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Sample records for monosyllabic mandarin words

  1. Encoding lexical tones in jTRACE: a simulation of monosyllabic spoken word recognition in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shuai, Lan; Malins, Jeffrey G

    2017-02-01

    Despite its prevalence as one of the most highly influential models of spoken word recognition, the TRACE model has yet to be extended to consider tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. A key reason for this is that the model in its current state does not encode lexical tone. In this report, we present a modified version of the jTRACE model in which we borrowed on its existing architecture to code for Mandarin phonemes and tones. Units are coded in a way that is meant to capture the similarity in timing of access to vowel and tone information that has been observed in previous studies of Mandarin spoken word recognition. We validated the model by first simulating a recent experiment that had used the visual world paradigm to investigate how native Mandarin speakers process monosyllabic Mandarin words (Malins & Joanisse, 2010). We then subsequently simulated two psycholinguistic phenomena: (1) differences in the timing of resolution of tonal contrast pairs, and (2) the interaction between syllable frequency and tonal probability. In all cases, the model gave rise to results comparable to those of published data with human subjects, suggesting that it is a viable working model of spoken word recognition in Mandarin. It is our hope that this tool will be of use to practitioners studying the psycholinguistics of Mandarin Chinese and will help inspire similar models for other tonal languages, such as Cantonese and Thai.

  2. [Effects of noise competition on monosyllabic and disyllabic word perception in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H H; Liu, S; Li, Y; Zheng, Z P; Jin, X; Li, J; Ren, C C; Zheng, J; Zhang, J; Chen, M; Hao, J S; Yang, Y; Liu, W; Ni, X

    2017-05-07

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of noise competition on word perception in normal hearing (NH) children and children with cochlear implantation (CI). Methods: To estimate the contribution of noise competition on speech perception, word perception in speech-shaped noise(SSN)and 4-talker babble noise(BN) with Mandarin Lexical Neighborhood Test were performed in 80 NH children and 89 children with CI. Corrected perception percentages were acquired in each group. Results: Both signal to noise ratio (SNR) and noise type influenced the word perception. In NH group, corrected percentages of disyllabic word perception in SSN were 24.2%, 55.9%, 77.1%, 85.1% and 88.9% at -8, -4, 0, 4 and 8 dB SNR, corresponding corrected percentages of monosyllabic word were 13.9%, 39.5%, 60.1%, 68.8% and 80.1%, respectively. In BN noise, corrected percentages of disyllabic word were 2.4%, 24.3%, 55.6%, 74.3% and 86.2%, corresponding monosyllabic word were 2.3%, 20.8%, 47.2%, 61.1% and 74.8%, respectively. In CI group, corrected percentages of dissyllabic word in SSN and BN at 10 dB SNR were 65.5% and 58.1%, respectively. Corresponding monosyllabic word were 49.0% and 41.0%. For SNR=5 dB, corrected percentages of disyllabic word in SSN and BN were 50.0% and 38.1%, corresponding corrected percentages of monosyllabic word were 40.8% and 25.1%, respectively. Analysis indicated that the masking effect were significantly higher in BN compared with SSN. Conclusions: Noise competition influence word perception performance significantly. In specific, the influence of noise on word perception is bigger in children with CI than in NH children. The masking effect is higher in BN noise when compared with SSN.

  3. Perceptual evidence for protracted development in monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tone production in preschool children in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan

    2013-01-01

    This study used the same methodology in Wong [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55, 1423-1437 (2012b)] to examine the perceived accuracy of monosyllabic Mandarin tones produced by 4- and 5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and combined the findings with those of 3-year-olds reported in Wong [J. Speech Lang. Hear. Res. 55, 1423-1437 (2012b)] to track the development of monosyllabic tone production in preschool children. Tone productions of adults and children were collected in a picture naming task and low-pass filtered to remove lexical information and reserve tone information. Five native-speakers categorized the target tones in the filtered productions. Children's tone accuracy was compared to adults' to determine mastery and developmental changes. The results showed that preschool children in Taiwan have not fully mastered the production of monosyllabic Mandarin tones. None of the tones produced by the children in the three age groups reached adult-like accuracy. Little developmental change was found in children's tone accuracy during the preschool years. A similar order of accuracy of the tones was observed across the three age groups and the order appeared to follow the order of articulatory complexity in producing the tones. The findings suggest a protracted course of development in children's acquisition of Mandarin tones and that tone development may be constrained by physiological factors.

  4. Monosyllabic Mandarin Tone Productions by 3-Year-Olds Growing up in Taiwan and in the United States: Interjudge Reliability and Perceptual Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The author compared monosyllabic Mandarin lexical tones produced by 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children growing up in Taiwan and in the United States. Method: Following the procedures in Wong, Schwartz, and Jenkins (2005), the author collected monosyllabic tone productions from 3-year-old Mandarin-speaking children in Taiwan and…

  5. [Use of Freiburg monosyllabic test words in the contemporary German language : Currentness of the test words].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, T

    2016-08-01

    The Freiburg monosyllabic test has a word inventory based on the word frequency in written sources from the 19th century, the distribution of which is not even between the test lists. The median distributions of word frequency ranking in contemporary language of nine test lists deviate significantly from the overall median of all 400 monosyllables. Lists 1, 6, 9, 10, and 17 include significantly more very rarely used words; lists 2, 3, 5, and 15, include significantly more very frequently used words. Compared with the word frequency in the contemporary spoken German language, about 45 % of the test words are practically no longer used. Due to this high proportion of extremely rarely or no longer used words, the word inventory is no longer representative of the contemporary German language-neither for the written, nor for the spoken language. Highly educated persons with a large vocabulary are thereby favored. The reference values for normal-hearing persons should therefore be reevaluated.

  6. Morphological Influences on the Recognition of Monosyllabic Monomorphemic Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baayen, R. H.; Feldman, L. B.; Schreuder, R.

    2006-01-01

    Balota et al. [Balota, D., Cortese, M., Sergent-Marshall, S., Spieler, D., & Yap, M. (2004). Visual word recognition for single-syllable words. "Journal of Experimental Psychology: General, 133," 283-316] studied lexical processing in word naming and lexical decision using hierarchical multiple regression techniques for a large data set of…

  7. Time course of syllabic and sub-syllabic processing in Mandarin word production: Evidence from the picture-word interference paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jie; Wong, Andus Wing-Kuen; Chen, Hsuan-Chih

    2017-06-05

    The time course of phonological encoding in Mandarin monosyllabic word production was investigated by using the picture-word interference paradigm. Participants were asked to name pictures in Mandarin while visual distractor words were presented before, at, or after picture onset (i.e., stimulus-onset asynchrony/SOA = -100, 0, or +100 ms, respectively). Compared with the unrelated control, the distractors sharing atonal syllables with the picture names significantly facilitated the naming responses at -100- and 0-ms SOAs. In addition, the facilitation effect of sharing word-initial segments only appeared at 0-ms SOA, and null effects were found for sharing word-final segments. These results indicate that both syllables and subsyllabic units play important roles in Mandarin spoken word production and more critically that syllabic processing precedes subsyllabic processing. The current results lend strong support to the proximate units principle (O'Seaghdha, Chen, & Chen, 2010), which holds that the phonological structure of spoken word production is language-specific and that atonal syllables are the proximate phonological units in Mandarin Chinese. On the other hand, the significance of word-initial segments over word-final segments suggests that serial processing of segmental information seems to be universal across Germanic languages and Chinese, which remains to be verified in future studies.

  8. Perception and Production of Lexical Tones by 3-Year-Old, Mandarin-Speaking Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.; Jenkins, James J.

    2005-01-01

    The present study investigated 3-year-old children's perception and production of Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. Thirteen 3-year-old, Mandarin-speaking children participated in the study. Tone perception was examined by a picture-pointing task, and tone production was investigated by picture naming. To compare children's productions…

  9. Specific relations between alphanumeric-naming speed and reading speeds of monosyllabic and multisyllabic words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van den Bos, K.P.; Zijlstra, B.J H; van den Broeck, W

    The goals of this study are to investigate, at three elementary school grade levels, how word reading speed is related to rapidly naming series of numbers, letters, colors, and pictures, and to general processing speed (measured by nonnaming or visual matching tasks), and also to determine how these

  10. Development of Spatial Release from Masking in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Normal Hearing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuen, Kevin C. P.; Yuan, Meng

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated the development of spatial release from masking in children using closed-set Mandarin disyllabic words and monosyllabic words carrying lexical tones as test stimuli and speech spectrum-weighted noise as a masker. Method: Twenty-six children ages 4-9 years and 12 adults, all with normal hearing, participated in…

  11. Developmental differences in the influence of phonological similarity on spoken word processing in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malins, Jeffrey G; Gao, Danqi; Tao, Ran; Booth, James R; Shu, Hua; Joanisse, Marc F; Liu, Li; Desroches, Amy S

    2014-11-01

    The developmental trajectory of spoken word recognition has been well established in Indo-European languages, but to date remains poorly characterized in Mandarin Chinese. In this study, typically developing children (N=17; mean age 10; 5) and adults (N=17; mean age 24) performed a picture-word matching task in Mandarin while we recorded ERPs. Mismatches diverged from expectations in different components of the Mandarin syllable; namely, word-initial phonemes, word-final phonemes, and tone. By comparing responses to different mismatch types, we uncovered evidence suggesting that both children and adults process words incrementally. However, we also observed key developmental differences in how subjects treated onset and rime mismatches. This was taken as evidence for a stronger influence of top-down processing on spoken word recognition in adults compared to children. This work therefore offers an important developmental component to theories of Mandarin spoken word recognition.

  12. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C.

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like—not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context. PMID:28076400

  13. Mandarin-English Bilinguals Process Lexical Tones in Newly Learned Words in Accordance with the Language Context.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quam, Carolyn; Creel, Sarah C

    2017-01-01

    Previous research has mainly considered the impact of tone-language experience on ability to discriminate linguistic pitch, but proficient bilingual listening requires differential processing of sound variation in each language context. Here, we ask whether Mandarin-English bilinguals, for whom pitch indicates word distinctions in one language but not the other, can process pitch differently in a Mandarin context vs. an English context. Across three eye-tracked word-learning experiments, results indicated that tone-intonation bilinguals process tone in accordance with the language context. In Experiment 1, 51 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 26 English speakers without tone experience were taught Mandarin-compatible novel words with tones. Mandarin-English bilinguals out-performed English speakers, and, for bilinguals, overall accuracy was correlated with Mandarin dominance. Experiment 2 taught 24 Mandarin-English bilinguals and 25 English speakers novel words with Mandarin-like tones, but English-like phonemes and phonotactics. The Mandarin-dominance advantages observed in Experiment 1 disappeared when words were English-like. Experiment 3 contrasted Mandarin-like vs. English-like words in a within-subjects design, providing even stronger evidence that bilinguals can process tone language-specifically. Bilinguals (N = 58), regardless of language dominance, attended more to tone than English speakers without Mandarin experience (N = 28), but only when words were Mandarin-like-not when they were English-like. Mandarin-English bilinguals thus tailor tone processing to the within-word language context.

  14. Auditory Processing, Linguistic Prosody Awareness, and Word Reading in Mandarin-Speaking Children Learning English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda; Bidelman, Gavin M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined language-specific links among auditory processing, linguistic prosody awareness, and Mandarin (L1) and English (L2) word reading in 61 Mandarin-speaking, English-learning children. Three auditory discrimination abilities were measured: pitch contour, pitch interval, and rise time (rate of intensity change at tone onset).…

  15. 智利高中生习得普通话声调的实验研究%Acoustic Experimental Research on Chilean High School Students’ Acquisition of Mandarin Monosyllabic Tone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周镇

    2016-01-01

    对智利一所公立高中二年级的学生进行普通话四声的听辨测试和单字调声学实验研究,得出听辨容易度顺序为:去声>上声>阴平>阳平;四声发音正确率排序为:去声>上声>阴平>阳平。通过此次个体研究的结论进行问题分析,可制定出针对智利等其他西语国家汉语学习者简单且高效的四声教学方案。%This research mainly explored the 2nd-grade students’ acquisition of mandarin monosyllabic tone at a public Chil-ean high school. Through the acoustic experiment, it could be summarized that T4 was the easiest for them to be recognized a-coustically and T2 was the most difficult one, with the order of easiness should be T4>T3>T1>T2. The accuracy of the sample pronunciation could be sorted as T4>T3>T1>T2. According to the conclusion, relevant phonetic problems were analyzed, and ef-fective teaching plans for learners from Chile and even from Spanish-speaking countries were proposed.

  16. Acoustic Cues to Perception of Word Stress by English, Mandarin, and Russian Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chrabaszcz, Anna; Winn, Matthew; Lin, Candise Y.; Idsardi, William J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study investigated how listeners' native language affects their weighting of acoustic cues (such as vowel quality, pitch, duration, and intensity) in the perception of contrastive word stress. Method: Native speakers (N = 45) of typologically diverse languages (English, Russian, and Mandarin) performed a stress identification…

  17. Novel-word learning deficits in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with specific language impairments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuchun; Liu, Huei-Mei

    2014-01-01

    Children with SLI exhibit overall deficits in novel word learning compared to their age-matched peers. However, the manifestation of the word learning difficulty in SLI was not consistent across tasks and the factors affecting the learning performance were not yet determined. Our aim is to examine the extent of word learning difficulties in Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI, and to explore the potent influence of existing lexical knowledge on to the word learning process. Preschool children with SLI (n=37) and typical language development (n=33) were exposed to novel words for unfamiliar objects embedded in stories. Word learning tasks including the initial mapping and short-term repetitive learning were designed. Results revealed that Mandarin-speaking preschool children with SLI performed as well as their age-peers in the initial form-meaning mapping task. Their word learning difficulty was only evidently shown in the short-term repetitive learning task under a production demand, and their learning speed was slower than the control group. Children with SLI learned the novel words with a semantic head better in both the initial mapping and repetitive learning tasks. Moderate correlations between stand word learning performances and scores on standardized vocabulary were found after controlling for children's age and nonverbal IQ. The results suggested that the word learning difficulty in children with SLI occurred in the process of establishing a robust phonological representation at the beginning stage of word learning. Also, implicit compound knowledge is applied to aid word learning process for children with and without SLI. We also provide the empirical data to validate the relationship between preschool children's word learning performance and their existing receptive vocabulary ability. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit for native speakers of Mandarin: Production and perception of English word-final voicing contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Smith, Bruce L; Bent, Tessa; Bradlow, Ann R

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the intelligibility of native and Mandarin-accented English speech for native English and native Mandarin listeners. The word-final voicing contrast was considered (as in minimal pairs such as `cub' and `cup') in a forced-choice word identification task. For these particular talkers and listeners, there was evidence of an interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit for listeners (i.e., native Mandarin listeners were more accurate than native English listeners at identifying Mandarin-accented English words). However, there was no evidence of an interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit for talkers (i.e., native Mandarin listeners did not find Mandarin-accented English speech more intelligible than native English speech). When listener and talker phonological proficiency (operationalized as accentedness) was taken into account, it was found that the interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit for listeners held only for the low phonological proficiency listeners and low phonological proficiency speech. The intelligibility data were also considered in relation to various temporal-acoustic properties of native English and Mandarin-accented English speech in effort to better understand the properties of speech that may contribute to the interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit.

  19. Proximate Units in Word Production: Phonological Encoding Begins with Syllables in Mandarin Chinese but with Segments in English

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Seaghdha, Padraig G.; Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Chen, Train-Min

    2010-01-01

    In Mandarin Chinese, speakers benefit from fore-knowledge of what the first syllable but not of what the first phonemic segment of a disyllabic word will be (Chen, Chen, & Dell, 2002), contrasting with findings in English, Dutch, and other Indo-European languages, and challenging the generality of current theories of word production. In this…

  20. Numerical morphology supports early number word learning: Evidence from a comparison of young Mandarin and English learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Corre, Mathieu; Li, Peggy; Huang, Becky H; Jia, Gisela; Carey, Susan

    2016-08-01

    Previous studies showed that children learning a language with an obligatory singular/plural distinction (Russian and English) learn the meaning of the number word for one earlier than children learning Japanese, a language without obligatory number morphology (Barner, Libenson, Cheung, & Takasaki, 2009; Sarnecka, Kamenskaya, Yamana, Ogura, & Yudovina, 2007). This can be explained by differences in number morphology, but it can also be explained by many other differences between the languages and the environments of the children who were compared. The present study tests the hypothesis that the morphological singular/plural distinction supports the early acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one by comparing young English learners to age and SES matched young Mandarin Chinese learners. Mandarin does not have obligatory number morphology but is more similar to English than Japanese in many crucial respects. Corpus analyses show that, compared to English learners, Mandarin learners hear number words more frequently, are more likely to hear number words followed by a noun, and are more likely to hear number words in contexts where they denote a cardinal value. Two tasks show that, despite these advantages, Mandarin learners learn the meaning of the number word for one three to six months later than do English learners. These results provide the strongest evidence to date that prior knowledge of the numerical meaning of the distinction between singular and plural supports the acquisition of the meaning of the number word for one. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Production of Mandarin tones by 3-year-old children acquiring L1 (Mandarin) in an L2 (English) environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2004-05-01

    Thirteen monolingual Mandarin-speaking children residing in the U.S. were recruited to examine their production of the four Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. A picture-naming task was used to elicit the children's productions of lexical tones in isolated words and in sentence final position. Four mothers were asked to say the same set of words to their children in a picture reading activity. The children's and the mothers' productions were recorded and low-pass filtered at 500 and 400 Hz, respectively, to eliminate phonemic and semantic information. Ten Mandarin-speaking judges were recruited to identify the children's and adults' tone productions from the filtered stimuli. Contrary to the findings of L1 research conducted in countries where Mandarin is the language of the environment, the present results revealed that the lexical tones produced by 3-year-old children acquiring Mandarin as their first language in the U.S. were not yet adultlike. Children's tone productions were more difficult to categorize than the mothers' productions. The judges had significantly more difficulty identifying children's dipping tones than the children's level tones, rising tones, or falling tones, suggesting that the dipping tone posed the most difficulties for the children.

  2. Production of Mandarin tones by 3-year-old children acquiring L1 (Mandarin) in an L2 (English) environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Schwartz, Richard G.

    2001-05-01

    Thirteen monolingual Mandarin-speaking children residing in the U.S. were recruited to examine their production of the four Mandarin lexical tones in monosyllabic words. A picture-naming task was used to elicit the children's productions of lexical tones in isolated words and in sentence final position. Four mothers were asked to say the same set of words to their children in a picture reading activity. The children's and the mothers' productions were recorded and low-pass filtered at 500 and 400 Hz, respectively, to eliminate phonemic and semantic information. Ten Mandarin-speaking judges were recruited to identify the children's and adults' tone productions from the filtered stimuli. Contrary to the findings of L1 research conducted in countries where Mandarin is the language of the environment, the present results revealed that the lexical tones produced by 3-year-old children acquiring Mandarin as their first language in the U.S. were not yet adultlike. Children's tone productions were more difficult to categorize than the mothers' productions. The judges had significantly more difficulty identifying children's dipping tones than the children's level tones, rising tones, or falling tones, suggesting that the dipping tone posed the most difficulties for the children.

  3. Interpretation of Logical Words in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Uncovering Knowledge of Semantics and Pragmatics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the interpretation of the logical words "some" and "every…or…" in 4-15-year-old high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD performed similarly to typical controls in demonstrating semantic knowledge of simple sentences with "some", and…

  4. Stress Judgment and Production in English Derivation, and Word Reading in Adult Mandarin-Speaking English Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Wei-Lun; Jarmulowicz, Linda

    2017-02-09

    For monolingual English-speaking children, judgment and production of stress in derived words, including words with phonologically neutral (e.g., -ness) and non-neutral suffixes (e.g., -ity), is important to both academic vocabulary growth and to word reading. For Mandarin-speaking adult English learners (AELs) the challenge of learning the English stress system might be complicated by cross-linguistic differences in prosodic function and features. As Mandarin-speakers become more proficient in English, patterns similar to those seen in monolingual children could emerge in which awareness and use of stress and suffix cues benefit word reading. A correlational design was used to examine the contributions of English stress in derivation with neutral and non-neutral suffixes to English word and nonword reading. Stress judgment in non-neutral derivation predicted word reading after controlling for working memory and English vocabulary; whereas stress production in neutral derivation contributed to word reading and pseudoword decoding, independent of working memory and English vocabulary. Although AELs could use stress and suffix cues for word reading, AELs were different from native English speakers in awareness of non-neutral suffix cues conditioning lexical stress placement. AELs may need to rely on lexical storage of primary stress in derivations with non-neutral suffixes.

  5. Development and evaluation of a computerized Mandarin speech test system in China.

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    Wu, Wufang; Zhang, Hua; Chen, Jing; Chen, Jianyong; Lin, Changyan

    2011-03-01

    This study reports the development and evaluation of a Computerized Mandarin Speech Test System (CMSTS). Taking into account the rules for developing speech materials and the unique linguistic characteristics of Mandarin, we designed and digitally recorded a set of materials comprised of seven lists of monosyllabic words, nine lists of disyllabic words, and fifteen lists of sentences with a high degree of subject familiarity. The CMSTS was developed with Visual Studio 2008, Access 2003 and DirectX 9. The system included five functions: listener management, a speech test, list management, data management, and system settings. We used the system to measure the speech recognition threshold (SRT) of 76 participants with normal hearing (age range: 20-28 years), and measured performance-intensity functions (PI) for all stimuli. The SRT results were in accord with pure-tone results obtained by pure-tone audiometry. In a speech recognition score (SRS) test, changing the presentation level had the strongest effect on sentence recognition, followed by the presence of disyllabic words. Monosyllabic words were least affected by changes in presentation level. The slopes of the linear portion of the PI using the system were in accord with the findings of previous studies using audiometers and CDs with similar materials. The CMSTS has sufficient sensitivity, and can facilitate the wider use of speech audiometry in Chinese audiology clinics. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Interpretation of Logical Words in Mandarin-Speaking Children with Autism Spectrum Disorders: Uncovering Knowledge of Semantics and Pragmatics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi Esther; Su, Lin-Yan

    2015-07-01

    This study investigated the interpretation of the logical words 'some' and 'every…or…' in 4-15-year-old high-functioning Mandarin-speaking children with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Children with ASD performed similarly to typical controls in demonstrating semantic knowledge of simple sentences with 'some', and they had delayed knowledge of the complex sentences with 'every…or…'. Interestingly, the children with ASD had pragmatic knowledge of the scalar implicatures of these logical words, parallel to those of the typical controls. Taken together, the interpretation of logical words may be a relative strength in children with ASD. It is possible that some aspects of semantics and pragmatics may be selectively spared in ASD, due to the contribution the language faculty makes to language acquisition in the ASD population.

  7. The Influence of the Pinyin and Zhuyin Writing Systems on the Acquisition of Mandarin Word Forms by Native English Speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes-Harb, Rachel; Cheng, Hui-Wen

    2016-01-01

    The role of written input in second language (L2) phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i) whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii) if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers' ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the "congruent" condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., for [nai]); in the "incongruent" condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., for [ɕiou]). At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., ) were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]). Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group's difficulty with "incongruent" items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ]) from the foils (e.g., [z]), suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to the effects of orthographic

  8. The influence of the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems on the acquisition of Mandarin word forms by native English speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel eHayes-Harb

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The role of written input in second language (L2 phonological and lexical acquisition has received increased attention in recent years. Here we investigated the influence of two factors that may moderate the influence of orthography on L2 word form learning: (i whether the writing system is shared by the native language and the L2, and (ii if the writing system is shared, whether the relevant grapheme-phoneme correspondences are also shared. The acquisition of Mandarin via the Pinyin and Zhuyin writing systems provides an ecologically valid opportunity to explore these factors. We first asked whether there is a difference in native English speakers’ ability to learn Pinyin and Zhuyin grapheme-phoneme correspondences. In Experiment 1, native English speakers assigned to either Pinyin or Zhuyin groups were exposed to Mandarin words belonging to one of two conditions: in the ‘congruent’ condition, the Pinyin forms are possible English spellings for the auditory words (e.g., for [nai]; in the ‘incongruent’ condition, the Pinyin forms involve a familiar grapheme representing a novel phoneme (e.g., for [ɕiou]. At test, participants were asked to indicate whether auditory and written forms matched; in the crucial trials, the written forms from training (e.g., 'xiu' were paired with possible English pronunciations of the Pinyin written forms (e.g., [ziou]. Experiment 2 was identical to Experiment 1 except that participants additionally saw pictures depicting word meanings during the exposure phase, and at test were asked to match auditory forms with the pictures. In both experiments the Zhuyin group outperformed the Pinyin group due to the Pinyin group’s difficulty with ‘incongruent’ items. A third experiment confirmed that the groups did not differ in their ability to perceptually distinguish the relevant Mandarin consonants (e.g., [ɕ] from the foils (e.g., [z], suggesting that the findings of Experiments 1 and 2 can be attributed to

  9. Mandarin Chinese Tone Recognition with an Artificial Neural Network

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li; ZHANG Wenle; ZHOU Ning; LEE Chaoyang; LI Yongxin; CHEN Xiuwu; ZHAO Xiaoyan

    2006-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese tone patterns vary in one of the four ways, i.e, (1) high level; (2) rising; (3) low falling and rising; and (4) high falling. The present study is to examine the efficacy of an artificial neural network in recognizing these tone patterns. Speech data were recorded from 12 children (3-6 years of age) and 15 adults. All subjects were native Mandarin Chinese speakers. The fundamental frequencies (FO) of each monosyllabic word of the speech data were extracted with an autocorrelation method. The pitch data(i.e., the FO contours) were the inputs to a feed-forward backpropagation artificial neural network. The number of inputs to the neural network varied from 1 to 16 and the hidden layer of the network contained neurons that varied from 1 to 16 in number. The output of the network consisted of four neurons representing the four tone patterns of Mandarin Chinese. After being trained with the Levenberg-Marquardt optimization, the neural network was able to successfully classify the tone patterns with an accuracy of about 90% correct for speech samples from both adults and children. The artificial neural network may provide an objective and effective way of assessing tone production in prelingually-deafened children who have received cochlear implants.

  10. Production of the word-final English /t/-/d/ contrast by native speakers of English, Mandarin, and Spanish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flege, J E; Munro, M J; Skelton, L

    1992-07-01

    The primary aim of this study was to determine if adults whose native language permits neither voiced nor voiceless stops to occur in word-final position can master the English word-final /t/-/d/ contrast. Native English-speaking listeners identified the voicing feature in word-final stops produced by talkers in five groups: native speakers of English, experienced and inexperienced native Spanish speakers of English, and experienced and inexperienced native Mandarin speakers of English. Contrary to hypothesis, the experienced second language (L2) learners' stops were not identified significantly better than stops produced by the inexperienced L2 learners; and their stops were correctly identified significantly less often than stops produced by the native English speakers. Acoustic analyses revealed that the native English speakers made vowels significantly longer before /d/ than /t/, produced /t/-final words with a higher F1 offset frequency than /d/-final words, produced more closure voicing in /d/ than /t/, and sustained closure longer for /t/ than /d/. The L2 learners produced the same kinds of acoustic differences between /t/ and /d/, but theirs were usually of significantly smaller magnitude. Taken together, the results suggest that only a few of the 40 L2 learners examined in the present study had mastered the English word-final /t/-/d/ contrast. Several possible explanations for this negative finding are presented. Multiple regression analyses revealed that the native English listeners made perceptual use of the small, albeit significant, vowel duration differences produced in minimal pairs by the nonnative speakers. A significantly stronger correlation existed between vowel duration differences and the listeners' identifications of final stops in minimal pairs when the perceptual judgments were obtained in an "edited" condition (where post-vocalic cues were removed) than in a "full cue" condition. This suggested that listeners may modify their

  11. 熟练粤语-普通话双言者听觉词的语言表征%The Language Representation of Auditory Words in Cantonese-Mandarin Diglossias

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张积家; 张凤玲

    2014-01-01

    Using implicit memory paradigm, the study probed into the language representation of Cantonese-Mandarin di-glossias.The results showed that:1 ) the semantic representations of Mandarin and Cantonese words are identical and their lexical representations are separated for Mandarin-Cantonese bidialecters; 2 ) the link intensity between Cantonese words, Mandarin words and semantic representation are different;3 ) the links from Mandarin words to Cantonese words are stronger than the links from Cantonese words to Mandarin words.%以熟练粤语-普通话双言者为被试,考察粤语-普通话双言者对听觉词的语言表征。实验1呈现粤语和普通话同形异音的词,实验2呈现粤语和普通话异形异音的词,要求被试做语义决定。结果发现,粤语-普通话双言者对听觉词的语言表征类似于双语者,即普通话和粤语的语义共同表征,词汇分别表征。所以如此,是由粤语的特点和它与普通话的关系决定的。

  12. Word form Encoding in Chinese Word Naming and Word Typing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; Li, Cheng-Yi

    2011-01-01

    The process of word form encoding was investigated in primed word naming and word typing with Chinese monosyllabic words. The target words shared or did not share the onset consonants with the prime words. The stimulus onset asynchrony (SOA) was 100 ms or 300 ms. Typing required the participants to enter the phonetic letters of the target word,…

  13. Modeling of phonological encoding in spoken word production: From Germanic languages to Mandarin Chinese and Japanese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2015-01-01

    It is widely assumed that spoken word production in Germanic languages like Dutch and English involves a parallel activation of phonemic segments and metrical frames in memory, followed by a serial association of segments to the frame, as implemented in the WEAVER++ model (Levelt, Roelofs, & Meyer,

  14. Development of brain networks involved in spoken word processing of Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Fan; Khaild, Kainat; Lee, Rebecca; Brennan, Christine; Yang, Yanhui; Li, Kuncheng; Bolger, Donald J.; Booth, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Developmental differences in phonological and orthographic processing of Chinese spoken words were examined in 9-year-olds, 11-year-olds and adults using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Rhyming and spelling judgments were made to two-character words presented sequentially in the auditory modality. Developmental comparisons between adults and both groups of children combined showed that age-related changes in activation in visuo-orthographic regions depended on task. There were developmental increases in left inferior temporal gyrus and right inferior occipital gyrus in the spelling task, suggesting more extensive visuo-orthographic processing in a task that required access to these representations. Conversely, there were developmental decreases in activation in left fusiform gyrus and left middle occipital gyrus in the rhyming task, suggesting that the development of reading is marked by reduced involvement of orthography in a spoken language task that does not require access to these orthographic representations. Developmental decreases may arise from the existence of extensive homophony (auditory words that have multiple spellings) in Chinese. In addition, we found that 11-year-olds and adults showed similar activation in left superior temporal gyrus across tasks, with both groups showing greater activation than 9-year-olds. This pattern suggests early development of perceptual representations of phonology. In contrast, 11-year-olds and 9-year-olds showed similar activation in left inferior frontal gyrus across tasks, with both groups showing weaker activation than adults. This pattern suggests late development of controlled retrieval and selection of lexical representations. Altogether, this study suggests differential effects of character acquisition on development of components of the language network in Chinese as compared to previous reports on alphabetic languages. PMID:20884355

  15. ANALISIS KENDALA PEMBELAJARAN KATA BANTU BILANGAN BAHASA MANDARIN BESERTA SOLUSINYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosemary Sylvia

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available For foreigner, Mandarin language numeral words are very dificult to be mastered. Students of Bina Nusantara University are also having difficulties in learning the Mandarin language numeral words. Hopefully using quiz and questioner able to find the dificultioes faced by the students of Bina Nusantara University in learning Mandarin language numeral words. Also using questioner and interview to find the solustions. The research object is Chinese students of Bina Nusantara University from 2-4 semesters. Result from the data analysis is the student did not master well of the Mandarin language numeral words. The student time study in Bina Nusantara University did not have much effect on the student mastering of the Mandarin language numeral words. What causing the student having difficulties in learning the Mandarin language numeral words are because the numeral words in Mandarin language is too much also the usage is very wide.

  16. Repetition Priming Effects in Proficient Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin Bidialectals: An Event-Related Potential Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Aiwen; Chen, Zhuoming; Chang, Yanqun; Zhou, Shu; Wu, Limei; Liu, Yaozhong; Zhang, Guoxiong

    2017-05-29

    The present study adopted a repetition priming paradigm to investigate the bidialectal (bilingual) representation of speakers with different native dialects by event-related potential (ERP) technique. Proficient Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin bidialectals participated in the study. They were required to judge whether a word was a biological word or not, when the words (target word) were represented under four types of repetition priming conditions: Mandarin (prime)-Mandarin (target), Mandarin (prime)-Cantonese (target), Cantonese (prime)-Cantonese (target) and Cantonese (prime)-Mandarin (target). Results of reaction time and accuracy primarily indicated larger repetition priming effects in Mandarin-Mandarin and Cantonese-Cantonese (within-language) conditions than that in Mandarin-Cantonese and Cantonese-Mandarin (between-language) conditions. But more importantly, P200 and N400 mean amplitudes revealed distinct repetition priming effects between two types of participants. Specifically, both P200 and N400 indicated that the repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Mandarin condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Cantonese condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, whereas it was opposite for Cantonese-Mandarin participants. In addition, P200 also suggested opposite patterns of repetition priming effects in between-language priming conditions for two groups of participants. The repetition priming effect in Mandarin-Cantonese condition was larger than that in Cantonese-Mandarin condition for Mandarin-Cantonese participants, while for Cantonese-Mandarin participants, it was opposite (Mandarin-Cantonese < Cantonese-Mandarin). The results implied a clear asymmetric representation of two dialects for proficient bidialectals. They were further discussed in light of native dialect and language use frequency.

  17. Mind-Bending Mandarin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEFF WALSH

    2010-01-01

    @@ To me, a 46-year-old laowai from the United States, learning Mandarin is actually four times harder than learn-ing English. Not only are there four tones to each word, but also there are over 80,000 written Chinese characters to our 26letters of the alphabet.

  18. Syllable and Segments Effects in Mandarin Chinese Spoken Word Production%汉语口语产生中音节和音段的促进和抑制效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳源; 张清芳

    2015-01-01

    采用图画-词汇干扰实验范式,通过比较即时命名、延迟命名以及延迟命名与发音抑制任务的结合,考察了汉语口语产生中音节和音段在单词形式编码的不同阶段所产生的效应。与无关条件相比,在包含音韵编码、语音编码和发音阶段的即时命名任务中,音节相关和音段相关条件显著地缩短了图画命名时间,表现出音节和音段促进效应;在包含发音阶段的延迟命名任务中,音节相关和音段相关条件显著地延长了图画命名的时间,表现出音节和音段抑制效应;在包含语音编码和发音阶段的延迟命名和发音抑制结合的任务中,音段相关条件显著地延长了图画命名时间,表现出音段抑制效应。结果表明,音节和音段的促进效应发生在汉语口语词汇产生中的音韵编码阶段,音节和音段的抑制效应可能发生在语音编码或者发音阶段。效果量(Cohen d)的分析表明音节的促进效应强,而音段的促进效应弱,音节是音韵编码过程的合适单元,为合适单元假设提供了支持证据。与音节相比,音段在语音编码和发音阶段的效应量较大,表明音段在运动执行过程中可能起了相对重要的作用,支持了口语产生中词汇表征准备阶段与运动阶段分离的观点。%Speaking involves stages of conceptual preparation, lemma selection, word-form encoding and articulation. Furthermore, process of word-form encoding can be divided into morphological encoding process, phonological encoding process and phonetic encoding. What is the function unit at the stage of word-form encoding remains a controversial issue in speech production theories. The present study investigated syllable and segments effects at the stages of phonological encoding, phonetic encoding, and articulation in Mandarin spoken word production.   Using Picture-Word Interference (PWI) Paradigm, we compared the effects

  19. Temporal features of word-initial /s/+stop clusters in bilingual Mandarin-English children and monolingual English children and adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing

    2017-05-18

    This study investigated the durational features of English word-initial /s/+stop clusters produced by bilingual Mandarin (L1)-English (L2) children and monolingual English children and adults. The participants included two groups of five- to six-year-old bilingual children: low proficiency in the L2 (Bi-low) and high proficiency in the L2 (Bi-high), one group of age-matched English children, and one group of English adults. Each participant produced a list of English words containing /sp, st, sk/ at the word-initial position followed by /a, i, u/, respectively. The absolute durations of the clusters and cluster elements and the durational proportions of elements to the overall cluster were measured. The results revealed that Bi-high children behaved similarly to the English monolinguals whereas Bi-low children used a different strategy of temporal organization to coordinate the cluster components in comparison to the English monolinguals and Bi-high children. The influence of language experience and continuing development of temporal features in children were discussed.

  20. A Case Study on Time Word Acquisition of Mandarin - speaking Children%说汉语儿童时间词习得个案研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭小红; 武红莉

    2015-01-01

    运用个案跟踪法、调查法、数理统计法、文献资料法,对两名说汉语儿童从2岁到5岁进行长期跟踪观察发现,在习得时间词的过程中,儿童首先习得“先—然后”,再习得“以前—以后”。在这两组时间词中,儿童先习得用来描述事件发生次序的词,后习得描述事物发生的某一不确定时间阶段的词。笔者认为儿童对时序长短的认知是导致这一现象的主要原因。%With longitudinal method,survey,statistical method and document method,an analysis is conducted ac-cording to the longitudinal data of two Mandarin - speakingchildren from two to five years old. The result shows that dur-ing the process of acquiring time words,children acquired ″ first - then″ first,after that they got ″ before - after″ . Be-tween these two groups of time words,children acquired the time words describing the sequence of events,then the time words describing things happening at uncertain time. Children′s cognition of the length succession is the main reason for this phenomenon.

  1. Attentional Bias for Word Learning—Mandarin-Speaking Infants' Discrimination of Persons,Actions,and Objects%汉语婴儿词汇学习的注意偏好

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈杰; 郑小蓓; 孟祥芝; Rachel Pulverman; Twila Tardif; 朱莉琪

    2012-01-01

    Word learning requires establishing a mapping between words and concepts.Yet,even before this mapping process,children need to attend to and identify conceptual units from perceptual inputs.From an associative perspective,attention is the initial step of early word learning,and differences in attentional patterns could play a role in language acquisition and development.English learners typically show vocabularies that are dominated by nouns,while studies reveal that verbs are acquired early and in large quantities by Mandarin Chinese learners.However,little research has examined whether English and Mandarin leamers'early comprehension and production of nouns and verbs could be attributed to attentional patterns.Thus,the interest for the present study is whether we will find fundamental differences in attentional patterns to complex scenes across developmental spans.In particular,we are interested in how the process of word learning may interact with attention among children who have not yet begun this process(i.e.6 month olds) vs.children who are in the middle of an explosive phase of early vocabulary development(i.e.18-month-olds). In this study,we explore Mandarin-learning infants'abilities to discriminate among persons,actions,and objects in both silent and word-learning environments.Infants were randomly assigned to a habituation scene,in which a videotaped event of a young woman performing a novel action on a novel object was presented to infants in a habituation paradigm.Once they were bored,the infants were presented with four test trials,in which none(control trial) or one of the three elements changed(person Change,action change,object change) with the other two held consistent with the habituation.The infants'looking time was calculated on-line by a live experimenter who was blind to the stimuli appearing on the screen and coded the infant's eye movement through a curtain hole. These studies aim to further investigate the cognitive mechanism underlying

  2. Polarity Sensitive Expressions in Child Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aijun; Crain, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    In addition to serving as question markers with interrogative force, "wh"-words such as "shenme" "what" in Mandarin Chinese have a noninterrogative meaning. For the noninterrogative meaning, these words have been typically analyzed as negative polarity items, i.e., as "wh"-pronouns that are similar in…

  3. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech

    OpenAIRE

    Wu-xia eYang; Jie eFeng; Wan-ting eHuang; Cheng-xiang eZhang; Yun eNan

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The ...

  4. Kesalahan Penggunaan Kata Bantu Bilangan Bahasa Mandarin pada Siswa Indonesia Tingkat Prapemula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayu Trihardini

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyze Indonesian breakthrough level students’ errors in using Mandarin measure words. The collected data were the errors made by students of Prodi Pendidikan Bahasa Mandarin UNJ who attend Conversation II course (CEFR A1/breakthrough on written and oral utterance. This study used Zhou Xiaobin’s research design in Mandarin measure words error analysis, with the Carl James model of identification errors. The result of this study shows Indonesian students’ errors in using Mandarin measure words can be determined as follows: omission, misselection, misordering, and blends. Furthermore, this study proves that there are systematic errors made by students with different mother tongue and at the same level of learning Mandarin. The research results can be used to develop Mandarin measure words teaching techniques based on error analysis.

  5. [Evaluation of hearing aid rehabilitation using the Freiburg Monosyllabic Test].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoppe, U

    2016-08-01

    The benefit of hearing aids is not always directly subjectively perceivable. Therefore, objective and quantifiable speech audiometric measurements are required. Beside acoustic gain measurements and structured interviews, speech audiometry in quiet and in noise is one of the three pillars of hearing aid evaluation.The Freiburg monosyllabic test has been used for decades for hearing aid prescription and evaluation in German speaking countries. Relative and absolute targets can be individually defined for the rehabilitation of speech perception by hearing aids as assessed by the Freiburg monosyllabic test in quiet and at conversational levels.The general applicability of speech audiometric measurements in noise is limited. Alternative ("modern") methods and the definitions of noise situations relevant to everyday life have been discussed for years. However, the introduction of these methods into everyday use has proven difficult. On one hand, there is comparatively little practical experience; on the other, it has not yet been demonstrated what additional benefits these more complicated measurements might have for standard hearing aid evaluations and hearing aid users.

  6. Segmental Production in Mandarin-Learning Infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Li-Mei; Kent, Raymond D.

    2010-01-01

    The early development of vocalic and consonantal production in Mandarin-learning infants was studied at the transition from babbling to producing first words. Spontaneous vocalizations were recorded for 24 infants grouped by age: G1 (0 ; 7 to 1 ; 0) and G2 (1 ; 1 to 1 ; 6). Additionally, the infant-directed speech of 24 caregivers was recorded…

  7. The acquisition of Taiwan Mandarin vowels by native American English speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Cyun-Jhan

    2005-04-01

    Previous work on the production of English and French phones by native American English speakers indicated that equivalence classification prevent L2 learners from approximating L2 phonetic norms of similar phones and that learning French would not affect English speakers' production of L1 similar phone /u/ (Flege, 1987). In this study, there were five subjects, including 2 advanced native American English learners of Taiwan Mandarin, 2 basic native American English learners of Taiwan Mandarin, and 1 monolingual Taiwan Mandarin speaker. The corpus were 12 English words ``heed, who'd, hod; leak, Luke, lock; beat, suit, bot; peat, suit, pot,'' and 12 Mandarin words [i,u, a; li, lu, la; pi, pu, pa; phi, phu, pha]. Both advanced and basic learners' production of English and Mandarin words and monolingual Taiwan Mandarin speaker's production of Mandarin words were directly recorded onto a PC. Vowel formants were taken from spectrograms generated by Praat. Preliminary results showed the vowel space of advanced learners between Taiwan Mandarin [i] and [u] was larger than that of basic learners, and closer to the Taiwan Mandarin norms. Besides, the vowel space between English [i] and [u] by basic learners was dramatically smaller than that of American English norms.

  8. Novel Extended Phonemic Set for Mandarin Continuous Speech Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢湘; 匡镜明

    2003-01-01

    An extended phonemic set of mandarin from the view of speech recognition is proposed. This set absorbs most principles of some other existing phonemic sets for mandarin, like Worldbet and SAMPA-C, and also takes advantage of some practical experiences from speech recognition research for increasing the discriminability between word models. And the experiments in speaker independent continuous speech recognition show that hidden Markov models defined by this phonemic set have a better performance than those based on initial/final units of mandarin and have a very compact size.

  9. Singapore's Speak Mandarin Campaign.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, John

    1988-01-01

    Reviews the "Speak Mandarin Campaign," that is intended to persuade the Singaporean ethnic Chinese to use Mandarin in place of Chinese dialects. The purported educational, cultural, and practical advantages are discussed, and the support of higher education and the media is evaluated. (Author/CB)

  10. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  11. Mandarin Visual Speech Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Trevor H.

    2010-01-01

    While the auditory-only aspects of Mandarin speech are heavily-researched and well-known in the field, this dissertation addresses its lesser-known aspects: The visual and audio-visual perception of Mandarin segmental information and lexical-tone information. Chapter II of this dissertation focuses on the audiovisual perception of Mandarin…

  12. Vowels, consonants, and lexical tones: Sensitivity to phonological variation in monolingual Mandarin and bilingual English-Mandarin toddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wewalaarachchi, Thilanga D; Wong, Liang Hui; Singh, Leher

    2017-03-02

    Although bilingual learners represent the linguistic majority, much less is known about their lexical processing in comparison with monolingual learners. In the current study, bilingual and monolingual toddlers were compared on their ability to recognize familiar words. Children were presented with correct pronunciations and mispronunciations, with the latter involving a vowel, consonant, or tone substitution. A robust ability to recognize words when their labels were correctly pronounced was observed in both groups. Both groups also exhibited a robust ability to reject vowel, tone, and consonant mispronunciations as possible labels for familiar words. However, time course analyses revealed processing differences based on language background; relative to Mandarin monolinguals, Mandarin-English bilingual toddlers demonstrated reduced efficiency in recognizing correctly pronounced words. With respect to mispronunciations, Mandarin-English bilingual learners demonstrated reduced sensitivity to tone mispronunciations relative to Mandarin monolingual toddlers. Moreover, the relative cost of mispronunciations differed for monolingual and bilingual toddlers. Monolingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to consonants followed by vowels and tones, whereas bilingual toddlers demonstrated least sensitivity to tone, followed by consonants and then by vowels. Time course analyses revealed that both groups were sensitive to vowel and consonant variation. Results reveal both similarities and differences in monolingual and bilingual learners' processing of familiar words in Mandarin Chinese.

  13. English- and Mandarin-Learning Infants' Discrimination of Actions and Objects in Dynamic Events

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Tardif, Twila; Pulverman, Rachel; Casasola, Marianella; Zhu, Liqi; Zheng, Xiaobei; Meng, Xiangzhi

    2015-01-01

    The present studies examined the role of linguistic experience in directing English and Mandarin learners' attention to aspects of a visual scene. Specifically, they asked whether young language learners in these 2 cultures attend to differential aspects of a word-learning situation. Two groups of English and Mandarin learners, 6-8-month-olds (n =…

  14. Does Mandarin spatial metaphor for time influence Chinese deaf signers’ spatio-temporal reasoning?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, Yan; Zheng, Yeqiu; Swerts, Marc; Gunzelmann, G.; Howes, A.; Tenbrink, T.; Davelaar, E. J.

    2017-01-01

    In Mandarin Chinese, the space-time word “前/qian” is used to express both the spatial concept of front/forward and the temporal concept of early/before (e.g., “前天/qian-tian”, literally front day, meaning the day before yesterday). This is consistent with the fact that Mandarin speakers can gesture

  15. The Acquisition of Logical Connectives in Child Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Yi

    2014-01-01

    This study investigates 2-5-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's interpretation of the disjunction word "huozhe" ("or") in two positions in "ruguo" ("if")-conditional statements, i.e., in the antecedent clause versus in the consequent clause. The findings from three experiments show that the meanings…

  16. A study of sentence stress production in Mandarin speakers of American English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Y; Robb, M P; Gilbert, H R; Lerman, J W

    2001-04-01

    Acoustic characteristics of American English sentence stress produced by native Mandarin speakers are reported. Fundamental frequency (F0), vowel duration, and vowel intensity in the sentence-level stress produced by 40 Mandarin speakers were compared to those of 40 American English speakers. Results obtained from two methods of stress calculation indicated that Mandarin speakers of American English are able to differentiate stressed and unstressed words according to features of F0, duration, and intensity. Although the group of Mandarin speakers were able to signal stress in their sentence productions, the acoustic characteristics of stress were not identical to the American speakers. Mandarin speakers were found to produce stressed words with a significantly higher F0 and shorter duration compared to the American speakers. The groups also differed in production of unstressed words with Mandarin speakers using a higher F0 and greater intensity compared to American speakers. Although the acoustic differences observed may reflect an interference of L1 Mandarin in the production of L2 American English, the outcome of this study suggests no critical divergence between these speakers in the way they implement American English sentence stress.

  17. Prosodic Realization of Focus in Bilingual Production of Southern Min and Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ying; Xu, Yi; Guion-Anderson, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Previously post-focus compression (PFC) - the lowering of fundamental frequency (F0) and intensity of post-focal words to below those of the same words in identical sentences with neutral focus - was found in Beijing Mandarin but not in Taiwan Southern Min and Taiwan Mandarin. This study investigated whether the presence of PFC would vary with age and language use of societal bilinguals of Southern Min and Mandarin. Three groups of bilingual speakers of Quanzhou Southern Min and Mandarin, age around 20, 40 and 60, were examined for their prosodic realization of focus. All the speakers acquired Southern Min first, followed by Mandarin in childhood, but the younger speakers used more Mandarin than the older speakers. Comparisons of duration, intensity and F0 in focused, prefocus and post-focus words indicated that all groups produced Taiwan-like focus, i.e., without PFC, in Southern Min, but the youngest group produced Beijing-like PFC in Mandarin. These findings reveal that increased language experience, such as greater amount of second language (L2) use, correlates with increased ability to produce native-like PFC in L2, suggesting that PFC can be used as an indicator in assessing L2 speech acquisition.

  18. Listening with a foreign-accent: The interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit in Mandarin speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Xin; Fowler, Carol A

    2013-09-01

    This study examined the intelligibility of native and Mandarin-accented English speech for native English and native Mandarin listeners. In the latter group, it also examined the role of the language environment and English proficiency. Three groups of listeners were tested: native English listeners (NE), Mandarin-speaking Chinese listeners in the US (M-US) and Mandarin listeners in Beijing, China (M-BJ). As a group, M-US and M-BJ listeners were matched on English proficiency and age of acquisition. A nonword transcription task was used. Identification accuracy for word-final stops in the nonwords established two independent interlanguage intelligibility effects. An interlanguage speech intelligibility benefit for listeners (ISIB-L) was manifest by both groups of Mandarin listeners outperforming native English listeners in identification of Mandarin-accented speech. In the benefit for talkers (ISIB-T), only M-BJ listeners were more accurate identifying Mandarin-accented speech than native English speech. Thus, both Mandarin groups demonstrated an ISIB-L while only the M-BJ group overall demonstrated an ISIB-T. The English proficiency of listeners was found to modulate the magnitude of the ISIB-T in both groups. Regression analyses also suggested that the listener groups differ in their use of acoustic information to identify voicing in stop consonants.

  19. Prosodic Focus Marking in Bai-Mandarin Sequential Bilinguals’ Mandarin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, Zenghui; Chen, A.; van de Velde, H.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the prosodic marking of focus in sequential bilinguals speaking Bai as their first language and Mandarin Chinese as their second language. Mandarin SVO sentences with varying information structure were elicited through a picture-matching task. The participants were primary sc

  20. Prosodic focus marking in Dali Mandarin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, L.Z.H.; van de Velde, H.; Chen, A.

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated prosodic marking of focus in Dali Mandarin, a variety of Xinan Guanhua (Southwestern Mandarin) spoken in Dali city, the capital of Dali Bai Autonomous Prefecture, China. Dali Mandarin as a variety of Mandarin has had heavy contact with Bai, a Tibeto-Burman language, for a lon

  1. 汉语背景下失歌症者对情绪词音调分辨能力的ERPs研究%Ability of Emotional Words' Tone Discrimination in Amusics with Mandarin Chinese:An ERPs Research

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴大兴; 吕雪靖; 文艺

    2013-01-01

    Objective: The present study, by comparing amusics with matched controls, aimed to find out whether the deficit in music perception has already extended to speech in Chinese amusics, and whether emotional semantics could compensate this kind of disorder in pitch perception. Methods: 20 amusics and 22 controls were selected after MBEA. Then using event-related potential technique, we assessed whether the amusics of Mandarin Chinese had difficulties in discriminating the Chinese emotional words by analyzing the behavioral data and electrophysiological index. Results: Controls performed better in both speech and non-speech stimuli tonal discriminating tasks and both groups showed better in speech stimuli tonal discriminating task. Furthermore, the only difference between the two groups in tonal discriminating task occurred in positive slow wave. According to the scalp topography, amusics showed an asymmetry in the right frontal-central region. Conclusion: Although Chinese amusics are familiar with tonal language, but their pitch perception disorder has extended to speech domain, while the emotional semantics cannot compensate the deficit in pitch perception. There is no dysfunction in auditory cortex in amusics, and their deficit in pitch perception is related to the lack of investment in cognitive resources.%目的:探讨患有失歌症的汉语使用者其音高加工上的障碍是否延伸到了言语领域,情绪语义能否弥补其在言语音高知觉上的不足.方法:通过蒙特利尔失歌症成套测验(MBEA)筛选失歌症组被试20人和正常对照组被试22人,并采用ERPs技术进行言语刺激和非言语刺激语调分辨任务实验,以分析两组被试在音调分辨能力和电生理指标上的差异.结果:对照组对言语和非言语刺激的音调分辨能力都显著优于失歌症组,且无论是失歌症组还是对照组,其在言语刺激音调分辨任务中的表现都要优于在非言语刺激音调分辨任务中的表现.

  2. Words, words, words!

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Words matter. They are the "atoms" of written and oral communication. Students rely on words in textbooks and other instructional resources and in classroom lectures and discussions. As instructors, there are times when we need to think carefully about the words we use. Sometimes there are problems that may not be initially apparent and we may introduce confusion when we were aiming for clarity.

  3. MANDARIN SECONDARY PREDICATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryosuke Shibagaki

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the first part, I provide some data of secondary predicates in English and Mandarin on consequence-depictives (SUBJ-oriented and resultatives (OBJ-oriented, which adopt an intransitive verb/adjective for their secondary predicate. In the second half, I present an account of the linking issue on “resultative” compound predicates in Mandarin Chinese, building on the LFG/LMT work of Her (2007, who assumed that the argument structures of each predicate merge to give a composite structure, which determines whether a resultative sentence is semantically causative or not, and from which the arguments link to grammatical functions. I argue here that the facts require a more articulated semantics, for unlike Her’s analysis, the determination of causativity and the linking of the arguments of the two predicates is fully an issue of semantics; specifically, I argue that there are two types of secondary predicates in terms of their semantics, namely those with internally- and externally-caused changes of state (see Levin and Rappaport Hovav: 1995, McKoon and Macfarland: 2000, which are respectively “indirect-causative” and “direct-causative”; causativity should be categorised into three types, non-causative, indirect-causative, and direct causative. I further argue that the argument undergoing internally-caused change always links to Actor and that the one undergoing externally-caused change (a truly “affected” argument always links to Undergoer.

  4. Do you hear 'feather' when listening to 'rain'? Lexical tone activation during unconscious translation: Evidence from Mandarin-English bilinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wang, Juan; Malins, Jeffrey G

    2017-12-01

    Although lexical tone is a highly prevalent phonetic cue in human languages, its role in bilingual spoken word recognition is not well understood. The present study investigates whether and how adult bilinguals, who use pitch contours to disambiguate lexical items in one language but not the other, access a tonal L1 when exclusively processing a non-tonal L2. Using the visual world paradigm, we show that Mandarin-English listeners automatically activated Mandarin translation equivalents of English target words such as 'rain' (Mandarin 'yu3'), and consequently were distracted by competitors whose segments and tones overlapped with the translations of English target words ('feather', also 'yu3' in Mandarin). Importantly, listeners were not distracted by competitors that overlapped with the translations of target words in all segments but not tone ('fish'; Mandarin 'yu2'), nor were they distracted by competitors that overlapped with the translations of target words in rime and tone ('wheat', Mandarin 'gu3'). These novel results demonstrate implicit access to L1 lexical representations through automatic/unconscious translation, as a result of cross-language top-down and/or lateral influence, and highlight the critical role of lexical tone activation in bilingual lexical access. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mandarin recognition over the telephone

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Yuhung

    1996-06-01

    Mandarin Chinese is the official language in China and Taiwan, it is the native language of a quarter of the world population. As the services enabled by speech recognition technology (e.g. telephone voice dialing, information query) become more popular in English, we would like to extend this capability to other languages. Mandarin is one of the major languages under research in our laboratory. This paper describes how we extend our work in English speech recognition into Mandarin. We will described the corpus: Voice Across Taiwan, the training of a complete set of Mandarin syllable models, preliminary performance results and error analysis. A fast prototyping system was built, where a user can write any context free grammar with no restriction of vocabulary, then the grammar can be compiled into recognition models. It enables user to quickly test the performance of a new vocabulary.

  6. Syllabic Strategy as Opposed to Coda Optimization in the Segmentation of Spanish Letter-Strings Using Word Spotting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Carlos J.; Taft, Marcus; Hernández-Cabrera, Juan A.

    2017-01-01

    A word-spotting task is used in Spanish to test the way in which polysyllabic letter-strings are parsed in this language. Monosyllabic words (e.g., "bar") embedded at the beginning of a pseudoword were immediately followed by either a coda-forming consonant (e.g., "barto") or a vowel (e.g., "baros"). In the former…

  7. Early Mandarin Literacy in a Class-created Reading Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reed Riggs

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This article explores methods for creating an extensive reading (ER library during the first weeks of language instruction, illustrated here in a college Mandarin course. Data include student-created texts, video transcripts of students reading in groups, field notes, and a student perceptions survey. Taken together the data provide a snapshot of how students in a beginning-level university Mandarin course can utilize Internet resources to create and use a personalized ER library. ER has been shown in previous research to enrich known words (Waring & Takaki, 2003, and provide opportunities for early literacy in languages that use nonalphabetic scripts like Japanese (Hitosugi & Day, 2004. Mandarin texts feature Chinese characters, which exhibit a low reliability in sound-meaning-visual associations, effectively blocking learners from sounding out unfamiliar words and clearly identifying meaning (Everson et al., 2016. The data here show how learners were able to connect prior knowledge from their own culture to new communicative situations in the form of printed comic books to read in class in small groups. Learners were found to connect understandings between their own culture and the target culture, focusing particularly on cultural similarities.

  8. Accentedness and intelligibility of Mandarin-accented English for Chinese, Koreans and Americans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardman, Jocelyn

    2014-01-01

    and results have been mixed as to the benefit of interlanguage match, a study focused on the academic context investigated the extent to which Mandarin-accented English was intelligible to L1 Mandarin listeners, as compared to Koreans and Americans, and whether intelligibility varied by talker segmental......English is used as a lingua franca not only throughout Asia, but also in Inner Circle countries for academic purposes. Due to wide variation in L2 English speech, however, mutual intelligibility is an increasing concern. Since accentedness does not necessarily correlate with intelligibility......, American listeners still performed better. Analyses of mistranscribed Mandarin-accented English words revealed different areas of difficulty by listener L1. While front vowels and diphthongs were problematic for all listeners, Chinese listeners found different consonants in different word positions...

  9. Word-formation Unit of Neologism in Mandarin Chinese --From the Perspective of Regional Difference and Interaction%从区域差异和互动看华语新词语的构词单位

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洁

    2011-01-01

    初步考察华语新词语构词单位所体现的区域差异和互动现象,得出以下主要结论:在华语新词语的衍生过程中,同义构词单位的选择、同一构词单位的分布特征和构词力等方面存在区域差异,而构词单位选择的趋同、构词单位在华语区的扩散则是词汇区域互动的具体表现。为全面认识构词单位的构词力,应该以“犬华语”视角考察“叠加构词力”。%This article makes a preliminary study on the phenomena of regional difference and interaction which are reflected by word-formati6n unit in Chinese neologism, with the following conclusions are drawn: in the derivative process of neologism, there are regional differences in aspects such as the choice of synonymous word-formation unit, the distribution character and word-formation ability of same word-formation unit; the convergence in the choice of word-formation unit and the diffusion of word-formation unit in the Chinese language zone are the concrete performances of lexical regional interaction. The article also points out that we should investigate "superimposed word-formation ability" from the perspective of "Pan Chinese" for getting full understanding of the word-formation ability of word-formation unit.

  10. Online processing of tone and intonation in Mandarin: Evidence from ERPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Min; Chen, Yiya; Schiller, Niels O

    2016-10-01

    Event-related potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the online processing of tone and intonation in Mandarin at the attentive stage. We examined the behavioral and electrophysiological responses of native Mandarin listeners to Mandarin sentences, which contrast in final tones (rising Tone2 or falling Tone4) and intonations (Question or Statement). A clear P300 effect was observed for question-statement contrast in sentences ending with Tone4, but no ERP effect was found for question-statement contrast in sentences ending with Tone2. Our results provide ERP evidence for the interaction of tone and intonation in Mandarin, confirming the findings with behavioral metalinguistic data that native Mandarin listeners can distinguish between question intonation and statement intonation when the intonation is associated with a final Tone4, but fail to do so when the intonation is associated with a final Tone2. Our study extended the understanding of online processing of tone and intonation (1) from the pre-attentive stage to the attentive stage and (2) within a larger domain (i.e. multi-word utterances) than a single word utterance.

  11. Mandarin Teaching without Using Media Language

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haili Du

    2008-01-01

    Many people believe that during Mandarin teaching activities,teachers should understand the students'mother tongue,or at least be able to carty out the conversation with students via a kind of media language understood by students.In my opinion,however,this is not a requirement for the classroom teaching of mandarin as a second language.Without using the media language but only using Mandarin as the LOGO,one can also gain good teaching results.

  12. Learning Mandarin in Later Life:Can Old Dogs Learn New Tricks ?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANDREW D. COHEN; PING LI

    2013-01-01

    This case study reports on a native English speaker�s learning of Mandarin as a 13th language starting at the age of 67 . The learner , after completing a 150-hour , 3-DVD course called Fluenz Mandarin , had 70 online sessions with a Chinese-language instructor from a Beijing-based University . The learning content focused mainly on pinyin , a Romanization system for the pronunciation of Standard Mandarin . The sessions contained real-life communication in Chinese based on Chinese sentences produced beforehand by the learner consistent with his life experiences and professional interests as an applied linguist . After the sessions , the instructor developed the sentences into formulated language and kept a detailed log with the learner�s feedback as well . Meanwhile , the learner created electronic flashcards for words and phrases to review . The paper considers the impact of advanced age , hyperpolyglot status , and the use of a sophisticated language strategy repertoire on Mandarin learning . The paper reports on the learner�s results as viewed from the vantage point of the learner and from that of his instructor as well , paying particular attention to vocabulary (e .g . , the use of measure words and the overabundance of homonyms and near homonyms) , grammar (e .g . , word order) , and pronunciation (e .g . , the perception and production of the four tones) .

  13. A cross-linguistic PET study of tone perception in Mandarin Chinese and English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, D; Zatorre, R J; Milner, B; Zhao, V

    2001-04-01

    PET was used in a cross-linguistic study to determine whether neural mechanisms subserving pitch perception differ as a function of linguistic relevance. We compared tone perception in 12 native Mandarin speakers, who use tonal patterns to distinguish lexical meaning, with that of 12 native speakers of a nontone language, English. Subjects were scanned under two conditions: a silent resting baseline and a tonal task involving discrimination of pitch patterns in Mandarin words. Both groups showed common regions of CBF increase, but only Mandarin speakers showed additional activation in frontal, parietal, and parieto-occipital regions of the left hemisphere; this latter finding indicates that language experience may influence brain circuitry in the processing of auditory cues. In contrast, only the English group showed activity in the right inferior frontal cortex, consistent with a right-hemispheric role in pitch perception. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  14. Syllable language models for Mandarin speech recognition: exploiting character language models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xunying; Hieronymus, James L; Gales, Mark J F; Woodland, Philip C

    2013-01-01

    Mandarin Chinese is based on characters which are syllabic in nature and morphological in meaning. All spoken languages have syllabiotactic rules which govern the construction of syllables and their allowed sequences. These constraints are not as restrictive as those learned from word sequences, but they can provide additional useful linguistic information. Hence, it is possible to improve speech recognition performance by appropriately combining these two types of constraints. For the Chinese language considered in this paper, character level language models (LMs) can be used as a first level approximation to allowed syllable sequences. To test this idea, word and character level n-gram LMs were trained on 2.8 billion words (equivalent to 4.3 billion characters) of texts from a wide collection of text sources. Both hypothesis and model based combination techniques were investigated to combine word and character level LMs. Significant character error rate reductions up to 7.3% relative were obtained on a state-of-the-art Mandarin Chinese broadcast audio recognition task using an adapted history dependent multi-level LM that performs a log-linearly combination of character and word level LMs. This supports the hypothesis that character or syllable sequence models are useful for improving Mandarin speech recognition performance.

  15. On English Speakers' Ability to Communicate Emotion in Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jian, Hua-Li

    2015-01-01

    The ability of Mandarin learners to express emotion in Mandarin has received little attention. This study examines how English L1 users express emotions in Mandarin and how this expression differs from that of Mandarin L1 users. Scenarios were adopted to elicit joy, anger, sadness, fear, and neutrality. Both groups articulated anger, joy, and fear…

  16. Production quality of /r/ and /l/ liquids among Cantonese and Mandarin ESL learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrick, Donald

    2005-04-01

    Perceptual interference theories suggest L2 language learners produce phonemes based on their native language phonology (Iverson et al., 2004, Cognition). This present study investigated the impact of differing native language segmental inventories on the acquisition of the English r/l contrast. Northern Mandarin dialects exhibit coda /r/ similar to the English bunched /r/, while Cantonese exhibits no r-like liquids (Gick et al., 2003, under review). The Mandarin segmental inventory provides more of a basis for acquiring the English r/l contrast than the Cantonese inventory. It is therefore predicted that Mandarin speakers will acquire the r/l contrast with a lower level of experience with English than the Cantonese speakers. One Cantonese and two Mandarin ESL learners produced r/l sounds in minimally contrastive English words in simple and complex onset, coda, and intervocalic positions. The data were analyzed in two ways. Four native English listeners were asked to judge for each word whether the target consonant was /r/ or /l/. Also, ultrasound tongue images were analyzed for component /r/ and /l/ gestures. Results provided partial support for the hypothesis. Implications for theories of second language acquisition will be discussed.

  17. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-Xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-Ting; Zhang, Cheng-Xiang; Nan, Yun

    2013-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  18. Perceptual pitch deficits coexist with pitch production difficulties in music but not Mandarin speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu-xia; Feng, Jie; Huang, Wan-ting; Zhang, Cheng-xiang; Nan, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics). To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, eight amusics, eight tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent. PMID:24474944

  19. Perceptual Pitch Deficits Coexist with Pitch Production Difficulties in Music but Not Mandarin Speech

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu-xia eYang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a musical disorder that mainly affects pitch perception. Among Mandarin speakers, some amusics also have difficulties in processing lexical tones (tone agnosics. To examine to what extent these perceptual deficits may be related to pitch production impairments in music and Mandarin speech, 8 amusics, 8 tone agnosics, and 12 age- and IQ-matched normal native Mandarin speakers were asked to imitate music note sequences and Mandarin words of comparable lengths. The results indicated that both the amusics and tone agnosics underperformed the controls on musical pitch production. However, tone agnosics performed no worse than the amusics, suggesting that lexical tone perception deficits may not aggravate musical pitch production difficulties. Moreover, these three groups were all able to imitate lexical tones with perfect intelligibility. Taken together, the current study shows that perceptual musical pitch and lexical tone deficits might coexist with musical pitch production difficulties. But at the same time these perceptual pitch deficits might not affect lexical tone production or the intelligibility of the speech words that were produced. The perception-production relationship for pitch among individuals with perceptual pitch deficits may be, therefore, domain-dependent.

  20. Effects of Age and Experience on the Production of English Word-Final Stops by Korean Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the effect of second language (L2) age of acquisition and amount of experience on the production of word-final stop consonant voicing by adult native Korean learners of English. Thirty learners, who differed in amount of L2 experience and age of L2 exposure, and 10 native English speakers produced 8 English monosyllabic words…

  1. Study on Dialect Words in Chinese Neologism-Based on the Research of Beijing, Guangdong, Hunan and Jiangxi Dialects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓倩; 何宇菲; 李旖旎; 吴文捷

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, a large number of dialect words merged with Chinese mandarin, becoming a main source of Chinese new words and contributing to the diversity of Chinese. Targeting this phenomenon, the researchers conducted research on those words. By studying literature, sending out questionnaires, making field trips and observations, this paper analyzes the main factors influencing the dialect words’absorption in Chinese mandarin and the channels involved, summarizes the traits of their formula⁃tion.

  2. The Primacy of Abstract Syllables in Chinese Word Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jenn-Yeu; O'Séaghdha, Pádraig G.; Chen, Train-Min

    2016-01-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that syllables play a primary and distinctive role in the phonological phase of Mandarin Chinese word production. Specifically, syllables are selected before other phonological components and guide subsyllabic encoding. The proximity of phonological syllables to word representations in Chinese languages ensures that…

  3. Fruit photosynthesis in Satsuma mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiratsuka, Shin; Suzuki, Mayu; Nishimura, Hiroshi; Nada, Kazuyoshi

    2015-12-01

    To clarify detailed characteristics of fruit photosynthesis, possible gas exchange pathway and photosynthetic response to different environments were investigated in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu). About 300 mm(-2) stomata were present on fruit surface during young stages (∼10-30 mm diameter fruit) and each stoma increased in size until approximately 88 days after full bloom (DAFB), while the stomata collapsed steadily thereafter; more than 50% stomata deformed at 153 DAFB. The transpiration rate of the fruit appeared to match with stoma development and its intactness rather than the density. Gross photosynthetic rate of the rind increased gradually with increasing CO2 up to 500 ppm but decreased at higher concentrations, which may resemble C4 photosynthesis. In contrast, leaf photosynthesis increased constantly with CO2 increment. Although both fruit and leaf photosynthesis were accelerated by rising photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), fruit photosynthesis was greater under considerably lower PPFD from 13.5 to 68 μmolm(-2)s(-1). Thus, Satsuma mandarin fruit appears to incorporate CO2 through fully developed and non-collapsed stomata, and subject it to fruit photosynthesis, which may be characterized as intermediate status among C3, C4 and shade plant photosynthesis. The device of fruit photosynthesis may develop differently from its leaf to capture CO2 efficiently.

  4. The effect of speakers' sex on voice onset time in Mandarin stops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fangfang

    2013-02-01

    The goal of the present study is to examine the effect of speakers' gender on voice onset time in Mandarin speakers' stop productions. Word-initial lingual stops were elicited from 10 male and 10 female Mandarin speakers using a word-repetition task. The results revealed differentiated voice onset time (VOT) patterns between the two genders for all four lingual stops on raw VOT values. After factoring out speech rate variation, gender-related differences remained for voiced stops only with females' VOTs being shorter than males. The results, together with previous findings from other languages, suggest a sociolinguistic/stylistic account on the relation between gender and VOT that vary in a language-specific manner.

  5. MOTIVASI BELAJAR BAHASA MANDARIN SEBAGAI BAHASA KEDUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ying

    2013-09-01

    acquisition and the difference motivation between Chinese-descending and non-chinese students. There were 276 respondents chosen by purposive sampling from three universities. They were students from Mandarin Department of Bina Nusantara University, Jakarta, Darma Persada University, Jakarta, and North Sumatera University, Medan. A cooperation on deciding research instruments was collaborated with Faculty of Tionghoa Language and Literature of Huaqiau University, China. Descriptive analysis was done to explore students main motivation in learning Mandarin, continued by different tests to know the different motivation between native and descending students. Research results indicated that the motivation in learning language is low; there is no significant difference between integrative and instrumental motivation. Also, there was no motivation significant different between chinese-descending dan non-chinese students in learning Mandarin. Lecturers should develop their methods of teaching to develop students learning motivation in learning Mandarin.

  6. PREFERRED ARGUMENT STRUCTURE IN MANDARIN CHILD LANGUAGE

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Chiung-chih Huang

    2012-01-01

    ...). The results showed that Mandarin child language conforms to the constraints of Preferred Argument Structure, but that it does not support the related hypothesis of an ergative structuring of discourse...

  7. Production of Mandarin tone contrasts by musicians and non-musicians

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottfried, Terry L.; Ouyang, Grace Yin-Hwei

    2005-09-01

    Previous research has shown that native speakers of American English who are musicians perform better than non-musicians when identifying and producing the four phonemic tones of Mandarin. The present study corroborates these findings and analyzes acoustic properties of non-natives' tonal imitations. Listeners imitated Mandarin two-syllable word phrases that varied the vowel (/li/, /la/, /lu/) and tone (high-level, mid-rising, low-dipping, high-falling) of the first syllable. Four native Mandarin speakers rated the musicians, on average, to be better in their imitation of Mandarin tone 4 (high-falling) than non-musicians. There were no significant differences between groups in how they were rated on the other three tones. Acoustical analyses revealed that non-natives failed to match native speakers both in differences in initial F0 and in F0 contour (change from initial to final F0) across tones. Imitations by musicians did not show significant acoustic differences from non-musicians, except for tone 4, where musicians' imitations showed a significant decrease in F0 from initial to final portions of the syllable; the decrease in F0 for non-musicians was smaller and not significant. Creaky voice (often present in natives' tone 3 and 4) was observed in many non-native imitations, but was not restricted to tones 3 and 4.

  8. Acoustic study in Mandarin-speaking children: developmental changes in vowel production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chih-Chi; Lin, Keh-chung; Wu, Ching-Yi; Chen, Chia-Ling; Chen, Chia-Hui; Chen, Hsieh-Ching; Hong, Wei-Hsien; Wong, Alice May-Kuen

    2008-01-01

    Acoustic analysis had been well incorporated into clinical evaluation and management of children with speech disorders for many years. The aim of this study is to investigate developmental changes in vowel production in Mandarin-speaking children using acoustic study analysis. A total of 22 children from 5-12 years old were analyzed in this study. Each child read a list of speech materials consisting of 6 dissyllabic words in Mandarin phonemes and the speech samples were recorded. The digitized acoustic recordings were submitted for acoustic analysis. The acoustic parameters in this study include the first and second formant frequencies (F1 and F2) of /a/, /i/ and /u/ and the vowel space. We used the Wilcoxon rank sum test and Spearman's rho correlation test for statistical analysis. The F1 values of the vowel /i/ were significantly lower in boys than those in girls (p = 0.013) by Wilcoxon ranksum test. The F1 value of the vowel /i/ was negatively correlated with children's age (rho = -0.601, p = 0.003) and their body height (rho = 0.478 p = 0.045). The F1 values of the other two vowels (/u/ and /a/), the F2 values of all three vowels and the vowel space had no association with age and gender. F1 acoustic parameters have developmental and gender changes in vowel production in Mandarin-speaking children. The data in this study provide references for acoustic assessment of Mandarin-speaking children.

  9. Phonological Encoding in Mandarin Chinese: Evidence from Tongue Twisters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kember, Heather; Croot, Karen; Patrick, Ellis

    2015-12-01

    Models of connected speech production in Mandarin Chinese must specify how lexical tone, speech segments, and phrase-level prosody are integrated in speech production. This study used tongue twisters to test predictions of the two different models of word form encoding. Tongue twisters were constructed from 5 sets of characters that rotated pairs of initial segments or pairs of tones, or both, across format (ABAB, ABBA), and across position of the characters in four-character tongue twister strings. Fifty two native Mandarin Chinese speakers read aloud 120 tongue twisters, repeating each one six times in a row. They made a total of 3503 (2.34%) segment errors and 1372 (.92%) tone errors. Segment errors occurred on the onsets of the first and third characters in the ABBA but not ABAB segment-alternating tongue twisters, and on the onsets of the second and fourth characters of the tone-alternating tongue twisters. Tone errors were highest on the third and fourth characters in the tone-alternating tongue twisters. The pattern of tone errors is consistent with the claim that tone is associated to a metrical frame prior to segment encoding, while the format by position interaction found for the segment-alternating tongue twisters suggest articulatory gestures oscillate in segment production as proposed by gestural phonology.

  10. Perceptual Processing of Mandarin Nasals by L1 and L2 Mandarin Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Yi-hsiu

    2012-01-01

    Nasals are cross-linguistically susceptible to change, especially in the syllable final position. Acoustic reports on Mandarin nasal production have recently shown that the syllable-final distinction is frequently dropped. Few studies, however, have addressed the issue of perceptual processing in Mandarin nasals for L1 and L2 speakers of Mandarin…

  11. θ-structures of Mandarin Resultative Verb Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li, Fengqi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin Resultative Verb Compounds, different from any simplex words, have complicated θ-structures, since both the verb (Vcaus and its complement (Cres have the capacity of assigning their own thematic roles. The thematic roles assigned by Vcaus form the θ-structure’s main structure, and those assigned by Cres form the embedded structure. Sometimes an entity plays a role in the main structure, and at the same time plays a role in the embedded structure. If the two roles are identical, they are “coindexed”; if they are different, they form a composite role. RVC’s θ-structure is further compounded when ambiguity occurs and when causation is taken into consideration. The ambiguity of RVCs can be attributed to the different combination of thematic roles. As for causation, the two causative roles, causer and cause, can be assigned to thematic roles according to certain constraints.

  12. Does Second Life Improve Mandarin Learning by Overseas Chinese Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ju

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of Second Life (SL) for improving the oral output of overseas Chinese students learning Mandarin Chinese (hereafter referred to as Mandarin). More than 1000 overseas Chinese students attend a university in northern Taiwan every year to learn Mandarin as a heritage language after graduating…

  13. Comparing word processing times in naming, lexical decision, and progressive demasking:Evidence from Chronolex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovic eFerrand

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available We report performance measures for lexical decision, word naming, and progressive demasking for a large sample of monosyllabic, monomorphemic French words (N = 1,482. We compare the tasks and also examine the impact of word length, word frequency, initial phoneme, orthographic and phonological distance to neighbors, age-of-acquisition, and subjective frequency. Our results show that objective word frequency is by far the most important variable to predict reaction times in lexical decision. For word naming, it is the first phoneme. Progressive demasking was more influenced by a semantic variable (word imageability than lexical decision, but was also affected to a much greater extent by perceptual variables (word length, first phoneme/letters. This may reduce its usefulness as a psycholinguistic word recognition task.

  14. Comparing word processing times in naming, lexical decision, and progressive demasking: evidence from chronolex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrand, Ludovic; Brysbaert, Marc; Keuleers, Emmanuel; New, Boris; Bonin, Patrick; Méot, Alain; Augustinova, Maria; Pallier, Christophe

    2011-01-01

    We report performance measures for lexical decision (LD), word naming (NMG), and progressive demasking (PDM) for a large sample of monosyllabic monomorphemic French words (N = 1,482). We compare the tasks and also examine the impact of word length, word frequency, initial phoneme, orthographic and phonological distance to neighbors, age-of-acquisition, and subjective frequency. Our results show that objective word frequency is by far the most important variable to predict reaction times in LD. For word naming, it is the first phoneme. PDM was more influenced by a semantic variable (word imageability) than LD, but was also affected to a much greater extent by perceptual variables (word length, first phoneme/letters). This may reduce its usefulness as a psycholinguistic word recognition task.

  15. English- and Mandarin-learning infants' discrimination of actions and objects in dynamic events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie; Tardif, Twila; Pulverman, Rachel; Casasola, Marianella; Zhu, Liqi; Zheng, Xiaobei; Meng, Xiangzhi

    2015-10-01

    The present studies examined the role of linguistic experience in directing English and Mandarin learners' attention to aspects of a visual scene. Specifically, they asked whether young language learners in these 2 cultures attend to differential aspects of a word-learning situation. Two groups of English and Mandarin learners, 6-8-month-olds (n = 65) and 17-19-month-olds (n = 91), participated in 2 studies, based on a habituation paradigm, designed to test infants' discrimination between actions and objects in dynamic events. In Study 1, these stimuli were presented in silence, whereas in Study 2, a verbal label accompanied videos. Results showed that 6-8-month-olds could discriminate action changes but not object changes, whereas 17-19-month-olds could discriminate both types of changes. However, there were only very subtle cross-linguistic differences in these patterns when the scenes were presented together with a verbal label. These findings show strong evidence for universal developmental trends in attention, with somewhat weaker evidence that the differences in the types of words Mandarin- versus English-learning children produce or are exposed to affect attention to different aspects of a scene in the first 2 years of life. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  16. The mechanism of speech processing in congenital amusia: evidence from Mandarin speakers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Liu

    Full Text Available Congenital amusia is a neuro-developmental disorder of pitch perception that causes severe problems with music processing but only subtle difficulties in speech processing. This study investigated speech processing in a group of Mandarin speakers with congenital amusia. Thirteen Mandarin amusics and thirteen matched controls participated in a set of tone and intonation perception tasks and two pitch threshold tasks. Compared with controls, amusics showed impaired performance on word discrimination in natural speech and their gliding tone analogs. They also performed worse than controls on discriminating gliding tone sequences derived from statements and questions, and showed elevated thresholds for pitch change detection and pitch direction discrimination. However, they performed as well as controls on word identification, and on statement-question identification and discrimination in natural speech. Overall, tasks that involved multiple acoustic cues to communicative meaning were not impacted by amusia. Only when the tasks relied mainly on pitch sensitivity did amusics show impaired performance compared to controls. These findings help explain why amusia only affects speech processing in subtle ways. Further studies on a larger sample of Mandarin amusics and on amusics of other language backgrounds are needed to consolidate these results.

  17. Surmounting the Tower of Babel: Monolingual and bilingual 2-year-olds' understanding of the nature of foreign language words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Chen, Ke Heng; Xu, Fei

    2014-03-01

    Languages function as independent and distinct conventional systems, and so each language uses different words to label the same objects. This study investigated whether 2-year-old children recognize that speakers of their native language and speakers of a foreign language do not share the same knowledge. Two groups of children unfamiliar with Mandarin were tested: monolingual English-learning children (n=24) and bilingual children learning English and another language (n=24). An English speaker taught children the novel label fep. On English mutual exclusivity trials, the speaker asked for the referent of a novel label (wug) in the presence of the fep and a novel object. Both monolingual and bilingual children disambiguated the reference of the novel word using a mutual exclusivity strategy, choosing the novel object rather than the fep. On similar trials with a Mandarin speaker, children were asked to find the referent of a novel Mandarin label kuò. Monolinguals again chose the novel object rather than the object with the English label fep, even though the Mandarin speaker had no access to conventional English words. Bilinguals did not respond systematically to the Mandarin speaker, suggesting that they had enhanced understanding of the Mandarin speaker's ignorance of English words. The results indicate that monolingual children initially expect words to be conventionally shared across all speakers-native and foreign. Early bilingual experience facilitates children's discovery of the nature of foreign language words.

  18. Factors Affecting Open-Set Word Recognition in Adults with Cochlear Implants

    OpenAIRE

    Holden, Laura K.; Finley, Charles C.; Firszt, Jill B.; Holden, Timothy A.; Brenner, Christine; Potts, Lisa G.; Gotter, Brenda D.; Vanderhoof, Sallie S.; Mispagel, Karen; Heydebrand, Gitry; Skinner, Margaret W.

    2013-01-01

    A monosyllabic word test was administered to 114 postlingually-deaf adult cochlear implant (CI) recipients at numerous intervals from two weeks to two years post-initial CI activation. Biographic/audiologic information, electrode position, and cognitive ability were examined to determine factors affecting CI outcomes. Results revealed that Duration of Severe-to-Profound Hearing Loss, Age at Implantation, CI Sound-field Threshold Levels, Percentage of Electrodes in Scala Vestibuli, Medio-later...

  19. Problems in Mandarin Tone Acquisition by American Students--The Interference of American English Intonation Patterns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ming Chao Gui

    2000-01-01

    It is intended in this paper to discuss the common patterns of American intonation that interfere the tone acquisition by American students. Similar to the linguistic phenomenon that nonnative speakers of English speak the language with foreign accent due to the influence and linguistic constraints of their own mother tongue, American students face interference from the intonation patterns of American English in their acquisition of tones in the study of Mandarin Chinese. The syntactic structure that most clearly reflects this fact is the two-syllable Chinese word groups. After a close study of the most common mistakes made by American students in .their study of Mandarin tones, some general patterns are observed. It is concluded that the major causes of these mistakes could be attributed to English intonation pattems on the same level of syntactic structure

  20. IDENTIFIKASI GORESAN DASAR MANDARIN DENGAN METODE MULTILAYER PERCEPTRON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dewi

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin Language is the second international language after English Language. Mandarin Language is different with English Language. Mandarin Language consists of stroke, intonation and pin yin. The basic strokes in Mandarin Language are eleven strokes. In this research, author identifies the basic stroke of Mandarin using Multilayer Perceptron to determine how the accuracy of Multilayer Perceptron to recognize the strokes. Data of the basic stroke of Mandarin that used are strokes from several different people.The data has been saved in image with size 80x80 pixel and changed into black and white image. Then taking the FFT and Mean Citra value from the image. The next step is training the data, determining the target and implementation the multilayer perceptron method. The accuracy that reached by multilayer perceptron method in identifying the basic stroke of Mandarin is 59.09% with 45 node of hidden layer. The node amount of hidden layer very affect the output value.

  1. Limits on Monolingualism? A comparison of monolingual and bilingual infants’ abilities to integrate lexical tone in novel word learning.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leher eSingh

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available To construct their first lexicon, infants must determine the relationship between native phonological variation and the meanings of words. This process is arguably more complex for bilingual learners who are often confronted with phonological conflict: phonological variation that is lexically relevant in one language may be lexically irrelevant in the other. In a series of four experiments, the present study investigated English-Mandarin bilingual infants’ abilities to negotiate phonological conflict introduced by learning both a tone and a non-tone language. In a novel word learning task, bilingual children were tested on their sensitivity to tone variation in English and Mandarin contexts. Their abilities to interpret tone variation in a language-dependent manner were compared to those of monolingual Mandarin learning infants. Results demonstrated that at 12 to 13 months, bilingual infants demonstrated the ability to bind tone to word meanings in Mandarin, but to disregard tone variation when learning new words in English. In contrast, monolingual learners of Mandarin did not show evidence of integrating tones into word meanings in Mandarin at the same age even though they were learning a tone language. However, a tone discrimination paradigm confirmed that monolingual Mandarin learning infants were able to tell these tones apart at 12 to 13 months under a different set of conditions. Later, at 17 to 18 months, monolingual Mandarin learners were able to bind tone variation to word meanings when learning new words. Our findings are discussed in terms of cognitive adaptations associated with bilingualism that may ease the negotiation of phonological conflict and facilitate precocious uptake of certain properties of each language.

  2. Contribution of auditory working memory to speech understanding in mandarin-speaking cochlear implant users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duoduo Tao

    Full Text Available To investigate how auditory working memory relates to speech perception performance by Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI users.Auditory working memory and speech perception was measured in Mandarin-speaking CI and normal-hearing (NH participants. Working memory capacity was measured using forward digit span and backward digit span; working memory efficiency was measured using articulation rate. Speech perception was assessed with: (a word-in-sentence recognition in quiet, (b word-in-sentence recognition in speech-shaped steady noise at +5 dB signal-to-noise ratio, (c Chinese disyllable recognition in quiet, (d Chinese lexical tone recognition in quiet. Self-reported school rank was also collected regarding performance in schoolwork.There was large inter-subject variability in auditory working memory and speech performance for CI participants. Working memory and speech performance were significantly poorer for CI than for NH participants. All three working memory measures were strongly correlated with each other for both CI and NH participants. Partial correlation analyses were performed on the CI data while controlling for demographic variables. Working memory efficiency was significantly correlated only with sentence recognition in quiet when working memory capacity was partialled out. Working memory capacity was correlated with disyllable recognition and school rank when efficiency was partialled out. There was no correlation between working memory and lexical tone recognition in the present CI participants.Mandarin-speaking CI users experience significant deficits in auditory working memory and speech performance compared with NH listeners. The present data suggest that auditory working memory may contribute to CI users' difficulties in speech understanding. The present pattern of results with Mandarin-speaking CI users is consistent with previous auditory working memory studies with English-speaking CI users, suggesting that the lexical

  3. Importance of Phonological and Orthographic Skills for English Reading and Spelling: A Comparison of English Monolingual and Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the importance of English phonological and orthographic processing skills to English word reading and spelling in 3 groups of younger (8-9 years) and older (11-12 years) children from different language backgrounds: English monolingual, English first language (L1)-Mandarin second language (L2), and Mandarin…

  4. Importance of Phonological and Orthographic Skills for English Reading and Spelling: A Comparison of English Monolingual and Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Fletcher, Janet; Bayliss, Donna M.

    2014-01-01

    This cross-sectional study examines the importance of English phonological and orthographic processing skills to English word reading and spelling in 3 groups of younger (8-9 years) and older (11-12 years) children from different language backgrounds: English monolingual, English first language (L1)-Mandarin second language (L2), and Mandarin…

  5. Mandarin Fish and Fine Fried Noodles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    Ingredients: one mandarin fish, shredded scallion and ginger, cooking wine, ground pepper, corn starch, salt and flour. Direction: 1. Scale and clean the fish. Remove the skin and bones. Cut the fish meat into slivers. Add shredded scallion and ginger, cooking wine, ground pepper and salt to the fish

  6. What's in a Word? Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge in Three Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBride-Chang, Catherine; Tardif, Twila; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Shu, Hua; Fletcher, Paul; Stokes, Stephanie F.; Wong, Anita; Leung, Kawai

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how words are created is potentially a key component to being able to learn and understand new vocabulary words. However, research on morphological awareness is relatively rare. In this study, over 660 preschool-aged children from three language groups (Cantonese, Mandarin, and Korean speakers) in which compounding morphology is…

  7. Health Information in Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect) (简体中文)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations Diabetes Medicines Drawing Up One Insulin - 简体中文 (Chinese, Simplified (Mandarin dialect)) Bilingual PDF Health Information Translations ...

  8. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima; Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves; Inês Fumiko Ubukata Yada; Rui Pereira Leite Júnior

    2013-01-01

    Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.); 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka) and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort...

  9. Accentedness and intelligibility: Mandarin-accented English for Korean and American listeners

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hardman, Jocelyn

    -to-noise ratio and presented as stimuli to American and Korean listeners, who transcribed the sentences they heard. Intelligibility was determined by comparing the three to four key words in each stimulus sentence to the listeners’ written transcriptions. Since all listeners were graduate students in the U......, as well as key word variation, were crossed as random effects. For the Koreans, Mandarin-accented English was significantly less intelligible than for the Americans and the differences in the segments that most frequently caused problems for each L1 listener group lend evidence to the strong role played...... by perceptual foreign accent (McAllister, 1997) in English as a Lingua Franca (ELF) contexts. Word familiarity was also found to be a significant predictor of intelligibility, but speaker segmental production accuracy was not. Improving intelligibility for Chinese and Korean interlocutors in ELF contexts should...

  10. Dissipation dynamic and residue distribution of flusilazole in mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chen; Qiu, Lihong; Zhao, Huiyu; Wang, Kai; Zhang, Hongyan

    2013-11-01

    In this paper, dissipation dynamic and terminal residue of flusilazole in mandarin and soil, as well as residue distribution of flusilazole in mandarin, were studied at three sites in China. Mandarin peel, mandarin pulp, whole mandarin, and soil samples were extracted by acetonitrile, cleaned up with dispersive solid-phase extraction, then analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The dissipation half-lives of flusilazole in mandarin and soil at all three experiment sites were 6.3-8.4 days and 5.5-13.4 days, respectively, with the exception of the soil dissipation at the Hunan site, which showed an increase-decrease process. Flusilazole residue levels in whole mandarin were all below 0.1 mg/kg on 14 days after the last application. Terminal residue study showed that flusilazole was mostly distributed in mandarin peel, which indicates minimal risk for eating mandarin pulp. These results could provide guidance for the proper and safe use of flusilazole on citrus fruits, and further our understanding of pesticide distribution in citrus fruits.

  11. Some words on Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, Maarten; Visser, A.

    2008-01-01

    In many disciplines, the notion of a word is of central importance. For instance, morphology studies le mot comme tel, pris isol´ement (Mel’ˇcuk, 1993 [74]). In the philosophy of language the word was often considered to be the primary bearer of meaning. Lexicography has as its fundamental role to c

  12. Pollen tube behavior in different Mandarin hybrids

    OpenAIRE

    Distefano, Gaetano; Las Casas, Giuseppina; La Malfa, Stefano; Gentile, Alessandra; Tribulato, Eugenio; Herrero Romero, María

    2009-01-01

    Seedlessness is an important trait in the evaluation of commercial mandarin for fresh consumption. However, in the last decade, the presence of seeds in fruit of cultivars considered as seedless has become a problem in different citrus-growing areas because the commercial value is depreciated. Seeds have appeared concomitantly with the introduction of new cultivars that appear to be cross-compatible. To overcome this problem, different strategies have been explored, but a definitive answer is...

  13. The Effect of L2 Experience on Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Consonants, Vowels, and Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Yen-Chen

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated English speakers' perception of Mandarin sounds, aiming to answer three major questions. First, does the perceived similarity between Mandarin and English sounds affect learners' acquisition of Mandarin sounds? Second, do the groups with different amounts of Mandarin experience differ in their perception of…

  14. Discrimination of Tone Contrasts in Mandarin Disyllables by Naive American English Listeners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari Salzhauer

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the perception of Mandarin disyllabic tones by inexperienced American English speakers. Participants heard two naturally-produced Mandarin disyllables, and indicated if the two were the same or different. A small native Mandarin-speaking control group participated as well. All 21 possible Mandarin contrasts where the…

  15. Stuttering in English-Mandarin Bilingual Speakers: The Influence of Language Dominance on Stuttering Severity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Valerie P. C.; Lincoln, Michelle; Chan, Yiong Huak; Onslow, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: English and Mandarin are the 2 most spoken languages in the world, yet it is not known how stuttering manifests in English-Mandarin bilinguals. In this research, the authors investigated whether the severity and type of stuttering is different in English and Mandarin in English-Mandarin bilinguals, and whether this difference was…

  16. Malaysian Chinese Speakers' Attitudes Towards Foochow, Hokkien and Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puah, Yann-Yann; Ting, Su-Hie

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of gender, age and socio-economic status on attitudes of Foochow and Hokkien towards their ethnic language and Mandarin. The matched guise test results of 120 Foochow and 120 Hokkien participants in Kuching, Malaysia, showed positive attitudes towards Mandarin on all the 15 traits. The Hokkien participants were…

  17. Social Competence of Mandarin-Speaking Immigrant Children in Childcare

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang

    2015-01-01

    This study aims to examine social competence of Chinese immigrant children and its associations with age, length of attendance in childcare, gender, generational status and proficiencies in English and Mandarin Chinese. One hundred Mandarin-speaking children aged three to five years from 15 childcare centres in Sydney were assessed by normed…

  18. Malaysian Chinese Speakers' Attitudes Towards Foochow, Hokkien and Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puah, Yann-Yann; Ting, Su-Hie

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of gender, age and socio-economic status on attitudes of Foochow and Hokkien towards their ethnic language and Mandarin. The matched guise test results of 120 Foochow and 120 Hokkien participants in Kuching, Malaysia, showed positive attitudes towards Mandarin on all the 15 traits. The Hokkien participants were…

  19. Lexical Development in Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Li; Lu, Ying; Kan, Pui Fong

    2011-01-01

    Two groups of Mandarin-English bilingual children (3-5-year-olds, 6-8-year-olds) participated in a picture identification task and a picture naming task in both languages. Results revealed age-related growth in English, but not Mandarin vocabulary. Composite vocabulary was larger than either single-language vocabulary in the younger children but…

  20. Characterisation of cell-wall polysaccharides from mandarin segment membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coll-Almela, L.; Saura-Lopez, D.; Laencina-Sanchez, J.; Schols, H.A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Ros-García, J.M.

    2015-01-01

    In an attempt to develop a process of enzymatic peeling of mandarin segments suitable for use on an industrial scale, the cell wall fraction of the segment membrane of Satsuma mandarin fruits was extracted to obtain a chelating agent-soluble pectin fraction (ChSS), a dilute sodium hydroxide-soluble

  1. Orthographic effects in spoken word recognition: Evidence from Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Qingqing; Damian, Markus F

    2017-06-01

    Extensive evidence from alphabetic languages demonstrates a role of orthography in the processing of spoken words. Because alphabetic systems explicitly code speech sounds, such effects are perhaps not surprising. However, it is less clear whether orthographic codes are involuntarily accessed from spoken words in languages with non-alphabetic systems, in which the sound-spelling correspondence is largely arbitrary. We investigated the role of orthography via a semantic relatedness judgment task: native Mandarin speakers judged whether or not spoken word pairs were related in meaning. Word pairs were either semantically related, orthographically related, or unrelated. Results showed that relatedness judgments were made faster for word pairs that were semantically related than for unrelated word pairs. Critically, orthographic overlap on semantically unrelated word pairs induced a significant increase in response latencies. These findings indicate that orthographic information is involuntarily accessed in spoken-word recognition, even in a non-alphabetic language such as Chinese.

  2. Clinical assessment of early language development: a simplified short form of the Mandarin communicative development inventory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soli, Sigfrid D; Zheng, Yun; Meng, Zhaoli; Li, Gang

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a practical mean for clinical evaluation of early pediatric language development by establishing developmental trajectories for receptive and expressive vocabulary growth in children between 6 and 32 months of age using a simple, time-efficient assessment tool. Simplified short form versions of the Words and Gestures and Words and Sentences vocabulary inventories in the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventory [1] were developed and used to assess early language development in developmentally normal children from 6 to 32 months of age during routine health checks. Developmental trajectories characterizing the rate of receptive and expressive vocabulary growth between 6 and 32 months of age are reported. These trajectories allow the equivalent age corresponding to a score to be determined after a brief structured interview with the child's parents that can be conducted in a busy clinical setting. The simplified short forms of the Mandarin Communicative Development Inventories can serve as a clinically useful tool to assess early child language development, providing a practical mean of objectively assessing early language development following early interventions to treat young children with hearing impairment as well as speech and language delays. Objective evidence of language development is essential for achievement of effective (re)habilitation outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Signal Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    SIGNAL WORDS TOPIC FACT SHEET NPIC fact sheets are designed to answer questions that are commonly asked by the ... making decisions about pesticide use. What are Signal Words? Signal words are found on pesticide product labels, ...

  4. Cantonese-Speaking Children Do Not Acquire Tone Perception before Tone Production-A Perceptual and Acoustic Study of Three-Year-Olds' Monosyllabic Tones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Puisan; Fu, Wing M; Cheung, Eunice Y L

    2017-01-01

    Models of phonological development assume that speech perception precedes speech production and that children acquire suprasegmental features earlier than segmental features. Studies of Chinese-speaking children challenge these assumptions. For example, Chinese-speaking children can produce tones before two-and-a-half years but are not able to discriminate the same tones until after 6 years of age. This study compared the perception and production of monosyllabic Cantonese tones directly in 3 -year-old children. Twenty children and their mothers identified Cantonese tones in a picture identification test and produced monosyllabic tones in a picture labeling task. To control for lexical biases on tone ratings, the mother- and child-productions were low-pass filtered to eliminate lexical information and were presented to five judges for tone classification. Detailed acoustic analysis was performed. Contrary to the view that children master lexical tones earlier than segmental phonemes, results showed that 3-year-old children could not perceive or produce any Cantonese tone with adult-like proficiency and incorrect tone productions were acoustically different from criterion. In contrast to previous findings that Cantonese-speaking children mastered tone production before tone perception, we observed more accuracy during speech perception than production. Findings from Cantonese-speaking children challenge some of the established tenets in theories of phonological development that have been tested mostly with native English speakers.

  5. Assessing factors influencing the postharvest quality of California mandarins - Variability in waxing-induced ethanol and aroma volatile production among mandarin varieties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarins often develop off-flavors during storage that impact consumer acceptance and it would be useful to develop mandarin varieties that are less susceptible to postharvest flavor loss. Ethanol has long been identified to be associated with flavor loss in citrus. A range of diverse mandarin geno...

  6. The role of phonological alternation in speech production: evidence from Mandarin tone sandhi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Zhang, Jie

    2014-05-01

    We investigate the role of phonological alternation during speech production in Mandarin using implicit priming, a paradigm in which participants respond faster to words in sets that are phonologically homogeneous than in sets that are phonologically heterogeneous. We test whether priming is obtained when words in a set share the same tones at the underlying level but have different tones at the surface level-i.e., when the set includes a word that undergoes a phonological alternation which changes the tone. Sets that are heterogeneous at the surface level (in which the heterogeneity is due to a phonological operation) failed to elicit priming, as did sets that are heterogeneous at the underlying and surface levels (in which the heterogeneity is due to the lexical representations). This finding suggests that the phonological alternation was computed before the initiation of articulation, offering evidence that the progression from underlying phonological representations to articulatory execution may be mediated online by phonological input-to-output mapping. Furthermore, sets of words that are heterogeneous only at the surface level showed a different trend than sets of words that are heterogeneous at both levels, suggesting that both the surface and underlying levels of representation play a role during speech production.

  7. Temporal construals of bare predicates in Mandarin Chinese

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Hongyuan

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation contributes to the research on tense and eventualities across languages. It presents the first systematic investigation and detailed theoretical analysis of the temporal interpretations of sentences with bare (aspectually unmarked) predicates in Mandarin. Traditionally considered

  8. Why should not Putonghua be translated as Mandarin?%"普通话"译为"Mandarin"之我见

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲁健骥

    2009-01-01

    @@ 一 国内一些语言学或语言教学杂志上有些论文的内容提要中将"中文""汉语""普通话"译为"Mandarin"者时有所见.而在我国出版的书籍和官方文件中用"Mandarin"翻译"中文""汉语""普通话"的,却还不多见.最近各发现一例.一是一本中国人口出版社出版的书名为Mandarin Phrasebook书(这里的"Mandarin"是"汉语"的意思).

  9. Audiovisual speech perception at various presentation levels in Mandarin-speaking adults with cochlear implants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Yu Liu

    Full Text Available (1 To evaluate the recognition of words, phonemes and lexical tones in audiovisual (AV and auditory-only (AO modes in Mandarin-speaking adults with cochlear implants (CIs; (2 to understand the effect of presentation levels on AV speech perception; (3 to learn the effect of hearing experience on AV speech perception.Thirteen deaf adults (age = 29.1±13.5 years; 8 male, 5 female who had used CIs for >6 months and 10 normal-hearing (NH adults participated in this study. Seven of them were prelingually deaf, and 6 postlingually deaf. The Mandarin Monosyllablic Word Recognition Test was used to assess recognition of words, phonemes and lexical tones in AV and AO conditions at 3 presentation levels: speech detection threshold (SDT, speech recognition threshold (SRT and 10 dB SL (re:SRT.The prelingual group had better phoneme recognition in the AV mode than in the AO mode at SDT and SRT (both p = 0.016, and so did the NH group at SDT (p = 0.004. Mode difference was not noted in the postlingual group. None of the groups had significantly different tone recognition in the 2 modes. The prelingual and postlingual groups had significantly better phoneme and tone recognition than the NH one at SDT in the AO mode (p = 0.016 and p = 0.002 for phonemes; p = 0.001 and p<0.001 for tones but were outperformed by the NH group at 10 dB SL (re:SRT in both modes (both p<0.001 for phonemes; p<0.001 and p = 0.002 for tones. The recognition scores had a significant correlation with group with age and sex controlled (p<0.001.Visual input may help prelingually deaf implantees to recognize phonemes but may not augment Mandarin tone recognition. The effect of presentation level seems minimal on CI users' AV perception. This indicates special considerations in developing audiological assessment protocols and rehabilitation strategies for implantees who speak tonal languages.

  10. Processing of Scalar Inferences by Mandarin Learners of English: An Online Measure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yowyu

    2016-01-01

    Scalar inferences represent the condition when a speaker uses a weaker expression such as some in a pragmatic scale like , and s/he has the intention to reject the stronger use of the other word like all in the utterance. Considerable disagreement has arisen concerning how interlocutors derive the inferences. The study presented here tries to address this issue by examining online scalar inferences among Mandarin learners of English. To date, Default Inference and Relevance Theory have made different predictions regarding how people process scalar inferences. Findings from recently emerging first language studies did not fully resolved the debate but led to even more heated debates. The current three online psycholinguistic experiments reported here tried to address the processing of scalar inferences from second language perspective. Results showed that Mandarin learners of English showed faster reaction times and a higher acceptance rate when interpreting some as some but not all and this was true even when subjects were under time pressure, which was manifested in Experiment 2. Overall, the results of the experiments supported Default Theory. In addition, Experiment 3 also found that working memory capacity plays a critical role during scalar inference processing. High span readers were faster in accepting the some but not all interpretation than low span readers. However, compared with low span readers, high span readers were more likely to accept the some and possibly all condition, possibly due to their working memory capacity to generate scenarios to fit the interpretation. PMID:26752294

  11. Speech perception in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuan; Wong, Lena L N

    2017-03-15

    This paper reviewed the literature on the trajectories and the factors significantly affecting post-implantation speech perception development in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). A systematic literature search of textbooks and peer-reviewed published journal articles in online bibliographic databases was conducted. PubMed, Scopus and Wiley online library were searched for eligible studies based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. A total of 14 journal articles were selected for this review. A number of consistent results were found. That is, children with CIs, as a group, exhibited steep improvement in early speech perception, from exhibiting few prelingual auditory behaviours before implantation to identifying sentences in noise after one year of CI use. After one to three years of CI use, children are expected to identify tones above chance and recognition of words in noise. In addition, early age at implantation, longer duration of CI use and higher maternal education level contributed to greater improvements in speech perception. Findings from this review will contribute to the establishment of appropriate short-term developmental goals for Mandarin-speaking children with CIs in mainland China and clinicians could use them to determine whether children have made appropriate progress with CIs.

  12. Speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Hsiu-Feng; Yang, Cheng-Chieh; Chi, Lin-Yang; Weismer, Gary; Wang, Yu-Tsai

    2012-04-01

    The effects of the use of cochlear implant (CI) on speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics and the relationships between speech intelligibility, speaking rate, and vowel formant characteristics for children are clinically important. The purposes of this study were to report on the comparisons for speaking rate and vowel space area, and their relationship with speech intelligibility, between 24 Mandarin-speaking children with CI and 24 age-sex-education level matched normal hearing (NH) controls. Participants were audio recorded as they read a designed Mandarin intelligibility test, repeated prolongation of each of the three point vowels /i/, /a/, and /u/ five times, and repeated each of three sentences carrying one point vowel five times. Compared to the NH group, the CI group exhibited: (1) mild-to-moderate speech intelligibility impairment; (2) significantly reduced speaking rate mainly due to significantly longer inter-word pauses and larger pause proportion; and (3) significantly less vowel reduction in the horizontal dimension in sustained vowel phonation. The limitations of speech intelligibility development in children after cochlear implantation were related to atypical patterns and to a smaller degree in vowel reduction and slower speaking rate resulting from less efficient articulatory movement transition.

  13. An Analysis of the Phrases Use Feature of "Mandarin Chinese with Hong Kong Accent"%“港味普通话”词语使用特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱芳

    2012-01-01

    "港味普通话"是普通话在香港流行过程中自然形成的一种语言变体,它源于港人在说普通话时对粤普两语中同形异义词的借用和对外来词的借用。与香港本土文化及港人日常生活密切相关的词汇进入普通话使用已成为发展趋势,大量的港式粤语词汇,经由"港味普通话"被内地的人们在普通话中广泛使用,并进入《现代汉语词典》。%"Mandarin Chinese with Hong Kong accent" is the language variant when mandarin using in Hong Kong,which is originated from the borrowing of homograph and alien words in Hong Kong people's speaking.The condition that the words that close related to Hong Kong mainland civilization and daily lives enter into mandarin was the tendency.It has large number of words with Hong Kong style large used by inland people through "mandarin Chinese with Hong Kong accent",which has enter into the contemporary Chinese Dictionary.

  14. Lexical influences on spoken spondaic word recognition in hearing-impaired patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annie eMoulin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Top-down contextual influences play a major part in speech understanding, especially in hearing-impaired patients with deteriorated auditory input. Those influences are most obvious in difficult listening situations, such as listening to sentences in noise but can also be observed at the word level under more favorable conditions, as in one of the most commonly used tasks in audiology, i.e., repeating isolated words in silence. This study aimed to explore the role of top-down contextual influences and their dependence on lexical factors and patient-specific factors using standard clinical linguistic material. Spondaic word perception was tested in 160 hearing-impaired patients aged 23 to 88 years with a four-frequency average pure-tone threshold ranging from 21 to 88 dB HL. Sixty spondaic words were randomly presented at a level adjusted to correspond to a speech perception score ranging between 40% and 70% of the performance intensity function obtained using monosyllabic words. Phoneme and whole-word recognition scores were used to calculate two context-influence indices (the j factor and the ratio of word scores to phonemic scores and were correlated with linguistic factors, such as the phonological neighborhood density and several indices of word occurrence frequencies. Contextual influence was greater for spondaic words than in similar studies using monosyllabic words, with an overall j factor of 2.07 (SD=0.5. For both indices, context use decreased with increasing hearing loss once the average hearing loss exceeded 55 dB HL. In right-handed patients, significantly greater context influence was observed for words presented in the right ears than for words presented in the left, especially in patients with many years of education. The correlations between raw word scores (and context influence indices and word occurrence frequencies showed a significant age-dependent effect, with a stronger correlation between perception scores and word

  15. WORD MAGIC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao; Xinmin

    1999-01-01

    This article presents a word game named"Word Magic",which is effective and efficient inavoiding word forgetting & decaying as well as helping students to improve their abilities in spelling,word building and so on.The procedures and rules of the game are formulated together with the makingof the cards used in it.The advantages of the game are also expounded.

  16. Utterance-final particles in Taiwan Mandarin : contact, context and core functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lin, Chin-hui

    2014-01-01

    The use of utterance-final particles (UFPs) is a salient feature of Taiwan Mandarin, a Mandarin variety spoken in Taiwan. Despite their widespread use, Taiwan Mandarin UFPs have not attracted much attention in previous research. One reason for this neglect is that previous studies focus on UFPs that

  17. A High School Intensive Summer Mandarin Course: Program Model and Learner Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.; Silva, Duarte; Masuda, Norman

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a STARTALK intensive summer high school Mandarin language and culture program that was conducted for three summers. Participants across the three years included 40 Mandarin Level II and 53 Mandarin Level III high school students. Quantitative and qualitative data are presented to show the effectiveness of the program.…

  18. Comments on Nigel Wiseman's A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine (Ⅰ)--On the "Word-for-word" Literal Approach to Translation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Zhu-fan; WHITE Paul

    2005-01-01

    Comments were made on the "word-for-word" literal translation method used by Mr. Nigel Wiseman in A Practical Dictionary of Chinese Medicine. He believes that only literal translation can reflect Chinese medical concepts accurately. The so-called "word-for-word" translation is actually "English-wordfor- Chinese-character" translation. First, the authors of the dictionary made a list of Single Characters with English Equivalents, and then they gave each character of the medical term an English equivalent according to the list. Finally, they made some minor modifications to make the rendering grammatically smoother. Many English terms thus produced are confusing. The defect of the word-for-word literal translation stems from the erroneous idea that a single character constitutes the basic element of meaning corresponding to the notion of "word" in English, and the meaning of a disyllabic or polysyllabic Chinese word is the simple addition of the constituent characters. Another big mistake is the negligence of the polysemy of Chinese characters. One or two English equivalents can by no means cover all the various meanings of a single character which is a polysemous monosyllabic word. Various examples were cited from this dictionary to illustrate the mistakes.

  19. Long-term language levels and reading skills in mandarin-speaking prelingually deaf children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Che-Ming; Chen, Yen-An; Chan, Kai-Chieh; Lee, Li-Ang; Hsu, Kuang-Hung; Lin, Bao-Guey; Liu, Tien-Chen

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to document receptive and expressive language levels and reading skills achieved by Mandarin-speaking children who had received cochlear implants (CIs) and used them for 4.75-7.42 years. The effects of possible associated factors were also analyzed. Standardized Mandarin language and reading tests were administered to 39 prelingually deaf children with Nucleus 24 devices. The Mandarin Chinese version of the Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test was used to assess their receptive vocabulary knowledge and the Revised Primary School Language Assessment Test for their receptive and expressive language skills. The Graded Chinese Character Recognition Test was used to test their written word recognition ability and the Reading Comprehension Test for their reading comprehension ability. Raw scores from both language and reading measurements were compared to normative data of nor- mal-hearing children to obtain standard scores. The results showed that the mean standard score for receptive vocabulary measurement and the mean T scores for the receptive language, expressive language and total language measurement were all in the low-average range in comparison to the normative sample. In contrast, the mean T scores for word and text reading comprehension were almost the same as for their age-matched hearing counterparts. Among all children with CIs, 75.7% scored within or above the normal range of their age-matched hearing peers on receptive vocabulary measurement. For total language, Chinese word recognition and reading scores, 71.8, 77 and 82% of children with CIs were age appropriate, respectively. A strong correlation was found between language and reading skills. Age at implantation and sentence perception scores account for 37% of variance for total language outcome. Sentence perception scores and preimplantation residual hearing were revealed to be associated with the outcome of reading comprehension. We concluded that by using standard tests, the

  20. Duration of content and function words in oral discourse by speakers with fluent aphasia: Preliminary data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tan Lee

    2014-04-01

    Words that had occurred ten times or more in the speech materials was arbitrarily categorized as ‘unique words’ that could more reliably reflect syllable duration. There were a total of 206 unique words (141 content and 65 function words in the aphasia speech materials and 253 unique words (187 content and 66 function in the normal materials, most of them were disyllabic or monosyllabic. A higher lexical diversity in the normal group, but similar number of different function words for both groups, was consistent with earlier findings of impaired lexical access in aphasia. Table 1 displays the average duration per syllable and per word for content and function words among the two speaker groups. Our study showed that word duration in aphasic speech was longer than that in control speech. This is in line with our earlier results of higher speaking rate in normal speech. While content words were longer than function words in the aphasic speech, the difference was not as significant as that in controls.

  1. The perceptual assimilation of Korean obstruents by native Mandarin listeners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holliday, Jeffrey J

    2014-03-01

    The current study reports the results of a perception experiment in which 20 naive native Mandarin listeners classified and rated the goodness of Korean stops /p, t, k, p(h), t(h), k(h), p*, t*, k*/, affricates /tɕ, tɕ*, tɕ(h)/, and fricatives /s(h), s*/ in terms of Mandarin segmental categories. It was found that listeners were sensitive to the voice onset time dimension of Korean stops and the presence of aspiration in Korean affricates, but Korean lenis and aspirated obstruents were generally assimilated to a single Mandarin category because the f0 cue differentiating them is not relevant to any Mandarin segmental contrast. The affricates were perceived as alveolopalatal and postalveolar more often than alveolar. The perception of fricatives was strongly influenced by vowel context, as the two fricatives were often perceived as different categories before /a/, but as the same category more often before /i/ and /u/. The results for the affricates and fricatives may be partly explained by Mandarin phonotactic constraints that prohibit alveolar and postalveolar consonants before /i/ and alveolopalatal consonants before /a/ or /u/.

  2. Blue-Green Colour Categorisation in Mandarin-English Speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Joanne Hird

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Observers are faster to detect a target among a set of distracters if the targets and distracters come from different colour categories. This cross-boundary advantage seems to be limited to the right visual field, which is consistent with the dominance of the left hemisphere for language processing. Here we study whether a similiar visual field advantage is found in Mandarin, a language which uses a logographic system. Forty late Mandarin-English bilinguals performed a blue-green colour categorisation task, in a blocked design, in their first language (L1: Mandarin or second language (L2: English. Eleven colour singletons ranging from blue to green were presented for 160ms, randomly in the left visual field (LVF or in the right visual field (RVF. We find that reaction times at the colour boundary were on average about 100 ms shorter in the LVF compared to the RVF, but only when the task was preformed in Mandarin as opposed to English. The apparent discrepancy with previous findings is conceivably due to the script nature of two languages: Mandarin logographic characters are analysed visuo-orthographically in the right fusiform gyrus [Guo and Burgund 2010, Brain Lang 115].

  3. Predicting the intelligibility of vocoded and wideband Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Loizou, Philipos C

    2011-05-01

    Due to the limited number of cochlear implantees speaking Mandarin Chinese, it is extremely difficult to evaluate new speech coding algorithms designed for tonal languages. Access to an intelligibility index that could reliably predict the intelligibility of vocoded (and non-vocoded) Mandarin Chinese is a viable solution to address this challenge. The speech-transmission index (STI) and coherence-based intelligibility measures, among others, have been examined extensively for predicting the intelligibility of English speech but have not been evaluated for vocoded or wideband (non-vocoded) Mandarin speech despite the perceptual differences between the two languages. The results indicated that the coherence-based measures seem to be influenced by the characteristics of the spoken language. The highest correlation (r = 0.91-0.97) was obtained in Mandarin Chinese with a weighted coherence measure that included primarily information from high-intensity voiced segments (e.g., vowels) containing F0 information, known to be important for lexical tone recognition. In contrast, in English, highest correlation was obtained with a coherence measure that included information from weak consonants and vowel/consonant transitions. A band-importance function was proposed that captured information about the amplitude envelope contour. A higher modulation rate (100 Hz) was found necessary for the STI-based measures for maximum correlation (r = 0.94-0.96) with vocoded Mandarin and English recognition.

  4. Performance of 'Okitsu' Satsuma Mandarin on nine rootstocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc. trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.; 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka; 'C-13' [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L. Raf.] and 'Carrizo' citranges [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq.; trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L. Raf.; 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L. Osb.] and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L. Raf.]. The highest plant growth was for the trees on 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange. In contrast, the smallest size was for the trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and trifoliate orange. The largest difference between the trunk diameter below and above the grafting point was induced by 'Swingle' citrumelo. Trees of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin on 'Swingle' citrumelo presented the highest yield, while 'C-13', 'Carrizo', 'Sunki', and 'Swingle' induced the largest fruit masses. With regard to fruit characteristics, 'Carrizo' and trifoliate orange induced the best ratio and juice content. Based on theoretical values, 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkamer' lemon induced the lowest yields

  5. The Causes and the Future of New Chinese Internet Words that Deriving from Regional Dialects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董楠楠

    2015-01-01

    In the recent two decades, the computer industry and internet business have significant development all over the world which provide a cradle for the coming of new Chinese Internet words. Many scholars have studied this new group of word as a whole or just some specific parts of it. This paper will give the term, weblect(网络方言), a definition after it was raised by Professor Hou guojin. Meanwhile it will focus on new Chinese Internet words that come from regional dialects, analyzing the causes of their emerging and popularizing. In addition, this term paper will predict its future after describing the impacts these words brought to mandarin Chinese.

  6. English vowel learning by speakers of Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ron I.

    2005-04-01

    One of the most influential models of second language (L2) speech perception and production [Flege, Speech Perception and Linguistic Experience (York, Baltimore, 1995) pp. 233-277] argues that during initial stages of L2 acquisition, perceptual categories sharing the same or nearly the same acoustic space as first language (L1) categories will be processed as members of that L1 category. Previous research has generally been limited to testing these claims on binary L2 contrasts, rather than larger portions of the perceptual space. This study examines the development of 10 English vowel categories by 20 Mandarin L1 learners of English. Imitation of English vowel stimuli by these learners, at 6 data collection points over the course of one year, were recorded. Using a statistical pattern recognition model, these productions were then assessed against native speaker norms. The degree to which the learners' perception/production shifted toward the target English vowels and the degree to which they matched L1 categories in ways predicted by theoretical models are discussed. The results of this experiment suggest that previous claims about perceptual assimilation of L2 categories to L1 categories may be too strong.

  7. Keterkaitan New HSK dan Kurikulum Bahasa Mandarin di Perguruan Tinggi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pauw Budianto

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This research is to find out the correlation between the New HSK (Hanyu Shuiping Kaoshi/International Mandarin Proficiency Test and the Mandarin Skill Curriculum in higher education in Indonesia, with case study at Chinese Department of Maranatha Christian University Bandung. Methods used in this research are survey and literature studies, with quantitative and qualitative analytic description. The results show that New HSK could be used as achievement tests for students of Chinese Department at each level of study. Besides, New HSK could also be one of measurement tools for curriculum needs analysis, which means that the change of students achievements in New HSK would decide the adjustments of the Mandarin skill curriculum at whole.

  8. Does Aesthetics of Web Page Interface Matters to Mandarin Learning?

    CERN Document Server

    Zain, Jasni Mohamad; Goh, Yingsoon

    2011-01-01

    Aesthetics of web page refers to how attractive a web page is in which it catches the attention of the user to read through the information. In addition, the visual appearance is important in getting attentions of the users. Moreover, it was found that those screens, which were perceived as aesthetically pleasing, were having a better usability. Usability might be a strong basic in relating to the applicability for learning, and in this study pertaining to Mandarin learning. It was also found that aesthetically pleasing layouts of web page would motivate students in Mandarin learning The Mandarin Learning web pages were manipulated according to the desired aesthetic measurements. GUI aesthetic measuring method was used for this purpose. The Aesthetics-Measurement Application (AMA) accomplished with six aesthetic measures was developed and used. On top of it, questionnaires were distributed to the users to gather information on the students' perceptions on the aesthetic aspects and learning aspects. Respondent...

  9. Mandarin melody recognition by pediatric cochlear implant recipients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsiao, Feilin

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the ability of children with implants who speak Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, to recognize familiar melodies. It further examined the relative contributions of pitch, rhythm, and lyrics to melody recognition. Two groups of participants (ages 7-15; n = 20 for each group), those with cochlear implants and those with typical hearing, listened to 2 sets (traditional Mandarin children's songs and children's songs from Western cultures translated into Mandarin) of three melodies. These melodies were presented in 3 conditions: (a) melodic contour only (pitches in equal durations); (b) melodic contour with rhythmic patterns; and (c) melodic contour with rhythmic patterns and lyrics. The results indicated that pediatric cochlear implant recipients performed with greater accuracy in melody recognition when lyrics were available. Their scores were significantly lower when melodies containing only pitch features. Providing the rhythmic patterns aided participants' identification of the target melodies, but less so than the lyrics. Applications of findings to aural rehabilitation are discussed.

  10. Word classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rijkhoff, Jan

    2007-01-01

    This article provides an overview of recent literature and research on word classes, focusing in particular on typological approaches to word classification. The cross-linguistic classification of word class systems (or parts-of-speech systems) presented in this article is based on statements found...... a parts-of-speech system that includes the categories Verb, Noun, Adjective and Adverb, other languages may use only a subset of these four lexical categories. Furthermore, quite a few languages have a major word class whose members cannot be classified in terms of the categories Verb – Noun – Adjective...

  11. Parental diagnosis of satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) revealed by nuclear and cytoplasmic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujii, Hiroshi; Ohta, Satoshi; Nonaka, Keisuke; Katayose, Yuichi; Matsumoto, Toshimi; Endo, Tomoko; Yoshioka, Terutaka; Omura, Mitsuo; Shimada, Takehiko

    2016-12-01

    Satsuma mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marc.) are the predominant cultivated citrus variety in Japan. Clarification of its origin would prove valuable for citrus taxonomy and mandarin breeding programs; however, current information is limited. We applied genome-wide genotyping using a 384 citrus single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) array and MARCO computer software to investigate the satsuma mandarin parentage. Genotyping data from 206 validated SNPs were obtained to evaluate 67 citrus varieties and lines. A total of five parent-offspring relationships were newly found by MARCO based on the 206 SNP genotypes, indicating that 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarins (Citrus kinokuni hort. ex Tanaka accession 'Kishuu mikan' and 'Nanfengmiju') and 'Kunenbo' type mandarins (Citrus nobilis Lour. var. kunip Tanaka accession 'Kunenbo' and 'Bendiguangju') are possible parents of the satsuma mandarin. Moreover, cleaved amplified polymorphic sequences analysis showed that the genotypes of four regions in chloroplast DNA of 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarins were identical to that of the satsuma mandarin. Considering the historical background, satsuma mandarins may therefore derive from an occasional cross between a 'Kishuu mikan' type mandarin seed parent (derivative or synonym of 'Nanfengmiju') and a 'Kunenbo' type mandarin pollen parent (derivative or synonym of 'Bendiguangju').

  12. Effects of pitch-slope-related parameters on stress perception of Tone 2 + Tone 2 disyllabic words in Mandarin%斜率相关参数对双音节阳平词的重音感知的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘敏; 张劲松; 李雅; 陶建华; 段日成

    2013-01-01

    传统的基频和时长等声学参数凸显阳平音节的重音的作用有限,因此该文具体考察了双音节阳平词的词重音的声学关联物.通过对6 000句语料中的1 282个双音节阳平词进行重音标注和声学分析,发现双音节阳平词的词重音表现出特殊的声学关联物:两音节的音高升幅差、音高上升部分时长差和斜率差这3个斜率相关参数.主要体现在:3个斜率相关参数与双音节阳平词的重音类别有较高的相关性,它们均能够为区分前重词和后重词提供线索;在不同的韵律边界下,斜率相关参数对词重音的影响不同;3个参数与重音类别存在一定的对应关系.%This paper focuses on the effects of the sound parameters related to pitch slope on stress perception of Tone 2 + Tone 2 disyllabic words.The acoustic parameters of 1 282 Tone 2 + Tone 2 disyllabic words taken from a 6 000 sentence stress-labeled corpus are analyzed to identify the F0 changes,the duration differences and the pitch slope differences of the tone-nucleus part between the syllables of disyllabic words,which are shown to be important acoustic correlates of stress perception.These three parameters,especially the F0 changes,play crucial roles in discriminating between initial-syllable-stressed and final-syllable-stressed words.These parameters show different effects when the boundary levels differ,with the dividing line further clarified for different boundary levels.

  13. Thinking outside the box when reading aloud: Between (localist) module connection strength as a source of word frequency effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besner, Derek; Risko, Evan F

    2016-10-01

    The frequency with which words appear in print is a powerful predictor of the time to read monosyllabic words aloud, and consequently all models of reading aloud provide an explanation for this effect. The entire class of localist accounts assumes that the effect of word frequency arises because the mental lexicon is organized around frequency of occurrence (the action is inside the lexical boxes). We propose instead that the frequency of occurrence effect is better understood in terms of the hypothesis that the strength of between module connections varies as a function of word frequency. Findings from 3 different lines of investigation (experimental and computational) are difficult to understand in terms of the "within lexicon" account, but are consistent with the strength of between-module connections account. (PsycINFO Database Record

  14. A tutoring package to teach pronunciation of Mandarin Chinese characters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hang; Miller, L Keith

    2007-01-01

    We examined the effects of a tutoring package (verbal modeling, prompts, and contingent praise/ Chinese conversations with the tutor) on the performance of a college student's Mandarin Chinese pronunciation. The effects of the tutoring package were analyzed using a multiple baseline design across two sets of 50 Chinese characters. The tutoring package produced improvement in the student's correct pronunciation of Chinese characters from 48% (pretutoring) to 90% (posttutoring). Results suggested that the tutoring package produced mastery pronunciation of targeted Mandarin Chinese vocalizations by a nonnative speaker.

  15. Word Reading in L1 and L2 Learners of Chinese: Similarities and Differences in the Functioning of Component Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dongbo

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the similarities and differences in the functioning of component processes underlying first language (L1) and second language (L2) word reading in Chinese. Fourth-grade Chinese children in Singapore were divided into L1 and L2 reader groups based on whether they used Mandarin or English as their home language. Both groups were…

  16. Recognition memory for words and faces in the very old.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diesfeldt, H; Vink, M

    1989-09-01

    The assessment of very elderly people is hindered by a scarcity of normative and reliability data for non-verbal memory tests. We tested the suitability of Warrington's Recognition Memory Test (RMT) for use with the elderly. The RMT consists of verbal (Recognition Memory for Words, RMW) and non-verbal (Recognition Memory for Faces, RMF) subtests. The facial recognition test was used in the standard format and a Dutch-language version of the word recognition test was developed using low frequency (10 or less/million) monosyllabic words. Eighty-nine subjects, varying in age from 69 to 93, were tested with the RMF. Means and SD are provided for three age groups (69-79, 80-84 and 85-93). Forty-five consecutive subjects were tested both with the RMW and the RMF. Recognition memory for words was better than recognition memory for faces in this sample. Moderate correlations (0.30-0.48) were found between RMT and WAIS Vocabulary and Raven's Coloured Progressive Matrices scores. Warrington's RMT was well tolerated, even by very elderly adults. The standardization data for the elderly over 70 add to the usefulness of this test of verbal and non-verbal episodic memory.

  17. EEG decoding of spoken words in bilingual listeners: from words to language invariant semantic-conceptual representations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Mendonça Correia

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Spoken word recognition and production require fast transformations between acoustic, phonological and conceptual neural representations. Bilinguals perform these transformations in native and non-native languages, deriving unified semantic concepts from equivalent, but acoustically different words. Here we exploit this capacity of bilinguals to investigate input invariant semantic representations in the brain. We acquired EEG data while Dutch subjects, highly proficient in English listened to four monosyllabic and acoustically distinct animal words in both languages (e.g. ‘paard’-‘horse’. Multivariate pattern analysis (MVPA was applied to identify EEG response patterns that discriminate between individual words within one language (within-language discrimination and generalize meaning across two languages (across-language generalization. Furthermore, employing two EEG feature selection approaches, we assessed the contribution of temporal and oscillatory EEG features to our classification results. MVPA revealed that within-language discrimination was possible in a broad time-window (~50-620 ms after word onset probably reflecting acoustic-phonetic and semantic-conceptual differences between the words. Most interestingly, significant across-language generalization was possible around 550-600 ms, suggesting the activation of common semantic-conceptual representations from the Dutch and English nouns. Both types of classification, showed a strong contribution of oscillations below 12 Hz, indicating the importance of low frequency oscillations in the neural representation of individual words and concepts. This study demonstrates the feasibility of MVPA to decode individual spoken words from EEG responses and to assess the spectro-temporal dynamics of their language invariant semantic-conceptual representations. We discuss how this method and results could be relevant to track the neural mechanisms underlying conceptual encoding in

  18. Mandarin, Suzhou Dialect and English: Multilingualism in Suzhou

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Sibing

    2015-01-01

    This paper explains the situation of Mandarin, Suzhou dialect and English in Suzhou, the relation between language policy and language use, discusses the positive and negative consequences that multilingualism in Suzhou might have for the society, and focuses on the change of language use in Suzhou and provides suggestions for the maintenance of…

  19. Processing Dependencies between Segmental and Suprasegmental Features in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Yunxia; Francis, Alexander L.; Gandour, Jackson T.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine processing interactions between segmental (consonant, vowel) and suprasegmental (tone) dimensions of Mandarin Chinese. Using a speeded classification paradigm, processing interactions were examined between each pair of dimensions. Listeners were asked to attend to one dimension while ignoring the variation…

  20. Chinese-Mandarin: Wade-Giles Romanization Drills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Defense Language Inst., Monterey, CA.

    Lessons are presented on Mandarin Chinese concerning how to convert from the Yale romanization system to the Wade-Giles romanization system. The Yale system is the one most widely studied in the United States. Since biographical and geographical names in newspapers, magazines, books, and maps are still spelled out in the Wade-Giles romanization…

  1. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  2. Dissimilation in the Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hang

    2016-01-01

    This article extends Optimality Theoretic studies to the research on second language tone phonology. Specifically, this work analyses the acquisition of identical tone sequences in Mandarin Chinese by adult speakers of three non-tonal languages: English, Japanese and Korean. This study finds that the learners prefer not to use identical lexical…

  3. An Analysis of the Vocabulary in Southwest Mandarin Dialects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张辩辩; 李莎

    2016-01-01

    Kunming Dialect as one of Yunnan area of southwest mandarin dialects has certain research value. This paper explores the vocabulary in Kunming dialects. First,it talks about the characteristics of regional vocabulary. Then, it investigates phonetics. Finally it proposes the social meanings of studying southwest regional dialects.

  4. A Study of Mandarin Loanwords: Lexical Stratification, Adaptation and Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Eun

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation is about Chinese loanwords. It is mainly divided into two parts. Part I is a general discussion about loanwords in Chinese; Chapter I and II belong to the first part. Part II is a discussion about the analyses of Mandarin loanwords originating from English. Chapter III, IV, and V are all related to the second part. Chapter VI is…

  5. Children's Knowledge of the Quantifier "Dou" in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    The quantifier "dou" (roughly corresponding to English "all") in Mandarin Chinese has been the topic of much discussion in the theoretical literature. This study investigated children's knowledge of this quantifier using a new methodological technique, which we dubbed the Question-Statement Task. Three questions were addressed: (i) whether young…

  6. Do English and Mandarin Speakers Think about Time Differently?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boroditsky, Lera; Fuhrman, Orly; McCormick, Kelly

    2011-01-01

    Time is a fundamental domain of experience. In this paper we ask whether aspects of language and culture affect how people think about this domain. Specifically, we consider whether English and Mandarin speakers think about time differently. We review all of the available evidence both for and against this hypothesis, and report new data that…

  7. Phonological Acquisition in Simultaneous Bilingual Mandarin-English Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu-Shea, May

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: Significant challenges face speech-language pathologists when children raised in bilingual environments are referred for speech-language evaluations. The situation is compounded for bilingual Mandarin-English children because no research-based data is available to date. This study is a preliminary examination of phonological acquisition…

  8. Metaphors for Happiness in English and Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polley, Carl A.

    2012-01-01

    Patterns of conceptualization reflected in figurative language are motivated by embodied experience, and comparisons of emotion metaphors in English, Mandarin Chinese and other languages have shown widespread similarity in such metaphors cross-culturally (Lakoff & Johnson 1980, 1999; King 1989; Yu 1996; Kovecses 2005). Nonetheless, we can also…

  9. Damages of satsuma mandarine due to soot and sulfur dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsushima, J.

    1976-01-01

    Small spots like a citrus melanose spot (disease spot by Diaporthe Citri) and relatively larger spots occurred on satsuma mandarine fruit due to soot of factories in Shikoku district in 1973. Thirteen kinds of soot collected from various districts of Japan were used for this experiment. Several soots showed pH 0.47 in 25% suspension and 1.60 in 1% suspension. These strong acid soots caused severe injuries with 2 mg per square centimeter of fruit surface, or injuries with 0.5 ml of 0.2% solution per fruit. Acidity of soot could be related to content of sulfur in fuel. Soot which was desulfurized by ammonia and contained much of ammonium also had a strong effect of fruit in spite of their rather weak acidity. Pure ammonium sulfide also caused severe injury on satusma mandarine fruit, and the salt diluted by 50% active carbon also injured fruit. A term of contact of soot on fruit was a factor for injury. Because sulfur content of leaves generally well indicate the integrating concentration of sulfur dioxide, sulfur content of satsuma mandarine leaves was determined, and the other nutritional elements of leaves and soils were also analyzed. According to leaf analysis, nutritional status of satsuma mandarine trees was normal, and content of nutritional elements of soils was also normal.

  10. Fertilization and pesticides affect mandarin orange nutrient composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of the application of foliar fertilization and pesticide on nutritional quality of mandarin orange juices were evaluated using 1H NMR metabolomics. Significant differences between the use of fertilizer and pesticides during fruit formation were observed, and included changes in sugar, am...

  11. Acoustic characteristics of English lexical stress produced by native Mandarin speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanhong; Nissen, Shawn L; Francis, Alexander L

    2008-06-01

    Native speakers of Mandarin Chinese have difficulty producing native-like English stress contrasts. Acoustically, English lexical stress is multidimensional, involving manipulation of fundamental frequency (F0), duration, intensity and vowel quality. Errors in any or all of these correlates could interfere with perception of the stress contrast, but it is unknown which correlates are most problematic for Mandarin speakers. This study compares the use of these correlates in the production of lexical stress contrasts by 10 Mandarin and 10 native English speakers. Results showed that Mandarin speakers produced significantly less native-like stress patterns, although they did use all four acoustic correlates to distinguish stressed from unstressed syllables. Mandarin and English speakers' use of amplitude and duration were comparable for both stressed and unstressed syllables, but Mandarin speakers produced stressed syllables with a higher F0 than English speakers. There were also significant differences in formant patterns across groups, such that Mandarin speakers produced English-like vowel reduction in certain unstressed syllables, but not in others. Results suggest that Mandarin speakers' production of lexical stress contrasts in English is influenced partly by native-language experience with Mandarin lexical tones, and partly by similarities and differences between Mandarin and English vowel inventories.

  12. Diversity in sensory quality and determining factors influencing mandarin flavor liking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldenberg, Livnat; Yaniv, Yossi; Kaplunov, Tatiana; Doron-Faigenboim, Adi; Carmi, Nir; Porat, Ron

    2015-02-01

    We evaluated the sensory quality of 42 mandarin varieties that belong to 7 different natural subgroups: common mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Clementine (Citrus clementina Hort. ex. Tan), Satsuma (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch), Mediterranean mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Tenore), King mandarin (Citrus nobilis Loureiro), and mandarin hybrids, such as tangor (Citrus reticulata × Citrus sinensis) and tangelo (Citrus reticulata × Citrus paradisi). Consumer flavor acceptance tests revealed wide diversity in flavor preferences among mandarin varieties and subgroups. Furthermore, descriptive flavor-analysis tests conducted with the aid of a trained sensory panel revealed that the 9 most preferred varieties had similar flavor profiles, characterized by high sweetness, moderate to low acidity levels, low bitterness and gumminess, strong fruity and mandarin flavor, and high juiciness. The average total soluble solids (TSS) and acidity levels among the highly preferred varieties were 13.1% and 1.1%, respectively. In contrast, the 8 least preferred varieties were either too sour or gummy or had low levels of sweetness, fruity, or mandarin flavor, and either high acidity levels (>1.4%) or low TSS levels (mandarin flavor, and negative correlations with acidity levels and perceptions of sourness, bitterness, and gumminess. Principle component analysis clearly distinguished between highly accepted varieties that were tightly correlated with high TSS levels and perceptions of sweetness fruitiness and mandarin flavor, as compared with the least accepted varieties that were correlated with high acidity levels and perceptions of sourness, bitterness, and gumminess.

  13. The effect of reduced vowel working space on speech intelligibility in Mandarin-speaking young adults with cerebral palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huei-Mei; Tsao, Feng-Ming; Kuhl, Patricia K.

    2005-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of reduced vowel working space on dysarthric talkers' speech intelligibility using both acoustic and perceptual approaches. In experiment 1, the acoustic-perceptual relationship between vowel working space area and speech intelligibility was examined in Mandarin-speaking young adults with cerebral palsy. Subjects read aloud 18 bisyllabic words containing the vowels /eye/, /aye/, and /you/ using their normal speaking rate. Each talker's words were identified by three normal listeners. The percentage of correct vowel and word identification were calculated as vowel intelligibility and word intelligibility, respectively. Results revealed that talkers with cerebral palsy exhibited smaller vowel working space areas compared to ten age-matched controls. The vowel working space area was significantly correlated with vowel intelligibility (r=0.632, p<0.005) and with word intelligibility (r=0.684, p<0.005). Experiment 2 examined whether tokens of expanded vowel working spaces were perceived as better vowel exemplars and represented with greater perceptual spaces than tokens of reduced vowel working spaces. The results of the perceptual experiment support this prediction. The distorted vowels of talkers with cerebral palsy compose a smaller acoustic space that results in shrunken intervowel perceptual distances for listeners. .

  14. Lexico-semantic effects on word naming in Persian: does age of acquisition have an effect?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakhtiar, Mehdi; Weekes, Brendan

    2015-02-01

    The age of acquisition (AoA) of a word has an effect on skilled reading performance. According to the arbitrary-mapping (AM) hypothesis, AoA effects on word naming are a consequence of arbitrary mappings between input and output in the lexical network. The AM hypothesis predicts that effects of AoA will be observed when words have unpredictable orthography-to-phonology (OP) mappings. The Persian writing system is characterized by a degree of consistency between OP mappings, making words transparent. However, the omission of vowels in the script used by skilled readers makes the OP mappings of many words unpredictable or opaque. In this study, we used factor analysis to test which lexico-semantic variables, including AoA, predict the reading aloud of monosyllabic Persian words with different spelling transparencies (transparent or opaque). Linear mixed-effect regression analysis revealed that a Lexical factor (loading on word familiarity, spoken frequency, and written frequency) and a Semantic factor (loading on AoA, imageability, and familiarity) significantly predict word-naming latencies in Persian. Further analysis revealed a significant interaction between AoA and transparency, with larger effects of AoA for opaque than for transparent words and a significant interaction between imageability and AoA on reading opaque words; that is, AoA effects are more pronounced for low-imageability opaque words than for high-imageability opaque words. Interactions between these factors and spelling transparency suggest that late-acquired opaque words receive greater input from the semantic reading route. Implications for understanding the AoA effects on word naming in Persian are discussed.

  15. Rapid gains in segmenting fluent speech when words match the rhythmic unit: evidence from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eBosch

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The ability to extract word-forms from sentential contexts represents an initial step in infants’ process towards lexical acquisition. By age 6 months the ability is just emerging and evidence of it is restricted to certain testing conditions. Most research has been developed with infants acquiring stress-timed languages (English, but also German and Dutch whose rhythmic unit is not the syllable. Data from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages are still scarce and limited to French (European and Canadian, partially revealing some discrepancies with English regarding the age at which word segmentation ability emerges. Research reported here aims at broadening this cross-linguistic perspective by presenting first data on the early ability to segment monosyllabic word-forms by infants acquiring Spanish and Catalan. Three different language groups (two monolingual and one bilingual and two different age groups (8- and 6-month-old infants were tested using natural language and a modified version of the HPP with familiarization to passages and testing on words. Results revealed positive evidence of word segmentation in all groups at both ages, but critically, the pattern of preference differed by age. A novelty preference was obtained in the older groups, while the expected familiarity preference was only found at the younger age tested, suggesting more advanced segmentation ability with an increase in age. These results offer first evidence of an early ability for monosyllabic word segmentation in infants acquiring syllable-timed languages such as Spanish or Catalan, not previously described in the literature. Data show no impact of bilingual exposure in the emergence of this ability and results suggest rapid gains in early segmentation for words that match the rhythm unit of the native language.

  16. Rapid gains in segmenting fluent speech when words match the rhythmic unit: evidence from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Laura; Figueras, Melània; Teixidó, Maria; Ramon-Casas, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The ability to extract word-forms from sentential contexts represents an initial step in infants' process toward lexical acquisition. By age 6 months the ability is just emerging and evidence of it is restricted to certain testing conditions. Most research has been developed with infants acquiring stress-timed languages (English, but also German and Dutch) whose rhythmic unit is not the syllable. Data from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages are still scarce and limited to French (European and Canadian), partially revealing some discrepancies with English regarding the age at which word segmentation ability emerges. Research reported here aims at broadening this cross-linguistic perspective by presenting first data on the early ability to segment monosyllabic word-forms by infants acquiring Spanish and Catalan. Three different language groups (two monolingual and one bilingual) and two different age groups (8- and 6-month-old infants) were tested using natural language and a modified version of the HPP with familiarization to passages and testing on words. Results revealed positive evidence of word segmentation in all groups at both ages, but critically, the pattern of preference differed by age. A novelty preference was obtained in the older groups, while the expected familiarity preference was only found at the younger age tested, suggesting more advanced segmentation ability with an increase in age. These results offer first evidence of an early ability for monosyllabic word segmentation in infants acquiring syllable-timed languages such as Spanish or Catalan, not previously described in the literature. Data show no impact of bilingual exposure in the emergence of this ability and results suggest rapid gains in early segmentation for words that match the rhythm unit of the native language.

  17. Rapid gains in segmenting fluent speech when words match the rhythmic unit: evidence from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosch, Laura; Figueras, Melània; Teixidó, Maria; Ramon-Casas, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The ability to extract word-forms from sentential contexts represents an initial step in infants' process toward lexical acquisition. By age 6 months the ability is just emerging and evidence of it is restricted to certain testing conditions. Most research has been developed with infants acquiring stress-timed languages (English, but also German and Dutch) whose rhythmic unit is not the syllable. Data from infants acquiring syllable-timed languages are still scarce and limited to French (European and Canadian), partially revealing some discrepancies with English regarding the age at which word segmentation ability emerges. Research reported here aims at broadening this cross-linguistic perspective by presenting first data on the early ability to segment monosyllabic word-forms by infants acquiring Spanish and Catalan. Three different language groups (two monolingual and one bilingual) and two different age groups (8- and 6-month-old infants) were tested using natural language and a modified version of the HPP with familiarization to passages and testing on words. Results revealed positive evidence of word segmentation in all groups at both ages, but critically, the pattern of preference differed by age. A novelty preference was obtained in the older groups, while the expected familiarity preference was only found at the younger age tested, suggesting more advanced segmentation ability with an increase in age. These results offer first evidence of an early ability for monosyllabic word segmentation in infants acquiring syllable-timed languages such as Spanish or Catalan, not previously described in the literature. Data show no impact of bilingual exposure in the emergence of this ability and results suggest rapid gains in early segmentation for words that match the rhythm unit of the native language. PMID:23467921

  18. Periodic words connected with the Fibonacci words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. M. Barabash

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we introduce two families of periodic words (FLP-words of type 1 and FLP-words of type 2 that are connected with the Fibonacci words and investigated their properties.

  19. Mandarin Chinese as a Heritage Language: A Case Study of U.S.-born Taiwanese

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    To date, there have been no major studies that assess how proficiently U.S.-born Taiwanese speak Mandarin and read Chinese, their heritage language (HL) and what factors contribute to such proficiency. Mandarin refers to the language spoken by the majority of Chinese people around the world and Chinese refers to the written script. This study investigates how well U.S.-born Taiwanese speak Mandarin and read Chinese as their HL, and also analyzes the factors that contribute to their proficienc...

  20. Effects of age and hearing loss on recognition of unaccented and accented multisyllabic words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon-Salant, Sandra; Yeni-Komshian, Grace H; Fitzgibbons, Peter J; Cohen, Julie I

    2015-02-01

    The effects of age and hearing loss on recognition of unaccented and accented words of varying syllable length were investigated. It was hypothesized that with increments in length of syllables, there would be atypical alterations in syllable stress in accented compared to native English, and that these altered stress patterns would be sensitive to auditory temporal processing deficits with aging. Sets of one-, two-, three-, and four-syllable words with the same initial syllable were recorded by one native English and two Spanish-accented talkers. Lists of these words were presented in isolation and in sentence contexts to younger and older normal-hearing listeners and to older hearing-impaired listeners. Hearing loss effects were apparent for unaccented and accented monosyllabic words, whereas age effects were observed for recognition of accented multisyllabic words, consistent with the notion that altered syllable stress patterns with accent are sensitive for revealing effects of age. Older listeners also exhibited lower recognition scores for moderately accented words in sentence contexts than in isolation, suggesting that the added demands on working memory for words in sentence contexts impact recognition of accented speech. The general pattern of results suggests that hearing loss, age, and cognitive factors limit the ability to recognize Spanish-accented speech.

  1. Production of phonetic and phonological contrast by heritage speakers of Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Charles B; Yao, Yao; Haynes, Erin F; Rhodes, Russell

    2011-06-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that heritage speakers of a minority language, due to their childhood experience with two languages, would outperform late learners in producing contrast: language-internal phonological contrast, as well as cross-linguistic phonetic contrast between similar, yet acoustically distinct, categories of different languages. To this end, production of Mandarin and English by heritage speakers of Mandarin was compared to that of native Mandarin speakers and native American English-speaking late learners of Mandarin in three experiments. In experiment 1, back vowels in Mandarin and English were produced distinctly by all groups, but the greatest separation between similar vowels was achieved by heritage speakers. In experiment 2, Mandarin aspirated and English voiceless plosives were produced distinctly by native Mandarin speakers and heritage speakers, who both put more distance between them than late learners. In experiment 3, the Mandarin retroflex and English palato-alveolar fricatives were distinguished by more heritage speakers and late learners than native Mandarin speakers. Thus, overall the hypothesis was supported: across experiments, heritage speakers were found to be the most successful at simultaneously maintaining language-internal and cross-linguistic contrasts, a result that may stem from a close approximation of phonetic norms that occurs during early exposure to both languages. © 2011 Acoustical Society of America

  2. Word prediction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rumelhart, D.E.; Skokowski, P.G.; Martin, B.O.

    1995-05-01

    In this project we have developed a language model based on Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) for use in conjunction with automatic textual search or speech recognition systems. The model can be trained on large corpora of text to produce probability estimates that would improve the ability of systems to identify words in a sentence given partial contextual information. The model uses a gradient-descent learning procedure to develop a metric of similarity among terms in a corpus, based on context. Using lexical categories based on this metric, a network can then be trained to do serial word probability estimation. Such a metric can also be used to improve the performance of topic-based search by allowing retrieval of information that is related to desired topics even if no obvious set of key words unites all the retrieved items.

  3. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning...... process about what the speaker intended? In two studies, we distinguish between these possibilities. Preschoolers watched as a speaker pointed toward (Study 1) or looked at (Study 2) a familiar object while requesting the referent for a new word (e.g. 'Can you give me the blicket?'). In both studies......, despite the speaker's unambiguous behavioral cue indicating an intent to refer to a familiar object, children inferred that the novel label referred to an unfamiliar object. These results suggest that children expect words to be mutually exclusive even when a speaker provides some kinds of pragmatic...

  4. Performance of 'Oneco' mandarin on six rootstocks in South Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mateus Pereira Gonzatto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to assess the effect of six rootstocks on yield, fruit quality, and growth of 'Oneco' mandarin during the first seven harvesting seasons, in Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The rootstocks evaluated were: 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata, 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis, 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata, 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia, 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana, and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (P. trifoliata var. monstrosa. Plants budded onto 'Flying Dragon' had the lowest vegetative development, which indicates the dwarfing characteristics of this rootstock, and had the highest mean production efficiency, despite low yield. Plants grafted on 'Volkamer' lemon and 'Rangpur' lime had the highest alternate bearing. Under the experimental conditions evaluated, the most adequate rootstocks for mandarin 'Oneco' are 'Swingle' citrumelo and 'Troyer' citrange, regarding fruit yield and quality.

  5. Aging effect on Mandarin Chinese vowel and tone identification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaohu; Wang, Yuxia; Xu, Lilong; Zhang, Hui; Xu, Can; Liu, Chang

    2015-10-01

    Mandarin Chinese speech sounds (vowels × tones) were presented to younger and older Chinese-native speakers with normal hearing. For the identification of vowel-plus-tone, vowel-only, and tone-only, younger listeners significantly outperformed older listeners. The tone 3 identification scores correlated significantly with the age of older listeners. Moreover, for older listeners, the identification rate of vowel-plus-tone was significantly lower than that of vowel-only and tone-only, whereas for younger listeners, there was no difference among the three identification scores. Therefore, aging negatively affected Mandarin vowel and tone perception, especially when listeners needed to process both phonemic and tonal information.

  6. Mandarin Digits Speech Recognition Using Support Vector Machines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Xiang; KUANG Jing-ming

    2005-01-01

    A method of applying support vector machine (SVM) in speech recognition was proposed, and a speech recognition system for mandarin digits was built up by SVMs. In the system, vectors were linearly extracted from speech feature sequence to make up time-aligned input patterns for SVM, and the decisions of several 2-class SVM classifiers were employed for constructing an N-class classifier. Four kinds of SVM kernel functions were compared in the experiments of speaker-independent speech recognition of mandarin digits. And the kernel of radial basis function has the highest accurate rate of 99.33%, which is better than that of the baseline system based on hidden Markov models (HMM) (97.08%). And the experiments also show that SVM can outperform HMM especially when the samples for learning were very limited.

  7. QUALITY EVALUATION OF BISCUIT INCORPORATED WITH MANDARIN PEEL POWDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SANITA THAPA

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The current research is aimed to utilize mandarin peel in biscuits baking. Chemical composition showed that peel had high contents of ash, crude fiber; whereas low protein and carbohydrate content compared to wheat flour. Mandarin peel powder (MPP was used in production of semi-sweet hard dough biscuits by replacing wheat flour by 3, 6 and 9 % to ensure the quality and acceptability of the biscuit. Baking increased the thickness of biscuit, whereas width and spread ratio of biscuits decreased with increasing levels of MPP. Biscuits were subjected for sensory evaluation. Biscuits formulated with 6 % MPP were comparable to control biscuits. The content of fiber, ash, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, polyphenol and antioxidant activity was found to be 0.85 %, 1.32 %, 1.5 mg / 100 g, 69 µg∙g-1, 2150 µg gallic acid equivalents (GAE / g and 24.5 % respectively which were significantly higher than that of control biscuit.

  8. Learning words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaswal, Vikram K.; Hansen, Mikkel

    2006-01-01

    Children tend to infer that when a speaker uses a new label, the label refers to an unlabeled object rather than one they already know the label for. Does this inference reflect a default assumption that words are mutually exclusive? Or does it instead reflect the result of a pragmatic reasoning ...

  9. Performance of 'Oneco' mandarin on six rootstocks in South Brazil.

    OpenAIRE

    Mateus Pereira Gonzatto; Alisson Pacheco Kovaleski; Eduardo Cesar Brugnara; Roberto Luis Weiler; Ivar Antônio Sartori; Jurandir Gonçalves de Lima; Renar João Bender; Sergio Francisco Schwarz

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of six rootstocks on yield, fruit quality, and growth of 'Oneco' mandarin during the first seven harvesting seasons, in Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The rootstocks evaluated were: 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata), 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia), 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana), and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (P. trifo...

  10. Performance of 'Oneco' mandarin on six rootstocks in South Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzatto,Mateus Pereira; Kovaleski, Alisson Pacheco; Brugnara, Eduardo Cesar; Weiler,Roberto Luis; Sartori, Ivar Antonio; Lima, Jurandir Goncalves de; Bender, Renar João; Schwarz,Sergio Francisco

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this work was to assess the effect of six rootstocks on yield, fruit quality, and growth of 'Oneco' mandarin during the first seven harvesting seasons, in Butiá, Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil. The rootstocks evaluated were: 'Swingle' citrumelo (Citrus paradisi × Poncirus trifoliata), 'Caipira' orange (C. sinensis), 'Troyer' citrange (C. sinensis × P. trifoliata), 'Rangpur' lime (C. limonia), 'Volkamer' lemon (C. volkameriana), and 'Flying Dragon' trifoliata orange (P. trifo...

  11. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Mandarin Lexical Tone Processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan H; Shafer, Valerie L; Sussman, Elyse S

    2017-01-01

    Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs. These ISI differences were used to test whether cross-linguistic differences in processing Mandarin lexical tone are a function of differences in acoustic resolution and/or differences in long-term memory representations. Bisyllabic nonword tokens that differed in lexical tone categories were presented using a passive listening multiple oddball paradigm. Behavioral discrimination and identification data were also collected. The ERP results revealed robust MMNs to both easy and difficult lexical tone differences for both groups at short ISIs. At long ISIs, there was either no change or an enhanced MMN amplitude for the Mandarin group, but reduced MMN amplitude for the English group. In addition, the Mandarin listeners showed a larger late negativity (LN) discriminative response than the English listeners for lexical tone contrasts in the long ISI condition. Mandarin speakers outperformed English speakers in the behavioral tasks, especially under the long ISI conditions with the more similar lexical tone pair. These results suggest that the acoustic correlates of lexical tone are fairly robust and easily discriminated at short ISIs, when the auditory sensory memory trace is strong. At longer ISIs beyond 2.5 s language-specific experience is necessary for robust discrimination.

  12. Neurophysiological and Behavioral Responses of Mandarin Lexical Tone Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yan H.; Shafer, Valerie L.; Sussman, Elyse S.

    2017-01-01

    Language experience enhances discrimination of speech contrasts at a behavioral- perceptual level, as well as at a pre-attentive level, as indexed by event-related potential (ERP) mismatch negativity (MMN) responses. The enhanced sensitivity could be the result of changes in acoustic resolution and/or long-term memory representations of the relevant information in the auditory cortex. To examine these possibilities, we used a short (ca. 600 ms) vs. long (ca. 2,600 ms) interstimulus interval (ISI) in a passive, oddball discrimination task while obtaining ERPs. These ISI differences were used to test whether cross-linguistic differences in processing Mandarin lexical tone are a function of differences in acoustic resolution and/or differences in long-term memory representations. Bisyllabic nonword tokens that differed in lexical tone categories were presented using a passive listening multiple oddball paradigm. Behavioral discrimination and identification data were also collected. The ERP results revealed robust MMNs to both easy and difficult lexical tone differences for both groups at short ISIs. At long ISIs, there was either no change or an enhanced MMN amplitude for the Mandarin group, but reduced MMN amplitude for the English group. In addition, the Mandarin listeners showed a larger late negativity (LN) discriminative response than the English listeners for lexical tone contrasts in the long ISI condition. Mandarin speakers outperformed English speakers in the behavioral tasks, especially under the long ISI conditions with the more similar lexical tone pair. These results suggest that the acoustic correlates of lexical tone are fairly robust and easily discriminated at short ISIs, when the auditory sensory memory trace is strong. At longer ISIs beyond 2.5 s language-specific experience is necessary for robust discrimination. PMID:28321179

  13. Music-to-language transfer effect: may melodic ability improve learning of tonal languages by native nontonal speakers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delogu, Franco; Lampis, Giulia; Olivetti Belardinelli, Marta

    2006-09-01

    In tonal languages, as Mandarin Chinese and Thai, word meaning is partially determined by lexical tones. Previous studies suggest that lexical tones are processed by native listeners as linguistic information and not as pure tonal information. This study aims at verifying if, in nontonal languages speakers, the discrimination of lexical Mandarin tones varies in function of the melodic ability. Forty-six students with no previous experience of Mandarin or any other tonal language were presented with two short lists of spoken monosyllabic Mandarin words and invited to perform a same-different task trying to identify whether the variation were phonological or tonal. Main results show that subjects perform significantly better in identifying phonological variations rather than tonal ones and interestingly, the group with a high melodic ability (assessed by Wing subtest 3) shows a better performance exclusively in detecting tonal variations.

  14. Research on the Learning Effects of Multimedia Assisted Instruction on Mandarin Vocabulary for Vietnamese Students: A Preliminary Study Involving E-Learning System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen-Yuan; Chung, Wan-Lin

    2011-01-01

    As Mandarin gains popularity in the whole world, Mandarin education becomes valued by the countries all over the world. The United Nations classifies Mandarin as one of the six major languages, and the number of people who learn Mandarin in the whole world grows with each passing day as the mainland China market grows. This study discusses the…

  15. Word wheels

    CERN Document Server

    Clark, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Targeting the specific problems learners have with language structure, these multi-sensory exercises appeal to all age groups including adults. Exercises use sight, sound and touch and are also suitable for English as an Additional Lanaguage and Basic Skills students.Word Wheels includes off-the-shelf resources including lesson plans and photocopiable worksheets, an interactive CD with practice exercises, and support material for the busy teacher or non-specialist staff, as well as homework activities.

  16. Impact of changing wax type during storage on mandarin flavor and quality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) packers sometimes apply a storage wax (SW) designed to limit water loss during the initial part of storage and then replace it with a higher shine pack wax (PW) prior to shipment of the fruit. Mandarins are prone to the development of off-flavors as a result of lo...

  17. Acquiring Temporal Meanings without Tense Morphology: The Case of L2 Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabakova, Roumyana

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an experimental study addressing the second language acquisition of Mandarin temporality. Mandarin Chinese does not mark past, present, or future with dedicated morphemes; the native English of the learners does. It was hypothesized that, in their comprehension, learners would utilize the deictic pattern of expressing…

  18. A Mandarin/English Two-Way Immersion Program: Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M.; Fan, Lorraine; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Silva, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    A Mandarin/English two-way immersion elementary program is described from its inception and implementation through the fifth grade, the culminating year of the program. All students in all grades were assessed on their oral/listening, reading, and writing performance in Mandarin using program-created assessment measures. Fifth-grade students also…

  19. Learner Performance in Mandarin Immersion and High School World Language Programs: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.; Silva, Duarte M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the Mandarin performance of elementary immersion program students and high school world language program students in the same school district. A cross-sectional design was employed to gather information on Mandarin proficiency of fourth and fifth graders and Level 4 and Level 5 (AP Chinese) high school students who took the…

  20. Benefits of Music Training in Mandarin-Speaking Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J., III; Wang, Xiaosong; Wu, Jiunn-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess young (5- to 10-year-old) Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users' musical pitch perception and to assess the benefits of computer-based home training on performance. Method: Melodic contour identification (MCI) was used to assess musical pitch perception in 14 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI…

  1. Acquisition of the Polarity Sensitive Item "Renhe" "Any" in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Aijun; Crain, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated Mandarin-speaking children's acquisition of the polarity sensitive item "renhe'"'any" in Mandarin Chinese. Like its English counterpart "any," "renhe" can be used as a negative polarity item (NPI), or as a free choice (FC) item, and both the distribution and…

  2. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  3. A modified statistical pattern recognition approach to measuring the crosslinguistic similarity of Mandarin and English vowels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, Ron I; Nearey, Terrance M; Derwing, Tracey M

    2009-09-01

    This study describes a statistical approach to measuring crosslinguistic vowel similarity and assesses its efficacy in predicting L2 learner behavior. In the first experiment, using linear discriminant analysis, relevant acoustic variables from vowel productions of L1 Mandarin and L1 English speakers were used to train a statistical pattern recognition model that simultaneously comprised both Mandarin and English vowel categories. The resulting model was then used to determine what categories novel Mandarin and English vowel productions most resembled. The extent to which novel cases were classified as members of a competing language category provided a means for assessing the crosslinguistic similarity of Mandarin and English vowels. In a second experiment, L2 English learners imitated English vowels produced by a native speaker of English. The statistically defined similarity between Mandarin and English vowels quite accurately predicted L2 learner behavior; the English vowel elicitation stimuli deemed most similar to Mandarin vowels were more likely to elicit L2 productions that were recognized as a Mandarin category; English stimuli that were less similar to Mandarin vowels were more likely to elicit L2 productions that were recognized as new or emerging categories.

  4. Initiating Repair and Beyond: The Use of Two Repeat-Formatted Repair Initiations in Mandarin Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ruey-Jiuan Regina

    2006-01-01

    As part of a growing effort to understand the organization of repair across languages, this study examines 2 repeat-formatted other-initiated repair practices in Mandarin conversation. Using the methodology of conversation analysis as a central framework, this study shows that the 2 Mandarin repair initiations under examination, like…

  5. Learner Performance in Mandarin Immersion and High School World Language Programs: A Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.; Silva, Duarte M.

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the Mandarin performance of elementary immersion program students and high school world language program students in the same school district. A cross-sectional design was employed to gather information on Mandarin proficiency of fourth and fifth graders and Level 4 and Level 5 (AP Chinese) high school students who took the…

  6. The Acquisition of Relative Clauses in Spontaneous Child Speech in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidong; Shirai, Yasuhiro

    2015-01-01

    This study investigates the developmental trajectory of relative clauses (RCs) in Mandarin-learning children's speech. We analyze the spontaneous production of RCs by four monolingual Mandarin-learning children (0;11 to 3;5) and their input from a longitudinal naturalistic speech corpus (Min, 1994). The results reveal that in terms of the…

  7. Variability in waxing-induced ethanol and aroma volatile production among mandarin genotypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarins often develop off-flavors during storage that impact consumer acceptance and it would be useful to develop mandarin varieties that are less susceptible to postharvest flavor loss. Ethanol has long been identified as being a compound identified with flavor loss in citrus. A range of divers...

  8. Mandarin flavor and aroma volatile composition are strongly influenced by holding temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarin flavor quality often declines during storage but the respective contributions to the flavor disorder of warm versus cold temperature portions of the storage regime were unknown. To determine this ‘W. Murcott’ mandarins were stored for either 6 weeks at a continuous 5 ºC or held at 20 ºC fo...

  9. Children's Knowledge of Ellipsis Constructions in Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated 4-year-old children's knowledge of the structural constraints on ellipsis constructions in Mandarin Chinese, focusing on the structural difference between verb phrase (VP) ellipsis and null object constructions. In Mandarin Chinese, if the antecedent clause of a VP-ellipsis structure contains an adverbial modifier,…

  10. Perception of Mandarin Tones: The Effect of L1 Background and Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xinchun

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates whether native Hmong speakers' first language (L1) lexical tone experience facilitates or interferes with their perception of Mandarin tones and whether training is effective for perceptual learning of second (L2) tones. In Experiment 1, 3 groups of beginning level learners of Mandarin with different L1 prosodic background…

  11. Acquiring Temporal Meanings without Tense Morphology: The Case of L2 Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slabakova, Roumyana

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on an experimental study addressing the second language acquisition of Mandarin temporality. Mandarin Chinese does not mark past, present, or future with dedicated morphemes; the native English of the learners does. It was hypothesized that, in their comprehension, learners would utilize the deictic pattern of expressing…

  12. The Provision of Mandarin Chinese in the UK Secondary Schools: What's in the Way?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping, Wang

    2009-01-01

    More and more British secondary schools start to offer Mandarin Chinese and some have already implemented it into the school timetable. However, the provision of Mandarin Chinese still faces many problems, which are discussed in this article from five perspectives based on the data collected.

  13. Communicative Focus on Form and Second Language Suprasegmental Learning: Teaching Cantonese Learners to Perceive Mandarin Tones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Kazuya; Wu, Xianghua

    2014-01-01

    The current study examined how form-focused instruction (FFI) with and without corrective feedback (CF) as output enhancement facilitated second language (L2) perception of Mandarin tones at both the phonetic and phonological levels by 41 Cantonese learners of Mandarin. Two experimental groups, FFI only and FFI-CF, received a 90-min FFI treatment…

  14. Enantioselective degradation of (2RS,3RS)-paclobutrazol in peach and mandarin under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiangyun; Qi, Peipei; Yang, Guiling; Wang, Xinquan; Zhang, Hu; Xu, Hao; Wang, Zhiwei; Wang, Qiang

    2014-08-01

    In this study we investigated the enantioselective degradation of (2RS,3RS)-paclobutrazol in peach and mandarin fruits under field conditions after foliar treatment at 500 mg active ingredient/L using a Lux Cellulose-1 chiral column on a reverse-phase liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry system. Degradations of paclobutrazol in both fruits followed first-order kinetics, with half-lives of about 9 days. Initial deposits were 1.63 mg/kg on peach and 1.99 mg/kg on mandarin; terminal concentrations were lower than 0.05 mg/kg, which was acceptable in most cases. As anticipated, paclobutrazol levels in peels of mature mandarin were about 6.3 times higher than in pulp, indicating the potential risk of peel consumption. We also observed that paclobutrazol degradation in mature mandarin was relatively slow, indicating it might not be efficient enough to hold mandarin fruits on trees for lowering paclobutrazol concentrations. Significant enantioselectivity was observed: the (2R,3R)-enantiomer was preferentially degraded in mandarin (whole fruit, peels, and pulp) but enriched in peach. Because of its more rapid degradation in mandarin and the lower levels observed in pulp compared with peels, potential endocrine-related side effects due to the (2R,3R)-enantiomer pose less of a risk in mandarin than in peach.

  15. A Mandarin/English Two-Way Immersion Program: Language Proficiency and Academic Achievement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padilla, Amado M.; Fan, Lorraine; Xu, Xiaoqiu; Silva, Duarte

    2013-01-01

    A Mandarin/English two-way immersion elementary program is described from its inception and implementation through the fifth grade, the culminating year of the program. All students in all grades were assessed on their oral/listening, reading, and writing performance in Mandarin using program-created assessment measures. Fifth-grade students also…

  16. Detection of mandarin in orange juice by single-nucleotide polymorphism qPCR assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldeguer, Miriam; López-Andreo, María; Gabaldón, José A; Puyet, Antonio

    2014-02-15

    A dual-probe real time PCR (qPCR) DNA-based analysis was devised for the identification of mandarin in orange juice. A single nucleotide polymorphism at the trnL-trnF intergenic region of the chloroplast chromosome was confirmed in nine orange (Citrus sinensis) and thirteen commercial varieties of mandarin, including Citrus reticulata and Citrus unshiu species and a mandarin × tangelo hybrid. Two short minor-groove binding fluorescent probes targeting the polymorphic sequence were used in the dual-probe qPCR, which allowed the detection of both species in single-tube reactions. The similarity of PCR efficiencies allowed a simple estimation of the ratio mandarin/orange in the juice samples, which correlated to the measured difference of threshold cycle values for both probes. The limit of detection of the assay was 5% of mandarin in orange juice, both when the juice was freshly prepared (not from concentrate) or reconstituted from concentrate, which would allow the detection of fraudulently added mandarin juice. The possible use of the dual-probe system for quantitative measurements was also tested on fruit juice mixtures. qPCR data obtained from samples containing equal amounts of mandarin and orange juice revealed that the mandarin target copy number was approximately 2.6-fold higher than in orange juice. The use of a matrix-adapted control as calibrator to compensate the resulting C(T) bias allowed accurate quantitative measurements to be obtained.

  17. Benefits of Music Training in Mandarin-Speaking Pediatric Cochlear Implant Users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qian-Jie; Galvin, John J., III; Wang, Xiaosong; Wu, Jiunn-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aims of this study were to assess young (5- to 10-year-old) Mandarin-speaking cochlear implant (CI) users' musical pitch perception and to assess the benefits of computer-based home training on performance. Method: Melodic contour identification (MCI) was used to assess musical pitch perception in 14 Mandarin-speaking pediatric CI…

  18. The Normative Standard of Mandarin in Taiwan: An Analysis of Variation in Metapragmatic Discourse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brubaker, Brian Lee

    2012-01-01

    It has been argued for many years that a new standard of Mandarin is developing within Taiwan, distinct from the official form based on the Beijing pronunciation, as well as the nonstandard vernacular, Taiwan-guoyu. The parameters by which this new standard, Taiwanese Mandarin, may be recognized, however, and the extent to which it exists in…

  19. Parental Numeric Language Input to Mandarin Chinese and English Speaking Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Alicia; Sandhofer, Catherine M.; Adelchanow, Lauren; Rottman, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    The present study examined the number-specific parental language input to Mandarin- and English-speaking preschool-aged children. Mandarin and English transcripts from the CHILDES database were examined for amount of numeric speech, specific types of numeric speech and syntactic frames in which numeric speech appeared. The results showed that…

  20. The Perception and Representation of Segmental and Prosodic Mandarin Contrasts in Native Speakers of Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.; Liu, Siyun

    2012-01-01

    Previous research has found that a speaker's native phonological system has a great influence on perception of another language. In three experiments, we tested the perception and representation of Mandarin phonological contrasts by Guangzhou Cantonese speakers, and compared their performance to that of native Mandarin speakers. Despite their rich…

  1. Neural Control of Rising and Falling Tones in Mandarin Speakers Who Stutter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Peter; Jiang, Jing; Peng, Danling; Lu, Chunming

    2012-01-01

    Neural control of rising and falling tones in Mandarin people who stutter (PWS) was examined by comparing with that which occurs in fluent speakers [Howell, Jiang, Peng, and Lu (2012). Neural control of fundamental frequency rise and fall in Mandarin tones. "Brain and Language, 121"(1), 35-46]. Nine PWS and nine controls were scanned. Functional…

  2. Learning to Express Gratitude in Mandarin Chinese through Web-Based Instruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Li

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the effectiveness of a self-access website as a tool to teach expressions of gratitude to learners of Mandarin Chinese. The web-based instruction included explicit instruction on how to express gratitude appropriately in Mandarin and various consciousness-raising exercises/activities. Two groups of learners who differed in…

  3. Structural Priming as Learning: Evidence from Mandarin-Learning 5-Year-Olds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dong-Bo

    2014-01-01

    Three experiments on structural priming in Mandarin-speaking 5-year-olds were conducted to test the priming as implicit learning hypothesis. It describes a learning mechanism that acts on a shared abstract syntactic representation in response to linguistic input using an equi-biased Mandarin SVO-"ba" alternation. The first two…

  4. Processing interactions between segmental and suprasegmental information in native speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, L; Nusbaum, H C

    1993-02-01

    The processing interactions between segmental and suprasegmental information in native speakers of English and Mandarin Chinese were investigated in a speeded classification task. Since in Chinese, unlike in English, tones convey lexically meaningful information, native speakers of these languages may process combinations of segmental and suprasegmental information differently. Subjects heard consonant-vowel syllables varying on a consonantal (segmental) dimension and either a Mandarin Chinese or constant-pitch (non-Mandarin) suprasegmental dimension. The English listeners showed mutual integrality with the Mandarin Chinese stimuli, but not the constant-pitch stimuli. The native Chinese listeners processed these dimensions with mutual integrality for both the Mandarin Chinese and the constant-pitch stimuli. These results were interpreted in terms of the linguistic function and the structure of suprasegmental information in Chinese and English. The results suggest that the way listeners perceive speech depends on the interaction between the structure of the signal and the processing strategies of the listener.

  5. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R; Estornell, Leandro H; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-07-01

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes--a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-orange genomes--and show that cultivated types derive from two progenitor species. Although cultivated pummelos represent selections from one progenitor species, Citrus maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species Citrus reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, thus implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A Chinese wild 'mandarin' diverges substantially from C. reticulata, thus suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and facilitates sequence-directed genetic improvement.

  6. Acquisition of Mandarin Lexical Tones:The Effect of Global Pitch T endency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHUNSHENG YANG

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses the acquisition of Mandarin lexical tones by American second language ( L2 ) learners . The analysis of the tone errors in the reading passage and the spontaneous speech showed that the surface Tone 4 error is the most frequent at the prosodic word ( PW )‐initial position in both the intermediate and the advanced learner groups . Attempts were made to account for this tone error pattern within some second language acquisition (SLA) frameworks , but in vain . It was argued that this tone error pattern may be due to the high pitch tendency at the phrase‐or sentence‐initial position in speech . Although this is more of a general pattern across languages , the production of such a tendency by L2 learners superseded the underlying tones , hence the surface Tone 4 errors . The special status of Tone 4 in L2 speech corresponds to the special status of the same tone in the first language (L1 ) speech (Wan , 2007 ) . However , it was cautioned that such similarity should not be taken as evidence for the similarity in L1 and L2 acquisition in that different processes are involved in L1 and L2 production .

  7. THE FOCAL STRUCTURE IN MANDARIN VP-ELLIPSIS: A CROSS-LINGUISTIC PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Chi Wei

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper argues that Soh’s (2007 ΣP analysis only partially explains polarity operation in Mandarin VP-ellipsis. With new examples of the use of the particle que ‘however’, a polarity contrast of ye ‘also’, we propose that there are two focus projections in VP-ellipsis. One is the contrastive FocP headed by ye or que higher than TP and the other is the polarity PolP headed by an affirmative polarity focus shi ‘be’ or a covert negative polarity focus lower than TP. Foc interacts with Pol by a way of polarity concord, which is responsible for the polarity symmetry or asymmetry across two conjuncts. We suggest that the polarity concord is achieved via the Agree operation (Chomsky 2000, 2001 in line with Watanabe’s (2004 feature copying analysis of the negative concord. A cross-linguistic investigation of languages of various word orders, including English (SVO, Japanese (SOV, Atayal (VOS, and Bunun (VSO lends support to this focus account.

  8. Pinyin Invented Spelling in Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Children With and Without Reading Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; McBride, Catherine; Zhang, Dake

    2015-01-01

    This study examined analytical pinyin (a phonological coding system for teaching pronunciation and lexical tones of Chinese characters) skills in 54 Mandarin-speaking fourth graders by using an invented spelling instrument that tapped into syllable awareness, phoneme awareness, lexical tones, and tone sandhi in Chinese. Pinyin invented spelling was significantly correlated with Chinese character recognition and Chinese phonological awareness (i.e., syllable deletion and phoneme deletion). In comparison to good and average readers, poor readers performed significantly worse on the invented spelling task, and a difference was also found between average and good readers. To differentiate readers at different levels, the pinyin invented spelling task, which examined both segmental and suprasegmental elements, was superior to the typical phonological awareness task, which examined segments only. Within this new task, items involving tone sandhi (Chinese language changes in which the tones of words alter according to predetermined rules) were more difficult to manipulate than were those without tone sandhi. The findings suggest that this newly developed task may be optimal for tapping unique phonological and linguistic features in reading of Chinese and examining particular tonal difficulties in struggling Chinese readers. In addition, the results suggest that phonics manipulations within tasks of phonological and tonal awareness can alter their difficulty levels. © Hammill Institute on Disabilities 2014.

  9. Word Domain Disambiguation via Word Sense Disambiguation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; Tratz, Stephen C.; Gregory, Michelle L.

    2006-06-04

    Word subject domains have been widely used to improve the perform-ance of word sense disambiguation al-gorithms. However, comparatively little effort has been devoted so far to the disambiguation of word subject do-mains. The few existing approaches have focused on the development of al-gorithms specific to word domain dis-ambiguation. In this paper we explore an alternative approach where word domain disambiguation is achieved via word sense disambiguation. Our study shows that this approach yields very strong results, suggesting that word domain disambiguation can be ad-dressed in terms of word sense disam-biguation with no need for special purpose algorithms.

  10. Default spacing is the optimal spacing for word reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van den Boer, Madelon; Hakvoort, Britt E

    2015-01-01

    Increased interletter spacing is thought to reduce crowding effects and to enhance fluent reading. Several studies have shown beneficial effects of increased interletter spacing on reading speed and accuracy, especially in poor readers. Therefore, increased interletter spacing appears to be a relatively easy way to enhance reading performance. However, in adult readers reading speed was shown to be impeded with increased interletter spacing. Thus, findings on interletter spacing are still inconclusive. In the current study we examined the effect of a range of interletter spacings (-0.5, default, 0.5, 1, 1.5, 2) on naming fluency of monosyllabic and bisyllabic words in beginning (Grade 2) and more advanced (Grade 4) readers. Additionally we tested the effects of spacing in a subsample of poor readers. In contrast to previous findings, neither beginning nor advanced readers benefited from an increase in interletter spacing. However, they did show reduced reading fluency when letter spacing was smaller than the default spacing, which may be indicative of a crowding effect. Poor readers showed a similar pattern. We conclude that an increase in interletter spacing has no effect on word naming fluency.

  11. Mandarin Pronunciation Modeling Based on CASS Corpus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑方; 宋战江; Pascale Fung; William Byrne

    2002-01-01

    The pronunciation variability is an important issue that must be faced with when developing practical automatic spontaneous speech recognition systems. In this paper, the factors that may affect the recognition performance are analyzed, including those specific to the Chinese language. By studying the INITIAL/FINAL (IF) characteristics of Chinese language and developing the Bayesian equation, the concepts of generalized INITIAL/FINAL (GIF) and generalized syllable (GS), the GIF modeling and the IF-GIF modeling, as well as the contextdependent pronunciation weighting, are proposed based on a well phonetically transcribed seed database. By using these methods, the Chinese syllable error rate (SER) is reduced by 6.3%and 4.2% compared with the GIF modeling and IF modeling respectively when the language model, such as syllable or word N-gram, is not used. The effectiveness of these methods is also proved when more data without the phonetic transcription are used to refine the acoustic model using the proposed iterative forced-alignment based transcribing (IFABT) method, achieving a 5.7% SER reduction.

  12. Mandarin speech perception in combined electric and acoustic stimulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongxin Li

    Full Text Available For deaf individuals with residual low-frequency acoustic hearing, combined use of a cochlear implant (CI and hearing aid (HA typically provides better speech understanding than with either device alone. Because of coarse spectral resolution, CIs do not provide fundamental frequency (F0 information that contributes to understanding of tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. The HA can provide good representation of F0 and, depending on the range of aided acoustic hearing, first and second formant (F1 and F2 information. In this study, Mandarin tone, vowel, and consonant recognition in quiet and noise was measured in 12 adult Mandarin-speaking bimodal listeners with the CI-only and with the CI+HA. Tone recognition was significantly better with the CI+HA in noise, but not in quiet. Vowel recognition was significantly better with the CI+HA in quiet, but not in noise. There was no significant difference in consonant recognition between the CI-only and the CI+HA in quiet or in noise. There was a wide range in bimodal benefit, with improvements often greater than 20 percentage points in some tests and conditions. The bimodal benefit was compared to CI subjects' HA-aided pure-tone average (PTA thresholds between 250 and 2000 Hz; subjects were divided into two groups: "better" PTA (50 dB HL. The bimodal benefit differed significantly between groups only for consonant recognition. The bimodal benefit for tone recognition in quiet was significantly correlated with CI experience, suggesting that bimodal CI users learn to better combine low-frequency spectro-temporal information from acoustic hearing with temporal envelope information from electric hearing. Given the small number of subjects in this study (n = 12, further research with Chinese bimodal listeners may provide more information regarding the contribution of acoustic and electric hearing to tonal language perception.

  13. A monolingual mind can have two time lines: Exploring space-time mappings in Mandarin monolinguals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wenxing; Sun, Ying

    2016-06-01

    Can a mind accommodate two time lines? Miles, Tan, Noble, Lumsden and Macrae (Psychonomic Bulletin & Review 18, 598-604, 2011) shows that Mandarin-English bilinguals have both a horizontal space-time mapping consistent with linguistic conventions within English and a vertical representation of time commensurate with Mandarin. However, the present study, via two experiments, demonstrates that Mandarin monolinguals possess two mental time lines, i.e., one horizontal and one vertical line. This study concludes that a Mandarin speaker has two mental time lines not because he/she has acquired L2 English, but because there are both horizontal and vertical expressions in Mandarin spatiotemporal metaphors. Specifically, this study highlights the fact that a horizontal time line does exist in a Mandarin speaker's cognition, even if he/she is a Mandarin monolingual instead of a ME bilingual. Taken together, the evidence in hand is far from sufficient to support Miles et al.'s (2011) conclusion that ME bilinguals' horizontal concept of time is manipulated by English. Implications for theoretical issues concerning the language-thought relationship in general and the effect of bilingualism on cognition in particular are discussed.

  14. Extractable and Non-Extractable Phenolics and Antioxidant Capacity of Mandarin Waste Dried at Different Temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esparza-Martínez, Francisco J; Miranda-López, Rita; Mata-Sánchez, Sara M; Guzmán-Maldonado, Salvador H

    2016-09-01

    The mandarin industry is generating more waste due to the increasing demand for juice. In this study, extractable and non-extractable phenolics as well as 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) antioxidant activities in Satsuma mandarin waste dried at different temperatures were determined. The amounts of non-extractable total phenols, total flavonoids, and condensed tannins measured in mandarin waste dried at 120 °C were 39.4, 44.3, and 45.6 %, respectively, which were higher than those of fresh-mandarin waste. Dried mandarin waste is rich in extractable and non-extractable hesperidin (259.86 and 182.52 mg/g, respectively) and eriocitrin (85.12 and 197.24 mg/g, respectively), as well as non-extractable gallic acid (36.08 μg/g). The antioxidant capacities of extractable and non-extractable phenolics, from the highest to the lowest, were ABTS > ORAC > DPPH > FRAP and ORAC > ABTS > DPPH > FRAP, respectively. The information reported here may encourage mandarin industry operators to re-evaluate their by-products, extending the application of mandarin fruits and reducing waste.

  15. How linguistic and cultural forces shape conceptions of time: English and Mandarin time in 3D.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuhrman, Orly; McCormick, Kelly; Chen, Eva; Jiang, Heidi; Shu, Dingfang; Mao, Shuaimei; Boroditsky, Lera

    2011-01-01

    In this paper we examine how English and Mandarin speakers think about time, and we test how the patterns of thinking in the two groups relate to patterns in linguistic and cultural experience. In Mandarin, vertical spatial metaphors are used more frequently to talk about time than they are in English; English relies primarily on horizontal terms. We present results from two tasks comparing English and Mandarin speakers' temporal reasoning. The tasks measure how people spatialize time in three-dimensional space, including the sagittal (front/back), transverse (left/right), and vertical (up/down) axes. Results of Experiment 1 show that people automatically create spatial representations in the course of temporal reasoning, and these implicit spatializations differ in accordance with patterns in language, even in a non-linguistic task. Both groups showed evidence of a left-to-right representation of time, in accordance with writing direction, but only Mandarin speakers showed a vertical top-to-bottom pattern for time (congruent with vertical spatiotemporal metaphors in Mandarin). Results of Experiment 2 confirm and extend these findings, showing that bilinguals' representations of time depend on both long-term and proximal aspects of language experience. Participants who were more proficient in Mandarin were more likely to arrange time vertically (an effect of previous language experience). Further, bilinguals were more likely to arrange time vertically when they were tested in Mandarin than when they were tested in English (an effect of immediate linguistic context). Copyright © 2011 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  16. Effects of disfluencies, predictability, and utterance position on word form variation in English conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alan; Jurafsky, Daniel; Fosler-Lussier, Eric; Girand, Cynthia; Gregory, Michelle; Gildea, Daniel

    2003-02-01

    Function words, especially frequently occurring ones such as (the, that, and, and of ), vary widely in pronunciation. Understanding this variation is essential both for cognitive modeling of lexical production and for computer speech recognition and synthesis. This study investigates which factors affect the forms of function words, especially whether they have a fuller pronunciation (e.g., edh,eye, edh,æ,tee, æ,en,&dee, vee) or a more reduced or lenited pronunciation (e.g., edh,schwa, edh,bari;t, n, schwa). It is based on over 8000 occurrences of the ten most frequent English function words in a 4-h sample from conversations from the Switchboard corpus. Ordinary linear and logistic regression models were used to examine variation in the length of the words, in the form of their vowel (basic, full, or reduced), and whether final obstruents were present or not. For all these measures, after controlling for segmental context, rate of speech, and other important factors, there are strong independent effects that made high-frequency monosyllabic function words more likely to be longer or have a fuller form (1) when neighboring disfluencies (such as filled pauses uh and um) indicate that the speaker was encountering problems in planning the utterance; (2) when the word is unexpected, i.e., less predictable in context; (3) when the word is either utterance initial or utterance final. Looking at the phenomenon in a different way, frequent function words are more likely to be shorter and to have less-full forms in fluent speech, in predictable positions or multiword collocations, and utterance internally. Also considered are other factors such as sex (women are more likely to use fuller forms, even after controlling for rate of speech, for example), and some of the differences among the ten function words in their response to the factors.

  17. The activation of segmental and tonal information in visual word recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chuchu; Lin, Candise Y; Wang, Min; Jiang, Nan

    2013-08-01

    Mandarin Chinese has a logographic script in which graphemes map onto syllables and morphemes. It is not clear whether Chinese readers activate phonological information during lexical access, although phonological information is not explicitly represented in Chinese orthography. In the present study, we examined the activation of phonological information, including segmental and tonal information in Chinese visual word recognition, using the Stroop paradigm. Native Mandarin speakers named the presentation color of Chinese characters in Mandarin. The visual stimuli were divided into five types: color characters (e.g., , hong2, "red"), homophones of the color characters (S+T+; e.g., , hong2, "flood"), different-tone homophones (S+T-; e.g., , hong1, "boom"), characters that shared the same tone but differed in segments with the color characters (S-T+; e.g., , ping2, "bottle"), and neutral characters (S-T-; e.g., , qian1, "leading through"). Classic Stroop facilitation was shown in all color-congruent trials, and interference was shown in the incongruent trials. Furthermore, the Stroop effect was stronger for S+T- than for S-T+ trials, and was similar between S+T+ and S+T- trials. These findings suggested that both tonal and segmental forms of information play roles in lexical constraints; however, segmental information has more weight than tonal information. We proposed a revised visual word recognition model in which the functions of both segmental and suprasegmental types of information and their relative weights are taken into account.

  18. The Analysis of Common Mistakes Made by Chinese Department Students of Binus University in Learning Mandarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andyni Khosasih

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Article was presented in two sections, those were general overview of Chinese Department of Binus University and common mistakes made by students in learning Mandarin. To find the data, a direct observation was done in the classrooms. It can be concluded that in learning Mandarin, students’ mistakes are caused by the influence of using the mother tongue, the laziness of students in learning the language, and the lack of basic Mandarin knowledge. Common mistakes made by the students in language skills area are pronouncing vowels and consonants, intonation, grammar, Hanzi characters, and vocabularies.  

  19. The Analysis of Common Mistakes Made By Chinese Department Students of Binus University in Learning Mandarin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andyni Khosasih

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Article was presented in two sections, those were general overview of Chinese Department of Binus University and common mistakes made by students in learning Mandarin. To find the data, a direct observation was done in the classrooms. It can be concluded that in learning Mandarin, students mistakes are caused by the influence of using the mother tongue, the laziness of students in learning the language, and the lack of basic Mandarin knowledge. Common mistakes made by the students in language skills area are pronouncing vowels and consonants, intonation, grammar, Hanzi characters, and vocabularies.

  20. The Aging Semantic Differential in Mandarin Chinese: Measuring Attitudes toward Older Adults in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales, Ernest; Marchiondo, Lisa A; Tan, Jing; Wang, Yi; Chen, Huajuan

    2017-02-16

    The Aging Semantic Differential (ASD) is the most widely used instrument to measure young people's attitudes towards older adults. This study translated the ASD to Mandarin and examined its psychometric properties. The Mandarin-ASD contains three latent factors (Personality and Mental Health, Societal Participation, and Physical) that have high internal reliability and reasonable discriminate validity. Social work researchers, practitioners and allied professionals may utilize the ASD-Mandarin instrument to measure young people's attitudes towards older adults in China. We issue a call for a universal-ASD that can be applied across different cultural contexts.

  1. Acoustic properties of vowel production in prelingually deafened Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants

    OpenAIRE

    YANG, Jing; Brown, Emily; Fox, Robert A.; Xu, Li

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the acoustic features of vowel production in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). The subjects included 14 native Mandarin-speaking, prelingually deafened children with CIs (2.9–8.3 yr old) and 60 age-matched, normal-hearing (NH) children (3.1–9.0 years old). Each subject produced a list of monosyllables containing seven Mandarin vowels: [i, a, u, y, ɤ, ʅ, ɿ]. Midpoint F1 and F2 of each vowel token were extracted and normalized to eliminate the e...

  2. The immediate and chronic influence of spatio-temporal metaphors on the mental representations of time in english, mandarin, and mandarin-english speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Vicky Tzuyin; Boroditsky, Lera

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we examine whether experience with spatial metaphors for time has an influence on people's representation of time. In particular we ask whether spatio-temporal metaphors can have both chronic and immediate effects on temporal thinking. In Study 1, we examine the prevalence of ego-moving representations for time in Mandarin speakers, English speakers, and Mandarin-English (ME) bilinguals. As predicted by observations in linguistic analyses, we find that Mandarin speakers are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English speakers. Further, we find that ME bilinguals tested in English are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English monolinguals (an effect of L1 on meaning-making in L2), and also that ME bilinguals tested in Mandarin are more likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are Mandarin monolinguals (an effect of L2 on meaning-making in L1). These findings demonstrate that habits of metaphor use in one language can influence temporal reasoning in another language, suggesting the metaphors can have a chronic effect on patterns in thought. In Study 2 we test Mandarin speakers using either horizontal or vertical metaphors in the immediate context of the task. We find that Mandarin speakers are more likely to construct front-back representations of time when understanding front-back metaphors, and more likely to construct up-down representations of time when understanding up-down metaphors. These findings demonstrate that spatio-temporal metaphors can also have an immediate influence on temporal reasoning. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the metaphors we use to talk about time have both immediate and long-term consequences for how we conceptualize and reason about this fundamental domain of experience.

  3. Development of phonological awareness in English-Mandarin bilinguals: a comparison of English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 kindergarten children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H M; Rickard Liow, Susan J

    2012-06-01

    Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1 (first language) and L2 (second language) syllable and phoneme awareness longitudinally in English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 prereaders (n=70, 4- and 5-year-olds) across three 6-month intervals. In English, the English-L1 children's performance was better in phoneme awareness at all three time points, but the Mandarin-L1 children's syllable awareness was equivalent to the English-L1 children's syllable awareness by Time 3. In Mandarin, the English-L1 children's phoneme awareness, but not their syllable awareness, was also significantly better than that of the Mandarin-L1 children at all three time points. Cross-lagged correlations revealed that only the English-L1 children applied their L1 syllable and phoneme awareness to their L2 (Mandarin) processing by Time 2 and that the Mandarin-L1 children seemed to require exposure to English (L2) before they developed phoneme awareness in either language. The data provide further evidence that phonological awareness is a language-general ability but that cross-language application depends on the similarity between the phonological structures of a child's L1 and L2. Implications for classroom teaching are briefly discussed. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The immediate and chronic influence of spatio-temporal metaphors on the mental representations of time in English, Mandarin, and Mandarin-English speakers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vicky T. Lai

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine whether experience with spatial metaphors for time has an influence on people’s representation of time. In particular we ask whether spatiotemporal metaphors can have both chronic and immediate effects on temporal thinking. In Study 1, we examine the prevalence of ego-moving representations for time in Mandarin speakers, English speakers, and Mandarin-English (ME bilinguals. As predicted by observations in linguistic analyses, we find that Mandarin speakers are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English speakers. Further, we find that ME bilinguals tested in English are less likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are English monolinguals (an effect of L1 on meaning-making in L2, and also that ME bilinguals tested in Mandarin are more likely to take an ego-moving perspective than are Mandarin monolinguals (an effect of L2 on meaning-making in L1. These findings demonstrate that habits of metaphor use in one language can influence temporal reasoning in another language, suggesting the metaphors can have a chronic effect on patterns in thought. In Study 2 we test Mandarin speakers using either horizontal or vertical metaphors in the immediate context of the task. We find that Mandarin speakers are more likely to construct front-back representations of time when understanding front-back metaphors, and more likely to construct up-down representations of time when understanding up-down metaphors. These findings demonstrate that spatiotemporal metaphors can also have an immediate influence on temporal reasoning. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that the metaphors we use to talk about time have both immediate and long-term consequences for how we conceptualize and reason about this fundamental domain of experience.

  5. Tone matters for Cantonese-English bilingual children's English word reading development: A unified model of phonological transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuli; He, Xinjie; Deacon, S Hélène

    2017-02-01

    Languages differ considerably in how they use prosodic features, or variations in pitch, duration, and intensity, to distinguish one word from another. Prosodic features include lexical tone in Chinese and lexical stress in English. Recent cross-sectional studies show a surprising result that Mandarin Chinese tone sensitivity is related to Mandarin-English bilingual children's English word reading. This study explores the mechanism underlying this relation by testing two explanations of these effects: the prosodic hypothesis and segmental phonological awareness transfer. We administered multiple measures of Cantonese tone sensitivity, English stress sensitivity, segmental phonological awareness in Cantonese and English, nonverbal ability, and English word reading to 123 Cantonese-English bilingual children ages 7 and 8 years. Structural equation modeling revealed a longitudinal prediction of Cantonese tone sensitivity to English word reading between 8 and 9 years of age. This relation was realized through two parallel routes. In one, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English stress sensitivity, and English stress sensitivity, in turn, significantly predicted English word reading, as postulated by the prosodic hypothesis. In the second, Cantonese tone sensitivity predicted English word reading through the transfer of segmental phonological awareness between Cantonese and English, as predicted by segmental phonological transfer. These results support a unified model of phonological transfer, emphasizing the role of tone in English word reading for Cantonese-English bilingual children.

  6. covert contrast: The acquisition of Mandarin tone 2 and tone 3 in L2 production and perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mar, Li-Ya

    This dissertation investigates the occurrence of an intermediate stage, termed a covert contrast, in the acquisition of Mandarin Tone 2 (T2) and Tone 3 (T3) by adult speakers of American English. A covert contrast is a statistically reliable distinction produced by language learners that is not perceived by native speakers of the target language (TL). In second language (L2) acquisition, whether a learner is judged as having acquired a TL phonemic contrast has largely depended on whether the contrast was perceived and transcribed by native speakers of the TL. However, categorical perception has shown that native listeners cannot perceive a distinction between two sounds that fall within the same perceptual boundaries on the continuum of the relevant acoustic cues. In other words, it is possible that native speakers of the TL do not perceive a phonemic distinction that is produced by L2 learners when that distinction occurs within a phonemic boundary of TL. The data for the study were gathered through two elicitations of tone production, a longitudinal analysis, and two perception tasks. There were three key findings. First, both elicitations showed that most of the L2 participants produced a covert contrast between T2 and T3 on at least one of the three acoustic measures used in the study. Second, the longitudinal analysis reveals that some L2 participants progressed from making a covert contrast to a later stage of implementing an overt one, thereby supporting the claim that making a covert contrast is an intermediate stage in the process of acquiring a L2 phonemic contrast. Third, results of the perceptual tasks showed no reliable difference in identifying and discriminating Mandarin T2 and T3 on the part of the L2 learners who produced a covert contrast and those who produced an overt contrast, indicating that there was no reliable difference in the two groups' ability to perceive the target tones. In all, the occurrence of a covert contrast in the process of

  7. Word, Words, Words: Ellul and the Mediocritization of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Franz; Foltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    The authors explore how technique via propaganda has replaced the word with images creating a mass society and limiting the ability of people to act as individuals. They begin by looking at how words affect human society and how they have changed over time. They explore how technology has altered the meaning of words in order to create a more…

  8. Comparison of Classification Methods for Detecting Emotion from Mandarin Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Tsang-Long; Chen, Yu-Te; Yeh, Jun-Heng

    It is said that technology comes out from humanity. What is humanity? The very definition of humanity is emotion. Emotion is the basis for all human expression and the underlying theme behind everything that is done, said, thought or imagined. Making computers being able to perceive and respond to human emotion, the human-computer interaction will be more natural. Several classifiers are adopted for automatically assigning an emotion category, such as anger, happiness or sadness, to a speech utterance. These classifiers were designed independently and tested on various emotional speech corpora, making it difficult to compare and evaluate their performance. In this paper, we first compared several popular classification methods and evaluated their performance by applying them to a Mandarin speech corpus consisting of five basic emotions, including anger, happiness, boredom, sadness and neutral. The extracted feature streams contain MFCC, LPCC, and LPC. The experimental results show that the proposed WD-MKNN classifier achieves an accuracy of 81.4% for the 5-class emotion recognition and outperforms other classification techniques, including KNN, MKNN, DW-KNN, LDA, QDA, GMM, HMM, SVM, and BPNN. Then, to verify the advantage of the proposed method, we compared these classifiers by applying them to another Mandarin expressive speech corpus consisting of two emotions. The experimental results still show that the proposed WD-MKNN outperforms others.

  9. Production and Perception of Tone 3 Focus in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong-Cheol; Wang, Ting; Liberman, Mark

    2016-01-01

    This study uses production and perception experiments to explore tone 3 focus in Mandarin Chinese. Overall, contrastive focus in Mandarin is clearly marked with increased duration, intensity, and pitch range: in the experiments, listeners identified focused syllables correctly more than 90% of the time. However, a tone 3 syllable offers a smaller capacity for pitch range expansion under focus, and also yields less intensity increase; in addition, local dissimilation increases the duration, intensity, and pitch range of adjacent syllables within the same phrase as a focused tone 3 syllable. As a result, tone 3 focus was less well identified by listeners (77.1%). We suggest that the relatively poor identification of tone 3 focus is due to the smaller capacity for pitch range expansion, the confusion from within-phrase local dissimilatory effects, and the relatively weak intensity of tone 3. This study demonstrates that even within a language where purely prosodic marking of focus is clear, the location of prosodic focus can be difficult to identify in certain circumstances. Our results underline the conclusion, established in other work, that prosodic marking of focus is not universal, but is expressed through the prosodic system of each language.

  10. Word recognition using ideal word patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Sheila X.; Srihari, Sargur N.

    1994-03-01

    The word shape analysis approach to text recognition is motivated by discoveries in psychological studies of the human reading process. It attempts to describe and compare the shape of the word as a whole object without trying to segment and recognize the individual characters, so it bypasses the errors committed in character segmentation and classification. However, the large number of classes and large variation and distortion expected in all patterns belonging to the same class make it difficult for conventional, accurate, pattern recognition approaches. A word shape analysis approach using ideal word patterns to overcome the difficulty and improve recognition performance is described in this paper. A special word pattern which characterizes a word class is extracted from different sample patterns of the word class and stored in memory. Recognition of a new word pattern is achieved by comparing it with the special pattern of each word class called ideal word pattern. The process of generating the ideal word pattern of each word class is proposed. The algorithm was tested on a set of machine printed gray scale word images which included a wide range of print types and qualities.

  11. On the Acquisition of Word Order in WH-Questions in theTromsø Dialect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marit Richardsen Westergaard

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This article reports on a study of three children acquiring a dialect of Norwegian which allows two different word orders in certain types of WH-questions, verb second (V2 and and verb third (V3. The latter is only allowed after monosyllabic WH-words, while the former, which is the result of verb movement, is the word order found in all other main clauses in the language. It is shown that both V2 and V3 are acquired extremely early by the children in the study (before the age of two, and that subtle distinctions between the two orders with respect to information structure are attested from the beginning. However, it is argued that V3 word order, which should be ìsimplerî than the V2 structure as it does not involve verb movement, is nevertheless acquired slightly later in its full syntactic form. This is taken as an indication that the V3 structure is syntactically more complex, and possibly also more marked.

  12. The intelligibility of words, sentences, and continuous discourse using the articulation index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depaolis, R. A.

    1992-10-01

    The purpose of this research was to investigate the effect of message redundancy upon intelligibility. The original methodology for the Articulation Index (AI) French and Steinberg, J. Acoust. Soc. Am., 19, 90-119, 1947 was used to examine the relation between words, meaningful sentences, and continuous discourse (CD). One primary consideration was to derive the relations between the three speech types with tightly controlled, highly repeatable experimental conditions such that any difference between them could be attributed solely to inherent contextual differences. One male speaker recorded 616 monosyllabic words, 176 meaningful speech perception in noise (SPIN) sentences, and 44 seventh-grade reading level CD passages. Twenty-four normal hearing subjects made intelligibility estimates of the CD and sentences and identified words at each of 44 conditions of filtering and signal-to-noise ratio. The sentence intelligibility scores and continuous discourse intelligibility scores plotted versus the AI (transfer function) were within 0.05 AI of each other. The word recognition scores were considerably lower for equivalent AI values of both sentences and CD.

  13. The Perception and Representation of Segmental and Prosodic Mandarin Contrasts in Native Speakers of Cantonese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G.; Liu, Siyun

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has found that a speaker’s native phonological system has a great influence on perception of another language. In three experiments, we tested the perception and representation of Mandarin phonological contrasts by Guangzhou Cantonese speakers, and compared their performance to that of native Mandarin speakers. Despite their rich experience using Mandarin Chinese, the Cantonese speakers had problems distinguishing specific Mandarin segmental and tonal contrasts that do not exist in Guangzhou Cantonese. However, we found evidence that the subtle differences between two members of a contrast were nonetheless represented in the lexicon. We also found different processing patterns for non-native segmental versus non-native tonal contrasts. The results provide substantial new information about the representation and processing of segmental and prosodic information by individuals listening to a closely-related, very well-learned, but still non-native language. PMID:22707849

  14. The development of categorical perception of Mandarin tones in four- to seven-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fei; Peng, Gang; Yan, Nan; Wang, Lan

    2016-12-05

    To track the course of development in children's fine-grained perception of Mandarin tones, the present study explored how categorical perception (CP) of Mandarin tones emerges along age among 70 four- to seven-year-old children and 16 adults. Prominent discrimination peaks were found for both the child and the adult groups, and they were well aligned with the corresponding identification crossovers. Moreover, six-year-olds showed a much narrower width (i.e. a sharper slope) compared to younger children, and have already acquired adult-like identification competence of Mandarin high-level and mid-rising tones. Although the ability to discriminate within-category tone pairs did not change, the between-category discrimination accuracies were positively correlated with chronological ages among child participants. We assume that the perceptual refinement of Mandarin tones in young children may be driven by an accumulation of perceptual development from the tonal information of the ambient sound input.

  15. Vowel production of Mandarin-speaking hearing aid users with different types of hearing loss

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Yu-Chen Hung; Ya-Jung Lee; Li-Chiun Tsai

    2017-01-01

    ...), and sensorineural hearing loss (n = 7) and compared it with the speech of hearing control. Speech intelligibility was evaluated by computing the vowel space area defined by the Mandarin Chinese corner vowels /a, u...

  16. The Causes and the Future of New Chinese Internet Words that Deriving from Regional Dialects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董楠楠

    2015-01-01

    In the recent two decades,the computer industry and internet business have significant development all over the world which provide a cradle for the coming of new Chinese Internet words.Many scholars have studied this new group of word as a whole or just some specific parts of it.This paper will give the term,weblect(网络方言),a definition after it was raised by Professor Hou guojin.Meanwhile it will focus on new Chinese Internet words that come from regional dialects,analyzing the causes of their emerging and popularizing.In addition,this term paper will predict its future after describing the impacts these words brought to mandarin Chinese.

  17. 给声方法对人工耳蜗植入儿童词汇识别的影响研究*%The Influence of the Mode of Stimulus on Word Recognition of Children with Cochlear Implants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘海红; 刘莎; 刘志成; 孔颖; 刘欣; 张杰; 葛文彤; 倪鑫

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of the mode of stimulus (e.g. live voice or recorded voice) on the speech recognition of children with cochlear implants (CI). Methods Thirty-nine subjects were divided into live voice stimulus group and recorded voice stimulus group randomly. The Standard Chinese version of the Lexical Neighborhood Test(LNT)was used in the evaluation. The subjects were instructed to repeat the sound they heard, and the performance was scored as the percentages of the words correctly identified. Results (1) For the live voice group, the correct recognition rates of disyllabic easy, disyllabic hard, monosyllabic easy and monosyllabic hard words were 78.67%, 65.18%, 68.32% and 58.41%, respectively.The statistical analysis showed that the score of disyllabic word recognition was significantly higher than that of monosyllabic word recognition(P<0.001), and the score of easy word recognition was significantly higher than that of hard word recognition(P<0.001). (2) For the recorded voice group, the correct recognition rates of disyllabic easy, disyllabic hard, monosyllabic easy and monosyllabic hard words were 64.67%, 50.81%, 58.32% and 45.14%, respectively. The results indicated that the performance was significantly better in disyllabic words than in monosyllabic words(P<0.001), and the performance was significantly better in easy words than in hard words(P<0.001). (3)The scores of disyllabic easy, disyllabic hard, monosyllabic easy and monosyllabic hard word recognition were significantly higher in live voice group than those in recorded voice group((P<0.001), and the individual differences were more significant in live voice group than in recorded voice group. Conclusion The recorded voice can achieve more consistency,so it is the first choice for speech recognition tests in longitudinal follow-up and multicenter research programs.%目的分析不同的给声方法(口声给声/录音给声)对人工耳蜗(Cochlear Implant,CI)植入儿

  18. A study of laryngeal gestures in Mandarin citation tones using simultaneous laryngoscopy and laryngeal ultrasound (SLLUS)

    OpenAIRE

    Moisik, S.; Lin, H.; Esling, J.

    2014-01-01

    In this work, Mandarin tone production is examined using simultaneous laryngoscopy and laryngeal ultrasound (SLLUS). Laryngoscopy is used to obtain information about laryngeal state, and laryngeal ultrasound is used to quantify changes in larynx height. With this methodology, several observations are made concerning the production of Mandarin tone in citation form. Two production strategies are attested for low tone production: (i) larynx lowering and (ii) larynx raising with laryngeal constr...

  19. Acoustic characteristics of English lexical stress produced by native Mandarin speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Yanhong; Nissen, Shawn L.; Alexander L. Francis

    2008-01-01

    Native speakers of Mandarin Chinese have difficulty producing native-like English stress contrasts. Acoustically, English lexical stress is multidimensional, involving manipulation of fundamental frequency (F0), duration, intensity and vowel quality. Errors in any or all of these correlates could interfere with perception of the stress contrast, but it is unknown which correlates are most problematic for Mandarin speakers. This study compares the use of these correlates in the production of l...

  20. Production of tense-lax contrast by Mandarin speakers of English.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yang

    2006-01-01

    The spectral and temporal characteristics of three English tense-lax vowel pairs [see text] produced by native Mandarin speakers are reported. The euclidean distance based on first and second formant frequencies (F1 and F2), the durational differences, as well as the perceptual judgment of the tense-lax vowel contrast were examined in the syllable level productions of 40 Mandarin speakers compared to 40 American English speakers. Results of the comparative analysis indicated that Mandarin speakers differed significantly from the American English speakers in distinguishing the English tense/lax contrast. The general pattern shown across the Mandarin subjects was one in which the temporal feature, rather than the spectral feature, was more indicative of the tense-lax contrast as compared to the American speakers. In addition, the perception for the tense-lax contrast produced by Mandarin speakers was less distinctive as compared to the American speakers. The phonetic influences of the Mandarin language on the production of English tense-lax vowels are discussed.

  1. Cold Tolerance of the Mediterranean Fruit Fly in Date and Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gazit, Yoav; Akiva, Ruti; Gavriel, Sagi

    2014-10-01

    The Mediterranean fruit fly, Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann), is an endemic pest in Israel and there can be low levels of infestation of dates (Phoenix dactylifera L.). Because C. capitata is considered a quarantine pest by several major importing countries, the export of fresh dates requires the elimination of this pest. For mandarin, cold storage at 1.11°C for 15 d is considered to be an effective treatment for the elimination of C. capitata. In this study, we compared the cold tolerance of C. capitata in "Barhi" dates to that of C. capitata in mandarins (Citrus unshiu Marcovitch, "Satsuma"). In Barhi dates, we found the third instars to be the most cold-tolerant as compared with other life stages. Ceratitis capitata in date fruits were significantly less cold-tolerant than C. capitata in Satsuma mandarins. The last viable larvae in dates and mandarins were found after 8 and 13 d of treatment, respectively, and the calculated mortality curves in the two crops were significantly different. These results demonstrate that C. capitata is more sensitive to cold treatment when in date fruits than in mandarins. Therefore, the quarantine cold treatments used to eliminate C. capitata from mandarins should be sufficiently effective if applied to fresh date fruits.

  2. Econometric Model Estimation and Sensitivity Analysis of Inputs for Mandarin Production in Mazandaran Province of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Namdari

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This study examines energy consumption of inputs and output used in mandarin production, and to find relationship between energy inputs and yield in Mazandaran, Iran. Also the Marginal Physical Product (MPP method was used to analyze the sensitivity of energy inputs on mandarin yield and returns to scale of econometric model was calculated. For this purpose, the data were collected from 110 mandarin orchards which were selected based on random sampling method. The results indicated that total energy inputs were 77501.17 MJ/ha. The energy use efficiency, energy productivity and net energy of mandarin production were found as 0.77, 0.41 kg/MJ and -17651.17 MJ/ha. About 41% of the total energy inputs used in mandarin production was indirect while about 59% was direct. Econometric estimation results revealed that the impact of human labor energy (0.37 was found the highest among the other inputs in mandarin production. The results also showed that direct, indirect and renewable and non-renewable, energy forms had a positive and statistically significant impact on output level. The results of sensitivity analysis of the energy inputs showed that with an additional use of 1 MJ of each of the human labor, farmyard manure and chemical fertilizers energy would lead to an increase in yield by 2.05, 1.80 and 1.26 kg, respectively. The results also showed that the MPP value of direct and renewable energy were higher.

  3. 香港推广普通话研究述评%Research Comment on Promoting Hongkong Mandarin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐影

    2012-01-01

    Hongkong Mandarin promotion research began from 1980.In 30 years,Hongkong in language planning,teaching of Mandarin,Mandarin curriculum setting and implementing of Mandarin teaching materials,teachers,Mandarin,Mandarin test,Mandarin promotion means and other aspects have made great achievements,but also put in a few inadequacy.By review and summary,grasping its panorama,it can be conducive to scientific planning of Hongkong future research direction on Mandarin promotion,Mandarin in the overseas promotion also can rise to draw lessons from action.%20世纪80年代始,香港就出现了推广普通话的相关研究。30年来,香港在语言规划、普通话教学、普通话课程设置及实施、普通话教材、普通话教师、普通话测试、普通话推广手段等诸多方面取得了丰硕的研究成果,但也存在一些不足。对香港推广普通话研究成果的回顾和总结,把握其全貌,有利于科学规划香港未来推普研究方向,对普通话在境外推广也可起到借鉴作用。

  4. Discriminative tonal feature extraction method in mandarin speech recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Hao; ZHU Jie

    2007-01-01

    To utilize the supra-segmental nature of Mandarin tones, this article proposes a feature extraction method for hidden markov model (HMM) based tone modeling. The method uses linear transforms to project F0 (fundamental frequency) features of neighboring syllables as compensations, and adds them to the original F0 features of the current syllable. The transforms are discriminatively trained by using an objective function termed as "minimum tone error", which is a smooth approximation of tone recognition accuracy. Experiments show that the new tonal features achieve 3.82% tone recognition rate improvement, compared with the baseline, using maximum likelihood trained HMM on the normal F0 features. Further experiments show that discriminative HMM training on the new features is 8.78% better than the baseline.

  5. Mandarin peel wastes pretreatment with steam explosion for bioethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boluda-Aguilar, María; García-Vidal, Lidia; González-Castañeda, Fayiny Del Pilar; López-Gómez, Antonio

    2010-05-01

    The mandarin (Citrus reticulata L.) citrus peel wastes (MCPW) were studied for bioethanol production, obtaining also as co-products: d-limonene, galacturonic acid, and citrus pulp pellets (CPP). The steam explosion pretreatment was analysed at pilot plant level to decrease the hydrolytic enzymes requirements and to separate and recover the d-limonene. The effect of steam explosion on MCPW lignocellulosic composition was analyzed by means thermogravimetric analysis. The d-limonene contents and their influence on ethanol production have been also studied, while concentration of sugars, galacturonic acid and ethanol have been analysed to measure the saccharification and fermentation (HF and SSF) processes efficiency obtained by MCPW steam explosion pretreatment. Ethanol contents of 50-60L/1000kg raw MCPW can be obtained and CPP yields can be regulated by means the control of enzymes dose and the steam explosion pretreatment which can significantly reduce the enzymes requirements.

  6. PHONETIC EVIDENCE FOR THE NASAL CODA SHIFT IN MANDARIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James H. Yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presented phonetic evidence to resolve the transcription disagreement concerning the syllable-final nasal shift in the variety of Mandarin spoken in Taiwan. Although three judges agreed that the rhyme /iŋ/ underwent a sound change, they perceived the nasal coda shift differently. Two of them transcribed it as a modification from /iŋ/ to /in/, whereas the other asserted that the velar nasal disappears with its preceding vowel nasalized. In order to resolve this transcription conflict, this study analyzed the acoustic attributes of the speculative sound alterations in question, including /in/, /iŋ/, /i/ and /ĩ/. The phonetic analysis indicated that the Taiwanese participants did not nasalize the preceding vowel deleting the nasal coda but tended to pronounce the post-vocalic velar nasal as its dental counterpart. This study concluded by discussing the implications of the synchronic variation for the theories of the nasal coda shift in Chinese dialects.

  7. Catalytic pyrolysis of waste mandarin over nanoporous materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young-Kwon; Kim, Jeong Wook; Park, Sung Hoon; Kim, Seong-Soo; Jeon, Jong-Ki; Lee, See Hoon

    2013-01-01

    Catalytic pyrolysis of waste mandarin was performed using nanoporous catalysts. AI-MCM-41 and Meso-MFI, which had different acid characteristics, were used. In addition, the characteristics of Pt/Meso-MFI were compared with those of Meso-MFI. To analyze the characteristics of the catalyst samples, Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area, temperature programmed desorption of NH3, and N2 adsorption-desorption analyses were performed. In addition, pyrolysis gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was used to facilitate the direct analysis of the pyrolytic products. The products obtained from catalytic pyrolysis contained a greater amount of valuable components than did those obtained from non-catalytic pyrolysis, indicating that catalytic pyrolysis improved the quality of the bio-oil. Additionally, valuable products such as furan and aromatic compounds were produced in greater quantities when Meso-MFI was used. When Pt/Meso-MFI was used, the amounts of furan and aromatic compounds produced increased even further.

  8. Dialectal and gender differences in nasalance for a Mandarin population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ha-Kyung; Yu, Xiao-meng; Cao, Yan-jing; Liu, Xiao-ming; Huang, Zhao-Ming

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether there are dialectal and gender related differences in nasalance of main Mandarin vowels and three sentences in 400 Chinese normal adults. The mean nasalance score difference for dialect and gender was significant (p nasalance scores show that Chongqing > Beijing > Shanghai > Guangzhou for the nasal sentence, oro-nasal sentence, /a/, /i/ and /u/. In addition, the average nasalance scores of females were higher than those of males for all speech materials in all dialects. The clinical significance of this study can be helpful in making nasalance clinical decisions for Chinese people with cleft palate, hearing disorders and dysarthria with resonance disorders. It also shows the theoretical and socio-cultural features for linguists considering dialects and gender.

  9. 从网络新词“duāng"的形成看单音节拟声词的特点%Characteristics of Chinese Monosyllabic Onomatopoeia Based on Network New Words "Duāng”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱俊阳

    2015-01-01

    网络新词“duāng”以及一些网络单音节拟声词的新兴,对传统汉语单音节拟声词提出了挑战.它们的形成必须符合单音节拟声词语音、文字、语法的普遍特点,这样才能固定下来成为语言符号的发展趋势,同时也为未来出现的新单音节拟声词提供必要的形成依据.

  10. Jasper Johns' Painted Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levinger, Esther

    1989-01-01

    States that the painted words in Jasper Johns' art act in two different capacities: concealed words partake in the artist's interrogation of visual perception; and visible painted words question classical representation. Argues that words are Johns' means of critiquing modernism. (RS)

  11. Word-final stops in Brazilian Portuguese English: acquisition and pronunciation instruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walcir Cardoso

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents current research on the second language acquisition of English phonology and its implication for (and applications to pronunciation instruction in the language classroom. More specifically, the paper follows the development of English word-final consonants by Brazilian Portuguese speakers learning English as a foreign language. The findings of two parallel studies reveal that the acquisition of these constituents is motivated by both extralinguistic (proficiency, style and linguistic (word size, place of articulation factors, and that the process is mediated by an intermediate stage characterized by consonant lengthening or aspiration (Onset-Nucleus sharing. Based on these results, I propose that the segments and environments that seem to delay coda production (i.e., monosyllabic words, labial and dorsal consonants should be given priority in pronunciation instruction. Along the lines of Dickerson (1975, this paper proposes (what we believe is a more effective and socially realistic pedagogy for the teaching of English pronunciation within an approach that recognizes that "variability is the norm rather than the exception" in second language acquisition.

  12. When is a word a word?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vihman, M M; McCune, L

    1994-10-01

    Although adult-based words co-occur in the period of transition to speech with a variety of non-word vocalizations, little attention has been given to the formidable problem of identifying these earliest words. This paper specifies explicit, maximally 'inclusive' identification procedures, with criteria based on both phonetic and contextual parameters. A formal system for evaluating phonetic match is suggested, as well as a set of child-derived functional categories reflecting use in context. Analysis of word use across two samples of 10 children each, followed from 0;9 to 1;4, provides evidence to suggest that context-bound words can be 'trained' by focusing on eliciting language, but that the timing of context-flexible word use remains independent of such training.

  13. Influence of Mandarin tone exposure on the processing of intonation by 14-year-old American adolescents: An fMRI study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jo-Fu Lotus; Imada, Toshiaki; Kuhl, Patricia; Wang, Yue

    2001-05-01

    This study investigated, for American adolescents, whether the learning of non-native speech contrasts in one prosodic domain (Mandarin Chinese tones) would influence the processing of non-native contrasts in another prosodic domain (Mandarin Chinese intonation). Two groups of 14-year-old American teenagers were tested using the functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) technique, including eight who had received a two-week Mandarin tone training program and eight with no exposure to Mandarin. Subjects were scanned during identification tasks. Despite their similar behavioral performance on identification of Mandarin intonation, preliminary results showed different cortical activation patterns for the two groups. Teenagers exposed to Mandarin showed similar activation patterns for the Mandarin intonation and Mandarin tone task, with more right-hemisphere activation for intonation, which differed from activation for English intonation. Teenagers without exposure activated similar areas for Mandarin and English intonation. Familiarity with Mandarin tonal contrasts affects brain activation, not only for Mandarin tones but also for Mandarin intonation, suggesting that training effects may transcend levels. [Work supported by NIH (HD 37954) and the Talaris Research Institute.

  14. Phonological units in spoken word production: insights from Cantonese.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andus Wing-Kuen Wong

    Full Text Available Evidence from previous psycholinguistic research suggests that phonological units such as phonemes have a privileged role during phonological planning in Dutch and English (aka the segment-retrieval hypothesis. However, the syllable-retrieval hypothesis previously proposed for Mandarin assumes that only the entire syllable unit (without the tone can be prepared in advance in speech planning. Using Cantonese Chinese as a test case, the present study was conducted to investigate whether the syllable-retrieval hypothesis can be applied to other Chinese spoken languages. In four implicit priming (form-preparation experiments, participants were asked to learn various sets of prompt-response di-syllabic word pairs and to utter the corresponding response word upon seeing each prompt. The response words in a block were either phonologically related (homogeneous or unrelated (heterogeneous. Participants' naming responses were significantly faster in the homogeneous than in the heterogeneous conditions when the response words shared the same word-initial syllable (without the tone (Exps.1 and 4 or body (Exps.3 and 4, but not when they shared merely the same word-initial phoneme (Exp.2. Furthermore, the priming effect observed in the syllable-related condition was significantly larger than that in the body-related condition (Exp. 4. Although the observed syllable priming effects and the null effect of word-initial phoneme are consistent with the syllable-retrieval hypothesis, the body-related (sub-syllabic priming effects obtained in this Cantonese study are not. These results suggest that the syllable-retrieval hypothesis is not generalizable to all Chinese spoken languages and that both syllable and sub-syllabic constituents are legitimate planning units in Cantonese speech production.

  15. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  16. A Few Words about Words | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ken Michaels, Guest Writer In Shakepeare’s play “Hamlet,” Polonius inquires of the prince, “What do you read, my lord?” Not at all pleased with what he’s reading, Hamlet replies, “Words, words, words.”1 I have previously described the communication model in which a sender encodes a message and then sends it via some channel (or medium) to a receiver, who decodes the message and, ideally, understands what was sent. Surely the most common way of encoding a message is in choosing the most appropriate words for the listener or reader.

  17. Development of Phonological Awareness in English-Mandarin Bilinguals: A Comparison of English-L1 and Mandarin-L1 Kindergarten Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeong, Stephanie H. M.; Rickard Liow, Susan J.

    2012-01-01

    Phoneme awareness is critical for literacy acquisition in English, but relatively little is known about the early development of phonological awareness in ESL (English as a second language) bilinguals when their two languages have different phonological structures. Using parallel tasks in English and Mandarin, we tracked the development of L1…

  18. Online Comic in Mandarin Chinese's Vocabulary Learning: A Case Study of Budi Utama Multilingual School in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilujeng, Nuning Catur Sri; Lan, Yu-Ju

    2015-01-01

    This study was aimed to investigate (1) the improvement of CFL elementary-school students' skill in learning Mandarin Chinese (hereafter referred to as Mandarin) vocabulary through creating comic without online resources, creating online comics individually and collaboratively; (2) the CFL elementary-school students' attitude towards the…

  19. Metadiscourse Repertoire of L1 Mandarin Undergraduates Writing in English: A Cross-Contextual, Cross-Disciplinary Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ting; Wharton, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative, comparative study of metadiscourse in the academic writing of two groups of undergraduate students working in two different disciplines. The groups of students were: 1) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in China through the medium of English; 2) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in the UK through the…

  20. The Time Factor in Mandarin Language Learning: The Four-Week Intensive versus the Regular High School Semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.; Silva, Duarte

    2014-01-01

    This study compared two groups of high school students in their learning of a third-year Mandarin level 3 class under two conditions: an intensive four-week (85.5 hours) summer program and a 22-week (88 hours) regular semester program. Students in both conditions had been classmates through four semesters of Mandarin instruction and had similar…

  1. The Time Factor in Mandarin Language Learning: The Four-Week Intensive versus the Regular High School Semester

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xiaoqiu; Padilla, Amado M.; Silva, Duarte

    2014-01-01

    This study compared two groups of high school students in their learning of a third-year Mandarin level 3 class under two conditions: an intensive four-week (85.5 hours) summer program and a 22-week (88 hours) regular semester program. Students in both conditions had been classmates through four semesters of Mandarin instruction and had similar…

  2. Mucor rot - An emerging postharvest disease of mandarin fruit caused by Mucor piriformis and other Mucor spp. in California

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, an emerging, undescribed postharvest fruit rot disease was observed on mandarin fruit after extended storage in California. We collected decayed mandarin fruit from three citrus packinghouses in the Central Valley of California in 2015 and identified this disease as Mucor rot caused...

  3. Impact of maturity and peel characteristics on the response of mandarin varieties to wax application and storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandarins are prone to the development of off-flavors during storage that can make them less desirable to consumers. Prior research by our group has demonstrated the existence of varietal differences in the propensity for postharvest off-flavor formation in mandarins, although the factors that deter...

  4. Interpretation of Errors Made by Mandarin-Speaking Children on the Preschool Language Scales--5th Edition Screening Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Rattanasone, Nan Xu; Wyver, Shirley; Hinton, Amber; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    We investigated typical errors made by Mandarin-speaking children when measured by the Preschool Language Scales-fifth edition, Screening Test (PLS-5 Screening Test). The intention was to provide preliminary data for the development of a guideline for early childhood educators and psychologists who use the test with Mandarin-speaking children.…

  5. Identification of differentially expressed genes associated with differential body size in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Changxu; Li, Ling; Liang, Xu-Fang; He, Shan; Guo, Wenjie; Lv, Liyuan; Wang, Qingchao; Song, Yi

    2016-08-01

    Body size is an obvious and important characteristic of fish. Mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky) is one of the most valuable perciform species widely cultured in China. Individual differences in body size are common in mandarin fish and significantly influence the aquaculture production. However, little is currently known about its genetic control. In this study, digital gene expression profiling and transcriptome sequencing were performed in mandarin fish with differential body size at 30 and 180 days post-hatch (dph), respectively. Body weight, total length and body length of fish with big-size were significantly higher than those with small-size at both 30 and 180 dph (P mandarin fish that went through the same training procedure. The genes were involved in the growth hormone-insulin-like growth factor axis, cell proliferation and differentiation, appetite control, glucose metabolism, reproduction and sexual size dimorphism pathways. This study will help toward a comprehensive understanding of the complexity of regulation of body size in mandarin fish individuals and provide valuable information for future research.

  6. ASPECTUAL INFLUENCE ON TEMPORAL RELATIONS: A CASE STUDY OF THE EXPERIENTIAL GUO IN MANDARINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiun-Shiung Wu

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines how the temporal relation between a clause containing the experiential guo and an adjacent clause is determined. Mandarin is a language not morphologically marked for tenses (e.g., Lin 2006, and therefore, tenses cannot help in determining temporal relations in Mandarin. However, Mandarin has a rich aspectual system. This paper argues that the experiential guo indirectly influences temporal relations via rhetorical relations by either specifying a default rhetorical relation, or by constraining the circumstances under which a certain rhetorical relation can connect a clause with guo to an adjacent clause. This paper also argues that the default rhetorical relation and the constraints are determined by the aspectual properties of the experiential marker. Other information, such as discourse connectors, lexical information, etc., can override the default rhetorical relation indicated by guo and specifies a rhetorical relation. Therefore, this paper concludes that in Mandarin aspect markers can indirectly affect temporal relations by means of rhetorical relations, a result consistent with Wu’s (2005b paper on the perfective marker le in Mandarin, and Wu’s (2007b, 2004 work on the progressive marker zai and the durative marker zhe.

  7. The binaural masking-level difference of mandarin tone detection and the binaural intelligibility-level difference of mandarin tone recognition in the presence of speech-spectrum noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Cheng-Yu; Li, Pei-Chun; Chiang, Yuan-Chuan; Young, Shuenn-Tsong; Chu, Woei-Chyn

    2015-01-01

    Binaural hearing involves using information relating to the differences between the signals that arrive at the two ears, and it can make it easier to detect and recognize signals in a noisy environment. This phenomenon of binaural hearing is quantified in laboratory studies as the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD). Mandarin is one of the most commonly used languages, but there are no publication values of BMLD or BILD based on Mandarin tones. Therefore, this study investigated the BMLD and BILD of Mandarin tones. The BMLDs of Mandarin tone detection were measured based on the detection threshold differences for the four tones of the voiced vowels /i/ (i.e., /i1/, /i2/, /i3/, and /i4/) and /u/ (i.e., /u1/, /u2/, /u3/, and /u4/) in the presence of speech-spectrum noise when presented interaurally in phase (S0N0) and interaurally in antiphase (SπN0). The BILDs of Mandarin tone recognition in speech-spectrum noise were determined as the differences in the target-to-masker ratio (TMR) required for 50% correct tone recognitions between the S0N0 and SπN0 conditions. The detection thresholds for the four tones of /i/ and /u/ differed significantly (pMandarin tones were all lower in the SπN0 condition than in the S0N0 condition, and the BMLDs ranged from 7.3 to 11.5 dB. The TMR for 50% correct Mandarin tone recognitions differed significantly (pMandarin tone detection and recognition in the presence of speech-spectrum noise are improved when phase inversion is applied to the target speech. The average BILDs of Mandarin tones are smaller than the average BMLDs of Mandarin tones.

  8. The statistical trade-off between word order and word structure - Large-scale evidence for the principle of least effort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koplenig, Alexander; Meyer, Peter; Wolfer, Sascha; Müller-Spitzer, Carolin

    2017-01-01

    Languages employ different strategies to transmit structural and grammatical information. While, for example, grammatical dependency relationships in sentences are mainly conveyed by the ordering of the words for languages like Mandarin Chinese, or Vietnamese, the word ordering is much less restricted for languages such as Inupiatun or Quechua, as these languages (also) use the internal structure of words (e.g. inflectional morphology) to mark grammatical relationships in a sentence. Based on a quantitative analysis of more than 1,500 unique translations of different books of the Bible in almost 1,200 different languages that are spoken as a native language by approximately 6 billion people (more than 80% of the world population), we present large-scale evidence for a statistical trade-off between the amount of information conveyed by the ordering of words and the amount of information conveyed by internal word structure: languages that rely more strongly on word order information tend to rely less on word structure information and vice versa. Or put differently, if less information is carried within the word, more information has to be spread among words in order to communicate successfully. In addition, we find that-despite differences in the way information is expressed-there is also evidence for a trade-off between different books of the biblical canon that recurs with little variation across languages: the more informative the word order of the book, the less informative its word structure and vice versa. We argue that this might suggest that, on the one hand, languages encode information in very different (but efficient) ways. On the other hand, content-related and stylistic features are statistically encoded in very similar ways.

  9. Word 2013 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    This bestselling guide to Microsoft Word is the first and last word on Word 2013 It's a whole new Word, so jump right into this book and learn how to make the most of it. Bestselling For Dummies author Dan Gookin puts his usual fun and friendly candor back to work to show you how to navigate the new features of Word 2013. Completely in tune with the needs of the beginning user, Gookin explains how to use Word 2013 quickly and efficiently so that you can spend more time working on your projects and less time trying to figure it all out. Walks you through the capabilit

  10. Professional WordPress

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Hal; Williams, Brad

    2010-01-01

    An in-depth look at the internals of the WordPress system.As the most popular blogging and content management platform available today, WordPress is a powerful tool. This exciting book goes beyond the basics and delves into the heart of the WordPress system, offering overviews of the functional aspects of WordPress as well as plug-in and theme development. What is covered in this book?: WordPress as a Content Management System; Hosting Options; Installing WordPress Files; Database Configuration; Dashboard Widgets; Customizing the Dashboard; Creating and Managing Content; Categorizing Your Cont

  11. Influence of orange cultivar and mandarin postharvest storage on polyphenols, ascorbic acid and antioxidant activity during gastrointestinal digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Ancos, Begoña; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Sánchez-Moreno, Concepción; Cano, M Pilar

    2017-06-15

    Polyphenols, ascorbic acid content and antioxidant activity of two sweet oranges (Navel-N and Cara Cara-CC) and mandarin (Clementine-M) as well as their bioaccessibilities were evaluated in pulps and compared to those in fresh juice. Thus, pulps of oranges and mandarins displayed higher hesperidin (HES), narirutin (NAR), total flavonoids (TF), total phenols (TP) and antioxidant activity (AAC) than their corresponding juices. Also, CC products presented higher bioactive compounds content than N ones. Bioaccessibility of bioactive compounds and AAC were higher in pulps of both oranges and mandarin than in their corresponding juices. Oranges (N and CC) pulps and juices presented higher bioaccessibilities than mandarin ones. The postharvest storage of mandarin at 12°C during 5weeks not only produced a significant increase of the bioactive compounds but also an increase of their bioaccessibility. The bioaccessibility of Citrus bioactive compounds is necessary for calculating more accurately their daily intake amount.

  12. Combinatorics on words Christoffel words and repetitions in words

    CERN Document Server

    Berstel, Jean; Reutenauer, Christophe; Saliola, Franco V

    2008-01-01

    The two parts of this text are based on two series of lectures delivered by Jean Berstel and Christophe Reutenauer in March 2007 at the Centre de Recherches Mathématiques, Montréal, Canada. Part I represents the first modern and comprehensive exposition of the theory of Christoffel words. Part II presents numerous combinatorial and algorithmic aspects of repetition-free words stemming from the work of Axel Thue-a pioneer in the theory of combinatorics on words. A beginner to the theory of combinatorics on words will be motivated by the numerous examples, and the large variety of exercises, which make the book unique at this level of exposition. The clean and streamlined exposition and the extensive bibliography will also be appreciated. After reading this book, beginners should be ready to read modern research papers in this rapidly growing field and contribute their own research to its development. Experienced readers will be interested in the finitary approach to Sturmian words that Christoffel words offe...

  13. Transcriptional Analyses of Mandarins Seriously Infected by 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus'.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meirong Xu

    Full Text Available A range of leaf symptoms, including blotchy mottle, yellowing, and small, upright leaves with a variety of chlorotic patterns resembling those induced by zinc deficiencies, are associated with huanglongbing (HLB, yellow shoot disease, a worldwide destructive citrus disease. HLB is presumably caused by the phloem-limited fastidious prokaryotic α-proteobacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter spp.' Previous studies focused on the proteome and transcriptome analyses of citrus 5 to 35 weeks after 'Ca. L. spp.' inoculation. In this study, gene expression profiles were analyzed from mandarin Citrus reticulate Blanco cv. jiaogan leaves after a 2 year infection with 'Ca. L. asiaticus'. The Affymetrix microarray analysis explored 2,017 differentially expressed genes. Of the 1,364 genes had known functions, 938 (46.5% were up-regulated. Genes related to photosynthesis, carbohydrate metabolic, and structure were mostly down-regulated, with rates of 92.7%, 61.0%, and 80.2%, respectively. Genes associated with oxidation-reduction and transport were mostly up-regulated with the rates of 75.0% and 64.6%, respectively. Our data analyses implied that the infection of 'Ca. L. asiaticus' could alter hormone crosstalk, inducing the jasmine acid pathway and depressing the ethylene and salicylic acid pathways in the citrus host. This study provides an enhanced insight into the host response of citrus to 'Ca. L. asiaticus' infection at a two-years infection stage.

  14. Breaking the host range: mandarin fish is susceptible to a vesiculovirus derived from snakehead fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaodan; Wen, Yi; Hu, Xianqin; Wang, Wenwen; Liang, Xufang; Li, Jun; Vakharia, Vikram; Lin, Li

    2015-04-01

    Members of the genus Vesiculovirus, which belongs to the family Rhabdoviridae, can cause great economic loss in fish culture. In the present report, a vesiculovirus [named snakehead fish vesiculovirus (SHVV)] was isolated from diseased hybrid snakehead fish. SHVV shared 94 % nucleotide sequence identity at the genomic level with Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus (SCRV), which infects mandarin fish (S. chuatsi). We showed that SHVV was able to replicate and proliferate well in SSN-1 cells, which originate from striped snakehead fish (Channa striatus). Furthermore, mandarin fish was susceptible to SHVV by bath exposure, as well as by intraperitoneal injection. The infected fish showed typical clinical signs of rhabdovirus infection, including haemorrhage and oedema. Histopathological analysis revealed that extensive inflammation and necrosis were observed in the spleen, kidney, liver, heart and brain of the moribund mandarin fish. These results will shed new light on the epidemic of vesiculovirus infections among fish.

  15. Mandarin Tone and Vowel Recognition in Cochlear Implant Users: Effects of Talker Variability and Bimodal Hearing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yi-Ping; Chang, Ronald Y; Lin, Chun-Yi; Luo, Xin

    2016-01-01

    For cochlear implant (CI) users with residual low-frequency acoustic hearing in the nonimplanted ear, bimodal hearing combining the use of a CI and a contralateral hearing aid (HA) may provide more salient talker voice cues than CI alone to handle the variability of talker identity across trials. This study tested the effects of talker variability, bimodal hearing, and their interaction on response accuracy and time of CI users' Mandarin tone, vowel, and syllable recognition (i.e., combined Mandarin tone and vowel recognition in this study). Fifteen prelingually deafened native Mandarin-speaking CI users (at age 20 or lower) participated in this study. Four talkers each produced six Mandarin single-vowel syllables in four lexical tones. The stimuli were presented in quiet via a single loudspeaker. To study the effects of talker variability, Mandarin tone, vowel, and syllable recognition was tested in two presentation conditions: with stimuli blocked according to talker (blocked-talker condition) or mixed across talkers from trial to trial (mixed-talker condition). To explore the effects of bimodal hearing, two processor conditions were tested: CI alone or CI + HA. The cumulative response time was recorded as an indirect indicator of the cognitive load or listening effort in each condition. The correlations were computed between demographic/hearing factors (e.g., hearing thresholds in the nonimplanted ear) and bimodal performance/benefits (where bimodal benefits refer to the performance differences between CI alone and CI + HA). Mandarin tone recognition with both CI alone and CI + HA was significantly poorer in the mixed-talker condition than in the blocked-talker condition, while vowel recognition was comparable in the two presentation conditions. Bimodal hearing significantly improved Mandarin tone recognition but not vowel recognition. Mandarin syllable recognition was significantly affected by both talker variability and bimodal hearing. The cumulative response

  16. Children's interpretation of disjunction in the scope of 'before': a comparison of English and Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notley, Anna; Zhou, Peng; Jensen, Britta; Crain, Stephen

    2012-06-01

    This study investigates three- to five-year-old children's interpretation of disjunction in sentences like 'The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or the bunny'. English disjunction has a conjunctive interpretation in such sentences ('The dog reached the finish line before the turtle and before the bunny'). This interpretation conforms with classical logic. Mandarin disjunction ('huozhe') can take scope over 'before' ('zai … zhiqian'), so the same sentence can mean 'The dog reached the finish line before the turtle or before the bunny (I don't know which)'. If children are guided by adult input in the acquisition of sentence meanings, English- and Mandarin-speaking children should assign different interpretations to such sentences. If children are guided by logical principles, then children acquiring either language should initially assign the conjunctive interpretation of disjunction. A truth-value judgment task was used to test this prediction and English- and Mandarin-speaking children were found to behave similarly.

  17. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, G. Albert; Prochnik, Simon; Jenkins, Jerry; Salse, Jerome; Hellsten, Uffe; Murat, Florent; Perrier, Xavier; Ruiz, Manuel; Scalabrin, Simone; Terol, Javier; Takita, Marco Aurélio; Labadie, Karine; Poulain, Julie; Couloux, Arnaud; Jabbari, Kamel; Cattonaro, Federica; Del Fabbro, Cristian; Pinosio, Sara; Zuccolo, Andrea; Chapman, Jarrod; Grimwood, Jane; Tadeo, Francisco R.; Estornell, Leandro H.; Muñoz-Sanz, Juan V.; Ibanez, Victoria; Herrero-Ortega, Amparo; Aleza, Pablo; Pérez-Pérez, Julián; Ramón, Daniel; Brunel, Dominique; Luro, François; Chen, Chunxian; Farmerie, William G.; Desany, Brian; Kodira, Chinnappa; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Harkins, Tim; Fredrikson, Karin; Burns, Paul; Lomsadze, Alexandre; Borodovsky, Mark; Reforgiato, Giuseppe; Freitas-Astúa, Juliana; Quetier, Francis; Navarro, Luis; Roose, Mikeal; Wincker, Patrick; Schmutz, Jeremy; Morgante, Michele; Machado, Marcos Antonio; Talon, Manuel; Jaillon, Olivier; Ollitrault, Patrick; Gmitter, Frederick; Rokhsar, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    The domestication of citrus, is poorly understood. Cultivated types are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species, whose identities and contributions remain controversial. By comparative analysis of a collection of citrus genomes, including a high quality haploid reference, we show that cultivated types were derived from two progenitor species. Though cultivated pummelos represent selections from a single progenitor species, C. maxima, cultivated mandarins are introgressions of C. maxima into the ancestral mandarin species, C. reticulata. The most widely cultivated citrus, sweet orange, is the offspring of previously admixed individuals, but sour orange is an F1 hybrid of pure C. maxima and C. reticulata parents, implying that wild mandarins were part of the early breeding germplasm. A wild “mandarin” from China exhibited substantial divergence from C. reticulata, suggesting the possibility of other unrecognized wild citrus species. Understanding citrus phylogeny through genome analysis clarifies taxonomic relationships and enables sequence-directed genetic improvement. PMID:24908277

  18. Effect of X-ray irradiation on fruit quality of clementine mandarin cv. ‘Clemenules’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Miquel; Palou, Lluís; Ángel del Río, Miguel; Jacas, Josep-Anton

    2007-10-01

    The effects of a potential quarantine treatment consisting of exposure to X-ray irradiation against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on 'Clemenules' mandarin quality are presented and compared with those from the standard cold temperature quarantine treatment. X-ray irradiation doses of 0.195 and 0.395 kGy had no detrimental effects on fruit quality (rind color, firmness, juice yield, maturity index, internal volatiles, deterioration index and sensory evaluation). These results therefore indicate that X-ray irradiation is a harmless and highly effective quarantine technique for clementine mandarin and this technique could be as useful as the current cold treatment for 'Clemenules' mandarins.

  19. Getting the "Words" In

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolinger, Dwight

    1970-01-01

    Suggests that grammar is not something into which words are plugged but is rather a mechanism by which words are served and that linguistics scientists must begin to devote a major part of their attention to lexicology. (TO)

  20. Understanding Medical Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Understanding Medical Words Past Issues / Summer 2009 Table of Contents For ... Medicine that teaches you about many of the words related to your health care Do you have ...

  1. In a Word, History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohan, Mary Helen

    1977-01-01

    Understanding words like "bionics" will open the mind to the horizons of another time when words like "railroad" evoked wonder and "to fly to the moon" was a metaphor for the impossible dream. Suggests that history teachers and English teachers should join together in using words to teach both subjects. (Editor/RK)

  2. To What Extent Can Mandarin Popular Music Concerts Findthe Global Marketsin the West?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Yiqun

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, an increasing number of Mandarin popular music musicians have begun to set off the world concert tour to the American and European countries. However, the audiences of M-pop singer' s concerts are not globalised, who are mainly ethnic Chinese. This dissertation will identify the difficulties lacing with Mandarin popular singers in expanding the overseas markets. By conducting interviews and social survey that factors might influence the western audiences attendance of the M-pop concerts will be anaylsed. Based on these findings, how can M-pop singers reach a globalised audiences' composition with more Western audiences will be examined.

  3. SERUM IMMUNOGLOBULIN OF THE MANDARIN FISH, SINIPERCA CHUATSI WITH DEVELOPMENT OF POLYCLONAL ANTIBODY

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永安; 聂品

    2002-01-01

    Serum immunoglobulin from the mandarin fish, or the so-called Chinese perch, S iniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky), was successfully purified using affinity chroma togr aphy. Heavy and light chains were detected on electrophoresis gel, with molecula r weights being estimated at 72 and 29 kDa, respectively. The tetrameric IgM of S. chuatsi was calculated to be 808 kDa. The rabbit polyclonal antisera against the purifed immunoglobulin were developed and tested by Western blot analysis. The antisera reacted strongly with the heavy chains of S. chuat si immunoglobulin. Humoral immune responses of the mandarin fish can then be examined using the developed polyclonal antibody.

  4. Serum immunoglobulin of the mandarin fish, Siniperca chuatsi with development of polyclonal antibody

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong-An; Nie, Pin

    2002-12-01

    Serum immunoglobulin from the mandarin fish, or the so-called Chinese perch, Siniperca chuatsi (Basilewsky), was successfully purified using affinity chromatography. Heavy and light chains were detected on electrophoresis gel, with molecular weights being estimated at 72 and 29 kDa, respectively. The tetrameric IgM of S. chuatsi was calculated to be 808 kDa. The rabbit polyclonal antisera against the purifed immunoglobulin were developed and tested by Western blot analysis. The antisera reacted strongly with the heavy chains of S. chuatsi immunoglobulin. Humoral immune responses of the mandarin fish can then be examined using the developed polyclonal antibody.

  5. A Word to the World

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JOHN; BUTCHER

    2007-01-01

    English is undoubtedly the global language, but as China rises ever higher on the world stage, Mandarin is beginning to look like a potential challenger to that title. Satus—it means 'the beginning' in Latin, but how many people would know that?

  6. The effects of limited bandwidth and noise on verbal processing time and word recall in normal-hearing children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCreery, Ryan W; Stelmachowicz, Patricia G

    2013-09-01

    Understanding speech in acoustically degraded environments can place significant cognitive demands on school-age children who are developing the cognitive and linguistic skills needed to support this process. Previous studies suggest the speech understanding, word learning, and academic performance can be negatively impacted by background noise, but the effect of limited audibility on cognitive processes in children has not been directly studied. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of limited audibility on speech understanding and working memory tasks in school-age children with normal hearing. Seventeen children with normal hearing between 6 and 12 years of age participated in the present study. Repetition of nonword consonant-vowel-consonant stimuli was measured under conditions with combinations of two different signal to noise ratios (SNRs; 3 and 9 dB) and two low-pass filter settings (3.2 and 5.6 kHz). Verbal processing time was calculated based on the time from the onset of the stimulus to the onset of the child's response. Monosyllabic word repetition and recall were also measured in conditions with a full bandwidth and 5.6 kHz low-pass cutoff. Nonword repetition scores decreased as audibility decreased. Verbal processing time increased as audibility decreased, consistent with predictions based on increased listening effort. Although monosyllabic word repetition did not vary between the full bandwidth and 5.6 kHz low-pass filter condition, recall was significantly poorer in the condition with limited bandwidth (low pass at 5.6 kHz). Age and expressive language scores predicted performance on word recall tasks, but did not predict nonword repetition accuracy or verbal processing time. Decreased audibility was associated with reduced accuracy for nonword repetition and increased verbal processing time in children with normal hearing. Deficits in free recall were observed even under conditions where word repetition was not affected

  7. Guess a New Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩加春

    2010-01-01

    @@ When you read,you will find some new words,what should you do?You can look up the words in the dictionary,but it will take you a lot of time.Sometimes you can guess a new word because you know some parts of the new word.For example,a writer means a person who writes something.Sometimes it is not enough to understand a new word,but to know part of it may help you a lot.

  8. Tanslation of Color Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐丹

    2009-01-01

    Being a minor part in the translation field,the translation of color words is far more complex than people may have imagined.Apart from the literal meaning of color words in the target language,there are other factors that affect the understanding.This paper mainly focuses on three main characteristics of color words that make the translation work difficult-color words'variations and combinations,rich symbolic meanings and culture differences.It also provides possible ways to deal with the prickly problem of finding equivalents,the complexity of transferring symbolic meanings and the subtle problem of crossing culture boundaries in translation of color words.

  9. WORD PROCESSING AND SECOND LANGUAGE WRITING: A LONGITUDINAL CASE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alister Cumming

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to determine whether word processing might change a second language (L2 leamer's writing processes and improve the quality of his essays over a relatively long period of time. We worked from the assumption that research comparing word-processing to pen and paper composing tends to show positive results when studies include lengthy terms of data collection and when appropriate instruction and training are provided. We compared the processes and products of L2 composing displayed by a 29-year-old, male Mandarin leamer of English with intermediate proficiency in English while he wrote, over 8 months, 14 compositions grouped into 7 comparable pairs of topics altemating between uses of a lap-top computer and of pen and paper. Al1 keystrokes were recorded electronically in the computer environrnent; visual records of al1 text changes were made for the pen-and paper writing. Think-aloud protocols were recorded in al1 sessions. Analyses indicate advantages for the word-processing medium over the pen-and-paper medium in terms ofi a greater frequency of revisions made at the discourse level and at the syntactical level; higher scores for content on analytic ratings of the completed compositions; and more extensive evaluation ofwritten texts in think-aloud verbal reports.

  10. 普通话课程教学改革探析%Analysis on the Reform of Mandarin Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋玮

    2012-01-01

    普通话能力测试越来越受到社会的重视,在普通话的教学过程中,既要考虑学生的实际情况,帮助他们树立学好普通话的信心,同时通过多种教学方法和教学手段提高他们学习的兴趣,使其掌握正确的学习方法,再辅以普通话水平测试的促进作用,推动普通话教学的顺利进行和推普工作的可持续发展。%Mandarin Ability Test has been paid more and more attention by the society. In mandarin teach- ing process, learners' actual situation should be considered, they should be encouraged to establish their confi- dence of mandarin learning. Meanwhile, we should increase their interest in mandarin learning through various teaching methods and measures, and let them master the proper methods. With the help of Mandarin Ability Test, a smooth progressing of mandarin teaching and sustainable development of mandarin popularization will be promoted.

  11. 普通话课堂教学的美学渗透%Aesthetic Penetration into Mandarin Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国俊

    2011-01-01

    Mandarin has a very high aesthetic value. If we effectively penetrate the aesthetic value into the teaching of Mandarin, we get the "edutainment" effect. On the one hand, it allows students to experience the beauty of Mandarin, while make the students have interest in learning Mandarin, and be ready to use Mandarin, and actively create beauty in Mandarin, which can improve their Putonghua; the other hand, it can improve the efficiency of Mandarin courses in the classroom and achieve the real goal of promoting and popularizing Putonghua.%汉语普通话有相当高的美学价值,如果将其美学价值有效地渗透到普通话课堂教学中,则获得“寓教于乐”的效果.一方面可以让学生在感受普通话美的同时,产生学习普通话的兴趣,并乐于使用普通话,积极用普通话创造美的语言,有效提高他们的普通话水平;另一方面可以提高普通话课程的课堂效率,达到该课程推广、普及普通话的真正目标.

  12. Can a mind have two time lines? Exploring space-time mapping in Mandarin and English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miles, Lynden K; Tan, Lucy; Noble, Grant D; Lumsden, Joanne; Macrae, C Neil

    2011-06-01

    Spatial representations of time are a ubiquitous feature of human cognition. Nevertheless, interesting sociolinguistic variations exist with respect to where in space people locate temporal constructs. For instance, while in English time metaphorically flows horizontally, in Mandarin an additional vertical dimension is employed. Noting that the bilingual mind can flexibly accommodate multiple representations, the present work explored whether Mandarin-English bilinguals possess two mental time lines. Across two experiments, we demonstrated that Mandarin-English bilinguals do indeed employ both horizontal and vertical representations of time. Importantly, subtle variations to cultural context were seen to shape how these time lines were deployed.

  13. The sighting of Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata (Linnaeus (Aves: Anseriformes: Anatidae after a gap of 112 years in Assam, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bipul Das

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available A female Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata was sighted in Saatvoini Beel on February 10, 2014. The female of this species was characterized by grey head, with a white ring around the eye which continued as a streak behind it. In India Mandarin Duck is vagrant and there were very few reported records from India. In 1902, Baker reported six individuals Mandarin Duck on the Subansiri River, Assam. The present sighting of this species from Baksa district is the first reliable record of this species in Assam after a gap of 112 years. 

  14. Improved Grapheme-to-Phoneme Conversion for Mandarin TTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YI Lifu; LI Jian; HAO Jie; XIONG Ziyu

    2009-01-01

    Several methods were developed to improve grapheme-to-phoneme (G2P) conversion models for Chinese text-to-speech (TTS) systems. The critical problem of data sparsity was handled by combining ap-proaches. First, a text-selection method was designed to cover as many G2P text corpus contexts as possi-ble. Then, various data-ddven modeling methods were used with comparisons to select the best method for each polyphonic word. Finally, independent models were used for some neutral tone words in addition to the normal G2P models to achieve more compact and flexible G2P models. Tests show that these methods re-duce the relative errors by 50% for both normal polyphonic words and Chinese neutral tones.

  15. Asymmetries in the perception of Mandarin tones: Evidence from mismatch negativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politzer-Ahles, Stephen; Schluter, Kevin; Wu, Kefei; Almeida, Diogo

    2016-10-01

    Most investigations of the representation and processing of speech sounds focus on their segmental representations, and considerably less is known about the representation of suprasegmental phenomena (e.g., Mandarin tones). Here we examine the mismatch negativity (MMN) response to the contrast between Mandarin Tone 3 (T3) and other tones using a passive oddball paradigm. Because the MMN response has been shown to be sensitive to the featural contents of speech sounds in a way that is compatible with underspecification theories of phonological representations, here, we test the predictions of such theories regarding suprasegmental phenomena. Assuming T3 to be underspecified in Mandarin (because it has variable surface representations and low pitch), we predicted that an asymmetric MMN response would be elicited when T3 is contrasted with another tone. In 2 of our 3 experiments, this was observed, but in non-Mandarin-speaking participants as well as native speakers, suggesting that the locus of the effect was perceptual (acoustic or phonetic) rather than phonological. In a third experiment, the predicted asymmetry was limited to native speakers. These results highlight the importance of distinguishing phonological and perceptual contributions to MMN asymmetries, but also demonstrate a role of abstract phonological representations in which certain information is underspecified in long-term memory.

  16. Perception of Mandarin Chinese Tone 2/Tone 3 and the Role of Creaky Voice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Rui

    2012-01-01

    Research has shown that lexical tones, a suprasegmental feature, are processed by native speakers as linguistic elements just like other segmental information. Among the four tones of Mandarin Chinese, in particular, Tone 2 and Tone 3 are very similar in their pitch contour shapes and thus can be difficult to distinguish in native and nonnative…

  17. Children's Use of Phonological Information in Ambiguity Resolution: A View from Mandarin Chinese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Su, Yi; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Zhan, Likan

    2012-01-01

    How do children develop the mapping between prosody and other levels of linguistic knowledge? This question has received considerable attention in child language research. In the present study two experiments were conducted to investigate four- to five-year-old Mandarin-speaking children's sensitivity to prosody in ambiguity resolution. Experiment…

  18. Acquisition of Mental State Language in Mandarin- and Cantonese-Speaking Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Twila; Wellman, Henry M.

    2000-01-01

    Mental state language was examined in Mandarin- speaking and Cantonese-speaking toddlers. Results suggested that theory-of-mind development was similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. Much earlier emergence of desire terms and infrequent use of thinking terms suggests cultural…

  19. Pinyin Invented Spelling in Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Children with and without Reading Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yi; Liu, Ru-De; McBride, Catherine; Zhang, Dake

    2015-01-01

    This study examined analytical pinyin (a phonological coding system for teaching pronunciation and lexical tones of Chinese characters) skills in 54 Mandarin-speaking fourth graders by using an invented spelling instrument that tapped into syllable awareness, phoneme awareness, lexical tones, and tone sandhi in Chinese. Pinyin invented spelling…

  20. Development and Evaluation of a Tactical Mandarin Chinese Language Course. Technical Report No. 65-15.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garvey, Catherine; Rocklyn, Eugene H.

    To meet the need for a short, self-instructional, tactical language course in a Far Eastern tonal language of potential military significance, a course in Mandarin Chinese was developed by adapting the methods described in Subtask CONTACT II with reference to a European language (Russian). The purpose of the course was to enable combat soldiers to…

  1. The Impact of World Knowledge on the Processing of Mandarin Possessive Reflexive "Zijide"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Zhiyi; Ni, Chuanbin

    2017-01-01

    It has long been considered that the Mandarin possessive reflexive "zijide" can be either locally bound or long distance bound, leading to ambiguity where it fails to exclusively refer back to either long distance binding NP or the local NP. In addition to syntactic factors such as the local versus long distance division, the present…

  2. Acquisition of Structure and Interpretation: Cases from Mandarin Bare and Non-Bare Noun Phrases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hsiang-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Children's production of bare nominals is universal. When acquiring languages disallowing bare nominals, children will develop from the bare to the non-bare stage. However, Mandarin nominals may appear bare or non-bare in various positions with all kinds of interpretations. This dissertation conducts two acquisition studies to examine the…

  3. A Model of Mandarin Tone Categories--A Study of Perception and Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bei

    2010-01-01

    The current study lays the groundwork for a model of Mandarin tones based on both native speakers' and non-native speakers' perception and production. It demonstrates that there is variability in non-native speakers' tone productions and that there are differences in the perceptual boundaries in native speakers and non-native speakers. There…

  4. Production and Perception of Mandarin Tone in Adults with Cerebral Palsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Jing-Yi; Weismer, Gary; Kent, Ray D.

    2006-01-01

    The primary objective of the present study was to document tone production and intelligibility deficits in Mandarin-speaking persons with cerebral palsy (CP). Spastic, athetoid, and mixed types of CP were studied, along with a control group, to investigate the possibility of tone production and intelligibility deficits that were differentially…

  5. Durational Patterning at Syntactic and Discourse Boundaries in Mandarin Spontaneous Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fon, Janice; Johnson, Keith; Chen, Sally

    2011-01-01

    This study focused on durational cues (i.e., syllable duration, pause duration, and syllable onset intervals (SOIs)) at discourse boundaries in two dialects of Mandarin, Taiwan and Mainland varieties. Speech was elicited by having 18 participants describe events in "The Pear Story" film. Recorded data were transcribed, labeled, and segmented into…

  6. Syllable Onset Intervals as an Indicator of Discourse and Syntactic Boundaries in Taiwan Mandarin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fon, Janice; Johnson, Keith

    2004-01-01

    This study looks at the syllable onset interval (SOI) patterning in Taiwan Mandarin spontaneous speech and its relationship to discourse and syntactic units. Monologs were elicited by asking readers to tell stories depicted in comic strips and were transcribed and segmented into Discourse Segment Units (Grosz & Sidner, 1986), clauses, and phrases.…

  7. CVC syllables for investigating the phonetic sensitivity of Mandarin and English speakers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Miles

    2008-02-01

    Although many individual speech contrasts pairs have been studied within the cross-language literature, no one has created a comprehensive and systematic set of such stimuli. This article justifies and details an extensive set of contrast pairs for Mandarin Chinese and American English. The stimuli consist of 180 pairs of CVC syllables recorded in two tokens each (720 syllables total). Between each CVC pair, two of the segments are identical, whereas the third differs in that a segment drawn from a "native" phonetic category (either Mandarin, English, or both) is partnered with a segment drawn from a "foreign" phonetic category (nonnative to Mandarin, English, or both). Each contrast pair differs by a minimal phonetic amount and constitutes a meaningful contrast among the world's languages (as cataloged in the UCLA Phonological Segment Inventory Database of 451 languages). The entire collection of phonetic differences envelops Mandarin and English phonetic spaces and generates a range of phonetic discriminability. Contrastive segments are balanced through all possible syllable positions, with noncontrastive segments being filled in with other "foreign" segments. Although intended to measure phonetic perceptual sensitivity among adult speakers of the two languages, these stimuli are offered here to all for similar or for altogether unrelated investigations.

  8. Carotenoid bioaccessibility in pulp and fresh juice from carotenoid-rich sweet oranges and mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, María Jesús; Cilla, Antonio; Barberá, Reyes; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2015-06-01

    Citrus fruits are a good source of carotenoids for the human diet; however, comparative studies of carotenoids in different citrus food matrices are scarce. In this work the concentration and bioaccessibility of carotenoids in sweet oranges and mandarins with marked differences in carotenoid composition were evaluated in pulp and compared to those in fresh juice. The pulp and juice of the red-fleshed Cara Cara sweet orange variety was highly rich in carotenes (mainly lycopene and phytoene) compared to standard Navel orange, while β-cryptoxanthin and phytoene predominated in mandarins. Total carotenoid content in the pulp of the ordinary Navel orange and in the red-fleshed Cara Cara orange, as well as in the Clementine mandarin were higher than in the corresponding juices, although individual carotenoids were differentially affected by juice preparation. Bioaccessibility of the bioactive carotenoids (the ones described to be absorbed by humans) was greater in both pulp and juice of the carotenoid-rich Cara Cara orange compared to the Navel orange while increasing levels of β-cryptoxanthin were detected in the bioaccessible fractions of pulp and juice of mandarins postharvest stored at 12 °C compared to freshly-harvested fruits. Overall, results indicated that higher soluble bioactive carotenoids from citrus fruits and, consequently, potential nutritional and health benefits are obtained by the consumption of pulp with respect to fresh juice.

  9. Phonological Awareness Skills in the Two Languages of Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on…

  10. The Effect of Dialect Experience on Chinese Children's Mandarin Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological awareness.…

  11. Politicizing Study Abroad: Learning Arabic in Egypt and Mandarin in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diao, Wenhao; Trentman, Emma

    This paper examines ideologies of American study abroad in politically and culturally "non-Western" countries. Drawing from the theory of orientalism (Said, 1978), we analyze how American public discourse on study abroad for learners of Mandarin and Arabic manifests an orientalist thinking, and how such macro discourse both produces…

  12. The Use of Grammatical Morphemes by Mandarin-Speaking Children with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…

  13. Fine QTL mapping of mandarin (Citrus reticulata) fruit characters using high-throughput SNP markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seedlessness, flavor, and color are top priorities for mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) cultivar improvement. Given long juvenility, large tree size, and high breeding cost, marker-assisted selection (MAS) may be an expeditious and economical approach to these challenges. The objectives of this s...

  14. Biodiesel from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seed oil, a potential non-food feedstock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oil extracted from Citrus reticulata (Mandarin orange) seeds was investigated as a potential feedstock for the production of biodiesel. The biodiesel fuel was prepared by sodium methoxide-catalyzed transesterification of the oil with methanol. Fuel properties that were determined include cetane numb...

  15. 'US Early Pride', a very low-seeded, early-maturing mandarin hybrid

    Science.gov (United States)

    ‘US Early Pride’ is an irradiation-induced, very low-seeded mutant of the ‘Fallglo’ mandarin hybrid [‘Bower’ (Citrus reticulata Blanco x (C. paradisi Macf. X C. reticulata) x Temple’]. Mature ‘Fallglo’ budwood was irradiated in 1991 using 3 kRAD units of gamma irradiation from a Cobalt-60 source in ...

  16. The Use of Grammatical Morphemes by Mandarin-Speaking Children with High Functioning Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Peng; Crain, Stephen; Gao, Liqun; Tang, Ye; Jia, Meixiang

    2015-01-01

    The present study investigated the production of grammatical morphemes by Mandarin-speaking children with high functioning autism. Previous research found that a subgroup of English-speaking children with autism exhibit deficits in the use of grammatical morphemes that mark tense. In order to see whether this impairment in grammatical morphology…

  17. Mandarin Chinese in London Education: Language Aspirations in a Working-Class Secondary School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Milans, Miguel

    2015-01-01

    As the Council of Europe is shifting its traditional focus on learning European languages towards emphasizing the importance of speaking other languages of the wider world, an increasing number of schools are offering Mandarin as part of their official curriculum in the United Kingdom. This is being financially supported by…

  18. A Comparison of the Origin of Idioms in Mandarin and Indonesian

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Haiyan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In language, idioms can function as stand-alone semantic units because they contain whole concepts. These concepts, formed from human thought, can be explored to discover cultural elements which served as the basis for idiom creation. If the origins of an idiom are known or recognized, that idiom’s meaning can be understood more easily. Idioms are frequently used by language communities in their day-to-day lives. However, the origins of idioms in the Indonesian language has almost never been discussed or researched. This article compares the origins of idioms in Mandarin and in Indonesian. It finds that the origins of idioms in Mandarin and in Indonesian are diverse, but in general fit one of two main types: they may be adapted from foreign languages (most importantly in idioms related to religion, or be created within the society and reproduced from generation to generation. Idioms can be traced to either the written tradition or the oral tradition. Idioms in Mandarin generally originate from the written tradition, whereas idioms in Indonesian tend to originate from orality. This study uses the theory of meaning formation first proposed by Ogden and Richards (1911. The comparative method of data analysis is used here, as the origins of idioms in Mandarin and Indonesian are compared.

  19. Mismatch Responses to Lexical Tone, Initial Consonant, and Vowel in Mandarin-Speaking Preschoolers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chia-Ying; Yen, Huei-ling; Yeh, Pei-wen; Lin, Wan-Hsuan; Cheng, Ying-Ying; Tzeng, Yu-Lin; Wu, Hsin-Chi

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigates how age, phonological saliency, and deviance size affect the presence of mismatch negativity (MMN) and positive mismatch response (P-MMR). This work measured the auditory mismatch responses to Mandarin lexical tones, initial consonants, and vowels in 4- to 6-year-old preschoolers using the multiple-deviant oddball…

  20. Phonological Awareness Skills in the Two Languages of Mandarin-English Bilingual Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinova-Todd, Stefka H.; Zhao, Jing; Bernhardt, May

    2010-01-01

    A number of studies have shown that bilingual children have an advantage when performing on phonological awareness tasks, particularly in their stronger language. Little research has been done to date, examining the effects of bilingualism on both languages of bilingual children. In this study Mandarin-English bilingual children's performance on…

  1. Electric-stimulus rate encoding algorithm of Mandarin tonal information in cochlear implant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUAN Tian; GONG Qin; YE Datian

    2006-01-01

    The modem multi-channel cochlear implants usually extract and encode the temporal envelope cues. This kind of algorithms can hardly satisfy the users who speak tonal languages, such as Mandarin. Many studies have tried to enhance the recognition ability of Mandarin through encoding tonal information and made suggestions to frequency-modulate the fixed pulse-rate carrier with the extracted tonal information based on the rate-pitch theory in electric hearing. However, how to encode and deliver the tonal information such as F0 by changing electric-stimulus rate has not got further study in clinical electric-stimulus mode. The present paper focuses on this matter by piecewise calculating the appreciable electric-stimulus rates. Then an electric-stimulus encoding algorithm of Mandarin tone is brought forward and testified through acoustic simulations. Such conclusion can be drawn that this algorithm of electric-stimulus rate could convey tonal information well and help to enhance the Mandarin speech recognition ability.

  2. Elevation, rootstock, and soil depth affect the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of elevation, rootstock, and soil depth on the nutritional quality of mandarin oranges from 11 groves in California were investigated by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy by quantifying 29 compounds and applying multivariate statistical data analysis. A comparison of the juic...

  3. Dynamic Range for Speech Materials in Korean, English, and Mandarin: A Cross-Language Comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, In-Ki; Kates, James M.; Arehart, Kathryn H.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify whether differences in dynamic range (DR) are evident across the spoken languages of Korean, English, and Mandarin. Method: Recorded sentence-level speech materials were used as stimuli. DR was quantified using different definitions of DR (defined as the range in decibels from the highest to the…

  4. The Effect of Dialect Experience on Chinese Children's Mandarin Phonological Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Sumei; Li, Rongbao; Li, Guangze; Wang, Youkun; Wu, Liqiong

    2013-01-01

    Most studies on bilingual phonological awareness suggested that children who were able to speak a second language performed better in phonological awareness tasks; some studies however found different results. This study revisited the issue by investigating the effect of Min dialect experience on Chinese children's Mandarin phonological awareness.…

  5. Psychometric Properties of the Mandarin Version of the Childhood Autism Spectrum Test (CAST): An Exploratory Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiang; Allison, Carrie; Auyeung, Bonnie; Matthews, Fiona E.; Norton, Samuel; Baron-Cohen, Simon; Brayne, Carol

    2014-01-01

    Limited studies have investigated the latent autistic traits in the mainland Chinese population for autism spectrum conditions (ASC). This study explored the psychometric properties of a Mandarin Chinese version of the CAST in a sample consisting of 737 children in mainstream schools and 50 autistic cases. A combination of categorical data factor…

  6. New language outcome measures for Mandarin speaking children with hearing loss

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xueman Liu; Jill de Villiers; Wendy Lee; Chunyan Ning; Eric Rolfhus; Teresa Hutchings; Fan Jiang; Yiwen Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:The paper discusses recent evidence on the assessment of language outcomes in children with hearing loss acquiring oral language. Methods: Research emphasizes that language tests must be specific enough to capture subtle deficits in vocabulary and grammar learning at different developmental ages. The Diagnostic Receptive and Expressive Assessment of Mandarin (DREAM) was carefully designed to be a comprehensive standardized Mandarin assessment normed in Mainland China. Results:This paper summarizes the evidence-based item design process and validity and reliability results of DREAM. A pilot study reported here shows that DREAM provided detailed information about hearing impaired children's language abilities and can be used to aid intervention planning to maximize progress. Conclusion: DREAM represents an example of translational science, transferring methods from empirical studies of language acquisition in research environments into applied domains such as assessment and intervention. Research on outcomes in China will advance significantly with the availability of evidence-based comprehensive language tests that measure a sufficient age range of skills, are normed on Mandarin speaking children in mainland China, and are designed to capture features central to Mandarin language acquisition.

  7. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Causal Agent of Citrus Blast of Mandarin in Montenegro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanović, Žarko; Perović, Tatjana; Popović, Tatjana; Blagojević, Jovana; Trkulja, Nenad; Hrnčić, Snježana

    2017-02-01

    Citrus blast caused by bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a very important disease of citrus occuring in many areas of the world, but with few data about genetic structure of the pathogen involved. Considering the above fact, this study reports genetic characterization of 43 P. syringae isolates obtained from plant tissue displaying citrus blast symptoms on mandarin (Citrus reticulata) in Montenegro, using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrB, rpoD, and gap1 gene sequences. Gene sequences from a collection of 54 reference pathotype strains of P. syringae from the Plant Associated and Environmental Microbes Database (PAMDB) was used to establish a genetic relationship with our isolates obtained from mandarin. Phylogenetic analyses of gyrB, rpoD, and gap1 gene sequences showed that P. syringae pv. syringae causes citrus blast in mandarin in Montenegro, and belongs to genomospecies 1. Genetic homogeneity of isolates suggested that the Montenegrian population might be clonal which indicates a possible common source of infection. These findings may assist in further epidemiological studies of this pathogen and for determining mandarin breeding strategies for P. syringae control.

  8. Sequencing of diverse mandarin, pummelo and orange genomes reveals complex history of admixture during citrus domestication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cultivated citrus are selections from, or hybrids of, wild progenitor species whose identities and contributions to citrus domestication remain controversial. Here we sequence and compare citrus genomes—a high-quality reference haploid clementine genome and mandarin, pummelo, sweet-orange and sour-o...

  9. From Inception to Reflection: Ohio's K-4 Content-Enriched Mandarin Chinese Curriculum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Deborah W.

    2009-01-01

    In 2006 the Ohio Department of Education (ODE) submitted and received a three-year Foreign Language Assistance Program grant from the U.S. Department of Education to write and pilot a K-4 content-enriched Mandarin curriculum and to build online professional development modules to support the curriculum. Once funded, ODE formed an advisory…

  10. Acoustic Characteristics of Vowels and Plosives/Affricates of Mandarin-Speaking Hearing-Impaired Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Shu-Chuan; Kuei, Ko; Tsou, Pei-Chen

    2011-01-01

    This article presents the results of an acoustic analysis of vowels and plosives/affricates produced by 45 Mandarin-speaking children with hearing impairment. Vowel production is represented and categorized into three groups by vowel space size calculated with normalized F1 and F2 values of corner vowels. The correlation between speech…

  11. Is a shared interlanguage beneficial? Mutual intelligibility of American, Dutch and Mandarin speakers of English

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, H.; Heuven, van V.J.J.P.; Doel, van den R.; Rupp, L.

    2014-01-01

    We determined the mutual intelligibility Mandarin Chinese, Dutch and American speakers of English in all nine logically possible combinations of speaker and listener native language backgrounds. Designated speakers (one male, one female per language group) were selected from larger sets of 20

  12. Phonetic Influences on English and French Listeners' Assimilation of Mandarin Tones to Native Prosodic Categories

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Connie K.; Best, Catherine T.

    2014-01-01

    This study examined how native speakers of Australian English and French, nontone languages with different lexical stress properties, perceived Mandarin tones in a sentence environment according to their native sentence intonation categories (i-Categories) in connected speech. Results showed that both English and French speakers categorized…

  13. Primary analysis of the Mandarin-speaking sub-study within the Sydney diabetes prevention program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taing, Cecilia Y; Gibson, Alice A; Colagiuri, Stephen; Vita, Philip; Cardona-Morrell, Magnolia; Bauman, Adrian; Moore, Michael; Williams, Mandy; Milat, Andrew; Hony, Jacky; Lin, Sophia; Gwizd, Melissa; Fiatarone Singh, Maria A

    2017-10-01

    There is strong and consistent evidence from large scale randomised controlled trials that type 2 diabetes can be prevented or delayed through lifestyle modification which improves diet quality, increases physical activity and achieves weight loss in people at risk. Worldwide, the prevalence of type 2 diabetes is increasing in individuals of Chinese descent. Culturally tailored programs are required to address the risk in the Chinese population. This paper analyses effectiveness of a culturally tailored community-based lifestyle modification program (Sydney Diabetes Prevention Program (SDPP)) targeting Mandarin speakers. The SDPP was a 12 month translational study aiming to promote increased physical activity and dietary changes. Effectiveness was assessed through the improvement of anthropometric, metabolic, physical activity and dietary outcomes and number of goals met. Seventy-eight Mandarin-speaking participants at a high risk (Australian Diabetes Risk, AUSDRISK≥15) of developing diabetes were recruited for this study. In this cohort, waist circumference, total cholesterol and fat intake significantly improved at the 12-month review. In comparison to the English-speaking stream, the Mandarin-speaking stream achieved fewer improvements in outcomes and goals. The SDPP was not effective in reducing the risk factors associated with developing type 2 diabetes in this cohort of high risk Mandarin-speaking individuals living in Sydney. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Vocabulary: Context of Learning Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Yu-Ju; Fang, Shin-Yi; Legault, Jennifer; Li, Ping

    2015-01-01

    In an increasingly multilingual world, it is important to examine methods that may lead to more efficient second language learning, as well as to analyze the mechanisms by which successful learning occurs. The purpose of the current study was to investigate how different learning contexts can impact the learning of Mandarin Chinese as a second…

  15. Characterization of Pseudomonas syringae pv. syringae, Causal Agent of Citrus Blast of Mandarin in Montenegro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanović, Žarko; Perović, Tatjana; Popović, Tatjana; Blagojević, Jovana; Trkulja, Nenad; Hrnčić, Snježana

    2017-01-01

    Citrus blast caused by bacterium Pseudomonas syringae is a very important disease of citrus occuring in many areas of the world, but with few data about genetic structure of the pathogen involved. Considering the above fact, this study reports genetic characterization of 43 P. syringae isolates obtained from plant tissue displaying citrus blast symptoms on mandarin (Citrus reticulata) in Montenegro, using multilocus sequence analysis of gyrB, rpoD, and gap1 gene sequences. Gene sequences from a collection of 54 reference pathotype strains of P. syringae from the Plant Associated and Environmental Microbes Database (PAMDB) was used to establish a genetic relationship with our isolates obtained from mandarin. Phylogenetic analyses of gyrB, rpoD, and gap1 gene sequences showed that P. syringae pv. syringae causes citrus blast in mandarin in Montenegro, and belongs to genomospecies 1. Genetic homogeneity of isolates suggested that the Montenegrian population might be clonal which indicates a possible common source of infection. These findings may assist in further epidemiological studies of this pathogen and for determining mandarin breeding strategies for P. syringae control. PMID:28167885

  16. Metabolically speaking: Possible reasons behind the tolerance of 'Sugar Belle' mandarin hybrid to huanglongbing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killiny, Nabil; Valim, Maria Filomena; Jones, Shelley E; Omar, Ahmad A; Hijaz, Faraj; Gmitter, Fred G; Grosser, Jude W

    2017-07-01

    Huanglongbing (HLB) is currently considered the most destructive disease of citrus. Since its spread to the Americas, HLB has killed millions of trees and caused a sharp decline in production in many citrus growing regions. With the continuous spread of HLB disease in Florida and worldwide, there is an urgent need for the development of commercial citrus cultivars with a strong tolerance to HLB. Interestingly, field observations showed that some of the recently released mandarin hybrids such as 'Sugar Belle' were tolerant to HLB. In this study, we investigated the volatile and non-volatile metabolites of greenhouse-grown 'Sugar Belle' mandarin and four of its ancestors in order to understand why 'Sugar Belle' mandarin is relatively tolerant to HLB. Leaf volatiles were directly extracted with hexane and analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Leaf polar metabolites were extracted with a mixture of methanol:water (1:1, v/v), derivatized to their trimethylsilyl ethers, and analyzed using GC-MS. Forty-seven volatile compounds and forty-two polar metabolites were detected in 'Sugar Belle' mandarin leaves and its ancestors. 'Sugar Belle' was high in several volatiles such as α-thujene, para-cymene, γ-terpinene, thymol, β-elemene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene. Some of these volatiles, especially thymol, β-elemene, and (E)-β-caryophyllene are known for their anti-microbial activity. In addition, 'Sugar Belle' mandarin was the highest in synephrine, benzoic acid, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, chiro-inositol, fructose, glucose, threonic acid, saccharic acid, and galactaric acid, and the second in threonine, malic acid, and myo-inositol compared to the ancestors. Phenolic compounds such as benzoic, ferulic, and caffeic acids may act as antibacterial agents, whereas others like sugar alcohols may protect 'Sugar Belle' mandarin from stress during pathogen attack. The tolerance of 'Sugar Belle' and other newly released mandarin hybrids should be further

  17. Word Pocket Guide

    CERN Document Server

    Glenn, Walter

    2004-01-01

    Millions of people use Microsoft Word every day and, chances are, you're one of them. Like most Word users, you've attained a certain level of proficiency--enough to get by, with a few extra tricks and tips--but don't get the opportunity to probe much further into the real power of Word. And Word is so rich in features that regardless of your level of expertise, there's always more to master. If you've ever wanted a quick answer to a nagging question or had the thought that there must be a better way, then this second edition of Word Pocket Guide is just what you need. Updated for Word 2003

  18. Proofreading for word errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilotti, Maura; Chodorow, Martin; Agpawa, Ian; Krajniak, Marta; Mahamane, Salif

    2012-04-01

    Proofreading (i.e., reading text for the purpose of detecting and correcting typographical errors) is viewed as a component of the activity of revising text and thus is a necessary (albeit not sufficient) procedural step for enhancing the quality of a written product. The purpose of the present research was to test competing accounts of word-error detection which predict factors that may influence reading and proofreading differently. Word errors, which change a word into another word (e.g., from --> form), were selected for examination because they are unlikely to be detected by automatic spell-checking functions. Consequently, their detection still rests mostly in the hands of the human proofreader. Findings highlighted the weaknesses of existing accounts of proofreading and identified factors, such as length and frequency of the error in the English language relative to frequency of the correct word, which might play a key role in detection of word errors.

  19. Improving word recognition in noise among hearing-impaired subjects with a single-channel cochlear noise-reduction algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fink, Nir; Furst, Miriam; Muchnik, Chava

    2012-09-01

    A common complaint of the hearing impaired is the inability to understand speech in noisy environments even with their hearing assistive devices. Only a few single-channel algorithms have significantly improved speech intelligibility in noise for hearing-impaired listeners. The current study introduces a cochlear noise reduction algorithm. It is based on a cochlear representation of acoustic signals and real-time derivation of a binary speech mask. The contribution of the algorithm for enhancing word recognition in noise was evaluated on a group of 42 normal-hearing subjects, 35 hearing-aid users, 8 cochlear implant recipients, and 14 participants with bimodal devices. Recognition scores of Hebrew monosyllabic words embedded in Gaussian noise at several signal-to-noise ratios (SNRs) were obtained with processed and unprocessed signals. The algorithm was not effective among the normal-hearing participants. However, it yielded a significant improvement in some of the hearing-impaired subjects under different listening conditions. Its most impressive benefit appeared among cochlear implant recipients. More than 20% improvement in recognition score of noisy words was obtained by 12, 16, and 26 hearing-impaired at SNR of 30, 24, and 18 dB, respectively. The algorithm has a potential to improve speech intelligibility in background noise, yet further research is required to improve its performances.

  20. Circular words and applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoît Rittaud

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available We define the notion of circular words, then consider on such words a constraint derived from the Fibonacci condition. We give several results on the structure of these circular words, then mention possible applications to various situations: periodic expansion of numbers in numeration systems, "gcd-property" of integer sequences, partition of the prefix of the fixed point of the Fibonacci substitution, spanning trees of a wheel. Eventually, we mention some open questions.

  1. Development of a Mandarin-English Bilingual Speech Recognition System for Real World Music Retrieval

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qingqing; Pan, Jielin; Lin, Yang; Shao, Jian; Yan, Yonghong

    In recent decades, there has been a great deal of research into the problem of bilingual speech recognition-to develop a recognizer that can handle inter- and intra-sentential language switching between two languages. This paper presents our recent work on the development of a grammar-constrained, Mandarin-English bilingual Speech Recognition System (MESRS) for real world music retrieval. Two of the main difficult issues in handling the bilingual speech recognition systems for real world applications are tackled in this paper. One is to balance the performance and the complexity of the bilingual speech recognition system; the other is to effectively deal with the matrix language accents in embedded language**. In order to process the intra-sentential language switching and reduce the amount of data required to robustly estimate statistical models, a compact single set of bilingual acoustic models derived by phone set merging and clustering is developed instead of using two separate monolingual models for each language. In our study, a novel Two-pass phone clustering method based on Confusion Matrix (TCM) is presented and compared with the log-likelihood measure method. Experiments testify that TCM can achieve better performance. Since potential system users' native language is Mandarin which is regarded as a matrix language in our application, their pronunciations of English as the embedded language usually contain Mandarin accents. In order to deal with the matrix language accents in embedded language, different non-native adaptation approaches are investigated. Experiments show that model retraining method outperforms the other common adaptation methods such as Maximum A Posteriori (MAP). With the effective incorporation of approaches on phone clustering and non-native adaptation, the Phrase Error Rate (PER) of MESRS for English utterances was reduced by 24.47% relatively compared to the baseline monolingual English system while the PER on Mandarin utterances was

  2. On the word ponentino

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Alonso

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studies a very specific use of the word ponentino: It is used as a synonym of ‘Spaniard’ or, in a slightly more general context, as a word to refer to ‘people from the Western Mediterranean’, where Western Mediterranean stands for the Mediterranean sea stretching to the west of Sicily. Therefore, such a use of the word splits the interior sea into two halves, which do neither correspond with the old division between the Western Empire and the Byzantine Empire nor the clash between the Christian world and the Ottoman Empire. We propose an Italian origin for this particular use of the word.

  3. Word 2003 for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Gookin, Dan

    2013-01-01

    Want to write great looking documents but can't seem to get ahandle on paragraph structuring? Unfamiliar with some of thebuttons and functions on your menu bar? Need to add page numbersfor a paper but can't find the controls? Word 2003 ForDummies will show you the quick and easy way to navigatethrough the trickiness of Microsoft Word. This book will be yourcomprehensive guide to using this word processor like a pro. Word 2003 For Dummies shows you all the essentials ofbuilding, reviewing, and adding cool new features to Worddocuments. No wonder the previous editions sold over 1.7 millioncopie

  4. 普通话儿童词汇相邻性单音节词表的编制%The Development of Mandarin Monosyllable Lexical Neighborhood Test

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张宁; 盛玉麒; 刘莎; 吴璇; 龙墨; 王树峰; 徐娟娟; 姬晨; 王伟

    2009-01-01

    Objective Base on the neighborhood activation model(NAM), to develop the Mandarin monosyllable lexical neighborhood test(M-LNT-monosyllable), which is expected to be useful for evaluating speech perception performance in children with hearing loss. Methods Test items were based on the lexical characteristics of word frequency and neighborhood density which addressed in the neighborhood activation model (NAM). M-LNT -monosyllable consisted of two parts: Lexically "easy" words with high word frequency, which were low phonemically similar to the target word and lexically "hard" words with low word frequency, which were high phonemically similar to the target word. 34 children of 3~5 year old with normal hearing were choosed as subjects to verify easy word and hard word lists. Results 1 979 words for children contained 487 easy words and 419 hard words. Three easy word lists and three hard word lists were developed to estimate the performance of word recognition among normal- hearing children. There were no differences among scores of three easy words lists(P>0.05), and no difference among scores of three hard words lists(P>0.05). But there were significant differences between scores of easy and hard words lists(P<0.01). Conclusion The development of the lexicon was affected by the lexical characteristics. Normal-hearing children with some lexical techniques were affected by the lexical characteristics when they recognized the spoken words, but children with less lexical technique didn't show the same result because the recognition was processed on the phonetic level.%目的 根据心理语言学言语听辨领域的邻域激活模型(neighborhood activation model,NAM)理论,编制开放式的普通话儿童词汇相邻性单音节词表(mandarin monosyllable lexical neighborhood test,M-LNT-monosyllabie).方法 根据邻域激活模型对"难词"和"易词"的定义,计算儿童口语语料中各单音节词的出现频率和邻居词汇数日,获得出

  5. 频域信息在感音神经性听力损失患者普通话声调感知中的作用%Roles of spectral cues in Mandarin tone perception for sensorineural hearing-impaired patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王硕; RobertMannell; PhilipNewall; 刘博; 张华; 韩德民

    2012-01-01

    Objective This study aimed to evaluate the role of spectral fine structure and envelope information in Mandarin tone perception for sensorineural hearing-impaired patients.Methods The linear predictive coding technique was applied to synthesize 128 tokens having spectral fine structure from one tone of a monosyllabic word and spectral envelope from other tones with the same syllable.There after,the tone response performance was assessed using these 128 speech materials for 20 normal-hearing and 48 sensorineural hearing-impaired patients,including 20 with moderate,20 with moderate to severe,and 8 with severe hearing loss.Results 99.7%,97.7%,96.3% and 83.0% of the mean tone responses were consistent with spectral fine structure for the normal hearing,moderate,moderate to severe,and severely hearing-impaired groups,respectively.No tone recognition responses were observed in consistent with spectral envelope cues.There was a significant difference in tone recognition among the normal hearing group and three hearing impaired groups ( x2 =59.2,P < 0.001 ).The negative correlation between the averages for pure-tone hearing thresholds at frequencies of 500,1000,and 2000 Hz and tone responses that were in consistent with spectral fine structure for the hearing-impaired subjects ( r =- 0.643,P < 0.001 ).Conclusions For both normal-hearing and heating-impaired subjects,spectral fine structure plays an important role in tone recognition,and the impact of changing spectral envelope cues on tone recognition is negligible,when spectral fine structure cues are present.Sensorineural hearing impaired patients showed a progressive decrease in the recognition of lexical tones based on spectral fine structure cues,as their hearing loss becomes more severe.%目的 探讨言语频域包络信息和精细结构信息对听力正常和感音神经性听力损失人群汉语普通话声调识别的作用.方法 采用线性预测编码技术对具有相同音节但不同声调

  6. Applying Task-based Language Teaching in Introductory Level Mandarin Language Classes at The College of The Bahamas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youhua Zhou

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available In foreign-language teaching and learning, there exist a number of methodologies and approaches. The idea and principles of Task-based Language Teaching (TBLT and the task-based framework in language teaching and learning have proven to be effective in classrooms. The three pedagogic goals for task-based approaches—communication, restructuring and fluency—are also the goals of Mandarin learners. This paper explains, using examples, that the Task-based Language Teaching applied in introductory level Mandarin classes at the College of the Bahamas is helpful and that enthusiastic Bahamian learners can improve their Mandarin skills by completing various activities and tasks within the task-based framework. Observations and results obtained through using this strategy have shown that TBLT is effective in classroom Mandarin teaching and learning for Bahamian college students and adult learners, though some issues exist, which warrant further discussion.

  7. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB) Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV) Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jiagang; Chen, Wenjie; Fu, Xiaozhe; Lin, Qiang; Chang, Ouqin; Zhao, Lijuan; Lan, Jiangfeng; Li, Ningqiu; Lin, Li

    2016-05-19

    Nervous necrosis virus (NNV) is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER), a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB) cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi), the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV) was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  8. Susceptibility of Chinese Perch Brain (CPB Cell and Mandarin Fish to Red-Spotted Grouper Nervous Necrosis Virus (RGNNV Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiagang Tu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Nervous necrosis virus (NNV is the causative agent of viral encephalopathy and retinopathy (VER, a neurological disease responsible for high mortality of fish species worldwide. Taking advantage of our established Chinese perch brain (CPB cell line derived from brain tissues of Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi, the susceptibility of CPB cell to Red-Spotted Grouper nervous necrosis virus (RGNNV was evaluated. The results showed that RGNNV replicated well in CPB cells, resulting in cellular apoptosis. Moreover, the susceptibility of Mandarin fish to RGNNV was also evaluated. Abnormal swimming was observed in RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish. In addition, the cellular vacuolation and viral particles were also observed in brain tissues of RGNNV-infected Mandarin fish by Hematoxylin-eosin staining or electronic microscopy. The established RGNNV susceptible brain cell line from freshwater fish will pave a new way for the study of the pathogenicity and replication of NNV in the future.

  9. Is processing of symbols and words influenced by writing system? Evidence from Chinese, Korean, English, and Greek.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altani, Angeliki; Georgiou, George K; Deng, Ciping; Cho, Jeung-Ryeul; Katopodi, Katerina; Wei, Wei; Protopapas, Athanassios

    2017-12-01

    We examined cross-linguistic effects in the relationship between serial and discrete versions of digit naming and word reading. In total, 113 Mandarin-speaking Chinese children, 100 Korean children, 112 English-speaking Canadian children, and 108 Greek children in Grade 3 were administered tasks of serial and discrete naming of words and digits. Interrelations among tasks indicated that the link between rapid naming and reading is largely determined by the format of the tasks across orthographies. Multigroup path analyses with discrete and serial word reading as dependent variables revealed commonalities as well as significant differences between writing systems. The path coefficient from discrete digits to discrete words was greater for the more transparent orthographies, consistent with more efficient sight-word processing. The effect of discrete word reading on serial word reading was stronger in alphabetic languages, where there was also a suppressive effect of discrete digit naming. However, the effect of serial digit naming on serial word reading did not differ among the four language groups. This pattern of relationships challenges a universal account of reading fluency acquisition while upholding a universal role of rapid serial naming, further distinguishing between multi-element interword and intraword processing. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  11. Word-identification priming for ignored and attended words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, M.; Ladd, S. L.; Vaidya, C. J.; Gabrieli, J. D.

    1998-01-01

    Three experiments examined contributions of study phase awareness of word identity to subsequent word-identification priming by manipulating visual attention to words at study. In Experiment 1, word-identification priming was reduced for ignored relative to attended words, even though ignored words were identified sufficiently to produce negative priming in the study phase. Word-identification priming was also reduced after color naming relative to emotional valence rating (Experiment 2) or word reading (Experiment 3), even though an effect of emotional valence upon color naming (Experiment 2) indicated that words were identified at study. Thus, word-identification priming was reduced even when word identification occurred at study. Word-identification priming may depend on awareness of word identity at the time of study.

  12. [Determination of soluble solids content in Nanfeng Mandarin by Vis/NIR spectroscopy and UVE-ICA-LS-SVM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tong; Xu, Wen-Li; Hu, Tian; Liu, Mu-Hua

    2013-12-01

    The objective of the present research was to assess soluble solids content (SSC) of Nanfeng mandarin by visible/near infrared (Vis/NIR) spectroscopy combined with new variable selection method, simplify prediction model and improve the performance of prediction model for SSC of Nanfeng mandarin. A total of 300 Nanfeng mandarin samples were used, the numbers of Nanfeng mandarin samples in calibration, validation and prediction sets were 150, 75 and 75, respectively. Vis/NIR spectra of Nanfeng mandarin samples were acquired by a QualitySpec spectrometer in the wavelength range of 350-1000 nm. Uninformative variables elimination (UVE) was used to eliminate wavelength variables that had few information of SSC, then independent component analysis (ICA) was used to extract independent components (ICs) from spectra that eliminated uninformative wavelength variables. At last, least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) was used to develop calibration models for SSC of Nanfeng mandarin using extracted ICs, and 75 prediction samples that had not been used for model development were used to evaluate the performance of SSC model of Nanfeng mandarin. The results indicate t hat Vis/NIR spectroscopy combinedwith UVE-ICA-LS-SVM is suitable for assessing SSC o f Nanfeng mandarin, and t he precision o f prediction ishigh. UVE--ICA is an effective method to eliminate uninformative wavelength variables, extract important spectral information, simplify prediction model and improve the performance of prediction model. The SSC model developed by UVE-ICA-LS-SVM is superior to that developed by PLS, PCA-LS-SVM or ICA-LS-SVM, and the coefficient of determination and root mean square error in calibration, validation and prediction sets were 0.978, 0.230%, 0.965, 0.301% and 0.967, 0.292%, respectively.

  13. Metadiscourse repertoire of L1 Mandarin undergraduates writing in English : a cross-contextual, cross-disciplinary study

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Ting; Wharton, Sue

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a qualitative, comparative study of metadiscourse in the academic writing of two groups of undergraduate students working in two different disciplines. The groups of students were: 1) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in China through the medium of English; 2) Native speakers of Mandarin studying in the UK through the medium of English. For each group of students, we examined writing undertaken in two undergraduate disciplinary courses: Literary Criticism and Translat...

  14. Manage Your Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Betty R.

    Words, like any other information resource, must be managed in order to contribute to the achievement of organizational goals. Managing communication refers to planning, organizing, leading, and controlling words. Planning determines goals and how they can be best accomplished, and aids in providing direction for the message, thus increasing the…

  15. Manage Your Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricks, Betty R.

    Words, like any other information resource, must be managed in order to contribute to the achievement of organizational goals. Managing communication refers to planning, organizing, leading, and controlling words. Planning determines goals and how they can be best accomplished, and aids in providing direction for the message, thus increasing the…

  16. Magritte's Words and Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roque, Georges

    1989-01-01

    Argues that Rene Magritte's experiments with words and images are preceded by other experiments with his surrealist friends in Brussels. States that the surrealists' failure to adequately represent women causes Magritte to treat both images and words as mere representations, subject to an equally radical splitting from the "real" thing…

  17. Flexible Word Classes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2013-01-01

    • First major publication on the phenomenon • Offers cross-linguistic, descriptive, and diverse theoretical approaches • Includes analysis of data from different language families and from lesser studied languages This book is the first major cross-linguistic study of 'flexible words', i.e. words...... that cannot be classified in terms of the traditional lexical categories Verb, Noun, Adjective or Adverb. Flexible words can - without special morphosyntactic marking - serve in functions for which other languages must employ members of two or more of the four traditional, 'specialised' word classes. Thus......, flexible words are underspecified for communicative functions like 'predicating' (verbal function), 'referring' (nominal function) or 'modifying' (a function typically associated with adjectives and e.g. manner adverbs). Even though linguists have been aware of flexible world classes for more than...

  18. WordPress Bible

    CERN Document Server

    Brazell, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    Get the latest word on the biggest self-hosted blogging tool on the marketWithin a week of the announcement of WordPress 3.0, it had been downloaded over a million times. Now you can get on the bandwagon of this popular open-source blogging tool with WordPress Bible, 2nd Edition. Whether you're a casual blogger or programming pro, this comprehensive guide covers the latest version of WordPress, from the basics through advanced application development. If you want to thoroughly learn WordPress, this is the book you need to succeed.Explores the principles of blogging, marketing, and social media

  19. Resting metabolism and heat increment of feeding in mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) and Chinese snakehead (Channa argus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, J; Cui, Y; Liu, J

    2000-10-01

    Resting metabolism was measured in immature mandarin fish Siniperca chuatsi weighing 42.1-510.2 g and Chinese snakehead Channa argus weighing 41.5-510.3 g at 10, 15, 20, 25, 30 and 35 degrees C. Heat increment of feeding was measured in mandarin fish weighing 202.0 (+/-14.0) g and snakehead weighing 200.8 (+/-19.3) g fed swamp loach Misgurnus anguillicaudatus at 1% body weight per day at 28 degrees C. In both species, weight exponent in the power relationship between resting metabolism and body weight was not affected by temperature. The relationship between resting metabolism and temperature could be described by a power function. The temperature exponent was 1.39 in mandarin fish and 2.10 in snakehead (Psnakehead increased with temperature at a faster rate than in mandarin fish. Multiple regression models were used to describe the effects of body weight (W, g) and temperature (T, degrees C) on the resting metabolism (R(s), mg O(2)/h): lnR(s)=-5.343+0.772 lnW+1.387 lnT for the mandarin fish and lnR(s)=-7.863+0.801 lnW+2.104 lnT for the Chinese snakehead. The proportion of food energy channelled to heat increment was 8.7% in mandarin fish and 6.8% in snakehead.

  20. Online Comic in Mandarin Chinese’s Vocabulary Learning: A Case Study of Budi Utama Multilingual School in Yogyakarta, Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nuning Catur Sri Wilujeng

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study was aimed to investigate 1 the improvement of CFL elementary-school students’ skill in learning Mandarin Chinese (hereafter referred to as Mandarin vocabulary through creating comic without online resources, creating online comics individually and collaboratively, 2 the CFL elementary-school students’ attitude towards the application of comics in learning Mandarin vocabulary, and 3 the CFL elementary-school students’ attitude towards the application of collaborative activities in learning Mandarin vocabulary. The research design was based on a quasi-experiment using both qualitative and quantitative approaches. Three classes participated in this study: one class was the control group using text-based instruction without online resources; the other two classes were the experimental groups 1 and 2. In the experimental group 1, students worked individually on online comic whereas in the experimental group 2, students worked collaboratively on online comic. All participants were Grade 5 students of Budi Utama Multilingual School in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. The collected and analyzed data included performances on Mandarin vocabulary, in-class observation, questionnaires, and interview. In Mandarin vocabulary performances, the experimental group 2 outperformed the other two groups and the experimental group 1 performed better than the control group. In the students’ attitude, the experimental group 2 behaved more positively than the two other groups, and the control group behaved more positively than the experimental group 1.

  1. Markers of automaticity in sleep-associated consolidation of novel words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tham, Elaine K H; Lindsay, Shane; Gaskell, M Gareth

    2015-05-01

    Two experiments investigated effects of sleep on consolidation and integration of novel form-meaning mappings using size congruity and semantic distance paradigms. Both paradigms have been used in previous studies to measure automatic access to word meanings. When participants compare semantic or physical font size of written word-pairs (e.g. BEE-COW), judgments are typically faster if relative sizes are congruent across both dimensions. Semantic distance effects are also found for wellestablished words, with semantic size judgements faster for pairs that differ substantially on this dimension. English-speaking participants learned novel form-meaning mappings with Mandarin (Experiment 1) or Malay (Experiment 2) words and were tested following overnight sleep or a similar duration awake. Judgements on English words controlled for circadian effects. The sleep group demonstrated selective stronger size congruity and semantic distance effects for novel word-pairs. This benefit occurred in Experiment 1 for semantic size comparisons of novel words, and in Experiment 2 on comparisons where novel pairs had large distances and font differences (for congruity effects) or in congruent trials (for semantic distance effects). Conversely, these effects were equivalent across sleep and wake for English words. Experiment 2 included polysomnography data and revealed that changes in the strength of semantic distance and congruity effects were positively correlated with slow-wave sleep and sleep spindles respectively. These findings support systems consolidation accounts of declarative learning and suggest that sleep plays an active role in integrating new words with existing knowledge, resulting in increased automatic access of the acquired knowledge. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. A New Academic Word List.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coxhead, Averil

    2000-01-01

    Describes the development and evaluation of a new academic word list that was completed from a corpus of 3.5 million running words of written academic text by examining the range and frequency of words outside the first 2,000 most frequently occurring words in English. Explains the problems with existing word lists intended to guide materials…

  3. Context effects on second-language learning of tonal contrasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Charles B; Bowles, Anita R

    2015-12-01

    Studies of lexical tone  learning generally focus on monosyllabic contexts, while reports of phonetic learning benefits associated with input variability are based largely on experienced learners. This study trained inexperienced learners on Mandarin tonal contrasts to test two hypotheses regarding the influence of context and variability on tone  learning. The first hypothesis was that increased phonetic variability of tones in disyllabic contexts makes initial tone  learning more challenging in disyllabic than monosyllabic words. The second hypothesis was that the learnability of a given tone varies across contexts due to differences in tonal variability. Results of a word learning experiment supported both hypotheses: tones were acquired less successfully in disyllables than in monosyllables, and the relative difficulty of disyllables was closely related to contextual tonal variability. These results indicate limited relevance of monosyllable-based data on Mandarin learning for the disyllabic majority of the Mandarin lexicon. Furthermore, in the short term, variability can diminish learning; its effects are not necessarily beneficial but dependent on acquisition stage and other learner characteristics. These findings thus highlight the importance of considering contextual variability and the interaction between variability and type of learner in the design, interpretation, and application of research on phonetic learning.

  4. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yachun Xie

    Full Text Available The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (P0.05; compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically significant (P0.05. DEM norms may be affected by differences in language, cultural, and educational systems among various ethnicities. The norms of the DEM test are proposed for use with Mandarin Chinese

  5. Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) Test Norms for Mandarin Chinese-Speaking Chinese Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yachun; Shi, Chunmei; Tong, Meiling; Zhang, Min; Li, Tingting; Xu, Yaqin; Guo, Xirong; Hong, Qin; Chi, Xia

    2016-01-01

    The Developmental Eye Movement (DEM) test is commonly used as a clinical visual-verbal ocular motor assessment tool to screen and diagnose reading problems at the onset. No established norm exists for using the DEM test with Mandarin Chinese-speaking Chinese children. This study aims to establish the normative values of the DEM test for the Mandarin Chinese-speaking population in China; it also aims to compare the values with three other published norms for English-, Spanish-, and Cantonese-speaking Chinese children. A random stratified sampling method was used to recruit children from eight kindergartens and eight primary schools in the main urban and suburban areas of Nanjing. A total of 1,425 Mandarin Chinese-speaking children aged 5 to 12 years took the DEM test in Mandarin Chinese. A digital recorder was used to record the process. All of the subjects completed a symptomatology survey, and their DEM scores were determined by a trained tester. The scores were computed using the formula in the DEM manual, except that the "vertical scores" were adjusted by taking the vertical errors into consideration. The results were compared with the three other published norms. In our subjects, a general decrease with age was observed for the four eye movement indexes: vertical score, adjusted horizontal score, ratio, and total error. For both the vertical and adjusted horizontal scores, the Mandarin Chinese-speaking children completed the tests much more quickly than the norms for English- and Spanish-speaking children. However, the same group completed the test slightly more slowly than the norms for Cantonese-speaking children. The differences in the means were significant (Pspeaking Chinese children (Pspeaking children, only the vertical score of the 6-year-old group, the vertical-horizontal time ratio of the 8-year-old group and the errors of 9-year-old group had no significant difference (P>0.05); compared with Spanish-speaking children, the scores were statistically

  6. The binaural masking-level difference of mandarin tone detection and the binaural intelligibility-level difference of mandarin tone recognition in the presence of speech-spectrum noise.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng-Yu Ho

    Full Text Available Binaural hearing involves using information relating to the differences between the signals that arrive at the two ears, and it can make it easier to detect and recognize signals in a noisy environment. This phenomenon of binaural hearing is quantified in laboratory studies as the binaural masking-level difference (BMLD. Mandarin is one of the most commonly used languages, but there are no publication values of BMLD or BILD based on Mandarin tones. Therefore, this study investigated the BMLD and BILD of Mandarin tones. The BMLDs of Mandarin tone detection were measured based on the detection threshold differences for the four tones of the voiced vowels /i/ (i.e., /i1/, /i2/, /i3/, and /i4/ and /u/ (i.e., /u1/, /u2/, /u3/, and /u4/ in the presence of speech-spectrum noise when presented interaurally in phase (S0N0 and interaurally in antiphase (SπN0. The BILDs of Mandarin tone recognition in speech-spectrum noise were determined as the differences in the target-to-masker ratio (TMR required for 50% correct tone recognitions between the S0N0 and SπN0 conditions. The detection thresholds for the four tones of /i/ and /u/ differed significantly (p<0.001 between the S0N0 and SπN0 conditions. The average detection thresholds of Mandarin tones were all lower in the SπN0 condition than in the S0N0 condition, and the BMLDs ranged from 7.3 to 11.5 dB. The TMR for 50% correct Mandarin tone recognitions differed significantly (p<0.001 between the S0N0 and SπN0 conditions, at -13.4 and -18.0 dB, respectively, with a mean BILD of 4.6 dB. The study showed that the thresholds of Mandarin tone detection and recognition in the presence of speech-spectrum noise are improved when phase inversion is applied to the target speech. The average BILDs of Mandarin tones are smaller than the average BMLDs of Mandarin tones.

  7. GUESSING WORDS FROM CONTEXT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiLing; YangWeidong

    2004-01-01

    For the large number of low-frequency words in .foreign language vocabulary acquisition, the strategy many experts in language teaching methods have been advocating is to teach the students the ways to guess .from context. However, two American scholars, Schatz and Baldwin (1986), on the basis of their experiments made on American students, argued that contextual clues are unreliable predictors of word meanigs.Context does not usually provide clues, but inhibit the correct prediction of word meanings just as o[ten as they facilitate them.

  8. Electronic Word of Behavior

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kunst, Katrine

    It is widely recognized that the transition from Word-of-mouth (WOM) to electronic word-of-mouth (eWOM) allows for a wider and faster spread of information. However, little attention has been given to how digital channels expand the types of information consumers share. In this paper, we argue...... of the concepts do not capture this new kind of consumer-to-consumer information transfer about products and services. Consequently, we suggest an extension of those concepts: Electronic Word of Behavior....

  9. Counting Irreducible Double Occurrence Words

    CERN Document Server

    Burns, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    A double occurrence word $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ is a word in which each alphabet letter appears exactly twice. Such words arise naturally in the study of topology, graph theory, and combinatorics. Recently, double occurrence words have been used for studying DNA recombination events. We develop formulas for counting and enumerating several elementary classes of double occurrence words such as palindromic, irreducible, and strongly-irreducible words.

  10. Acquisition of mental state language in Mandarin- and Cantonese-speaking children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, T; Wellman, H M

    2000-01-01

    Children's theory of mind appears to develop from a focus on desire to a focus on belief. However, it is not clear (a) whether this pattern is universal and (b) whether it could also be explained by linguistic and sociocultural factors. This study examined mental state language in 10 Mandarin-speaking (21-27 months) and 8 Cantonese-speaking (18-44 months) toddlers. The results suggest a pattern of theory-of-mind development similar to that in English, with early use of desire terms followed by other mental state references. However, the Chinese-speaking children used desire terms much earlier, and the use of terms for thinking was very infrequent, even for Mandarin-speaking adults. This finding suggests a consistency in the overall sequence, but variation in the timing of beginning and end points, in children's theory-of-mind development across cultures.

  11. The Impact of World Knowledge on the Processing of Mandarin Possessive Reflexive zijide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Rui; Zhang, Zhiyi; Ni, Chuanbin

    2016-11-03

    It has long been considered that the Mandarin possessive reflexive zijide can be either locally bound or long distance bound, leading to ambiguity where it fails to exclusively refer back to either long distance binding NP or the local NP. In addition to syntactic factors such as the local versus long distance division, the present study examined the potential influence of general world knowledge on the interpretation of zijide. Three experiments, two offline sentence evaluation tasks and one online sentence reading task, found that zijide could be either facilitated or impeded by world knowledge carried in the NPs of the sentence. The results showed that in some cases, zijide was considered exclusively referring back to the long distance NP. These findings seemed to support the notion of subject orientation effect and demonstrated the influence of world knowledge on the processing of Mandarin possessive reflexive zijide.

  12. A Rejection Model Based on Multi-Layer Perceptrons forMandarin Digit Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟林; 刘加; 刘润生

    2002-01-01

    High performance Mandarin digit recognition (MDR) is much more difficult to achieve than its English counterpart, especially on inexpensive hardware implementation In this paper, a new Multi-Layer Perceptrons (MLP) based postprocessor, an a posteriori probability estimator, is presented and used for the rejection model of the speaker independent Mandarin digit recognition system based on hidden Markov model (HMM). Poor utterances,which are recognized by HMMs but have low a posteriori probability, will be rejected. After rejecting about 4.9% of the tested utterances, the MLP rejection model can boost the digit recognition accuracy from 97.1% to 99.6%. The performance is better than those rejection models based on linear discrimination, likelihood ratio or anti-digit.

  13. Images/Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacDonald, Martin

    1992-01-01

    Maintains that words come from strongly felt images. Contrasts the stark language environment of the author's first school years with his vivid memories of stories and poetry in his grandparents', parents', and his own house. (SR)

  14. Accessing the Spoken Word

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goldman, J.; Renals, S.; Bird, S.; de Jong, Franciska M.G.; Federico, M.; Fleischhauer, C.; Kornbluh, M.; Lamel, L.; Oard, D.W.; Stewart, C.; Wright, R.

    2005-01-01

    Spoken-word audio collections cover many domains, including radio and television broadcasts, oral narratives, governmental proceedings, lectures, and telephone conversations. The collection, access, and preservation of such data is stimulated by political, economic, cultural, and educational needs.

  15. Vowel Development in an Emergent Mandarin-English Bilingual Child: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A.; Jacewicz, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal case study documents the emergence of bilingualism in a young monolingual Mandarin boy on the basis of an acoustic analysis of his vowel productions recorded via a picture-naming task over 20 months following his enrollment in an all-English (L2) preschool at the age of 3;7. The study examined (1) his initial L2 vowel space, (2)…

  16. Transcriptome Profiling to Understand the Effect of Citrus Rootstocks on the Growth of 'Shatangju' Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiang-Yu; Li, Juan; Liu, Meng-Meng; Yao, Qing; Chen, Jie-Zhong

    2017-01-01

    To obtain insight into potential mechanisms underlying the influence of rootstock on scion growth, we performed a comparative analysis of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto 5 rootstocks: Fragrant orange (Citrus junons Sieb. ex. Tanaka), Red tangerine (Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Shatangju' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco), Rough lemon (Citrus jambhiri Lush) and Canton lemon (Citrus limonia Osbeck). The tree size of 'Shatangju' mandarin grafted onto Canton lemon and Rough lemon were the largest, followed by self-rooted rootstock trees, and the lowest tree sizes correspond to ones grafted on Red tangerine and Fragrant orange rootstocks. The levels of indoleacetic acid (IAA) and gibberellin (GA) were significantly and positively related to growth vigor. The differences of gene expression in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, Canton lemon and 'Shatangju' mandarin were analyzed by RNA-Seq. Results showed that more differentially expressed genes involved in oxidoreductase function, hormonal signal transduction and the glycolytic pathway were enriched in 'Red tangerine vs Canton lemon'. qRT-PCR analysis showed that expression levels of ARF1, ARF8, GH3 and IAA4 were negatively correlated with the growth vigor and IAA content. The metabolism of GA was influenced by the differential expression of KO1 and GA2OX1 in grafted trees. In addition, most of antioxidant enzyme genes were up-regulated in leaves of trees grafted onto Red tangerine, resulting in a higher peroxidase activity. We concluded that different rootstocks significantly affected the expression of genes involved in auxin signal transduction pathway and GA biosynthesis pathway in the grafted plants, and then regulated the hormone levels and their signal pathways.

  17. Vowel Development in an Emergent Mandarin-English Bilingual Child: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Fox, Robert A.; Jacewicz, Ewa

    2015-01-01

    This longitudinal case study documents the emergence of bilingualism in a young monolingual Mandarin boy on the basis of an acoustic analysis of his vowel productions recorded via a picture-naming task over 20 months following his enrollment in an all-English (L2) preschool at the age of 3;7. The study examined (1) his initial L2 vowel space, (2)…

  18. Illusory vowels and illusory tones in the perception of consonant clusters by monolingual Chinese Mandarin speakers

    OpenAIRE

    Guan, Qianwen

    2016-01-01

    International audience; Previous work shows that listeners tend to perceive an illusory vowel inside consonant clusters that are illegal in their native language [1],[2]. But few studies have been concerned with the perception of tones in connection with L2 phonotactics, specifically for L1 speakers of tone languages. This study examines how L1 speakers of a tone language (Mandarin) perceive the clusters of an L2 language without tone (Russian). The issue that we address is how the perception...

  19. Vowel production of Mandarin-speaking hearing aid users with different types of hearing loss

    OpenAIRE

    Hung, Yu-Chen; Lee, Ya-Jung; Tsai, Li-Chiun

    2017-01-01

    In contrast with previous research focusing on cochlear implants, this study examined the speech performance of hearing aid users with conductive (n = 11), mixed (n = 10), and sensorineural hearing loss (n = 7) and compared it with the speech of hearing control. Speech intelligibility was evaluated by computing the vowel space area defined by the Mandarin Chinese corner vowels /a, u, i/. The acoustic differences between the vowels were assessed using the Euclidean distance. The results reveal...

  20. A Combined Speaker Adaptation Method for Mandarin Speech Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐向华; 朱杰

    2004-01-01

    A speaker adaptation method that combines transformation matrix linear interpolation with maximum a posteriori (MAP) was proposed. Firstly this method can keep the asymptotical characteristic of MAP. Secondly, as the method uses linear interpolation with several speaker-dependent (SD) transformation matrixes, it can fully use the prior knowledge and keep fast adaptation. The experimental results show that the combined method achieves an 8.24% word error rate reduction with only one adaptation utterance, and keeps asymptotic to the performance of SD model for large amounts of adaptation data.

  1. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since the spec......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...... acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable......-29 months. For the two children, the phonetic structure of the first ten words to occur is compared with that of the last ten words to occur before 30 months of age, and with that of ten words in between. Measures related to the sonority envelope, viz. sonority types and in particular sonority rises...

  2. The Research of Phonological Neighborhoods in Mandarin Chinaese%汉语音韵邻近效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏玲; 陈俊; 梁晓燕

    2012-01-01

    Currently, there is much controversy on the researches of phonological neighborhoods effects abroad, but the Chinese-based evidence to support is even scarcer. In order to explore the phonological neighborhood effects of Chinese, subjects who were in high proficiency in Mandarin did a series of exper- iments with word naming task and the masked priming paradigm. The effects of the phonological neighbor- hood density and the high frequency phonological neighborhoods density on the extraction of target words were discussed in both EXP1 &2. And the result shows that only the effect of high frequency neighborhoods density is significant, appearing as the facilitation effect of high frequency phonological neighborhoods. This effect can be explained by the interactive activation model and be further verified by using the masked priming paradigm in EXP3. Additionally, the result of EXP3 shows that, priming can change the effects from phonological neighborhoods.%目前,国外关于音韵邻近效应的研究结果存在着诸多争议,而基于汉语的证据支持更是相当缺乏。为了探索汉语的音韵邻近效应,以普通话熟练的大学生为被试,采用字词命名任务和掩蔽启动范式进行了一系列的实验。实验1和实验2分别探讨了音韵邻近词密度和高频音韵邻近词密度对目标词提取的影响,结果表明,只有高频邻近词密度的效应显著,表现为高频音韵邻近词促进效应,并从交互激活模型进行了解释;实验3采用掩蔽启动范式进一步证实了音韵邻近促进效应,同时也发现启动能够改变音韵邻近词的作用效果。

  3. Effects of Within-Talker Variability on Speech Intelligibility in Mandarin-Speaking Adult and Pediatric Cochlear Implant Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Qiaotong; Galvin, John J; Zhang, Guoping; Li, Yongxin; Fu, Qian-Jie

    2016-06-30

    Cochlear implant (CI) speech performance is typically evaluated using well-enunciated speech produced at a normal rate by a single talker. CI users often have greater difficulty with variations in speech production encountered in everyday listening. Within a single talker, speaking rate, amplitude, duration, and voice pitch information may be quite variable, depending on the production context. The coarse spectral resolution afforded by the CI limits perception of voice pitch, which is an important cue for speech prosody and for tonal languages such as Mandarin Chinese. In this study, sentence recognition from the Mandarin speech perception database was measured in adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI listeners for a variety of speaking styles: voiced speech produced at slow, normal, and fast speaking rates; whispered speech; voiced emotional speech; and voiced shouted speech. Recognition of Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test sentences was also measured. Results showed that performance was significantly poorer with whispered speech relative to the other speaking styles and that performance was significantly better with slow speech than with fast or emotional speech. Results also showed that adult and pediatric performance was significantly poorer with Mandarin Hearing in Noise Test than with Mandarin speech perception sentences at the normal rate. The results suggest that adult and pediatric Mandarin-speaking CI patients are highly susceptible to whispered speech, due to the lack of lexically important voice pitch cues and perhaps other qualities associated with whispered speech. The results also suggest that test materials may contribute to differences in performance observed between adult and pediatric CI users.

  4. 鸳鸯志成因探析%Origin Analysis of "Mandarin Duck" Epigraph

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭茂育

    2012-01-01

    Mandarin duck" epigraph refers to coupled epigraphs of husband and wife.According to related literature,among nearly a hundred thousand epigraph in record,more than sixty percent were unearthed in He Luo area,where "mandarin duck" epigraphs take up about ten percent.This phenomenon of coupled epigraphs of husband of wife has drawn lots of academic attention.The origin of "mandarin duck" epigraph can be analyzed from the perspectives of ethics,marital relationship,ancient bureaucratic system,clan mindset,funeral traditions and etc.%鸳鸯墓志是指夫妻各志、成双成对的墓志。据资料显示,在中国显世的近万方墓志中,河洛地区出土的占六成以上,其中鸳鸯志约占一成。这种夫妻各志、成双成对的墓志现象,已经引起了学界的重视。鸳鸯志形成的真正原因,可以从伦理道德、夫妻关系、古代官僚制度、宗土观念、丧葬习俗等方面进行论述。

  5. Developmental changes in mismatch responses to mandarin consonants and lexical tones from early to middle childhood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huei-Mei Liu

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to use mismatch responses (MMRs to explore the dynamic changes of Mandarin speech perception abilities from early to middle childhood. Twenty preschoolers, 18 school-aged children, and 26 adults participated in this study. Two sets of synthesized speech stimuli varying in Mandarin consonant (alveolo-palatal affricate vs. fricative and lexical tone features (rising vs. contour tone were used to examine the developmental course of speech perception abilities. The results indicated that only the adult group demonstrated typical early mismatch negativity (MMN responses, suggesting that the ability to discriminate specific speech cues in Mandarin consonant and lexical tone is a continuing process in preschool- and school-aged children. Additionally, distinct MMR patterns provided evidence indicating diverse developmental courses to different speech characteristics. By incorporating data from the two speech conditions, we propose using MMR profiles consisting of mismatch negativity (MMN, positive mismatch response (p-MMR, and late discriminative negativity (LDN as possible brain indices to investigate speech perception development.

  6. Lexical tone and stuttering loci in Mandarin: evidence from preschool children who stutter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Fang-Chi; Zebrowski, Patricia; Yang, Shu-Lan

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between stuttering loci and lexical tone in Mandarin-speaking preschoolers. Conversational samples from 20 Taiwanese children who stutter (CWS; M = 4:9; range = 3:2-6:4) were analysed for frequency and type of speech disfluency and lexical tone associated with stuttering-like disfluencies (SLDs). Results indicated that SLDs were significantly more likely to be produced on Mandarin syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 syllables compared to syllables carrying either Tone 1 or Tone 2. Post-hoc analyses revealed: (1) no significant differences in the stuttering frequencies between Tone 1 and Tone 2, or between Tone 3 and Tone 4, and (2) a higher incidence of stuttering on syllables carrying Tone 3 and Tone 4 embedded in conflicting (as opposed to compatible) tonal contexts. Results suggest that the higher incidence of stuttering on Mandarin syllables carrying either Tone 3 or 4 may be attributed to the increased level of speech motor demand underlying rapid F0 change both within and across syllables.

  7. Changes in quality parameters during growth of Fremont and Nova mandarin cultivars and harvest maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Erhan ÖZDEMİR

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine physical and chemical changes during fruit development and their relationship with optimum harvest maturity for Fremont and Nova mandarin cultivars grown under the Dörtyol ecological conditions. Fruits cv. Fremont and Nova mandarins were obtained trees grafted on Sour orange rootstock in Dörtyol region. Fruit width (mm and length (mm, weight (g, skin color (L* and hº , fruit juice content (%, total soluble solid (TSS, %, titretable acidity (TA, %, TSS/TA ratio and juice pH value were measured on fruits samples collected from tagged trees from June drop to ripening at a time during fruit development. Data indicated that optimum harvest time was in the last weeks of November with the first week of December (200-215 days after full bloom for Fremont and Nova mandarin varieties grown in Dörtyol conditions with over TSS/TA ratio 8 and fruit skin coloration (hº values between 80-90 was sufficient.

  8. Acoustic properties of vowel production in prelingually deafened Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jing; Brown, Emily; Fox, Robert A; Xu, Li

    2015-11-01

    The present study examined the acoustic features of vowel production in Mandarin-speaking children with cochlear implants (CIs). The subjects included 14 native Mandarin-speaking, prelingually deafened children with CIs (2.9-8.3 yr old) and 60 age-matched, normal-hearing (NH) children (3.1-9.0 years old). Each subject produced a list of monosyllables containing seven Mandarin vowels: [i, a, u, y, ɤ, ʅ, ɿ]. Midpoint F1 and F2 of each vowel token were extracted and normalized to eliminate the effects of different vocal tract sizes. Results showed that the CI children produced significantly longer vowels and less compact vowel categories than the NH children did. The CI children's acoustic vowel space was reduced due to a retracted production of the vowel [i]. The vowel space area showed a strong negative correlation with age at implantation (r = -0.80). The analysis of acoustic distance showed that the CI children produced corner vowels [a, u] similarly to the NH children, but other vowels (e.g., [ʅ, ɿ]) differently from the NH children, which suggests that CI children generally follow a similar developmental path of vowel acquisition as NH children. These findings highlight the importance of early implantation and have implications in clinical aural habilitation in young children with CIs.

  9. Effects of Semantic Context and Fundamental Frequency Contours on Mandarin Speech Recognition by Second Language Learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjun; Li, Yu; Wu, Han; Li, Xin; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Speech recognition by second language (L2) learners in optimal and suboptimal conditions has been examined extensively with English as the target language in most previous studies. This study extended existing experimental protocols (Wang et al., 2013) to investigate Mandarin speech recognition by Japanese learners of Mandarin at two different levels (elementary vs. intermediate) of proficiency. The overall results showed that in addition to L2 proficiency, semantic context, F0 contours, and listening condition all affected the recognition performance on the Mandarin sentences. However, the effects of semantic context and F0 contours on L2 speech recognition diverged to some extent. Specifically, there was significant modulation effect of listening condition on semantic context, indicating that L2 learners made use of semantic context less efficiently in the interfering background than in quiet. In contrast, no significant modulation effect of listening condition on F0 contours was found. Furthermore, there was significant interaction between semantic context and F0 contours, indicating that semantic context becomes more important for L2 speech recognition when F0 information is degraded. None of these effects were found to be modulated by L2 proficiency. The discrepancy in the effects of semantic context and F0 contours on L2 speech recognition in the interfering background might be related to differences in processing capacities required by the two types of information in adverse listening conditions.

  10. Comparisons of Auditory Performance and Speech Intelligibility after Cochlear Implant Reimplantation in Mandarin-Speaking Users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Feng Hwang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. We evaluated the causes, hearing, and speech performance before and after cochlear implant reimplantation in Mandarin-speaking users. Methods. In total, 589 patients who underwent cochlear implantation in our medical center between 1999 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Data related to demographics, etiologies, implant-related information, complications, and hearing and speech performance were collected. Results. In total, 22 (3.74% cases were found to have major complications. Infection (n=12 and hard failure of the device (n=8 were the most common major complications. Among them, 13 were reimplanted in our hospital. The mean scores of the Categorical Auditory Performance (CAP and the Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR obtained before and after reimplantation were 5.5 versus 5.8 and 3.7 versus 4.3, respectively. The SIR score after reimplantation was significantly better than preoperation. Conclusions. Cochlear implantation is a safe procedure with low rates of postsurgical revisions and device failures. The Mandarin-speaking patients in this study who received reimplantation had restored auditory performance and speech intelligibility after surgery. Device soft failure was rare in our series, calling attention to Mandarin-speaking CI users requiring revision of their implants due to undesirable symptoms or decreasing performance of uncertain cause.

  11. Comparative analysis of differentially expressed sequence tags of sweet orange and mandarin infected with Xylella fastidiosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra A. de Souza

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The Citrus ESTs Sequencing Project (CitEST conducted at Centro APTA Citros Sylvio Moreira/IAC has identified and catalogued ESTs representing a set of citrus genes expressed under relevant stress responses, including diseases such as citrus variegated chlorosis (CVC, caused by Xylella fastidiosa. All sweet orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osb. varieties are susceptible to X. fastidiosa. On the other hand, mandarins (C. reticulata Blanco are considered tolerant or resistant to the disease, although the bacterium can be sporadically detected within the trees, but no disease symptoms or economic losses are observed. To study their genetic responses to the presence of X. fastidiosa, we have compared EST libraries of leaf tissue of sweet orange Pêra IAC (highly susceptible cultivar to X. fastidiosa and mandarin ‘Ponkan’ (tolerant artificially infected with the bacterium. Using an in silico differential display, 172 genes were found to be significantly differentially expressed in such conditions. Sweet orange presented an increase in expression of photosynthesis related genes that could reveal a strategy to counterbalance a possible lower photosynthetic activity resulting from early effects of the bacterial colonization in affected plants. On the other hand, mandarin showed an active multi-component defense response against the bacterium similar to the non-host resistance pattern.

  12. Known-Groups and Concurrent Validity of the Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shufeng Zhu

    Full Text Available The Mandarin Tone Identification Test (MTIT is a new test designed to assess the tone identification abilities of children with hearing impairment (HI. Evidence for reliability and sensitivity has been reported. The present study aimed to evaluate the known-groups and concurrent validity of the MTIT.The MTIT and Mandarin Pediatric Speech Intelligibility test (MPSI were administered in quiet and in noise conditions. The known-groups validity was evaluated by comparing the performance of the MTIT on children with two different levels of HI. The MPSI was included to evaluate the concurrent validity of the MTIT.81 children with HI were recruited in the present study. They were Mandarin-speaking children with profound HI (mean age = 9; 0, n = 41 and with moderate to severe HI (mean age = 8; 9, n = 40.Scores on the MTIT differed between the two groups with different hearing levels suggesting good known-groups validity. A strong relationship between tone and sentence perception both in quiet and in noise provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity.The present study confirmed that the MTIT has good known-groups validity and provided preliminary evidence for concurrent validity. The MTIT could be used to evaluate tone identification ability in children with HI with confidence.

  13. Elucidating the roles of ethanol fermentation metabolism in causing off-flavors in mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tietel, Zipora; Lewinsohn, Efraim; Fallik, Elazar; Porat, Ron

    2011-11-09

    To elucidate the roles of ethanol fermentation metabolism in causing off-flavors, 'Mor' mandarins were exposed to anaerobic atmospheres for 0, 2, 4, 7, and 10 days to gradually increase juice ethanol and acetaldehyde levels through enhanced fermentation. Exposure to anaerobic atmosphere caused progressive decline in fruit sensory quality, from nearly "good" to "very bad", because of decreased typical mandarin flavor and increased sensation of 'musty' and 'ethanol' off-flavors. GC-MS analysis revealed significant (p ≤ 0.05) increases in the contents of 12 aroma volatiles, including the ethanol fermentation metabolites ethanol and acetaldehyde, and several fatty acid and amino acid catabolism derivates, 7 of which were ethyl esters, which suggests that they were esterification products of ethanol and acyl-CoA's derived from fatty acid and amino acid catabolism. These de novo synthesized anaerobiosis-regulated ethyl esters impart 'pungent', 'ethereal', 'waxy', 'musty', and 'fruity' notes. Overall, these results suggest that besides the direct effects of ethanol and acetaldehyde, downstream ethanol esterification products may also be involved in causing off-flavor sensation in mandarins.

  14. Comparisons of Auditory Performance and Speech Intelligibility after Cochlear Implant Reimplantation in Mandarin-Speaking Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chung-Feng; Ko, Hui-Chen; Tsou, Yung-Ting; Chan, Kai-Chieh; Fang, Hsuan-Yeh; Wu, Che-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. We evaluated the causes, hearing, and speech performance before and after cochlear implant reimplantation in Mandarin-speaking users. Methods. In total, 589 patients who underwent cochlear implantation in our medical center between 1999 and 2014 were reviewed retrospectively. Data related to demographics, etiologies, implant-related information, complications, and hearing and speech performance were collected. Results. In total, 22 (3.74%) cases were found to have major complications. Infection (n = 12) and hard failure of the device (n = 8) were the most common major complications. Among them, 13 were reimplanted in our hospital. The mean scores of the Categorical Auditory Performance (CAP) and the Speech Intelligibility Rating (SIR) obtained before and after reimplantation were 5.5 versus 5.8 and 3.7 versus 4.3, respectively. The SIR score after reimplantation was significantly better than preoperation. Conclusions. Cochlear implantation is a safe procedure with low rates of postsurgical revisions and device failures. The Mandarin-speaking patients in this study who received reimplantation had restored auditory performance and speech intelligibility after surgery. Device soft failure was rare in our series, calling attention to Mandarin-speaking CI users requiring revision of their implants due to undesirable symptoms or decreasing performance of uncertain cause.

  15. Phonetic enhancement of Mandarin vowels and tones: Infant-directed speech and Lombard speech.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ping; Xu Rattanasone, Nan; Yuen, Ivan; Demuth, Katherine

    2017-08-01

    Speech units are reported to be hyperarticulated in both infant-directed speech (IDS) and Lombard speech. Since these two registers have typically been studied separately, it is unclear if the same speech units are hyperarticulated in the same manner between these registers. The aim of the present study is to compare the effect of register on vowel and tone modification in the tonal language Mandarin Chinese. Vowel and tone productions were produced by 15 Mandarin-speaking mothers during interactions with their 12-month-old infants during a play session (IDS), in conversation with a Mandarin-speaking adult in a 70 dBA eight-talker babble noise environment (Lombard speech), and in a quiet environment (adult-directed speech). Vowel space expansion was observed in IDS and Lombard speech, however, the patterns of vowel-shift were different between the two registers. IDS displayed tone space expansion only in the utterance-final position, whereas there was no tone space expansion in Lombard speech. The overall pitch increased for all tones in both registers. The tone-bearing vowel duration also increased in both registers, but only in utterance-final position. The difference in speech modifications between these two registers is discussed in light of speakers' different communicative needs.

  16. Effects of Semantic Context and Fundamental Frequency Contours on Mandarin Speech Recognition by Second Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Linjun; Li, Yu; Wu, Han; Li, Xin; Shu, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Li, Ping

    2016-01-01

    Speech recognition by second language (L2) learners in optimal and suboptimal conditions has been examined extensively with English as the target language in most previous studies. This study extended existing experimental protocols (Wang et al., 2013) to investigate Mandarin speech recognition by Japanese learners of Mandarin at two different levels (elementary vs. intermediate) of proficiency. The overall results showed that in addition to L2 proficiency, semantic context, F0 contours, and listening condition all affected the recognition performance on the Mandarin sentences. However, the effects of semantic context and F0 contours on L2 speech recognition diverged to some extent. Specifically, there was significant modulation effect of listening condition on semantic context, indicating that L2 learners made use of semantic context less efficiently in the interfering background than in quiet. In contrast, no significant modulation effect of listening condition on F0 contours was found. Furthermore, there was significant interaction between semantic context and F0 contours, indicating that semantic context becomes more important for L2 speech recognition when F0 information is degraded. None of these effects were found to be modulated by L2 proficiency. The discrepancy in the effects of semantic context and F0 contours on L2 speech recognition in the interfering background might be related to differences in processing capacities required by the two types of information in adverse listening conditions. PMID:27378997

  17. Effects of noise spectrumon word perception in normal hearing adults%噪声频谱特性对正常听力成人词汇识别影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑之芃; 刘莎; 任寸寸; 刘欣; 李颖; 刘海红

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effects of noise spectrum, including speech spectrum-shaped noise(SSN), and 4-talker babble noise(BN) on spoken word perception in noise in normal hearing adults. METHODS In all, thirty-one native Mandarin speaking normal hearing adults (age ranged from n 20 to 26 years) participated in the study.The evaluation material was M-LNT, each participant was tested in SSN and BN, respectively. P-SNR was obtainedfor each participant. RESULTS The SNR50 of disyllable and monosyllable in SSN were -7.63 dB and -4.83 dB, and the corresponding rate ratio were 11.14 and 5.61, respectively. The SNR50 of disyllable and monosyllable in BN were -5.52 dB and -3.34 dB, the corresponding rate ratio were 9.28 and 6.04, respectively. There were significant differences of SNR50 between disyllable and monosyllable in SSN and BN(P<0.05). CONCLUSION Compared with SSN, greater masking effect was observed in BN in normal hearing adults.Specifically, the P-SNR function of M-LNT in BN shifted to the rightand increased slower than SSN. Similar lexical effect was found in each typeof noises. That is, compared to disyllabic word, better SNR was needed for monosyllabic word to obtained same perception correct.%目的:探讨噪声频谱特性对词汇识别的影响作用。方法31名听力正常成人参与研究,研究采用汉语普通话词汇相邻性测试,分别获得言语谱噪声(speech spectrum-shaped noise,SSN)和多人谈话噪声(babble noise,BN)下不同信噪比(signal noise ratio,SNR)的言语识别率,并计算词汇识别率为20%、50%和80%时所需要SNR和斜率,进而分析噪声频谱特性对词汇识别的影响作用。结果SSN条件下单音节词和双音节词的言语识别阈,即正确识别率为50%所对应的SNR(SNR50)分别为-4.83 dB和-7.63 dB(t 50=11.918,P<0.05),对应斜率分别为5.61和11.14(t 50=-7.006,P<0.05)。BN条件下单

  18. Brain-based translation: fMRI decoding of spoken words in bilinguals reveals language-independent semantic representations in anterior temporal lobe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correia, João; Formisano, Elia; Valente, Giancarlo; Hausfeld, Lars; Jansma, Bernadette; Bonte, Milene

    2014-01-01

    Bilinguals derive the same semantic concepts from equivalent, but acoustically different, words in their first and second languages. The neural mechanisms underlying the representation of language-independent concepts in the brain remain unclear. Here, we measured fMRI in human bilingual listeners and reveal that response patterns to individual spoken nouns in one language (e.g., "horse" in English) accurately predict the response patterns to equivalent nouns in the other language (e.g., "paard" in Dutch). Stimuli were four monosyllabic words in both languages, all from the category of "animal" nouns. For each word, pronunciations from three different speakers were included, allowing the investigation of speaker-independent representations of individual words. We used multivariate classifiers and a searchlight method to map the informative fMRI response patterns that enable decoding spoken words within languages (within-language discrimination) and across languages (across-language generalization). Response patterns discriminative of spoken words within language were distributed in multiple cortical regions, reflecting the complexity of the neural networks recruited during speech and language processing. Response patterns discriminative of spoken words across language were limited to localized clusters in the left anterior temporal lobe, the left angular gyrus and the posterior bank of the left postcentral gyrus, the right posterior superior temporal sulcus/superior temporal gyrus, the right medial anterior temporal lobe, the right anterior insula, and bilateral occipital cortex. These results corroborate the existence of "hub" regions organizing semantic-conceptual knowledge in abstract form at the fine-grained level of within semantic category discriminations.

  19. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical o

  20. WORD LEVEL DISCRIMINATIVE TRAINING FOR HANDWRITTEN WORD RECOGNITION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, W.; Gader, P.

    2004-01-01

    Word level training refers to the process of learning the parameters of a word recognition system based on word level criteria functions. Previously, researchers trained lexicon­driven handwritten word recognition systems at the character level individually. These systems generally use statistical

  1. Word of Jeremiah - Word of God

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holt, Else Kragelund

    2007-01-01

    The article examines the relationship between God, prophet and the people in the Book of Jeremiah. The analysis shows a close connection, almost an identification, between the divine word (and consequently God himself) and the prophet, so that the prophet becomes a metaphor for God. This is done...... through exegetical studies of the call narrative (Jer 1), the Temple Sermon (Jer 7) and narratives about the prophet's seclusion from the people (e.g. Jer 16). In addition there is an analysis of Jer 36, the chapter telling about the writing down of the Book of Jeremiah. The main message of this chapter...

  2. Predicting the Development of Interrogative Forms and Functions in Early Years: A Corpus-Based Study of Mandarin-Speaking Young Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Jing, Mengguo; Wong, Eileen Chin Mei

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the development of and possible predictors of interrogative forms and functions in early childhood Mandarin. All the interrogatives drawn from the Early Child Mandarin Corpus (168 children 2;6, 3;6, 4;6, and 5;6) were analyzed. The main results indicated that (i) there were significant age effects in interrogative forms and…

  3. Essential words for the TOEFL

    CERN Document Server

    Matthiesen, Steven J

    2017-01-01

    This revised book is specifically designed for ESL students preparing to take the TOEFL. Includes new words and phrases, a section on purpose words, a list of vocabulary words with definitions, sample sentences, practice exercises for 500 need-to-know words, practice test with answer key, and more.

  4. Finding Rising and Falling Words

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tjong Kim Sang, E.

    2016-01-01

    We examine two different methods for finding rising words (among which neologisms) and falling words (among which archaisms) in decades of magazine texts (millions of words) and in years of tweets (billions of words): one based on correlation coefficients of relative frequencies and time, and one

  5. Empirical studies on word representations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suster, Simon

    2016-01-01

    One of the most fundamental tasks in natural language processing is representing words with mathematical objects (such as vectors). The word representations, which are most often estimated from data, allow capturing the meaning of words. They enable comparing words according to their semantic simila

  6. The Activation of Embedded Words in Spoken Word Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xujin; Samuel, Arthur G

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated how listeners understand English words that have shorter words embedded in them. A series of auditory-auditory priming experiments assessed the activation of six types of embedded words (2 embedded positions × 3 embedded proportions) under different listening conditions. Facilitation of lexical decision responses to targets (e.g., pig) associated with words embedded in primes (e.g., hamster) indexed activation of the embedded words (e.g., ham). When the listening conditions were optimal, isolated embedded words (e.g., ham) primed their targets in all six conditions (Experiment 1a). Within carrier words (e.g., hamster), the same set of embedded words produced priming only when they were at the beginning or comprised a large proportion of the carrier word (Experiment 1b). When the listening conditions were made suboptimal by expanding or compressing the primes, significant priming was found for isolated embedded words (Experiment 2a), but no priming was produced when the carrier words were compressed/expanded (Experiment 2b). Similarly, priming was eliminated when the carrier words were presented with one segment replaced by noise (Experiment 3). When cognitive load was imposed, priming for embedded words was again found when they were presented in isolation (Experiment 4a), but not when they were embedded in the carrier words (Experiment 4b). The results suggest that both embedded position and proportion play important roles in the activation of embedded words, but that such activation only occurs under unusually good listening conditions.

  7. Leaf volatile compounds of seven citrus somatic tetraploid hybrids sharing willow leaf mandarin (Citrus deliciosa Ten.) as their common parent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancel, Anne-Laure; Ollitrault, Patrick; Froelicher, Yann; Tomi, Felix; Jacquemond, Camille; Luro, Francois; Brillouet, Jean-Marc

    2003-09-24

    Volatile compounds were extracted by a pentane/ether (1:1) mixture from the leaves of seven citrus somatic tetraploid hybrids sharing mandarin as their common parent and having lime, Eurêka lemon, lac lemon, sweet orange, grapefruit, kumquat, or poncirus as the other parent. Extracts were examined by GC-MS and compared with those of their respective parents. All hybrids were like their mandarin parent, and unlike their nonmandarin parents, in being unable to synthesize monoterpene aldehydes and alcohols. The hybrids did retain the ability, although strongly reduced, of their nonmandarin parents to synthesize sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, alcohols, and aldehydes. These results suggest that complex forms of dominance in the mandarin genome determine the biosynthesis pathways of volatile compounds in tetraploid hybrids. A down-regulation of the biosynthesis of methyl N-methylanthranilate, a mandarin-specific compound, originates from the genomes of the nonmandarin parents. Statistical analyses showed that all of the hybrids were similar to their common mandarin parent in the relative composition of their volatile compounds.

  8. Intensity of Attack Caused by Mediterranean Fruit Fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedem. (Diptera, Tephritidae on Mandarin along the Montenegrin Seacoast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanja Radonjić

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Along the Montenegrin seacoast, all cultivated citrus species (mandarin, orange, lemon,grapefruit, fig, loquat and ziziphus were detected as host plants of the Ceratitis capitata Wiedem.Among those found, in economic sense, the most important host plant is mandarinUnšiu.Intensity of the attack were monitored on mandarin in 2003 and 2004 in localities Baošići,Lastva Grbaljska and Bar, and was determined as higher in 2003. The first symptoms ofattack were detected, depending on locality, from middle of September until beginning ofOctober, one to two months earlier then in 2004. The maximum number of larvae per fruitwere detected in October and November (average from 13.44±0.16 to 22.82±0.13. Timeof the first symptoms appearence on mandarin in September and October 2003 and in November2004, indicate on crucial importance of alternative host plants (figs and loquat forreproduction and increasing of C. capitata population, because later during a season its intensityof attack on mandarin, depend largely on their presence.

  9. The role as inoculum sources of Xanthomonas citri pv. citri surviving on the infected Satsuma mandarin fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, So Young; Kim, Ki Deok; Hong, Jeum Kyu; Hyun, He Nam; Jeun, Yong Chull

    2014-05-01

    Importing citrus fruits infected by Asiatic citrus canker caused by Xanthomonas citri pv. citri (Xcc) can act as an inoculum source for the disease epidemic in citrus canker-free countries. In this study, the pathogenicity of the causal agent of Asiatic citrus canker surviving on infected Satsuma mandarin fruits was evaluated. The washing solution of infected Satsuma mandarin fruits did not cause lesion formation on the citrus leaves. However, a typical citrus canker lesion was formed on the leaves after inoculation with higher concentrations of the inoculum from the washing solution (washing solution II). It indicated that the pathogenicity of the citrus canker surviving on the symptomatic Satsuma mandarin fruits was not changed. Scanning electron microscopic observation showed that the numbers of bacterial cells on the leaves of Satsuma mandarin which inoculated with the washing solution directly (washing solution I) was less compared to those of leaves inoculated with the washing solution II. This result spports that the pathogenicity of Xcc surviving on Satsuma mandarin fruits may not be changed but that the sucessful infection of citrus caker may depend on the concentration of the inoculum.

  10. Effects of Polymorphisms in Pepsinogen (PEP, Amylase (AMY and Trypsin (TRY Genes on Food Habit Domestication Traits in Mandarin Fish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tilin Yi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi have a peculiar feeding habit of only accepting live fish prey and refusing dead prey and artificial diets. However, previous research has shown that some individuals accept dead prey after gradual domestication. Digestive enzymes are correlated with feeding habits in fish. In the current study, SNPs in the mandarin fish genes for pepsinogen (PEP, amylase (AMY, and trypsin (TRY were evaluated for associations with feeding habits in domesticated mandarin fish by scanning their complete genomic sequence. In total, two SNPs were found in PEP, one was found in TRY, and none were found in AMY. The D1(CTCC and D5(TTTT diplotypes in the PEP gene tended to show strong effects on the feeding habits of domesticated fish (p < 0.01. The results indicate that PEP may be associated with the genetic mechanism for feeding habits in mandarin fish, and the D1(CTCC and D5(TTTT diplotypes in the PEP gene may be useful markers for selecting mandarin fish with appropriate feeding habits for domestication.

  11. Effects of polymorphisms in pepsinogen (PEP), amylase (AMY) and trypsin (TRY) genes on food habit domestication traits in mandarin fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Tilin; Sun, Jian; Liang, Xufang; He, Shan; Li, Ling; Wen, Zhengyong; Shen, Dan

    2013-10-30

    Mandarin fish (Siniperca chuatsi) have a peculiar feeding habit of only accepting live fish prey and refusing dead prey and artificial diets. However, previous research has shown that some individuals accept dead prey after gradual domestication. Digestive enzymes are correlated with feeding habits in fish. In the current study, SNPs in the mandarin fish genes for pepsinogen (PEP), amylase (AMY), and trypsin (TRY) were evaluated for associations with feeding habits in domesticated mandarin fish by scanning their complete genomic sequence. In total, two SNPs were found in PEP, one was found in TRY, and none were found in AMY. The D1(CTCC) and D5(TTTT) diplotypes in the PEP gene tended to show strong effects on the feeding habits of domesticated fish (p < 0.01). The results indicate that PEP may be associated with the genetic mechanism for feeding habits in mandarin fish, and the D1(CTCC) and D5(TTTT) diplotypes in the PEP gene may be useful markers for selecting mandarin fish with appropriate feeding habits for domestication.

  12. Words are not things

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J.

    2000-01-01

    On a traditional view, words are the fundamental units of verbal behavior. They are independent, autonomous things that symbolically represent or refer to other independent, autonomous things, often in some other dimension. Ascertaining what those other things are constitutes determining the meaning of a word. On a behavior-analytic view, verbal behavior is ongoing, functional operant activity occasioned by antecedent factors and reinforced by its consequences, particularly consequences that are mediated by other members of the same verbal community. Functional relations rather than structure select the response unit. The behavior-analytic point of view clarifies such important contemporary issues in psychology as (a) the role of scientific theories and explanations, (b) educational practices, and (c) equivalence classes, so that there is no risk of strengthening the traditional view that words are things that symbolically represent other things. PMID:22477219

  13. Structural Types of Rhetorical Questions in Northeastern Mandarin%东北方言反问句的结构类型研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张明辉

    2012-01-01

    Rhetorical questions, flexible as it were, boast a high frequency of usage in Northeastern Mandarin, the dialect of Mandarin Chinese spoken in northeastern China. This paper comprehensively reviews the structural types of rhetorical questions in Northeastern Mandarin and investigates into the characteristics of each structure in comparison to similar uses of rhetorical questions in Modern Standard Mandarin, so as to reveal the unique flavor of rhetorical questions in Northeastern Mandarin.%东北方言的反问句使用频率高,用法灵活。文章对东北方言反问句的结构类型加以全面梳理,同时分析每类结构的使用特点,并将其与普通话的用法相比,从而进一步提示东北方言反问句的独特之处。

  14. Bouyei word formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attasith Boonsawasd

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Bouyei language is divided into three vernaculars, the southern vernacular, the central vernacular and the southwestern vernacular. This paper aims to describe the lexicology of the southern vernacular of the Bouyei language focusing on word formation process. Bouyei words are formed by affixing, compounding and reduplicating. First, the affixation consists of prefixing and suffixing. Infixing is not found in this language. Second, the compound is divided into the semantic and syntactic compound. Finally, the reduplication is divided into the simple and complex reduplication. The simple reduplication is normally used to emphasize the meaning of the root or to indicate plurality.

  15. Italian Word Association Norms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1966-07-01

    Ricerche Istituto Nazionale I Psicologia , Roma Italy. A different, but not unrelated, approach is to use word association norms to study other types of... Psicologia , 1961 , 55, 1,13-155. Chiari, S. 11 comportamento associative nell’eta ovolutiva, Rivista di Psicologia , 1 96 1b , 55, 175-189. Cofer, C.N...and Russell, VI.A. Systematic changes in word association norms: 1910-1952. Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology, 19C0, 60, 293-303. lilb Kurez, I

  16. Word of mouth komunikacija

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žnideršić-Kovač Ružica

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumers' buying decision is very complex multistep process in which a lot of factors have significant impact. Traditional approach to the problem of communication between a company and its consumers, implies usage of marketing mix instruments, mostly promotion mix, in order to achieve positive purchase decision. Formal communication between company and consumers is dominant comparing to informal communication, and even in marketing literature there is not enough attention paid to this type of communication such as Word of Mouth. Numerous of research shows that consumers emphasize crucial impact of Word of Mouth on their buying decision. .

  17. Berge, word lug! Werklikheid, word water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hein Viljoen

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available Breyten Breytenbach is vandag erg omstrede; sy werk ook. Omstrede in die eerste instansie om sy politieke betrokkenheid. Hy skryf iramers (of haal aan "The duty of the artist is to overthrow his government" (Boom p 119. Sy digbundel Skrytj om 'n sinkende skip blou te verf (1972 is om politieke redes verbied - twee jaar nadat dit verskyn het. Sy jongste prosaboek, 'n Seisoen in die paradys (ironiese sinspeling op Rimbaud se Une Saison en enfer, sal - uit vrees vir sensuur om politieke redes - waarskynlik nooit verskyn nie (Anon 1975a kol 1. 'n Paar hoofstukke daarvan het darem al in Rapport verskyn (Breytenbach 1974c. By sy verhoor in Pretoria het Breytenbach onder andere om verskoning gevra vir die dinge wat hy in Skryt geskryf het, maar dit het sy omstredenheid eerder vererger. Hierdie dinge mag nie uit die oog verloor word nie, omdat dit neig om die oordeel oor sy werk te vertroebel.

  18. Analysis of Problems in Learning Mandarin Pronunciation%普通话发音中常见问题分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙秀莲

    2012-01-01

    It is very important for the Mandarin learners to understand and grasp the accurate pronunciation of Mandarin. The problems in the pronunciation of Mandarin lies in the consonant , vowel and tones. The key to the success in learning Man- darin well is read and listen a lot and study it carefully.%在普通话学习中,掌握基础、学会方法非常重要。发音中常见的问题无非还是在声母、韵母和声调上,看到问题所在,找出解决问题的关键。多读、多听、细品就一定会有所成效。

  19. Effect of X-ray irradiation on fruit quality of clementine mandarin cv. 'Clemenules'

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Miquel [Centre de Technologia Postcollita, Institut Valencia d' Investigacions Agraries (IVIA), Ctra. de Montcada a Naquera, km. 4.5, E-46113 Montcada, Valencia (Spain); Palou, Lluis [Centre de Technologia Postcollita, Institut Valencia d' Investigacions Agraries (IVIA), Ctra. de Montcada a Naquera, km. 4.5, E-46113 Montcada, Valencia (Spain)]. E-mail: lluis.palou@ivia.es; Angel del Rio, Miguel [Centre de Technologia Postcollita, Institut Valencia d' Investigacions Agraries (IVIA), Ctra. de Montcada a Naquera, km. 4.5, E-46113 Montcada, Valencia (Spain); Jacas, Josep-Anton [Departament de Ciencies Experimentals, Universitat Jaume I (UJI), Campus del Riu Sec, E-12071 Castello de la Plana (Spain)

    2007-10-15

    The effects of a potential quarantine treatment consisting of exposure to X-ray irradiation against the Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata (Wiedemann) (Diptera: Tephritidae) on 'Clemenules' mandarin quality are presented and compared with those from the standard cold temperature quarantine treatment. X-ray irradiation doses of 0.195 and 0.395 kGy had no detrimental effects on fruit quality (rind color, firmness, juice yield, maturity index, internal volatiles, deterioration index and sensory evaluation). These results therefore indicate that X-ray irradiation is a harmless and highly effective quarantine technique for clementine mandarin and this technique could be as useful as the current cold treatment for 'Clemenules' mandarins.

  20. Evaluation of a dual-probe real time PCR system for detection of mandarin in commercial orange juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pardo, Miguel Angel

    2015-04-01

    A dual-probe real time PCR assay, based on the simultaneous detection of two TaqMan® probes, was evaluated for the detection of mandarin in orange juice. A single conserved polymorphism, located at the 314 position of intron belongs to chloroplast trnL gene, was confirmed by sequencing in 30 mandarin, 28 orange cultivars and 13 hybrids. The assay was also successfully evaluated in a blind trial against analysing 60 samples from different industrial processes in different countries around the world. The detection limit of the assay was established in 1% presence of mandarin detectable in processed orange juice and with a 100% precision. The quantitative application of the assay on citrus mixtures was also investigated, pointing out that the number of chloroplast DNA copies is too variable for its possible use as quantitative analysis. This assay can be employed as a routine methodology to control the accidental mixing during industrial processes and to deter intentional fraud.

  1. A Newly Invented Word

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董秀芹

    2004-01-01

    It's not only rocket scientists and journalists who are following the course of "Shenzhou V', or "Divine Vessel V'. There are also lexicographers, or dictionary compilers. The flight of the spacecraft last week might help put some new words into orbit.

  2. Offensive Words, Lethal Weapons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacoby, Russell

    2007-01-01

    The old childhood ditty "sticks and stones may break my bones, but words will never hurt me" has proved wiser than the avalanche of commentary provoked by the recent insults by Don Imus and the killings at Virginia Tech. Our society forbids public name-calling but allows sticks and stones. Anyone can acquire a gun, but everyone must be careful…

  3. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus;

    2015-01-01

    acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable...

  4. Doing words together

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fusaroli, Riccardo; Østergaard, Svend; Raczaszek-Leonardi, Joanna

    In this paper we test the effects of social interactions in embodied problem solving by employing a Scrabble-like setting. 28 pairs of participants had to generate as many words as possible from 2 balanced sets of 7 letters, which they could manipulate, either individually or collectively...

  5. New Words and Expressions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈福生

    1984-01-01

    @@ To start with, I mention that certain new words and expressions are used relatively often by journalists when they compose reports and articles. Their writing is said to be all right for a newspaper, but that lacks imagination and beauty. Examples:

  6. Effects of neonatal paternal deprivation or early deprivation on anxiety and social behaviors of the adults in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao; An, Shucheng; Zhang, Xia; Broders, Hugh

    2009-11-01

    This study examined whether neonatal paternal deprivation (PD: father was removed and pups were raised just by mother) or early deprivation (ED: pups were raised by both parents except separated from not only the dam but also the peers for three hours a day from PND 0 to 13) has long-term effects on anxiety and social behaviors of adult mandarin voles. Newborn mandarin voles of F2 generation were randomly assigned to one of three groups: bi-parental care (PC: pups were raised by both parents), PD and ED. The parental care behaviors of F1 generation were observed at the age of 0, 13 and 21 days (PND 0, 13, 21) of F2 generation of PC and PD groups. Moreover, each mandarin vole of F2 generation received an open field test and a social interaction test on PND 70 and PND 75, respectively. No significant differences of parental behavior were observed between mothers and fathers from PC families, showing typical parental behavior of socially monogamous rodents. In addition, no significant differences of maternal behaviors were found between mothers from PC and PD families, indicating no maternal compensation towards pups for the absence of the paternal care. In the open field test, mandarin voles from both PD and ED families displayed higher levels of anxiety and lower locomotor activity, relative to offspring of PC family. In the social interaction test, both PD and ED mandarin voles also showed lower levels of social behavior and higher levels of anxiety. Thus, both PD and ED significantly increase anxiety and reduce social behavior of adult mandarin voles, suggesting that variation in parental investment may lead to variation in anxiety and social behaviors in rodents with different mating systems.

  7. Intelligibility of non-natively produced Dutch words: interaction between segmental and suprasegmental errors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caspers, Johanneke; Horłoza, Katarzyna

    2012-01-01

    In the field of second language research many adhere to the idea that prosodic errors are more detrimental to the intelligibility of non-native speakers than segmental errors. The current study reports on a series of experiments testing the influence of stress errors and segmental errors, and a combination of these, on native processing of words produced by intermediate speakers of Dutch as a second language with either Mandarin Chinese or French as mother tongue. The results suggest that both stress and segmental errors influence processing, but suprasegmental errors do not outweigh segmental errors. It seems that a more 'foreign' generic pronunciation leads to a greater impact of (supra)segmental errors, suggesting that segmental and prosodic deviations should not be viewed as independent factors in processing non-native speech.

  8. Development of the Taiwanese Mandarin Main Concept Analysis (TM-MCA: Normative and Preliminary Aphasic Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anthony Pak Hin Kong

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Compared to the English literature, there is a great paucity of studies focusing on quantitative analysis of aphasic oral discourse in Chinese, especially for native speakers of Taiwanese-Mandarin residing in Taiwan. Several studies that investigated deficits of aphasic discourse have been conducted in Cantonese Chinese, including the Cantonese Linguistic Communication Measure (CLCM, Kong & Law, 2004, Main Concept Analysis (MCA; Kong, 2009, and Cantonese version of the Quantitative Production Analysis (Law, 2001; Yiu & Worrall, 1996. Clinical or research application of these systems to the Taiwanese population is limited by the differences of phonology, semantics, and grammar between Taiwanese Mandarin and Cantonese. The current study, therefore, aimed to develop a culturally appropriate Taiwan Mandarin Main Concept Analysis (TM-MCA, by translating and adapting the MCA in Cantonese (Kong, 2009, 2011, and then to validate the tool on the basis of normal speakers and people with aphasia in Taiwan. Method Picture stimuli and main concepts for the TM-MCA: Eight certified Taiwanese SLPs participated and listed all main concepts upon presentation of the sequential pictures in Kong (2009. A main concept referred to a statement consisting of only one main verb with two or more pieces of essential information accurately related to the pictures and informative about the content. All main concepts mentioned by six out of eight SLPs were included in a preliminary main concept list. Further validation of the list involved recruiting eight normal speakers to orally describe the same picture sets. Only those scored as Accurate and Complete (AC or Accurate but Incomplete (AI by at least five speakers were put in the final list. Normative and aphasic data collection and analysis: Thirty six native Taiwanese Mandarin speakers and ten individuals with aphasia orally perform the same picture description tasks. Six measures, including Number of Accurate

  9. Trinitrotoluene and mandarin peels selectively affect lignin-modifying enzyme production in white-rot basidiomycetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kachlishvili, Eva; Asatiani, Mikheil; Kobakhidze, Aza; Elisashvili, Vladimir

    2016-01-01

    Five white-rot basidiomycetes (WRB) species have been evaluated for their potential to tolerate and to degrade 0.2 mM 2, 4, 6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) as well as to produce laccase and manganese peroxidase (MnP) in presence of this xenobiotic. The tested fungal strains produced laccase in both glycerol and mandarin peels-containing media, whereas in the glycerol-containing medium only Cerrena unicolor strains and Trametes versicolor BCC 775 secreted MnP. Replacement of glycerol by milled mandarin peels 3- to 45-fold increased laccase activity, promoted C. unicolor strains and T. versicolor MnP secretion and induced this enzyme production by Fomes fomentarius BCC 38 and Funalia trogii BCC 146. Differential response of the WRB strains to the TNT addition was observed. In particular, laccase activity of C. unicolor increased 2- to 3-fold in both media whereas no stimulation of the laccase production was revealed in cultivation of F. fomentarius. TNT practically did not affect the MnP activity. Two strains of C. unicolor followed by T. versicolor producing laccase and MnP almost completely removed 0.2 mM TNT from the synthetic medium. Increase of TNT concentration from 0 to 0.4 mM in the mandarin peels-based medium and from 0 to 0.3 mM in the glycerol-containing medium stimulated C. unicolor BCC 300 laccase production from 92.4 to 240.7 U/ml and from 17.1 to 48.6 U/ml, respectively. This strain has been resistant to the TNT high concentration and has ability to remove 85 % of initial 0.3 mM TNT content during 6 days of the submerged cultivation.

  10. Right word making sense of the words that confuse

    CERN Document Server

    Morrison, Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    'Affect' or 'effect'? 'Right', 'write' or 'rite'? English can certainly be a confusing language, whether you're a native speaker or learning it as a second language. 'The Right Word' is the essential reference to help people master its subtleties and avoid making mistakes. Divided into three sections, it first examines homophones - those tricky words that sound the same but are spelled differently - then looks at words that often confuse before providing a list of commonly misspelled words.

  11. Response of `Nagpur' mandarin, `Mosambi' sweet orange and `Kagzi' acid lime to gamma radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladaniya, M. S.; Singh, Shyam; Wadhawan, A. K.

    2003-07-01

    The effects of irradiation dose and refrigerated storage conditions on 'Nagpur' mandarin ( Citrus reticulata Blanco), 'Mosambi' sweet orange ( Citrus sinensis Osbeck) and 'Kagzi' acid lime ( Citrus aurantifolia Swingle) were investigated. Mature fruits of these three species were treated with 0, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 1.5 kGy radiation. 'Nagpur' mandarin and 'Mosambi' sweet oranges were stored at 6-7°C and 90-95% r.h. for 75 and 90 days, respectively, while 'Kagzi' acid limes were stored at 8±1°C and 90-95% r.h. for 90 days. Physico-chemical parameters, sensory attributes and respiration rate were measured besides losses and disorders. In 'Nagpur' mandarin, radiation dose upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any rind disorder. Radiation treatments did not reduce the extent of decay. Penicillium rot was delayed in fruit treated with 1.5 kGy, while it appeared early in 0 kGy. Irradiation doses were ineffective to control rots due to Botryodiplodia theobromae and Alternaria citri. Doses upto 1.5 kGy did not cause any significant effect on fruit firmness and juice content; however, total soluble solids increased, while titratable acidity and vitamin 'C' content decreased. Texture and flavour scores as recorded after a week, were not affected by irradiation except in 1.5 kGy. In 'Mosambi' sweet orange, radiation treatments caused peel disorder in the form of brown sunken areas after 90 days and reduced fruit firmness, acidity and vitamin C content. The TSS content was higher in treated fruit. Flavour and texture were not affected by the doses of irradiation used. In treated acid limes (mature yellow), weight loss and decay were higher than untreated fruit (0 kGy) although difference was non-significant. Juice, TSS, titratable acidity and vitamin C contents were significantly less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. Texture and flavour scores were also less in treated fruit than in 0 kGy. The stem-end rind breakdown was higher in untreated fruit than treated ones although difference was

  12. Acoustic and perceptual speech characteristics of native Mandarin speakers with Parkinson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Sih-Chiao; Jiao, Yishan; McAuliffe, Megan J; Berisha, Visar; Wu, Ruey-Meei; Levy, Erika S

    2017-03-01

    This study examines acoustic features of speech production in speakers of Mandarin with Parkinson's disease (PD) and relates them to intelligibility outcomes. Data from 11 participants with PD and 7 controls are compared on several acoustic measures. In speakers with PD, the strength of association between these measures and intelligibility is investigated. Speakers with PD exhibited significant differences in fundamental frequency, pitch variation, vowel space, and rate relative to controls. However, in contrast to the English studies, speech rate was consistently slow and most strongly correlated with intelligibility. Thus, acoustic cues that strongly influence intelligibility in PD may vary cross-linguistically.

  13. Dynamic HMM Model with Estimated Dynamic Property in Continuous Mandarin Speech Recognition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENFeili; ZHUJie

    2003-01-01

    A new dynamic HMM (hiddem Markov model) has been introduced in this paper, which describes the relationship between dynamic property and feature of space. The method to estimate the dynamic property is discussed in this paper, which makes the dynamic HMMmuch more practical in real time speech recognition. Ex-periment on large vocabulary continuous Mandarin speech recognition task has shown that the dynamic HMM model can achieve about 10% of error reduction both for tonal and toneless syllable. Estimated dynamic property can achieve nearly same (even better) performance than using extracted dynamic property.

  14. Subcortical neural representation to Mandarin pitch contours in American and Chinese newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, Fuh-Cherng; Lin, Chia-Der; Wang, Tang-Chuan

    2016-06-01

    Voice pitch carries important information for speech understanding. This study examines the neural representation of voice pitch at the subcortical level, as reflected by the scalp-recorded frequency-following responses from ten American and ten Chinese newborns. By utilizing a set of four distinctive Mandarin pitch contours that mimic the English vowel /yi/, the results indicate that the rising and dipping pitch contours produce significantly better tracking accuracy and larger response amplitudes than the falling pitch contour. This finding suggests a hierarchy of potential stimuli when testing neonates who are born in a tonal or non-tonal linguistic environment.

  15. ULTRASTRUCTURAL ASPECTS OF PROGRAMMED CELL DEATH IN THE EXOCARP OIL GLANDS OF MANDARIN (CITRUS DELICIOSA TEN.)

    OpenAIRE

    Artemios Michael BOSABALIDIS

    2014-01-01

    In the exocarp of mandarin fruit (Citrus deliciosa Ten.), numerous globular/ovoid oil glands occur. In the centre of each gland, an essential oil-accumulating cavity is formed by a process of cell lysis. This process is induced by PCD which becomes ultrastructurally evident by the presence of a large number of fragmented ER-elements with a dark content. They appear only at the stage of PCD initiation and they disappear afterwards. ER-elements are scattered over the entire cytoplasmic area and...

  16. Performance of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin trees on different rootstocks in Northwestern Parana State

    OpenAIRE

    Zuleide Hissano Tazima; Carmen Silvia Vieira Janeiro Neves; Inês Fumiko Ubukata Yada; Rui Pereira Leite Júnior

    2014-01-01

    In the State of Paraná, citrus production is based mainly on Rangpur lime rootstock, which has good results with the established cultivars. However, research is needed into rootstocks for use with cultivars that remain to be commercially exploited. The objective of this study was to evaluate the vegetative development and yield of ‘Okitsu’ satsuma mandarin plants (Citrus unshiu Marc.), as well as fruit quality, budded on nine rootstocks in the Northwest State of Paraná, Brazil. The orchard wa...

  17. The Effects of Learning from Word Pairs on Word Knowledge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsudin Sarimah

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vocabulary plays an essential role in language learning. The lack of vocabulary might cause incompetency to language users. It is therefore very important for language instructors to find suitable ways of teaching vocabulary since learning vocabulary consists of learning various aspects of word knowledge. These aspects include orthography, meaning and form, collocation, association and grammatical functions. There are various methods that could be used in gaining aspects of word knowledge. The purpose of this study is to investigate to what extent are aspects of word knowledge gained by learning from word pairs. 120 secondary school students were divided into four groups of thirty students. The first group was given a set of Malay Translation, the second, English Translation, the third, Malay Definition and the fourth, English Definition word pair to learn followed by word knowledge tests. The results show that all word pairs promote large gains in learning aspects of word knowledge. The scores between the groups were also compared and it was found that the mean score of the Malay Definition word pair group is the highest, followed by the Malay Translation word pair group, the English Translation word pair group, and English Definition word pair group.

  18. Infants Track Word Forms in Early Word-Object Associations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zamuner, Tania S.; Fais, Laurel; Werker, Janet F.

    2014-01-01

    A central component of language development is word learning. One characterization of this process is that language learners discover objects and then look for word forms to associate with these objects (Mcnamara, 1984; Smith, 2000). Another possibility is that word forms themselves are also important, such that once learned, hearing a familiar…

  19. Pathogenicity of an H5N1 highly pathogenic avian influenza virus isolated in the 2010-2011 winter in Japan to mandarin ducks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soda, Kosuke; Usui, Tatsufumi; Uno, Yukiko; Yoneda, Kumiko; Yamaguchi, Tsuyoshi; Ito, Toshihiro

    2013-01-01

    Widespread outbreaks of highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) caused by H5N1 viruses occurred in wild birds in Japan from 2010-2011. Forty out of 63 deceased wild birds belonged to the order Anseriformes, and mandarin duck was one of the dominant species. To estimate the risk of mandarin ducks as a source of virus infection in the environment, we examined the pathogenicity of a causal H5N1 HPAI virus to mandarin ducks. About half of the mandarin ducks died by inoculation with 10(7.0)TCID50 of A/mandarin duck/Miyazaki/22M807-1/2011 (H5N1). Viruses were mainly recovered from the trachea of the ducks sacrificed at three days post inoculation (d.p.i.). Viruses were recovered from the laryngopharyngeal swabs of the observation group until 5 d.p.i. In ducks that died at the late phase of infection, viruses were detected in the systemic organs, such as lung, kidney and colon. Together, these results showed that the H5N1 HPAI viruses, which belonged to clade 2.3.2.1 and are mainly circulating in East Asia, were lethal to mandarin ducks, indicating that mandarin ducks have the potential to disseminate the virus to other bird species. Therefore, wild birds should be kept out of poultry farms to prevent HPAI outbreaks in the future.

  20. Word Origins: Building Communication Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes examining word origins as a teaching strategy for helping middle school students speak the language of mathematics as well as promote students' general vocabulary development. Includes roots, meanings, related words, and notes for middle school mathematics vocabulary. (KHR)

  1. Word Origins: Building Communication Connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubenstein, Rheta N.

    2000-01-01

    Proposes examining word origins as a teaching strategy for helping middle school students speak the language of mathematics as well as promote students' general vocabulary development. Includes roots, meanings, related words, and notes for middle school mathematics vocabulary. (KHR)

  2. Recipes: beyond the words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wharton, Tim

    2010-01-01

    This paper explores recipes and food writing from the perspective of linguistics—or, more specifically, pragmatics. It looks briefly at the discourse of recipes, at how they work and what kinds of linguistic structures are typically involved. The main theme of the paper, however, is that the best food writing is as much about the images and feelings the writer wants to conjure in the mind of the reader as it is about the words it contains, or the way that discourse is set out. In order to shed any real light on recipe writing, then, we need to explain how they manage to convey moods, impressions, emotions, and feelings. We need to go beyond the words. The paper features examples from, among others, the work of Elizabeth David and Edouard de Pomaine, serving to illustrate the theoretical points made.

  3. Sonority and early words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Boeg Thomsen, Ditte; Lambertsen, Claus

    2015-01-01

    acquisition therefore presents us with the opportunity to examine how children respond to the task of word learning when the input language offers less clear cues to syllabic structure than usually seen. To investigate the sound structure in Danish children’s lexical development, we need a model of syllable...... structure; and as the theoretical basis for our analyses related to sonority we present Basbøll’s Sonority Syllable Model for phonotactics, which is based upon a non-circular version of a sonority hierarchy. We investigate spontaneous child language output in a longitudinal corpus with two children aged 9......Syllables play an important role in children’s early language acquisition, and children appear to rely on clear syllabic structures as a key to word acquisition (Vihman 1996; Oller 2000). However, not all languages present children with equally clear cues to syllabic structure, and since...

  4. Functional connectivity between brain regions involved in learning words of a new language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veroude, Kim; Norris, David G; Shumskaya, Elena; Gullberg, Marianne; Indefrey, Peter

    2010-04-01

    Previous studies have identified several brain regions that appear to be involved in the acquisition of novel word forms. Standard word-by-word presentation is often used although exposure to a new language normally occurs in a natural, real world situation. In the current experiment we investigated naturalistic language exposure and applied a model-free analysis for hemodynamic-response data. Functional connectivity, temporal correlations between hemodynamic activity of different areas, was assessed during rest before and after presentation of a movie of a weather report in Mandarin Chinese to Dutch participants. We hypothesized that learning of novel words might be associated with stronger functional connectivity of regions that are involved in phonological processing. Participants were divided into two groups, learners and non-learners, based on the scores on a post hoc word recognition task. The learners were able to recognize Chinese target words from the weather report, while the non-learners were not. In the first resting state period, before presentation of the movie, stronger functional connectivity was observed for the learners compared to the non-learners between the left supplementary motor area and the left precentral gyrus as well as the left insula and the left rolandic operculum, regions that are important for phonological rehearsal. After exposure to the weather report, functional connectivity between the left and right supramarginal gyrus was stronger for learners than for non-learners. This is consistent with a role of the left supramarginal gyrus in the storage of phonological forms. These results suggest both pre-existing and learning-induced differences between the two groups.

  5. Rozanov and the Word

    OpenAIRE

    Dimbleby, L. L.

    1996-01-01

    The thesis is an attempt to relate aspects of Rozanov's writing to the Russian tradition of the word, as exemplified in the work of writers and thinkers, contemporary and near-contemporary to Rozanov. The first part establishes key features of this tradition through the work of writers such as Ern, Losev, Mandel'shtam and Averintsev. The relevance of Bakhtin for a reading of Rozanov, and of Rozanov for reading Bakhtin, is argued through an extended comparison of the tw...

  6. Hypnosis: medicine's dirty word.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, William N

    2006-10-01

    This paper attempts to understand the relationship between the clinical efficacy of hypnosis and its negative perception among many medical educators, practitioners and the general public. By exploring the history of hypnosis, an attempt was made to point out several events that may have led to both the past and current misperception of hypnosis which the author believes have caused hypnosis to become "medicine's dirty word".

  7. Plagiarism: Words and ideas

    OpenAIRE

    Bouville, Mathieu

    2008-01-01

    Plagiarism is a crime against academy. It deceives readers, hurts plagiarized authors, and gets the plagiarist undeserved benefits. However, even though these arguments do show that copying other people's intellectual contribution is wrong, they do not apply to the copying of words. Copying a few sentences that contain no original idea (e.g. in the introduction) is of marginal importance compared to stealing the ideas of others. The two must be clearly distinguished, and the 'plagiarism' labe...

  8. The Importance of Words

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Denise; Noblet

    2002-01-01

    Living in China without knowing its language, I found myself in a strange si-lence. Yet out of this silence came a beatiful lesson. I learned that without words to highlight our differences, the language of emo-tion reveals us to be the same. We all love, hope, fear and dream. We long for ac-ceptance. We thrive in warm families. We all laugh and cry.

  9. WordPress multisite administration

    CERN Document Server

    Longren, Tyler

    2013-01-01

    This is a simple, concise guide with a step-by-step approach, packed with screenshots and examples to set up and manage a network blog using WordPress.WordPress Multisite Administration is ideal for anyone wanting to familiarize themselves with WordPress Multisite. You'll need to know the basics about WordPress, and having at least a broad understanding of HTML, CSS, and PHP will help, but isn't required.

  10. Transformation of Words into Vocabulary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parveen, H. Naseema; Rajan, Premalatha

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the significance of a word and the changes it undergoes in its form when it is placed in the hierarchy of grammatical constituents thereby forming a new word termed as vocabulary. This change or transformation is the result of affixations. Transformation becomes essential as the words learnt cannot be used as such in a…

  11. WORD OF THE MONTH: Etymology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    Etymology is the study of the history and origin of words and the way they' ve changed throughout history. The word etymology itself comes from two Greek words: "etumon" (which means "true sense" ), and "logia" (which means "study" ). The origin of words

  12. Word Recognition in Auditory Cortex

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeWitt, Iain D. J.

    2013-01-01

    Although spoken word recognition is more fundamental to human communication than text recognition, knowledge of word-processing in auditory cortex is comparatively impoverished. This dissertation synthesizes current models of auditory cortex, models of cortical pattern recognition, models of single-word reading, results in phonetics and results in…

  13. Skipped words and fixated words are processed differently during reading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskenazi, Michael A; Folk, Jocelyn R

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether words are processed differently when they are fixated during silent reading than when they are skipped. According to a serial processing model of eye movement control (e.g., EZ Reader) skipped words are fully processed (Reichle, Rayner, Pollatsek, Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 26(04):445-476, 2003), whereas in a parallel processing model (e.g., SWIFT) skipped words do not need to be fully processed (Engbert, Nuthmann, Richter, Kliegl, Psychological Review, 112(4):777-813, 2005). Participants read 34 sentences with target words embedded in them while their eye movements were recorded. All target words were three-letter, low-frequency, and unpredictable nouns. After the reading session, participants completed a repetition priming lexical decision task with the target words from the reading session included as the repetition prime targets, with presentation of those same words during the reading task acting as the prime. When participants skipped a word during the reading session, their reaction times on the lexical decision task were significantly longer (M = 656.42 ms) than when they fixated the word (M = 614.43 ms). This result provides evidence that skipped words are sometimes not processed to the same degree as fixated words during reading.

  14. Statistical Laws Governing Fluctuations in Word Use from Word Birth to Word Death

    CERN Document Server

    Petersen, Alexander M; Havlin, Shlomo; Stanley, H Eugene

    2011-01-01

    How often a given word is used, relative to other words, can convey information about the word's linguistic utility. Using Google word data for 3 languages over the 209-year period 1800-2008, we found by analyzing word use an anomalous recent change in the birth and death rates of words, which indicates a shift towards increased levels of competition between words as a result of new standardization technology. We demonstrate unexpected analogies between the growth dynamics of word use and the growth dynamics of economic institutions. Our results support the intriguing concept that a language's lexicon is a generic arena for competition which evolves according to selection laws that are related to social, technological, and political trends. Specifically, the aggregate properties of language show pronounced differences during periods of world conflict, e.g. World War II.

  15. Exceeding Boundaries: Chinese Children's Playful Use of Languages in Their Literacy Practices in a Mandarin-English Bilingual Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Guo, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Chinese children of immigrant families are often perceived as good at memorization and rote learning or as polite, obedient, and passive students lacking creativity and criticality. Guided by Multiple Literacies Theory and translanguaging, this study explores how Chinese children in a Mandarin-English bilingual program skillfully navigate…

  16. Social Competence and Language Skills in Mandarin-English Bilingual Preschoolers: The Moderation Effect of Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Wyver, Shirley; Xu Rattanasone, Nan; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to examine whether language skills and emotion regulation are associated with social competence and whether the relationship between English skills and social competence is moderated by emotion regulation in Mandarin-English bilingual preschoolers. The language skills of 96 children ages…

  17. L2 Acquisition of Prosodic Properties of Speech Rhythm: Evidence from L1 Mandarin and German Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aike; Post, Brechtje

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) learners of typologically different first languages (L1s) at different levels of proficiency. An empirical investigation of durational variation in L2 English productions by L1 Mandarin learners and L1 German learners compared to native control values in English and the…

  18. Fatty acid effect on hydroxypropyl methylcellulose-beeswax edible film properties and postharvest quality of coated 'Ortanique' mandarins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro-Tarazaga, María Ll; Del Río, Miguel A; Krochta, John M; Pérez-Gago, Maria B

    2008-11-26

    The objective of this work was to investigate the effect of fatty acid (FA) type and content on mechanical properties, water vapor permeability and oxygen permeability of hydroxypropyl methycellulose (HPMC)-beeswax (BW) stand-alone edible films. The effect of these films formed as coatings on the postharvest quality of 'Ortanique' mandarins was also studied. Selected FAs were stearic acid (SA), palmitic acid (PA), and oleic acid (OA), using BW/FA ratios of 1:0.5 and 1:0.2 (w/w). HPMCBW coatings reduced weight and firmness loss of 'Ortanique' mandarins, without compromising flavor quality compared to uncoated mandarins. Coatings containing OA provided the best weight loss control at both concentrations tested; however, when the BW/OA ratio was 1:0.5, the coatings increased fruit internal CO2, ethanol, and acetaldehyde contents of 'Ortanique' mandarins, therefore reducing flavor compared to the rest of the coatings studied. Although barrier and mechanical properties might be used to understand coating performance, differences observed between film oxygen permeability and coating permeability indicate that permeance should be measured on the coated fruit.

  19. Narrative Coherence of Mandarin-Speaking Children with High-Functioning Autism Spectrum Disorder: An Investigation into Causal Relations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sah, Wen-hui; Torng, Pao-chuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous research has shown that individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) had difficulty integrating narrative information coherently. The majority of these studies focused on people narrating in English; however, little is known about the narrative abilities of Mandarin-speaking individuals with ASD. This study investigates the ability of…

  20. Social Competence and Language Skills in Mandarin-English Bilingual Preschoolers: The Moderation Effect of Emotion Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Yonggang; Wyver, Shirley; Xu Rattanasone, Nan; Demuth, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Research Findings: The main aim of this study was to examine whether language skills and emotion regulation are associated with social competence and whether the relationship between English skills and social competence is moderated by emotion regulation in Mandarin-English bilingual preschoolers. The language skills of 96 children ages…

  1. L2 Acquisition of Prosodic Properties of Speech Rhythm: Evidence from L1 Mandarin and German Learners of English

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Aike; Post, Brechtje

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the development of speech rhythm in second language (L2) learners of typologically different first languages (L1s) at different levels of proficiency. An empirical investigation of durational variation in L2 English productions by L1 Mandarin learners and L1 German learners compared to native control values in English and the…

  2. The development of phonological representations in Mandarin-speaking children: Evidence from a longitudinal study of phonological awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Li-Li; Wells, Bill; Stackhouse, Joy; Szczerbinski, Marcin

    2015-04-01

    Two competing approaches to the analysis of the phonological structure of Mandarin syllables have been put forward. The first and more traditional approach is that a syllable can be segmented into initial consonant, medial glide, nucleus plus coda and tone. The second approach does not distinguish the non-compulsory medial glide as an independent element. To compare and evaluate these two different approaches, the development of phoneme-level awareness was investigated in 67 Mandarin-speaking children in Year 1 of school (mean age: 6;9) and Year 5 (mean age: 10;1). Results showed that at school entry some children were sensitive to glides and to a lesser extent to codas; their number increased by Year 5. This suggests that spoken language experience is enough for some children to acquire the representation of glides and codas; this is consistent with the traditional model of the Mandarin syllable, with both glides and codas as independent elements. However, the children's task performance was generally rather poor, even in Year 5, suggesting that development of phonemic sensitivity in Mandarin speaking children is not substantially improved by increased literacy experience.

  3. No effect of pH on in-vitro digestion of carotenoids from sweet potatoes and mandarin oranges [abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beta-carotene (BC) and beta-cryptoxanthin (CX) can form vitamin A physiologically. Recent observational studies suggest that CX has greater bioavailablity than BC from most diets. This means that CX-rich foods such as mandarin oranges might be better than expected sources of vitamin A. We hypothe...

  4. When transparency doesn't mean ease: learning the meaning of resultative verb compounds in Mandarin Chinese.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jidong

    2016-04-14

    Children have to figure out the lexicalization of meaning components in learning verb semantics (e.g. Behrens, 1998; Gentner, 1982; Tomasello & Brooks, 1998). The meaning of an English state-change verb (e.g. break) is divided into two portions (i.e. cause and result), respectively encoded with a separate verb in a Mandarin resultative verb compound (RVC). The majority of Mandarin monomorphemic verbs do not specify any realization of a state change (like hunt), or only imply it (like wash) (Talmy, 2000). This study examines the acquisition of the constructional meaning of RVCs and the semantic division of labor between the component verbs. Four groups of Mandarin-learning children (aged 2;6, 3;6, 4;6, and 6;1) participated in an elicitation experiment. The results reveal that, although transparency in form facilitates their learning of the state-change meanings of RVCs, Mandarin children have difficulties in unpacking the meanings of individual verbs, revealing language-specific learning issues.

  5. Proteomic and metabolomic analyses provide insight into production of volatile and non-volatile flavor components in mandarin hybrid fruit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although many of the volatile constituents of flavor and aroma in citrus have been identified, the molecular mechanism and regulation of volatile production is not well understood. Our aim was to understand mechanisms of flavor volatile production and regulation in mandarin fruit. To this end fruits...

  6. Mandarin Chinese Immersion Program for Preschool Children in an Urban Private School in California: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Yuan

    2013-01-01

    This study enlisted language immersion practitioners in highlighting and exploring the issues and challenges that accompany language immersion education. Comprehensive focused personal interviews of preschool Mandarin Chinese language immersion educators in a private school provided the basis of the study. The research literature reviewed…

  7. English as a Third Language in Rural China: Lessons from the Zaidang Kam-Mandarin Bilingual Education Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finifrock, Jacob E.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores the findings of a study that compared 2 groups of 5th-grade first-language Kam-Dong minority students as they learned English as a third language (L3) in the remote mountain village of Zaidang, in Rongjiang county, Guizhou Province, P.R. China. One group had previously been taught using Mandarin only (MO), whereas the other…

  8. Language and rigour in qualitative research: problems and principles in analyzing data collected in Mandarin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Helen J; Chen, Jing; Liu, Xiaoyun

    2008-07-10

    In collaborative qualitative research in Asia, data are usually collected in the national language, and this poses challenges for analysis. Translation of transcripts to a language common to the whole research team is time consuming and expensive; meaning can easily be lost in translation; and validity of the data may be compromised in this process. We draw on several published examples from public health research conducted in mainland China, to highlight how language can influence rigour in the qualitative research process; for each problem we suggest potential solutions based on the methods used in one of our research projects in China. Problems we have encountered include obtaining sufficient depth and detail in qualitative data; deciding on language for data collection; managing data collected in Mandarin; and the influence of language on interpreting meaning. We have suggested methods for overcoming problems associated with collecting, analysing, and interpreting qualitative data in a local language, that we think help maintain analytical openness in collaborative qualitative research. We developed these methods specifically in research conducted in Mandarin in mainland China; but they need further testing in other countries with data collected in other languages. Examples from other researchers are needed.

  9. Temporal patterns of native Mandarin Chinese speakers' productions of English stop-vowel syllable

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Behne, Dawn M.

    2004-05-01

    Second language (L2) production can be a kind of interlanguage, a relatively stable system bearing the nature of both the native language (L1) and L2. Within such a system sound components of a syllable may bear their own interlanguage characteristics and yet interact with the other component sounds. The present study investigates temporal patterns of L1-L2 interaction at the syllable level. Audio recordings were made of English stop-vowel syllables produced by native speakers of Mandarin who were fluent in English (ChE). Native English productions (AmE) of these syllables and native productions of Mandarin (ChM) stop-vowel syllables were acquired as native norms. Temporal measures included stop closure duration, voice-onset time (VOT), vowel duration, and syllable duration. Results show that the internal timing components of ChE often deviate from AmE, with the closure duration, VOT, and vowel duration being intermediate to AmE and ChM. However, at the syllable level, ChE productions tend to follow the overall patterns of AmE. Temporal deviations were often compensated by temporal compensation of other components in the syllable, maintaining a balanced consonant/vowel distribution. These findings have implications for a broader understanding of L2 productions.

  10. Proteomic study of 'Moncada' mandarin buds from on- versus off-crop trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Fambuena, Natalia; Mesejo, Carlos; Reig, Carmina; Agustí, Manuel; Tárraga, Susana; Lisón, Purificación; Iglesias, Domingo J; Primo-Millo, Eduardo; González-Mas, M Carmen

    2013-12-01

    A proteomic analysis of buds from mandarin trees with contrasting fruit load (on- and off-crop trees) was carried out during the onset of low-temperature induction. The aim of the study was to find out more about the molecular mechanism relating to alternate bearing in Citrus and its relationship with flowering. The 'Moncada' variety (Clementine 'Oroval'x'Kara' mandarin), displaying remarkable behaviour in alternate production, was used in this study. From 2D DIGE gel, 192 spots were isolated: 97 showed increased expression in the off-crop buds as compared to the on-crop buds, while 95 exhibited enhanced expression in the on-crop buds versus the off-crop buds. These spots were identified by MALDI-MS or LC-MS-MS. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the off-crop buds were the proteins involved in carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and the proteins expressed in response to stimuli such as reactive oxygen species. The largest groups of proteins up-expressed in the on-crop buds were related to primary metabolism, oxidative stress and defence responses. Depending on their function, some of these proteins can stimulate the flowering, such as fructose-bisphosphate aldolase or leucine-rich repeat transmembrane protein kinase, while others can inhibit it, such as cytochrome c oxidase subunit II. Twenty-two other proteins with unknown functions were up-expressed in the on- or off-crop buds.

  11. The Relative Weight of Temporal Envelope Cues in Different Frequency Regions for Mandarin Sentence Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yang; Sun, Yuanyuan; Feng, Yanmei; Zhang, Yujun; Yin, Shankai

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic temporal envelope (E) cues containing speech information are distributed across the frequency spectrum. To investigate the relative weight of E cues in different frequency regions for Mandarin sentence recognition, E information was extracted from 30 contiguous bands across the range of 80-7,562 Hz using Hilbert decomposition and then allocated to five frequency regions. Recognition scores were obtained with acoustic E cues from 1 or 2 random regions from 40 normal-hearing listeners. While the recognition scores ranged from 8.2% to 16.3% when E information from only one region was available, the scores ranged from 57.9% to 87.7% when E information from two frequency regions was presented, suggesting a synergistic effect among the temporal E cues in different frequency regions. Next, the relative contributions of the E information from the five frequency regions to sentence perception were computed using a least-squares approach. The results demonstrated that, for Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, the temporal E cues of Frequency Region 1 (80-502 Hz) and Region 3 (1,022-1,913 Hz) contributed more to the intelligence of sentence recognition than other regions, particularly the region of 80-502 Hz, which contained fundamental frequency (F0) information.

  12. The Relative Weight of Temporal Envelope Cues in Different Frequency Regions for Mandarin Sentence Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Guo

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Acoustic temporal envelope (E cues containing speech information are distributed across the frequency spectrum. To investigate the relative weight of E cues in different frequency regions for Mandarin sentence recognition, E information was extracted from 30 contiguous bands across the range of 80–7,562 Hz using Hilbert decomposition and then allocated to five frequency regions. Recognition scores were obtained with acoustic E cues from 1 or 2 random regions from 40 normal-hearing listeners. While the recognition scores ranged from 8.2% to 16.3% when E information from only one region was available, the scores ranged from 57.9% to 87.7% when E information from two frequency regions was presented, suggesting a synergistic effect among the temporal E cues in different frequency regions. Next, the relative contributions of the E information from the five frequency regions to sentence perception were computed using a least-squares approach. The results demonstrated that, for Mandarin Chinese, a tonal language, the temporal E cues of Frequency Region 1 (80–502 Hz and Region 3 (1,022–1,913 Hz contributed more to the intelligence of sentence recognition than other regions, particularly the region of 80–502 Hz, which contained fundamental frequency (F0 information.

  13. Emotional attachment of pre-weaning pups to mothers and fathers in mandarin voles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhixiong; Zhang, Shuwei; Yu, Chengjun; Li, Yani; Jia, Rui; Tai, Fadao

    2017-02-01

    Studies into the effects of maternal and paternal deprivation on the brain and behavior are traditionally done on animals from postnatal day 0 to 14 when parents display high levels of licking and grooming. Deprivation experiments that reveal attachment conducted during this period are confounded because physiological and emotional deprivation occur simultaneously. Whether rodent pups of greater physiological independence from postnatal 14 to 21days show emotional attachment towards mothers and fathers remains unclear. Here we establish a new animal model for attachment experiments in animals 14-21days old using monogamous mandarin voles (Microtus mandarinus). Levels of emotional attachment of pups from postnatal 14 to 21days were measured using preference tests. Pups spent more time in contact with their mothers, more time approaching, sniffing, climbing and walking near their mothers, and emitted more calls on their mother's side compared to an unknown female. They also showed a preference for their fathers over an unknown male. While pups displayed attachment to both their mothers and fathers, levels directed towards mothers were higher in tests when mothers and fathers were presented simultaneously. These results indicate that mandarin voles can be used as an animal model to investigate the effects of early emotional attachment disruption on the adult brain and behavior.

  14. Mobile Phone-Based Field Monitoring for Satsuma Mandarin and Its Application to Watering Advice System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamiya, Toshiyuki; Numano, Nagisa; Yagyu, Hiroyuki; Shimazu, Hideo

    This paper describes a mobile phone-based data logging system for monitoring the growing status of Satsuma mandarin, a type of citrus fruit, in the field. The system can provide various feedback to the farm producers with collected data, such as visualization of related data as a timeline chart or advice on the necessity of watering crops. It is important to collect information on environment conditions, plant status and product quality, to analyze it and to provide it as feedback to the farm producers to aid their operations. This paper proposes a novel framework of field monitoring and feedback for open-field farming. For field monitoring, it combines a low-cost plant status monitoring method using a simple apparatus and a Field Server for environment condition monitoring. Each field worker has a simple apparatus to measure fruit firmness and records data with a mobile phone. The logged data are stored in the database of the system on the server. The system analyzes stored data for each field and is able to show the necessity of watering to the user in five levels. The system is also able to show various stored data in timeline chart form. The user and coach can compare or analyze these data via a web interface. A test site was built at a Satsuma mandarin field at Kumano in Mie Prefecture, Japan using the framework, and farm workers monitor in the area used and evaluated the system.

  15. Lexicon structure and the disambiguation of novel words: evidence from bilingual infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers-Heinlein, Krista; Werker, Janet F

    2013-09-01

    In ambiguous word learning situations, infants can use systematic strategies to determine the referent of a novel word. One such heuristic is disambiguation. By age 16-18months, monolinguals infer that a novel noun refers to a novel object rather than a familiar one (Halberda, 2003), while at the same age bilinguals and trilinguals do not reliably show disambiguation (Byers-Heinlein & Werker, 2009; Houston-Price, Caloghiris, & Raviglione, 2010). It has been hypothesized that these results reflect a unique aspect of the bilingual lexicon: bilinguals often know many translation equivalents, cross-language synonyms such as English dog and Mandarin gǒu. We studied the role of vocabulary knowledge in the development of disambiguation by relating 17-18month-old English-Chinese bilingual infants' performance on a disambiguation task to the percentage of translation equivalents in their comprehension vocabularies. Those bilingual infants who understood translation equivalents for more than half the words in their vocabularies did not show disambiguation, while infants who knew a smaller proportion of translation equivalents showed disambiguation just as same-aged monolinguals do. These results demonstrate that the structure of the developing lexicon plays a key role in infants' use of disambiguation.

  16. Word Learning: An ERP Investigation of Word Experience Effects on Recognition and Word Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balass, Michal; Nelson, Jessica R.; Perfetti, Charles A.

    2010-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., "gloaming") in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonology); (2) orthography-to-phonology (no…

  17. Word learning: An ERP investigation of word experience effects on recognition and word processing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Balass, M.; Perfetti, C.A.; Nelson, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Adults of varying reading comprehension skill learned a set of previously unknown rare English words (e.g., gloaming) in three different learning conditions in which the type of word knowledge was manipulated. The words were presented in one of three conditions: (1) orthography-to-meaning (no phonol

  18. English words structure, history, usage

    CERN Document Server

    Katamba, Francis

    2015-01-01

    How do we find the right word for the job? Where does that word come from? Why do we spell it like that? And how do we know what it means? Words are all around us - we use them every day to communicate our joys, fears, hopes, opinions, wishes and demands - but we don't often think about them too deeply. In this highly accessible introduction to English words, the reader will discover what the study of words can tell them about the extraordinary richness and complexity of our daily vocabulary and about the nature of language in general. Assuming no prior knowledge of linguistics, the book covers a wide range of topics, including the structure of words, the meaning of words, how their spelling relates to pronunciation, how new words are manufactured or imported from other languages, and how the meaning of words changes with the passage of time. It also investigates how the mind deals with words by highlighting the amazing intellectual feat performed routinely when the right word is retrieved from the mental dic...

  19. WordPress for dummies

    CERN Document Server

    Sabin-Wilson, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    The bestselling WordPress guide, fully updated to cover the 2013 enhancements WordPress has millions of users, and this popular guide has sold more than 105,000 copies in its previous editions. With the newest releases of WordPress, author and WordPress expert Lisa Sabin-Wilson has completely updated the book to help you use and understand all the latest features. You'll learn about both the hosted WordPress.com version and the more flexible WordPress.org, which requires third-party hosting. Whether you're switching to WordPress from another blogging platform or just beginning to blog, you'll

  20. Chinese Affixes and Word Formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fu Ruomei

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Chinese language is one of the typical isolated languages. It lacks morphological variation; part of speech has no morphological signs; the additional component of word formation is less; and the roots never change their forms. The major method of Chinese word formation is the combination of roots according to certain grammatical relations. Although the affix word formation is not part of mainstream Chinese word formation, affix-formation is still an integral part of the Chinese word-formation. Article used literature review, summarized the types and meanings of Chinese affixes. And meanwhile, article analyzed word formation function of Chinese Affixes and quasi-affixes. The Chinese quasi-affixes have stronger capabilities in forming new words, but development direction of Chinese quasi-affixes has to stand the test of time.