoterpenes using laboratory measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meskhidze, N.; Sabolis, A.; Reed, R.; Kamykowski, D.

    2014-09-01

    We report here production rates of isoprene and monoterpene compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and d-limonene) from six phytoplankton monocultures as a function of irradiance and temperature. Irradiance experiments were carried out for diatom strains - Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana; prymnesiophyte strains - Pleurochrysis carterae; dinoflagellate strains - Karenia brevis and Prorocentrum minimum; cryptophyte strains - Rhodomonas salina, while temperature experiments were carried out for diatom strains - Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Phytoplankton species, incubated in a climate-controlled room, were subject to variable light (90 to 900 μmol m-2s-1) and temperature (18 to 30 °C) regimes. Compared to isoprene, monoterpene emissions were an order of magnitude lower at all light and temperature levels. Emission rates are normalized by cell count and Chlorophyll a (Chl a) content. Diatom strains were the largest emitters, with ~2x1017g (cell)-1h-1 (~35 μg (g Chl a)-1h-1) for isoprene and ~5x10-19 g (cell)-1h-1 (~1μg (g Chl a)-1) h-1) for α-pinene. The contribution to the total monoterpene production was ~70% from α-pinene, ~20% for d-limonene, and 250 μmol m-2s-1) irradiance. Measurements revealed different patterns for time-averaged emissions rates over two successive days. On the first day most of the species showed distinct increase in production rates within the first four hours, while on the second day the emission rates were overall higher, but less variable. The data suggest that enhanced amounts of isoprene and monoterpenes are emitted from phytoplankton as a result of perturbations in environmental conditions that cause disbalance in chloroplasts and forces primary producers to acclimate physiologically. This relationship could be a valuable tool for development of dynamic ecosystem modeling approaches for global marine isoprene and monoterpene emissions based on phytoplankton physiological

  5. Laboratory and field measurements of enantiomeric monoterpene emissions as a function of chemotype, light and temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, W.; Staudt, M.; Bourgeois, I.; Williams, J.

    2014-03-01

    Plants emit significant amounts of monoterpenes into the earth's atmosphere, where they react rapidly to form a multitude of gas phase species and particles. Many monoterpenes exist in mirror-image forms or enantiomers. In this study the enantiomeric monoterpene profile for several representative plants (Quercus ilex L., Rosmarinus officinalis L., and Pinus halepensis Mill.) was investigated as a function of chemotype, light and temperature both in the laboratory and in the field. Analysis of enantiomeric monoterpenes from 19 Quercus ilex individuals from Southern France and Spain revealed four regiospecific chemotypes (genetically fixed emission patterns). In agreement with previous work, only Quercus ilex emissions increased strongly with light. However, for all three plant species no consistent enantiomeric variation was observed as a function of light, and the enantiomeric ratio of α-pinene was found to vary by less than 20% from 100 and 1000 μmol m-2 s-1 PAR (photosynthetically active radiation). The rate of monoterpene emission increased with temperature from all three plant species, but little variation in the enantiomeric distribution of α-pinene was observed with temperature. There was more enantiomeric variability between individuals of the same species than could be induced by either light or temperature. Field measurements of α-pinene enantiomer mixing ratios in the air, taken at a Quercus ilex forest in Southern France, and several other previously reported field enantiomeric ratio diel cycle profiles are compared. All show smoothly varying diel cycles (some positive and some negative) even over changing wind directions. This is surprising in comparison with variations of enantiomeric emission patterns shown by individuals of the same species.

  6. Phenolics and Plant Allelopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De-An Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  7. Phenolics and plant allelopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhao-Hui; Wang, Qiang; Ruan, Xiao; Pan, Cun-De; Jiang, De-An

    2010-12-07

    Phenolic compounds arise from the shikimic and acetic acid (polyketide) metabolic pathways in plants. They are but one category of the many secondary metabolites implicated in plant allelopathy. Phenolic allelochemicals have been observed in both natural and managed ecosystems, where they cause a number of ecological and economic problems, such as declines in crop yield due to soil sickness, regeneration failure of natural forests, and replanting problems in orchards. Phenolic allelochemical structures and modes of action are diverse and may offer potential lead compounds for the development of future herbicides or pesticides. This article reviews allelopathic effects, analysis methods, and allelopathic mechanisms underlying the activity of plant phenolic compounds. Additionally, the currently debated topic in plant allelopathy of whether catechin and 8-hydroxyquinoline play an important role in Centaurea maculata and Centaurea diffusa invasion success is discussed. Overall, the main purpose of this review is to highlight the allelopacthic potential of phenolic compounds to provide us with methods to solve various ecology problems, especially in regard to the sustainable development of agriculture, forestry, nature resources and environment conservation.

  8. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Parkinson

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Virgin olive oil (VOO is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  9. The Health Benefiting Mechanisms of Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, Lisa; Cicerale, Sara

    2016-12-16

    Virgin olive oil (VOO) is credited as being one of the many healthful components associated with the Mediterranean diet. Mediterranean populations experience reduced incidence of chronic inflammatory disease states and VOO is readily consumed as part of an everyday Mediterranean dietary pattern. VOO is rich in phenolic compounds and the health promoting benefits of these phenolics are now established. Recent studies have highlighted the biological properties of VOO phenolic compounds elucidating their anti-inflammatory activities. This paper will review current knowledge on the anti-inflammatory and nutrigenomic, chemoprotective and anti-atherosclerotic activities of VOO phenolics. In addition the concentration, metabolism and bioavailability of specific phenolic compounds will be discussed. The evidence presented in the review concludes that oleurepein, hydroxytyrosol and oleocanthal have potent pharmacological activities in vitro and in vivo; however, intervention studies with biologically relevant concentrations of these phenolic compounds are required.

  10. Kinetic study for aerobic treatment of phenolic wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Athar Hussain

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Conventional physico-chemical treatment of industrial wastewater containing compounds such as phenol encounters difficulties due to low substrate level, additional use of chemicals, and generation of hazardous by products along with increased process cost. Biological treatment appears to be a solution for treatment of such industrial wastewater. In the present study an aerobic sequential batch reactor (SBR has been used for treatment of synthetic wastewater containing phenol. The effects of increasing phenol concentrations on the sludge characteristic have been also investigated. It was observed that, activity of activated sludge for acclimatization of phenol decreases at concentrations above 2000 mg L−1. It may be attributed to toxicity of phenol to active biomass at higher concentrations. Kinetics of phenol degradation has also been studied using Haldane model.

  11. Enhancing charge storage of conjugated polymer electrodes with phenolic acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Michal; Rębiś, Tomasz; Inganäs, Olle

    2016-01-01

    We here present studies of electrochemical doping of poly(1-aminoanthraquinone) (PAAQ) films with three structurally different phenolic acids. The examined phenolic acids (sinapic, ferulic and syringic acid) were selected due to their resemblance to redox active groups, which can be found in lignin. The outstanding electrochemical stability of PAAQ films synthesized for this work enabled extensive cycling of phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films. Potentiodynamic and charge-discharge studies revealed that phenolic acid-doped PAAQ films exhibited enhanced capacitance in comparison to undoped PAAQ films, together with appearance of redox activity characteristics specific for each dopant. Electrochemical kinetic studies performed on microelectrodes affirmed the fast electron transfer for hydroquinone-to-quinone reactions with these phenolic compounds. These results imply the potential application of phenolic acids in cheap and degradable energy storage devices.

  12. Assessing wines based on total phenols, phenolic acids and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIDIL

    The aim of this study was to investigate the phenolic profile of some red wines produced from native. Turkish grape ... Phenolic compounds, especially anthocyanins, flavonols, .... performed as a joining type (tree cluster) by using raw data with.

  13. Breeding Vegetables with Increased Content in Bioactive Phenolic Acids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Kaushik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Vegetables represent a major source of phenolic acids, powerful antioxidants characterized by an organic carboxylic acid function and which present multiple properties beneficial for human health. In consequence, developing new varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids is an increasingly important breeding objective. Major phenolic acids present in vegetables are derivatives of cinnamic acid and to a lesser extent of benzoic acid. A large diversity in phenolic acids content has been found among cultivars and wild relatives of many vegetable crops. Identification of sources of variation for phenolic acids content can be accomplished by screening germplasm collections, but also through morphological characteristics and origin, as well as by evaluating mutations in key genes. Gene action estimates together with relatively high values for heritability indicate that selection for enhanced phenolic acids content will be efficient. Modern genomics and biotechnological strategies, such as QTL detection, candidate genes approaches and genetic transformation, are powerful tools for identification of genomic regions and genes with a key role in accumulation of phenolic acids in vegetables. However, genetically increasing the content in phenolic acids may also affect other traits important for the success of a variety. We anticipate that the combination of conventional and modern strategies will facilitate the development of a new generation of vegetable varieties with enhanced content in phenolic acids.

  14. Fatal Phenol Toxicity Following Attempted Tattoo Removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Huang; Li, Shu-Hua; Byard, Roger W

    2016-07-01

    Tattoo removal is increasingly required as the number of, particularly young, people acquiring tattoos is increasing. A 21-year-old man is reported who underwent attempted removal of large dragon tattoo utilizing a tattoo machine that injected a phenol-containing solution. At the end of the 3-h procedure, he collapsed and died. At autopsy, large areas of white skin discoloration with focal necrosis and sloughing were present overlying areas of previous tattooing. Histological examination showed collections of eosinophilic fluid with a minimal chronic inflammatory infiltrate in better preserved areas, with focal areas of dermal necrosis. Toxicology was positive for phenol in cardiac blood and liver tissue. There were no underlying organic disease or injuries present which could have caused or contributed to death. This idiosyncratic method of tattoo removal involving subcutaneous injection of phenol had resulted in death most likely from cardiotoxicity. © 2016 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. Phenolics from Brazilian propolis

    OpenAIRE

    1997-01-01

    The main phenolic constituents from Brazilian propolis, originating from Sao Paulo State, were isolated and identified: three flavonoids, a prenylated coumaric acid and two new benzopyranes, E and Z 2,2-dimethyl-6-carboxyethenyl-8-prenyl-2H-benzopyranes.

  16. Synthesis of both enantiomers of isorobinal, a novel cyclic monoterpene isolated from the astigmatid mite, Rhizoglyphus sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Ting; Kuwahara, Shigefumi

    2002-11-01

    Both enantiomers of isorobinal, a cyclic monoterpene isolated from the astigmatid mite (Rhizoglyphus sp.), were synthesized from the enantiomers of perillaldehyde in four steps by using PCC-oxidation of a tertiary allylic alcohol intermediate as the key step.

  17. Limonene Synthase, the Enzyme Responsible for Monoterpene Biosynthesis in Peppermint, Is Localized to Leucoplasts of Oil Gland Secretory Cells

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Glenn Turner; Jonathan Gershenzon; Erik E. Nielson; John E. Froehlich; Rodney Croteau

    1999-01-01

    ...)-Limonene synthase, which is responsible for the first dedicated step of monoterpene biosynthesis in mint species, appears to be translated as a preprotein bearing a long plastidial transit peptide...

  18. METHODS OF REDUCTION OF FREE PHENOL CONTENT IN PHENOLIC FOAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruyako Mikhail Gerasimovich

    2012-12-01

    method aimed at reduction of toxicity of phenolic foams consists in the introduction of a composite mixture of chelate compounds. Raw materials applied in the production of phenolic foams include polymers FRB-1A and VAG-3. The aforementioned materials are used to produce foams FRP-1. Introduction of 1% aluminum fluoride leads to the 40% reduction of the free phenol content in the foam. Introduction of crystalline zinc chloride accelerates the foaming and curing of phenolic foams. The technology that contemplates the introduction of zeolites into the mixture includes pre-mixing with FRB -1A and subsequent mixing with VAG-3; thereafter, the composition is poured into the form, in which the process of foaming is initiated. The content of free phenol was identified using the method of UV spectroscopy. The objective of the research was to develop methods of reduction of the free phenol content in the phenolic foam.

  19. Drought reduced monoterpene emissions from the evergreen Mediterranean oak Quercus ilex: results from a throughfall displacement experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Rambal

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The effects of water limitations on the emission of biogenic volatile organic compounds are not well understood. Experimental approaches studying drought effects in natural conditions are still missing. To address this question, a throughfall displacement experiment was set up in a natural forest of Quercus ilex, an evergreen Mediterranean oak emitting monoterpenes. Mature trees were exposed in 2005 and 2006 either to an additional drought, to irrigation or to natural drought (untreated control. In both years, absolute monoterpene emission rates as well as the respective standard factors of the trees exposed to normal and additional drought strongly declined during the drought periods. Monoterpene emissions were lower in year 2006 than in year 2005 (factor 2 due to a more pronounced summer drought period in this respective year. We observed a significant difference between the irrigation and additional drought or control treatment: irrigated trees emitted 82% more monoterpenes during the drought period 2006 than the trees of the other treatments. However, no significant effect on monoterpene emission was observed between normal and additional drought treatments, despite a significant effect on leaf water potential and photochemical efficiency. During the development of drought, monoterpene emissions responded exponentially rather than linearly to decreasing leaf water potential. Emissions rapidly declined when the water potential dropped below −2 MPa and photosynthesis was persistently inhibited. Monoterpene synthase activities measured in vitro showed no clear reduction during the same period. From our results we conclude that drought significantly reduces monoterpene fluxes of Mediterranean Holm oak forest into the atmosphere due to a lack of primary substrates coming from photosynthetic processes.

  20. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Phosphatidylcholine Analogues Containing Monoterpene Acids as Potent Antiproliferative Agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Gliszczyńska

    Full Text Available The synthesis of novel phosphatidylcholines with geranic and citronellic acids in sn-1 and sn-2 positions is described. The structured phospholipids were obtained in high yields (59-87% and evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines of different origin: MV4-11, A-549, MCF-7, LOVO, LOVO/DX, HepG2 and also towards non-cancer cell line BALB/3T3 (normal mice fibroblasts. The phosphatidylcholines modified with monoterpene acid showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity than free monoterpene acids. The highest activity was observed for the terpene-phospholipids containing the isoprenoid acids in sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine and palmitic acid in sn-2.

  1. Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of Novel Phosphatidylcholine Analogues Containing Monoterpene Acids as Potent Antiproliferative Agents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gliszczyńska, Anna; Niezgoda, Natalia; Gładkowski, Witold; Czarnecka, Marta; Świtalska, Marta; Wietrzyk, Joanna

    2016-01-01

    The synthesis of novel phosphatidylcholines with geranic and citronellic acids in sn-1 and sn-2 positions is described. The structured phospholipids were obtained in high yields (59–87%) and evaluated in vitro for their cytotoxic activity against several cancer cell lines of different origin: MV4-11, A-549, MCF-7, LOVO, LOVO/DX, HepG2 and also towards non-cancer cell line BALB/3T3 (normal mice fibroblasts). The phosphatidylcholines modified with monoterpene acid showed a significantly higher antiproliferative activity than free monoterpene acids. The highest activity was observed for the terpene-phospholipids containing the isoprenoid acids in sn-1 position of phosphatidylcholine and palmitic acid in sn-2. PMID:27310666

  2. Selective removal of monoterpenes from bergamot oil by inclusion in deoxycholic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fantin, Giancarlo; Fogagnolo, Marco; Maietti, Silvia; Rossetti, Stefano

    2010-05-12

    A new approach for removing monoterpenes (MTs) from bergamot oil by selective inclusion in deoxycholic acid (DCA) is proposed. The inclusion process is very efficient, the included fraction being composed mainly of limonene (71.7%) and gamma-terpinene (19.8%). On the other hand, the deterpenated bergamot oil fraction showed for the linalool and linalyl acetate derivatives significant increases from 16.6 and 21.4% to 18.3 and 42.2%, respectively. The major advantages of this methodology are its simplicity, the mild conditions employed, and the quantitative recovery of both host (DCA) and guest (monoterpenes) compounds. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermal gravimetry (TG), powder X-ray diffractometry (XRPD), infrared spectroscopy (IR), and proton magnetic resonance ((1)H NMR) analysis were used to investigate and characterize the inclusion compounds.

  3. Monoterpenes in the glandular trichomes of tomato are synthesized from a neryl diphosphate precursor rather than geranyl diphosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilmiller, Anthony L; Schauvinhold, Ines; Larson, Matthew; Xu, Richard; Charbonneau, Amanda L; Schmidt, Adam; Wilkerson, Curtis; Last, Robert L; Pichersky, Eran

    2009-06-30

    We identified a cis-prenyltransferase gene, neryl diphosphate synthase 1 (NDPS1), that is expressed in cultivated tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) cultivar M82 type VI glandular trichomes and encodes an enzyme that catalyzes the formation of neryl diphosphate from isopentenyl diphosphate and dimethylallyl diphosphate. mRNA for a terpene synthase gene, phellandrene synthase 1 (PHS1), was also identified in these glands. It encodes an enzyme that uses neryl diphosphate to produce beta-phellandrene as the major product as well as a variety of other monoterpenes. The profile of monoterpenes produced by PHS1 is identical with the monoterpenes found in type VI glands. PHS1 and NDPS1 map to chromosome 8, and the presence of a segment of chromosome 8 derived from Solanum pennellii LA0716 causes conversion from the M82 gland monoterpene pattern to that characteristic of LA0716 plants. The data indicate that, contrary to the textbook view of geranyl diphosphate as the "universal" substrate of monoterpene synthases, in tomato glands neryl diphosphate serves as a precursor for the synthesis of monoterpenes.

  4. Seasonal influence on gene expression of monoterpene synthases in Salvia officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Schmiderer, Corinna; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2012-03-01

    Garden sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants and possesses antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, formed mainly in very young leaves, is in part responsible for these activities. It is mainly composed of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, α- and β-thujone and camphor synthesized by the 1,8-cineole synthase, the (+)-sabinene synthase and the (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, respectively, and is produced and stored in epidermal glands. In this study, the seasonal influence on the formation of the main monoterpenes in young, still expanding leaves of field-grown sage plants was studied in two cultivars at the level of mRNA expression, analyzed by qRT-PCR, and at the level of end-products, analyzed by gas chromatography. All monoterpene synthases and monoterpenes were significantly influenced by cultivar and season. 1,8-Cineole synthase and its end product 1,8-cineole remained constant until August and then decreased slightly. The thujones increased steadily during the vegetative period. The transcript level of their corresponding terpene synthase, however, showed its maximum in the middle of the vegetative period and declined afterwards. Camphor remained constant until August and then declined, exactly correlated with the mRNA level of the corresponding terpene synthase. In summary, terpene synthase mRNA expression and respective end product levels were concordant in the case of 1,8-cineole (r=0.51 and 0.67 for the two cultivars, respectively; p<0.05) and camphor (r=0.75 and 0.82; p<0.05) indicating basically transcriptional control, but discordant for α-/β-thujone (r=-0.05 and 0.42; p=0.87 and 0.13, respectively).

  5. Evaluating the Potential Importance of Monoterpene Degradation for Global Acetone Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelp, M. M.; Brewer, J.; Keller, C. A.; Fischer, E. V.

    2015-12-01

    Acetone is one of the most abundant volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the atmosphere, but estimates of the global source of acetone vary widely. A better understanding of acetone sources is essential because acetone serves as a source of HOx in the upper troposphere and as a precursor to the NOx reservoir species peroxyacetyl nitrate (PAN). Although there are primary anthropogenic and pyrogenic sources of acetone, the dominant acetone sources are thought to be from direct biogenic emissions and photochemical production, particularly from the oxidation of iso-alkanes. Recent work suggests that the photochemical degradation of monoterpenes may also represent a significant contribution to global acetone production. We investigate that hypothesis using the GEOS-Chem chemical transport model. In this work, we calculate the emissions of eight terpene species (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene, Δ3-carene, myrcene, sabinene, trans-β-ocimene, and an 'other monoterpenes' category which contains 34 other trace species) and couple these with upper and lower bound literature yields from species-specific chamber studies. We compare the simulated acetone distributions against in situ acetone measurements from a global suite of NASA aircraft campaigns. When simulating an upper bound on yields, the model-to-measurement comparison improves for North America at both the surface and in the upper troposphere. The inclusion of acetone production from monoterpene degradation also improves the ability of the model to reproduce observations of acetone in East Asian outflow. However, in general the addition of monoterpenes degrades the model comparison for the Southern Hemisphere.

  6. Improving monoterpene geraniol production through geranyl diphosphate synthesis regulation in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianzhi; Bao, Xiaoming; Li, Chen; Shen, Yu; Hou, Jin

    2016-05-01

    Monoterpenes have wide applications in the food, cosmetics, and medicine industries and have recently received increased attention as advanced biofuels. However, compared with sesquiterpenes, monoterpene production is still lagging in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. In this study, geraniol, a valuable acyclic monoterpene alcohol, was synthesized in S. cerevisiae. We evaluated three geraniol synthases in S. cerevisiae, and the geraniol synthase Valeriana officinalis (tVoGES), which lacked a plastid-targeting peptide, yielded the highest geraniol production. To improve geraniol production, synthesis of the precursor geranyl diphosphate (GPP) was regulated by comparing three specific GPP synthase genes derived from different plants and the endogenous farnesyl diphosphate synthase gene variants ERG20 (G) (ERG20 (K197G) ) and ERG20 (WW) (ERG20 (F96W-N127W) ), and controlling endogenous ERG20 expression, coupled with increasing the expression of the mevalonate pathway by co-overexpressing IDI1, tHMG1, and UPC2-1. The results showed that overexpressing ERG20 (WW) and strengthening the mevalonate pathway significantly improved geraniol production, while expressing heterologous GPP synthase genes or down-regulating endogenous ERG20 expression did not show positive effect. In addition, we constructed an Erg20p(F96W-N127W)-tVoGES fusion protein, and geraniol production reached 66.2 mg/L after optimizing the amino acid linker and the order of the proteins. The best strain yielded 293 mg/L geraniol in a fed-batch cultivation, a sevenfold improvement over the highest titer previously reported in an engineered S. cerevisiae strain. Finally, we showed that the toxicity of geraniol limited its production. The platform developed here can be readily used to synthesize other monoterpenes.

  7. Remote sensing estimation of isoprene and monoterpene emissions generated by natural vegetation in Monterrey, Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastelum, Sandra L; Mejía-Velázquez, G M; Lozano-García, D Fabián

    2016-06-01

    In addition to oxygen, hydrocarbons are the most reactive chemical compounds produced by plants into the atmosphere. These compounds are part of the family of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and are discharged in a great variety of forms. Among the VOCs produced by natural sources such as vegetation, the most studied until today are the isoprene and monoterpene. These substances can play an important role in the chemical balance of the atmosphere of a region. In this project, we develop a methodology to estimate the natural (vegetation) emission of isoprene and monoterpenes and applied it to the Monterrey Metropolitan Area, Mexico and its surrounding areas. Landsat-TM data was used to identify the dominant vegetation communities and field work to determine the foliage biomass density of key species. The studied communities were submontane scrub, oak, and pine forests and a combination of both. We carried out the estimation of emissions for isoprene and monoterpenes compounds in the different plant communities, with two different criteria: (1) taking into account the average foliage biomass density obtained from the various sample point in each vegetation community, and (2) using the foliage biomass density obtained for each transect, associated to an individual spectral class within a particular vegetation type. With this information, we obtained emission maps for each case. The results show that the main producers of isoprene are the communities that include species of the genus Quercus, located mainly on the Sierra Madre Oriental and Sierra de Picachos, with average isoprene emissions of 314.6 ton/day and 207.3 ton/day for the two methods utilized. The higher estimates of monoterpenes were found in the submontane scrub areas distributed along the valley of the metropolitan zone, with an estimated average emissions of 47.1 ton/day and 181.4 tons for the two methods respectively.

  8. The contribution of wine-derived monoterpene glycosides to retronasal odour during tasting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Mango; Black, Cory A; Barker, Alice; Pearson, Wes; Hayasaka, Yoji; Francis, I Leigh

    2017-10-01

    This study investigated the sensory significance of monoterpene glycosides during tasting, by retronasal perception of odorant aglycones released in-mouth. Monoterpene glycosides were isolated from Gewürztraminer and Riesling juices and wines, chemically characterised and studied using sensory time-intensity methodology, together with a synthesised monoterpene glucoside. When assessed in model wine at five times wine-like concentration, Gewürztraminer glycosides and geranyl glucoside gave significant fruity flavour, although at wine-like concentrations, or in the presence of wine volatiles, the effect was not significant. Gewürztraminer glycosides, geranyl glucoside and guaiacyl glucoside were investigated using a sensory panel (n=39), revealing large inter-individual variability, with 77% of panellists responding to at least one glycoside. The study showed for the first time that grape-derived glycosides can contribute perceptible fruity flavour, providing a means of enhancing flavour in wines, and confirms the results of previous studies that the effect is highly variable across individuals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Product Variability of the ‘Cineole Cassette'Monoterpene Synthases of Related Nicotiana Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anke F(a)hnrich; Katrin Krause; Birgit Piechulla

    2011-01-01

    Nicotiana species of the section Alatae characteristically emit the floral scent compounds of the ‘cineole cassere' comprising 1,8-cineole,limonene,myrcene,α-pinene,β-pinene,sabinene,and α-terpineol.We successfully isolated genes of Nicotiana alata and Nicotiana langsdorfii that encoded enzymes,which produced the characteristic monoterpenes of this ‘cineole cassette' with α-terpineol being most abundant in the volatile spectra.The amino acid sequences of both terpineol synthases were 99% identical.The enzymes cluster in a monophyletic branch together with the closely related cineole synthase of Nicotiana suaveolens and monoterpene synthase 1 of Solanum lycopersicum.The cyclization reactions (α-terpineol to 1,8-cineole) of the terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were less efficient compared to the ‘cineole cassette′ monoterpene synthases of Arabidopsis thaliana,N.suaveolens,Salvia fruticosa,Salvia officinalis,and Citrus unshiu.The terpineol synthases of N.alata and N.langsdorfii were localized in pistils and in the adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the petals.The enzyme activities reached their maxima at the second day after anthesis when flowers were fully opened and the enzyme activity in N.alata was highest at the transition from day to night (diurnal rhythm).

  10. Stereochemical mechanism of two sabinene hydrate synthases forming antipodal monoterpenes in thyme (Thymus vulgaris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Sandra T; Köllner, Tobias G; Asbach, Julia; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2013-01-15

    The essential oil of Thymus vulgaris consists of a complex blend of mono- and sesquiterpenes that provides the plant with its characteristic aromatic odor. Several chemotypes have been described for thyme. In this study, we identified two enzymes of the sabinene hydrate chemotype which are responsible for the biosynthesis of its major monoterpene alcohols, (1S,2R,4S)-(Z)-sabinene hydrate and (1S,2S,4R)-(E)-sabinene hydrate. Both TPS6 and TPS7 are multiproduct enzymes that formed 16 monoterpenes and thus cover almost the whole monoterpene spectrum of the chemotype. Although the product spectra of both enzymes are similar, they form opposing enantiomers of their chiral products. Incubation of the enzymes with the potential reaction intermediates revealed that the stereospecificity of TPS6 and TPS7 is determined by the formation of the first intermediate, linalyl diphosphate. Since TPS6 and TPS7 shared an amino acid sequence identity of 85%, a mutagenesis study was employed to identify the amino acids that determine the stereoselectivity. One amino acid position had a major influence on the stereochemistry of the formed products. Based on comparative models of TPS6 and TPS7 protein structures with the GPP substrate docked in the active site pocket, the influence of this amino acid residue on the reaction mechanism is discussed.

  11. Biocontrol potential of essential oil monoterpenes against housefly, Musca domestica (Diptera: Muscidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2014-02-01

    Housefly (Musca domestica L.), one of the most common insects in human settlements, has been associated as vectors for various food-borne pathogens, causing food spoilage and disease transmission. The control of housefly was attempted using plant monoterpenes; menthone, menthol, menthyl acetate, limonene, citral and 1,8-cineole, against different life stages of housefly. Bioefficacy against housefly adults revealed highest repellent activity by menthol (95.6 percent) and menthone (83.3 percent). Against housefly larvae, menthol with an LC90 of 0.02 µl/cm(2) in contact toxicity assay and menthone with a LC90 value of 5.4 µl/L in fumigation assay were found to be most effective control agent. With respect to pupicidal activity, superior performance was shown by menthol, citral and 1,8-cineole in contact toxicity assay and citral and 1,8-cineole in fumigation assay. Limonene was found to be the poorest performer in all the assays. Overall, highest efficacy observed for menthol and menthone in various bioassays was in agreement with the results of essential oil activity obtained previously. Significant activity of monoterpenes against various life stages of housefly demonstrates their potential as excellent insecticides with prospects of monoterpenes being developed into eco-friendly and acceptable products for housefly control.

  12. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpene and short-chained carbonyl compounds from Eucalyptus spp. in southern Australia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Anthony J.; Adams, Mark A.; Bleby, Tim M.; Rennenberg, Heinz; Steigner, Dominik; Steinbrecher, Rainer; Kreuzwieser, Jürgen

    Eucalypts are among the highest emitters of biogenic volatile organic compounds, yet there is relatively little data available from field studies of this genus. Emissions of isoprene, monoterpenes and the short-chained carbonyls formaldehyde, acetaldehyde and acetone were determined from four species ( Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Eucalyptus globulus, Eucalyptus grandis, and Eucalytpus viminalis) in Australia. A smaller comparative study was conducted on E. camaldulensis in south-eastern Australia. Carbonyl emissions, reported here for the first time from eucalypts, were generally comparable with rates reported for other species, with diurnal emissions peaking at about 4, 75 and 34 nmol m -2 min -1 for acetone, formaldehyde and acetaldehyde respectively. There was wide variation in diurnal isoprene and monoterpene emissions between species, but under standard conditions, isoprene emissions were much lower than previous reports. Conversely, standard emission rates of monoterpenes were as much as six times greater than previous reports for some species. Emission of each carbonyl was correlated with its ambient concentration across different species, but more weakly related to temperature. Acetaldehyde emission in particular was significantly correlated with transpiration, but not with sap flow or with ethanol concentrations in xylem sap, suggesting fermentation within the leaf and stomatal conductance are primary controlling processes. Differences in acetaldehyde exchange velocities between sites, in addition to transpiration differences, suggest stomata may indeed exert long term emission regulation, in contrast to compounds for which no biological sink exists.

  13. Phenolic compounds in Rosaceae fruit and nut crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogah, Onwuchekwa; Watkins, Carolyn S; Ubi, Benjamin Ewa; Oraguzie, Nnadozie C

    2014-10-01

    The demand for new fruit cultivars with high levels of phytochemicals, in particular phenolic compounds, has received increasing attention from biochemists, pharmaceutical companies, plant breeders, and the general public due to their health benefits. This review focuses on the economically important Rosaceae, which contains varying proportions and concentrations of these compounds. The paper discusses the common phenolics in the Rosaceae including phenolic acids, flavonols, flavanols, anthocyanins, and dihydrochalcones. The nonextractable phenolics are also presented but not discussed in detail. The metabolism and bioavailability of phenolics, as well as human and environmental factors that affect their concentration and composition, are highlighted. Furthermore, the paper presents different approaches for biofortification and posits that breeding may be the most viable and sustainable option as it improves other fruit quality traits simultaneously and increases confidence in adoption of new cultivars with enhanced consumer appeal.

  14. PREPARATION, CHARACTERIZATION AND THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF ALKYL SUBSTITUTED PHENOLIC EPOXY RESIN

    OpenAIRE

    Jyoti Chaudhary*, Supriya Dadhich, Giriraj Tailor

    2017-01-01

    The present article deals with the synthesis of phenolic epoxy resin by the reaction of phenolic resin and epichlorohydrin. The synthesis of phenolic resin was carried out by using p-ethylphenol, formaldehyde and naphthol. The structures of phenolic and epoxy resins were confirmed by spectroscopic analysis. The synthesized epoxy resin showed solubility in polar solvents like DMF, dioxane, acetone, DMSO, THF, ethyl acetate, and chloroform. Thermal characterization of epoxy resin was monitored ...

  15. Distribution, antioxidant and characterisation of phenolic compounds in soybeans, flaxseed and olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Ereifej, Khalil; Alli, Inteaz

    2013-08-15

    The distribution of free and bound phenolic compounds present in soybean, flaxseed and olive were investigated. The phenolic compounds were fractionated on the basis on their solubility characteristics in water, alcohol, dilute base and dilute acid. Reversed phase high pressure liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and mass spectrometry (MS) were used for identification of individual components of phenolic compounds. Antioxidant activity (AA%) of free and bound phenolic compounds was measured using the linoleic acid/β-carotene assay. The water-soluble phenolic compound fractions represented 68-81%, 50-72% and 46-56% of the total phenolic compounds measured in full-fat soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Methanolic extraction of free phenolic compounds without heat, solubilised 21-56%, 42-62% and 34-51% of the total phenolic compounds measured in soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively; methanol extraction of free phenolic compounds with heat solubilised a further 24-34%, 31-37% and 36-37% of phenolic compounds from soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Further dilute alkali and dilute acid solubilised the remaining 10-40%, 1-21% and 12-29% of the total phenolic compounds from soybean, olive and flaxseed, respectively. Results indicated that the full-fat meals of soybean, flaxseed and olive showed higher antioxidant activity compared to defatted meals. RP-HPLC and LC-MS/MS profil1 for soybean, flaxseed and olive indicate two classes of phenolic compounds designated as free and bound phenolic compounds.

  16. CCN activity and droplet growth kinetics of fresh and aged monoterpene secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Engelhart

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced from the ozonolysis of α-pinene and monoterpene mixtures (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and 3-carene to become cloud droplets was investigated. Monoterpene SOA is quite active and would likely be a good source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN in the atmosphere. A static CCN counter and a Scanning Mobility CCN Analyser (a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer coupled with a Continuous Flow counter were used for the CCN measurements. A decrease in CCN activation diameter for α-pinene SOA of approximately 3 nm h−1 was observed as the aerosol continued to react with oxidants. Hydroxyl radicals further oxidize the SOA particles thereby enhancing the particle CCN activity with time. The initial concentrations of ozone and monoterpene precursor (for concentrations lower than 40 ppb do not appear to affect the activity of the resulting SOA. Köhler Theory Analysis (KTA is used to infer the molar mass of the SOA sampled online and offline from atomized filter samples. KTA suggests that the aged aerosol (both from α-pinene and the mixed monoterpene oxidation is primarily water-soluble (around 70–80%, with an estimated average molar mass of 180±55 g mol−1 (consistent with existing SOA speciation studies. CCN activity measurements of the SOA mixed with (NH42SO4 suggest that the organic can depress surface tension by as much as 10 nM m−1 (with respect to pure water. The droplet growth kinetics of SOA samples are similar to (NH42SO4, except at low supersaturation, where SOA tends to grow more slowly. The CCN activity of α-pinene and mixed monoterpene SOA can be modelled by a very simple implementation of Köhler theory, assuming complete dissolution of the particles, no dissociation into ions, molecular weight of 180 g mol−1, density of 1.5 g cm−3, and surface tension to

  17. CCN activity and droplet growth kinetics of fresh and aged monoterpene secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. J. Engelhart

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The ability of secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced from the ozonolysis of α-pinene and monoterpene mixtures (α-pinene, β-pinene, limonene and 3-carene to become cloud droplets was investigated. A static CCN counter and a Scanning Mobility CCN Analyser (a Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer coupled with a Continuous Flow counter were used for the CCN measurements. Consistent with previous studies monoterpene SOA is quite active and would likely be a good source of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN in the atmosphere. A decrease in CCN activation diameter for α-pinene SOA of approximately 3 nm hr−1 was observed as the aerosol continued to react with oxidants. Hydroxyl radicals further oxidize the SOA particles thereby enhancing the particle CCN activity with time. The initial concentrations of ozone and monoterpene precursor (for concentrations lower than 40 ppb do not appear to affect the activity of the resulting SOA. Köhler Theory Analysis (KTA is used to infer the molar mass of the SOA sampled online and offline from atomized filter samples. The estimated average molar mass of online SOA was determined to be 180±55 g mol−1 (consistent with existing SOA speciation studies assuming complete solubility. KTA suggests that the aged aerosol (both from α-pinene and the mixed monoterpene oxidation is primarily water-soluble (around 65%. CCN activity measurements of the SOA mixed with (NH42SO4 suggest that the organic can depress surface tension by as much as 10 N m−1 (with respect to pure water. The droplet growth kinetics of SOA samples are similar to (NH42SO4, except at low supersaturation, where SOA tends to grow more slowly. The CCN activation diameter of α-pinene and mixed monoterpene SOA can be modelled to within 10–15% of experiments by a simple implementation of Köhler theory, assuming complete dissolution of the particles, no

  18. Quantifying environmental stress induced emissions of algal isoprene and monoterpenes using laboratory measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Meskhidze

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available We report here production rates of isoprene and monoterpene compounds (α-pinene, β-pinene, camphene and d-limonene from six phytoplankton monocultures as a function of irradiance and temperature. Irradiance experiments were carried out for diatom strains – Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana; prymnesiophyte strains – Pleurochrysis carterae; dinoflagellate strains – Karenia brevis and Prorocentrum minimum; cryptophyte strains – Rhodomonas salina, while temperature experiments were carried out for diatom strains – Thalassiosira weissflogii and Thalassiosira pseudonana. Phytoplankton species, incubated in a climate-controlled room, were subject to variable light (90 to 900 μmol m−2s−1 and temperature (18 to 30 °C regimes. Compared to isoprene, monoterpene emissions were an order of magnitude lower at all light and temperature levels. Emission rates are normalized by cell count and Chlorophyll a (Chl a content. Diatom strains were the largest emitters, with ~2x1017g (cell−1h−1 (~35 μg (g Chl a−1h−1 for isoprene and ~5x10−19 g (cell−1h−1 (~1μg (g Chl a−1 h−1 for α-pinene. The contribution to the total monoterpene production was ~70% from α-pinene, ~20% for d-limonene, and −2s−1 and a gradual increase at high (>250 μmol m−2s−1 irradiance. Measurements revealed different patterns for time-averaged emissions rates over two successive days. On the first day most of the species showed distinct increase in production rates within the first four hours, while on the second day the emission rates were overall higher, but less variable. The data suggest that enhanced amounts of isoprene and monoterpenes are emitted from phytoplankton as a result of perturbations in environmental conditions that cause disbalance in chloroplasts and forces primary producers to acclimate physiologically. This relationship could be a valuable tool for development of dynamic ecosystem modeling approaches for global

  19. Secondary organic aerosol formation from hydroxyl radical oxidation and ozonolysis of monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D. F.; Kaminski, M.; Schlag, P.; Fuchs, H.; Acir, I.-H.; Bohn, B.; Häseler, R.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Rohrer, F.; Tillmann, R.; Wang, M. J.; Wegener, R.; Wildt, J.; Wahner, A.; Mentel, Th. F.

    2015-01-01

    Oxidation by hydroxyl radical (OH) and ozonolysis are the two major pathways of daytime biogenic volatile organic compound (BVOC) oxidation and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. In this study, we investigated the particle formation of several common monoterpenes (α-pinene, β-pinene and limonene) by OH-dominated oxidation, which has seldom been investigated. OH oxidation experiments were carried out in the SAPHIR (Simulation of Atmospheric PHotochemistry In a large Reaction) chamber in Jülich, Germany, at low NOx (0.01 ~ 1 ppbV) and low ozone (O3) concentration (< 20 ppbV). OH concentration and total OH reactivity (kOH) were measured directly, and through this the overall reaction rate of total organics with OH in each reaction system was quantified. Multi-generation reaction process, particle growth, new particle formation (NPF), particle yield and chemical composition were analyzed and compared with that of monoterpene ozonolysis. Multi-generation products were found to be important in OH-dominated SOA formation. The relative role of functionalization and fragmentation in the reaction process of OH oxidation was analyzed by examining the particle mass and the particle size as a function of OH dose. We developed a novel method which quantitatively links particle growth to the reaction rate of OH with total organics in a reaction system. This method was also used to analyze the evolution of functionalization and fragmentation of organics in the particle formation by OH oxidation. It shows that functionalization of organics was dominant in the beginning of the reaction (within two lifetimes of the monoterpene) and fragmentation started to play an important role after that. We compared particle formation from OH oxidation with that from pure ozonolysis. In individual experiments, growth rates of the particle size did not necessarily correlate with the reaction rate of monoterpene with OH and O3. Comparing the size growth rates at the similar reaction rates

  20. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arab

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This work aims for the phytochemical study and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils of medicinal plant Pistacia lentiscus L. quantitatively and qualitatively. Through the results obtained, it appears that the leaves and fruits are rich in substances with a high antioxidant power. The yield of the phenolic compounds obtained from 10g  to powder of plant  is for leaves 116.49 %  and 61.34 % for fruit . For essential oils, it is 0.253 ± 0.131 % for 100 g of plant material. The chromatographic profile of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. shows that monoterpenes are the major compound (9.675 % of identified molecules. The strong antioxidant activity of extracts obtained only confirms the traditional use of this plant by the local population.

  1. PHYTOCHEMICAL STUDY AND EVALUATION OF THE ANTIMICROBIAL AND ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY OF ESSENTIAL OILS AND PHENOLIC COMPOUNDS OF PISTACIA LENTISCUS L

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Arab

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims for the phytochemical study and evaluation of the antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds and essential oils of medicinal plant Pistacia lentiscus L. quantitatively and qualitatively. Through the results obtained, it appears that the leaves and fruits are rich in substances with a high antioxidant power. The yield of the phenolic compounds obtained from 10g to powder of plant is for leaves 116.49 % and 61.34 % for fruit . For essential oils, it is 0.253 ± 0.131 % for 100 g of plant material. The chromatographic profile of the essential oil of Pistacia lentiscus L. shows that monoterpenes are the major compound (9.675 % of identified molecules. The strong antioxidant activity of extracts obtained only confirms the traditional use of this plant by the local population.

  2. Ultraviolet-B and photosynthetically active radiation interactively affect yield and pattern of monoterpenes in leaves of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behn, Helen; Albert, Andreas; Marx, Friedhelm; Noga, Georg; Ulbrich, Andreas

    2010-06-23

    Solar radiation is a key environmental signal in regulation of plant secondary metabolism. Since metabolic responses to light and ultraviolet (UV) radiation exposure are known to depend on the ratio of spectral ranges (e.g., UV-B/PAR), we examined effects of different UV-B radiation (280-315 nm) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR, 400-700 nm) levels and ratios on yield and pattern of monoterpenoid essential oil of peppermint. Experiments were performed in exposure chambers, technically equipped for realistic simulation of natural climate and radiation. The experimental design comprised four irradiation regimes created by the combination of two PAR levels including or excluding UV-B radiation. During flowering, the highest essential oil yield was achieved at high PAR (1150 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and approximate ambient UV-B radiation (0.6 W m(-2)). Regarding the monoterpene pattern, low PAR (550 micromol m(-2) s(-1)) and the absence of UV-B radiation led to reduced menthol and increased menthone contents and thereby to a substantial decrease in oil quality. Essential oil yield could not be correlated with density or diameter of peltate glandular trichomes, the epidermal structures specialized on biosynthesis, and the accumulation of monoterpenes. The present results lead to the conclusion that production of high quality oils (fulfilling the requirements of the Pharmacopoeia Europaea) requires high levels of natural sunlight. In protected cultivation, the use of UV-B transmitting covering materials is therefore highly recommended.

  3. Alleviating monoterpene toxicity using a two-phase extractive fermentation for the bioproduction of jet fuel mixtures in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Timothy C R; Turner, Christopher D; Krömer, Jens O; Nielsen, Lars K

    2012-10-01

    Monoterpenes are a diverse class of compounds with applications as flavors and fragrances, pharmaceuticals and more recently, jet fuels. Engineering biosynthetic pathways for monoterpene production in microbial hosts has received increasing attention. However, monoterpenes are highly toxic to many microorganisms including Saccharomyces cerevisiae, a widely used industrial biocatalyst. In this work, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for S. cerevisiae was determined for five monoterpenes: β-pinene, limonene, myrcene, γ-terpinene, and terpinolene (1.52, 0.44, 2.12, 0.70, 0.53 mM, respectively). Given the low MIC for all compounds tested, a liquid two-phase solvent extraction system to alleviate toxicity during fermentation was evaluated. Ten solvents were tested for biocompatibility, monoterpene distribution, phase separation, and price. The solvents dioctyl phthalate, dibutyl phthalate, isopropyl myristate, and farnesene showed greater than 100-fold increase in the MIC compared to the monoterpenes in a solvent-free system. In particular, the MIC for limonene in dibutyl phthalate showed a 702-fold (308 mM, 42.1 g L(-1) of limonene) improvement while cell viability was maintained above 90%, demonstrating that extractive fermentation is a suitable tool for the reduction of monoterpene toxicity. Finally, we estimated that a limonane to farnesane ratio of 1:9 has physicochemical properties similar to traditional Jet-A aviation fuel. Since farnesene is currently produced in S. cerevisiae, its use as a co-product and extractant for microbial terpene-based jet fuel production in a two-phase system offers an attractive bioprocessing option. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. Phenolic compounds in Ross Sea water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zangrando, Roberta; Barbaro, Elena; Gambaro, Andrea; Barbante, Carlo; Corami, Fabiana; Kehrwald, Natalie; Capodaglio, Gabriele

    2016-04-01

    Phenolic compounds are semi-volatile organic compounds produced during biomass burning and lignin degradation in water. In atmospheric and paleoclimatic ice cores studies, these compounds are used as biomarkers of wood combustion and supply information on the type of combusted biomass. Phenolic compounds are therefore indicators of paleoclimatic interest. Recent studies of Antarctic aerosols highlighted that phenolic compounds in Antarctica are not exclusively attributable to biomass burning but also derive from marine sources. In order to study the marine contribution to aerosols we developed an analytical method to determine the concentration of vanillic acid, vanillin, p-coumaric acid, syringic acid, isovanillic acid, homovanillic acid, syringaldehyde, acetosyringone and acetovanillone present in dissolved and particle phases in Sea Ross waters using HPLC-MS/MS. The analytical method was validated and used to quantify phenolic compounds in 28 sea water samples collected during a 2012 Ross Sea R/V cruise. The observed compounds were vanillic acid, vanillin, acetovanillone and p-coumaric acid with concentrations in the ng/L range. Higher concentrations of analytes were present in the dissolved phase than in the particle phase. Sample concentrations were greatest in the coastal, surficial and less saline Ross Sea waters near Victoria Land.

  5. Flexible Phenolic Impregnated Felt Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — During this program Fiber Materials, Inc. (FMI) will develop innovative yet practical methods for preparing Phenolic Impregnated Felt (PIF) materials for thermal...

  6. Evaluation of fast enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography methods for monoterpenic compounds: Authenticity control of Australian tea tree oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yong Foo; West, Rachel N; Chin, Sung-Tong; Marriott, Philip J

    2015-08-07

    This work demonstrates the potential of fast multiple heart-cut enantioselective multidimensional gas chromatography (GC-eGC) and enantioselective comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (eGC×GC), to perform the stereoisomeric analysis of three key chiral monoterpenes (limonene, terpinen-4-ol and α-terpineol) present in tea tree oil (TTO). In GC-eGC, separation was conducted using a combination of mid-polar first dimension ((1)D) column and a chiral second dimension ((2)D) column, providing interference-free enantioresolution of the individual antipodes of each optically active component. A combination of (1)D chiral column and (2)D polar columns (ionic liquid and wax phases) were tested for the eGC×GC study. Quantification was proposed based on summation of two major modulated peaks for each antipode, displaying comparable results with those derived from GC-eGC. Fast chiral separations were achieved within 25min for GC-eGC and<20min for eGC×GC, while ensuring adequate interference-free enantiomer separation. The suitability of using these two enantioselective multidimensional approaches for the routine assessment of chiral monoterpenes in TTO was evaluated and discussed. Exact enantiomeric composition of chiral markers for authentic TTOs was proposed by analysing a representative number of pure TTOs sourced directly from plantations of known provenance in Australia. Consistent enantiomeric fractions of 61.6±1.5% (+):38.4±1.5% (-) for limonene, 61.7±1.6% (+):38.3±1.6% (-) for terpinen-4-ol and 79.6±1.4% (+):20.4±1.4% (-) for α-terpineol were obtained for the 57 authentic Australian TTOs. The results were compared (using principle component analysis) with commercial TTOs (declared as derived from Melaleuca alternifolia) obtained from different continents. Assessing these data to determine adulteration, or additives that affect the enantiomeric ratios, in commercially sourced TTOs is discussed. The proposed method offers distinct advantages over e

  7. Avaliação da atividade antioxidante dos compostos fenólicos naturalmente presentes em subprodutos do pseudofruto de caju (Anacardium occidentale L. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Phenolic Compounds Naturally Contained in By-products of the Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Regina Bolelli Broinizi

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho teve como proposta avaliar a capacidade antioxidante do bagaço e do extrato bruto concentrado (EBC do pedúnculo de caju, tendo em vista o seu aproveitamento. O potencial antioxidante dos extratos aquoso (EAq e alcoólico (EAlc e das frações de ácidos fenólicos livres (AFL e esterificadas (solúvel AFS e insolúvel AFI desses subprodutos do pedúnculo de caju clone CCP-76 foi avaliado em sistema beta-caroteno/ácido linoléico, pelo teste de varredura de radical livre [2,2 difenil-1-pricril-hidrazil (DPPH•] e de Rancimat. Além do mais, o conteúdo de fenólicos totais e o perfil de ácidos fenólicos foram determinados usando-se o reagente de Folin-Ciocateau e por cromatografia gasosa, respectivamente. O EAq e a fração AFL dos subprodutos apresentaram o maior conteúdo de fenólicos. As frações de ácidos fenólicos exibiram expressiva atividade antioxidante, superior aos extratos estudados nos sistemas beta-caroteno e DPPH. Entretanto no teste Rancimat, os extratos apresentaram maior proteção à oxidação em relação às frações e ao BHT. Nas frações foram identificados os ácidos gálico, ferúlico, caféico, protocatecuico, quínico, cinâmico, gentíssico, p-cumárico e salicílico, os quais lhes conferem o potencial antioxidante. Estes resultados caracterizaram in vitro o potencial antioxidante do bagaço e do EBC do pedúnculo de caju clone CCP-76.This study aimed to determine the antioxidant capacity of cashew apple pulp and raw concentrated extract. The antioxidant potential of aqueous (EAq and alcoholic (EAlc extracts and of free phenolic acids (FPA and esterified (soluble - SPA and insoluble - IPA fractions of the by-products of the cashew apple clone CCP-76 were evaluated in a beta-carotene-linoleate system by the free radical [2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH•] scavenging assay and the Rancimat test. In addition, the total phenolic content and phenolic acid profile were determined using

  8. Preparation of phenol formaldehyde resin from phenolated wood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIGai-yun; QINTe-fu; TohmuraShin-ichiro; IkedaAtsushi

    2004-01-01

    The technique for preparing phenol formaldehyde resin from phenolated wood (PWF) and its characters were studied and analyzed. Poplar (Populus spp.) wood meal was liquefied by phenol in the presence of sulfuric acid as a catalyst. After the liquefied products were cooled, alkaline catalyst and formaldehyde were added. The mixture was kept at (60±2)℃ for lh and then was heated to (85±2)℃ for lh. The influence of molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol (F/P) was investigated. The results showed when the molar ratio of formaldehyde to phenol was over 1.8, the PWF adhesives had high bond quality, bond durability and extremely low aldehydes emissions.

  9. Process-based simulation of seasonality and drought stress in monoterpene emission models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Grote

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Canopy emissions of volatile hydrocarbons such as isoprene and monoterpenes play an important role in air chemistry. They depend on various environmental conditions, are highly species-specific and are expected to be affected by global change. In order to estimate future emissions of these isoprenoids, differently complex models are available. However, seasonal dynamics driven by phenology, enzymatic activity, or drought stress strongly modify annual ecosystem emissions. Although these impacts depend themselves on environmental conditions, they have yet received little attention in mechanistic modelling.

    In this paper we propose the application of a mechanistic method for considering the seasonal dynamics of emission potential using the ''Seasonal Isoprenoid synthase Model'' (Lehning et al., 2001. We test this approach with three different models (GUENTHER, Guenther et al., 1993; NIINEMETS, Niinemets et al., 2002a; BIM2, Grote et al., 2006 that are developed for simulating light-dependent monoterpene emission. We also suggest specific drought stress representations for each model. Additionally, the proposed model developments are compared with the approach realized in the MEGAN (Guenther et al., 2006 emission model. Models are applied to a Mediterranean Holm oak (Quercus ilex site with measured weather data.

    The simulation results demonstrate that the consideration of a dynamic emission potential has a strong effect on annual monoterpene emission estimates. The investigated models, however, show different sensitivities to the procedure for determining this seasonality impact. Considering a drought impact reduced the differences between the applied models and decreased emissions at the investigation site by approximately 33% on average over a 10 year period. Although this overall reduction was similar in all models, the sensitivity to weather conditions in specific years was different. We conclude that the proposed

  10. Monoterpene metabolism. Cloning, expression, and characterization of (-)-isopiperitenol/(-)-carveol dehydrogenase of peppermint and spearmint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Kerry L; Davis, Edward M; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-03-01

    The essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) are distinguished by the oxygenation position on the p-menthane ring of the constitutive monoterpenes that is conferred by two regiospecific cytochrome P450 limonene-3- and limonene-6-hydroxylases. Following hydroxylation of limonene, an apparently similar dehydrogenase oxidizes (-)-trans-isopiperitenol to (-)-isopiperitenone in peppermint and (-)-trans-carveol to (-)-carvone in spearmint. Random sequencing of a peppermint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library revealed a large number of clones that specified redox-type enzymes, including dehydrogenases. Full-length dehydrogenase clones were screened by functional expression in Escherichia coli using a recently developed in situ assay. A single full-length acquisition encoding (-)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase (ISPD) was isolated. The (-)-ISPD cDNA has an open reading frame of 795 bp that encodes a 265-residue enzyme with a calculated molecular mass of 27,191. Nondegenerate primers were designed based on the (-)-trans-ISPD cDNA sequence and employed to screen a spearmint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library from which a 5'-truncated cDNA encoding the spearmint homolog, (-)-trans-carveol-dehydrogenase, was isolated. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification and RACE were used to acquire the remaining 5'-sequence from RNA isolated from oil gland secretory cells of spearmint leaf. The full-length spearmint dehydrogenase shares >99% amino acid identity with its peppermint homolog and both dehydrogenases are capable of utilizing (-)-trans-isopiperitenol and (-)-trans-carveol. These isopiperitenol/carveol dehydrogenases are members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and are related to other plant short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases involved in secondary metabolism (lignan biosynthesis), stress responses, and phytosteroid biosynthesis, but they are quite dissimilar (approximately 13% identity) to the monoterpene

  11. A novel synthetic pathway for tropolone ring formation via the olefin monoterpene intermediate terpinolene in cultured Cupressus lusitanica cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Koki; Bunyu, Yasufumi; Kuroda, Ken'ich; Ashitani, Tatsuya; Shigeto, Jun; Tsutsumi, Yuji

    2014-05-01

    β-Thujaplicin is a wood monoterpene and tropolone compound with a unique conjugated 7-membered ring. Because of its strong antifungal and antitumor activities, β-thujaplicin is used in several fields. The biosynthesis pathway of β-thujaplicin has not yet been elucidated. Using Cupressus lusitanica cell cultures in a radioisotope feeding experiment, our group previously demonstrated that geranyl pyrophosphate (GPP) is the starting material of β-thujaplicin biosynthesis. The results of our previous terpene synthase assay suggested that terpinolene is the first olefin terpenoid intermediate from GPP to β-thujaplicin, although there was no experimental evidence of this at that time. In the present study, we fed deuterium-labeled terpinolene to cultured C. lusitanica cells to determine whether terpinolene is an intermediate metabolite of β-thujaplicin biosynthesis. A gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy analysis of the cell extracts from labeled terpinolene cultures revealed a peak of labeled β-thujaplicin that was not observed after treatment with non-labeled terpinolene. The identification of labeled β-thujaplicin was also performed by mass spectrum assignment. The outcome indicated that terpinolene is indeed an intermediate metabolite of β-thujaplicin biosynthesis. To the best of our knowledge, there has been no prior report that tropolone compounds are biosynthesized via a terpene biosynthesis system, and our results thus suggest the existence of a novel biosynthetic pathway that produces the conjugated 7-membered ring.

  12. Phenolic and Aroma Composition of White Wines Produced by Prolonged Maceration and Maturation in Wooden Barrels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikolina Jedrejčić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the phenolic and aroma composition of Malvazija istarska (Vitis vinifera L. white wines produced by an unconventional technology comprising prolonged maceration followed by maturation in wooden barrels, representative samples were subjected to analysis by UV/Vis spectrometry, high-performance liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. When compared to standard wines, the investigated samples contained higher levels of dry extract, volatile acidity, lactic acid, phenols, colour intensity, antioxidant activity, majority of monoterpenes, C13-norisoprenoids, methanol, higher alcohols, ethyl acetate, branched-chain esters and esters of hydroxy and dicarboxylic acids, ethylphenols, furans, and acetals, as well as lower levels of malic acid, β-damascenone, straight-chain fatty acids, ethyl and acetate esters. It was estimated that maceration had a stronger influence on phenols, and maturation on volatile aromas. Despite different vintages and technological details, the investigated wines showed a relative homogeneity in the composition, representing a clear and distinctive type.

  13. Influence of gibberellin and daminozide on the expression of terpene synthases and on monoterpenes in common sage (Salvia officinalis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmiderer, Corinna; Grausgruber-Gröger, Sabine; Grassi, Paolo; Steinborn, Ralf; Novak, Johannes

    2010-07-01

    Common sage (Salvia officinalis L., Lamiaceae) is one of the most important medicinal and aromatic plants, with antioxidant, antimicrobial, spasmolytic, astringent, antihidrotic and specific sensorial properties. The essential oil of the plant, composed mainly of the monoterpenes 1,8-cineole, alpha-thujone, beta-thujone and camphor, is responsible for some of these effects. Gibberellins regulate diverse physiological processes in plants, such as seed germination, shoot elongation and cell division. In this study, we analyzed the effect of exogenously applied plant growth regulators, namely gibberellic acid (GA(3)) and daminozide, on leaf morphology and essential oil formation of two leaf stages during the period of leaf expansion. Essential oil content increased with increasing levels of gibberellins and decreased when gibberellin biosynthesis was blocked with daminozide. With increasing levels of gibberellins, 1,8-cineole and camphor contents increased. Daminozide blocked the accumulation of alpha- and beta-thujone. GA(3) at the highest level applied also led to a significant decrease of alpha- and beta-thujone. Monoterpene synthases are a class of enzymes responsible for the first step in monoterpene biosynthesis, competing for the same substrate geranylpyrophosphate. The levels of gene expression of the three most important monoterpene synthases in sage were investigated, 1,8-cineole synthase leading directly to 1,8-cineole, (+)-sabinene synthase responsible for the first step in the formation of alpha- and beta-thujone, and (+)-bornyl diphosphate synthase, the first step in camphor biosynthesis. The foliar application of GA(3) increased, while daminozide significantly decreased gene expression of the monoterpene synthases. The amounts of two of the end products, 1,8-cineole and camphor, were directly correlated with the levels of gene expression of the respective monoterpene synthases, indicating transcriptional control, while the formation of alpha- and beta

  14. Purification and characterization of a Baeyer-Villiger mono-oxygenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 involved in three different monoterpene degradation pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, van der M.J.

    2000-01-01

    A Baeyer-Villiger mono-oxygenase (BVMO), catalysing the NADPH- and oxygen-dependent oxidation of the monocyclic monoterpene ketones 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, dihydrocarvone and menthone, was purified to homogeneity from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14. Monocyclic monoterpene ketone mono-oxygenase (MMK

  15. Purification and characterization of a Baeyer-Villiger mono-oxygenase from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14 involved in three different monocyclic monoterpene degradation pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Werf, M.J. van der

    2000-01-01

    A Baeyer-Villiger mono-oxygenase (BVMO), catalysing the NADPH- and oxygen-dependent oxidation of the monocyclic monoterpene ketones 1-hydroxy-2-oxolimonene, dihydrocarvone and menthone, was purified to homogeneity from Rhodococcus erythropolis DCL14. Monocyclic monoterpene ketone mono-oxygenase (MMK

  16. Pondering the monoterpene composition of Pinus serotina Michx.: can limonene be used as a chemotaxonomic marker for the identification of old turpentine stumps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas L. Eberhardt; Jolie M. Mahfouz; Philip M. Sheridan

    2010-01-01

    Wood samples from old turpentine stumps in Virginia were analyzed by GC-MS to determine if the monoterpene compositions could be used for species identification. Given that limonene is reported to be the predominant monoterpene for pond pine (Pinus serotina Michx.), low relative proportions of limonene in these samples appeared to suggest that these...

  17. Brown carbon formation from ketoaldehydes of biogenic monoterpenes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tran B.; Laskin, Alexander; Laskin, Julia; Nizkorodov, Sergey

    2013-04-10

    Sources and chemical composition of the brown carbon are poorly understood, and even less is known about the mechanisms of its atmospheric transformations. This work presents molecular level investigation of the reactive compound ketolimononaldehyde (KLA, C9H14O3), a second generation ozonolysis product of limonene (C10H16), as a potent brown carbon precursor in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) through its reactions with reduced nitrogen compounds such as ammonium ion (NH4+), ammonia, and amino acids. The reactions of synthesized and purified KLA with NH4+ and glycine resulted in the formation of chromophores nearly identical in spectral properties and formation rates to those found in similarly-aged limonene/O3 SOA. Similar chemical reaction processes of limononaldehyde (LA, C10H16O2) and pinonaldehyde (PA, C10H16O2), the first-generation ozonolysis products in the oxidation of limonene and α-pinene, respectively, were also studied, but the resulting products did not exhibit light absorption properties of brown carbon, suggesting that the unique molecular structure of KLA produces visible-light-absorbing compounds. The KLA/NH4+ and KLA/GLY reactions produce water-soluble, hydrolysis-resilient chromophores with high mass absorption coefficients (MAC = 2000-4000 cm2 g-1) at λ ~ 500 nm, precisely at the maximum of the solar emission spectrum. Liquid chromatography was used to isolate the light-absorbing fraction, and UV-Vis, FTIR, NMR and high-resolution mass spectrometry (HR-MS) techniques were used to investigate the structures and chemical properties of the light-absorbing compounds. The KLA browning reaction generates a diverse mixture of light-absorbing compounds, with the majority of the observable products containing 1-4 units of KLA and 0-2 nitrogen atoms. Based on the HR-MS product distribution, conjugated aldol condensates, secondary imines (Schiff bases), and N-heterocycles like pyrroles may contribute in varying degree to the light-absorbing properties

  18. Monoterpene Indole Alkaloids from the Fruit of Tabernaemontana litoralis and Differential Alkaloid Composition in Various Fruit Components.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yang; Simonescu, Razvan; De Luca, Vincenzo

    2016-12-23

    Two new monoterpene indole alkaloids, isoakuammiline (1) and 18-hydroxypseudovincadifformine (2), and five known alkaloids, coronaridine (3), heyneanine (4), 3,19-oxidocoronaridine (5), tabersonine, and strictosidine, were identified from the fruit of Tabernaemontana litoralis. The structures of the alkaloids were determined using NMR and MS data analyses. While 18-hydroxypseudovincadifformine (2) showed a new hydroxylation pattern, isoakuammiline (1) revealed a novel skeleton for monoterpene indole alkaloids. In spite of the isolation of stemmadenine from the fruit tissues in other Tabernaemontana species, this vital biosynthetic precursor of iboga, aspidosperma, and pseudoaspidosperma skeletons was not found in T. litoralis.

  19. Bioactivity and phenolic composition from natural fermented table olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malheiro, Ricardo; Mendes, Patrícia; Fernandes, Fátima; Rodrigues, Nuno; Bento, Albino; Pereira, José Alberto

    2014-12-01

    In the present work, the phenolic composition, and antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of twenty-four samples of naturally fermented table olives from the northeast of Portugal were evaluated. The analysis of phenolic composition was performed by HPLC/DAD, and ten compounds were identified, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside derivate and hydroxytyrosol glycol being the most abundant. Total phenolic content varied between 2.37 and 64.17 μg mg(-1) of extract. The IC50 values from the antioxidant activity methods tested varied between 0.30 and 1.66 mg mL(-1) for reducing power, and between 0.13 and 0.83 mg mL(-1) for DPPH. The results obtained in the antioxidant activity were extremely significantly correlated with the main phenolic compounds as well as with the total phenolic content. A principal component analysis allowed grouping the samples according to their phenolic composition and antioxidant potential. Table olive extracts were able to inhibit some pathogenic microorganisms, mainly Gram-positive bacteria. Higher antimicrobial inhibition was recorded in the extracts rich in phenolic compounds and higher antioxidant potential.

  20. Phenol Oxidation by Combined Cavitation Water Jet and Hydrogen Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢义玉; 刘勇; 夏彬伟; 左伟芹

    2012-01-01

    The paper presents results of phenol oxidized under the conditions of high temperature created during collapse of cavitation bubbles.The degradation efficiency has been greatly improved by using cavitation water jets combined with H2O2 as demonstrated in laboratory tests.Various factors affecting phenol removal ratio were ex-amined and the degradation mechanism was revealed by high performance liquid chromatography(HPLC).The re-sults showed that 99.85% of phenol was mineralized when phenol concentration was 100 mg·L-1 with pH value of 3.0,H2O2 concentration of 300 mg·L-1,confining pressure of 0.5 MPa,and pumping pressure of 20 MPa.The in-termediate products after phenol oxidation were composed of catechol,hydroquinone and p-benzoquinone.Finally,phenol was degraded into maleic acid and acetic acid.Furthermore,a dynamic model of phenol oxidation via cavi-tation water jets combined with H2O2 has been developed.

  1. Adsorption of phenol from aqueous solution onto fly ash from a thermal power plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richa Sharan; Gurdeep Singh; Sunil K. Gupta

    2009-04-15

    Phenol ranks as one of the most common hazardous pollutants present in water and industrial effluents. The object of the work described herein was to assess the phenol adsorption capacity of fly ash under varying experimental conditions such as adsorbent dosage, pH, varying phenol concentration and contact time. The study showed that, at a phenol concentration of 100 mg/l, the percentage removal of phenol was 95.69% at an optimum dosage of 7 g/l fly ash. The effect of the initial phenol concentration indicated that the percentage phenol removal increased with increasing phenol concentration, being a maximum (98.08%) at a phenol concentration of 700 mg/l. Further increase in phenol concentration (1000 mg/l) resulted in a slight decrease in phenol removal. The adsorption of phenol also varied with the pH and was found to be a maximum at a pH value of 8. Adsorption equilibrium studies indicated that an equilibrium time of 2 h was necessary for the maximum removal of phenol. Isotherm studies showed that the adsorption of phenol onto fly ash was best described by the Langmuir isotherm relative to the Freundlich isotherm. Accordingly, the Langmuir adsorption coefficients, i.e. the maximum adsorption capacity (q{sub 0}) and the Langmuir adsorption constant (K{sub L}) were evaluated and found to be 142.86 mg/g and 0.0199 l/g, respectively. Analysis of the kinetic data indicated that the kinetics of phenol adsorption closely follow the pseudo-second-order model.

  2. Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference evolution of the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhudong; Wang, Bo; Xu, Bingbing; Sun, Jianghua

    2011-01-01

    Several studies suggest that some bark beetle like to attack large trees. The invasive red turpentine beetle (RTB), Dendroctonus valens LeConte, one of the most destructive forest pests in China, is known to exhibit this behavior. Our previous study demonstrated that RTBs preferred to attack large-diameter trees (diameter at breast height, DBH ≥30 cm) over small-diameter trees (DBH ≤10 cm) in the field. In the current study, we studied the attacking behavior and the underlying mechanisms in the laboratory. Behavioral assays showed that RTBs preferred the bark of large-DBH trees and had a higher attack rate on the bolts of these trees. Y-tube assays showed that RTBs preferred the volatiles released by large-DBH trees to those released by small-DBH trees. Subsequent analysis revealed that both large- and small-DBH trees had the same composition of monoterpenes, but the concentration of each component differed; thus it appeared that the concentrations acted as cues for RTBs to locate the right-sized host which was confirmed by further behavioral assays. Moreover, large-DBH pine trees provided more spacious habitat and contained more nutrients, such as nitrogen, than did small-DBH pine trees, which benefited RTBs' fecundity and larval development. RTBs seem to have evolved mechanisms to locate those large hosts that will allow them to maximize their fitness. Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference implies the potential for the management of RTB.

  3. Induction of senescence and identification of differentially expressed genes in tomato in response to monoterpene.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sumit Ghosh

    Full Text Available Monoterpenes, which are among the major components of plant essential oils, are known for their ecological roles as well for pharmaceutical properties. Geraniol, an acyclic monoterpene induces cell cycle arrest and apoptosis/senescence in various cancer cells and plants; however, the genes involved in the process and the underlying molecular mechanisms are not well understood. In this study, we demonstrate that treatment of tomato plants with geraniol results in induction of senescence due to a substantial alteration in transcriptome. We have identified several geraniol-responsive protein encoding genes in tomato using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH approach. These genes comprise of various components of signal transduction, cellular metabolism, reactive oxygen species (ROS, ethylene signalling, apoptosis and DNA damage response. Upregulation of NADPH oxidase and antioxidant genes, and increase in ROS level after geraniol treatment point towards the involvement of ROS in geraniol-mediated senescence. The delayed onset of seedling death and induced expression of geraniol-responsive genes in geraniol-treated ethylene receptor mutant (Nr suggest that geraniol-mediated senescence involves both ethylene dependent and independent pathways. Moreover, expression analysis during tomato ripening revealed that geraniol-responsive genes are also associated with the natural organ senescence process.

  4. Development and Evaluation of Stability of a Gel Formulation Containing the Monoterpene Borneol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milla Gabriela Belarmino Dantas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Borneol is a bicyclic monoterpenoid alcohol commonly used in traditional Chinese and Indian medicine. It is extracted from the essential oil of various medicinal plants. It has antibacterial, analgesic, and anti-inflammatory action proven in studies that used oral and intraperitoneal applications of this monoterpene in mice. The current study was designed to develop a topical gel formulation containing the monoterpene borneol using carbopol as gel base and to evaluate its stability. The prepared formulation was subjected to physical characterization and physical-chemistry assessment. The gel was prepared from carbopol and 5% of borneol. The prepared gel was subjected to pharmacotechnical tests such as its pH, viscosity, conductivity, spreadability, centrifugation, and accelerated stability with freezing-thaw cycle. The borneol was successfully incorporated into the carbopol formulation. Borneol gel (BG5 showed good stability after eight months of its development and after 12 days in the freeze-thaw cycle, not showing statistical difference in pH value, conductivity, and viscosity before and after test. Furthermore, the formulation showed a good spreadability. Therefore, it was concluded that the formulation could be very promising alternative for the topical or transdermal treatment of skin diseases.

  5. Impact of diffuse light on isoprene and monoterpene emissions from a mixed temperate forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laffineur, Q.; Aubinet, M.; Schoon, N.; Amelynck, C.; Müller, J.-F.; Dewulf, J.; Steppe, K.; Heinesch, B.

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of diffuse light on canopy scale emission of isoprene and monoterpenes measured continuously above a mixed temperate forest, using the disjunct eddy-covariance by mass scanning technique with a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS) instrument. To assess this impact, the relationship between emissions/radiation and emissions/gross primary production (GPP) under clear sky and cloudy conditions were analysed. Under cloudy conditions (high proportion of diffuse radiation), the isoprene and monoterpene fluxes were enhanced compared to clear sky conditions (low proportion of diffuse radiation) at equivalent temperature and above-canopy total radiation. The whole-canopy enzymatic activity of the metabolic isoprene production pathway, however, was suggested to be lower under cloudy conditions than under clear sky conditions at equivalent temperature. The mechanisms behind these observations are probably linked to the better penetration of diffuse radiation in the canopy. Shade leaves/needles receive more radiation in cloudy conditions than in clear sky conditions, thereby inducing the observed effects.

  6. Monoterpene and sesquiterpene emissions of three Mediterranean species through calcareous and siliceous soils in natural conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormeño, E.; Fernandez, C.; Bousquet-Mélou, A.; Greff, S.; Morin, E.; Robles, C.; Vila, B.; Bonin, G.

    Little is known about terpene emissions released by plants in response to abiotic factors, except for climate-related factors. Standard emissions ( ES) of monoterpenes ( ESM) and sesquiterpenes ( ESS) of Rosmarinus officinalis, Pinus halepensis and Cistus albidus in siliceous and calcareous sites were examined. Their dependency on some nutrients in these soils was also analyzed. The study was carried out in the south of France at the end of March, when C. albidus exhibited a leaf growth state, while the other two species exhibited a pre-budbreak state. The results revealed that ES of all major monoterpenes released by R. officinalis and ES of α-pinene and α-humulene of P. halepensis were higher in plants growing in calcareous soils. In contrast, for C. albidus, ESM and ES of β-bourbonene and α-humulene were higher in siliceous soils. ESM of all species was mainly correlated with nitrogen ( N) and available phosphorous (P A), while dependency on Ca 2+ or K + was variable. None of these nutrients was significantly correlated with ESS, suggesting that sesquiterpene synthesis pathway requires different nutrient supplies. While higher soil nutrient content stimulated ESM of R. officinalis and P. halepensis, it had a negative effect on ESM of C. albidus, probably because C. albidus exhibited a different phenological state. Considering the soil nature, and particularly N and P A as inputs in plant terpene inventories could hence contribute to obtain more accurate terpene estimates.

  7. Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference evolution of the bark beetle Dendroctonus valens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhudong Liu

    Full Text Available Several studies suggest that some bark beetle like to attack large trees. The invasive red turpentine beetle (RTB, Dendroctonus valens LeConte, one of the most destructive forest pests in China, is known to exhibit this behavior. Our previous study demonstrated that RTBs preferred to attack large-diameter trees (diameter at breast height, DBH ≥30 cm over small-diameter trees (DBH ≤10 cm in the field. In the current study, we studied the attacking behavior and the underlying mechanisms in the laboratory. Behavioral assays showed that RTBs preferred the bark of large-DBH trees and had a higher attack rate on the bolts of these trees. Y-tube assays showed that RTBs preferred the volatiles released by large-DBH trees to those released by small-DBH trees. Subsequent analysis revealed that both large- and small-DBH trees had the same composition of monoterpenes, but the concentration of each component differed; thus it appeared that the concentrations acted as cues for RTBs to locate the right-sized host which was confirmed by further behavioral assays. Moreover, large-DBH pine trees provided more spacious habitat and contained more nutrients, such as nitrogen, than did small-DBH pine trees, which benefited RTBs' fecundity and larval development. RTBs seem to have evolved mechanisms to locate those large hosts that will allow them to maximize their fitness. Monoterpene variation mediated attack preference implies the potential for the management of RTB.

  8. Phenolic Wastewater Treatment Alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    They t5 enerally show less tendency than solid adsorbents to be sensitive to variations in pH and phenol concentrations of the was tes being treated...AFSC/ SGB 1 AFATL/DLODL 1 AMD/RDU 1 AFWL/SUL 1~ OEHL/CC 3 AFTEC/SG 1 USAFSAM/EDE 2 HQ SAC/DEP 1 AFOSR/NL 1 HQ SAC/6GPA 1 SD/SGX 1 HQ TAC/6SGPA 1 SD...ALC/SGP 1 HQ PACAF/DEEV 1 OC-ALC/SGP 1 OL-AD; USAF OEHL 1 USAF Hospital/SGPB 1 HQ AFISC/SG 1 USAF Hospital/SGPB 1 HQ AAC/ SGB 1 OG-ALC/SGP 1 HQ AAC

  9. The action of berry phenolics against human intestinal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puupponen-Pimiä, Riitta; Nohynek, Liisa; Alakomi, Hanna-Leena; Oksman-Caldentey, Kirsi-Marja

    2005-01-01

    Phenolic compounds present in berries selectively inhibit the growth of human gastrointestinal pathogens. Especially cranberry, cloudberry, raspberry, strawberry and bilberry possess clear antimicrobial effects against e.g. salmonella and staphylococcus. Complex phenolic polymers, such as ellagitannins, are strong antibacterial agents present in cloudberry, raspberry and strawberry. Berry phenolics seem to affect the growth of different bacterial species with different mechanisms. Adherence of bacteria to epithelial surfaces is a prerequisite for colonization and infection of many pathogens. Antimicrobial activity of berries may also be related to anti-adherence activity of the berries. Utilization of enzymes in berry processing increases the amount of phenolics and antimicrobial activity of the berry products. Antimicrobial berry compounds are likely to have many important applications in the future as natural antimicrobial agents for food industry as well as for medicine.

  10. Kinetics of biodegradation of phenolic wastewater in a biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Hui; Hsien, Tzu-Yang

    2009-01-01

    This work presents a mathematical model to describe the biodegradation of phenolic wastewater in a fixed-biofilm process. The model incorporates diffusive mass transport and Haldane kinetics mechanisms. The model was solved using a combination of the orthogonal collocation method and Gear's method. A laboratory-scale column reactor was employed to verify the model. Batch kinetic tests were conducted independently to determine biokinetic parameters for the model simulation with the initial biofilm thickness assumed. The model simulated the phenol effluent concentration results well. Removal efficiency for phenol was approximately 94-96.5% for different hydraulic retention times at a steady-state condition. Model simulations results are in agreement with experimental results. The approaches of model and experiments presented in this paper could be used to design a pilot-scale or full-scale fixed-biofilm reactor system for the biodegradation of phenolic wastewater from petrochemical and oil refining plants.

  11. The efficiency of different phenol-degrading bacteria and activated sludges in detoxification of phenolic leachates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahru, A; Reiman, R; Rätsep, A

    1998-07-01

    Phenolic composition, toxicity and biodegradability of three different phenolic leachates/samples was studied. Samples A and C were the leachates from the oil-shale industry spent shale dumps at Kohtla-Järve, Estonia. Sample B was a laboratory-prepared synthetic mixture of 7 phenolic compounds mimmicking the phenolic composition of the leachate A. Toxicity of these 3 samples was analyzed using two photobacterial test (BioTox and Microtox), Daphnia test (DAPHTOXKIT F pulex) and rotifiers' test (ROTOXKIT F). All the LC50 values were in the range of 1-10%, leachate A being the most toxic. The growth and detoxifying potential (toxicity of the growth medium was measured using photobacterial tests) of 3 different phenol-utilizing bacteria and acclimated activated sludges was studied in shake-flask cultures. 30% leachate A (altogether 0.6 mM total phenolic compounds) was too toxic to rhodococci and they did not grow. Cell number of Kurthia sp. and Pseudomonas sp. in 30% leachate A increased by 2 orders of magnitude but despite of the growth of bacteria the toxicity of the leachate did not decrease even by 7 weeks of cultivation. However, if the activated sludge was used instead of pure bacterial cultures the toxicity of the 30% leachate A was eliminated already after 3 days of incubation. 30% samples B and C were detoxified by activated sludge even more rapidly, within 2 days. As the biodegradable part of samples A and B should be identical, the detoxification of leachate A compared to that of sample B was most probably inhibited by inorganic (e.g. sulphuric) compounds present in the leachate A. Also, the presence of toxic recalcitrant organic compounds in the leachate A (missed by chemical analysis) that were not readily biodegradable even by activated sludge consortium should not be excluded.

  12. Phenolic compounds among the bioactive molecules in Ginkgo biloba L.

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Eliana; Barros, Lillian; Santos-Buelga, Celestino; Isabel C. F. R. Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    The interest for natural antioxidants has been increasing over the years. Phenolic compounds comprise a very large group of biologically active molecules, being appreciated for their beneficial effects on health (physiologically active compounds with anti-allergic, antiatherogenic, antimicrobial, antithrombotic, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, cardioprotective and vasodilatory effects) [1-3]. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the phenolic compounds of Ginkgo biloba L...

  13. Optical properties of natural phenols in aqueous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vusovich, Olga; Sultimova, Natalia; Tchaikovskaya, Olga; Sokolova, Irina; Vasilieva, Nina

    2015-11-01

    Currently, the study of the photochemistry of natural phenols is relevant as it has a fundamental and a practical importance. The optical properties of natural phenols are studied: 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde (vanillin) and 3- hydroxy-4-methoxybenzaldehyde (isovanillin), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzoic acid (vanillic acid). The processes of proton transfer in the investigated molecules in ground and excited states under exposure to lamp and laser emissions are presented using the methods of electron spectroscopy and quantum chemistry.

  14. Phenol Analysis -- Some Analytical Considerations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, R. J., Jr.

    1971-01-01

    Contamination of potable water supplies with halogenated phenols in concentrations of 2-10 parts per billion (ppb) produces objectionable tastes and odors capable of influencing consumer acceptability. Routine analysis by the distillation/ 4-aminoantipyrine method is limited by lack of sensitivity and subject to interference by aryl amines. This has been overcome by developing a continuous liquid-liquid extraction system to selectively isolate phenols and eliminate major interfering substances. Stable reagents have been formulated to reduce blank color and extend sensitivity. Equipment suitable for analysis of phenols at the 1 ppb level or less in 20 minutes is described.

  15. Bioavailability of phenols from a phenol-enriched olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Valls, Rosa M; Romero, Maria-Paz; Macià, Alba; Fernández, Sara; Giralt, Montse; Solà, Rosa; Motilva, Maria-José

    2011-12-01

    Phenolic compounds are one of the main reasons behind the healthy properties of virgin olive oil (VOO). However, their daily intake from VOO is low compared with that obtained from other phenolic sources. Therefore, the intake of VOO enriched with its own phenolic compounds could be of interest to increase the daily dose of these beneficial compounds. To evaluate the effectiveness of enrichment on their bioavailability, the concentration of phenolic compounds and their metabolites in human plasma (0, 60, 120, 240 and 300 min) from thirteen healthy volunteers (seven men and six women, aged 25 and 69 years) was determined after the ingestion of a single dose (30 ml) of either enriched virgin olive oil (EVOO) (961·17 mg/kg oil) or control VOO (288·89 mg/kg oil) in a cross-over study. Compared with VOO, EVOO increased plasma concentration of the phenol metabolites, particularly hydroxytyrosol sulphate and vanillin sulphate (P phenols are highly dependent on the individual.

  16. Relevance of Natural Phenolics from Grape and Derivative Products in the Formulation of Cosmetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa Soto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The consumer demand for natural ingredients in cosmetic products is increasing. Phenolic compounds are among the most studied natural antioxidant compounds, they also present antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory or antiaging actions and can permeate through the skin barrier. Grapes contain valuable phenolic components and grape byproducts are widely available low cost raw materials. This review presents an overview of the application of phenolic compounds from grape products and byproducts as sources of natural ingredients for cosmetics.

  17. Isoprene and monoterpene emission from the coniferous species Abies Borisii-regis - implications for regional air chemistry in Greece

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harrison, D.; Hunter, M.C.; Lewis, A.C.; Seakins, P.W. [Leeds Univ., School of Chemistry, Leeds (United Kingdom); Nunes, T.V.; Pio, C.A. [Universidade de Aveiro, Dept. de Ambiente e Ordenamento, Aveiro (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    The emission of isoprene has been studied from a forest of Abies Borisii-regis, a Mediterranean fir species previously thought to emit only monoterpenes. Emission studies from two independent enclosure experiments indicated a standardised isoprene emission rate of (18.4{+-}3.8){mu}gg{sub dry-weight} {sup -1}h{sup -1}, similar in magnitude to species such as eucalyptus and oak which are considered to be strong isoprene emitters. Isoprene emission depended strongly on both leaf temperature (2degC-34degC) and photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) below 250{mu}molm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, becoming saturated with respect to PAR above this value. The annual isoprene emission rate was estimated to be (132{+-}29) kTyr{sup -1} for those trees growing within Greece, comparable to current estimates of the total isoprene budget of Greece as a whole, and contributing significantly to regional ozone and carbon monoxide budgets. Monoterpene emission exhibited exponential temperature dependence, with 1,8-cineole, {alpha}-pinene, {beta}-pinene and limonene forming the primary emissions. A standardised total monoterpene emission rate of (2.7{+-}1.1){mu}gg{sub dry-weight} {sup -1}h{sup -1} was calculated, corresponding to an annual monoterpene emission rate of (24{+-}12) kTyr{sup -1}. Research was conducted as part of the AEROBIC'97 (AEROsol formation from Biogenic organic Carbon) series of field campaigns. (Author)

  18. Dose-Dependent and Species-Specific Responses of Pine Bark Beetles (Coeoptera: Scolytidae) to Monoterpenes in Association with Phermones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel R. Miller; John H. Borden

    2000-01-01

    Monoterpenes affected the attraction of three sympatric species of bark beetles (Coleoptera: Scolytidae) to pheromone-baited multiple-funnel traps in stands of lodgepole pine. Catches of Ips pini(Say) in traps baited with its pheromone, ipsdienol, were directly related to the release rates of 3-carene, ß-pphellandrene, and ß-pinene. Catches of

  19. ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITIES AND PHENOLIC PROFILE OF SIX MOROCCAN SELECTED HERBS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madiha Bichra

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The present work evaluated the antioxidant capacity of six plants commonly used in traditional Moroccan medicine. The antioxidant capacity was estimated by DPPH test, ferrous ion chelating activity and ABTS test. As results, the highest antioxidant activities were found in Mentha suaveolens, Salvia officinalis and Mentha viridis. Different species showed significant differences in their total phenolic content (TPC. The highest level of phenolics was found in Salvia officinalis and the lowest in Pelargonium roseum. Linear correlation was found between TPC, especially the non-flavonoid content (NFC and the antioxidant activity. Qualitative and quantitative analyzes of major phenolics by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC were also performed. On the basis of the obtained results, these studied medicinal herbs were found to serve as a potential source of natural antioxidants due to their richness in phenolic compounds and marked antioxidant activity.

  20. Plant derived and dietary phenolic antioxidants: anticancer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roleira, Fernanda M F; Tavares-da-Silva, Elisiário J; Varela, Carla L; Costa, Saul C; Silva, Tiago; Garrido, Jorge; Borges, Fernanda

    2015-09-15

    In this paper, a review of the literature on the phenolic compounds with anticancer activity published between 2008 and 2012 is presented. In this overview only phenolic antioxidant compounds that display significant anticancer activity have been described. In the first part of this review, the oxidative and nitrosative stress relation with cancer are described. In the second part, the plant-derived food extracts, containing identified phenolic antioxidants, the phenolic antioxidants isolated from plants and plant-derived food or commercially available and the synthetic ones, along with the type of cancer and cells where they exert anticancer activity, are described and summarized in tables. The principal mechanisms for their anti-proliferative effects were also described. Finally, a critical analysis of the studies and directions for future research are included in the conclusion. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Bog bilberry phenolics, antioxidant capacity and nutrient profile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colak, Nesrin; Torun, Hülya; Gruz, Jiri; Strnad, Miroslav; Hermosín-Gutiérrez, Isidro; Hayirlioglu-Ayaz, Sema; Ayaz, Faik Ahmet

    2016-06-15

    Phenolics and nutrient profiles of bog bilberry (Vaccinium uliginosum L.) collected from high mountain pastures in northeast Anatolia (Turkey) were examined for the first time in this study. The major soluble sugar identified in the berry was fructose, following by glucose, and the main organic acid identified was citric acid, followed by malic acid. Eleven phenolic acids and 17 anthocyanin 3-glycosides were identified and quantified. Caffeic acid in the free and glycoside forms and syringic acid in the ester form were the major phenolic acids, and the major individual anthocyanin present in the berry was malvidin 3-glucoside (24%). The highest total phenolics and anthocyanin contents were obtained from the anthocyanin fraction in conjunction with the highest antioxidant capacity, followed by the polyphenolic and aqueous fractions, FRAP, ORAC and DPPH, in that order. Our findings can be used to compare bog bilberry with other Vaccinium berries and to help clarify the relative potential health benefits of different berries.

  2. Phenol Removal by a Novel Non-Photo-Dependent Semiconductor Catalyst in a Pilot-Scaled Study: Effects of Initial Phenol Concentration, Light, and Catalyst Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao Chen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel non-photo-dependent semiconductor catalyst (CT was employed to degrade phenol in the present pilot-scaled study. Effect of operational parameters such as phenol initial concentration, light area, and catalyst loading on phenol degradation, was compared between CT catalyst and the conventional photocatalyst titanium dioxide. CT catalyst excelled titanium dioxide in treating and mineralizing low-level phenol, under both mild UV radiation and thunder conditions of nonphoton. The result suggested that CT catalyst could be applied in circumstances when light is not easily accessible in pollutant-carrying media (e.g., particles, cloudy water, and colored water.

  3. Demand for Phenol Increases Steadily

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Dramatic growth in output By the end of 2006 China's capacity to produce phenol had reached more than 600 thousand t/a. The total output was 523 thousand tons in 2006,an increase of 18.1% over 2005.

  4. Secondary Organic Aerosol (SOA) Formation from Hydroxyl Radical Oxidation and Ozonolysis of Monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Defeng; Kaminski, Martin; Schlag, Patrick; Fuchs, Hendrik; Acir, Ismail-Hakki; Bohn, Birger; Haeseler, Rolf; Kiendler-Scharr, Astrid; Rohrer, Franz; Tillmann, Ralf; Wang, Mingjin; Wegner, Robert; Wahner, Andreas; Mentel, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Hydroxyl radical (OH) oxidation and ozonolysis are the two major pathways of daytime biogenic volatile organic compounds (VOCs) oxidation and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation. The pure OH oxidation of monoterpenes, an important biogenic VOC class, has seldom been investigated. In order to elucidate the importance of the reaction pathyways of the OH oxidation and ozonolysis and their roles in particle formation and growth, we investigated the particle formation of several common monoterpenes (alpha-pinene, beta-pinene, and limonene) in the large atmosphere simulation chamber SAPHIR in Juelich, Germany. The experiments were conducted for both OH dominant and pure ozonolysis case (in the presence of CO as OH scavenger) at ambient relevant conditions (low OA, low VOC and low NOx concentration). OH and ozone (O3) concentrations were measured so that the oxidation rates of OH and O3 with precursors were quantified. The particle formation and growth, aerosol yield, multi-generation reaction process and aerosol composition were analyzed. Pure ozonolysis generated a large amount of particles indicating ozonolysis plays an important role in particle formation as well as OH oxidation. In individual experiments, particle growth rates did not necessarily correlate with OH or O3 oxidation rates. However, comparing the growth rates at similar OH or O3 oxidation rates shows that generally, OH oxidation and ozonolysis have similar efficiency in particle growth. Multi-generation products are shown to be important in the OH oxidation experiment based on aerosol yield "growth curve" (Ng et al., 2006). The reaction process of OH oxidation experiments was analyzed as a function of OH dose to elucidate the role of functionalization and fragmentation. A novel analysis was developed to link the particle formation with the reaction with OH, which was also used to examine the role of functionalization and fragmentation in the particle formation by OH oxidation. These analyses show

  5. Rapid degradation of phenol by ultrasound-dispersed nano-metallic particles (NMPs) in the presence of hydrogen peroxide: A possible mechanism for phenol degradation in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jiwan; Yang, Jae-Kyu; Chang, Yoon-Young

    2016-06-15

    The present study was carried out to investigate the degradation of phenol by ultrasonically dispersed nano-metallic particles (NMPs) in an aqueous solution of phenol. Leaching liquor from automobile shredder residue (ASR) was used to obtain the NMPs. The prepared NMPs were analyzed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The SEM images show that the diameters of the NMPs were less than 50 nm. An SEM-EDX elemental analysis reveals that Fe was the most commonly found element (weight %) in the NMPs. The FTIR and XRD peaks indicate the presence of metals oxides on the surfaces of the NMPs. The results of the XPS analysis indicate that various elements (e.g., C, O, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe) are present on the surfaces of the NMPs. The effects of the NMP dose, the initial solution pH, and of different concentrations of phenol and H2O2 on the phenol degradation characteristics were evaluated. The results of this study demonstrate that phenol degradation can be improved by increasing the amount of NMPs, whereas it is reduced with an increase in the phenol concentration. The degradation of phenol by ultrasonically dispersed NMPs followed the pseudo-first-order kinetics. The probable mechanism of phenol degradation by ultrasonically dispersed NMPs was the oxidation of phenol caused by the hydroxyl radicals produced during the reaction between H2O2 and the NMPs during the ultrasonication process.

  6. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of different parts of pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raouia Boumaiza

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are widely distributed in almost all higher plants and are present in different tissues. The quality and quantity of phenolics are used as criteria for variety identification. The present study has been planned to determine the phenolic composition of Pistacia vera.Total phenolic content and concentration of flavonoids of eight different extracts, from the floral buds and leaves of Pistacia vera. (Anacardiaceae were determined using spectrophotometric methods. The total phenolic content ranged from 401.64 to 513.77 (mg GAE/g DW. The total flavonoid concentrations varied from 8.28 to 67.94 mg CE/g.Antioxidant activity was assessed by three methods: DPPH°+, β-carotene and ABTS and determined respectively as IC50 (mg/mL, CAA and PI (%, all extract have shown to be endowed by a high antioxidant activity similar to that of BHT.Ethanolic extract of male floral buds showed the highest phenolic and flavonoid concentration and the strongest antioxidant activity. The significant linear correlation was confirmed between the values for the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity of plant extracts.Phenolic compounds were investigated by LTQ Orbitrap LC-MS analysis and revealed 17compounds split into 5 groups: Abscisic acids, phenolic acids and their derivatives, flavonols, flavanones, flavones, flavanols. The high contents of phenolic compounds indicated that these last contribute to the antioxidant activity. The Pistacia vera can be regarded as promising candidates for natural plant sources of antioxidants with high value.

  7. Fate and transport of monoterpenes through soils. Part II: calculation of the effect of soil temperature, water saturation and organic carbon content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Roon, André; Parsons, John R; Krap, Lenny; Govers, Harrie A J

    2005-09-01

    This theoretical study was performed to investigate the influence of soil temperature, soil water content and soil organic carbon fraction on the mobility of monoterpenes (C10HnOn') applied as pesticides to a top soil layer. This mobility was expressed as the amount volatilized and leached from the contaminated soil layer after a certain amount of time. For this, (slightly modified) published analytical solutions to a one dimensional, homogeneous medium, diffusion/advection/biodegradation mass balance equation were used. The required input-parameters were determined in a preceding study. Because the monoterpenes studied differ widely in the values for their physico-chemical properties, the relative importance of the various determinants also differed widely. Increasing soil water saturation reduced monoterpene vaporization and leaching losses although a modest increase was usually observed at high soil water contents. Organic matter served as the major retention domain, reducing volatilization and leaching losses. Increasing temperature resulted in higher volatilization and leaching losses. Monoterpene mobility was influenced by vertical water flow. Volatilization losses could be reduced by adding a clean soil layer on top of the contaminated soil. Detailed insight into the specific behaviour of different monoterpenes was obtained by discussing intermediate calculation results; the transport retardation factors and effective soil diffusion coefficients. One insight was that the air-water interface compartment is probably not an important partitioning domain for monoterpenes in most circumstances. The results further indicated that biodegradation is an important process for monoterpenes in soil.

  8. The impact of bark beetle infestation on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in Western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Berg

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in Western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the Western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions through both decreased emissions as trees are killed (mortality effect and increased emissions in trees under attack (attack effect. We use 14 yr of beetle mortality data together with beetle-induced monoterpene concentration data in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM to investigate the impact of beetle mortality and attack on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in Western North America.

    Regionally, beetle infestations may have a significant impact on monoterpene emissions and SOA concentrations, with up to a 4-fold increase in monoterpene emissions and up to a 40% increase in SOA concentrations in some years (following a scenario where the attack effect is based on observed lodgepole pine response. Responses to beetle attack depend on the extent of previous mortality and the number of trees under attack in a given year, which can vary greatly over space and time. Simulated enhancements peak in 2004 (British Columbia and 2008 (US. Responses to beetle attack are shown to be substantially larger (up to a 3-fold localized increase in SOA concentrations when following a scenario based on bark-beetle attack in spruce trees. Placed in the context of observations from the IMPROVE network, the changes in SOA concentrations due to beetle attack are in most cases small compared to the large annual and interannual variability in total organic aerosol which is driven by wildfire activity in Western North America. This indicates that most beetle-induced SOA changes are not likely detectable in current observation networks; however these changes may impede efforts to achieve natural visibility conditions in the national parks and

  9. The impact of bark beetle infestations on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol formation in western North America

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. R. Berg

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Over the last decade, extensive beetle outbreaks in western North America have destroyed over 100 000 km2 of forest throughout British Columbia and the western United States. Beetle infestations impact monoterpene emissions through both decreased emissions as trees are killed (mortality effect and increased emissions in trees under attack (attack effect. We use 14 yr of beetle-induced tree mortality data together with beetle-induced monoterpene emission data in the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR Community Earth System Model (CESM to investigate the impact of beetle-induced tree mortality and attack on monoterpene emissions and secondary organic aerosol (SOA formation in western North America. Regionally, beetle infestations may have a significant impact on monoterpene emissions and SOA concentrations, with up to a 4-fold increase in monoterpene emissions and up to a 40% increase in SOA concentrations in some years (in a scenario where the attack effect is based on observed lodgepole pine response. Responses to beetle attack depend on the extent of previous mortality and the number of trees under attack in a given year, which can vary greatly over space and time. Simulated enhancements peak in 2004 (British Columbia and 2008 (US. Responses to beetle attack are shown to be substantially larger (up to a 3-fold localized increase in summertime SOA concentrations in a scenario based on bark-beetle attack in spruce trees. Placed in the context of observations from the IMPROVE network, the changes in SOA concentrations due to beetle attack are in most cases small compared to the large annual and interannual variability in total organic aerosol which is driven by wildfire activity in western North America. This indicates that most beetle-induced SOA changes are not likely detectable in current observation networks; however, these changes may impede efforts to achieve natural visibility conditions in the national parks and wilderness

  10. Housefly (Musca domestica L.) control potential of Cymbopogon citratus Stapf. (Poales: Poaceae) essential oil and monoterpenes (citral and 1,8-cineole).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Peeyush; Mishra, Sapna; Malik, Anushree; Satya, Santosh

    2013-01-01

    In spite of being a major vector for several domestic, medical, and veterinary pests, the control aspect of the common housefly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) is often neglected. In the present study, the essential oil of Cymbopogon citratus and its major components were evaluated for control of housefly. The chemical composition analysis of C. citratus oil by gas chromatographic mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed citral (47 %) and 1,8-cineole (7.5 %) as principal components. The analysis of oil vapor by solid phase microextraction (SPME/GC-MS) showed increase in citral (74.9 %) and 1,8-cineole (8.6 %) content. Assay of oil against housefly larvae and pupae through contact toxicity assay showed lethal concentration (LC)(50) value of 0.41 μl/cm(2) and of percentage inhibition rate (PIR) of 77.3 %, respectively. Fumigation assay was comparatively more effective with LC(50) of 48.6 μl/L against housefly larvae, and a PIR value of 100 % against housefly pupae. The monoterpenes, citral, and 1,8-cineole, when assessed for their insecticidal activity against housefly larvae, showed LC(50) of 0.002 and 0.01 μl/cm(2) (contact toxicity assay) and LC(50) of 3.3 and 2.4 μl/L (fumigation assay). For pupicidal assay, both citral and 1,8-cineole had a PIR value of 100 %. High efficacy of citral and 1,8-cineole against housefly, established them to be an active insecticidal agent of C. citratus oil. The study demonstrates potentiality of C. citratus oil as an excellent insecticide for housefly control, and the results open up the opportunity of oil/monoterpenes being developed into an eco-friendly, economical, and acceptable product.

  11. Supercritical Fluid Extraction (SFE of Monoterpenes from the Leaves of Melaleuca alternifolia (Tea Tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deidre Tronson

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The technique of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE was applied to various sample matrices under a range of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2 densities and chamber temperatures. The purpose was to develop an effective extraction condition for the removal of eight target monoterpenes from Australian tea tree (Melaleuca alternifolia Cheel leaves. The optimum conditions for extraction were found to be 0.25 g/mL scCO2 density at a chamber temperature of 110oC. These condition were most effective when applied to whole fresh and rehydrated whole dried leaves, where it yielded maximum recovery of target analytes with minimum change in oil composition for the extractor system employed. This study demonstrates the importance of the type of sample matrix used in SFE work, and that a different extraction protocol would need to be developed for each matrix.

  12. New fatty acid, aromatic ester and monoterpenic benzyl glucoside from the fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abuzer; Jameel, Mohammad; Ali, Mohammed

    2015-01-01

    The fruits of Withania coagulans Dunal (family: Solanaceae) are sweet, sedative, emetic, alterative and diuretic; used to treat asthma, biliousness, strangury, wounds, dyspepsia, flatulent colic, liver complaints and intestinal infections in the indigenous system of medicine. Phytochemical investigation of the methanolic extract of W. coagulans fruits led to the isolation of a new fatty acid, an aromatic ester and a monoterpenic benzyl glucoside characterised as n-octatriacont-17-enoic acid (3), geranilan-10-olyl dihydrocinnamoate (4) and geranilan-8-oic acid-10-olyl salicyloxy-2-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl-(6″→1‴)-O-β-D-glucofuranosyl-6‴-n-octadec-9‴',11‴'-dienoate (5) along with two known fatty acids, n-dotriacont-21-enoic acid (1) and n-tetratriacontanoic acid (2). The structures of isolated phytoconstituents were established on the basis of 1D and 2D NMR, FT-IR, UV, and MS data and chemical means.

  13. Bioefficacy of acyclic monoterpenes and their saturated derivatives against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaelakis, Antonios; Vidali, Veroniki P; Papachristos, Dimitrios P; Pitsinos, Emmanuel N; Koliopoulos, George; Couladouros, Elias A; Polissiou, Moschos G; Kimbaris, Athanasios C

    2014-02-01

    Twenty acyclic monoterpenes with different functional groups (acetoxy, hydroxyl, carbonyl and carboxyl) bearing a variable number of carbon double bonds were assayed as repellent and larvicidal agents against the West Nile vector Culex pipiens. Seven of them were derivatives that were synthesized through either hydrogenation or oxidation procedures. All repellent compounds were tested at the dose of 1mgcm(-2) and only neral and geranial were also tested at a 4-fold lower dose (0.25mgcm(-2)). Repellency results revealed that geranial, neral, nerol, citronellol, geranyl acetate and three more derivatives dihydrolinalool (3), dihydrocitronellol (5) and dihydrocitronellyl acetate (6) resulted in no landings. Based on the LC50 values the derivative dihydrocitronellyl acetate (6) was the most active of all, resulting in an LC50 value of 17.9mgL(-1). Linalyl acetate, citronellyl acetate, neryl acetate, geranyl acetate, dihydrocitronellol (5), dihydrocitronellal (7), citronellol, dihydrolinalyl acetate (2), citronellic acid and tetrahydrolinalyl acetate (1) were also toxic with LC50 values ranging from 23 to 45mgL(-1). Factors modulating toxicity have been identified, thus providing information on structural requirements for the selected acyclic monoterpenes. The acetoxy group enhanced toxicity, without being significantly affected by the unsaturation degree. Within esters, reduction of the vinyl group appears to decrease potency. Presence of a hydroxyl or carbonyl group resulted in increased activity but only in correlation to saturation degree. Branched alcohols proved ineffective compared to the corresponding linear isomers. Finally, as it concerns acids, data do not allow generalizations or correlations to be made.

  14. Contributions of organic peroxides to secondary aerosol formed from reactions of monoterpenes with O3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Docherty, Kenneth S; Wu, Wilbur; Lim, Yong Bin; Ziemann, Paul J

    2005-06-01

    The role of organic peroxides in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation from reactions of monoterpenes with O3 was investigated in a series of environmental chamber experiments. Reactions were performed with endocyclic (alpha-pinene and delta3-carene) and exocyclic (beta-pinene and sabinene) alkenes in dry and humid air and in the presence of the OH radical scavengers: cyclohexane, 1-propanol, and formaldehyde. A thermal desorption particle beam mass spectrometer was used to probe the identity and volatility of SOA components, and an iodometric-spectrophotometric method was used to quantify organic peroxides. Thermal desorption profiles and mass spectra showed that the most volatile SOA components had vapor pressures similar to pinic acid and that much of the SOA consisted of less volatile species that were probably oligomeric compounds. Peroxide analyses indicated that the SOA was predominantly organic peroxides, providing evidence that the oligomers were mostly peroxyhemiacetals formed by heterogeneous reactions of hydroperoxides and aldehydes. For example, it was estimated that organic peroxides contributed approximately 47 and approximately 85% of the SOA mass formed in the alpha- and beta-pinene reactions, respectively. Reactions performed with different OH radical scavengers indicated that most of the hydroperoxides were formed through the hydroperoxide channel rather than by reactions of stabilized Criegee intermediates. The effect of the OH radical scavenger on the SOA yield was also investigated, and the results were consistent with results of recent experiments and model simulations that support a mechanism based on changes in the [HO2]/[RO2] ratios. These are the first measurements of organic peroxides in monoterpene SOA, and the results have important implications for understanding the mechanisms of SOA formation and the potential effects of atmospheric aerosol particles on the environment and human health.

  15. Transcriptome profiling, and cloning and characterization of the main monoterpene synthases of Coriandrum sativum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galata, Mariana; Sarker, Lukman S; Mahmoud, Soheil S

    2014-06-01

    Terpenoids are a large and diverse class of specialized metabolites that are essential for the growth and development of plants, and have tremendous industrial applications. The mericarps of Coriandrum sativum L. (coriander) produce an essential oil (EO) rich in monoterpenes, volatile C10 terpenoids. To investigate EO metabolism, the transcriptome of coriander mericarps, at three developmental stages (early, mid, late) was sequenced via Illumina technology and a transcript library was produced. To validate the usability of the transcriptome sequences, two terpene synthase candidate genes, CsγTRPS and CsLINS, encoding 558 and 562 amino acid proteins were expressed in bacteria, and the recombinant proteins purified by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. The 65.16 (CsγTRPS) and 65.91 (CsLINS)kDa recombinant proteins catalyzed the conversion of geranyl diphosphate, the precursor to monoterpenes, to γ-terpinene and (S)-linalool, respectively, with apparent Vmax and Km values of 2.24±0.16 (CsγTRPS); 19.63±1.05 (CsLINS)pkat/mg and 66.25±13 (CsγTRPS); 2.5±0.6 (CsLINS)μM, respectively. Together, CsγTRPS and CsLINS account for the majority of EO constituents in coriander mericarps. Investigation of the coriander transcriptome, and knowledge gained from these experiments will facilitate future studies concerning essential and fatty acid oil production in coriander. They also enable efforts to improve the coriander oils through metabolic engineering or plant breeding.

  16. Phenol removal from refinery wastewater by mutant recombinant horseradish peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asad, Sedigheh; Dabirmanesh, Bahareh; Khajeh, Khosro

    2014-01-01

    Application of mutated recombinant horseradish peroxidase (HRP) for phenol removal from refinery effluents is reported. Recombinant HRP produced in Escherichia coli suffers from the disadvantage of lacking glycosylation, which affects its catalytic efficiency and stability toward inactivating parameters such as increased temperature and enhanced amounts of hydrogen peroxide. In the present study, the previously reported variant (in which Asn268 was substituted with Asp, N268D) with improved stability characteristics and catalytic efficiency was used to remove phenol from a petroleum refinery effluent. The presence and removal of phenol was studied by high-performance liquid chromatography; the precipitated oxidized phenol was also observed and removed from the sample by centrifugation. Results showed that the N268D variant can remove 61%, 67%, and 81% of phenol from effluent in 1, 2, and 16 H, respectively. By exploiting the N268D mutant, removal of 50% phenol could be achieved in 42 Min, which was more than 22 times less than the treatment time required by native recombinant enzyme.

  17. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeasts from wastewater in the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Maryam; Hassanshahian, Mehdi

    2016-01-01

    Phenol and phenolic compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Phenol removal from industrial effluents is extremely important for the protection of environment. Usually, phenol degradation is carried out by physicochemical methods that are costly and produce hazardous metabolites. Recently, phenol biodegradation has been considered. Yeasts are the most important phenol biodegraders. In this study, the phenol-degrading yeast from environmental samples (soil and wastewater) was isolated from the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman. Then total heterotrophic yeasts were counted. The soil samples had higher rates of yeast degrader, in comparison to wastewater samples. After three passages, four yeasts (K1, K2, K7 and K11) that had the highest growth rate were selected for further study. Also, these yeasts were able to remove phenol measured by Gibbs reagent. The effect of four different concentrations of phenol (50, 125, 200 and 275) mgL(-1) was measured and three degradation patterns in these yeasts were observed. The hydrophobicity and emulsification activity were measured in all eleven yeasts. Finally, strong yeasts in phenol degrading yeasts were identified by molecular method using amplification of 18S rRNA gene region. The sequencing results showed that these isolated yeasts belonged to Candida tropicalis strain K1, Pichia guilliermondii strain K2, Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain K7 and C. tropicalis strain K11.

  18. Isolation and characterization of phenol degrading yeasts from wastewater in the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Karimi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Phenol and phenolic compounds are environmental pollutants present in industrial wastewaters such as coal tar, oil refineries and petrochemical plants. Phenol removal from industrial effluents is extremely important for the protection of environment. Usually, phenol degradation is carried out by physicochemical methods that are costly and produce hazardous metabolites. Recently, phenol biodegradation has been considered. Yeasts are the most important phenol biodegraders. In this study, the phenol-degrading yeast from environmental samples (soil and wastewater was isolated from the coking plant of Zarand, Kerman. Then total heterotrophic yeasts were counted. The soil samples had higher rates of yeast degrader, in comparison to wastewater samples. After three passages, four yeasts (K1, K2, K7 and K11 that had the highest growth rate were selected for further study. Also, these yeasts were able to remove phenol measured by Gibbs reagent. The effect of four different concentrations of phenol (50, 125, 200 and 275 mg L−1 was measured and three degradation patterns in these yeasts were observed. The hydrophobicity and emulsification activity were measured in all eleven yeasts. Finally, strong yeasts in phenol degrading yeasts were identified by molecular method using amplification of 18S rRNA gene region. The sequencing results showed that these isolated yeasts belonged to Candida tropicalis strain K1, Pichia guilliermondii strain K2, Meyerozyma guilliermondii strain K7 and C. tropicalis strain K11.

  19. Sulfomethylated phenolic material useful in post primary oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stapp, P.R.; Pardue, J.E.

    1986-12-30

    This patent describes a sulfomethylated alkyl phenol compound chosen from among the group consisting of sulfomethylated alkyl phenol, sulfomethylated alkylated bis-phenol, and sulfomethylated alkylated naphthol.

  20. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Leila Abaza; Amani Taamalli; Houda Nsir; Mokhtar Zarrouk

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analyt...

  1. DETECTION OF PHENOL DEGRADING BACTERIA AND PSEUDOMONAS PUTIDA IN ACTIVATED SLUDGE BY POLYMERASE CHAIN REACTION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Movahedyan ، H. Khorsandi ، R. Salehi ، M. Nikaeen

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Phenol is one of the organic pollutants in various industrial wastewaters especially petrochemical and oil refining. Biological treatment is one of the considerable choices for removing of phenol present in these wastewaters. Identification of effective microbial species is considered as one of the important priorities for production of the biomass in order to achieve desirable kinetic of biological reactions. Basic purpose of this research is identification of phenol-degrading Pseudomonas Putida in activated sludge by polymerase chain reaction (PCR that has high speed and specificity. In this research, 10 various colonies of phenol-degrading bacteria were isolated from municipal activated sludge and the rate of phenol removal and growth rate of these bacteria were assessed in different concentrations of phenol (200 – 900 mg/L. Confirmation of the largest subunit of multicomponent phenol hydroxylase (LmPH gene and gene coding the N fragment in Pseudomonas Putida-derived methyl phenol operon (DmpN gene through PCR were used for general identification of phenol-degrading bacteria and Pseudomonas Putida, respectively. Presence of a 600 bp (base pairs bond in all of isolated strains indicated that they contain phenol hydroxylase gene. 6 of 10 isolated bacteria were Pseudomonas Putida because they produced a 199 bp PCR product by DmpN primers. According to PCR results in this study, the best phenol-degrading bacteria that can utilize 500 – 600 mg/L phenol completely after 48 hours incubation, belong to Pseudomonas Putida strains. It is clear that use of isolated bacteria can lead to considerable decrease of treatment time as well as promotion of phenol removal rate.

  2. Hplc analysis of phenolic acids in mountain germander (Teucrium montanum L extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumbas Vesna T.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The methanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, 1-butanol and water extracts were obtained by extraction of mountain germander (Teucrium montanum L. The total phenolic content in extracts was measured by Folin-Ciocalteu method. The 1-butanol extract had the highest phenolic content (296.00 mg/g. High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC was employed to define qualitative and quantitative content of phenolic acids in mountain germander extracts. The largest number of phenolic acids were determined in ethyl acetate and 1-butanol extracts, while these acids were not present in petroleum ether extract. The highest content of phenolic acids (28.619 mg/g had ethyl acetate extract and gentisic acid (14.432 mg/g was its major component. Despite of a large number of phenolic acids in 1-butanol extract their content was only 3.740 mg/g.

  3. Biological hydrogen production from phenol-containing wastewater using Clostridium butyricum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tai, Jung; Adav, Sunil S.; Lee, Duu-Jong [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Taiwan University, Taipei 10617 (China); Su, Ay [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Fuel Cell Center, Yuan-Ze University, Chungli, 32003 (China)

    2010-12-15

    Toxicity renders certain industrial effluents unfit for recovering its bioenergy content. An enriched single strain, Clostridium butyricum, was herein applied to fermentatively produce hydrogen from glucose in the presence of 200-1500 mg L{sup -1} of phenol. The enriched C. butyricum yielded hydrogen at approximately 1.4 mol H{sub 2} mol{sup -1} glucose in the presence of 200-400 mg L{sup -1} phenol. Significant inhibition of cell metabolism was noted at phenol concentration >1000 mg L{sup -1}. During glucose fermentation, phenol dosed at 200-400 mg L{sup -1} was partly co-degraded. Ethanol and acetate were the primary metabolites, whose yields increased with increasing phenol concentration. The present results revealed the potential to harvest hydrogen from a toxic (phenol-containing) wastewater. (author)

  4. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L. Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Abaza

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analytical methods used to extract, identify, and/or quantify phenolic compounds in olive leaves.

  5. Olive Tree (Olea europeae L.) Leaves: Importance and Advances in the Analysis of Phenolic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abaza, Leila; Taamalli, Amani; Nsir, Houda; Zarrouk, Mokhtar

    2015-11-03

    Phenolic compounds are becoming increasingly popular because of their potential role in contributing to human health. Experimental evidence obtained from human and animal studies demonstrate that phenolic compounds from Olea europaea leaves have biological activities which may be important in the reduction in risk and severity of certain chronic diseases. Therefore, an accurate profiling of phenolics is a crucial issue. In this article, we present a review work on current treatment and analytical methods used to extract, identify, and/or quantify phenolic compounds in olive leaves.

  6. Removal of phenols from the water effluents of olive presses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamboliadis, Elias; Emejulu, Anthony; Pantelaki, Olga; Pentari, Despina; Petrakis, Evangelos

    2012-11-01

    The water effluents of olive presses contain a number of phenols that are hardly biodegradable and therefore constitute an environmental hazard, mainly in the Mediterranean countries. The present work presents the results obtained from the study of artificial solutions containing one kind of phenol, namely gallic acid that consists of the main type of phenols present. According to the experimental procedure, the phenol is removed from the water solution by absorption on different naturally occurring raw rock materials. The first material is caustic magnesia produced after the calcination of a magnesite sample from Macedonia, Greece, the second is a sample of sedimentary psammitic marl from the area of Chania, Crete, Greece, and the third solid absorbent is a bentonite sample from the island of Milos, Greece. According to the results obtained, magnesia seems to be by far the best absorbent, with an absorbing capacity of 3500 mg of phenol per gram, followed by the psammitic marl. The absorbing capacity of bentonite is almost negligible

  7. Inhibited phenol ionization in reverse micelles: confinement effect at the nanometer scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, O Fernando; Fernández, Mariana A; Silber, Juana J; de Rossi, Rita H; Correa, N Mariano

    2012-01-16

    We found that the absorption spectra of 2-acetylphenol (2-HAP), 4-acetylphenol (4-HAP), and p-nitrophenol (p-NPh) in water/sodium 1,4-bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT)/n-heptane reverse micelles (RMs) at various W(0) (W(0) = [H(2)O]/[surfactant]) values studied changed with time if (-)OH ions were present in the RM water pool. There is an evolution of ionized phenol (phenolate) bands to nonionized phenol absorption bands with time and this process is faster at low W(0) values and with phenols with higher bulk water pK(a) values. That is, in bulk water and at the hydroxide anion concentration used, only phenolate species are observed, whereas in AOT RMs at this fixed hydroxide anion concentration, ionized phenols convert into nonionized phenol species over time. Furthermore, we demonstrate that, independent of the (-)OH concentration used to prepare the AOT RMs, the nonionized phenols are the more stable species in the RM media. We explain our results by considering that strong hydrogen-bonding interactions between phenols and the AOT polar head groups result in the existence of only nonionized phenols at the AOT RM interface. The situation is quite different when the phenols are dissolved in cationic benzyl-n-hexadecyldimethylammonium chloride RMs. Therein, only phenolates species are present at the (-)OH concentrations used. The results clearly demonstrate that the classical definition of pH does not apply in a confined environment, such as in the interior of RMs and challenge the general idea that pH can be determined inside RMs.

  8. Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase: Isolation of the gene and characterization of the recombinant non-head-to-tail monoterpene synthase from Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium

    OpenAIRE

    Rivera, Susan B.; Swedlund, Bradley D.; King, Gretchen J.; Bell, Russell N.; Hussey, Charles E.; Shattuck-Eidens, Donna M.; Wrobel, Wislawa M.; Peiser, Galen D.; Poulter, C. Dale

    2001-01-01

    Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CPPase) catalyzes the condensation of two molecules of dimethylallyl diphosphate to produce chrysanthemyl diphosphate (CPP), a monoterpene with a non-head-to-tail or irregular c1′-2-3 linkage between isoprenoid units. Irregular monoterpenes are common in Chrysanthemum cinerariaefolium and related members of the Asteraceae family. In C. cinerariaefolium, CPP is an intermediate in the biosynthesis of the pyrethrin ester insecticides. CPPa...

  9. Organochalcogen substituents in phenolic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amorati, Riccardo; Pedulli, Gian Franco; Valgimigli, Luca; Johansson, Henrik; Engman, Lars

    2010-05-21

    Little is known about the ED/EW character of organochalcogen substituents and their contribution to the O-H bond dissociation enthalpy (BDE) in phenolic compounds. A series of ortho- and para-(S,Se,Te)R-substituted phenols were prepared and investigated by EPR, IR, and computational methods. Substituents lowered the O-H BDE by >3 kcal/mol in the para position, while the ortho-effect was modest due to hydrogen bonding ( approximately 3 kcal/mol) to the O-H group.

  10. Compositional differences in the phenolics compounds of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    This study evaluates phenolic composition of commercial and experimental ... white wines, some contained large number of phenolic compounds while the others showed smaller number of ..... Synthesis, Properties, and Significance. Plenum ...

  11. CORRELATION AMONG PHENOLIC, TOXIC METALS AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    The content of metals, total phenols, flavonoids and antioxidant activities of different plant extracts, used in .... Correlation among phenolic, content of toxic metals and antioxidant activity. Bull. Chem. ..... cosmetic and pharmaceutical products.

  12. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas H. Roberts

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the presence of total phenolics, while spectrophotometric and chromatographic techniques are utilized to identify and quantify individual phenolic compounds. This review addresses the application of different methodologies utilized in the analysis of phenolic compounds in plant-based products, including recent technical developments in the quantification of phenolics.

  13. Expression of spearmint limonene synthase in transgenic spike lavender results in an altered monoterpene composition in developing leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Bertomeu, Jesús; Ros, Roc; Arrillaga, Isabel; Segura, Juan

    2008-01-01

    We generated transgenic spike lavender (Lavandula latifolia) plants constitutively expressing the limonene synthase (LS) gene from spearmint (Mentha spicata), encoding the LS enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of limonene from geranyl diphosphate. Overexpression of the LS transgene did not consistently affect monoterpene profile in pooled leaves or flowers from transgenic T(0) plants. Analyses from cohorts of leaves sampled at different developmental stages showed that essential oil accumulation in transgenic and control plants was higher in developing than in mature leaves. Furthermore, developing leaves of transgenic plants contained increased limonene contents (more than 450% increase compared to controls) that correlated with the highest transcript accumulation of the LS gene. The levels of other monoterpene pathway components were also significantly altered. T(0) transgenic plants were grown for 2 years, self-pollinated, and the T(1) seeds obtained. The increased limonene phenotype was maintained in the progenies that inherited the LS transgene.

  14. Monoterpene emissions from needles of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) grown under elevated carbon dioxide and ozone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mochizuki, Tomoki; Watanabe, Makoto; Koike, Takayoshi; Tani, Akira

    2017-01-01

    We measured monoterpene emissions from needles of hybrid larch F1 (Larix gmelinii var. japonica × Larix kaempferi) to evaluate the response of monoterpene emission rates and their composition to elevated CO2 (600 μmol mol-1) and O3 (60 nmol mol-1) conditions. The dominant monoterpenes were α-pinene and β-pinene. The emission rate of total monoterpenes significantly decreased under elevated CO2 conditions (P photosynthetically fixed carbon also significantly decreased under elevated CO2 conditions. By contrast, elevated O3 did not significantly affect the emission rate of total monoterpenes. The ratios of α-pinene/β-pinene, limonene/β-pinene, and myrcene/β-pinene were all significantly decreased by O3 exposure (P < 0.05). High reactivity of α-pinene, limonene, and myrcene when combining with O3 may be able to mitigate oxidative damage inside the larch needles. No significant combined effects of elevated CO2 and O3 on individual or total monoterpene emissions were detected.

  15. 40 CFR 721.7210 - Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. 721.7210 Section 721.7210 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.7210 Epoxidized copolymer of phenol and substituted phenol. (a)...

  16. Techniques for Analysis of Plant Phenolic Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Roberts, Thomas H.; Meredith A. Wilkes; Ali Khoddami

    2013-01-01

    Phenolic compounds are well-known phytochemicals found in all plants. They consist of simple phenols, benzoic and cinnamic acid, coumarins, tannins, lignins, lignans and flavonoids. Substantial developments in research focused on the extraction, identification and quantification of phenolic compounds as medicinal and/or dietary molecules have occurred over the last 25 years. Organic solvent extraction is the main method used to extract phenolics. Chemical procedures are used to detect the pre...

  17. Hygroscopicity of secondary organic aerosols formed by oxidation of cycloalkenes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and related compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Varutbangkul

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of experiments has been conducted in the Caltech indoor smog chamber facility to investigate the water uptake properties of aerosol formed by oxidation of various organic precursors. Secondary organic aerosol (SOA from simple and substituted cycloalkenes (C5-C8 is produced in dark ozonolysis experiments in a dry chamber (RH~5%. Biogenic SOA from monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and oxygenated terpenes is formed by photooxidation in a humid chamber (~50% RH. Using the hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer (HTDMA, we measure the diameter-based hygroscopic growth factor (GF of the SOA as a function of time and relative humidity. All SOA studied is found to be slightly hygroscopic, with smaller water uptake than that of typical inorganic aerosol substances. The aerosol water uptake increases with time early in the experiments for the cycloalkene SOA, but decreases with time for the sesquiterpene SOA. This behavior could indicate competing effects between the formation of more highly oxidized polar compounds (more hygroscopic, and formation of longer-chained oligomers (less hygroscopic. All SOA also exhibit a smooth water uptake with RH with no deliquescence or efflorescence. The water uptake curves are found to be fitted well with an empirical three-parameter functional form. The measured pure organic GF values at 85% RH are between 1.09–1.16 for SOA from ozonolysis of cycloalkenes, 1.01–1.04 for sesquiterpene photooxidation SOA, and 1.06–1.10 for the monoterpene and oxygenated terpene SOA. The GF of pure SOA (GForg in experiments in which inorganic seed aerosol is used is determined by assuming volume-weighted water uptake (Zdanovskii-Stokes-Robinson or 'ZSR' approach and using the size-resolved organic mass fraction measured by the Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer. Knowing the water content associated with the inorganic fraction yields GForg values. However, for each precursor, the GForg values computed from different

  18. 40 CFR 721.5867 - Substituted phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenol. 721.5867 Section... Substances § 721.5867 Substituted phenol. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance generically identified as substituted phenol (PMNs P-89-1125,...

  19. Carbohydrate modified phenol-formaldehyde resins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anthony H. Conner; Linda F. Lorenz

    1986-01-01

    For adhesive self-sufficiency, the wood industry needs new adhesive systems in which all or part of the petroleum-derived phenolic component is replaced by a renewable material without sacrificing high durability or ease of bonding. We tested the bonding of wood veneers, using phenolic resins in which part of the phenol-formaldehyde was replaced with carbohydrates. Our...

  20. Phenolic acids in some cereal grains and their inhibitory effect on starch liquefaction and saccharification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kandil, Amin; Li, Jihong; Vasanthan, Thava; Bressler, David C

    2012-08-29

    The presence of phenolic acids in cereal grain is thought to influence starch hydrolysis during liquefaction and saccharification of grain flours in the bioethanol industry. As a basis for remodeling starch hydrolysis systems and understanding inhibition mechanisms, the composition and concentration of phenolic acids in whole grain flours of triticale, wheat, barley, and corn were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The total phenolic acid contents (sum of nine phenolic acids) in the four grains were 1.14, 1.70, 0.90, and 1.25 mg/g, respectively, with more than 90% found in the bound form. Ferulic, coumaric, and protocatechuic acids were the major phenolic acids in triticale and wheat. Gallic acid was also rich in triticale. Ferulic, coumaric, hydroxybenzoic, and gallic acids were predominant in barley. In corn, ferulic, coumaric, gallic, and syringic acids were abundant. On the basis of these profiles, pure phenolic acids were added individually and collectively to isolated starches at amounts either equivalent to or 3 times those in the whole grains for hydrolysis. The degree of starch hydrolysis with α-amylase and amyloglucosidase decreased up to 8% when individual phenolic acids were present in cooked starch slurry. The decreases were more pronounced when phenolic acids were added collectively (4-5% with α-amylase and 9-13% with sequential α-amylase and amyloglucosidase). The study of a phenolic acid-starch-enzyme model system indicated that the interactions of phenolic acid-enzyme and phenolic acid-starch significantly contributed to the inhibitory effect of starch hydrolysis. Heating facilitated the interactions. Phenolic acids thus play a significant role in the resistance of starch to enzyme and/or the loss of enzyme activity during starch hydrolysis.

  1. Trichlorinated phenols from Hypholoma elongatum.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Swarts, H.J.; Verhagen, F.J.M.; Field, J.A.; Wijnberg, J.B.P.A.

    1998-01-01

    Three trichlorinated phenols, 2,4,6-trichloro-3-methoxyphenol, 3,5,6-trichloro-2,4-dimethoxyphenol and 3,4,6-trichloro-2,5-dimethoxyphenol, were detected as novel metabolites in the ethyl acetate extract from the culture medium of the Basidiomycete, Hypholoma elongatum (strain WIJS94-28).

  2. Lignin phenols derivatives in lichens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavarzina, A G; Romankevich, E A; Peresypkin, V I; Ulyantzev, A S; Belyaev, N A; Zavarzin, A A

    2015-01-01

    Lignin monophenols have been measured in the cupric oxide oxidation products from lichens of different systematic groups. It is shown for the first time that syringyl structures in most lichens strongly dominate over vanillyl and p-hydroxyl ones (S/V 7-583, S/P 3-30). This distinguishes lichens from algae and mosses (p-hydroxyl phenols are dominant) and from higher plants (S/V ratios are from 0 in gymnosperms to 1.1-5.2 in angiosperms). Molecular ratios of phenols as well as the ratios of acids to aldehydes in lichens were different from lignin of higher plants, suggesting contribution of non-lignin phenols in CuO oxidation products. The contents of syringyl and vanillyl phenols in some lichen species were comparable to non-woody tissues of higher plants. Results of the study suggest that lichens can be important source of aromatic structures in soils and hydrosphere, particularly in the regions were lichens are abundant.

  3. Development of Simple Bacterial Biosensor for Phenol Detection in Water at Medium Concentration using Glass Microelectrode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setyawan Purnomo Sakti

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Water is one of the most fundamental natural resources in earth. The availability of clean water becomes a global interest. Many human activities result in water pollution. One from many pollution substances in water is phenol. Phenol is a very common residual compound in industrial activity. Extensive use of phenol in industry degrades water quality. Regulation has been set in many countries to prevent further damage to the water resource caused by phenol and limiting phenol concentration in water before released into the environment. Therefor it is importance to develop a sensor which can detect phenol concentration in water to be used as a wastewater quality control system. This paper presents a development of bacterial biosensor using Pseudomonas putida and Pseudomonas fluorescens as a biological sensitive material. The sensor was made from glass micro electrode using Ag/AgCl electrode as reference electrode, silver electrode and cellulose ester. The Pseudomonas putida was entrapped inside the nutrient solution and separated by cellulose ester membrane from water containing phenol. It was found that the Pseudomonas putida in used must be growth in 10 hours to reach its optimum growth condition. Linear relationship between biosensor output voltages to phenol concentration was measured for phenol concentration below 200 ppm. The sensitivity of the developed biosensor was 72mV/ppm for Pseudomonas putida and 68.8 mV/ppm for Pseudomonas fluorescens.

  4. Synthesis, characterization and self-assembly of Co3+ complexes appended with phenol and catechol groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Afsar Ali; Deepak Bansal; Rajeev Gupt

    2014-09-01

    This work presents the syntheses, characterization and hydrogen bonding based self-assembly of Co3+ complexes of pyridine-amide based bidentate ligands containing appended phenol and catechol groups. Placement of multiple hydrogen bond donors (phenolic OH and amidic NH groups) and acceptors (Oamide groups) in these molecules results in interesting self-assembled architectures.

  5. Effect of Mentha x piperita essential oil and monoterpenes on cucumber root membrane potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maffei, M; Camusso, W; Sacco, S

    2001-11-01

    Peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil and its main components were assessed for their ability to interfere with plant plasma membrane potentials. Tests were conducted on root segments isolated from etiolated seedlings of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). Increasing the concentration of peppermint essential oil from 5 to 50 ppm caused a decrease in membrane potential (Vm) hyperpolarization of 10-3 mV, whereas concentrations from 100 up to 900 ppm caused an increasing depolarization of Vm (from 5 to 110 mV). When tested at 300 ppm, (+)-menthyl acetate, (-)-limonene and 1,8-cineole did not exert any significant effect on V(m), whereas (+)-menthofuran (73 mV), (+)-pulegone (85 mV), (+)-neomenthol (96 mV), (-)-menthol (105 mV) and (-)-menthone (111 mV) showed increased ability to depolarize V(m). A plot of log of octanol-water partition coefficient (K(ow)) against their depolarizing effect showed a significant negative correlation, suggesting that among all monoterpenoids increased membrane depolarization depends on lower K(ow). However, among monoterpene ketones, alcohols and furans, increased membrane depolarization is associated with a decline in water solubility. The possible effect of monoterpenoids on membrane ion fluxes is also discussed, since changes in the bioelectric potential of cells imply changes in the flux of ions across the plasma membrane

  6. Biochemical and Histochemical Localization of Monoterpene Biosynthesis in the Glandular Trichomes of Spearmint (Mentha spicata) 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gershenzon, Jonathan; Maffei, Massimo; Croteau, Rodney

    1989-01-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (−)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C10 isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (−)-limonene, hydroxylation to (−)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 PMID:16666709

  7. Biochemical and histochemical localization of monoterpene biosynthesis in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gershenzon, J.; Maffei, M.; Croteau, R. (Washington State Univ., Pullman (USA))

    1989-04-01

    The primary monoterpene accumulated in the glandular trichomes of spearmint (Mentha spicata) is the ketone (-)-carvone which is formed by cyclization of the C{sub 10} isoprenoid intermediate geranyl pyrophosphate to the olefin (-)-limonene, hydroxylation to (-)-trans-carveol and subsequent dehydrogenation. Selective extraction of the contents of the glandular trichomes indicated that essentially all of the cyclase and hydroxylase activities resided in these structures, whereas only about 30% of the carveol dehydrogenase was located here with the remainder located in the rest of the leaf. This distribution of carveol dehydrogenase activity was confirmed by histochemical methods. Electrophoretic analysis of the partially purified carveol dehydrogenase from extracts of both the glands and the leaves following gland removal indicated the presence of a unique carveol dehydrogenase species in the glandular trichomes, suggesting that the other dehydrogenase found throughout the leaf probably utilizes carveol only as an adventitious substrate. These results demonstrate that carvone biosynthesis takes place exclusively in the glandular trichomes in which this natural product accumulates.

  8. Antihypertensive effect of auraptene, a monoterpene coumarin from the genus Citrus, upon chronic administration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bibi Marjan Razavi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s: Auraptene, a monoterpene coumarin from Citrus species, exhibits cardioprotective effects.In this study, the effects of auraptene administration were investigated on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA salt induced hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: Five weeks administration of auraptene (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg/day and nifedipine (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg/day in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 3 weeks treatment by DOCA salt was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP and mean heart rate (MHR were evaluated using tail cuff method. Results: Our results indicated that chronic administration of auraptene (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg/day significantly reduced the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose and time dependent manner. The percent of decreases in MSBP levels by the highest dose of auraptene (16 mg/kg at the end of 4 th to 8 th weeks, were 7.00%, 10.78%, 16.07%, 21.28% and 27.54% respectively(P

  9. Adaptive evolution of the chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase gene involved in irregular monoterpene metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Ping-Li

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chrysanthemyl diphosphate synthase (CDS is a key enzyme in biosynthetic pathways producing pyrethrins and irregular monoterpenes. These compounds are confined to plants of the tribe Anthemideae of the Asteraceae, and play an important role in defending the plants against herbivorous insects. It has been proposed that the CDS genes arose from duplication of the farnesyl diphosphate synthase (FDS gene and have different function from FDSs. However, the duplication time toward the origin of CDS and the evolutionary force behind the functional divergence of the CDS gene are still unknown. Results Two duplication events were detected in the evolutionary history of the FDS gene family in the Asteraceae, and the second duplication led to the origin of CDS. CDS occurred after the divergence of the tribe Mutisieae from other tribes of Asteraceae but before the birth of the Anthemideae tribe. After its origin, CDS accumulated four mutations in sites homologous to the substrate-binding and catalysis sites of FDS. Of these, two sites were involved in the binding of the nucleophilic substrate isopentenyl diphosphate in FDS. Maximum likelihood analyses showed that some sites in CDS were under positive selection and were scattered throughout primary sequences, whereas in the three-dimensional structure model they clustered in the large central cavity. Conclusion Positive selection associated with gene duplication played a major role in the evolution of CDS.

  10. Induction of allergic contact dermatitis by astigmatid mite-derived monoterpene, alpha-acaridial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasai, Toshio; Hirano, Yunosuke; Maeda, Sayaka; Matsunaga, Isamu; Otsuka, Atsushi; Morita, Daisuke; Nishida, Ritsuo; Nakayama, Hideo; Kuwahara, Yasumasa; Sugita, Masahiko; Mori, Naoki

    2008-10-24

    alpha-Acaridial [2(E)-(4-methyl-3-pentenyl)butenedial] is a novel monoterpene secreted from the house dust mites. Because of its molecular nature of a highly reactive, small lipidic compound, we addressed whether alpha-acaridial might function as a haptenic allergen that induced allergic contact dermatitis. Mice sensitized with alpha-acaridial were challenged by the same antigen on the ear skin. After 2 days, significant ear swelling with a prominent infiltration of CD4(+) T lymphocytes was observed. In vitro, alpha-acaridial exhibited an outstanding ability to quickly interact with and chemically modify a reference protein. Virtually all cysteine residues and a sizable fraction of lysine residues were found to be selectively modified, suggesting that alpha-acaridial could potentially interact with any proteins. Previously, numerous mite-derived proteinaceous allergens have been associated with contact dermatitis. Our study now emphasizes that small lipidic compounds released from mites comprise a new class of mite allergens, and therefore, is of significant medical implications.

  11. Borneol, a Bicyclic Monoterpene Alcohol, Reduces Nociceptive Behavior and Inflammatory Response in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva Almeida

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Borneol, a bicyclic monoterpene, has been evaluated for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities were studied by measuring nociception by acetic acid, formalin, hot plate, and grip strength tests, while inflammation was prompted by carrageenan-induced peritonitis. The rotarod test was used to evaluate motor coordination. Borneol produced a significant (P<0.01 reduction of the nociceptive behavior at the early and late phases of paw licking and reduced the writhing reflex in mice (formalin and writhing tests, resp.. When the hot plate test was conducted, borneol (in higher dose produced an inhibition (P<0.05 of the nociceptive behavior. Such results were unlikely to be provoked by motor abnormality. Additionally, borneol-treated mice reduced the carrageenan-induced leukocytes migration to the peritoneal cavity. Together, our results suggest that borneol possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive activity; it has also anti-inflammatory activity. In addition, borneol did not impair motor coordination.

  12. Optically active conjugated polymer from solvent chirality transfer polymerization in monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyojin; Lee, Daehoon; Lee, Seul; Suzuki, Nozomu; Fujiki, Michiya; Lee, Chang-Lyoul; Kwak, Giseop

    2013-09-01

    Disubstituted acetylene monomers [1,2-diphenylacetylenes (DPAs: DPA-pC1, DPA-mC1, DPA-pC8); 1-phenyl-2-hexylacetylene (PHA-pC1)] are tested for asymmetric polymerization in chiral monoterpenes used as solvents and compared with the corresponding monosubstituted acetylene monomer [1-phenylacetylene (PA-pC1)]. DPA-pC1 containing a trimethylsilyl group in the para-position of the phenyl ring produces an optically active polymer with a large Cotton effect, despite the absence of a stereogenic center. The polymer sample obtained by polymerization in 87% ee (-)-α-pinene shows the strongest CD signal (gCD value at 385 nm: ∼3.2 × 10⁻³). The Cotton bands of the polymers obtained in (-)- and (+)-α-pinenes show the opposite sign in the CD signals. Theoretical calculations show that only the cis-cisoid model adopts a helical conformation. A time-correlated single photon counting experiment shows that the emission of the chiral polymer originates from a virtually single excited species with a 98% component fraction. This polymer solution does not show any significant decrease in gCD value over a wide temperature range of 20 to 80 °C. No noticeable decrease in the gCD value is detected when the polymer solution is kept at relatively low temperatures for a prolonged period (35 d). In contrast, the other polymers show no CD signal.

  13. Active monoterpene ketones isolated from Rosmarinus officinalis with fumigant and contact action against Tyrophagus putrescentiae (Schrank).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Ju-Hyun; Park, Jun-Hwan; Chung, Namhyun; Lee, Hoi-Seon

    2014-08-01

    The acaricidal activities of an active material derived from Rosmarinus officinalis oil and its relative monoterpene ketones were determined using fumigant and contact toxicity bioassays against Tyrophagus putrescentiae and were compared with that of a commercial acaricide (benzyl benzoate). The active component of R. officinalis oil, isolated by silica gel column chromatography and high-performance liquid chromatography, was identified as camphor, based on various spectroscopic analyses. In the fumigant toxicity bioassay, camphor (2.25 μg/cm(3)) was 5.58 times more active than benzyl benzoate (12.56 μg/cm(3)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (3.89 μg/cm(3)) and (-)-camphor (5.61 μg/cm(3)). In the contact toxicity bioassay, camphor (1.34 μg/cm(2)) was 6.74 times more toxic than benzyl benzoate (9.03 μg/cm(2)) against T. putrescentiae, followed by (+)-camphor (2.23 μg/cm(2)) and (-)-camphor (2.94 μg/cm(2)). These results indicate that camphor and its derivatives are very useful as potential control agents against stored food mites regardless of the application method.

  14. Inhibition of N-nitrosodiethylamine carcinogenesis in mice by naturally occurring organosulfur compounds and monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wattenberg, L W; Sparnins, V L; Barany, G

    1989-05-15

    Naturally occurring compounds belonging to two chemical groups were studied for their capacities to inhibit N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA)-induced carcinogenesis in female A/J mice. One group consists of organosulfur compounds found in Allium species, including garlic, onions, leeks, and shallots, and the other, two monoterpenes, i.e., D-limonene and D-carvone. In an initial experiment, in which organosulfur compounds were investigated, diallyl disulfide, allyl mercaptan, and allyl methyl disulfide were found to produce a marked inhibition of NDEA-induced neoplasia of the forestomach when the test compounds were administered p.o. 96 and 48 h prior to NDEA. The most potent was diallyl disulfide which reduced forestomach tumor formation by more than 90%. Pulmonary adenoma formation also was inhibited but to a considerably lesser extent, i.e., about 30%. In three additional experiments, test compounds were given p.o. either 15 min or 1 h prior to NDEA. Under these conditions diallyl disulfide and allyl mercaptan again inhibited forestomach tumor formation substantially, i.e., greater than 75%, and pulmonary adenoma formation marginally, i.e., less than 20%. In these experiments D-limonene and D-carvone were tested and reduced forestomach tumor formation by slightly over 60% and pulmonary adenoma formation by about 35%. The results of these studies provide evidence of an increasing diversity of naturally occurring compounds having the capacity to inhibit nitrosamine carcinogenesis.

  15. Essential oils chemical composition, antioxidant activities and total phenols of Astrodaucus persicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid Goodarzi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective(s:Astrodaucus persicus, Apiaceae, is used as vegetable or food additive in some parts of Iran. The essential oils of different parts of Astrodaucus persicus from Kordestan province were analyzed for the first time and compared with other regions. In this study, antioxidant activities and total phenols determination of aerial parts essential oils and root fractions of A. persicus were investigated. Materials and Methods: The essential oils were obtained by hydro-distillation from flowers/fruits, leaves/stems, ripe fruits and roots of plant and analyzed by GC-MS. Crude root extract was fractionated with hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol. Antioxidant activities by DPPH and FRAP methods and total phenols by Folin-ciocalteu assay were measured. Results: The abundant compounds of flowers/fruits blue essential oil were α-thujene, β-pinene and α-pinene. The predominant components of blue leaves/stems essential oil were α-thujene, α-pinene and α-fenchene. The major volatiles of ripe fruits blue essential oil were β-pinene, α-thujene and α-pinene. The chief compounds of root yellow essential oil were trans-caryophyllene, bicycogermacrene and germacrene-D. Total root extract and ethyl acetate fraction showed potent antioxidant activities and high amount of total phenols in comparison to other samples. Among volatile oils, the flowers/fruits essential oil showed potent reducing capacity. Conclusion: The major compounds of aerial parts essential oils were hydrocarbon monoterpenes while the chief percentage of roots essential oil constituents were hydrocarbon sesquiterpenes. α-Eudesmol and β-eudesmol were identified as responsible for creation of blue color in aerial parts essential oils. A. persicus was known as a potent antioxidant among Apiaceae.

  16. Supercritical CO2 Extraction of Lavandula angustifolia Mill. Flowers: Optimisation of Oxygenated Monoterpenes, Coumarin and Herniarin Content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerković, Igor; Molnar, Maja; Vidović, Senka; Vladić, Jelena; Jokić, Stela

    2017-07-14

    Lavandula angustifolia is good source of oxygenated monoterpenes containing coumarins as well, which are all soluble in supercritical CO2 (SC-CO2 ). The study objective is to investigate SC-CO2 extraction parameters on: the total yield; GC-MS profile of the extracts; relative content of oxygenated monoterpenes; the amount of coumarin and herniarin; and to determine optimal SC-CO2 extraction conditions by response surface methodology (RSM). SC-CO2 extraction was performed under different pressure, temperature and CO2 flow rate determined by Box-Behnken design (BBD). The sample mass and the extraction time were kept constant. The chemical profiles and relative content of oxygenated monoterpenes (as coumarin equivalents, CE) were determined by GC-MS. Coumarin and herniarin concentrations were dosed by HPLC. SC-CO2 extracts contained linalool (57.4-217.9 mg CE/100 g), camphor (10.6-154.4 mg CE/100 g), borneol (6.2-99.9 mg CE/100 g), 1,8-cineole (5.0-70.4 mg CE/100 g), linalyl acetate (86.1-267.9 mg CE/100 g), coumarin (0.95-18.16 mg/100 g), and herniarin (0.95-13.63 mg/100 g). The interaction between the pressure and CO2 flow rate as well as between the temperature and CO2 flow rate showed statistically significant influence on the extraction yield. Applying BBD, the optimum extraction conditions for higher monoterpenes and lower coumarin content were at 10 MPa, 41°C and CO2 flow rate 2.3 kg/h, and at 30 MPa, 50°C and CO2 flow rate 3 kg/h for higher monoterpenes and coumarin content. SC-CO2 extraction is a viable technique for obtaining lavender extracts with desirable flavour components. The second-order model based on BBD predicts the results for SC-CO2 extraction quite satisfactorily. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. How have both cultivation and warming influenced annual global isoprene and monoterpene emissions since the preindustrial era?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Tanaka

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available To examine the influence of both crop cultivation and surface air temperatures (SATs on annual global isoprene and monoterpene emissions, which can lead to the formation of secondary organic aerosols (SOAs, we simulated, on a monthly basis, the annual emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOCs during the period 1854–2000. The model estimates were based on historical climate data such as SATs, and downward solar radiation (DSR reproduced with an atmospheric-ocean circulation model, as well as a time series of the global distribution of cropland (to test the hypothesis that conversion of forests into croplands lowers emissions. The simulations demonstrated that global SAT, DSR, the combination of SAT and DSR, and the expansion of cropland all affected emissions. The effect of cropland expansion (i.e., forest conversion on annual emissions during this period was larger for isoprene (~7% reduction on a global scale than for monoterpenes (~2% reduction, mainly because of the reduction in broadleaf evergreen forests (BEFs in Southeast Asia, which have the highest and most constant emissions of isoprene and where both temperature and radiation are high all year round. The reduction in the Amazon region and in parts of Africa, which are other primary sources of annual global isoprene emissions, but where the conversion of BEF to cropland has been much smaller than in Southeast Asia, was less remarkable, probably because the broadleaf deciduous forests and C4 grasslands in these areas have lower and seasonal emissions; hence, their conversion has less effect. On the other hand, the difference in the emission factors (ε between cropland and the other vegetation types was much lower for monoterpenes than for isoprene, although the ε for cropland was generally the lowest for both compounds. Thus, the expansion of cropland also contributed to the reduction in monoterpene emissions to some degree, but had less effect. A ~5% increase in emissions due to

  18. Phenolic Extracts from Acacia mangium Bark and Their Antioxidant Activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liangliang Zhang

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 °C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  19. Phenolic extracts from Acacia mangium bark and their antioxidant activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liangliang; Chen, Jiahong; Wang, Yongmei; Wu, Dongmei; Xu, Man

    2010-05-14

    Phenolic compounds are present at very high concentrations in the bark of Acacia mangium. These compounds are known to have strong antioxidant activity and thus different beneficial effects on human health. Phenolic compounds in bark of A. mangium were extracted and their antioxidant activities were investigated using the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical-scavenging and ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assays. A central composite design has been employed to optimize the experimental conditions for a high total phenolic content and antioxidant activity. The desirability function approach has been employed to simultaneously optimize the three responses: total phenols, antiradical activity and FRAP. An extraction time of 90 min, liquid-solid ratio of 5, and temperature of 50 degrees C was predicted for the optimum experimental conditions using the desirability function. A significant linear relationship between antioxidant potency, antiradical activity and the content of phenolic compounds of bark extracts was observed. The structures of condensed tannins isolated from A. mangium were characterized by MALDI-TOF MS analyses. Condensed tannin oligomers from A. mangium were shown to be heterogeneous mixtures consisting of procyanidin and prodelphinidin structural units with polymerization degrees up to 9.

  20. Phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of commercial red fruit juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitić Milan N.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of phenolics: total phenols (TP, flavonoids (TF, anthocyanins (TA and hydroxicinnamic acid as well as the total antioxidant capacity (TAC in nine commercial red fruit juices (sour cherry, black currant, red grape produced in Serbia were evaluated. The total compounds content was measured by spectrophotometric methods, TAC was determined using DPPH assays, and individual anthocyanins and hydroxycinnamic acids was determined using HPLC-DAD methods. Among the examined fruit juices, the black currant juices contained the highest amounts of all groups of the phenolics and exhibited strong antioxidant capacity. The amount of anthocyanins determined by HPLC method ranged from 92.36 to 512.73 mg/L in red grape and black currant juices, respectively. The anthocyanins present in the investigated red fruit juices were derivatives of cyanidin, delphinidin, petunidin, peonidin and malvidin. The predominant phenolic acid was neoclorogenic acid in sour cherry, caffeic acid in black currant, and p-coumaric acid in black grape juices. Generally, the red fruit juices produced in the Serbia are a rich source of the phenolic, which show evident antioxidant capacity.

  1. Removal of phenols from aqueous solutions by emulsion liquid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, M Teresa A; Freitas, Ondina M F; Agarwal, Shiva; Ferreira, Licínio M; Ismael, M Rosinda C; Machado, Remígio; Carvalho, Jorge M R

    2011-09-15

    The present study deals with the extraction of phenols from aqueous solutions by using the emulsion liquid membranes technique. Besides phenol, two derivatives of phenol, i.e., tyrosol (2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethanol) and p-coumaric acid (4-hydroxycinnamic acid), which are typical components of the effluents produced in olive oil plants, were selected as the target solutes. The effect of the composition of the organic phase on the removal of solutes was examined. The influence of pH of feed phase on the extraction of tyrosol and p-coumaric was tested for the membrane with Cyanex 923 as an extractant. The use of 2% Cyanex 923 allowed obtaining a very high extraction of phenols (97-99%) in 5-6 min of contact time for either single solute solutions or for their mixtures. The removal efficiency of phenol and p-coumaric acid attained equivalent values by using the system with 2% isodecanol, but the removal rate of tyrosol was found greatly reduced. The extraction of tyrosol and p-coumaric acid from their binary mixture was also analysed for different operating conditions like the volume ratio of feed phase to stripping phase (sodium hydroxide), the temperature and the initial concentration of solute in the feed phase.

  2. Degradation study of phenol on pillared clay catalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Andrés Cardona Castaño

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The pillaring of a Colombian natural clay (bentonite with the Al-Fe systems and the application for catalytic wet peroxide oxidation (CWPO using phenol as target compound at 291,15 K has been studied. The solid was characterized by DRX and specific surface area using the BET model. The experiments were conducted at temperature of 291,15 K, atmospheric pressure, phenol concentration of 100 mg/L, catalyst concentration of  0,5 and  2,75 g/L and hydrogen peroxide concentration of  0,0265 and 0,053 M in semibatch and 7,4x10-3 and 0,0148 M in batch, equivalent to 50 and 100% of the stoichiometric amount needed for complete phenol degradation, respectively.Both processes were compared in terms of degradation of phenol, degradation of H2O2 and aromatic intermediates and short chain acids. It was determined that the rate of degradation of phenol and aromatic intermediates is slower in the semibatch process. However, more efficient hydrogen peroxide in the semibatch process was presented use favoring reaction with organic species and reducing competitive reactions.

  3. Thymol, a dietary monoterpene phenol abrogates mitochondrial dysfunction in β-adrenergic agonist induced myocardial infarcted rats by inhibiting oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagoor Meeran, M F; Jagadeesh, G S; Selvaraj, P

    2016-01-25

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested to be one of the important pathological events in isoproterenol (ISO), a synthetic catecholamine and β-adrenergic agonist induced myocardial infarction (MI). In this context, we have evaluated the impact of thymol against ISO induced oxidative stress and calcium uniporter malfunction involved in the pathology of mitochondrial dysfunction in rats. Male albino Wistar rats were pre and co-treated with thymol (7.5 mg/kg body weight) daily for 7 days. Isoproterenol (100 mg/kg body weight) was subcutaneously injected into rats on 6th and 7th day to induce MI. To explore the extent of cardiac mitochondrial damage, the activities/levels of cardiac marker enzymes, mitochondrial lipid peroxidation products, antioxidants, lipids, calcium, adenosine triphosphate and multi marker enzymes were evaluated. Isoproterenol induced myocardial infarcted rats showed a significant increase in the activities of cardiac diagnostic markers, heart mitochondrial lipid peroxidation, lipids, calcium, and a significant decrease in the activities/levels of heart mitochondrial superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, reduced glutathione, isocitrate, malate, α-ketoglutarate and NADH-dehydrogenases, cytochrome-C-oxidase, and adenosine triphosphate. Thymol pre and co-treatment showed near normalized effects on all the biochemical parameters studied. Transmission electron microscopic findings and mitochondrial swelling studies confirmed our biochemical findings. The in vitro study also revealed the potent free-radical scavenging activity of thymol. Thus, thymol attenuates the involvement of ISO against oxidative stress and calcium uniporter malfunction associated with mitochondrial dysfunction in rats.

  4. Bound phenolics in foods, a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acosta-Estrada, Beatriz A; Gutiérrez-Uribe, Janet A; Serna-Saldívar, Sergio O

    2014-01-01

    Among phytochemicals, phenolic compounds have been extensively researched due to their diverse health benefits. Phenolic compounds occur mostly as soluble conjugates and insoluble forms, covalently bound to sugar moieties or cell wall structural components. Absorption mechanisms for bound phenolic compounds in the gastrointestinal tract greatly depend on the liberation of sugar moieties. Food processes such as fermentation, malting, thermoplastic extrusion or enzymatic, alkaline and acid hydrolyses occasionally assisted with microwave or ultrasound have potential to release phenolics associated to cell walls. Different kinds of wet chemistry methodologies to release and detect bound phenolic have been developed. These include harsh heat treatments, chemical modifications or biocatalysis. New protocols for processing and determining phenolics in food matrices must be devised in order to release bound phenolics and for quality control in the growing functional food industry.

  5. High pressure extraction of phenolic compounds from citrus peels†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casquete, R.; Castro, S. M.; Villalobos, M. C.; Serradilla, M. J.; Queirós, R. P.; Saraiva, J. A.; Córdoba, M. G.; Teixeira, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study evaluated the effect of high pressure processing on the recovery of high added value compounds from citrus peels. Overall, the total phenolic content in orange peel was significantly (P < .05) higher than that in lemon peel, except when pressure treated at 500 MPa. However, lemon peel demonstrated more antioxidant activity than orange peel. Pressure-treated samples (300 MPa, 10 min; 500 MPa, 3 min) demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity comparatively to the control samples. For more severe treatments (500 MPa, 10 min), the phenolic content and antioxidant activity decreased in both lemon and orange peels. This paper was presented at the 8th International Conference on High Pressure Bioscience & Biotechnology (HPBB 2014), in Nantes (France), 15-18 July 2014.

  6. Multiphase processing of organic hydroxynitrates in secondary organic aerosol from the radical-initiated oxidation of multi-olefinic monoterpenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, J. H.; Lee, L. S.; Shepson, P. B.; De Perre, C.

    2015-12-01

    One of the greatest challenges facing atmospheric and climate science is understanding the impacts human activities have on the natural environment and atmospheric chemistry. The production of condensable organic compounds due to interactions between atmospheric oxidants, nitrogenous pollutants, and biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emitted from the terrestrial biosphere can contribute significantly to the formation and growth of secondary organic aerosol (SOA). Aerosol particles influence atmospheric radiative transfer, cloud formation, and thus atmospheric temperatures. Due to their solubility in water and adsorptive nature, hydroxylated organic nitrates (HORONO2) may contribute significantly to the formation and chemical aging of SOA, and serve as an important sink for NOx (NO+NO2). We recently observed that a monoterpene β-hydroxy-organic nitrate (C10H17NO4), produced from the OH oxidation of α-pinene in the presence of NOx, undergoes rapid processing in the aerosol phase via an acid-catalyzed and pH-dependent hydrolysis mechanism, potentially impacting SOA growth and molecular composition. Further processing in the aerosol phase via polymerization and formation of organosulfates is expected, yet studies related to product identification and their formation mechanisms are limited. In this presentation, I will discuss recent laboratory-based reaction chamber studies of gas-phase organic nitrate production, SOA formation, and acidity-dependent aerosol-phase processing of organic nitrates produced from the NO3 oxidation of γ-terpinene. This BVOC is a diolefin, which as modeling studies suggest, may be an important nighttime organic nitrate precursor. Gas-phase organic nitrate compounds resulting from NO3 oxidation were qualitatively identified applying I- chemical ionization mass spectrometry (CIMS) and quantified via calibration using synthetic standards generated in our laboratory. Aerosol-phase analysis was carried out employing Fourier transform

  7. Removal of phenol in phenolic resin wastewater by a novel biomaterial: the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet containing chlamydospore-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hailei, Wang; Ping, Li; Yu, Qin; Hui, Yang

    2016-06-01

    A novel biomaterial, the Phanerochaete chrysosporium pellet (CP) composed of chlamydospore-like cells (CLCs), was prepared and its potential in treating phenolic resin wastewater was evaluated. CP possesses higher phenol removal ability in contrast with mycelial pellets of P. chrysosporium, and CLC can be seen as the naturally immobilized enzymes. At shake-flask level, the ideal pH value, temperature, and inoculation quantity of CP for treatment of 1430 mg/l phenol wastewater were pH 4-6, 30 °C, and 5.0 g/l, respectively, and the maximum specific removal rate, 41.1 mg phenol/g CP/h, was obtained in fixed bed reactor (FBR) when the flow rate of wastewater was 3.4 l/h. During the treatment, FBR harbored amounts of bacteria (135 genera) and eukaryotes, as analyzed by metagenomic sequencing. Bacterial pollution not only decreased reactor performance but also had a negative impact on reusability of CP. Hot water treatment (80-85 °C) is effective to inhibit bacterial pollution, and heat resistance of CLC makes the repeated regrowing of CP be feasible. This work presents an innovative and low-cost biomaterial for phenol removal and will be helpful for the practical application of P. chrysosporium in wastewater treatment.

  8. Efficacy of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown essential oil and its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against fungi isolated from some edible legume seeds and aflatoxin B1 production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, Ravindra; Kumar, Ashok; Singh, Priyanka; Dubey, Nawal Kishore

    2009-10-31

    The present study deals with evaluation of antifungal properties of Lippia alba essential oil (EO) and two of its monoterpene aldehyde constituents against legume-contaminating fungi. Seventeen different fungal species were isolated from 11 varieties of legumes, and aflatoxigenic isolates of Aspergillus flavus were identified. Hydrodistillation method was used to extract the EO from fresh leaves. The GC and GC-MS analysis of EO revealed the monoterpene aldehydes viz. geranial (22.2%) and neral (14.2%) as the major components. The antifungal activity of EO, geranial and neral was evaluated by contact assay on Czapek's-dox agar. The EO (0.25-1 microL/mL) and its two constituents (1 microL/mL) showed remarkable antifungal effects against all the fungal isolates (growth inhibition range 32.1-100%). Their minimal inhibitory (MIC) and fungicidal (MFC) concentrations for A. flavus were lower than those of the systemic fungicide Bavistin. Aflatoxin B(1) (AFB(1)) production by three isolates of A. flavus was strongly inhibited even at the lower fungistatic concentration of EO and its constituents. There was no adverse effect of treatments on seed germination, and rather, there was enhanced seedling growth in the EO-treated seeds. It is concluded that L. alba EO and two of its constituents could be safely used as effective preservative for food legumes against fungal infections and mycotoxins.

  9. Biological treatment of phenolic wastewater in an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firozjaee Taghizade Tahere

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, an anaerobic continuous stirred tank reactor (ACSTR with consortium of mixed culture was operated continuously for a period of 110 days. The experiments were performed with three different hydraulic retention times and by varying initial phenol concentrations between 100 to 1000 mg/L. A maximum phenol removal was observed at a hydraulic retention time (HRT of 4 days, with an organic loading rate (OLR of 170.86 mg/L.d. At this condition, phenol removal rate of 89% was achieved. In addition, the chemical oxygen demand (COD removal corresponds to phenol removal. Additional operating parameters such as pH, MLSS and biogas production rate of the effluents were also measured. The present study provides valuable information to design an anaerobic ACSTR reactor for the biodegradation of phenolic wastewater.

  10. Applicability of the Photo-Fenton reaction for treating water containing natural phenolic pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gernjak, W.; Krutzler, T.; Malato, S.; Caceres, J.; Bauer, R.

    2001-07-01

    Phenolic compounds are known to be present in high concentrations in various types of agro-industrial wastes. As they are highly Biorecalcitrant a possible treatment by Advanced Oxidation Processes has to be investigated. Therefore in the present work six phenolic model compounds were chosen and their degradability by means of the Photo-Fenton reaction was proved as well using an UV-Lamp in laboratory experiments in Vienna as using sunlight in pilot-plant experiments at the Plataforma Solar in Spain. All compounds could be mineralized completely. Neither in experiments with single substances nor in a more complex matrix using a mixture of phenols non-degradable intermediates were produced. Comparing the decrease of total organic carbon and total phenol content could prove the expected selectivity to phenolic compounds of the Photo Fenton reaction. (Author) 12 refs.

  11. Significant light and temperature dependent monoterpene emissions from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and their potential impact on the European volatile organic compound budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dindorf, T.; Kuhn, U.; Ganzeveld, L.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Holzke, C.; KöBle, R.; Seufert, G.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2006-08-01

    By using a dynamic branch enclosure system the emission of monoterpenes from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated during two consecutive summer vegetation periods in the years of 2002 and 2003 in Germany. All measurements were performed under field conditions within the framework of the ECHO project (Emission and Chemical Transformation of Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds, AFO 2000). European beech was characterized as a substantial emitter of monoterpenes, with sabinene being the predominant compound released. The monoterpene emission from European beech was shown to be a function of light and temperature and agreed well to emission algorithms that consider a light and temperature dependent release of volatile organics. Standard emission factors that were measured from these sunlit leaves of European beech ranged up to 4-13 μg g-1 h-1 (normalized to 1000 μmol m-2 s-1, 30°C) in the years of 2003 and 2002, respectively. The nighttime emission of monoterpene compounds was negligible. Also the artificial darkening of the sunlit branch during daylight conditions led to an immediate cessation of monoterpene emission. European beech is the dominating deciduous tree species in Europe. To demonstrate the effect of an updated monoterpene emission factor for European beech in combination with the consideration of a light and temperature dependent monoterpene emission, we applied a species based model simulation on a European scale. With respect to conventional estimates of the European volatile organic compound budget, the latter simulation resulted in relative increases of 16% by taking solely this tree species into account. On local scales these increases exceeded even more than 100% depending on the respective vegetation area coverage of European beech.

  12. The investigation of phenol removal from aqueous solutions by zeolites as solid adsorbents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damjanović, Ljiljana; Rakić, Vesna; Rac, Vladislav; Stošić, Dušan; Auroux, Aline

    2010-12-15

    This work reports results on phenol adsorption from aqueous solutions on synthetic BEA (β) and MFI (ZSM-5) zeolites, studied by heat-flow microcalorimetry. For the sake of comparison, the adsorption was performed on activated carbon, a solid customarily used for removal of phenol from water. The obtained values of heats evolved during phenol adsorption indicate the heterogeneity of active sites present on the investigated systems for the adsorption of phenol. In addition, the amounts of adsorbed pollutant were determined and presented in the form of adsorption isotherms, which were interpreted using Langmuir, Freundlich, Dubinin-Astakov and Sips' equations. The latter was found to express high level of agreement with experimental data. The results obtained in this work reveal that the adsorption of phenol on zeolites depends on both Si/Al ratio and on the pore size. Hydrophobic zeolites that possess higher contents of Si show higher affinities for phenol adsorption. Among investigated zeolites, zeolite β possesses the highest capacity for adsorption of phenol. The possibility of regeneration of used adsorbents was investigated by thermal desorption technique. It has been shown that in the case of β zeolite the majority of adsorbed phenol is easily released in the low temperature region.

  13. Phenols and antioxidant activity of hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis from Algarve, South of Portugal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Nunes, Susana; Dandlen, Susana Anahi; Cavaco, Ana Margarida; Antunes, Maria Dulce

    2010-12-01

    Propolis is a natural honeybee product known to be beneficial for human health, with a complex chemical composition, highly dependent on the collection site. The objective of the present research was to evaluate phenols and antioxidant activity of propolis samples collected in three main areas of Algarve, South of Portugal. Water revealed to be less effective for extracting phenolic compounds from propolis than the methanol and water/ethanol. The last two were good extraction solvents of phenols. Nevertheless water/ethanol was the solvent chosen because it was able to extract phenols in considerable amounts being less toxic than methanol. In spring, higher amounts of phenols (total phenols, flavones, flavonols, flavanones and dihydroflavonols) were detected in hydro-alcoholic extracts of propolis than in winter. Among the three main areas of Algarve where samples were collected, those from Barrocal had the highest levels of polyphenols, independent on the season (winter or spring). Within each area, the levels of phenols changed according to the zone. Concerning antioxidant activity, samples from Barrocal presented better radical scavenging abilities than those from the remaining areas, independent on the antioxidant method and collection season. Such results correlated closely with the levels of total phenols, flavones and flavonols in samples. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Phenolics in the Bran of Waxy Wheat and Triticale Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present study was designed to determine total phenolic acid contents (TPC) and compositions of bran from newly developed near-isogenic waxy wheat and triticale translocation lines. Two sets of near-isogenic waxy wheats, Svevo (durum) and N11 (bread wheat), consisting of partial and waxy null li...

  15. Apple phenolics as nutraceuticals: assessment, analysis and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Shalika; Bhushan, Shashi

    2016-04-01

    Humankind is presently engulfed by convenience quench, modern life style and urbanized diet system leading to progression in array of health disorders. The past decade confronted cardiometabolic disorder (21.8 %), lower respiratory and chronic obstructive lung disease (12.5 %) as the major causes of death world over. In anticipation, scientific communities' have demonstrated the role of healthy diets, especially those rich in fruits and vegetables, for management of such health related issues. These horticultural  crops are considered as a good source of polyphenols such as dihydrochalcones, flavanols, flavonols, anthocyanins and phenolic acids. The present article reviews the efforts made to assess the potential of apple phenolic compounds present in fresh fruits, leaves, bark and pomace as dietary polyphenols. Considering the positive impact of such phytochemicals on human health, various nutraceuticals, dietary supplements and phenolic-rich food products are presently available on market shelves. On analytical front, improved instrumentation based on liquid chromatography (HPLC, UPLC, LC/MS/MS) have made the assessment of phenolics more rapid and reliable. Thus, owing to the emergent interest in natural compounds, it is pertinent to discuss the latest significant research findings on therapeutic aspects along with probable metabolic mechanisms of dietary polyphenols found in apples and their implications on human health.

  16. Development of transcriptomic resources for interrogating the biosynthesis of monoterpene indole alkaloids in medicinal plant species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elsa Góngora-Castillo

    Full Text Available The natural diversity of plant metabolism has long been a source for human medicines. One group of plant-derived compounds, the monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs, includes well-documented therapeutic agents used in the treatment of cancer (vinblastine, vincristine, camptothecin, hypertension (reserpine, ajmalicine, malaria (quinine, and as analgesics (7-hydroxymitragynine. Our understanding of the biochemical pathways that synthesize these commercially relevant compounds is incomplete due in part to a lack of molecular, genetic, and genomic resources for the identification of the genes involved in these specialized metabolic pathways. To address these limitations, we generated large-scale transcriptome sequence and expression profiles for three species of Asterids that produce medicinally important MIAs: Camptotheca acuminata, Catharanthus roseus, and Rauvolfia serpentina. Using next generation sequencing technology, we sampled the transcriptomes of these species across a diverse set of developmental tissues, and in the case of C. roseus, in cultured cells and roots following elicitor treatment. Through an iterative assembly process, we generated robust transcriptome assemblies for all three species with a substantial number of the assembled transcripts being full or near-full length. The majority of transcripts had a related sequence in either UniRef100, the Arabidopsis thaliana predicted proteome, or the Pfam protein domain database; however, we also identified transcripts that lacked similarity with entries in either database and thereby lack a known function. Representation of known genes within the MIA biosynthetic pathway was robust. As a diverse set of tissues and treatments were surveyed, expression abundances of transcripts in the three species could be estimated to reveal transcripts associated with development and response to elicitor treatment. Together, these transcriptomes and expression abundance matrices provide a rich resource

  17. β-Citronellol, an alcoholic monoterpene with inhibitory properties on the contractility of rat trachea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B. Vasconcelos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available β-Citronellol is an alcoholic monoterpene found in essential oils such Cymbopogon citratus (a plant with antihypertensive properties. β-Citronellol can act against pathogenic microorganisms that affect airways and, in virtue of the popular use of β-citronellol-enriched essential oils in aromatherapy, we assessed its pharmacologic effects on the contractility of rat trachea. Contractions of isolated tracheal rings were recorded isometrically through a force transducer connected to a data-acquisition device. β-Citronellol relaxed sustained contractions induced by acetylcholine or high extracellular potassium, but half-maximal inhibitory concentrations (IC50 for K+-elicited stimuli were smaller than those for cholinergic contractions. It also inhibited contractions induced by electrical field stimulation or sodium orthovanadate with pharmacologic potency equivalent to that seen against acetylcholine-induced contractions. When contractions were evoked by selective recruitment of Ca2+ from the extracellular medium, β-citronellol preferentially inhibited contractions that involved voltage-operated (but not receptor-operated pathways. β-Citronellol (but not verapamil inhibited contractions induced by restoration of external Ca2+ levels after depleting internal Ca2+ stores with the concomitant presence of thapsigargin and recurrent challenge with acetylcholine. Treatment of tracheal rings with L-NAME, indomethacin or tetraethylammonium did not change the relaxing effects of β-citronellol. Inhibition of transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1 (TRPV1 or transient receptor potential ankyrin 1 (TRPA1 receptors with selective antagonists caused no change in the effects of β-citronellol. In conclusion, β-citronellol exerted inhibitory effects on rat tracheal rings, with predominant effects on contractions that recruit Ca2+ inflow towards the cytosol by voltage-gated pathways, whereas it appears less active against contractions elicited by

  18. Antihypertensive effect of auraptene, a monoterpene coumarin from the genus Citrus, upon chronic administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razavi, Bibi Marjan; Arasteh, Ebrahim; Imenshahidi, Mohsen; Iranshahi, Mehrdad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): Auraptene, a monoterpene coumarin from Citrus species, exhibits cardioprotective effects. In this study, the effects of auraptene administration were investigated on blood pressure of normotensive and desoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA) salt induced hypertensive rats. Materials and Methods: Five weeks administration of auraptene (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg/day) and nifedipine (0.25, 0.5, 1, 2 and 4 mg/kg/day) in different groups of normotensive and hypertensive rats (at the end of 3 weeks treatment by DOCA salt) was carried out and their effects on mean systolic blood pressure (MSBP) and mean heart rate (MHR) were evaluated using tail cuff method. Results: Our results indicated that chronic administration of auraptene (2, 4, 8 and 16 mg/kg/day) significantly reduced the MSBP in DOCA salt treated rats in a dose and time dependent manner. The percent of decreases in MSBP levels by the highest dose of auraptene (16 mg/kg) at the end of 4 th to 8 th weeks, were 7.00%, 10.78%, 16.07%, 21.28% and 27.54% respectively (P<0.001). Moreover the antihypertensive effect of auraptene was less than nifedipine (ED50 value of nifedipine = 0.7 mg/kg at 8th week and ED50 value of auraptene = 5.64 mg/kg at 8 week). Conclusion: Auraptene considerably reduced MSBP in hypertensive rats, but not in normotensive (normal saline treated) rats. The results of MHR measurement showed that the increase in MHR was not significant in comparison with DOCA treated rats. PMID:25810889

  19. Olive phenolic compounds: metabolic and transcriptional profiling during fruit development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagna Fiammetta

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Olive (Olea europaea L. fruits contain numerous secondary metabolites, primarily phenolics, terpenes and sterols, some of which are particularly interesting for their nutraceutical properties. This study will attempt to provide further insight into the profile of olive phenolic compounds during fruit development and to identify the major genetic determinants of phenolic metabolism. Results The concentration of the major phenolic compounds, such as oleuropein, demethyloleuropein, 3–4 DHPEA-EDA, ligstroside, tyrosol, hydroxytyrosol, verbascoside and lignans, were measured in the developing fruits of 12 olive cultivars. The content of these compounds varied significantly among the cultivars and decreased during fruit development and maturation, with some compounds showing specificity for certain cultivars. Thirty-five olive transcripts homologous to genes involved in the pathways of the main secondary metabolites were identified from the massive sequencing data of the olive fruit transcriptome or from cDNA-AFLP analysis. Their mRNA levels were determined using RT-qPCR analysis on fruits of high- and low-phenolic varieties (Coratina and Dolce d’Andria, respectively during three different fruit developmental stages. A strong correlation was observed between phenolic compound concentrations and transcripts putatively involved in their biosynthesis, suggesting a transcriptional regulation of the corresponding pathways. OeDXS, OeGES, OeGE10H and OeADH, encoding putative 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-P synthase, geraniol synthase, geraniol 10-hydroxylase and arogenate dehydrogenase, respectively, were almost exclusively present at 45 days after flowering (DAF, suggesting that these compounds might play a key role in regulating secoiridoid accumulation during fruit development. Conclusions Metabolic and transcriptional profiling led to the identification of some major players putatively involved in biosynthesis of secondary compounds in the

  20. Isolation and expression of cytochrome P450 genes in the antennae and gut of pine beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus (Curculionidae: Scolytinae) following exposure to host monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cano-Ramírez, Claudia; López, María Fernanda; Cesar-Ayala, Ana K; Pineda-Martínez, Verónica; Sullivan, Brian T; Zúñiga, Gerardo

    2013-05-10

    Bark beetles oxidize the defensive monoterpenes of their host trees both to detoxify them and convert them into components of their pheromone system. This oxidation is catalyzed by cytochrome P450 enzymes and occurs in different tissues of the insect, including the gut (i.e., the site where the beetle's pheromones are produced and accumulated) and the antennae (i.e., the olfactory organs used for perception of airborne defensive monoterpenes as well as other host-associated compounds and pheromones). We identified ten new CYP genes in the pine beetle Dendroctonus rhizophagus in either antennae or gut tissue after stimulation with the vapors of major host monoterpenes α-pinene, β-pinene and 3-carene. Five genes belong to the CYP4 family, four to the CYP6 family and one to the CYP9 family. Differential expression of almost all of the CYP genes was observed between sexes, and within these significant differences among time, stimuli, anatomical region, and their interactions were found upon exposure to host monoterpenes. Increased expression of cytochrome P450 genes suggests that they play a role in the detoxification of monoterpenes released by this insect's host trees. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Structurally Related Monoterpenes p-Cymene, Carvacrol and Thymol Isolated from Essential Oil from Leaves of Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae Protect Mice against Elastase-Induced Emphysema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Games

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD is characterized by irreversible airflow obstruction and inflammation. Natural products, such as monoterpenes, displayed anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities and can be used as a source of new compounds to COPD treatment. Our aim was to evaluate, in an elastase-induced pulmonary emphysema in mice, the effects of and underlying mechanisms of three related natural monoterpenes (p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol isolated from essential oil from leaves Lippia sidoides Cham. (Verbenaceae. Methods: Mices received porcine pancreatic elastase (PPE and were treated with p-cymene, carvacrol, thymol or vehicle 30 min later and again on 7th, 14th and 28th days. Lung inflammatory profile and histological sections were evaluated. Results: In the elastase-instilled animals, the tested monoterpenes reduced alveolar enlargement, macrophages and the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, IL-8 and IL-17 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF, and collagen fibers, MMP-9 and p-65-NF-κB-positive cells in lung parenchyma (p < 0.05. All treatments attenuated levels of 8-iso-PGF2α but only thymol was able to reduced exhaled nitric oxide (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Monoterpenes p-cymene, carvacrol and thymol reduced lung emphysema and inflammation in mice. No significant differences among the three monoterpenes treatments were found, suggesting that the presence of hydroxyl group in the molecular structure of thymol and carvacrol do not play a central role in the anti-inflammatory effects.

  2. Molecular cloning and expression levels of the monoterpene synthase gene (ZMM1 in Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bua-In Saowaluck

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassumunar ginger (Zingiber montanum (Koenig Link ex Dietr. is a native Thai herb with a high content and large variety of terpenoids in its essential oil. Improving the essential oil content and quality of cassumunar ginger is difficult for a breeder due to its clonally propagated nature. In this research, we describe the isolation and expression level of the monoterpene synthase gene that controls the key step of essential oil synthesis in this plant and evaluate the mechanical wounding that may influence the transcription level of the monoterpene synthase gene. To isolate the gene, the selected clones from DNA derived from young leaves were sequenced and analyzed and the monoterpene synthase gene from cassumunar ginger (ZMM1 was identified. The ZMM1 CDS containing 1 773 bp (KF500399 is predicted to encode a protein of 590 amino acids. The deduced amino acid sequence is 40-74% identical with known sequences of other angiosperm monoterpene synthases belonging to the isoprenoid biosynthesis C1 superfamily. A transcript of ZMM1 was detected almost exclusively in the leaves and was related to leaf wounding. The results of this research offer insight into the control of monoterpene synthesis in this plant. This finding can be applied to breeding programs or crop management of cassumunar ginger for better yield and quality of essential oil.

  3. Olive oil and health effects: from epidemiological studies to the molecular mechanisms of phenolic fraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amiot Marie Josèphe

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil is a key component of the Mediterranean diet which is recognized to contribute to its health benefits. Recent prospective studies point towards a protective effect from an olive oil-rich diet in relation to the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and an improvement of cardiometabolic markers such as blood pressure, glycaemia and dyslipidemia, notably by reducing LDL cholesterol and LDL oxidation. The role of minor phenolic fraction was evidenced in intervention trials where lipid profiles showed greater improvement in participants receiving olive oil with higher phenolic content. The phenolic fraction of olive oil is composed of simple phenols (hydroxytyrosol, phenolic secoiridoids (oleuropein aglycone, lignans (pinoresinol, flavonoids and hydroxyisochromans. All these compounds have diverse biological activities that are described in the present review, supporting the protective effects of olive oil against degenerative diseases found in large cohorts monitored in Southern European countries.

  4. Characterisation of phenolics, betanins and antioxidant activities in seeds of three Chenopodium quinoa Willd. genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yao; Li, Xihong; Zhang, Bing; Chen, Peter X; Liu, Ronghua; Tsao, Rong

    2015-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.) is known for its exceptional nutritional value and potential health benefits. The present study identified the composition of different forms of extractable phenolics and betacyanins of quinoa cultivars in white, red and black, and how they contribute to antioxidant activities. Results showed that at least 23 phenolic compounds were found in either free or conjugated forms (liberated by alkaline and/or acid hydrolysis); the majority of which were phenolic acids, mainly vanillic acid, ferulic acid and their derivatives as well as main flavonoids quercetin, kaempferol and their glycosides. Betacyanins, mainly betanin and isobetanin, were confirmed for the first time to be the pigments of the red and black quinoa seeds, instead of anthocyanins. Darker quinoa seeds had higher phenolic concentration and antioxidant activity. Findings of these phenolics, along with betacyanins in this study add new knowledge to the functional components of quinoa seeds of different cultivar background.

  5. Phenolic acid induced growth of gold nanoshells precursor composites and their application in antioxidant capacity assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xiaoyuan; Qian, Weiping

    2010-11-15

    In the present work, the gold nanoshells (GNSs) precursor composites were preadsorbed onto the surface of ITO substrates. With the treatment of modified electrodes immersed in the gold nanoparticles (GNPs) growth solution containing different phenolic acids, the GNSs precursor composites were enlarged to varying degrees. Phenolic acids with one or more phenolic hydroxyl groups served as reductants for the growth of GNPs. The enlargement conditions varied with the different reducing capacity of phenolic acids, exhibiting specific morphologies differ from the complete GNSs. Consequently, the UV-vis-NIR spectra and cyclic voltammetry curves for the phenolic acid-treated ITO electrode were gradually changed. Results showed that the higher reducing capacity for phenolic acid to reduce AuCl(4)(-) to Au(0) resulted in the intensified localized surface plasmon resonance features and reduced cathodic currents. The spectral wavelength peaks red shifted hundreds of nanometers across the visible region. Moreover, the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids correlates well with their reducing activity, both of which reflect their tendency to donate electrons. Thus, the optical and electrochemical results could be used to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of phenolic acids by utilizing GNSs precursor composites as nanoprobes. The method is simple, rapid and could be used in visual analysis to a certain extent.

  6. Investigation of natural lipid-phenolic interactions on biological properties of virgin olive oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Ereifej, Khalil; Gammoh, Sana; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Mhaidat, Nizar; Kubow, Stan; Johargy, Ayman; Alnaiemi, Ola J

    2014-12-10

    There is limited knowledge regarding the impact of naturally occurring lipid-phenolic interactions on the biological properties of phenolics in virgin olive oil. Free and bound phenolics were isolated via sequential methanolic extraction at 30 and 60 °C, and were identified and quantified using reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography, liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), and gas chromatography. Decreased oleic acid concentrations and increased concentrations of palmitoleic acid, stearic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were observed in virgin olive oil after removal of free and bound lipid phenolic compounds. The presence of p-hydroxybenzoic acid and tyrosol bound to glycerides was determined via LC-MS/MS, which indicates natural lipid-phenolic interactions in virgin olive oil. Both free and lipid bound phenolic extracts exerted antiproliferative activities against the CRC1 and CRC5 colorectal cancer cell lines. The present work indicates that naturally occurring lipid-phenolic interactions can affect the biological properties of phenolics in virgin olive oil.

  7. Oxidative removal of phenol by HRP-immobilized beads and its environmental toxicology assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuai; Fang, He; Yi, Xiaofeng; Xu, Zhiqun; Xie, Xiaodong; Tang, Qiao; Ou, Minrui; Xu, Xiaoping

    2016-08-01

    Horseradish peroxidase shows potential biological and environmental applications on the removal of phenolic compounds. In the present study, the HRP-immobilized beads were synthesized to detect the efficiency of the removal of phenol at optimum pH and H2O2 concentration. Comparative in vitro cytotoxicity of phenol/treated solutions were evaluated in HeLa, HepG2 and mcf-7 cells by using MTT method along with flow cytometry study for cell viability and cell cycle distributions. The results showed that the toxicity of phenol solutions were greatly reduced after treated by HRP-immobilized beads, and phenol could lead to deactivate of cells in the S phase and preventing them from going into the G2/M checkpoint. In addition, molecular docking study showed that phenol was a valid inhibitor for the cyclin E in the cell cycle and cell metabolism. Thereby, we established a suitable strategy with promising application for efficient harmless removal of phenol, which significantly decreased the cytotoxic impacts of phenol.

  8. Phenol increases intracellular [Ca2+] during twitch contractions in intact Xenopus skeletal myofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Leonardo; Hogan, Michael C

    2010-11-01

    Phenol is a neurolytic agent used for management of spasticity in patients with either motoneuron lesions or stroke. In addition, compounds that enhance muscle contractility (i.e., polyphenols, etc.) may affect muscle function through the phenol group. However, the effects of phenol on muscle function are unknown, and it was, therefore, the purpose of the present investigation to examine the effects of phenol on tension development and Ca(2+) release in intact skeletal muscle fibers. Dissected intact muscle fibers from Xenopus laevis were electrically stimulated, and cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](c)) and tension development were recorded. During single twitches and unfused tetani, phenol significantly increased [Ca(2+)](c) and tension without affecting myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. To investigate the phenol effects on Ca(2+) channel/ryanodine receptors, single fibers were treated with different concentrations of caffeine in the presence and absence of phenol. Low concentrations of phenol significantly increased the caffeine sensitivity (P twitch contractions in muscle fibers without altering myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity and may be used as a new agent to study skeletal muscle Ca(2+) handling.

  9. Cold acclimation induced accumulation of phenolic compounds and freezing tolerance in Ammopiptanthus mongolicus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Mei-qin; Chen Yi-yin; Lu Cun-fu; Zhang Hui; Yin Wei-lun

    2007-01-01

    Ammopiptanthus mongolicus, the only freezing tolerant evergreen broad-leaved shrub, local species of the Alashan desert,northwest sand area of China, can survive -30℃ or even lower temperature in winter. In the present study, the secondary products phenolics in A. mongolicus cotyledons were determined to study the effects ofphenolics on cold tolerance. Cytochemical localization of phenolics in cotyledon cells was observed by electron microscopy and the content of phenolic compounds was assayed by spectrophotometric measurement. The results showed that the freezing tolerance of A. mongolicus seedlings increased after acclimation at 2-6℃ for 14 days, which accompanied the increase of the content of phenolic compounds in cotyledons. Cytochemical observation showed that phenolic deposits were mainly localized in vacuoles and in close proximity to tonoplast, and also in the cytoplasm. The amount and the size of phenolics droplets increased obviously in cytoplasm and vacuoles after cold acclimation, predominantly aggregated along membranes of vacuoles and tonoplast. No phenolic deposits were found in cell walls. As hydrogen- or electron-donating agents, phenolics may protect plant cells against reactive oxygen species formed during chilling or freezing stress and improve the freezing tolerance of cold-acclimated A. mongolicus seedlings.

  10. Comparison of biological activity of phenolic fraction from roots of Alhagi maurorum with properties of commercial phenolic extracts and resveratrol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olas, Beata; Hamed, Arafa I; Oleszek, Wieslaw; Stochmal, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Phenolic compounds have different biological properties, including antioxidative activities, but they may also be prooxidants. The effect of phenolic fraction from roots of Alhagi maurorum on oxidative protein/lipid damages (determined by such parameters as levels of protein thiol groups and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive species--TBARS) in human blood platelets and human plasma after treatment with hydrogen peroxide--H2O2 (which is the strong biologic oxidant and inflammatory mediator) was studied in vitro. We also studied the effect of A. maurorum extract on blood platelet activation corresponding to thrombin-induced arachidonic acid pathway. Moreover, the present work was designed to study the effect of A. maurorum extract on selected physiological function of blood platelets--adhesion of blood platelets to collagen in vitro. The action of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum was compared with the selected commercial phenolic extracts: extract from berries of Aronia melanocarpa (Aronox®), extract from bark of Yucca schidigera and monomeric polyphenol-resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene). Exposure of blood platelets or plasma to H2O2 resulted in a decrease of the level of thiol groups in proteins, and an increase of TBARS. In the presence of phenolic fraction from A. maurorum (0.5-50 µg/ml), a reduction of thiol groups oxidation together with the decrease of autoperoxidation of lipids and lipid peroxidation caused by H2O2 or thrombin was observed. The inhibitory, concentration-dependent effects of A. maurorum extract on adhesion of thrombin-activated platelets to collagen were also found. The phenolic fraction from A. maurorum acts as an antioxidant and can be useful as the natural factor protecting against diseases associated with oxidative stress. Tested fraction from A. maurorum has more effective antioxidative activity and antiplatelet properties than aronia extract or other commercial extract, however differences between their actions

  11. Adsorption and detection of some phenolic compounds by rice husk ash of Kenyan origin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbui, Damaris N; Shiundu, Paul M; Ndonye, Rachel M; Kamau, Geoffrey N

    2002-12-01

    Rice husk ash (RHA) obtained from a rice mill in Kenya has been used as an inexpensive and effective adsorbent (and reagent) for the removal (and detection) of some phenolic compounds in water. The abundantly available rice mill waste was used in dual laboratory-scale batch experiments to evaluate its potential in: (i) the removal of phenol, 1,3-dihydroxybenzene (resorcinol) and 2-chlorophenol from water; and (ii) the detection of 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (pyrocatechol) and 1,2,3-trihydroxybenzene (pyrogallol) present in an aqueous medium. The studies were conducted using synthetic water with different initial concentrations of the phenolic compounds. The effects of different operating conditions (such as contact time, concentration of the phenolic compounds, adsorbent quantity, temperature, and pH) were assessed by evaluating the phenolic compound removal efficiency as well as the extent of their color formation reactions (where applicable). RHA exhibits reasonable adsorption capacity for the phenolic compounds and follows both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models. Adsorption capacities of 1.53 x 10(-4), 8.07 x 10(-5), and 1.63 x 10(-6) mol g(-1) were determined for phenol, resorcinol and 2-chlorophenol, respectively. Nearly 100% adsorption of the phenolic compounds was possible and this depended on the weight of RHA employed. For the detection experiments, pyrocatechol and pyrogallol present in water formed coloured complexes with RHA, with the rate of colour formation increasing with temperature, weight of RHA, concentration of the phenolic compounds and sonication. This study has proven that RHA is a useful agricultural waste product for the removal and detection of some phenolic compounds.

  12. Monoterpene Metabolism. Cloning, Expression, and Characterization of (−)-Isopiperitenol/(−)-Carveol Dehydrogenase of Peppermint and Spearmint1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ringer, Kerry L.; Davis, Edward M.; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-01-01

    The essential oils of peppermint (Mentha x piperita) and spearmint (Mentha spicata) are distinguished by the oxygenation position on the p-menthane ring of the constitutive monoterpenes that is conferred by two regiospecific cytochrome P450 limonene-3- and limonene-6-hydroxylases. Following hydroxylation of limonene, an apparently similar dehydrogenase oxidizes (−)-trans-isopiperitenol to (−)-isopiperitenone in peppermint and (−)-trans-carveol to (−)-carvone in spearmint. Random sequencing of a peppermint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library revealed a large number of clones that specified redox-type enzymes, including dehydrogenases. Full-length dehydrogenase clones were screened by functional expression in Escherichia coli using a recently developed in situ assay. A single full-length acquisition encoding (−)-trans-isopiperitenol dehydrogenase (ISPD) was isolated. The (−)-ISPD cDNA has an open reading frame of 795 bp that encodes a 265-residue enzyme with a calculated molecular mass of 27,191. Nondegenerate primers were designed based on the (−)-trans-ISPD cDNA sequence and employed to screen a spearmint oil gland secretory cell cDNA library from which a 5′-truncated cDNA encoding the spearmint homolog, (−)-trans-carveol-dehydrogenase, was isolated. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification and RACE were used to acquire the remaining 5′-sequence from RNA isolated from oil gland secretory cells of spearmint leaf. The full-length spearmint dehydrogenase shares >99% amino acid identity with its peppermint homolog and both dehydrogenases are capable of utilizing (−)-trans-isopiperitenol and (−)-trans-carveol. These isopiperitenol/carveol dehydrogenases are members of the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase superfamily and are related to other plant short-chain dehydrogenases/reductases involved in secondary metabolism (lignan biosynthesis), stress responses, and phytosteroid biosynthesis, but they are quite dissimilar (approximately 13

  13. High-resolution MALDI mass spectrometry imaging of gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides in the root of Paeonia lactiflora

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bin; Bhandari, Dhaka Ram; Römpp, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution atmospheric-pressure scanning microprobe matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry imaging (AP-SMALDI MSI) at 10 μm pixel size was performed to unravel the spatio-chemical distribution of major secondary metabolites in the root of Paeonia lactiflora. The spatial...... distributions of two major classes of bioactive components, gallotannins and monoterpene glucosides, were investigated and visualized at the cellular level in tissue sections of P. lactiflora roots. Accordingly, other primary and secondary metabolites were imaged, including amino acids, carbohydrates, lipids...

  14. Production of Phenol from Benzene via Cumene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, D. J.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Describes an undergraduate chemistry laboratory experiment involving the production of phenol from benzene with the intermediate production of isopropylbenzene and isopropylbenzene hydroperoxide. (SL)

  15. Monoterpene emissions in response to long-term night-time warming, elevated CO2 and extended summer drought in a temperate heath ecosystem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tiiva, Päivi; Tang, Jing; Michelsen, Anders

    2017-01-01

    Monoterpenes emitted from plants have an important role in atmospheric chemistry through changing atmospheric oxidative capacity, forming new particles and secondary organic aerosols. The emission rates and patterns can be affected by changing climate. In this study, emission responses to six years...... and limonene. The emissions of these three compounds were positively correlated with light, chamber temperature and litter abundance, but negatively correlated with soil temperature. Elevated CO2 tended to decrease the average monoterpene emissions by 40% over the whole growing season, and significantly...... by drought. The inhibition effects of elevated CO2 on emissions were diminished when the treatment was combined with drought or warming. The emission responses to different treatments were not explained by vegetation changes, and the monoterpene emission profile was only moderately related to plant species...

  16. Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis of Phenolic Ester by Increasing Solubility of Phenolic Acids in Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    Compounds from phenolic acid family are well known natural antioxidants, but the application of phenolic acids as antioxidants in industry is limited due to the relatively low solubility in oil-based media. The properties of phenolic acids can be modified through enzymatic lipophilization and mod...

  17. Demonstration that limonene is the first cyclic intermediate in the biosynthesis of oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes in Mentha piperita and other Mentha species

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, R.; Kjonaas, R.

    1983-01-01

    The volatile oil of mature Mentha piperita (peppermint) leaves contains as major components the oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes l-menthol (47%) and l-menthone (24%) as well as very low levels of the monoterpene olefins limonene (1%) and terpinolene (0.1%), which are considered to be probable precursors of the oxygenated derivatives. Immature leaves, which are actively synthesizing monoterpenes, produce an oil with comparatively higher levels of limonene approx.3%), and isolation of the pure olefin showed this compound to consist of approx.80% of the l-(4S)-enantiomer and approx.20% of the d-(4R)-enantiomer. The time course of incorporation of (U-/sup 14/C)sucrose into the monoterpenes of M. piperita shoot tips was consistent with the inital formation of limonene and its subsequent conversion to menthone via pulegone. d,l-(9-/sup 3/H)Limonene and (9,10-/sup 3/H)terpinolene were prepared and tested directly as precursors of oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes in M. piperita shoot tips. Limonene was readily incorporated into pulegone, menthone, and other oxygenated derivatives, whereas terpinolene was not appreciably incorporated into these compounds. Similarly, d,l-(9-/sup 3/H)limonene was specifically incorporated into pulegone in Mentha pulegium and into the C-2-oxygenated derivative carvone in Mentha spicata, confirming the role of this olefin as the essential precursor of oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes. Soluble enzyme preparations from the epidermis of immature M. piperita leaves converted the acyclic terpenoid precursor (1-/sup 3/H)geranyl pyrophosphate to limonene as the major cyclic product.

  18. Secondary Organic Aerosol Produced from Aqueous Reactions of Phenols in Fog Drops and Deliquesced Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, J.; Anastasio, C.

    2014-12-01

    The formation and evolution of secondary organic aerosol (SOA) in atmospheric condensed phases (i.e., aqueous SOA) can proceed rapidly, but relatively little is known of the important aqueous SOA precursors or their reaction pathways. In our work we are studying the aqueous SOA formed from reactions of phenols (phenol, guaiacol, and syringol), benzene-diols (catechol, resorcinol, and hydroquinone), and phenolic carbonyls (e.g., vanillin and syringaldehyde). These species are potentially important aqueous SOA precursors because they are released in large quantities from biomass burning, have high Henry's Law constants (KH = 103 -109 M-1 atm-1) and are rapidly oxidized. To evaluate the importance of aqueous reactions of phenols as a source of SOA, we first quantified the kinetics and SOA mass yields for 11 phenols reacting via direct photodegradation, hydroxyl radical (•OH), and with an excited organic triplet state (3C*). In the second step, which is the focus of this work, we use these laboratory results in a simple model of fog chemistry using conditions during a previously reported heavy biomass burning event in Bakersfield, CA. Our calculations indicate that under aqueous aerosol conditions (i.e., a liquid water content of 100 μg m-3) the rate of aqueous SOA production (RSOA(aq)) from phenols is similar to the rate in the gas phase. In contrast, under fog/cloud conditions the aqueous RSOA from phenols is 10 times higher than the rate in the gas phase. In both of these cases aqueous RSOA is dominated by the oxidation of phenols by 3C*, followed by direct photodegradation of phenolic carbonyls, and then •OH oxidation. Our results suggest that aqueous oxidation of phenols is a significant source of SOA during fog events and also during times when deliquesced aerosols are present.

  19. Effect of mineral matter and phenol in supercritical extraction of oil shale with toluene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abourriche, A.; Ouman, M.; Ichcho, S.; Hannache, H.; Pailler, R.; Naslain, R.; Birot, M.; Pillot, J.-P.

    2005-03-01

    In the present work, Tarfaya oil shale was subjected to supercritical toluene extraction. The experimental results obtained show clearly that the mineral matter and phenol have a significant effect on the yield and the composition of the obtained oil.

  20. The Kinetics and Thermodynamics of the Phenol from Cumene Process: A Physical Chemistry Experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Edward C. M.; Sjoberg, Stephen L.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a physical chemistry experiment demonstrating the differences between thermodynamics and kinetics. The experiment used the formation of phenol and acetone from cumene hydroperoxide, also providing an example of an industrially significant process. (CS)

  1. Monoterpene metabolism. Cloning, expression, and characterization of menthone reductases from peppermint.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Edward M; Ringer, Kerry L; McConkey, Marie E; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-03-01

    (-)-Menthone is the predominant monoterpene produced in the essential oil of maturing peppermint (Mentha x piperita) leaves during the filling of epidermal oil glands. This early biosynthetic process is followed by a second, later oil maturation program (approximately coincident with flower initiation) in which the C3-carbonyl of menthone is reduced to yield (-)-(3R)-menthol and (+)-(3S)-neomenthol by two distinct NADPH-dependent ketoreductases. An activity-based in situ screen, by expression in Escherichia coli of 23 putative redox enzymes from an immature peppermint oil gland expressed sequence tag library, was used to isolate a cDNA encoding the latter menthone:(+)-(3S)-neomenthol reductase. Reverse transcription-PCR amplification and RACE were used to acquire the former menthone:(-)-(3R)-menthol reductase directly from mRNA isolated from the oil gland secretory cells of mature leaves. The deduced amino acid sequences of these two reductases share 73% identity, provide no apparent subcellular targeting information, and predict inclusion in the short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase family of enzymes. The menthone:(+)-(3S)-neomenthol reductase cDNA encodes a 35,722-D protein, and the recombinant enzyme yields 94% (+)-(3S)-neomenthol and 6% (-)-(3R)-menthol from (-)-menthone as substrate, and 86% (+)-(3S)-isomenthol and 14% (+)-(3R)-neoisomenthol from (+)-isomenthone as substrate, has a pH optimum of 9.3, and K(m) values of 674 mum, > 1 mm, and 10 mum for menthone, isomenthone, and NADPH, respectively, with a k(cat) of 0.06 s(-1). The recombinant menthone:(-)-(3R)-menthol reductase has a deduced size of 34,070 D and converts (-)-menthone to 95% (-)-(3R)-menthol and 5% (+)-(3S)-neomenthol, and (+)-isomenthone to 87% (+)-(3R)-neoisomenthol and 13% (+)-(3S)-isomenthol, displays optimum activity at neutral pH, and has K(m) values of 3.0 mum, 41 mum, and 0.12 mum for menthone, isomenthone, and NADPH, respectively, with a k(cat) of 0.6 s(-1). The respective activities of

  2. Effect of fuel composition on the emission of phenols in the exhaust gas from a European car.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candeli, A; Morozzi, G; Zoccolillo, L

    1977-01-01

    The emission of phenols from a European car working with leaded and unleaded fuels with different percentage of aromatics has been considered. Fuels having the same aromatic content, but with a different composition of aromatic fraction, have also been taken into account. The results obtained showed that the emission of phenols increases with the increase of the aromatic content of fuel and also when unleaded instead of leaded fuels are used. The type of aromatic present in fuels was found to be important in forming the amount of both total and individual phenols emitted in the exhaust gas and in determining the number of phenolic compounds formed during combustion, although the phenol and isomer cresols were produced by combustion of all the fuels tested. The quantitative determination of individual phenols has been carried out on the benzene extract of the aqueous condensate and of the particulate matter of exhaust gas by the NaOH-extraction-GC-chromatographic method.

  3. Bioaugmentation of biological contact oxidation reactor (BCOR) with phenol-degrading bacteria for coal gasification wastewater (CGW) treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Fang; Han, Hongjun; Zhao, Qian; Xu, Chunyan; Zhang, Linghan

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the performance of the biological contact oxidation reactor (BCOR) treating coal gasification wastewater (CGW) after augmented with phenol degrading bacteria (PDB). The PDB were isolated with phenol, 4-methyl phenol, 3,5-dimethyl phenol and resorcinol as carbon resources. Much of the refractory phenolic compounds were converted into easily-biodegradable compounds in spite of low TOC removal. The bioaugmentation with PDB significantly enhanced the removal of COD, total phenols (TP) and NH3-N, with efficiencies from 58% to 78%, 66% to 80%, and 5% to 25%, respectively. In addition, the augmented BCOR exhibited strong recovery capability in TP and COD removal while recovery of NH3-N removal needed longer time. Microbial community analysis revealed that the PDB presented as dominant populations in the bacteria consortia, which in turn determined the overall performance of the system.

  4. Substrate inhibition kinetics of phenol degradation by binary mixed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-11-05

    Nov 5, 2008 ... The results showed that the phenol degradation by mixed culture of P. fluorescence and P. .... published on phenol microbial degradation kinetics based on specific ..... H, Rehm HJ (1984). Degradation of phenol by polymer.

  5. Interactions of caseins with phenolic acids found in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shuting; Seo, Sooyoun; Alli, Inteaz; Chang, Yu-Wei

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the interactions between caseins and phenolic acids, such as the ones present in chocolate, casein was incubated with protocatechuic acid or p-coumaric acid at 55°C. In addition, casein was isolated from chocolate and the phenolic compounds within these caseins were quantified. Electrophoresis results revealed that casein-phenolic interactions were induced by incubation; minor aggregation of casein subunits was observed after incubation of casein with protocatechuic acid. Minor aggregation of casein isolated from milk chocolate was also observed. In vitro hydrolysis of casein control, casein-protocatechuic acid, casein-p-coumaric acid, caseins isolated from milk chocolate and white chocolate using trypsin showed degree of hydrolysis of 19.3, 18.6, 17.7, 10.4 and 17.8% respectively. The presence of protocatechuic acid and p-coumaric acid in the model system and the presence of phenolic compounds in milk chocolate, in addition to the structural changes occurring during processing, affected the peptide profiles of casein hydrolysates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Improved phenol adsorption on carbons after mild temperature steam reactivation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabal, B; Tsyntsarski, B; Budinova, T; Petrov, N; Parra, J B; Ania, C O

    2009-07-30

    The purpose of this work is to explore steam reactivation at moderate temperatures of activated carbon exhausted with phenol, a highly toxic compound frequently present in industrial wastewater. The spent carbon was treated with steam at various temperatures (450, 600 and 850 degrees C) and times (from 5 to 60 min). Promising results were obtained by applying moderate temperatures and times. Whereas at low temperatures the complete regeneration of the carbon is not accomplished, an almost quantitative desorption of the pollutant was achieved at 600 degrees C after exposure times below 30 min, with minimal damages in the porous network of the carbon. Further reutilization of the regenerated carbon resulted in a superior performance towards phenol uptake. The regeneration efficiency at 850 degrees C strongly depends on the time of reactivation, with an enhanced phenol uptake when short treatment times are applied. Prolonged duration of the regeneration treatment reduced phenol adsorption capacities, due to overreactivation of the carbon in the steam atmosphere, and to the blockage of the porous carbon network.

  7. Influence of nanometric silicon carbide on phenolic resin composites properties

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GEORGE PELIN; CRISTINA-ELISABETA PELIN; ADRIANA STEFAN; ION DINC\\u{A}; ANTON FICAI; ECATERINA ANDRONESCU; ROXANA TRUSC\\u{A}

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents a preliminary study on obtaining and characterization of phenolic resin-based composites modified with nanometric silicon carbide. The nanocomposites were prepared by incorporating nanometric silicon carbide (nSiC) into phenolic resin at 0.5, 1 and 2 wt% contents using ultrasonication to ensure uniform dispersion of the nanopowder, followed by heat curing of the phenolic-based materials at controlled temperature profile up to 120$^{\\circ}$C. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy analysis and evaluated in terms of mechanical, tribological and thermal stability under load. The results highlight the positive effect of the nanometric silicon carbide addition in phenolic resin on mechanical, thermo-mechanical and tribological performance, improving their strength, stiffness and abrasive properties. The best results were obtained for 1 wt% nSiC, proving that this value is the optimum nanometric silicon carbide content. The results indicate that these materials could be effectively used to obtain ablative or carbon–carbon composites in future studies.

  8. In vitro inhibition of the bovine viral diarrhoea virus by the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum (basil) and monoterpenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubiça, Thaís F; Alves, Sydney H; Weiblen, Rudi; Lovato, Luciane T

    2014-01-01

    The bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is suggested as a model for antiviral studies of the hepatitis C virus (HCV). The antiviral activity of the essential oil of Ocimum basilicum and the monoterpenes camphor, thymol and 1,8-cineole against BVDV was investigated. The cytotoxicities of the compounds were measured by the MTT (3-(4.5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2.5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) test, and the antiviral activities were tested by the plaque reduction assay. The oil or compounds were added to the assay in three different time points: a) pre-treatment of the virus (virucidal assay); b) pre-treatment of the cells; or c) post-treatment of the cells (after virus inoculation). The percentage of plaques inhibition for each compound was determined based on the number of plaques in the viral control. The results were expressed by CC50 (50% cytotoxic concentration), IC50 (inhibitory concentration for 50% of plaques) and SI (selectivity index = CC50/IC50). Camphor (CC50 = 4420.12 μg mL(-1)) and 1,8-cineole (CC50 = 2996.10 μg mL(-1)) showed the lowest cytotoxicities and the best antiviral activities (camphor SI = 13.88 and 1,8-cineol SI = 9.05) in the virucidal assay. The higher activities achieved by the monoterpenes in the virucidal assay suggest that these compounds act directly on the viral particle.

  9. Impact of boiling on free and bound phenolic profile and antioxidant activity of commercial gluten-free pasta.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocchetti, Gabriele; Lucini, Luigi; Chiodelli, Giulia; Giuberti, Gianluca; Montesano, Domenico; Masoero, Francesco; Trevisan, Marco

    2017-10-01

    Cooking by boiling dry pasta could have varying degrees of influence on nutritional and functional components. In the present study, its effect on total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity, as well as on the comprehensive profile of free and bound phenolics, was investigated in six commercial gluten-free (GF) pasta products. Overall, the heat treatment caused a significant reduction (Pboiling strongly lowered the bound-to-free ratio of phenolic compounds, by an averaged factor ranging from 14-folds for flavonoids to 5-folds for other classes of phenolics. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficient Enzymatic Synthesis of Phenolic Ester by Increasing Solubility of Phenolic Acids in Ionic Liquids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Zhiyong; Guo, Zheng; Xu, Xuebing

    reactions, and it had been widely used for esterification of various phenolic acids with fatty alcohol or triglycerides. However, the conversion of phenolic acids is low due to low solubility in hydrophobic solvents and hindrance effect of unsaturated side chain towards the enzyme. Our studies show...... these barriers can be overcome by increase the solubility of phenolic acids. Ionic liquid Methyltrioctylammonium Trifluoroacetate can dissolve different phenolic acids in very high concentration. This ionic liquid was therefore applied for esterification of phenolic acids with fatty alcohol or triglyceride....

  11. A Comprehensive Study on Chlorella pyrenoidosa for Phenol Degradation and its Potential Applicability as Biodiesel Feedstock and Animal Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Bhaskar; Mandal, Tapas K; Patra, Sanjukta

    2015-07-01

    The present work evaluates the phenol degradative performance of microalgae Chlorella pyrenoidosa. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis showed that C. pyrenoidosa degrades phenol completely up to 200 mg/l. It could also metabolize phenol in refinery wastewater. Biokinetic parameters obtained are the following: growth kinetics, μ max (media) > μ max (refinery wastewater), K s(media)  K I(refinery wastewater); degradation kinetics, q max (media) > q max (refinery wastewater), K s(media)  K I(refinery wastewater). The microalgae could cometabolize the alkane components present in refinery wastewater. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) fingerprinting of biomass indicates intercellular phenol uptake and breakdown into its intermediates. Phenol was metabolized as an organic carbon source leading to higher specific growth rate of biomass. Phenol degradation pathway was elucidated using HPLC, liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-visible) spectrophotometry. It involved both ortho- and meta-pathway with prominence of ortho-pathway. SEM analysis shows that cell membrane gets wrinkled on phenol exposure. Phenol degradation was growth and photodependent. Infrared analysis shows increased intracellular accumulation of neutral lipids opening possibility for utilization of spent biomass as biodiesel feedstock. The biomass after lipid extraction could be used as protein supplement in animal feed owing to enhanced protein content. The phenol remediation ability coupled with potential applicability of the spent biomass as biofuel feedstock and animal feed makes it a potential candidate for an environmentally sustainable process.

  12. Food proteins as potential carriers for phenolics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bohin, M.C.

    2013-01-01

    The development of phenolic-rich functional foods is often limited by the off-tastes of phenolics that might be counteracted by sequestering these compounds using a carrier, thereby preventing them to interact with bitter taste receptors and salivary proteins. A range of common animal food proteins

  13. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those

  14. Principal component analysis of phenolic acid spectra

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phenolic acids are common plant metabolites that exhibit bioactive properties and have applications in functional food and animal feed formulations. The ultraviolet (UV) and infrared (IR) spectra of four closely related phenolic acid structures were evaluated by principal component analysis (PCA) to...

  15. Two new phenolic compounds from Artemisia sphaerocephala

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Bao Zhao; Lin Xi Li; Xiu Hua Liu; Ming Jing Li; Wen Ling Wang

    2007-01-01

    Two new phenolic compounds were isolated from whole plant of Artemisia sphaerocephala. The structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods as 4-(1-hydroxylethyl)-phenol-1-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and 4-O-acetophenone-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1-3)-β-D-glucopyranoside.

  16. Plant phenolics – from field to fork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant secondary metabolites, such as phenolics, are important to human health and for the organoleptic properties they impart to fresh and processed foods. Consumers judge appearance, taste, and texture when making purchasing decisions. Thorough identification of phenolic compounds is key to discern...

  17. Olive oil phenols are absorbed in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vissers, M.N.; Zock, P.L.; Roodenburg, A.J.C.; Leenen, R.; Katan, M.B.

    2002-01-01

    Animal and in vitro studies suggest that olive oil phenols are effective antioxidants. The most abundant phenols in olive oil are the nonpolar oleuropein- and ligstroside-aglycones and the polar hydroxytyrosol and tyrosol. The aim of this study was to gain more insight into the metabolism of those p

  18. Phenol esterase activity of porcine skin

    Science.gov (United States)

    The alkyl esters of plant-derived phenols may serve as slow-release sources for cutaneous delivery of antioxidants. The ability of skin esterases to hydrolyze phenolic esters was examined. Esters of tyrosol and hydroxytyrosol were prepared from decanoic and lipoic acids. Ferulic acid was esterified ...

  19. Chemical Composition and Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Wormwood (Artemisia absinthium L. Essential Oils and Phenolics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamel Msaada

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the chemical variability of wormwood extracts as affected by the growing region. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities were also investigated. The essential oil composition variability of A. absinthium L. aerial parts collected from four different Tunisian regions was assessed by gas chromatography (GC/FID and by gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS. In addition, total polyphenols, flavonoids, and condensed tannins as well as antioxidant, antibacterial, and antifungal activities of methanolic extract and essential oils were undertaken. Chromatographic analysis of wormwood essential oils showed the predominance of monoterpene hydrocarbons represented mainly by chamazulene. RP-HPLC analysis of wormwood methanolic extract revealed the predominance of phenolic acids. Antiradical activity was region-dependant and the methanolic extract of Bou Salem region has the strongest activity (CI50=9.38±0.82 µg/mL. Concerning the reducing power, the methanolic extract of Bou Salem, Jérissa, and Boukornine regions was more active than the positive control. Obtained results of antimicrobial activities showed that wormwood essential oil is endowed with important antibacterial activity which was strongly related to the organoleptic quality of oil which appeared strongly region-dependant. A. absinthium L. EOs investigated are quite interesting from a pharmaceutical standpoint because of their biological activities.

  20. Effect of phenol and halogenated phenols on energy transfer reactions of rat liver mitochondria.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izushi,Fumio

    1988-02-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro effects of phenol and p-halogenated phenols on mitochondrial energy transfer reactions were examined using isolated rat liver mitochondria. The relationship between physiochemical properties of phenolic compounds and their effects on mitochondria were studied. Phenol and p-halogenated phenols induced the release of K+ ions from mitochondria, suggesting a change in permeability to K+ ions. A decrease in the respiratory control index, an increase in K+ release and stimulation of latent ATPase activity were observed with these compounds in the descending order of p-iodophenol, p-bromophenol, p-chlorophenol, p-fluorophenol and phenol. The concentrations of the phenolic compounds resulting in fifty percent inhibition of the respiratory control index and those resulting in fifty percent release of K+ ions significantly correlated with Hammett's substituent constant (sigma and the hydrophobic binding constant (pi of the compounds.

  1. Influence of various phenolic compounds on phenol hydroxylase activity of a Trichosporon cutaneum strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerginova, Maria; Manasiev, Jordan; Shivarova, Nedka; Alexieva, Zlatka

    2007-01-01

    The phenol-degrading strain Trichosporon cutaneum R57 utilizes various aromatic and aliphatic compounds as a sole carbon and energy source. The intracellular activities of phenol hydroxylase [EC 1.14.13.7] of a Trichosporon cutaneum R57 strain grown on phenol (0.5 g/l) were measured. Different toxic phenol derivatives (cresols, nitrophenols and hydroxyphenols) were used as substrates in the reaction mixture for determination of the enzyme activity. The data obtained showed that the investigated enzyme was capable to hydroxylate all applied aromatic substrates. The measured activities of phenol hydroxylase varied significantly depending on the aromatic compounds used as substrates. The rate of phenol hydroxylase activity with phenol as a substrate (1.0 U/mg total cell protein) was accepted as 100%.

  2. Phenolics: Occurrence and Immunochemical Detection in Environment and Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eline P. Meulenberg

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic compounds may be of natural or anthropogenic origin and be present in the environment as well as in food. They comprise a large and diverse group of compounds that may be either beneficial or harmful for consumers. In this review first a non-exhausting overview of interesting phenolics is given, in particular with regards to their presence in environment and food. For some of these compounds, beneficial, toxicological and/or optionally endocrine disrupting activities will be presented. Further, immunochemical detection and/or isolation methods developed will be discussed, including advantages and disadvantages thereof in comparison with conventional analytical methods such as HPLC, GC, MS. A short overview of new sensor-like methods will also be included for present and future application.

  3. Antioxidant potential of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes): In vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Surendraraj, Alagarsamy; Farvin, Sabeena; Anandan, R.

    2011-01-01

    the various parts of E. crassipes. Out of the 11 phenolic acids analysed, ethanolic extracts contained high amounts gallic, protocatechuic, gentisic and phydroxybenzoic acid, whereas, water extracts contained less amounts of varied number of phenolic acids. Ethanolic extracts of flower, which contained......The aims of the present study were (a) to extract and quantify the main phenolic acids and tocopherols from the petiole, leaf and flowers of Eichornia crassipes, (b) to evaluate the antioxidant capacity of the extracts in four in vitro systems (DPPH radical scavenging ability, iron chelating...

  4. Toxicity of Phenol and Salt on the Phenol-Degrading Pseudomonas aeruginosa Bacterium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaei

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background Phenolic compounds, phenol and phenol derivatives are environmental contaminants in some industrial effluents. Entrance of such substances into the environment causes severe environmental pollution, especially pollution of water resources. Biological treatment is a method that uses the potential of microorganisms to clean up contaminated environments. Among microorganisms, bacteria play an important role in treating wastewater contaminated with phenol. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effects of Pseudomonas aeruginosa on degradation of phenol in wastewater contaminated with this pollutant. Methods In this method, the growth rate of P. aeruginosa bacteria was investigated using different concentrations of salt and phenol. This is an experimental study conducted as a pilot in a batch reactor with different concentrations of phenol (25, 50, 100, 150, 300 and 600 mg L-1 and salt (0%, 0.5%, 1%, 2.5% and 5% during 9, 12 and 15 hours. During three days, from 5 experimental and 3 control samples, 18 samples were taken a day forming a sample size of 54 samples for each phenol concentration. Given the number of phenol concentrations (n = 6, a total of 324 samples were analyzed using a spectrophotometer at a wavelength of 600 nm. Results The phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1 was toxic for P. aeruginosa. However, at a certain concentration, it acts as a carbon source for P. aeruginosa. During investigations, it was found that increasing the concentration of phenol increases the rate of bacteria growth. The highest bacteria growth rate occurred was at the salt concentration of zero and phenol concentration of 600 mg L-1. Conclusions The findings of the current study indicate that at high concentrations of salt, the growth of bacteria reduces so that it stops at a concentration of 50 mg L-1 (5%. Thus, the bacterium is halotolerant or halophilic. With an increase in phenol concentration, the growth rate increased. Phenol toxicity appears

  5. Characterization and quantification of fruit phenolic compounds of European and Tunisian pear cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brahem, Marwa; Renard, Catherine M G C; Eder, Severin; Loonis, Michèle; Ouni, Rim; Mars, Messaoud; Le Bourvellec, Carine

    2017-05-01

    The flesh and peel of 19 pear cultivars (8 Tunisian dessert cultivars, 8 European dessert cultivars and 3 French perry pear cultivars) were studied for their phenolic composition. Phenolic compounds were identified by HPLC/ESI-MS(2) and individually quantified by HPLC-DAD. Five classes of polyphenols were present: flavan-3-ols, phenolic acids, flavonols, anthocyanins and simple phenolics (hydroquinones). The total phenolic content ranged between 0.1g/kg Fresh Weight (FW) ('Conference' cultivar) and 8.6g/kg FW ('Plant De Blanc' cultivar) in the flesh and between 1.6g/kg FW ('William vert' cultivar) and 40.4g/kg FW ('Arbi Chiheb' cultivar) in the peel. Procyanidins, analyzed after thioacidolysis, were the main phenolic compounds in all pear cultivars either in the pulp or the peel, their constitutive units being essentially (-)-epicatechin. Tunisian dessert pears and French perry pears are richer in procyanidins with very high degree of polymerization (>100) for Tunisian pears. Peel procyanidins were less polymerized (from 4 to 20). Pear peel phenolic profile was more complex especially for Tunisian cultivars, with flavonols and in some cultivars anthocyanins. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Toxicity of phenol on Macrobrachium rosenbergii (de Man) eggs, larvae, and post-larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Law, A.T.; Yeo, M.E. [Universiti Kolej Terengganu (UPM), Darul Iman (Malaysia)

    1997-03-01

    Literature on the toxicities of phenol on aquatic organisms is very limited. USEPA reported that the acute and chronic toxicities of phenol to freshwater aquatic life occur at concentrations as low as 10.2 mg/L and 2.56 mg/L, respectively. While for the saltwater aquatic life the acute toxicity occurs at concentrations as low as 5.8 mg/L. No data are available for the chronic toxicity of phenol to saltwater aquatic life. Sublethal concentrations of phenol have significant effects on the physiological and histological processes of the aquatic organisms: such as gill necrosis; destruction of erythrocyte cells; inhibition of sexual activities; suppression on growth and reduction of resistance to diseases. Macrobrachium rosenbergii(de Man) is the sole freshwater prawn cultured in Malaysia. Occasionally, the hatcheries are unable to produce the post-larvae because of undefined pollutants present in the water supplies. It has been observed that the use of cracked fiberglass tanks for larvae rearing is correlated with high mortality. This high mortality is probably due to the toxicity of the phenolic compounds which are leached out from the fiber glass tank into the water. This study was undertaken to evaluate the toxicity of phenol on eggs, larvae and post-larvae of M. rosenbergii and to set the water quality criteria of phenol for the said species. 16 refs., 3 tabs.

  7. Role of olive oil phenolics in physical properties and stability of mayonnaise-like emulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacintucci, Veronica; Di Mattia, Carla; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Neri, Lilia; Pittia, Paola

    2016-12-15

    The effect of olive oil phenolic content and pattern on the physical properties and stability of olive oil mayonnaise-like emulsions has been investigated. Mayonnaises were formulated with either naturally phenolic-rich extra virgin olive oils or purified olive oil artificially enriched with a phenolic-rich olive extract and pure oleuropein. Mayonnaises were characterized by droplet size distribution, microstructure, textural properties and flow behaviour. The addition of phenolic extracts significantly affected the dispersion degree of the corresponding mayonnaise-like emulsions, their microstructure and physical stability especially in the systems prepared with purified olive oil treated with pure oleuropein and the highest olive phenolic extract concentration. The viscosity and back-extrusion analyses evidenced that the systems characterized by a relatively high content of phenolics, either natural or by addition, presented lower yield stress and viscosity indices and were easier to deform and to break. This study confirms the main role of olive phenolic compounds, and in particular that of oleuropein, in the dispersion state, and physical properties of emulsions with main effects on their quality and stability.

  8. Phenolic profiles of cherry tomatoes as influenced by hydric stress and rootstock technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Eva; Ruiz, Juan M; Ferreres, Federico; Moreno, Diego A

    2012-09-15

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate the influence of genetic and technological factors (cultivar and grafting) combined with the abiotic stress (water stress) on the content of phenolic compounds (flavonoids and phenolic acids classes and total phenolics) in cherry tomato. The identification and contents of phenolic compounds and flavonoids were determined by HPLC-MS in fruits on reciprocal grafting between a drought-tolerant cultivar (Zarina) and drought-sensible cultivar (Josefina), compared with both self-grafted and non-grafted plants. The results show how pre-harvest factors, such as grafting and water stress, can influence the phenolic content of tomato fruits. Phenolic compounds, including rutin that belongs to the group of flavonoids, display a remarkable array of biological and pharmacological activities. So, the richness of ZarxJos under water stress conditions with these compounds confirms its nutritional value and it can be used as a potential source of phenols. The results suggest that grafting on specific rootstocks more adapted to water stress conditions may be a tool to improve crop quality under artificially imposed mild water stress.

  9. Identification and characterisation of phenolic compounds extracted from Moroccan olive mill wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inass Leouifoudi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Olive mill wastewater, hereafter noted as OMWW was tested for its composition in phenolic compounds according to geographical areas of olive tree, i.e. the plain and the mountainous areas of Tadla-Azilal region (central Morocco. Biophenols extraction with ethyl acetate was efficient and the phenolic extract from the mountainous areas had the highest concentration of total phenols' content. Fourier-Transform-Middle Infrared (FT-MIR spectroscopy of the extracts revealed vibration bands corresponding to acid, alcohol and ketone functions. Additionally, HPLC-ESI-MS analyses showed that phenolic alcohols, phenolic acids, flavonoids, secoiridoids and derivatives and lignans represent the most abundant phenolic compounds. Nüzhenide, naringenin and long chain polymeric substances were also detected. Mountainous areas also presented the most effective DPPH scavenging potential compared to plain areas; IC50 values were 11.7 ± 5.6 µg/ml and 30.7 ± 4.4 µg/ml, respectively. OMWW was confirmed as a rich source of natural phenolic antioxidant agents.

  10. Phenols in hydrothermal petroleums and sediment bitumen from Guaymas Basin, Gulf of California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simoneit, B. R.; Leif, R. N.; Ishiwatari, R.

    1996-01-01

    The aliphatic, aromatic and polar (NSO) fractions of seabed petroleums and sediment bitumen extracts from the Guaymas Basin hydrothermal system have been analyzed by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (free and silylated). The oils were collected from the interiors and exteriors of high temperature hydrothermal vents and represent hydrothermal pyrolyzates that have migrated to the seafloor by hydrothermal fluid circulation. The downcore sediments are representative of both thermally unaltered and thermally altered sediments. The survey has revealed the presence of oxygenated compounds in samples with a high degree of thermal maturity. Phenols are one class of oxygenated compounds found in these samples. A group of methyl-, dimethyl- and trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols (C27-C29) is present in all of the seabed NSO fractions, with the methyl- and dimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenols occurring as major components, and a trimethyl-isoprenoidyl phenol as a minor component. A homologous series of n-alkylphenols (C13-C33) has also been found in the seabed petroleums. These phenols are most likely derived from the hydrothermal alteration of sedimentary organic matter. The n-alkylphenols are probably synthesized under hydrothermal conditions, but the isoprenoidyl phenols are probably hydrothermal alteration products of natural product precursors. The suites of phenols do not appear to be useful tracers of high temperature hydrothermal processes.

  11. Catalytic Graphitization of Phenolic Resin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mu Zhao; Huaihe Song

    2011-01-01

    The catalytic graphitization of thermal plastic phenolic-formaldehyde resin with the aid of ferric nitrate (FN) was studied in detail. The morphologies and structural features of the products including onion-like carbon nanoparticles and bamboo-shaped carbon nanotubes were investigated by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy measurements. It was found that with the changes of loading content of FN and residence time at 1000℃, the products exhibited various morphologies. The TEM images showed that bamboo-shaped carbon nanotube consisted of tens of bamboo sticks and onion-like carbon nanoparticle was made up of quasi-spherically concentrically closed carbon nanocages.

  12. Survey of foliar monoterpenes across the range of jack pine reveal three widespread chemotypes: implications to host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spencer eTaft

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The secondary compounds of pines (Pinus can strongly affect the physiology, ecology and behaviors of the bark beetles (Coleoptera: Curculionidae, Scolytinae that feed on sub-cortical tissues of hosts. Jack pine (Pinus banksiana has a wide natural distribution range in North America (Canada and USA and thus variations in its secondary compounds, particularly monoterpenes, could affect the host expansion of invasive mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, which has recently expanded its range into the novel jack pine boreal forest. We investigated monoterpene composition of 601 jack pine trees from natural and provenance forest stands representing 63 populations from Alberta to the Atlantic coast. Throughout its range, jack pine exhibited three chemotypes characterized by high proportions of α-pinene, β-pinene, or limonene. The frequency with which the α-pinene and β-pinene chemotypes occurred at individual sites was correlated to climatic variables, such as continentality and mean annual precipitation, as were the individual α-pinene and β-pinene concentrations. However, other monoterpenes were generally not correlated to climatic variables or geographic distribution. Finally, while the enantiomeric ratios of β-pinene and limonene remained constant across jack pine’s distribution, (‒:(+-α-pinene exhibited two separate trends, thereby delineating two α-pinene phenotypes, both of which occurred across jack pine’s range. These significant variations in jack pine monoterpene composition may have cascading effects on the continued eastward spread and success of D. ponderosae in the Canadian boreal forest.

  13. Significant light and temperature dependent monoterpene emissions from European beech (fagus sylvatiga L.) and their potential impact on the European VOC budget

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dindorf, T.; Kuhn, U.; Ganzeveld, L.N.; Schebeske, G.; Ciccioli, P.; Holzke, C.; Köble, R.; Seufert, G.; Kesselmeier, J.

    2006-01-01

    By using a dynamic branch enclosure system the emission of monoterpenes from European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) was investigated during two consecutive summer vegetation periods in the years of 2002 and 2003 in Germany. All measurements were performed under field conditions within the framework of

  14. In situ localization of gene transcriptions for monoterpene synthesis in irregular parenchymic cells surrounding the secretory cavities in rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamasaki, Yumiko; Akimitsu, Kazuya

    2007-11-01

    A cDNA (RlemispF) encoding 2-C-methyl-d-erythritol 2,4-cyclodiphosphate synthase, an enzyme of the methyl erythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway, and two homologs (RlemTPS1 and RlemTPS2) of citrus monoterpene synthase cDNA were isolated from the rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri). Transient localization of all or a part of RlemispF fused to a green fluorescence protein using particle gun-mediated DNA delivery localized RlemispF in the chloroplast. Transcripts of RlemispF and other monoterpene synthase genes are constitutively expressed in leaves of rough lemon. Transcript accumulations of RlemispF and RlemTPS1 were not induced by microbe attacks, but microbe attack weakly induced RlemTPS2 expression. Wounding decreased RlemispF expression. RlemispF and two different monoterpene synthase genes were specifically expressed in the epithelial tissue cells with dense cytoplasm that surround secretory cavities, which form a broadly round package containing a large volume of essential oils composed of monoterpenes. Interestingly, although expressions of RlemTPS1 and RlemTPS2 were detected at both mature and developing secretory cavities, the RlemispF-expressing cells were found more at around developing secretory cavities.

  15. The Differential Effects of the Blue-Stain Fungus Leptographium qinlingensis on Monoterpenes and Sesquiterpenes in the Stem of Chinese White Pine (Pinus armandi Saplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanh Pham

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available When conifers such as Chinese white pine (Pinus armandi Fr. are attacked by insects or pathogens, they respond by increasing their content of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. In this study, we determined the effects of the blue-stain fungus Leptographium qinlingensis Tang and Chen on monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes in the phloem and xylem of the stem of P. armandi saplings. We found that the total monoterpene concentrations in the phloem and xylem of the stem and the total sesquiterpene concentrations in the xylem of the stem were significantly higher in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in control (mechanically wounded saplings or untreated saplings. Additionally, the proportions of β-pinene in the xylem of the stem and limonene + β-phellandrene in the phloem and xylem of the stem were significantly higher in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in both control and untreated saplings. The proportions of individual sesquiterpenes in the phloem and xylem of the stem were significantly greater in L. qinlingensis-inoculated saplings than in untreated saplings. Based on the results of this study, we suggest that increases in total monoterpene and sesquiterpene concentrations, as well as increases in the concentrations of β-pinene and limonene + β-phellandrene, may play an important defensive role against blue-stain fungus L. qinlingensis inoculation.

  16. WET AND DRY SEASON ECOSYSTEM LEVEL FLUXES OF ISOPRENE AND MONOTERPENES FROM A SOUTHEAST ASIAN SECONDARY FOREST AND RUBBER TREE PLANTATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canopy scale fluxes of isoprene and monoterpenes were investigated in both wet and dry seasons above a rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis)/secondary tropical forest in the Yunnan province of southwestern China. Drought conditions were unusually high during the dry season experiment....

  17. Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid Content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankhalkar, Sangeeta; Vernekar, Vrunda

    2016-01-01

    Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are widly grown in India and are known for their medicinal properties. Number of secondary metabolites like phenolics and flavonoids are known to be present in both the plants. The present study was conducted with an objective to qualitatively and quantitatively compare the phenolics and flavanoids in these two medicinally important plants.Quantitation of total phenolics and flavanoids was done by spectrophotometrically while qualitative analysis was perfomed by paper chromatography and by phytochemical tests. Our results have shown higher phenolics and flavanoid content in Moringa leaf and flower. However, higher phenolic content was absent in Ocimum flower compared to that of Moringa. Phytochemical analysis of various metabolites such as flavonoids, tanins, sapponins, alkaloids, anthraquinones revealed that both the plant extracts were rich sources of

  18. Phenol removal efficiencies of sewage treatment processes and ecological risks associated with phenols in effluents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Wenjue; Wang, Donghong; Xu, Xiaowei

    2012-05-30

    Phenols pose a risk to the environment and to human health. Phenols found in rivers mainly originate from sewage treatment plants (STPs). In this paper, analytical procedures, based on deconvolution technology and retention time locking technology, were investigated to simultaneously identify and determine the concentrations of fifty different phenols in sewage water and effluents. Seventeen different phenols were found in sewage and five - including two regulated phenols (phenol and 2,4,6-trichlorophenol) and three un-regulated phenols (2-chlorophenol, 2,5-dichlorophenol and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol) - were identified in effluents of five STPs. A number of processes undertaken in five STPs were also investigated. These processes can be used to remove phenols at efficiency levels of between 88.95% and 99.97%. Among the processes tested, a combination of anaerobic/anoxic/oxic (A(2)/O), continuous microfiltration (CMF), ozone oxidation (O(3)), and chlorination, appeared to be the best option for the removal of key phenols. Among the five phenols identified in effluents, 2,5-dichlorophenol (1.89 μg/L) and 2,4-dichloro-3-ethyl-6-nitrophenol (22.6 μg/L) pose the greatest ecological risk to receiving waters.

  19. Development of a phenol-enriched olive oil with phenolic compounds from olive cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suárez, Manuel; Romero, Maria-Paz; Motilva, Maria-José

    2010-10-13

    The recent information regarding the healthy properties of virgin olive oil phenols and the interest in increasing the value of byproducts from the oil extraction processs support the standardized development of phenol-enriched olive oil. Accordingly, the aim of this research work was to evaluate strategies for the development of a virgin olive oil enriched with phenolic compounds obtained from olive cake to increase phenolic ingestion without the drawback of a higher calorie intake. For this proposal, different combinations of phenolic extracts were evaluated at a range of concentrations to obtain the best prototype of enriched olive oil. To study the functionality of the phenol enrichments, the total phenolic content and the oxidative stability were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu and Rancimat tests, respectively. In addition, the phenolic composition and antioxidant capacity (ORAC assay) of the oils were studied. Finally, the stability and potential bioaccesibility of the phenolic fraction of the enriched oils were tested by an in vitro gastrointestinal digestion model. Results of the study showed different strategies to select the best prototype of enriched olive oil, taking into consideration not only their phenolic content but also other important factors such as the feasibility of implementing the preparation process in the food industry.

  20. Challenges in modelling isoprene and monoterpene emission dynamics of Arctic plants: a case study from a subarctic tundra heath

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jing; Schurgers, Guy; Valolahti, Hanna; Faubert, Patrick; Tiiva, Päivi; Michelsen, Anders; Rinnan, Riikka

    2016-12-01

    The Arctic is warming at twice the global average speed, and the warming-induced increases in biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) emissions from Arctic plants are expected to be drastic. The current global models' estimations of minimal BVOC emissions from the Arctic are based on very few observations and have been challenged increasingly by field data. This study applied a dynamic ecosystem model, LPJ-GUESS, as a platform to investigate short-term and long-term BVOC emission responses to Arctic climate warming. Field observations in a subarctic tundra heath with long-term (13-year) warming treatments were extensively used for parameterizing and evaluating BVOC-related processes (photosynthesis, emission responses to temperature and vegetation composition). We propose an adjusted temperature (T) response curve for Arctic plants with much stronger T sensitivity than the commonly used algorithms for large-scale modelling. The simulated emission responses to 2 °C warming between the adjusted and original T response curves were evaluated against the observed warming responses (WRs) at short-term scales. Moreover, the model responses to warming by 4 and 8 °C were also investigated as a sensitivity test. The model showed reasonable agreement to the observed vegetation CO2 fluxes in the main growing season as well as day-to-day variability of isoprene and monoterpene emissions. The observed relatively high WRs were better captured by the adjusted T response curve than by the common one. During 1999-2012, the modelled annual mean isoprene and monoterpene emissions were 20 and 8 mg C m-2 yr-1, with an increase by 55 and 57 % for 2 °C summertime warming, respectively. Warming by 4 and 8 °C for the same period further elevated isoprene emission for all years, but the impacts on monoterpene emissions levelled off during the last few years. At hour-day scale, the WRs seem to be strongly impacted by canopy air T, while at the day-year scale, the WRs are a combined

  1. Why are estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions so similar (and why is this not so for monoterpenes)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, A.; Monson, R. K.; Schurgers, G.; Niinemets, É.; Palmer, P. I.

    2008-08-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are a chief uncertainty in calculating the burdens of important atmospheric compounds like tropospheric ozone or secondary organic aerosol, reflecting either imperfect chemical oxidation mechanisms or unreliable emission estimates, or both. To provide a starting point for a more systematic discussion we review here global isoprene and monoterpene emission estimates to-date. We note a surprisingly small variation in the predictions of global isoprene emission rate that is in stark contrast with our lack of process understanding and the small number of observations for model parameterisation and evaluation. Most of the models are based on similar emission algorithms, using fixed values for the emission capacity of various plant functional types. In some cases, these values are very similar but differ substantially in other models. The similarities with regard to the global isoprene emission rate would suggest that the dominant parameters driving the ultimate global estimate, and thus the dominant determinant of model sensitivity, are the specific emission algorithm and isoprene emission capacity. But the models also differ broadly with regard to their representation of net primary productivity, method of biome coverage determination and climate data. Contrary to isoprene, monoterpene estimates show significantly larger model-to-model variation although variation in terms of leaf algorithm, emission capacities, the way of model upscaling, vegetation cover or climatology used in terpene models are comparable to those used for isoprene. From our summary of published studies there appears to be no evidence that the terrestrial modelling community has been any more successful in "resolving unknowns" in the mechanisms that control global isoprene emissions, compared to global monoterpene emissions. Rather, the proliferation of common parameterization schemes within a large variety of model platforms lends the illusion

  2. Why are estimates of global isoprene emissions so similar (and why is this not so for monoterpenes)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arneth, A.; Monson, R. K.; Schurgers, G.; Niinemets, Ü.; Palmer, P. I.

    2008-04-01

    Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are a chief uncertainty in calculating the burdens of important atmospheric compounds like tropospheric ozone or secondary organic aerosol, reflecting either imperfect chemical oxidation mechanisms or unreliable emission estimates, or both. To provide a starting point for a more systematic discussion we review here global isoprene and monoterpene emission estimates to-date. We note a surprisingly small variation in the predictions of global isoprene emission rate that is in stark contrast with our lack of process understanding and the small number of observations for model parameterisation and evaluation. Most of the models are based on similar emission algorithms, using fixed values for the emission capacity of various plant functional types. In some studies these values are very similar, but they differ substantially in others. The models differ also broadly with regard to their representation of net primary productivity, method of biome coverage determination and climate data. Their similarities with regard to the global isoprene emission rate would suggest that the dominant parameters driving the ultimate global estimate, and thus the dominant determinant of model sensitivity, are the specific emission algorithm and isoprene emission capacity. Contrary to isoprene, monoterpene estimates show significantly larger model-to-model variation although variation in terms of leaf algorithm, emission capacities, the way of model upscaling, vegetation cover or climatology used in terpene models are comparable to those used for isoprene. From our summary of published studies there appears to be no evidence that the terrestrial modelling community has been any more successful in "resolving unknowns" in the mechanisms that control global isoprene emissions, compared to global monoterpene emissions. Rather, the proliferation of common parameterization schemes within a large variety of model platforms lends the illusion

  3. Why are estimates of global isoprene emissions so similar (and why is this not so for monoterpenes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC are a chief uncertainty in calculating the burdens of important atmospheric compounds like tropospheric ozone or secondary organic aerosol, reflecting either imperfect chemical oxidation mechanisms or unreliable emission estimates, or both. To provide a starting point for a more systematic discussion we review here global isoprene and monoterpene emission estimates to-date. We note a surprisingly small variation in the predictions of global isoprene emission rate that is in stark contrast with our lack of process understanding and the small number of observations for model parameterisation and evaluation. Most of the models are based on similar emission algorithms, using fixed values for the emission capacity of various plant functional types. In some studies these values are very similar, but they differ substantially in others. The models differ also broadly with regard to their representation of net primary productivity, method of biome coverage determination and climate data. Their similarities with regard to the global isoprene emission rate would suggest that the dominant parameters driving the ultimate global estimate, and thus the dominant determinant of model sensitivity, are the specific emission algorithm and isoprene emission capacity. Contrary to isoprene, monoterpene estimates show significantly larger model-to-model variation although variation in terms of leaf algorithm, emission capacities, the way of model upscaling, vegetation cover or climatology used in terpene models are comparable to those used for isoprene. From our summary of published studies there appears to be no evidence that the terrestrial modelling community has been any more successful in "resolving unknowns" in the mechanisms that control global isoprene emissions, compared to global monoterpene emissions. Rather, the proliferation of common parameterization schemes within a large variety of model platforms

  4. Why are estimates of global terrestrial isoprene emissions so similar (and why is this not so for monoterpenes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Arneth

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Emissions of biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC are a chief uncertainty in calculating the burdens of important atmospheric compounds like tropospheric ozone or secondary organic aerosol, reflecting either imperfect chemical oxidation mechanisms or unreliable emission estimates, or both. To provide a starting point for a more systematic discussion we review here global isoprene and monoterpene emission estimates to-date. We note a surprisingly small variation in the predictions of global isoprene emission rate that is in stark contrast with our lack of process understanding and the small number of observations for model parameterisation and evaluation. Most of the models are based on similar emission algorithms, using fixed values for the emission capacity of various plant functional types. In some cases, these values are very similar but differ substantially in other models. The similarities with regard to the global isoprene emission rate would suggest that the dominant parameters driving the ultimate global estimate, and thus the dominant determinant of model sensitivity, are the specific emission algorithm and isoprene emission capacity. But the models also differ broadly with regard to their representation of net primary productivity, method of biome coverage determination and climate data. Contrary to isoprene, monoterpene estimates show significantly larger model-to-model variation although variation in terms of leaf algorithm, emission capacities, the way of model upscaling, vegetation cover or climatology used in terpene models are comparable to those used for isoprene. From our summary of published studies there appears to be no evidence that the terrestrial modelling community has been any more successful in "resolving unknowns" in the mechanisms that control global isoprene emissions, compared to global monoterpene emissions. Rather, the proliferation of common parameterization schemes within a large variety of model platforms

  5. Effects of Acute Ozone Exposure and Methyl Jasmonate Treatment on White Pine Monoterpene and Sesquiterpene Emission Rates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faiola, C. L.; Wagner, D.; Allwine, E.; Harley, P. C.; Vanreken, T. M.

    2010-12-01

    Biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) are produced by plants and include monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and their oxygenated derivatives. These BVOCs are one of the principal factors influencing the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere in forested regions, and impact both ozone concentration and secondary organic aerosol formation. Under unstressed conditions, the release of BVOCs to the atmosphere is primarily controlled by the vapor pressure of the relevant compounds within the plant tissue, which is in turn dependent on temperature as well as complex biochemical production processes. However, various natural and anthropogenic stressors can alter both the quantity and composition of the BVOCs emitted by plants. Many potential stressors are expected to become stronger as climate change effects escalate. The impacts of most stressors on BVOC emissions have not been well characterized, particularly in a field setting where changes in BVOC emissions could have influential feedbacks with climate. This study investigated the effects of two stressors on monoterpene and sesquiterpene emission rates at a field site in northern Michigan: acute ozone exposure and treatment with methyl jasmonate, an herbivory proxy. The study included six repetitions of the same experiment, each time using a new set of sub-canopy eastern white pine specimens. For each experiment, dynamic branch enclosures were simultaneously used on three specimens for sample collection: one ozone treatment tree, one methyl jasmonate treatment tree, and one control tree. Sampling lines were placed in each enclosure and VOCs were collected onto cartridges packed with Tenax GR adsorbent. Samples were collected several times per day for at least two days before treatment and for five days after treatment. Cartridges were analyzed via thermodesorption with an Agilent GC/MS/FID. This analysis allowed the identification and quantification of several monoterpene and sesquiterpene species in the samples

  6. Demonstration that limonene is the first cyclic intermediate in the biosynthesis of oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes in Mentha piperita and other Mentha species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjonaas, R; Croteau, R

    1983-01-01

    The volatile oil of mature Mentha piperita (peppermint) leaves contains as major components the oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes l-menthol (47%) and l-menthone (24%) as well as very low levels of the monoterpene olefins limonene (1%) and terpinolene (0.1%), which are considered to be probable precursors of the oxygenated derivatives. Immature leaves, which are actively synthesizing monoterpenes, produce an oil with comparatively higher levels of limonene (approximately 3%), and isolation of the pure olefin showed this compound to consist of approximately 80% of the l-(4S)-enantiomer and approximately 20% of the d-(4R)-enantiomer. The time course of incorporation of [U-14C]sucrose into the monoterpenes of M. piperita shoot tips was consistent with the initial formation of limonene and its subsequent conversion to menthone via pulegone. d,l-[9-3H]Limonene and [9,10-3H]terpinolene were prepared and tested directly as precursors of oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes in M. piperita shoot tips. Limonene was readily incorporated into pulegone, menthone, and other oxygenated derivatives, whereas terpinolene was not appreciably incorporated into these compounds. Similarly, d,l-[9-3H]limonene was specifically incorporated into pulegone in Mentha pulegium and into the C-2-oxygenated derivative carvone in Mentha spicata, confirming the role of this olefin as the essential precursor of oxygenated p-menthane monoterpenes. Soluble enzyme preparations from the epidermis of immature M. piperita leaves converted the acyclic terpenoid precursor [1-3H]geranyl pyrophosphate to limonene as the major cyclic product, providing a further indication that this olefin plays a central role in the formation of oxygenated monoterpenes in Mentha. No free intermediates were detected in the cyclization of geranyl pyrophosphate to limonene, suggesting that the olefin is the first cyclic intermediate to arise in the pathway, and resolution of the biosynthetic limonene, by crystallization of the

  7. An intercomparison of GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements in ambient air under conditions of enhanced monoterpene loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ambrose

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Toluene was measured using both a gas chromatographic system (GC, with a flame ionization detector (FID, and a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS at the AIRMAP atmospheric monitoring station Thompson Farm (THF in rural Durham, NH during the summer of 2004. Simultaneous measurements of monoterpenes, including α- and β-pinene, camphene, Δ3-carene, and d-limonene, by GC-FID demonstrated large enhancements in monoterpene mixing ratios relative to toluene, with median and maximum enhancement ratios of ~2 and ~30, respectively. A detailed intercomparison among the GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements was conducted to test the specificity of PTR-MS for atmospheric toluene measurements under conditions often dominated by biogenic emissions. We derived quantitative estimates of potential interferences in the PTR-MS toluene measurements related to sampling and analysis of monoterpenes, including fragmentation of the monoterpenes and some of their primary carbonyl oxidation products via reactions with H3O+, O2+ and NO+ in the PTR-MS drift tube. The PTR-MS and GC-FID toluene measurements were in good quantitative agreement and the two systems tracked one another well from the instrumental limits of detection to maximum mixing ratios of ~0.5 ppbv. Discrepancies in the measured mixing ratios were not well correlated with enhancements in the monoterpenes. Better quantitative agreement between the two systems was obtained by correcting the PTR-MS measurements for contributions from monoterpene fragmentation in the PTR-MS drift tube; however, the improvement was minor. Interferences in the PTR-MS measurements from fragmentation of the monoterpene oxidation products pinonaldehyde, caronaldehyde and α-pinene oxide were also likely negligible. The results from THF suggest that toluene can be reliably quantified by PTR-MS using our operating conditions under the ambient

  8. Growth of Trametes versicolor on phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yemendzhiev, H; Gerginova, M; Krastanov, A; Stoilova, I; Alexieva, Z

    2008-11-01

    Trametes versicolor 1 was shown to grow on phenol as its sole carbon and energy source. The culture growth and degradation ability dependence on culture medium pH value was observed. The optimal pH value of a liquid Czapek salt medium was 6.5. The investigated strain utilized completely 0.5 g/l phenol in 6 days. The dynamics of the phenol degradation process was investigated. The process was characterized by specific growth rate micromax 0.33 h(-1), metabolic coefficient k=4.4, yield coefficient Yx/s=0.23 and rate of degradation Q=0.506 h(-1). The intracellular activities of phenol hydroxylase (0.333 U/mg protein) and cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme (0.41 U/mg protein) were demonstrated for the first time in this fungus. In an attempt to estimate the occurrence of gene sequences in T. versicolor 1 related to phenol degradation pathway a dot blot analysis with total DNA isolated from this strain was performed. Two synthetic oligonucleotides were used as hybridizing probes. One of the probes was homologous to the 5'end of phyA gene coding for phenol hydroxylase in Trichosporon cutaneum ATCC 46490. The other probe was created on the basis of cis,cis-muconate lactonizing enzyme coding gene in T. cutaneum ATCC 58094. The results of these investigations showed that T. versicolor 1 may carry genes similar to those of Trichosporon cutaneum capable to degrade phenol.

  9. EFFECTS OF PHENOL RESIN ADDITIVE ON DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ACRYLATE RUBBER AND ITS BLENDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chi-fei Wu

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic mechanical properties of a new blend system consisting of phenol resin and polar polymer (acrylate rubber and/or chlorinated polypropylene) were investigated. It was found that the addition of phenol resin to acrylate rubber and its incompatible blend can cause a remarkable improvement in the temperature dependence of the loss tangent. As a result, the present blends are very good damping materials.

  10. Phenolic composition and antioxidant activity of Salvia tomentosa Miller: effects of cultivation, harvesting year, and storage

    OpenAIRE

    DİNÇER, Cüneyt; TONTUL, İsmail; ÇAM, İhsan Burak; ÖZDEMİR, Kübra Sultan

    2013-01-01

    Salvia tomentosa is a common medicinal plant, and it is consumed as an herbal tea in some Mediterranean countries. It has been extensively collected from its natural habitat, and careless collection has caused the recent extinction of some plants. The present study was undertaken to cultivate S. tomentosa and compare the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of wild and cultivated plants. Total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of S. tomentosa ranged between 49.2...

  11. Strategies for the Preparation of Differentially Protected ortho-Prenylated Phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoarau, Christophe; Pettus, Thomas R R

    2003-01-01

    A new process for ortho-prenylation of phenols is presented within the context of known methods. All of the processes are briefly assessed with regards to the substitution patterns and accompanying functional groups tolerated by each strategy. The conclusion reached is that a new procedure using ortho-quinone methides, for which an experimental protocol is provided, offers the greatest generality and flexibility in the preparation of ortho-prenylated phenol derivatives.

  12. Extraction, evolution, and sensory impact of phenolic compounds during red wine maceration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casassa, L Federico; Harbertson, James F

    2014-01-01

    We review the extraction into wine and evolution of major phenolic classes of sensory relevance. We present a historical background to highlight that previously established aspects of phenolic extraction and retention into red wine are still subjects of much research. We argue that management of the maceration length is one of the most determining factors in defining the proportion and chemical fate of phenolic compounds in wine. The extraction of anthocyanins, flavonols, flavan-3-ols, and oligomeric and polymeric proanthocyanidins (PAs) is discussed in the context of their individual extraction patterns but also with regard to their interaction with other wine components. The same approach is followed to present the sensory implications of phenolic and phenolic-derived compounds in wine. Overall, we conclude that the chemical diversity of phenolic compounds in grapes is further enhanced as soon as vacuolar and pulp components are released upon crushing, adding a variety of new sensory dimensions to the already present chemical diversity. Polymeric pigments formed by the covalent reaction of anthocyanin and PAs are good candidates to explain some of the observed sensory changes in the color, taste, and mouthfeel attributes of red wines during maceration and aging.

  13. Two-dimensional liquid chromatography (LC) of phenolic compounds from the shoots of Rubus idaeus 'Glen Ample' cultivar variety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Marta; Głód, Daniel; Krauze-Baranowska, Mirosława

    2016-03-20

    In this study the application of two-dimensional LC (2D LC) for qualitative analysis of polyphenols and simple phenols in the shoots of Rubus idaeus 'Glen Ample' variety is presented. In the preliminary analysis, the methanol extract of the shoots was analyzed by one-dimensional LC. One-dimensional LC separation profiles of phenolics from R. idaeus 'Glen Ample' shoots were dependent on column type, mobile phase composition and gradient program used. Two-dimensional LC system was built from connecting an octadecyl C-18 silica column in the first dimension and pentafluorophenyl column in the second dimension, coupled with DAD and MS (ESI, APCI, DUIS ionization) detectors. A total of 34 phenolic compounds belonging to the groups of phenolic acids, ellagitannins, flavan-3-ols, flavonols and ellagic acid conjugates were identified in the shoots of R. idaeus 'Glen Ample'. The established 2D LC method offers an effective tool for analysis of phenolics present in Rubus species.

  14. Phenolic profile, antioxidant activity and palynological analysis of stingless bee honey from Amazonas, Northern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Isnandia Andréa Almeida; da Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim; Queiroz, Neide; Magnani, Marciane; de Novais, Jaílson Santos; Soledade, Luiz Edmundo Bastos; Lima, Edeltrudes de Oliveira; de Souza, Antonia Lucia; de Souza, Antonio Gouveia

    2013-12-15

    In this study honey samples produced by Melipona (Michmelia) seminigra merrillae, collected in seven counties distributed in the central and southern region of Amazonas state in Brazil, were analysed for their botanical origin, content and profile of phenolic compounds, and antioxidant and antimicrobial activities. Twenty-two pollen types were identified. The total phenolic content ranged from 17 to 66 mg GAE/g of extract; the highest contents were found in honeys produced from pollen types such as Clidemia and Myrcia. The antioxidant activity was higher in the samples that contained higher quantities of phenolic compounds. In relation to the antibacterial activity, samples CAD3, CAD4 and SAD3 presented the best results. Fourteen phenolic compounds were determined. Among them, we identified the flavonoid taxifolin, which has not previously been described in honeys from stingless bees, and we report the identification of catechol in Brazilian honey samples for the first time. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Protein precipitating capacity and antioxidant activity of Turkish Tombul hazelnut phenolic extract and its fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelvan Pelitli, Ebru; Janiak, Michał Adam; Amarowicz, Ryszard; Alasalvar, Cesarettin

    2017-03-01

    Natural (raw) hazelnut was extracted with 80% (v/v) acetone to obtain crude phenolic extract that was then fractionated for elution of low-molecular weight (LMW) and high-molecular weight (HMW) fractions. LMW fraction was further purified (LWM-FP) to remove sugars and organic acids. The crude extract and its fractions were determined by measuring their protein precipitating capacity (PPC) using two different proteins [bovine serum albumin (BSA) and gelatin], molecular weights, total phenolics, condensed tannins, and various antioxidant activities. Significant differences (p<0.05) existed in the contents of total phenolics, condensed tannins, antioxidant activities, and PPC among the crude extract and fractions, albeit to different extends. BSA and gelatin was effectively precipitated by HMW fraction. HMW fraction had the highest total phenolics, condensed tannins, and antioxidant activities, followed by crude extract, LWM-FP, and LMW, respectively. The present study suggests that HMW fraction could be utilised as a source of polyphenols for the food industry.

  16. Properties of Bread Dough with Added Fiber Polysaccharides and Phenolic Antioxidants: A Review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivam, Anusooya S; Sun-Waterhouse, Dongxiao; Quek, SiewYoung; Perera, Conrad O

    2010-01-01

    During breadmaking, different ingredients are used to ensure the development of a continuous protein network that is essential for bread quality. Interests in incorporating bioactive ingredients such as dietary fiber (DF) and phenolic antioxidants into popular foods such as bread have grown rapidly, due to the increased consumer health awareness. The added bioactive ingredients may or may not promote the protein cross-links. Appropriate cross-links among wheat proteins, fiber polysaccharides, and phenolic antioxidants could be the most critical factor for bread dough enhanced with DF and phenolic antioxidants. Such cross-links may influence the structure and properties of a bread system during baking. This article presents a brief overview of our current knowledge of the fate of the key components (wheat proteins, fibers, and phenolic antioxidants) and how they might interact during bread dough development and baking. PMID:21535512

  17. Effect of mineral matter and phenol in supercritical extraction of oil shale with toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abourriche, A.; Ouman, M.; Ichcho, S.; Hannache, H. [Universite Hassan II, Lab. des Materiaux Thermostructuraux, Faculte des Sciences Ben M' Sik, Casablanca (Morocco); Pailler, R.; Naslain, R. [Laboratoire des Composites Thermostructuraux (LCTS), 33 - Pessac (France); Birot, M.; Pillot, J.P. [Bordeaux-1 Univ., Lab. de Chimie Organique et Organometallique, UMR 5802 CNRS, 33 - Talence (France)

    2005-03-01

    In the present work, Tarfaya oil shale was subjected to supercritical toluene extraction. The experimental results obtained show clearly that the mineral matter and phenol have a significant effect on the yield and the composition of the obtained oil. The yield and the composition of oil obtained by toluene+phenol extraction were markedly different from that obtained by toluene. Higher yield and maturation of the obtained oil of the toluene+phenol extraction indicate that the phenol not only acts as an extraction solvent but also reacts with the molecules from kerogen. This can be explained by the presence of a very reactive O-H group able to react with the majority of the kerogen functions.

  18. Behavior of hydrophobic ionic liquids as liquid membranes on phenol removal: Experimental study and optimization

    CERN Document Server

    Ng, Y S; Hashim, M A

    2014-01-01

    Room temperature ionic liquids show potential as an alternative to conventional organic membrane solvents mainly due to their properties of low vapor pressure, low volatility and they are often stable. In the present work, the technical feasibilities of room temperature ionic liquids as bulk liquid membranes for phenol removal were investigated experimentally. Three ionic liquids with high hydrophobicity were used and their phenol removal efficiency, membrane stability and membrane loss were studied. Besides that, the effects of several parameters, namely feed phase pH, feed concentration, NaOH concentration and stirring speeds on the performance of best ionic liquid membrane were also evaluated. Lastly, an optimization study on bulk ionic liquid membrane was conducted and the maximum phenol removal efficiency was compared with the organic liquid membranes. The preliminary study shows that high phenol extraction and stripping efficiencies of 96.21% and 98.10%, respectively can be achieved by ionic liquid memb...

  19. Phenolic biotransformations during conversion of ferulic acid to vanillin by lactic acid bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaur, Baljinder; Chakraborty, Debkumar; Kumar, Balvir

    2013-01-01

    Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB), and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives.

  20. Phenolic Biotransformations during Conversion of Ferulic Acid to Vanillin by Lactic Acid Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baljinder Kaur

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Vanillin is widely used as food additive and as a masking agent in various pharmaceutical formulations. Ferulic acid is an important precursor of vanillin that is available in abundance in cell walls of cereals like wheat, corn, and rice. Phenolic biotransformations can occur during growth of lactic acid bacteria (LAB, and their production can be made feasible using specialized LAB strains that have been reported to produce ferulic acid esterases. The present study aimed at screening a panel of LAB isolates for their ability to release phenolics from agrowaste materials like rice bran and their biotransformation to industrially important compounds such as ferulic acid, 4-ethyl phenol, vanillic acid, vanillin, and vanillyl alcohol. Bacterial isolates were evaluated using ferulic acid esterase, ferulic acid decarboxylase, and vanillin dehydrogenase assays. This work highlights the importance of lactic acid bacteria in phenolic biotransformations for the development of food grade flavours and additives.

  1. Analysis of Phenolic Compounds in Coke Plant Wastewater by Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Inhibited Chemiluminescence Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang Dong XU; Yong Gang HU; Ze Yu YANG

    2006-01-01

    A capillary electrophoresis(CE) with on-line inhibited chemiluminescence (CL) detection was firstly used for the simultaneous analysis of benzenediol isomers and phenol. It is based on the quenching effect of benzenediol isomers and phenol on the chemiluminescence reaction of luminol with potassium ferricyanide in sodium hydroxide medium. Under the optimum conditions, the four phenols were baseline separated and detected in less than 10 min.The detection limits (S/N=3) for hydroquinone, resorcinol, catechol and phenol were 2.9×10-8mol/L, 3.7×10-7 mol/L, 8.4×10-8 mol/L and 4.4×10-6 mol/L, respectively. Finally, the presented method has been successfully applied to real sample.

  2. Adsorption of phenolic compounds on low-cost adsorbents: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmaruzzaman, Md

    2008-11-04

    Adsorption techniques are widely used to remove certain classes of pollutants from wastewater. Phenolic compounds represent one of the problematic groups. Although commercial activated carbon is a preferred adsorbent for phenol removal, its widespread use is restricted due to the high cost. As such, alternative non-conventional adsorbents have been investigated. The natural materials, waste materials from industry and agriculture and bioadsorbents can be employed as inexpensive adsorbents. The review (i) presents a critical analysis of these materials; (ii) describes their characteristics, advantages and limitations; and (iii) discusses the various mechanisms involved. There are several issues and drawbacks concerned on the adsorption of phenolic compounds that have been discussed in this review article. It is evident from the review that low-cost adsorbents have demonstrated high removal capabilities for certain phenolic compounds. In particular, industrial waste might be a promising adsorbent for environmental and purification purposes.

  3. Florets of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.): potential new sources of dietary fiber and phenolic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Qiang; Cui, Jun; Li, Hang; Liu, Jia; Zhao, Guohua

    2013-04-10

    Ray florets (Rf) and disc florets (Df) are agricultural byproducts of sunflower seeds. Their nutrition-related compounds were determined. The dietary fiber contents in Rf and Df were 42.90 mg/100 g and 58.97 mg/100 g. In both florets, palmitic, linoleic, and linolenic acids were identified as the three most abundant fatty acids, and the saturated ones constitute approximately two-thirds (w/w) of the total fatty acids. Lysine was the limiting amino acid in both florets by World Health Organization standards. Sixteen phenolic compounds, nine free and eight bound, mainly depsides, were identified in florets by RP-HPLC-DAD/ESI-TOF-MS. The free and bound phenolic compounds in Df were higher than in Rf. 1,5-di-O-caffeoylquinic acid was the predominant free phenolic compound in both florets. The present study revealed that the florets of sunflower are rich sources of dietary fiber, Fe, and phenols.

  4. Characterization of phenols biodegradation by compound specific stable isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xi; Gilevska, Tetyana; Wenzig, Felix; Hans, Richnow; Vogt, Carsten

    2015-04-01

    -cresol degradation and 2.2±0.3‰ for m-cresol degradation, respectively. The carbon isotope fractionation patterns of phenol degradation differed more profoundly. Oxygen-dependent monooxygenation of phenol by A.calcoaceticus as the initial reaction yielded ƐC values of -1.5±0.02‰. In contrast, the anaerobic degradation initiated by ATP-dependent carboxylation performed by Thauera aromatia DSM 6984, produced no detectable fractionation (ƐC 0±0.1‰). D. cetonica showed a slight inverse carbon isotope fractionation (ƐC 0.4±0.1‰). In conclusion, a validated method for compound specific stable isotope analysis was developed for phenolic compounds, and the first data set of carbon enrichment factors upon the biodegradation of phenol and cresols with different activation mechanisms has been obtained in the present study. Carbon isotope fractionation analysis is a potentially powerful tool to monitor phenolic compounds degradation in the environment.

  5. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romina P. Monasterio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO, with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on “multi-emission” detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified. The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004–7.143 μg·mL−1 and 0.013–23.810 μg·mL−1, respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs.

  6. Potential of LC Coupled to Fluorescence Detection in Food Metabolomics: Determination of Phenolic Compounds in Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monasterio, Romina P; Olmo-García, Lucía; Bajoub, Aadil; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Carrasco-Pancorbo, Alegría

    2016-09-24

    A powerful chromatographic method coupled to a fluorescence detector was developed to determine the phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil (VOO), with the aim to propose an appropriate alternative to liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. An excitation wavelength of 285 nm was selected and four different emission wavelengths (316, 328, 350 and 450 nm) were simultaneously recorded, working therefore on "multi-emission" detection mode. With the use of commercially available standards and other standards obtained by semipreparative high performance liquid chromatography, it was possible to identify simple phenols, lignans, several complex phenols, and other phenolic compounds present in the matrix under study. A total of 26 phenolic compounds belonging to different chemical families were identified (23 of them were susceptible of being quantified). The proposed methodology provided detection and quantification limits within the ranges of 0.004-7.143 μg·mL(-1) and 0.013-23.810 μg·mL(-1), respectively. As far as the repeatability is concerned, the relative standard deviation values were below 0.43% for retention time, and 9.05% for peak area. The developed methodology was applied for the determination of phenolic compounds in ten VOOs, both monovarietals and blends. Secoiridoids were the most abundant fraction in all the samples, followed by simple phenolic alcohols, lignans, flavonoids, and phenolic acids (being the abundance order of the latter chemical classes logically depending on the variety and origin of the VOOs).

  7. Phenolic glycosides of Paulownia tomentosa bark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sticher, O; Lahloub, M F

    1982-11-01

    The isolation of acteoside and coniferin from Paulownia tomentosa bark along with the previously reported phenolic glucoside syringin is described. The structure of both, acteoside and coniferin, have been assigned by (1)H- and (13)C-NMR spectroscopy.

  8. Phenolic Resin Sector Enters New Stage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pu Zeshuang

    2007-01-01

    @@ Rapid output increase With the importation of new production technologies and the boom of large timber processing, insulation refractory material, composite material and foam plastics sectors in recent years, the phenolic resin production in China has developed rapidly.

  9. Investigation of major phenolic antioxidants from Camellia sinensis fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ajay Rana

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study unveils major phenolic antioxidant compounds from Camellia sinensis fruits, followed by their investigation, purification and characterization using HPLC, ESI-MS and NMR studies. The spectrophotometric estimation results have clearly demonstrated that C. sinensis (tea fruits contain up to 14% of total polyphenols (as gallic acid equivalent and 7% of flavonoids (as quercetin equivalent on dry weight basis. Differential solvent-mediated extractions have been performed for quantitative assessment of major phytoconstituents by RP-HPLC analysis. And the results have revealed that these fruits contain adequate amount of tea catechins (4% along with caffeine (1% and theanine (0.4% on dry weight basis. Moreover, purification and characterization of major phytoconstituents such as epigallocatechin, epicatechin, epigallocatechin gallate and epicatechin gallate along with caffeine have been accomplished. Thus, it is clearly demonstrated that tea fruits could act as a possible and reliable source for obtaining major phenolic antioxidants.

  10. Bioactive Phenols in Small Fruits and Berries

    OpenAIRE

    Guiné, R. P. F.

    2016-01-01

    Bioactive compounds are extra nutritional constituents occurring naturally in plant foods in small amounts, however in quantities enough to produce bioactive effects. Among bioactive compounds the phenolic compounds are a very large set of molecules, which include several groups such as for example flavonoids, phenolic acids or tannins. Small fruits and berries include a wide diversity of fruits, like grapes, strawberries, blackberries, blueberries, raspberries, cherries, hardi kiwi, gooseber...

  11. In vitro antiplaque effects of antiseptic phenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, R T; Baker, P J; Coburn, R A; Fischman, S L; Genco, R J

    1977-03-01

    Several phenols known to be antiseptics were tested in vitro for their ability to adsorb to saliva-coated enamel and subsequently inhibit plaque formation. 3,5,4'-tribromosalicylanilide was found to be effective against growth and plaque formation of A viscosus, A naeslundii, S mutans and S sanguis. Dibromsalicil was effective against A viscosus. The other phenols (hexylresorcinol, thymol, phenylphenol and zinc phenolsulfonate) did not inhibit in vitro growth or plaque formation.

  12. Microwave Cure of Phenol-Formaldehyde Adhesive

    OpenAIRE

    高谷, 政広; 田平, 英敏; 岡本, 忠

    2006-01-01

    [Synopsis] Phenol-formaldehyde resin has been used as a versatile material for adhesives and coatings of a wide range of adherends because of its excellent performance in water- resistance, strength against abrasion, and so on. However, it has a drawback of slow rate of cure and relevant emission of formaldehyde gas after bonding. We studied the curing performance under irradiation of microwave for the purpose of looking for a way of accelerating the cure rate of phenol formaldehyde resin. Th...

  13. Enhancement of sterol synthesis by the monoterpene perillyl alcohol is unaffected by competitive 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerda, S R; Wilkinson, J; Branch, S K; Broitman, S A

    1999-06-01

    Monoterpenes such as limonene and perillyl alcohol (PA) are currently under investigation for their chemotherapeutic properties which have been tied to their ability to affect protein isoprenylation. Because PA affects the synthesis of isoprenoids, such as ubiquinone, and cholesterol is the end product of the synthetic pathway from which this isoprenoid pathway branches, we investigated the effects of this compound upon cholesterol metabolism in the colonic adenocarcinoma cell line SW480. PA (1 mM) inhibited incorporation of 14C-mevalonate into 21-26 kDa proteins by 25% in SW480 cells. Cholesterol (CH) biosynthesis was assessed by measuring the incorporation of 14C-acetate and 14C-mevalonate into 27-carbon-sterols. Cells treated with PA (1 mM) exhibited a fourfold increase in the incorporation of 14C-acetate but not 14C-mevalonate into cholesterol. Mevinolin (lovastatin), an inhibitor of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA(HMG-CoA) reductase, at 2 microM concentration, inhibited CH synthesis from 14C-acetate by 80%. Surprisingly, concurrent addition of mevinolin and PA did not significantly alter the stimulatory effects of PA. As observed differences in 14C-acetate and 14C-mevalonate precursor labeling could indicate PA affects early pathway events, the effects of this monoterpene on HMG-CoA reductase activity were evaluated. Unexpectedly, 1 mM PA did not stimulate activity of this enzyme. Consistent with its action as a reversibly bound inhibitor, in washed microsomes, 2 microM mevinolin pretreatment increased reductase protein expression causing a 12.7 (+/- 2.4)-fold compensatory HMG-CoA reductase activity increase; concurrent treatment with 1 mM PA attenuated this to a 5.3 (+/- 0.03)-fold increase. Gas chromatographic analysis confirmed CH was the major lipid present in the measured thin-layer chromatography spot. Since 14C-acetate incorporation into free fatty acid and phospholipid pools was not significantly affected by PA treatment, nonspecific changes in whole

  14. Soluble and bound phenolic compounds in different Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas Montilla, Elyana; Hillebrand, Silke; Antezana, Amalia; Winterhalter, Peter

    2011-07-13

    In nine Bolivian purple corn ( Zea mays L.) varieties the content of phenolic compounds as well as the anthocyanin composition has been determined. The phenotypes under investigation included four red and five blue varieties (Kulli, Ayzuma, Paru, Tuimuru, Oke, Huaca Songo, Colorado, Huillcaparu, and Checchi). In purple corn, phenolic compounds were highly concentrated in cell walls. Thus, simultaneous determination of soluble and bound-form phenolics is essential for analysis, extraction, and quantification. The present study reports the determination of soluble and insoluble-bound fraction of phenolic compounds by HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ESI-MS(n) in Bolivian purple corn varieties. Enzymatic, thermal, and alkaline hydrolyses were used to obtain the cell wall-linked phenolic compounds. Ferulic acid values ranged from 132.9 to 298.4 mg/100 g, and p-coumaric acid contents varied between 251.8 and 607.5 mg/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively, and were identified as the main nonanthocyanin phenolics. The total content of phenolic compounds ranged from 311.0 to 817.6 mg gallic acid equivalents (GAE)/100 g DW, and the percentage contribution of bound to total phenolics varied from 62.1 to 86.6%. The total monomeric anthocyanin content ranged from 1.9 to 71.7 mg cyanidin-3-glucoside equivalents/100 g DW. Anthocyanin profiles are almost the same among the different samples. Differences are observed only in the relative percentage of each anthocyanin. Cyanidin-3-glucoside and its malonated derivative were detected as major anthocyanins. Several dimalonylated monoglucosides of cyanidin, peonidin, and pelargonidin were present as minor constituents.

  15. Methodologies for the Extraction of Phenolic Compounds from Environmental Samples: New Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Mahugo Santana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Phenolic derivatives are among the most important contaminants present in the environment. These compounds are used in several industrial processes to manufacture chemicals such as pesticides, explosives, drugs and dyes. They also are used in the bleaching process of paper manufacturing. Apart from these sources, phenolic compounds have substantial applications in agriculture as herbicides, insecticides and fungicides. However, phenolic compounds are not only generated by human activity, but they are also formed naturally, e.g., during the decomposition of leaves or wood. As a result of these applications, they are found in soils and sediments and this often leads to wastewater and ground water contamination. Owing to their high toxicity and persistence in the environment, both, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA and the European Union have included some of them in their lists of priority pollutants. Current standard methods of phenolic compounds analysis in water samples are based on liquid–liquid extraction (LLE while Soxhlet extraction is the most used technique for isolating phenols from solid matrices. However, these techniques require extensive cleanup procedures that are time-intensive and involve expensive and hazardous organic solvents, which are undesirable for health and disposal reasons. In the last years, the use of news methodologies such as solid-phase extraction (SPE and solid-phase microextraction (SPME have increased for the extraction of phenolic compounds from liquid samples. In the case of solid samples, microwave assisted extraction (MAE is demonstrated to be an efficient technique for the extraction of these compounds. In this work we review the developed methods in the extraction and determination of phenolic derivatives in different types of environmental matrices such as water, sediments and soils. Moreover, we present the new approach in the use of micellar media coupled with SPME process for the

  16. Woven TPS Enabling Missions Beyond Heritage Carbon Phenolic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stackpoole, Margaret M.; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Feldman, Jay D.

    2013-01-01

    NASAs Office of the Chief Technologist (OCT) Game Changing Division recently funded an effort to advance a Woven TPS (WTPS) concept. WTPS is a new approach to producing TPS architectures that uses precisely engineered 3D weaving techniques to customize material characteristics needed to meet specific missions requirements for protecting space vehicles from the intense heating generated during atmospheric entry. Using WTPS, sustainable, scalable, mission-optimized TPS solutions can be achieved with relatively low life cycle costs compared with the high costs and long development schedules currently associated with material development and certification. WTPS leverages the mature state-of-the-art weaving technology that has evolved from the textile industry to design TPS materials with tailorable performance. Currently, missions anticipated encountering heat fluxes in the range of 1500 4000 Wcm2 and pressures greater than 1.5 atm are limited to using fully dense Carbon Phenolic. However, fully dense carbon phenolic is only mass efficient at higher heat fluxes g(reater than 4000 Wcm2), and current mission designs suffer this mass inefficiency for lack of an alternative mid-density TPS. WTPS not only bridges this mid-density TPS gap but also offers a replacement for carbon phenolic, which itself requires a significant and costly redevelopment effort to re-establish its capability for use in the high heat flux missions recently prioritized in the NRC Decadal survey, including probe missions to Venus, Saturn and Neptune. This presentation will overview the WTPS concept and present some results from initial testing completed comparing WTPS architectures to heritage carbon phenolic.

  17. Phenolic substances in Ailanthus glandulosa Desf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pekala Karolina

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was the isolation and identification of phenolic acids from fruit and leaves of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. The methods used in the isolation and identification of the compounds were: isolation of phenolic acids modified by Ibrahim and Towers, acidic and alkaline hydrolysis by Schmidtlein and Herrmann and identification of phenolic acids in the isolated fraction of two-dimensional thin layer chromatography (TLC on cellulose plates. In the course of the study, the presence of phenolic acids in leaves and fruit of Ailanthus glandulosa Desf was confirmed. Overall, proportions of 15 phenolic acids were found and identified in the analyzed material. These are: gallic acid, ellagic acid, caffeic acid, gentisic acid, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, m-hydroxybenzoic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid, syryngic acid, vanillic acid, salicylic acid, 2-hydroxy-4- methoxybenzoic acid, 2,5-dimethoxycinnamic, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, and 3 other compounds named A, B, C, whose identification was not possible due to the lack of suitable reference patterns. Studies have shown that leaves and fruit of the plant Ailanthus glandulosa Desf. contain a large number of phenolic acids which possess many important pharmacological activities.

  18. Berry Phenolics of Grapevine under Challenging Environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernâni Gerós

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Plant phenolics have been for many years a theme of major scientific and applied interest. Grape berry phenolics contribute to organoleptic properties, color and protection against environmental challenges. Climate change has already caused significant warming in most grape-growing areas of the world, and the climatic conditions determine, to a large degree, the grape varieties that can be cultivated as well as wine quality. In particular, heat, drought and light/UV intensity severely affect phenolic metabolism and, thus, grape composition and development. In the variety Chardonnay, water stress increases the content of flavonols and decreases the expression of genes involved in biosynthesis of stilbene precursors. Also, polyphenolic profile is greatly dependent on genotype and environmental interactions. This review deals with the diversity and biosynthesis of phenolic compounds in the grape berry, from a general overview to a more detailed level, where the influence of environmental challenges on key phenolic metabolism pathways is approached. The full understanding of how and when specific phenolic compounds accumulate in the berry, and how the varietal grape berry metabolism responds to the environment is of utmost importance to adjust agricultural practices and thus, modify wine profile.

  19. Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wise, Arlene A.; Kuske, Cheryl R.; Terwilliger, Thomas C.

    2007-12-04

    Detection of phenols using engineered bacteria. A biosensor can be created by placing a reporter gene under control of an inducible promoter. The reporter gene produces a signal when a cognate transcriptional activator senses the inducing chemical. Creation of bacterial biosensors is currently restricted by limited knowledge of the genetic systems of bacteria that catabolize xenobiotics. By using mutagenic PCR to change the chemical specificity of the Pseudomonas species CF600 DmpR protein, the potential for engineering novel biosensors for detection of phenols has been demonstrated. DmpR, a well-characterized transcriptional activator of the P. CF600's dmp operon mediates growth on simple phenols. Transcription from Po, the promoter heading the dmp operon, is activated when the sensor domain of DmpR interacts with phenol and mono-substituted phenols. By altering the sensor domain of the DmpR, a group of DmpR derivatives that activate transcription of a Po-lacZ fusion in response to eight of the EPA's eleven priority pollutant phenols has been created. The assays and the sensor domain mutations that alter the chemical specificity of DmpR is described.

  20. Phenolic Glucosides from Gentiana piasezkii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Quan-Xiang; SHI,Yan-Ping; YANG,Li

    2004-01-01

    @@ The genus Gentiana (Gentianaceae) contains about 400 species, which distribute almost all over the world. Some species have been investigated on phytochemistry and they could be characterized by the presence of some secoiridoid glucosides (bitter principles), flavone-C-glucosides and xanthone aglycones and glucosides,[1] but nothing is known, up to now, about the chemical constitutents of Gentiana piasezkii Maxim. Members of the genus Gentiana have been used as traditional Chinese herbal medicines to treat hepatitis.[2] In order to find active compounds as lead molecule for medicine, we have studied on constituents of Gentiana piasezkii Maxim and found two new natural occurring,6'-O-(4-hydroxy-veratroyloxy)-arbutin (1) and luteolin 7-(3-hydroxy-4-methoxyl-cinnamoyl)-8-C-glucoside (2) from n-BuOH soluble fraction of an ethanolic extract of the whole plant. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 2D NMR techniques (1H-1H COSY, HMQC and HMBC). So we describe herein the structures of two new phenolic glucosides.

  1. Phenolic glycosides from Kaempferia parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azuma, Toshiaki; Tanaka, Yasuo; Kikuzaki, Hiroe

    2008-11-01

    Three phenolic glycosides were isolated together with two known flavonol glycosides from the H2O-soluble fraction of rhizomes of Kaempferia parviflora. Their structures were determined to be rel-(5aS,10bS)-5a,10b-dihydro-1,3,5a,9-tetrahydroxy-8-methoxy-6H-benz[b]indeno[1,2-d]furan-6-one 5a-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranoside] (1), its rel-5aS,10bR isomer (2), and (2R,3S,4S)-3-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-d-glucopyranosyl]-3'-O-methyl-ent-epicatechin-(2alpha-->O-->3,4alpha-->4)-(5aS,10bS)-5a,10b-dihydro-1,3,5a,9-tetrahydroxy-8-methoxy-6H-benz[b]indeno[1,2-d]furan-6-one 5a-O-[alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1-->6)-beta-D-glucopyranoside] (3). The structures were elucidated on the basis of analyses of chemical and spectroscopic evidence.

  2. Phenolics and Lipophilized Phenolics as Antioxidants in Fish Oil Enriched Emulsions,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Ann-Dorit Moltke; Nielsen, Nina Skall; Jacobsen, Charlotte

    Emulsions containing omega-3 LC PUFA are highly susceptible to oxidation. This causes formation of undesirable flavors and loss of health beneficial fatty acids. Many omega-3 enriched food products on the market are oil-in-water emulsions. According to the so called “polar paradox”, polar compounds...... work better as antioxidants in bulk oil, whereas lipophilic compounds are better antioxidants in emulsions. This presentation is an overview of our previous work in the area of fish oil enriched emulsions with antioxidants. Our studies have shown that the lipophilicity of the compounds is not the only...... factor determining their efficacy as antioxidants in simple model systems. Interactions between the antioxidants, emulsifier and pH also influence the antioxidant behavior. Moreover, studies with lipophilized phenolics in a food emulsion showed that there is no linear increase of antioxidant activity...

  3. Quantitative and Qualitative analysis of Phenolic and Flavonoid content in Moringa oleifera Lam and Ocimum tenuiflorum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Sankhalkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Number of secondary compounds is produced by plants as natural antioxidants. Moringa oleifera Lam. and Ocimum tenuiflorum L. are known for their wide applications in food and pharmaceutical industry. Objective: To compare phenolic and flavonoid content in M. oleifera Lam and O. tenuiflorum L. by quantitative and qualitative analysis. Materials and Methods: Phenolic and flavonoid content were studied spectrophotometrically and by paper chromatography in M. oleifera Lam. and O. tenuiflorum L. Results: Higher phenolic and flavonoid content were observed in Moringa leaf and flower. Ocimum flower showed higher phenolic content and low flavonoid in comparison to Moringa. Flavonoids such as biflavonyl, flavones, glycosylflavones, and kaempferol were identified by paper chromatography. Phytochemical analysis for flavonoid, tannins, saponins, alkaloids, reducing sugars, and anthraquinones were tested positive for Moringa and Ocimum leaf as well as flower. Conclusions: In the present study higher phenolic and flavonoid content, indicated the natural antioxidant nature of Moringa and Ocimum signifying their medicinal importance.

  4. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dall'Asta, Margherita; Bresciani, Letizia; Calani, Luca; Cossu, Marta; Martini, Daniela; Melegari, Camilla; Del Rio, Daniele; Pellegrini, Nicoletta; Brighenti, Furio; Scazzina, Francesca

    2016-01-13

    Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  5. Antagonism between lipid-derived reactive carbonyls and phenolic compounds in the Strecker degradation of amino acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delgado, Rosa M; Hidalgo, Francisco J; Zamora, Rosario

    2016-03-01

    The Strecker-type degradation of phenylalanine in the presence of 2-pentanal and phenolic compounds was studied to investigate possible interactions that either promote or inhibit the formation of Strecker aldehydes in food products. Phenylacetaldehyde formation was promoted by 2-pentenal and also by o- and p-diphenols, but not by m-diphenols. This is consequence of the ability of phenolic compounds to be converted into reactive carbonyls and produce the Strecker degradation of the amino acid. When 2-pentenal and phenolic compounds were simultaneously present, an antagonism among them was observed. This antagonism is suggested to be a consequence of the ability of phenolic compounds to either react with both 2-pentenal and phenylacetaldehyde, or compete with other carbonyl compounds for the amino acids, a function that is determined by their structure. All these results suggest that carbonyl-phenol reactions may be used to modulate flavor formation produced in food products by lipid-derived reactive carbonyls.

  6. In Vitro Bioaccessibility of Phenolic Acids from a Commercial Aleurone-Enriched Bread Compared to a Whole Grain Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margherita Dall’Asta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Wheat aleurone, due to its potentially higher bioaccessibility and bioavailability of micronutrients and phenolic acids, could represent a useful ingredient in the production of commonly consumed cereal-based food. The aim of the present study was to investigate the in vitro bioaccessibility of phenolic acids both from an aleurone-enriched bread and from a whole grain bread. The two bread samples were firstly characterized for the phenolic acid content. An in vitro digestion was then performed in order to evaluate the release of phenolic acids. The results obtained suggest that the bioaccessibility of the phenolic acids in the aleurone-enriched bread is higher than in the whole grain bread. These in vitro results suggest the potential use of aleurone in the production of foods, and this may represent an attractive possibility to vehicle nutritionally interesting components to consumers.

  7. Effects of phenol on metabolic activities and transcription profiles of cytochrome P450 enzymes in Chironomus kiinensis larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, C W; Sun, L L; Niu, F; Liu, P; Chu, D; Wang, Z Y

    2016-02-01

    Phenol, also known as carbolic acid or phenic acid, is a priority pollutant in aquatic ecosystems. The present study has investigated metabolic activities and transcription profiles of cytochrome P450 enzymes in Chironomus kiinensis under phenol stress. Exposure of C. kiinensis larvae to three sublethal doses of phenol (1, 10 and 100 µM) inhibited cytochrome P450 enzyme activity during the 96 h exposure period. The P450 activity measured after the 24 h exposure to phenol stress could be used to assess the level (low or high) of phenol contamination in the environment. To investigate the potential of cytochrome P450 genes as molecular biomarkers to monitor phenol contamination, the cDNA of ten CYP6 genes from the transcriptome of C. kiinensis were identified and sequenced. The open reading frames of the CYP6 genes ranged from 1266 to 1587 bp, encoding deduced polypeptides composed of between 421 and 528 amino acids, with predicted molecular masses from 49.01 to 61.94 kDa and isoelectric points (PI) from 6.01 to 8.89. Among the CYP6 genes, the mRNA expression levels of the CYP6EW3, CYP6EV9, CYP6FV1 and CYP6FV2 genes significantly altered in response to phenol exposure; therefore, these genes could potentially serve as biomarkers in the environment. This study shows that P450 activity combined with one or multiple CYP6 genes could be used to monitor phenol pollution.

  8. Breads enriched with guava flour as a tool for studying the incorporation of phenolic compounds in bread melanoidins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Genilton; Perrone, Daniel

    2015-10-15

    In the present study we aimed at studying, for the first time, the incorporation of phenolic compounds into bread melanoidins. Fermentation significantly affected the phenolics profile of bread doughs. Melanoidins contents continuously increased from 24.1 mg/g to 71.9 mg/g during baking, but their molecular weight decreased at the beginning of the process and increased thereafter. Enrichment of white wheat bread with guava flour increased the incorporation of phenolic compounds up to 2.4-fold. Most phenolic compounds showed higher incorporation than release rates during baking, leading to increases from 3.3- to 13.3-fold in total melanoidin-bound phenolics. Incorporation patterns suggested that phenolic hydroxyls, but not glycosidic bonds of melanoidin-bound phenolics are cleaved during thermal processing. Antioxidant capacity of bread melanoidins increased due to enrichment with guava flour and increasing baking periods and was partially attributed to bound phenolics. Moreover, FRAP assay was more sensitive to measure this parameter than TEAC assay.

  9. Valorization of cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) by-products as a source of antioxidant phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach, Rafael; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Ferreres, Federico

    2003-04-09

    The present study reports the development of two extraction protocols, with potential industrial applicability, to valorize cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis) byproducts as a source of antioxidant phenolics. In addition, the nonionic polystyrene resin Amberlite XAD-2 was used to obtain purified extracts. The extract yield, phenolic content, phenolic yield, and correlation between the antioxidant activity and the phenolic content were studied. The water and ethanol protocols yield a phenolic content of 33.8 mg/g freeze-dried extract and 62.1 mg/g freeze-dried extract, respectively. This percentage increased considerably when the extracts were purified using Amberlite XAD-2 yielding a phenolic content of 186 mg/g freeze-dried extract (water extract) and 311.1 mg/g freeze-dried extract (ethanol extract). Cauliflower byproduct extracts showed significant free radical scavenging activity (vs both DPPH(*) and ABTS(*)(+) radicals), ferric reducing ability (FRAP assay), and capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation (ferric thiocyanate assay). In addition, the antioxidant activity was linearly correlated with the phenolics content. The results obtained indicate that the cauliflower byproducts are a cheap source of antioxidant phenolics very interesting from both the industrial point of view and the possible usefulness as ingredients to functionalize foodstuffs.

  10. Effect of nitrates on biotransformation of phosphogypsum and phenol uptake in cultures of autochthonous sludge microflora from petroleum refining wastewaters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Włodzimierz; Przytocka-Jusiak, Magdalena; Błaszczyk, Mieczysław; Hołub, Wojciech; Wolicka, Dorota; Wesołowska, Iwona

    2002-01-01

    The effect of nitrates on the biotransformation of phosphogypsum at 30 degrees C in stationary cultures of anaerobic, heterogeneous microflora growing in medium with phenol (250-1,000 mg/L) as sole carbon source was studied. The microorganisms used in this study were isolated from sludge in biological petroleum-refining wastewater treatment plant. Phosphogypsum (a waste product in the chemical industry that contains approximately 95% CaSO4) was added in amount of 5 g/L, the source of nitrates was KNO3 in concentration equivalent to that of phenol (250-1,000 mg N-NO3/L). The presence of nitrates in heterogeneous cultures has an inhibitory effect on the process of phosphogypsum biotransformation and stimulates the uptake of phenol. We have found that in cultures in medium containing phenol, phosphogypsum and nitrates at least three physiological groups of microorganisms were present. These were phenol-biodegrading microorganisms not requiring an external electron acceptor, sulfate-reducing bacteria biodegrading phenol or intermediate products of its breakdown and denitrifying bacteria not utilising phenol as a carbon source. On solid medium these bacteria together formed heterogeneous single colonies. In spite of repeated attempts we were unable to isolate pure strains and the only result of these measures was loss of denitrification ability in medium with phenol.

  11. Cometabolic degradation kinetics of TCE and phenol by Pseudomonas putida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yan-Min; Lin, Tsair-Fuh; Huang, Chih; Lin, Jui-Che

    2008-08-01

    Modeling of cometabolic kinetics is important for better understanding of degradation reaction and in situ application of bio-remediation. In this study, a model incorporated cell growth and decay, loss of transformation activity, competitive inhibition between growth substrate and non-growth substrate and self-inhibition of non-growth substrate was proposed to simulate the degradation kinetics of phenol and trichloroethylene (TCE) by Pseudomonas putida. All the intrinsic parameters employed in this study were measured independently, and were then used for predicting the batch experimental data. The model predictions conformed well to the observed data at different phenol and TCE concentrations. At low TCE concentrations (TCE concentrations (>6 mg l(-1)), only the model considering self-inhibition can describe the experimental data, suggesting that a self-inhibition of TCE was present in the system. The proposed model was also employed in predicting the experimental data conducted in a repeated batch reactor, and good agreements were observed between model predictions and experimental data. The results also indicated that the biomass loss in the degradation of TCE below 2 mg l(-1) can be totally recovered in the absence of TCE for the next cycle, and it could be used for the next batch experiment for the degradation of phenol and TCE. However, for higher concentration of TCE (>6 mg l(-1)), the recovery of biomass may not be as good as that at lower TCE concentrations.

  12. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Truong Ngoc; Khang, Do Tan; Tuyen, Phung Thi; Minh, Luong The; Anh, La Hoang; Quan, Nguyen Van; Ha, Pham Thi Thu; Quan, Nguyen Thanh; Toan, Nguyen Phu; Elzaawely, Abdelnaser Abdelghany; Xuan, Tran Dang

    2016-01-01

    Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight). The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes. PMID:27649250

  13. Comparison of AOPs Efficiencies on Phenolic Compounds Degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lourdes Hurtado

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a comparison of the performances of different AOPs in the phenol and 4-chlorophenol (4-CP degradation at lab and pilot scale is presented. It was found that, in the degradation of phenol, the performance of a coupled electro-oxidation/ozonation process is superior to that observed by a photo-Fenton process. Phenol removal rate was determined to be 0.83 mg L−1 min−1 for the coupled process while the removal rate for photo-Fenton process was only 0.52 mg L−1 min−1. Regarding 4-CP degradation, the complete disappearance of the molecule was achieved and the efficiency decreasing order was as follows: coupled electro-oxidation/ozonation > electro-Fenton-like process > photo-Fenton process > heterogeneous photocatalysis. Total organic carbon was completely removed by the coupled electro-oxidation/ozonation process. Also, it was found that oxalic acid is the most recalcitrant by-product and limits the mineralization degree attained by the technologies not applying ozone. In addition, an analysis on the energy consumption per removed gram of TOC was conducted and it was concluded that the less energy consumption is achieved by the coupled electro-oxidation/ozonation process.

  14. Phenolic Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Phalaenopsis Orchid Hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Ngoc Minh

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Phalaenopsis spp. is the most commercially and economically important orchid, but their plant parts are often left unused, which has caused environmental problems. To date, reports on phytochemical analyses were most available on endangered and medicinal orchids. The present study was conducted to determine the total phenolics, total flavonoids, and antioxidant activity of ethanol extracts prepared from leaves and roots of six commercial hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. Leaf extracts of “Chian Xen Queen” contained the highest total phenolics with a value of 11.52 ± 0.43 mg gallic acid equivalent per g dry weight and the highest total flavonoids (4.98 ± 0.27 mg rutin equivalent per g dry weight. The antioxidant activity of root extracts evaluated by DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging assay and β-carotene bleaching method was higher than those of the leaf extracts. Eleven phenolic compounds were identified, namely, protocatechuic acid, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, caffeic acid, syringic acid, vanillin, ferulic acid, sinapic acid, p-coumaric acid, benzoic acid, and ellagic acid. Ferulic, p-coumaric and sinapic acids were concentrated largely in the roots. The results suggested that the root extracts from hybrid Phalaenopsis spp. could be a potential source of natural antioxidants. This study also helps to reduce the amount of this orchid waste in industrial production, as its roots can be exploited for pharmaceutical purposes.

  15. The effect of phenol composition on the sensory profile of smoke affected wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, David; Zerihun, Ayalsew

    2015-05-26

    Vineyards exposed to wildfire generated smoke can produce wines with elevated levels of lignin derived phenols that have acrid, metallic and smoky aromas and flavour attributes. While a large number of phenols are present in smoke affected wines, the effect of smoke vegetation source on the sensory descriptors has not been reported. Here we report on a descriptive sensory analysis of wines made from grapes exposed to different vegetation sources of smoke to examine: (1) the effect vegetation source has on wine sensory attribute ratings and; (2) associations between volatile and glycoconjugated phenol composition and sensory attributes. Sensory attribute ratings were determined by a trained sensory panel and phenol concentrations determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Analysis of variance, principal component analysis and partial least squares regressions were used to evaluate the interrelationships between the phenol composition and sensory attributes. The results showed that vegetation source of smoke significantly affected sensory attribute intensity, especially the taste descriptors. Differences in aroma and taste from smoke exposure were not limited to an elevation in a range of detractive descriptors but also a masking of positive fruit descriptors. Sensory differences due to vegetation type were driven by phenol composition and concentration. In particular, the glycoconjugates of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin), 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetovanillone), 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (syringaldehyde) and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)ethanone (acetosyringone) concentrations were influential in separating the vegetation sources of smoke. It is concluded that the detractive aroma attributes of smoke affected wine, especially of smoke and ash, were associated with volatile phenols while the detractive flavour descriptors were correlated with glycoconjugated phenols.

  16. The Effect of Phenol Composition on the Sensory Profile of Smoke Affected Wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Kelly

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Vineyards exposed to wildfire generated smoke can produce wines with elevated levels of lignin derived phenols that have acrid, metallic and smoky aromas and flavour attributes. While a large number of phenols are present in smoke affected wines, the effect of smoke vegetation source on the sensory descriptors has not been reported. Here we report on a descriptive sensory analysis of wines made from grapes exposed to different vegetation sources of smoke to examine: (1 the effect vegetation source has on wine sensory attribute ratings and; (2 associations between volatile and glycoconjugated phenol composition and sensory attributes. Sensory attribute ratings were determined by a trained sensory panel and phenol concentrations determined by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Analysis of variance, principal component analysis and partial least squares regressions were used to evaluate the interrelationships between the phenol composition and sensory attributes. The results showed that vegetation source of smoke significantly affected sensory attribute intensity, especially the taste descriptors. Differences in aroma and taste from smoke exposure were not limited to an elevation in a range of detractive descriptors but also a masking of positive fruit descriptors. Sensory differences due to vegetation type were driven by phenol composition and concentration. In particular, the glycoconjugates of 4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde (vanillin, 1-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylethanone (acetovanillone, 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzaldehyde (syringaldehyde and 1-(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenylethanone (acetosyringone concentrations were influential in separating the vegetation sources of smoke. It is concluded that the detractive aroma attributes of smoke affected wine, especially of smoke and ash, were associated with volatile phenols while the detractive flavour descriptors were correlated with glycoconjugated phenols.

  17. Monitoring endogenous enzymes during olive fruit ripening and storage: correlation with virgin olive oil phenolic profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hachicha Hbaieb, Rim; Kotti, Faten; García-Rodríguez, Rosa; Gargouri, Mohamed; Sanz, Carlos; Pérez, Ana G

    2015-05-01

    The ability of olive endogenous enzymes β-glucosidase, polyphenol oxidase (PPO) and peroxidase (POX), to determine the phenolic profile of virgin olive oil was investigated. Olives used for oil production were stored for one month at 20 °C and 4 °C and their phenolic content and enzymatic activities were compared to those of ripening olive fruits. Phenolic and volatile profiles of the corresponding oils were also analysed. Oils obtained from fruits stored at 4 °C show similar characteristics to that of freshly harvested fruits. However, the oils obtained from fruits stored at 20 °C presented the lowest phenolic content. Concerning the enzymatic activities, results show that the β-glucosidase enzyme is the key enzyme responsible for the determination of virgin olive oil phenolic profile as the decrease in this enzyme activity after 3 weeks of storage at 20 °C was parallel to a dramatic decrease in the phenolic content of the oils. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Preparation, characterization and phenol adsorption capacity of activated carbons from African beech wood sawdust

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.T. Abdel-Ghani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, different activated carbons were prepared from carbonized African beech wood sawdust by potassium hydroxide activation. The activated carbons were characterized by brunauer–emmett–teller, scanning electron microscope, fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and thermogravimetric analyzer. The phenol adsorption capacity of the prepared carbons was evaluated. The different factors affecting phenol’s removal were studied including: contact time, solution pH and initial phenol concentration. The optimum phenol removal was obtained after a contact time of 300 min. and at an initial phenol solution pH 7. The maximum removal percentages were determined at 5mg/l initial phenol concentration as 79, 93, 94 and 98% for AC0, AC1, AC2 and AC3; respectively. The adsorption of phenol on African beech sawdust activated carbons was found to follow the Lagergren first order kinetics and the intraparticle diffusion mechanism gave a good fit to the experimental data. The isothermal models applied fitted the experimental data in the order: Langmuir> Dubinin–Radushkevich> Freundlich and Temkin.

  19. Pollen Flavonoid/Phenolic Acid Composition of Four Species of Cactaceae and its Taxonomic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norma Almaraz-Abarca

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The pollen flavonoid/phenolic acid composition of 14 individual of Stenocactus multicostatus subsp. zacatecasensis (Britton et Rose U. Guzman et Vazquez-Benitez, comb. et stat. nov., 11 of Echinocereus enneacanthus Engelmann, 8 of Echinocereus pectinatus (Scheidweiler Engelmann and 12 of Mammillaria heyderi sensu lato (all belonging to Cactaceae was analyzed by HPLC/DAD with the aim of determining the role of pollen profiles of flavonoid/phenolic acid as valuable markers in those taxa. The flavonoid/phenolic acid composition of pollen was evaluated within and among the taxa analyzed. The results suggest that (a the flavonoid/phenolic acid profiles of these species are among the most complex reported, (b that quercetin, kaempferol and herbacetin glycoside derivatives are the major phenols found in the pollen of these species of cactus, (c that some intrapopulation variability is present in all four species and (d that these pollen flavonoid/phenolic acid profiles tend to be species-specific, so that they can represent important taxonomic markers in Cactaceae.

  20. Development of bioconjugate from Streptomyces tyrosinase and gold nanoparticles for rapid detection of phenol constituents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainab, Mazhari Bi Bi; Madhusudhan, D N; Raghavendra, H; Dastager, Syed G; Dayanand, Agsar

    2014-11-01

    Most of the phenol compounds are toxic and have been considered as hazardous pollutants. Several physicochemical and biological methods are available to detect and monitor the phenol pollutants in water and soil. In the present study, phenol constituents of winery, paper and plastic industrial effluents were successfully detected employing tyrosinase-gold nanoparticles bioconjugate. The synthesis of extracellular tyrosinase and gold nanoparticles was achieved by a single isolate of Streptomyces sp. DBZ-39. Enhanced production (369.41 IU) of tyrosinase was produced in submerged bioprocess employing response surface method with central composite design. Extracellular gold nanoparticles synthesized (12-18 nm) by Streptomyces sp. DBZ-39 were characterized with TEM, EDAX and FTIR analysis. A rapid detection (within 10 min) of phenol constituents from winery effluents was achieved by bioconjugate, when compared to tyrosinases and gold nanoparticles independently. Streptomyces tyrosinase could exhibit relatively a better performance than commercially available mushroom tyrosinase in the detection of phenol constituents. Winery effluent has shown much higher content (0.98 O.D) of phenol constituents than paper and plastic effluents based on the intensity of color and U.V absorption spectra.

  1. Artichoke (Cynara scolymus L.) byproducts as a potential source of health-promoting antioxidant phenolics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Llorach, Rafael; Espín, Juan Carlos; Tomás-Barberán, Francisco A; Ferreres, Federico

    2002-06-05

    The present study reports a fast, economical, and feasible way to extract antioxidant phenolics from artichoke byproducts: raw artichoke (RA), blanched (thermally treated) artichoke (BA), and artichoke blanching waters (ABW). These byproducts represent a huge amount of discarded material in some industries. Two protocols, with possible industrial applicability, based on both methanol and water extractions were used. Phenolic contents (expressed as caffeic acid derivatives) (grams per 100 g of dry extract) were 15.4 and 9.9 for RA when extracted with methanol and water, respectively; 24.3 and 10.3 for BA when extracted with methanol and water, respectively; and finally, 11.3 g of phenolics/100 mL of ABW. Therefore, methanol extracts yielded more phenolics than water extracts, especially when BA byproducts were used. The higher amount of phenolics in BA could be due to the inactivation of polyphenol oxidase (PPO) at the industrial scale (due to blanching process), avoiding PPO-catalyzed oxidation of these phenolics, a phenomenon that could occur in RA byproducts. Artichoke extracts from industrial byproducts showed a high free radical scavenging activity (versus both DPPH* and ABTS*+ radicals) as well as capacity to inhibit lipid peroxidation (ferric thiocyanate method). According to these results, the use of artichoke extracts from industrial byproducts as possible ingredients to functionalize foodstuffs (to decrease lipid peroxidation and to increase health-promoting properties) is suggested.

  2. Extraction, identification, fractionation and isolation of phenolic compounds in plants with hepatoprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Carla; Barros, Lillian; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-03-15

    The liver is one of the most important organs of human body, being involved in several vital functions and regulation of physiological processes. Given its pivotal role in the excretion of waste metabolites and drugs detoxification, the liver is often subjected to oxidative stress that leads to lipid peroxidation and severe cellular damage. The conventional treatments of liver diseases such as cirrhosis, fatty liver and chronic hepatitis are frequently inadequate due to side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemical drugs. To overcome this problematic paradox, medicinal plants, owing to their natural richness in phenolic compounds, have been intensively exploited concerning their extracts and fraction composition in order to find bioactive compounds that could be isolated and applied in the treatment of liver ailments. The present review aimed to collect the main results of recent studies carried out in this field and systematize the information for a better understanding of the hepatoprotective capacity of medicinal plants in in vitro and in vivo systems. Generally, the assessed plant extracts revealed good hepatoprotective properties, justifying the fractionation and further isolation of phenolic compounds from different parts of the plant. Twenty-five phenolic compounds, including flavonoids, lignan compounds, phenolic acids and other phenolic compounds, have been isolated and identified, and proved to be effective in the prevention and/or treatment of chemically induced liver damage. In this perspective, the use of medicinal plant extracts, fractions and phenolic compounds seems to be a promising strategy to avoid side effects caused by hepatotoxic chemicals.

  3. Correlation between Antioxidant Activities and Phenolic Contents of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (Danggui

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling Huang

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Radix Angelicae Sinensisis (RAS is one of the most popular traditional Chinese herbal medicines. In the present study, six RAS extracts (i.e., phenolic extract PE, petroleum ether extract PEE, ethyl acetate extract EAE, absolute ethanol extract AEE, 95% ethanol extract 95 EE, and water extract WE were prepared and their antioxidant activities measured by DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical, ABTS [2,2′-azino-bis(3- ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid diammonium salt], Reducing power, •O2– and lipid peroxidation assays. In general, PE, PEE and EAE had relatively high antioxidant activity, followed by AEE with moderate activity, as compared with 95 EE and WE that had low activity. Their phenolic contents (including total phenolic, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, same as below were then determined by HPLC or spectrophotometry. The sequence of phenolic contents was roughly identical with that of antioxidant activity. When the values of 1/IC50 of various antioxidant assays were used to evaluate the level of antioxidant of the RAS extracts, (plot between 1/IC50 values and phenolic contents, the correlation coefficient (R ranged from 0.642 to 0.941, with an average value of 0.839. Significant positive correlations demonstrated that the antioxidant effects of RAS might generally be considered a result of the presence of the phenolic compounds, especially ferulic acid and caffeic acid.

  4. Iodine effects on phenolic metabolism in lettuce plants under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasco, Begoña; Leyva, Rocio; Romero, Luis; Ruiz, Juan Manuel

    2013-03-20

    Iodine, applied as iodate in biofortification programs (at doses of ≤80 μM), has been confirmed to improve the foliar biomass, antioxidant response, and accumulation of phenol compounds in lettuce plants. The changes in phenolic compounds induced by the iodate application appear to have functional consequences in the response of salt-stressed plants. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the application of iodate can improve the response of severe salinity stress and whether the resistance can be attributed to the phenolic metabolism in lettuce ( Lactuca sativa cv. Philipus), a glycophyte cultivated for food and consumed year round. In this work, the application of iodate, especially at 20 and 40 μM, in lettuce plants under salinity stress (100 mM NaCl) exerted a significantly positive effect on biomass and induced higher activity in the enzymes shikimate dehydrogenase and phenylalanine ammonia-lyase as well as the lower MW phenol-degrading enzyme polyphenol oxidase. This increased hydroxycinnamic acids and derivatives in addition to total phenols, which appear to act as protective compounds against salinity. This study reveals that in agricultural areas affected by this type of stress, the application of iodate may be an effective strategy, as it not only improves lettuce plant growth but also supplements the human diet with phenolic compounds and the trace element iodine.

  5. Antioxidant Activity, Total Phenolic and Flavonoid Contents of Three Onobrychis Species from Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roya Karamian , Mostafa Asadbegy

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Plant phenolic compounds are a main group of plant natural products and flavonoids are the largest and best studied natural phenols. These substances possess a series of biological properties and act on biological systems as antioxidants. In present research, the aim is to determine in vitro total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of the methanolic extracts of three Onobrychis species belonging to the family Fabaceae, namely O. sosnovskyi Grossh., O. viciifolia Scop. and O. melanotricha Boiss. Furthermore, an attempt was made to identify any correlations between total phenolic content of the extracts with their antioxidant activities Methods: Total phenol and flavonoid contents of the extracts were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activity was evaluated by three different test systems, namely 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl free radical scavenging (DPPH, metal-chelation activity and ß-carotene/linoleic acid model. Results: Results indicated that O. viciifolia extract contains the highest total phenolic content (10.38 ± 0.33mg GAE/g of dry extract. However, the species are not remarkable different (P 0.55 to 0.98. Conclusion: Our results showed that the examined Onobrychis extracts represent strong antioxidant activity; hence, they can be suggested as antioxidant agents for special use in future.

  6. Turnover capacity of coprinus cinereus peroxidase for phenol and monosubstituted phenols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken; Heck

    1998-05-01

    Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) and other peroxidases are susceptible to mechanism-based inactivation during the oxidation of phenolic substrates. The turnover capacity (defined as the molar or mass concentration of substrate oxidized per unit concentration of enzyme inactivated) of CIP was quantified for phenol and 11 monosubstituted phenols under conditions in which enzyme inactivation by mechanisms involving hydrogen peroxide alone were minimized. Turnover capacities varied by nearly 2 orders of magnitude (absolute values on the order of 10(5)-10(6) on a molar basis), depending on the substituent. On a mass basis, the enzyme consumption corresponding to the lowest turnover capacities is considerable and may influence the economic feasibility of proposed industrial applications of peroxidases. Within a range of substituent electronegativity values, molar turnover capacities correlated well (r2 = 0.89) with substituent effects quantified by radical sigma values and semiquantitatively with homolytic O-H bond dissociation energies of the phenolic substrates, suggesting that phenoxyl radical intermediates are probably involved in the suicide inactivation of CIP. The correlation range in each case did not include phenols with highly electron-withdrawing (nitro and cyano) substituents because they are not oxidized by CIP, nor phenols with highly electron-donating (hydroxy and amino) substituents because they led to virtually complete inactivation of the enzyme with minimal substrate removal. In the latter case we conclude that inactivation of CIP during the oxidation of hydroxy- and amino-substituted phenols occurs by a different mechanism than that of the other phenolic substrates.

  7. Pyrolysis of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bessire, Brody K; Lahankar, Sridhar A; Minton, Timothy K

    2015-01-28

    Molar yields of the pyrolysis products of thermal protection systems (TPSs) are needed in order to improve high fidelity material response models. The volatile chemical species evolved during the pyrolysis of a TPS composite, phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA), have been probed in situ by mass spectrometry in the temperature range 100 to 935 °C. The relative molar yields of the desorbing species as a function of temperature were derived by fitting the mass spectra, and the observed trends are interpreted in light of the results of earlier mechanistic studies on the pyrolysis of phenolic resins. The temperature-dependent product evolution was consistent with earlier descriptions of three stages of pyrolysis, with each stage corresponding to a temperature range. The two main products observed were H2O and CO, with their maximum yields occurring at ∼350 °C and ∼450 °C, respectively. Other significant products were CH4, CO2, and phenol and its methylated derivatives; these products tended to desorb concurrently with H2O and CO, over the range from about 200 to 600 °C. H2 is presumed to be the main product, especially at the highest pyrolysis temperatures used, but the relative molar yield of H2 was not quantified. The observation of a much higher yield of CO than CH4 suggests the presence of significant hydroxyl group substitution on phenol prior to the synthesis of the phenolic resin used in PICA. The detection of CH4 in combination with the methylated derivatives of phenol suggests that the phenol also has some degree of methyl substitution. The methodology developed is suitable for real-time measurements of PICA pyrolysis and should lend itself well to the validation of nonequilibrium models whose aim is to simulate the response of TPS materials during atmospheric entry of spacecraft.

  8. Influence of the acetification process on phenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andlauer, W; Stumpf, C; Fürst, P

    2000-08-01

    Little is known about the change of phenolic compounds and total phenolic content by the acetification process. The aim of this study was to assess the contents of selected phenolic compounds of cider and red and white wines in comparison to phenolic profiles in corresponding vinegars by using a new HPLC method for the simultaneous separation and quantification of polar phenolic acids and less polar flavonoids. Identifications were made by retention times and by means of mass spectra. Additionally, total phenolic contents of wines and vinegars were determined photometrically. The decrease in total phenol content by the acetification process was highest for cider vinegars (40%) and lower for red and white wine vinegars (13 and 8%, respectively). A decrease in the contents of individual phenolic compounds of vinegars from white white and ciders was not observed. In contrast, the contents of individual phenolic compounds in red wine vinegar decreased approximately 50%.

  9. Phenolic Profiling of Duchesnea indica Combining Macroporous Resin Chromatography (MRC) with HPLC-ESI-MS/MS and ESI-IT-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhi Zhu; Xia Dong; Mingquan Guo

    2015-01-01

    Duchesnea indica (D. indica) is an important traditional Chinese medicine, and has long been clinically used to treat cancer in Asian countries. It has been described previously as a rich source of phenolic compounds with a broad array of diversified structures, which are the major active ingredients. However, an accurate and complete phenolic profiling has not been determined yet. In the present work, the total phenolic compounds in crude extracts from D. indica were enriched and fractionate...

  10. Isolation and identification of Phenolic compounds by HPLC and Electrospray Ionization Mass Spectrometry of Svensonia Hyderobadensis ? A Rare Medicinal Plant Taxon

    OpenAIRE

    Linga Rao M; Savithramma N

    2014-01-01

    The impetus for developing analytical methods for phenolic compounds in natural products has proved to be multifaceted. Hence the present study intended to isolate phenolic compounds from leaves of Svensonia hyderobadensis by using 70% acetone and poly vinyl poly pyrrolidone (PVPP); and characterized by U.V. Visible spectrometry, High performance liquid chromatography/ electrospray ionization mass spectrometry. Total 82 phenolic compounds were obtained at both positive and negative ion modes ...

  11. Variation in phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fermented rooibos herbal tea infusions: role of production season and quality grade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joubert, Elizabeth; Beelders, Theresa; de Beer, Dalene; Malherbe, Christiaan J; de Villiers, André J; Sigge, Gunnar O

    2012-09-12

    Data are required to calculate the dietary exposure to rooibos herbal tea flavonoids and phenolic acids. Representative content values for the principal phenolic compounds and total antioxidant capacity of fermented rooibos infusion, taking into account variation caused by production seasons (2009, 2010, and 2011) and quality grades (A, B, C, and D), were determined for samples (n = 114) from different geographical areas and producers. The major phenolic constituents were isoorientin and orientin (>10 mg/L), with quercetin-3-O-robinobioside, phenylpyruvic acid glucoside, and aspalathin present at >5 mg/L. Isovitexin, vitexin, and hyperoside were present at antioxidant capacity within production seasons and quality grades.

  12. Multistep conversion of para-substituted phenols by phenol hydroxylase and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Yuanyuan; Shi, Shengnan; Ma, Qiao; Kong, Chunlei; Zhou, Hao; Zhang, Xuwang; Zhou, Jiti

    2013-04-01

    A multistep conversion system of para-substituted phenols by recombinant phenol hydroxylase (PH(IND)) and 2,3-dihydroxybiphenyl 1,2-dioxygenase (BphC(LA-4)) was constructed in this study. Docking studies with different para-substituted phenols and corresponding catechols inside of the active site of PH(IND) and BphC(LA-4) predicted that all the substrates should be transformed. High-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis showed that the products of multistep conversion were the corresponding para-substituted catechols and semialdehydes. For the first-step conversion, the formation rate of 4-fluorocatechol (0.39 μM/min/mg dry weight) by strain PH(IND) hydroxylation was 1.15, 6.50, 3.00, and 1.18-fold higher than the formation of 4-chlorocatechol, 4-bromocatechol, 4-nitrocatechol, and 4-methylcatechol, respectively. For the second-step conversion, the formation rates of semialdehydes by strain BphC(LA-4) were as follows: 5-fluoro-HODA>5-chloro-HODA>2-hydroxy-5-nitro-ODA>5-bromo-HODA>2-hydroxy-5-methyl-ODA. The present study suggested that the multistep conversion by both ring hydroxylase and cleavage dioxygenase should be potential in the synthesis of industrial precursors and provide a novel avenue in the wastewater recycling treatment.

  13. Monoterpene composition of essential oil from peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.) with regard to leaf position using solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohloff, J

    1999-09-01

    Monoterpene compounds of leaf pairs and flowers of Mentha x piperita have been studied by direct headspace sampling using solid-phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (SPME-GC/MS). The content of peppermint-characteristic compounds such as menthol, menthyl acetate, and neomenthol increased in a basipetal direction (older plant parts), whereas menthone and isomenthone showed higher levels in the acropetal direction (younger plant parts). Higher levels of menthofuran were found in peppermint flowers in contrast to the leaves. SPME sampling resulted in relatively higher amounts of high-volatile monoterpenes and lower detection of less volatile compounds such as menthol and menthone, compared to solvent-based samples from essential oil distillation.

  14. Comparative study on the in vitro human skin permeation of monoterpenes and phenylpropanoids applied in rose oil and in form of neat single compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitt, S; Schaefer, U; Sporer, F; Reichling, J

    2010-02-01

    Essential oils are ingredients of cosmetic and health care products as well as massage oil used in aromatherapy. There is no doubt that essential oils and their components are able to permeate human skin. But information is rare dealing with percutanous absorption of essential oils in more detail. In this paper we investigated the in vitro skin permeation of monoterpenes and phenylpropanoids applied in pure rose oil and in form of neat single substances. We found that the application form had an exceeding influence on the skin permeation behaviour of the compounds. For substances applied in rose oil a clear relationship between their lipophilic character, chemical structure, and skin permeation could be confirmed. Regarding the P(app)-values the substances are ranked in the order: monoterpene hydrocarbons rose oil than in their neat form. This suggests that co-operative interactions between essential oil components may promote skin permeation behaviour of essential oil and its components.

  15. Bismuth nanoparticles for phenolic compounds biosensing application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayorga-Martinez, Carmen C; Cadevall, Miquel; Guix, Maria; Ros, Josep; Merkoçi, Arben

    2013-02-15

    The rapid determination of trace phenolic compounds is of great importance for evaluating the total toxicity of contaminated water samples. Nowadays, electrochemical tyrosinase (Tyr) based biosensors constitute a promising technology for the in situ monitoring of phenolic compounds because of their advantages such as high selectivity, low production cost, promising response speed, potential for miniaturization, simple instrumentation and easy automatization. A mediator-free amperometric biosensor for phenolic compounds detection based on the combination of bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) and Tyr for phenol detections will be hereby reported. This is achieved through the integration of BiNPs/Tyr onto the working electrode of a screen printed electrode (SPE) by using glutaraldehyde as a cross-linking agent. BiNPs/Tyr biosensor is evaluated by amperometric measurements at -200 mV DC and a linear range of up to 71 μM and 100 μM and a correlation coefficient of 0.995 and 0.996 for phenol and catechol, respectively. The very low DC working potential ensures the avoidance of interferences making this biosensor an advantageous device for real sample applications. In addition, the response mechanism including the effect of BiNPs based on electrochemical studies and optical characterizations will be also discussed. The obtained results may open the way to many other BiNPs applications in the biosensing field.

  16. Monoterpene isolated from the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi is cytotoxic to multidrug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faride Hosseinkhani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to determine whether an herbal extract containing monoterpene exhibited activity against multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from clinical infection samples. METHODS: The essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi (L. Sprague ex Turrill (Apiaceae fruit was extracted by hydrodistillation. Fruit residues were treated with hydrochloric acid and re-hydrodistilled to obtain volatile compounds. Compounds in the distilled oil were identified using gas-chromatography (GC and GC-mass spectrometry (MS. The antibiotic susceptibility of all bacterial isolates was analyzed using both the disc diffusion method and determination of the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The sensitivity of antibiotic-resistant isolates to essential oil was also determined by using the disc diffusion method and MIC determination. RESULTS: Of 26 clinical isolates, 92% were multidrug-resistant (MDR. Aromatic monoterpenes (thymol, paracymene, and gamma-terpinene were the major (90% components of the oil. Growth of S. aureus strains was successfully inhibited by the oil, with an inhibitory zone diameter (IZD between 30-60mm and MIC <0.02μL/mL. The oil had no antimicrobial activity against clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa; rather, it prevented pigment production in these isolates. CONCLUSIONS: This study revealed that the essential oil of Trachyspermum ammi, which contains monoterpene, has good antibacterial potency. Monoterpenes could thus be incorporated into antimicrobial ointment formulas in order to treat highly drug-resistant S. aureus infections. Our findings also underscore the utility of research on natural products in order to combat bacterial multidrug resistance.

  17. Ice core records of monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers from Aurora Peak in Alaska since 1660s: Implication for climate change variability in the North Pacific Rim

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokhrel, Ambarish; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Ono, Kaori; Seki, Osamu; Fu, Pingqing; Matoba, Sumio; Shiraiwa, Takayuki

    2016-04-01

    Monoterpene and isoprene secondary organic aerosol (SOA) tracers are reported for the first time in an Alaskan ice core to better understand the biological source strength before and after the industrial revolution in the Northern Hemisphere. We found significantly high concentrations of monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers (e.g., pinic, pinonic, and 2-methylglyceric acids, 2-methylthreitol and 2-methylerythritol) in the ice core, which show historical trends with good correlation to each other since 1660s. They show positive correlations with sugar compounds (e.g., mannitol, fructose, glucose, inositol and sucrose), and anti-correlations with α-dicarbonyls (glyoxal and methylglyoxal) and fatty acids (e.g., C18:1) in the same ice core. These results suggest similar sources and transport pathways for monoterpene- and isoprene-SOA tracers. In addition, we found that concentrations of C5-alkene triols (e.g., 3-methyl-2,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene, cis-2-methyl 1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene and trans-2-methyl-1,3,4-trihydroxy-1-butene) in the ice core have increased after the Great Pacific Climate Shift (late 1970s). They show positive correlations with α-dicarbonyls and fatty acids (e.g., C18:1) in the ice core, suggesting that enhanced oceanic emissions of biogenic organic compounds through the marine boundary layer are recorded in the ice core from Alaska. Photochemical oxidation process for these monoterpene- and isoprene-/sesquiterpene-SOA tracers are suggested to be linked with the periodicity of multi-decadal climate oscillations and retreat of sea ice in the Northern Hemisphere.

  18. Efficiency of phenol biodegradation by planktonic Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes (a constructed wetland isolate) vs. root and gravel biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurzbaum, Eyal; Kirzhner, Felix; Sela, Shlomo; Zimmels, Yoram; Armon, Robert

    2010-09-01

    In the last two decades, constructed wetland systems gained increasing interest in wastewater treatment and as such have been intensively studied around the world. While most of the studies showed excellent removal of various pollutants, the exact contribution, in kinetic terms, of its particular components (such as: root, gravel and water) combined with bacteria is almost nonexistent. In the present study, a phenol degrader bacterium identified as Pseudomonas pseudoalcaligenes was isolated from a constructed wetland, and used in an experimental set-up containing: plants and gravel. Phenol removal rate by planktonic and biofilm bacteria (on sterile Zea mays roots and gravel surfaces) was studied. Specific phenol removal rates revealed significant advantage of planktonic cells (1.04 × 10(-9) mg phenol/CFU/h) compared to root and gravel biofilms: 4.59 × 10(-11)-2.04 × 10(-10) and 8.04 × 10(-11)-4.39 × 10(-10) (mg phenol/CFU/h), respectively. In batch cultures, phenol biodegradation kinetic parameters were determined by biomass growth rates and phenol removal as a function of time. Based on Haldane equation, kinetic constants such as μ(max) = 1.15/h, K(s) = 35.4 mg/L and K(i) = 198.6 mg/L fit well phenol removal by P. pseudoalcaligenes. Although P. pseudoalcaligenes planktonic cells showed the highest phenol removal rate, in constructed wetland systems and especially in those with sub-surface flow, it is expected that surface associated microorganisms (biofilms) will provide a much higher contribution in phenol and other organics removal, due to greater bacterial biomass. Factors affecting the performance of planktonic vs. biofilm bacteria in sub-surface flow constructed wetlands are further discussed. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Diurnal and seasonal variation of monoterpene emission rates for two typical Mediterranean species (Pinus pinea and Quercus ilex) from field measurements - relationship with temperature and PAR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabillon, D.; Cremades, L.V. [Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Barcelona (Spain). Dept. de Projectes d' Enginyeria

    2001-07-01

    Two of the most typical Mediterranean tree species (Pinus pinea [Pp] and Quercus ilex [Qi]) were screened for emissions of monoterpenes during the period of June 1997-July 1998 in the field at a semi-rural location near Terrassa (Barcelona, Spain) using a bag-enclosure sampling method followed by gas chromatography analysis with mass selective detection (GC/MSD). A mean of about eight samples per day were measured. A periodical sampling throughout 1 yr allowed to examine data for long-term influences. The main compounds emitted from Pp were linalool, limonene, trans-ocimene and 1,8-cineole (80% on average). Eighty percent of total emissions in Qi were {beta}-pinene, {alpha}-pinene, myrcene and sabinene, followed by limonene, {beta}-phellandrene, {delta}-terpinene and trans-ocimene (20%). On average, the standard monoterpene emission rate from Qi was approximately three times higher than from Pp. Diurnal and seasonal emission variations were characterized with regard to temperature and PAR. For both species a statistically significant variation in monoterpene emissions was observed between seasons for 1 yr period. For Pp, the seasonal variability not accounted for by PAR and temperature is also estimated and compared with existing models in the literature. (author)

  20. Application of response surface methodology to optimize solid-phase microextraction procedure for chromatographic determination of aroma-active monoterpenes in berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, Tomasz; Kupska, Magdalena; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2017-04-15

    Most of scientific papers concern the qualitative or semi-quantitative analysis of aroma-active terpenes in liquid food matrices. Therefore, the procedure based on solid-phase microextraction and two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry for determination of monoterpenes in fresh berries was developed. The optimal extraction conditions using divinylbenzene-carboxen-polydimethylsiloxane fiber were: temperature of 50°C, extraction time of 26min, equilibrium time of 29min. The developed procedure provides a high recovery (70.8-99.2%), good repeatability (CV0.9915) and offers practical advantages over currently used methods: reliability of compounds identification, simplicity of extraction and at least one order of magnitude lower detection limits (0.10-0.011μg/L). The method was successfully applied to determine monoterpenes in 27 berry samples of different varieties and 4 berry products. Tukey's test revealed that monoterpenes content is a reliable indicator of fruit maturity and origin. It suggests that the method may be of interest to researchers and food industry.

  1. Enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric monoterpenes of Juniperus communis L. and Juniperus oxycedrus needles and berries determined by HS-SPME and enantioselective GC/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foudil-Cherif, Yazid; Yassaa, Noureddine

    2012-12-01

    For the first time, enantiomeric and non-enantiomeric distribution of monoterpenes in the headspace of Juniperus communis L. and Juniperus oxycedrus needles and berries has been determined using HS-SPME combined with enantioselective GC/MS. The essential oils from needles and berries of both Juniperus species obtained by hydrodistillation were also performed. HS-SPME has shown good potential to reproduce the same results as the commonly used hydrodistillation extraction technique. While needles and berries of J. communis showed high contents of sabinene, α-pinene and β-myrcene with 19-30%, 12-24% and 9-20%, respectively, J. oxycedrus was strongly dominated by α-pinene with 85-92% in both needles and berries. Large variations in chiral distribution of monoterpenes within the same plant species and between the two junipers were observed. Interestingly, similar enantiomeric preferences of monoterpenes were obtained between needles and berries of the two junipers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Phenolic Compounds Characterization and Biological Activities of Citrus aurantium Bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armin Oskoueian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Citrus plants are known to possess beneficial biological activities for human health. In addition, ethnopharmacological application of plants is a good tool to explore their bioactivities and active compounds. This research was carried out to evaluate the phenolic and flavonoid analysis, antioxidant properties, anti inflammatory and anti cancer activity of Citrus aurantium bloom. The total phenolics and flavonoids results revealed that methanolic extract contained high total phenolics and flavonoids compared to ethanolic and boiling water extracts. The obtained total phenolics value for methanolic Citrus aurantium bloom extract was 4.55 ± 0.05 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g dry weight (DW, and for total flavonoids it was 3.83 ± 0.05 mg rutin equivalent/g DW. In addition, the RP-HPLC analyses of phenolics and flavonoids indicated the presence of gallic acid, pyrogallol, syringic acid, caffeic acid, rutin, quercetin and naringin as bioactive compounds. The antioxidant activity of Citrus aurantium bloom were examined by the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH assay and the ferric reducing/antioxidant potential (FRAP. The free radical scavenging and ferric reducing power activities were higher for the methanolic extract of Citrus aurantium bloom at a concentration of 300 μg/mL, with values of 55.3% and 51.7%, respectively, as compared to the corresponding boiling water and ethanolic extracts, but the activities were lower than those of antioxidant standards such as BHT and α-tocopherol. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory result of methanolic extract showed appreciable reduction in nitric oxide production of stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at the presence of plant extract. Apart from that, the anticancer activity of the methanolic extract was investigated in vitro against human cancer cell lines (MCF-7; MDA-MB-231, human colon adenocarcinoma (HT-29 and Chang cell as a normal human hepatocyte. The obtained result demonstrated the moderate to

  3. Antioxidative activities and phenolic compounds of pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seeds and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiretti, Pier Giorgio; Meineri, Giorgia; Gai, Francesco; Longato, Erica; Amarowicz, Ryszard

    2017-01-23

    Phenolic compounds were extracted from pumpkin (Cucurbita pepo) seed and amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus) grain into 80% (v/v) methanol. The extracts obtained were characterised by the contents of total phenolic compounds (TPC), trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and antiradical activity against 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH(·)) radical. The content of individual phenolic compounds was determined by HPLC-DAD method. Pumpkin seeds showed the higher content of TPC than that from amaranth. The TEAC values of both extracts were similar each other. The lower value of FRAP was observed for pumpkin seed. Phenolic compound present in amaranth grain exhibited strongest antiradical properties against DPPH radical. Several peaks were present on the HPLC chromatograms of two extracts. The UV-DAD spectra confirmed the presence of vanillic acid derivatives in the amaranth grain. The three main phenolic compound present in pumpkin seed were characterised by UV-DAD spectra with maximum at 258, 266 and 278 nm.

  4. Environmental Phenols And Pubertal Development In Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Mary S.; Teitelbaum, Susan L.; McGovern, Kathleen; Pinney, Susan M.; Windham, Gayle C.; Galvez, Maida; Pajak, Ashley; Rybak, Michael; Calafat, Antonia M.; Kushi, Lawrence H.; Biro, Frank M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental exposures to many phenols are documented worldwide and exposures can be quite high (>1 micromolar of urine metabolites). Phenols have a range of hormonal activity, but knowledge of effects on child reproductive development is limited, coming mostly from cross-sectional studies. We undertook a prospective study of pubertal development among 1239 girls recruited at three U.S. sites when they were 6–8 years old and were followed annually for 7 years to determine age at first breast or pubic hair development. Ten phenols were measured in urine collected at enrollment (benzophenone-3, enterolactone, bisphenol A, three parabens (methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-), 2,5-dichlorophenol, triclosan, genistein, daidzein). We used multivariable adjusted Cox proportional hazards ratios (HR (95% confidence intervals)) and Kaplan-Meier survival analyses to estimate relative risk of earlier or later age at puberty associated with phenol exposures. For enterolactone and benzophenone-3, girls experienced breast development 5–6 months later, adjusted HR 0.79 (0.64–0.98) and HR 0.80 (0.65–0.98) respectively for the 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary biomarkers (μg/g-creatinine). Earlier breast development was seen for triclosan and 2,5- dichlorophenol: 4–9 months sooner for 5th vs 1st quintiles of urinary concentrations (HR 1.17 (0.96–1.43) and HR 1.37 (1.09–1.72), respectively). Association of breast development with enterolactone, but not the other three phenols, was mediated by body size. These phenols may be antiadipogens (benzophenone-3 and enterolactone) or thyroid agonists (triclosan and 2,5- dichlorophenol), and their ubiquity and relatively high levels in children would benefit from further investigation to confirm these findings and to establish whether there are certain windows of susceptibility during which exposure can affect pubertal development. PMID:26335517

  5. Evaluation of Phenolic Content of Turmeric hydroalcoholic Extract in Iran by Singleton Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Bahrami

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Phenolic compounds have an important role as essential metabolites for plants growth and reproduction, as well as protecting agents against pathogens. These compounds are important sources of antioxidants which act as reducing agents and hydrogen donors. Consumption of fruits, vegetables and plants rich in poly phenols is associated with the reduced risk of certain cancer, cardiovascular, diabetes and Alzheimer’s diseases. Curcuma langa or Turmeric is a tropical plant that natively grows in South and Southeast Asia. This plant has been used as a spice as well as a herbal drug in traditional medicine in India. Recently, many studies have been conducted on the medical effects of this plant and still some researches are ongoing. Turmeric possesses a wide range of biological and pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-carcinogenic effects. It seems that pharmacological activities of turmeric is related to poly phenolic compounds existing in this plant. Methods: This study was performed on the hydroalcoholic extract of the turmeric rhizome experimentally with a repetition of several times. Results of this study were presented via means±SD. In the present research poly phenolic contents of turmeric extract was evaluated using tannic acid standard. Results: The study findings demonstrated that 1µg hydroalcoholic extract contains 0.59±0.051µmoleTAE of poly phenolic compounds. Conclusion: This study revealed that phenolic contents of turmeric hydroalcoholic extraction is noticeable and it seems that phenolic contents are caused by curcuminoids compounds that exist in this plant.

  6. Phenol dissociation on pristine and defective graphene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Hantarto; Oluwoye, Ibukun; Altarawneh, Mohammednoor; Hamra, A. A. B.; Lim, H. N.; Huang, N. M.; Yin, Chun-Yang; Jiang, Zhong-Tao

    2017-03-01

    Phenol (C6H5O‒H) dissociation on both pristine and defective graphene sheets in terms of associated enthalpic requirements of the reaction channels was investigated. Here, we considered three common types of defective graphene, namely, Stone-Wales, monovacancy and divacancy configurations. Theoretical results demonstrate that, graphene with monovacancy creates C atoms with dangling bond (unpaired valence electron), which remains particularly useful for spontaneous dissociation of phenol into phenoxy (C6H5O) and hydrogen (H) atom. The reactions studied herein appear barrierless with reaction exothermicity as high as 2.2 eV. Our study offers fundamental insights into another potential application of defective graphene sheets.

  7. Improved Synthesis of Nefazodone from Phenol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Aijun; ZHOU Xueqin; LIU Dongzhi

    2006-01-01

    A route for the synthesis of nefazodone is reported. Nefazodone was obtained with an overall yield of 37.2% from phenol. The key steps involve the improved synthesis of 5-ethyl-4-(2-phenoxyethyl)-1, 2, 4-triazol-3(2H)-one, a key intermediate in the synthesis of nefazodone. The phenol was etherified with 1, 2-dichloroethane (75%), followed by iodination-amination with Nal and CH3OH-NH3(85.7%), acylation with ethyl chloroformate (95.7%) and cyclization with propionyl hydrazine (83.6%).

  8. Nitration of Phenol Catalyzed by Horseradish Peroxidase

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DAI Rong-ji; HUANG Hui; TONG Bin; XIAO Sheng-yuan

    2007-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase, an acidic peroxidase from the horseradish, is one of the most important enzymes as analytical reagent.The enzymatic nitration of phenol by oxidation of nitrite was studied using horseradish peroxidase in the presence of H2O2.The results showed that nitration occur at 2- and 4- positions of phenol.There were also minor products of hydroquinone and catechol.The influence of various reaction parameters, including pH, organic solvent, and concentration of H2O2, on nitration products were discussed.The best nitration pH was 7.0, and H2O2 should be added to the reaction mixture slowly.

  9. Mutational analysis of a monoterpene synthase reaction: altered catalysis through directed mutagenesis of (-)-pinene synthase from Abies grandis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, David C; Croteau, Rodney

    2005-07-15

    Two monoterpene synthases, (-)-pinene synthase and (-)-camphene synthase, from grand fir (Abies grandis) produce different product mixtures despite having highly homologous amino acid sequences and, presumably, very similar three-dimensional structures. The major product of (-)-camphene synthase, (-)-camphene, and the major products of (-)-pinene synthase, (-)-alpha-pinene, and (-)-beta-pinene, arise through distinct mechanistic variations of the electrophilic reaction cascade that is common to terpenoid synthases. Structural modeling followed by directed mutagenesis in (-)-pinene synthase was used to replace selected amino acid residues with the corresponding residues from (-)-camphene synthase in an effort to identify the amino acids responsible for the catalytic differences. This approach produced an enzyme in which more than half of the product was channeled through an alternative pathway. It was also shown that several (-)-pinene synthase to (-)-camphene synthase amino acid substitutions were necessary before catalysis was significantly altered. The data support a model in which the collective action of many key amino acids, located both in and distant from the active site pocket, regulate the course of the electrophilic reaction cascade.

  10. Elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography for the separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Chu; Zhang, Shidi; Tong, Shengqiang; Li, Xingnuo; Li, Qingyong; Yan, Jizhong

    2015-09-01

    In this work, a simple and efficient protocol for the rapid separation of two pairs of isomeric monoterpenes from Paeoniae Alba Radix was developed by combining macroporous resin and elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography. The crude extract was firstly subjected to a D101 macroporous resin column eluted with water and a series of different concentrations of ethanol. Then, effluents of 30 and 95% ethanol were collected as sample 1 and sample 2 for further counter-current chromatography purification. Finally, a pair of isomers, 96 mg of compound 1 and 48 mg of compound 2 with purities of 91.1 and 96.2%, respectively, was isolated from 200 mg of sample 1. The other pair of isomers, 14 mg of compound 3 and 8 mg of compound 4 with purities of 93.6 and 88.9%, respectively, was isolated from 48 mg of sample 2. Their purities were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography, and their chemical structures were identified by mass spectrometry and (1) H NMR spectroscopy. Compared to a normal counter-current chromatography separation, the separation time and solvent consumption of elution-extrusion counter-current chromatography were reduced while the resolutions were still good. The established protocol is promising for the separation of natural products with great disparity of content in herbal medicines. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. A new monoterpene glucoside and complete assignments of dihydroflavonols of Pulicaria jaubertii: potential cytotoxic and blood pressure lowering activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragab, Ehab A; Raafat, Mohamed

    2016-06-01

    One new monoterpene glucoside and five dihydroflavonols were isolated for the first time from the aerial parts of Pulicaria jaubertii and identified as p-menthane-2-O-β-D-glucopyranoside [1], dihydroquercetin (taxifolin) [2], 7,3'-di-O-methyltaxifolin [3], 3'-O-methyltaxifolin [4], 7-O-methyltaxifolin (padmatin) [5] and 7-O-methyl-dihydrokampferol (7-O-methylaromadenderin) [6]. The structures of these compounds were unambiguously assigned on the basis of NMR spectroscopic data ((1)H, (13)C, DEPT, HSQC, HMBC) and MS analysis. 2D-NMR methods required revision of assignments of H-6 and H-8 for dihydroflavonol compounds. Possible cytotoxic activity as well as blood pressure (BP) lowering activity were tested. The alcoholic extract showed cytotoxic activity against prostate carcinoma (PC-3), breast carcinoma (MCF-7) and hepatocellular carcinoma (HepG-2) human cell lines with IC50 19.1, 20.0 and 24.1 μg, respectively. The higher dose levels of the alcoholic extract significantly reduced normal BP of rats in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Two New Monoterpene Glycosides from Qing Shan Lu Shui Tea with Inhibitory Effects on Leukocyte-Type 12-Lipoxygenase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Zhi Fang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We evaluated the inhibitory effect of 12 Chinese teas on leukocyte-type 12-lipoxygenase (LOX activity. Tea catechins such as epigallocatechin gallate have been known to exhibit leukocyte-type 12-LOX inhibition. Qing Shan Lu Shui, which contains lower catechin levels than the other tested teas, suppressed leukocyte-type 12-LOX activity. To characterize the bioactive components of Qing Shan Lu Shui, leukocyte-type 12-LOX inhibitory activity–guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanol extract of the tea was performed, resulting in the isolation of two new monoterpene glycosides: liguroside A (1 and B (2. The structures of compounds 1 and 2 were characterized as (2E,5E-7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octadienyl-O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1″→3′-(4′″-O-trans-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside and (2E,5E-7-hydroperoxy-3,7-dimethyl-2,5-octa-dienyl- O-(α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1″→3′-(4′″-O-cis-p-coumaroyl-β-D-glucopyranoside, respectively, based on spectral and chemical evidence. Ligurosides A (1 and B (2 showed inhibitory effects on leukocyte-type 12-LOX activity, with IC50 values of 1.7 and 0.7 μM, respectively.

  13. Influence of ionic interactions on essential oil and phenolic diterpene composition of Dalmatian sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tounekti, Taieb; Munné-Bosch, Sergi; Vadel, A M; Chtara, Chaker; Khemira, Habib

    2010-01-01

    The potential of four essential cations (K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(2+)) to alleviate salt toxicity was studied in sage (Salvia officinalis L.) plants grown in pots. Two concentrations of the following chloride salts: KCl, CaCl₂, MgCl₂ and FeCl₃, were used together with 100mM NaCl to study the effects of these nutrients on plant growth, leaf essential oils (EOs) and phenolic diterpenes composition. The sage plants accumulated Na(+) in their leaves (includers); this has affected secondary metabolites' biosynthesis. Treatment with 100mM NaCl slightly decreased borneol and viridiflorol, while increased manool concentrations. Addition of KCl, CaCl₂ and MgCl₂ increased considerably in a dose-dependent manner the oxygen-containing monoterpenes (1.8-cineole, camphor, β-thujone and borneol) in 100mM NaCl-treated sage. Whereas, the contents of viridiflorol decreased further with the addition of KCl in 100mM NaCl-treated sage. Our results suggest that the changes in EOs composition were more related to K(+) and Ca(2+) availability than to Na(+) toxicity. Furthermore, treatment with NaCl decreased by 50% carnosic acid (CA), a potent antioxidant, content in the leaves. K(+) and Ca(2+) promoted the accumulation of CA and its methoxylated form (MCA) in the leaves. The concentration of CA was positively correlated with leaf K(+) (r=0.56, P=0.01) and Ca(2+) (r=0.44, P=0.05) contents. It appears that different salt applications in combination with NaCl treatments had a profound effect on EOs and phenolic diterpene composition in sage. Therefore, ionic interactions may be carefully considered in the cultivation of this species to get the desired concentrations of these secondary metabolites in leaf extracts.

  14. Comparison of the selected secondary metabolite content present in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparison of the selected secondary metabolite content present in the ... and gravimetric methods, to the effect of quantitative comparison of their phenolic, ... The extracts were also qualitatively analyzed so as to evaluate the presence of ...

  15. Monoterpene synthases from grand fir (Abies grandis). cDNA isolation, characterization, and functional expression of myrcene synthase, (-)-(4S)-limonene synthase, and (-)-(1S,5S)-pinene synthase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohlmann, J; Steele, C L; Croteau, R

    1997-08-29

    Grand fir (Abies grandis) has been developed as a model system for studying defensive oleoresin formation in conifers in response to insect attack or other injury. The turpentine fraction of the oleoresin is a complex mixture of monoterpene (C10) olefins in which (-)-limonene and (-)-alpha- and (-)-beta-pinene are prominent components; (-)-limonene and (-)-pinene synthase activities are also induced upon stem wounding. A similarity based cloning strategy yielded three new cDNA species from a wounded stem cDNA library that appeared to encode three distinct monoterpene synthases. After expression in Escherichia coli and enzyme assay with geranyl diphosphate as substrate, subsequent analysis of the terpene products by chiral phase gas chromatography and mass spectrometry showed that these sequences encoded a (-)-limonene synthase, a myrcene synthase, and a (-)-pinene synthase that produces both alpha-pinene and beta-pinene. In properties and reaction stereochemistry, the recombinant enzymes resemble the corresponding native monoterpene synthases of wound-induced grand fir stem. The deduced amino acid sequences indicated the limonene synthase to be 637 residues in length (73.5 kDa), the myrcene synthase to be 627 residues in length (72.5 kDa), and the pinene synthase to be 628 residues in length (71.5 kDa); all of these monoterpene synthases appear to be translated as preproteins bearing an amino-terminal plastid targeting sequence. Sequence comparison revealed that these monoterpene synthases from grand fir resemble sesquiterpene (C15) synthases and diterpene (C20) synthases from conifers more closely than other monoterpene synthases from angiosperm species. This similarity between extant monoterpene, sesquiterpene, and diterpene synthases of gymnosperms is surprising since functional diversification of this enzyme class is assumed to have occurred over 300 million years ago. Wound-induced accumulation of transcripts for monoterpene synthases was demonstrated by RNA

  16. Phenolic content of strawberry spreads during processing and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kadivec, Mirta; Bornšek, Špela Može; Polak, Tomaž; Demšar, Lea; Hribar, Janez; Požrl, Tomaž

    2013-09-25

    This study provides a comprehensive and systematic evaluation of phenolics in strawberry spreads processed according to different industrial procedures and stored under several storage conditions for up to 19 weeks. Total phenolics were determined spectrophotometrically, and individual phenolics were determined by combined liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry: six anthocyanins, four phenolic acids, two flavonols, one flavanol, and one flavone. During storage, the phenolics were modified. The total anthocyanins, vanillic acid, kaempferol, and luteolin decreased, while salicylic and gallic acids increased. Total phenolics, cyanidin 3-(6″-succinyl-glucoside) (here observed for the first time), protocatechuic acid, quercetin, and catechin remained stable. The best phenolic retention was observed in spreads stored at 4 °C. Therefore, the proposed storage process (use of a cold chain) indicates good retention of phenolics in strawberry spreads, which maintain high nutritional and sensorial quality.

  17. Interference of phenol during quantification of a bacterial lipoprotein ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Interference of phenol during quantification of a bacterial lipoprotein. ... bacterial Braun liporotein (BLP) from E. coli (a Toll-2 receptor ligand) is purified via phenol extraction on the basis of selective extraction of the lipoprotein. ... Article Metrics.

  18. Determination of total phenolic amount of some edible fruits and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-06-17

    Jun 17, 2009 ... dietary supplement to prevent oxidative stress mediated diseases (Gardner et al., 2002). ... 10% (Slinkard and Singleton, 1977). Phenolics or poly- phenols .... Antioxidant polyphenols in tea, cocoa and wine. Nutrition 16: 7 – 8.

  19. Removal of hard COD, nitrogenous compounds and phenols from a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-07-04

    Jul 4, 2015 ... of phenols, COD and nitrogenous compounds in the wastewater. Keywords: ammonia ... Biological treatment has been widely used only to treat the ..... MOLVA M (2004) Removal of phenol from industrial wastewa- ters using ...

  20. Natural phenolic metabolites with anti-angiogenic properties – a review from the chemical point of view

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Sun

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Considering the many secondary natural metabolites available from plants, phenolic compounds play a particularly important role in human health as they occur in significant amounts in many fruits, vegetables and medicinal plants. In this review natural phenolic compounds of plant origin with significant anti-angiogenic properties are discussed. Thirteen representatives from eight different natural or natural-like phenolic subclasses are presented with an emphasis on their synthesis and methods to modify the parent compounds. When available, the consequence of structural variation on the pharmacological activity of the molecules is described.

  1. Effect of enzyme impurities on phenol removal by the method of polymerization and precipitation catalyzed by Coprinus cinereus peroxidase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, M; Sakurai, A; Sakakibara, M

    2001-11-01

    The removal of phenol by peroxidase-catalyzed polymerization was examined using the Coprinus cinereus peroxidases at different levels of impurity with respect to contamination. The phenol removal efficiency was improved by lowering the peroxidase purity. Acidic and high molecular weight proteins present as impurities in the peroxidase solution had some positive effect on the phenol-polymerizing reaction. The residual enzyme activity, either only in the solution or both in the solution and on the precipitate during the polymerizing reaction, was measured. The results indicate that the main effect of impurities in the peroxidase solution was the suppression of the adsorption of peroxidase molecules on the polymerized precipitate.

  2. The removal of phenols from oily wastewater by chlorine dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chung-Jung

    1988-01-01

    Treatability studies were performed on oily wastewaters produced by petroleum and canning industries. Chlorine dioxide was used for the removal of phenolic compounds from these oily wastewaters. Most of phenolic compounds can be destroyed by chlorine dioxide within 15 minutes if CI02-to-phenol ratios of higher than 5.0 are provided. Factors such as pH, temperature, and COD have little effect on phenol removal. The effectiveness of chlorine dioxide treatment depends critic...

  3. A comparison of GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements in ambient air under conditions of enhanced monoterpene loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Ambrose

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Toluene was measured using both a gas chromatographic system (GC, with a flame ionization detector (FID, and a proton transfer reaction-mass spectrometer (PTR-MS at the AIRMAP atmospheric monitoring station Thompson Farm (THF in rural Durham, NH during the summer of 2004. Simultaneous measurements of monoterpenes, including α- and β-pinene, camphene, Δ 3-carene, and d-limonene, by GC-FID demonstrated large enhancements in monoterpene mixing ratios relative to toluene, with median and maximum enhancement ratios of ~2 and ~30, respectively. A detailed comparison between the GC-FID and PTR-MS toluene measurements was conducted to test the specificity of PTR-MS for atmospheric toluene measurements under conditions often dominated by biogenic emissions. We derived quantitative estimates of potential interferences in the PTR-MS toluene measurements related to sampling and analysis of monoterpenes, including fragmentation of the monoterpenes and some of their primary carbonyl oxidation products via reactions with H3O+, O2+ and NO+ in the PTR-MS drift tube. The PTR-MS and GC-FID toluene measurements were in good quantitative agreement and the two systems tracked one another well from the instrumental limits of detection to maximum mixing ratios of ~0.5 ppbv. A correlation plot of the PTR-MS versus GC-FID toluene measurements was described by the least squares regression equation y=(1.13± 0.02x−(0.008±0.003 ppbv, suggesting a small ~13% positive bias in the PTR-MS measurements. The bias corresponded with a ~0.055 ppbv difference at the highest measured toluene level. The two systems agreed quantitatively within the combined 1σ measurement precisions for 60% of the measurements. Discrepancies in the measured mixing ratios were not well correlated with enhancements in the monoterpenes. Better quantitative agreement between the two systems was obtained by

  4. Microwave absorption properties of graphite flakes-phenolic resin composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogoi, Jyoti P.; Gogoi, Pragyan J.; Bhattacharyya, Nidhi S.

    2013-01-01

    In the present investigation, microwave absorption properties of a conductor back single layer designed on graphite flakes (GF)-novolac phenolic resin (NPR) composites is studied. The complex permittivity of the developed composite enhance for higher GF percentages. The reflection loss(RL) measured using E8362C VNA shows a maximum RL values -25 dB at 9.8 GHz for 7 wt. % composition with -10 dB bandwidth of 0.3 GHz. The developed composites are being light weight and cost effective shows potential to be used as dielectric absorber.

  5. Detoxification of model phenolic compounds in lignocellulosic hydrolysates with peroxidase for butanol production from Clostridium beijerinckii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Dae Haeng; Lee, Yun Jie; Um, Youngsoon; Sang, Byoung-In; Kim, Yong Hwan

    2009-07-01

    In the present study, we investigated the peroxidase-catalyzed detoxification of model phenolic compounds and evaluated the inhibitory effects of the detoxified solution on butanol production by Clostridium beijerinckii National Collection of Industrial and Marine Bacteria Ltd. 8052. The six phenolic compounds, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, vanillic acid, syringaldehyde, and vanillin, were selected as model fermentation inhibitors generated during pretreatment and hydrolysis of lignocellulose. The enzyme reaction was optimized as a function of the reaction conditions of pH, peroxidase concentration, and hydrogen peroxide to substrate ratio. Most of the tested phenolics have a broad optimum pH range of 6.0 to 9. Removal efficiency increased with the molar ratio of H(2)O(2) to each compound up to 0.5-1.25. In the case of p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, vanillic acid, and vanillin, the removal efficiency was almost 100% with only 0.01 microM of enzyme. The tested phenolic compounds (1 g/L) inhibited cell growth by 64-74%, while completely inhibiting the production of butanol. Although syringaldehyde and vanillin were less toxic on cell growth, the level of inhibition on the butanol production was quite different. The detoxified solution remarkably improved cell growth and surprisingly increased butanol production to the level of the control. Hence, our present study, using peroxidase for the removal of model phenolic compounds, could be applied towards the detoxification of lignocellulosic hydrolysates for butanol fermentation.

  6. Adsorption Studies of Phenol Using Thermally and Chemically Modified Rice Husk as Adsorbents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    *M. M. Yousaf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Most of the Phenols are hazardous substances and some are supposed to have carcinogenic activity. Thus it is necessary to remove Phenolics and other aromatics from the aqueous ecosystem. Traditional processes for the removal of Phenolics compounds are extraction, adsorption on granulated activated carbon, steam distillation, chemical and bacterial techniques. Literature survey show a number of methods like oxidation, ion exchange, reverse osmosis, electrochemical oxidation and adsorption. Phenol removal by process like, adsorption is the best method of choice as it can remove most of phenols in simple and easy way. In recent past; agricultural by-products such as, maize cob, date stone, apricot Stones, rice bran, and bagass pith have been extensively studied and used as adsorbents for the adsorption of hazardous substances from wastewater. In the present study we tried modified rice husks as potential adsorbents for the removal of Phenol from aqueous system. Batch mode studies were carried out. Isotherm data was generated and fitted in Freundlich and Langmuir equation to explain the phenomenon of adsorption. The adsorption capacities based on Langmuir model (Qm of the 3 adsorbents were found to be 0.81 for raw husk (RH, 0.395 for the Grafted (G and 2.306 mg/g for the Charred (C. The R2 values were 0.92 for raw husk, 0.97 for grafted and 0.91 for charred husk. Based on Freundlich model the adsorption capacities (K were 2.94, 2.29 and 1.25mg/g for Raw husk, grafted husk and charred husk. The R2 values were found to be 0.72, 0.95 and 0.83 for the raw husk, grafted husk and charred husk respectively. Our result showed that modified rice husks could be used as potential adsorbents for Phenol removal from aqueous system.

  7. LIQUEFACTION OF CORN DISTILLERS DRIED GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES (DDGS IN HOT-COMPRESSED PHENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasu Su

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to liquefy corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS, a by-product in corn ethanol production, to produce liquid products as a potential substitute for petroleum-derived phenol or an additive in the manufacturing of phenolic resins. Efficient liquefaction of DDGS has been realized with hot-compressed phenol at 200-450oC. Effects of liquefaction temperature, initial phenol/DDGS ratio, residence time and catalysts on yields of liquefaction products, as well as characterizations of typical liquid and solid products, have been investigated. The yield of liquid products increased with temperature, while it peaked at around 300oC, due to condensation/cracking reactions of the liquid intermediates/products to form solid products (i.e., coke/char at temperatures higher than 300oC. The liquid yield increased monotonically with the initial phenol/DDGS ratio for a specified treatment time and temperature. An increased residence time generally produced a lower yield of liquid products, and a higher yield of solid residue, which was likely due to the increased coke/char formation from liquid products for a prolonged residence time. The yield of liquid products reached a maximum of 97% at 300oC for 5 min-operation with Phenol/DDGS of 2/1. K2CO3, Rb2CO3 and NaOH were found very effective catalysts for enhancing the liquid yields. The use of these catalysts resulted in 25% increase in the liquid yields for 5 min-operation with Phenol/DDGS of 1/1 at 300oC.

  8. Crosslinked copolyimide membranes for phenol recovery from process water by pervaporation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pithan, Frankie; Staudt-Bickel, Claudia

    2003-09-15

    The effectiveness of different copolyimide membranes in the process of recovering phenol from water by pervaporation has been investigated. The polyimides were obtained by the polycondensation of 6FDA (4,4'-hexafluoro-isopropylidene diphthalic anhydride) with different diamines. The diamines 4 MPD (2,3,5,6-tetramethyl-1,4-phenylene diamine), 6FpDA (4,4'-hexafluoro-isopropylidene dianiline), 6FpODA (4,4'-bis-(4'-aminophenoxyphenyl)-hexafluoropropane), and DABA (3,5-diaminobenzoic acid) as a monomer providing a crosslinkable group, were used. In order to reach chemical stability at high phenol concentrations, the polymer structures were crosslinked with 1,10-decanediol and OFHD (2,2,3,3,4,4,5,5-octafluorohexanediol). Pervaporation experiments were performed at 60 degrees C, covering a concentration range of phenol between 2 and 11 wt.%. The best separation characteristics were obtained with a 6FDA-6FpDA/DABA 2:1 membrane crosslinked with 1,10-decanediol. Using a 7.8 wt.% phenol feed mixture, a total flux of 14 kg microns m-2 h-1 was reached with an enrichment of 40 wt.% phenol in the permeate. It was found that conditioning the membrane using high phenol concentrations (between 8 and 11 wt.%) is a necessary pretreatment in order to enhance the flux and improve enrichment, especially if process water with low phenol concentrations is to be treated. In addition to the experimental results, a comparison with rubbery membrane materials is presented in the discussion.

  9. Combined electrochemical degradation and activated carbon adsorption treatments for wastewater containing mixed phenolic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajkumar, D.; Palanivelu, K.; Balasubramanian, N. [Anna University, Madras (India). Center for Environmental Studies

    2005-01-01

    Electrochemical degradation of mixed phenolic compounds present in coal conversion wastewater was investigated in the presence of chloride as supporting electrolyte. Initially, the degradation experiments were conducted separately with 300 mg/L of individual phenolic compound in the presence of 2500 mg/L chloride using Ti/TiO{sub 2}-RuO{sub 2}-IrO{sub 2} anode at 5.4 A/dm{sup 2} current density. Comparison of the experimental results of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal versus charge indicated that the order of decreasing COD removal for various phenolic compounds as catechol {gt} resorcinol {gt} m-cresol {gt} o-cresol {gt} phenol {gt} p-cresol. Degradation of the mixture of phenolic compounds and high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) determinations at various stages of electrolysis showed that phenolic compounds were initially converted into benzoquinone and then to lower molecular weight aliphatic compounds. The COD and the total organic carbon (TOC) removal were 83 and 58.9% after passing 32 Ah/L with energy consumption of 191.6 kWh/kg of COD removal. Experiments were also conducted to remove adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) content in the treated solution using granular activated carbon. The optimum conditions for the removal of AOX was at pH 3.0, 5 mL/min flow rate and 31.2 cm bed height. Based on the investigation, a general scheme of treatment of mixed phenolic compounds by combined electrochemical and activated carbon adsorption treatment is proposed.

  10. Transcriptome profiling of Chironomus kiinensis under phenol stress using Solexa sequencing technology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanwang Cao

    Full Text Available Phenol is a major pollutant in aquatic ecosystems due to its chemical stability, water solubility and environmental mobility. To date, little is known about the molecular modifications of invertebrates under phenol stress. In the present study, we used Solexa sequencing technology to investigate the transcriptome and differentially expressed genes (DEGs of midges (Chironomus kiinensis in response to phenol stress. A total of 51,518,972 and 51,150,832 clean reads in the phenol-treated and control libraries, respectively, were obtained and assembled into 51,014 non-redundant (Nr consensus sequences. A total of 6,032 unigenes were classified by Gene Ontology (GO, and 18,366 unigenes were categorized into 238 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG categories. These genes included representatives from almost all functional categories. A total of 10,724 differentially expressed genes (P value <0.05 were detected in a comparative analysis of the expression profiles between phenol-treated and control C. kiinensis including 8,390 upregulated and 2,334 downregulated genes. The expression levels of 20 differentially expressed genes were confirmed by real-time RT-PCR, and the trends in gene expression that were observed matched the Solexa expression profiles, although the magnitude of the variations was different. Through pathway enrichment analysis, significantly enriched pathways were identified for the DEGs, including metabolic pathways, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR, pancreatic secretion and neuroactive ligand-receptor interaction pathways, which may be associated with the phenol responses of C. kiinensis. Using Solexa sequencing technology, we identified several groups of key candidate genes as well as important biological pathways involved in the molecular modifications of chironomids under phenol stress.

  11. 40 CFR 721.5713 - Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5713 Phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (generic). (a) Chemical... as a phenol - biphenyl polymer condensate (PMN P-00-1220) is subject to reporting under this...

  12. 40 CFR 721.5900 - Trisubstituted phenol (generic name).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trisubstituted phenol (generic name... Substances § 721.5900 Trisubstituted phenol (generic name). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance trisubstituted phenol (PMN P-85-605) is subject...

  13. 40 CFR 721.843 - Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.843 Substituted phenylazophenylazo phenol (generic). (a) Chemical... as substituted phenylazophenylazo, phenol (PMN P-00-0420) is subject to reporting under this...

  14. 40 CFR 721.5908 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5908 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as modified phenolic resin (PMN...

  15. 21 CFR 177.2410 - Phenolic resins in molded articles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Phenolic resins in molded articles. 177.2410... as Components of Articles Intended for Repeated Use § 177.2410 Phenolic resins in molded articles. Phenolic resins identified in this section may be safely used as the food-contact surface of...

  16. 40 CFR 721.5762 - Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.5762 Aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance... aromatic aldehyde phenolic resin (PMN P-01-573) is subject to reporting under this section for...

  17. 40 CFR 721.5905 - Modified phenolic resin (generic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Modified phenolic resin (generic). 721... Substances § 721.5905 Modified phenolic resin (generic). (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as a modified phenolic resin...

  18. Reaction of formaldehyde with phenols: a computational chemistry study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohru Mitsunaga; Anthony H. Conner; Charles G. Hill

    2001-01-01

    Phenolic resins are important adhesives used by the forest products industry. The phenolic compounds in these resins are derived primarily from petrochemical sources. Alternate sources of phenolic compounds include tannins, lignins, biomass pyrolysis products, and coal gasification products. Because of variations in their chemical structures, the reactivities of these...

  19. Phenolic Acids in Plant-Soil-Microbe System: A Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Phenolic acids are very common compounds in pedosphere. The objective of this review was to summarize the current knowledge of the behaviors of phenolic acids in plant-soil-microbe system. When phenolic acids originated from leaching, decomposition and exudation of living and dead plant tissues enter soils, they can react physicochemically with soil particle surfaces and/or incorporate into humic matter. Phenolic acids desorbed from soil particle surfaces and remained in solution phase can be utilized by microbe as carbon sources and absorbed by plants. The degradation products of phenolic acids by microbe include some organic and/or inorganic compounds such as new phenolic acids. In addition, phenolic acids in soils can stimulate population and activity of microbe. Phenolic acids can inhibit plants growth by affecting ion leakage, phytohormone activity, membrane permeability, hydraulic conductivity, net nutrient uptake, and enzyme activity. Behaviors of phenolic acids in soils are influenced by other organic compounds (phenolic acids, methionine, glucose, etc.) and/or inorganic ions. The role of phenolic acids as allelopathic agents should not be neglected only based on their low specific concentrations in natural soils, because numbers and interactions of phenolic acids will increase their allelopathic activities.

  20. Degradation and toxicity reduction of phenol by ultrasound waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Maleki

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The effects of parameters such as pH, kinetic constants and initial phenol concentration on the sonochemical degradation of phenol and toxicity assay were studied. The experimental results showed that lower pH and lower concentration of phenol favor the phenol degradation. But the rates of phenol degradation under sonication have always been quite low. It is found that the rate of ultrasonic degradation of phenol for initial concentration of 1 mg/L is 0.018 min-1 but later it reduces with increasing of phenol initial concentration substantially and the experimental data fitted well with pseudo first-order reaction rate equation. Bioassay tests showed that phenol was toxic to Daphnia magna and so resulted in quite low LC50 values. Comparison of toxicity units (TU between phenol and effluent toxicity showed that the TU value for effluent was 1.21 times lower than that obtained for phenol solely. Thus, the toxicity of metabolites formed during the degradation of phenol is lower than the toxicity of phenol itself.