WorldWideScience

Sample records for monostatic pulsed coherent

  1. A RD-ESPRIT algorithm for coherent DOA estimation in monostatic MIMO radar using a single pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Zhang, Xiaofei

    2014-08-01

    This paper discusses the problem of coherent direction of arrival (DOA) estimation in a monostatic multi-input multi-output (MIMO) radar using a single pulse, and proposes a reduced dimension (RD)-estimation of signal parameters via rotational invariance techniques (ESPRIT) algorithm. We reconstruct the received data and then utilise it to construct a set of Toeplitz matrices. After that, we use RD-ESPRIT to obtain the DOAs of the sources. The proposed algorithm is effective for coherent angle estimation based on a single pulse, and it has much better angle estimation performance than the forward backward spatial smoothing (FBSS)-ESPRIT algorithm and the ESPRIT-like of Li, as well as very close angle estimation performance to the ESPRIT-like of Han. For complexity comparison, our algorithm has very close complexity to the FBSS-ESPRIT algorithm, and lower complexity than the ESPRIT-like of Han and the ESPRIT-like of Li. Simulation results present the effectiveness and improvement of our approach.

  2. Analytic model utilizing the complex ABCD method for range dependency of a monostatic coherent lidar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Anders Sig; Pedersen, Anders Tegtmeier; Hanson, Steen Grüner;

    2014-01-01

    In this work, we present an analytic model for analyzing the range and frequency dependency of a monostatic coherent lidar measuring velocities of a diffuse target. The model of the signal power spectrum includes both the contribution from the optical system as well as the contribution from...... the time dependencies of the optical field. A specific coherent Doppler wind lidar system measuring wind velocity in the atmosphere is considered, in which a Gaussian field is transmitted through a simple telescope consisting of a lens and an aperture. The effects of the aperture size, the beam waist...

  3. Generation of picosecond pulsed coherent state superpositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dong, Ruifang; Tipsmark, Anders; Laghaout, Amine

    2014-01-01

    We present the generation of approximated coherent state superpositions-referred to as Schrodinger cat states-by the process of subtracting single photons from picosecond pulsed squeezed states of light. The squeezed vacuum states are produced by spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC...

  4. Coherence control of pulse trains by spectral phase modulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Chaoliang; Koivurova, Matias; Turunen, Jari; Setälä, Tero; Friberg, Ari T.

    2017-09-01

    We propose a technique to control the spectral and temporal coherence properties of pulsed beams of light via time-dependent manipulation of the spectral phase. Modulation schemes for the generation of partially coherent pulse trains from a train of fully coherent pulses are presented. The feasibility of experimental realization of the method is confirmed by numerical estimates.

  5. Coherent optical pulse sequencer for quantum applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseini, Mahdi; Sparkes, Ben M; Hétet, Gabriel; Longdell, Jevon J; Lam, Ping Koy; Buchler, Ben C

    2009-09-10

    The bandwidth and versatility of optical devices have revolutionized information technology systems and communication networks. Precise and arbitrary control of an optical field that preserves optical coherence is an important requisite for many proposed photonic technologies. For quantum information applications, a device that allows storage and on-demand retrieval of arbitrary quantum states of light would form an ideal quantum optical memory. Recently, significant progress has been made in implementing atomic quantum memories using electromagnetically induced transparency, photon echo spectroscopy, off-resonance Raman spectroscopy and other atom-light interaction processes. Single-photon and bright-optical-field storage with quantum states have both been successfully demonstrated. Here we present a coherent optical memory based on photon echoes induced through controlled reversible inhomogeneous broadening. Our scheme allows storage of multiple pulses of light within a chosen frequency bandwidth, and stored pulses can be recalled in arbitrary order with any chosen delay between each recalled pulse. Furthermore, pulses can be time-compressed, time-stretched or split into multiple smaller pulses and recalled in several pieces at chosen times. Although our experimental results are so far limited to classical light pulses, our technique should enable the construction of an optical random-access memory for time-bin quantum information, and have potential applications in quantum information processing.

  6. Attosecond pulse characterization with coherent Rydberg wavepackets

    CERN Document Server

    Pabst, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new technique to fully characterize the temporal structure of extreme ultraviolet pulses by ionizing a bound coherent electronic wavepacket. The populated energy levels make it possible to interfere different spectral components leading to quantum beats in the photoelectron spectrum as a function of the delay between ionization and initiation of the wavepacket. The influence of the dipole phase, which is the main obstacle for state-of-the-art pulse characterization schemes, can be eliminated by angle integration of the photoelectron spectrum. We show that particularly atomic Rydberg wavepackets are ideal and that wavepackets involving multiple electronic states provide redundant information which can be used to cross-check the consistency of the phase reconstruction.

  7. Coherent excitation with short electron pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guertler, Andreas; Robicheaux, Francis; Noordam, Bart

    2000-06-01

    [1pt] The probability for a transition within an atom to be driven by a collision with a long pulse of electrons is proportional to the electron flux with the proportionality factor being the cross section for this transition. Recently it was shown [1] that for electron pulses shorter than the orbit time of the electron in the atom, a contribution of coherent scattering plays a role, which is proportional to the differential cross section in forward direction and the square of the electron flux. To investigate this effect, we are developing a picosecond electron gun [2]. Collision experiments will be done with Rydberg states in lithium around n=40 with Kepler orbit times in the order of 10 ps. For picosecond electron pulses, a quadratic dependance of the transition probability on the electron flux is expected in contrast to the linear dependance expected for nanosecond electron pulses. [1pt] References [1pt] [1] F. Robicheaux and L. D. Noordam, submitted to Phys. Rev. Lett. [1pt] [2] F. Robicheaux, G. M. Lankhuijzen, and L. D. Noordam, JOSA B 15, 1 (1998)

  8. Synchronization and coherent combining of two pulsed fiber lasers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    We demonstrate a scalable architecture for coherent combining of pulsed fiber lasers.A new method for generating synchronous pulsed fiber lasers by direct phase modulation is proposed and investigated.It is shown that phase modulated mutually coupled laser array can be a steady synchronous pulsed fiber laser source.The synchronous pulsed fiber lasers are coherently combined with an invariable phase difference of π in adjacent lasers.Neither active phase control nor polarization control is taken in our experiment.

  9. Temporal coherence characterization of supercontinuum pulse trains using Michelson's interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutta, Rahul; Turunen, Jari; Genty, Goëry; Friberg, Ari T

    2016-04-20

    Temporal coherence properties of supercontinuum pulse trains generated in nonlinear fibers are analyzed within the framework of the second-order coherence theory of nonstationary light. Time-resolved Michelson's interference patterns are simulated, from which the full two-time mutual coherence function can (at least in principle) be determined experimentally. Standard time-integrated Michelson's interferograms are also simulated and shown to provide a rough estimate for the coherence time of the quasi-stationary contribution. A simple but illustrative analytical model representing supercontinuum pulse trains is presented, and numerically simulated realizations of such pulse trains are considered.

  10. Blind quantum computing with weak coherent pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-18

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ϵ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ϵ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ϵ-blind UBQC for any ϵ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  11. Blind Quantum Computing with Weak Coherent Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunjko, Vedran; Kashefi, Elham; Leverrier, Anthony

    2012-05-01

    The universal blind quantum computation (UBQC) protocol [A. Broadbent, J. Fitzsimons, and E. Kashefi, in Proceedings of the 50th Annual IEEE Symposiumon Foundations of Computer Science (IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 2009), pp. 517-526.] allows a client to perform quantum computation on a remote server. In an ideal setting, perfect privacy is guaranteed if the client is capable of producing specific, randomly chosen single qubit states. While from a theoretical point of view, this may constitute the lowest possible quantum requirement, from a pragmatic point of view, generation of such states to be sent along long distances can never be achieved perfectly. We introduce the concept of ɛ blindness for UBQC, in analogy to the concept of ɛ security developed for other cryptographic protocols, allowing us to characterize the robustness and security properties of the protocol under possible imperfections. We also present a remote blind single qubit preparation protocol with weak coherent pulses for the client to prepare, in a delegated fashion, quantum states arbitrarily close to perfect random single qubit states. This allows us to efficiently achieve ɛ-blind UBQC for any ɛ>0, even if the channel between the client and the server is arbitrarily lossy.

  12. Errors in second moments estimated from monostatic Doppler sodar winds. I. Theoretical description

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif; Gaynor, J. E.

    1986-01-01

    geometric parameters, pulse repetition rate, pulsing sequence, mean wind velocity and an estimate of the turbulence length scale. The model results indicate an optimum monostatic configuration that minimizes the bias due to temporal and spatial separation. A correction for pulse volume averaging is also...... derived which requires a turbulence length scale and an estimate of the pulse volume diameter. A monostatic sodar technique, based on radar VAD methods, which also minimizes the bias caused by spatial and temporal separations in the sampling volumes, is proposed...

  13. Pulse-compression ghost imaging lidar via coherent detection

    CERN Document Server

    Deng, Chenjin; Han, Shensheng

    2016-01-01

    Ghost imaging (GI) lidar, as a novel remote sensing technique,has been receiving increasing interest in recent years. By combining pulse-compression technique and coherent detection with GI, we propose a new lidar system called pulse-compression GI lidar. Our analytical results, which are backed up by numerical simulations, demonstrate that pulse-compression GI lidar can obtain the target's spatial intensity distribution, range and moving velocity. Compared with conventional pulsed GI lidar system, pulse-compression GI lidar, without decreasing the range resolution, is easy to obtain high single pulse energy with the use of a long pulse, and the mechanism of coherent detection can eliminate the influence of the stray light, which can dramatically improve the detection sensitivity and detection range.

  14. Pulse-compression ghost imaging lidar via coherent detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Chenjin; Gong, Wenlin; Han, Shensheng

    2016-11-14

    Ghost imaging (GI) lidar, as a novel remote sensing technique, has been receiving increasing interest in recent years. By combining pulse-compression technique and coherent detection with GI, we propose a new lidar system called pulse-compression GI lidar. Our analytical results, which are backed up by numerical simulations, demonstrate that pulse-compression GI lidar can obtain the target's spatial intensity distribution, range and moving velocity. Compared with conventional pulsed GI lidar system, pulse-compression GI lidar, without decreasing the range resolution, is easy to obtain high single pulse energy with the use of a long pulse, and the mechanism of coherent detection can eliminate the influence of the stray light, which is helpful to improve the detection sensitivity and detection range.

  15. Controllable generation of partially coherent light pulses with direct space-to-time pulse shaper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Company, Víctor; Mínguez-Vega, Gladys; Lancis, Jesús; Friberg, Ari T

    2007-06-15

    We demonstrate the possibility of creating user-defined partially coherent light pulses by means of a slight modification of the direct space-to-time pulse shaper. Specifically, we generate a mutual coherence function that corresponds to the independent-elementary-pulse representation model. The theoretical limits in the parameter of global coherence and the efficiency of the system are studied. Our result opens the door to a new way of quantum control in laser-assisted chemical reactions, namely, control by partial coherence.

  16. The coherent artifact in modern pulse measurements

    CERN Document Server

    Ratner, Justin; Wong, Tsz Chun; Bartels, Randy; Trebino, Rick

    2012-01-01

    We simulate multi-shot intensity-and-phase measurements of unstable ultrashort-pulse trains using frequency-resolved-optical-gating (FROG) and spectral phase interferometry for direct electric-field reconstruction (SPIDER). Both techniques fail to reveal the pulse structure. FROG yields the average pulse duration and suggests the instability by exhibiting disagreement between measured and retrieved traces. SPIDER under-estimates the average pulse duration but retrieves the correct average pulse spectral phase. An analytical calculation confirms this behavior.

  17. The Nature of Quantum States Created by One Photon Absorption: Pulsed Coherent vs. Pulsed Incoherent Light

    CERN Document Server

    Han, Alex C; Brumer, Paul

    2012-01-01

    We analyze electronically excited nuclear wave functions and their coherence when subjecting a molecule to the action of natural, pulsed incoherent solar-like light, and to that of ultrashort coherent light assumed to have the same center frequencies and spectral bandwidths. Specifically, we compute the spatio-temporal dependence of the excited wave packets and their electronic coherence for these two types of light sources, on different electronic potential energy surfaces. The resultant excited state wave functions are shown to be qualitatively different, reflecting the light source from which they originated. In addition, electronic coherence is found to decay significantly faster for incoherent light than for coherent ultrafast excitation, for both continuum and bound wave packets. These results confirm that the dynamics observed in studies using ultrashort coherent pulses are not relevant to naturally occurring solar-induced processes such as photosynthesis and vision.

  18. Pulse Designed Coherent Dynamics of a Quantum Dot Charge Qubit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Gang; WANG Li; TU Tao; LI Hai-Ou; XIAO Ming; GUO Guo-Ping

    2012-01-01

    We propose an effective method to design the working parameters of a pulse-driven charge qubit implemented with double quantum dot.It is shown that intrinsic qubit population leakage to undesired states in the control and measurement process can be determined by the simulation of coherent dynamics of the qubit and minimized by choosing proper working parameters such as pulse shape.The result demonstrated here bodes well for future quantum gate operations and quantum computing applications.

  19. Coherent pulse position modulation quantum cipher

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohma, Masaki; Hirota, Osamu [Quantum ICT Research Institute, Tamagawa University, 6-1-1 Tamagawa-gakuen, Machida, Tokyo 194-8610 (Japan)

    2014-12-04

    On the basis of fundamental idea of Yuen, we present a new type of quantum random cipher, where pulse position modulated signals are encrypted in the picture of quantum Gaussian wave form. We discuss the security of our proposed system with a phase mask encryption.

  20. Complex sine-Gordon Equation in Coherent Optical Pulse Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H

    1999-01-01

    It is shown that the McCall-Hahn theory of self-induced transparency in coherent optical pulse propagation can be identified with the complex sine-Gordon theory in the sharp line limit. We reformulate the theory in terms of the deformed gauged Wess-Zumino-Witten sigma model and address various new aspects of self-induced transparency.

  1. Average Number of Coherent Modes for Pulse Random Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Lazaruk, A M; Lazaruk, Alexander M.; Karelin, Nikolay V.

    1997-01-01

    Some consequences of spatio-temporal symmetry for the deterministic decomposition of complex light fields into factorized components are considered. This enables to reveal interrelations between spatial and temporal coherence properties of wave. An estimation of average number of the decomposition terms is obtained in the case of statistical ensemble of light pulses.

  2. Coherent ultrashort pulse generation from incoherent light by pulse trapping in birefringent fibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Eiji; Nishizawa, Norihiko

    2012-05-07

    We investigated the nonlinear fiber phenomena of pulse trapping and amplification between incoherent light and an ultrashort soliton pulse in birefringent fibers both experimentally and numerically. Using the phenomena in a 1.4 km-long low-birefringence fiber, a coherent, nearly transform-limited, sech2-shaped, ultrashort pulse was generated from incoherent light from a super-luminescent diode. The average pulse energy and pulse width were 121 pJ and 640 fs, respectively. The estimated gain of this system was as large as 62 dB.

  3. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivić, Z; Lazarides, N; Tsironis, G P

    2016-07-12

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980's, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound "quantum breather" that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing.

  4. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivić, Z.; Lazarides, N.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2016-07-01

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980’s, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound ”quantum breather” that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing.

  5. Qubit lattice coherence induced by electromagnetic pulses in superconducting metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivić, Z.; Lazarides, N.; Tsironis, G. P.

    2016-01-01

    Quantum bits (qubits) are at the heart of quantum information processing schemes. Currently, solid-state qubits, and in particular the superconducting ones, seem to satisfy the requirements for being the building blocks of viable quantum computers, since they exhibit relatively long coherence times, extremely low dissipation, and scalability. The possibility of achieving quantum coherence in macroscopic circuits comprising Josephson junctions, envisioned by Legett in the 1980’s, was demonstrated for the first time in a charge qubit; since then, the exploitation of macroscopic quantum effects in low-capacitance Josephson junction circuits allowed for the realization of several kinds of superconducting qubits. Furthermore, coupling between qubits has been successfully achieved that was followed by the construction of multiple-qubit logic gates and the implementation of several algorithms. Here it is demonstrated that induced qubit lattice coherence as well as two remarkable quantum coherent optical phenomena, i.e., self-induced transparency and Dicke-type superradiance, may occur during light-pulse propagation in quantum metamaterials comprising superconducting charge qubits. The generated qubit lattice pulse forms a compound ”quantum breather” that propagates in synchrony with the electromagnetic pulse. The experimental confirmation of such effects in superconducting quantum metamaterials may open a new pathway to potentially powerful quantum computing. PMID:27403780

  6. Coherent combs in ionization by intense and short laser pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajewska, K., E-mail: Katarzyna.Krajewska@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland); Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE 68588-0299 (United States); Kamiński, J.Z., E-mail: Jerzy.Kaminski@fuw.edu.pl [Institute of Theoretical Physics, Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, Pasteura 5, 02-093 Warszawa (Poland)

    2016-03-22

    Photoionization of positive ions by a train of intense, short laser pulses is investigated within the relativistic strong field approximation, using the velocity gauge. The formation of broad peak structures in the high-energy domain of photoelectrons is observed and interpreted. The emergence of coherent photoelectron energy combs within these structures is demonstrated, and it is interpreted as the consequence of the Fraunhofer-type interference/diffraction of probability amplitudes of ionization from individual pulses comprising the train. Extensions to the coherent angular combs are also studied, and effects related to the radiation pressure are presented. - Highlights: • We develop relativistic Strong-Field Approximation for ionization by intense and short laser pulses of arbitrary spectral compositions. • We show that the consistent interpretation of results is provided by the Keldysh-type saddle point analysis of probability amplitudes. • We derive a general Fraunhofer-type interference/diffraction formula for finite train of pulses. • We study the coherent combs in photoelectron probability distributions.

  7. Bandpass calibration of a wideband spectrometer using coherent pulse injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Nipanjana; Bray, Justin D.; Roberts, Paul; Ekers, Ron D.

    2017-03-01

    We present a relatively simple time domain method for determining the bandpass response of a system by injecting a nanosecond pulse and capturing the system voltage output. A pulse of sub-nanosecond duration contains all frequency components with nearly constant amplitude up to 1 GHz. Hence, this method can accurately determine the system bandpass response to a broadband signal. In a novel variation on this impulse response method, a train of pulses is coherently accumulated providing precision calibration with a simple system. The basic concept is demonstrated using a pulse generator-accumulator setup realised in a Bedlam board which is a high speed digital signal processing unit. The same system was used at the Parkes radio telescope between 2-13 October 2013 and we demonstrate its powerful diagnostic capability. We also present some initial test data from this experiment.

  8. Field Theory for Coherent Optical Pulse Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H

    1997-01-01

    We introduce a new notion of "matrix potential" to nonlinear optical systems. In terms of a matrix potential $g$, we present a gauge field theoretic formulation of the Maxwell-Bloch equation that provides a semiclassical description of the propagation of optical pulses through resonant multi-level media. We show that the Bloch part of the equation can solved identically through $g$ and the remaining Maxwell equation becomes a second order differential equation with reduced set of variables due to the gauge invariance of the system. Our formulation clarifies the (nonabelian) symmetry structure of the Maxwell-Bloch equations for various multi-level media in association with symmetric spaces $G/H$. In particular, we associate nondegenerate two-level system for self-induced transparency with $G/H=SU(2)/U(1)$ and three-level $\\L $- or V-systems with $G/H = SU(3)/U(2)$. We give a detailed analysis for the two-level case in the matrix potential formalism, and address various new properties of the system including so...

  9. Influence of amplification on pulse shaping for coherent control applications

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Du Plessis, A

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available of using low seed laser powers for amplification of shaped pulses in a typical setup for coherent control experiments. An acousto-optic programmable dispersive filter (Dazzler from FastLite) is used to shape 130 fs pulses before amplification... measured as such) for low and high seed powers. Clearly, at lower seed powers as in (a), the measured trace corresponds to approximately the 4:1 ratio expected, but at high seed powers this ratio changes towards 2:1, indicating the smaller of the two...

  10. Effective field theory for coherent optical pulse propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Park, Q H; Park, Q Han

    1996-01-01

    Hidden nonabelian symmetries in nonlinear interactions of radiation with matter are clarified. In terms of a nonabelian potential variable, we construct an effective field theory of self-induced transparency, a phenomenon of lossless coherent pulse propagation, in association with Hermitian symmetric spaces G/H. Various new properties of self-induced transparency, e.g. soliton numbers, effective potential energy, gauge symmetry and discrete symmetries, modified pulse area, conserved U(1)-charge etc. are addressed and elaborated in the nondegenerate two-level case where G/H = SU(2)/U(1). Using the U(1)-charge conservation, a new type of analysis on pulse stability is given which agrees with earlier numerical results.

  11. Coherent chirped pulse laser network with Mickelson phase-conjugator

    CERN Document Server

    Okulov, A Yu

    2013-01-01

    The mechanisms of nonlinear phase-locking of a large fiber amplifier array are analyzed. The preference is given to configuration most suitable for a coherent coupling of a thousands of a fundamental spatial mode fiber beams into a single smooth beam ready for chirped pulse compression. It is shown that Michelson phase conjugating configuration with double passage through array of fiber amplifiers have the definite advantages compared to one-way fiber array coupled in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Regardless to amount of synchronized fiber amplifiers Michelson phase-conjugating interferometer is expected to do a perfect compensation of the phase-piston errors and collimation of backwardly amplified fiber beams on entrance/output beamsplitter. In both configurations the nonlinear transformation of the stretched pulse envelope due to gain saturation is capable to randomize the position of chirp inside envelope thus it may reduce the visibility of interference pattern at output beamsplitter. A certain advantages...

  12. Population transfer and coherence in the adiabatic limit by counterintuitive and intuitive pulse sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Yan-Wei; Ye Cun-Yun

    2005-01-01

    Two approaches of achieving population transfer and coherence are investigated for the three-level A system in the adiabatic limit. The effects of the laser pulse sequence on the population transfer efficiency and coherence are studied.Coherent control of quantum state and population is studied by numerical simulation based on self-consistent set of density matrix equations. It can be seen that the counterintuitive pulse sequence is more efficient in population transfer and coherence than the intuitive one.

  13. Coherent oscillations in a superconducting flux qubit without microwave pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poletto, Stefano; Lisenfeld, Juergen; Lukashenko, Alexander; Ustinov, Alexey V. [Physikalisches Institut III, Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg (Germany); Castellano, Maria Gabriella; Chiarello, Fabio [Istituto di Fotonica e Nanotecnologie del CNR, Roma (Italy); Cosmelli, Carlo [Dipartimento di Fisica and INFN, Universita' di Roma La Sapienza (Italy); Carelli, Pasquale [Universita' degli Studi dell' Acquila (Italy)

    2008-07-01

    We report on observation of coherent oscillations in a superconducting flux qubit by using no microwave excitation but only nanosecond-long dc flux pulses. The investigated circuit is a double-SQUID consisting of a superconducting loop interrupted by a small dc-SQUID, which we control via two bias fluxes {phi}{sub c} and {phi}{sub x}. The potential energy profile of the qubit has the shape of a double well, where the flux {phi}{sub c} controls the height of the barrier between the two minima and the flux {phi}{sub x} changes the potential symmetry. The two computational states of the qubit are identified with the two energy minima and physically correspond to clockwise or anticlockwise circulating currents in the double-SQUID main loop. We observed coherent oscillations, in the frequency range between 8 and 20 GHz, induced by fast pulses of the control flux {phi}{sub c} modulating the barrier between the two potential wells. The quantum dynamics that leads to this kind of oscillations is composed of a non-adiabatic and adiabatic evolution of the two lowest energy states.

  14. Generating Coherent Phonons and Spin Excitations with Ultrafast Light Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merlin, Roberto

    2006-03-01

    Recent work on the generation of coherent low-lying excitations by ultrafast laser pulses will be reviewed, emphasizing the microscopic mechanisms of light-matter interaction. The topics covered include long-lived phonons in ZnO [C. Aku-Leh, J. Zhao, R. Merlin, J. Men'endez and M. Cardona, Phys. Rev.B 71, 205211 (2005)], squeezed magnons [J. Zhao, A. V. Bragas, D. J. Lockwood and R. Merlin, Phys. Rev. Lett. 93, 107203 (2004)], spin- and charge-density fluctuations [J. M. Bao et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 236601 (2004)] and cyclotron resonance [J. K. Wahlstrand, D. M. Wang, P. Jacobs, J. M. Bao, R. Merlin, K. W. West and L. N. Pfeiffer, AIP Conference Proceedings 772 (2005), p. 1313] in GaAs quantum wells. In addition, unpublished results on surface -avoiding phonons in GaAs-AlAs superlattices [M. Trigo et al., unpublished] and magnons in ferromagnetic Ga1-xMnxAs [D. M. Wang et al., unpublished] will be discussed. It will also be shown that frequencies can be measured using pump-probe techniques with a precision comparable to that of Brillouin scattering. It is now widely accepted that stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is (often but not always) the mechanism responsible for the coherent coupling. Results will be presented showing that SRS is described by two separate tensors, one of which accounts for the excitation-induced modulation of the susceptibility, and the other one for the dependence of the amplitude of the oscillation on the light intensity [T. E. Stevens, J. Kuhl and R. Merlin, Phys. Rev. B 65, 144304 (2002)]. These tensors have the same real component, associated with impulsive coherent generation, but different imaginary parts. If the imaginary term dominates, that is, for strongly absorbing substances, the mechanism for two-band processes becomes displacive in nature, as in the DECP (displacive excitation of coherent phonons) model. It will be argued that DECP is not a separate mechanism, but a particular case of SRS. In the final part of the talk, an

  15. Coherent chirped pulse laser network with Mickelson phase conjugator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okulov, A Yu

    2014-04-10

    The mechanisms of nonlinear phase-locking of a large fiber amplifier array are analyzed. The preference is given to the most suitable configuration for a coherent coupling of thousands of fundamental spatial mode fiber beams into a single smooth beam ready for chirped pulse compression. It is shown that a Michelson phase-conjugating configuration with double passage through an array of fiber amplifiers has the definite advantage compared to a one-way fiber array coupled in a Mach-Zehnder configuration. Regardless of the amount of synchronized fiber amplifiers, the Michelson phase-conjugating interferometer is expected to do a perfect compensation of the phase-piston errors and collimation of backwardly amplified fiber beams on an entrance/output beam splitter. In both configurations, the nonlinear transformation of the stretched pulse envelope, due to gain saturation, is capable of randomizing the position of chirp inside an envelope; thus it may reduce the visibility of the interference pattern at an output beam splitter. Certain advantages are inherent to the sech-form temporal envelope because of the exponential precursor and self-similar propagation in gain medium. The Gaussian envelope is significantly compressed in a deep gain saturation regime, and the frequency chirp position inside pulse envelope is more deformed.

  16. Coherent population transfer in molecules coupled with a dissipative environment by an intense ultrashort chirped pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fainberg, B. D.; Gorbunov, V. A.

    2002-10-01

    We have studied the intense chirped pulse excitation of a molecule coupled with a dissipative environment taking into account electronic coherence effects. We considered a two-state electronic system with relaxation treated as a diffusion on electronic potential energy surfaces. This relaxation model enables us to trace continuously the transition from a coherent population transfer to incoherent one. An inhomogeneously broadened system with frozen nuclear motion is invoked to model a purely coherent transfer. We show that the type of population transfer (coherent or incoherent) strongly depends on the pulse chirp, its sign, and the detunings of the exciting pulse carrier frequency with respect to the frequency of the Franck-Condon transition. For positive chirped pulses and moderate detunings, relaxation does not hinder a coherent population transfer. Moreover, under these conditions the relaxation favors more efficient population transfer with respect to the "coherent" system with frozen nuclear motion.

  17. All-fiber pulse coherent Doppler LIDAR and its validations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bu, Lingbing; Qiu, Zujing; Gao, Haiyang; Zhu, Xiaopeng; Liu, Jiqiao

    2015-12-01

    An all-fiber pulsed coherent Doppler LIDAR (CDL) system is described. It uses a fiber laser as a light source at a 1.54-μm wavelength, producing 200 μJ pulses at 10 kHz. The local oscillator signal is mixed with the backscattered light (of different frequency) in the fiber. The atmospheric wind speed is determined through the fast Fourier transform applied to the difference frequency signal acquired by an analog-to-digital converter card. This system was used to measure the atmospheric wind above the upper-air meteorological observatory in Rongcheng (37.10°N, 122.25°E) of China between January 7 and 19, 2015. The CDL data are compared with sounding- and pilot-balloon measurements to assess the CDL performance. The results show that the correlation coefficient of the different wind-speed measurements is 0.93 and their discrepancy 0.64 m/s; the correlation coefficient for wind-direction values is 0.92 and their discrepancy 5.8 deg. A time serial of the wind field, which benefits the understanding of atmospheric dynamics, is presented after the comparisons between data from CDL and balloons. The CDL system has a compact structure and demonstrates good stability, reliability, and a potential for application to wind-field measurements in the atmospheric boundary layer.

  18. Synchronization and Coherent Combining of Two Pulsed Fiber Ring Lasers Based on Direct Phase Modulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-Lin; ZHOU Pu; MA Hao-Tong; CHEN Zi-Lun; LI Xiao; XU Xiao-Jun; LIU Ze-Jin

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate a scalable architecture for coherent combining of pulsed fiber ring lasers based on mutual injection and direct phase modulation. By direct phase modulation in the common arm of two ring lasers, synchronous pulsed lasers can be generated and coherent combining of the two synchronous lasers is obtained. Two pulsed fiber ring lasers are coherently combined with 0.55 μJ pulse energy and 10μs pulse duration at a repetition rate of 27.5 kHz. Experimental results show that the two fiber ring lasers are phase locked with an invariable phase difference of π and have good temporal synchronization and spatial coherence. The combining efficiency of the two pulsed fiber laser reaches 90% and the fringe contrast is larger than 40%. Neither active phase control nor polarization control is used in our experiment and this method can be extended to combine more beams and higher repetition rate scaling up to higher power.

  19. Experimental Investigation on Selective Excitation of Two-Pulse Coherent Anti-Stokes Raman Scattering

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xia; ZHANG Hui; ZHANG Xiang-Yun; ZHANG Shi-An; WANG Zu-Geng; SUN Zhen-Rong

    2008-01-01

    Selective excitation of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering from the benzene solution is achieved by adaptive pulse shaping based on genetic algorithm, and second harmonic generation frequency-resolved optical gating (SHG-FROG) technique is adopted to characterize the original and optimal laser pulses. The mechanism for two-pulse coherent mode-selective excitation of Raman scattering is experimentally investigated by modulating the pump pulse in the frequency domain, and it is indicated that two-pulse coherent mode-selective excitation of Raman scattering mainly depends on the effective frequency components of the pump pulse related to specific vibrational mode. The experimental results suggest that two-pulse CARS has good signal-to-background ratio and high sensitivity, and it has attractive potential applications in the complicated molecular system.

  20. Effect of Pulse Shaping on Observing Coherent Energy Transfer in Single Light-Harvesting Complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kai; Bai, Shuming; Shi, Qiang

    2016-11-17

    Recent experimental and theoretical studies have revealed that quantum coherence plays an important role in the excitation energy transfer in photosynthetic light-harvesting (LH) complexes. Inspired by the recent single-molecule two-color double-pump experiment, we theoretically investigate the effect of pulse shaping on observing coherent energy transfer in the single bacterial LH2 complex. It is found that quantum coherent energy transfer can be observed when the time delay and phase difference between the two laser pulses are controlled independently. However, when the two-color pulses are generated using the pulse-shaping method, how the laser pulses are prepared is crucial to the observation of quantum coherent energy transfer in single photosynthetic complexes.

  1. Errors in second moments estimated from monostatic Doppler sodar winds. II. Application to field measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaynor, J. E.; Kristensen, Leif

    1986-01-01

    Observatory tower. The approximate magnitude of the error due to spatial and temporal pulse volume separation is presented as a function of mean wind angle relative to the sodar configuration and for several antenna pulsing orders. Sodar-derived standard deviations of the lateral wind component, before......For pt.I see ibid., vol.3, no.3, p.523-8 (1986). The authors use the theoretical results presented in part I to correct turbulence parameters derived from monostatic sodar wind measurements in an attempt to improve the statistical comparisons with the sonic anemometers on the Boulder Atmospheric...

  2. Coherent control with shaped femtosecond laser pulses applied to ultracold molecules

    CERN Document Server

    Salzmann, W; Wester, R; Weidemüller, M; Merli, A; Weber, S M; Sauer, F; Plewicki, M; Weise, F; Esparza, A M; Wöste, L; Lindinger, A; Salzmann, Wenzel; Poschinger, Ulrich; Wester, Roland; Weidemueller, Matthias; Merli, Andrea; Weber, Stefan M.; Sauer, Franziska; Plewicki, Mateusz; Weise, Fabian; Esparza, Aldo Mirabal; Woeste, Ludger; Lindinger, Albrecht

    2005-01-01

    We report on coherent control of excitation processes of translationally ultracold rubidium dimers in a magneto-optical trap by using shaped femtosecond laser pulses. Evolution strategies are applied in a feedback loop in order to optimize the photoexcitation of the Rb2 molecules, which subsequently undergo ionization or fragmentation. A superior performance of the resulting pulses compared to unshaped pulses of the same pulse energy is obtained by distributing the energy among specific spectral components. The demonstration of coherent control to ultracold ensembles opens a path to actively influence fundamental photo-induced processes in molecular quantum gases.

  3. High order coherent control sequences of fat pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Pasini, S; Uhrig, G S

    2010-01-01

    We analyze the performance of sequences of fat pulses of various lengths and shapes for dynamic decoupling and we compare it with that of sequences of ideal, instantaneous pulses. The use of second order, shaped pulses represents a significant improvement. Non-equidistant sequences characterized by pulse durations scaled proportional to the duration T of the sequence strikingly outperform the sequences with pulses of constant length for small T. Interestingly, for longer durations sequences of pulses of substantial length are found to suppress dephasing better than sequences of ideal pulses.

  4. Coherently-combined two channel femtosecond fiber CPA system producing 3 mJ pulse energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenke, Arno; Seise, Enrico; Demmler, Stefan; Rothhardt, Jan; Breitkopf, Sven; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-11-21

    We present a fiber CPA system consisting of two coherently combined fiber amplifiers, which have been arranged in an actively stabilized Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Pulse durations as short as 470 fs and pulse energies of 3 mJ, corresponding to 5.4 GW of peak power, have been achieved at an average power of 30 W.

  5. Formation, propagation, and decay of coherent pulses of solar cosmic rays

    CERN Document Server

    Ruffolo, D

    1995-01-01

    We have performed numerical simulations of the interplanetary transport of solar cosmic rays. The particles form a coherent pulse within \\sim0.01 AU after their injection. The gradual decrease of a pulse's speed and anisotropy can be understood in terms of an equilibrium between pitch-angle scattering and focusing. The results should be useful for estimating times of particle injection.

  6. Spatial and temporal coherence properties of single free-electron laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, A; Mancuso, A P; Gerasimova, N; Yefanov, O M; Gulden, J; Gorniak, T; Senkbeil, T; Sakdinawat, A; Liu, Y; Attwood, D; Dziarzhytski, S; Mai, D D; Treusch, R; Weckert, E; Salditt, T; Rosenhahn, A; Wurth, W; Vartanyants, I A

    2015-01-01

    The experimental characterization of the spatial and temporal coherence properties of the free-electron laser in Hamburg (FLASH) at a wavelength of 8.0 nm is presented. Double pinhole diffraction patterns of single femtosecond pulses focused to a size of about 10 microns by 10 microns were measured. A transverse coherence length of 6.2 microns in the horizontal and 8.7 microns in the vertical direction was determined from the most coherent pulses. Using a split and delay unit the coherence time of the pulses produced in the same operation conditions of FLASH was measured to be 1.75 fs. From our experiment we estimated the degeneracy parameter of the FLASH beam to be on the order of $10^{10}$ to $10^{11}$, which exceeds the values of this parameter at any other source in the same energy range by many orders of magnitude.

  7. Coherent polarization locking: an approach to mitigating optical damage in a pulsed Ho:YAG laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, L H; Chua, C F; Phua, P B

    2013-04-01

    Intracavity optical damage is mitigated in a pulsed Ho:YAG laser cavity using the coherent polarization locking (CPL) technique. By splitting the available pump power into two individual Ho:YAG laser rods, we passively coherently locked two orthogonal polarization lasers with 9.13 mJ output pulse energies and 14 ns pulsewidths, and operating at 800 Hz repetition rate. A conventional Ho:YAG laser cavity with the same pump and cavity configuration results in severe optical damage when operating at <2 kHz repetition rate, thus limiting the output pulse energies to <5 mJ. We also demonstrated, to the best of our knowledge, the first pulsed operation within the entire CPL Ho:YAG laser cavity by Q-switching in one of the polarization arms, producing nanosecond pulses with no sign of pulse instability.

  8. Quantitative interpretation of time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy with all Gaussian pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Ariunbold, Gombojav O

    2016-01-01

    Coherent Raman scattering spectroscopy is studied purposely, with the Gaussian ultrashort pulses as a hands-on elucidatory extraction tool of the clean coherent Raman resonant spectra from the overall measured data contaminated with the non-resonant four wave mixing background. The integral formulae for both the coherent anti-Stokes and Stokes Raman scattering are given in the semiclassical picture, and the closed-form solutions in terms of a complex error function are obtained. An analytic form of maximum enhancement of pure coherent Raman spectra at threshold time delay depending on bandwidth of probe pulse is also obtained. The observed experimental data for pyridine in liquid-phase are quantitatively elucidated and the inferred time-resolved coherent Raman resonant results are reconstructed with a new insight.

  9. Light-induced spatial gratings created by unipolar attosecond pulses coherently interacting with a resonant medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Pakhomov, A. V.; Babushkin, I.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2017-09-01

    Recently, the possibility of the creation, erasing and ultrafast control of polarization and population inversion gratings by sequences of few-cycle bipolar pulses interacting with a medium in a resonant and coherent way was predicted. In this case, the overlapping of pulses in the medium is not needed for the creation of gratings. In this paper, we study the possibility of the ultrafast creation and control of spatial periodic gratings in a resonant medium when subcycle unipolar pulses (that is ones containing the constant spectral component of an electric field) propagate in the coherent regime.

  10. Dispersion-insensitive low-coherent pulses emerging from nonlinear polarization switching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, D.; Liu, X. M.; Lu, H.; Wang, L. R.; Duan, L. N.

    2011-11-01

    We have experimentally investigated low-repetition nanosecond pulses delivered from an erbium-doped fiber (EDF) laser operating in ultra-large anomalous dispersion regime. The output pulses with rectangular profile and Gaussian spectrum almost keep invariable when they propagate through either normal- or anomalous-dispersion fibers. After nanosecond pulses are amplified via a two-stage EDF amplifier, they are broken up and exhibited as flatly broadened supercontinuum from 1520 to 1700 nm if amplified pulses are launched into a 10-km single-mode fiber, whereas the pulses retain the same duration with a broadband supercontinuum from 1200 to 1750 nm if they are input into a 100-m highly-nonlinear low-dispersion photonic-crystal fiber (PCF). The experimental observations demonstrate that the nanosecond pulses result from nonlinear polarization switching and can be regarded as dispersion-insensitive low-coherent pulses rather than compressible pulses.

  11. Single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy via fiber Bragg grating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Ryeol; Park, Joo Hyun; Kwon, Won Sik; Kim, Jin Hwan; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Soohyun

    2016-03-01

    Fiber Bragg grating is used in a variety of applications. In this study, we suggest compact, cost-effective coherent anti- Stokes Raman spectroscopy which is based on the pulse shaping methods via commercialized fiber Bragg grating. The experiment is performed incorporating a commercialized femtosecond pulse laser system (MICRA, Coherent) with a 100 mm length of 780-HP fiber which is inscribed 50 mm of Bragg grating. The pump laser for coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy has a bandwidth of 90 nm and central wavelength of 815 nm with a notch shaped at 785 nm. The positive chirped pulse is compensated by chirped mirror set. We compensate almost 14000 fs2 of positive group delay dispersion for the transform-limited pulse at the sample position. The pulse duration was 15 fs with average power of 50 mW, and showed an adequate notch shape. Finally, coherent anti-Stokes Raman signals are observed using a spectrometer (Jobin Yvon Triax320 and TE-cooled Andor Newton EMCCD). We obtained coherent anti-Stokes Raman signal of acetone sample which have Raman peak at the spectral finger-print region. In conclusion, the proposed method is more simple and cost-effective than the methods of previous research which use grating pairs and resonant photonic crystal slab. Furthermore, the proposed method can be used as endoscope application.

  12. Coherent population transfer in Rydberg potassium atom by a single frequency-chirped laser pulse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xian-Zhou; Ma Qiao-Zhi; Li Xiao-Hong

    2006-01-01

    By using the time-dependent multilevel approach, we have calculated the coherent population transfer among the quantum states of potassium atom by a single frequency-chirped laser pulse. The results show that the population can be efficiently transferred to a target state and be trapped there by using an ‘intuitive’ or a ‘counter-intuitive’ frequency sweep laser pulse in the case of ‘narrowband’ frequency-chirped laser pulse. It is also found that a pair of sequential ‘broadband’ frequency-chirped laser pulses can efficiently transfer population from one ground state of the A atom to the other one.

  13. High-performance TDM demultiplexing of coherent Nyquist pulses using time-domain orthogonality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harako, Koudai; Otuya, David Odeke; Kasai, Keisuke; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2014-12-01

    We propose a simple and high-performance scheme for demultiplexing coherent Nyquist TDM signals by photo-mixing on a photo-detector with Nyquist LO pulses. This scheme takes advantage of the time-domain orthogonality of Nyquist pulses, which enables high-SNR demultiplexing and homodyne detection simultaneously in spite of a strong overlap with adjacent pulses in the time domain. The feasibility of this scheme is demonstrated through a demultiplexing experiment employing 80 Gbaud, 64 QAM Nyquist pulse OTDM signals. This scheme exhibits excellent demultiplexing performance with a much simpler configuration than a conventional ultrafast all-optical sampling scheme.

  14. Strong-field ionization inducing multi-electron-hole coherence probed by attosecond pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Zhao, Jing; Zhao, Zengxiu

    2015-01-01

    We propose a new scenario to apply IR-pump-XUV-probe schemes to resolving strong field ionization induced and attosecond pulse driven electron-hole dynamics and coherence in real time. The coherent driving of both the infrared laser and the attoscond pulse correlates the dynamics of the core-hole and the valence-hole which leads to the otherwise forbidden absorption and emission of XUV photon. An analytical model is developed based on the strong-field approximation by taking into account of the essential multielectron configurations. The emission spectra from the core-valence transition and the core-hole recombination are found modulating strongly as functions of the time delay between the two pulses, which provides a unique insight into the instantaneous ionization and the interplay of the multi-electron-hole coherence.

  15. Fifth-Order Harmonic Generation using a Coherent Controlled Two-Pulsed Optical Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘婷婷; 王大威; 陆伟新; 孙泉; 杨宏; 蒋红兵; 龚旗煌

    2002-01-01

    We have experimentally studied the characteristics of fifth-order harmonic radiation produced by two coherent femtosecond laser pulses with a changeable relative phase. The intensities of harmonic generation are found to increase vith the coherent degree. In one optical period, the temporal variation of harmonics exhibits an asymmetric characteristic, vhich is interpreted in terms of ionization theory and the deformation of the wave packets of fundamental field contribution to harmonic generation.

  16. Time-optimal excitation of maximum quantum coherence: Physical limits and pulse sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köcher, S. S.; Heydenreich, T.; Zhang, Y.; Reddy, G. N. M.; Caldarelli, S.; Yuan, H.; Glaser, S. J.

    2016-04-01

    Here we study the optimum efficiency of the excitation of maximum quantum (MaxQ) coherence using analytical and numerical methods based on optimal control theory. The theoretical limit of the achievable MaxQ amplitude and the minimum time to achieve this limit are explored for a set of model systems consisting of up to five coupled spins. In addition to arbitrary pulse shapes, two simple pulse sequence families of practical interest are considered in the optimizations. Compared to conventional approaches, substantial gains were found both in terms of the achieved MaxQ amplitude and in pulse sequence durations. For a model system, theoretically predicted gains of a factor of three compared to the conventional pulse sequence were experimentally demonstrated. Motivated by the numerical results, also two novel analytical transfer schemes were found: Compared to conventional approaches based on non-selective pulses and delays, double-quantum coherence in two-spin systems can be created twice as fast using isotropic mixing and hard spin-selective pulses. Also it is proved that in a chain of three weakly coupled spins with the same coupling constants, triple-quantum coherence can be created in a time-optimal fashion using so-called geodesic pulses.

  17. Cramer-Rao Bounds and Coherence Performance Analysis for Next Generation Radar with Pulse Trains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available We study the Cramer-Rao bounds of parameter estimation and coherence performance for the next generation radar (NGR. In order to enhance the performance of NGR, the signal model of NGR with master-slave architecture based on a single pulse is extended to the case of pulse trains, in which multiple pulses are emitted from all sensors and then integrated spatially and temporally in a unique master sensor. For the MIMO mode of NGR where orthogonal waveforms are emitted, we derive the closed-form Cramer-Rao bound (CRB for the estimates of generalized coherence parameters (GCPs, including the time delay differences, total phase differences and Doppler frequencies with respect to different sensors. For the coherent mode of NGR where the coherent waveforms are emitted after pre-compensation using the estimates of GCPs, we develop a performance bound of signal-to-noise ratio (SNR gain for NGR based on the aforementioned CRBs, taking all the estimation errors into consideration. It is shown that greatly improved estimation accuracy and coherence performance can be obtained with pulse trains employed in NGR. Numerical examples demonstrate the validity of the theoretical results.

  18. Coherent excitation of vibrational levels using ultra short pulses

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Clercq, LE

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to develop a model of the coherent excitation of the first few vibrational modes in the electronic ground state of the molecule. The model will be used in combination with an optimization algorithm to optimize a...

  19. Generation of Attosecond X-Ray Pulse through Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattering

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K; Jeong, Y U; Lee, B C; Park, S H

    2005-01-01

    In contrast to some recent experimental results, which state that the Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (NTS) radiation is incoherent, a coherent condition under which the scattered radiation of an incident laser pulse by a bunch of electrons can be coherently superposed has been investigated. The Coherent Relativistic Nonlinear Thomson Scattered (C-RNTS) radiation makes it possible utilizing the ultra-short pulse nature of NTS radiation with a bunch of electrons, such as plasma or electron beams. A numerical simulation shows that a 25 attosecond X-ray pulse can be generated by irradiating an ultra-intense laser pulse of 4x10(19) W/cm2 on an ultra-thin solid target of 50 nm thickness, which is commercially available. The coherent condition can be easily extended to an electron beam from accelerators. Different from the solid target, much narrower electron beam is required for the generation of an attosecond pulse. Instead, this condition could be applied for the generation of intense Compton scattered X-rays with a...

  20. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling and fast quantum state preparation for strongly pulsed spin qubits in diamond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wubs, Martijn

    2010-01-01

    Qubits driven by resonant strong pulses are studied and a parameter regime is explored in which the dynamics can be solved in closed form. Instantaneous coherent destruction of tunneling can be seen for longer pulses, whereas shorter pulses allow a fast preparation of the qubit state. Results...... are compared with recent experiments of pulsed nitrogen-vacancy center spin qubits in diamond....

  1. Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyants, I.A.; /DESY /Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.; Singer, A.; Mancuso, A.P.; Yefanov, O.M.; /DESY; Sakdinawat, A.; Liu, Y.; Bang, E.; /UC, Berkeley; Williams, G.J.; /SLAC; Cadenazzi, G.; Abbey, B.; /Melbourne U.; Sinn, H.; /European XFEL, Hamburg; Attwood, D.; /UC, Berkeley; Nugent, K.A.; /Melbourne U.; Weckert, E.; /DESY; Wang, T.; Zhu, D.; Wu, B.; Graves, C.; Scherz, A.; Turner, J.J.; Schlotter, W.F.; /SLAC /LERMA, Ivry /Zurich, ETH /LBL, Berkeley /ANL, APS /Argonne /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore /Latrobe U. /SLAC /SLAC /European XFEL, Hamburg /SLAC /Hamburg U.

    2012-06-06

    Measurements of the spatial and temporal coherence of single, femtosecond x-ray pulses generated by the first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source, are presented. Single-shot measurements were performed at 780 eV x-ray photon energy using apertures containing double pinholes in 'diffract-and-destroy' mode. We determined a coherence length of 17 {micro}m in the vertical direction, which is approximately the size of the focused Linac Coherent Light Source beam in the same direction. The analysis of the diffraction patterns produced by the pinholes with the largest separation yields an estimate of the temporal coherence time of 0.55 fs. We find that the total degree of transverse coherence is 56% and that the x-ray pulses are adequately described by two transverse coherent modes in each direction. This leads us to the conclusion that 78% of the total power is contained in the dominant mode.

  2. Coherence Properties of Individual Femtosecond Pulses of an X-ray Free-Electron Laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyants, I.A.; /DESY /Moscow Phys. Eng. Inst.; Singer, A.; Mancuso, A.P.; Yefanov, O.M.; /DESY; Sakdinawat, A.; Liu, Y.; Bang, E.; /UC, Berkeley; Williams, G.J.; /SLAC; Cadenazzi, G.; Abbey, B.; /Melbourne U.; Sinn, H.; /European XFEL, Hamburg; Attwood, D.; /UC, Berkeley; Nugent, K.A.; /Melbourne U.; Weckert, E.; /DESY; Wang, T.; Zhu, D.; Wu, B.; Graves, C.; Scherz, A.; Turner, J.J.; Schlotter, W.F.; /SLAC /LERMA, Ivry /Zurich, ETH /LBL, Berkeley /ANL, APS /Argonne /SLAC /LLNL, Livermore /Latrobe U. /SLAC /SLAC /European XFEL, Hamburg /SLAC /Hamburg U.

    2012-06-06

    Measurements of the spatial and temporal coherence of single, femtosecond x-ray pulses generated by the first hard x-ray free-electron laser, the Linac Coherent Light Source, are presented. Single-shot measurements were performed at 780 eV x-ray photon energy using apertures containing double pinholes in 'diffract-and-destroy' mode. We determined a coherence length of 17 {micro}m in the vertical direction, which is approximately the size of the focused Linac Coherent Light Source beam in the same direction. The analysis of the diffraction patterns produced by the pinholes with the largest separation yields an estimate of the temporal coherence time of 0.55 fs. We find that the total degree of transverse coherence is 56% and that the x-ray pulses are adequately described by two transverse coherent modes in each direction. This leads us to the conclusion that 78% of the total power is contained in the dominant mode.

  3. Intense terahertz pulses from SLAC electron beams using coherent transition radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ziran; Fisher, Alan S; Goodfellow, John; Fuchs, Matthias; Daranciang, Dan; Hogan, Mark; Loos, Henrik; Lindenberg, Aaron

    2013-02-01

    SLAC has two electron accelerators, the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) and the Facility for Advanced Accelerator Experimental Tests (FACET), providing high-charge, high-peak-current, femtosecond electron bunches. These characteristics are ideal for generating intense broadband terahertz (THz) pulses via coherent transition radiation. For LCLS and FACET respectively, the THz pulse duration is typically 20 and 80 fs RMS and can be tuned via the electron bunch duration; emission spectra span 3-30 THz and 0.5 THz-5 THz; and the energy in a quasi-half-cycle THz pulse is 0.2 and 0.6 mJ. The peak electric field at a THz focus has reached 4.4 GV/m (0.44 V/Å) at LCLS. This paper presents measurements of the terahertz pulses and preliminary observations of nonlinear materials response.

  4. Coherent Control of Multiphoton Transitions in the Gas and Condensed Phases with Shaped Ultrashort Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marcos Dantus

    2008-09-23

    Controlling laser-molecule interactions has become an integral part of developing devices and applications in spectroscopy, microscopy, optical switching, micromachining and photochemistry. Coherent control of multiphoton transitions could bring a significant improvement of these methods. In microscopy, multi-photon transitions are used to activate different contrast agents and suppress background fluorescence; coherent control could generate selective probe excitation. In photochemistry, different dissociative states are accessed through two, three, or more photon transitions; coherent control could be used to select the reaction pathway and therefore the yield-specific products. For micromachining and processing a wide variety of materials, femtosecond lasers are now used routinely. Understanding the interactions between the intense femtosecond pulse and the material could lead to technologically important advances. Pulse shaping could then be used to optimize the desired outcome. The scope of our research program is to develop robust and efficient strategies to control nonlinear laser-matter interactions using ultrashort shaped pulses in gas and condensed phases. Our systematic research has led to significant developments in a number of areas relevant to the AMO Physics group at DOE, among them: generation of ultrashort phase shaped pulses, coherent control and manipulation of quantum mechanical states in gas and condensed phases, behavior of isolated molecules under intense laser fields, behavior of condensed phase matter under intense laser field and implications on micromachining with ultrashort pulses, coherent control of nanoparticles their surface plasmon waves and their nonlinear optical behavior, and observation of coherent Coulomb explosion processes at 10^16 W/cm^2. In all, the research has resulted in 36 publications (five journal covers) and nine invention disclosures, five of which have continued on to patenting

  5. Coherent amplification of attosecond light pulses in the water-window spectral region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrat, C; Roca, D; Seres, J

    2015-02-23

    We present a theoretical study on coherent extreme ultraviolet (XUV) attosecond pulse amplification mediated by nonlinear parametric enhanced forward scattering occurring in the interaction of a strong femtosecond infrared (IR) laser pulse combined with a weak attosecond XUV pulse train with an atom. We predict large amplification of XUV radiation when the IR strong pulse and the XUV weak pulse are optimally phased. We study high-order harmonic processes (HHG) in He, He(+) and Ne(++), and show how although the HHG yield is largely affected by the particular atom used as target, nonlinear parametric XUV amplification is only weakly affected. We conclude that XUV nonlinear parametric attosecond pulse amplification can be most efficiently observed by using atoms with a high ionization potential and that the nonlinear amplification is robust at high photon energies where HHG is not efficient, such as in the water-window spectral region.

  6. Quantum coherent control of ultra short laser pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU JianYing; ZENG JianHua; LI JunTao

    2008-01-01

    The effective photonic control is one of the key issues in photo-physics. Significant advancement in photonic crystals, quantum optics, ultrafast optics as well as micro-nano-optics gives rise to new op-portunities to manipulate the emission and propagation in optical fields, leading to a number of new and interesting discoveries, e.g., ultrashort light pulse storage and efficient energy conversion. This paper reviews the latest research progress in storage, release and energy conversion for ultrashort laser pulses in periodical arrays of absorbing medium. Techniques to fabricate such devices are also presented.

  7. Strong-field ionization inducing multi-electron-hole coherence probed by attosecond pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jing; Yuan, Jianmin; Zhao, Zengxiu

    2016-05-01

    Recent advances in attosecond spectroscopy has enabled resolving electron-hole dynamics in real time. The correlated electron-hole dynamics and the resulted coherence are directly related to how fast the ionization is completed. How the laser-induced electron-hole coherence evolves and whether it can be utilized to probe the core dynamics are among the key questions in attosecond physics or even attosecond chemistry. In this work, we propose a new scenario to apply IR-pump-XUV-probe schemes to resolving strong field ionization induced and attosecond pulse driven electron-hole dynamics and coherence in real time. The coherent driving of both the infrared laser and the attosecond pulse correlates the dynamics of the core-hole and the valence-hole which leads to the otherwise forbidden absorption and emission of XUV photon. An analytical model is developed based on the strong-field approximation by taking into account of the essential multielectron configurations. The emission spectra from the core-valence transition and the core-hole recombination are found modulating strongly as functions of the time delay between the two pulses, which provides a unique insight into the instantaneous ionization and the interplay of the multi-electron-hole coherence.

  8. Coherent Enhancement of 10 s Burst-Mode Ultraviolet Pulses at Megawatt Peak Power

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abudureyimu, Reheman [ORNL; Liu, Yun [ORNL

    2017-01-01

    A doubly-resonant optical cavity and its locking technique have been developed to achieve coherent enhancement of 402.5-MHz, 50-ps, megawatt peak power ultraviolet (355 nm) laser pulses operating at a 10- s/10-Hz burst mode.

  9. Excitation of coherent oscillations in underdoped cuprate superconductors by intense THz pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Matthias C.; Lee, Wei-Sheng; Dakovski, Georgi L.; Turner, Joshua J.; Gerber, Simon M.; Bonn, Doug; Hardy, Walter; Liang, Ruixing; Salluzzo, Marco

    2016-05-01

    We use intense broadband THz pulses to excite the cuprate superconductors YBCO and NBCO in their underdoped phase, where superconducting and charge density wave ground states compete. We observe pronounced coherent oscillations at attributed to renormalized low-energy phonon modes. These oscillation features are much more prominent than those observed in all-optical pump-probe measurements, suggesting a different excitation mechanism.

  10. Coherent control in room-temperature quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifiers using shaped pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Karni, Ouri; Eisenstein, Gadi; Ivanov, Vitalii; Reithmaier, Johann Peter

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability to control quantum coherent Rabi-oscillations in a room-temperature quantum dot semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) by shaping the light pulses that trigger them. The experiments described here show that when the excitation is resonant with the short wavelength slope of the SOA gain spectrum, a linear frequency chirp affects its ability to trigger Rabi-oscillations within the SOA: A negative chirp inhibits Rabi-oscillations whereas a positive chirp can enhance them, relative to the interaction of a transform limited pulse. The experiments are confirmed by a numerical calculation that models the propagation of the experimentally shaped pulses through the SOA.

  11. Circularly polarized carrier-envelope-phase stable attosecond pulse generation based on coherent undulator radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tóth, Gy; Tibai, Z; Nagy-Csiha, Zs; Márton, Zs; Almási, G; Hebling, J

    2015-09-15

    In this Letter, we present a new method for generation of circularly polarized attosecond pulses. According to our calculations, shape-controlled, carrier-envelope-phase stable pulses of several hundred nanojoule energy could be produced by exploitation of the coherent undulator radiation of an electron bunch. Our calculations are based on an existing particle accelerator system (FLASH II in DESY, Germany). We investigated the energy dependence of the attosecond pulses on the energy of electrons and the parameters of the radiator undulator, which generate the electromagnetic radiation.

  12. Storage and recall of weak coherent optical pulses with an efficiency of 25%

    CERN Document Server

    Sabooni, M; Walther, A; Lin, N; Amari, A; Huang, M; Kröll, S

    2009-01-01

    We demonstrate experimentally a quantum memory scheme for the storage of weak coherent light pulses in an inhomogeneously broadened optical transition in a Pr^{3+}: YSO crystal at 2.1 K. Precise optical pumping using a frequency stable (about 1kHz linewidth) laser is employed to create a highly controllable Atomic Frequency Comb (AFC) structure. We report single photon storage and retrieval efficiencies of 25%, based on coherent photon echo type re-emission in the forward direction. The coherence property of the quantum memory is proved through interference between a super Gaussian pulse and the emitted echo. Backward retrieval of the photon echo emission has potential for increasing storage and recall efficiency.

  13. Coherent Population Transfer in Chiral Molecules Using Tailored Microwave Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Cristobal; Steber, Amanda; Domingos, Sergio R.; Krin, Anna; Schmitz, David; Schnell, Melanie

    2017-06-01

    Over the last years, microwave three-wave mixing (M3WM) experiments have been shown to provide a sensitive way to generate and measure enantiomer-specific molecular responses. These experiments opened the door for enantiomeric excess determination in complex samples without previous separation or purification. We present here a new type of experiment, based on M3WM, to achieve enantiomeric enrichment of a chiral sample by using microwave pulses. We will show that control over the relative phases and polarizations of pulses provides a way to selectively populate a specific quantum rotational state with an enantiomer of choice. The experimental implementation as well as the characterization of the observed enantiomer-selective responses will be presented and discussed. As a proof of concept and to showcase the applicability of our approach we will present the enantiomer enrichment of several terpenes. Sandra Eibenberger, John Doyle, and David Patterson, arXiv:1608.04691 (2016)

  14. New Edge Coherent Mode Providing Continuous Transport in Long Pulse H-mode Plasmas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, H.Q.; Xu, G.S.; Wan, B.N.

    2014-01-01

    An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20–90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Super-conducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond-coated reciproc......An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20–90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Super-conducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond......-coated reciprocating probes. The mode propagates in the electron diamagnetic direction in the plasma frame with poloidal wavelength of ∼8 cm. The mode drives a significant outflow of particles and heat as measured directly with the probes, thus greatly facilitating long pulse H-mode sustainment. This mode shows...

  15. Remote creation of strong and coherent emissions in air with two-color ultrafast laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Yao, Jinping; Jing, Chenrui; Zeng, Bin; Chu, Wei; Ni, Jielei; Zhang, Haisu; Xie, Hongqiang; Zhang, Chaojin; Li, Helong; Xu, Huailiang; Chin, See Leang; Cheng, Ya; Xu, Zhizhan

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate generation of strong narrow-bandwidth emissions with excellent coherent properties at ~391 nm and ~428 nm from molecular ions of nitrogen inside a femtosecond filament in air by an orthogonally polarized two-color driver field (i. e., 800 nm laser pulse and its second harmonic). The durations of the coherent emissions at 391 nm and 428 nm are measured to be ~2.4 ps and ~7.8 ps respectively, both of which are much longer than the duration of the pump and its second harmonic pulses. Furthermore, the measured temporal decay characteristics of the excited molecular systems suggest an "instantaneous" population inversion mechanism that may be achieved in molecular nitrogen ions at an ultrafast time scale comparable to the 800 nm pump pulse.

  16. Method to generate a pulse train of few-cycle coherent radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Bryant; Hemsing, Erik; Raubenheimer, Tor; Campbell, Lawrence T.; McNeil, Brian W. J.

    2016-09-01

    We develop a method to generate a long pulse train of few-cycle coherent radiation by modulating an electron beam with a high power laser. The large energy modulation disperses the beam in a radiating undulator and leads to the production of phase-locked few-cycle coherent radiation pulses. These pulses are produced at a high harmonic of the modulating laser, and are longitudinally separated by the modulating laser wavelength. We discuss an analytical model for this scheme and investigate the temporal and spectral properties of this radiation. This model is compared with numerical simulation results using the unaveraged code Puffin. We examine various harmful effects and how they might be avoided, as well as a possible experimental realization of this scheme.

  17. Method to generate a pulse train of few-cycle coherent radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryant Garcia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We develop a method to generate a long pulse train of few-cycle coherent radiation by modulating an electron beam with a high power laser. The large energy modulation disperses the beam in a radiating undulator and leads to the production of phase-locked few-cycle coherent radiation pulses. These pulses are produced at a high harmonic of the modulating laser, and are longitudinally separated by the modulating laser wavelength. We discuss an analytical model for this scheme and investigate the temporal and spectral properties of this radiation. This model is compared with numerical simulation results using the unaveraged code Puffin. We examine various harmful effects and how they might be avoided, as well as a possible experimental realization of this scheme.

  18. Single-cycle coherent terahertz-pulse propagation in rigid-rotor molecular media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marskar, Robert; Ã-sterberg, Ulf L.

    2015-08-01

    We theoretically analyze linear and nonlinear coherent propagation of linearly polarized, plane-wave, resonant single-cycle terahertz pulses through spatially extended rigid-rotor molecular media. Our model incorporates mixed state medium preparation, nonperturbative nonlinearities, saturation, coherence, memory effects, and propagation, but ignores the effects of damping. Explicit solutions are reported in the linear propagation regime. These solutions are the multilevel superposition of linear, single-cycle 0 π pulses, and appear as temporal beats in the time domain. For media initially in thermal equilibrium, the pulse and molecular beats are dispersive and broaden temporally with increased propagation distance. In the simplified limit of equal rotational line strength (an idealized situation), the emitted impulses are exact temporal copies of the input pulse. An efficient, scalable computational method for solving the reduced multilevel Maxwell-Bloch equations for molecular media is reported. This method is based on a standard differential method for the propagation equation together with an operator splitting method for the Bloch equations. It invokes neither the slowly varying envelope (SVEA) or rotating wave approximations (RWA), and incorporates a large number of possible energy eigenstates (we solve for 7744 levels). Case studies of nonlinear single-cycle pulse propagation are then provided by means of computer solutions. In the nonlinear regime, we observe strong molecular orientations and suppression of the pulse and orientational revivals predicted by linear theory. For sufficiently strong pulses, coherent bleaching effects lead to increased transmission of the driving pulse, which also bears signs of self-modulation and carrier-shock formation.

  19. Optical Receiver for Coherently Detected Pulse-Position Modulated Signals in the Presence of Atmospheric Turbulence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munoz Fernandez, M.; Vilnrotter, V. A.

    2005-05-01

    Performance analysis and experimental verification of a coherent free-space optical communications receiver in the presence of simulated atmospheric turbulence is presented. Bit-error rate (BER) performance of ideal coherent detection is analyzed in Section II, and the laboratory equipment and experimental setup used to carry out these experiments are described. The key components include two lasers operating at a 1064-nm wavelength for use with coherent detection, a 16-element (4 x 4) focal-plane detector array, and a data acquisition and signal processing assembly needed to sample and collect the data and analyze the results. The detected signals are combined using the least-mean-square (LMS) algorithm. In Section III, convergence of the algorithm for experimentally obtained signal tones in the presence of atmospheric turbulence is demonstrated. In Section IV, adaptive combining of experimentally obtained heterodyned pulse-position modulated (PPM) signals with pulse-to-pulse coherence, in the presence of simulated spatial distortions resembling atmospheric turbulence, is demonstrated. The adaptively combined PPM signals are phased up via an LMS algorithm suitably optimized to operate with PPM in the presence of additive shot noise. A convergence analysis of the algorithm is presented, and results with both computer-simulated and experimentally obtained PPM signals are analyzed.

  20. Pulse Phase-coherent Timing and Spectroscopy of CXOU J164710.2-45521 Outbursts

    CERN Document Server

    Castillo, Guillermo A Rodríguez; Esposito, Paolo; Pons, José A; Rea, Nanda; Turolla, Roberto; Viganò, Daniele; Zane, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    We present a long-term phase-coherent timing analysis and pulse-phase resolved spectroscopy for the two outbursts observed from the transient anomalous X-ray pulsar CXOU J164710.2-45521. For the first outburst we used 11 Chandra and XMM-Newton observations between September 2006 to August 2009, the longest baseline yet for this source. We obtain a coherent timing solution with $P=10.61065583(4)$ s, $\\dot{P} = 9.72(1) \\times 10^{-13}\\;$s s$^{-1}$ and $\\ddot{P} = -1.05(5)\\times10^{-20}\\; $s s$^{-2}$. Under the standard assumptions this implies a surface dipolar magnetic field of $\\sim 10^{14}$ G, confirming this source as a standard-$B$ magnetar. We also study the evolution of the pulse profile (shape, intensity and pulsed fraction) as a function of time and energy. Using the phase-coherent timing solution we perform a phase-resolved spectroscopy analysis, following the spectral evolution of pulse-phase features, which hints at the physical processes taking place on the star. The results are discussed from the ...

  1. Coherent-pulse 2D crystallography using a free-electron laser x-ray source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mancuso, A P; Schropp, A; Reime, B; Stadler, L-M; Singer, A; Gulden, J; Streit-Nierobisch, S; Gutt, C; Grübel, G; Feldhaus, J; Staier, F; Barth, R; Rosenhahn, A; Grunze, M; Nisius, T; Wilhein, T; Stickler, D; Stillrich, H; Frömter, R; Oepen, H-P; Martins, M; Pfau, B; Günther, C M; Könnecke, R; Eisebitt, S; Faatz, B; Guerassimova, N; Honkavaara, K; Kocharyan, V; Treusch, R; Saldin, E; Schreiber, S; Schneidmiller, E A; Yurkov, M V; Weckert, E; Vartanyants, I A

    2009-01-23

    Coherent diffractive imaging for the reconstruction of a two-dimensional (2D) finite crystal structure with a single pulse train of free-electron laser radiation at 7.97 nm wavelength is demonstrated. This measurement shows an advance on traditional coherent imaging techniques by applying it to a periodic structure. It is also significant that this approach paves the way for the imaging of the class of specimens which readily form 2D, but not three-dimensional crystals. We show that the structure is reconstructed to the detected resolution, given an adequate signal-to-noise ratio.

  2. Deterministic Coherent Writing of a Long-Lived Semiconductor Spin Qubit Using One Ultrafast Optical Pulse

    CERN Document Server

    Schwartz, I; Schmidgall, E R; Gantz, L; Don, Y; Zielinski, M; Gershoni, D

    2015-01-01

    We use one single, few-picosecond-long, variably polarized laser pulse to deterministically write any selected spin state of a quantum dot confined dark exciton whose life and coherence time are six and five orders of magnitude longer than the laser pulse duration, respectively. The pulse is tuned to an absorption resonance of an excited dark exciton state, which acquires non-negligible oscillator strength due to residual mixing with bright exciton states. We obtain a high fidelity one-to-one mapping from any point on the Poincar\\'e sphere of the pulse polarization to a corresponding point on the Bloch sphere of the spin of the deterministically photogenerated dark exciton.

  3. Trapping of Weak Signal Pulses by Soliton and Trajectory Control in a Coherent Atomic Gas

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Zhiming

    2016-01-01

    We propose a method for trapping weak signal pulses by soliton and realizing its trajectory control via electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The system we consider is a cold, coherent atomic gas with a tripod or multipod level configuration. We show that, due to the giant enhancement of Kerr nonlinearity contributed by EIT, several weak signal pulses can be effectively trapped by a soliton and cotravel stably with ultraslow propagating velocity. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the trajectories of the soliton and the trapped signal pulses can be manipulated by using a Stern-Gerlach gradient magnetic field. As a result, the soliton and the trapped signal pulses display a Stern-Gerlach deflection and both of them can bypass an obstacle together. The results predicted here may be used to design all-optical switching at very low light level.

  4. Coherent pulse implementations of quantum cryptography protocols resistant to photon number splitting attacks

    CERN Document Server

    Acin, A; Scarani, V; Acin, Antonio; Gisin, Nicolas; Scarani, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    A new class of quantum cryptography (QC) protocols that are robust against the most general photon number splitting attacks in a weak coherent pulse implementation has been recently proposed. In this article we give a quite exhaustive analysis of several eavesdropping attacks on these schemes. The eavesdropper (Eve) is supposed to have unlimited technological power while the honest parties (Alice and Bob) use present day technology, in particular an attenuated laser as an approximation of a single-photon source. They exploit the nonorthogonality of quantum states for decreasing the information accessible to Eve in the multi-photon pulses accidentally produced by the imperfect source. An implementation of some of these protocols using present day technology allow for a secure key distribution up to distances of $\\sim$ 150 km. We also show that strong-pulse implementations, where a strong pulse is included as a reference, allow for key distribution robust against photon number splitting attacks.

  5. Temporal structure of attosecond pulses from laser-driven coherent synchrotron emission

    CERN Document Server

    Cousens, S; Dromey, B; Zepf, M

    2016-01-01

    The microscopic dynamics of laser-driven coherent synchrotron emission transmitted through thin foils are investigated using particle-in-cell simulations. For normal incidence interactions, we identify the formation of two distinct electron nanobunches from which emission takes place each half-cycle of the driving laser pulse. These emissions are separated temporally by 130 attoseconds and are dominant in different frequency ranges, which is a direct consequence of the distinct characteristics of each electron nanobunch. This may be exploited through spectral filtering to isolate these emissions, generating electromagnetic pulses of duration ~70 as.

  6. New Edge Coherent Mode Providing Continuous Transport in Long-Pulse H-mode Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Ding, S. Y.; Guo, H. Y.; Shao, L. M.; Liu, S. C.; Xu, X. Q.; Wang, E.; Yan, N.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Candy, J.; Bravenec, R.; Sun, Y. W.; Shi, T. H.; Liang, Y. F.; Chen, R.; Zhang, W.; Wang, L.; Chen, L.; Zhao, N.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, Y. L.; Hu, G. H.; Gong, X. Z.

    2014-05-01

    An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20-90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond-coated reciprocating probes. The mode propagates in the electron diamagnetic direction in the plasma frame with poloidal wavelength of ˜8 cm. The mode drives a significant outflow of particles and heat as measured directly with the probes, thus greatly facilitating long pulse H-mode sustainment. This mode shows the nature of dissipative trapped electron mode, as evidenced by gyrokinetic turbulence simulations.

  7. Coherent LQG Control, Free-Carrier Oscillations, Optical Ising Machines and Pulsed OPO Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Hamerly, Ryan

    2016-01-01

    Broadly speaking, this thesis is about nonlinear optics, quantum mechanics, and computing. More specifically, it covers four main topics: Coherent LQG Control, Free-Carrier Oscillations, Optical Ising Machines and Pulsed OPO Dynamics. Tying them all together is a theory of open quantum systems called the SLH model, which I introduce in Chapters 1-2. The SLH model is a general framework for open quantum systems that interact through bosonic fields, and is the basis for the quantum circuit theory developed in the text. Coherent LQG control is discussed in Chapters 3-4, where I demonstrate that coherent feedback outperforms measurement-based feedback for certain linear quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) problems, and explain the discrepancy by the former's simultaneous utilization of both light quadratures. Semiclassical truncated-Wigner techniques for quantum-optical networks are discussed in Chapter 5, leading to a thorough discussion of quantum noise in systems with free-carrier nonlinearities (Chapter 6), comparison t...

  8. Detection and analysis of multi-dimensional pulse wave based on optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yihui; Li, Zhifang; Li, Hui; Chen, Haiyu

    2014-11-01

    Pulse diagnosis is an important method of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Doctors diagnose the patients' physiological and pathological statuses through the palpation of radial artery for radial artery pulse information. Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is an useful tool for medical optical research. Current conventional diagnostic devices only function as a pressure sensor to detect the pulse wave - which can just partially reflect the doctors feelings and lost large amounts of useful information. In this paper, the microscopic changes of the surface skin above radial artery had been studied in the form of images based on OCT. The deformation of surface skin in a cardiac cycle which is caused by arterial pulse is detected by OCT. The patient's pulse wave is calculated through image processing. It is found that it is good consistent with the result conducted by pulse analyzer. The real-time patient's physiological and pathological statuses can be monitored. This research provides a kind of new method for pulse diagnosis of traditional Chinese medicine.

  9. Formation and erasure of population difference gratings in the coherent interaction of a resonant medium with extremely short optical pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Babushkin, I.; Rosanov, N. N.

    2016-11-01

    In the regime of coherent interaction of short optical pulses with a resonant medium, which is implemented with a pulse duration shorter than the relaxation times in the medium, the formation of population gratings can occur without overlapping the pulses therein. In this case, there are new possibilities for controlling optical pulses, which are especially pronounced for extremely short pulses. It is shown that, with the proper choice of the parameters of a sequence of extremely short optical pulses, not only the formation of population gratings, but also their erasure are possible. It is demonstrated that this effect can be used for the creation of an ultrahigh-speed optical deflector.

  10. Terahertz field enhancement via coherent superposition of the pulse sequences after a single optical-rectification crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sajadi, Mohsen; Wolf, Martin; Kampfrath, Tobias

    2014-03-01

    Terahertz electromagnetic pulses are frequently generated by optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses. In many cases, the efficiency of this process is known to saturate with increasing intensity of the generation beam because of two-photon absorption. Here, we demonstrate two routes to reduce this effect in ZnTe(110) crystals and enhance efficiency, namely, by (i) recycling the generation pulses and by (ii) splitting each generation pulse into two pulses before pumping the crystal. In both methods, the second pulse arrives ˜1 ns after the first one, sufficiently long for optically generated carriers to relax. Enhancement is achieved by coherently superimposing the two resulting terahertz fields.

  11. Terahertz field enhancement via coherent superposition of the pulse sequences after a single optical-rectification crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sajadi, Mohsen, E-mail: sajadi@fhi-berlin.mpg.de; Wolf, Martin; Kampfrath, Tobias [Fritz Haber Institute of the Max Planck Society, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany)

    2014-03-03

    Terahertz electromagnetic pulses are frequently generated by optical rectification of femtosecond laser pulses. In many cases, the efficiency of this process is known to saturate with increasing intensity of the generation beam because of two-photon absorption. Here, we demonstrate two routes to reduce this effect in ZnTe(110) crystals and enhance efficiency, namely, by (i) recycling the generation pulses and by (ii) splitting each generation pulse into two pulses before pumping the crystal. In both methods, the second pulse arrives ∼1 ns after the first one, sufficiently long for optically generated carriers to relax. Enhancement is achieved by coherently superimposing the two resulting terahertz fields.

  12. Performance of coherent and noncoherent RAKE receivers with convolutional coding ricean fading and pulse-noise interference

    OpenAIRE

    Kowalske, Kyle E.

    2004-01-01

    Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited The performance of coherent and noncoherent RAKE receivers over a fading channel in the presence of pulse-noise interference and additive white Gaussian noise is analyzed. Coherent RAKE receivers require a pilot tone for coherent demodulation. Using a first order phase-lock-loop to recover a pilot tone with additive white Gaussian noise causes phase distortions at the phase-lock-loop output, which produce an irreducible phase noise err...

  13. High-degree pulse compression and high-coherence supercontinuum generation in a convex dispersion profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qian; Kutz, J. Nathan; Wai, P. K. A.

    2013-08-01

    We consider the non-adiabatic pulse compression of cascaded soliton propagating in three consecutive optical fiber segments, each of which has a convex dispersion profile with two zero-dispersion wavelengths. The convex dispersion profile provides an accurate description of the chromatic dispersion over the whole frequency range, thus allowing for a comprehensive theoretical treatment of the cascaded third order soliton compression when ultrashort pulses (DFDF) has a convex curvature in its dispersion profile which varies along length of fiber. Compared to DFDF, the cascading of fiber segments with convex dispersion that stays constant along the fiber length greatly reduces the manufacture difficulties and provides a much simpler engineering design in practice. High-degree pulse compression and high-coherence supercontinuum generation are demonstrated.

  14. Ultrafast spectroscopy of coherent phonon in carbon nanotubes using sub-5-fs visible pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kobayashi, Takayoshi [Advanced Ultrafast Laser Research Center, The University of Electro-Communications, 1-5-1 Chofugaoka, Chofu, Tokyo, 182-8585 (Japan); JST, CREST, 5 Sanbancho, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0075 Japan (Japan); Department of Electrophysics, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 30010, Taiwan (China); Institute of Laser Engineering, Osaka University, 2-6 Yamada-oka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871, Japan kobayashi@ils.uec.ac.jp (Japan)

    2016-02-01

    In the last two decades, nano materials are attracting many scientists’ interest for both basic and application viewpoints. In order to understand the properties of nano systems it is needed to understand the dynamic properties which control the specific properties of the systems. All the primary processes in nano systems are taking place in femtosecond regime. Our group has been able to stably generate visible to near-infrared sub-5-fs laser pulses using a noncollinear optical parametric amplifier (NOPA) by the combination of various novel techniques including non-collinear optical parametric amplifier, pulse compression by a prism pair and grating pair. We apply the sub-5-fs pulses to study real-time coherent phonon in a one-dimensional system of carbon nanotubes. We determine exciton-phonon coupling mechanisms by observing the breathing mode in semiconducting carbon nanotubes and show the effect of electronic transition affected by the vibrational mode.

  15. Coherent Dark States of Rubidium 87 in a Buffer Gas using Pulsed Laser Light

    CERN Document Server

    Brattke, S; Hartmann, W D

    1998-01-01

    The coherent dark resonance between the hyperfine levels F=1, m=0 and F=2, m=0 of the rubidium ground state has been observed experimentally with the light of a pulsed mode-locked diode laser operating at the D1 transition frequency. The resonance occurs whenever the pulse repetition frequency matches an integer fraction of the rubidium 87 ground state hyperfine splitting of 6.8 GHz. Spectra have been taken by varying the pulse repetition frequency. Using cells with argon as a buffer gas a linewidth as narrow as 149 Hz was obtained. The rubidium ground state decoherence cross section 1.1*10^(-18) cm^2 for collisions with xenon atoms has been measured for the first time with this method using a pure isotope rubidium vapor cell and xenon as a buffer gas.

  16. Short-Pulse Limits in Optical Instrumentation Design for the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatchyn, R.

    2005-01-31

    The source properties of linac-driven X-Ray Free-Electron Lasers (XRFELs) operating in the Self-Amplified Spontaneous Emission (SASE) regime differ markedly from those of ordinary insertion devices on synchrotron storage rings. In the case of the 1.5 {angstrom} SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS), the longitudinal output profile typically consists of a randomly-distributed train of fully-transversely-coherent micropulses of randomly varying intensity and an average length (corresponding to the source coherence length) two to three orders of magnitude smaller than the transverse diameter of the beam. Total pulse lengths are typically of the same order of size as the beam diameter. Both of these properties can be shown to significantly impact the performance of otherwise conventional synchrotron radiation optics; viz., mirrors, lenses, zone plates, crystals, multilayers, etc. In this paper we outline an analysis of short-pulse effects on selected optical components for the SLAC LCLS and discuss the implications for critical applications such as microfocusing and monochromatization.

  17. Spatial evolution of short pulses under conditions of coherent population trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Arkhipkin, V G

    2001-01-01

    We study the features of spatial and temporal evolution of two powerful short different-wavelength laser pulses interacting with optical dense three-level Lambda-type medium under condition of coherent population trapping for the general case of unequal transition oscillator strengths. The pulses are simultaneously sent into an atom. The durations of probe and coupling pulses $T_{1,2}$ ($T_2>T_1$) are supposed to be shorter than all relaxation times in the medium. We present analytical and numerical solutions of the self-consistent set of coupled Schr\\"{o}dinger equations and reduced wave equations in adiabatic limit with taking into account the first non-adiabatic correction. The adiabaticity criterion with account of pulse propagation is studied. We find that propagation dynamics depends on the relationship between the transition oscillator strengths. It is shown that at the initial stage of propagation the envelopes of the pulses slightly change along the length of the medium. This distance can be large co...

  18. Coherent control of ultracold molecule dynamics in a magneto-optical trap using chirped femtosecond laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Brown, B L; Walmsley, I A; Brown, Benjamin L.; Dicks, Alexander J.; Walmsley, Ian A.

    2005-01-01

    We have studied the effects of chirped femtosecond laser pulses on the formation of ultracold molecules in a Rb magneto-optical trap. We have found that application of chirped femtosecond pulses suppressed the formation of 85Rb-2 and 87Rb-2 lowest triplet state molecules in contrast to comparable non-chirped pulses, cw illumination, and background formation rates. Variation of the amount of chirp indicated that this suppression is coherent in nature, suggesting that coherent control is likely to be useful for manipulating the dynamics of ultracold quantum molecular gases.

  19. Coherent control of ultracold molecule dynamics in a magneto-optical trap by use of chirped femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Benjamin L; Dicks, Alexander J; Walmsley, Ian A

    2006-05-05

    We have studied the effects of chirped femtosecond laser pulses on the formation of ultracold molecules in a Rb magneto-optical trap. We have found that application of chirped femtosecond pulses suppressed the formation of (85)Rb and (87)Rb(2) a(3)sigma(+)(u) molecules in contrast to comparable nonchirped pulses, cw illumination, and background formation rates. Variation of the amount of chirp indicated that this suppression is coherent in nature, suggesting that coherent control is likely to be useful for manipulating the dynamics of ultracold quantum molecular gases.

  20. Single-cycle Terahertz Pulses with >0.2 V/A Field Amplitudes via Coherent Transition Radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daranciang, Dan; /Stanford U., Chem. Dept.; Goodfellow, John; /Stanford U. Materials Sci. Dept.; Fuchs, Matthias; /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC, PULSE; Wen, Haidan; /ANL, APS; Ghimire, Shambhu; /SLAC, PULSE; Reis, David A.; /SIMES, Sanford /SLAC, PULSE /Stanford U., Appl. Phys. Dept.; Loos, Henrik; Fisher, Alan S.; /SLAC, LCLS; Lindenberg, Aaron M.; /Stanford U. Materials Sci. Dept. /SIMES, Stanford /SLAC, PULSE

    2012-02-15

    We demonstrate terahertz pulses with field amplitudes exceeding 0.2 V/{angstrom} generated by coherent transition radiation. Femtosecond, relativistic electron bunches generated at the Linac Coherent Light Source are passed through a beryllium foil, and the emitted radiation is characterized as a function of the bunch duration and charge. Broadband pulses centered at a frequency of 10 THz with energies of 140 {mu}J are measured. These far-below-bandgap pulses drive a nonlinear optical response in a silicon photodiode, with which we perform nonlinear autocorrelations that yield information regarding the terahertz temporal profile. Simulations of the spatiotemporal profile agree well with experimental results.

  1. Pulsed Compression for Aerosol Ranging with Coherent Pulse-Doppler Lidar Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    generation technique requires an impulse function or short time duration pulse as the input to a dispersive phase filter . The frequency transfer...function H(f) of the dispersive phase filter can be expressed in general as H(f) = IH(f)Iexp lU(f)] (122) where the magnitude of the transfer function IH(f...response of the dispersive phase filter to a short time duration signal with large bandwidth B is a long time duration signal with the bandwidth B of

  2. High-Order Harmonic Generation by Two Non-collinear Coherent Femtosecond Laser Pulses

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆伟新; 刘婷婷; 杨宏; 孙騊亨; 龚旗煌

    2003-01-01

    We have studied the high-order harmonic generated by two coherent pulses in argon gas produced by a gas jet. A loop in the relationship of the harmonic intensity versus the absolute values of relative phase difference was observed for non-collinear arrangement. Compared with the collinear arrangement, increase of 10 times of the conversion efficiency for 17th-order harmonic generation at an appropriate relative phase difference was obtained. The calculation of the intensity and phase for the laser field near the focus gives a simple reason for these phenomena.

  3. Interference spectroscopy with coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering of noisy broadband pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Shapiro, Evgeny A; Milner, Valery

    2011-01-01

    We propose a new technique for comparing two Raman active samples. The method employs optical interference of the signals generated via coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) of broadband laser pulses with noisy spectra. It does not require spectrally resolved detection, and no prior knowledge about either the Raman spectrum of the samples, or the spectrum of the incident light is needed. We study the proposed method theoretically, and demonstrate it in a proof-of-principle experiment on Toluene and ortho-Xylene samples.

  4. Dual-Comb Coherent Raman Spectroscopy with Lasers of 1-GHz Pulse Repetition Frequency

    CERN Document Server

    Mohler, Kathrin J; Yan, Ming; Hänsch, Theodor W; Picqué, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    We extend the technique of multiplex coherent Raman spectroscopy with two femtosecond mode-locked lasers to oscillators of a pulse repetition frequency of 1 GHz. We demonstrate spectra of liquids, which span 1100 cm$^{-1}$ of Raman shifts. At a resolution of 6 cm$^{-1}$, their measurement time may be as short as 5 microseconds for a refresh rate of 2 kHz. The waiting period between acquisitions is improved ten-fold compared to previous experiments with two lasers of 100-MHz repetition frequencies.

  5. Multidimensional resonant nonlinear spectroscopy with coherent broadband x-ray pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kochise; Zhang, Yu; Kowalewski, Markus; Hua, Weijie; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-12-01

    New x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) and high harmonic generation (HHG) light sources are capable of generating short and intense pulses that make x-ray nonlinear spectroscopy possible. Multidimensional spectroscopic techniques, which have long been used in the nuclear magnetic resonance, infrared, and optical regimes to probe the electronic structure and nuclear dynamics of molecules by sequences of short pulses with variable delays, can thus be extended to the attosecond x-ray regime. This opens up the possibility of probing core-electronic structure and couplings, the real-time tracking of impulsively created valence-electronic wavepackets and electronic coherences, and monitoring ultrafast processes such as nonadiabatic electron-nuclear dynamics near conical-intersection crossings. We survey various possible types of multidimensional x-ray spectroscopy techniques and demonstrate the novel information they can provide about molecules.

  6. Absolute frequency synthesis of pulsed coherent light waves through phase-modulation active optical feedback.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, K; Horiguchi, T; Koyamada, Y

    1996-11-15

    A novel method for the broadband absolute frequency synthesis of pulsed coherent lightwaves is demonstrated. It is based on pulse recirculation around an active optical feedback ring containing a delay-line fiber, an external phase modulator, an acousto-optic frequency shifter (AOFS), and a high-finesse Fabry-Perot étalon. The modulation frequency F(M) and the frequency shift F(AO) that are due to AOFS are designed so that their sum or difference equals the free-spectral range of the étalon and F(AO) is set at larger than the half-width at full maximum of its resonant peaks. If one of the peak frequencies is tuned to the frequency of the initial pulse, the frequency of the recirculating pulse jumps to the next peak for each round trip. In the experiment the absolute frequency is synthesized over a frequency span of 700 GHz around the initial stabilized frequency of the master laser.

  7. Transition from coherent to incoherent acceleration of nonthermal relativistic electron induced by an intense light pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Y. L.; Kuramitsu, Y.; Moritaka, T.; Chen, S. H.

    2017-03-01

    Nonthermal acceleration of relativistic electrons due to the wakefield induced by an intense light pulse is investigated. The spectra of the cosmic rays are well represented by power-law. Wakefield acceleration has been considered as a candidate for the origins of cosmic rays. The wakefield can be excited by an intense laser pulse as large-amplitude precursor waves in collisionless shocks in the universe. National Central University (NCU) 100-TW laser facility in Taiwan is able to provide high-repetition rate and short intense laser. To experimentally study the wakefield acceleration for the spectrum of the cosmic rays, particle-in-cell simulations are performed to calculate the energy distribution functions of electrons in fixed laser conditions with various plasma densities. The transitions of wakefields from coherent to inherent are observed as the plasma density increases. The distribution functions indicate that the smooth nonthermal power-law spectra with an index of -2 appear when the incoherent wakefields are excited. In contrast, the mono-peak appear in the spectra when the coherent wakefields are excited. The incoherent wakefields yielding the power-law spectra imply the stochastic accelerating of electrons. To explain the universal nonthermal power-law spectra with an index of -2, we described and extended the stochastic acceleration model based on Fokker-Planck equation by assuming the transition rate as an exponential function.

  8. Demonstrating coherent control in 85Rb2 using ultrafast laser pulses: a theoretical outline of two experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Martay, Hugo E L; England, Duncan G; Friedman, Melissa E; Petrovic, Jovana; Walmsley, Ian A

    2009-01-01

    Calculations relating to two experiments that demonstrate coherent control of preformed rubidium-85 molecules in a magneto-optical trap using ultrafast laser pulses are presented. In the first experiment, it is shown that pre-associated molecules in an incoherent mixture of states can be made to oscillate coherently using a single ultrafast pulse. A novel mechanism that can transfer molecular population to more deeply bound vibrational levels is used in the second. Optimal parameters of the control pulse are presented for the application of the mechanism to molecules in a magneto-optical trap. The calculations make use of an experimental determination of the initial state of molecules photoassociated by the trapping lasers in the magneto-optical trap and use shaped pulses consistent with a standard ultrafast laser system.

  9. Multiple-spin coherence transfer in linear Ising spin chains and beyond: numerically-optimized pulses and experiments

    CERN Document Server

    Nimbalkar, Manoj; Neves, Jorge L; Elavarasi, S Begam; Yuan, Haidong; Khaneja, Navin; Dorai, Kavita; Glaser, Steffen J

    2011-01-01

    We study multiple-spin coherence transfers in linear Ising spin chains with nearest neighbor couplings. These constitute a model for efficient information transfers in future quantum computing devices and for many multi-dimensional experiments for the assignment of complex spectra in nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We complement prior analytic techniques for multiple-spin coherence transfers with a systematic numerical study where we obtain strong evidence that a certain analytically-motivated family of restricted controls is sufficient for time-optimality. In the case of a linear three-spin system, additional evidence suggests that prior analytic pulse sequences using this family of restricted controls are time-optimal even for arbitrary local controls. In addition, we compare the pulse sequences for linear Ising spin chains to pulse sequences for more realistic spin systems with additional long-range couplings between non-adjacent spins. We experimentally implement the derived pulse sequences in th...

  10. Pulsed coherent fiber lidar transceiver for aircraft in-flight turbulence and wake-vortex hazard detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, M.; Hwang, J.; Kimpel, F.; Gupta, S.; Verdun, H.

    2011-06-01

    We report on the development of a fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar transceiver for wind-velocity and aircraft wake-vortex hazard detection. The all-fiber 1.5μm transmitter provides up to 560 μJ energy at 25 kHz with 800 ns pulse width (pump limited). Performance simulations indicate wake-vortex hazard signature detection up to ~2.5km range with a receiver sensitivity of ~2 fW (SNR=6), suited for an aircraft landing scenario. Furthermore, the transceiver is implemented using high-speed FPGA based control and digital-signal-processing, enabling its use as a flexible pulse-format multi-function in-flight lidar sensor. We present the latest laboratory results and preliminary testing of this pulsed coherent lidar transceiver, along with the lidar performance simulation of wake-vortex eddy models.

  11. Characterizing Dielectric Materials using Monostatic Transmission- and Reflection-Ellipsometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barowski, Jan; Rolfes, Ilona

    2017-03-01

    The characterization of dielectric materials at microwave frequencies can be done by various measurement principles. Free space methods are a commonly used approach if the material under test (MUT) has to be characterized in-situ or in a non-destructive manner. Since the transmission and reflection parameters of a finite sized dielectric slab typically depend on its thickness, accurate knowledge about this parameter is of high importance. The ellipsometric approach presented in this paper eliminates the thickness dependence and thus allows to reduce a major source of error. This is achieved by performing four measurements. These measure the transmission and reflection factors of the MUT in both polarizations at an incident angle of 45°. The high stability of the measurement allows a simple monostatic setup utilizing a single antenna. The measurements in this paper are performed using Polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) and Polyvinylchloride (PVC) blocks in the frequency range from 22 GHz to 26 GHz.

  12. Pulse wave imaging using coherent compounding in a phantom and in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias Apostolakis, Iason; McGarry, Matthew D. J.; Bunting, Ethan A.; Konofagou, Elisa E.

    2017-03-01

    Pulse wave velocity (PWV) is a surrogate marker of arterial stiffness linked to cardiovascular morbidity. Pulse wave imaging (PWI) is a technique developed by our group for imaging the pulse wave propagation in vivo. PWI requires high temporal and spatial resolution, which conventional ultrasonic imaging is unable to simultaneously provide. Coherent compounding is known to address this tradeoff and provides full aperture images at high frame rates. This study aims to implement PWI using coherent compounding within a GPU-accelerated framework. The results of the implemented method were validated using a silicone phantom against static mechanical testing. Reproducibility of the measured PWVs was assessed in the right common carotid of six healthy subjects (n  =  6) approximately 10–15 mm before the bifurcation during two cardiac cycles over the course of 1–3 d. Good agreement of the measured PWVs (3.97  ±  1.21 m s‑1, 4.08  ±  1.15 m s‑1, p  =  0.74) was obtained. The effects of frame rate, transmission angle and number of compounded plane waves on PWI performance were investigated in the six healthy volunteers. Performance metrics such as the reproducibility of the PWVs, the coefficient of determination (r 2), the SNR of the PWI axial wall velocities (\\text{SN}{{\\text{R}}{{\\text{v}_{\\text{PWI}}}}} ) and the percentage of lateral positions where the pulse wave appears to arrive at the same time-point, indicating inadequacy of the temporal resolution (i.e. temporal resolution misses) were used to evaluate the effect of each parameter. Compounding plane waves transmitted at 1° increments with a linear array yielded optimal performance, generating significantly higher r 2 and \\text{SN}{{\\text{R}}{{\\text{v}_{\\text{PWI}}}}} values (p  ⩽  0.05). Higher frame rates (⩾1667 Hz) produced improvements with significant gains in the r 2 coefficient (p  ⩽  0.05) and significant increase in both r 2 and

  13. Frequency-time coherence for all-optical sampling without optical pulse source

    CERN Document Server

    Preussler, Stefan; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Sampling is the first step to convert an analogue optical signal into a digital electrical signal. The latter can be further processed and analysed by well-known electrical signal processing methods. Optical pulse sources like mode-locked lasers are commonly incorporated for all-optical sampling, but have several drawbacks. A novel approach for a simple all-optical sampling is to utilise the frequency-time coherence of each signal. The method is based on only using two coupled modulators driven with an electrical sine wave, allowing simple integration in appropriate platforms, such as Silicon Photonics. The presented method grants all-optical sampling with electrically tunable bandwidth, repetition rate and time shift.

  14. Doublet Pulse Coherent Laser Radar for Tracking of Resident Space Objects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Narasimha S.; Rudd, Van; Shald, Scott; Sandford, Stephen; Dimarcantonio, Albert

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the development of a long range ladar system known as ExoSPEAR at NASA Langley Research Center for tracking rapidly moving resident space objects is discussed. Based on 100 W, nanosecond class, near-IR laser, this ladar system with coherent detection technique is currently being investigated for short dwell time measurements of resident space objects (RSOs) in LEO and beyond for space surveillance applications. This unique ladar architecture is configured using a continuously agile doublet-pulse waveform scheme coupled to a closed-loop tracking and control loop approach to simultaneously achieve mm class range precision and mm/s velocity precision and hence obtain unprecedented track accuracies. Salient features of the design architecture followed by performance modeling and engagement simulations illustrating the dependence of range and velocity precision in LEO orbits on ladar parameters are presented. Estimated limits on detectable optical cross sections of RSOs in LEO orbits are discussed.

  15. Quantitative comparison of fuel spray images obtained using ultrafast coherent and incoherent double-pulsed illumination

    CERN Document Server

    Purwar, Harsh; Idlahcen, Saïd; Rozé, Claude; Blaisot, Jean-Bernard; Ménard, Thibault

    2015-01-01

    We present a quantitative comparison between the high-pressure fuel spray images obtained experimentally using classical imaging with coherent and incoherent ultrafast illuminations recorded using a compatible CMOS camera. The ultrafast, incoherent illumination source was extracted from the supercontinuum generated by tightly focusing the femtosecond laser pulses in water. The average velocity maps computed using time-correlated image-pairs and spray edge complexity computed using the average curvature scale space maps are compared for the spray images obtained with the two illumination techniques and also for the numerically simulated spray using the coupled volume of fluid and level set method for interface tracking (direct numerical simulation or DNS). The spray images obtained with supercontinuum-derived, incoherent, ultrafast illumination are clearer, since the artifacts arising due to laser speckles and multiple diffraction effects are largely reduced and show a better correlation with the DNS results.

  16. Observation of coherent transition radiation using relativistic pico second electron pulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jones, C.R.; Kosai, H.; Dutt, J.M. [North Carolina Central Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    1995-12-31

    When an electron beams passes through boundaries of two different media with different dielectric constants, it generates radiation. The radiation emitted by the prebunched electron beam becomes coherent if the size of the bunch is smaller than the wavelength. Therefore, transition radiation can be considered as a possible broad band radiation source as well as a probe to the pico second and sub picosecond electron beam profiles. Using 1.2 MeV, 200 mA, macropulse electron beam, transition radiation was generated. The electron gun consists of 2.856 GHz Klystron, thermionic cathode. The emitted electron beam was bunched by passing through an alpha magnet. As a result of the combination, a pico second pulse (1.2 MeV, up to 80 A micropulse) was obtained. Experimental results, comparisons with the theory, and simulated electron beam profiles will be presented.

  17. Frequency-time coherence for all-optical sampling without optical pulse source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preußler, Stefan; Raoof Mehrpoor, Gilda; Schneider, Thomas

    2016-09-01

    Sampling is the first step to convert an analogue optical signal into a digital electrical signal. The latter can be further processed and analysed by well-known electrical signal processing methods. Optical pulse sources like mode-locked lasers are commonly incorporated for all-optical sampling, but have several drawbacks. A novel approach for a simple all-optical sampling is to utilise the frequency-time coherence of each signal. The method is based on only using two coupled modulators driven with an electrical sine wave. Since no optical source is required, a simple integration in appropriate platforms, such as Silicon Photonics might be possible. The presented method grants all-optical sampling with electrically tunable bandwidth, repetition rate and time shift.

  18. Estimation of suspended sediment concentrations using Pulse-coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PCADP)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAI Xiufang; LI Siren; GONG Dejun; XU Yongping; JIANG Jingbo

    2009-01-01

    The objective of the study is to investigate the suitability of using Pulse-coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PCADP) to estimate suspended sediment concentration (SSC). The acoustic backscatter intensity was corrected for spreading and absorption loss, then calibrated with OBS and finally converted to SSC. The results show that there is a good correlation between SSC and backscatter intensity with R value of 0.74. The mean relative error is 22.4%. Then the time span of little particle size variation was also analyzed to exclude the influence of size variation. The correlation coefficient increased to 0.81 and the error decreased to 18.9%. Our results suggest that the PCADP can meet the requirement of other professional instruments to estimate SSC with the errors between 20% and 50%, and can satisfy the need of dynamics study of suspended particles.

  19. Monostatic coaxial 1.5 μm laser Doppler velocimeter using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-01-01

    and receiver optics share a common axis reduces the number of components and greatly simplifies the optical alignment. However, the sensitivity to unwanted backreflections is increased. To circumvent this problem, we employ a custom optical circulator design which compared to commercial fiber-optic circulator......We present a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) in monostatic coaxial arrangement consisting of off-the-shelf telecom-grade components: a single frequency laser (wavelength λ = 1.5 μm) and a high-finesse scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (sFPI). In contrast to previous 1.5 μm LDV systems based...... on heterodyne detection, our sFPI-LDV has the advantages of having large remote sensing range not limited by laser coherence, high velocity dynamic range not limited by detector bandwidth and inherent sign discrimination of Doppler shift. The more optically efficient coaxial arrangement where transmitter...

  20. Coherent lidar modulated with frequency stepped pulse trains for unambiguous high duty cycle range and velocity sensing in the atmosphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindelöw, Per Jonas Petter; Mohr, Johan Jacob

    2007-01-01

    Range unambiguous high duty cycle coherent lidars can be constructed based on frequency stepped pulse train modulation, even continuously emitting systems could be envisioned. Such systems are suitable for velocity sensing of dispersed targets, like the atmosphere, at fast acquisition rates...

  1. Investigation of fiber Bragg grating as a spectral notch shaper for single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Seung Ryeol; Park, Joo Hyun; Kim, Kyung-Soo; Lee, Eun Seong; Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Soohyun

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate compact and efficient single-pulse coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS) via spectral notch shaping implemented with a fiber Bragg grating. We show that a fiber Bragg grating can serve as a narrowband notch filtering component on a 90 nm broadband femtosecond pulsed laser without spectral distortion. Finally, we obtain CARS spectra of various samples in the fingerprint region of molecular vibrations. This scheme has potential for compact implementations of all-fiber single-pulse multiplex CARS due to its compatibility with fiber optics.

  2. Shaped-pulse optimization of coherent emission of high-harmonic soft X-rays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels; Backus; Zeek; Misoguti; Vdovin; Christov; Murnane; Kapteyn

    2000-07-13

    When an intense laser pulse is focused into a gas, the light-atom interaction that occurs as atoms are ionized results in an extremely nonlinear optical process--the generation of high harmonics of the driving laser frequency. Harmonics that extend up to orders of about 300 have been reported, some corresponding to photon energies in excess of 500 eV. Because this technique is simple to implement and generates coherent, laser-like, soft X-ray beams, it is currently being developed for applications in science and technology; these include probing the dynamics in chemical and materials systems and imaging. Here we report that by carefully tailoring the shapes of intense light pulses, we can control the interaction of light with an atom during ionization, improving the efficiency of X-ray generation by an order of magnitude. We demonstrate that it is possible to tune the spectral characteristics of the emitted radiation, and to steer the interaction between different orders of nonlinear processes.

  3. High Repetition Rate Pulsed 2-Micron Laser Transmitter for Coherent CO2 DIAL Measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Uprendra N.; Bai, Yingxin; Yu, Jirong; Petros, Mulugeta; Petzar, Paul J.; Trieu, Bo C.; Lee, Hyung

    2009-01-01

    A high repetition rate, highly efficient, Q-switched 2-micron laser system as the transmitter of a coherent differential absorption lidar for CO2 measurement has been developed at NASA Langley Research Center. Such a laser transmitter is a master-slave laser system. The master laser operates in a single frequency, either on-line or off-line of a selected CO2 absorption line. The slave laser is a Q-switched ring-cavity Ho:YLF laser which is pumped by a Tm:fiber laser. The repetition rate can be adjusted from a few hundred Hz to 10 kHz. The injection seeding success rate is from 99.4% to 99.95%. For 1 kHz operation, the output pulse energy is 5.5mJ with the pulse length of approximately 50 ns. The optical-to-optical efficiency is 39% when the pump power is 14.5W. The measured standard deviation of the laser frequency jitter is about 3 MHz.

  4. Experimental Study of Coherent Summation of Radiation from Two Widely Aperture Pulsed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.E. Rogalin

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Emission of two high-power pulsed CO2-lasers with a transverse discharge at atmospheric pressure in the active medium and the output beam aperture 100  100 mm, united by a joint unstable telescopic resonator, was coherently summarized under conditions of real ground-level trackon the screen surface, which was remote from output mirror of the laser at a distance of 263 m. Output Brewster windows of laser cuvettes were manufactured from single-crystal plates of sodium chloride which had a diameter of 300 mm. Mirrors for resonator and optical circuit were manufactured from oxygen-free copper. Active medium - a mixture of gases: CO2: N2: He in the ratio 1 : 2 : 3. Laser pulse duration is 5 microseconds. During the experiment, when summing on the screen 2-laser beams at the lowest possible convergence angle of rays, the interference pattern was registered.

  5. Background-free coherent anti-stokes Raman spectroscopy and microscopy by dual-soliton pulse generation

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Kun; Wei, Haoyun; Li, Yan

    2016-01-01

    We propose an all-fiber-generated dual-soliton pulses based scheme for the background-free detection of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy under the spectral focusing mechanism. Due to the strong birefringence and high nonlinearity of a polarization-maintaining photonic crystal fiber (PM-PCF), two redshifted soliton pulses can be simultaneously generated relying on high-order dispersion and nonlinear effects along two eigenpolarization axes in the anomalous dispersion regime, while allowing feasible tunability of the frequency distance and temporal interval between them. This proposed scheme, termed as DS-CARS, exploits a unique combination of slight frequency-shift and advisable temporal walk-off of this two soliton pulses to achieve robust and efficient suppression of nonresonant background with compact all-fiber coherent excitation source. Capability of the DS-CARS is experimentally demonstrated by the background-free CARS spectroscopy and unambiguous CARS microscopy of polymer beads in the fingerprin...

  6. Role of coherent resonant nonlinear processes in the ultrashort KrF laser pulse propagation and filamentation in air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smetanin, I.V.; Levchenko, A.O.; Shutov, A.V.; Ustinovskii, N.N. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 53 Leninskii pr., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Zvorykin, V.D. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, 53 Leninskii pr., 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, 31 Kashirskoe sh., 115409 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2016-02-15

    Recent experiments on multiple filamentation of sub-picosecond terawatt-level KrF laser pulse in air and multi-photon ionization of air revealed an extremely low electron density in filaments, which is out of the conventional filamentation model considering Kerr self-focusing and plasma de-focusing. We propose here the coherent resonant scattering and ionization processes at the pulse durations significantly less than the polarization relaxation time to be possible explanation of the observed filamentation peculiarities. Namely, we argue that the plasma production results from the resonance enhanced (2+1)-photon ionization of the oxygen molecules through the two-photon excitation of the 3s metastable Rydberg state. Coherent Raman self-scattering at rotational transitions of nitrogen molecules provides self-induced focusing of the ultrashort UV laser pulse and filament formation.

  7. Coherent diffraction imaging analysis of shape-controlled nanoparticles with focused hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yukio; Suzuki, Akihiro; Zettsu, Nobuyuki; Oroguchi, Tomotaka; Takayama, Yuki; Sekiguchi, Yuki; Kobayashi, Amane; Yamamoto, Masaki; Nakasako, Masayoshi

    2013-01-01

    We report the first demonstration of the coherent diffraction imaging analysis of nanoparticles using focused hard X-ray free-electron laser pulses, allowing us to analyze the size distribution of particles as well as the electron density projection of individual particles. We measured 1000 single-shot coherent X-ray diffraction patterns of shape-controlled Ag nanocubes and Au/Ag nanoboxes and estimated the edge length from the speckle size of the coherent diffraction patterns. We then reconstructed the two-dimensional electron density projection with sub-10 nm resolution from selected coherent diffraction patterns. This method enables the simultaneous analysis of the size distribution of synthesized nanoparticles and the structures of particles at nanoscale resolution to address correlations between individual structures of components and the statistical properties in heterogeneous systems such as nanoparticles and cells.

  8. Remote monostatic detection of radioactive material by laser-induced breakdown

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaacs, Joshua; Miao, Chenlong; Sprangle, Phillip

    2016-03-01

    This paper analyzes and evaluates a concept for remotely detecting the presence of radioactivity using electromagnetic signatures. The detection concept is based on the use of laser beams and the resulting electromagnetic signatures near the radioactive material. Free electrons, generated from ionizing radiation associated with the radioactive material, cascade down to low energies and attach to molecular oxygen. The resulting ion density depends on the level of radioactivity and can be readily photo-ionized by a low-intensity laser beam. This process provides a controllable source of seed electrons for the further collisional ionization (breakdown) of the air using a high-power, focused, CO2 laser pulse. When the air breakdown process saturates, the ionizing CO2 radiation reflects off the plasma region and can be detected. The time required for this to occur is a function of the level of radioactivity. This monostatic detection arrangement has the advantage that both the photo-ionizing and avalanche laser beams and the detector can be co-located.

  9. Frequency modulated few-cycle optical pulse trains induced controllable ultrafast coherent population oscillations in three-level atomic systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Parvendra

    2012-01-01

    We report a study on the ultrafast coherent population oscillations (UCPO) in sodium atoms induced by the frequency modulated few-cycle optical pulse trains. The phenomenon of UCPO is investigated by numerically solving the appropriate density matrix equations beyond the rotating wave approximation. We demonstrate that the quantum state of the atoms and the frequency of UCPO may be controlled by controlling the number of pulses in the pulse trains and the pulse repetition time respectively. Moreover, the robustness of population transfer against the variation of laser pulse parameters is also investigated. The proposed scheme may be useful for the creation of atomic beam in selected quantum state for desired time duration and may have potential applications in ultrafast optical switching.

  10. All-Fiber Airborne Coherent Doppler Lidar to Measure Wind Profiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Jiqiao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An all-fiber airborne pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (CDL prototype at 1.54μm is developed to measure wind profiles in the lower troposphere layer. The all-fiber single frequency pulsed laser is operated with pulse energy of 300μJ, pulse width of 400ns and pulse repetition rate of 10kHz. To the best of our knowledge, it is the highest pulse energy of all-fiber eye-safe single frequency laser that is used in airborne coherent wind lidar. The telescope optical diameter of monostatic lidar is 100 mm. Velocity-Azimuth-Display (VAD scanning is implemented with 20 degrees elevation angle in 8 different azimuths. Real-time signal processing board is developed to acquire and process the heterodyne mixing signal with 10000 pulses spectra accumulated every second. Wind profiles are obtained every 20 seconds. Several experiments are implemented to evaluate the performance of the lidar. We have carried out airborne wind lidar experiments successfully, and the wind profiles are compared with aerological theodolite and ground based wind lidar. Wind speed standard error of less than 0.4m/s is shown between airborne wind lidar and balloon aerological theodolite.

  11. Wind Profiling from a New Compact, Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection Doppler Lidar Transceiver during Wind Measurement Intercomparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Yu, Jirong; Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Demoz, B.; Veneable, D.

    2009-01-01

    NASA Langley Research Center has a long history of developing 2-micron laser transmitter for wind sensing. With support from NASA Laser Risk Reduction Program (LRRP) and Instrument Incubator Program (IIP), NASA Langley Research Center has developed a state-of-the-art compact lidar transceiver for a pulsed coherent Doppler lidar system for wind measurement. This lidar system was recently deployed at Howard University facility in Beltsville, Maryland, along with other wind lidar systems. Coherent Doppler wind lidar ground-based wind measurements and comparisons with other lidars and other sensors will be presented.

  12. Data Analysis of a Pulsed 2-micron Coherent Differential Absorption Lidar For Atmospheric CO2 Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, J.; Yu, J.

    2013-12-01

    The study of climate change requires precise measurement of the production, migration, and sinking of greenhouse gases. Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is one of the principal greenhouse gases. NASA Langley Research Center (LARC) has developed a pulsed 2-micron coherent differential absorption lidar (DiAL) for CO2 measurement, operating on the R30 absorption line. On April 5, 2010, the lidar instrument transmitted alternating On-line and Off-line pulses from LARC into a residential area in Poquoson, Virginia; while a passive in-situ sensor measured the local CO2 concentration. This paper outlines a procedure to estimate CO2 concentration from atmospheric lidar return signal using the DiAL method; our calculation produced results in line with the in-situ measurement and matched the current state of DiAL instrument accuracy. Data from April 5 is part of a series of experiments validating the measurement accuracy and precision of this lidar. After a summative verification, a packaged lidar may be installed on research aircraft to perform CO2 studies at a great range of latitudes throughout the year, and to discover sources, sinks, and migration trends for this key greenhouse gas. The following procedure is used to estimate CO2 concentration from atmospheric lidar return using the DiAL method. First, MATLAB software developed at LARC sorts the lidar return into On-only and Off-only files containing pulses of only that type. The sorted pulses are reexamined for quality based on the center frequency, energy, and power - unsatisfactory pulses are removed. A 512-point Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) with 256-point shift is performed on each pulse to discretize the atmospheric return signal according to 63 distance 'bins'. Next, comparing decay rates of the On-line and Off-line atmospheric return intensity with distance yields the Differential Absorption Optical Slope (DAOD), which is proportional to the concentration of the desired gas. Then, in-situ meteorological data - pressure

  13. Two-Pulse Atomic Coherent Control (2PACC) Spectroscopy of Eley-Rideal Reactions. An Application of an Atom Laser

    CERN Document Server

    Jorgensen, S F; Jorgensen, Solvejg; Kosloff, Ronnie

    2003-01-01

    A spectroscopic application of the atom laser is suggested. The spectroscopy termed 2PACC employs the coherent properties of matter-waves from a two pulse atom laser. These waves are employed to control a gas-surface chemical recombination reaction. The method is demonstrated for an Eley-Rideal reaction of a hydrogen or alkali atom-laser pulse where the surface target is an adsorbed hydrogen atom. The reaction yields either a hydrogen or alkali hydride molecule. The desorbed gas phase molecular yield and its internal state is shown to be controlled by the time and phase delay between two atom-laser pulses. The calculation is based on solving the time-dependent Schrodinger equation in a diabatic framework. The probability of desorption which is the predicted 2PACC signal has been calculated as a function of the pulse parameters.

  14. Finite-key analysis for quantum key distribution with weak coherent pulses based on Bernoulli sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawakami, Shun; Sasaki, Toshihiko; Koashi, Masato

    2017-07-01

    An essential step in quantum key distribution is the estimation of parameters related to the leaked amount of information, which is usually done by sampling of the communication data. When the data size is finite, the final key rate depends on how the estimation process handles statistical fluctuations. Many of the present security analyses are based on the method with simple random sampling, where hypergeometric distribution or its known bounds are used for the estimation. Here we propose a concise method based on Bernoulli sampling, which is related to binomial distribution. Our method is suitable for the Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) protocol with weak coherent pulses [C. H. Bennett and G. Brassard, Proceedings of the IEEE Conference on Computers, Systems and Signal Processing (IEEE, New York, 1984), Vol. 175], reducing the number of estimated parameters to achieve a higher key generation rate compared to the method with simple random sampling. We also apply the method to prove the security of the differential-quadrature-phase-shift (DQPS) protocol in the finite-key regime. The result indicates that the advantage of the DQPS protocol over the phase-encoding BB84 protocol in terms of the key rate, which was previously confirmed in the asymptotic regime, persists in the finite-key regime.

  15. 530 W, 1.3 mJ, four-channel coherently combined femtosecond fiber chirped-pulse amplification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klenke, Arno; Breitkopf, Sven; Kienel, Marco; Gottschall, Thomas; Eidam, Tino; Hädrich, Steffen; Rothhardt, Jan; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-07-01

    We report on a femtosecond fiber laser system comprising four coherently combined large-pitch fibers as the main amplifier. With this system, a pulse energy of 1.3 mJ and a peak power of 1.8 GW are achieved at 400 kHz repetition rate. The corresponding average output power is as high as 530 W. Additionally, an excellent beam quality and efficiency of the combination have been obtained. To the best of our knowledge, such a parameter combination, i.e., gigawatt pulses with half a kilowatt average power, has not been demonstrated so far with any other laser architecture.

  16. Fully coherent spectral broadening of femtosecond pulses from an Er:fiber system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brida D.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coherence properties of the ultrabroadband output from a highly nonlinear germanosilicate fiber pumped by a femtosecond Er:fiber source are investigated. Conditions necessary to achieve full spectral coherence are demonstrated experimentally and analyzed theoretically.

  17. 88 W 0.5 mJ femtosecond laser pulses from two coherently combined fiber amplifiers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seise, Enrico; Klenke, Arno; Breitkopf, Sven; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2011-10-01

    The generation of 0.5 mJ femtosecond laser pulses by coherent combining of two high power high energy fiber chirped-pulse amplifiers is reported. The system is running at a repetition frequency of 175 kHz producing 88 W of average power after the compressor unit. Polarizing beam splitters have been used to realize an amplifying Mach-Zehnder interferometer, which has been stabilized with a Hänsch-Couillaud measurement system. The stabilized system possesses a measured residual rms phase difference fluctuation between the two branches as low as λ/70 rad at the maximum power level. The experiment proves that coherent addition of femtosecond fiber lasers can be efficiently and reliably performed at high B-integral and considerable thermal load in the individual amplifiers.

  18. Nonlinear coherent Thomson scattering from relativistic electron sheets as a means to produce isolated ultrabright attosecond x-ray pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.-C. Wu (武慧春

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available A new way to generate intense attosecond x-ray pulses is discussed. It relies on coherent Thomson scattering (CTS from relativistic electron sheets. A double layer technique is used to generate planar solid-density sheets of monochromatic high-γ electrons with zero transverse momentum such that coherently backscattered light is frequency upshifted by factors up to 4γ^{2}. Here previous work [H.-C. Wu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 104, 234801 (2010PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.104.234801] is extended to the regime of high-intensity probe light with normalized amplitude a_{0}>1 leading to nonlinear CTS effects such as pulse contraction and steepening. The results are derived both by particle-in-cell (PIC simulation in a boosted frame and by analytic theory. PIC simulation shows that powerful x-ray pulses (1 keV, 10   gigawatt can be generated. They call for experimental verification. Required prerequisites such as manufacture of nanometer-thick target foils is ready and ultrahigh contrast laser pulses should be within reach in the near future.

  19. Accuracy of a pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler profiler in a wave-dominated flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, J.R.; Sherwood, C.R.

    2004-01-01

    The accuracy of velocities measured by a pulse-coherent acoustic Doppler profiler (PCADP) in the bottom boundary layer of a wave-dominated inner-shelf environment is evaluated. The downward-looking PCADP measured velocities in eight 10-cm cells at 1 Hz. Velocities measured by the PCADP are compared to those measured by an acoustic Doppler velocimeter for wave orbital velocities up to 95 cm s-1 and currents up to 40 cm s-1. An algorithm for correcting ambiguity errors using the resolution velocities was developed. Instrument bias, measured as the average error in burst mean speed, is -0.4 cm s-1 (standard deviation = 0.8). The accuracy (root-mean-square error) of instantaneous velocities has a mean of 8.6 cm s-1 (standard deviation = 6.5) for eastward velocities (the predominant direction of waves), 6.5 cm s-1 (standard deviation = 4.4) for northward velocities, and 2.4 cm s-1 (standard deviation = 1.6) for vertical velocities. Both burst mean and root-mean-square errors are greater for bursts with ub ??? 50 cm s-1. Profiles of burst mean speeds from the bottom five cells were fit to logarithmic curves: 92% of bursts with mean speed ??? 5 cm s-1 have a correlation coefficient R2 > 0.96. In cells close to the transducer, instantaneous velocities are noisy, burst mean velocities are biased low, and bottom orbital velocities are biased high. With adequate blanking distances for both the profile and resolution velocities, the PCADP provides sufficient accuracy to measure velocities in the bottom boundary layer under moderately energetic inner-shelf conditions.

  20. Coherent control of optical four-wave mixing by two-color $\\omega$-$3\\omega$ ultrashort laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Serrat, C

    2004-01-01

    A theoretical investigation on the phase control of optical transient four-wave mixing interactions in two-level systems driven by two intense temporal coherent femtosecond laser pulses of central angular frequencies $\\omega$ and $3\\omega$ is reported. By solving the full Maxwell-Bloch equations beyond the slowly-varying envelope and rotating-wave approximations in the time domain, the parametric nonlinear coupling to the optical field at frequency $5\\omega$ is found to depend critically on the initial relative phase $\\phi$ of the two propagating pulses; the coupling is enhanced when the pulses interfere constructively in the center ($\\phi=0$), while it is nearly suppressed when they are out of phase ($\\phi=\\pi$).

  1. Capon-based single-snapshot DOA estimation in monostatic MIMO radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassanien, Aboulnasr; Amin, Moeness G.; Zhang, Yimin D.; Ahmad, Fauzia

    2015-05-01

    We consider the problem of single snapshot direction-of-arrival (DOA) estimation of multiple targets in monostatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. When only a single snapshot is used, the sample covariance matrix of the data becomes non-invertible and, therefore, does not permit application of Capon-based DOA estimation techniques. On the other hand, low-resolution techniques, such as the conventional beamformer, suffer from biased estimation and fail to resolve closely spaced sources. In this paper, we propose a new Capon-based method for DOA estimation in MIMO radar using a single radar pulse. Assuming that the angular locations of the sources are known a priori to be located within a certain spatial sector, we employ multiple transmit beams to focus the transmit energy of multiple orthogonal waveforms within the desired sector. The transmit weight vectors are carefully designed such that they have the same transmit power distribution pattern. As compared to the standard MIMO radar, the proposed approach enables transmitting an arbitrary number of orthogonal waveforms. By using matched-filtering at the receiver, the data associated with each beam is extracted yielding a virtual data snapshot. The total number of virtual snapshots is equal to the number of transmit beams. By choosing the number of transmit beams to be larger than the number of receive elements, it becomes possible to form a full-rank sample covariance matrix. The Capon beamformer is then applied to estimate the DOAs of the targets of interest. The proposed method is shown to have improved DOA estimation performance as compared to conventional single-snapshot DOA estimation methods.

  2. Coherent manipulation of four-level double lambda-like atomic system by a train of ultra-short few-cycle-optical pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, Pawan

    2014-01-01

    We have demonstrated that near complete coherence can be achieved in a four level double lambda-like systems using a train of ultra-short optical pulses. The effect of the Doppler broadening has been analyzed and a scheme has been proposed for establishing high and uniform coherence across different velocity groups in the atomic ensemble. We have also presented a novel scheme of excitation using chirped pulses and shown that in addition to generating coherence in the system it is possible to alter the translational states of the atoms.

  3. 2.56 Tbit/s/ch (640 Gbaud) polarization-multiplexed DQPSK non-coherent Nyquist pulse transmission over 525 km.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harako, Koudai; Seya, Daiki; Suzuki, Daiki; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2015-11-30

    We demonstrate a single-channel 2.56 Tbit/s polarization-multiplexed DQPSK transmission using 640 Gbaud non-coherent optical Nyquist pulses. By virtue of a large tolerance to polarization-mode dispersion, the detrimental depolarization-induced crosstalk was reduced by 3.8 dB compared with RZ pulses. As a result, the transmission distance was substantially extended to 525 km compared with the distance of 300 km obtained with a Gaussian pulse.

  4. Picosecond pulses of coherent MM-wave radiation in a photoinjector-driven waveguide free-selected laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fochs, S.N.; Le Sage, G.P.; Feng, L. [Univ. of California, Davis, CA (United States)] [and others

    1995-12-31

    A 5 MeV, high repetition rate (2.142 GHz in burst mode), high brightness, tabletop photoinjector is currently under construction at the UC Davis Department of Applied Science, on the LLNL site. Ultrashort pulses of coherent synchrotron radiation can be generated by transversally accelerating the electron beam with a wiggler in either metallic or dielectric-loaded waveguide FEL structures. This interaction is investigated theoretically and experimentally. Subpicosecond photoelectron bunches will be produced in the photoinjector by irradiating a high quantum efficiency Cs{sub 2}Te (Cesium Telluride) photocathode with a train of 100 UV (210 nm), ultra-short (250 fs) laser pulses. These bunches will be accelerated in a 1-1/2 cell {pi}-mode X-band RF gun e energized by a 20 MW, 8,568 GHz SLAC klystron. The peak current is 0.25 kA (0.25 nC, 1 ps), with a normalized beam emittance {epsilon}{sub n}<2.5 {pi} mm-mrad. This prebunched electron beam is then transversally accelerated in a cylindrical waveguide by a 30-mm period, 10 period long helical wiggler. The peak wiggler field is adjusted to 8.5 kG, so that the group velocity of the radiated electromagnetic waves matches the axial velocity of the electron bunch (grazing condition, zero slippage). Chirped output pulses in excess of 2 MW power are predicted, with an instantaneous bandwidth extending from 125 GHz to 225 GHz and a pulse duration of 15 ps (HWHM). To produce even shorter pulses, a dielectric-loaded waveguide can be used. The dispersion relation of this waveguide structure has an inflection point (zero group velocity dispersion). If the grazing condition is satisfied at this point, the final output pulse duration is no longer determined by slippage, or by group velocity dispersion and bandwidth, but by higher-order dispersive effects yielding transform-limited pulses.

  5. Broadband coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering light generation in BBO crystal by using two crossing femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun; Zhang, Jun; Kobayashi, Takayoshi

    2008-07-01

    As broad as 12000 cm(-1) coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) light from ultraviolet to infrared was generated in a BBO crystal by using two crossing femtosecond laser pulses with 30% conversion efficiency. More than fifteenth-order anti-Stokes and second-order Stokes Raman sidebands were observed with nice Gaussian spatial mode. The effect of the crossing angle between two input beams on the spectrum and emitting angle of the Raman sidebands was studied in detail. Calculation shows that the phase-matching condition determines the frequencies and angles of the sidebands.

  6. Cooling molecular vibrations with shaped laser pulses: Optimal control theory exploiting the timescale separation between coherent excitation and spontaneous emission

    CERN Document Server

    Reich, Daniel M

    2013-01-01

    Laser cooling of molecules employing broadband optical pumping involves a timescale separation between laser excitation and spontaneous emission. Here, we optimize the optical pumping step using shaped laser pulses. We derive two optimization functionals to drive population into those excited state levels that have the largest spontaneous emission rates to the target state. We show that, when using optimal control, laser cooling of molecules works even if the Franck-Condon map governing the transitions is preferential to heating rather than cooling. Our optimization functional is also applicable to the laser cooling of other degrees of freedom provided the cooling cycle consists of coherent excitation and dissipative deexcitation steps whose timescales are separated.

  7. Mode-locking based on a zero-area pulse formation in a laser with a coherent absorber

    CERN Document Server

    Arkhipov, Mikhail V; Kalinichev, Alexey A; Babuskin, Ihar; Rosanov, Nikolai N; Arkhipov, Rostislav M

    2016-01-01

    We observe experimentally a mode-locking in a continuous narrow-band tunable dye laser with molecular iodine absorber cells, which transitions have large phase relaxation time T2. We show that the mode-locking arises due to coherent interaction of light with the absorbing medium leading to Rabi oscillations, so that zero-area (0{\\pi}-) pulses in the absorber are formed. Such mode-locking regime is different to most typical passive modelocking mechanisms where saturation plays the main role.

  8. The effectiveness of monostatic and bistatic deployment of low frequency active sonar

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mountain, J.A.R.; Ainslie, M.A.; Martin, P.L.R.; Hughes, M.R.; Seto, L.Y.; Laker, R.A.; Robins, A.J.

    2001-01-01

    The merits of monostatic and bistatic geometries in terms of the evasion probability for area and barrier searches were described. Detection probabilities were calculated by generating signal excess surfaces for a given sonar geometry. Acoustic modeling and operational analysis allowed to detect the

  9. Isolated attosecond pulses generation from coherent superposition state of helium ion in static electric fields and spatial nonhomogeneous fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hao; Zhang, Zhengzhong; Wu, Yangjiang; Jiang, Shicheng; Yu, Chao

    2016-09-01

    We present a systematic study of high-order harmonic generation (HHG) from helium ion with the initial state prepared as a coherent superposition of electronic ground state and an excited state. As a result, the conversion efficiency of the harmonic spectrum is significantly enhanced. When we add a static electric field in fundamental field, the supercontinuum region of the harmonic spectrum is distinctly extended and an isolated 100 as pulse can be generated. Moreover, we use a spatial nonhomogeneous field to increase the cutoff energy in high-order harmonic generation spectrum, which can be extended to about 700 eV, and an isolated 50 as pulse can be obtained directly by the superposition of the supercontinuum harmonics.

  10. Generation of high-photon flux-coherent soft x-ray radiation with few-cycle pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demmler, Stefan; Rothhardt, Jan; Hädrich, Steffen; Krebs, Manuel; Hage, Arvid; Limpert, Jens; Tünnermann, Andreas

    2013-12-01

    We present a tabletop source of coherent soft x-ray radiation with high-photon flux. Two-cycle pulses delivered by a fiber-laser-pumped optical parametric chirped-pulse amplifier operating at 180 kHz repetition rate are upconverted via high harmonic generation in neon to photon energies beyond 200 eV. A maximum photon flux of 1.3·10(8) photons/s is achieved within a 1% bandwidth at 125 eV photon energy. This corresponds to a conversion efficiency of ~10(-9), which can be reached due to a gas jet simultaneously providing a high target density and phase matching. Further scaling potential toward higher photon flux as well as higher photon energies are discussed.

  11. Single-channel 1.92 Tbit/s, Pol-Mux-64 QAM coherent Nyquist pulse transmission over 150 km with a spectral efficiency of 7.5 bit/s/Hz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otuya, David Odeke; Kasai, Keisuke; Yoshida, Masato; Hirooka, Toshihiko; Nakazawa, Masataka

    2014-10-01

    Coherent Nyquist pulses have been used for optical time division multiplexed (OTDM) digital coherent transmission, and a single-channel 1.92 Tbit/s, Pol-Mux-64 QAM coherent Nyquist pulse transmission over 150 km is demonstrated. The ability to considerably reduce the spectral bandwidth of the data signal enabled us to increase the spectral efficiency from 3.2 bit/s/Hz to 7.5 bit/s/Hz when using a Gaussian pulse train.

  12. Investigation of spherical aberration effects on coherent lidar performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we demonstrate experimentally the performance of a monostatic coherent lidar system under the influence of phase aberrations, especially the typically predominant spherical aberration (SA). The performance is evaluated by probing the spatial weighting function of the lidar system...

  13. Single-pulse enhanced coherent diffraction imaging of bacteria with an X-ray free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Wang, Yaling; Park, Jaehyun; Kim, Sunam; Gallagher-Jones, Marcus; Kim, Yoonhee; Song, Changyong; Yao, Shengkun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Xiulan; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Fan, Chunhai; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang; Gao, Xueyun; Earnest, Thomas; Jiang, Huaidong

    2016-09-01

    High-resolution imaging offers one of the most promising approaches for exploring and understanding the structure and function of biomaterials and biological systems. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) combined with coherent diffraction imaging can theoretically provide high-resolution spatial information regarding biological materials using a single XFEL pulse. Currently, the application of this method suffers from the low scattering cross-section of biomaterials and X-ray damage to the sample. However, XFELs can provide pulses of such short duration that the data can be collected using the “diffract and destroy” approach before the effects of radiation damage on the data become significant. These experiments combine the use of enhanced coherent diffraction imaging with single-shot XFEL radiation to investigate the cellular architecture of Staphylococcus aureus with and without labeling by gold (Au) nanoclusters. The resolution of the images reconstructed from these diffraction patterns were twice as high or more for gold-labeled samples, demonstrating that this enhancement method provides a promising approach for the high-resolution imaging of biomaterials and biological systems.

  14. Single-pulse enhanced coherent diffraction imaging of bacteria with an X-ray free-electron laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jiadong; Sun, Zhibin; Wang, Yaling; Park, Jaehyun; Kim, Sunam; Gallagher-Jones, Marcus; Kim, Yoonhee; Song, Changyong; Yao, Shengkun; Zhang, Jian; Zhang, Jianhua; Duan, Xiulan; Tono, Kensuke; Yabashi, Makina; Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Fan, Chunhai; Zhao, Yuliang; Chai, Zhifang; Gao, Xueyun; Earnest, Thomas; Jiang, Huaidong

    2016-01-01

    High-resolution imaging offers one of the most promising approaches for exploring and understanding the structure and function of biomaterials and biological systems. X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) combined with coherent diffraction imaging can theoretically provide high-resolution spatial information regarding biological materials using a single XFEL pulse. Currently, the application of this method suffers from the low scattering cross-section of biomaterials and X-ray damage to the sample. However, XFELs can provide pulses of such short duration that the data can be collected using the “diffract and destroy” approach before the effects of radiation damage on the data become significant. These experiments combine the use of enhanced coherent diffraction imaging with single-shot XFEL radiation to investigate the cellular architecture of Staphylococcus aureus with and without labeling by gold (Au) nanoclusters. The resolution of the images reconstructed from these diffraction patterns were twice as high or more for gold-labeled samples, demonstrating that this enhancement method provides a promising approach for the high-resolution imaging of biomaterials and biological systems. PMID:27659203

  15. Monostatic coaxial 1.5 μm laser Doppler velocimeter using a scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigo, Peter John; Pedersen, Christian

    2013-09-09

    We present a laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) in monostatic coaxial arrangement consisting of off-the-shelf telecom-grade components: a single frequency laser (wavelength λ = 1.5 μm) and a high-finesse scanning Fabry-Perot interferometer (sFPI). In contrast to previous 1.5 μm LDV systems based on heterodyne detection, our sFPI-LDV has the advantages of having large remote sensing range not limited by laser coherence, high velocity dynamic range not limited by detector bandwidth and inherent sign discrimination of Doppler shift. The more optically efficient coaxial arrangement where transmitter and receiver optics share a common axis reduces the number of components and greatly simplifies the optical alignment. However, the sensitivity to unwanted backreflections is increased. To circumvent this problem, we employ a custom optical circulator design which compared to commercial fiber-optic circulator achieves ~40 dB reduction in strength of unwanted reflections (i.e. leakage) while maintaining high optical efficiency. Experiments with a solid target demonstrate the performance of the sFPI-LDV system with high sensitivity down to pW level at present update rates up to 10 Hz.

  16. Influence of optical coherence on the electron spin in singly charged InP quantum dots excited by resonant laser pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomimoto, Shinichi; Kawana, Keisuke; Murakami, Akira; Masumoto, Yasuaki

    2012-06-01

    We have experimentally studied the spin dynamics of excitons, electrons, and trions in charge-tunable InP/InGaP quantum dots (QDs) excited by picosecond resonant laser pulses by observing the time-resolved Kerr rotation. In singly charged QDs, inversion of the spin polarization direction of doped electrons is found to be caused simply by variation in the pulse intensity, which is accompanied by an abrupt change of the spin coherence time. This phenomenon is reproduced by density-matrix calculations allowing for the reaction on the QD electron-trion four-level system during its coherent radiation emission. This result means that the optical coherence is another critical factor affecting electron spin coherence.

  17. Single-pulse terahertz coherent control of spin resonance in the canted antiferromagnet YFeO3, mediated by dielectric anisotropy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Zuanming; Mics, Zoltán; Ma, Guohong;

    2013-01-01

    We report on the coherent control of terahertz (THz) spin waves in a canted antiferromagnet yttrium orthoferrite, YFeO3, associated with a quasiferromagnetic (quasi-FM) spin resonance at a frequency of 0.3 THz, using a single-incident THz pulse. The spin resonance is excited impulsively...... by the magnetic field component of the THz pulse. The intrinsic dielectric anisotropy of YFeO3 in the THz range allows for coherent control of both the amplitude and the phase of the excited spin wave. The coherent control is based on simultaneous generation of two interfering phase-shifted spin waves whose...... amplitudes and relative phase, dictated by the dielectric anisotropy of the YFeO3 crystal, can be controlled by varying the polarization of the incident THz pulse with respect to the crystal axes. The spatially anisotropic decay of the THz-excited FM spin resonance in YFeO3, leading to an increasingly linear...

  18. Pulsed, Single-Frequency, 2-um Seed Source for Coherent LIDAR Applications Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The primary objective of the proposed Phase I effort is to develop and demonstrate a low-average power, pulsed, single-frequency, 2-um Ho-laser source for...

  19. Enhanced production of coherent pulsed radiation at 125 nm: the route towards a tabletop VUV laser.

    OpenAIRE

    Chenais, Sebastien; Forget, Sebastien; Castex, Marie-Claude

    2006-01-01

    A novel approach is used to enhance by nearly two orders of magnitude the conversion efficiency of a 125 nm-coherent source, based on four-wave mixing in room-temperature mercury vapor. Saturation issues are observed and discussed.

  20. Measurement and Generation of Ultra-High Power Fiber Laser Pulses by Coherent Combination

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    through a Michelson interferometer and generated a double pulse as shown in Figure 10. Figure 10. Experimental setup for testing and calibrating...Measuring the Free Spectral Range of the VIPA etalons Using the spectral fringes generated by the Michelson interferometer , we can quantify the spectral...Testing the FROG To test the FROG, we again used use the double pulse from a Michelson interferometer , which yields a FROG trace unlikely to occur by

  1. Generating coherent soft x-ray pulses in the water window with a high-brightness seeded free-electron laser

    CERN Document Server

    Zhou, Kaishang; Deng, Haixiao; Wang, Dong

    2016-01-01

    We propose a new scheme to generate high-brightness and temporal coherent soft x-ray radiation in a seeded free-electron laser. The proposed scheme is based the coherent harmonic generation (CHG) and superradiant principles. A CHG scheme is first used to generate coherent signal at ultra-high harmonics of the seed. This coherent signal is then amplified by a series of chicane-undulator modules via the fresh bunch and superradiant processes in the following radiator. Using a representative of realistic set of parameters, three-dimensional simulations have been carried out and the simulations results demonstrated that 10 GW-level ultra-short coherent radiation pulses in the water window can be achieved by using the proposed technique.

  2. Generating high-brightness and coherent soft x-ray pulses in the water window with a seeded free-electron laser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaishang Zhou

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We propose a new scheme to generate high-brightness and temporal coherent soft x-ray radiation in a seeded free-electron laser. The proposed scheme is based on the coherent harmonic generation (CHG and superradiant principles. A CHG scheme is first used to generate a coherent signal at ultrahigh harmonics of the seed. This coherent signal is then amplified by a series of chicane-undulator modules via the fresh bunch and superradiant processes in the following radiator. Using a representative of a realistic set of parameters, three-dimensional simulations have been carried out and the simulations results demonstrated that 10 GW-level ultrashort (∼20  fs coherent radiation pulses in the water window can be achieved by using a 1.6 GeV electron beam based on the proposed technique.

  3. Real-Valued Covariance Vector Sparsity-Inducing DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianpeng Wang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a real-valued covariance vector sparsity-inducing method for direction of arrival (DOA estimation is proposed in monostatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar. Exploiting the special configuration of monostatic MIMO radar, low-dimensional real-valued received data can be obtained by using the reduced-dimensional transformation and unitary transformation technique. Then, based on the Khatri–Rao product, a real-valued sparse representation framework of the covariance vector is formulated to estimate DOA. Compared to the existing sparsity-inducing DOA estimation methods, the proposed method provides better angle estimation performance and lower computational complexity. Simulation results verify the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed method.

  4. DOA estimation for monostatic MIMO radar based on unitary root-MUSIC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei; Wang, Xianpeng; Li, Xin; Song, Hongru

    2013-11-01

    Direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is an important issue for monostatic MIMO radar. A DOA estimation method for monostatic MIMO radar based on unitary root-MUSIC is presented in this article. In the presented method, a reduced-dimension matrix is first utilised to transform the high dimension of received signal data into low dimension one. Then, a low-dimension real-value covariance matrix is obtained by forward-backward (FB) averaging and unitary transformation. The DOA of targets can be achieved by unitary root-MUSIC. Due to the FB averaging of received signal data and the eigendecomposition of the real-valued matrix covariance, the proposed method owns better angle estimation performance and lower computational complexity. The simulation results of the proposed method are presented and the performances are investigated and discussed.

  5. Real-Valued Covariance Vector Sparsity-Inducing DOA Estimation for Monostatic MIMO Radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xianpeng; Wang, Wei; Li, Xin; Liu, Jing

    2015-11-10

    In this paper, a real-valued covariance vector sparsity-inducing method for direction of arrival (DOA) estimation is proposed in monostatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) radar. Exploiting the special configuration of monostatic MIMO radar, low-dimensional real-valued received data can be obtained by using the reduced-dimensional transformation and unitary transformation technique. Then, based on the Khatri-Rao product, a real-valued sparse representation framework of the covariance vector is formulated to estimate DOA. Compared to the existing sparsity-inducing DOA estimation methods, the proposed method provides better angle estimation performance and lower computational complexity. Simulation results verify the effectiveness and advantage of the proposed method.

  6. Monostatic Doppler lidar using an Nd:YAG laser for wind-velocity measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bersenev, V. I.; Kaptsov, L. N.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    1987-10-01

    A monostatic Doppler lidar using a CW Nd:YAG laser has been developed for measurements of wind velocity. A series of atmospheric measurements using this lidar was carried out. At medium turbulence levels, the limiting lidar range is 200 m. As compared with a CO2 Doppler lidar, the Nd:YAG lidar has a better spatial resolution, is more convenient to use, and does not require a cooled photodetector.

  7. Airborne wind profiling algorithms for the pulsed 2-micron coherent doppler Lidar at NASA Langley Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyon, Jeffrey Y.; Koch, Grady J.; Kavaya, Michael J.; Ray, Taylor J.

    2013-05-01

    Two versions of airborne wind profiling algorithms for the pulsed 2-micron coherent Doppler lidar system at NASA Langley Research Center in Virginia are presented. Each algorithm utilizes different number of line-of-sight (LOS) lidar returns while compensating the adverse effects of different coordinate systems between the aircraft and the Earth. One of the two algorithms APOLO (Airborne Wind Profiling Algorithm for Doppler Wind Lidar) estimates wind products using two LOSs. The other algorithm utilizes five LOSs. The airborne lidar data were acquired during the NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) campaign in 2010. The wind profile products from the two algorithms are compared with the dropsonde data to validate their results.

  8. Coherent propagation of a short polarised radiation pulse in a one-dimensional resonance Bragg grating

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maimistov, A. I.; Polikarpov, V. V.

    2006-01-01

    The propagation of an optical ultrashort pulse in a resonance Bragg grating is considered taking into account the polarisation of electromagnetic radiation. It is assumed that the grating is formed by thin films containing two-level atoms with the triply degenerate upper energy level. The system of

  9. Coherent femtosecond low-energy single-electron pulses for time-resolved diffraction and imaging: A numerical study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paarmann, A.; Mueller, M.; Ernstorfer, R. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Gulde, M.; Schaefer, S.; Schweda, S.; Maiti, M.; Ropers, C. [Courant Research Center Physics and Material Physics Institute, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Xu, C. [Fritz-Haber-Institut der Max-Planck-Gesellschaft, Faradayweg 4-6, 14195 Berlin (Germany); Shanghai Institute of Optics and Fine Mechanics, Chinese Academy of Science, 390, Qinghe Road, Jiading, Shanghai 201800 (China); Hohage, T. [Institute of Numerical and Applied Mathematics, University of Goettingen, Lotzestr. 16-18, 37083 Goettingen (Germany); Schenk, F. [Courant Research Center Physics and Material Physics Institute, University of Goettingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen (Germany); Institute of Numerical and Applied Mathematics, University of Goettingen, Lotzestr. 16-18, 37083 Goettingen (Germany)

    2012-12-01

    We numerically investigate the properties of coherent femtosecond single electron wave packets photoemitted from nanotips in view of their application in ultrafast electron diffraction and non-destructive imaging with low-energy electrons. For two different geometries, we analyze the temporal and spatial broadening during propagation from the needle emitter to an anode, identifying the experimental parameters and challenges for realizing femtosecond time resolution. The simple tip-anode geometry is most versatile and allows for electron pulses of several ten of femtosecond duration using a very compact experimental design, however, providing very limited control over the electron beam collimation. A more sophisticated geometry comprising a suppressor-extractor electrostatic unit and a lens, similar to typical field emission electron microscope optics, is also investigated, allowing full control over the beam parameters. Using such a design, we find {approx}230 fs pulses feasible in a focused electron beam. The main limitation to achieve sub-hundred femtosecond time resolution is the typical size of such a device, and we suggest the implementation of more compact electron optics for optimal performance.

  10. Coherent control of atoms and diatomic molecules with shaped ultrashort pulses; Manipulation coherente d'atomes et de molecules diatomiques avec des impulsions mises en forme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degert, J

    2002-12-15

    This thesis deals with the theoretical and experimental study of coherent control of atomic and molecular systems with shaped pulses. At first, we present several experiments of control of coherent transients in rubidium. These transients appear when a two-level system is excited by a perturbative chirped pulse, and are characterized by oscillations in the excited state population. For a strong chirp, we show that a phase step in the spectrum modifies the phase of the oscillations. Then, by direct analogy with Fresnel zone lens, we conceive a chirped pulse with a highly modulated amplitude, allowing to suppress destructive contributions to the population transfer. In a second set of experiments, we focus on quantum path interferences in two-photon transitions excited by linearly chirped pulses. Owing to the broad bandwidth of ultrashort pulses, sequential and direct excitation paths contribute to the excited state population. Oscillations resulting from interferences between these two paths are observed in atomic sodium. Moreover, we show that they are observable whatever the sign of chirp. Theoretically, we study the control of the predissociation of a benchmark diatomic molecule: NaI. Predissociation leads to matter wave interferences in the fragments distribution. First, we show that a suitably chosen probe pulse allows the observation of theses interferences. Next, using a sequence of control pulse inducing electronic transition, we demonstrate the possibility to manipulate fragment energy distribution. (author)

  11. Three-pulse multiplex coherent anti-Stokes/Stokes Raman scattering (CARS/CSRS) microspectroscopy using a white-light laser source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bito, Kotatsu; Okuno, Masanari; Kano, Hideaki; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o.

    2013-06-01

    We have developed a three-pulse non-degenerate multiplex coherent Raman microspectroscopic system using a white-light laser source. The fundamental output (1064 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser is used for the pump radiation with the white-light laser output (1100-1700 nm) for the Stokes radiation to achieve broadband multiplex excitations of vibrational coherences. The second harmonic (532 nm) of the same Nd:YAG laser is used for the probe radiation. Thanks to the large wavelength difference between the pump and probe radiations, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) can be detected simultaneously. Simultaneous detection of CARS and CSRS enables us to obtain information on the electronic resonance effect that affects differently the CARS and CSRS signals. Simultaneous analysis of the CARS and CSRS signals provides us the imaginary part of χ(3) without introducing any arbitrary parameter in the maximum entropy method (MEM).

  12. Pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... resting for at least 10 minutes. Take the exercise heart rate while you are exercising. ... pulse rate can help determine if the person's heart is pumping. Pulse ... rate gives information about your fitness level and health.

  13. Coherent radio pulses from showers in different media: A unified parameterization

    CERN Document Server

    Alvarez-Muñiz, J; Vázquez, R A; Zas, E; Alvarez-Mu\\~niz, Jaime; Marqu\\'es, Enrique; V\\'azquez, Ricardo A.; Zas, Enrique

    2005-01-01

    We study the frequency and angular dependences of Cherenkov radio pulses originated by the excess of electrons in electromagnetic showers in different dense media. We develop a simple model to relate the main characteristics of the electric field spectrum to the properties of the shower such as longitudinal and lateral development. This model allows us to establish the scaling of the electric field spectrum with the properties of the medium such as density, radiation length, Moliere radius, critical energy and refraction index. We normalize the predictions of the scaling relations to the numerical results obtained in our own developed GEANT4-based Monte Carlo simulation, and we give a unified parameterization of the frequency spectrum and angular distribution of the electric field in ice, salt, and the lunar regolith, in terms of the relevant properties of the media. Our parameterizations are valid for electromagnetic showers below the energy at which the Landau-Pomeranchuk-Migdal effect starts to be relevant...

  14. Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution using weak coherent pulses with modulator attenuation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李源; 鲍皖苏; 李宏伟; 周淳; 汪洋

    2015-01-01

    Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution is more desirable than the active one in some scenarios. It is also affected by the imperfections of the devices. In this paper, the influence of modulator attenuation on the passive decoy-state method is considered. We introduce and analyze the unbalanced Mach–Zehnder interferometer, briefly, and combining with the virtual source and imaginary unitary transformation, we characterize the passive decoy-state method using a weak coherent photon source with modulator attenuation. According to the attenuation parameterδ, the pass efficiencies are given. Then, the key generation rate can be acquired. From numerical simulations, it can be seen that modulator attenuation has a non-negligible influence on the performance of passive-state QKD protocol. Based on the research, the analysis method of virtual source and imaginary unitary transformation are preferred in analyzing passive decoy state protocol, and the passive decoy-state method is better than the active one and is close to the active vacuum+weak decoy state under the condition of having the same modulator attenuation.

  15. Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution using weak coherent pulses with modulator attenuation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuan; Bao, Wan-Su; Li, Hong-Wei; Zhou, Chun; Wang, Yang

    2015-11-01

    Passive decoy-state quantum key distribution is more desirable than the active one in some scenarios. It is also affected by the imperfections of the devices. In this paper, the influence of modulator attenuation on the passive decoy-state method is considered. We introduce and analyze the unbalanced Mach-Zehnder interferometer, briefly, and combining with the virtual source and imaginary unitary transformation, we characterize the passive decoy-state method using a weak coherent photon source with modulator attenuation. According to the attenuation parameter δ, the pass efficiencies are given. Then, the key generation rate can be acquired. From numerical simulations, it can be seen that modulator attenuation has a nonnegligible influence on the performance of passive-state QKD protocol. Based on the research, the analysis method of virtual source and imaginary unitary transformation are preferred in analyzing passive decoy state protocol, and the passive decoy-state method is better than the active one and is close to the active vacuum + weak decoy state under the condition of having the same modulator attenuation. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11304397).

  16. Three-pulse multiplex coherent anti-Stokes/Stokes Raman scattering (CARS/CSRS) microspectroscopy using a white-light laser source

    OpenAIRE

    Bito, Kotatsu; Okuno, Masanari; Kano, Hideaki; LEPROUX, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent; Hamaguchi, Hiro-o

    2013-01-01

    We have developed a three-pulse non-degenerate multiplex coherent Raman microspectroscopic system using a white-light laser source. The fundamental output (1064 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser is used for the pump radiation with the white-light laser output (1100–1700 nm) for the Stokes radiation to achieve broadband multiplex excitations of vibrational coherences. The second harmonic (532 nm) of the same Nd:YAG laser is used for the probe radiation. Thanks to the large wavelength difference between th...

  17. Coherent scatter-controlled phase-change grating structures in silicon using femtosecond laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Edfuf, Yasser; Garcia-Lechuga, Mario; Puerto, Daniel; Florian, Camilo; Garcia-Leis, Adianez; Sanchez-Cortes, Santiago; Solis, Javier; Siegel, Jan

    2017-07-04

    Periodic structures of alternating amorphous-crystalline fringes have been fabricated in silicon using repetitive femtosecond laser exposure (800 nm wavelength and 120 fs duration). The method is based on the interference of the incident laser light with far- and near-field scattered light, leading to local melting at the interference maxima, as demonstrated by femtosecond microscopy. Exploiting this strategy, lines of highly regular amorphous fringes can be written. The fringes have been characterized in detail using optical microscopy combined modelling, which enables a determination of the three-dimensional shape of individual fringes. 2D micro-Raman spectroscopy reveals that the space between amorphous fringes remains crystalline. We demonstrate that the fringe period can be tuned over a range of 410 nm - 13 µm by changing the angle of incidence and inverting the beam scan direction. Fine control over the lateral dimensions, thickness, surface depression and optical contrast of the fringes is obtained via adjustment of pulse number, fluence and spot size. Large-area, highly homogeneous gratings composed of amorphous fringes with micrometer width and millimeter length can readily be fabricated. The here presented fabrication technique is expected to have applications in the fields of optics, nanoelectronics, and mechatronics and should be applicable to other materials.

  18. Mössbauer and Magnetic Properties of Coherently Mixed Magnetite-Cobalt Ferrite Grown by Infrared Pulsed-Laser Deposition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan de la Figuera

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available We have studied the magnetic properties and the composition of cobalt ferrite single crystal films on SrTiO3 : Nb grown by infrared pulsed-laser deposition. Mössbauer spectra have been recorded from both the target used to grow the films and the films themselves. The Mössbauer spectra of the target taken at low temperatures show a strong dependence of the recoil free fraction of the octahedral sites with temperature. The films composition, with a coexistence of Co-enriched cobalt ferrite and magnetite, has been estimated assuming a similar ratio of the recoil free fractions of the films. X-ray absorption and x-ray magnetic circular dichroism measurements confirm the valence composition of the film and show ferromagnetic Fe-Co coupling in the films with a coercive field around 0.5 T at room temperature. The combination of these characterization techniques allows establishing the coherent structural and magnetic properties of this biphase system.

  19. Effect of Phase Noise on Integration of Monostatic and Bistatic Synthetic Aperture Radar%相位噪声对单/双基地SAR积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘爱芳; 来弛攀; 仇光锋

    2012-01-01

    在相位噪声理论模型的基础上,推导出反映相位噪声导致的相参积累损失因子和信噪比.结合单/双基地合成孔径雷达(SAR)的信号收发关系,给出了单/双基地条件下回波相位噪声的关系式,并以典型机载SAR参数进行相噪对聚焦性能的仿真分析.结果表明,相位噪声对双基地SAR的影响明显大于单基地.该分析方法也可应用于其他类型相参雷达的积累性能分析.%Based on the analysis of phase noise model,the expression of integration loss factor (ILF) which is denote to evaluate the effect of phase noise on coherent integration and signal noise ratio (SNR) are given.Using the character of phase noise,the phase noise model of the monostatic and bistatic radar are analyzed and discussed.The simulation experiments of typical airborne synthetic aperture radar (SAR) system have been carried out and the results verify that phase noise has more remarkable effect for bistatic SAR.The approach can be applied to performance analysis of other kind of coherent radar.

  20. Coherent time evolution of highly excited Rydberg states in pulsed electric field Opening a stringent way to selectively field-ionize the highly excited states

    CERN Document Server

    Tada, M; Ogawa, I; Funahashi, H; Yamamoto, K; Matsuki, S

    2000-01-01

    Coherent time evolution of highly excited Rydberg states in Rb (98 < n < 150) under pulsed electric field in high slew-rate regime was investigated with the field ionization detection. The electric field necessary to ionize the Rydberg states was found to take discrete values successively depending on the slew rate. Specifically the slew-rate dependence of the ionization field varies with the quantum defect value of the states, i.e. with the energy position of the states relative to the adjacent manifold. This discrete transitional behavior of the ionization field observed for the first time is considered to be a manifestation of the strong coherence effect in the time evolution of the Rydberg states in pulsed electric field and opens a new effective way to stringently select a low-l state from the nearby states by field ionization.

  1. Transmission and full-band coherent detection of polarization-multiplexed all-optical Nyquist signals generated by Sinc-shaped Nyquist pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Junwen; Yu, Jianjun; Chi, Nan

    2015-09-01

    All optical method is considered as a promising technique for high symbol rate Nyquist signal generation, which has attracted a lot of research interests for high spectral-efficiency and high-capacity optical communication system. In this paper, we extend our previous work and report the fully experimental demonstration of polarization-division multiplexed (PDM) all-optical Nyquist signal generation based on Sinc-shaped Nyquist pulse with advanced modulation formats, fiber-transmission and single-receiver full-band coherent detection. Using this scheme, we have successfully demonstrated the generation, fiber transmission and single-receiver full-band coherent detection of all-optical Nyquist PDM-QPSK and PDM-16QAM signals up to 125-GBaud. 1-Tb/s single-carrier PDM-16QAM signal generation and full-band coherent detection is realized, which shows the advantage and feasibility of the single-carrier all-optical Nyquist signals.

  2. Analysis of the inversion monitoring capabilities of a monostatic acoustic radar in complex terrain. [Tennessee River Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koepf, D.; Frost, W.

    1981-01-01

    A qualitative interpretation of the records from a monostatic acoustic radar is presented. This is achieved with the aid of airplane, helicopter, and rawinsonde temperature soundings. The diurnal structure of a mountain valley circulation pattern is studied with the use of two acoustic radars, one located in the valley and one on the downwind ridge. The monostatic acoustic radar was found to be sufficiently accurate in locating the heights of the inversions and the mixed layer depth to warrant use by industry even in complex terrain.

  3. Computationally Efficient DOA Tracking Algorithm in Monostatic MIMO Radar with Automatic Association

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huaxin Yu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the problem of tracking the direction of arrivals (DOA of multiple moving targets in monostatic multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO radar. A low-complexity DOA tracking algorithm in monostatic MIMO radar is proposed. The proposed algorithm obtains DOA estimation via the difference between previous and current covariance matrix of the reduced-dimension transformation signal, and it reduces the computational complexity and realizes automatic association in DOA tracking. Error analysis and Cramér-Rao lower bound (CRLB of DOA tracking are derived in the paper. The proposed algorithm not only can be regarded as an extension of array-signal-processing DOA tracking algorithm in (Zhang et al. (2008, but also is an improved version of the DOA tracking algorithm in (Zhang et al. (2008. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm has better DOA tracking performance than the DOA tracking algorithm in (Zhang et al. (2008. The simulation results demonstrate effectiveness of the proposed algorithm. Our work provides the technical support for the practical application of MIMO radar.

  4. Coherent π-electron dynamics of (P)-2,2'-biphenol induced by ultrashort linearly polarized UV pulses: angular momentum and ring current.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, H; Lin, S H; Fujimura, Y

    2013-02-21

    The results of a theoretical investigation of coherent π-electron dynamics for nonplanar (P)-2,2'-biphenol induced by ultrashort linearly polarized UV pulses are presented. Expressions for the time-dependent coherent angular momentum and ring current are derived by using the density matrix method. The time dependence of these coherences is determined by the off-diagonal density matrix element, which can be obtained by solving the coupled equations of motion of the electronic-state density matrix. Dephasing effects on coherent angular momentum and ring current are taken into account within the Markov approximation. The magnitudes of the electronic angular momentum and current are expressed as the sum of expectation values of the corresponding operators in the two phenol rings (L and R rings). Here, L (R) denotes the phenol ring in the left (right)-hand side of (P)-2,2'-biphenol. We define the bond current between the nearest neighbor carbon atoms Ci and Cj as an electric current through a half plane perpendicular to the Ci-Cj bond. The bond current can be expressed in terms of the inter-atomic bond current. The inter-atomic bond current (bond current) depends on the position of the half plane on the bond and has the maximum value at the center. The coherent ring current in each ring is defined by averaging over the bond currents. Since (P)-2,2'-biphenol is nonplanar, the resultant angular momentum is not one-dimensional. Simulations of the time-dependent coherent angular momentum and ring current of (P)-2,2'-biphenol excited by ultrashort linearly polarized UV pulses are carried out using the molecular parameters obtained by the time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) method. Oscillatory behaviors in the time-dependent angular momentum (ring current), which can be called angular momentum (ring current) quantum beats, are classified by the symmetry of the coherent state, symmetric or antisymmetric. The bond current of the bridge bond linking the L and R

  5. Evaluation of Acoustic Doppler Velocimeters (ADVs) and Pulse Coherent Acoustic Doppler Profiler (PCADP) in Estimating Suspended Sediment Concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, H.; Maa, J.

    2008-12-01

    Laboratory experiments were conducted to estimate the suspended sediment concentration (SSC) or its profile using acoustic backscatter strengths. Three acoustic Doppler velocimeters (ADVs) with different frequencies (5, 10 and 16 MHz) and a pulse coherent acoustic Doppler profiler (PCADP) with 1.5 MHz were used with selected sediments: two different commercial clays and Clay Bank sediment in the York River. Each ADV showed different backscatter responses depending on the sediment type and SSC. Not all devices had a good linear relationship between backscatter strength and SSC. Within a limited range of SSC, however, the backscatter strength can be well correlated with the SSC. Compared with optical backscatter sensor (OBS), ADV's backscatter signals were too noisy to be directly converted to the fluctuation of SSC, due to high amplification ratio and small sampling volume. There is another unexpected response for the backscatter strength: high signals from small particles but low signals from large particles. This might be caused by the internal gain setting built in ADVs, which should be further clarified. For profiling the SSC, a PCADP was tested in a controlled water tank. The sound attenuation by sediments was included in the signal inversion algorithm since most target regions measured by PCADP are located at near-bed high concentration layer. Clay Bank sediment showed a higher correlation coefficient (r2=0.92) between range- corrected volume scattering and PCADP signal when SSCcontrolled by the particle size in suspension at a given frequency. The profiling test for Clay Bank sediments showed that the PCADP-derived SSC profile has a good agreement with sample- and OBS-derived outcomes. This study suggests that both ADV and PCADP are useful instruments to estimate the SSC if the aforementioned questions are clarified and the particle (floc) size is sufficiently large enough to be sensed.

  6. Computer Simulation of Global Profiles of Carbon Dioxide Using a Pulsed, 2-Micron, Coherent-Detection, Column-Content DIAL System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavaya, Michael J.; Singh, Upendra N.; Koch, Grady J.; Yu, Jirong; Frehlich, Rod G.

    2009-01-01

    We present preliminary results of computer simulations of the error in measuring carbon dioxide mixing ratio profiles from earth orbit. The simulated sensor is a pulsed, 2-micron, coherent-detection lidar alternately operating on at least two wavelengths. The simulated geometry is a nadir viewing lidar measuring the column content signal. Atmospheric absorption is modeled using FASCODE3P software with the HITRAN 2004 absorption line data base. Lidar shot accumulation is employed up to the horizontal resolution limit. Horizontal resolutions of 50, 100, and 200 km are shown. Assuming a 400 km spacecraft orbit, the horizontal resolutions correspond to measurement times of about 7, 14, and 28 s. We simulate laser pulse-pair repetition frequencies from 1 Hz to 100 kHz. The range of shot accumulation is 7 to 2.8 million pulse-pairs. The resultant error is shown as a function of horizontal resolution, laser pulse-pair repetition frequency, and laser pulse energy. The effect of different on and off pulse energies is explored. The results are compared to simulation results of others and to demonstrated 2-micron operating points at NASA Langley.

  7. Precipitation quantification by cellular-network backhaul-link signal attenuation and a monostatic atmospheric transmission experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunstmann, Harald; Chwala, Christian; Hipp, Susanne; Qiu, Wei; Siart, Uwe

    2010-05-01

    configuration is monostatic using a trihedral mirror as reflector to make the system fully coherent. Thus, besides just recording the amplitude for H- and V-polarization, it is also capable of measuring the phase shift and its fluctuations produced by hydrometeors with a single sideband bandwidth of up to 25 kHz.

  8. Towards coherent combining of X-band high power microwaves: phase-locked long pulse radiations by a relativistic triaxial klystron amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ju, Jinchuan; Zhang, Jun; Qi, Zumin; Yang, Jianhua; Shu, Ting; Zhang, Jiande; Zhong, Huihuang

    2016-08-01

    The radio-frequency breakdown due to ultrahigh electric field strength essentially limits power handling capability of an individual high power microwave (HPM) generator, and this issue becomes more challenging for high frequency bands. Coherent power combining therefore provides an alternative approach to achieve an equivalent peak power of the order of ∼100 GW, which consequently provides opportunities to explore microwave related physics at extremes. The triaxial klystron amplifier (TKA) is a promising candidate for coherent power combing in high frequency bands owing to its intrinsic merit of high power capacity, nevertheless phase-locked long pulse radiation from TKA has not yet been obtained experimentally as the coaxial structure of TKA can easily lead to self-excitation of parasitic modes. In this paper, we present investigations into an X-band TKA capable of producing 1.1 GW HPMs with pulse duration of about 103 ns at the frequency of 9.375 GHz in experiment. Furthermore, the shot-to-shot fluctuation standard deviation of the phase shifts between the input and output microwaves is demonstrated to be less than 10°. The reported achievements open up prospects for accomplishing coherent power combining of X-band HPMs in the near future, and might also excite new development interests concerning high frequency TKAs.

  9. Initial river test of a monostatic RiverSonde streamflow measurement system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teague, C.C.; Barrick, D.E.; Lilleboe, P.M.; Cheng, R.T.; ,

    2003-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted on May 7-8, 2002 using a CODAR RiverSonde UHF radar system at Vernalis, California on the San Joaquin River. The monostatic radar configuration on one bank of the river, with the antennas looking both upriver and downriver, provided very high-quality data. Estimates of both along-river and cross-river surface current were generated using several models, including one based on normal-mode analysis. Along-river surface velocities ranged from about 0.6 m/s at the river banks to about 1.0 m/s near the middle of the river. Average cross-river surface velocities were 0.02 m/s or less.

  10. An improvement scheme of broadband sound absorption measurement in water-filled impedance tube with monostatic transducer%收发合置水声管中使用宽带脉冲的吸声测量方案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵渊博; 侯宏; 孙亮

    2014-01-01

    水声管是水声材料吸声测量的重要实验平台。对于收发合置换能器水声管系统,目前常用的吸声测量信号是调制正弦信号。为了实现宽带测试,提出了水声管中宽带声脉冲的产生方法,并设计了电子开关延时控制电路。给出了基于收发合置型换能器水声管中宽带吸声测量结果。%Water-filled impedance tube is an important platform for sound absorption measurement. For the test system with monostatic transducer, the common used signal is the pulse modulated sine-wave, which is essentially a single frequency measurement. In order to implement broadband sound absorption measurement, an impulsive sound is gen-erated in water-filled impedance tube, and a time sequence control system is designed for the monostatic transducer generating the impulsive sound and picking up the echo-signal. The principle of sound absorption measurement is ex-plained and a test example is shown.

  11. Comparison of monostatic and bistatic bearing estimation performance for low RCS targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Robert J.; Wasylkiwskyj, Wasyl

    1994-07-01

    Bistatic radars, specifically forward-scatter radars, are proposed as an alternative to standard monostatic radars against targets whose radar cross sections (RCS) have been reduced by passive means. Forward-scatter radars operate by detecting echoes from a targets forward-scatter RCS, which is insensitive to effects of passive RCS reduction techniques. However, the performance of the forward-scatter radar is compromised when the angular separation between the interference, which propagates directly from the transmitter to the receiver, and the target return is less than the Rayleigh resolution limit of the receiving antenna. This research presents the results of a parametric study of the ability of a forward-scatter radar to detect and measure the bearing of a large target, whose RCS is reduced via passive means. Super-resolution array processing techniques, particularly root-MUSIC (multiple signal classification), are used to overcome the traditional limitations resulting from the Rayleigh resolution limit of the antenna. The study compares the received power and the bearing measurement accuracy of the forward-scatter radar to that of an 'equivalent' monostatic radar system. The results indicate that forward-scatter radars enjoy advantages in detection and bearing measurement when the backscatter RCS of the target has been reduced and when the target is close to the baseline. The results also indicate that, through the use of super-resolution array processing, the capability of the forward-scatter radar to accurately measure the bearing of the target is dependent upon the amount of interference from the direct wave (i.e., the wave which propagates from the transmitter directly to the receiver) and the correlation between the direct wave and the target echo. Good bearing estimates can be achieved if the correlation coefficient is less than 0.95. Bearing measurements may be improved by suppressing the direct wave by either sidelobe control or null steering

  12. Hole-burning in an Autler-Townes doublet and in superluminal (subluminal) Electromagnetically induced transparency of a light pulse via a joint nonlinear coherent Kerr effect and Doppler broadening

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Bakhtt A; Ahmad, Iftikhar

    2013-01-01

    We investigate the behavior of light pulse propagation in a 4-level double Lambda atomic system under condition of electromagnetically induced transparency. The Fano type interference effect and spectral hole burning appears in the the dynamics of the absorption-dispersion spectra caused by the joint nonlinear coherence Kerr effect and Doppler broadening. The coherent Kerr effect exhibits an enhancement (reduction) in superluminal (subluminal) in negative (in positive) group index while the Doppler broadening generates multiple hole burning in the Autler-Townes like spectra of this system. The hole burning in addition with coherent Kerr effect on the spectral profile influences the dynamics of subluminal and superluminal of the probe pulse through the medium. The characteristics of superluminality and subluminality modified by considering cold-Kerr-free medium and hot-Kerr-dependent mediums. The light pulse delays and advances in different regions of dispersion medium with the Doppler broadening and coherent ...

  13. Coherent generation and dynamic manipulation of double stationary light pulses in a five-level double-tripod system of cold atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bao Qianqian; Zhang Xiaohang; Gao Junyan; Zhang Yan; Cui Cuili; Wu Jinhui [College of Physics, Jilin University, Changchun 130012 (China)

    2011-12-15

    We study a five-level double-tripod system of cold atoms for efficiently manipulating the dynamic propagation and evolution of a quantum probe field by modulating four classical control fields. Our numerical results show that it is viable to transform the quantum probe field into a pair of two-color stationary light pulses mutually coupled through two wave packets of atomic spin coherence. The pair of stationary light pulses can be released either from the sample entrance and exit synchronously or just from the sample exit with a controlled time delay. In addition, the two-color stationary light pulses are immune to the fast decay originating from the higher-order Fourier components of atomic spin and optical coherence, and may exhibit the quantum limited beating signals with their characteristic frequency determined by detunings of the four classical control fields. These results could be explored to design novel photonic devices, such as optical routing, beam splitter, and beat generator, for manipulating a quantum light field.

  14. Three-pulse multiplex coherent anti-Stokes/Stokes Raman scattering (CARS/CSRS) microspectroscopy using a white-light laser source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bito, Kotatsu [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Analytical Science Research Laboratories, Kao Corporation, 2606 Akabane, Ichikai-Machi, Haga-Gun, Tochigi 321-3497 (Japan); Okuno, Masanari [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kano, Hideaki [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tenodai, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-8573 (Japan); Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Leproux, Philippe [Institut de Recherche XLIM, UMR CNRS No. 7252, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); LEUKOS, ESTER Technopole, 1 Avenue d’Ester, 87069 Limoges Cedex (France); Couderc, Vincent [Institut de Recherche XLIM, UMR CNRS No. 7252, 123 Avenue Albert Thomas, 87060 Limoges Cedex (France); Hamaguchi, Hiro-o, E-mail: hhama@nctu.edu.tw [Department of Chemistry, School of Science, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Institute of Molecular Science and Department of Applied Chemistry, National Chiao Tung University, 1001 Ta Hsueh Road, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan (China)

    2013-06-20

    Highlights: ► We have developed a simultaneous measurement system of CARS and CSRS. ► We can obtain information on the electronic resonance effect with the measurement. ► The simultaneous measurement provides us with more reliable spectral information. - Abstract: We have developed a three-pulse non-degenerate multiplex coherent Raman microspectroscopic system using a white-light laser source. The fundamental output (1064 nm) of a Nd:YAG laser is used for the pump radiation with the white-light laser output (1100–1700 nm) for the Stokes radiation to achieve broadband multiplex excitations of vibrational coherences. The second harmonic (532 nm) of the same Nd:YAG laser is used for the probe radiation. Thanks to the large wavelength difference between the pump and probe radiations, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) can be detected simultaneously. Simultaneous detection of CARS and CSRS enables us to obtain information on the electronic resonance effect that affects differently the CARS and CSRS signals. Simultaneous analysis of the CARS and CSRS signals provides us the imaginary part of χ{sup (3)} without introducing any arbitrary parameter in the maximum entropy method (MEM)

  15. Improved structural properties and crystal coherence of superconducting NdBa2Cu3O7-δ films grown by pulsed laser ablation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrecht, M.; Ariosa, D.; Schmauder, T.; Saleh, S. A.; Rast, S.; Pavuna, D.

    2000-11-01

    We report on improved structural, crystallographic and electrical properties of epitaxial NdBa2Cu3O7-δ (NBCO) films grown on SrTiO3 by `off-axis' pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Transport and XRD studies show that the c-axis-oriented epitaxial films, with critical temperatures of 90-92 K, are mono phase and single-crystalline. Furthermore, very smooth, almost outgrowth-free surfaces and crystal coherences of up to 0.8 µm (to our knowledge the best value ever reported for high-Tc films) were obtained.

  16. Partially coherent ultrafast spectrography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourassin-Bouchet, C; Couprie, M-E

    2015-03-06

    Modern ultrafast metrology relies on the postulate that the pulse to be measured is fully coherent, that is, that it can be completely described by its spectrum and spectral phase. However, synthesizing fully coherent pulses is not always possible in practice, especially in the domain of emerging ultrashort X-ray sources where temporal metrology is strongly needed. Here we demonstrate how frequency-resolved optical gating (FROG), the first and one of the most widespread techniques for pulse characterization, can be adapted to measure partially coherent pulses even down to the attosecond timescale. No modification of experimental apparatuses is required; only the processing of the measurement changes. To do so, we take our inspiration from other branches of physics where partial coherence is routinely dealt with, such as quantum optics and coherent diffractive imaging. This will have important and immediate applications, such as enabling the measurement of X-ray free-electron laser pulses despite timing jitter.

  17. Photoionization of hydrogen atom by coherent intense high-frequency short laser pulses: Direct propagation of electron wave packets on enormous spatial grids

    CERN Document Server

    Demekhin, Philipp V; Cederbaum, Lorenz S

    2013-01-01

    The time-dependent Schr\\"{o}dinger equation for the hydrogen atom and its interaction with coherent intense high-frequency short laser pulses is solved numerically exactly by employing the code implemented for the multi-configurational time-dependent Hartree-Fock (MCTDHF) method. Thereby, the wavefunction is followed in space and time for times longer than the pulse duration. Results are explicitly shown for 3 and 10 fs pulses. Particular attention is paid to identifying the effect of dynamic interference of photoelectrons emitted with the same kinetic energy at different times during the rising and falling sides of the pulse predicted in [\\emph{Ph.V. Demekhin and L.S. Cederbaum}, Phys. Rev. Lett. \\textbf{108}, 253001 (2012)]. In order to be able to see the dynamic interference pattern in the computed electron spectra, the photoelectron wave packet has to be propagated over long distances. Clearly, complex absorption potentials often employed to compute spectra of emitted particles cannot be used to detect dy...

  18. Towards optical attosecond pulses: broadband phase coherence between an ultrafast laser and OPO using lock-tozero CEO stabilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reid D. T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The carrier-envelope-offset frequencies of the pump, signal, idler and related sum-frequency mixing pulses have been locked to 0 Hz in a 20-fs-Ti:sapphire-pumped optical parametric oscillator, satisfying a critical prerequisite for optical attosecond pulse synthesis.

  19. Laser-driven plasma wakefield electron acceleration and coherent femtosecond pulse generation in X-ray and gamma ranges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trunov, V. I.; Lotov, K. V.; Gubin, K. V.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Bagayev, S. N.; Logachev, P. V.

    2017-01-01

    The laser wakefield acceleration (LWFA) of electrons in capillaries and gas jets followed by inverse Compton scattering of high intensity femtosecond laser pulses is discussed. The drive and scattered pulses will be produced by the two-channel multi-terawatt laser system developed in ILP SB RAS.

  20. Effects of Orbit and Pointing Geometry of a Spaceborne Formation for Monostatic-Bistatic Radargrammetry on Terrain Elevation Measurement Accuracy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Renga

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade a methodology for the reconstruction of surface relief by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR measurements – SAR interferometry – has become a standard. Different techniques developed before, such as stereo-radargrammetry, have been experienced from space only in very limiting geometries and time series, and, hence, branded as less accurate. However, novel formation flying configurations achievable by modern spacecraft allow fulfillment of SAR missions able to produce pairs of monostatic-bistatic images gathered simultaneously, with programmed looking angles. Hence it is possible to achieve large antenna separations, adequate for exploiting to the utmost the stereoscopic effect, and to make negligible time decorrelation, a strong liming factor for repeat-pass stereo-radargrammetric techniques. This paper reports on design of a monostatic-bistatic mission, in terms of orbit and pointing geometry, and taking into account present generation SAR and technology for accurate relative navigation. Performances of different methods for monostatic-bistatic stereo-radargrammetry are then evaluated, showing the possibility to determine the local surface relief with a metric accuracy over a wide range of Earth latitudes.

  1. Effects of orbit and pointing geometry of a spaceborne formation for monostatic-bistatic radargrammetry on terrain elevation measurement accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renga, Alfredo; Moccia, Antonio

    2009-01-01

    During the last decade a methodology for the reconstruction of surface relief by Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) measurements - SAR interferometry - has become a standard. Different techniques developed before, such as stereo-radargrammetry, have been experienced from space only in very limiting geometries and time series, and, hence, branded as less accurate. However, novel formation flying configurations achievable by modern spacecraft allow fulfillment of SAR missions able to produce pairs of monostatic-bistatic images gathered simultaneously, with programmed looking angles. Hence it is possible to achieve large antenna separations, adequate for exploiting to the utmost the stereoscopic effect, and to make negligible time decorrelation, a strong liming factor for repeat-pass stereo-radargrammetric techniques. This paper reports on design of a monostatic-bistatic mission, in terms of orbit and pointing geometry, and taking into account present generation SAR and technology for accurate relative navigation. Performances of different methods for monostatic-bistatic stereo-radargrammetry are then evaluated, showing the possibility to determine the local surface relief with a metric accuracy over a wide range of Earth latitudes.

  2. Linearity enhancement of TVGA based on adaptive sweep optimisation in monostatic radar receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almslmany, Amir; Wang, Caiyun; Cao, Qunsheng

    2016-08-01

    The limited input dynamic power range of the radar receiver and the power loss due to the targets' ranges are two potential problems in the radar receivers. This paper proposes a model based on the time-varying gain amplifier (TVGA) to compensate the power loss from the targets' ranges, and using the negative impedance compensation technique to enhance the TVGA linearity based on Volterra series. The simulation has been done based on adaptive sweep optimisation (ASO) using advanced design system (ADS) and Matlab. It shows that the suppression of the third-order intermodulation products (IMR3) was carried out for two-tone test, the high-gain accuracy improved by 3 dB, and the high linearity IMR3 improved by 14 dB. The monostatic radar system was tested to detect three targets at different ranges and to compare its probability of detection with the prior models; the results show that the probability of detection has been increased for ASO/TVGA.

  3. Measurement of vibrationally excited N2(v) in an atmospheric-pressure air pulsed corona discharge using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teramoto, Yoshiyuki; Ono, Ryo

    2014-08-01

    Vibrationally excited N2(v = 1, 2) in an atmospheric-pressure air pulsed corona discharge was measured using coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS). In a dry air discharge, the vibrational temperature determined from the ratio N2(v = 2)/N2(v = 0), Tv2, was approximately 500 K higher than that determined from N2(v = 1)/N2(v = 0), Tv1, immediately after the discharge pulse. Both vibrational temperatures reached equilibrium within 100 μs after the discharge pulse by the vibration-to-vibration (V-V) process of N2-N2. The translational temperature was also measured using CARS. The rise in the translational temperature due to vibration-to-translation (V-T) energy transfer was not observed for a postdischarge time of 5 μs-1 ms in the dry-air discharge. However, when the air was humidified, a significant V-T energy transfer was observed. It was due to an extremely rapid V-T process of H2O-H2O following the V-V process of N2-H2O. Measurements showed that the humidification of the ambient air accelerated the decrease in the N2 vibrational temperature and increased the translational temperature. N2(v) was generated mostly in the secondary streamer, not in the primary one, according to estimation from the measured N2(v) density.

  4. Tuning the spin coherence time of Cu(II−(bisoxamato and Cu(II−(bisoxamidato complexes by advanced ESR pulse protocols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruslan Zaripov

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated with the pulsed ESR technique at X- and Q-band frequencies the coherence and relaxation of Cu spins S = 1/2 in single crystals of diamagnetically diluted mononuclear [n-Bu4N]2[Cu(opba] (1% in the host lattice of [n-Bu4N]2[Ni(opba] (99%, opba = o-phenylenebis(oxamato and of diamagnetically diluted mononuclear [n-Bu4N]2[Cu(opbon-Pr2] (1% in the host lattice of [n-Bu4N]2[Ni(opbon-Pr2] (99%, opbon-Pr2 = o-phenylenebis(N(propyloxamidato. For that we have measured the electron spin dephasing time Tm at different temperatures with the two-pulse primary echo and with the special Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG multiple microwave pulse sequence. Application of the CPMG protocol has led to a substantial increase of the spin coherence lifetime in both complexes as compared to the primary echo results. It shows the efficiency of the suppression of the electron spin decoherence channel in the studied complexes arising due to spectral diffusion induced by a random modulation of the hyperfine interaction with the nuclear spins. We argue that this method can be used as a test for the relevance of the spectral diffusion for the electron spin decoherence. Our results have revealed a prominent role of the opba4– and opbon-Pr24– ligands for the dephasing of the Cu spins. The presence of additional 14N nuclei and protons in [Cu(opbon-Pr2]2– as compared to [Cu(opba]2– yields significantly shorter Tm times. Such a detrimental effect of the opbon-Pr24− ligands has to be considered when discussing a potential application of the Cu(II−(bisoxamato and Cu(II−(bisoxamidato complexes as building blocks of more complex molecular structures in prototype spintronic devices. Furthermore, in our work we propose an improved CPMG pulse protocol that enables elimination of unwanted echoes that inevitably appear in the case of inhomogeneously broadened ESR spectra due to the selective excitation of electron spins.

  5. Coherent pulse and environmental characteristics of the intramolecular proton-transfer lasers based on 3-hydroxyflavone and fisetin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parthenopoulos, Dimitri A.; Kasha, Michael

    1988-04-01

    Coherent stimulated emission and laser beams of good quality are reported for 3-hydroxyfiavone (3-HF) and a polyhydroxyfiavone, risetin, acting as intramolecular proton-transfer lasers. The laser beam quality of these materials is comparable to that observed for rhodamine-6G. Studies of amplified spontaneous emission of 3-hydroxyflavone in highly polar solvents are also reported. The very large changes in dipole moment upon electronic excitation of 3-HF expected according to ZINDO semiempirical molecular orbital calculations fail to give rise to spectral shifts in the high dielectric constant solvents. The results are interpreted as a masking spectral effect caused by specific hydrogen bonding by the solvent.

  6. Analysis of pulsatile retinal movements by spectral-domain low-coherence interferometry: influence of age and glaucoma on the pulse wave.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyne Dion

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that ocular hemodynamics and eye tissue biomechanical properties play an important role in the pathophysiology of glaucoma. Nevertheless, better, non-invasive methods to assess these characteristics in vivo are essential for a thorough understanding of degenerative mechanisms. Here, we propose to measure ocular tissue movements induced by cardiac pulsations and study the ocular pulse waveform as an indicator of tissue compliance. Using a novel, low-cost and non-invasive device based on spectral-domain low coherence interferometry (SD-LCI, we demonstrate the potential of this technique to differentiate ocular hemodynamic and biomechanical properties. We measured the axial movement of the retina driven by the pulsatile ocular blood flow in 11 young healthy individuals, 12 older healthy individuals and 15 older treated glaucoma patients using our custom-made SD-OCT apparatus. The cardiac pulse was simultaneously measured through the use of an oximeter to allow comparison. Spectral components up to the second harmonic were obtained and analyzed. For the different cohorts, we computed a few parameters that characterize the three groups of individuals by analyzing the movement of the retinal tissue at two locations, using this simple, low-cost interferometric device. Our pilot study indicates that spectral analysis of the fundus pulsation has potential for the study of ocular biomechanical and vascular properties, as well as for the study of ocular disease.

  7. Coherent addition of gratings for chirped-pulse-amplified lasers based on near-field and far-field measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuchuan Yang; Hui Luo; Xiao Wang; Fuquan Li; Xiaojun Huang; Bin Feng; Feng Jing

    2011-01-01

    @@ The development of phased-array grating compressor is a crucial issue for high-energy, ultra-short pulse petawatt-class lasers.Almost all systems have adopted a tiled-grating approach to meet the size require-ments for the compression gratings.We present a computer-control test system utilizing near-field interfer-ence and far-field focusing capable of monitoring and fast correcting tiled errors of the grating compressor.In this system, the tilt/tip errors between the two gratings are determined by the Fourier transform (FT)of the individual inteiference fringe, and the piston errors are determined by the ratio of the two primary peaks formed in the far-field pattern as a function of the piston difference.Monochromatic grating phasing is achieved experimentally and pulse compression is demonstrated with a tiled grating system.%The development of phased-array grating compressor is a crucial issue for high-energy, ultra-short pulse petawatt-class lasers. Almost all systems have adopted a tiled-grating approach to meet the size requirements for the compression gratings. We present a computer-control test system utilizing near-field interference and far-field focusing capable of monitoring and fast correcting tiled errors of the grating compressor.In this system, the tilt/tip errors between the two gratings are determined by the Fourier transform (FT)of the individual inter ference fringe, and the piston errors are determined by the ratio of the two primary peaks formed in the far-field pattern as a function of the piston difference. Monochromatic grating phasing is achieved experimentally and pulse compression is demonstrated with a tiled grating system.

  8. Two-photon interference of weak coherent laser pulses recalled from separate solid-state quantum memories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jeongwan; Slater, Joshua A.; Saglamyurek, Erhan; Sinclair, Neil; George, Mathew; Ricken, Raimund; Oblak, Daniel; Sohler, Wolfgang; Tittel, Wolfgang

    2013-08-01

    Quantum memories allowing reversible transfer of quantum states between light and matter are central to quantum repeaters, quantum networks and linear optics quantum computing. Significant progress regarding the faithful transfer of quantum information has been reported in recent years. However, none of these demonstrations confirm that the re-emitted photons remain suitable for two-photon interference measurements, such as C-NOT gates and Bell-state measurements, which constitute another key ingredient for all aforementioned applications. Here, using pairs of laser pulses at the single-photon level, we demonstrate two-photon interference and Bell-state measurements after either none, one or both pulses have been reversibly mapped to separate thulium-doped lithium niobate waveguides. As the interference is always near the theoretical maximum, we conclude that our solid-state quantum memories, in addition to faithfully mapping quantum information, also preserve the entire photonic wavefunction. Hence, our memories are generally suitable for future applications of quantum information processing that require two-photon interference.

  9. Visualization of the ocular pulse in the anterior chamber of the mouse eye in vivo using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng; Ding, Zhihua; Ni, Yang; Xu, Baishen; Zhao, Chen; Shen, Yi; Du, Chixin; Jiang, Bo

    2014-09-01

    We report on a phase-based method for accurately measuring the ocular pulse in the anterior chamber in vivo. Using phase-sensitive optical coherence tomography with optimized scanning protocols and equations for compensating bulk motion and environmental vibrations, a high sensitivity of 0.9 μm/s minimal velocity is demonstrated at a wide detection band of 0 to 380 Hz. The pulsatile relative motion between cornea and crystalline lens in rodents is visualized and quantified. The relative motion is most likely caused by respiration (1.6 Hz) and heartbeat (6.6 Hz). The velocity amplitude of the relative motion is 10.3±2.4 μm/s. The displacement amplitudes at the respiratory and cardiac frequencies are 202.5±64.9 and 179.9±49.4 nm, respectively. The potential applications of the measurement technique can be found in the evaluation of intraocular pressure and the measurement of biomechanical properties of the ocular tissue, which are important in several ocular diseases.

  10. Two-Dimensional Direction-of-Arrival Estimation for Trilinear Decomposition-Based Monostatic Cross MIMO Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangqing Wen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A low complexity monostatic cross multiple-in multiple-out (MIMO radar scheme is proposed in this paper. The minimum-redundancy linear array (MRLA is introduced in the cross radar to improve the efficiency of the array elements. The two-dimensional direction-of-arrival (DOA estimation problem links to the trilinear model, which automatically pairs the estimated two-dimensional angles, requiring neither eigenvalue decomposition of received signal covariance matrix nor spectral peak searching. The proposed scheme performs better than the uniform linear arrays (ULA configuration under the same conditions, and the proposed algorithm has less computational complexity than that of multiple signal classification (MUSIC algorithm. Simulation results show the effectiveness of our scheme.

  11. Bistatic SAR coherence over non-planar topographies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andre, Daniel B.; Morrison, Keith

    2012-05-01

    Monostatic Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) Coherent Change Detection (CCD) has been found to be of great utility in detecting changes that occur on the ground. Detectable changes of interest include vehicle tracks and water flow. The CCD procedure involves performing repeat pass radar collections, to form a coherence product, where ground disturbances can induce detectable incoherence. However there is usually a difference in the radar collection geometry which can lead to incoherent energy noise entering the CCD, which reduces the detectability of tracks. When sensing flat terrain, the incoherence due to collection geometry difference can be removed through a conventional Fourier image support trimming process. However, it has been found that when the terrain contains non-flat topography, the optimal trimming process is substantially more involved, so much so that a new per-pixel SAR back-projection imaging algorithm has been developed. This algorithm trims off incoherent energy on a per-pixel basis according to the local topography. In order to validate the bistatic SAR generalization to the monostatic per-pixel formalism and algorithm, bistatic change detection measurements were conducted with the GB-SAR system, and these are reported here.

  12. Raman Scattering in Coherently Prepared Atomic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Fu-Cheng(林福成); Yongjoo Rhee; Jonghoon Yi; Hyunmin Park

    2001-01-01

    Atoms in the coherent superposition state prepared by a pulse pair are used as a novel optical memory material where a single interrogation pulse will produce a new pulse pair preserving the relative amplitudes and phases of the preparing pulse pair. Such a coherent superposition state can also be specially tailored along the propagation path to generate Raman scattering in a relatively short distance with very high efficiency.

  13. Impact of primary aberrations on coherent lidar performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hu, Qi; Rodrigo, Peter John; Iversen, Theis Faber Quist;

    2014-01-01

    In this work we investigate the performance of a monostatic coherent lidar system in which the transmit beam is under the influence of primary phase aberrations: spherical aberration (SA) and astigmatism. The experimental investigation is realized by probing the spatial weighting function...... of the lidar system using different optical transceiver configurations. A rotating belt is used as a hard target. Our study shows that the lidar weighting function suffers from both spatial broadening and shift in peak position in the presence of aberration. It is to our knowledge the first experimental...... effciency, the optimum truncation of the transmit beam and the spatial sensitivity of a CW coherent lidar system. Under strong degree of aberration, the spatial confinement is significantly degraded. However for SA, the degradation of the spatial confinement can be reduced by tuning the truncation...

  14. Wave-packet dynamics in alkaline dimers. Investigation and control through coherent excitation with fs-pulses; Wellenpaketdynamik in Alkali-Dimeren. Untersuchung und Steuerung durch kohaerente Anregung mit fs-Pulsen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sauer, F.N.B.

    2007-07-01

    During my PhD thesis I investigated alkaline dimers with coherent control in a molecular beam as well as with pump-probe spectroscopy in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). The aim of the coherent control experiments were the isotope selective ionization with phase- and amplitude-shaped fs-pulses. Chapter 4 described the gained results of isotope selective ionization of NaK and KRb in a molecular beam by using different pulse formers. For the NaK dimer was the reached optimization factor R{sub Ph} and {sub Ampl}{sup 770}=R{sub max}/R{sub min}=25 between maximization and minimization of the isotopomer ratio ({sup 23}Na{sup 39}K){sup +}/({sup 23}Na{sup 41}K){sup +} with phase and amplitude modulation of the fs-pulse with a central wavelength of {lambda}=770 nm. From the electronic ground-state X(1){sup 1}{sigma}{sup +};{nu}''=0 transfers a one-photon-excitation population in the first excited A(2) {sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} state. The coherent control experiment on KRb was used to maximize and minimize the isotopomer ratio ({sup 124}KRb){sup +}/({sup 126}KRb){sup +}. It was the first coherent control experiment with a spectral resolution of 1.84 cm{sup -1}/Pixel. For the phase and amplitude optimization was the received optimization factor between minimization and maximization of the isotopomer ratio R{sub Ph} and {sub Ampl}=R{sub max}/R{sub min}=7 at a central wavelength of 840 nm. The results showed a stepwise excitation process from the electronic ground-state in the first excited (2){sup 1}{sigma}{sup +} state with a further excitation, that is possible over three resonant energy potential curves into the ionic ground-state. In the second part of my thesis I realized pump-probe spectroscopy of Rb{sub 2} dimers in a dark SPOT. (orig.)

  15. Coherent Control of Bond Making

    CERN Document Server

    Levin, Liat; Rybak, Leonid; Kosloff, Ronnie; Koch, Christiane P; Amitay, Zohar

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate for the first time coherent control of bond making, a milestone on the way to coherent control of photo-induced bimolecular chemical reactions. In strong-field multiphoton femtosecond photoassociation experiments, we find the yield of detected magnesium dimer molecules to be enhanced for positively chirped pulses and suppressed for negatively chirped pulses. Our ab initio model shows that control is achieved by purification via Franck-Condon filtering combined with chirp-dependent Raman transitions. Experimental closed-loop phase optimization using a learning algorithm yields an improved pulse that utilizes vibrational coherent dynamics in addition to chirp-dependent Raman transitions. Our results show that coherent control of binary photo-reactions is feasible even under thermal conditions.

  16. Stimulated coherent transition radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung-chi Lihn

    1996-03-01

    Coherent radiation emitted from a relativistic electron bunch consists of wavelengths longer than or comparable to the bunch length. The intensity of this radiation out-numbers that of its incoherent counterpart, which extends to wavelengths shorter than the bunch length, by a factor equal to the number of electrons in the bunch. In typical accelerators, this factor is about 8 to 11 orders of magnitude. The spectrum of the coherent radiation is determined by the Fourier transform of the electron bunch distribution and, therefore, contains information of the bunch distribution. Coherent transition radiation emitted from subpicosecond electron bunches at the Stanford SUNSHINE facility is observed in the far-infrared regime through a room-temperature pyroelectric bolometer and characterized through the electron bunch-length study. To measure the bunch length, a new frequency-resolved subpicosecond bunch-length measuring system is developed. This system uses a far-infrared Michelson interferometer to measure the spectrum of coherent transition radiation through optical autocorrelation with resolution far better than existing time-resolved methods. Hence, the radiation spectrum and the bunch length are deduced from the autocorrelation measurement. To study the stimulation of coherent transition radiation, a special cavity named BRAICER is invented. Far-infrared light pulses of coherent transition radiation emitted from electron bunches are delayed and circulated in the cavity to coincide with subsequent incoming electron bunches. This coincidence of light pulses with electron bunches enables the light to do work on electrons, and thus stimulates more radiated energy. The possibilities of extending the bunch-length measuring system to measure the three-dimensional bunch distribution and making the BRAICER cavity a broadband, high-intensity, coherent, far-infrared light source are also discussed.

  17. Relaxation of a coherent, magnetic s-p model system coupled to one and two thermal baths and a laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefkidis, G.; Sold, S.; Hübner, W.

    2017-06-01

    We study an s-p model magnetic system with a triplet ground state coupled to two temperature baths. By varying the temperatures we both generate non-thermal electronic distributions and create additional coherences in the density matrix of the system. Thus the thermally-induced magnetic response goes beyond the simple picture of majority-minority population dynamics. Furthermore, we discuss the influence of temperature induced relaxation effects on the dynamics induced by an optical perturbation for this quantum system.

  18. Resolution of Longitudinal Profile Measures using Coherent Smith-Purcell Radiation with the Number of Gratings and the Number of Pulses Used

    CERN Document Server

    Grosjean, Mélissa Vieille; Delerue, Nicolas; Taheri, Faissal Bakkali; Doucas, George; Konoplev, Ivan Vasilyevich; Reichold, Armin; Clarke, Christine Isabel

    2014-01-01

    The E-203 collaboration is testing a device on FACET at SLAC to measure the longitudinal profile of electron bunches using Smith-Purcell radiation. At FACET the electron bunches have an energy of 20~GeV and a duration of a few hundred femtoseconds. Smith-Purcell radiation is emitted when a charged particle passes close to the surface of a metallic grating. We have studied the stability of the measurement from pulse to pulse and the resolution of the measure depending on the number of gratings used.

  19. Coherent photoacoustic-ultrasound correlation and imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Fei; Feng, Xiaohua; Zheng, Yuanjin

    2014-09-01

    Both photoacoustics and ultrasound have been researched extensively but separately. In this letter, we report an initial study on the coherent correlation between pulsed photoacoustic wave and pulse-echo ultrasound wave. By illuminating an object with a pulsed laser and external ultrasound sequentially, both the endogenous photoacoustic wave and pulse-echo ultrasound wave are received and coherently correlated, demonstrating enhanced signal-to-noise ratio. Image contrast of the proposed coherent photoacoustic-ultrasound imaging is also demonstrated to be improved significantly on vessel-mimicking phantom, due to fusion of the optical absorption and ultrasound reflection contrasts by coherent correlation of either conventional laser-induced photoacoustic imaging or pulse-echo ultrasound imaging separately.

  20. Direction synthesis in DOA estimation for monostatic multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar based on synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) and its performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A new direction synthetic method for monostatic multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar is presented based on synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) system. Concerned with the monostatic MIMO radar which simultaneously emits orthogonal signals with multi-carrier-frequency and possesses sparsely distributed transmitting and receiving arrays with respective location, as well as the situation for the presence of multipath propagation in the low flying target’s echo, the method integrates the aperture of the transmitting arrays with the receiving arrays to form the digital beam-forming (DBF) in azimuth and elevation dimensions. And a study has been made of planar general MUSIC algorithm based on decorrelating the multipath signals of multi-carrier-frequency MIMO radar. Through compensat-ing the phase delay of both the transmitting and the receiving arrays and synthe-sizing the transmitting beam in two dimensions at the receiver, the angular resolu-tion and measurement accuracy are improved and the computational complexity is reduced after transforming the three-dimensional (3D) parameter estimation prob-lem into a two-dimensional (2D) one. Finally, the Cramer-Rao Bounds (CRBs) of DOA estimation for azimuth and elevation is put forward with the exsiting multipath propagation. Results of computer simulation demonstrate the validity of the new method.

  1. Direction synthesis in DOA estimation for monostatic multiple input multiple output(MIMO) radar based on synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) and its performance analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO GuangHui; CHEN BaiXiao; ZHU ShouPing

    2008-01-01

    A new direction synthetic method for monostatic multiple input multiple output (MIMO) radar is presented based on synthetic impulse and aperture radar (SIAR) system. Concerned with the monostatic MIMO radar which simultaneously emits orthogonal signals with multi-carrier-frequency and possesses sparsely distributed transmitting and receiving arrays with respective location, as well as the situation for the presence of multipath propagation in the low flying target's echo, the method integrates the aperture of the transmitting arrays with the receiving arrays to form the digital beam-forming (DBF) in azimuth and elevation dimensions. And a study has been made of planar general MUSIC algorithm based on decorrelating the multipath signals of multi-carrier-frequency MIMO radar. Through compensat-ing the phase delay of both the transmitting and the receiving arrays and synthe-sizing the transmitting beam in two dimensions at the receiver, the angular resolu-tion and measurement accuracy are improved and the computational complexity is reduced after transforming the three-dimensional (3D) parameter estimation prob-lem into a two-dimensional (2D) one. Finally, the Cramer-Rao Bounds (CRBs) of DOA estimation for azimuth and elevation is put forward with the exsitJng multipath propagation. Results of computer simulation demonstrate the validity of the new method.

  2. PRI Detection of Segment Pulse Trains Based on Transform Spectrum Coherent Accumulation%基于变换谱相干积累的片段信号PRI检测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张什永; 胡泽宾; 王俊文

    2012-01-01

    Due to the effects of search modes and targets' beam scheduling, the reconnaissance systems can only intercept segment pulse trains from emitters, which is a big challenge for signal sorting. For this problem, a new method based on PRI transform spectrum coherent accumulation is proposed. PRI transform algorithm is introduced. The relationship between PRI spectrum peak value and pulse number included is given and its coherent accumulation feature is then revealed. Simulation results show that the new method can efficiently enhance PRI spectrum and is favourable to improve the detection propability.%受自身搜索方式和目标辐射源波束调度的影响,侦察系统往往只能截获辐射源的部分信号,这为后续分选处理带来了很大挑战.针对该问题,提出了通过时PRI变换谱进行相干积累以提高真实PRI检测概率的方法.首先介绍了PRI变换法,对算法原理进行了说明;接着从理论上推导了PRI变换谱峰值与脉冲个数的关系,指出了PRI变换谱的相干积累特性,并分析了其对虚假脉冲的适应能力;最后通过仿真试验对理论分析进行了验证.仿真结果表明,文中提出的方法能够有效提高片段信号的PRI 谱峰,从而有利于提高检测概率.

  3. Pulsed Single Frequency MOPA Laser Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Latest advances in semiconductor optoelectronics makes it possible to develop compact light weight robust sources of coherent optical pulses, demanded for numerous...

  4. Cross-validation of theoretically quantified fiber continuum generation and absolute pulse measurement by MIIPS for a broadband coherently controlled optical source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tu, H.; Liu, Y.; Lægsgaard, Jesper

    2012-01-01

    The predicted spectral phase of a fiber continuum pulsed source rigorously quantified by the scalar generalized nonlinear Schrödinger equation is found to be in excellent agreement with that measured by multiphoton intrapulse interference phase scan (MIIPS) with background subtraction. This cross...

  5. Coherent Transient Systems Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-06-17

    manuscript is submitted for publication with the understanding that the United States Government is authorized to reproduce and distribute reprints...for governmental purposes. 1.0 Introduction The continuous optical correlator presented here is based on the phenomena of coherent transients, also...Gating the Continuous Processor Programming the continuous processor is accomplished by illuminati , n, the material with ,.’ modulated light pulses: a

  6. Second harmonic optical coherence tomography

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang,Yi; Tomov, Ivan; Wang, Yimin; Chen, Zhongping

    2004-01-01

    Second harmonic optical coherence tomography, which uses coherence gating of second-order nonlinear optical response of biological tissues for imaging, is described and demonstrated. Femtosecond laser pulses were used to excite second harmonic waves from collagen harvested from rat tail tendon and a reference nonlinear crystal. Second harmonic interference fringe signals were detected and used for image construction. Because of the strong dependence of second harmonic generation on molecular ...

  7. Scheme for generation of fully-coherent, TW power level hard X-ray pulses from baseline undulators at the European X-ray FEL

    CERN Document Server

    Geloni, Gianluca; Saldin, Evgeni

    2010-01-01

    The most promising way to increase the output power of an X-ray FEL (XFEL) is by tapering the magnetic field of the undulator. Also, significant increase in power is achievable by starting the FEL process from a monochromatic seed rather than from noise. This report proposes to make use of a cascade self-seeding scheme with wake monochromators in a tunable-gap baseline undulator at the European XFEL to create a source capable of delivering coherent radiation of unprecedented characteristics at hard X-ray wavelengths. Compared with SASE X-ray FEL parameters, the radiation from the new source has three truly unique aspects: complete longitudinal and transverse coherence, and a peak brightness three orders of magnitude higher than what is presently available at LCLS. Additionally, the new source will generate hard X-ray beam at extraordinary peak (TW) and average (kW) power level. The proposed source can thus revolutionize fields like single biomolecule imaging, inelastic scattering and nuclear resonant scatteri...

  8. Numerical simulation of coherent visible-to-near-infrared supercontinuum generation in the CHCl3-filled photonic crystal fiber with 1.06 μm pump pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-can; Li, Wei-min; Li, Na; Wang, Wen-quan

    2017-02-01

    The hollow-core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) is filled by highly nonlinear liquid chloroform (CHCl3) in the center core. The CHCl3-filled PCF with an appropriate geometric parameters exhibits a normal dispersion profile in the visible-to-near-infrared (NIR) region, where the values of group velocity dispersion (GVD) in the vicinity of 1060-nm pump wavelength can be tuned in the range from -20 to -50 ps/nm/km. Furthermore, the nonlinear parameters at wavelengths power), the generated supercontinuum (SC) spectra with high degree of coherence can cover near 2 octaves spanning from 340 to 1360 nm at -20 dB level. The spectral variations are < 5 dB in the wavelength range of 365-1315 nm.

  9. Coherent control of photoelectron wavepacket angular interferograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockett, P.; Wollenhaupt, M.; Baumert, T.

    2015-11-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process, where the final (time-integrated) observable coherently samples all instantaneous states of the light-matter interaction. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.

  10. Prebunching and electron pulse phase stability in FELIX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oepts, D.; Weits, H. H.

    1997-06-01

    The importance of coherent spontaneous emission in a free-electron laser operating with short electron pulses is discussed. A coherent enhancement by many orders of magnitude has been observed in the far infrared with the FELIX device. The associated coherence between independent optical micropulses is used to determine the phase stability of the electron pulses. It is found that the pulse-to-pulse jitter is not more than some tens of femtoseconds on a timescale of nanoseconds.

  11. Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms

    OpenAIRE

    Hockett, Paul; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the cohere...

  12. Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms

    OpenAIRE

    Hockett, Paul; Wollenhaupt, Matthias; Baumert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the cohere...

  13. Coherence measurements and coherent diffractive imaging at FLASH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vartanyants, I A; Mancuso, A P; Singer, A; Yefanov, O M; Gulden, J, E-mail: ivan.vartaniants@desy.d [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, D-22607 Hamburg (Germany)

    2010-10-14

    We present an overview of recent experiments performed at the free-electron laser (FEL) FLASH at DESY in Hamburg. Experiments were focused on coherence measurements and coherent x-ray diffractive imaging (CXDI) of periodic and non-periodic biological samples. Young's double slit experiment was performed at FLASH to measure its coherence properties at a fundamental wavelength of 13.7 nm. Additionally, a uniformly redundant array was used to measure the coherence properties of the third harmonic (2.7 nm) of an 8 nm fundamental wavelength at FLASH. Coherent imaging of a two-dimensional (2D) finite crystal structure using a single pulse train of FLASH radiation was demonstrated. We show that the structure is reconstructed to the detector-limited resolution of 220 nm, given an adequate signal to noise ratio. We have also employed CXDI in a non-destructive regime to compare the images of a biological sample using single, femtosecond pulses of FLASH radiation. We have verified that images reconstructed using CXDI are similar for statistically different FEL pulses. We have also demonstrated Fourier transform holography of the same biological sample and present diffraction data measured at the third harmonic of FLASH, reaching into the water window.

  14. 基于梳状谱发生器的毫米波相参脉压模拟器%A New Coherent Pulse Compressed MM-Wave Radar RF Echo Generator Based on Comb Spectrum Generator

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟龙军; 曲洪东; 王晓伟; 姜志森

    2014-01-01

    研制了一种基于梳状谱发生器的全相参脉冲压缩毫米波雷达目标射频回波模拟器。通过与被测雷达共用基准频率参考信号,结合梳状谱发生器及DDS,保证了输出信号和雷达发射信号的相参性和快速频率跳变,实现较好的相位噪声性能和杂散抑制。该系统输出为Ka波段,带宽2 GHz,步进100 kHz,相位噪声小于-80 dBc@1kHz,跳频时间小于2μs。%A new coherent pulse compressed mm-wave radar RF rcho generator based on comb spectrum generator was de-veloped. Using the same frequency reference signal of mm-wave radar to be tested, combined with comb spectrum genera-tor and DDS, the coherency of the output signal was ensured, and fast frequency switching performance was achieved with low noise and spurious level. The developed echo generator outputs in Ka band, with output bandwidth of 2 GHz, frequen-cy step of 100 kHz, phase noise level of-80dBc@1kHz, low spurious level of-60 dBc and fast frequency switching time of 2μs.

  15. Mono-static GPR without transmitting anything for pavement damage inspection: interferometry by auto-correlation applied to mobile phone signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feld, R.; Slob, E. C.; Thorbecke, J.

    2015-12-01

    Creating virtual sources at locations where physical receivers have measured a response is known as seismic interferometry. A much appreciated benefit of interferometry is its independence of the actual source locations. The use of ambient noise as actual source is therefore not uncommon in this field. Ambient noise can be commercial noise, like for example mobile phone signals. For GPR this can be useful in cases where it is not possible to place a source, for instance when it is prohibited by laws and regulations. A mono-static GPR antenna can measure ambient noise. Interferometry by auto-correlation (AC) places a virtual source on this antenna's position, without actually transmitting anything. This can be used for pavement damage inspection. Earlier work showed very promising results with 2D numerical models of damaged pavement. 1D and 2D heterogeneities were compared, both modelled in a 2D pavement world. In a 1D heterogeneous model energy leaks away to the sides, whereas in a 2D heterogeneous model rays can reflect and therefore still add to the signal reconstruction (see illustration). In the first case the amount of stationary points is strictly limited, while in the other case the amount of stationary points is very large. We extend these models to a 3D world and optimise an experimental configuration. The illustration originates from the journal article under submission 'Non-destructive pavement damage inspection by mono-static GPR without transmitting anything' by R. Feld, E.C. Slob, and J.W. Thorbecke. (a) 2D heterogeneous pavement model with three irregular-shaped misalignments between the base and subbase layer (marked by arrows). Mono-antenna B-scan positions are shown schematically. (b) Ideal output: a real source at the receiver's position. The difference w.r.t. the trace found in the middle is shown. (c) AC output: a virtual source at the receiver's position. There is a clear overlap with the ideal output.

  16. Pulse on Pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik; Carlson, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Pulse on Pulse” investigates the relation between signifying processes and non-signifying material dynamism in the installation Pulse Room (2006-) by Mexican Canadian artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Pulse Room the sense of pulse is ambiguous. Biorhythms are transmitted from the pulsing energy...... and pulsating ‘room’. Hence, the visitors in Pulse Room are invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic ‘rhythm of life’) and instants of pure material processuality...... a multilayered sense of time and space that is central to the sensory experience of Pulse Room as a whole. Pulse Room is, at the very same time, an anthropomorfized archive of a past intimacy and an all-encompassing immersive environment modulating continuously in real space-time....

  17. The role of phase coherence in seeded supercontinuum generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe

    2012-01-01

    The noise properties of a supercontinuum can be controlled by modulating the pump with a seed pulse. In this paper, we numerically investigate the influence of seeding with a partially phase coherent weak pulse or continuous wave. We demonstrate that the noise properties of the generated...... supercontinuum are highly sensitive to the degree of phase noise of the seed and that a nearly coherent seed pulse is needed to achieve a coherent pulse break-up and low noise supercontinuum. The specific maximum allowable linewidth of the seed laser is found to decrease with increasing pump power....

  18. Coherent Control of Photoelectron Wavepacket Angular Interferograms

    CERN Document Server

    Hockett, Paul; Baumert, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Coherent control over photoelectron wavepackets, via the use of polarization-shaped laser pulses, can be understood as a time and polarization-multiplexed process. In this work, we investigate this multiplexing via computation of the observable photoelectron angular interferograms resulting from multi-photon atomic ionization with polarization-shaped laser pulses. We consider the polarization sensitivity of both the instantaneous and cumulative continuum wavefunction; the nature of the coherent control over the resultant photoelectron interferogram is thus explored in detail. Based on this understanding, the use of coherent control with polarization-shaped pulses as a methodology for a highly multiplexed coherent quantum metrology is also investigated, and defined in terms of the information content of the observable.

  19. Temporal resolution beyond the average pulse duration in shaped noisy-pulse transient absorption spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Kristina; Müller, Niklas; Liu, Zuoye; Pfeifer, Thomas

    2016-12-20

    In time-resolved spectroscopy, it is a widespread belief that the temporal resolution is determined by the laser pulse duration. Recently, it was observed and shown that partially coherent laser pulses as they are provided by free-electron-laser (FEL) sources offer an alternative route to reach a temporal resolution below the average pulse duration. Here, we demonstrate the generation of partially coherent light in the laboratory like we observe it at FELs. We present the successful implementation of such statistically fluctuating pulses by using the pulse-shaping technique. These pulses exhibit an average pulse duration about 10 times larger than their bandwidth limit. The shaped pulses are then applied to transient-absorption measurements in the dye IR144. Despite the noisy characteristics of the laser pulses, features in the measured absorption spectra occurring on time scales much faster than the average pulse duration are resolved, thus proving the universality of the described noisy-pulse concept.

  20. Incoherent broadband optical pulse generation using an optical gate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Biao Chen; Qiong Jiang

    2008-01-01

    In two-dimensional (2D) time-spreading/wavelength-hopping optical code division multiple access (OCDMA) systems, employing less coherent broadband optical pulse sources allows lower electrical operating rate and better system performance. An optical gate based scheme for generating weakly coherent(approximately incoherent) broadband optical pulses was proposed and experimentally demonstrated. Inthis scheme, the terahertz optical asymmetric demultiplexer, together with a coherent narrowband controlpulse source, turns an incoherent broadband continuous-wave (CW) light source into the required pulse source.

  1. Pulse on Pulse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ulrik; Carlson, Merete

    2012-01-01

    and pulsating ‘room’. Hence, the visitors in Pulse Room are invited into a complex scenario that continuously oscillates between various aspects of signification (the light bulbs representing individual lives; the pulse itself as the symbolic ‘rhythm of life’) and instants of pure material processuality......“Pulse on Pulse” investigates the relation between signifying processes and non-signifying material dynamism in the installation Pulse Room (2006-) by Mexican Canadian artist Rafael Lozano-Hemmer. In Pulse Room the sense of pulse is ambiguous. Biorhythms are transmitted from the pulsing energy...... of the visitor’s beating heart to the blink of a fragile light bulb, thereby transforming each light bulb into a register of individual life. But at the same time the blinking light bulbs together produce a chaotically flickering light environment composed by various layers of repetitive rhythms, a vibrant...

  2. Real-time monitoring of longitudinal electron bunch parameters by intensity-integrated and spectroscopic measurements of single coherent THz pulses; Echtzeitbestimmung longitudinaler Elektronenstrahlparameter mittels absoluter Intensitaets- und Spektralmessung einzelner kohaerenter THz Strahlungspulse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesch, Stephan

    2012-12-15

    High-gain free-electron lasers (FELs) generate intense and monochromatic photon pulses with few tens of femtosecond duration. For this purpose, electron beams are accelerated to relativistic energies and shrunk longitudinally down to micrometer size.The diagnosis of theses compressed electron bunches is a challenge especially for MHz bunch repetition rates as provided by the FEL FLASH in Hamburg. In this thesis, coherently emitted THz radiation of single electron bunches were investigated, on which the longitudinal structure is imprinted. Two instruments were used: First, the FLASH bunch compression monitors, relying on the integrated intensity measurement of diffraction radiation, were modified to determine the overall length of every bunch behind the two bunch compressors (BC). A model was developed showing that their response is independent of the exact bunch shape for lengths below 200 {mu}m (rms). This could experimentally be verified in the range between 50 and 190 {mu}m within 7% accuracy for themonitor behind the last BC by comparison with measurements with the transverse deflecting structure (TDS). Second, a single-shot spectrometer with five staged reflective blazed gratings has been designed, build and commissioned. With its two grating sets, the wavelength ranges from 5.5 to 44 {mu}m and 45 to 440 {mu}m can be simultaneously detected by 118 fast pyroelectric elements. Measurements based on transition radiation spectra were compared with profiles recorded by the TDS.The shape of the spectra as well as the reconstructed temporal profiles (using the Kramers-Kronig relation for phase retrieval) are in excellent agreement. For bunches with a charge of 50 pC, bunch lengths down to 5 {mu}m (fhwm) could be detected.

  3. Does coherence enhance transport in photosynthesis?

    CERN Document Server

    Kassal, Ivan; Rahimi-Keshari, Saleh

    2012-01-01

    Recent observations of coherence in photosynthetic complexes have led to the question of whether quantum effects can occur in vivo, not under femtosecond laser pulses but in incoherent sunlight and at steady state, and, if so, whether the coherence explains the high exciton transfer efficiency. We distinguish several types of coherence and show that although some photosynthetic pathways are partially coherent processes, photosynthesis in nature proceeds through stationary states. This distinction allows us to rule out several mechanisms of transport enhancement in sunlight. In particular, although they are crucial for understanding exciton transport, neither wavelike motion nor microscopic coherence, on their own, enhance the efficiency. By contrast, two partially coherent mechanisms---ENAQT and supertransfer---can enhance transport even in sunlight and thus constitute motifs for the optimisation of artificial sunlight harvesting. Finally, we clarify the importance of ultrafast spectroscopy in understanding i...

  4. Electroencephalograpic coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Brežan

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available Different brain areas process various aspects of information in parallel as well as segregated way. It is not known, how is this information integrated into a unitary percept or action. The binding problem is one of the key problems in understanding brain function. Synchronized oscillatory activity of neurons is one possible mechanism of the functional integration of different communicating brain areas. The binding has been well-studied in the visual system, but it could also serve as a mechanism in visuomotor integration or functional coupling present with other brain processes and behavioural modes (perception, complex motor behaviour, selective attention, learning, working memory, etc.. Interregional synchronization of the electroencephalographic (EEG signal can be determined by EEG coherence analysis. In the article we present a research example of coherence changes in a visuomotor task. During this task, coherence between visual and motor brain areas increased. This might reflect functional coupling between those areas, but it could also be influenced by other cognitive processes (e.g. selective attention. Coherence analysis is suitable for studying integrative brain function. Because it measures only one of the possible mechanisms of integration, it offers promise especially when combined with other electrophysiological and functional imaging methods.

  5. Coherent amplified optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Rao, Bin; Chen, Zhongping

    2007-07-01

    A technique to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a high speed 1300 nm swept source optical coherence tomography (SSOCT) system was demonstrated. A semiconductor optical amplifier (SOA) was employed in the sample arm to coherently amplify the weak light back-scattered from sample tissue without increasing laser power illuminated on the sample. The image quality improvement was visualized and quantified by imaging the anterior segment of a rabbit eye at imaging speed of 20,000 A-lines per second. The theory analysis of SNR gain is given followed by the discussion on the technologies that can further improve the SNR gain.

  6. Coherence and Sense of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Constraints in the implementation of models of blended learning can be explained by several causes, but in this paper, it is illustrated that lack of sense of coherence is a major factor of these constraints along with the referential whole of the perceived learning environments. The question...... of coherence is both related to conditional matters as learning environments, structure, clarity and linkage but also preconditioned matters and prerequisites among participants related to experiences and convenience. It is stressed that this calls for continuous assessment and reflections upon these terms...... and conditions if the student shall be able acquire the necessary competencies....

  7. Coherence, Pseudo-Coherence, and Non-Coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enkvist, Nils Erik

    Analysis of the factors that make a text coherent or non-coherent suggests that total coherence requires cohesion not only on the textual surface but on the semantic level as well. Syntactic evidence of non-coherence includes lack of formal agreement blocking a potential cross-reference, anaphoric and cataphoric references that do not follow their…

  8. Coherence and Sense of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    of coherence is both related to conditional matters as learning environments, structure, clarity and linkage but also preconditioned matters and prerequisites among participants related to experiences and convenience. It is stressed that this calls for continuous assessment and reflections upon these terms...... and conditions if the student shall be able acquire the necessary competencies....

  9. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-10-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity.

  10. Experimental quantum fingerprinting with weak coherent pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Feihu; Arrazola, Juan Miguel; Wei, Kejin; Wang, Wenyuan; Palacios-Avila, Pablo; Feng, Chen; Sajeed, Shihan; Lütkenhaus, Norbert; Lo, Hoi-Kwong

    2015-01-01

    Quantum communication holds the promise of creating disruptive technologies that will play an essential role in future communication networks. For example, the study of quantum communication complexity has shown that quantum communication allows exponential reductions in the information that must be transmitted to solve distributed computational tasks. Recently, protocols that realize this advantage using optical implementations have been proposed. Here we report a proof-of-concept experimental demonstration of a quantum fingerprinting system that is capable of transmitting less information than the best-known classical protocol. Our implementation is based on a modified version of a commercial quantum key distribution system using off-the-shelf optical components over telecom wavelengths, and is practical for messages as large as 100 Mbits, even in the presence of experimental imperfections. Our results provide a first step in the development of experimental quantum communication complexity. PMID:26515586

  11. Multipath-dominant, pulsed doppler analysis of rotating blades

    CERN Document Server

    Robinson, Michael

    2012-01-01

    We present a novel angular fingerprinting algorithm for detecting changes in the direction of rotation of a target with a monostatic, stationary sonar platform. Unlike other approaches, we assume that the target's centroid is stationary, and exploit doppler multipath signals to resolve the otherwise unavoidable ambiguities that arise. Since the algorithm is based on an underlying differential topological theory, it is highly robust to distortions in the collected data. We demonstrate performance of this algorithm experimentally, by exhibiting a pulsed doppler sonar collection system that runs on a smartphone. The performance of this system is sufficiently good to both detect changes in target rotation direction using angular fingerprints, and also to form high-resolution inverse synthetic aperature images of the target.

  12. Second-harmonic optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yi; Tomov, Ivan; Wang, Yimin; Chen, Zhongping

    2004-05-01

    Second-harmonic optical coherence tomography, which uses coherence gating of second-order nonlinear optical responses of biological tissues for imaging, is described and demonstrated. Femtosecond laser pulses were used to excite second-harmonic waves from collagen harvested from rat tail tendon and a reference nonlinear crystal. Second-harmonic interference fringe signals were detected and used for image construction. Because of the strong dependence of second-harmonic generation on molecular and tissue structures, this technique imparts contrast and resolution enhancement to conventional optical coherence tomography.

  13. Increasing Entanglement between Gaussian States by Coherent Photon Subtraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien Romain; Tualle Brouri, Rosa

    2007-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement between Gaussian entangled states can be increased by non-Gaussian operations. Coherent subtraction of single photons from Gaussian quadrature-entangled light pulses, created by a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, produces delocalized states w...

  14. Influence of Phase Coherence on Seeded Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2013-01-01

    The noise properties of supercontinuum (SC) generation have attracted a lot of attention due to a large application demand for low noise SC sources and in the more fundamental context of clarifying links with instabilities in other systems. In typical commercial SC sources the pulse break......-up is initiated by noise-driven modulational instability (MI). The resulting large spectral shot-to-shot fluctuations can be significantly reduced by modulating the pump with a phase coherent seed [1-2], which leads to a coherent pulse break-up through the amplification of a cascade of four-wave mixing (FWM) side......-bands. We demonstrate that the noise properties of the generated SC are highly sensitive to the degree of phase noise of the seed and that a nearly coherent seed pulse is needed to achieve a coherent pulse break-up and low noise SC [3]. This limits the mechanisms that can be used to generate the seed, which...

  15. Coherent methods in X-ray scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorobtsov, Oleg

    2017-05-15

    X-ray radiation has been used to study structural properties of materials for more than a hundred years. Construction of extremely coherent and bright X-ray radiation sources such as free electron lasers (FELs) and latest generationstorage rings led to rapid development of experimental methods relying on high radiation coherence. These methods allow to perform revolutionary studies in a wide range of fields from solid state physics to biology. In this thesis I focus on several important problems connected with the coherent methods. The first part considers applications of dynamical diffraction theory on crystals to studies with coherent X-ray radiation. It presents the design of a high-resolution spectrometer for free electron lasers that should allow to resolve spectral structure of individual FEL pulses. The spectrometer is based on the principle of dynamical diffraction focusing. The knowledge of individual FEL pulse spectra is necessary for understanding FEL longitudinal coherence. In the same part I present quasi-kinematical approximation to dynamical theory which allows to treat analytically phase effects observed in X-ray coherent imaging on nanocrystals. These effects may play a big role when methods such as ptychography are used to study crystalline samples. The second part deals with measurements of FEL coherence properties using intensity - intensity interferometry. Results of several experiments performed at FELs FLASH and LCLS are revealed in this section. I have developed models and theories to explain the behavior observed in experiments on FLASH. These models allowed to extract information about external positional jitter of FEL pulses and secondary beams present in FEL radiation. In the LCLS experiment the Hanbury Brown and Twiss type interferometry was performed on Bragg peaks from colloidal crystal. This did not require additional measurements without the sample and information was extracted directly from diffraction patterns. Therefore intensity

  16. Coherent and incoherent spectral broadening in a photonic crystal fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, C; Best, Th; van Oosten, D; Bloch, I

    2007-07-01

    The coherence of the spectral broadening process is the key requisite for the application of supercontinua in frequency combs. We investigate the coherence of two subsequent supercontinuum pulses created in a photonic crystal fiber pumped by a femtosecond laser. We measure Young interference fringes from a Michelson-type interferometer at different wavelengths of the output spectrum and analyze their dependence on pump intensity and polarization. The visibility of these fringes is a direct measure of the coherence of the spectral broadening processes.

  17. A new low-cost 10 ns pulsed Ka-band radar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Pekka; Ylinen, Juhana

    2011-07-01

    Two Gunn oscillators, conventional intermediate frequency building blocks, and a modified GaAs diode detector are combined to form a portable monostatic 10 ns instrumentation radar for outdoor Ka-band radar cross section measurements. At 37.8 GHz the radar gives +20 dBm output power and its tangential sensitivity is -76 dBm. Processing bandwidth is 125 MHz, which also allows for some frequency drift in the Gunn devices. Intra-pulse frequency chirp is less than 15 MHz. All functions are steered by a microcontroller. First measurements convince that the construction has a reasonable ability to reduce close-to-ground surface clutter and gives an effective way of resolving target detail. This is beneficial especially when amplitude fluctuations disturb measurements with longer pulses. The new unit operates on 12 V dc, draws a current of less than 3 A, and weighs 5 kg.

  18. A new low-cost 10 ns pulsed K(a)-band radar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Pekka; Ylinen, Juhana

    2011-07-01

    Two Gunn oscillators, conventional intermediate frequency building blocks, and a modified GaAs diode detector are combined to form a portable monostatic 10 ns instrumentation radar for outdoor K(a)-band radar cross section measurements. At 37.8 GHz the radar gives +20 dBm output power and its tangential sensitivity is -76 dBm. Processing bandwidth is 125 MHz, which also allows for some frequency drift in the Gunn devices. Intra-pulse frequency chirp is less than 15 MHz. All functions are steered by a microcontroller. First measurements convince that the construction has a reasonable ability to reduce close-to-ground surface clutter and gives an effective way of resolving target detail. This is beneficial especially when amplitude fluctuations disturb measurements with longer pulses. The new unit operates on 12 V dc, draws a current of less than 3 A, and weighs 5 kg.

  19. First-order decomposition of thermal light in terms of a statistical mixture of pulses

    OpenAIRE

    Chenu, Aurélia; Brańczyk, Agata M.; J.E. Sipe

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the connection between thermal light and coherent pulses, constructing mixtures of single pulses that yield the same first-order, equal-space-point correlation function as thermal light. We present mixtures involving (i) pulses with a Gaussian lineshape and narrow bandwidths, and (ii) pulses with a coherence time that matches that of thermal light. We characterize the properties of the mixtures and pulses. Our results introduce an alternative description of thermal light in ter...

  20. 部分相干方形平顶电磁脉冲光束经相位调制透镜的聚焦特性%Focusing Characteristics of Partially Coherent Square Flat-Topped Electromagnetic Pulsed Beams Focused by a Phase Modulated Lens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国文; 陶华; 蒲继雄; 卢兴强; 马伟新

    2012-01-01

    Unified theory of coherence and polarization of stationary beams is applied to pulsed light beams research. Partially coherent square flat-topped electromagnetic pulsed beams have been constructed, and analytical expressions for cross-spectral density matrix of a class of the pulsed light beams focused by a phase modulated lens have been derived. A detailed study on effects of phase distortion radii, phase distortion depth, phase modulated position and correlation length on spectral density in focused filed is carried on. It is shown that local phase modulation will produce another spectral density peak in the focused field, and correlation parameter of source and phase modulation parameters determine the value of intensity peak, and make it shift in some cases. Especially when parameters of correlation of the source are chosen to be some values, a focal switch phenomenon will occur. Change of spatial coherent length of the source produces the spatially focal shift and pulse time correlation length also produces spectral density peak shift on frequency.%将稳态场的相干偏振统一理论应用于脉冲光束的研究.构建了部分相干方形平顶电磁脉冲光束,并推导出该光束经相位调制透镜后聚焦的交叉谱密度函数表达式.详细探讨了相位调制尺寸、调制深度、调制中心位置以及光束相关长度等对聚焦场光谱强度的影响.研究结果表明,局域相位调制会导致在聚焦场中产生另一光谱强度峰值,光束的相关参数和相位调制参数决定该光谱强度峰值大小,并在一定情况下使之发生移动.特别是当光源相关参数和相位调制参数处于某临界值时,会发生光谱强度峰值开关现象.同时发现,空间相关长度导致光束发生空间焦移,而脉冲时间相关长度导致光谱强度峰值在频率上的移动.

  1. Speckles generated by skewed, short-coherence light beams

    CERN Document Server

    Brogioli, D; Croccolo, F; Ziano, R; Mantegazza, F

    2011-01-01

    When a coherent laser beam impinges on a random sample (e.g. a colloidal suspension), the scattered light exhibits characteristic speckles. If the temporal coherence of the light source is too short, then the speckles disappear, along with the possibility of performing homodyne or heterodyne scattering detection or photon correlation spectroscopy. Here we investigate the scattering of a so-called "skewed coherence beam", i.e., a short-coherence beam modified such that the field is coherent within slabs that are skewed with respect to the wave fronts. We show that such a beam generates speckles and can be used for heterodyne scattering detection, despite its short temporal coherence. When applied to quite turbid samples, the technique has the remarkable advantage of suppressing the multiple scattering contribution of the scattering signal. The phenomenon presented here represents a very effective method for measuring the coherence skewness of either a continuous wave or a pulsed beam. Another field of applicat...

  2. Multidimensional Time-Resolved Spectroscopy of Vibrational Coherence in Biopolyenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckup, Tiago; Motzkus, Marcus

    2014-04-01

    Multidimensional femtosecond time-resolved vibrational coherence spectroscopy allows one to investigate the evolution of vibrational coherence in electronic excited states. Methods such as pump-degenerate four-wave mixing and pump-impulsive vibrational spectroscopy combine an initial ultrashort laser pulse with a nonlinear probing sequence to reinduce vibrational coherence exclusively in the excited states. By carefully exploiting specific electronic resonances, one can detect vibrational coherence from 0 cm-1 to over 2,000 cm-1 and map its evolution. This review focuses on the observation and mapping of high-frequency vibrational coherence for all-trans biological polyenes such as β-carotene, lycopene, retinal, and retinal Schiff base. We discuss the role of molecular symmetry in vibrational coherence activity in the S1 electronic state and the interplay of coupling between electronic states and vibrational coherence.

  3. Multidimensional time-resolved spectroscopy of vibrational coherence in biopolyenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckup, Tiago; Motzkus, Marcus

    2014-01-01

    Multidimensional femtosecond time-resolved vibrational coherence spectroscopy allows one to investigate the evolution of vibrational coherence in electronic excited states. Methods such as pump-degenerate four-wave mixing and pump-impulsive vibrational spectroscopy combine an initial ultrashort laser pulse with a nonlinear probing sequence to reinduce vibrational coherence exclusively in the excited states. By carefully exploiting specific electronic resonances, one can detect vibrational coherence from 0 cm(-1) to over 2,000 cm(-1) and map its evolution. This review focuses on the observation and mapping of high-frequency vibrational coherence for all-trans biological polyenes such as β-carotene, lycopene, retinal, and retinal Schiff base. We discuss the role of molecular symmetry in vibrational coherence activity in the S1 electronic state and the interplay of coupling between electronic states and vibrational coherence.

  4. Coherent spontaneous emission and spontaneous phase locking in a free-electron laser

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weits, H. H.; Oepts, D.

    1999-01-01

    We present measurements that demonstrate the existence of spontaneous coherence between independently generated laser pulses in the FELIX free-electron laser, The experiments show that the interpulse coherence is caused by a high level of coherently enhanced spontaneous emission. We have been able t

  5. Switching exciton pulses through conical intersections

    CERN Document Server

    Leonhardt, K; Rost, J -M

    2013-01-01

    Exciton pulses transport excitation and entanglement adiabatically through Rydberg aggregates, assemblies of highly excited light atoms, which are set into directed motion by resonant dipole-dipole interaction. Here, we demonstrate the coherent splitting of such pulses as well as the spatial segregation of electronic excitation and atomic motion. Both mechanisms exploit local non-adiabatic effects at a conical intersection, turning them from a decoherence source into an asset. The intersection provides a sensitive knob controlling the propagation direction and coherence properties of exciton pulses.

  6. Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-11-01

    Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single-diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit wave. This coherent modulation imaging method removes inherent ambiguities of coherent diffraction imaging and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works for extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. Coherent modulation imaging provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers.

  7. Phase retrieval by coherent modulation imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fucai; Chen, Bo; Morrison, Graeme R.; Vila-Comamala, Joan; Guizar-Sicairos, Manuel; Robinson, Ian K.

    2016-01-01

    Phase retrieval is a long-standing problem in imaging when only the intensity of the wavefield can be recorded. Coherent diffraction imaging is a lensless technique that uses iterative algorithms to recover amplitude and phase contrast images from diffraction intensity data. For general samples, phase retrieval from a single-diffraction pattern has been an algorithmic and experimental challenge. Here we report a method of phase retrieval that uses a known modulation of the sample exit wave. This coherent modulation imaging method removes inherent ambiguities of coherent diffraction imaging and uses a reliable, rapidly converging iterative algorithm involving three planes. It works for extended samples, does not require tight support for convergence and relaxes dynamic range requirements on the detector. Coherent modulation imaging provides a robust method for imaging in materials and biological science, while its single-shot capability will benefit the investigation of dynamical processes with pulsed sources, such as X-ray free-electron lasers. PMID:27857061

  8. Long Coherence Length 193 nm Laser for High-Resolution Nano-Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-06-27

    laser spectral bandwidth to coherence length and the measurement method used. A Michelson interferometer was used to directly measure the coherence...Using the SNLO non-linear optics modeling program and new fiber laser models both developed at Sandia National Labs, we were able to analyze pulsed and...scattering preclude pulsed fiber laser amplifiers from meeting our required power and coherence specifications. While CW fiber laser amplifiers are

  9. Zeptosecond $\\gamma$-ray pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Klaiber, Michael; Keitel, Christoph H

    2007-01-01

    High-order harmonic generation (HHG) in the relativistic regime is employed to obtain zeptosecond pulses of $\\gamma$-rays. The harmonics are generated from atomic systems in counterpropagating strong attosecond laser pulse trains of linear polarization. In this setup recollisions of the ionized electrons can be achieved in the highly relativistic regime via a reversal of the commonly deteriorating drift and without instability of the electron dynamics such as in a standing laser wave. As a result, coherent attosecond $\\gamma$-rays in the 10 MeV energy range as well as coherent zeptosecond $\\gamma$-ray pulses of MeV photon energy for time-resolved nuclear spectroscopy become feasible.

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, David

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new method for noninvasive cross-sectional imaging in biological systems. In OCT, the longitudinal locations of tissue structures are determined by measuring the time-of-flight delays of light backscattered from these structures. The optical delays are measured by low coherence interferometry. Information on lateral position is provided by transverse scanning of the probe beam. The two dimensional map of optical scattering from internal tissue microstructures is then represented in a false-color or grayscale image. OCT is the optical analog of ultrasonic pulse-echo imaging, but with greatly improved spatial resolutions (a few microns). This thesis describes the development of this new high resolution tomographic imaging technology and the demonstration of its use in a variety of tissues under both in vitro and in vivo conditions. In vitro OCT ranging and imaging studies were performed using human ocular and arterial tissues, two clinically relevant examples of transparent and turbid media, respectively. In the anterior eye, precise measurements of cornea and anterior chamber dimensions were made. In the arterial specimens, the differentiation between fatty -calcified and fibromuscular tissues was demonstrated. In vivo OCT imaging in the retina and optic nerve head in human subjects was also performed. The delineation of retinal layers, which has not been possible with other noninvasive imaging techniques, is demonstrated in these OCT images. OCT has high spatial resolution but limited penetration into turbid tissue. It has potential for diagnostic applications where high resolution is needed and optical access is available, such as in the eye, skin, surgically exposed tissues, and surfaces that can be reached by various catheters and endoscopic probes. In particular, the measurement of fine retinal structures promises improvements in the diagnosis and management of glaucoma, macular edema and other vitreo-retinal diseases

  11. Coherent and dynamic beam splitting based on light storage in cold atoms

    OpenAIRE

    Kwang-Kyoon Park; Tian-Ming Zhao; Jong-Chan Lee; Young-Tak Chough; Yoon-Ho Kim

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a coherent and dynamic beam splitter based on light storage in cold atoms. An input weak laser pulse is first stored in a cold atom ensemble via electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). A set of counter-propagating control fields, applied at a later time, retrieves the stored pulse into two output spatial modes. The high visibility interference between the two output pulses clearly demonstrates that the beam splitting process is coherent. Furthermore, by manipulating the...

  12. Thermal Light as a Mixture of Sets of Pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Branczyk, Agata M; Sipe, J E

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between thermal light and coherent pulses is of fundamental interest, and is also central to relating coherent optical experiments on photophysical processes to the natural occurrence of those processes in sunlight. We now know that thermal light cannot be represented as a statistical mixture of single pulses. In this paper we ask whether or not thermal light can be represented as a statistical mixture of sets of pulses. We consider thermal light in a one-dimensional waveguide, and find a convex decomposition into products of orthonormal coherent states of localized, nonmonochromatic modes.

  13. Cohering power of quantum operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bu, Kaifeng, E-mail: bkf@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China); Kumar, Asutosh, E-mail: asukumar@hri.res.in [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Chhatnag Road, Jhunsi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Homi Bhabha National Institute, Anushaktinagar, Mumbai 400094 (India); Zhang, Lin, E-mail: linyz@zju.edu.cn [Institute of Mathematics, Hangzhou Dianzi University, Hangzhou 310018 (China); Wu, Junde, E-mail: wjd@zju.edu.cn [School of Mathematical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2017-05-18

    Highlights: • Quantum coherence. • Cohering power: production of quantum coherence by quantum operations. • Study of cohering power and generalized cohering power, and their comparison for differentmeasures of quantum coherence. • Operational interpretation of cohering power. • Bound on cohering power of a generic quantum operation. - Abstract: Quantum coherence and entanglement, which play a crucial role in quantum information processing tasks, are usually fragile under decoherence. Therefore, the production of quantum coherence by quantum operations is important to preserve quantum correlations including entanglement. In this paper, we study cohering power–the ability of quantum operations to produce coherence. First, we provide an operational interpretation of cohering power. Then, we decompose a generic quantum operation into three basic operations, namely, unitary, appending and dismissal operations, and show that the cohering power of any quantum operation is upper bounded by the corresponding unitary operation. Furthermore, we compare cohering power and generalized cohering power of quantum operations for different measures of coherence.

  14. Electrical detection of spin coherence in silicon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehme, Christoph; Lips, Klaus

    2003-12-12

    Experimental evidence is presented showing that photocurrents in silicon can be used as highly sensitive readout probes for coherent spin states of localized electrons, the prime candidates for quantum bits in various semiconductor based quantum computer concepts. Conduction electrons are subjected to fast Rabi oscillation induced by means of pulsed electron spin resonance. The collective spin motion of the charge carrier ensemble is reflected by a spin-dependent recombination rate and therefore by the sample conductivity. Because of inhomogeneities, the Rabi oscillation dephases rapidly. However, a microwave induced rephasing is possible causing an echo effect whose intensity contains information about the charge carrier spin state and the coherence decay.

  15. The Linac Coherent Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galayda, John N

    2003-05-21

    A collaboration of scientists from SLAC, UCLA, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Brookhaven National Laboratory, and Argonne National Laboratory have proposed to build the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) facility, a free-electron laser (FEL) on the SLAC site, spanning photon energies 0.8-8 keV. The laser output will be 8-10 GW with pulse lengths 230 fsec or less. The LCLS will offer unprecedented experimental opportunities in the areas of atomic physics, chemical dynamics, plasma physics, nanoscale dynamics, and biomolecular imaging. SLAC has proposed to begin engineering design of the laser in 2003, leading to project completion in 2008. The laser produces x-rays by the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) process: an intense, highly collimated pulse of 14.5 GeV electrons, traveling through a 122 m-long undulator magnet system, is induced by its own synchrotron radiation to form sub-nanometer-scale bunches. The bunching process enhances the coherence and hence the intensity of the emitted synchrotron radiation. The process is analogous to the instability of a high-gain amplifier; the ''noise'' signal that seeds the instability is the shot noise in the electron beam.

  16. Partially coherent imaging and spatial coherence wavelets

    CERN Document Server

    Castaneda, R

    2003-01-01

    A description of spatially partially coherent imaging based on the propagation of second order spatial coherence wavelets and marginal power spectra (Wigner distribution functions) is presented. In this dynamics, the spatial coherence wavelets will be affected by the system through its elementary transfer function. The consistency of the model with the both extreme cases of full coherent and incoherent imaging was proved. In the last case we obtained the classical concept of optical transfer function as a simple integral of the elementary transfer function. Furthermore, the elementary incoherent response function was introduced as the Fourier transform of the elementary transfer function. It describes the propagation of spatial coherence wavelets form each object point to each image point through a specific point on the pupil planes. The point spread function of the system was obtained by a simple integral of the elementary incoherent response function.

  17. Enabling pulsar and fast transient searches using coherent dedispersion

    CERN Document Server

    Bassa, C G; Hessels, J W T

    2016-01-01

    We present an implementation of the coherent dedispersion algorithm capable of dedispersing high-time-resolution radio observations to many different dispersion measures (DMs). This approach allows the removal of the dispersive effects of the interstellar medium and enables searches for pulsed emission from pulsars and other millisecond-duration transients at low observing frequencies and/or high DMs where time broadening of the signal due to dispersive smearing would otherwise severely reduce the sensitivity. The implementation, called 'cdmt', for Coherent Dispersion Measure Trials, exploits the parallel processing capability of general-purpose graphics processing units to accelerate the computations. We describe the coherent dedispersion algorithm and detail how cdmt implements the algorithm to efficiently compute many coherent DM trials. We present the concept of a semi-coherent dedispersion search, where coherently dedispersed trials at coarsely separated DMs are subsequently incoherently dedispersed at f...

  18. Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy: Understanding the essentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ariunbold, Gombojav O.; Altangerel, Narangerel

    2016-12-01

    This paper is a brief overview to coherent anti- Stokes Raman spectroscopic technique and introduces the strengths and barriers to its use all based on the interpretation of simple theoretical formulae. The use of the Gaussian ultrashort pulses is highlighted as a practical elucidatory reconstruction tool of coherent Raman spectra. The paper presents the integral formulae for coherent anti-Stokes and Stokes Raman scattering, and discusses the closed-form solutions, its complex error function, and the delay time formula for enhancement of the inferred pure coherent Raman spectra. As an example, the timeresolved coherent Stokes Raman scattering experimental observations are quantitatively elucidated.Understanding the essentials of coherent Raman spectroscopy, therefore, promotes the importance of a number of experiments including the ones utilizing a broadband excitation with a narrowband delayed probing for successful background suppression.

  19. Influence of Phase Coherence on Seeded Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2013-01-01

    ). In the absence of a seed the spectral broadening is initiated by noise-induced MI, where a single set of MI sidebands evolves into solitons and dispersive waves (DWs) with low spectral coherence. By introducing a coherent seed near the pump, the spectral broadening is initiated by the coherent amplification......-up is initiated by noise-driven modulational instability (MI). The resulting large spectral shot-to-shot fluctuations can be significantly reduced by modulating the pump with a phase coherent seed [1-2], which leads to a coherent pulse break-up through the amplification of a cascade of four-wave mixing (FWM) side......-bands. We demonstrate that the noise properties of the generated SC are highly sensitive to the degree of phase noise of the seed and that a nearly coherent seed pulse is needed to achieve a coherent pulse break-up and low noise SC [3]. This limits the mechanisms that can be used to generate the seed, which...

  20. On Longitudinal Spectral Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Leif

    1979-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the longitudinal spectral coherence differs significantly from the transversal spectral coherence in its dependence on displacement and frequency. An expression for the longitudinal coherence is derived and it is shown how the scale of turbulence, the displacement between...

  1. Broadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy employing photonic-crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Paulsen, Henrik Nørgaard; Birkedal, Victoria;

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate spectral multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy and microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber (PCF). The Stokes pulse is generated by spectral conversion of the laser pulse in a PCF. The pump pulse...

  2. Isolating quantum coherence with pathway-selective coherent multi-dimensional spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Tollerud, Jonathan O; Davis, Jeffrey A

    2013-01-01

    Coherent coupling between spatially separated systems has long been explored as a necessary requirement for quantum information and cryptography. Recent discoveries suggest such phenomena appear in a much wider range of processes, including light-harvesting in photosynthesis. These discoveries have been facilitated by developments in coherent multi-dimensional spectroscopy (CMDS) that allow interactions between different electronic states to be identified in crowded spectra. For complex systems, however, spectral broadening and multiple overlapping peaks limit the ability to separate, identify and properly analyse all contributions. Here we demonstrate how pathway-selective CMDS can overcome these limitations to reveal, isolate and allow detailed analysis of weak coherent coupling between spatially separated excitons localised to different semiconductor quantum wells. Selective excitation of the coherence pathways, by spectrally shaping the laser pulses, provides access to previously hidden details and enable...

  3. Single photon generation by pulsed excitation of a single dipole

    CERN Document Server

    Brouri, R; Poizat, J P; Grangier, P; Brouri, Rosa; Beveratos, Alexios; Poizat, Jean-Philippe; Grangier, Philippe

    2000-01-01

    The fluorescence of a single dipole excited by an intense light pulse can lead to the generation of another light pulse containing a single photon. The influence of the duration and energy of the excitation pulse on the number of photons in the fluorescence pulse is studied. The case of a two-level dipole with strongly damped coherences is considered. The presence of a metastable state leading to shelving is also investigated.

  4. Self-slowdown and -advancement of fs pulses in a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poel, Mike van der; Mørk, Jesper; Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    2005-01-01

    We demonstrate changes in the propagation time of 180 femtosecond pulses in a quantum-dot semiconductor optical amplifier as function of pulse input power and bias current. The results interpreted as a result of pulse reshaping by gain saturation but are also analogous to coherent population...... pulse distortion occurs at zero bias....

  5. Complex fermion coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    Tyc, T; Sanders, B C; Oliver, W D; Tyc, Tomas; Hamilton, Brett; Sanders, Barry C.; Oliver, William D.

    2005-01-01

    Whereas boson coherent states provide an elegant, intuitive and useful representation, we show that the desirable features of boson coherent states do not carry over very well to fermion fields unless one is prepared to use exotic approaches such as Grassmann fields. Specifically, we identify four appealing properties of boson coherent states (eigenstate of annihilation operator, displaced vacuum state, preservation of product states under linear coupling, and factorization of correlators) and show that fermion coherent states, and approximations to fermion coherent states, defined over the complex field, do not behave well for any of these four criteria.

  6. Synthesis of picosecond pulses by spectral compression and shaping of femtosecond pulses in engineered quadratic nonlinear media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marangoni, M; Brida, D; Conforti, M; Capobianco, A D; Manzoni, C; Baronio, F; Nalesso, G F; De Angelis, C; Ramponi, R; Cerullo, G

    2009-02-01

    Narrow-bandwidth picosecond pulses of predetermined spectral and temporal shapes are generated with high efficiency by frequency conversion of femtosecond pulses in lithium tantalate crystals with engineered quasi-phase-matching structures. We give examples of the synthesis of Gaussian and super-Gaussian picosecond pulses and also of a pair of synchronized phase-coherent picosecond pulses with a predetermined carrier-frequency difference.

  7. Towards coherent control of energetic material initiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenfield, Margo T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Mcgrane, Shawn D [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Scharff, R Jason [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Moore, David S [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2009-01-01

    Direct optical initiation (DOI) of energetic materials using coherent control of localized energy deposition requires depositing energy into the material to produce a critical size hot spot, which allows propagation of the reaction and thereby initiation, The hot spot characteristics needed for growth to initiation can be studied using quantum controlled initiation (QCI). Achieving direct quantum controlled initiation (QCI) in condensed phase systems requires optimally shaped ultrafast laser pulses to coherently guide the energy flow along the desired paths. As a test of our quantum control capabilities we have successfully demonstrated our ability to control the reaction pathway of the chemical system stilbene. An acousto-optical modulator based pulse shaper was used at 266 nm, in a shaped pump/supercontinuum probe technique, to enhance and suppress th relative yields of the cis- to trans-stilbene isomerization. The quantum control techniques tested in the stilbene experiments are currently being used to investigate QCI of the explosive hexanitroazobenzene (HNAB).

  8. Coherent Performance Analysis of the HJ-1-C Synthetic Aperture Radar

    OpenAIRE

    Li Hai-ying; Zhang Shan-shan; Li Shi-qiang; Zhang Hua-chun

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is a coherent imaging radar. Hence, coherence is critical in SAR imaging. In a coherent system, several sources can degrade performance. Based on the HJ-1-C SAR system implementation and sensor characteristics, this study evaluates the effect of frequency stability and pulse-to-pulse timing jitter on the SAR coherent performance. A stable crystal oscillator with short-term stability of 10×1.0−10 / 5 ms is used to generate the reference frequency by using a direc...

  9. Coherent phonon spectroscopy of non-fully symmetric modes using resonant terahertz excitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huber, T., E-mail: tihuber@phys.ethz.ch; Huber, L.; Johnson, S. L. [Institute for Quantum Electronics, Physics Department, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Ranke, M. [The Hamburg Centre for Ultrafast Imaging, Luruper Chaussee 149, D-22761 Hamburg (Germany); Ferrer, A. [Institute for Quantum Electronics, Physics Department, ETH Zurich, CH-8093 Zurich (Switzerland); Swiss Light Source, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH-5232 Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2015-08-31

    We use intense terahertz (THz) frequency electromagnetic pulses generated via optical rectification in an organic crystal to drive vibrational lattice modes in single crystal Tellurium. The coherent modes are detected by measuring the polarization changes of femtosecond laser pulses reflecting from the sample surface, resulting in a phase-resolved detection of the coherent lattice motion. We compare the data to a model of Lorentz oscillators driven by the near-single-cycle broadband THz pulse. The demonstrated technique of optically probed coherent phonon spectroscopy with THz frequency excitation could prove to be a viable alternative to other time-resolved spectroscopic methods like standard THz time domain spectroscopy.

  10. Coherence revival during the attosecond electronic and nuclear quantum photodynamics of the ozone molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Halász, Gábor J; Lasorne, Benjamin; Robb, Mike A; Gatti, Fabien; Vibók, Ágnes

    2013-01-01

    A coherent superposition of two electronic states of ozone (ground and Hartley B) is prepared with a UV pump pulse. Using the multiconfiguration time-dependent Hartree approach, we calculate the subsequent time evolution of the two corresponding nuclear wave packets and the coherence between them. The resulting wave packet shows an oscillation between the two chemical bonds. Even more interesting, the coherence between the two electronics states reappears after the laser pulse is switched off, which could be observed experimentally with an attosecond probe pulse.

  11. Polarization changes in temporal imaging with pulses of random light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voipio, Timo; Setälä, Tero; Friberg, Ari T

    2013-04-08

    We consider polarization changes of randomly fluctuating electromagnetic pulsed light in temporal imaging. The polarization properties of pulses formed by the time lens are formulated in terms of the Stokes parameters. For Gaussian Schell-model pulses we show that the degree and state of polarization of the time-imaged pulse can be tailored in versatile ways, depending on the temporal polarization and coherence of the input pulse and the system parameters. In particular, weakly polarized central region of the pulse may become fully polarized without energy absorption. The results have potential applications in optical communication, micromachining, and light-matter interactions.

  12. Generation of 35.5-nm coherent radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bokor, J; Bucksbaum, P H; Freeman, R R

    1983-04-01

    Tunable coherent radiation was produced at 35.5 nm by seventh-harmonic conversion of 248-nm radiation from a krypton fluoride excimer laser. The nonlinear interaction took place at the intersection of the laser focus and a pulsed, supersonic helium gas jet. Third- and fifth-harmonic generation produced coherent outputs at 83 and 50 nm in both helium and xenon gas jets.

  13. Generating polarization controllable FELs at Dalian coherent light source

    CERN Document Server

    Zhang, T; Wang, D; Zhao, Z T; Zhang, W Q; Wu, G R; Dai, D X; Yang, X M

    2013-01-01

    The property of the FEL polarization is of great importance to the user community. FEL pulses with ultra-high intensity and flexible polarization control ability will absolutely open up new scientific realms. In this paper, several polarization control approaches are presented to investigate the great potential on Dalian coherent light source, which is a government-approved novel FEL user facility with the capability of wavelength continuously tunable in the EUV regime of 50-150 nm. The numerical simulations show that both circularly polarized FELs with highly modulating frequency and 100 microjoule level pulse energy could be generated at Dalian coherent light source.

  14. Temporal coherence length of light in semiclassical field theory models

    CERN Document Server

    Jagielski, Borys; Vistnes, Arnt Inge

    2010-01-01

    The following work is motivated by the conceptual problems associated with the wave-particle duality and the notion of the photon. Two simple classical models for radiation from individual emitters are compared, one based on sines with random phasejumps, another based on pulse trains. The sum signal is calculated for a varying number of emitters. The focus lies on the final signal's statistical features quantified by means of the temporal coherence function and the temporal coherence length. We show how these features might be used to experimentally differentiate between the models. We also point to ambiguities in the definition of the temporal coherence length.

  15. Evidence of Ultrafast Charge Transfer Driven by Coherent Lattice Vibrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rury, Aaron S; Sorenson, Shayne A; Dawlaty, Jahan M

    2017-01-05

    We report evidence that intermolecular vibrations coherently drive charge transfer between the sites of a material on ultrafast time scales. Following a nonresonant stimulated Raman pump pulse that excites the organic material quinhydrone, we observe the initial appearance of oscillations due to intermolecular lattice vibrations and then the delayed appearance of a higher-frequency oscillation that we assign to a totally symmetric intramolecular vibration. We use the coherent dynamics of the transient reflectivity signal to propose that coherence transfer drives excitation of this intramolecular vibration. Furthermore, we conclude that the dynamical frequency shift of the intramolecular vibration reports the formation of a quasi-stable charge-separated state on ultrafast time scales. We calculate model dynamics using the extended Hubbard Hamiltonian to explain coherence transfer due to vibrationally driven charge transfer. These results demonstrate that the coherent excitation of low-frequency vibrations can drive charge transfer in the solid state and control material properties.

  16. Coherence brightened laser source for atmospheric remote sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traverso, Andrew J; Sanchez-Gonzalez, Rodrigo; Yuan, Luqi; Wang, Kai; Voronine, Dmitri V; Zheltikov, Aleksei M; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Sautenkov, Vladimir A; Sokolov, Alexei V; North, Simon W; Scully, Marlan O

    2012-09-18

    We have studied coherent emission from ambient air and demonstrated efficient generation of laser-like beams directed both forward and backward with respect to a nanosecond ultraviolet pumping laser beam. The generated optical gain is a result of two-photon photolysis of atmospheric O(2), followed by two-photon excitation of atomic oxygen. We have analyzed the temporal shapes of the emitted pulses and have observed very short duration intensity spikes as well as a large Rabi frequency that corresponds to the emitted field. Our results suggest that the emission process exhibits nonadiabatic atomic coherence, which is similar in nature to Dicke superradiance where atomic coherence is large and can be contrasted with ordinary lasing where atomic coherence is negligible. This atomic coherence in oxygen adds insight to the optical emission physics and holds promise for remote sensing techniques employing nonlinear spectroscopy.

  17. Coherent Raman spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Eesley, G L

    1981-01-01

    Coherent Raman Spectroscopy provides a unified and general account of the fundamental aspects of nonlinear Raman spectroscopy, also known as coherent Raman spectroscopy. The theoretical basis from which coherent Raman spectroscopy developed is described, along with its applications, utility, and implementation as well as advantages and disadvantages. Experimental data which typifies each technique is presented. This book is comprised of four chapters and opens with an overview of nonlinear optics and coherent Raman spectroscopy, followed by a discussion on nonlinear transfer function of matter

  18. Application Coherency Manager Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal describes an Application Coherency Manager that implements and manages the interdependencies of simulation, data, and platform information. It will...

  19. On -Coherent Endomorphism Rings

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Li-Xin Mao

    2008-11-01

    A ring is called right -coherent if every principal right ideal is finitely presented. Let $M_R$ be a right -module. We study the -coherence of the endomorphism ring of $M_R$. It is shown that is a right -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudokernel in add $M_R; S$ is a left -coherent ring if and only if every endomorphism of $M_R$ has a pseudocokernel in add $M_R$. Some applications are given.

  20. Magnetization reversal in ultrashort magnetic field pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, M; Fassbender, J; Hillebrands, B

    2000-01-01

    We report the switching properties of a thin magnetic film subject to an ultrashort, laterally localized magnetic field pulse, obtained by numerical investigations. The magnetization distribution in the film is calculated on a grid assuming Stoner-like coherent rotation within the grid square size. Perpendicularly and in-plane magnetized films exhibit a magnetization reversal due to a 4 ps magnetic field pulse. Outside the central region the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period. In this area the evolution of the magnetization during the field pulse does not depend strongly on magnetic damping and/or pulse shape. However, the final magnetization distribution is affected by the magnetic damping. Although the pulse duration is short compared to the precession period, the time needed for the relaxation of the magnetization to the equilibrium state is rather large. The influence of the different magnetic anisotropy contributions and the magnetic damping parameter enters into the magnetization ...

  1. Coherent and Incoherent Rogue Waves in Seeded Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2013-01-01

    The shot-to-shot stability of a supercontiuum (SC) can be controlled both in terms of coherence and intensity stability by modulating the input pulse with a weak seed [1-3]. In the long-pulse regime, the SC generation is initiated by noise-seeded modulation instability (MI), which breaks the pump......,2]. Seeding the pulse break-up has likewise been used to control the generation of otherwise statistically rare large-amplitude rogue solitons [2-4]. In this work, we numerically investigate the influence of the MI gain spectrum on the pulse break-up and rogue wave generation. We find that the results can...... be clearly divided into a number of distinct dynamical regimes depending on the initial four-wave mixing process and demonstrate that seeding can be used to generate coherent and incoherent rogue waves. Figure 1 shows simulation results of seeded SC generation in a fiber with a zero-dispersion wavelength...

  2. Generation of Single-Cycle Light Pulses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stuart, B C; Jovanovic, I; Armstrong, J P; Pyke, B; Crane, J K; Shuttlesworth, R

    2004-02-13

    Most optical pulses, even at the 10-femtosecond timescale, consist of several oscillations of the electric field. By producing and amplifying an ultra-broadband continuum, single cycle (e 3 fs) or shorter optical pulses may be generated. This requires a very challenging pulse-compression with sub-femtosecond accuracy. Production of these single-cycle pulses will lead to new generations of experiments in the areas of coherent control of chemical excitations and reactions, 0.1-fs high-order harmonic (XUV) generation for probing of materials and fast processes, and selective 3-D micron-scale material removal and modification. We activated the first stage of a planned three-stage optical parametric amplifier (OPA) that would ultimately produce sub-3 fs pulses. Active control with a learning algorithm was implemented to optimize the continuum generated in an argon-filled capillary and to control and optimize the final compressed pulse temporal shape. A collaboration was initiated to coherently control the population of different states upon dissociation of Rb{sub 2}. Except for one final optic, a pulse compressor and diagnostics were constructed to produce and characterize pulses in the 5-fs range from the first OPA stage.

  3. Tailoring of XUV supercontinua through coherent control of high-order harmonic generation

    CERN Document Server

    Holgado, W; Alonso, B; Miranda, M; Silva, F; Plaja, L; Crespo, H; Sola, I J

    2016-01-01

    We present observations of the emission of XUV supercontinua in the 20-37 eV region by high harmonic generation (HHG) with 4-7 fs pulses focused onto a Kr gas jet. The underlying mechanism relies on coherent control of the relative delays and phases between individually generated attosecond pulses, achievable by adjusting the chirp of the driving pulses and the interaction geometry. Under adequate chirp and phase matching conditions the resulting interference will yield a supercontinuum XUV spectrum. This technique opens the route for modifying the phase of individual attosecond pulses and for the coherent synthesis of XUV supercontinua without the need of an isolated attosecond burst.

  4. Fiber Laser Coherent Lidar for Wake-Vortex Hazard Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a 1.5um fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar as a highly effective sensor sub-system for airborne wake-vortex hazard detection. The proposed design is based...

  5. Fiber Laser Coherent Lidar for Wake-Vortex Hazard Detection Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a 1.5um fiber-optic pulsed coherent lidar as a highly effective sensor sub-system for airborne wake-vortex hazard detection. The proposed design is based...

  6. Text Coherence in Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yanping

    2009-01-01

    In the thesis a coherent text is defined as a continuity of senses of the outcome of combining concepts and relations into a network composed of knowledge space centered around main topics. And the author maintains that in order to obtain the coherence of a target language text from a source text during the process of translation, a translator can…

  7. Reverse Coherent Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Patrón, Raúl; Pirandola, Stefano; Lloyd, Seth; Shapiro, Jeffrey H.

    2009-05-01

    In this Letter we define a family of entanglement distribution protocols assisted by feedback classical communication that gives an operational interpretation to reverse coherent information, i.e., the symmetric counterpart of the well-known coherent information. This leads to the definition of a new entanglement distribution capacity that exceeds the unassisted capacity for some interesting channels.

  8. Understanding Causal Coherence Relations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, G.

    2008-01-01

    The research reported in this dissertation focuses on the cognitive processes and representations involved in understanding causal coherence relations in text. Coherence relations are the meaning relations between the information units in the text, such as Cause-Consequence. These relations can be m

  9. VCSELs for coherent PON

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Cheng, Ning;

    2015-01-01

    Recent advances and research on coherent technologies for access networks are discussed and put into context of user demands and standardization work.......Recent advances and research on coherent technologies for access networks are discussed and put into context of user demands and standardization work....

  10. VCSEL Based Coherent PONs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Jesper Bevensee; Rodes, Roberto; Caballero Jambrina, Antonio;

    2014-01-01

    We present a review of research performed in the area of coherent access technologies employing vertical cavity surface emitting lasers (VCSELs). Experimental demonstrations of optical transmission over a passive fiber link with coherent detection using VCSEL local oscillators and directly modula...

  11. Invited Article: The coherent optical laser beam recombination technique (COLBERT) spectrometer: Coherent multidimensional spectroscopy made easier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Daniel B.; Stone, Katherine W.; Gundogdu, Kenan; Nelson, Keith A.

    2011-08-01

    We have developed an efficient spectrometer capable of performing a wide variety of coherent multidimensional measurements at optical wavelengths. The two major components of the largely automated device are a spatial beam shaper which controls the beam geometry and a spatiotemporal pulse shaper which controls the temporal waveform of the femtosecond pulse in each beam. We describe how to construct, calibrate, and operate the device, and we discuss its limitations. We use the exciton states of a semiconductor nanostructure as a working example. A series of complex multidimensional spectra—displayed in amplitude and real parts—reveals increasingly intricate correlations among the excitons.

  12. Theory of pulsed reaction yield detected magnetic resonance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nasibulov, E.A.; Kulik, L.V.; Kaptein, R.; Ivanov, K.L.

    2012-01-01

    We propose pulse sequences for Reaction Yield Detected Magnetic Resonance (RYDMR), which are based on refocusing the zero-quantum coherences in radical pairs by non-selective microwave pulses and using the population of a radical pair singlet spin state as an observable. The new experiments are

  13. Pulse Voltammetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osteryoung, Janet

    1983-01-01

    Discusses the nature of pulse voltammetry, indicating that its widespread use arises from good sensitivity and detection limits and from ease of application and low cost. Provides analytical and mechanistic applications of the procedure. (JN)

  14. Thermal Light as a Mixture of Sets of Pulses: the Quasi-1D Example

    OpenAIRE

    Branczyk, Agata M.; Chenu, Aurelia; J.E. Sipe

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between thermal light and coherent pulses is of fundamental and practical interest. We now know that thermal light cannot be represented as a statistical mixture of single pulses. In this paper we ask whether or not thermal light can be represented as a statistical mixture of sets of pulses. We consider thermal light in a one-dimensional wave-guide, and find a convex decomposition into products of orthonormal coherent states of localized, nonmonochromatic modes.

  15. Broadband multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscopy employing photonic-crystal fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Esben Ravn; Paulsen, Henrik Nørgaard; Birkedal, Victoria

    2006-01-01

    We demonstrate spectral multiplex coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) spectroscopy and microscopy based on a single Ti:sapphire oscillator and a nonlinear photonic-crystal fiber (PCF). The Stokes pulse is generated by spectral conversion of the laser pulse in a PCF. The pump pulse...... is either a highly chirped pulse or a pulse spectrally compressed in a PCF. A region of the Raman spectrum from 800 to 4000 cm(-1) is accessible with two different PCFs. Spectral resolution improvement by 1 order of magnitude over a transform-limited pump pulse utilizing a chirped or spectrally compressed...

  16. Photoinduced Coherent Spin Fluctuation in Primary Dynamics of Insulator to Metal Transition in Perovskite Cobalt Oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arima T.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Coherent spin fluctuation was detected in the photoinduced Mott insulator-metal transition in perovskite cobalt oxide by using 3 optical-cycle infrared pulse. Such coherent spin fluctuation is driven by the perovskite distortion changing orbital gap.

  17. Coherent lattice dynamics in opaque crystals: Testing the adequacy of two-tensor model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Misochko, O. V.; Lebedev, M. V.

    2016-11-01

    We report the ultrafast pump-probe study of B i2T e3 , Sb, Bi, and Te aimed to check the two-tensor model predictions for the creation of lattice coherence. The dependence of coherent ultrafast response on phonon frequency was measured for topological insulator B i2T e3 , the spectrum of which possesses two fully symmetric phonons. The effect of the pump pulse duration and power on the magnitude of coherent amplitude was evaluated in the model opaque crystals, such as two semimetals, bismuth and antimony, and semiconducting tellurium. In our analysis of the pump-probe data, we separated the transient total reflectivity into the sum of two contributions: one due to the photogenerated carriers and the second due to the coherent phonons. All fully symmetric phonons exhibit a cosinelike dependence and grow linearly with increasing average pump power provided the pulse duration remains unchanged. Varying the pump pulse duration, we observed a monotonic decrease of coherent amplitude for longer pulses, whereas the electronic contribution was almost unchanged. This lack of the correlation between the carriers and the coherent amplitude was further supported by coherent control experiments on Te. Based on the comparison of theoretical predictions with experimental observations, we conjecture that the lattice coherence creation in opaque crystals can be linked to a Raman-like process.

  18. Selective preparation of the maximum coherent superposition state in four-level atoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Deng; Yueping Niu; Shangqing Gong

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that the maximum coherent superposition state can be selectively prepared using a sequence of pulse pairs in lambda-type atomic systems, with the final level as a doublet. In each pair, the Stocks pulse comes before the pump pulse, with their back edges overlapping. Numerical results indicate that by tuning the interval of the adjacent pulse pairs, the selective maximum coherent superposition state preparation between the initial and one of the final levels can be achieved. The phenomenon is caused by the accumulative property of the pulse sequence.%The coherent superposition state in atoms or molecules plays a crucial role in quantum physics.It has applications in many areas such as electromagnetically induced transparency[1-5],quantum information[6-8] and control of chemical reaction[9-11].Many schemes can prepare the coherent superposition state.For instance,the fractional stimulated Raman adiabatic passage(F-STIRAP) [12] and the coherent population trapping[13] can obtain the maximum coherent superposition state of the two lower levels in lambda-type atoms.Our group also proposed several schemes to achieve this goal,such as the methods based on the STIRAP[14,15] and the pulse train method[16].

  19. Single shot spatial and temporal coherence properties of the SLAC Linac Coherent Light Source in the hard x-ray regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutt, C; Wochner, P; Fischer, B; Conrad, H; Castro-Colin, M; Lee, S; Lehmkühler, F; Steinke, I; Sprung, M; Roseker, W; Zhu, D; Lemke, H; Bogle, S; Fuoss, P H; Stephenson, G B; Cammarata, M; Fritz, D M; Robert, A; Grübel, G

    2012-01-13

    We measured the transverse and longitudinal coherence properties of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) at SLAC in the hard x-ray regime at 9 keV photon energy on a single shot basis. Speckle patterns recorded in the forward direction from colloidal nanoparticles yielded the transverse coherence properties of the focused LCLS beam. Speckle patterns from a gold nanopowder recorded with atomic resolution allowed us to measure the shot-to-shot variations of the spectral properties of the x-ray beam. The focused beam is in the transverse direction fully coherent with a mode number close to 1. The average number of longitudinal modes behind the Si(111) monochromator is about 14.5 and the average coherence time τ(c)=(2.0±1.0) fc. The data suggest a mean x-ray pulse duration of (29±14)  fs behind the monochromator for (100±14) fc electron pulses.

  20. Enabling pulsar and fast transient searches using coherent dedispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassa, C. G.; Pleunis, Z.; Hessels, J. W. T.

    2017-01-01

    We present an implementation of the coherent dedispersion algorithm capable of dedispersing high-time-resolution radio observations to many different dispersion measures (DMs). This approach allows the removal of the dispersive effects of the interstellar medium and enables searches for pulsed emission from pulsars and other millisecond-duration transients at low observing frequencies and/or high DMs where time broadening of the signal due to dispersive smearing would otherwise severely reduce the sensitivity. The implementation, called cdmt, for coherent dispersion measure trials, exploits the parallel processing capability of general-purpose graphics processing units to accelerate the computations. We describe the coherent dedispersion algorithm and detail how cdmt implements the algorithm to efficiently compute many coherent DM trials. We apply the concept of a semi-coherent dedispersion search, where coherently dedispersed trials at coarsely separated DMs are subsequently incoherently dedispersed at finer steps in DM. The software is used in an ongoing LOFAR pilot survey to test the feasibility of performing semi-coherent dedispersion searches for millisecond pulsars at 135 MHz. This pilot survey has led to the discovery of a radio millisecond pulsar-the first at these low frequencies. This is the first time that such a broad and comprehensive search in DM-space has been done using coherent dedispersion, and we argue that future low-frequency pulsar searches using this approach are both scientifically compelling and feasible. Finally, we compare the performance of cdmt with other available alternatives.

  1. Reduced coupling with global pulses in quantum registers

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Haidong; Koroleva, Van D. M.; Khaneja, Navin

    2015-01-01

    Decoupling is an important tool to prolong the coherence time of quantum systems. Most decoupling schemes have been assuming selective controls on the system and it is believed that with global pulses one can only decouple systems with certain coupling terms like secular dipole-dipole coupling. In this article we show that with global pulses it is possible to reduce the coupling strength of other types of coupling, which we demonstrate with Ising coupling. The complexity of such pulses is ind...

  2. Application of coherent lidar to ion measurements in plasma diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hutchinson, D.P.; Richards, R.K.; Bennett, C.A.; Simpson, M.L.

    1997-03-01

    A coherent lidar system has been constructed for the measurement of alpha particles in a burning plasma. The lidar system consists of a pulsed CO{sub 2} laser transmitter and a heterodyne receiver. The receiver local oscillator is a cw, sequence-band CO{sub 2} laser operating with a 63.23 GHz offset from the transmitter.

  3. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    of coherence in treatment and patient pathways. The aim of our study is to explore the role of health care providers in furthering coherence. Our ambition is to identify areas for improvement or change of collaborative practice between health care providers in municipalities, hospitals and general practice...... initiatives in health care. The present study will generate new, valuable insight into the areas of cross-sectorial health care collaboration. Our findings may facilitate change in current practice and improve the quality and coherence in patient pathways of EPCD. The findings of this study will be useful...

  4. Coherent diffractive {rho} production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hyett, N.M.; Tovey, S.N. [Melbourne Univ., Parkville, VIC (Australia). School of Physics

    1995-12-31

    Coherent diffractive {rho} production by neutrinos occurs at low four-momentum transfer and high energy transfer. These interactions are generally understood to occur via the coupling of the weak charged current to the vector meson, which scatters diffractively from the target nucleus. Since coherent events are those in which the nucleus interacts as a whole, ie without breakup, and with small recoil energy, these events have a very sharp |t|-distribution. This presentation deals mostly with the Monte Carlo simulation of the coherent diffractive production of the {rho} production and in particular with the reconstruction algorithm (description and efficiency) and the |t| distribution. 4 refs., 1 fig.

  5. The Coherent Curriculum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Michael Thomas

    2005-01-01

    @@ What makes a coherent EFL curriculum? How can curriculum planners avoid a mismatch between policy and pragmatics to produce an effective decision-making process? In The Second Language Curriculum, Johnson describes the coherent curriculum as one in which decision outcomes from the various stages of development are mutually consistent and complementary,and learning outcomes reflect curriculum aims.The achievement of coherence is said to depend crucially in most educational contexts upon the formalisation of decision-making processes and products. This formalisation facilitates consensus among those involved and is a prerequisite for effective evaluation and subsequent renewal (1994: xiii)

  6. Generation and storage of double slow light pulses in a solid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Fan Yun-Fei; Wang Hai-Hua; Wang Rong; Zhang Xiao-Jun; Kang Zhi-Hui; Wu Jin-Hui; Zhang Han-Zhuang; Gao Jin-Yue

    2012-01-01

    We experimentally study the generation and storage of double slow light pulses in a Pr3+:Y2SiO5 crystal.Under electromagnetically induced transparency,a single signal pulse is stored in the spin coherence of the crystal. By simultaneously switching on two control fields to recall the stored information,the spin coherence is converted into two slow light pulses with distinct frequencies.Furthermore,the storage and controlled retrieval of double slow light pulses are obtained by manipulating the control fields.This study of double slow light pulses may have practical applications in information processing and all-optical networks.

  7. Theoretical analysis of the coherence-brightened laser in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Luqi; Hokr, Brett H.; Traverso, Andrew J.; Voronine, Dmitri V.; Rostovtsev, Yuri; Sokolov, Alexei V.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2013-02-01

    We present a detailed theoretical study of a recent experiment [A. J. Traverso , Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USAPNASA60027-842410.1073/pnas.1211481109 109, 15185 (2012)] in which a laserlike source is created in air by pumping with a nanosecond pulse. The source generates radiation in the forward and backward directions. The temporal behavior of the emitted pulses is investigated for different pump shapes and durations. Our analysis indicates that the spiky emission is due to quantum coherence via cooperation between atoms of an ensemble, which leads to strong-oscillatory superfluorescence. We show that these cooperative nonadiabatic coherence effects cannot be described by rate equations and instead a full set of the Maxwell-Bloch equations must be used. We consider a range of parameters and study transitions between various regimes. Understanding these coherence-brightened processes in air should lead to improvements in environmental, atmospheric remote sensing and other applications.

  8. Pulse plating

    CERN Document Server

    Hansal, Wolfgang E G; Green, Todd; Leisner, Peter; Reichenbach, Andreas

    2012-01-01

    The electrodeposition of metals using pulsed current has achieved practical importance in recent years. Although it has long been known that changes in potential, with or without polarity reversal, can significantly affect the deposition process, the practical application of this has been slow to be adopted. This can largely be explained in terms of the complex relationship between the current regime and its effect on the electrodeposition process. In order to harness these effects, an understanding of the anodic and cathodic electrochemical processes is necessary, together with the effects of polarity reversal and the rate of such reversals. In this new monograph, the basics of metal electrodeposition from solution are laid out in great detail in seven distinct chapters. With this knowledge, the reader is able to predict how a given pulse train profile can be adopted to achieve a desired outcome. Equally important is the choice of a suitable rectifier and the ancillary control circuits to enable pulse platin...

  9. Coherence in Industrial Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    2003-01-01

    The notion of coherence is used to illustrate the general finding, that the impact of environmental management systems and environmental policy is highly dependent of the context and interrelatedness of the systems, procedures and regimes established in society....

  10. Coherence for Modalities

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2008-01-01

    Positive modalities in systems in the vicinity of S4 and S5 are investigated in terms of categorial proof theory. Coherence and maximality results are demonstrated, and connections with mixed distributive laws and Frobenius algebras are exhibited.

  11. Coherence in Industrial Transformation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Ulrik; Lauridsen, Erik Hagelskjær

    2003-01-01

    The notion of coherence is used to illustrate the general finding, that the impact of environmental management systems and environmental policy is highly dependent of the context and interrelatedness of the systems, procedures and regimes established in society....

  12. Genuine Quantum Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Streltsov, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    The basis of any quantum resource theory are free states and free operations, these are states and operations which can be created or performed at no cost. In the resource theory of quantum coherence free states are states which are diagonal in a fixed reference basis. This choice is natural in many experimental scenarios where the reference basis is singled out by the unavoidable decoherence. The corresponding free operations are called incoherent, they can be implemented as a generalized measurement which does not create any coherence. However, a general quantum operation admits different experimental realizations, and a quantum operation which seems incoherent in one experimental realization might create coherence in another. Starting from this observation, we propose the framework of genuine quantum coherence. This approach is based on a simple principle: we demand that a genuinely incoherent operation preserves all incoherent states. This simple condition automatically guarantees that the operation is in...

  13. Partially coherent sources with circular coherence: comment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyde, Milo W; Bose-Pillai, Santasri R

    2017-08-15

    In [Opt. Lett.42, 1512 (2017)OPLEDP0146-959210.1364/OL.42.001512], the authors present a new class of non-uniformly correlated sources with circular coherence. They also describe a basic experimental setup for synthesizing this class of sources, which uses the Van Cittert-Zernike theorem. Here, we present an alternative way to analyze these sources and a different way to generate them.

  14. Hybrid quantum repeater using bright coherent light.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Loock, P; Ladd, T D; Sanaka, K; Yamaguchi, F; Nemoto, Kae; Munro, W J; Yamamoto, Y

    2006-06-23

    We describe a quantum repeater protocol for long-distance quantum communication. In this scheme, entanglement is created between qubits at intermediate stations of the channel by using a weak dispersive light-matter interaction and distributing the outgoing bright coherent-light pulses among the stations. Noisy entangled pairs of electronic spin are then prepared with high success probability via homodyne detection and postselection. The local gates for entanglement purification and swapping are deterministic and measurement-free, based upon the same coherent-light resources and weak interactions as for the initial entanglement distribution. Finally, the entanglement is stored in a nuclear-spin-based quantum memory. With our system, qubit-communication rates approaching 100 Hz over 1280 km with fidelities near 99% are possible for reasonable local gate errors.

  15. Effects of electronic coherence in ultrafast spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Kochise

    Electronic dynamics takes place at the attosecond timescale. Recent technological advancements permit the creation of light pulses with durations in the attosecond regime, opening up the possibility of monitoring this ultrafast dynamics in real time. In particular, it becomes possible to observe the time-dependent interference between material electronic states, thus tracking the electronic energies temporally. This information, originating in the coherence terms in the electronic density matrix, can provide spectral information in the time-domain. Such an approach is particularly useful when the desired information is transient. In this thesis, we examine how electronic coherences contribute to photoelectron and a variety of x-ray Raman signals. We then utilize photoelectron spectroscopy and linear off-resonant Raman (TRUECARS) to track the dynamics of a model system by way of example.

  16. Attosecond VUV Coherent Control of Molecular Dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Ranitovic, P; Riviere, P; Palacios, A; Tong, X M; Toshima, N; Gonzalez-Castrillo, A; Martin, L; Martin, F; Murnane, M M; Kapteyn, H C

    2014-01-01

    High harmonic light sources make it possible to access attosecond time-scales, thus opening up the prospect of manipulating electronic wave packets for steering molecular dynamics. However, two decades after the birth of attosecond physics, the concept of attosecond chemistry has not yet been realized. This is because excitation and manipulation of molecular orbitals requires precisely controlled attosecond waveforms in the deep ultraviolet, which have not yet been synthesized. Here, we present a novel approach using attosecond vacuum ultraviolet pulse-trains to coherently excite and control the outcome of a simple chemical reaction in a deuterium molecule in a non-Born Oppenheimer regime. By controlling the interfering pathways of electron wave packets in the excited neutral and singly-ionized molecule, we unambiguously show that we can switch the excited electronic state on attosecond timescales, coherently guide the nuclear wave packets to dictate the way a neutral molecule vibrates, and steer and manipula...

  17. Coherence-Enhanced Spaser

    CERN Document Server

    Dorfman, Konstantin E; Voronine, Dmitri V; Genevet, Patrice; Capasso, Federico; Scully, Marlan O

    2012-01-01

    We investigate surface plasmon amplification in a silver nanoshell coupled to an externally driven three-level gain medium, and show that quantum coherence significantly enhances the generation of surface plasmons. Surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation is achieved in the absence of population inversion on the spasing transition, which reduces the pump requirements. The coherent drive allows us to control the dynamics, and holds promise for quantum control of nanoplasmonic devices.

  18. Optical Coherency Matrix Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-19

    optics has been studied theoretically11, but has not been demonstrated experimentally heretofore. Even in the simplest case of two binary DoFs6 (e.g...coherency matrix G spanning these DoFs. This optical coherency matrix has not been measured in its entirety to date—even in the simplest case of two...dense coding, etc. CREOL, The College of Optics & Photonics, University of Central Florida, Orlando , Florida 32816, USA. Correspondence and requests

  19. High performance fiber-based optical coherent detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Youming

    The sensitivity of signal detection is of major interest for optical high speed communication systems and LIght Detection And Ranging (lidar) systems. Sensitive receivers in fiber-optical networks can reduce transmitter power or amplifier amplification requirements and extend link spans. High receiver sensitivity allows links to be established over long distances in deep space satellite communication systems and large atmospheric attenuation to be overcome in terrestrial free space communications. For lidar systems, the sensitivity of signal detection determines how far and how accurately the lidar can detect the remote objects. Optical receivers employ either coherent or direct detection. In addition to amplitude, coherent detection extracts frequency and phase information from received signals, whereas direct detection extracts the received pulse amplitude only. In theory, coherent detection should yield the highest receiver sensitivity. Another possible technique to improve detection sensitivity is to employ a fiber preamplifier. This technique has been successfully demonstrated in direct detection systems but not in the coherent detection systems. Due to the existence of amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) inside the amplifier, the sensitivity of coherent detection varies with the data rate or pulse rate. For this reason, optically preamplified coherent detection is not used in applications as commonly as optically preamplified direct detection. We investigate the performance of coherent detection employing a fiber amplifier and time-domain-filter. The fiber amplifier is used as the optical preamplifier of the coherent detection system. To reduce the noise induced by the preamplifier to a maximum extent, we investigate the noise properties for both a single pass amplifier and a double pass amplifier. The relative intensity noise and linewidth broadening caused by ASE have been experimentally characterized. The results show that the double pass amplifier has

  20. Coherence vortices of partially coherent beams in the far field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Pu-Sheng; Lü Bai-da

    2007-01-01

    Based on the propagation law of cross-spectral density function, studied in this paper are the coherence vortices of partially coherent, quasi-monochromatic singular beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator in the far field, where our main attention is paid to the evolution of far-field coherence vortices into intensity vortices of fully coherent beams. The results show that, although there are usually no zeros of intensity in partially coherent beams with Gaussian envelope and Schell-model correlator, zeros of spectral degree of coherence exist. The coherence vortices of spectral degree of coherence depend on the relative coherence length, mode index and positions of pairs of points.If a point and mode index are kept fixed, the position of coherence vortices changes with the increase of the relative coherence length. For the low coherent case there is a circular phase dislocation. In the coherent limit coherence vortices become intensity vortices of fully coherent Laguerre-Gaussian beams.

  1. Generation of Phase-Locked Pulses from a Seeded Free-Electron Laser.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, David; Ribič, Primož Rebernik; De Ninno, Giovanni; Allaria, Enrico; Cinquegrana, Paolo; Danailov, Miltcho Bojanov; Demidovich, Alexander; Ferrari, Eugenio; Giannessi, Luca

    2016-01-15

    In a coherent control experiment, light pulses are used to guide the real-time evolution of a quantum system. This requires the coherence and the control of the pulses' electric-field carrier waves. In this work, we use frequency-domain interferometry to demonstrate the mutual coherence of time-delayed pulses generated by an extreme ultraviolet seeded free-electron laser. Furthermore, we use the driving seed laser to lock and precisely control the relative phase between the two free-electron laser pulses. This new capability opens the way to a multitude of coherent control experiments, which will take advantage of the high intensity, short wavelength, and short duration of the pulses generated by seeded free-electron lasers.

  2. Interferometric visibility and coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tanmoy; García Díaz, María; Winter, Andreas

    2017-07-01

    Recently, the basic concept of quantum coherence (or superposition) has gained a lot of renewed attention, after Baumgratz et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett. 113, 140401. (doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.113.140401)), following Åberg (http://arxiv.org/abs/quant-ph/0612146), have proposed a resource theoretic approach to quantify it. This has resulted in a large number of papers and preprints exploring various coherence monotones, and debating possible forms for the resource theory. Here, we take the view that the operational foundation of coherence in a state, be it quantum or otherwise wave mechanical, lies in the observation of interference effects. Our approach here is to consider an idealized multi-path interferometer, with a suitable detector, in such a way that the visibility of the interference pattern provides a quantitative expression of the amount of coherence in a given probe state. We present a general framework of deriving coherence measures from visibility, and demonstrate it by analysing several concrete visibility parameters, recovering some known coherence measures and obtaining some new ones.

  3. Genuine quantum coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vicente, Julio I.; Streltsov, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Any quantum resource theory is based on free states and free operations, i.e. states and operations which can be created and performed at no cost. In the resource theory of coherence free states are diagonal in some fixed basis, and free operations are those which cannot create coherence for some particular experimental realization. Recently, some problems of this approach have been discussed, and new sets of operations have been proposed to resolve these problems. We propose here the framework of genuine quantum coherence. This approach is based on a simple principle: we demand that a genuinely incoherent operation preserves all incoherent states. This framework captures coherence under additional constrains such as energy preservation and all genuinely incoherent operations are incoherent regardless of their particular experimental realization. We also introduce the full class of operations with this property, which we call fully incoherent. We analyze in detail the mathematical structure of these classes and also study possible state transformations. We show that deterministic manipulation is severely limited, even in the asymptotic settings. In particular, this framework does not have a unique golden unit, i.e. there is no single state from which all other states can be created deterministically with the free operations. This suggests that any reasonably powerful resource theory of coherence must contain free operations which can potentially create coherence in some experimental realization.

  4. Ultrafast Coherent Control and Characterization of Surface Reactions using FELs

    CERN Document Server

    Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis

    2005-01-01

    The microscopic understanding of surface chemistry requires a detailed understanding of the dynamics of elementary processes at surfaces. The ultrashort electron pulse obtained in the linear accelerator to feed the FEL can be used for generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in the low energy THz regime. With the current parameters for LCLS this corresponds to radiation with energy corresponding to excitations of low-energy vibrational modes of molecules on surfaces or phonons in substrates. The coherent radiation can coherently manipulate atoms or molecules on surfaces. In this respect a chemical reaction can be initiated by coherent atomic motion along a specific reaction coordinate. Since the THz radiation is generated from the same source as the FEL radiation full-time synchronization for pump-probe experiments will be possible. The possibility to perform time-resolved X-ray Emission Spectroscopy (XES) and X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) measurements as a probe of chemical dynamics is an exciti...

  5. Coherence expansion and polariton condensate formation in a semiconductor microcavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belykh, V V; Sibeldin, N N; Kulakovskii, V D; Glazov, M M; Semina, M A; Schneider, C; Höfling, S; Kamp, M; Forchel, A

    2013-03-29

    The dynamics of the expansion of the first order spatial coherence g(1) for a polariton system in a high-Q GaAs microcavity was investigated on the basis of Young's double slit experiment under 3 ps pulse excitation at the conditions of polariton Bose-Einstein condensation. It was found that in the process of condensate formation the coherence expands with a constant velocity of about 10(8)  cm/s. The measured coherence is smaller than that in a thermal equilibrium system during the growth of condensate density and well exceeds it at the end of condensate decay. The onset of spatial coherence is governed by polariton relaxation while condensate amplitude and phase fluctuations are not suppressed.

  6. Development of all-solid coherent Doppler wind lidar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaopeng Zhu; Jiqiao Liu; Decang Bi; Jun Zhou; Weifeng Diao; Weibiao Chen

    2012-01-01

    A 1064-nm pulsed coherent Doppler lidar (CDL) prototype is developed to measure short range wind speed in the lower altitude troposphere layer The CDL system adopts an injection seeded Nd:YAG laser with the pulse duration of 80 ns,single pulse energy of 0.5 m J,and pulse repetition rate of 200 Hz.Speed calibration experiments are implemented to obtain a speed accuracy of 0.3 m/s using a hard target.Data analysis results show that the CDL system can obtain a line-of-sight wind velocity at a range of 30 to 500m with the range resolution of 40 m and 38 pulses accumulation.

  7. Second-order statistics of Gaussian Schell-model pulsed beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chunyi; Yang, Huamin; Lou, Yan; Tong, Shoufeng

    2011-08-01

    Novel analytical expressions for the cross-spectral density function of a Gaussian Schell-model pulsed (GSMP) beam propagating through atmospheric turbulence are derived. Based on the cross-spectral density function, the average spectral density and the spectral degree of coherence of a GSMP beam in atmospheric turbulence are in turn examined. The dependence of the spectral degree of coherence on the turbulence strength measured by the atmospheric spatial coherence length is calculated numerically and analyzed in depth. The results obtained are useful for applications involving spatially and spectrally partially coherent pulsed beams propagating through atmospheric turbulence.

  8. Autler-Townes triplet absorption spectroscopy, controllable electromagnetically induced transparency and nonlinear coherence Kerr effect

    CERN Document Server

    Bacha, Bakht Amin; Nazmidinov, Rashid G

    2014-01-01

    A Field Generated Coherence (FGC)' based 3-field cyclically-driven 4-level atomic system, which is an extended version of $\\Lambda$ type schemes, is investigated for Autler-Townes triplet absorption (ATT) spectroscopy. Two dark lines which appear in the ATT spectrum, are the essence of the generated multiple controllable EIT windows for a superluminal Gaussian light pulse. We also investigate enhancement in the group velocity for the Gaussian light pulse, using a nonlinear coherence Kerr effect. Consequently, the superluminal probing pulse leaves a steep anomalous region of the medium by $28 \\mu s$ sooner than the light pulse of the Kerr-free system. A co-linear propagation of the driving fields is suggested to minimize our explored Doppler broadening incoherence effect on the probe pulse. Indeed, the analytically observed undistorted retrieved light pulse, which is a necessary and useful requirement for realization of the results in laboratory, is also shown and analyzed explicitly.

  9. Interaction of coherent phonons with defects and elementary excitations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hase, Muneaki [Institute of Applied Physics, University of Tsukuba, 1-1-1 Tennodai, Tsukuba 305-8573 (Japan); Kitajima, Masahiro, E-mail: mhase@bk.tsukuba.ac.j, E-mail: kitaji@nda.ac.j [Department of Applied Physics, School of Applied Science, National Defense Academy of Japan, Hashirimizu 1-10-20, Yokosuka, Kanagawa 239-8686 (Japan)

    2010-02-24

    We present an overview of the feasibility of using coherent phonon spectroscopy to study interaction dynamics of excited lattice vibrations with their environments. By exploiting the features of coherent phonons with a pump-probe technique, one can study lattice motions in a sub-picosecond time range. The dephasing properties tell us not only about interaction dynamics with carriers (electrons and holes) or thermal phonons but also about point defects in crystals. Modulations of the coherent phonon amplitude by more than two modes are closely related to phonon-carrier or phonon-phonon interferences. Related to this phenomenon, formation of coherent phonons at higher harmonics gives direct evidence for phonon-phonon couplings. A combined study of coherent phonons and ultrafast carrier response can be useful for understanding phonon-carrier interaction dynamics. For metals like zinc, nonequilibrium electrons may dominate the dynamics of both relaxation and generation of coherent phonons. The frequency chirp of coherent phonons can be a direct measure of how and when phonon-phonon and phonon-carrier couplings occur. Carbon nanotubes show some complicated behavior due to the existence of many modes with different symmetries, resulting in superposition or interference. To illustrate one of the most interesting applications, the selective excitation of specific phonon modes through the use of a pulse train technique is shown. (topical review)

  10. Ablation of burned skin with ultra-short pulses laser to promote healing: evaluation by optical coherence tomography, histology, {mu}ATR-FTIR and Nonlinear Microscopy; Ablacao de pele queimada com laser de pulsos ultra-curtos para promocao da cicatrizacao: avaliacao por tomografia por coerencia optica, histologia, {mu}ATR-FTIR e microscopia nao-linear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Moises Oliveira dos

    2012-07-01

    Burns cause changes in the anatomical structure of the skin associated with trauma. The severity of the burn injury is divided into first, second and third-degree burns. The third-degree burns have been a major focus of research in search of more conservative treatments and faster results in repair for a functional and cosmetically acceptable. The conventional treatment is the use of topical natural or synthetic skin graft. An alternative therapy is the laser ablation process for burned tissue necrosis removal due to the no mechanical contact, fast application and access to difficult areas. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of using high intensity femtosecond lasers as an adjunct treatment of burned patients. For this study, 65 Wistar rats were divided into groups of five animals: healthy skin, burned skin, two types of treatment (surgical debridement or femtosecond laser ablation) and four different times in the healing process monitoring. Three regions of the back of the animals were exposed to steam source causing third-degree burn. On the third day after the burn, one of the regions was ablated with high intensity ultrashort laser pulses ({lambda} = 785 nm, 90 fs, 2 kHz and 10 {mu}J/ pulse), the other received surgical debridement, and the last was considered the burn control. The regions were analyzed by optical coherence tomography (OCT), histology, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy using Fourier transform ({mu}-ATR-FTIR), two-photon excitation fluorescence microscopy (TPEFM) and second harmonic generation technique (SHG) on days 3, 5, 7 and 14 pos-treatments. The results showed that with the laser irradiation conditions used it was possible to remove debris from third degree burn. The techniques used to characterize the tissue allowed to verify that all treatments promoted wound healing. On the fourteenth day, the regeneration curve showed that the attenuation coefficient of laser ablated tissue converges to the values

  11. Coherence dynamics in light-harvesting complexes with two-colour spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quiney Harry M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available We investigate coherent dynamics in the cryptophyte light-harvesting complex Phycocyanin-645 (PC-645. A two-colour four-wave mixing experiment allows us to isolate a coherence pathway and observe its evolution in the absence of other signals. We measured a decoherence time of 540fs for the coherence [1]. Additionally oscillations in the signal pathway give evidence for the coherent excitation of states outside the bandwidth of the laser pulse. This suggests strong coupling between the excited states and phonon modes [1].

  12. Coherent population trapping with polarization modulation

    CERN Document Server

    Yun, Peter; de Clercq, Emeric

    2016-01-01

    Coherent population trapping (CPT) is extensively studied for future vapor cell clocks of high frequency stability. In the constructive polarization modulation CPT scheme, a bichromatic laser field with polarization and phase synchronously modulated is applied on an atomic medium. A high contrast CPT signal is observed in this so-called double-modulation configuration, due to the fact that the atomic population does not leak to the extreme Zeeman states, and that the two CPT dark states, which are produced successively by the alternate polarizations, add constructively. Here we experimentally investigate CPT signal dynamics first in the usual configuration, a single circular polarization. The double-modulation scheme is then addressed in both cases: one pulse Rabi interaction and two pulses Ramsey interaction. The impact and the optimization of the experimental parameters involved in the time sequence are reviewed. We show that a simple sevenlevel model explains the experimental observations. The double-modul...

  13. SAR image effects on coherence and coherence estimation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickel, Douglas Lloyd

    2014-01-01

    Radar coherence is an important concept for imaging radar systems such as synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This document quantifies some of the effects in SAR which modify the coherence. Although these effects can disrupt the coherence within a single SAR image, this report will focus on the coherence between separate images, such as for coherent change detection (CCD) processing. There have been other presentations on aspects of this material in the past. The intent of this report is to bring various issues that affect the coherence together in a single report to support radar engineers in making decisions about these matters.

  14. Single-cycle optical pulse shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shverdin, Miroslav Y.

    Observation and control of ultrafast processes such as chemical reactions, biological interactions, and atomic processes is at the heart of the field of ultrafast physics. Decreasing the pulse duration enables probing ever-shorter events. The main contribution of this work is the generation and the characterization of single-cycle optical pulses. When the shape of the electric field consists of a single oscillation under the temporal envelope, we approach a new regime in physics: the electronic motion is now controlled directly by the electric field. We describe a Fourier approach to ultrashort pulse generation which consists of combining discrete, appropriately phased spectral components of a very wide coherent spectrum. In our experiments, all of the sidebands are generated by exciting a Raman transition in a diatomic gas near maximum coherence using two intense pulsed lasers. The resulting molecular motion modulates the two driving lasers to produce over four octaves of bandwidth from vacuum ultraviolet to near infrared. The spectral components are mutually coherent and are spaced by the frequency of the Raman transition. We select a subset of the produced spectrum and electronically adjust the phases of the individual sidebands using a liquid crystal spatial light modulator. The synthesized waveforms are characterized by measuring the UV signal generated by four-wave nonresonant mixing inside a xenon cell.

  15. Development of fiber lasers and devices for coherent Raman scattering microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, Erin Stranford

    As ultrafast laser technology has found expanding application in machining, spectroscopy, microscopy, surgery, and numerous other areas, the desire for inexpensive and robust laser sources has grown. Until recently, nonlinear effects in fiber systems due to the tight confinement of the light in the core have limited their performance. However, with advances in managing nonlinearity through pulse propagation physics and the use of large core fibers, the performance of fiber lasers can compete with that of their solid-state counterparts. As specific applications, such as coherent Raman scattering microscopy, emerge that stand to benefit from fiber technology, new performance challenges in areas such as laser noise are anticipated. This thesis studies nonlinear pulse propagation in fiber lasers and fiber parametric devices. Applications of dissipative solitons and self-similar pulse propagation to low-repetition rate oscillators that have the potential to simplify short-pulse amplification schemes will be examined. The rest of this thesis focuses on topics relevant to fiber laser development for coherent Raman scattering microscopy sources. Coherent pulse division and recombination inside the laser cavity will be introduced as an energy-scaling mechanism and demonstrated for a fiber soliton laser. The relative intensity noise properties of mode-locked fiber lasers, with a particular emphasis on normal dispersion lasers, will be explored in simulation and experiment. A fiber optical parametric oscillator will be studied in detail for low noise frequency conversion of picosecond pulses, and its utility for coherent Raman imaging will be demonstrated. Spectral compression of femtosecond pulses is used to generate picosecond pulses to pump this device, and this technique provides a route to future noise reduction in the system. Furthermore, this device forms a multimodal source capable of providing the picosecond pulses for coherent Raman scattering microscopy and the

  16. Spatio-temporal coherence of free-electron laser radiation in the extreme ultraviolet determined by a Michelson interferometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbert, V.; Rödel, C.; Brenner, G.; Döppner, T.; Düsterer, S.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Fletcher, L.; Förster, E.; Glenzer, S. H.; Harmand, M.; Hartley, N. J.; Kazak, L.; Komar, D.; Laarmann, T.; Lee, H. J.; Ma, T.; Nakatsutsumi, M.; Przystawik, A.; Redlin, H.; Skruszewicz, S.; Sperling, P.; Tiggesbäumker, J.; Toleikis, S.; Zastrau, U.

    2014-09-01

    A key feature of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from free-electron lasers (FELs) is its spatial and temporal coherence. We measured the spatio-temporal coherence properties of monochromatized FEL pulses at 13.5 nm using a Michelson interferometer. A temporal coherence time of (59±8) fs has been determined, which is in good agreement with the spectral bandwidth given by the monochromator. Moreover, the spatial coherence in vertical direction amounts to about 15% of the beam diameter and about 12% in horizontal direction. The feasibility of measuring spatio-temporal coherence properties of XUV FEL radiation using interferometric techniques advances machine operation and experimental studies significantly.

  17. Spatio-temporal coherence of free-electron laser radiation in the extreme ultraviolet determined by a Michelson interferometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilbert, V.; Rödel, C.; Zastrau, U., E-mail: ulf.zastrau@uni-jena.de [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Brenner, G.; Düsterer, S.; Dziarzhytski, S.; Harmand, M.; Przystawik, A.; Redlin, H.; Toleikis, S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607 Hamburg (Germany); Döppner, T.; Ma, T. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Avenue, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Fletcher, L. [Department of Physics, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Förster, E. [Institut für Optik und Quantenelektronik, Friedrich-Schiller-Universität, Max-Wien-Platz 1, 07743 Jena (Germany); Helmholtz-Institut Jena, Fröbelstieg 3, 07743 Jena (Germany); Glenzer, S. H.; Lee, H. J. [SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, 2575 Sand Hill Road, Menlo Park, California 94025 (United States); Hartley, N. J. [Department of Physics, Clarendon Laboratory, University of Oxford, Parks Road, Oxford OX1 3PU (United Kingdom); Kazak, L.; Komar, D.; Skruszewicz, S. [Institut für Physik, Universität Rostock, 18051 Rostock (Germany); and others

    2014-09-08

    A key feature of extreme ultraviolet (XUV) radiation from free-electron lasers (FELs) is its spatial and temporal coherence. We measured the spatio-temporal coherence properties of monochromatized FEL pulses at 13.5 nm using a Michelson interferometer. A temporal coherence time of (59±8) fs has been determined, which is in good agreement with the spectral bandwidth given by the monochromator. Moreover, the spatial coherence in vertical direction amounts to about 15% of the beam diameter and about 12% in horizontal direction. The feasibility of measuring spatio-temporal coherence properties of XUV FEL radiation using interferometric techniques advances machine operation and experimental studies significantly.

  18. Pulsed thermoelectricity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, M.; Nedelcu, M.

    2010-07-01

    A special mechanism of thermoelectric transport is described, consisting of pulses of charge carriers which "fly" periodically through the external circuit from the hot end of the sample to the cold end, with a determined duration of the "on" and "off" times of the electric contacts, while maintaining continuously the thermal contacts. It is shown that such a "resonant" ideal thermogenerator may work cyclically, with the same efficiency quotient as the ideal efficiency quotient of the thermoelectric devices operated in the usual stationary transport regime but the electric flow and power are increased, as a consequence of the concentration of the charge carriers on pulses of small spatial extent. The process is reversible, in the sense that it can be operated either as a thermoelectric generator or as an electrothermal cooler.

  19. Coherent and noncoherent low-power diodes in clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antipa, Ciprian; Pascu, Mihail-Lucian; Stanciulescu, Viorica; Vlaiculescu, Mihaela; Ionescu, Elena; Bordea, Daniel

    1997-05-01

    Clinical efficacy of the low power laser (LPL) in medical treatments is still not well established. In a double blind, placebo controlled study, we tried to find out first which type of LPL is more efficient, and second if coherence is an important character for clinical efficacy. We treated 1228 patients having different rheumatic diseases, with low power diode, used as follows: A group: IR coherent diode, continuous emission, 3 mW power; B group: IR coherent diode, pulsed emission, output power about 3 mW; C group: IR noncoherent diode continuous emission 9 mW power; D group: both IR diode lasers (continuous or pulsed) and HeNe laser, continuous emission, 2 mW power; E group: placebo laser as control group. The energy dose used for every group was the same, as well as the clinical protocols. The positive results were: 66.16% for A group; 64.06% for B group; 48.87% for C group; 76.66% for D group, and 39.07% for E group. Finally, we showed that LPL is really efficient in the treatment of some rheumatic diseases, especially when red and IR diode laser were used in combination. The type of emission (continuous or pulsed) is not important, but coherence is obviously necessary for clinical efficacy.

  20. Interferometer design and controls for pulse stacking in high power fiber lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Russell; Yang, Yawei; Dahlen, Dar; Xu, Yilun; Huang, Gang; Qiang, Du; Doolittle, Lawrence; Byrd, John; Leemans, Wim; Ruppe, John; Zhou, Tong; Sheikhsofla, Morteza; Nees, John; Galvanauskas, Almantas; Dawson, Jay; Chen, Diana; Pax, Paul

    2017-03-01

    In order to develop a design for a laser-plasma accelerator (LPA) driver, we demonstrate key technologies that enable fiber lasers to produce high energy, ultrafast pulses. These technologies must be scalable, and operate in the presence of thermal drift, acoustic noise, and other perturbations typical of an operating system. We show that coherent pulse stacking (CPS), which requires optical interferometers, can be made robust by image-relaying, multipass optical cavities, and by optical phase control schemes that sense pulse train amplitudes from each cavity. A four-stage pulse stacking system using image-relaying cavities is controlled for 14 hours using a pulse-pattern sensing algorithm. For coherent addition of simultaneous ultrafast pulses, we introduce a new scheme using diffractive optics, and show experimentally that four pulses can be added while a preserving pulse width of 128 fs.

  1. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeylikovich, I.; Xu, M., E-mail: mxu@fairfield.edu [Physics Department, Fairfield University, Fairfield, CT 06824 (United States)

    2016-02-15

    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation.

  2. Coherence for Monoidal Endofunctors

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2009-01-01

    The goal of this paper is to prove coherence results with respect to relational graphs for monoidal endofunctors, i.e. endofunctors of a monoidal category that preserve the monoidal structure up to a natural transformation that need not be an isomorphism. These results are proved first in the absence of symmetry in the monoidal structure, and then with this symmetry. In the later parts of the paper the coherence results are extended to monoidal endofunctors in monoidal categories that have diagonal or codiagonal natural transformations, or where the monoidal structure is given by finite products or coproducts. Monoidal endofunctors are interesting because they stand behind monoidal monads and comonads, for which coherence will be proved in a sequel to this paper.

  3. Dynamic coherent backscattering mirror

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M.

    2016-01-01

    The phase of multiply scattered light has recently attracted considerable interest. Coherent backscattering is a striking phenomenon of multiple scattered light in which the coherence of light survives multiple scattering in a random medium and is observable in the direction space as an enhancement of the intensity of backscattered light within a cone around the retroreflection direction. Reciprocity also leads to enhancement of backscattering light in the spatial space. The random medium behaves as a reciprocity mirror which robustly converts a diverging incident beam into a converging backscattering one focusing at a conjugate spot in space. Here we first analyze theoretically this coherent backscattering mirror (CBM) phenomenon and then demonstrate the capability of CBM compensating and correcting both static and dynamic phase distortions occurring along the optical path. CBM may offer novel approaches for high speed dynamic phase corrections in optical systems and find applications in sensing and navigation. PMID:26937296

  4. Coherence in Microchip Traps

    CERN Document Server

    Treutlein, P; Steinmetz, T; Hänsch, T W; Reichel, J; Treutlein, Philipp; Hommelhoff, Peter; Steinmetz, Tilo; H\\"ansch, Theodor W.; Reichel, Jakob

    2003-01-01

    We report the coherent manipulation of internal states of neutral atoms in a magnetic microchip trap. Coherence lifetimes exceeding 1 s are observed with atoms at distances of $4-130 \\mu$m from the microchip surface. The coherence lifetime in the microtrap is independent of atom-surface distance and agrees well with the results of similar measurements in macroscopic magnetic traps. Due to the absence of surface-induced decoherence, a miniaturized atomic clock with a relative stability in the $10^{-13}$ range can be realized. For applications in quantum information processing, we propose to use microwave near-fields in the proximity of chip wires to create potentials that depend on the internal state of the atoms.

  5. Maintaining Web Cache Coherency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Document coherency is a challenging problem for Web caching. Once the documents are cached throughout the Internet, it is often difficult to keep them coherent with the origin document without generating a new traffic that could increase the traffic on the international backbone and overload the popular servers. Several solutions have been proposed to solve this problem, among them two categories have been widely discussed: the strong document coherency and the weak document coherency. The cost and the efficiency of the two categories are still a controversial issue, while in some studies the strong coherency is far too expensive to be used in the Web context, in other studies it could be maintained at a low cost. The accuracy of these analysis is depending very much on how the document updating process is approximated. In this study, we compare some of the coherence methods proposed for Web caching. Among other points, we study the side effects of these methods on the Internet traffic. The ultimate goal is to study the cache behavior under several conditions, which will cover some of the factors that play an important role in the Web cache performance evaluation and quantify their impact on the simulation accuracy. The results presented in this study show indeed some differences in the outcome of the simulation of a Web cache depending on the workload being used, and the probability distribution used to approximate updates on the cached documents. Each experiment shows two case studies that outline the impact of the considered parameter on the performance of the cache.

  6. Coherent light microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Ferraro, Pietro; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2011-01-01

    This book deals with the latest achievements in the field of optical coherent microscopy. While many other books exist on microscopy and imaging, this book provides a unique resource dedicated solely to this subject. Similarly, many books describe applications of holography, interferometry and speckle to metrology but do not focus on their use for microscopy. The coherent light microscopy reference provided here does not focus on the experimental mechanics of such techniques but instead is meant to provide a users manual to illustrate the strengths and capabilities of developing techniques. Th

  7. Coherent states measurement entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Kwapien, J; Zyczkowski, K; Kwapien, Jaroslaw; Slomczynski, Wojciech; Zyczkowski, Karol

    1996-01-01

    Coherent states (CS) quantum entropy can be split into two components. The dynamical entropy is linked with the dynamical properties of a quantum system. The measurement entropy, which tends to zero in the semiclassical limit, describes the unpredictability induced by the process of a quantum approximate measurement. We study the CS--measurement entropy for spin coherent states defined on the sphere discussing different methods dealing with the time limit n \\to \\infty. In particular we propose an effective technique of computing the entropy by iterated function systems. The dependence of CS--measurement entropy on the character of the partition of the phase space is analysed.

  8. Coherent terahertz photonics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeds, Alwyn J; Fice, Martyn J; Balakier, Katarzyna; Natrella, Michele; Mitrofanov, Oleg; Lamponi, Marco; Chtioui, Mourad; van Dijk, Frederic; Pepper, Michael; Aeppli, Gabriel; Davies, A Giles; Dean, Paul; Linfield, Edmund; Renaud, Cyril C

    2013-09-23

    We present a review of recent developments in THz coherent systems based on photonic local oscillators. We show that such techniques can enable the creation of highly coherent, thus highly sensitive, systems for frequencies ranging from 100 GHz to 5 THz, within an energy efficient integrated platform. We suggest that such systems could enable the THz spectrum to realize its full applications potential. To demonstrate how photonics-enabled THz systems can be realized, we review the performance of key components, show recent demonstrations of integrated platforms, and give examples of applications.

  9. Effect of DRFM phase responsext on the doppler spectrum of a coherent radar: critical implications and possible mitigation techniques

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Herselman, PL

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the critical implications of the phase response of a Digital Radio Frequency Memory (DRFM) based repeater system on the Doppler spectrum of a modern, coherently processing radar system (for example pulsed Doppler radar...

  10. Nonlinear Pulse Shaping in Fibres for Pulse Generation and Optical Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Boscolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new all-optical technologies for data processing and signal manipulation is a field of growing importance with a strong potential for numerous applications in diverse areas of modern science. Nonlinear phenomena occurring in optical fibres have many attractive features and great, but not yet fully explored, potential in signal processing. Here, we review recent progress on the use of fibre nonlinearities for the generation and shaping of optical pulses and on the applications of advanced pulse shapes in all-optical signal processing. Amongst other topics, we will discuss ultrahigh repetition rate pulse sources, the generation of parabolic shaped pulses in active and passive fibres, the generation of pulses with triangular temporal profiles, and coherent supercontinuum sources. The signal processing applications will span optical regeneration, linear distortion compensation, optical decision at the receiver in optical communication systems, spectral and temporal signal doubling, and frequency conversion.

  11. Coherency matrix formulation for partially coherent imaging to evaluate the degree of coherence for image.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazoe, Kenji

    2012-08-01

    This paper defines a matrix from which coherence property of imaging by partially coherent Koehler illumination is determined. The matrix termed coherency matrix in imaging system is derived by the space average of a product of a column vector and its transpose conjugate where each row of the column vector represents mutually incoherent light. The coherency matrix in imaging system has similar properties to the polarization matrix that is utilized for calculating the light intensity and degree of polarization of polarized light. The coherency matrix in imaging system enables us to calculate not only image intensity but also degree of coherence for image. Simulation results of the degree of coherence for image given by the coherency matrix in imaging system correspond to the complex degree of coherence obtained by the van Cittert-Zernike theorem.

  12. Wave equations for pulse propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shore, B. W.

    1987-06-01

    Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity.

  13. Spectral compression of single-photon-level laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanhua; Xiang, Tong; Nie, Yiyou; Sang, Minghuang; Chen, Xianfeng

    2017-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the bandwidth of single photons laser pulse is compressed by a factor of 58 in a periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) waveguide chip. A positively chirped single photons laser pulse and a negatively chirped classical laser pulse are employed to produce a narrowband single photon pulse with new frequency through sum-frequency generation. In our experiment, the frequency and bandwidth of single photons at 1550 nm are simultaneously converted. Our results mark a critical step towards the realization of coherent photonic interface between quantum communication at 1550 nm and quantum memory in the near-visible window. PMID:28240245

  14. Shaped pulse electric-field construction and interferometric characterization: The SPECIFIC method

    CERN Document Server

    Coughlan, Matthew A; Weber, Stefan M; Bowlan, Pamela; Trebino, Rick; Levis, Robert J

    2009-01-01

    A method is reported for creating, generating, and measuring parametrically shaped pulses for time-bandwidth product >>5, which consists of a parametric pulse-shaping algorithm, a spatial light modulation system and a single shot interferometric characterization scheme (SEA TADPOLE) . The utilization of these tools marks the inception of a new method called SPECIFIC, shaped-pulse electric-field construction and interferometric characterization, capable of producing complex shaped laser pulses for coherent control experiments.

  15. Coherence Constraints and the Last Hidden Optical Coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, Xiao-Feng; Vamivakas, A Nick; Eberly, Joseph H

    2016-01-01

    We have discovered a new domain of optical coherence, and show that it is the third and last member of a previously unreported fundamental triad of coherences. These are unified by our derivation of a parallel triad of coherence constraints that take the form of complementarity relations. We have been able to enter this new coherence domain experimentally and we describe the novel tomographic approach devised for that purpose.

  16. Theoretical and numerical analysis of coherent Smith-Purcell radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Coherent enhancement of Smith-Purcell radiation has attracted people's attention not only in adopting a better source but also in beam diagnostics aspect. In this paper, we study the intrinsic mechanism of coherent Smith-Purcell radiation on the basis of the van den Berg model. The emitted power of Smith-Purcell radiation is determined by the bunch profile in transverse and longitudinal directions. For short bunch whose longitudinal pulse length is comparable with the radiation wavelength, it can be concluded approximately that the power is proportional to the square number of electrons per bunch.

  17. Coherently driven semiconductor quantum dot at a telecommunication wavelength.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Hiroyuki; Nakaoka, Toshihiro; Watanabe, Katsuyuki; Kumagai, Naoto; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2008-09-01

    We proposed and demonstrate use of optical driving pulses at a telecommunication wavelength for exciton-based quantum gate operation. The exciton in a self-assembled quantum dot is coherently manipulated at 1.3 microm through Rabi oscillation. The telecom-band exciton-qubit system incorporates standard optical fibers and fiber optic devices. The coherent manipulation of the two-level system compatible with flexible and stable fiber network paves the way toward practical optical implementation of quantum information processing devices.

  18. Timing Diagnostics and Coherent Harmonics from a test-FEL

    OpenAIRE

    Cutic, Nino

    2011-01-01

    The test free-electron laser (test-FEL) at MAX-lab in Lund demonstrated for the first time circularly polarized coherent femtosecond pulses at 66 nm wavelength. A 375 MeV electron bunch was seeded by a femtosecond laser at 263 nm and coherent harmonics were extracted in an APPLE-II type elliptical undulator. A thermionic gun with a barium oxide cathode was adapted for photocathode operation, and the performance of the gun was tested. Measurements showed the production of 200 pC...

  19. The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) Instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boutet, Sebastien; Williams, Garth J.; /SLAC

    2011-08-16

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) has become the first ever operational hard X-ray Free Electron Laser in 2009. It will operate as a user facility capable of delivering unique research opportunities in multiple fields of science. The LCLS and the LCLS Ultrafast Science Instruments (LUSI) construction projects are developing instruments designed to make full use of the capabilities afforded by the LCLS beam. One such instrument is being designed to utilize the LCLS coherent beam to image with high resolution any sub-micron object. This instrument is called the Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument. This instrument will provide a flexible optical system capable of tailoring key beam parameters for the users. A suite of shot-to-shot diagnostics will also be provided to characterize the beam on every pulse. The provided instrumentation will include multi-purpose sample environments, sample delivery and a custom detector capable of collecting 2D data at 120 Hz. In this article, the LCLS will be briefly introduced along with the technique of Coherent X-ray Diffractive Imaging (CXDI). A few examples of scientific opportunities using the CXI instrument will be described. Finally, the conceptual layout of the instrument will be presented along with a description of the key requirements for the overall system and specific devices required.

  20. Efficient cloning and dragging of microwave pulse into optical frequency pulse in a Doppler-broadened atomic medium

    CERN Document Server

    V., Rajitha K

    2015-01-01

    The propagation of a weak optical pulse through an atomic system in closed $\\Lambda$ configuration is investigated in which the hyper fine levels are coupled by a microwave pulse. Under three photon resonance condition, it is observed that the probe pulse shape gets cloned by the shape of the microwave pulse along propagation through the medium. The temporal position of the probe pulse is dragged to that of the microwave pulse. A simple expression for the linear susceptibility of the medium for the corresponding transition is derived in the Fourier domain. From the numerical analysis of dynamics using this expression, it is concluded that the novel effect arises from the ground state coherence of the hyper fine transitions induced by the microwave pulse.

  1. Quantum Codes for Controlling Coherent Evolution

    CERN Document Server

    Sharf, Y; Cory, D G; Sharf, Yehuda; Havel, Timothy F.; Cory, David G.

    2000-01-01

    Control over spin dynamics has been obtained in NMR via coherent averaging, which is implemented through a sequence of RF pulses, and via quantum codes which can protect against incoherent evolution. Here, we discuss the design and implementation of quantum codes to protect against coherent evolution. A detailed example is given of a quantum code for protecting two data qubits from evolution under a weak coupling (Ising) term in the Hamiltonian, using an ``isolated'' ancilla which does not evolve on the experimental time scale. The code is realized in a three-spin system by liquid-state NMR spectroscopy on 13C-labelled alanine, and tested for two initial states. It is also shown that for coherent evolution and isolated ancillae, codes exist that do not require the ancillae to initially be in a (pseudo-)pure state. Finally, it is shown that even with non-isolated ancillae quantum codes exist which can protect against evolution under weak coupling. An example is presented for a six qubit code that protects two ...

  2. Origin of coherent G -band phonon spectra in single-wall carbon nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, A. R. T.; Hasdeo, E. H.; Sanders, G. D.; Stanton, C. J.; Saito, R.

    2015-01-01

    Coherent phonons in single-wall carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) are observed as oscillations of the differential absorption coefficient as a function of time by means of pump-probe spectroscopy. For the radial breathing mode (RBM) of a SWNT, the coherent phonon signal is understood to be a result of the modulated diameter-dependent energy gaps due to the coherent RBM phonon oscillations. However, this mechanism might not be the dominant contribution to other phonon modes in the SWNT. In particular, for the G -band phonons, which correspond to bond-stretching motions, we find that the modulation of the interatomic optical dipole (electron-photon) matrix element gives rise to a strong coherent G -band phonon intensity comparable to the coherent RBM phonon intensity. We also further discuss the dependence of coherent G -band and RBM phonon amplitudes on the laser excitation pulse width.

  3. PULSE COLUMN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimmett, E.S.

    1964-01-01

    This patent covers a continuous countercurrent liquidsolids contactor column having a number of contactor states each comprising a perforated plate, a layer of balls, and a downcomer tube; a liquid-pulsing piston; and a solids discharger formed of a conical section at the bottom of the column, and a tubular extension on the lowest downcomer terminating in the conical section. Between the conical section and the downcomer extension is formed a small annular opening, through which solids fall coming through the perforated plate of the lowest contactor stage. This annular opening is small enough that the pressure drop thereacross is greater than the pressure drop upward through the lowest contactor stage. (AEC)

  4. The Coherence of Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hobson, R. Peter

    2014-01-01

    There is a growing body of opinion that we should view autism as fractionable into different, largely independent sets of clinical features. The alternative view is that autism is a coherent syndrome in which principal features of the disorder stand in intimate developmental relationship with each other. Studies of congenitally blind children…

  5. Dental Optical Coherence Tomography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun-Feng Lin

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This review paper describes the applications of dental optical coherence tomography (OCT in oral tissue images, caries, periodontal disease and oral cancer. The background of OCT, including basic theory, system setup, light sources, spatial resolution and system limitations, is provided. The comparisons between OCT and other clinical oral diagnostic methods are also discussed.

  6. Bicartesian Coherence Revisited

    CERN Document Server

    Dosen, K

    2007-01-01

    A survey is given of results about coherence for categories with finite products and coproducts. For these results, which were published previously by the authors in several places, some formulations and proofs are here corrected, and matters are updated. The categories investigated in this paper formalize equality of proofs in classical and intuitionistic conjunctive-disjunctive logic without distribution of conjunction over disjunction.

  7. Coherence without Additivity.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    The Dutch book argument is a coherence condition for the existence of subjective probabilities. This note gives a general framework of analysis for this argument in a nonadditive probability setting. Particular cases are given by comonotonic and affinely related Dutch books that lead to Choquet expectations and Min expectations.

  8. Coherently combining antennas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dybdal, Robert B. (Inventor); Curry, Samuel J. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    An apparatus includes antenna elements configured to receive a signal including pseudo-random code, and electronics configured to use the pseudo-random code to determine time delays of signals incident upon the antenna elements and to compensate the signals to coherently combine the antenna elements.

  9. Multiphoton coherent population oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Sharypov, A V

    2014-01-01

    We study the bichromatic driving of a two-level system which displays long-lived coherent population oscillations (CPO). We show that under certain conditions, multiphoton parametric interaction leads to the appearance of CPO resonances at the subharmonic frequencies. In addition, in the region of the CPO resonances, there is strong parametric interaction between the weak sideband components of the electromagnetic field.

  10. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Peter E.

    2015-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a noninvasive imaging technique that provides real-time two- and three-dimensional images of scattering samples with micrometer resolution. Mapping the local reflectivity, OCT visualizes the morphology of the sample, in real time or at video rate. In addition...

  11. Spectral Phase Modulation and chirped pulse amplification in High Gain Harmonic Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Wu, Zilu; Krinsky, Sam; Loos, Henrik; Murphy, James; Shaftan, Timur; Sheehy, Brian; Shen, Yuzhen; Wang, Xijie; Yu Li Hua

    2004-01-01

    High Gain Harmonic Generation (HGHG), because it produces longitudinally coherent pulses derived from a coherent seed, presents remarkable possibilities for manipulating FEL pulses. If spectral phase modulation imposed on the seed modulates the spectral phase of the HGHG in a deterministic fashion, then chirped pulse amplification, pulse shaping, and coherent control experiments at short wavelengths become possible. In addition, the details of the transfer function will likely depend on electron beam and radiator dynamics and so prove to be a useful tool for studying these. Using the DUVFEL at the National Synchrotron Light Source at Brookhaven National Laboratory, we present spectral phase analyses of both coherent HGHG and incoherent SASE ultraviolet FEL radiation, applying Spectral Interferometry for Direct Electric Field Reconstruction (SPIDER), and assess the potential for employing compression and shaping techniques.

  12. The lateral distribution function of coherent radio emission from extensive air showers : Determining the chemical composition of cosmic rays

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Krijn D.; van den Berg, Ad M.; Scholten, Olaf; Werner, Klaus

    2010-01-01

    The lateral distribution function (LDF) for coherent electromagnetic radiation from air showers initiated by ultra-high-energy cosmic rays is calculated using a macroscopic description. A new expression is derived to calculate the coherent radio pulse at small distances from the observer. It is show

  13. Coherent states in quantum mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Rodrigues, R D L; Fernandes, D

    2001-01-01

    We present a review work on the coherent states is non-relativistic quantum mechanics analysing the quantum oscillators in the coherent states. The coherent states obtained via a displacement operator that act on the wave function of ground state of the oscillator and the connection with Quantum Optics which were implemented by Glauber have also been considered. A possible generalization to the construction of new coherent states it is point out.

  14. Coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Bradly J.; Guenther, David C.

    2008-08-26

    An apparatus and corresponding method for coherent hybrid electromagnetic field imaging of a target, where an energy source is used to generate a propagating electromagnetic beam, an electromagnetic beam splitting means to split the beam into two or more coherently matched beams of about equal amplitude, and where the spatial and temporal self-coherence between each two or more coherently matched beams is preserved. Two or more differential modulation means are employed to modulate each two or more coherently matched beams with a time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, and amplitude signal. An electromagnetic beam combining means is used to coherently combine said two or more coherently matched beams into a coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more electromagnetic beam controlling means are used for collimating, guiding, or focusing the coherent electromagnetic beam. One or more apertures are used for transmitting and receiving the coherent electromagnetic beam to and from the target. A receiver is used that is capable of square-law detection of the coherent electromagnetic beam. A waveform generator is used that is capable of generation and control of time-varying polarization, frequency, phase, or amplitude modulation waveforms and sequences. A means of synchronizing time varying waveform is used between the energy source and the receiver. Finally, a means of displaying the images created by the interaction of the coherent electromagnetic beam with target is employed.

  15. Distributed fiber Brillouin strain and temperature sensor with centimeter spatial resolution by coherent probe-pump technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Lufan; Bao, Xiaoyi; Wan, Yidun; Ravet, Fabien; Chen, Liang

    2005-05-01

    We present a sensing principle of the distributed fiber Brillouin strain and temperature sensor by coherent probe-pump technique that offers a new method to achieve centimeter spatial resolution with high frequency resolution. A combination of continuous wave (cw) and pulse source as the probe (Stokes) beam and cw laser as the pump beam have resulted in stronger Brillouin interaction of Stokes and pump inside the pulse-length in the form of cw-pump and pulse-pump interactions. We find that the coherent portion inside the pulse-length of these two interactions due to the same phase has a very high Brillouin amplification. The Brillouin profile originating from the coherent interaction of pulse-pump with cw-pump results in high temperature and strain accuracy with centimeter resolution, which has been verified by successfully detecting 1.5 cm out-layer crack on an optical ground wire (OPGW) cable.

  16. Probing attosecond pulse structures by XUV-induced hole dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    You, Jhih-An; Dahlström, Jan Marcus

    2015-01-01

    We investigate a two-photon ionization process in neon by an isolated attosecond pump pulse and two coherent extreme ultraviolet probe fields. The probe fields, tuned to the 2s-2p transition in the residual ion, allow for coherent control of the photoelectron via indirect interactions with the hole. We show that the photoelectron-ion coincidence signal contains an interference pattern that can be used to reconstruct the temporal structure of attosecond pump pulses. Our results are supported by simulations based on time-dependent configuration-interaction singles and lowest-order perturbation theory within second quantization.

  17. Multidimensional Coherent Photocurrent Spectroscopy of a Semiconductor Nanostructure

    CERN Document Server

    Nardin, Gaël; Silverman, Kevin L; Cundiff, Steven T

    2013-01-01

    Multidimensional Coherent Optical Photocurrent Spectroscopy (MD-COPS) is implemented using unstabilized interferometers. Photocurrent from a semiconductor sample is generated using a sequence of four excitation pulses in a collinear geometry. Each pulse is tagged with a unique radio frequency through acousto-optical modulation ; the Four-Wave Mixing (FWM) signal is then selected in the frequency domain. The interference of an auxiliary continuous wave laser, which is sent through the same interferometers as the excitation pulses, is used to synthesize reference frequencies for lock-in detection of the photocurrent FWM signal. This scheme enables the partial compensation of mechanical fluctuations in the setup, achieving sufficient phase stability without the need for active stabilization. The method intrinsically provides both the real and imaginary parts of the FWM signal as a function of inter-pulse delays. This signal is subsequently Fourier transformed to create a multi-dimensional spectrum. Measurements ...

  18. Optical Coherence and Quantum Optics

    CERN Document Server

    Mandel, Leonard

    1995-01-01

    This book presents a systematic account of optical coherence theory within the framework of classical optics, as applied to such topics as radiation from sources of different states of coherence, foundations of radiometry, effects of source coherence on the spectra of radiated fields, coherence theory of laser modes, and scattering of partially coherent light by random media. The book starts with a full mathematical introduction to the subject area and each chapter concludes with a set of exercises. The authors are renowned scientists and have made substantial contributions to many of the topi

  19. Quasi mode-locking of coherent feedback random fiber laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, R.; Zhang, W. L.; Zeng, X. P.; Yang, Z. J.; Rao, Y. J.; Yao, B. C.; Yu, C. B.; Wu, Y.; Yu, S. F.

    2016-12-01

    Mode-locking is a milestone in the history of lasers that allows the generation of short light pulses and stabilization of lasers. This phenomenon is known to occur only in standard ordered lasers for long time and until recently it is found that it also occurs in disordered random lasers formed by nanoscale particles. Here, we report the realization of a so-called quasi mode-locking of coherent feedback random fiber laser which consists of a partially disordered linear cavity formed between a point reflector and a random distributed fiber Bragg grating array with an inserted graphene saturable absorber. We show that multi-groups of regular light pulses/sub-pulses with different repetition frequencies are generated within the quasi mode-locking regime through the so-called collective resonances phenomenon in such a random fiber laser. This work may provide a platform to study mode locking as well as pulse dynamic regulation of random lasing emission of coherent feedback disordered structures and pave the way to the development of novel multi-frequency pulse fiber lasers with potentially wide frequency tuning range.

  20. Spectrotemporal shaping of seeded free-electron laser pulses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauthier, David; Ribič, Primož Rebernik; De Ninno, Giovanni; Allaria, Enrico; Cinquegrana, Paolo; Danailov, Miltcho Bojanov; Demidovich, Alexander; Ferrari, Eugenio; Giannessi, Luca; Mahieu, Benoît; Penco, Giuseppe

    2015-09-11

    We demonstrate the ability to control and shape the spectrotemporal content of extreme-ultraviolet (XUV) pulses produced by a seeded free-electron laser (FEL). The control over the spectrotemporal properties of XUV light was achieved by precisely manipulating the linear frequency chirp of the seed laser. Our results agree with existing theory, which allows us to retrieve the temporal properties (amplitude and phase) of the FEL pulse from measurements of the spectra as a function of the FEL operating parameters. Furthermore, we show the first direct evidence of the full temporal coherence of FEL light and generate Fourier limited pulses by fine-tuning the FEL temporal phase. The possibility of tailoring the spectrotemporal content of intense short-wavelength pulses represents the first step towards efficient nonlinear optics in the XUV to x-ray spectral region and will enable precise manipulation of core-electron excitations using the methods of coherent quantum control.

  1. Variable-time-delay optical coherent transient signal processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merkel, K D; Babbitt, W R; Anderson, K E; Wagner, K H

    1999-10-15

    A technique is proposed and experimentally demonstrated that achieves simultaneous optical pattern waveform storage and programmable time delay for continuous real-time signal processing by use of optical coherent transient technology. We achieve variable-time-delay and broadband signal processing by frequency shifting of two chirped programming pulses, the chirp rate of one being twice that of the other, without using brief reference pulses and without changing the timing of the programming sequence. We demonstrate the technique experimentally in Tm(3+): YAG at 5 K for 40-MHz chirps by performing temporal signal convolution with true-time delays that vary over a 250-ns range.

  2. Quantum coherence: Reciprocity and distribution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Asutosh

    2017-03-01

    Quantum coherence is the outcome of the superposition principle. Recently, it has been theorized as a quantum resource, and is the premise of quantum correlations in multipartite systems. It is therefore interesting to study the coherence content and its distribution in a multipartite quantum system. In this work, we show analytically as well as numerically the reciprocity between coherence and mixedness of a quantum state. We find that this trade-off is a general feature in the sense that it is true for large spectra of measures of coherence and of mixedness. We also study the distribution of coherence in multipartite systems by looking at monogamy-type relation-which we refer to as additivity relation-between coherences of different parts of the system. We show that for the Dicke states, while the normalized measures of coherence violate the additivity relation, the unnormalized ones satisfy the same.

  3. Spectral coherence in windturbine wakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hojstrup, J. [Riso National Lab., Roskilde (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    This paper describes an experiment at a Danish wind farm to investigate the lateral and vertical coherences in the nonequilibrium turbulence of a wind turbine wake. Two meteorological masts were instrumented for measuring profiles of mean speed, turbulence, and temperature. Results are provided graphically for turbulence intensities, velocity spectra, lateral coherence, and vertical coherence. The turbulence was somewhat influenced by the wake, or possibly from aggregated wakes further upstream, even at 14.5 diameters. Lateral coherence (separation 5m) seemed to be unaffected by the wake at 7.5 diameters, but the flow was less coherent in the near wake. The wake appeared to have little influence on vertical coherence (separation 13m). Simple, conventional models for coherence appeared to be adequate descriptions for wake turbulence except for the near wake situation. 3 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Undulators to FELs: Nanometers, Femtoseconds, Coherence and Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attwood, David [University of California Berkeley

    2011-11-30

    For scientists in many fields, from material science to the life sciences and archeology, synchrotron radiation, and in particular undulator radiation, has provide an intense source of x-rays which are tunable to the absorption edges of particular elements of interest, often permitting studies at high spatial and spectral resolution. Now a close cousin to the undulator, the x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) has emerged with improved spatial coherence and, perhaps more importantly, femtosecond pulse durations which permit dynamical studies. In the future attosecond x-ray capabilities are anticipated. In this colloqium we will describe some state of the art undulator studies, how undulators work, the evolution to FELs, their pulse and coherence properties, and the types of experiments envisioned.

  5. Transverse coherence measurement using a folded Michelson interferometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Jesse; Bercx, Martin; Nantel, Marc; Marjoribanks, Robin

    2007-06-01

    The transverse coherence of a 1 ps pulsed laser beam was measured using a technique involving a modified Michelson interferometer and separate reference images. Using this technique, the transverse coherence of a selected plane in the laser beam was determined, in this case at the exit of a channel in a metal foil self-drilled by the laser. Images of each arm were used as references. Through this technique, it is possible to use the interference patterns produced with uneven intensity distributions and for pulsed lasers on a single-shot basis. The results of these measurements were then shown to be in agreement with those obtained using a Young's double-slit setup.

  6. A passive transmitter for quantum key distribution with coherent light

    CERN Document Server

    Curty, Marcos; Pruneri, Valerio; Mitchell, Morgan W

    2011-01-01

    Signal state preparation in quantum key distribution schemes can be realized using either an active or a passive source. Passive sources might be valuable in some scenarios; for instance, in those experimental setups operating at high transmission rates, since no externally driven element is required. Typical passive transmitters involve parametric down-conversion. More recently, it has been shown that phase-randomized coherent pulses also allow passive generation of decoy states and Bennett-Brassard 1984 (BB84) polarization signals, though the combination of both setups in a single passive source is cumbersome. In this paper, we present a complete passive transmitter that prepares decoy-state BB84 signals using coherent light. Our method employs sum-frequency generation together with linear optical components and classical photodetectors. In the asymptotic limit of an infinite long experiment, the resulting secret key rate (per pulse) is comparable to the one delivered by an active decoy-state BB84 setup wit...

  7. Wave equations for pulse propagation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shore, B.W.

    1987-06-24

    Theoretical discussions of the propagation of pulses of laser radiation through atomic or molecular vapor rely on a number of traditional approximations for idealizing the radiation and the molecules, and for quantifying their mutual interaction by various equations of propagation (for the radiation) and excitation (for the molecules). In treating short-pulse phenomena it is essential to consider coherent excitation phenomena of the sort that is manifest in Rabi oscillations of atomic or molecular populations. Such processes are not adequately treated by rate equations for excitation nor by rate equations for radiation. As part of a more comprehensive treatment of the coupled equations that describe propagation of short pulses, this memo presents background discussion of the equations that describe the field. This memo discusses the origin, in Maxwell's equations, of the wave equation used in the description of pulse propagation. It notes the separation into lamellar and solenoidal (or longitudinal and transverse) and positive and negative frequency parts. It mentions the possibility of separating the polarization field into linear and nonlinear parts, in order to define a susceptibility or index of refraction and, from these, a phase and group velocity. The memo discusses various ways of characterizing the polarization characteristics of plane waves, that is, of parameterizing a transverse unit vector, such as the Jones vector, the Stokes vector, and the Poincare sphere. It discusses the connection between macroscopically defined quantities, such as the intensity or, more generally, the Stokes parameters, and microscopic field amplitudes. The material presented here is a portion of a more extensive treatment of propagation to be presented separately. The equations presented here have been described in various books and articles. They are collected here as a summary and review of theory needed when treating pulse propagation.

  8. Coherent branching feature bisimulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tessa Belder

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Progress in the behavioral analysis of software product lines at the family level benefits from further development of the underlying semantical theory. Here, we propose a behavioral equivalence for feature transition systems (FTS generalizing branching bisimulation for labeled transition systems (LTS. We prove that branching feature bisimulation for an FTS of a family of products coincides with branching bisimulation for the LTS projection of each the individual products. For a restricted notion of coherent branching feature bisimulation we furthermore present a minimization algorithm and show its correctness. Although the minimization problem for coherent branching feature bisimulation is shown to be intractable, application of the algorithm in the setting of a small case study results in a significant speed-up of model checking of behavioral properties.

  9. Phase and Frequency Control of Laser Arrays for Pulse Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-02

    SUBJECT TERMS Pulse synthesis, coherent combining, spectral combining, pulsed lasers, fast optical feedback, diode lasers 16. SECURITY...On classified documents, enter the title classification in parentheses. 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER. Enter all contract numbers as they appear in the...accordance with security classification regulations, e.g. U, C, S, etc. If this form contains classified information, stamp classification level on the top

  10. Tuning hyperfine fields in conjugated polymers for coherent organic spintronics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Paik, Seo-Young; McCamey, Dane R; Yu, Justin; Burn, Paul L; Lupton, John M; Boehme, Christoph

    2011-02-23

    An appealing avenue for organic spintronics lies in direct coherent control of the spin population by means of pulsed electron spin resonance techniques. Whereas previous work has focused on the electrical detection of coherent spin dynamics, we demonstrate here the equivalence of an all-optical approach, allowing us to explore the influence of materials chemistry on the spin dynamics. We show that deuteration of the conjugated polymer side groups weakens the local hyperfine fields experienced by electron-hole pairs, thereby lowering the threshold for the resonant radiation intensity at which coherent coupling and spin beating occur. The technique is exquisitively sensitive to previously obscured material properties and offers a route to quantifying and tuning hyperfine fields in organic semiconductors.

  11. The density matrix picture of laser coherent control current

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHOU Qian; ZHANG Haichao; LIU Luning; LIN Weizhu

    2004-01-01

    The physical substance of the coherent control current and the optical rectification have been analyzed based on density matrix perturbation theory. The analytical results demonstrate that they arise from the real and virtual manifestations of the same nonlinear process associated with diagonal and non-diagonal density matrix.And in terms of polarization, they respectively arise from the intraband and interband polarizations. Both the evolution of the coherent control current exited by ultrafast laser pulse and its dependence on frequency have been studied in time and frequency domains. In order to get an explicit knowledge of intraband polarization and the origination of the coherent control current, we have investigated the initial photo-carriers momentum distribution. The ultrafast decay of the polar momentum population in order of tens of femtosends is given to illustrate its instantaneous optical response.

  12. Coherent laser vision system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sebastion, R.L. [Coleman Research Corp., Springfield, VA (United States)

    1995-10-01

    The Coherent Laser Vision System (CLVS) is being developed to provide precision real-time 3D world views to support site characterization and robotic operations and during facilities Decontamination and Decommissioning. Autonomous or semiautonomous robotic operations requires an accurate, up-to-date 3D world view. Existing technologies for real-time 3D imaging, such as AM laser radar, have limited accuracy at significant ranges and have variability in range estimates caused by lighting or surface shading. Recent advances in fiber optic component technology and digital processing components have enabled the development of a new 3D vision system based upon a fiber optic FMCW coherent laser radar. The approach includes a compact scanner with no-moving parts capable of randomly addressing all pixels. The system maintains the immunity to lighting and surface shading conditions which is characteristic to coherent laser radar. The random pixel addressability allows concentration of scanning and processing on the active areas of a scene, as is done by the human eye-brain system.

  13. Photoacoustics with coherent light

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Bossy

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Since its introduction in the mid-nineties, photoacoustic imaging of biological tissue has been one of the fastest growing biomedical imaging modality, and its basic principles are now considered as well established. In particular, light propagation in photoacoustic imaging is generally considered from the perspective of transport theory. However, recent breakthroughs in optics have shown that coherent light propagating through optically scattering medium could be manipulated towards novel imaging approaches. In this article, we first provide an introduction to the relevant concepts in the field, and then review the recent works showing that it is possible to exploit the coherence of light in conjunction with photoacoustics. We illustrate how the photoacoustic effect can be used as a powerful feedback mechanism for optical wavefront shaping in complex media, and conversely show how the coherence of light can be exploited to enhance photoacoustic imaging, for instance in terms of spatial resolution or for designing minimally invasive endoscopic devices. Finally, we discuss the current challenges and perspectives down the road towards practical applications in the field of photoacoustic imaging.

  14. Coherent electron cooling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Litvinenko,V.

    2009-05-04

    Cooling intense high-energy hadron beams remains a major challenge in modern accelerator physics. Synchrotron radiation is still too feeble, while the efficiency of two other cooling methods, stochastic and electron, falls rapidly either at high bunch intensities (i.e. stochastic of protons) or at high energies (e-cooling). In this talk a specific scheme of a unique cooling technique, Coherent Electron Cooling, will be discussed. The idea of coherent electron cooling using electron beam instabilities was suggested by Derbenev in the early 1980s, but the scheme presented in this talk, with cooling times under an hour for 7 TeV protons in the LHC, would be possible only with present-day accelerator technology. This talk will discuss the principles and the main limitations of the Coherent Electron Cooling process. The talk will describe the main system components, based on a high-gain free electron laser driven by an energy recovery linac, and will present some numerical examples for ions and protons in RHIC and the LHC and for electron-hadron options for these colliders. BNL plans a demonstration of the idea in the near future.

  15. Ultrarelativistic laser systems based on coherent beam combining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagayev, S. N.; Trunov, V. I.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Frolov, S. A.; Leschenko, V. E.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Kokh, A. E.; Petrov, V. V.; Vasiliev, V. A.

    2012-07-01

    Conceptual design for femtosecond laser system of exawatt class, based on multi-channel amplifier and coherent field combining of petawatt amplifier channels with phase-frequency controlled radiation by optical clock are discussed. The scheme of start petawatt level few-cycle laser system with stable phase-frequency parameters determinated by the accuracy of the optical standard based on parametric amplification in big-size LBO crystals pumped by picosecond pulses is analyzed.

  16. Ultrarelativistic laser systems based on coherent beam combining

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bagayev, S. N.; Trunov, V. I.; Pestryakov, E. V.; Frolov, S. A.; Leschenko, V. E.; Kirpichnikov, A. V.; Kokh, A. E.; Petrov, V. V.; Vasiliev, V. A. [Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Ac. Lavrentyev' s prosp., 13/3, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Geology and Mineralogy SB RAS, Ac. Koptug' s prosp., 3, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Institute of Laser Physics SB RAS, Ac. Lavrentyev' s prosp., 13/3, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2012-07-11

    Conceptual design for femtosecond laser system of exawatt class, based on multi-channel amplifier and coherent field combining of petawatt amplifier channels with phase-frequency controlled radiation by optical clock are discussed. The scheme of start petawatt level few-cycle laser system with stable phase-frequency parameters determinated by the accuracy of the optical standard based on parametric amplification in big-size LBO crystals pumped by picosecond pulses is analyzed.

  17. Increasing entanglement between Gaussian states by coherent photon subtraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurélien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2007-01-19

    We experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement between Gaussian entangled states can be increased by non-Gaussian operations. Coherent subtraction of single photons from Gaussian quadrature-entangled light pulses, created by a nondegenerate parametric amplifier, produces delocalized states with negative Wigner functions and complex structures more entangled than the initial states in terms of negativity. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  18. Increasing entanglement between Gaussian states by coherent photon subtraction

    CERN Document Server

    Ourjoumtsev, A; Tualle-Brouri, R; Grangier, P; Ourjoumtsev, Alexei; Dantan, Aurelien; Tualle-Brouri, Rosa; Grangier, Philippe

    2006-01-01

    We experimentally demonstrate that the entanglement between Gaussian entangled states can be increased by non-Gaussian operations. Coherent subtraction of single photons from Gaussian quadrature-entangled light pulses, created by a non-degenerate parametric amplifier, produces delocalized "Schroedinger kitten" states with complex negative Wigner functions, more entangled than the initial states in terms of negativity. The experimental results are in very good agreement with the theoretical predictions.

  19. Single photon emission based on coherent state preparation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ester, P.; Lackmann, L.; Michaelis de Vasconcellos, S.; Hübner, M. C.; Zrenner, A.; Bichler, M.

    2007-09-01

    The authors report here on deterministic single photon emission after coherent optical state preparation in the p-shell of a single InGaAs /GaAs quantum dot. In the approach, they use p-shell Rabi flopping followed by relaxation to the s-shell ground state with subsequent spontaneous single photon emission. Pulsed photon correlation experiments show complete suppression of the correlation peak at zero time delay and hence demonstrate clean single photon emission.

  20. Estimating the Coherence of Noise in Quantum Control of a Solid-State Qubit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guanru; Wallman, Joel J.; Buonacorsi, Brandon; Cho, Franklin H.; Park, Daniel K.; Xin, Tao; Lu, Dawei; Baugh, Jonathan; Laflamme, Raymond

    2016-12-01

    To exploit a given physical system for quantum information processing, it is critical to understand the different types of noise affecting quantum control. Distinguishing coherent and incoherent errors is extremely useful as they can be reduced in different ways. Coherent errors are generally easier to reduce at the hardware level, e.g., by improving calibration, whereas some sources of incoherent errors, e.g., T2* processes, can be reduced by engineering robust pulses. In this work, we illustrate how purity benchmarking and randomized benchmarking can be used together to distinguish between coherent and incoherent errors and to quantify the reduction in both of them due to using optimal control pulses and accounting for the transfer function in an electron spin resonance system. We also prove that purity benchmarking provides bounds on the optimal fidelity and diamond norm that can be achieved by correcting the coherent errors through improving calibration.

  1. Coherent broadband mid-infrared supercontinuum generation in As2Se3 photonic crystal fiber

    CERN Document Server

    Yuan, Wu

    2013-01-01

    The generation of fully coherent broadband mid-infrared (MIR) supercontinuum (SC) from 2.3 um to 8.3 um is demonstrated by using a 4.1 um pump and an As2Se3 photonic crystal fiber (PCF).By introducing the random quantum noise and the power instability on the input pulse and by numerically implementing the Young,s double slits experiment, we examine the coherence properties across the SC spectrum. It is found that the coherence of this MIR SC source depends strongly on the input pulse duration, the peak power, the power stability, and the zero-dispersion wavelength (ZDW) of the As2Se3 PCF.The optimal conditions for the MIR SC with a maximal coherent bandwidth are identified.

  2. Nonideal rotations in nuclear magnetic resonance: Estimation of coherence transfer leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jerschow, Alexej [Materials Sciences Division, 11-D62, Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States); Chemistry Department, D62 Hildebrand, University of California at Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720 (United States)

    2000-07-15

    When spherical tensors are rotated by certain angles, coherence transfer selection rules may apply. For example, a {pi} rotation cleanly inverts the coherence order. A {pi}/2 rotation of a T{sub 0}{sup 1} tensor creates only T{sub {+-}}{sub 1}{sup 1} tensors. In this work estimations are given for the coherence transfer leakage under the action of rotations with small errors in the rotation angle or axis. Although the theory is stated with particular applications to NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) in mind it is equally applicable wherever nonideal rotations of spherical tensors are considered (e.g., quantum computing and relaxation theory). In NMR it is useful for the estimation of coherence transfer leakage, especially in pulse sequences with many n{pi} pulses. The results are also applicable to spinors and half-integer representations of the rotation group. (c) 2000 American Institute of Physics.

  3. Coherence generation and population transfer in a three-level ladder system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bing; Jiang Yun; Wang Gang; Zhang Li-Da; Wu Jin-Hui; Gao Jin-Yue

    2011-01-01

    This work explores the effect of spontaneous emission on coherence generation and population transfer in a threelevel ladder atomic system driven by two pulses in counterintuitive order. With adiabatic evolution and the weakdephasing approximation, we find that a large coherence and population transfer can be achieved even with spontaneous decay rate. The maximum coherence and population transfer decrease with the increase of spontaneous decay rate from the highest state to intermediate state. But this effect can be compensated by shortening the pulse width and enlarging the delay time. Results show that the coherence generation and population transfer never depend on the spontaneous decay rate from the intermediate state to ground state. The validity of the analytic solution is examined by numerical calculation.

  4. Coherent vibrational dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Lanzani, Guglielmo; De Silvestri, Sandro

    2007-01-01

    Vibrational spectroscopy is a powerful investigation tool for a wide class of materials covering diverse areas in physics, chemistry and biology. The continuous development in the laser field regarding ultrashort pulse generation has led to the possibility of producing light pulses that can follow vibrational motion coupled to the electronic transitions in molecules and solids in real time. Aimed at researchers and graduate students using vibrational spectroscopy, this book provides both introductory chapters as well as more advanced contents reporting on recent progress. It also provides a good starting point for scientists seeking a sound introduction to ultrafast optics and spectroscopic techniques.

  5. Femtosecond-Laser-Pulse Characterization and Optimization for CARS Microscopy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzo Piazza

    Full Text Available We present a simple method and its experimental implementation to determine the pulse durations and linear chirps of the pump-and-probe pulse and the Stokes pulse in a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope at sample level without additional autocorrelators. Our approach exploits the delay line, ubiquitous in such microscopes, to perform a convolution of the pump-and-probe and Stokes pulses as a function of their relative delay and it is based on the detection of the photons emitted from an appropriate non-linear sample. The analysis of the non-resonant four-wave-mixing and sum-frequency-generation signals allows for the direct retrieval of the pulse duration on the sample and the linear chirp of each pulse. This knowledge is crucial in maximizing the spectral-resolution and contrast in CARS imaging.

  6. Degradation of picosecond temporal contrast of Ti:sapphire lasers with coherent pedestals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodakovskiy, Nikita; Kalashnikov, Mikhail; Gontier, Emilien; Falcoz, Franck; Paul, Pierre-Mary

    2016-10-01

    Recompressed pulses from Ti:sapphire chirped-pulse lasers are accompanied by a slowly decaying post-pulse pedestal that is coherent with the main pulse. The pedestal typically consists of numerous pulses with temporal separation in the picosecond range. The source of this artifact lies in the Ti:sapphire active medium itself, both in the Kerr-lens mode-locked oscillator and in subsequent amplifiers. In the presence of substantial self-phase modulation, after recompression the post-pedestal generates a mirror-symmetric pre-pulse pedestal. This pedestal severely degrades the leading edge of the output pulse. This degradation is far more limiting than the original post-pedestal and severely lowers the achievable temporal contrast.

  7. Excimer Laser Pulse Compress With Pulse Feedback

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>To attain a shorter laser pulse, a compressing technique called pulse feedback was developed from the saturation gain switch applied to the amplification in a discharge pumping excimer laser cavity. It can

  8. Invited Article: A compact optically coherent fiber frequency comb.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, L C; Deschênes, J-D; Sonderhouse, L; Swann, W C; Khader, I H; Baumann, E; Newbury, N R; Coddington, I

    2015-08-01

    We describe the design, fabrication, and performance of a self-referenced, optically coherent frequency comb. The system robustness is derived from a combination of an optics package based on polarization-maintaining fiber, saturable absorbers for mode-locking, high signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) detection of the control signals, and digital feedback control for frequency stabilization. The output is phase-coherent over a 1-2 μm octave-spanning spectrum with a pulse repetition rate of ∼200 MHz and a residual pulse-to-pulse timing jitter <3 fs well within the requirements of most frequency-comb applications. Digital control enables phase coherent operation for over 90 h, critical for phase-sensitive applications such as timekeeping. We show that this phase-slip free operation follows the fundamental limit set by the SNR of the control signals. Performance metrics from three nearly identical combs are presented. This laptop-sized comb should enable a wide-range of applications beyond the laboratory.

  9. Ultrafast Coherent Control and Characterization of Surface Reactions using FELs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogasawara, Hirohito; Nordlund, Dennis a Nilsson, Anders; /SLAC, SSRL

    2005-09-30

    The microscopic understanding of reactions at surfaces requires an in-depth knowledge of the dynamics of elementary processes on an ultrafast timescale. This can be accomplished using an ultrafast excitation to initiate a chemical reaction and then probe the progression of the reaction with an ultrashort x-ray pulse from the FEL. There is a great potential to use atom-specific spectroscopy involving core levels to probe the chemical nature, structure and bonding of species on surfaces. The ultrashort electron pulse obtained in the linear accelerator to feed the X-ray FEL can also be used for generation of coherent synchrotron radiation in the low energy THz regime to be used as a pump. This radiation has an energy close to the thermal excitations of low-energy vibrational modes of molecules on surfaces and phonons in substrates. The coherent THz radiation will be an electric field pulse with a certain direction that can collectively manipulate atoms or molecules on surfaces. In this respect a chemical reaction can be initiated by collective atomic motion along a specific reaction coordinate. If the coherent THz radiation is generated from the same source as the X-ray FEL radiation, full-time synchronization for pump-probe experiments will be possible. The combination of THz and X-ray spectroscopy could be a unique opportunity for FEL facilities to conduct ultrafast chemistry studies at surfaces.

  10. Holographic microscopy in low coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmelík, Radim; Petráček, Jiří; Slabá, Michala; Kollárová, Věra; Slabý, Tomáš; Čolláková, Jana; Komrska, Jiří; Dostál, Zbyněk.; Veselý, Pavel

    2016-03-01

    Low coherence of the illumination substantially improves the quality of holographic and quantitative phase imaging (QPI) by elimination of the coherence noise and various artefacts and by improving the lateral resolution compared to the coherent holographic microscopy. Attributes of coherence-controlled holographic microscope (CCHM) designed and built as an off-axis holographic system allowing QPI within the range from complete coherent to incoherent illumination confirmed these expected advantages. Low coherence illumination also furnishes the coherence gating which constraints imaging of some spatial frequencies of an object axially thus forming an optical section in the wide sense. In this way the depth discrimination capability of the microscope is introduced at the price of restricting the axial interval of possible numerical refocusing. We describe theoretically these effects for the whole range of illumination coherence. We also show that the axial refocusing constraints can be overcome using advanced mode of imaging based on mutual lateral shift of reference and object image fields in CCHM. Lowering the spatial coherence of illumination means increasing its numerical aperture. We study how this change of the illumination geometry influences 3D objects QPI and especially the interpretation of live cells QPI in terms of the dry mass density measurement. In this way a strong dependence of the imaging process on the light coherence is demonstrated. The theoretical calculations and numerical simulations are supported by experimental data including a chance of time-lapse watching of live cells even in optically turbid milieu.

  11. Reversible quantum optical data storage based on resonant Raman optical field excited spin coherence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Byoung S

    2008-09-01

    A method of reversible quantum optical data storage is presented using resonant Raman field excited spin coherence, where the spin coherence is stored in an inhomogeneously broadened spin ensemble. Unlike the photon echo method, in the present technique, a 2pi Raman optical rephasing pulse area is used and multimode (parallel) optical channels are available in which the multimode access gives a great benefit to quantum information processors such as quantum repeaters.

  12. Coherent supercontinuum generation in a silicon photonic wire in the telecommunication wavelength range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leo, François; Gorza, Simon-Pierre; Coen, Stéphane; Kuyken, Bart; Roelkens, Gunther

    2015-01-01

    We demonstrate a fully coherent supercontinuum spectrum spanning 500 nm from a silicon-on-insulator photonic wire waveguide pumped at 1575 nm wavelength. An excellent agreement with numerical simulations is reported. The simulations also show that a high level of two-photon absorption can essentially enforce the coherence of the spectral broadening process irrespective of the pump pulse duration.

  13. Coherent Scattering Investigations at the Spallation Neutron Source: a Snowmass White Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akimov, D. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), Russia; Bernstein, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL); BarbeauP., [Duke University; Barton, P. J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Bolozdynya, A. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), Russia; Cabrera-Palmer, B. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Cavanna, F. [Yale University; Cianciolo, Vince [ORNL; Collar, J. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute; Cooper, R. J. [Indiana University; Dean, D. J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Efremenko, Yuri [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Etenko, A. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), Russia; Fields, N. [University of Chicago, Enrico Fermi Institute; Foxe, M. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Figueroa-Feliciano, E. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT); Fomin, N. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gallmeier, F. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Garishvili, I. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Gerling, M. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Green, M. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Greene, Geoffrey [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Hatzikoutelis, A. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Henning, Reyco [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Hix, R. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Hogan, D. [University of California-Berkeley; Hornback, D. [University of Tennessee (UTK) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Jovanovic, I. [Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA; Hossbach, T. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); Iverson, Erik B [ORNL; Klein, S. R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Khromov, A. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), Russia; Link, J. [Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University; Louis, W. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Lu, W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Mauger, C. [Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL); Marleau, P. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Markoff, D. [North Carolina Central University, Durham; Martin, R. D. [University of South Dakota; Mueller, Paul Edward [ORNL; Newby, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Orrell, John L. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL); O' Shaughnessy, C. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Penttila, Seppo [Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL); Patton, K. [North Carolina State University, Raleigh; Poon, A. W. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Radford, David C [ORNL; Reyna, D. [Sandia National Laboratories (SNL); Ray, H. [University of Florida, Gainesville; Scholberg, K. [Duke University, North Carolina; Sosnovtsev, V. [Moscow Engineering Physics Institute (MEPhI), Russia; Tayloe, R. [Indiana University; Vetter, K. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL); Virtue, C. [Laurentian University, Canada; Wilkerson, J. [University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill; Yoo, J. [Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (FNAL); Yu, Chang-Hong [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    The Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Tennessee, provides an intense flux of neutrinos in the few tens-of-MeV range, with a sharply-pulsed timing structure that is beneficial for background rejection. In this white paper, we describe how the SNS source can be used for a measurement of coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CENNS), and the physics reach of different phases of such an experimental program (CSI: Coherent Scattering Investigations at the SNS).

  14. Effect of electron heating on femtosecond laser-induced coherent acoustic phonons in noble metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jincheng; Guo, Chunlei

    2007-05-01

    We employ a surface plasmon technique to resolve the dynamics of femtosecond-laser-induced coherent acoustic phonons in noble metals. Clear acoustic oscillations are observed in our experiments. We further study the dependence of the initial phase of the oscillations on pump fluence, and we find that the initial phase decreases linearly with pump fluence. Our model calculations show that hot electrons instantaneously excited by femtosecond pulses contribute to the generation of coherent acoustic phonons in metals.

  15. Pulsed Optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirlimann, C.

    Optics is the field of physics which comprises knowledge on the interaction between light and matter. When the superposition principle can be applied to electromagnetic waves or when the properties of matter do not depend on the intensity of light, one speaks of linear optics. This situation occurs with regular light sources such as light bulbs, low-intensity light-emitting diodes and the sun. With such low-intensity sources the reaction of matter to light can be characterized by a set of parameters such as the index of refraction, the absorption and reflection coefficients and the orientation of the medium with respect to the polarization of the light. These parameters depend only on the nature of the medium. The situation changed dramatically after the development of lasers in the early sixties, which allowed the generation of light intensities larger than a kilowatt per square centimeter. Actual large-scale short-pulse lasers can generate peak powers in the petawatt regime. In that large-intensity regime the optical parameters of a material become functions of the intensity of the impinging light. In 1818 Fresnel wrote a letter to the French Academy of Sciences in which he noted that the proportionality between the vibration of the light and the subsequent vibration of matter was only true because no high intensities were available. The intensity dependence of the material response is what usually defines nonlinear optics.

  16. Topological Properties of Spatial Coherence Function

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    REN Ji-Rong; ZHU Tao; DUAN Yi-Shi

    2008-01-01

    The topological properties of the spatial coherence function are investigated rigorously.The phase singular structures(coherence vortices)of coherence function can be naturally deduced from the topological current,which is an abstract mathematical object studied previously.We find that coherence vortices are characterized by the Hopf index and Brouwer degree in topology.The coherence flux quantization and the linking of the closed coherence vortices are also studied from the topological properties of the spatial coherence function.

  17. A Search for Meteoroid Lunar Impact Generated Electromagnetic Pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesaraju, Saiveena; Mathews, John D.; Vierinen, Juha; Perillat, Phil; Meisel, David D.

    2016-11-01

    Lunar white light flashes associated with meteoroid impacts are now regularly observed using modest optical instrumentation. In this paper, we hypothesize that the developing, optically-dense hot ejecta cloud associated with these hypervelocity impacts also produce an associated complex plasma component that rapidly evolves resulting in a highly-transient electro magnetic pulse (EMP) in the VHF/UHF spectral region. Discovery of the characteristics and event frequency of impact EMPs would prove interesting to meteoroid flux and complex plasma physics studies especially if EMPs from the same event are detected from at least two locations on the Earth with relative delays appropriate to the propagation paths. We describe a prototype observational search, conducted in May 2014, for meteoroid lunar-impact EMPs that was conducted using simultaneous, overlapping-band, UHF radio observations at the Arecibo (AO; Puerto Rico) and Haystack (HO, Massachusetts, USA) Observatories. Monostatic/bistatic lunar radar imaging observations were also performed with HO transmitting and HO/AO receiving to confirm tracking, the net delay, and the pointing/timing ephemeris at both observatories. Signal analysis was performed using time-frequency signal processing techniques. Although, we did not conclusively identify EMP returns, this search detected possible EMPs and we have confirmed the search paradigm and established the sensitivity of the AO-HO system in detecting the hypothesized events. We have also characterized the difficult radio-frequency interference environment surrounding these UHF observations. We discuss the wide range of terrestrial-origin, Moon-bounce signals that were observed which additionally validate the observational technique. Further observations are contemplated.

  18. Coherent Performance Analysis of the HJ-1-C Synthetic Aperture Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Hai-ying

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR is a coherent imaging radar. Hence, coherence is critical in SAR imaging. In a coherent system, several sources can degrade performance. Based on the HJ-1-C SAR system implementation and sensor characteristics, this study evaluates the effect of frequency stability and pulse-to-pulse timing jitter on the SAR coherent performance. A stable crystal oscillator with short-term stability of 10×1.0−10 / 5 ms is used to generate the reference frequency by using a direct multiplier and divider. Azimuth ISLR degradation owing to the crystal oscillator phase noise is negligible. The standard deviation of the pulse-to-pulse timing jitter of HJ-1-C SAR is lower than 2ns (rms and the azimuth random phase error in the synthetic aperture time slightly degrades the side lobe of the azimuth impulse response. The mathematical expressions and simulation results are presented and suggest that the coherent performance of the HJ-1-C SAR system meets the requirements of synthetic aperture radar imaging.

  19. Solvent Suppression in Intermolecular Multiple-Quantum Coherence Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectra with Only Z-axis Gradients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Hai; ZHANG Sheng-Chun; CAI Shu-Hui; CHEN Zhong; FENG Ji

    2007-01-01

    The solvent peak in the intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence spectra can be suppressed by either applying pulse field gradients or spinning sample along the magic angle direction((δ)=54.7).However,these two methods also suppress the signals of the solute.We design two pulse sequences with only z-axis gradients to suppress the solvent peak without reducing the intensity of solute signals.Compared to the former pulse sequence,the latter pulse sequence is insensitive to the imperfection of pulse flip angles.When the flip angles of the second pulse sequence are purposely deviated 1/10 from the optimal values,the solvent peak is still weak.Theoretical expressions,experimental observations and computer simulations demonstrate that the two methods can be used to effectively suppress solvent peak in intermolecular multiple-quantum coherence spectra.

  20. Pulse propagation in the tapered wiggler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abawi, H.; McIver, J. K.; Moore, G. T.; Scully, M. O.

    Theory and preliminary numerical calculations are presented for coherent optical and electron pulse propagation in a free-electron laser with a tapered wiggler. Since only trapped electrons contribute significantly to the laser radiation, it is possible to define generalized 'slow' space-time coordinates in terms of which the electron pulse envelope may be considered constant. The theory is outlined first for the helical wiggler and then is developed for an arbitrary quasiperiodic wiggler, using a more rigorous 'multiple-scaling' approach. In the latter case a modified definition of the electron phase angle is required, and optical harmonic generation is predicted. The numerical calculations show that substantial energy extraction is achievable, but that the optical pulse rapidly breaks up into a series of spikes in the time domain. Surprisingly, the optical spectrum remains quite smooth in appearance.

  1. Assisted distillation of quantum coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Adesso, G; Lewenstein, M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other, an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication (LQICC). We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, a direct analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  2. Volitional Control of Neuromagnetic Coherence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew D Sacchet

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Coherence of neural activity between circumscribed brain regions has been implicated as an indicator of intracerebral communication in various cognitive processes. While neural activity can be volitionally controlled with neurofeedback, the volitional control of coherence has not yet been explored. Learned volitional control of coherence could elucidate mechanisms of associations between cortical areas and its cognitive correlates and may have clinical implications. Neural coherence may also provide a signal for brain-computer interfaces (BCI. In the present study we used the Weighted Overlapping Segment Averaging (WOSA method to assess coherence between bilateral magnetoencephalograph (MEG sensors during voluntary digit movement as a basis for BCI control. Participants controlled an onscreen cursor, with a success rate of 124 of 180 (68.9%, sign-test p < 0.001 and 84 out of 100 (84%, sign-test p < 0.001. The present findings suggest that neural coherence may be volitionally controlled and may have specific behavioral correlates.

  3. Quantum Coherence as a Resource

    CERN Document Server

    Streltsov, Alexander; Plenio, Martin B

    2016-01-01

    The coherent superposition of states, in combination with energy quantization, represents one of the most fundamental features that mark the departure of quantum mechanics from the classical realm. Quantum coherence in many-body systems embodies the essence of entanglement and is an essential ingredient for a plethora of physical phenomena in quantum optics, quantum information, solid state physics, and nanoscale thermodynamics. In recent years, research on the presence and functional role of quantum coherence in biological systems has also attracted a considerable interest. Despite the fundamental importance of quantum coherence, the development of a rigorous theory of quantum coherence as a physical resource has only been initiated recently. In this Colloquium we discuss and review the development of this rapidly growing research field that encompasses the characterization, quantification, manipulation, dynamical evolution, and operational application of quantum coherence.

  4. Research and Development for X-Ray Optics and Diagnostics on the Linac Coherent Source (LCLS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bionta, R M; Arthur, J; Chapman, H; Craig, B; Klingmann, J; Kuba, J; London, R A; Ott, L; Ryutov, D; Shepherd, R; Shlyaptsev, V; Wootton, A

    2002-09-24

    The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a 1.5 to 15 {angstrom} wavelength Free-Electron Laser (PEL), under development at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC). The photon output consists of high brightness, transversely coherent pulses with duration < 300 fs, together with a broad spontaneous spectrum. The output energy density per unit area, pulse duration, repetition rate, and small FEL spot size pose special challenges for optical components and diagnostics downstream of the undulator. Planning for the photon beam transport, manipulation and diagnostics downstream of the undulator has begun.

  5. Coherent optics in students' laboratories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senderáková, Dagmar; Mesaros, Vladimir; Drzik, Milan

    2014-12-01

    Lasers provide us with unique kind of light - coherent light. Besides being the keystone of historical interferometric measuring methods, coherent waves, now accessible in a very easy way, become a base of new optical measuring and information processing methods. Moreover, holographic recording seems today to have become a common term, even among common, not especially optically educated people. The presentation deals with our attempt to take our students' interest in the coherence of light and getting them familiar with the phenomenon, indeed.

  6. Review of Entangled Coherent States

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Barry C

    2011-01-01

    We review entangled coherent state research since its first implicit use in 1967 to the present. Entangled coherent states are important to quantum superselection principles, quantum information processing, quantum optics, and mathematical physics. Despite their inherent fragility they have produced in a conditional propagating-wave quantum optics realization. Fundamentally the states are intriguing because they are entanglements of the coherent states, which are in a sense the most classical of all states of a dynamical system.

  7. Coherent dynamics in semiconductors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hvam, Jørn Märcher

    1998-01-01

    Ultrafast nonlinear optical spectroscopy is used to study the coherent dynamics of optically excited electron-hole pairs in semiconductors. Coulomb interaction implies that the optical inter-band transitions are dominated, at least at low temperatures, by excitonic effects. They are further...... and molecular systems are found and studied in the exciton-biexciton system of semiconductors. At densities where strong exciton interactions, or many-body effects, become dominant, the semiconductor Bloch equations present a more rigorous treatment of the phenomena Ultrafast degenerate four-wave mixing is used...

  8. Diffraction coherence in optics

    CERN Document Server

    Françon, M; Green, L L

    2013-01-01

    Diffraction: Coherence in Optics presents a detailed account of the course on Fraunhofer diffraction phenomena, studied at the Faculty of Science in Paris. The publication first elaborates on Huygens' principle and diffraction phenomena for a monochromatic point source and diffraction by an aperture of simple form. Discussions focus on diffraction at infinity and at a finite distance, simplified expressions for the field, calculation of the path difference, diffraction by a rectangular aperture, narrow slit, and circular aperture, and distribution of luminous flux in the airy spot. The book th

  9. Optical coherence refractometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlins, Peter H; Woolliams, Peter; Hart, Christian; Beaumont, Andrew; Tedaldi, Matthew

    2008-10-01

    We introduce a novel approach to refractometry using a low coherence interferometer at multiple angles of incidence. We show that for plane parallel samples it is possible to measure their phase refractive index rather than the group index that is usually measured by interferometric methods. This is a significant development because it enables bulk refractive index measurement of scattering and soft samples, not relying on surface measurements that can be prone to error. Our technique is also noncontact and compatible with in situ refractive index measurements. Here, we demonstrate this new technique on a pure silica test piece and a highly scattering resin slab, comparing the results with standard critical angle refractometry.

  10. Objective Eulerian Coherent Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Serra, M

    2015-01-01

    We define objective Eulerian Coherent Structures (OECSs) in two-dimensional, non-autonomous dynamical systems as instantaneously most influential material curves. Specifically, OECSs are stationary curves of the averaged instantaneous material stretching-rate or material shearing-rate functionals. From these objective (frame-invariant) variational principles, we obtain explicit differential equations for hyperbolic, elliptic and parabolic OECSs. As illustration, we compute OECSs in an unsteady ocean velocity data set. In comparison to structures suggested by other common Eulerian diagnostic tools, we find OECSs to be the correct short-term cores of observed trajectory deformation patterns.

  11. Coherent laser beam combining

    CERN Document Server

    Brignon, Arnaud

    2013-01-01

    Recently, the improvement of diode pumping in solid state lasers and the development of double clad fiber lasers have allowed to maintain excellent laser beam quality with single mode fibers. However, the fiber output power if often limited below a power damage threshold. Coherent laser beam combining (CLBC) brings a solution to these limitations by identifying the most efficient architectures and allowing for excellent spectral and spatial quality. This knowledge will become critical for the design of the next generation high-power lasers and is of major interest to many industrial, environme

  12. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten;

    2016-01-01

    in general practice, outpatient clinics, home care and physiotherapy. Furthermore, field observations are conducted in general practice, home care and rehabilitation settings. Perspectives Knowledge about the practice of cross-sectorial collaboration is crucial to the future planning of collaborating...... initiatives in health care. The present study will generate new, valuable insight into the areas of cross-sectorial health care collaboration. Our findings may facilitate change in current practice and improve the quality and coherence in patient pathways of EPCD. The findings of this study will be useful...

  13. Coherent signal processing in optical coherence tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Manish Dinkarrao

    1999-09-01

    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a novel method for non-invasive sub-surface imaging of biological tissue micro-structures. OCT achieves high spatial resolution ( ~ 15 m m in three dimensions) using a fiber-optically integrated system which is suitable for application in minimally invasive diagnostics, including endoscopy. OCT uses an optical heterodyne detection technique based on white light interferometry. Therefore extremely faint reflections ( ~ 10 fW) are routinely detected with high spatial localization. The goal of this thesis is twofold. The first is to present a theoretical model for describing image formation in OCT, and attempt to enhance the current level of understanding of this new modality. The second objective is to present signal processing methods for improving OCT image quality. We present deconvolution algorithms to obtain improved longitudinal resolution in OCT. This technique may be implemented without increasing system complexity as compared to current clinical OCT systems. Since the spectrum of the light backscattered from bio-scatterers is closely associated with ultrastructural variations in tissue, we propose a new technique for measuring spectra as a function of depth. This advance may assist OCT in differentiating various tissue types and detecting abnormalities within a tissue. In addition to depth resolved spectroscopy, Doppler processing of OCT signals can also improve OCT image contrast. We present a new technique, termed color Doppler OCT (CDOCT). It is an innovative extension of OCT for performing spatially localized optical Doppler velocimetry. Micron-resolution imaging of blood flow in sub-surface vessels in living tissue using CDOCT is demonstrated. The fundamental issues regarding the trade- off between the velocity estimation precision and image acquisition rate are presented. We also present novel algorithms for high accuracy velocity estimation. In many blood vessels velocities tend to be on the order of a few cm

  14. Qualification Testing of Laser Diode Pump Arrays for a Space-Based 2-micron Coherent Doppler Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amzajerdian, Farzin; Meadows, Byron L.; Baker, Nathaniel R.; Barnes, Bruce W.; Singh, Upendra N.; Kavaya, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    The 2-micron thulium and holmium-based lasers being considered as the transmitter source for space-based coherent Doppler lidar require high power laser diode pump arrays operating in a long pulse regime of about 1 msec. Operating laser diode arrays over such long pulses drastically impact their useful lifetime due to the excessive localized heating and substantial pulse-to-pulse thermal cycling of their active regions. This paper describes the long pulse performance of laser diode arrays and their critical thermal characteristics. A viable approach is then offered that allows for determining the optimum operational parameters leading to the maximum attainable lifetime.

  15. Electron pulse shaping in the FELIX RF accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weits, H. H.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Oepts, D.; van der Meer, A. F. G.

    1999-01-01

    The FELIX free-electron laser uses short pulses of relativistic electrons produced by an RF accelerator. The design target for the duration of these electron bunches was around 3 ps. In experiments we observed that the bunches emit coherently enhanced spontaneous emission (CSE) when they travel thro

  16. Electron pulse shaping in the FELIX RF accelerator

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weits, H. H.; van der Geer, C. A. J.; Oepts, D.; van der Meer, A. F. G.

    1999-01-01

    The FELIX free-electron laser uses short pulses of relativistic electrons produced by an RF accelerator. The design target for the duration of these electron bunches was around 3 ps. In experiments we observed that the bunches emit coherently enhanced spontaneous emission (CSE) when they travel

  17. Analysis of confocal microscopy under ultrashort light-pulse illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kempe, M.; Rudolph, W. (Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque (United States))

    1993-02-01

    The resolution of confocal laser scanning microscopes is analyzed if they are used in measurements that are to combine high spatial and high temporal resoltuion. A generalized Fourier-optical treatment is developed in which the system characteristics contain all necessary information regarding the optical arrangement and the illuminating light pulses. Coherent and incoherent imaging are considered in detail. 10 refs., 8 figs.

  18. Coherent open-loop optimal control of light-harvesting dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Caruso, Filippo; Calarco, Tommaso; Huelga, Susana F; Plenio, Martin B

    2011-01-01

    We apply theoretically open-loop quantum optimal control techniques to provide methods for the verification of various quantum coherent transport mechanisms in natural and artificial light-harvesting complexes under realistic experimental constraints. We demonstrate that optimally shaped laser pulses allow to faithfully prepare the photosystem in specified initial states (such as localized excitation or coherent superposition, i.e. propagating and non-propagating states) and to probe efficiently the dynamics. These results provide a path towards the discrimination of the different transport pathways and to the characterization of environmental properties, enhancing our understanding of the role that coherent processes may play in biological complexes.

  19. Nonlinear excitation kinetics of biased quantum wells. Coherent dynamical screening effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Turchinovich, Dmitry; Jepsen, Peter Uhd

    2006-01-01

    In this paper we describe a strongly nonlinear process of ultrafast photoexcitation of a biased quantum well. This process is governed by coherent dynamical screening, where the instantaneously polarized photoexcited carriers screen initial bias field. This results in a dynamic modification...... of the bandstructure of the quantum well, which is totally coherent with the temporal intensity distribution of the excitation laser pulse. We developed a time-resolved theoretical model of coherent dynamical screening, which predicts interesting fundamental consequences, such as nonlinear absorption and ultra......-broadband THz emission. The results of our THz and optical experiments are in good agreement with the theoretical model....

  20. Synthesizing time-evolving partially-coherent Schell-model sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Zandt, Noah R.; Hyde, Milo W.; Bose-Pillai, Santasri R.; Voelz, David G.; Xiao, Xifeng; Fiorino, Steven T.

    2017-03-01

    Time-evolving simulation of sources with partial spatial and temporal coherence is sometimes instructive or necessary to explain optical coherence effects. Yet, existing time-evolving synthesis techniques often require prohibitive amounts of computer memory. This paper discusses three methods for the synthesis of continuous or pulsed time-evolving sources with nearly arbitrary spatial and temporal coherence. One method greatly reduces computer memory requirements, making this type of synthesis more practical. The utility of all three methods is demonstrated via a modified form of Young's experiment. Numerical simulation and laboratory results for time-averaged irradiance are presented and compared with theory to validate the synthesis techniques.

  1. Perspective: Quantum or classical coherence?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, William H

    2012-06-07

    Some coherence effects in chemical dynamics are described correctly by classical mechanics, while others only appear in a quantum treatment--and when these are observed experimentally it is not always immediately obvious whether their origin is classical or quantum. Semiclassical theory provides a systematic way of adding quantum coherence to classical molecular dynamics and thus provides a useful way to distinguish between classical and quantum coherence. Several examples are discussed which illustrate both cases. Particularly interesting is the situation with electronically non-adiabatic processes, where sometimes whether the coherence effects are classical or quantum depends on what specific aspects of the process are observed.

  2. Coherent states on the circle

    CERN Document Server

    Chadzitaskos, G; Tolar, J

    2011-01-01

    We present a possible construction of coherent states on the unit circle as configuration space. In our approach the phase space is the product Z x S^1. Because of the duality of canonical coordinates and momenta, i.e. the angular variable and the integers, this formulation can also be interpreted as coherent states over an infinite periodic chain. For the construction we use the analogy with our quantization over a finite periodic chain where the phase space was Z_M x Z_M. Properties of the coherent states constructed in this way are studied and the coherent states are shown to satisfy the resolution of unity.

  3. Converting Coherence to Quantum Correlations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jiajun; Yadin, Benjamin; Girolami, Davide; Vedral, Vlatko; Gu, Mile

    2016-04-22

    Recent results in quantum information theory characterize quantum coherence in the context of resource theories. Here, we study the relation between quantum coherence and quantum discord, a kind of quantum correlation which appears even in nonentangled states. We prove that the creation of quantum discord with multipartite incoherent operations is bounded by the amount of quantum coherence consumed in its subsystems during the process. We show how the interplay between quantum coherence consumption and creation of quantum discord works in the preparation of multipartite quantum correlated states and in the model of deterministic quantum computation with one qubit.

  4. Coherent and Incoherent Rogue Waves in Seeded Supercontinuum Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Simon Toft; Larsen, Casper; Møller, Uffe Visbech

    2013-01-01

    into solitons and dispersive waves. To control the spectral evolution and reduce the noise, it has been proposed to provide a seed, i.e. a weak pulse with a frequency offset relative to the pump, within the MI gain spectrum in order to ensure a deterministic rather than noise-seeded pulse break-up [1...... be clearly divided into a number of distinct dynamical regimes depending on the initial four-wave mixing process and demonstrate that seeding can be used to generate coherent and incoherent rogue waves. Figure 1 shows simulation results of seeded SC generation in a fiber with a zero-dispersion wavelength......The shot-to-shot stability of a supercontiuum (SC) can be controlled both in terms of coherence and intensity stability by modulating the input pulse with a weak seed [1-3]. In the long-pulse regime, the SC generation is initiated by noise-seeded modulation instability (MI), which breaks the pump...

  5. Isolated Attosecond Pulses using a Detuned Second-harmonic Field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merdji, Hamed; /Saclay /SLAC, PULSE; Auguste, Thierry; Boutu, Willem; Caumes, J.-Pascal; Carre, Bertrand; /Saclay; Pfeifer, Thomas; Jullien, Aurelie; Neumark, Daniel M.; Leone, Stephen R.; /UC, Berkeley /LBL, Berkeley

    2007-11-07

    Calculations are presented for the generation of an isolated attosecond pulse in a multicycle two-color strong-field regime. We show that the recollision of the electron wave packet can be confined to half an optical cycle using pulses of up to 40 fs in duration. The scheme is proven to be efficient using two intense beams, one producing a strong field at {omega} and the other a strong field detuned from 2{omega}. The slight detuning {delta}{omega} of the second harmonic is used to break the symmetry of the electric field over many optical cycles and provides a coherent control for the formation of an isolated attosecond pulse.

  6. Temporal broadening of pulsed waves propagating through turbulent media

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Zhengwen(许正文); WU; Jian(吴健); HUO; Wenping(霍文平); WU; Zhensen(吴振森)

    2003-01-01

    Pulse signals, propagating through a turbulent medium such as the ionosphere, can be distorted by dispersion and scattering from both the background medium and irregularities embedded in. Thus, the mean square pulse width is changed, and temporal broadening is introduced. We carry out a study on the temporal broadening with theoretical analyses and numerical simulations by using an analytical solution of two-frequency mutual coherence function obtained recently by iteration. As a case of study, pulse broadening is investigated in detail in trans-ionospheric propagation. Results show that most contributions are mainly from the dispersion of the background ionosphere and scattering effects of electron density irregularities in most cases.

  7. THz-Pulse-Induced Selective Catalytic CO Oxidation on Ru

    Science.gov (United States)

    LaRue, Jerry L.; Katayama, Tetsuo; Lindenberg, Aaron; Fisher, Alan S.; Ã-ström, Henrik; Nilsson, Anders; Ogasawara, Hirohito

    2015-07-01

    We demonstrate the use of intense, quasi-half-cycle THz pulses, with an associated electric field component comparable to intramolecular electric fields, to direct the reaction coordinate of a chemical reaction by stimulating the nuclear motions of the reactants. Using a strong electric field from a THz pulse generated via coherent transition radiation from an ultrashort electron bunch, we present evidence that CO oxidation on Ru(0001) is selectively induced, while not promoting the thermally induced CO desorption process. The reaction is initiated by the motion of the O atoms on the surface driven by the electric field component of the THz pulse, rather than thermal heating of the surface.

  8. Coherent Polarization Control of THz Waves Generated from Asymmetrically Ionized Gases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Jianming; Zhang, X-C [Center for Terahertz Research, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, New York 12180 (United States); Karpowicz, Nicholas, E-mail: zhangxc@rpi.edu [Max-Planck Institute for Quantum Optics, Garching (Germany)

    2011-02-01

    Unlike polarization control of optical waves, lossless control over the polarization of broadband terahertz waves remained challenging. We recently found that the polarization of terahertz waves generated from gas plasma excited by femtosecond fundamental pulse ({omega}) and its second harmonic (2{omega}) could be coherently controlled by changing the relative phase between the {omega} and 2{omega} pulses. In particular, when the {omega} and 2{omega} pulses are both circularly polarized (or close to it), the photo-excited electrons exhibit different trajectories as the relative phase between the two optical pulses changes, and subsequently terahertz polarization angle can be controlled arbitrarily through the relative phase while the intensity of the emitted terahertz wave is kept constant. This new finding may enable fast terahertz wave modulation and coherent control of nonlinear responses excited by intense terahertz waves with controllable polarization.

  9. Coherent and dynamic beam splitting based on light storage in cold atoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Lee, Jong-Chan; Chough, Young-Tak; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-09-28

    We demonstrate a coherent and dynamic beam splitter based on light storage in cold atoms. An input weak laser pulse is first stored in a cold atom ensemble via electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). A set of counter-propagating control fields, applied at a later time, retrieves the stored pulse into two output spatial modes. The high visibility interference between the two output pulses clearly demonstrates that the beam splitting process is coherent. Furthermore, by manipulating the control lasers, it is possible to dynamically control the storage time, the power splitting ratio, the relative phase, and the optical frequencies of the output pulses. With further improvements, the active beam splitter demonstrated in this work might have applications in photonic photonic quantum information and in all-optical information processing.

  10. Coherent and dynamic beam splitting based on light storage in cold atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kwang-Kyoon; Zhao, Tian-Ming; Lee, Jong-Chan; Chough, Young-Tak; Kim, Yoon-Ho

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a coherent and dynamic beam splitter based on light storage in cold atoms. An input weak laser pulse is first stored in a cold atom ensemble via electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT). A set of counter-propagating control fields, applied at a later time, retrieves the stored pulse into two output spatial modes. The high visibility interference between the two output pulses clearly demonstrates that the beam splitting process is coherent. Furthermore, by manipulating the control lasers, it is possible to dynamically control the storage time, the power splitting ratio, the relative phase, and the optical frequencies of the output pulses. With further improvements, the active beam splitter demonstrated in this work might have applications in photonic photonic quantum information and in all-optical information processing. PMID:27677457

  11. Fermionic coherent states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Combescure, Monique; Robert, Didier

    2012-06-01

    The aim of this paper is to give a self-contained and unified presentation of a fermionic coherent state theory with the necessary mathematical details, discussing their definition, properties and some applications. After defining Grassmann algebras, it is possible to get a classical analog for the fermionic degrees of freedom in a quantum system. Following the basic work of Berezin (1966 The Method of Second Quantization (New York: Academic); 1987 Introduction to Superanalysis (Dordrecht: Reidel Publishing Company)), we show that we can compute with Grassmann numbers as we do with complex numbers: derivation, integration, Fourier transform. After that we show that we have quantization formulas for fermionic observables. In particular, there exists a Moyal product formula. As an application, we consider explicit computations for propagators with quadratic Hamiltonians in annihilation and creation operators. We prove a Mehler formula for the propagator and Mehlig-Wilkinson-type formulas for the covariant and contravariant symbols of ‘metaplectic’ transformations for fermionic states. This article is part of a special issue of Journal of Physics A: Mathematical and Theoretical devoted to ‘Coherent states: mathematical and physical aspects’.

  12. Coherence for weak units

    CERN Document Server

    Joyal, André

    2009-01-01

    We define weak units in a semi-monoidal 2-category $\\CC$ as cancellable pseudo-idempotents: they are pairs $(I,\\alpha)$ where $I$ is an object such that tensoring with $I$ from either side constitutes a biequivalence of $\\CC$, and $\\alpha: I \\tensor I \\to I$ is an equivalence in $\\CC$. We show that this notion of weak unit has coherence built in: Theorem A: $\\alpha$ has a canonical associator 2-cell, which automatically satisfies the pentagon equation. Theorem B: every morphism of weak units is automatically compatible with those associators. Theorem C: the 2-category of weak units is contractible if non-empty. Finally we show (Theorem E) that the notion of weak unit is equivalent to the notion obtained from the definition of tricategory: $\\alpha$ alone induces the whole family of left and right maps (indexed by the objects), as well as the whole family of Kelly 2-cells (one for each pair of objects), satisfying the relevant coherence axioms.

  13. Coherent Control of Vibrational State Population in a Nonpolar Molecule

    CERN Document Server

    Picón, A; Jaron-Becker, A; Becker, A; 10.1103/PhysRevA.83.023412

    2011-01-01

    A coherent control scheme for the population distribution in the vibrational states of nonpolar molecules is proposed. Our theoretical analysis and results of numerical simulations for the interaction of the hydrogen molecular ion in its electronic ground state with an infrared laser pulse reveal a selective two-photon transition between the vibrational states via a coupling with the first excited dissociative state. We demonstrate that for a given temporal intensity profile the population transfer between vibrational states, or a superposition of vibrational states, can be made complete for a single chirped pulse or a train of chirped pulses, which accounts for the accumulated phase difference due to the AC Stark effect. Effects of a spatial intensity (or, focal) averaging are discussed.

  14. Programmable pulse generator

    CERN Document Server

    Xue Zhi Hua; Duan Xiao Hui

    2002-01-01

    The author introduces the design of programmable pulse generator that is based on a micro-controller and controlled by RS232 interface of personal computer. The whole system has good stability. The pulse generator can produce TTL pulse and analog pulse. The pulse frequency can be selected by EPLD. The voltage amplitude and pulse width of analog pulse can be adjusted by analog switches and digitally-controlled potentiometers. The software development tools of computer is National Instruments LabView5.1. The front panel of this virtual instrumentation is intuitive and easy-to-use. Parameters can be selected and changed conveniently by knob and slide

  15. Study of laser vaporization of mercury: application to the energy enhancement of a VUV coherent source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philippet, L.; Chénais, S.; Forget, S.; Castex, M.-C.

    We developed a reliable and convenient source of coherent pulsed radiation at 125 nm obtained by resonant four-wave-mixing in a mercury vapour. Recently, we improved the yield of the source by using a pulsed laser to create an ablation plume of mercury atoms, in which the nonlinear mixing takes place with increased efficiency. We discuss here the characteristics of the plume created by mercury vaporization, in relation to the energy source enhancement.

  16. Update and Initial Results from The COHERENT Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, Matthew

    2016-03-01

    Taking advantage of technologies which have come to maturity and the availability of a world-class pulsed neutrino source, the COHERENT collaboration seeks to make the first unambiguous measurement of coherent, elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering (CEvNS). Oak Ridge National Laboratory's Spallation Neutron Source is, as a by-product of the spallation process, an intense, pulsed neutrino source. The high beam power of the SNS results in a high neutrino flux, and the energy spectrum of emitted neutrinos is well-suited for CEvNS detection: coherence is preserved in nearly all scattering events while generating nuclear recoil events above threshold for a number of established detector technologies. Additionally, the pulsed nature and short duty cycle of the SNS beam allow for powerful reduction of backgrounds not associated with the beam. The COHERENT Collaboration is deploying a suite of low threshold detectors (CsI[Na] scintillator, high-purity Ge detector array, 2-phase Xe TPC) at the SNS to detect CEvNS, in a manner that limits systematic uncertainties and observes the N2-dependence on the cross section. The current status of the efforts of the collaboration's efforts will be discussed and longer-term physics goals of the collaboration will be addressed, including searches for non-standard neutrino interactions and a measurement of the Weak mixing angle. Assessments of the backgrounds present in the detector locations will be discussed, including new measurements of neutrino-induced neutron production in candidate shielding materials. Preliminary measurements will be presented from existing deployments, as will implementation plans for upcoming detector systems.

  17. Spatial and Temporal Evolution of Ultra-Wide-Band Optical Pulses in Propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jing-Zhou; WANG Li; YANG Guo-Zhen

    2000-01-01

    The propagation of ultrashort coherent electromagnetic pulses with broad spectral bandwidth in free space is studied by using scalar diffraction theory. It is confirmed and experimentally demonstrated that the diffraction not only affects the spatial structure but also changes the temporal waveform of an ultra-wide-band pulse during propagation. The terahertz pulse travelling as basic mode of Gaussian beam is discussed in detail

  18. Robustness of a coherence vortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Cleberson R; Jesus-Silva, Alcenisio J; Fonseca, Eduardo J S

    2016-09-20

    We study, experimentally and theoretically, the behavior of a coherence vortex after its transmission through obstacles. Notably, we find that such a vortex survives and preserves its effective topological charge. Despite suffering changes on the modulus of the coherence function, these changes disappear during propagation.

  19. Dynamics of generalized coherent states

    CERN Document Server

    De Martino, S; Illuminati, F; De Martino, S; De Siena, S; Illuminati, F

    1995-01-01

    We show that generalized coherent states follow Schr\\"{o}dinger dynamics in time-dependent potentials. The normalized wave-packets follow a classical evolution without spreading; in turn, the Schr\\"{o}dinger potential depends on the state through the classical trajectory. This feedback mechanism with continuous dynamical re-adjustement allows the packets to remain coherent indefinetely.

  20. COHERENT LIGHT-RECORDING TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    On the basis of diffraction theory, quantum-mechanics and information theory, it is shown that the principle of coherent light recording is the...mechanical, magnetic or electric approaches. Photographic coherent light recording tests were made by the dynamic sweep tests on 16 mm Recordak Micro-File

  1. COHERENT-LIGHT RECORDING TECHNIQUES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The purpose of this report is to summarize, define and demonstrate techniques necessary for the application of coherent light to the problems of...Investigations into such areas as the coherent light source itself, modulation, deflection or scanning techniques, readout techniques and the evaluation of recording media are reported.

  2. Quantum coherence of steered states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xueyuan; Milne, Antony; Zhang, Boyang; Fan, Heng

    2016-01-01

    Lying at the heart of quantum mechanics, coherence has recently been studied as a key resource in quantum information theory. Quantum steering, a fundamental notion originally considered by Schödinger, has also recently received much attention. When Alice and Bob share a correlated quantum system, Alice can perform a local measurement to ‘steer’ Bob’s reduced state. We introduce the maximal steered coherence as a measure describing the extent to which steering can remotely create coherence; more precisely, we find the maximal coherence of Bob’s steered state in the eigenbasis of his original reduced state, where maximization is performed over all positive-operator valued measurements for Alice. We prove that maximal steered coherence vanishes for quantum-classical states whilst reaching a maximum for pure entangled states with full Schmidt rank. Although invariant under local unitary operations, maximal steered coherence may be increased when Bob performs a channel. For a two-qubit state we find that Bob’s channel can increase maximal steered coherence if and only if it is neither unital nor semi-classical, which coincides with the condition for increasing discord. Our results show that the power of steering for coherence generation, though related to discord, is distinct from existing measures of quantum correlation.

  3. The effects of surface roughness on lunar Askaryan pulses

    CERN Document Server

    James, C W

    2016-01-01

    The effects of lunar surface roughness, on both small and large scales, on Askaryan radio pulses generated by particle cascades beneath the lunar surface has never been fully estimated. Surface roughness affects the chances of a pulse escaping the lunar surface, its coherency, and the characteristic detection geometry. It will affect the expected signal shape, the relative utility of different frequency bands, the telescope pointing positions on the lunar disk, and most fundamentally, the chances of detecting the known UHE cosmic ray and any prospective UHE neutrino flux. Near-future radio-telescopes such as FAST and the SKA promise to be able to detect the flux of cosmic rays, and it is critical that surface roughness be treated appropriately in simulations. of the lunar Askaryan technique. In this contribution, a facet model for lunar surface roughness is combined with a method to propagate coherent radio pulses through boundaries to estimate the full effects of lunar surface roughness on neutrino-detection...

  4. Composite pulses for interferometry in a thermal cold atom cloud

    CERN Document Server

    Dunning, Alexander; Bateman, James; Cooper, Nathan; Himsworth, Matthew; Jones, Jonathan A; Freegarde, Tim

    2014-01-01

    Atom interferometric sensors and quantum information processors must maintain coherence while the evolving quantum wavefunction is split, transformed and recombined, but suffer from experimental inhomogeneities and uncertainties in the speeds and paths of these operations. Several error-correction techniques have been proposed to isolate the variable of interest. Here we apply composite pulse methods to velocity-sensitive Raman state manipulation in a freely-expanding thermal atom cloud. We compare several established pulse sequences, and follow the state evolution within them. The agreement between measurements and simple predictions shows the underlying coherence of the atom ensemble, and the inversion infidelity in an 80 micro-Kelvin atom cloud is halved. Composite pulse techniques, especially if tailored for atom interferometric applications, should allow greater interferometer areas, larger atomic samples and longer interaction times, and hence improve the sensitivity of quantum technologies from inertia...

  5. Coherence and correspondence in medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas G. Tape

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Many controversies in medical science can be framed as tension between a coherence approach (which seeks logic and explanation and a correspondence approach (which emphasizes empirical correctness. In many instances, a coherence-based theory leads to an understanding of disease that is not supported by empirical evidence. Physicians and patients alike tend to favor the coherence approach even in the face of strong, contradictory correspondence evidence. Examples include the management of atrial fibrillation, treatment of acute bronchitis, and the use of Vitamin E to prevent heart disease. Despite the frequent occurrence of controversy stemming from coherence-correspondence conflicts, medical professionals are generally unaware of these terms and the philosophical traditions that underlie them. Learning about the coherence-correspondence distinction and using the best of both approaches could not only help reconcile controversy but also lead to striking advances in medical science.

  6. Ramsey-comb spectroscopy with intense ultrashort laser pulses

    CERN Document Server

    Morgenweg, Jonas; Eikema, Kjeld S E

    2014-01-01

    Optical frequency combs based on mode-locked lasers have revolutionised the field of metrology and precision spectroscopy by providing precisely calibrated optical frequencies and coherent pulse trains. Amplification of the pulsed output from these lasers is very desirable, as nonlinear processes can then be employed to cover a much wider range of transitions and wavelengths for ultra-high precision, direct frequency comb spectroscopy. Therefore full repetition rate laser amplifiers and enhancement resonators have been employed to produce up to microjoule-level pulse energies. Here we show that the full frequency comb accuracy and resolution can be obtained by using only two frequency comb pulses amplified to the millijoule pulse energy level, orders of magnitude more energetic than what has previously been possible. The novel properties of this approach, such as cancellation of optical light-shift effects, is demonstrated on weak two-photon transitions in atomic rubidium and caesium, thereby improving the fr...

  7. Femtosecond-laser-pulse characterization and optimization for CARS microscopy

    CERN Document Server

    Piazza, Vincenzo; Farrokhtakin, Elmira; Ciofani, Gianni; Mattoli, Virgilio

    2016-01-01

    We present a simple method and its experimental implementation to completely determine the characteristics of the pump-and-probe pulse and the Stokes pulse in a coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering microscope at sample level without additional autocorrelators. Our approach exploits the delay line, ubiquitous in such microscopes, to perform a convolution of the pump-and-probe and Stokes pulses as a function of their relative delay and it is based on the detection of the photons emitted from an appropriate non-linear sample. The analysis of the non-resonant four-wave-mixing and sum-frequency-generation signals allows retrieving the pulse duration on the sample and the chirp of each pulse. This knowledge is crucial in maximizing the spectral-resolution and contrast in CARS imaging.

  8. The Puzzle of Coherence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Bendix; Frederiksen, Kirsten; Beedholm, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Background During the past decade, politicians and healthcare providers have strived to create a coherent healthcare system across primary and secondary healthcare sectors in Denmark. Nevertheless, elderly patients with chronic diseases (EPCD) continue to report experiences of poor-quality care...... to an acute care ward to discharge and later in meetings with healthcare providers in general practice, outpatient clinics, home care and physiotherapy. Furthermore, field observations were conducted in general practice, home care and rehabilitation settings. Research design An explorative design based...... on an interactionistic approach was used. As a consequence, the focus of data collection is the production of meaning happening between human beings in social interaction in the field of cross-sectorial collaboration. Research questions The research questions reflect the interactionistic approach as they concentrate...

  9. Optical coherence in astrophysics

    CERN Document Server

    Moret-Bailly, Jacques

    2013-01-01

    Many physicists and most astrophysicists assume that the photon is a small particle which, in a very low pressure gas can only interact with a single molecule. Thus, the interaction of light with this gas is incoherent. W. E.Lamb Jr, W. P. Schleich, M. O. Scully and C. H. Townes (Reviews of Modern Physics 71, S263, 1999) have criticized this view: In accordance with quantum electrodynamics the photon is a pseudo-particle resulting from the quantization of a deterministic exchange of energy between identical molecules and a normal mode of electromagnetic field. Following Lamb et al., we study models in which some variables have an unusual value for a spectroscopist: extremely low pressure hydrogen, but huge light paths, extremely hot sources. However, the magnitudes of the spectral radiances and column densities can be similar in astrophysics and in a laboratory using lasers. Thus, several coherent effects must be taken into account: superradiance, multiphoton interactions, impulsive stimulated Raman scatterin...

  10. Coherent Scatter Imaging Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ur Rehman, Mahboob

    In conventional radiography, anatomical information of the patients can be obtained, distinguishing different tissue types, e.g. bone and soft tissue. However, it is difficult to obtain appreciable contrast between two different types of soft tissues. Instead, coherent x-ray scattering can be utilized to obtain images which can differentiate between normal and cancerous cells of breast. An x-ray system using a conventional source and simple slot apertures was tested. Materials with scatter signatures that mimic breast cancer were buried in layers of fat of increasing thickness and imaged. The result showed that the contrast and signal to noise ratio (SNR) remained high even with added fat layers and short scan times.

  11. Coherent imaging without phases

    CERN Document Server

    Moscoso, Miguel; Papanicolaou, George

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we consider narrow band, active array imaging of weak localized scatterers when only the intensities are recorded at an array with N transducers. We consider that the medium is homogeneous and, hence, wave propagation is fully coherent. This work is an extension of our previous paper, where we showed that using linear combinations of intensity-only measurements imaging of localized scatterers can be carried out efficiently using MUSIC or sparsity promoting optimization. Here we show the same strategy can be accomplished with only 3N-2 illuminations, therefore reducing enormously the data acquisition process. Furthermore, we show that in the paraxial regime one can form the images by using six illuminations only. In particular, this paraxial regime includes Fresnel and Fraunhofer diffraction. The key point of this work is that if one controls the illuminations, imaging with intensity-only can be easily reduced to a imaging with phases and, therefore, one can apply standard imaging techniques. Det...

  12. Quantum information and coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Öhberg, Patrik

    2014-01-01

    This book offers an introduction to ten key topics in quantum information science and quantum coherent phenomena, aimed at graduate-student level. The chapters cover some of the most recent developments in this dynamic research field where theoretical and experimental physics, combined with computer science, provide a fascinating arena for groundbreaking new concepts in information processing. The book addresses both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the subject, and clearly demonstrates how progress in experimental techniques has stimulated a great deal of theoretical effort and vice versa. Experiments are shifting from simply preparing and measuring quantum states to controlling and manipulating them, and the book outlines how the first real applications, notably quantum key distribution for secure communication, are starting to emerge. The chapters cover quantum retrodiction, ultracold quantum gases in optical lattices, optomechanics, quantum algorithms, quantum key distribution, quantum cont...

  13. Optical Coherence Tomography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Mette; Themstrup, Lotte; Banzhaf, Christina

    2014-01-01

    as the optical analogue to ultrasound. The inherent safety of the technology allows for in vivo use of OCT in patients. The main strength of OCT is the depth resolution. In dermatology, most OCT research has turned on non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) and non-invasive monitoring of morphological changes......Optical coherence tomography (OCT) has developed rapidly since its first realisation in medicine and is currently an emerging technology in the diagnosis of skin disease. OCT is an interferometric technique that detects reflected and backscattered light from tissue and is often described...... in a number of skin diseases based on pattern recognition, and studies have found good agreement between OCT images and histopathological architecture. OCT has shown high accuracy in distinguishing lesions from normal skin, which is of great importance in identifying tumour borders or residual neoplastic...

  14. Ultrafast X-Ray Coherent Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reis, David

    2009-05-01

    This main purpose of this grant was to develop the nascent eld of ultrafast x-ray science using accelerator-based sources, and originally developed from an idea that a laser could modulate the di racting properties of a x-ray di racting crystal on a fast enough time scale to switch out in time a shorter slice from the already short x-ray pulses from a synchrotron. The research was carried out primarily at the Advanced Photon Source (APS) sector 7 at Argonne National Laboratory and the Sub-Picosecond Pulse Source (SPPS) at SLAC; in anticipation of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) x-ray free electron laser that became operational in 2009 at SLAC (all National User Facilities operated by BES). The research centered on the generation, control and measurement of atomic-scale dynamics in atomic, molecular optical and condensed matter systems with temporal and spatial resolution . It helped develop the ultrafast physics, techniques and scienti c case for using the unprecedented characteristics of the LCLS. The project has been very successful with results have been disseminated widely and in top journals, have been well cited in the eld, and have laid the foundation for many experiments being performed on the LCLS, the world's rst hard x-ray free electron laser.

  15. Nanoplasmonic generation of ultrashort EUV pulses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Joonhee; Lee, Dong-Hyub; Han, Seunghwoi; Park, In-Yong; Kim, Seungchul; Kim, Seung-Woo

    2012-10-01

    Ultrashort extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) light pulses are an important tool for time-resolved pump-probe spectroscopy to investigate the ultrafast dynamics of electrons in atoms and molecules. Among several methods available to generate ultrashort EUV light pulses, the nonlinear frequency upconversion process of high-harmonic generation (HHG) draws attention as it is capable of producing coherent EUV pulses with precise control of burst timing with respect to the driving near-infrared (NIR) femtosecond laser. In this report, we present and discuss our recent experimental data obtained by the plasmon-driven HHG method that generate EUV radiation by means of plasmonic nano-focusing of NIR femtosecond pulses. For experiment, metallic waveguides having a tapered hole of funnel shape inside were fabricated by adopting the focused-ion-beam process on a micro-cantilever substrate. The plasmonic field formed within the funnelwaveguides being coupled with the incident femtosecond pulse permitted intensity enhancement by a factor of ~350, which creates a hot spot of sub-wavelength size with intensities strong enough for HHG. Experimental results showed that with injection of noble gases into the funnel-waveguides, EUV radiation is generated up to wavelengths of 32 nm and 29.6 nm from Ar and Ne gas atoms, respectively. Further, it was observed that lower-order EUV harmonics are cut off in the HHG spectra by the tiny exit aperture of the funnel-waveguide.

  16. Editorial: Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Ian; Gruebel, Gerhard; Mochrie, Simon

    2010-03-01

    This editorial serves as the preface to a special issue of New Journal of Physics, which collects together solicited papers on a common subject, x-ray beams with high coherence. We summarize the issue's content, and explain why there is so much current interest both in the sources themselves and in the applications to the study of the structure of matter and its fluctuations (both spontaneous and driven). As this collection demonstrates, the field brings together accelerator physics in the design of new sources, particle physics in the design of detectors, and chemical and materials scientists who make use of the coherent beams produced. Focus on X-ray Beams with High Coherence Contents Femtosecond pulse x-ray imaging with a large field of view B Pfau, C M Günther, S Schaffert, R Mitzner, B Siemer, S Roling, H Zacharias, O Kutz, I Rudolph, R Treusch and S Eisebitt The FERMI@Elettra free-electron-laser source for coherent x-ray physics: photon properties, beam transport system and applications E Allaria, C Callegari, D Cocco, W M Fawley, M Kiskinova, C Masciovecchio and F Parmigiani Beyond simple exponential correlation functions and equilibrium dynamics in x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy Anders Madsen, Robert L Leheny, Hongyu Guo, Michael Sprung and Orsolya Czakkel The Coherent X-ray Imaging (CXI) instrument at the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) Sébastien Boutet and Garth J Williams Dynamics and rheology under continuous shear flow studied by x-ray photon correlation spectroscopy Andrei Fluerasu, Pawel Kwasniewski, Chiara Caronna, Fanny Destremaut, Jean-Baptiste Salmon and Anders Madsen Exploration of crystal strains using coherent x-ray diffraction Wonsuk Cha, Sanghoon Song, Nak Cheon Jeong, Ross Harder, Kyung Byung Yoon, Ian K Robinson and Hyunjung Kim Coherence properties of the European XFEL G Geloni, E Saldin, L Samoylova, E Schneidmiller, H Sinn, Th Tschentscher and M Yurkov Fresnel coherent diffractive imaging: treatment and analysis of data G J

  17. Nonlinear optics with coherent free electron lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bencivenga, F.; Capotondi, F.; Mincigrucci, R.; Cucini, R.; Manfredda, M.; Pedersoli, E.; Principi, E.; Simoncig, A.; Masciovecchio, C.

    2016-12-01

    We interpreted the recent construction of free electron laser (FELs) facilities worldwide as an unprecedented opportunity to bring concepts and methods from the scientific community working with optical lasers into the domain of x-ray science. This motivated our efforts towards the realization of FEL-based wave-mixing applications. In this article we present new extreme ultraviolet transient grating (X-TG) data from vitreous SiO2, collected using two crossed FEL pulses (photon frequency 38 eV) to generate the X-TG and a phase matched optical probing pulse (photon frequency 3.1 eV). This experiment extends our previous investigation, which was carried out on a nominally identical sample using a different FEL photon frequency (45 eV) to excite the X-TG. The present data are featured by a peak intensity of the X-TG signal substantially larger than that previously reported and by slower modulations of the X-TG signal at positive delays. These differences could be ascribed to the different FEL photon energy used in the two experiments or to differences in the sample properties. A systematic X-TG study on the same sample as a function of the FEL wavelength is needed to draw a consistent conclusion. We also discuss how the advances in the performance of the FELs, in terms of generation of fully coherent photon pulses and multi-color FEL emission, may push the development of original experimental strategies to study matter at the femtosecond-nanometer time-length scales, with the unique option of element and chemical state specificity. This would allow the development of advanced experimental tools based on wave-mixing processes, which may have a tremendous impact in the study of a large array of phenomena, ranging from nano-dynamics in complex materials to charge and energy transfer processes.

  18. Coherence Properties of the LCLS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocko, Samuel

    2010-08-25

    The LINAC Coherent Light Source (LCLS), an X-Ray free-electron laser(FEL) based on the self amplified spontaneous emission principle, has recently come on-line. For many users it is desirable to have an idea of the level of transverse coherence of the X-Ray beam produced. In this paper, we analyze the output of GENESIS simulations of electrons traveling through the FEL. We first test the validity of an approach that ignores the details of how the beam was produced, and instead, by assuming a Gaussian-Schell model of transverse coherence, predicts the level of transverse coherence simply through looking at the beam radius at several longitudinal slices. We then develop a Markov chain Monte Carlo approach to calculating the degree of transverse coherence, which offers a {approx}100-fold speedup compared to the brute-force algorithm previously in use. We find the beam highly coherent. Using a similar Markov chain Monte Carlo approach, we estimate the reasonability of assuming the beam to have a Gaussian-Schell model of transverse coherence, with inconclusive results.

  19. Performance of a beam-multiplexing diamond crystal monochromator at the Linac Coherent Light Source

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Diling; Feng, Yiping; Stoupin, Stanislav

    2014-01-01

    A double-crystal diamond monochromator was recently implemented at the Linac Coherent Light Source. It enables splitting pulses generated by the free electron laser in the hard x-ray regime and thus allows the simultaneous operations of two instruments. Both monochromator crystals are High-Pressu...

  20. Coherence and anticoherence resonance in high-concentration erbium-doped fiber laser

    OpenAIRE

    Sergeyev, Sergey; O'Mahoney, Kieran; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T.

    2010-01-01

    We report an experimental study of low-frequency (~10 kHz) self-pulsing of the output intensity in a high- concentration erbium-doped fiber laser. We suggest that the fast intensity fluctuations caused by multimode and polarization instabilities play the role of an external noise source, leading to low-frequency auto-oscillations through a coherence resonance scenario.