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Sample records for monosodium urate monohydrate

  1. Inhibition of Monosodium Urate Monohydrate-mediated Hemolysis by Vitamin E

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiong XIE; Shude LI; Weiyang FENG; Yongzhi LI; Yuanliang WU; Wei HU; Youguang HUANG

    2007-01-01

    Microcrystals of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) induce cytolysis and hemolysis in erythrocytes. In this report, we studied the effect of vitamin E on MSUM-mediated hemolysis in human erythrocytes. Vitamin E significantly inhibited hemolysis induced by MSUM. The hydroxyl group in the chromanol ring of vitamin E is dispensable for protecting erythrocytes against hemolysis induced by MSUM,indicating that the inhibitory effect of vitamin E is not due to its antioxidant properties. However, both the chromanol ring and the isoprenoid side chain are important for vitamin E to suppress MSUM-induced hemolysis.Our current study suggests that vitamin E inhibits hemolysis induced by MSUM as a membrane stabilizer.

  2. Engagement of fatty acids with Toll-like receptor 2 drives interleukin-1beta production via the ASC/caspase 1 pathway in monosodium urate monohydrate crystal-induced gouty arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.; Mylona, E.; Koenders, M.I.; Malireddi, R.K.; Oosting, M.; Stienstra, R.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J.; Kanneganti, T.D.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The concept that intraarticular crystals of uric acid by themselves trigger episodes of painful gouty arthritis is inconsistent with the clinical reality. Patients with large deposits of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals (tophi) do not necessarily experience gouty attacks. In fa

  3. Crystals of monosodium urate monohydrate enhance lipopolysaccharide-induced release of interleukin 1 beta by mononuclear cells through a caspase 1-mediated process.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Giamarellos, E.J.; Mouktaroudi, M.; Bodar, E.J.; Ven, J. van de; Kullberg, B.J.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Recent studies suggest that crystals of monosodium urate (MSU), deposited in joints of patients with acute gouty arthritis, activate the NACHT domain, leucine-rich repeat and pyrin domain-containing protein (NALP)3 inflammasome. In the present study we have investigated whether production

  4. The dissolution of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals: formulation of a biocompatible buffer solution with potential use in the treatment of gouty arthropathies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Tamasi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The dissolving abilities (DAs of several aqueous media for microcrystalline monosodium\turate\tmonohydrate\t(MSU, NaC5N4O3H3·H2O have been investigated using UV spectrophotometry for quantitative analytical determinations and X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy and polarized light optical microscopy to assess structural aspects. High DAs were found for a buffer labeled TMT which contains tris(hydroxymethylaminomethane (TRIS, tris(hydroxymethylaminomethane\thydrochloride (TRIS·HCl, D-mannitol (MAN and taurine (TAU and gave DA30=1298(5 mg/L for synthetic MSU after 30 min incubation at 37°C and pH 7.4, most of the dissolution taking place within the first 5-10 min. Semiempirical molecular modelling techniques (ZINDO/1 show a favorable energy balance for the formation of a TRIS-urate-TRIS adduct which might explain the high DA values. Buffers containing linear or dendrimeric polyamines gave DA values which suggest that complex formation toward sodium cations is less important. An ex vivo MSU sample was found to have a significantly lower DA value (DA30=1124(5 mg/L in TMT as well as a lower crystallinity than its synthetic counterpart, possibly related to the presence of a non-crystalline impurity such as endogenous proteins. Cytotoxicity tests based on the MTT assay were used to check the biocompatibility of the TMT buffer and showed only moderate cell mortality after 24 h contact with the buffer solution.

  5. Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Johan Petur; Birger Morillon, Melanie; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa......Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa...

  6. Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Johan Petur; Birger Morillon, Melanie; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa......Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa...

  7. Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Johan Petur; Birger Morillon, Melanie; Lambrechtsen, Jess;

    2014-01-01

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa......Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa...

  8. Attenuation of gouty arthritis by emodinol in monosodium urate crystal-treated mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lvyi; Lan, Zhou; Ma, Shuwei; Zhao, Ling; Yang, Xinzhou

    2013-05-01

    A series of studies have recently demonstrated that the release of interleukin 1β induced by monosodium urate crystals is central to the experimental gouty arthritis. Elaeagnus pungens has been traditionally used for the treatment of gouty arthritis in China for more than thousands years. However, there is still little known about the active ingredients and mechanisms of E. pungens against gouty arthritis. Emodinol, as a major triterpene compound in E. pungens, has been seldom reported to have an effect on gouty arthritis. Therefore, the potential beneficial effects and mechanisms of emodinol on gouty arthritis were investigated in this study. Results showed that it significantly ameliorated the hyperalgesia, inflammation, and levels of multiple proinflammatory cytokines in monosodium urate crystals-treated mice. These findings elucidate that emodinol exhibits a prominent effect on improving symptoms of acute gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate crystals through inhibiting the generation of proinflammatory cytokines.

  9. Therapeutic effects of sesame oil on monosodium urate crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Dur-Zong; Chen, Si-Jin; Chu, Pei-Yi; Liu, Ming-Yie

    2013-01-01

    Sesame oil has been used in traditional Taiwanese medicine to relieve the inflammatory pain in people with joint inflammation, toothache, scrapes, and cuts. However, scientific evidence related to the effectiveness or action mechanism of sesame oil on relief of pain and inflammation has not been examined experimentally. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of sesame oil on monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats. Air pouch, a pseudosynovial cavity, was established by injecting 24 mL of filtered sterile air subcutaneously in the backs of the rats. At day 0, inflammation in air pouch was induced by injecting MSU crystal (5 mg/rat, suspended in sterilized phosphate buffered saline, pH 7.4), while sesame oil (0, 1, 2, or 4 mL/kg, orally) was given 6 h after MSU crystal injection. Parameters in lavage and skin tissue from the air pouches were assessed 6 h after sesame oil was given. Sesame oil decreased MSU crystal-induced total cell counts, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6 levels in lavage and pouch tissue. Sesame oil significantly decreased leukocyte and neutrophil counts in lavage compared with MSU crystal alone group. Sesame oil decreased activated mast cell counts in skin tissue in MSU crystal-treated rats. Sesame oil significantly decreased nuclear factor (NF)-κB activity and IL-4 level in isolated mast cells from rats treated with MSU crystal. Furthermore, sesame oil decreased lavage complement proteins C3a and C5a levels in MSU crystal-treated rats. In conclusion, sesame oil shows a potent therapeutic effect against MSU crystal-induced acute inflammatory response in rats.

  10. Ultrasonography shows disappearance of monosodium urate crystal deposition on hyaline cartilage after sustained normouricemia is achieved.

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    Thiele, Ralf G; Schlesinger, Naomi

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed at determining whether lowering serum urate (SU) to less than 6 mg/dl in patients with gout affects ultrasonographic findings. Seven joints in five patients with monosodium urate (MSU) crystal proven gout and hyperuricemia were examined over time with serial ultrasonography. Four of the five patients were treated with urate lowering drugs (ULDs) (allopurinol, n = 3; probenecid, n = 1). One patient was treated with colchicine alone. Attention was given to changes in a hyperechoic, irregular coating of the hyaline cartilage in the examined joints (double contour sign or "urate icing"). This coating was considered to represent precipitate of MSU crystals. Index joints included metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints (n = 2), knee joints (n = 3), and first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints (n = 2). The interval between baseline and follow-up images ranged from 7 to 18 months. Serial SU levels were obtained during the follow-up period. During the follow-up period, three patients treated with ULD (allopurinol, n = 2; probenecid, n = 1) achieved a SU level of or =7 mg/dl. In one patient treated with allopurinol, SU levels improved from 13 to 7 mg/dl during the follow-up period. Decrease, but not resolution of the hyperechoic coating was seen in this patient. In the patient treated with colchicine alone, SU levels remained >8 mg/dl, and no sonographic change was observed. In our patients, sonographic signs of deposition of MSU crystals on the surface of hyaline cartilage disappeared completely if sustained normouricemia was achieved. This is the first report showing that characteristic sonographic changes are influenced by ULDs once SU levels remain < or =6 mg/dl for 7 months or more. Sonographic changes of gout correlate with SU levels and may be a non-invasive means to track changes in the uric acid pool. Larger prospective studies are needed to further assess these potentially important findings.

  11. Protein adsorption to monosodium urate crystals: differential responses of human peripheral blood neutrophils. [Etiology of acute gouty arthritis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skosey, J.L.; Kozin, F.; Ginsberg, M.

    1976-01-01

    In order for acute gouty arthritis to occur, neutrophils must interact with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. As a result of this interaction, enzymes, chemotactic factors, and other mediators of the inflammatory response are released from neutrophil lysosomes. It was observed that MSU crystals adsorb gamma globulin, albumin, and other proteins found in serum and joint fluid. Results are reported from a study designed to demonstrate the effects of coating of MSU crystals with proteins on the phlogistic responses of neutrophils to crystals.

  12. Trikatu, a herbal compound that suppresses monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in rats, an experimental model for acute gouty arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murunikkara, Vachana; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2014-01-01

    Gout is an inflammatory joint disorder characterized by hyperuricaemia and precipitation of monosodium urate crystals in the joints. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the anti-inflammatory effect of trikatu, a herbal compound in monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in rats, an experimental model for acute gouty arthritis. Paw volume and levels/activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and histopathological examination of ankle joints were determined in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced rats. In addition, analgesic (acetic acid-induced writhing response), anti-pyretic (yeast-induced pyrexia) and gastric ulceration effects were tested. The levels of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation and paw volume were significantly increased, and anti-oxidant status was found to be reduced in monosodium urate crystal-induced rats, whereas the biochemical changes were reverted to near normal levels upon trikatu (1000 mg/kg b.wt) administration. The trikatu has also been found to exhibit significant analgesic and anti-pyretic effects with the absence of gastric damage. In conclusion, the present results clearly indicated that trikatu exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in rats in association with analgesic and anti-pyretic effects in the absence of gastrointestinal damage.

  13. Bonding the foe – NETting neutrophils immobilize the pro-inflammatory monosodium urate crystals

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    Christine eSchorn

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In the presence of sodium, uric acid from purine metabolism precipitates as monosodium urate (MSU needles and forms renal calculi or causes gouty arthritis in kidneys and joints, respectively. The latter is characterized by red, hot and swollen arthritic joints.Here we report the in vitro effect of MSU crystals on blood granulocytes and analyse their contribution to granuloma formation and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs formation (NETosis in synovial fluid of patients with gouty arthritis in vivo. We observed that MSU crystals induce NETosis in vitro in a reactive oxygen species (ROS-dependent manner. Indeed, blocking ROS (e.g. the oxidative burst by various antioxidants partially inhibited NETosis induced by MSU crystals. Analyses of synovial fluids and of tissue sections of patients suffering from gout revealed that NETs are also formed in vivo, especially during acute gouty flares and/or granuloma formation. Since prolonged exposure to NETs carries the risk for the development of chronic inflammation we also studied the opsonisation of NETs, as a prerequisite for their clearance. The established dead cells’ opsonins C3b, galectin-9 and CRP decorated the residual dead cells` corpses and opsonized these for disposal. Surprisingly, all three soluble pattern recognizing molecules spared the spread NET structures. We conclude that (I MSU crystals are strong inducers of ROS-dependent NETosis and (II that the prolonged presence of NET-pathogen or NET-crystal aggregates observed in patients with systemic autoimmunity, especially in those with low serum DNase-1 activity, cannot be compensated by CRP, complement and galectin mediated phagocytic clearance.

  14. Intra-articular basic calcium phosphate and monosodium urate crystals inhibit anti-osteoclastogenic cytokine signalling.

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    Cunningham, C C; Corr, E M; McCarthy, G M; Dunne, A

    2016-12-01

    Basic calcium phosphate (BCP) and monosodium urate (MSU) crystals are particulates with potent pro-inflammatory effects, associated with osteoarthritis (OA) and gout, respectively. Bone erosion, due to increased osteoclastogenesis, is a hallmark of both arthropathies and results in severe joint destruction. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of these endogenous particulates on anti-osteoclastogenic cytokine signalling. Human osteoclast precursors (OcP) were treated with BCP and MSU crystals prior to stimulation with Interleukin (IL-6) or Interferon (IFN-γ) and the effect on Signal Transducer and Activator of Transcription (STAT)-3 and STAT-1 activation in addition to Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) activation was examined by immunoblotting. Crystal-induced suppressor of cytokine signalling (SOCS) protein and SH-2 containing tyrosine phosphatase (SHP) expression was assessed by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in the presence and absence of MAPK inhibitors. Pre-treatment with BCP or MSU crystals for 1 h inhibited IL-6-induced STAT-3 activation in human OcP, while pre-treatment for 3 h inhibited IFN-γ-induced STAT-1 activation. Both crystals activated p38 and extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) MAPKs with BCP crystals also activating c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK). Inhibition of p38 counteracted the inhibitory effect of BCP and MSU crystals and restored STAT-3 phosphorylation. In contrast, STAT-1 phosphorylation was not restored by MAPK inhibition. Finally, both crystals potently induced the expression of SOCS-3 in a MAPK dependent manner, while BCP crystals also induced expression of SHP-1 and SHP-2. This study provides further insight into the pathogenic effects of endogenous particulates in joint arthropathies and demonstrates how they may contribute to bone erosion via the inhibition of anti-osteoclastogenic cytokine signalling. Potential targets to overcome these effects include p38 MAPK, SOCS-3 and SHP phosphatases

  15. Effects of Berberine on NLRP3 and IL-1β Expressions in Monocytic THP-1 Cells with Monosodium Urate Crystals-Induced Inflammation

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    Wen, Cai-Yu-Zhu; Chen, Zhe; Wang, Yu; Huang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Background. Urate crystals-induced inflammation is a critical factor during the initiation of gouty arthritis. Berberine is well known for its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the underlying effects of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation remain obscure. Objectives. This study is set to explore the protective effect and mechanism of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Methods. The mRNA levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were measured by Real-Time PCR, and the protein levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were determined by ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Results. The NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions were significantly increased in model group compared to that in normal group (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, there was significant reduction in the expressions of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA in groups 6.25 μM berberine and 25 μM berberine when compared with model group (P < 0.05). Conclusions. Therefore, berberine alleviates monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation by downregulating NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions. The regulatory effects of berberine may be related to the inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome. PMID:27689075

  16. Effects of Berberine on NLRP3 and IL-1β Expressions in Monocytic THP-1 Cells with Monosodium Urate Crystals-Induced Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fei Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Urate crystals-induced inflammation is a critical factor during the initiation of gouty arthritis. Berberine is well known for its anti-inflammatory activity. However, the underlying effects of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation remain obscure. Objectives. This study is set to explore the protective effect and mechanism of berberine on monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation in human monocytic THP-1 cells. Methods. The mRNA levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were measured by Real-Time PCR, and the protein levels of NLRP3 and IL-1β were determined by ELISA, Western blot, and immunofluorescence. Results. The NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions were significantly increased in model group compared to that in normal group (P<0.05. Meanwhile, there was significant reduction in the expressions of NLRP3 and IL-1β mRNA in groups 6.25 μM berberine and 25 μM berberine when compared with model group (P<0.05. Conclusions. Therefore, berberine alleviates monosodium urate crystals-induced inflammation by downregulating NLRP3 and IL-1β expressions. The regulatory effects of berberine may be related to the inactivation of NLRP3 inflammasome.

  17. Dual-Energy Computed Tomography of the Knee, Ankle, and Foot: Noninvasive Diagnosis of Gout and Quantification of Monosodium Urate in Tendons and Ligaments.

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    Fritz, Jan; Henes, Joerg C; Fuld, Matthew K; Fishman, Elliot K; Horger, Marius S

    2016-02-01

    Gout is a true crystal deposition arthropathy caused by the precipitation of monosodium urate into joints and periarticular soft tissues. It is the most common inflammatory arthropathy in men and women of older age with a male-to-female ratio of 3 to 8:1. The disease may progress from asymptomatic hyperuricemia through symptomatic acute gout attacks with asymptomatic periods into chronic symptomatic tophaceous gout. Although invasive arthrocentesis and demonstration of monosodium urate crystals on polarized light microscopy is definitive for the diagnosis of gout, dual-energy computed tomography (CT) allows for noninvasive visualization and reproducible volume quantification of monosodium urate crystals. Based on the high diagnostic performance, dual-energy CT has been included in the 2015 American College of Rheumatology/European League Against Rheumatism Collaborative Initiative Classification Criteria for Gout. Increasing evidence indicates the usefulness of dual-energy CT to guide the management of patients with suspected gout and monitor the effectiveness of urate-lowering medical therapy.

  18. Oxidative stress by monosodium urate crystals promotes renal cell apoptosis through mitochondrial caspase-dependent pathway in human embryonic kidney 293 cells: mechanism for urate-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Ki-Yeun; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of oxidative stress on monosodium urate (MSU)-mediated apoptosis of renal cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting for Bcl-2, caspase-9, caspase-3, iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF-6), and mitogen-activated protein kinases were performed on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, which were stimulated by MSU crystals. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was performed using annexin V for assessment of apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. IL-1β siRNA was used for blocking IL-1β expression. MSU crystals promoted ROS, iNOS, and COX-2 expression and also increased TRAF-6 and IL-1β expression in HEK293 cells, which was inhibited by an antioxidant ascorbic acid. Caspase-dependent renal cell apoptosis was induced through attenuation of Bcl-2 and enhanced caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression by MSU crystals, which was significantly reversed by ascorbic acid and transfection of IL-1β siRNA to HEK293 cells. Ascorbic acid inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Jun N-terminal protein kinase stimulated by MSU crystals. ROS accumulation and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression by MSU crystals was also suppressed by transfection with IL-1β siRNA. Oxidative stress generated by MSU crystals promotes renal apoptosis through the mitochondrial caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway.

  19. Effects of RuPeng15 Powder (RPP15 on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats

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    Y.-Y. Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RuPeng15 Powder (RPP15 is a herbal multicompound remedy that originates from traditional Tibetan medicine and possesses antigout, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperuricemic properties based on the traditional conceptions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PRP15 in rat gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate (MSU crystals. In the present study, we found that treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg in rats with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystals significantly attenuated the knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and the elevated expressions of nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65 in synovial tissues were significantly inhibited, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA result showed that MSU-induced high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, and interleukin-8 (IL-8 in synovial fluid were reduced by treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg. We conclude that RPP15 may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and its activity of antigout may be partially related to inhibiting TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and NF-κB p65 expression in the synovial tissues.

  20. Monosodium Urate in the Presence of RANKL Promotes Osteoclast Formation through Activation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase

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    Jung-Yoon Choe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the role of monosodium urate (MSU crystals in receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand- (RANKL- RANK-induced osteoclast formation. RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were incubated with MSU crystals or RANKL and differentiated into osteoclast-like cells as confirmed by staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP and actin ring, pit formation assay, and TRAP activity assay. MSU crystals in the presence of RANKL augmented osteoclast differentiation, with enhanced mRNA expression of NFATc1, cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, in comparison to RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated in the presence of RANKL alone. Treatment with both MSU crystals and RANKL induced osteoclast differentiation by activating downstream molecules in the RANKL-RANK pathway including tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6, JNK, c-Jun, and NFATc1. IL-1b produced in response to treatment with both MSU and RANKL is involved in osteoclast differentiation in part through the induction of TRAF-6 downstream of the IL-1b pathway. This study revealed that MSU crystals contribute to enhanced osteoclast formation through activation of RANKL-mediated pathways and recruitment of IL-1b. These findings suggest that MSU crystals might be a pathologic causative agent of bone destruction in gout.

  1. Diff-Quik® staining method for detection and identification of monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in synovial fluids

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    M. Hammoud

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate whether DQ could prove useful to identify monosodium urate (MSU and calcium pyrophosphate dehydrate (CPPD crystals on permanent mounted stained slides. To this end, we studied 27 synovial fluid (SF samples obtained from the knees of patients with the pseudogout (n=21 and acute gouty arthritis (n=6. Wet analysis for crystal detection and identification was performed within one hour of joint aspiration. In addition, we studied 16 inflammatory synovial effusions obtained from patients with knee arthritis not induced by crystals. For each SF, DQ stained slides were analyzed by 2 experienced doctors in SF analysis. The observers were blinded to the type of crystal present in the SF. Each slide was analyzed by compensated polarized and transmitted light microscopy. SF was considered positive if intracellular and/or extracellular crystals were clearly identified. In addition, the observers were asked to identify the type of the crystals using compensated polarized light microscopy. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value (PPV, and negative predictive value (NPV of the DQ staining method were determined. 51 true positive and 28 true negative specimens were correctly classified (39 CPPD samples, 12 MSU samples, and 28 samples of crystals-unrelated arthropathies. All MSU specimens were correctly diagnosed.

  2. Effects of Extract from Mangifera indica Leaf on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats

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    Yan Jiang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae is used as a medicinal material in traditional herb medicine for a long time in India, China, and other Eastern Asian countries. Our present study investigated the therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract from Mangifera indica (EMI in rat with monosodium urate (MSU crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Effects of EMI (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o. administrated for 9 days on the ankle swelling, synovial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β levels were assessed in MSU crystal rat. Data from our study showed that rat with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystal demonstrated an elevation in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. Oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg EMI for 9 days reversed the abnormalities in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. The results indicated that the beneficial antigouty arthritis effect of EMI may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the synovial tissues. Our study suggests that Mangifera indica and its extract may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application.

  3. The prevalence of monosodium urate and calcium pyrophosphate crystals in synovial fluid from wrist and finger joints.

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    Galozzi, Paola; Oliviero, Francesca; Frallonardo, Paola; Favero, Marta; Hoxha, Ariela; Scanu, Anna; Lorenzin, Mariagrazia; Ortolan, Augusta; Punzi, Leonardo; Ramonda, Roberta

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the frequency of monosodium urate (MSU) and calcium pyrophosphate (CPP) crystals in synovial fluids (SFs) aspirated from wrist and finger joints of patients with previously diagnosed joint diseases. We reviewed the results of SF analysis of 1593 samples and identified 126 patients with effusions in the small joints of the hands and wrists. We reported from patients' medical files data about sex, age, diagnosis, disease duration and the microscopic SF results. The prevalence of CPP crystals in SF was 85.71% in CPP-crystals arthritis (CPP-CA), 19.35% in rheumatoid arthritis (RA), 13.89% in osteoarthritis (OA) and 0% in psoriatic arthritis (PsA), spondyloarthritis (SpA), gout and miscellanea. The prevalence of MSU crystals in SF was 83.3% in gout, 10% in PsA, 2.8% in OA and 0% in RA, SpA, miscellanea and CPP-CA. Consistent with previously reported data concerning the big joints, microcrystals can be frequently found also in the small joints of patients with previous diagnosis. The finding underlines the importance of analyzing SF from the hand and wrist joints in the attempt to identify comorbidities associated with the presence of crystals and to develop targeted treatment strategies.

  4. Enhanced interleukin-1beta production of PBMCs from patients with gout after stimulation with Toll-like receptor-2 ligands and urate crystals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mylona, E.E.; Mouktaroudi, M.; Crisan, T.O.; Makri, S.; Pistiki, A.; Georgitsi, M.; Savva, A.; Netea, M.G.; Meer, J.W. van der; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2012-01-01

    ABSTRACT: INTRODUCTION: Monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals synergize with various toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to induce cytokine production via activation of the NOD-like receptor (NLR) family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLPR3) inflammasome. This has been demonstrated in vitro using hu

  5. Zisheng Shenqi decoction ameliorates monosodium urate crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats through anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

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    Han, Jieru; Xie, Ying; Sui, Fangyu; Liu, Chunhong; Du, Xiaowei; Liu, Chenggang; Feng, Xiaoling; Jiang, Deyou

    2016-09-01

    Based on traditional Chinese medicinal theories on gouty arthritis, Zisheng Shenqi decoction (ZSD), a novel Chinese medicinal formula, was developed due to its multiple functions, including reinforcing renal function, promoting blood circulation and relieving pain. In the present study, the effect of ZSD on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced gouty arthritis in rats was investigated and the underlying mechanisms were examined. The data from these investigations showed that the injection of MSU crystals into the ankle joint cavity caused significant elevations in ankle swelling and inflammatory cell infiltration into the synovium, whereas these abnormal changes were markedly suppressed by oral administration of ZSD (40 mg/kg) for 7 days. Mechanically, ZSD treatment prevented MSU crystal‑induced inflammatory responses, as evidenced by downregulation in the expression levels of NACHT domain, leucine‑rich repeat and pyrin domain containing protein (NALP) 1 and NALP6 inflammasomes, decreased serum levels of tumor necrosis factor‑α and interleukin‑1β, and inhibited activation of nuclear factor‑κB. In addition, ZSD administration markedly enhanced the anti-oxidant status in MSU crystal‑induced rats by the increase in the activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase, and the levels of reduced glutathione. These results indicated that ZSD effectively prevented MSU crystal-induced gouty arthritis via modulating multiple anti‑oxidative and anti‑inflammatory pathways, suggesting a promising herbal formula for the prevention and treatment of gouty arthritis.

  6. Rebamipide Suppresses Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Interleukin-1β Production Through Regulation of Oxidative Stress and Caspase-1 in THP-1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Ki-Yeun

    2016-02-01

    This study investigated the effect of rebamipide on activation of the NLRP3 inflammasome and generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced interleukin-1β (IL-1β) production. Human monocyte cell line THP-1 and human umbilical venous endothelial cells (HUVECs) were used to assess the inflammatory response to MSU crystals. NADP/NADPH activity assays were used as a marker of ROS generation. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) and western blotting were performed to evaluate levels of IL-1β, caspase-1, NLRP3, associated speck-like protein (ASC), nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB), p65, IκBα, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (ICAM-1), and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1). Experimental pharmaceuticals included rebamipide, colchicine, dexamethasone, and ascorbic acid. In THP-1 cells, treatment with MSU crystals increased NADP/NADPH ratios and IL-1β expression, and both of these responses were potently inhibited by addition of rebamipide. Rebamipide also attenuated enhanced expression of caspase-1 gene by MSU crystals (p rebamipide. Stimulation of HUVECs with MSU crystals increased expression of VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, which were markedly inhibited by both rebamipide and dexamethasone. This study demonstrated that rebamipide inhibits IL-1β activation through suppression of ROS-mediated NF-κB signaling pathways and caspase-1 activation in MSU crystal-induced inflammation.

  7. Effects of Modified Simiao Decoction on IL-1β and TNFα Secretion in Monocytic THP-1 Cells with Monosodium Urate Crystals-Induced Inflammation

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    Ya-Fei Liu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Simiao pill, a Chinese herbal formula containing four herbs, has been used in the treatment of gouty arthritis for many years. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of modified Simiao decoction (MSD on IL-1β and TNFα secretion in monocytic THP-1 cells with monosodium urate (MSU crystals-induced inflammation. The MSU crystals-induced inflammation model in THP-1 cells was successfully established by the stimulation of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA and MSU crystals. Then, the MSD-derived serum or control serum extracted from rat was administered to different treatment groups. The morphology of MSU crystals and THP-1 cells was observed. IL-1β and TNFα protein expression in supernatant of THP-1 cells were determined by ELISA. Our data demonstrated that MSU crystals induced time-dependent increase of IL-1β and TNFα. Moreover, MSD significantly decreased IL-1β release in THP-1 cells with MSU crystals-induced inflammation. These results suggest that MSD is promising in the treatment of MSU crystals-induced inflammation in THP-1 cells. MSD may act as an anti-IL-1 agent in treating gout. The underlying mechanism may be related to NALP3 inflammasome which needs to be validated in future studies.

  8. C5a Regulates IL-1β Production and Leukocyte Recruitment in a Murine Model of Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Peritonitis

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    Khameneh, Hanif J.; Ho, Adrian W. S.; Laudisi, Federica; Derks, Heidi; Kandasamy, Matheswaran; Sivasankar, Baalasubramanian; Teng, Gim Gee; Mortellaro, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Gouty arthritis results from the generation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals within joints. These MSU crystals elicit acute inflammation characterized by massive infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes that are mobilized by the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-1β. MSU crystals also activate the complement system, which regulates the inflammatory response; however, it is unclear whether or how MSU-mediated complement activation is linked to IL-1β release in vivo, and the various roles that might be played by individual components of the complement cascade. Here we show that exposure to MSU crystals in vivo triggers the complement cascade, leading to the generation of the biologically active complement proteins C3a and C5a. C5a, but not C3a, potentiated IL-1β and IL-1α release from LPS–primed MSU-exposed peritoneal macrophages and human monocytic cells in vitro; while in vivo MSU–induced C5a mediated murine neutrophil recruitment as well as IL-1β production at the site of inflammation. These effects were significantly ameliorated by treatment of mice with a C5a receptor antagonist. Mechanistic studies revealed that C5a most likely increased NLRP3 inflammasome activation via production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), and not through increased transcription of inflammasome components. Therefore we conclude that C5a generated upon MSU-induced complement activation increases neutrophil recruitment in vivo by promoting IL-1 production via the generation of ROS, which activate the NLRP3 inflammasome. Identification of the C5a receptor as a key determinant of IL-1-mediated recruitment of inflammatory cells provides a novel potential target for therapeutic intervention to mitigate gouty arthritis. PMID:28167912

  9. P2Y6 Receptor Antagonist MRS2578 Inhibits Neutrophil Activation and Aggregated Neutrophil Extracellular Trap Formation Induced by Gout-Associated Monosodium Urate Crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sil, Payel; Hayes, Craig P; Reaves, Barbara J; Breen, Patrick; Quinn, Shannon; Sokolove, Jeremy; Rada, Balázs

    2017-01-01

    Human neutrophils (polymorphonuclear leukocytes [PMNs]) generate inflammatory responses within the joints of gout patients upon encountering monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) are found abundantly in the synovial fluid of gout patients. The detailed mechanism of MSU crystal-induced NET formation remains unknown. Our goal was to shed light on possible roles of purinergic signaling and neutrophil migration in mediating NET formation induced by MSU crystals. Interaction of human neutrophils with MSU crystals was evaluated by high-throughput live imaging using confocal microscopy. We quantitated NET levels in gout synovial fluid supernatants and detected enzymatically active neutrophil primary granule enzymes, myeloperoxidase, and human neutrophil elastase. Suramin and PPADS, general P2Y receptor blockers, and MRS2578, an inhibitor of the purinergic P2Y6 receptor, blocked NET formation triggered by MSU crystals. AR-C25118925XX (P2Y2 antagonist) did not inhibit MSU crystal-stimulated NET release. Live imaging of PMNs showed that MRS2578 represses neutrophil migration and blocked characteristic formation of MSU crystal-NET aggregates called aggregated NETs. Interestingly, the store-operated calcium entry channel inhibitor (SK&F96365) also reduced MSU crystal-induced NET release. Our results indicate that the P2Y6/store-operated calcium entry/IL-8 axis is involved in MSU crystal-induced aggregated NET formation, but MRS2578 could have additional effects affecting PMN migration. The work presented in the present study could lead to a better understanding of gouty joint inflammation and help improve the treatment and care of gout patients.

  10. Monosodium urate crystal-induced pro-interleukin-1β production is post-transcriptionally regulated via the p38 signaling pathway in human monocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Yeon-Ho; Kim, Dong-Hyun; Lee, Won-Woo

    2016-10-03

    IL-1β is a key mediator of sterile inflammation in response to endogenous particulates, a type of damage-associated molecular pattern (DAMPs) molecule derived from damaged cells. Despite the well-known role of sterile particulates such as monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as inflammasome inducers in monocytes/macrophages, little is known regarding how pro-IL-1β synthesis is induced under sterile inflammatory conditions. We provide evidence that MSU crystals post-transcriptionally induce the rapid production of pro-IL-1β in human primary monocytes. Metabolic labeling and pull-down assays for newly-synthesized proteins clearly showed that MSU crystals rapidly, within 30 min, induce the synthesis of pro-IL-1β as well as global proteins. Notably, MSU crystal-induced pro-IL-1β synthesis is selectively dependent on the p38 MAPK pathway, whereas global protein synthesis is mediated via the mTOR, ERK1/2, and p38 pathways. Furthermore, inhibition of Mnk1, a substrate of p38, blocked MSU crystal-induced pro-IL-1β synthesis downstream of eIF4E phosphorylation. In addition, the p38 MAPK pathway leading to phosphorylation of MK2 was also critical for stabilization of pro-IL-1β mRNA following MSU stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that post-transcriptional regulation via p38 MAPK plays a central role in the rapid synthesis of pro-IL-1β in response to MSU crystals, which is an essential step for IL-1β production in human monocytes.

  11. Enhanced p62 Is Responsible for Mitochondrial Pathway-Dependent Apoptosis and Interleukin-1β Production at the Early Phase by Monosodium Urate Crystals in Murine Macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong-Kyu; Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Ki-Yeun

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the role of p62-dependent mitochondrial apoptosis in the initiation of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in macrophages. The induction of mitochondrial apoptosis in RAW 264.7 murine macrophages by MSU crystals was measured using western blotting and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, or PARP1, and by flow cytometric analysis. Immunoprecipitation and western blotting was applied to detect ubiquitination of p62, TRAF6, and caspase-9. Mitochondrial apoptosis, reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, and cell proliferation were assessed in cells transfected with p62 small interfering RNA (siRNA). Treatment of RAW 264.7 cells with MSU crystals induced activation of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP1 at the early phase, in addition to enhancing IL-1β expression, but these findings were attenuated at the late phase. MSU crystals induced ubiquitination of p62, followed by ubiquitination of TRAF6 and caspase-9, which were significantly reversed by ascorbic acid. RAW 264.7 cells transfected with p62 siRNA showed attenuated expression of Bax, caspase-3, caspase-9, and PARP1, decreased ROS and IL-1β production, and increased cell proliferation, compared to controls. The antioxidant ascorbic acid inhibited p62, caspase-9, and IL-1β expression increased by MSU crystals. p62 may be a crucial mediator for the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway in MSU crystal-induced inflammation, which is linked to the acute inflammatory response during the early phase of gout.

  12. Therapeutic Effects of Chinese Medicine Herb Pair, Huzhang and Guizhi, on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats Revealed by Anti-Inflammatory Assessments and NMR-Based Metabonomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Bin; Huang, Huizhu; Li, Zhong; Gong, Mengjuan; Shi, Wan; Zhu, Chunxia; Gu, Zulian; Zou, Zhongjie

    2016-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Huzhang-Guizhi herb pair (HG), firstly included in Hu-Zhang Power documented in Taiping Shenghui Fang, on monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis in rats. We found that pretreatment with HG in rats with gouty arthritis could significantly attenuate the ankle joint swelling, and this beneficial antigout effect might be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) production in synovial fluid as well as nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65) protein expression in synovial tissue. Moreover, metabonomic analysis demonstrated that 5 and 6 potential biomarkers associated with gouty arthritis in plasma and urine, respectively, which were mainly involved in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and gut microbe metabolism, were identified. HG could reverse the pathological process of MSU-induced gouty arthritis through regulating the disturbed metabolic pathways. These results provided important mechanistic insights into the protective effects of HG against MSU-induced gouty arthritis in rats.

  13. Soft coral-derived lemnalol alleviates monosodium urate-induced gouty arthritis in rats by inhibiting leukocyte infiltration and iNOS, COX-2 and c-Fos protein expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hsin-Pai; Huang, Shi-Ying; Lin, Yen-You; Wang, Hui-Min; Jean, Yen-Hsuan; Wu, Shu-Fen; Duh, Chang-Yih; Wen, Zhi-Hong

    2013-01-10

    An acute gout attack manifests in the joint as dramatic inflammation. To date, the clinical use of medicinal agents has typically led to undesirable side effects. Numerous efforts have failed to create an effective and safe agent for the treatment of gout. Lemnalol-an extract from Formosan soft coral-has documented anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. In the present study, we attempt to examine the therapeutic effects of lemnalol on intra-articular monosodium urate (MSU)-induced gouty arthritis in rats. In the present study, we found that treatment with lemnalol (intramuscular [im]), but not colchicine (oral [po]), significantly attenuated MUS-induced mechanical allodynia, paw edema and knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the elevated expression of c-Fos and pro-inflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2) observed in synovial tissue, were significantly inhibited by treatment with lemnalol. We conclude that lemnalol may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and other acute neutrophil-driven inflammatory diseases.

  14. Soft Coral-Derived Lemnalol Alleviates Monosodium Urate-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats by Inhibiting Leukocyte Infiltration and iNOS, COX-2 and c-Fos Protein Expression

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    Hsin-Pai Lee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available An acute gout attack manifests in the joint as dramatic inflammation. To date, the clinical use of medicinal agents has typically led to undesirable side effects. Numerous efforts have failed to create an effective and safe agent for the treatment of gout. Lemnalol — an extract from Formosan soft coral — has documented anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive properties. In the present study, we attempt to examine the therapeutic effects of lemnalol on intra-articular monosodium urate (MSU-induced gouty arthritis in rats. In the present study, we found that treatment with lemnalol (intramuscular [im], but not colchicine (oral [po], significantly attenuated MUS-induced mechanical allodynia, paw edema and knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analysis revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration, as well as the elevated expression of c-Fos and pro-inflammatory proteins (inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 observed in synovial tissue, were significantly inhibited by treatment with lemnalol. We conclude that lemnalol may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and other acute neutrophil-driven inflammatory diseases.

  15. Therapeutic Effects of Chinese Medicine Herb Pair, Huzhang and Guizhi, on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats Revealed by Anti-Inflammatory Assessments and NMR-Based Metabonomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Han

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effects of Huzhang-Guizhi herb pair (HG, firstly included in Hu-Zhang Power documented in Taiping Shenghui Fang, on monosodium urate (MSU crystals-induced gouty arthritis in rats. We found that pretreatment with HG in rats with gouty arthritis could significantly attenuate the ankle joint swelling, and this beneficial antigout effect might be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α and interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β production in synovial fluid as well as nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65 protein expression in synovial tissue. Moreover, metabonomic analysis demonstrated that 5 and 6 potential biomarkers associated with gouty arthritis in plasma and urine, respectively, which were mainly involved in energy metabolism, amino acid metabolism, and gut microbe metabolism, were identified. HG could reverse the pathological process of MSU-induced gouty arthritis through regulating the disturbed metabolic pathways. These results provided important mechanistic insights into the protective effects of HG against MSU-induced gouty arthritis in rats.

  16. Morin, a dietary bioflavonol suppresses monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in an animal model of acute gouty arthritis with reference to NLRP3 inflammasome, hypo-xanthine phospho-ribosyl transferase, and inflammatory mediators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanasekar, Chitra; Rasool, Mahaboobkhan

    2016-09-05

    The anti-inflammatory effect of morin, a dietary bioflavanol was explored on monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in rats, an experimental model for acute gouty arthritis. Morin treatment (30mg/kg b.wt) significantly attenuated the ankle swelling and the levels of lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, serum pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor (TNF) -α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6), monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), and articular elastase along with an increased anti-oxidant status (catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)) in the joint homogenate of MSU crystal-induced rats. Histological assessment revealed that morin limited the diffusion of joint space, synovial hyperplasia, and inflammatory cell infiltrations. The mRNA expression of NLRP3 (nucleotide oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 3) inflammasome, caspase-1, pro-inflammatory cytokines, MCP-1, inflammatory enzymes (inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)), and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) p65 was found downregulated and HPRT (hypo-xanthine phospho-ribosyl transferase) mRNA expression was upregulated in morin treated MSU crystal-induced rats. In addition, morin treatment reduced the protein expression of NF-κB p65, p-NF-κB p65, iNOS, COX-2, and TNF-α. The results clearly demonstrated that morin exert a potent anti-inflammatory effect on MSU crystal-induced inflammation in rats.

  17. The Positively Charged COOH-terminal Glycosaminoglycan-binding CXCL9(74-103) Peptide Inhibits CXCL8-induced Neutrophil Extravasation and Monosodium Urate Crystal-induced Gout in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanheule, Vincent; Janssens, Rik; Boff, Daiane; Kitic, Nikola; Berghmans, Nele; Ronsse, Isabelle; Kungl, Andreas J; Amaral, Flavio Almeida; Teixeira, Mauro Martins; Van Damme, Jo; Proost, Paul; Mortier, Anneleen

    2015-08-28

    The ELR(-)CXC chemokine CXCL9 is characterized by a long, highly positively charged COOH-terminal region, absent in most other chemokines. Several natural leukocyte- and fibroblast-derived COOH-terminally truncated CXCL9 forms missing up to 30 amino acids were identified. To investigate the role of the COOH-terminal region of CXCL9, several COOH-terminal peptides were chemically synthesized. These peptides display high affinity for glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and compete with functional intact chemokines for GAG binding, the longest peptide (CXCL9(74-103)) being the most potent. The COOH-terminal peptide CXCL9(74-103) does not signal through or act as an antagonist for CXCR3, the G protein-coupled CXCL9 receptor, and does not influence neutrophil chemotactic activity of CXCL8 in vitro. Based on the GAG binding data, an anti-inflammatory role for CXCL9(74-103) was further evidenced in vivo. Simultaneous intravenous injection of CXCL9(74-103) with CXCL8 injection in the joint diminished CXCL8-induced neutrophil extravasation. Analogously, monosodium urate crystal-induced neutrophil migration to the tibiofemural articulation, a murine model of gout, is highly reduced by intravenous injection of CXCL9(74-103). These data show that chemokine-derived peptides with high affinity for GAGs may be used as anti-inflammatory peptides; by competing with active chemokines for binding and immobilization on GAGs, these peptides may lower chemokine presentation on the endothelium and disrupt the generation of a chemokine gradient, thereby preventing a chemokine from properly performing its chemotactic function. The CXCL9 peptide may serve as a lead molecule for further development of inhibitors of inflammation based on interference with chemokine-GAG interactions.

  18. Morin, a Bioflavonoid Suppresses Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Inflammatory Immune Response in RAW 264.7 Macrophages through the Inhibition of Inflammatory Mediators, Intracellular ROS Levels and NF-κB Activation.

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    Chitra Dhanasekar

    Full Text Available Our previous studies had reported that morin, a bioflavanoid exhibited potent anti-inflammatory effect against adjuvant-induced arthritic rats. In this current study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory mechanism of morin against monosodium urate crystal (MSU-induced inflammation in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells, an in vitro model for acute gouty arthritis. For comparison purpose, colchicine was used as a reference drug. We have observed that morin (100-300 μM treatment significantly suppressed the levels of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, MCP-1 and VEGF, inflammatory mediators (NO and PEG2, and lysosomal enzymes (acid phosphatase, β-galactosidase, N-acetyl glucosamindase and cathepsin D in MSU-crystals stimulated macrophage cells. The mRNA expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and MCP-1, inflammatory enzymes (iNOS and COX-2, and NF-κBp65 was found downregulated in MSU crystal stimulated macrophage cells by morin treatment, however, the mRNA expression of hypoxanthine phospho ribosyl transferse (HPRT was found to be increased. The flow cytometry analysis revealed that morin treatment decreased intracellular reactive oxygen species levels in MSU crystal stimulated macrophage cells. The western blot analysis clearly showed that morin mainly exerts its anti-inflammatory effects by inhibiting the MSU crystal-induced COX-2 and TNF-α protein expression through the inactivation of NF-κB signaling pathway in RAW 264.7 macrophage cells similar to that of BAY 11-7082 (IκB kinase inhibitor. Our results collectively suggest that morin can be a potential therapeutic agent for inflammatory disorders like acute gouty arthritis.

  19. Precipitation of sodium acid urate from electrolyte solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füredi-Milhofer, Helga; Babić-Ivaniĉić, Vesna; Milat, Ognjen; Brown, Walter E.; Gregory, Thomas M.

    1987-07-01

    The precipitation of soduim urate from solutions containing uric acid, soduim hydroxide, hydrochloric acid, sodium chloride and water was investigated at constant pH (7.5±0.1) and temperature (308 K). Precipitates were observed by lights and electron microscopy and characterized by electron and X-ray diffraction. The results are presented in the form of "precipitation" and "chemical potential" diagrams, the latter giving the soduim-to-urate molar ratios of the precipitates. Two types of precipitation boundaries were observed, both of which had indicated soduim-to-urate moral ratios of 1:1. The ion activity product, (Na +)(HU -), associated with boundary I was AP I=(4.8±1.1)×10 -5 and with boundary II was with boundary II was AP II=(6.5±0.4)×10 -4. The supersaturation, S, at boundary II was S=AP II/ Ksp=12.3, in which Ksp is the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. The latter precipitated as well-formed crystals at supersaturations of 12.3 and above. The ion activity product associated with boundary I is approximately equal to the solubility product of soduim acid urate monohydrate. Small amounts of several morphologically different sodium urate crystals formed in the range of supersaturations (1≤ S≤12.3). Crystals formed in this range may include the monohydrate of sodium acid urate and possibly a higher hydrate. The findings have relevance to pathological renal stone formation and gouty arthritis.

  20. Influence of Serum Containing Qingre Chubi Decoction on THP-1 Cell Viability and Interleukin-1βRelease Stimulated by Monosodium Urate Crystals%清热除痹汤含药血清对尿酸钠结晶刺激下THP-1细胞活性及分泌白细胞介素-1β的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟; 孙维峰; 李静; 张欢欢

    2014-01-01

    目的探讨清热除痹汤含药血清对尿酸钠结晶刺激下THP-1细胞的增殖活性及分泌白细胞介素-1β(IL-1β)功能的影响。方法体外培养人单核细胞THP-1细胞,分为5组,空白血清组,模型对照组,中药血清高、中、低浓度组(浓度分别为体积分数20%、10%、5%),除空白血清组外,其他各组均加入浓度为500 mg/L的尿酸钠结晶,于培养0、12、24、48 h时间点采用四甲基偶氮唑盐比色(MTS)法检测细胞的增殖活性,培养48 h后采用酶联免疫吸附(ELISA)法检测细胞上清液IL-1β含量。结果各组THP-1细胞活性均随着时间的延长而增加,模型对照组各时间点细胞活性均较空白血清组显著增高(P<0.05或P<0.01),48 h模型对照组的IL-1β水平较空白血清组显著增高(P<0.01)。12、24 h中药血清各浓度组,48 h中药血清高、中浓度组细胞活性均较模型对照组显著下降(P<0.05或P<0.01),48 h中药血清各浓度组IL-1β水平均较模型对照组显著下降(P<0.01)。结论清热除痹汤含药血清对尿酸钠结晶刺激下THP-1细胞的活性有抑制作用,机制与其可抑制IL-1分泌有关。%Objective To investigate the influence of serum containing Qingre Chubi Decoction ( QCD) on the THP-1 cell viability and the release of interleukin 1 beta ( IL-1β) stimulated by monosodium urate crystals in vitro. Methods The cultured human monocyte THP-1 strain were divided into blank serum group, model control group, and high-, middle- and low-concentration ( volume fraction being 20%, 10%, 5%) QCD-containing serum groups. Except for the blank serum group , the other groups were all given 500 mg/L of monosodium urate crystals. On culturing hour 0, 12, 24 and 48, THP-1 cell viability was tested by methy1 thiazolyl tetrazolium celorimetry ( MTS) method. On culturing hour 48, the content of IL-1β in the supernatant of

  1. Swietenolide monohydrate

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    Hasnah Osman

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, a natural b,d-seco-limonoid, C27H34O8·H2O, and known as Swietenolide monohydrate, has been isolated from S. macrophylla King. In the molecular structure, the four fused six-membered rings adopt twist-boat (ring A, approximate chair (ring B, envelope (ring C and half-chair (ring D conformations. The attached furan ring is essentially planar. O—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O interactions connect the molecules into a two-dimensional network parallel to the (100 plane. C—H...π interactions are also observed.

  2. How does whisky lower serum urate level?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yang; Nakanishi, Takeo; Fukazawa, Miki; Tamai, Ikumi

    2014-05-01

    Clinical studies have shown that moderate whisky consumption increased renal excretion of urate into urine and decreased serum urate level, but the mechanism involved has not been established. Because renal reabsorption influences serum urate level, the effects of the whisky congeners on urate transporters, urate transporter 1 (URAT1), and voltage-driven urate transporter (URATv1) involved in reabsorptive transport of urate were examined. In transporter-expressing Xenopus oocytes, 12-year-old and 18-year-old whisky congeners inhibited urate uptake by URAT1 with IC50 values of 0.08 ± 0.01 and 0.04 ± 0.01 mg/mL, respectively, while urate uptake by URATv1 was inhibited only at 1 mg/mL. Decreased serum urate level after whisky consumption may be mainly due to inhibition of URAT1 by the congeners.

  3. Blood-borne phagocytes internalize urate microaggregates and prevent intravascular NETosis by urate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieterse, Elmar; Jeremic, Ivica; Czegley, Christine; Weidner, Daniela; Biermann, Mona H.C.; Veissi, Susan; Maueröder, Christian; Schauer, Christine; Bilyy, Rostyslav; Dumych, Tetiana; Hoffmann, Markus; Munoz, Luis E.; Bengtsson, Anders A.; Schett, Georg; van der Vlag, Johan; Herrmann, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is strongly linked to cardiovascular complications including atherosclerosis and thrombosis. In individuals with hyperuricemia, needle-shaped monosodium urate crystals (nsMSU) frequently form within joints or urine, giving rise to gouty arthritis or renal calculi, respectively. These nsMSU are potent instigators of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation. Little is known on the mechanism(s) that prevent nsMSU formation within hyperuricemic blood, which would potentially cause detrimental consequences for the host. Here, we report that complement proteins and fetuins facilitate the continuous clearance by blood-borne phagocytes and resident macrophages of small urate microaggregates (UMA; <1 μm in size) that initially form in hyperuricemic blood. If this clearance fails, UMA exhibit bipolar growth to form typical full-sized nsMSU with a size up to 100 μm. In contrast to UMA, nsMSU stimulated neutrophils to release NETs. Under conditions of flow, nsMSU and NETs formed densely packed DNase I-resistant tophus-like structures with a high obstructive potential, highlighting the importance of an adequate and rapid removal of UMA from the circulation. Under pathological conditions, intravascularly formed nsMSU may hold the key to the incompletely understood association between NET-driven cardiovascular disease and hyperuricemia. PMID:27917897

  4. Isovaline monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason P. Dworkin

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H11NO2·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid valine that crystallizes from water in its zwitterion form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has no α-H atom. The compound exhibits hydrogen bonding between the water molecule and the carboxylate O atoms and an amine H atom. In addition, there are intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions between the carboxylate O atoms and amine H atoms. In the crystal, these extensive N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds lead to the formation of a three-dimensional network.

  5. URAT Parallax Catalog (UPC)

    CERN Document Server

    Finch, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    The URAT Parallax Catalog (UPC) consists of 112,177 parallaxes. The catalog utilizes all Northern Hemisphere exposures from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) obtained between April 2012 and June 2015. Relative parallaxes are converted to absolute using photometric distance estimates of UCAC4 reference stars. There are 2 groups of stars in this catalog: 1) 58,677 stars with prior published trigonometric parallax (Hipparcos, Yale Parallax Catalog, MEarth project and SIMBAD), and 2) 53,500 stars with first time trigonometric parallaxes as obtained from URAT data. More stringent selection criteria have been applied for group 2 then for group 1 in order to keep the rate of false detections low. The mean error in UPC parallaxes is 10.8 and 4.3 mas for groups 1 and 2, respectively. All stars in UPC are north of -13 deg Dec and between 6.5 and 17 mag. The UPC is published by CDS as catalog I/333 and the acronym has been registered with the IAU. The Finch & Zacharias (...

  6. Significance of mtDNA expression in acute peritonitis induced by monosodium urate in mice%单钠尿酸盐晶体诱导小鼠急性腹膜炎模型中线粒体DNA的表达及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程伟妮; 杨程德; 陈晓翔; 杜蕙

    2015-01-01

    Objective To establish acute peritonitis induced by monosodium urate (MSU) of in mice and observe the significance of mitochondrial deoxyribonucleic acid (mtDNA) expression in the inflammatory processes.Methods The mouse models of acute peritonitis were made by intraperitoneal injection of MSU.Sixty-four male C57BL16 mice were randomly divided into the MSU group which were treated with 0.2 ml of 15 mg/ml MSU solution by i.p.injection and the control group which were treated with 0.2 ml of PBS.Respectively four mice from MSU group and four mice from control group were killed 2 hours, 4 hours, 6 hours, 8 hours 12 hour, 16 hours, 20 hours and 24 hours later and whole blood, peritoneal lavage and peritoneum were collected respectively.Four the mice from the MSU group and four mice from the control group were killed and whole blood, peritoneal lavage and peritoneum were collected.Immunoflourescence study of peritoneum tissues was performed.The levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-18 in plasma and peritoneal lavage were examined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).DNA was extracted from blood and peritoneal lavage, and mtDNA level was detected by using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR).The data was analyszied by multivariate analysis of variance.Results As compared with those killed at other time points from the MSU groups and the control group, the levels of IL-1β [(27.0±2.0) pg/ml vs (26.8±2.1) pg/ml], IL-18 [(673±454) pg/ml vs(752±495) pg/ml] in plasma and peritoneal lavage were increased progressively in those which were killed after i.p.injection of 2 hours and 4 hours from in the MSU group (F=22.778, P<0.05;F=6.660, P<0.05).The mtDNA in plasma and peritoneal lavage of the mice began to be expressed 4 hours after i.p.injection 4 hours from in the MSU group.The peak level was detected in those i.p.injected MSU 6 hours later [(9.85±4.59)×106 copies, (7.81±3.43)×106 copies].Then 8 hours later the mtDNA began to slowly decreased.At these

  7. Mangiferin Inhibits Renal Urate Reabsorption by Modulating Urate Transporters in Experimental Hyperuricemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hua; Gao, Lihui; Niu, Yanfen; Zhou, Yuanfang; Lin, Hua; Jiang, Jing; Kong, Xiangfu; Liu, Xu; Li, Ling

    2015-01-01

    Mangiferin, a natural glucosyl xanthone from the leaves of Mangifera indica L., was previously shown to exert potent hypouricemic effects associated with inhibition of the activity of xanthine dehydrogenase/oxidase. The present study aimed to evaluate its uricosuric effect and possible molecular mechanisms underlying the renal urate transporters responsible for urate reabsorption in vivo. Mangiferin (1.5-24.0 mg/kg) was administered intragastrically to hyperuricemic mice and rats induced by the intraperitoneal injection of uric acid and potassium oxonate, respectively. The uricosuric effect was evaluated by determining the serum and urinary urate levels as well as fractional excretion of uric acid (FEUA). The mRNA and protein levels of renal urate-anion transporter 1 (URAT1), organic anion transporter 10 (OAT10), glucose transporter 9 (GLUT9), and PDZ domain-containing protein (PDZK1) were analyzed. The administration of mangiferin significantly decreased the serum urate levels in hyperuricemic mice in a dose- and time-dependent manner. In hyperuricemic rats, mangiferin also reduced the serum urate levels and increased the urinary urate levels and FEUA. These results indicate that mangiferin has uricosuric effects. Further examination showed that mangiferin markedly inhibited the mRNA and protein expression of renal URAT1, OAT10, and GLUT9 in hyperuricemic rats, but did not interfere with PDZK1 expression. Taken together, these findings suggest that mangiferin promotes urate excretion by the kidney, which may be related to the inhibition of urate reabsorption via downregulation of renal urate transporters.

  8. Urate crystal deposition and bone erosion in gout: 'inside-out' or 'outside-in'? A dual-energy computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Towiwat, Patapong; Doyle, Anthony J; Gamble, Gregory D; Tan, Paul; Aati, Opetaia; Horne, Anne; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2016-09-15

    It is currently unknown whether bone erosion in gout occurs through an 'inside-out' mechanism due to direct intra-osseous crystal deposition or through an 'outside-in' mechanism from the surface of bone. The aim of this study was to examine the mechanism ('outside-in' vs. 'inside-out') of monosodium urate (MSU) crystal deposition in bone erosion in gout. Specifically, we used three-dimensional dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) to analyse the positional relationship between bone and MSU crystal deposition in tophaceous gout, and to determine whether intra-osseous crystal deposition occurs in the absence of erosion. One hundred forty-four participants with gout and at least one palpable tophus had a DECT scan of both feet. Two readers independently scored all metatarsal heads (1433 bones available for scoring). For bones in contact with urate, the bone was scored for whether urate was present within an erosion, on the surface of bone or within bone only (true intra-osseous deposit). Data were analysed using generalised estimating equations. Urate in contact with bone was present in 370 (54.3 %) of 681 joints with urate deposition. For those bones in contact with urate, deposition was present on the surface of bone in 143 (38.6 %) of 370 joints and within erosion in 227 (61.4 %) of 370. True intra-osseous urate deposition was not observed at any site (p in one plane, examination in other planes revealed urate deposition within an en face erosion. In tophaceous gout, MSU crystal deposition is present within the joint, on the bone surface and within bone erosion, but it is not observed within bone in the absence of a cortical break. These data support the concept that MSU crystals deposit outside bone and contribute to bone erosion through an 'outside-in' mechanism.

  9. Plasma Urate and Parkinson's Disease in Women

    OpenAIRE

    O'Reilly, Éilis J.; Gao, Xiang; Weisskopf, Marc G.; Chen, Honglei; Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

    2010-01-01

    Plasma urate has been consistently associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease in men, but it is less clear if this relation exists in women. Between 1990 and 2004, the authors conducted a nested case-control study among participants of the female-only Nurses’ Health Study. In controls (n = 504), plasma urate was positively associated with age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, hypertension, and use of diuretics and was inversely associated with physical activity and postmenopausa...

  10. Time required for disappearance of urate crystals from synovial fluid after successful hypouricaemic treatment relates to the duration of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascual, Eliseo; Sivera, Francisca

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether hypouricaemic treatment results in the disappearance of urate crystals from gouty joints and to define the time required. In 18 patients with monosodium urate (MSU) crystal proven gout, and after the initiation of successful serum uric acid (SUA)-lowering treatment, an arthrocentesis of the asymptomatic signal joint (11 knees, 7 first metatarsophalangeal joints) was performed every 3 months to obtain a synovial fluid (SF) sample. The sample was then analysed for the presence of MSU crystals, and the number of crystals/400x field was noted. SUA levels and the duration of gout were also noted. MSU crystals disappeared from the SF of all 18 joints after reduction of SUA to normal levels. The time required for disappearance ranged from 3 to 33 months; disappearance time correlated with the duration of gout (r(s) = 0.71; pcrystals in the SF samples before urate-lowering treatment was 7.5 (2.5-11) crystals/400x field, reducing to 3 (1-6.5) crystals/400x field (pCrystal counts continued to decrease after 3 months. In gout, reduction of SUA to normal levels results in disappearance of urate crystals from SF, requiring a longer time in those patients with gout of longer duration. This indicates that urate crystal deposition in joints is reversible. Normalisation of SUA levels results in a decrease in the concentration of MSU crystals in SF in the asymptomatic gouty joints. This may partially explain the reduced frequency of gouty attacks when a patient has been treated with SUA-lowering drugs.

  11. Bright Star Astrometry with URAT

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Norbert

    2015-01-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) is observing the northern sky since April 2012 for an astrometric survey. Multiple overlaps per year are performed in a single bandpass (680$-$750 nm) using the "redlens" 20 cm aperture astrograph and a mosaic of large CCDs. Besides the regular, deep survey to magnitude 18.5, short exposures with an objective grating are taken to access stars as bright as 3rd magnitude. A brief overview of the program, observing and reductions is given. Positions on the 8 to 20 mas level are obtained of 66,202 Hipparcos stars at current epochs. These are compared to the Hipparcos Catalog to investigate its accuracy. About 20\\% of the observed Hipparcos stars are found to have inconsitent positions with the Hipparcos Catalog prediction on the 3 sigma level or over (about 75 mas or more discrepant position offsets). Some stars are now seen at an arcsec (or 25 sigma) off their Hipparcos Catalog predicted position.

  12. BRIGHT STAR ASTROMETRY WITH URAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Zacharias

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available El Telescopio Rob ́otico Astrom ́etrico del Observatorio Naval de los Estados Unidos de Am ́erica (URAT est ́a observando el cielo del norte desde Abril 2012 para un sondeo astrom ́etrico. M ́ultiples traslapos por a ̃no se realizan en un ́unico filtro (680 − 750 nm usando la “lente-roja” de un astr ́ografo de 20 cm y un mosaico de grandes CCDs. Adem ́as del sondeo regular y profundo hasta magnitud 18.5, se hacen expos iciones cortas con una rejilla en el objetivo para tener acceso a estrellas tan brillantes como de ter cera magnitud. En este trabajo se describe de forma sucinta el programa, las observaciones y las reduccio nes. Se obtienen posiciones a nivel de 8 a 20 msa para 66,202 estrellas Hipparcos en la ́epoca actual. Estas son comparadas con Hipparcos para investigar su incertidumbre. Alrededor de un 20% de las estrellas Hipparcos obser vadas tienen posiciones inconsistentes con las predichas por el Cat ́alogo Hipparcos a un nivel 3 sigma o s uperior (alrededor de 75 msa o m ́as de discrepancia en posici ́on. Algunas estrellas ahora se observan a un segundo de arco (o 25 sigma desplazadas de la posici ́on predicha por el Cat ́alogo Hipparcos.

  13. New gout test: enhanced ex vivo cytokine production from PBMCS in common gout patients and a gout patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, T.L.; Berendsen, D.; Crisan, T.O.; Cleophas, M.C.; Janssen, M.C.; Joosten, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Monosodium urate (MSU) monohydrate crystals synergize with various toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to induce interleukin-(IL)-1beta production. Data are shown from a young male with mitochondriopathy in Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) who developed gout and underwent urate-lowering therapy (ULT) versus

  14. 2-Methylaspartic acid monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ray J. Butcher

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O—H...O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water molecules while extensive N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds link the components into a three-dimensional array.

  15. Histochemical Studies of the Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is a commonly used food ... The rats were given water ad libitum. ... that monosodium glutamate consumption may have some deleterious effects on ..... (MSG); obese rat as a model for the study of.

  16. Chemical Characterization of Urate Hydroperoxide, A Pro-oxidant Intermediate Generated by Urate Oxidation in Inflammatory and Photoinduced Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patrício, Eliziane S; Prado, Fernanda M; da Silva, Railmara P; Carvalho, Larissa A C; Prates, Marcus V C; Dadamos, Tony; Bertotti, Mauro; Di Mascio, Paolo; Kettle, Anthony J; Meotti, Flavia C

    2015-08-17

    Urate hydroperoxide is a strong oxidant generated by the combination of urate free radical and superoxide. The formation of urate hydroperoxide as an intermediate in urate oxidation is potentially responsible for the pro-oxidant effects of urate in inflammatory disorders, protein degradation, and food decomposition. To understand the molecular mechanisms that sustain the harmful effects of urate in inflammatory and oxidative stress related conditions, we report a detailed structural characterization and reactivity of urate hydroperoxide toward biomolecules. Urate hydroperoxide was synthesized by photo-oxidation and by a myeloperoxidase/hydrogen peroxide/superoxide system. Multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) and MS(3) ion fragmentation revealed that urate hydroperoxide from both sources has the same chemical structure. Urate hydroperoxide has a maximum absorption at 308 nm, ε308nm = 6.54 ± 0.38 × 10(3) M(-1) cm(-1). This peroxide decays spontaneously with a rate constant of k = 2.80 ± 0.18 × 10(-4) s(-1) and a half-life of 41 min at 22 °C. Urate hydroperoxide undergoes electrochemical reduction at potential values less negative than -0.5 V (versus Ag/AgCl). When incubated with taurine, histidine, tryptophan, lysine, methionine, cysteine, or glutathione, urate hydroperoxide reacted only with methionine, cysteine, and glutathione. The oxidation of these molecules occurred by a two-electron mechanism, generating the alcohol, hydroxyisourate. No adduct between cysteine or glutathione and urate hydroperoxide was detected. The second-order rate constant for the oxidation of glutathione by urate hydroperoxide was 13.7 ± 0.8 M(-1) s(-1). In conclusion, the oxidation of sulfur-containing biomolecules by urate hydroperoxide is likely to be a mechanism by which the pro-oxidant and damaging effects of urate are mediated in inflammatory and photo-oxidizing processes.

  17. Plasma urate and Parkinson's disease in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Reilly, Eilis J; Gao, Xiang; Weisskopf, Marc G; Chen, Honglei; Schwarzschild, Michael A; Spiegelman, Donna; Ascherio, Alberto

    2010-09-15

    Plasma urate has been consistently associated with a lower risk of Parkinson's disease in men, but it is less clear if this relation exists in women. Between 1990 and 2004, the authors conducted a nested case-control study among participants of the female-only Nurses' Health Study. In controls (n = 504), plasma urate was positively associated with age, body mass index, alcohol consumption, hypertension, and use of diuretics and was inversely associated with physical activity and postmenopausal hormone use, as expected. Mean urate levels were 5.04 mg/dL for cases (n = 101) and 4.86 mg/dL for controls (P = 0.17). The age-, smoking-, and caffeine-adjusted rate ratio comparing women in the highest (≥5.8 mg/dL) with those in the lowest (body mass index, physical activity, history of hypertension, and postmenopausal hormone use did not change the results. Unlike in men, these findings do not support the hypothesis that urate is strongly associated with lower rates of Parkinson's disease among women.

  18. Systemic staging for urate crystal deposits with dual-energy CT and ultrasound in patients with suspected gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huppertz, Alexander; Hermann, Kay-Geert A; Diekhoff, Torsten; Wagner, Moritz; Hamm, Bernd; Schmidt, Wolfgang A

    2014-06-01

    Objective of the study is to compare the diagnostic accuracy for detecting monosodium urate crystal deposits between dual-energy CT (DECT) and ultrasound (US). Sixty consecutive patients (49 men, mean age 62 years) with clinically suspected gout were included in this case-control study. DECT and US of feet, knees, hands and elbows were performed in all patients. Polarisation microscopy of synovial fluid or a score incorporating serum uric acid level, first MTP joint involvement, gender, previous patient-reported arthritis attack, cardiovascular diseases, joint redness and onset within 1 day was used as standard of reference. Standard of reference classified 39 patients as gout positive. Sixteen patients had gout and a concomitant rheumatic disease. Sensitivities for diagnosis of gout disease were 84.6 % (33/39) for DECT and 100 % (39/39) for US. Specificities were 85.7 % (18/21) for DECT and 76.2 % (16/21) for US. Positive and negative predictive values were 91.7 % (33/36) and 75.0 % (18/24) for DECT, 88.6 % (39/44) and 100 % (16/16) for US, respectively. Urate crystals were detected most frequently in MTP1 joints (DECT 20/78, US 58/78), any other toe joints (DECT 25/78, US 62/78) and knees (DECT 41/78, US 31/78). The volumetry of DECT computed a mean urate crystal deposit load of 2.1 cm(3) (SD 9.6 cm(3)). A mean effective dose of ≤0.5 mSv was estimated. DECT is more specific for the diagnosis of gout than US. However, it fails to detect small urate crystal deposits. It might be particularly useful for patients with ambivalent findings, concomitant rheumatic diseases and with non-conclusive joint aspiration.

  19. Desvenlafaxine succinate monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venu, Nalivela; Sreekanth, Bukkapattanam R; Ram, Thaimattam; Devarakonda, Surya

    2008-05-01

    The title compound {systematic name: [2-(1-hydroxycyclohexyl)-2-(4-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]dimethylammonium 3-carboxypropanoate monohydrate}, C(16)H(26)NO(2)(+) x C(4)H(5)O(4)(-) x H(2)O, is a succinate salt of O-desmethylvenlafaxine (desvenlafaxine). The present structure is one of four reported polymorphs of this salt, which is a new antidepressant drug. The carboxyl group of the succinate anion adopts a rare anti conformation and is engaged in a very short O-H...O(-) hydrogen-bond contact. Both cations and anions are involved separately in the formation of distinct O-H...O hydrogen-bonded networks. Desvenlafaxine cations and water molecules self-assemble to generate a honeycomb layer, while the succinate anions form a linear tape structure. These hydrogen-bonded networks are interlinked via N-H...O and O-H...O hydrogen bonds. The hydrogen-bonding network is so strong that desolvation and melting occur together at approximately 402 K. Thus, the crystal structure may be used to understand the thermal stability and solubility of the compound at the molecular level.

  20. Coevolution of URAT1 and Uricase during Primate Evolution: Implications for Serum Urate Homeostasis and Gout

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Philip K.; Farrar, Jennifer E.; Gaucher, Eric A.; Miner, Jeffrey N.

    2016-01-01

    Uric acid is the highly insoluble end-product of purine metabolism in humans. Serum levels exceeding the solubility threshold can trigger formation of urate crystals resulting in gouty arthritis. Uric acid is primarily excreted through the kidneys with 90% reabsorbed back into the bloodstream through the uric acid transporter URAT1. This reabsorption process is essential for the high serum uric acid levels found in humans. We discovered that URAT1 proteins from humans and baboons have higher affinity for uric acid compared with transporters from rats and mice. This difference in transport kinetics of URAT1 orthologs, along with inability of modern apes to oxidize uric acid due to loss of the uricase enzyme, prompted us to ask whether these events occurred concomitantly during primate evolution. Ancestral URAT1 sequences were computationally inferred and ancient transporters were resurrected and assayed, revealing that affinity for uric acid was increased during the evolution of primates. This molecular fine-tuning occurred between the origins of simians and their diversification into New- and Old-World monkey and ape lineages. Remarkably, it was driven in large-part by only a few amino acid replacements within the transporter. This alteration in primate URAT1 coincided with changes in uricase that greatly diminished the enzymatic activity and took place 27–77 Ma. These results suggest that the modifications to URAT1 transporters were potentially adaptive and that maintaining more constant, high levels of serum uric acid may have provided an advantage to our primate ancestors. PMID:27352852

  1. Urate-2-14C transport in the rat nephron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramp, Ronald A.; Lassiter, William E.; Gottschalk, Carl W.

    1971-01-01

    Intrarenal transport of urate-2-14C was studied in anesthetized rats using the microinjection technic. During saline diuresis, small volumes of urate-2-14C (0.24-0.48 mM) and inulin-3H were injected into surface proximal and distal convoluted tubules, and ureteral urine was collected serially. Total (74-96%) and direct (57-84%) urate recovery increased significantly the more distal the puncture site. Delayed recovery (±20%) remained approximately the same regardless of localization of the microinjection. After proximal injections, total and direct recoveries of urate-2-14C were significantly higher in rats treated with probenecid, pyrazinoate, or PAH than during saline diuresis alone, while the excretion rates were comparable after distal injection. Delayed recovery was not altered by drug administration. The decreased proximal reabsorption of urate is presumably due to an effect of the drugs on the luminal membrane of the nephron. For perfusion at high urate concentrations, nonradioactive urate was added to the injectate (0.89-1.78 mM). Urate-2-14C recovery was almost complete and there was no delayed excretion, demonstrating saturation kinetics. These findings are compatible with a carrier-mediated mechanism for urate transport probably located at the luminal border of the proximal tubular epithelium. No definitive evidence for urate secretion was found in these studies. PMID:5543881

  2. Clinical and functional characterization of URAT1 variants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Velibor Tasic

    Full Text Available Idiopathic renal hypouricaemia is an inherited form of hypouricaemia, associated with abnormal renal handling of uric acid. There is excessive urinary wasting of uric acid resulting in hypouricaemia. Patients may be asymptomatic, but the persistent urinary abnormalities may manifest as renal stone disease, and hypouricaemia may manifest as exercise induced acute kidney injury. Here we have identified Macedonian and British patients with hypouricaemia, who presented with a variety of renal symptoms and signs including renal stone disease, hematuria, pyelonephritis and nephrocalcinosis. We have identified heterozygous missense mutations in SLC22A12 encoding the urate transporter protein URAT1 and correlate these genetic findings with functional characterization. Urate handling was determined using uptake experiments in HEK293 cells. This data highlights the importance of the URAT1 renal urate transporter in determining serum urate concentrations and the clinical phenotypes, including nephrolithiasis, that should prompt the clinician to suspect an inherited form of renal hypouricaemia.

  3. Prophylaxis for acute gout flares after initiation of urate-lowering therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latourte, Augustin; Bardin, Thomas; Richette, Pascal

    2014-11-01

    This review summarizes evidence relating to prophylaxis for gout flares after the initiation of urate-lowering therapy (ULT). We searched MEDLINE via PubMed for articles published in English from 1963 to 2013 using MEsH terms covering all aspects of prophylaxis for flares. Dispersion of monosodium urate crystals during the initial phase of deposit dissolution with ULT exposes the patient to an increased rate of acute flares that could contribute to poor treatment adherence. Slow titration of ULT might decrease the risk of flares. According to the most recent international recommendation, the two first-line options for prophylaxis are low-dose colchicine (0.5 mg once or twice a day) or low-dose NSAIDs such as naproxen 250 mg orally twice a day. They can be given for up to 6 months. If these drugs are contraindicated, not tolerated or ineffective, low-dose corticosteroids (prednisone or prednisolone) might be used. Recently, reports for four trials described the efficacy of canakinumab and rilonacept, two IL-1 inhibitors, for preventing flares during the initiation of allopurinol therapy. Prophylaxis for flares induced by ULT is an important consideration in gout management. Low-dose colchicine and low-dose NSAIDs are the recommended first-line therapies. Although no IL-1 blockers are approved as prophylactic treatment, this class of drug could become an interesting option for patients with gout with intolerance or contraindication to colchicine, NSAIDs or corticosteroids. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Inhibition of urate excretion by pyrazinoate: a micropuncture study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roch-Ramel, F; Weiner, I M

    1975-12-01

    Anesthetized monkeys (Cebus albifrons) undergoing moderate mannitol diuresis were treated with infusions containing lithium urate to elevate the urate concentration in plasma to 45-68 mug/ml and containing the uricosuric drug, 2-nitroprobenecid, to enhance the renal clearance or urate. The urate/inulin clearance ratio was 0.55 +/- 0.03. When pyrazinoate was added to the infusion the clearance ratio fell to 0.26 +/- 0.02. Analysis of free-flow micropuncture samples revealed a major effect of pyrazinoate in the proximal tubule, although an additional, smaller action in the distal tubule could not be definitely excluded. When droplets containing [14C]urate and [3H]inulin were streaked on the surface of the left kidney more urate than inulin appeared in the urine from that kidney (but not the other) within the first 3 min after application. This "excess" excretion of urate could be largely eliminated by pretreatment with pyrazinoate. The results suggest that pyrazinoate inhibits secretion of urate in the proximal tubule.

  5. URAT: astrometric requirements and design history

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, N; Rakich, A; Epps, H

    2006-01-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) project aims at a highly accurate (5 mas), ground-based, all-sky survey. Requirements are presented for the optics and telescope for this 0.85 m aperture, 4.5 degree diameter field-of-view, specialized instrument, which are close to the capability of the industry. The history of the design process is presented as well as astrometric performance evaluations of the toleranced, optical design, with expected wavefront errors included.

  6. URAT: astrometric requirements and design history

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharias, Norbert; Laux, Uwe; Rakich, Andrew; Epps, Harland

    2006-06-01

    The U.S. Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) project aims at a highly accurate (5 mas), ground-based, all-sky survey. Requirements are presented for the optics and telescope for this 0.85 m aperture, 4.5 degree diameter field-of-view, specialized instrument, which are close to the capability of the industry. The history of the design process is presented as well as astrometric performance evaluations of the toleranced, optical design, with expected wavefront errors included.

  7. Effect of urate on the lactoperoxidase catalyzed oxidation of adrenaline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løvstad, Rolf A

    2004-12-01

    Lactoperoxidase is an iron containing enzyme, which is an essential component of the defense system of mammalian secretary fluids. The enzyme readily oxidizes adrenaline and other catecholamines to coloured aminochrome products. A Km-value of 1.21 mM and a catalytic constant (k = Vmax/[Enz]) of 15.5 x 10(3) min(-1) characterized the reaction between lactoperoxidase and adrenaline at pH 7.4. Urate was found to activate the enzyme catalyzed oxidation of adrenaline in a competitive manner, the effect decreasing with increasing adrenaline concentration. Lactoperoxidase was able to catalyze the oxidation of urate. However, urate was a much poorer substrate than adrenaline, and it seems unlikely that urate activates by functioning as a free, redox cycling intermediate between enzyme and adrenaline. The activation mechanism probably involves an urate-lactoperoxidase complex.

  8. 78 FR 76321 - Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... COMMISSION Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Indonesia of monosodium glutamate, provided for in subheading... United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Governments of China and Indonesia. \\1...

  9. Monosodium Luminol for Improving Brain Function in Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    whether administration of monosodium luminol-GVT (MSL-GVT, an antioxidant drug from Bach Pharma) in a rat model of Gulf war illness (GWI) would...antioxidant and anti-inflammatory drug monosodium luminol-GVT (MSL-GVT from Bach Pharma) for easing memory and mood dysfunction in a rat model of GWI...examine the efficacy of monosodium luminol-GVT (MSL-GVT from Bach Pharma) for alleviating mood and memory dysfunction in a rat model of GWI. The chosen

  10. Sodium 2-mercaptoethanesulfonate monohydrate (coenzyme M sodium salt monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Mayr

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available The 2-thioethanesulfonate anion is the smallest known coenzyme in nature (HS–CoM and plays a key role in methanogenesis by anaerobic archaea, as well as in the oxidation of alkenes by Gram-negative and Gram-positive eubacteria. The title compound, Na+·C2H5O3S2−·H2O, is the Na+ salt of HS–CoM crystallized as the monohydrate. Six O atoms form a distorted octahedral coordination geometry around the Na atom, at distances in the range 2.312 (4–2.517 (3 Å. Two O atoms of the sulfonate group, one O atom of each of three other symmetry-related sulfonate groups plus the water O atom form the coordination environment of the Na+ ion. This arrangement forms Na–O–Na layers in the crystal structure, parallel to (100.

  11. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT 46000908120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2014-04-09

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The original Harrell Industries Lot #46000908120 qualification and 16 verification samples received in October 2012 failed to meet the specification for weight percent solids. All of the pails sampled and tested contained less than 15 wt % MST solids. The lot was returned to the vendor, and in February 2014 a new qualification sample and set of 16 verification samples were received from this lot. The new lot met each of the selected specification requirements that were tested and, consequently, the material is acceptable for use in the ARP process.

  12. ANALYSIS OF HARRELL MONOSODIUM TITANATE LOT 46000824120

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2014-04-09

    Monosodium titanate (MST) for use in the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) must be qualified and verified in advance. A single qualification sample for each batch of material is sent to SRNL for analysis, as well as a statistical sampling of verification samples. The original Harrell Industries Lot #46000824120 qualification and 16 verification samples received in September 2012 failed to meet the specification for weight percent solids. All of the pails sampled and tested contained less than 15 wt % MST solids. The lot was returned to the vendor, and in February 2014 a new qualification sample and set of 14 verification samples were received from this lot. The new lot met each of the selected specification requirements that were tested and, consequently, the material is acceptable for use in the ARP process.

  13. Down-regulation of ABCG2, a urate exporter, by parathyroid hormone enhances urate accumulation in secondary hyperparathyroidism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Ryusei; Watanabe, Hiroshi; Ikegami, Komei; Enoki, Yuki; Imafuku, Tadashi; Sakaguchi, Yoshiaki; Murata, Michiya; Nishida, Kento; Miyamura, Shigeyuki; Ishima, Yu; Tanaka, Motoko; Matsushita, Kazutaka; Komaba, Hirotaka; Fukagawa, Masafumi; Otagiri, Masaki; Maruyama, Toru

    2017-03-01

    Hyperuricemia occurs with increasing frequency among patients with hyperparathyroidism. However, the molecular mechanism by which the serum parathyroid hormone (PTH) affects serum urate levels remains unknown. This was studied in uremic rats with secondary hyperparathyroidism where serum urate levels were found to be increased and urate excretion in the intestine and kidney decreased, presumably due to down-regulation of the expression of the urate exporter ABCG2 in intestinal and renal epithelial membranes. These effects were prevented by administration of the calcimimetic cinacalcet, a PTH suppressor, suggesting that PTH may down-regulate ABCG2 expression. This was directly tested in intestinal Caco-2 cells where the expression of ABCG2 on the plasma membrane was down-regulated by PTH (1-34) while its mRNA level remained unchanged. Interestingly, an inactive PTH derivative (13-34) had no effect, suggesting that a posttranscriptional regulatory system acts through the PTH receptor to regulate ABCG2 plasma membrane expression. As found in an animal study, additional clinical investigations showed that treatment with cinacalcet resulted in significant reductions in serum urate levels together with decreases in PTH levels in patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism undergoing dialysis. Thus, PTH down-regulates ABCG2 expression on the plasma membrane to suppress intestinal and renal urate excretion, and the effects of PTH can be prevented by cinacalcet treatment.

  14. Generation of mouse anti-human urate anion exchanger antibody by genetic immunization and its identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Guo-shuang; WU Di; CHEN Xiang-mei; SHI Suo-zhu; HONG Quan; ZHANG Ping; LU Yang

    2005-01-01

    Background Human urate anion exchanger (hURAT1) as a major urate transporter expressed on renal tubular epithelial cells regulates blood urate level by reabsorbing uric acid. Antibody is an important tool to study hURAT1. This study aimed, by genetic immunization, to produce mouse anti-hURAT1 polyclonal antibody with high throughput and high specificity and to detect the location of hURAT1 in human kidney.Methods Human renal total RNA was isolated and the entire cDNA of hURAT1 was amplified by RT-PCR. The sequence of intracellular high antigenicity fragment (A280 to R349) was chosen by prediction software of protein antigenicity, and its cDNA was amplified from cDNA of hURAT1, and then cloned into pBQAP-TT vector to construct recombinant plasmid pBQAP-TT-hURAT1-210 for genetic immunization. Mice were inoculated with this recombinant plasmid and two other adjuvant plasmids, pCMVi-GMCSF and pCMVi-Flt3L, which helped to enhance the antibody’s generation. After four weeks, the mice were sacrificed to obtain the anti-hURAT1 antibody from serum. The antibody was identified by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. At the same time, rabbit anti-hURAT1 antibody was produced by protein immunization. The specificity and efficiency between the rabbit and mouse anti-hURAT1 antibody were compared by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry.Results The entire cDNA of hURAT1 and cDNA of its intracellular high immunogenic fragment were amplified successfully. Recombinant plasmid pBQAP-TT-hURAT1-210 for genetic immunization was confirmed by restriction digestion and sequencing. Both the mouse anti-hURAT1 antibody and rabbit anti-hURAT1 antibody recognized 58kD hURAT1 and 64kD glycosylated hURAT1 protein bands in western blot. Immunohistochemically, hURAT1 was located at the brush border membrane of renal proximal tubular cells. In addition, the throughput and specificity of the mouse anti-hURAT1 antibody were higher than those of the rabbit anti-hURAT1 antibody

  15. Subcuticular urate accumulation in an American lobster (Homarus americanus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battison, A L

    2013-05-01

    An unusually "lumpy" lobster, Homarus americanus, was presented to the Atlantic Veterinary College Lobster Science Centre for evaluation. The lobster was weak with numerous pale, raised, and flat areas (diameter, 3-15 mm) on the exoskeleton, some of which were ulcerated. On postmortem examination, the pale areas corresponded to accumulations of viscous to free-flowing white material, which was found in only the subcuticular connective tissues. No internal organs were affected. Direct light examination of nonstained impression smears of the material showed abundant crystals resembling uric acid, amorphous urates, and sodium urate, which were readily soluble in 1 M potassium hydroxide. Wright-Giemsa stained imprints showed numerous fine, rounded, nonstaining granules free in the background and within individual round cells. Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy confirmed the presence of urates or mixed urate salts. Hemolymph plasma urea (1.7 mmol/liter) and uric acid (287 μmol/liter) concentrations were slightly higher than those seen with 36-hour emersion. Histologic sections showed aggregates of vacuolated mononuclear cells in the loose subcuticular connective tissue occasionally infiltrating between underlying muscle fibers. Grossly visible urate deposits are occasionally documented in land crabs and rarely reported in the blue crab; none, however, are associated with deformation of the cuticle. Possible etiologies include increased uric acid intake or production or decreased excretion. Anecdotal reports of similarly affected lobsters have been received but are intermittent and undocumented.

  16. Colloidal properties of biomacromolecular solutions: Towards urate oxidase crystal design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonneté, Françoise

    2013-02-01

    Crystallization of biological macromolecules is governed by weak interaction forces, attractive and repulsive. Knowledge of solution properties, via second virial coefficient measurements, makes it possible to select physico-chemical parameters that govern and control phase diagrams and thus to grow crystals for specific applications (bio-crystallography or pharmaceutical processes). We highlight here with urate oxidase a salting-in effect that increases its solubility and the depletion effect of amphiphilic polymer, at a polymer concentration above its cmc, in order to grow diffracting crystals of urate oxidase. These two effects were used to grow crystals for high pressure crystallography and in a purification process.

  17. 40 CFR 721.3848 - Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-, monosodium salt. 721.3848 Section 721.3848 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Specific Chemical Substances § 721.3848 Glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt. (a... glycine, N-(carboxymethyl)-N-dodecyl-, monosodium salt (PMN P-00-469; CAS No. 141321-68-8) is subject to...

  18. DEVELOPMENT OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST) PURCHASE SPECIFICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D

    2006-04-30

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) evaluated the previous monosodium titanate (MST) purchase specifications for particle size and strontium decontamination factor. Based on the measured particle size and filtration performance characteristics of several MST samples with simulated waste solutions and various filter membranes we recommend changing the particle size specification as follows. The recommended specification varies with the size and manufacturer of the filter membrane as shown below. We recommend that future batches of MST received at SRS be tested for particle size and filtration performance. This will increase the available database and provide increased confidence that particle size parameters are an accurate prediction of filtration performance. Testing demonstrated the feasibility of a non-radiochemical method for evaluating strontium removal performance of MST samples. Using this analytical methodology we recommend that the purchase specification include the requirement that the MST exhibits a strontium DF factor of >1.79 upon contact with a simulated waste solution with composition as reported for simulated waste solution SWS-7-2005-1 in Table 1 and containing 5.2 to 5.7 mg L{sup -1} strontium with 0.1 g L{sup -1} of the MST. We also recommend performing additional tests with these simulants and MST samples and, if available, new MST samples, to determine the reproducibility and increase the available database for the measurements by the ICP-ES instrument. These measurements will provide increased confidence that the non-radiological method provides a reliable method for evaluating the strontium and actinide removal performance for MST samples.

  19. Using serum urate as a validated surrogate end point for flares in patients with gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morillon, Melanie B; Stamp, Lisa; Taylor, William;

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in men over 40 years of age. Long-term urate-lowering therapy is considered a key strategy for effective gout management. The primary outcome measure for efficacy in clinical trials of urate-lowering therapy is serum urate levels......, effectively acting as a surrogate for patient-centred outcomes such as frequency of gout attacks or pain. Yet it is not clearly demonstrated that the strength of the relationship between serum urate and clinically relevant outcomes is sufficiently strong for serum urate to be considered an adequate surrogate...

  20. Oxidation of urate in human skeletal muscle during exercise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hellsten, Ylva; Tullson, P. C.; Richter, Erik

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether high metabolic stress to skeletal muscle, induced by intensive exercise, would lead to an oxidation of urate to allantoin in the exercised muscle. Seven healthy male subjects performed short term (4.39 +/- 0.04 [+/-SE] min) exhaustive cy...

  1. Prevalence of URAT1 allelic variants in the Roma population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stiburkova, Blanka; Gabrikova, Dana; Čepek, Pavel; Šimek, Pavel; Kristian, Pavol; Cordoba-Lanus, Elizabeth; Claverie-Martin, Felix

    2016-12-01

    The Roma represents a transnational ethnic group, with a current European population of 8-10 million. The evolutionary process that had the greatest impact on the gene pool of the Roma population is called the founder effect. Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a rare heterogenous inherited disorder characterized by impaired renal urate reabsorption. The affected individuals are predisposed to recurrent episodes of exercise-induced nonmyoglobinuric acute kidney injury and nephrolithiasis. To date, more than 150 patients with a loss-of-function mutation for the SLC22A12 (URAT1) gene have been found, most of whom are Asians. However, RHUC 1 patients have been described in a variety of ethnic groups (e.g., Arab Israelis, Iraqi Jews, Caucasians, and Roma) and in geographically noncontiguous countries. This study confirms our previous findings regarding the high frequency of SLC22A12 variants observed. Frequencies of the c.1245_1253del and c.1400C>T variants were found to be 1.92% and 5.56%, respectively, in a subgroup of the Roma population from five regions in three countries: Slovakia, Czech Republic, and Spain. Our findings suggested that the common dysfunction allelic variants of URAT1 exist in the general Roma population and thus renal hypouricemia should be kept in differential diagnostic algorithm on Roma patients with defect in renal tubular urate transport. This leads to confirm that the genetic drift in the Roma have increased the prevalence of hereditary disorders caused by very rare variants in major population.

  2. Microbial urate catabolism: characterization of HpyO, a non-homologous isofunctional isoform of the flavoprotein urate hydroxylase HpxO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michiel, Magalie; Perchat, Nadia; Perret, Alain; Tricot, Sabine; Papeil, Aude; Besnard, Marielle; de Berardinis, Véronique; Salanoubat, Marcel; Fischer, Cécile

    2012-12-01

    In aerobic cells, urate is oxidized to 5-hydroxyisourate by two distinct enzymes: a coenzyme-independent urate oxidase (EC 1.7.3.3) found in eukaryotes and bacteria like Bacillus subtilis and a prokaryotic flavoprotein urate hydroxylase (HpxO) originally found in some Klebsiella species. More cases of analogous or non-homologous isofunctional enzymes (NISE) for urate catabolism have been hypothesized by inspecting bacterial genomes. Here, we used a functional complementation approach in which a candidate gene for urate oxidation is integrated by homologous recombination in the Acinetobacter baylyi ADP1 genome at the locus of its original hpxO gene. Catabolism of urate was restored in A. baylyi ADP1 expressing a FAD-dependent protein from Xanthomonas campestris, representing a new urate hydroxylase family that we called HpyO. This enzyme was kinetically characterized and compared with other HpxO enzymes. In contrast to the latter, HpyO is a typical Michaelian enzyme. This work provides the first experimental evidences for the function of HpyO in bacterial urate catabolism and establishes it as a NISE of HpxO. © 2012 Society for Applied Microbiology and Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  3. Urat1-Uox double knockout mice are experimental animal models of renal hypouricemia and exercise-induced acute kidney injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosoyamada, Makoto; Tsurumi, Yu; Hirano, Hidenori; Tomioka, Naoko H; Sekine, Yuko; Morisaki, Takayuki; Uchida, Shunya

    2016-12-01

    Renal hypouricemia (RHUC) is a hereditary disease characterized by a low level of plasma urate but with normal urinary urate excretion. RHUC type 1 is caused by mutations of the urate transporter URAT1 gene (SLC22A12). However, the plasma urate levels of URAT1 knockout mice are no different from those of wild-type mice. In the present study, a double knockout mouse, in which the URAT1 and uricase (Uox) genes were deleted (Urat1-Uox-DKO), were used as an experimental animal model of RHUC type 1 to investigate RHUC and excise-induced acute kidney injury (EIAKI). Mice were given a variable content of allopurinol for one week followed by HPLC measurement of urate and creatinine concentrations in spot urine and blood from the tail. The urinary excretion of urate in Urat1-Uox-DKO mice was approximately 25 times higher than those of humans. With allopurinol, the plasma urate levels of Urat1-Uox-DKO mice were lower than those of Uox-KO mice. There were no differences in the urinary urate excretions between Urat1-Uox-DKO and Uox-KO mice administered with 9 mg allopurinol /100 g feed. In the absence of allopurinol, plasma creatinine levels of some Urat1-Uox-DKO mice were higher than those of Uox-KO mice. Consequently, hypouricemia and normouricosuria may indicate that the Urat1-Uox-DKO mouse administered with allopurinol may represent a suitable animal model of RHUC type 1. Urat1-Uox-DKO mice without allopurinol exhibited acute kidney injury, thus providing additional benefit as a potential animal model for EIAKI. Finally, our data indicate that allopurinol appears to provide prophylactic effects for EIAKI.

  4. A Search for Interstellar Monohydric Thiols

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorai, Prasanta; Das, Ankan; Das, Amaresh; Sivaraman, Bhalamurugan; Etim, Emmanuel E.; Chakrabarti, Sandip K.

    2017-02-01

    It has been pointed out by various astronomers that a very interesting relationship exists between interstellar alcohols and the corresponding thiols (sulfur analog of alcohols) as far as the spectroscopic properties and chemical abundances are concerned. Monohydric alcohols such as methanol and ethanol are widely observed and 1-propanol was recently claimed to have been seen in Orion KL. Among the monohydric thiols, methanethiol (chemical analog of methanol) has been firmly detected in Orion KL and Sgr B2(N2) and ethanethiol (chemical analog of ethanol) has been observed in Sgr B2(N2), though the confirmation of this detection is yet to come. It is very likely that higher order thiols could be observed in these regions. In this paper, we study the formation of monohydric alcohols and their thiol analogs. Based on our quantum chemical calculation and chemical modeling, we find that the Tg conformer of 1-propanethiol is a good candidate of astronomical interest. We present various spectroscopically relevant parameters of this molecule to assist in its future detection in the interstellar medium.

  5. Monosodium glutamate induced histomorphometric changes in thyroid gland of adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja Rani1, Kamlesh Khatri2, Renu Chauhan1

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium Glutamate (MSG is widely used as a flavor enhanc-er throughout the world. MSG contains glutamic acid, sodium and water. Glutamic acid serves as a neurotransmitter vital to the transmission of nerve impulses in many parts of the central nerv-ous system, and in excess it may cause neurotoxicity leading to endocrinal disorders. The present study was conducted to eva-luate histomorphometrically the effects of monosodium glutamate on the thyroid gland of adult albino rats. The experimental group was given 4mg/g body weight of monosodium glutamate intra-peritoneally for seven days. Controls were maintained. After thirty days of the last dose, all the animals were sacrificed, their thyroid glands were dissected out, processed and sections stained with haematoxylin and eosin (H&E and Periodic Acid Schiff (PAS and examined for histomorphometry under Zeiss light microscope and Image Pro-Express Analyzer. The results of the present study showed a significant increase in the body weight of the MSG treated animals, although these animals consumed less food than the controls. A significant increase in the size of the follicles ac-companied by an increase in the mean height and area of the folli-cular cells and decreased colloid in some of the follicles was ob-served, pointing towards an increase in thyroid gland activity.

  6. 21 CFR 520.608 - Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. 520.608 Section 520.608 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Dicloxacillin sodium monohydrate capsules. (a) Specifications. Each capsule contains dicloxacillin sodium...

  7. Mendelian randomization analysis to examine for a causal effect of urate on bone mineral density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Topless, Ruth; Flynn, Tanya; Cadzow, Murray; Bolland, Mark J; Merriman, Tony R

    2015-06-01

    In observational studies, serum urate concentrations are positively associated with bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of fragility fractures, raising the possibility that urate is a direct mediator of bone density. We used Mendelian randomization analysis to examine whether urate has a causal effect on BMD. We analyzed data from the Generation 3 cohort in the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) (N = 2501 total; 1265 male, 1236 female). A weighted genetic urate score was calculated using the SLC2A9, ABCG2, SLC17A1, SLC22A11, and SLC22A12 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that explains 3.4% of the variance in serum urate. Mendelian randomization analysis was performed using the two-stage least squares method with >80% power at α = 0.05 to detect an effect size equivalent to that observed in the ordinary least squares analysis between serum urate and total femur BMD. A strong association between serum urate and BMD was observed in the crude ordinary least squares analysis (total femur crude beta = 0.47, p = 1.7E-51). In the two-stage least squares analysis using the weighted genetic urate score as the instrumental variable, no significant relationship was observed between serum urate and BMD (total femur crude beta =-0.36, p = 0.06). Similar findings were observed in both the male and female subgroups, and there was no evidence for causality when individual SNPs were analyzed. Serum urate is strongly associated with BMD. However, controlling for confounders by Mendelian randomization analysis does not provide evidence that increased urate has a causal effect on increasing BMD. © 2014 American Society for Bone and Mineral Research.

  8. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Mateo Leach, Irene; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with se

  9. Genome-wide association analyses identify 18 new loci associated with serum urate concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Köttgen, Anna; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Vitart, Veronique; Krumsiek, Jan; Hundertmark, Claudia; Pistis, Giorgio; Ruggiero, Daniela; O'Seaghdha, Conall M; Haller, Toomas; Yang, Qiong; Tanaka, Toshiko; Johnson, Andrew D; Kutalik, Zoltán; Smith, Albert V; Shi, Julia; Struchalin, Maksim; Middelberg, Rita P S; Brown, Morris J; Gaffo, Angelo L; Pirastu, Nicola; Li, Guo; Hayward, Caroline; Zemunik, Tatijana; Huffman, Jennifer; Yengo, Loic; Zhao, Jing Hua; Demirkan, Ayse; Feitosa, Mary F; Liu, Xuan; Malerba, Giovanni; Lopez, Lorna M; van der Harst, Pim; Li, Xinzhong; Kleber, Marcus E; Hicks, Andrew A; Nolte, Ilja M; Johansson, Asa; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Bakker, Stephan J L; Peden, John F; Dehghan, Abbas; Steri, Maristella; Tenesa, Albert; Lagou, Vasiliki; Salo, Perttu; Mangino, Massimo; Rose, Lynda M; Lehtimäki, Terho; Woodward, Owen M; Okada, Yukinori; Tin, Adrienne; Müller, Christian; Oldmeadow, Christopher; Putku, Margus; Czamara, Darina; Kraft, Peter; Frogheri, Laura; Thun, Gian Andri; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti Kjartan; Harris, Tamara B; Launer, Lenore J; McArdle, Patrick; Shuldiner, Alan R; Boerwinkle, Eric; Coresh, Josef; Schmidt, Helena; Schallert, Michael; Martin, Nicholas G; Montgomery, Grant W; Kubo, Michiaki; Nakamura, Yusuke; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Munroe, Patricia B; Samani, Nilesh J; Jacobs, David R; Liu, Kiang; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Rotter, Jerome I; Psaty, Bruce M; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Devuyst, Olivier; Navarro, Pau; Kolcic, Ivana; Hastie, Nicholas; Balkau, Beverley; Froguel, Philippe; Esko, Tõnu; Salumets, Andres; Khaw, Kay Tee; Langenberg, Claudia; Wareham, Nicholas J; Isaacs, Aaron; Kraja, Aldi; Zhang, Qunyuan; Wild, Philipp S; Scott, Rodney J; Holliday, Elizabeth G; Org, Elin; Viigimaa, Margus; Bandinelli, Stefania; Metter, Jeffrey E; Lupo, Antonio; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Lattka, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Theis, Fabian; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Bruinenberg, Marcel; Stolk, Ronald P; Kooner, Jaspal S; Zhang, Weihua; Winkelmann, Bernhard R; Boehm, Bernhard O; Lucae, Susanne; Penninx, Brenda W; Smit, Johannes H; Curhan, Gary; Mudgal, Poorva; Plenge, Robert M; Portas, Laura; Persico, Ivana; Kirin, Mirna; Wilson, James F; Mateo Leach, Irene; van Gilst, Wiek H; Goel, Anuj; Ongen, Halit; Hofman, Albert; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Imboden, Medea; von Eckardstein, Arnold; Cucca, Francesco; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Piras, Maria Grazia; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Ernst, Florian; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Prokopenko, Inga; Stumvoll, Michael; Jula, Antti; Perola, Markus; Salomaa, Veikko; Shin, So-Youn; Spector, Tim D; Sala, Cinzia; Ridker, Paul M; Kähönen, Mika; Viikari, Jorma; Hengstenberg, Christian; Nelson, Christopher P; Meschia, James F; Nalls, Michael A; Sharma, Pankaj; Singleton, Andrew B; Kamatani, Naoyuki; Zeller, Tanja; Burnier, Michel; Attia, John; Laan, Maris; Klopp, Norman; Hillege, Hans L; Kloiber, Stefan; Choi, Hyon; Pirastu, Mario; Tore, Silvia; Probst-Hensch, Nicole M; Völzke, Henry; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Parsa, Afshin; Schmidt, Reinhold; Whitfield, John B; Fornage, Myriam; Gasparini, Paolo; Siscovick, David S; Polašek, Ozren; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Bouatia-Naji, Nabila; Metspalu, Andres; Loos, Ruth J F; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Borecki, Ingrid B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H R; Chambers, John C; März, Winfried; Pramstaller, Peter P; Snieder, Harold; Gyllensten, Ulf; Wright, Alan F; Navis, Gerjan; Watkins, Hugh; Witteman, Jacqueline C M; Sanna, Serena; Schipf, Sabine; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Tönjes, Anke; Ripatti, Samuli; Soranzo, Nicole; Toniolo, Daniela; Chasman, Daniel I; Raitakari, Olli; Kao, W H Linda; Ciullo, Marina; Fox, Caroline S; Caulfield, Mark; Bochud, Murielle; Gieger, Christian

    Elevated serum urate concentrations can cause gout, a prevalent and painful inflammatory arthritis. By combining data from >140,000 individuals of European ancestry within the Global Urate Genetics Consortium (GUGC), we identified and replicated 28 genome-wide significant loci in association with

  10. 78 FR 57881 - Monosodium Glutamate from China and Indonesia; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Monosodium Glutamate from China and Indonesia; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty... Indonesia of monosodium glutamate, provided for in subheading 2922.42.10 of the Harmonized Tariff...

  11. Monosodium glutamate and aspartame in perceived pain in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellisca, María Y; Latorre, José I

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of dietary elimination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame on perceived pain in fibromyalgia. A total of 72 female patients with fibromyalgia were randomized to discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame (n = 36) or waiting list (n = 36). Patients were requested to rate their pain using a seven-point scale. Comparisons between both groups showed no significant differences on pain referred during the baseline or after the elimination of dietary MSG and aspartame. The discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame did not improve the symptoms of fibromyalgia.

  12. Serum urate and probability of dopaminergic deficit in early ‘Parkinson disease’

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Marek, Kenneth; Eberly, Shirley; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Jennings, Danna; Seibyl, John; Ascherio, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    Objective Investigate whether higher levels of urate, an antioxidant linked to a lower likelihood of developing Parkinson disease (PD), is also a predictor of having a dopamine transporter brain scan without evidence of dopaminergic deficit (SWEDD). Methods In a cross-sectional study of 797 mildly affected, untreated parkinsonian subjects diagnosed with early PD in the Parkinson Research Examination of CEP-1347 Trial (PRECEPT), we investigated the relationship at baseline between serum urate and striatal dopamine transporter density, determined by single-photon emission computed-tomography of iodine-123-labeled 2-β-carboxymethoxy-3-β-(4-iodophenyl)tropane ([123I]β-CIT) uptake. A SWEDD was defined as lowest putamen [123I]β-CIT > 80% age-expected putamen DAT density. Results Odds of having a SWEDD rose across increasing quintiles of urate level, with an age- and gender-adjusted odds ratio of 3.2 comparing the highest to the lowest urate quintile; 95% CI: 1.5 to 7.2; p for trend = 0.0003) and remained significant after adjusting for potential confounding factors. The association was significant in men but not women, regardless of whether common or sex-specific quintiles of urate were used. Conclusions Higher levels of urate were associated with a greater likelihood of a SWEDD amongst subjects with early untreated parkinsonism in the PRECEPT study. The findings support the diagnostic utility of urate in combination with other determinants. PMID:21538532

  13. Nrf2 signaling contributes to the neuroprotective effects of urate against 6-OHDA toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ning Zhang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Mounting evidence shows that urate may become a biomarker of Parkinson's disease (PD diagnosis and prognosis and a neuroprotectant candidate for PD therapy. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying its neuroprotective actions remain poorly understood. RESULTS: In this study, we showed that urate pretreatment protected dopaminergic cell line (SH-SY5Y and MES23.5 against 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA- and hydrogen peroxide- induced cell damage. Urate was found to be accumulated into SH-SY5Y cells after 30 min treatment. Moreover, urate induced NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 accumulation by inhibiting its ubiquitinationa and degradation, and also promoted its nuclear translocation; however, it did not modulate Nrf2 mRNA level or Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (Keap1 expression. In addition, urate markedly up-regulated the transcription and protein expression of γ-glutamate-cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (γ-GCLC and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, both of which are controlled by Nrf2 activity. Furthermore, Nrf2 knockdown by siRNA abolished the intracellular glutathione augmentation and the protection exerted by urate pretreatment. CONCLUSION: Our findings demonstrated that urate treatment may result in Nrf2-targeted anti-oxidant genes transcription and expression by reducing Nrf2 ubiquitination and degradation and promoting its nuclear translocation, and thus offer neuroprotection on dopaminergic cells against oxidative stresses.

  14. Urate oxidase purification by salting-in crystallization: towards an alternative to chromatography.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marion Giffard

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Rasburicase (Fasturtec® or Elitek®, Sanofi-Aventis, the recombinant form of urate oxidase from Aspergillus flavus, is a therapeutic enzyme used to prevent or decrease the high levels of uric acid in blood that can occur as a result of chemotherapy. It is produced by Sanofi-Aventis and currently purified via several standard steps of chromatography. This work explores the feasibility of replacing one or more chromatography steps in the downstream process by a crystallization step. It compares the efficacy of two crystallization techniques that have proven successful on pure urate oxidase, testing them on impure urate oxidase solutions. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we investigate the possibility of purifying urate oxidase directly by crystallization from the fermentation broth. Based on attractive interaction potentials which are known to drive urate oxidase crystallization, two crystallization routes are compared: a by increased polymer concentration, which induces a depletion attraction and b by decreased salt concentration, which induces attractive interactions via a salting-in effect. We observe that adding polymer, a very efficient way to crystallize pure urate oxidase through the depletion effect, is not an efficient way to grow crystals from impure solution. On the other hand, we show that dialysis, which decreases salt concentration through its strong salting-in effect, makes purification of urate oxidase from the fermentation broth possible. CONCLUSIONS: The aim of this study is to compare purification efficacy of two crystallization methods. Our findings show that crystallization of urate oxidase from the fermentation broth provides purity comparable to what can be achieved with one chromatography step. This suggests that, in the case of urate oxidase, crystallization could be implemented not only for polishing or concentration during the last steps of purification, but also as an initial capture step, with minimal

  15. Trapping crystal nucleation of cholesterol monohydrate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomonov, I.; Weygand, M.J.; Kjær, K.

    2005-01-01

    Crystalline nucleation of cholesterol at the air-water interface has been studied via grazing incidence x-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation. The various stages of cholesterol molecular assembly from monolayer to three bilayers incorporating interleaving hydrogen-bonded water layers...... in a monoclinic cholesterol . H2O phase, has been monitored and their structures characterized to near atomic resolution. Crystallographic evidence is presented that this multilayer phase is similar to that of a reported metastable cholesterol phase of undetermined structure obtained from bile before...... transformation to the triclinic phase of cholesterol . H2O, the thermodynamically stable macroscopic form. According to grazing incidence x-ray diffraction measurements and crystallographic data, a transformation from the monoclinic film structure to a multilayer of the stable monohydrate phase involves...

  16. 2-Methyl­aspartic acid monohydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Brewer, Greg; Burton, Aaron S.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Butcher, Ray J.

    2013-01-01

    The title compound, C5H9NO4·H2O, is an isomer of the α-amino acid glutamic acid that crystallizes from water in its zwitterionic form as a monohydrate. It is not one of the 20 proteinogenic α-amino acids that are used in living systems and differs from the natural amino acids in that it has an α-methyl group rather than an α-H atom. In the crystal, an O—H⋯O hydrogen bond is present between the acid and water mol­ecules while extensive N—H⋯O and O—H⋯O hydrogen bonds link the components into a ...

  17. Rotavirus gastroenteritis-associated urinary ammonium acid urate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokoyama, Tadafumi; Sugimoto, Naotoshi; Kato, Eiji; Ohta, Kazuhide; Ishikawa, Sayaka; Ueno, Kazuyuki; Shimizu, Masaki; Yachie, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    Although ammonium acid urate (AAU) calculi are extremely rare renal stone components, it was recently found that many urinary tract calculi that cause post-renal renal failure in rotavirus (RV) gastroenteritis are AAU calculi. The mechanism of AAU calculi development in RV gastroenteritis has not been fully elucidated. We analyzed data from eight RV gastroenteritis patients who transiently had AAU crystals in their urinary sediment. In these patients, formation of AAU crystals occurred earlier than the formation of AAU calculi. No difference was observed in serum and urine uric acid levels between RV gastroenteritis patients with or without AAU crystals. Interestingly, fractional excretion of sodium was extremely low among patients with AAU crystals. These results suggest that the formation of AAU crystals might not be due to excretion of uric acid, but excretion of sodium.

  18. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Binary star discoveries in the URAT1 catalog (Nicholson, 2015)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholson, M. P.

    2015-05-01

    Astrometric and photometric data are presented for 9450 common proper motion binary star system using results from the first U.S. Naval Observatory Astrometric Robotic Telescope Catalog (URAT1) (1 data file).

  19. Phase IV testing of monosodium titanate adsorption with radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1999-12-08

    Testing examined the extent and rate of strontium, plutonium, uranium, and neptunium removal from radioactive waste solutions at 4.5M and 7.5M in Na concentration by adsorption onto monosodium titanate (MST) at 0.2 g/L. Results indicate that the extents and rates of strontium, plutonium, and neptunium removal in radioactive waste solutions agree well with those previously measured using simulated waste solutions. Uranium removal in the 7.5M Na radioactive waste solution proved similar to that observed with simulated waste solutions. Uranium removal in the 4.5M Na radioactive waste solution proved lower than expected from previous simulant tests. The authors conclude that MST adsorption data obtained from simulated waste solutions provide reliable predictions for use in facility design and flowsheet modeling studies in the Salt Disposition Alternatives program.

  20. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG), as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium...... reduction was investigated.Methods and Results: The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken) containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0-1.2%) and MSG (0-1.2%). They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups...... that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups.Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition...

  1. 78 FR 74115 - Monosodium Glutamate From the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-10

    ... Indonesia: Postponement of Preliminary Determination in the Countervailing Duty Investigations AGENCY... (PRC)); Nicholas Czajkowski at (202) 482- 1395 (the Republic of Indonesia (Indonesia)), AD/CVD... investigations of monosodium glutamate from Indonesia and the PRC.\\1\\ Currently, the preliminary...

  2. Molecular Structure of Aminoguanidine Sulfate Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hong-yan; ZHANG Tong-lai; QIAO Xiao-jing; YANG Li; SHAO Feng-lei

    2006-01-01

    The single crystal of aminoguanidine sulfate monohydrate [(AG)2SO4·H2O] is obtained and its structure is determined by X-ray diffraction analysis. The compound crystallizes in orthorhombic system with space group Pnma and the empirical formula C2H16N8O5S. The unit cell parameters are as follows: a=0.6759(2)nm, b=1.4131(5)nm, c=1.1650(4)nm, V=1.1128(6)n m3, Z=4, Dc=1.578g/cm3, F(000)=560, s=1.069, μ(MoKα)=0.318mm-1. The final R and Wr are 0.0312 and 0.0833, respectively. The title compound is an ionic compound and its structure unit consists of two aminoguanidium cations, one sulfate anion and one crystal water molecule, which are interconnected by electrostatic forces and hydrogen bond s into net structure, making the title compound very stable. Under a linear heat ingrate, the thermal decomposition processes of (AG)2SO4·H2O have one en dothermal dehydration stage, one melting process and one exothermic decomposition stage at 50-400℃, and can evolve abundant gas products.

  3. SLC2A9 is a high-capacity urate transporter in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark J Caulfield

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serum uric acid levels in humans are influenced by diet, cellular breakdown, and renal elimination, and correlate with blood pressure, metabolic syndrome, diabetes, gout, and cardiovascular disease. Recent genome-wide association scans have found common genetic variants of SLC2A9 to be associated with increased serum urate level and gout. The SLC2A9 gene encodes a facilitative glucose transporter, and it has two splice variants that are highly expressed in the proximal nephron, a key site for urate handling in the kidney. We investigated whether SLC2A9 is a functional urate transporter that contributes to the longstanding association between urate and blood pressure in man. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We expressed both SLC2A9 splice variants in Xenopus laevis oocytes and found both isoforms mediate rapid urate fluxes at concentration ranges similar to physiological serum levels (200-500 microM. Because SLC2A9 is a known facilitative glucose transporter, we also tested whether glucose or fructose influenced urate transport. We found that urate is transported by SLC2A9 at rates 45- to 60-fold faster than glucose, and demonstrated that SLC2A9-mediated urate transport is facilitated by glucose and, to a lesser extent, fructose. In addition, transport is inhibited by the uricosuric benzbromarone in a dose-dependent manner (Ki = 27 microM. Furthermore, we found urate uptake was at least 2-fold greater in human embryonic kidney (HEK cells overexpressing SLC2A9 splice variants than nontransfected kidney cells. To confirm that our findings were due to SLC2A9, and not another urate transporter, we showed that urate transport was diminished by SLC2A9-targeted siRNA in a second mammalian cell line. In a cohort of men we showed that genetic variants of SLC2A9 are associated with reduced urinary urate clearance, which fits with common variation at SLC2A9 leading to increased serum urate. We found no evidence of association with hypertension (odds ratio

  4. Treatment approaches and adherence to urate-lowering therapy for patients with gout

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aung T

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Thanda Aung,* Gihyun Myung,* John D FitzGerald Division of Rheumatology/Department of Internal Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA, USA *These authors contributed equally to this work Abstract: Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis characterized by painful disabling acute attacks. It is caused by hyperuricemia and deposition of urate crystals in and around the joints. Long-standing untreated hyperuricemia can lead to chronic arthritis with joint damage, tophi formation and urate nephropathy. Gout is associated with significant morbidity and health care associated cost. The goal of long-term therapy is to lower the serum urate level to promote dissolution of urate crystals, reduce recurrent acute gout flares, resolve tophi and prevent joint damage. Despite the presence of established gout treatment guidelines and effective medications to manage gout, patient outcomes are often poor. Etiology for these shortcomings is multifactorial including both physician and patient characteristics. Poor adherence to urate-lowering therapy (ULT is prevalent and is a significant contributor to poor patient outcomes. This article reviews the treatment strategies for the management of hyperuricemia in chronic gout, gaps in quality of care in gout management, factors contributing to poor adherence to ULT and discusses potential interventions to achieve improved gout-related outcomes. These interventions include initiation of prophylactic anti-inflammatory medication when starting ULT, frequent follow-ups, regular serum urate monitoring and improved patient education, which can be achieved through pharmacist- or nurse-assisted programs. Interventions such as these could improve adherence to ULT and, ultimately, result in optimal gout-related outcomes. Keywords: gout, adherence, urate-lowering therapy 

  5. Urate-lowering therapy for the management of gout: a summary of 2 Cochrane reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kydd, Alison S; Seth, Rakhi; Buchbinder, Rachelle; Falzon, Louise; Edwards, Christopher J; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Bombardier, Claire

    2014-09-01

    To systematically review the evidence on the efficacy, safety, and cost-effectiveness of urate-lowering therapy for gout: xanthine oxidase inhibitors (allopurinol and febuxostat), uricosuric medications (benzbromarone, probenecid and sulfinpyrazone), and uricases (pegloticase and rasburicase). A systematic review was performed as part of the 3e (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) Initiative on Gout. The primary efficacy outcomes were frequency of acute gout attacks, study participant withdrawal due to adverse events, and cost-effectiveness. Serum urate-lowering was a secondary outcome and was the most commonly reported outcome in the included trials. The search identified 17 articles for efficacy, 31 for safety, and 3 for cost-effectiveness. The main outcome described in these studies was serum urate-lowering. Allopurinol, febuxostat, and pegloticase are all effective at lowering serum urate compared to placebo and febuxostat (≥ 80 mg) was more effective at lowering serum urate than allopurinol. Compared to probenecid, benzbromarone was more effective at lowering serum urate. Regarding acute gout attacks, pegloticase and febuxostat (≥ 120 mg) resulted in more acute attacks than placebo. Regarding the primary safety outcome, more withdrawals due to adverse events were seen only when pegloticase was compared to placebo. The two trials of cost-effectiveness were inconclusive. There is currently moderate quality data supporting the efficacy and safety of allopurinol, febuxostat, benzbromarone, and probenecid in gout. Pegloticase, while efficacious, is associated with more withdrawals due to adverse events and infusion reactions. There is insufficient evidence currently with respect to the cost-effectiveness or the most optimal sequencing of urate-lowering therapy.

  6. The tetrapeptide Z-Leu-Aib-Pro-Val-OBg monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessmann, Renate; Schiemann, Norbert; Brückner, Hans; Petratos, Kyriacos

    2003-08-01

    The intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern of Z-Leu-Aib-Pro-Val-OBg monohydrate [(N-benzhydrylamino)carbonylmethyl N-benzyloxycarbonyl-alpha-aminoisobutyrylprolylvalinate monohydrate], C(43)H(55)N(5)O(8).H(2)O, is unusual for a tetrapeptide because, in addition to a 1-->4 hydrogen bond, a second hydrogen bond of the type 1-->5 is formed. This folding reflects the intramolecular hydrogen-bonding pattern that this amino acid sequence adopts in the naturally occurring peptaibol alamethicin.

  7. Effect of pharmacological lowering of plasma urate on exercise-induced oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAnulty, S R; Hosick, P A; McAnulty, L S; Quindry, J C; Still, L; Hudson, M B; Dibarnardi, A N; Milne, G L; Morrow, J D; Austin, M D

    2007-12-01

    Urate is a metabolic end product of purine metabolism that contributes about 66% of the antioxidant capacity of plasma. The objective of this study was to evaluate the importance of plasma urate as an antioxidant using pharmacological lowering and examining the impact on plasma antioxidant capacity and oxidative stress after intense exercise. Fifteen subjects ran for 45 min at approximately 80% VO2 max under the influence of probenecid (1 g/d) (PRO) or placebo (PLA) in a double-blind, crossover design. Blood samples obtained at baseline, pre-exercise, and immediately post-exercise were analyzed for F2-isoprostanes, lipid hydroperoxides (LHs), ferric-reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), urate, ascorbate (AA), and nitrite. A 2 (group)x2 (time) repeated-measures analysis of variance (ANOVA), one-way ANOVA, Tukey-Kramer multiple comparison tests, and Student's t tests were used for statistical analysis. PRO exhibited lowered urate and FRAP compared with baseline (purate and a diminished antioxidant capacity within the plasma compartment.

  8. Monosodium glutamate intake, dietary patterns and asthma in Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumin Shi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. METHODS: Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. RESULTS: Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between 'traditional' (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable food pattern and asthma. No association between 'macho' (rich in meat and alcohol, 'sweet tooth' (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt 'vegetable rich' (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. CONCLUSION: While a 'Traditional' food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma.

  9. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selamat Jinap

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Excessive dietary sodium intake causes several diseases, such as hypertension, cardiovascular and renal disease, etc. Hence, reducing sodium intake has been highly recommended. In this study the effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG, as an umami substance, on saltiness and sodium reduction was investigated. Methods and Results: The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl (0–1.2% and MSG (0–1.2%. They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups and the overall acceptability were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant effect of spiciness level on the saltiness and umami taste of both soups. The optimum levels of combined NaCl and MSG for overall acceptance in the chili and curry soups were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results showed that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups. Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition of appropriate amounts of MSG, while maintaining the acceptability of the spicy soups. It was also proven that it is feasible to reduce sodium intake by replacing NaCl with MSG.

  10. Adsorption of biometals to monosodium titanate in biological environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOBBS, D.T.; MESSER, R. L. W.; LEWIS, J. B.; CLICK, D. R. LOCKWOOD, P. E.; WATAHA, J. C.

    2005-06-06

    Monosodium titanate (MST) is an inorganic sorbent/ion exchanger developed for the removal of radionuclides from nuclear wastes. We investigated the ability of MST to bind Cd(II), Hg(II), or Au(III) to establish the utility of MST for applications in environmental decontamination or medical therapy (drug delivery). Adsorption isotherms for MST were determined at pH 7-7.5 in water or phosphate-buffered saline. The extent of metal binding was determined spectroscopically by measuring the concentrations of the metals in solution before and after contact with the MST. Cytotoxic responses to MST were assessed using THP1 monocytes and succinate dehydrogenase activity. Monocytic activation by MST was assessed by TNF{alpha} secretion (ELISA) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation. MST sorbed Cd(II), Hg(II), and Au(III) under conditions similar to that in physiological systems. MST exhibited the highest affinity for Cd(II) followed by Hg(II) and Au (III). MST (up to 100 mg/L) exhibited only minor (< 25% suppression of succinate dehydrogenase) cytotoxicity and did not trigger TNF{alpha} secretion nor modulate LPS-induced TNF{alpha} secretion from monocytes. MST exhibits high affinity for biometals with no significant biological liabilities in these introductory studies. MST deserves further scrutiny as a substance with the capacity to decontaminate biological environments or deliver metals in a controlled fashion.

  11. Structural information from OH stretching frequencies monohydric saturated alcohols

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maas, J.H. van der; Lutz, E.T.G.

    1974-01-01

    Infrared data have been recorded of the hydroxyl stretching band for about 70 monohydric saturated alcohols in dilute carbon tetrachloride solution. The wavenumber maximum, the half-bandwidth and the band pattern could be related to the structure of the molecules. Not only primary, secondary and ter

  12. Multiple genetic loci influence serum urate levels and their relationship with gout and cardiovascular disease risk factors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Q. Yang (Qiong Fang); A. Köttgen (Anna); A. Dehghan (Abbas); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); N.L. Glazer (Nicole); M-H. Chen (Ming-Huei); D.I. Chasman (Daniel); T. Aspelund (Thor); G. Eiriksdottir (Gudny); T.B. Harris (Tamara); L.J. Launer (Lenore); M.A. Nalls (Michael); D.G. Hernandez (Dena); D.E. Arking (Dan); E. Boerwinkle (Eric); M.L. Grove (Megan); M. Li (Man); W.H. Linda Kao; M. Chonchol (Michel); T. Haritunians (Talin); T. Lumley (Thomas); B.M. Psaty (Bruce); M.G. Shlipak (Michael); S.J. Hwang; M.G. Larson (Martin); C.J. O'Donnell (Christopher); A. Upadhyay (Ashish); P. Tikka-Kleemola (Päivi); A. Hofman (Albert); F. Rivadeneira Ramirez (Fernando); B.H.Ch. Stricker (Bruno); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); G. Paré (Guillaume); A.N. Parker (Alex); P.M. Ridker (Paul); D.S. Siscovick (David); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); J.C.M. Witteman (Jacqueline); C.S. Fox (Caroline); J. Coresh (Josef)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractBackground - Elevated serum urate levels can lead to gout and are associated with cardiovascular risk factors. We performed a genome-wide association study to search for genetic susceptibility loci for serum urate and gout and investigated the causal nature of the associations of serum u

  13. Impact of urate level on cardiovascular risk in allopurinol treated patients. A nested case control study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Kasper Søltoft; Pottegård, Anton; Lindegaard, H. M.

    2015-01-01

    odds ratio for cardiovascular event between cases and controls was 1.01 (95% confidence interval 0.80 - 1.29). No significant effect was seen in any subgroup when stratifying by age, gender, renal function, allopurinol dose or the achieved urate level. Overall, the doses of allopurinol used......Background: Gout gives rise to increased risk of adverse cardiovascular outcomes. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs such as allopurinol, and allopurinol further potentially reduces the cardiovascular risk. Whether treatment to a target level of uric acid...... is required to reduce cardiovascular risk is not known. Objectives: We sought to investigate the effect of achieving target plasma urate with allopurinol on cardiovascular outcomes in a case control study nested within long-term users of allopurinol. Methods: We identified all long-term users of allopurinol...

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: 1103 parallaxes and proper motions from URAT (Finch+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C. T.; Zacharias, N.

    2016-07-01

    We present 1103 trigonometric parallaxes and proper motions from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT) observations taken at the Naval Observatory Flagstaff Station (NOFS). URAT observes through a single filter (part of the dewar window) to provide a fixed bandpass of about 680 to 760nm. The clear aperture of the USNO astrograph is 206mm with a focal length of only 2m. A single exposure covers 28 square degrees with a resolution of 0.9arcsec/pixel. Each of the four large CCDs in the focal plane covers a 2.65 by 2.65 deg area on the sky. Data of all three years of operations (2012 April to 2015 June) at the NOFS are used here for this parallax investigation. For more details about the project, instrument, and observing the reader is referred to the URAT1 paper (Zacharias et al. 2015, cat. I/329). (3 data files).

  15. Crystal structures of ethylene glycol and ethylene glycol monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fortes, A Dominic; Suard, Emmanuelle

    2011-12-21

    We have carried out a neutron powder diffraction study of deuterated ethylene glycol (1,2-ethanediol), and deuterated ethylene glycol monohydrate with the D2B high-resolution diffractometer at the Institut Laue-Langevin. Using these data, we have refined the complete structure, including all hydrogen atoms, of the anhydrous phase at 220 K. In addition, we have determined the structure of ethylene glycol monohydrate at 210 K using direct space methods. Anhydrous ethylene glycol crystallizes in space-group P2(1)2(1)2(1) with four formula units in a unit-cell of dimensions a = 5.0553(1) Å, b = 6.9627(1) Å, c = 9.2709(2) Å, and V = 326.319(8) Å(3) [ρ(calc)(deuterated) = 1386.26(3) kg m(-3)] at 220 K. Ethylene glycol monohydrate crystallizes in space-group P2(1)/c with four formula units in a unit-cell of dimensions a = 7.6858(3) Å, b = 7.2201(3) Å, c = 7.7356(4) Å, β = 92.868(3)°, and V = 428.73(2) Å(3) [ρ(calc)(deuterated) = 1365.40(7) kg m(-3)] at 210 K. Both the structures are characterized by the gauche conformation of the ethylene glycol molecule; however, the anhydrous phase contains the tGg' rotamer (or its mirror, g'Gt), whereas the monohydrate contains the gGg' rotamer. In the monohydrate, each water molecule is tetrahedrally coordinated, donating two hydrogen bonds to, and accepting two hydrogen bonds from the hydroxyl groups of neighboring ethylene glycol molecules. There are substantial differences in the degree of weak C-D···O hydrogen bonding between the two crystals, which calls into question the role of these interactions in determining the conformation of the ethylene glycol molecule.

  16. Antioxidant activity of carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinamonti, S; Venturoli, L; Leis, M; Chicca, M; Barbieri, A; Sostero, S; Ravenna, F; Daffonchio, L; Novellini, R; Ciaccia, A

    2001-09-01

    Reactive oxygen radicals are involved in many respiratory diseases, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (CLS) is a mucoactive drug effective in the treatment of bronchopulmonary diseases characterized by mucus alterations, including COPD. In the present study, the antioxidant activity of CLS was studied in vitro in three different oxygen radical producing systems, i.e. bronchoalveolar lavages (BAL) from patients affected by COPD, ultrasound treated human serum and cultured human lung endothelial cells challenged with elastase. BAL, exposed or not to different concentrations of CLS (1.5-30 mM), was assayed for free radical content by fluorometric analysis of DNA unwinding (FADU) or by cytochrome c reduction kinetics. Human serum was treated with ultrasound in the presence or absence of CLS (1.5, 2.5 mM) or N-acetyl cysteine (NAC; 4, 5 mM) and assayed for free radical content by FADU. Human endothelial cells cultured in vitro from pulmonary artery were incubated with elastase (0.3 IU/mL), in the presence or absence of glutathione (GSH; 0.65 mM) or CLS (0.16 mM). The supernatant was tested for cytochrome c reduction kinetics whereas cell homogenates were assessed for xanthine oxidase (XO) content by SDS-PAGE. Results showed that CLS is more effective as an in vitro scavenger in comparison to GSH and NAC. CLS reduced the damage of DNA from healthy donors exposed to COPD-BAL and was able to quench clastogenic activity induced in human serum by exposure to ultrasound at concentrations as low as 2.5 mM. NAC protect DNA from radical damage, starting from 5 mM. In human lung endothelial cells cultured in presence of elastase, CLS (0.16 mM) decreased xanthine oxidase activity. These results suggest that CLS could act by interfering with the conversion of xanthine dehydrogenase into superoxide-producing xanthine oxidase. The antioxidant activity of CLS could contribute to its therapeutic activity by reducing radical

  17. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  18. 1!Serum urate as a predictor of clinical and radiographic progression in Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzschild, Michael A.; Schwid, Steven R.; Marek, Kenneth; Watts, Arthur; Lang, Anthony E.; Oakes, David; Shoulson, Ira; Ascherio, Alberto

    2008-01-01

    Context Prospective epidemiological studies consistently indicate that Parkinson’s disease (PD) risk declines with increasing serum urate. Objective To determine whether serum urate, a purine metabolite and potent antioxidant, predicts prognosis in PD. Design, Setting, and Participants Prospective study among 804 subjects with early PD enrolled in the PRECEPT study, a clinical trial of the neuroprotectant potential of CEP-1347, conducted between April 2002 and August 2005 (average follow-up time 21.4 months). Main Outcome Measures The primary study endpoint was progression to clinical disability sufficient to warrant dopaminergic therapy. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) of reaching endpoint according to quintiles of baseline serum urate, adjusting for gender, age and other potential covariates. Change in striatal uptake of [123I]β-CIT, a marker for the presynaptic dopamine transporter, was assessed with linear regression for a subset of 399 subjects. Results The adjusted HR of reaching endpoint declined with increasing baseline concentrations of urate; subjects in the top quintile reached the endpoint at only half the rate of subjects in the bottom quintile (HR=0.51; 95% CI: 0.37 to 0.72; p=0.0002). This association was markedly stronger in men (HR=0.39; 95% CI: 0.26 to 0.60; pdisease modifying therapy in PD. PMID:18413464

  19. Hyperuricemia in acute gastroenteritis is caused by decreased urate excretion via ABCG2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuo, Hirotaka; Tsunoda, Tomoyuki; Ooyama, Keiko; Sakiyama, Masayuki; Sogo, Tsuyoshi; Takada, Tappei; Nakashima, Akio; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Kawaguchi, Makoto; Higashino, Toshihide; Wakai, Kenji; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Hokari, Ryota; Suzuki, Hiroshi; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Inui, Ayano; Fujimori, Shin; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    To clarify the physiological and pathophysiological roles of intestinal urate excretion via ABCG2 in humans, we genotyped ABCG2 dysfunctional common variants, Q126X (rs72552713) and Q141K (rs2231142), in end-stage renal disease (hemodialysis) and acute gastroenteritis patients, respectively. ABCG2 dysfunction markedly increased serum uric acid (SUA) levels in 106 hemodialysis patients (P = 1.1 × 10−4), which demonstrated the physiological role of ABCG2 for intestinal urate excretion because their urate excretion almost depends on intestinal excretion via ABCG2. Also, ABCG2 dysfunction significantly elevated SUA in 67 acute gastroenteritis patients (P = 6.3 × 10−3) regardless of the degree of dehydration, which demonstrated the pathophysiological role of ABCG2 in acute gastroenteritis. These findings for the first time show ABCG2-mediated intestinal urate excretion in humans, and indicates the physiological and pathophysiological importance of intestinal epithelium as an excretion pathway besides an absorption pathway. Furthermore, increased SUA could be a useful marker not only for dehydration but also epithelial impairment of intestine. PMID:27571712

  20. Effect of hypouricaemic and hyperuricaemic drugs on the renal urate efflux transporter, multidrug resistance protein 4.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    El-Sheikh, A.A.K.; Heuvel, J.J.M.W. van den; Koenderink, J.B.; Russel, F.G.M.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: The xanthine oxidase inhibitors allopurinol and oxypurinol are used to treat hyperuricaemia, whereas loop and thiazide diuretics can cause iatrogenic hyperuricaemia. Some uricosuric drugs and salicylate have a bimodal action on urate renal excretion. The mechanisms of action

  1. Modulation of genetic associations with serum urate levels by body-mass-index in humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J.E. Huffman (Jennifer); E. Albrecht (Eva); A. Teumer (Alexander); M. Mangino (Massimo); K. Kapur (Karen); T. Johnson (Toby); Z. Kutalik (Zoltán); N. Pirastu (Nicola); G. Pistis (Giorgio); L.M. Lopez (Lorna); T. Haller (Toomas); P. Salo (Perttu); A. Goel (Anuj); M. Li (Man); T. Tanaka (Toshiko); A. Dehghan (Abbas); D. Ruggiero; G. Malerba (Giovanni); A.V. Smith (Albert Vernon); Nolte, I.M. (Ilja M.); L. Portas (Laura); Phipps-Green, A. (Amanda); Boteva, L. (Lora); P. Navarro (Pau); A. Johansson (Åsa); A.A. Hicks (Andrew); O. Polasek (Ozren); T. Esko (Tõnu); J. Peden (John); S.E. Harris (Sarah); D. Murgia (Daniela); Wild, S.H. (Sarah H.); A. Tenesa (Albert); A. Tin (Adrienne); E. Mihailov (Evelin); A. Grotevendt (Anne); G.K. Gislason; J. Coresh (Josef); P. d' Adamo (Pio); S. Ulivi (Shelia); P. Vollenweider (Peter); G. Waeber (Gérard); Campbell, S. (Susan); I. Kolcic (Ivana); Fisher, K. (Krista); M. Viigimaa (Margus); Metter, J.E. (Jeffrey E.); C. Masciullo (Corrado); Trabetti, E. (Elisabetta); Bombieri, C. (Cristina); R. Sorice; A. Döring (Angela); G. Reischl (Gunilla); K. Strauch (Konstantin); A. Hofman (Albert); A.G. Uitterlinden (André); M. Waldenberger (Melanie); H.E. Wichmann (Heinz Erich); G. Davies (Gail); A.J. Gow (Alan J.); Dalbeth, N. (Nicola); Stamp, L. (Lisa); Smit, J.H. (Johannes H.); M. Kirin (Mirna); R. Nagaraja (Ramaiah); M. Nauck (Matthias); C. Schurmann (Claudia); K. Budde (Klemens); S.M. Farrington (Susan); E. Theodoratou (Evropi); A. Jula (Antti); V. Salomaa (Veikko); C. Sala (Cinzia); C. Hengstenberg (Christian); M. Burnier (Michel); Mägi, R. (Reedik); N. Klopp (Norman); S. Kloiber (Stefan); S. Schipf (Sabine); S. Ripatti (Samuli); Cabras, S. (Stefano); N. Soranzo (Nicole); G. Homuth (Georg); T. Nutile; P. Munroe (Patricia); N. Hastie (Nick); H. Campbell (H.); I. Rudan (Igor); Cabrera, C. (Claudia); Haley, C. (Chris); O.H. Franco (Oscar); Merriman, T.R. (Tony R.); V. Gudnason (Vilmundur); M. Pirastu (Mario); B.W.J.H. Penninx (Brenda); H. Snieder (Harold); A. Metspalu (Andres); M. Ciullo; P.P. Pramstaller (Peter Paul); C.M. van Duijn (Cock); L. Ferrucci (Luigi); G. Gambaro (Giovanni); Deary, I.J. (Ian J.); M.G. Dunlop (Malcolm); J.F. Wilson (James F); P. Gasparini (Paolo); U. Gyllensten (Ulf); T.D. Spector (Timothy); A.F. Wright (Alan); C. Hayward (Caroline); H. Watkins (Hugh); M. Perola (Markus); M. Bochud (Murielle); W.H.L. Kao (Wen); M. Caulfield (Mark); D. Toniolo (Daniela); H. Völzke (Henry); C. Gieger (Christian); A. Köttgen (Anna); V. Vitart (Veronique)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractWe tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in

  2. Modulation of Genetic Associations with Serum Urate Levels by Body-Mass-Index in Humans

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huffman, Jennifer E.; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Mangino, Massimo; Kapur, Karen; Johnson, Toby; Kutalik, Zoltn; Pirastu, Nicola; Pistis, Giorgio; Lopez, Lorna M.; Haller, Toomas; Salo, Perttu; Goel, Anuj; Li, Man; Tanaka, Toshiko; Dehghan, Abbas; Ruggiero, Daniela; Malerba, Giovanni; Smith, Albert V.; Nolte, Ilja M.; Portas, Laura; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Boteva, Lora; Navarro, Pau; Johansson, Asa; Hicks, Andrew A.; Polasek, Ozren; Esko, Tonu; Peden, John F.; Harris, Sarah E.; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H.; Tenesa, Albert; Tin, Adrienne; Mihailov, Evelin; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti K.; Coresh, Josef; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Kolcic, Ivana; Fisher, Krista; Viigimaa, Margus; Metter, Jeffrey E.; Masciullo, Corrado; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Bombieri, Cristina; Sorice, Rossella; Doering, Angela; Reischl, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G.; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Stamp, Lisa; Smit, Johannes H.; Kirin, Mirna; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Farrington, Susan M.; Theodoratou, Evropi; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Sala, Cinzia; Hengstenberg, Christian; Burnier, Michel; Maegi, Reedik; Klopp, Norman; Kloiber, Stefan; Schipf, Sabine; Ripatti, Samuli; Cabras, Stefano; Soranzo, Nicole; Homuth, Georg; Nutile, Teresa; Munroe, Patricia B.; Hastie, Nicholas; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Cabrera, Claudia; Haley, Chris; Franco, Oscar H.; Merriman, Tony R.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Pirastu, Mario; Penninx, Brenda W.; Snieder, Harold; Metspalu, Andres; Ciullo, Marina; Pramstaller, Peter P.; van Duijn, Cornelia M.; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J.; Dunlop, Malcolm G.; Wilson, James F.; Gasparini, Paolo; Gyllensten, Ulf; Spector, Tim D.; Wright, Alan F.; Hayward, Caroline; Watkins, Hugh; Perola, Markus; Bochud, Murielle; Kao, W. H. Linda; Caulfield, Mark; Toniolo, Daniela; Voelzke, Henry; Gieger, Christian; Koettgen, Anna; Vitart, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non BMI-s

  3. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN AIR REBUSAN DAUN SALAM (SYZYGIUM POLYANTHUM TERHADAP PENURUNAN KADAR ASAM URAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aidaa Andriani

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gout is a disease because of abnormalities purine metabolism (hyperuricemia. In gout treatment there are many different ways to lower uric acid levels one by utilizing existing natural vegetation. Plants or plants that can be used is the bay leaf (Syzygium polyanthum. Bay leaf contains flavonoids that can lower uric acid levels. This study intends to find out The Effect Of Water Decoction Bay Leaf (Syzygium polyanthum The Decrease Uric Acid Levels In The Work Area Health Center Paninggahan Solok 2013.This research is the method of approach Preeksperimental pretest - posttest, using total sampling method with a sample size of 10 people. The data was collected directly to the respondents by interview, observation and measurement sheet uric acid levels and blood sugar.The research found that there are differences in uric acid levels before and after giving the water decoction bay leaf. Based on the result test T there are differences in uric acid levels before and after giving the water decoction of bay leaf. Where the average uric acid levels before was 7.16 mg / dl, and after the uric acid level was 5.76 mg / dl. Then obtained p value = 0.000. Based on the results of this study concluded that consuming the water decoction of bay leaf can lower uric acid levels, because leaves contains flavanoid . For that gout sufferers is recommended to consume the water decoction of bay leaf  to control uric acid levels in the body. it is required to research more about the side effects and benefits of bay leaf.Penyakit asam urat merupakan suatu penyakit karena kelainan metabolisme purin (hiperurisemia. Untuk menurunkan kadar asam urat salah satunya dengan memanfaatkan tumbuhan alami yang ada. Tumbuhan atau tanaman yang dapat digunakan adalah daun salam. Daun salam memiliki kandungan flavonoid yang mampu menurunkan kadar asam urat. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui adanya Pengaruh Pemberian Air Rebusan Daun Salam Terhadap Penurunan Kadar Asam Urat

  4. Modulation of genetic associations with serum urate levels by body-mass-index in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Jennifer E; Albrecht, Eva; Teumer, Alexander; Mangino, Massimo; Kapur, Karen; Johnson, Toby; Kutalik, Zoltán; Pirastu, Nicola; Pistis, Giorgio; Lopez, Lorna M; Haller, Toomas; Salo, Perttu; Goel, Anuj; Li, Man; Tanaka, Toshiko; Dehghan, Abbas; Ruggiero, Daniela; Malerba, Giovanni; Smith, Albert V; Nolte, Ilja M; Portas, Laura; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Boteva, Lora; Navarro, Pau; Johansson, Asa; Hicks, Andrew A; Polasek, Ozren; Esko, Tõnu; Peden, John F; Harris, Sarah E; Murgia, Federico; Wild, Sarah H; Tenesa, Albert; Tin, Adrienne; Mihailov, Evelin; Grotevendt, Anne; Gislason, Gauti K; Coresh, Josef; D'Adamo, Pio; Ulivi, Sheila; Vollenweider, Peter; Waeber, Gerard; Campbell, Susan; Kolcic, Ivana; Fisher, Krista; Viigimaa, Margus; Metter, Jeffrey E; Masciullo, Corrado; Trabetti, Elisabetta; Bombieri, Cristina; Sorice, Rossella; Döring, Angela; Reischl, Eva; Strauch, Konstantin; Hofman, Albert; Uitterlinden, Andre G; Waldenberger, Melanie; Wichmann, H-Erich; Davies, Gail; Gow, Alan J; Dalbeth, Nicola; Stamp, Lisa; Smit, Johannes H; Kirin, Mirna; Nagaraja, Ramaiah; Nauck, Matthias; Schurmann, Claudia; Budde, Kathrin; Farrington, Susan M; Theodoratou, Evropi; Jula, Antti; Salomaa, Veikko; Sala, Cinzia; Hengstenberg, Christian; Burnier, Michel; Mägi, Reedik; Klopp, Norman; Kloiber, Stefan; Schipf, Sabine; Ripatti, Samuli; Cabras, Stefano; Soranzo, Nicole; Homuth, Georg; Nutile, Teresa; Munroe, Patricia B; Hastie, Nicholas; Campbell, Harry; Rudan, Igor; Cabrera, Claudia; Haley, Chris; Franco, Oscar H; Merriman, Tony R; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Pirastu, Mario; Penninx, Brenda W; Snieder, Harold; Metspalu, Andres; Ciullo, Marina; Pramstaller, Peter P; van Duijn, Cornelia M; Ferrucci, Luigi; Gambaro, Giovanni; Deary, Ian J; Dunlop, Malcolm G; Wilson, James F; Gasparini, Paolo; Gyllensten, Ulf; Spector, Tim D; Wright, Alan F; Hayward, Caroline; Watkins, Hugh; Perola, Markus; Bochud, Murielle; Kao, W H Linda; Caulfield, Mark; Toniolo, Daniela; Völzke, Henry; Gieger, Christian; Köttgen, Anna; Vitart, Veronique

    2015-01-01

    We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI) and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS) analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non BMI-stratified overall sample were performed. The former did not uncover any novel locus with a major main effect, but supported modulation of effects for some known and potentially new urate loci. The latter highlighted a SNP at RBFOX3 reaching genome-wide significant level (effect size 0.014, 95% CI 0.008-0.02, Pinter= 2.6 x 10-8). Two top loci in interaction term analyses, RBFOX3 and ERO1LB-EDARADD, also displayed suggestive differences in main effect size between the lean and obese strata. All top ranking loci for urate effect differences between BMI categories were novel and most had small magnitude but opposite direction effects between strata. They include the locus RBMS1-TANK (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 4.7 x 10-8), a region that has been associated with several obesity related traits, and TSPYL5 (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 9.1 x 10-8), regulating adipocytes-produced estradiol. The top-ranking known urate loci was ABCG2, the strongest known gout risk locus, with an effect halved in obese compared to lean men (Pdifflean-obese= 2 x 10-4). Finally, pathway analysis suggested a role for N-glycan biosynthesis as a prominent urate-associated pathway in the lean stratum. These results illustrate a potentially powerful way to monitor changes occurring in obesogenic environment.

  5. Modulation of genetic associations with serum urate levels by body-mass-index in humans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Huffman

    Full Text Available We tested for interactions between body mass index (BMI and common genetic variants affecting serum urate levels, genome-wide, in up to 42569 participants. Both stratified genome-wide association (GWAS analyses, in lean, overweight and obese individuals, and regression-type analyses in a non BMI-stratified overall sample were performed. The former did not uncover any novel locus with a major main effect, but supported modulation of effects for some known and potentially new urate loci. The latter highlighted a SNP at RBFOX3 reaching genome-wide significant level (effect size 0.014, 95% CI 0.008-0.02, Pinter= 2.6 x 10-8. Two top loci in interaction term analyses, RBFOX3 and ERO1LB-EDARADD, also displayed suggestive differences in main effect size between the lean and obese strata. All top ranking loci for urate effect differences between BMI categories were novel and most had small magnitude but opposite direction effects between strata. They include the locus RBMS1-TANK (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 4.7 x 10-8, a region that has been associated with several obesity related traits, and TSPYL5 (men, Pdifflean-overweight= 9.1 x 10-8, regulating adipocytes-produced estradiol. The top-ranking known urate loci was ABCG2, the strongest known gout risk locus, with an effect halved in obese compared to lean men (Pdifflean-obese= 2 x 10-4. Finally, pathway analysis suggested a role for N-glycan biosynthesis as a prominent urate-associated pathway in the lean stratum. These results illustrate a potentially powerful way to monitor changes occurring in obesogenic environment.

  6. The Monosodium Glutamate Story: The Commercial Production of MSG and Other Amino Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ault, Addison

    2004-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is both the basis of a trillion dollar worldwide industry and a presence in the diet of a majority of the inhabitants of the world. Some parts of the "story" of MSG that might be of most interest to chemists, chemistry teachers and their students are presented.

  7. Supplementing monosodium glutamate to partial enteral nutrition slows gastric emptying in preterm pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emerging evidence suggests that free glutamate may play a functional role in modulating gastroduodenal motor function. We hypothesized that supplementing monosodium glutamate (MSG) to partial enteral nutrition stimulates gastric emptying in preterm pigs. Ten-day-old preterm, parenterally fed pigs re...

  8. Effect of L (+) ascorbic acid and monosodium glutamate concentration on the morphology of calcium carbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraya, Mohamed El-shahte Ismaiel

    2015-11-01

    In this study, monosodium glutamate and ascorbic acid were used as crystal and growth modifiers to control the crystallization of CaCO3. Calcium carbonate prepared by reacting a mixed solution of Na2CO3 with CaCl2 at ambient temperature, (25 °C), constant Ca++/ CO3- - molar ratio and pH with stirring. The polymorph and morphology of the crystals were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results indicate that rhombohedral calcite was only formed in water without organic additives, and both calcite and spherical vaterite with various morphologies were produced in the presence of monosodium glutamate. The content of vaterite increased as the monosodium glutamate increased. In addition, spherical vaterite was obtained in the presence of different concentrations of ascorbic acid. The spherical vaterite posses an aggregate shape composed of nano-particles, ranging from 30 to 50 nm as demonstrated by the SEM and TEM analyses. Therefore, the ascorbic stabilizes vaterite and result in nano-particles compared to monosodium glutamate.

  9. VizieR Online Data Catalog: URAT Parallax Catalog (UPC) (Finch+, 2016)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, C. T.; Zacharias, N.

    2016-04-01

    The URAT Parallax Catalog (UPC) consists of 112177 parallaxes. The catalog utilizes all Northern Hemisphere epoch data from the United States Naval Observatory (USNO) Robotic Astrometric Telescope (URAT). This data includes all individual exposures from April 2012 to June 2015 giving a larger epoch baseline for determining parallaxes over the 2-year span of the First USNO Robotic Astrometric Telescope Catalog (URAT1) (Zacharias et al., 2015, Cat. I/329) published data. The URAT parallax pipeline is custom code that utilizes routines from (Jao, C.-W., 2004, PhD thesis Georgia Stat), the JPL DE405 ephemeris and Green's parallax factor (Green, R.M., 1985, Spherical Astronomy) for determining parallaxes from a weighted least-squares reduction. The relative parallaxes have been corrected to absolute by using the distance color relation described in (Finch et. al, 2014, Cat. J/AJ/148/119) to determine a mean distance of all UCAC4 reference stars (R=8-16 mag) used in the astrometric reductions. Presented here are all significant parallaxes from the URAT Northern Hemisphere epoch data comprising of 2 groups: a) URAT parallax results for stars with prior published parallax, and b) first time trigonometric parallaxes as obtained from URAT data of stars without prior published parallax. Note, more stringent selection criteria have been applied to the second group than the first in order to keep the rate of false detections low. For specific information about the astrometric reductions please see 'The First U.S. Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope Catalog' published paper (Zacharias et al., 2015AJ....150..101Z, Cat. I/329). For complete details regarding the parallax pipeline please see 'Parallax Results From URAT Epoch Data' (Finch and Zacharias, 2016, AJ, in press). This catalog gives all positions on the ICRS at Epoch J2014.0; it covers the magnitude range 6.56 to 16.93 in the URAT band-pass, with an average parallax precision of 4.3mas for stars having no known

  10. Purine-induced expression of urate oxidase and enzyme activity in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Cloning of urate oxidase liver cDNA from three teleost species and the African lungfish Protopterus annectens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Øivind; Aas, Turid S; Skugor, Stanko; Takle, Harald; van Nes, Solveig; Grisdale-Helland, Barbara; Helland, Ståle J; Terjesen, Bendik F

    2006-07-01

    The peroxisomal enzyme urate oxidase plays a pivotal role in the degradation of purines in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. However, knowledge about the purine-induced expression of the encoding gene is lacking in vertebrates. These are the first published sequences of fish urate oxidase, which were predicted from PCR amplified liver cDNAs of Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua), Atlantic halibut (Hippoglossus hippoglossus) and African lungfish (Protopterus annectens). Sequence alignment of different vertebrate urate oxidases revealed amino acid substitutions of putative functional importance in the enzyme of chicken and lungfish. In the adult salmon, expression of urate oxidase mRNA predominated in liver, but was also identified in several nonhepatic organs including brain, but not in skeletal muscle and kidney. Juvenile salmon fed diets containing bacterial protein meal (BPM) rich in nucleic acids showed a significant increase in liver urate oxidase enzyme activity, and urea concentrations in plasma, muscle and liver were elevated. Whereas salmon fed the 18% BPM diet showed a nonsignificant increase in liver mRNA levels of urate oxidase compared with the 0% BPM-fed fish, no further increase in mRNA levels was found in fish receiving 36% BPM. The discrepancy between urate oxidase mRNA and enzyme activity was explained by rapid mRNA degradation or alternatively, post-translational control of the activity. Although variable plasma and liver levels of urate were detected, the substrate increased only slightly in 36% BPM-fed fish, indicating that the uricolytic pathway of Atlantic salmon is intimately regulated to handle high dietary purine levels.

  11. 21 CFR 524.1610 - Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole suspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... posaconazole suspension. 524.1610 Section 524.1610 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF... DOSAGE FORM NEW ANIMAL DRUGS § 524.1610 Orbifloxacin, mometasone furoate monohydrate, and posaconazole... furoate monohydrate equivalent to 1 mg mometasone furoate, and 1 mg posaconazole. (b) Sponsor. See...

  12. Impact of Urate Level on Cardiovascular Risk in Allopurinol Treated Patients. A Nested Case-Control Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søltoft Larsen, Kasper; Pottegård, Anton; Lindegaard, Hanne M

    2016-01-01

    , laboratory values and in- and outpatient contacts. RESULTS: No association between treatment-to-target urate level and cardiovascular events were found (adjusted odds ratio of 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.28). No significant effect was seen in any subgroup defined by age, gender, renal function......BACKGROUND: Gout gives rise to increased risk of cardiovascular events. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs, and allopurinol potentially reduces cardiovascular risk. What target level of urate is required to reduce cardiovascular risk is not known. OBJECTIVES......: To investigate the effect of achieving target plasma urate with allopurinol on cardiovascular outcomes in a case-control study nested within long-term users of allopurinol. METHODS: We identified long-term users of allopurinol in Funen County, Denmark. Among these, we identified all cases of cardiovascular...

  13. Correction: Absolute stereochemistry and preferred conformations of urate degradation intermediates from computed and experimental circular dichroism spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pipolo, Silvio; Percudani, Riccardo; Cammi, Roberto

    2016-04-14

    Correction for 'Absolute stereochemistry and preferred conformations of urate degradation intermediates from computed and experimental circular dichroism spectra' by Silvio Pipolo et al., Org. Biomol. Chem., 2011, 9, 5149-5155.

  14. Impact of Urate Level on Cardiovascular Risk in Allopurinol Treated Patients. A Nested Case-Control Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kasper Søltoft Larsen

    Full Text Available Gout gives rise to increased risk of cardiovascular events. Gout attacks can be effectively prevented with urate lowering drugs, and allopurinol potentially reduces cardiovascular risk. What target level of urate is required to reduce cardiovascular risk is not known.To investigate the effect of achieving target plasma urate with allopurinol on cardiovascular outcomes in a case-control study nested within long-term users of allopurinol.We identified long-term users of allopurinol in Funen County, Denmark. Among these, we identified all cases of cardiovascular events and sampled 4 controls to each case from the same population. The cases and controls were compared with respect to whether they reached a urate target below 0.36 mmol/l on allopurinol. The derived odds ratios were controlled for potential confounders available from data on prescriptions, laboratory values and in- and outpatient contacts.No association between treatment-to-target urate level and cardiovascular events were found (adjusted odds ratio of 1.01, 95% confidence interval 0.79-1.28. No significant effect was seen in any subgroup defined by age, gender, renal function, allopurinol dose or the achieved urate level. Overall, the doses of allopurinol used in this study were low (mean ≈ 140 mg/day.We were unable to demonstrate a link between achieved urate level in patients treated with allopurinol and risk of cardiovascular events. Possible explanations include that allopurinol doses higher than those used in this study are required to achieve cardiovascular risk reduction or that the cardiovascular effect of allopurinol is not mediated through low urate levels. It remains to be seen whether allopurinol has a dose-response relationship with cardiovascular events at higher doses.

  15. Negative correlation between serum uric acid and kidney URAT1 mRNA expression caused by resveratrol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Cheng-Tse; Chang, Li-Ching; Liu, Ching-Wen; Wu, Pei-Fung

    2017-10-01

    This study established a hyperuricemic rat model to elucidate the effect of resveratrol on the transport of UA in the kidney. Hyperuricemia was induced in rats through daily oral gavage of a potassium oxonate and UA mixture over 3 weeks. Our results revealed that resveratrol significantly reduced the serum UA levels but not creatinine, c-creative protein, alanine aminotransferase, or aspartate aminotransferase levels in these rats. Furthermore, renal URAT1 and OAT1 mRNA expression were significantly higher in the rats treated with allopurinol than in those with no treatment. Therefore, allopurinol not only inhibited UA production but also mediated renal URAT1 and OAT1 expression. The correlation analysis revealed that UA levels correlated negatively with renal IL-6 mRNA expression in rats treated with allopurinol. Moreover, URAT1 showed strong immunoreactivity in the distal convoluted tubule of rats treated with allopurinol or resveratrol and in hyperuricemic treated with allopurinol. Finally, in the rats treated with resveratrol, UA levels correlated negatively with renal URAT1 mRNA expression; thus, resveratrol reduced URAT1 mRNA expression under high UA levels, thereby reducing UA reabsorption in renal cells. Resveratrol contributes to URAT1 expression, which is potentially useful in therapeutic strategies aimed at treating hyperuricemia. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Pengaruh Pemberian Kopi Instan Oral Terhadap Kadar Asam Urat pada Tikus Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fauzan Arisyi Koto

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKopi merupakan salah satu minuman yang paling banyak dikonsumsi di dunia. Banyak studi yang meneliti efek konsumsi kopi terhadap berbagai kondisi medis tertentu. Salah satu efek dari kopi yang masih menjadi kontroversi adalah efek terhadap penurunan kadar asam urat. Kandungan polifenol dalam kopi diduga dapat menghambat kerja xantin oksidase sehingga menurunkan kadar asam urat. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan pengaruh pemberian kopi oral terhadap kadar asam urat serum pada tikus wistar. Ini adalah penelitian eksperimental dengan rancangan post test only control group design. Sampel penelitian adalah 24 ekor tikus putih jantan (Rattus novergicus yang dibagi menjadi 4 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol, perlakuan 1, perlakuan 2 dan perlakuan 3. Kontrol hanya diberi diet standar tanpa kopi, perlakuan 1diberikan diet kopi dosis rendah setara 3 cangkir kopi (0,39 mg/3 ml, perlakuan 2 diberikan diet kopi dosis sedang setara 6 cangkir kopi (0,78 mg/ 3ml, perlakuan 3 diberikan diet kopi dosis tinggi setara 10 cangkir kopi (1,3 mg/ 3ml selama 4 minggu (28 hari. Pengukuran kadar asam urat serum menggunakan spektofotometer. Hasil penelitian didapatkan rerata kadar asam urat serum kontrol (2,26+0,16 mg/dl, perlakuan 1 (2,24+0,89 mg/dl, perlakuan 2 (1,00+0,33 mg/dl, perlakuan 3 (1,96+0,43 mg/dl. Uji analisis one way Anova dan Post hoc menunjukkan bahwa perbedaan yang bermakna hanya terdapat pada perbandingan kelompok kontrol dengan kelompok perlakuan 2 dan antara kelompok perlakuan 1 dengan kelompok perlakuan 2 (p<0,05. Kesimpulan dari penelitian ini adalah terdapat penurunan kadar asam urat serum setelah pemberian kopi dan terdapat perbedaan bermakna kadar asam urat antara kelompok kontrol dan perlakuan 1 dengan kelompok perlakuan 2.Kata kunci: kopi, polifenol, asam urat serumAbstractCoffee is one of the most frequently consumed beverages in the world. Many studies have examined the effect of coffee consumption on a wide range of specific

  17. The beneficial effects of dapagliflozin on the course of experimental urate nephrolithiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Yu. Perfil’ev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim of the study. Rate dapagliflozin effective in the prevention and treatment of experimental urate nephropathy.Мaterials and methods. The study was conducted on 30 male rats Wistar stock weighing 220–310 g. For the formation of urate nephropathy in rats using reproduced earlier classic model inhibiting uricase, causing the development of hyperuricemia in rodents. The animal was determined daily urine content MC, total proteins, creatinine, and enzyme activity of renal dysfunction markers LDH, gamma-glutamyl and N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase. After the experiment the rat blood obtained after decapitation determined content MC, creatinine, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione, thiobarbiturate-reactive products, total antioxidant activity and a common pro-oxidant activity. In the kidneys of rats was determined by the same parameters of free radical oxidation.Results. It was found that prolonged use of dapagliflozin in the prophylactic and therapeutic regimes, despite a decline in urinary pH, significantly improves the condition of animals with experimental urate nephrolithiasis, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the level of uric acid in blood plasma and urine of rats, a decrease in LDH activity in urine and inhibition process is free -radical oxidation.Сonclusion. Prolonged use of dapagliflozin in the prophylactic and therapeutic regimes, despite a decline urine pH, improved the urate nephrolithiasis, as evidenced by a significant decrease in the level of uric acid in blood plasma and urine of rats, decreased activity of LDH in urine and inhibition of the process of free-radical oxidation. 

  18. Clarithromycin monohydrate: a synchrotron X-ray powder study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shigeru Itai

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In the crystal structure of the title compound, clarithromycin (CAM monohydrate, C38H69NO13·H2O, the water molecule behaves as a proton donor and is hydrogen bonded to the hydroxy O atom of the CAM cladinose ring. The hydroxy O atom also behaves as a proton donor, forming an intermolecular hydrogen bond with one of the hydroxy groups of the 14-membered aglycone ring. The CAM molecules are linked through these hydrogen bonds into chains running parallel to the c axis.

  19. Clarithromycin monohydrate: a synchrotron X-ray powder study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, Shuji; Fujiki, Sadahiro; Iwao, Yasunori; Miura, Keiko; Itai, Shigeru

    2012-03-01

    In the crystal structure of the title compound, clarithromycin (CAM) monohydrate, C(38)H(69)NO(13)·H(2)O, the water mol-ecule behaves as a proton donor and is hydrogen bonded to the hy-droxy O atom of the CAM cladinose ring. The hy-droxy O atom also behaves as a proton donor, forming an inter-molecular hydrogen bond with one of the hy-droxy groups of the 14-membered aglycone ring. The CAM mol-ecules are linked through these hydrogen bonds into chains running parallel to the c axis.

  20. 3-[(E-(7-Chloro-4-quinolylhydrazonomethyl]benzonitrile monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edward R. T. Tiekink

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The title monohydrate, C17H11ClN4·H2O, features an essentially planar organic molecule, as seen in the dihedral angle of 2.42 (8° formed between the quinoline and benzene planes. The conformation about the imine bond is E, and the N—H group is oriented towards the quinoline residue. The major feature of the crystal packing is the formation of supramolecular chains along [100], whereby the water molecule accepts one N—H...O hydrogen bond and makes two O—H...N hydrogen bonds. A C—H...O link is also present.

  1. Changes in Simpson’s Diversity Index in Microcosms Impacted with Monosodium Methane Arsenate

    OpenAIRE

    Peter A. Kish; Nelson W. Daniel

    2009-01-01

    The objective of our studies is to analyze environmental impacts of Monosodium Methane Arsenate, MSMA, on aquatic habitats using the Aqua-Terra microcosm system. MSMA was applied at environmentally relevant(recommended) doses to microcosms to determine the change in biodiversity and the bio-concentration of arsenic in the aquatic plants (_Elodea Sp._) used in the microcosms as an oxygen source. The microcosms are filled with unfiltered pond water and the diversity of each microcosm was deter...

  2. Non-urate transporter 1-related renal hypouricemia and acute renal failure in an Israeli-Arab family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahat, Hilla; Dinour, Dganit; Ganon, Liat; Feldman, Leonid; Holtzman, Eli J; Goldman, Michael

    2009-05-01

    Idiopathic renal hypouricemia (IRHU) is a rare hereditary disease, predisposing the individual to exercise-induced acute renal failure (EIARF) and nephrolithiasis, and it is characterized by increased clearance of renal uric acid. Most of the described patients are Japanese, who have loss-of-function mutations in the SLC22A12 gene coding for the human urate transporter 1 (URAT1) gene. An 18-year-old youth, who was admitted for EIARF due to IRHU, and six consanguineous Israeli-Arab family members were included in the study. The family members were tested for fractional excretion of uric acid and molecular analysis of the URAT1 gene. Four family members, including the proband, had very low levels of blood uric acid and high rate of fractional excretion (FE urate> 100%) of uric acid. Genetic analysis of the affected family members did not reveal a mutation in the coding regions and intron-exon boundaries of SCL22A12. Haplotype analysis excluded SCL22A12 involvement in the pathogenesis, suggesting a different gene as a cause of the disease. We herein describe the first Israeli-Arab family with IRHU. A non-URAT1 genetic defect that causes decreased reabsorption or, more probably, increased secretion of uric acid, induces IRHU. Further studies are required in order to elucidate the genetic defect.

  3. Pre-treatment with capsaicin in a rat osteoarthritis model reduces the symptoms of pain and bone damage induced by monosodium iodoacetate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kalff, K.M.; ElMouedden, M.; Egmond, J. van; Veening, J.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Scheffer, G.J.; Meert, T.F.; Vissers, K.C.P.

    2010-01-01

    A rat model of osteoarthritis was used to investigate the effect of pre-treatment with capsaicin on the symptoms of osteoarthritis induced by the injection of monosodium iodoacetate. This model mimics both histopathology and symptoms associated of human osteoarthritis. Injection of monosodium iodoac

  4. Perfluorobutyric Acid and its Monohydrate: a Chirped Pulse and Cavity Based Fourier Transform Microwave Spectroscopic Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Javix; Serrato, Agapito, III; Lin, Wei; Jaeger, Wolfgang; Xu, Yunjie

    2014-06-01

    Perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) is highly soluble in water and is a molecule of environmental importance. Rotational spectra of PFBA and its monohydrate were studied using a broadband chirped pulse and a narrow band cavity based Fourier transform microwave spectrometers and high level ab initio calculations. Extensive conformational search was performed for both the acid and its monohydrate at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory. Two and three conformers were predicted for PFBA and its monohydrate, respectively. One set of rotational transitions of PFBA and its mono-hydrate in each case was observed and assigned. Based on the broadband spectra obtained, one can confidently conclude that only one dominate conformer exists in each case. The orientation of the hydroxyl group in PFBA was determined using isotopic analysis. Comparison of the observed transition intensities and the calculated electric dipole moment components allowed one to identify the most stable monohydrate conformation which takes on the insertion hydrogen-bonding topology. Comparison to the shorter chain analogues, i.e. trifluoroacetic acid, perfluoropropionic acid, and their monohydrates, was made to elucidate the general trend in their conformational preference and binding topologies.

  5. Perfluorobutyric acid and its monohydrate: a chirped pulse and cavity based fourier transform microwave spectroscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Javix; Serrato, Agapito; Lin, Wei; Jäger, Wolfgang; Xu, Yunjie

    2014-05-12

    Rotational spectra of perfluorobutyric acid (PFBA) and its monohydrate were studied with a broadband chirped pulse and a narrow-band cavity based Fourier transform microwave spectrometer, and high-level ab initio calculations. Extensive conformational searches were performed for both the acid and its monohydrate at the MP2/6-311++G(2d,p) level of theory. Two and three conformers were predicted to exist for PFBA and its monohydrate, respectively. One set of rotational transitions was observed and assigned for each, PFBA and its monohydrate. Based on the measured broadband spectra, we confidently conclude that only one dominant conformer exists in each case. The orientation of the hydroxyl group in PFBA was determined by using isotopic analysis. Comparison of the observed transition intensities and the calculated electric dipole moment components allowed us to identify the most stable monohydrate conformation, which takes on an insertion hydrogen-bonding topology. Comparisons to the shorter chain analogues, that is, trifluoroacetic acid, perfluoropropionic acid, and their monohydrates, are made to elucidate the general trend in their conformational preference and binding topologies.

  6. Association analysis of the beta-3 adrenergic receptor Trp64Arg (rs4994) polymorphism with urate and gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatima, Tahzeeb; Altaf, Sara; Phipps-Green, Amanda; Topless, Ruth; Flynn, Tanya J; Stamp, Lisa K; Dalbeth, Nicola; Merriman, Tony R

    2016-02-01

    The Arg64 allele of variant rs4994 (Trp64Arg) in the β3-adrenergic receptor gene has been associated with increased serum urate and risk of gout. Our objective was to investigate the relationship of rs4994 with serum urate and gout in New Zealand European, Māori and Pacific subjects. A total of 1730 clinically ascertained gout cases and 2145 controls were genotyped for rs4994 by Taqman(®). Māori and Pacific subjects were subdivided into Eastern Polynesian (EP) and Western Polynesian (WP) sample sets. Publicly available genotype data from the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study and the Framingham Heart Study were utilized for serum urate association analysis. Multivariate logistic and linear regression adjusted for potential confounders was carried out using R version 2.15.2. No significant association of the minor Arg64 (G) allele of rs4994 with gout was found in the combined Polynesian cohorts (OR = 0.98, P = 0.88), although there was evidence, after adjustment for renal disease, for association in both the WP (OR = 0.53, P = 0.03) and the lower Polynesian ancestry EP sample sets (OR = 1.86, P = 0.05). There was no evidence for association with gout in the European sample set (OR = 1.11, P = 0.57). However, the Arg64 allele was positively associated with urate in the WP data set (β = 0.036, P = 0.004, P Corrected = 0.032). Association of the Arg64 variant with increased urate in the WP sample set was consistent with the previous literature, although the protective effect of this variant with gout in WP was inconsistent. This association provides an etiological link between metabolic syndrome components and urate homeostasis.

  7. Calcium oxalate monohydrate precipitation investigation by thermometric method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söhnel, O.; Costa-Bauzá, A.; Velich, V.

    1993-01-01

    Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) precipitation from diluted solutions of 100 mol m -3 ionic strength at 25°C was studied by an isoperibolic reaction twin calorimeter. The molar reaction enthalpy was determined as - 17.5 kJ mol -1. Results achieved with a pure system were highly reproducible. Citrate, pyrophosphate and phytate retard COM precipitation that is manifested mainly by an induction period appearance and a decrease of the initial precipitation rate. Effect of the studied impurities on individual precipitation experiments carried out under identical conditions was to some extent "random", i.e. the reaction extent reached at arbitrary time considerably differed for individual experiments. Impurity effectiveness in retarding spontaneous precipitation increases in succession citrate phytate.

  8. (S-2-Azaniumyl-2-methyl-3-phenylpropanoate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isao Fujii

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C10H13NO2·H2O, crystallizes in a zwitterionic form as a monohydrate, involving the propylbenzene group with a trans conformation. It is a non-natural amino acid, and has attracted attention as an inhibitor of phenylalanine hydroxylase. In the crystal, molecules are linked by N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming C(5 chains along the c-axis direction. Two chains are linked by another N—H...O hydrogen bond, forming an R33(11 ring motif. Further O—H...O hydrogen bonds link these motifs via the water molecules, to form a three-dimensional framework.

  9. SORPTION BEHAVIOR OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE AND AMORPHOUS PEROXOTITANATE MATERIALS UNDER WEAKLY ACIDIC CONDITIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.; Elvington, M.; Click, D.

    2009-11-11

    Inorganic, titanate-based sorbents are tested with respect to adsorption of a variety of sorbates under weakly acidic conditions (pH 3). Specifically, monosodium titanate (MST) and amorphous peroxotitanate (APT) sorption characteristics are initially probed through a screening process consisting of a pair of mixed metal solutions containing a total of 29 sorbates including alkali metals, alkaline earth metals, transition metals, metalloids and nonmetals. MST and APT sorption characteristics are further analyzed individually with chromium(III) and cadmium(II) using a batch method at ambient laboratory temperature, varying concentrations of the sorbents and sorbates and contact times. Maximum sorbate loadings are obtained from the respective adsorption isotherms.

  10. Micro-Raman studies on the conformational behaviors of monosodium glutamate in dehydration process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jing Shou; Guang Zeng; Hao Zhang; Yun Hong Zhang

    2011-01-01

    The conformational behaviors of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in a dehydration process were studied by Micro-Raman spectroscopy in combination with Hartree-Fock calculations using 6-31+G* method. The dehydration process of the MSG droplet was performed by decreasing the ambient relative humidity (RH). The intensity ratio of the 935 cm"1 band to 884 cm-1 band (I935/ I884) kept decreasing when RH decreased. By optimizing the geometries with different fixed dihedral angles, the downtrend of (I935/ I884) is found to be due to the reduction of MSG molecular volume.

  11. PENGETAHUAN DAN PERILAKU KONSUMSI MAHASISWA PUTRA TINGKAT PERSIAPAN BERSAMA IPB TENTANG MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT DAN KEAMANANNYA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Made Mita Dwi Saraswati

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aim of this study was to analyze the knowledge and consumption behaviour of the first year boy students of IPB on Monosodium Glutamate (MSG and its safety. Data were collected using self administered questionnaire. Questionnaires were given to the students through cooperation with one of internal club in IPB’s Dormitory. There were 1 324 questionnaires that were given, but only 808 questionnaires were collected back and 24 of them not filled out completely. Thus there were 784 questionnaires that qualified to be research data. Knowledge on MSG and its safety was classified into 3 levels of knowledge, such as low (80% of total score. The results showed that most students have low level of knowledge on the MSG (81.4% and it’s safety (94.3%. However, most of them frequently consume foods containing MSG (39—86%. Level of knowledge on MSG is not correlated to consumption behavior of MSG (p>0.05.Key words: consumption behavior, knowledge, Monosodium Glutamate (MSGABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk menganalisis pengetahuan dan perilaku mahasiswa putra Tingkat Persiapan Bersama (TPB IPB tentang Monosodium Glutamat (MSG dan keamanannya. Data penelitian diperoleh melalui kuesioner yang diisi sendiri oleh mahasiswa putra. Penyebaran kuesioner dilakukan melalui kerjasama dengan salah satu klub internal Asrama Putra TPB. Kuesioner survei diberikan kepada seluruh mahasiswa putra, yaitu sebanyak 1 324 orang. Jumlah mahasiswa yang mengisi kuesioner adalah 808 orang, namun 24 orang diantara- nya tidak mengisi kuesioner dengan lengkap sehingga diperoleh 784 orang sebagai subjek dalam penelitian ini. Tingkat pengetahuan tentang MSG dan keamanannya diklasifikasikan menjadi tiga, yaitu tingkat pengetahuan kurang (skor total80%. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa sebagian besar mahasiswa putra mempunyai tingkat pengetahuan yang rendah tentang MSG (81.4% dan keamanan MSG (94.3%, namun sebagian besar dari mereka (39—86% juga sering mengonsumsi

  12. Urate Oxidase Knockdown Decreases Oxidative Stress in a Murine Hepatic Cell Line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beth M. Cleveland

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Humans, birds, and some primates do not express the uric acid degrading enzyme urate oxidase (UOX and, as a result, have plasma uric acid concentrations higher than UOX expressing animals. Although high uric acid concentrations are suggested to increase the antioxidant defense system and provide a health advantage to animals without UOX, knockout mice lacking UOX develop pathological complications including gout and kidney failure. As an alternative to the knockout model, RNA interference was used to decrease UOX expression using stable transfection in a mouse hepatic cell line (ATCC, FL83B. Urate oxidase mRNA was reduced 66% (p < 0.05 compared to wild type, as measured by real time RT-PCR. To determine if UOX knockdown resulted in enhanced protection against oxidative stress, cells were challenged with hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI or 3-morpholinosydnonimine hydrochloride (SIN-1. Compared to wild type, cells with UOX knockdown exhibited a 37.2 ± 3.5% reduction (p < 0.05 in the electron spin resonance (ESR signal after being exposed to Cr(VI and displayed less DNA fragmentation (p < 0.05 following SIN-1 treatment. Cell viability decreased in wild type cells (p < 0.05, but not cells with UOX knockdown, after treatment with SIN-1. These results are consistent with an increased intracellular uric acid concentration and an increased defense against oxidative stress.

  13. Urate crystal degradation for treatment of gout: a nanoparticulate combination therapy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiwari, Sanjay; Dwivedi, Harinath; Kymonil, Koshy M; Saraf, Shubhini A

    2015-06-01

    The objective of the present work was to develop polymeric nanoparticles of uricase and aceclofenac (NSAID) and to incorporate them into gel, for delivering drugs to synovial joints, for effective treatment of Gout. Nanoparticles containing uricase and aceclofenac were prepared by double emulsion solvent evaporation method and emulsion solvent evaporation, using PLGA (50:50) as carrier, respectively. Process parameters were optimized using Taguchi L4 orthogonal array and L9 array, respectively. The formulations were characterized for particle size, entrapment efficiency, surface charge, in vitro drug release, ex vivo drug permeation, and urate crystal degradation activity. The particle size and entrapment efficiency for optimized batch was found to be 228.8 nm and 81.26% for uricase nanoparticles and 288.5 nm and 85.36% for aceclofenac nanoparticles, respectively. The developed nanoparticles formulations displayed zero order and Higuchi release kinetics with non-Fickian diffusion, respectively. The in vivo studies were performed in rabbit model. Topical application of gel containing polymeric uricase nanoparticles alone and a combination of both, uricase nanoparticles and aceclofenac nanoparticles in rabbit model test groups, provided complete removal of urate crystals and inflammation within 40 and 25 days of treatment, respectively. The combination treatment therapy resulted in effective treatment of gout due to degradation of crystals and anti-inflammatory response.

  14. Hypothermia induced by adenosine 5'-monophosphate attenuates early stage injury in an acute gouty arthritis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhimin; Guo, Weiting; Lu, Shulai; Lv, Wenshan; Li, Changgui; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Shihua; Yan, Shengli; Tao, Zhenyin; Wang, Yunlong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether the hypothermia induced by Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate (5'-AMP) could attenuate early stage injury in a rat acute gouty arthritis model. Ankle joint injection with monosodium urate monohydrate crystals (MSU crystals) in hypothermia rat model which was induced by 5'-AMP and then observe whether hypothermia induced by 5'-AMP could be effectively inhibit the inflammation on acute gouty arthritis in rats. AMP-induced hypothermia has protective effects on our acute gouty arthritis, which was demonstrated by the following criteria: (1) a significant reduction in the ankle swelling (p gouty arthritis model.

  15. Construction of uricase-overproducing strains of Hansenula polymorpha and its application as biological recognition element in microbial urate biosensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schuhmann Wolfgang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The detection and quantification of uric acid in human physiological fluids is of great importance in the diagnosis and therapy of patients suffering from a range of disorders associated with altered purine metabolism, most notably gout and hyperuricaemia. The fabrication of cheap and reliable urate-selective amperometric biosensors is a challenging task. Results A urate-selective microbial biosensor was developed using cells of the recombinant thermotolerant methylotrophic yeast Hansenula polymorpha as biorecognition element. The construction of uricase (UOX producing yeast by over-expression of the uricase gene of H. polymorpha is described. Following a preliminary screening of the transformants with increased UOX activity in permeabilized yeast cells the optimal cultivation conditions for maximal UOX yield namely a 40-fold increase in UOX activity were determined. The UOX producing cells were coupled to horseradish peroxidase and immobilized on graphite electrodes by physical entrapment behind a dialysis membrane. A high urate selectivity with a detection limit of about 8 μM was found. Conclusion A strain of H. polymorpha overproducing UOX was constructed. A cheap urate selective microbial biosensor was developed.

  16. The distribution of urate deposition within the extremities in gout: a review of 148 dual-energy CT cases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallinson, Paul I. [Vancouver General Hospital, Radiology Department, Vancouver (Canada); Vancouver General Hospital, Clinical Fellow in Musculoskeletal Radiology, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Reagan, Adrian C.; Munk, Peter L.; Ouellette, Hugue; Nicolaou, Savvas [Vancouver General Hospital, Radiology Department, Vancouver (Canada); Coupal, Tyler [McMaster University, De Groote School of Medicine, Hamilton, Ontario (Canada)

    2014-03-15

    Clinical detection of gout can be difficult due to co-existent and mimicking arthropathies and asymptomatic disease. Understanding of the distribution of urate within the body can aid clinical diagnosis and further understanding of the resulting pathology. Our aim was to determine this distribution of urate within the extremities in patients with gout. All patients who underwent a four-limb dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) scan for suspected gout over a 2-year period were identified (n = 148, 121 male, 27 female, age range, 16-92 years, mean = 61.3 years, median = 63 years). The reports of the positive cases were retrospectively analyzed and the locations of all urate deposition recorded and classified by anatomical location. A total of 241 cases met the inclusion criteria, of which 148 cases were positive. Of these, 101 (68.2 %) patients had gout in the foot, 81 (56.1 %) in the knee, 79 (53.4 %) in the ankle, 41 (27.7 %) in the elbow, 25 (16.9 %) in the hand, and 25 (16.9 %) in the wrist. The distribution was further subcategorized for each body part into specific bone and soft tissue structures. In this observational study, we provide for the first time a detailed analysis of extremity urate distribution in gout, which both supports and augments to the current understanding based on clinical and microscopic findings. (orig.)

  17. Gambaran Histologi Regenerasi Hati Pasca Penghentian Pajanan Monosodium Glutamat pada Tikus Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryanto Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Monosodium glutamat (MSG merupakan bahan penyedap masakan yang sering digunakan, namun konsumsi MSG berlebihan dapat merusak hati. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahuipengaruh pajanan MSG terhadap gambaran histologis hati tikus jantan galur wistar dankemampuan regenerasinya. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain eksperimental post-test only.Tikus dibagi menjadi 9 kelompok, yang terdiri atas 3 kelompok perlakuan dalam 3 periode yang berbeda (28, 42, dan 56 hari. Kelompok kontrol positif 1, 2, dan 3 diberikan akuades selama 28 hari, 42 hari, 56 hari; kelompok kontrol negatif 1, 2, dan 3 diberikan MSG 5 mg/gBB/hari selama 28hari, 42 hari, 56 hari; kelompok perlakuan regenerasi 1, 2, 3 diberikan MSG 5 mg/gBB/hari selama28 hari kemudian dihentikan selama 0 hari, 14 hari, 28 hari. Variabel yang diukur adalah derajatkerusakan jaringan hati. Pada analisis one way ANOVA terdapat perbedaan signifikan (p<0,05.Uji post hoc LSD menunjukkan perbedaan signifikan antara kelompok kontrol positif dengankelompok kontrol negatif (p<0,05 dan tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan antara kelompok kontrolpositif dengan perlakuan regenerasi 14 hari (p>0,05 dan perlakuan regenerasi 28 hari (p>0,05.Disimpulkan pajanan MSG mengakibatkan kerusakan hati dan terjadi regenerasi hati setelah 14hari penghentian pajanan MSG. Kata kunci: monosodium glutamat, regenerasi, kerusakan hati Histological Study of Liver Regeneration after Cessation ofMonosodium Glutamat on Rats Abstract Monosodium glutamat (MSG is flavor enhancer that has been used in various food products. Excessive consumption of MSG have been reported to damage liver. The purpose of this experimentis to determine effect of MSG on male wistar rats’s liver histology and it’s regeneration capability.This is an experimental research with post-test only goup design. Rats were divided into 9 goups,consisted of 3 treatment goups with 3 different period

  18. Relationship of bone erosion with the urate and soft tissue components of the tophus in gout: a dual energy computed tomography study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sapsford, Mark; Gamble, Gregory D; Aati, Opetaia; Knight, Julie; Horne, Anne; Doyle, Anthony J; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2017-01-01

    Imaging and pathology studies have established a close relationship between tophus and bone erosion in gout. The tophus is an organized structure consisting of urate crystals and chronic inflammatory tissue. The aim of this work was to examine the relationship between bone erosion and each component of the tophus. Plain radiographs and dual energy CT scans of the feet were prospectively obtained from 92 people with tophaceous gout. The 10 MTP joints were scored for erosion score, tophus urate and soft tissue volume. Data were analysed using generalized estimating equations and mediation analysis. Tophus was visualized in 80.2% of all joints with radiographic (XR) erosion [odds ratio (OR) = 7.1 (95% CI: 4.8, 10.6)] and urate was visualized in 78.6% of all joints with XR erosion [OR = 6.6 (95% CI: 4.7, 9.3)]. In mediation analysis, tophus urate volume and soft tissue volume were directly associated with XR erosion score. About a third of the association of the tophus urate volume with XR erosion score was indirectly mediated through the strong association between tophus urate volume and tophus soft tissue volume. Urate and soft tissue components of the tophus are strongly and independently associated with bone erosion in gout. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the British Society for Rheumatology. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  19. Relationship Between Changes in Serum Urate and Bone Mineral Density During Treatment with Thiazide Diuretics: Secondary Analysis from a Randomized Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalbeth, Nicola; Gamble, Gregory D; Horne, Anne; Reid, Ian R

    2016-05-01

    In observational studies, serum urate concentrations associate with bone mineral density (BMD) and reduced risk of fractures. Thiazide diuretics slow the bone loss in healthy older adults, are associated with reduced incidence of fracture and also increase serum urate. We hypothesized that changes in serum urate are associated with changes in BMD during treatment with thiazide diuretics. We analysed data from a double-blind randomized controlled trial of hydrochlorothiazide (50 mg per day) and placebo in normal post-menopausal women. The relationship between change in serum urate and change in BMD after 2 years of treatment was examined using Spearman correlation and multiple linear regression models. Total body BMD increased in the hydrochlorothiazide group by 0.52 % and reduced in the placebo group by 0.29 % over 2 years (between group difference P = 0.0034). Serum urate increased in the hydrochlorothiazide group by 0.038 mmol/L and reduced in the placebo group by 0.004 mmol/L (between group difference P < 0.0001). At Year 2, there was a positive relationship between the change in serum urate and change in total body BMD for entire study population (r = 0.32, P = 0.0002) and for the hydrochlorothiazide group (r = 0.29, P = 0.023). The association between change in serum urate and change in total body BMD persisted after adjusting for treatment allocation, and change in weight, serum calcium, urinary calcium and serum creatinine (P change in serum urate = 0.043). These data raise the possibility that the effects of hydrochlorothiazide on BMD may be mediated, in part, by changes in serum urate concentrations.

  20. Adherence and persistence to urate-lowering therapies in the Irish setting

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McGowan, Bernie

    2014-11-01

    To identify adherence and persistence levels with urate-lowering therapies using the national administrative pharmacy claim database. This was a retrospective, pharmacy claims-based analysis of dispensed anti-gout medications on the Irish national HSE-PCRS scheme database between January 2008 and December 2012. Adherence is defined by the medication possession ratio (MPR), and patients were considered to be adherent if the MPR ≥80 % (good adherers) in any given time period. Persistence was defined as continued use of therapy with no periods exceeding a refill gap of >63 days (9 weeks). Logistic regression analysis was used to predict odd ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence interval (CI) for persistence and adherence in relation to age, gender and level of comorbidity. There was a 53 % increase in the number of patients prescribed anti-gout medications between 2008 and 2012 with an increase of 27 % in the associated ingredient cost of these medications. Allopurinol accounted for 87 % of the prescribing and febuxostat accounted for a further 9 %. In patients who started on 100 mg allopurinol, only 14.6 % were titrated to the 300 mg dose. For all those initiating urate-lowering therapies, 45.8 % of patients were persistent with treatment at 6 months decreasing to 22.6 % at 12 months. In multivariate analysis, females had poorer adherence (OR = 0.83 (0.77-0.90)), and increasing age was associated with increased adherence (OR = 4.19 (2.53-6.15)) Increasing comorbidity score was associated with increased adherence and persistence at 6 months (OR = 0.68 (0.59-0.79)). Adherence with anti-gout medications in this study cohort was relatively low. Sustained treatment for gouty arthritis is essential in the prevention of serious adverse outcomes.Significance and Innovations-Poor adherence to medications prescribed to patients for the management of chronic diseases such as gout is an ongoing problem which urgently needs to be addressed.-Some of the reasons identified

  1. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming... oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally...

  2. Histological studies of the effects of monosodium glutamate of the Fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Osayame Eweka

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The effect of monosodium glutamate used as food additive on the fallopian tubes of adult Wistar rat was investigated. Material and Methods: Adult female Wistar rats (n=24 of average weight of 230g were randomly assigned into three groups A, B and C in each group (n=8. The treatment groups (A & B were given 0.04mg/kg and 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate thoroughly mixed with the growers′ mash, respectively on a daily basis. The control group (C received equal amount of feeds (Growers′ mash without monosodium glutamate added for fourteen days. The growers′ mash was obtained from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and the rats were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The fallopian tubes were carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% buffered formaldehyde for routine histological procedures. Result: The histological findings in the treated groups showed evidence of cellular hypertrophy, degenerative and atrophic changes, and lysed red blood cells in lumen with the group that received 0.08mg/kg of monosodium glutamate more severe. Conclusion: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the fallopian tubes of adult female Wistar rats at higher doses and by extension may contribute to the causes of female infertility. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these findings be carried out.

  3. The association of dietary intake of purine-rich vegetables, sugar-sweetened beverages and dairy with plasma urate, in a cross-sectional study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Zgaga

    Full Text Available Hyperuricemia is a strong risk factor for gout. The incidence of gout and hyperuricemia has increased recently, which is thought to be, in part, due to changes in diet and lifestyle. Objective of this study was to investigate the association between plasma urate concentration and: a food items: dairy, sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB and purine-rich vegetables; b related nutrients: lactose, calcium and fructose.A total of 2,076 healthy participants (44% female from a population-based case-control study in Scotland (1999-2006 were included in this study. Dietary data was collected using a semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire (FFQ. Nutrient intake was calculated using FFQ and composition of foods information. Urate concentration was measured in plasma.Mean urate concentration was 283.8±72.1 mmol/dL (females: 260.1±68.9 mmol/dL and males: 302.3±69.2 mmol/dL. Using multivariate regression analysis we found that dairy, calcium and lactose intakes were inversely associated with urate (p = 0.008, p = 0.003, p = 0.0007, respectively. Overall SSB consumption was positively associated with urate (p = 0.008, however, energy-adjusted fructose intake was not associated with urate (p = 0.66. The intake of purine-rich vegetables was not associated to plasma urate (p = 0.38.Our results suggest that limiting purine-rich vegetables intake for lowering plasma urate may be ineffectual, despite current recommendations. Although a positive association between plasma urate and SSB consumption was found, there was no association with fructose intake, suggesting that fructose is not the causal agent underlying the SSB-urate association. The abundant evidence supporting the inverse association between plasma urate concentration and dairy consumption should be reflected in dietary guidelines for hyperuricemic individuals and gout patients. Further research is needed to establish which nutrients and food products influence plasma urate

  4. The First U.S. Naval Observatory Robotic Astrometric Telescope Catalog (URAT1)

    CERN Document Server

    Zacharias, Norbert; Subasavage, John; Bredthauer, Greg; Crockett, Chris; DiVittorio, Mike; Ferguson, Erik; Harris, Fred; Harris, Hugh; Henden, Arne; Kilian, Chris; Munn, Jeff; Rafferty, Ted; Rhodes, Al; Schultheiss, Mike; Tilleman, Trudy; Wieder, Gary

    2015-01-01

    URAT1 is an observational, astrometric catalog covering most of the Dec >= -15 deg area and a magnitude range of about R = 3 to 18.5. Accurate positions (typically 10 to 30 mas standard error) are given for over 228 million objects at a mean epoch around 2013.5. For the over 188 million objects matched with the 2MASS point source catalog proper motions (typically 5 to 7 mas/yr std. errors) are provided. These data are supplemented by 2MASS and APASS photometry. Observations, reductions and catalog construction are described together with results from external data verifications. The catalog data are served by CDS, Starsbourg (I/329). There is no DVD release.

  5. Using serum urate as a validated surrogate end point for flares in patients with gout

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birger Morillon, Melanie; Stamp, L.; Taylor, E W

    2016-01-01

    by applying the 'OMERACT Filter 2.0'. Methods and analysis: A systematic review described in terms of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines will identify all relevant studies. Standardised data elements will be extracted from each study by 2...... independent reviewers and disagreements are resolved by discussion. The data will be analysed by meta-regression of the between-arm differences in the change in serum urate level (independent variable) from baseline to 3 months (or 6 and 12 months if 3-month values are not available) against flare rate......, tophus size and number and pain at the final study visit (dependent variables). Ethics and dissemination: This study will not require specific ethics approval since it is based on analysis of published (aggregated) data. The intended audience will include healthcare researchers, policymakers...

  6. Urate lowering therapies in the treatment of gout: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borghi, C; Perez-Ruiz, F

    2016-03-01

    In patients with gout, serum uric acid (sUA) concentrations should be lowered at least below the target of 6 mg/dL (even below 5 mg/dL in patients with severe gout). To achieve this goal, urate lowering medications (ULMs) should be considered. Currently-used ULMs include xanthine-oxidase inhibitors such as allopurinol, febuxostat, as well as available uricosuric agents. However, evidence comparing these agents remains scant. We have conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to retrieve evidence on the clinical trials on the above-mentioned drugs in the treatment of gout. The following efficacy outcomes were considered in the meta-analysis: (1) % of patients meeting the therapeutic target for sUA level (treatment of hyperuricaemia and gout. Febuxostat is a suitable pharmacological option for first line treatment of gout, given its established efficacy and safety, documented in a high number of clinical studies and in daily practice.

  7. [The combination of extracorporeal lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostomy in the treatment of obstructive ureteral urate calculi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Boca, C; Ferrari, C; Dotti, E; Corsi, G; Guardamagna, A; Giuberti, A C; Colloi, D

    1994-04-01

    The authors report their experience with combined percutaneous nephrostomy and extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy to treat obstructive uratic ureteral stones. The role of nephrostomy is stressed as a diagnosis and treatment method before, during and after lithotripsy. Thus, the method proved especially useful to drain obstructed kidneys and restore peristalsis, to evacuate septic urine, to facilitate the elimination of lithiasic fragments, to perform anterograde pyelography before, during and after lithotripsy and finally to allow pharmacological litholysis. Fourteen patients were successfully treated with combined extracorporeal lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostomy and the results compared with those obtained with other techniques--e.g., ureteroscopy, whose value appears lower because the method requires general anesthesia and is more traumatic to the ureter. The authors conclude that combined extracorporeal lithotripsy and percutaneous nephrostomy make the best technique to treat obstructive uric acid stones thanks to their positive results, low invasiveness and to patients compliance.

  8. Terahertz spectra of l-phenylalanine and its monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Tingting; Li, Shaoping; Zou, Tao; Yu, Zheng; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Chenyang; Zhang, Jianbing; He, Mingxia; Zhao, Hongwei

    2017-05-05

    The low-frequency vibrational property of l-phenylalanine (l-Phe) and l-phenylalanine monohydrate (l-Phe·H2O) has been investigated by terahertz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS) at room and low temperature ranging from 0.5 to 4.5THz. Distinctive THz absorption spectra of the two compounds were observed. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations based on the crystal structures have been performed to simulate the vibrational modes of l-Phe and l-Phe·H2O and the results agree well with the experimental observations. The study indicates that the characterized features of l-Phe mainly originate from the collective vibration of molecules. And the characterized features of l-Phe·H2O mainly come from hydrogen bond interactions between l-Phe and water molecules. l-Phe and l-Phe·H2O were also verified by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry (DSC-TG) and powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) examinations. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  9. Thermochemical Properties and Decomposition Kinetics of Ammonium Magnesium Phosphate Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU,Jian; YUAN,Ai-Qun; HUANG,Zai-Yin; TONG,Zhang-Fa; CHEN,Jie; LIANG,Rong-Lan

    2007-01-01

    Ammonium magnesium phosphate monohydrate NH4MgPO4·H2O was prepared via solid state reaction at room temperature and characterized by XRD, FT-IR and SEM. Thermochemical study was performed by an isoperibol solution calorimeter, non-isothermal measurement was used in a multivariate non-linear regression analysis to determine the kinetic reaction parameters. The results show that the molar enthalpy of reaction above is (28.795±0.182) kJ/mol (298.15 K), and the standard molar enthalpy of formation of the title complex is (-2185.43±13.80)kJ/mol (298.15 K). Kinetics analysis shows that the second decomposition of NH4MgPO4·H2O acts as a double-step reaction: an nth-order reaction (Fn) with n=4.28, E1=147.35 kJ/mol, A1=3.63×1013 s-1 is followed by a second-order reaction (F2) with E2=212.71 kJ/mol, A2= 1.82×1018 s-1.

  10. Synthesis, properties and supramolecular structure of piperazinediium thiosulfate monohydrate

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Bikshandarkoil R Srinivasan; Ashish R Naik; Sunder N Dhuri; Christian Näther; Wolfgang Bensch

    2011-01-01

    Aqueous reaction of ammonium thiosulfate with piperazine (pip) results in the formation of the title compound (pipH2)[S2O3]$\\cdot$H2O 1 (pipH2 = piperazinediium) in good yield. 1 was characterized by elemental analysis, IR, Raman andNMRspectra, X-ray powder pattern and its structure was determined. On heating at 100°C, 1 transforms to anhydrous piperazinediium thiosulfate 2, which can be rehydrated to the monohydrate on exposure tomoisture. The structure of 1 consists of two crystallographically independent piperazinediium (pipH2)2+ cations located on inversion centers, a thiosulfate anion and a lattice water. The organic cations, thiosulfate anion and lattice water are linked by six varieties of hydrogen bond namely O-H$\\cdots$O, O-H$\\cdots$S, N-H$\\cdots$O, N-H$\\cdots$S, C-H$\\cdots$O and C-H$\\cdots$S, leading to the formation of alternating layers of (pipH2)2+ cations and water linked thiosulfate chains. A comparative study of several compounds charge balanced by the piperazinediium cation is described.

  11. The effects of the recommended dose of creatine monohydrate on kidney function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taner, Basturk; Aysim, Ozagari; Abdulkadir, Unsal

    2011-02-01

    We report a case of a heretofore healthy 18-year-old man who presented with a 2-day history of nausea, vomiting and stomach ache while taking creatine monohydrate for bodybuilding purposes. The patient had acute renal failure, and a renal biopsy was performed to determine the cause of increased creatinine and proteinuria. The biopsy showed acute tubular necrosis. In the literature, creatine monohydrate supplementation and acute tubular necrosis coexistence had not been reported previously. Twenty-five days after stopping the creatine supplements, the patient recovered fully. Even recommended doses of creatine monohydrate supplementation may cause kidney damage; therefore, anybody using this supplement should be warned about this possible side effect, and their renal functions should be monitored regularly.

  12. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate-cyclodextrin nanosuspension complexes for use in metered-dose inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawatdee, Somchai; Phetmung, Hirihattaya; Srichana, Teerapol

    2013-10-15

    Sildenafil is a selective phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitor used for the treatment of erectile dysfunction and pulmonary hypertension. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate was complexed with α-, hydroxypropyl-β- and γ-cyclodextrin (α-CD, HP-β-CD and γ-CD, respectively) to enhance its water solubility. The complexes of sildenafil citrate monohydrate with all types of CDs were characterized by phase solubility diagrams, (1)H and (13)C NMR, and dielectric constants. Sildenafil citrate monohydrate complexed with CDs was developed as nanosuspensions for use in a pressurized metered-dose inhaler (pMDI). Sildenafil citrate monohydrate pMDI formulations were prepared by a bottom-up process using dried ethanol as a solvent and HFA-134a as an antisolvent and propellant in order to form nanosuspensions. A 3×3 factorial design was applied for the contents of the dried ethanol and HFA-134a propellant. The phase solubility profiles of the sildenafil and cyclodextrins were described as AL type with a mole ratio 1:1. The piperazine moiety of sildenafil formed an inclusion in the cavity of the CDs. The particle diameters of the sildenafil citrate monohydrate suspensions in pMDIs were all within a nanosuspension size range. An assay of the sildenafil content showed that the formation of complexes with CDs was close to 100%. In the case of the formulations with CDs, the emitted doses varied within 97.4±10.8%, the fine particle fractions (FPFs) were in a range of 45-81%, the fine particle dose (FPD) was 12.6±2.0 μg and the mass median aerodynamic diameters (MMADs) were 1.86±0.41 μm. In contrast, the formulations without CDs produced a low emitted dose of sildenafil (<60%). Therefore, only sildenafil citrate monohydrate pMDI formulations containing CDs were suitable for use as aerosols.

  13. Mixotrophic growth and biochemical analysis of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Hu, Wenrong; Li, Xiuqing; Ma, Guixia; Song, Mingming; Pei, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) is a potential medium for microbial cultivation because of containing abundant organic nutrient. This paper seeks to evaluate the feasibility of growing Chlorella vulgaris with MSGW and assess the influence of MSGW concentration on the biomass productivity and biochemical compositions. The MSGW diluted in different concentrations was prepared for microalga cultivation. C. vulgaris growth was greatly promoted with MSGW compared with the inorganic BG11 medium. C. vulgaris obtained the maximum biomass concentration (1.02 g/L) and biomass productivity (61.47 mg/Ld) with 100-time diluted MSGW. The harvested biomass was rich in protein (36.01-50.64%) and low in lipid (13.47-25.4%) and carbohydrate (8.94-20.1%). The protein nutritional quality and unsaturated fatty acids content of algal increased significantly with diluted MSGW. These results indicated that the MSGW is a feasible alternative for mass cultivation of C. vulgaris.

  14. STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS FROM HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE SOLUTIONS USING MONOSODIUM TITANATE 1. SIMULANT TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOBBS, D. T.; BARNES, M. J.; PULMANO, R. L.; MARSHALL, K. M.; EDWARDS, T. B.; BRONIKOWSKI, M. G.; FINK, S. D.

    2005-04-14

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for {sup 137}Cs removal, and ion exchange/sorption of {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides with an inorganic material, monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes {sup 238}Pu, {sup 239}Pu and {sup 240}Pu. This paper provides a summary of data acquired to measure the performance of MST to remove strontium and actinides from simulated waste solutions. These tests evaluated the influence of ionic strength, temperature, solution composition and the oxidation state of plutonium.

  15. CHARACTERIZATION OF MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE - AN IMPROVED SORBENT FOR STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.; Taylor-Pashow, K.; Missimer, D.

    2010-12-21

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove {sup 134,137}Cs, {sup 90}Sr, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. An inorganic sorbent, monosodium titanate (MST), is currently used to remove {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides, while a caustic-side solvent extraction process is used for removing {sup 134,137}Cs. A new peroxotitanate material, modified MST, or mMST, has recently been developed and has shown increased removal kinetics and capacity for {sup 90}Sr and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the current baseline material, MST. This paper describes recent results focused on further characterization of this material.

  16. Discovery of Flexible Naphthyltriazolylmethane-based Thioacetic Acids as Highly Active Uric Acid Transporter 1 (URAT1) Inhibitors for the Treatment of Hyperuricemia of Gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiansheng; Wu, Jingwei; Liu, Wei; Liu, Yuqiang; Xie, Yafei; Shang, Qian; Zhou, Zhixing; Xu, Weiren; Tang, Lida; Wang, Jianwu; Zhao, Guilong

    2017-01-01

    Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis, which, if left untreated or inadequately treated, will lead to joint destruction, bone erosion and disability due to the crystal deposition. Uric acid transporter 1 (URAT1) was the promising therapeutic target for urate-lowering therapy. The goal of this work is to understand the structure-activity relationship (SAR) of a potent lesinurad-based hit, sodium 2-((5-bromo-4-((4-cyclopropyl-naphth-1-yl)methyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3- yl)thio)acetate (1c), and based on that discover a more potent URAT1 inhibitor. The SAR of 1c was systematically explored and the in vitro URAT1 inhibitory activity of synthesized compounds 1a-1t was determined by the inhibition of URAT1-mediated [8-14C]uric acid uptake by human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells stably expressing human URAT1. Twenty compounds 1a-1t were synthesized. SAR analysis was performed. Two highly active URAT1 inhibitors, sodium 2-((5-bromo-4-((4-n-propylnaphth-1-yl)methyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3- yl)thio)acetate (1j) and sodium 2-((5-bromo-4-((4-bromonaphth-1-yl)methyl)-4H-1,2,4-triazol-3- yl)thio)acetate (1m), were identified, which were 78- and 76-fold more active than parent lesinurad in in vitro URAT1 inhibitory assay, respectively (IC50 values for 1j and 1m were 0.092 μM and 0.094 μM, respectively, against human URAT1 vs 7.18 μM for lesinurad). Two highly active URAT1 inhibitors were discovered. The SAR exploration also identified more flexible naphthyltriazolylmethane as a novel molecular skeleton that will be valuable for the design of URAT1 inhibitors, as indicated by the observation that many of the synthesized naphthyltriazolylmethane- bearing derivatives (1b-1d, 1g, 1j and 1m) showed significantly improved UART1 inhibitory activity (sub-micromolar IC50 values) as compared with lesinurad which has the rigid naphthyltriazole skeleton. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  17. Redetermination and absolute configuration of pruniflorone M monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The title xanthone known as pruniflorone M (systematic name: (2R-5,10-dihydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-1,1-dimethyl-1H-furo[2,3-c]xanthen-6-one, crystallized in a monohydrate form, C18H16O6·H2O. It was isolated from the green fruits of Cratoxylum formosum ssp. pruniflorum. The structure of the title compound has been reported previously [Boonnak et al. (2010. Aust. J. Chem. 63, 1550–1556], but we report here the absolute configuration determined using Cu Kα radiation. There are two crystallograpically independent molecules in the asymmetric unit, which differ slightly in the bond angles. The hydroxymethyl substituents at position 2 of the furan rings of both pruniflorone M molecules adopt R configurations. In both molecules, the three rings of the xanthone skeleton are approximately coplanar, with an r.m.s. deviation of 0.0124 (2 Å for one molecule and 0.0289 (2 Å for the other, and the furan ring adopts an envelope conformation. In the crystal, molecules of pruniflorone M and water are linked into a two-dimensional network by O—H...O hydrogen bonds and weak C—H...O interactions. The crystal structure is further consolidated by π–π interactions with centroid–centroid distances in the range 3.5987 (13–3.7498 (14 Å. Short C...C [3.378 (3 Å] and O...O [2.918 (3 Å] contacts are also observed.

  18. Origin and types of calcium oxalate monohydrate papillary renal calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grases, Fèlix; Costa-Bauzá, Antonia; Gomila, Isabel; Conte, Antonio

    2010-12-01

    Subepithelial hydroxyapatite calcification of renal papilla is thought to be involved in the formation of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) papillary calculi. To assess the mechanism of formation, we sought to correlate the fine structure of papillary renal calculi with specific pathophysiologic conditions and urinary alterations. The study included 831 COM papillary renal calculi with established fine inner structures. A total of 24 patients with chronic stone formation were randomly selected, and their urine was collected and analyzed. The case history and lifestyle habits of these patients were obtained. The 831 papillary calculi could be classified into 1 of 4 main groups. Type I included small calculi in which COM columnar crystals begin to develop in the concave zone in close contact with papillary tissue. Type II calculi contained a hydroxyapatite core located in or near the concave zone. Type III consisted of calculi that developed on the tip of the papillae and in the concave zone, containing hydroxyapatite, calcified tissue, and calcified tubules. Type IV consisted of papillary calculi in which the core, which is situated near, but not in, the concave zone, is formed by intergrown COM crystals and organic matter. Many factors, including urinary alterations (eg, hyperoxaluria), associated diseases (eg, hypertension, diabetes), and consumption or exposure to cytotoxic substances (eg, analgesic abuse) were associated with these types of calculi. Our findings have indicated that injury is the first cause of papillary COM calculus formation, with the location of the injury determining the morphology of the resulting calculus. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Magnesium and occluded water in calcium carbonate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dejehet, F.; Idrissi, S.; Debuys, R.

    1999-04-01

    Calcium carbonate monohydrate spherulites (˜102 μm diameter) with different magnesium contents were synthesized from artificial seawater. Stable spherulites are only obtained if [Mg]/[Ca] ≥ 1-1.3 in the mother solution. Spherulites are surrounded by a skin of ˜15 μm thickness, about 5 times richer in Mg2+ than the bulk and which play a protective role from the stability viewpoint. Etching and crushing experiments were performed which confirm i.a. that the isotropic CO3- and CO2- radicals are located in the occluded water surrounding the constituent crystallites of the spherulites. Des sphérules de carbonate de calcium monohydraté de ˜102 μm de diamètre avec des teneurs en magnésium différentes ont été synthétisées à partir d'eau de mer artificielle. Des sphérules stables ne sont obtenues que si [Mg]/[Ca] ≥ 1-1.3 dans la solution mère. Les sphérules sont entourées d'une peau de ˜15 μm d'épaisseur, à peu près 5 fois plus riche en Mg2+ que la masse et qui assure sa stabilité. Des expériences de décapage et de broyage ont confirmé e.a. que les radicaux isotropes CO3- et CO2- sont localisés dans l'eau occluse entourant les cristallites à l'intérieur des sphérules.

  20. General base catalysis in the urate oxidase reaction: evidence for a novel Thr-Lys catalytic diad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imhoff, Rebecca D; Power, Nicholas P; Borrok, M Jack; Tipton, Peter A

    2003-04-15

    Urate oxidase catalyzes the oxidation of urate without the involvement of any cofactors. The gene encoding urate oxidase from Bacillus subtilis has been cloned and expressed, and the enzyme was purified and characterized. Formation of the urate dianion is believed to be a key step in the oxidative reaction. Rapid-mixing chemical quench studies provide evidence that the dianion is indeed an intermediate; at 15 degrees C the dianion forms within the mixing time of the rapid-quench instrument, and it disappears with a rate constant of 8 s(-)(1). Steady-state kinetic studies indicate that an ionizable group on the enzyme with a pK of 6.4 must be unprotonated for catalysis, and it is presumed that the role of this group is to abstract a proton from the substrate. Surprisingly, examination of the active site provided by the previously reported crystal structure does not reveal any obvious candidates to act as the general base. However, Thr 69 is hydrogen-bonded to the ligand at the active site, and Lys 9, which does not contact the ligand, is hydrogen-bonded to Thr 69. The T69A mutant enzyme has a V(max) that is 3% of wild type, and the K9M mutant enzyme has a V(max) that is 0.4% of wild type. The ionization at pH 6.4 that is observed with wild-type enzyme is absent in both of these mutants. It is proposed that these residues form a catalytic diad in which K9 deprotonates T69 to allow it to abstract the proton from the N9 position of the substrate to generate the dianion.

  1. Expression and clinical significance of URAT1 in renal tissue of patients with uric acid nephrolithiasis%URAT1基因在尿酸结石患者肾脏的表达及其临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚基伟; 李前伟; 付卫华; 郑霁; 鄢俊安; 李为兵

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨尿酸结石患者尿酸代谢特征以及肾脏URAT1表达改变的意义。方法回顾性分析2012年1月至2013年10月我院收治的24例结石患者的临床资料,按结石成分分为尿酸结石患者9例( A组)、非尿酸性结石患者15例( B组),另选取7例因其他疾病操作而取材做mRNA测定的患者为C组,10例健康体检者为D组(仅用作收集其血尿酸检验结果以及24 h尿液标本)。采集各组参与者一般临床资料以及血液、24 h尿液的尿酸代谢相关指标结果,并应用Real-time PCR技术检测其肾脏URAT1表达情况,所得数据进行组间统计分析比较。结果 A 组患者血尿酸水平、体重指数、年龄显著高于 B 组及 C 组(P0.05)。 Real-time PCR实验结果提示尿酸结石患者肾脏URAT1表达较其他组显著增高(P0. 05). The result of Real-time PCR suggested that the URAT1 renal expression was significantly higher in patients with uric acid nephrolithiasis than other two groups (P<0. 05). Conculusion Patients with uric acid nephrolithiasis are closely related with hyperuricemia,but unrelated with renal over-ex-cretion of uric acid. The upregulated URAT1 expression in the kidney may be an important molecular mechanism of the clinical features.

  2. Influence of solvents on the habit modification of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2013-02-01

    Restricted evaporation of solvent method was adopted for the growth of alpha lactose monohydrate single crystals from different solvents. The crystal habits of grown crystals were analysed. The form of crystallization was confirmed by powder x-ray diffraction analysis. Thermal behaviour of the grown crystals was studied by using differential scanning calorimetry.

  3. Preventing attacks of acute gout when introducing urate-lowering therapy: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Rakhi; Kydd, Alison S R; Falzon, Louise; Bombardier, Claire; van der Heijde, Désirée M; Edwards, Christopher J

    2014-09-01

    To systematically review the evidence on treatment available to prevent an acute attack of gout when initiating a urate-lowering therapy (ULT) and for how long this treatment should be continued. To also evaluate the evidence on the optimal time to start a ULT after an acute attack of gout. A systematic review as part of the 3e (Evidence, Expertise, Exchange) Initiative on Diagnosis and Management of Gout was performed using Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (from 1950 to October 2011), and the European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) and American College of Rheumatology (ACR) 2010/2011 meeting abstracts. Two reviewers independently screened titles and abstracts for selection criteria. Included articles were reviewed in detail, and a risk of bias assessment (using the Cochrane tool) was performed. The search identified 8168 articles and 197 abstracts, from which 4 randomized controlled trials were included in the review. Two of these studies compared placebo with colchicine, 1 compared differing durations of colchicine, and 1 compared colchicine with canakinumab. Two randomized controlled trials have shown that colchicine prophylaxis for at least 6 months, when starting a ULT, reduces the risk of acute attacks. Canakinumab, although not currently licensed for gout, has been shown to provide prophylaxis superior to colchicine, when starting a ULT. There is no evidence on the optimum time to start a ULT after an acute gout attack.

  4. Adequacy of Online Patient Information Resources on Gout and Potentially Curative Urate-Lowering Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez-Liñan, L M; Edwards, L; Abhishek, A; Doherty, Michael

    2017-05-01

    To assess the content and readability of online patient information resources against the current understanding of gout. An online survey was undertaken using Google UK, USA, Australia, and Canada. Information was assessed for content and accuracy on 19 key points regarding core content for gout patient information resources. Readability was assessed using the Flesch-Kincaid Reading Ease score. Fifteen randomly selected websites were reviewed by a blinded second observer. A total of 85 websites were selected. More than 50% of the websites provided no information or had inaccuracies regarding the pathogenesis of gout. Most websites contained information on dietary and lifestyle modifications for treating gout and did not emphasize urate-lowering therapy (ULT) and its potential for cure. Over 75% of the websites had no/inaccurate information on the role of ULT or prophylaxis for preventing gout attacks on starting ULT. The majority of websites were difficult to read, with information in 68% of the websites rated at least fairly difficult. Only a few web-based patient information resources provide accurate and easy-to-read information on gout. This study will help physicians direct patients to currently reliable resources, but there is a need to improve many web-based patient information resources, which at present act as barriers to care. © 2016, American College of Rheumatology.

  5. Using serum urate as a validated surrogate end point for flares in patients with gout: protocol for a systematic review and meta-regression analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillon, Melanie B; Stamp, Lisa; Taylor, William; Fransen, Jaap; Dalbeth, Nicola; Singh, Jasvinder A; Lassere, Marissa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Gout is the most common inflammatory arthritis in men over 40 years of age. Long-term urate-lowering therapy is considered a key strategy for effective gout management. The primary outcome measure for efficacy in clinical trials of urate-lowering therapy is serum urate levels, effectively acting as a surrogate for patient-centred outcomes such as frequency of gout attacks or pain. Yet it is not clearly demonstrated that the strength of the relationship between serum urate and clinically relevant outcomes is sufficiently strong for serum urate to be considered an adequate surrogate. Our objective is to investigate the strength of the relationship between changes in serum urate in randomised controlled trials and changes in clinically relevant outcomes according to the ‘Biomarker-Surrogacy Evaluation Schema version 3’ (BSES3), documenting the validity of selected instruments by applying the ‘OMERACT Filter 2.0’. Methods and analysis A systematic review described in terms of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) reporting guidelines will identify all relevant studies. Standardised data elements will be extracted from each study by 2 independent reviewers and disagreements are resolved by discussion. The data will be analysed by meta-regression of the between-arm differences in the change in serum urate level (independent variable) from baseline to 3 months (or 6 and 12 months if 3-month values are not available) against flare rate, tophus size and number and pain at the final study visit (dependent variables). Ethics and dissemination This study will not require specific ethics approval since it is based on analysis of published (aggregated) data. The intended audience will include healthcare researchers, policymakers and clinicians. Results of the study will be disseminated by peer-reviewed publications. Trial registration number CRD42016026991. PMID:27650765

  6. The efficacy of probiotics for monosodium glutamate-induced obesity: dietology concerns and opportunities for prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savcheniuk, Oleksandr A; Virchenko, Oleksandr V; Falalyeyeva, Tetyana M; Beregova, Tetyana V; Babenko, Lidia P; Lazarenko, Liudmyla M; Demchenko, Olga M; Bubnov, Rostyslav V; Spivak, Mykola Ya

    2014-01-13

    Obesity becomes endemic today. Monosodium glutamate was proved as obesogenic food additive. Probiotics are discussed to impact on obesity development. The aim was to study the effects of probiotics on the development of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity in rats. We included 45 Wistar male rats and divided into three groups (n = 15). Newborn rats of group 1 (control) received subcutaneously 8 μl/g saline. Group 2 received 3 to 4 mg/g MSG subcutaneously on the second, fourth, sixth, eighth and tenth day of life. Within 4 months after birth, rats were on a standard diet. Group 3 received an aqueous solution of probiotics mixture (2:1:1 Lactobacillus casei IMVB-7280, Bifidobacterium animalis VKL, B. animalis VKB) at the dose of 5 × 109 CFU/kg (50 mg/kg) intragastrically. Administration of probiotics was started at the age of 4 weeks just after weaning and continued for 3 months during 2-week courses. Group 2 received intragastrically 2.5 ml/kg water. Organometric and biochemical parameters in all groups of rats were analyzed over 4 months. The concentration of adiponectin was determined in serum, and leptin - in adipose tissue. Administration of MSG led to the development of obesity in rats; body weight had increased by 7.9% vs controls (p < 0.05); body length had increased by 5.4% (p < 0.05). Body mass index and Lee index and visceral fat mass had increased (p < 0.001). Under the neonatal injection of MSG, the concentration of total cholesterol, triglycerides, VLDL cholesterol and LDL cholesterol significantly increased (p < 0.001), in comparison with controls. Adipose-derived hormones changed in MSG obesity rats: adiponectin decreased by 58.8% (p < 0.01), and leptin concentration in adipose tissue had increased by 74.7% (p < 0.01). The probiotic therapy of rats from group 3 prevented obesity development. Parameters of rats treated with probiotic mixture did not differ from that in the control. The introduction of MSG to newborn rats caused the

  7. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on monosodium iodoacetate‑induced osteoarthritis pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Jin; Cho, Young-Rak; Oh, Joa Sub; Ahn, Eun-Kyung

    2017-08-21

    Tribulus terrestris L. (T. terrestris) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of diuretic, lithontriptic, edema and urinary infections. Previous studies have indicated that it is effective in improving inflammation by regulating tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑10, nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase (COX)‑2. However, the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on osteoarthritis (OA) remain unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of T. terrestris (ETT) in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)‑induced OA animal model. OA was induced in LEW/SSNHSD rats by intra‑articular injection of MIA. Morphometric changes and parameters of the tibial trabecular bone were determined using micro‑computed tomography. The molecular mechanisms of ETT in OA were investigated using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and gelatin zymogram analysis. Treatment with ETT attenuated MIA‑induced OA, and this effect was mediated by the downregulation of NO synthase 2, COX‑2, TNF‑α and IL‑6. Furthermore, the ETT‑mediated attenuation of OA was also dependent on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases‑2 and ‑9. The results of the current study indicate that further evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the attenuation of MIA‑induced OA by ETT are required, and may support the development of ETT as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as OA.

  8. Micro-CT Arthrographic Analysis of Monosodium Iodoacetate- Induced Osteoarthritis in Rat Knees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate the arthrographic findings of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rat knees using the micro-CT arthrography. Intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection-induced arthritis was induced in the right knees of twelve rats; their left knees served as the control group. Eight weeks after MIA injection, micro-CT arthrography was performed on each knee. We measured the thickness of retro-patellar cartilages, the distances of tibio-femoral joint space, subchondral bone plate thickness, tibial epiphyseal height, and transverse patellar diameter. Subchondral trabecular bone indices were measured in the tibial lateral condylar epiphysis. The data were analyzed statistically using a paired t-test. The retro-patellar articular cartilage showed thinning on the right side that had been induced to develop osteoarthritis. The right knees showed a significant reduction in the distance of the tibio-femoral joint space, prominent patellar osteophytes, and the resorption of subchondral bone. Among the subchondral trabecular bone indices, percent bone volume, and trabecular thickness was reduced on the right side. The articular cartilage thickness of MIA-induced arthritis model could be measured using micro- CT arthrography. It was possible to evaluate the osteoarthritic findings including the change in subchondral bone plate thickness, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone resorption, as well as quantitatively analyze the trabecular bone indices.

  9. Does monosodium glutamate interact with macronutrient composition to influence subsequent appetite?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Una; Yeomans, Martin R

    2013-05-27

    The influence of flavour enhancers such as monosodium glutamate (MSG) on satiation and satiety is unclear, and the present study aimed to explore this by examining the effects consumption of soups varying in MSG (1% MSG added or no MSG) and macronutrient content (added carbohydrate, protein or control) had on appetite. 24 non-obese, low-restraint male participants consumed a fixed portion of soup and rated their appetite before, immediately after intake and at 15 minute intervals for 120 min post-ingestion across six sessions. Added MSG significantly increased flavour pleasantness and tended to result in a smaller decrease in hunger immediately after soup ingestion. MSG also reduced rather than enhanced feelings of fullness immediately after ingestion of the high protein soup. As expected, hunger increased, and fullness decreased, over the subsequent 120 min, but the increase in hunger was significantly lower in the MSG than no-MSG conditions with the protein soup between 30 and 60 min post-ingestion. Overall these data suggest that MSG may have a bi-phasic effect on appetite, with reduced satiation mediated by effects on palatability, but potential for enhanced post-ingestive satiety particularly in the context of protein ingestion.

  10. Metabolomic profiling of urinary changes in mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelantová, Helena; Bártová, Simona; Anýž, Jiří; Holubová, Martina; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Novák, Daniel; Lacinová, Zdena; Šulc, Miroslav; Haluzík, Martin; Kuzma, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Obesity with related complications represents a widespread health problem. The etiopathogenesis of obesity is often studied using numerous rodent models. The mouse model of monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity was exploited as a model of obesity combined with insulin resistance. The aim of this work was to characterize the metabolic status of MSG mice by NMR-based metabolomics in combination with relevant biochemical and hormonal parameters. NMR analysis of urine at 2, 6, and 9 months revealed altered metabolism of nicotinamide and polyamines, attenuated excretion of major urinary proteins, increased levels of phenylacetylglycine and allantoin, and decreased concentrations of methylamine in urine of MSG-treated mice. Altered levels of creatine, citrate, succinate, and acetate were observed at 2 months of age and approached the values of control mice with aging. The development of obesity and insulin resistance in 6-month-old MSG mice was also accompanied by decreased mRNA expressions of adiponectin, lipogenetic and lipolytic enzymes and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma in fat while mRNA expressions of lipogenetic enzymes in the liver were enhanced. At the age of 9 months, biochemical parameters of MSG mice were normalized to the values of the controls. This fact pointed to a limited predictive value of biochemical data up to age of 6 months as NMR metabolomics confirmed altered urine metabolic composition even at 9 months.

  11. Vitamin C Protects Chondrocytes against Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis by Multiple Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Pu-Rong; Hu, Yu-Chen; Huang, Tzu-Ching; Hsieh, Bau-Shan; Yeh, Jou-Pei; Cheng, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Li-Wen; Chang, Kee-Lung

    2016-12-27

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease. Dietary intake of vitamin C relates to a reduction in cartilage loss and OA. This study examined the efficacy of vitamin C to prevent OA with the in vitro chondrosarcoma cell line (SW1353) and the in vivo monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA rat. Results demonstrated that, in SW1353 cells, treatment with 5 μM MIA inhibited cell growth and increased oxidative stress, apoptosis, and proteoglycan loss. In addition, the expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 were increased. All of these MIA-induced changes could be prevented with treatment of 100 μM vitamin C. In an animal model, intra-articular injection of MIA-induced cartilage degradation resembled the pathological changes of OA, and treatment of vitamin C could lessen these changes. Unexpectedly, vitamin C's effects did not strengthen with the increasing dosage, while the 100 mg/kg dosage was more efficient than the 200 or 300 mg/kg dosages. Vitamin C possessed multiple capacities for prevention of OA progress, including a decrease in apoptosis and in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs in addition to the well-known antioxidation.

  12. REVIEW OF EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES INVESTIGATING THE RATE OF STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE ADSORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2010-10-01

    A number of laboratory studies have been conducted to determine the influence of mixing and mixing intensity, solution ionic strength, initial sorbate concentrations, temperature, and monosodium titanate (MST) concentration on the rates of sorbate removal by MST in high-level nuclear waste solutions. Of these parameters, initial sorbate concentrations, ionic strength, and MST concentration have the greater impact on sorbate removal rates. The lack of a significant influence of mixing and mixing intensity on sorbate removal rates indicates that bulk solution transport is not the rate controlling step in the removal of strontium and actinides over the range of conditions and laboratory-scales investigated. However, bulk solution transport may be a significant parameter upon use of MST in a 1.3 million-gallon waste tank such as that planned for the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) program. Thus, Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) recommends completing the experiments in progress to determine if mixing intensity influences sorption rates under conditions appropriate for this program. Adsorption models have been developed from these experimental studies that allow prediction of strontium (Sr), plutonium (Pu), neptunium (Np) and uranium (U) concentrations as a function of contact time with MST. Fairly good agreement has been observed between the predicted and measured sorbate concentrations in the laboratory-scale experiments.

  13. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT (MSG PADA TIKUS JANTAN (Rattus Norvegicus TERHADAP FSH DAN LH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Edward

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKemajuan teknologi informasi membawa dampak terhadap perubahan gaya hidup masyarakat, termasuk perubahan pola konsumsi makanan yang lebih banyak mengkonsumsi jenis makanan cepat saji, makanan kemasan dan makanan awetan yang belakangan ini semakin banyak dijual dipasar tradisional dan swalayan. Penggunaan bahan tambahan makanan sering dijumpai, salah satunya adalah bahan penyedap yang banyak sekali digunakan seperti senyawa L-asam glutamat yang digunakan dalam bentuk garam yaitu monosodium glutamat (MSG. Berbagai merk dagang MSG telah dikenal dimasyarakat secara luas seperti ajinomoto, vetsin, micin, sasa, miwon dan sebagainya.MSG adalah garam monosodium dengan asam glutamat yang sering digunakan sebagai bahan penyedap masakan untuk merangsang selera makan. Pemberian MSG mengakibatkan gangguan hormonal pada hewan coba, ion glutamat dalam sirkulasi portal akan mempengaruhi hipotalamus dalam memproduksi GnRH yang selanjutnya akan mengganggu hipofise anterior dalam memproduksi FSH dan LH. Fungsi FSH adalah untuk bekerja pada tubulus seminiferus terutama pada sel sertoli untuk meningkatkan spermatogenesis, sedangkan LH berfungsi pada sel Leydig untuk mengatur sekresi testosteron.Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimen dengan rancangan post only group design. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Biologi dan laboratorium Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran Unand Padang dari tanggal 20 Desember 2009 sampai 30 Februari 2010. Populasi adalah tikus putih jantan strain Jepang (Rattus norvegicus yang berasal dari laboratorium Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Unand. Sampel berjumlah 20 ekor dibagi atas 4 kelompok dengan satu kelompok kontrol dan tiga kelompok perlakuan. Dosis MSG yang digunakan yaitu P1= 4800 mg/kgbb/hari, P2=7200 mg/kgbb/hari dan P3= 9600 mg/kgbb/hari diberikan peroral sebanyak dua siklus epitel seminiferus. Analisa dengan uji Anova dengan derajat kepercayaan 95% dan jika bermakna dilanjutkan dengan uji Multiple Comparissons jenis

  14. Monosodium glutamate (MSG consumption is associated with urolithiasis and urinary tract obstruction in rats.

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    Amod Sharma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The peritoneal injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG can induce kidney injury in adult rats but the effects of long-term oral intake have not been determined. METHODS: We investigated the kidney histology and function in adult male Wistar rats that were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow pellet and water with or without the addition of 2 mg/g body weight MSG/day in drinking water (n=10 per group. Both MSG-treated and control animals were sacrificed after 9 months when renal function parameters, blood and urine electrolytes, and tissue histopathology were determined. RESULTS: MSG-treated rats were more prone to kidney stone formation, as represented by the alkaline urine and significantly higher activity product of calcium phosphate. Accordingly, 3/10 MSG-treated rats developed kidney stones over 9 months versus none of the control animals. Further, 2/10 MSG-treated rats but none (0/10 of the controls manifested hydronephrosis. MSG-treated rats had significantly higher levels of serum creatinine and potassium including urine output volume, urinary excretion sodium and citrate compared to controls. In contrast, MSG-treated rats had significantly lower ammonium and magnesium urinary excretion. CONCLUSION: Oral MSG consumption appears to cause alkaline urine and may increase the risks of kidney stones with hydronephrosis in rats. Similar effects in humans must be verified by dedicated studies.

  15. Effect of monosodium methanarsonate application on cuticle wax content of cocklebur and cotton plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keese, Renee J; Camper, N Dwight

    2006-01-01

    Leaf cuticle waxes were extracted from monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA)-resistant (R) and -susceptible (S) common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium L.) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) plants at 0, 3, 5, and 7 days after treatment (DAT) following 1x and 2x MSMA applications. Wax constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) with flame ionization detection and compared to alkane and alcohol standards of carbon lengths varying from C21 to C30. Differences in waxes were calculated and reported as change per ng mm2-1. Tricosane (C23) was found to increase following MSMA applications. All other alkanes decreased by 7 DAT, with some showing a linear effect over time in the R-cocklebur. Alcohol constituents were also observed to decrease by 7 DAT. Total arsenic in the extracted wax fraction was determined, with greatest quantities detected in the R-cocklebur. Wax changes are not believed to play a role in cotton tolerance, since changes in cuticle concentrations were minimal. Cocklebur resistance to MSMA is not due to cuticle constituents; the wax changes are a secondary effect in response to herbicide application.

  16. Acquired flavor acceptance and intake facilitated by monosodium glutamate in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeomans, Martin R; Gould, Natalie J; Mobini, Sirous; Prescott, John

    2008-03-18

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is known to enhance liking for the flavor of savory foods, but whether associations between flavors and effects of MSG lead to changes in subsequent liking and intake for the flavor alone is unclear. To test this, 32 volunteers evaluated and consumed a novel savory soup with no added MSG before and after four training sessions where the same soup was consumed either unchanged (Control) or with added MSG. The addition of MSG during training increased both pleasantness and savory character of the soup and resulted in a larger increase in rated pleasantness of the soup in the MSG-trained relative to control condition when the soup was re-evaluated Post-training without MSG. There was also a significant increase in voluntary soup intake Post-training after the soup had been paired with MSG but not in the Control condition, and rated hunger increased more after tasting the soup Post-training in the MSG-trained but not Control condition. These findings demonstrate that co-experience of a savory flavor and MSG can result in increased subsequent liking and intake for the flavor in the absence of MSG, and possible explanations for how MSG reinforces learning are discussed.

  17. Mechanisms of Strontium and Uranium Removal From Radioactive Waste Simulant Solutions by the Sorbent Monosodium Titanate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUFF, MARTINE

    2004-12-03

    High-Level Radioactive Waste (HLW) is the priority problem for the U.S. Dept. of Energy's Environmental Management Program. Current HLW treatment processes at the Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC) include the use of monosodium titanate (MST, similar to NaTi{sub 2}O{sub 5}xH{sub 2}O) to concentrate radioactive strontium (Sr) and actinides. Mechanistic information about radionuclide uptake will provide us with insight about the reliability of MST treatments. We characterized the morphology of MST and the chemistry of sorbed Sr{sup 2+} and uranium [U(VI)] on MST with x-ray based spectroscopic and electron microscopic techniques. Sorbed Sr{sup 2+} exhibited specific adsorption as partially-hydrated species, whereas sorbed U exhibited site-specific adsorption as monomeric and dimeric U(VI)-carbonate complexes. These differences in site specificity and mechanism may account for the difficulties associated with predicting MST loading and removal kinetics.

  18. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

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    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  19. Monosodium glutamate-sensitive hypothalamic neurons contribute to the control of bone mass

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elefteriou, Florent; Takeda, Shu; Liu, Xiuyun; Armstrong, Dawna; Karsenty, Gerard

    2003-01-01

    Using chemical lesioning we previously identified hypothalamic neurons that are required for leptin antiosteogenic function. In the course of these studies we observed that destruction of neurons sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) in arcuate nuclei did not affect bone mass. However MSG treatment leads to hypogonadism, a condition inducing bone loss. Therefore the normal bone mass of MSG-treated mice suggested that MSG-sensitive neurons may be implicated in the control of bone mass. To test this hypothesis we assessed bone resorption and bone formation parameters in MSG-treated mice. We show here that MSG-treated mice display the expected increase in bone resorption and that their normal bone mass is due to a concomitant increase in bone formation. Correction of MSG-induced hypogonadism by physiological doses of estradiol corrected the abnormal bone resorptive activity in MSG-treated mice and uncovered their high bone mass phenotype. Because neuropeptide Y (NPY) is highly expressed in MSG-sensitive neurons we tested whether NPY regulates bone formation. Surprisingly, NPY-deficient mice had a normal bone mass. This study reveals that distinct populations of hypothalamic neurons are involved in the control of bone mass and demonstrates that MSG-sensitive neurons control bone formation in a leptin-independent manner. It also indicates that NPY deficiency does not affect bone mass.

  20. Comparative study of erythritol and lactose monohydrate as carriers for inhalation: atomic force microscopy and in vitro correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traini, Daniela; Young, Paul M; Jones, Matthew; Edge, Stephen; Price, Robert

    2006-02-01

    The adhesion of micronised salbutamol sulphate to two carrier excipients, lactose monohydrate and erythritol, was investigated using the atomic force microscope (AFM) colloid probe technique and correlated with their respective physico-mechanical properties and aerosolisation performance. The particle size, morphology and moisture sorption properties of the carriers were similar thereby allowing direct comparison of functionality. AFM force measurements (n = 1024 force curves) were obtained between salbutamol sulphate drug probes (n = 4) and the excipients, as 63-90 microm sieve fractions and atomically smooth crystals. In general, significant differences in drug adhesion to lactose monohydrate and erythritol were observed (ANOVA, plactose monohydrate and drug probe adhesion to erythritol was established with salbutamol sulphate-lactose monohydrate adhesion being 60-70% of that of the erythritol system. In vitro analysis suggested good correlation with the adhesion measurements. The aerosolisation of salbutamol sulphate from erythritol carrier particles was significantly less (ANOVA, plactose monohydrate, with a fine particle dose (lactose monohydrate and erythritol carriers, respectively (n = 3).

  1. Prophylaxis on gout flares after the initiation of urate-lowering therapy: a retrospective research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Xin; Li, Yao; Gao, Wei

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety associated with treatment available to prevent an acute attack of gout when initiating a urate-lowering therapy (ULT). We retrospectively reviewed patients who were diagnosed with gout and treated with ULT during the period from January 2000 to January 2014. They were divided into three groups, 75 patients without prophylaxis treatment, 103 patients treated with etoricoxib, and 129 patients with colchicine treatment. Both demographic and clinical characteristics associated with gout were analyzed. At baseline, demographic and clinical characteristics were generally similar in three groups. SU target level was achieved in 49.3% of the patients without prophylaxis treatment, 66.4% in the etoricoxib group and 65.1% in colchicine group, respectively. During the first 16 weeks, patients without prophylaxis treatment exhibited higher flare rates than patients in other two groups. However, no statistically significant difference was observed between patients in etoricoxib group and colchicine group. In the 16-24 weeks, the proportion of patients who reported flares were all decreased similarly in three groups. The mean number of acute gout flares per patient and gout flare days per patient was significantly higher in patients without prophylaxis treatment than patients in other groups. The mean number of acute gout flares was lower (4.2±2.3 vs 3.2±1.8) in patients with etoricoxib treatment than that in patients with colchicine treatment. Gout flare days per patient were significantly higher in patients without prophylaxis treatment. Compared to colchicine group, gout flare days per patient in etoricoxib were lower (1.2±0.5 vs 2.6±0.6). In term of AEs, patients receiving colchicine had higher rates of gastrointestinal AEs than those who received etoricoxib. In summary, our survey revealed that etoricoxib was more effective and safe than colchicine in preventing acute attack during ULT. PMID:26885092

  2. Crystallisation of α-lactose monohydrate from dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) solutions: influence of β-lactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, T. D.; Parkinson, G. M.; Rohl, A. L.; Ogden, M. I.

    1999-09-01

    In this study, the dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO)-lactose system has been used to study the effect of β-lactose on the morphology of α-lactose monohydrate crystals. DMSO was used as the solvent as it greatly reduces the rate of mutarotation of α-lactose to β-lactose. It is shown that as the β-content of the solution increases, the crystal shape starts increasing in the a and b directions, whereas the major growth occurs in the c direction at low levels of β-lactose. The morphology of the α-lactose monohydrate crystal calculated by molecular modelling is in good agreement with that of the crystals grown in the presence of low β-lactose concentrations. Atomic force microscopy has revealed growth spirals and unit cell high steps on the (0 2 0) face of crystals grown in the presence of low β-anomer concentration.

  3. Crystal growth mechanisms of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2009-04-01

    The growth rates of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystals were measured at 30, 40 and 50 °C in the relative supersaturation range 0.55-2.33 in aqueous solutions. The mechanisms of growth were investigated. Spiral growth was found to be the mechanism of growth up to a critical relative supersaturation ( s-1) crit=1.9 at 30 °C. Above the critical relative supersaturation, the crystal growth mechanisms were predicted to change. All growth models fit equally well to the growth rates. No two-dimensional nucleation was observed above critical supersaturation by AFM. On the other hand increased step height and roughness on the edges of steps were observed. It was concluded that the growth mechanism of the (0 1 0) face of α-lactose monohydrate crystal is spiral growth. A parabolic relationship was obtained below critical supersaturation followed by a linear relationship with relative supersaturation.

  4. Structure and vibrational spectra of L-alanine L-alaninium picrate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazaryan, V. V.; Fleck, M.; Petrosyan, A. M.

    2012-05-01

    Preparation, crystal and molecular structure as well as vibrational spectra of the crystal L-alanine L-alaninium picrate monohydrate are described. The title crystal is monoclinic, space group P21. The asymmetric unit contains one dimeric (L-Ala⋯L-Ala+) cation, one picrate anion and a water molecule. The O⋯O distance in the dimeric cation is equal to 2.553(2) Å. The IR and Raman spectra are interpreted based on the structure.

  5. Creatine monohydrate increases bone mineral density in young Sprague-Dawley rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antolic, Anamaria; Roy, Brian D; Tarnopolsky, Mark A; Zernicke, Ronald F; Wohl, Gregory R; Shaughnessy, Stephen G; Bourgeois, Jacqueline M

    2007-05-01

    Creatine kinase, found in osteoblasts, is an enzyme that is upregulated in response to interventions that enhance bone mass accretion. Creatine monohydrate supplementation can increase fat-free mass in young healthy men and women and can reduce markers of bone breakdown in boys with Duchenne muscular dystrophy. The objective of this study was to determine the influence of supplementation with creatine monohydrate on bone structure and function in growing rats, to establish a therapeutic model. Creatine monohydrate (2% w.w.) (CR; N = 16) or standard rat chow (CON; N = 16) was fed to Sprague-Dawley rats beginning at 5 wk of age, for 8 wk. Bone mineral density (BMD) and content (BMC) were assessed using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry at the beginning and end of the protocol. The rats were sacrificed, and one femur was removed for the determination of mechanical properties. The CR-treated rats showed greater lumbar BMD and femoral bending load at failure compared with the CON rats (P properties and its effects in disorders associated with bone loss.

  6. A combined modelling and experimental study of the surface energetics of alpha-lactose monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saxena, A; Kendrick, J; Grimsey, I M; Roberts, R; York, P

    2010-02-01

    The surface energy of alpha-lactose monohydrate measured by inverse gas chromatography (IGC) is reported along with a dynamic molecular modelling study of the interaction of the various molecular probes with different surfaces of alpha-lactose monohydrate. The IGC results show that alpha-lactose monohydrate is acidic in nature. Using quantitative calculations of the energy of adsorption, the acidic nature of the surface is confirmed and the calculated values agree closely with the experimentally measured values. Along with the acidic nature, dynamic molecular modelling also reveals that the presence of a channel and water molecules on a surface affects the surface energetics of that face. The presence of water on the surface can decrease or increase the surface energy by either blocking or attracting a probe molecule, respectively. This property of water depends on its position and association with other functional groups present on the surface. The effect of a channel or cavity on the surface energy is shown to depend on its size, which determines whether the functional groups in the channel are assessable by probe molecules or not. Overall molecular modelling explains, at the molecular level, the effect of different factors affecting the surface energy of individual faces of the crystal. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  7. Simultaneous Determination of Sitagliptin Phosphate Monohydrate and Metformin Hydrochloride in Tablets by a Validated UPLC Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malleswararao, Chellu S N; Suryanarayana, Mulukutla V; Mukkanti, Khagga

    2012-01-01

    A novel approach was used to develop and validate a rapid, specific, accurate and precise reverse phase ultra performance liquid chromatographic (UPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate and Metformin hydrochloride in pharmaceutical dosage forms. The chromatographic separation was achieved on Aquity UPLC BEH C8 100 × 2.1 mm, 1.7 μm, column using a buffer consisting of 10 mM potassium dihydrogen phosphate and 2 mM hexane-1-sulfonic acid sodium salt (pH adjusted to 5.50 with diluted phosphoric acid) and acetonitrile as organic solvent in a gradient program. The flow rate was 0.2 mL min(-1) and the detection wavelength was 210 nm. The limit of detection (LOD) for Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate and Metformin hydrochloride was 0.2 and 0.06 μg mL(-1), respectively. The limit of quantification (LOQ) for Sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate and Metformin hydrochloride was 0.7 and 0.2 μg mL(-1), respectively. This method was validated with respect to linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and robustness. The method was also found to be stability-indicating.

  8. RADIUM AND THORIUM SORPTION BY MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST) AND MODIFIED MST (mMST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-02-15

    A series of tests were planned to examine the removal of Ra and Th by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST). Simulated waste solutions were prepared containing Ra and Th, along with Sr, Np, Pu, and U. Following simulant preparation the simulants were filtered through 0.45-m filters. Analysis of the simulants indicated no Th in the filtered solution. This is due to the very low solubility of Th in alkaline solutions. Based on the reported detection limits for {sup 228}Th by gamma analyses, the solubility of Th in the simulant solutions is < 3.0E-10 g/L or < 1.3E-12 M. Therefore, data could not be obtained regarding the removal of Th by MST and mMST; however, testing proceeded to examine the removal of Ra. Sorption testing indicated that Ra, like Sr, is very rapidly removed from solution by both MST and mMST. The Ra concentration in solution fell below the method detection limit (MDL) within 30 minutes of contact with MST, and within 2 hours of contact with mMST, when tested at 25 C using a 5.6 M Na simulant. Additional testing examined the effects of ionic strength and temperature on the MST and mMST performance. Results from these tests showed that the majority of samples still reached a Ra concentration below the MDL, indicating excellent removal. For the highest ionic strength solution (6.6 M Na), there did appear to be a slight decrease in the Ra removal by mMST, as indicated by a larger number of samples just above the MDL. The effect of temperature on {sup 226}Ra removal is indeterminate for either MST or mMST in the temperature range (25-60 C) and concentrations studied since the final soluble concentration of Ra remained at or below the detection limits for all tests. Desorption testing was also performed using decontaminated salt solution (DSS) diluted to sodium concentrations of 2 M and 0.5 M, to represent the intermediate and final stages of washing. Results from these tests indicated no desorption of any sorbents, with the

  9. Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collison Kate S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6 J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50 mg/Kgbw/day caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT P  Conclusions Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6 J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species.

  10. Monosodium Glutamate Dietary Consumption Decreases Pancreatic β-Cell Mass in Adult Wistar Rats.

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    Piyanard Boonnate

    Full Text Available The amount of dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG is increasing worldwide, in parallel with the epidemics of metabolic syndrome. Parenteral administration of MSG to rodents induces obesity, hyperglycemia, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance, and type 2 diabetes. However, the impact of dietary MSG is still being debated. We investigated the morphological and functional effects of prolonged MSG consumption on rat glucose metabolism and on pancreatic islet histology.Eighty adult male Wistar rats were randomly subdivided into 4 groups, and test rats in each group were supplemented with MSG for a different duration (1, 3, 6, or 9 months, n=20 for each group. All rats were fed ad libitum with a standard rat chow and water. Ten test rats in each group were provided MSG 2 mg/g body weight/day in drinking water and the 10 remaining rats in each group served as non-MSG treated controls. Oral glucose tolerance tests (OGTT were performed and serum insulin measured at 9 months. Animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 6, or 9 months to examine the histopathology of pancreatic islets.MSG-treated rats had significantly lower pancreatic β-cell mass at 1, 6 and 9 months of study. Islet hemorrhages increased with age in all groups and fibrosis was significantly more frequent in MSG-treated rats at 1 and 3 months. Serum insulin levels and glucose tolerance in MSG-treated and untreated rats were similar at all time points we investigated.Daily MSG dietary consumption was associated with reduced pancreatic β-cell mass and enhanced hemorrhages and fibrosis, but did not affect glucose homeostasis. We speculate that high dietary MSG intake may exert a negative effect on the pancreas and such effect might become functionally significant in the presence or susceptibility to diabetes or NaCl; future experiments will take these crucial cofactors into account.

  11. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

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    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  12. Using monosodium glutamate to initiate ethanol self-administration in inbred mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCool, Brian A; Chappell, Ann M

    2012-01-01

    Voluntary oral ethanol consumption in rodents is generally limited by strong taste-aversion in these species. Historically, this has been overcome by combining ethanol with a sweetener, typically sucrose or saccharine, and then slowly 'fading' away the sweetener. While useful in most instances, this approach has not proven as successful for some inbred strains of mice (e.g. DBA/2J) despite consistent evidence in the literature that these same strains express strong conditioned place preference for intraperitoneal- or intragastric-administered ethanol. Importantly, DBA/2J mice express a polymorphism in a 'sweet' taste receptor subunit gene that reduces the potency of sweet substances in these mice. We hypothesized that the presence of this polymorphism might help explain the contrasting behavioral findings of weak voluntary oral ethanol consumption following sucrose-fade yet robust conditioned place preference for ethanol in this strain. To test this, we compared ethanol consumption initiated by either a 'traditional' sucrose-fade or a fade from an alternative tastant, monosodium glutamate (MSG). We found that in both C57BL/6J and DBA/2J mice, the MSG-fade produced robust increases in home cage ethanol consumption relative to the traditional sucrose-fade. This increased ethanol intake following MSG-fade was evident across a range of ethanol concentrations. Our findings suggest the potential utility of the MSG-fade to establish stable voluntary oral ethanol consumption in mice, particularly ethanol 'non-preferring' strains such as DBA/2J and lend additional support to the notion that ethanol consumption in DBA/2J mice is limited by pronounced taste aversion.

  13. Activation of a7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Prevents Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis in Rats

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    Yuan Liu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: Although some evidence suggests that the prevalence of osteoarthritis (OA is lower in smokers compared to nonsmokers, the mechanisms of nicotine-induced protection remain unclear. Stimulation of the a7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (a7-nAChR appears to be a critical mechanism underlying the anti-inflammatory potential of cholinergic agonists in immune cells. The inhibition of secreted inflammatory molecules and the subsequent inflammatory processes have been proposed as a novel strategy for the treatment of OA. The objective of the present study was to determine whether nicotine-induced protection in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA rat model of OA occurs via a7-nAChR-mediated inhibition of chondrocytes. Methods: Both in vivo (MIA and in vitro (MIA; Interleukin-1ß, IL-1ß models of OA were used to investigate the roles and the possible mechanisms whereby a7-nAChRs protect against knee joint degradation. Multiple experimental approaches, including macroscopic, histological analysis, chondrocyte cell cultures, confocal microscopy, and western blotting, were employed to elucidate the mechanisms of a7-nAChR-mediated protection. Results: Systemic administration of nicotine alleviated MIA-induced joint degradation. The protective effects of nicotine were abolished by administration of the a7-nAChR-selective antagonist methyllycaconitine (MLA. In primary cultured rat chondrocytes, pretreatment with nicotine suppressed both p38, extracellular regulated kinase (Erk 1/2 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK phosphorylation and phosphorylated nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB p65 activation induced by MIA- or IL-1ß, and these effects were also reversed by MLA. Conclusion: Taken together, our results suggest that activation a7-nAChRs is an important mechanism underlying the protective effects of nicotine.

  14. The effects of URAT1/SLC22A12 nonfunctional variants,R90H and W258X, on serum uric acid levels and gout/hyperuricemia progression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakiyama, Masayuki; Matsuo, Hirotaka; Shimizu, Seiko; Nakashima, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Takahiro; Nakayama, Akiyoshi; Higashino, Toshihide; Naito, Mariko; Suma, Shino; Hishida, Asahi; Satoh, Takahiro; Sakurai, Yutaka; Takada, Tappei; Ichida, Kimiyoshi; Ooyama, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Toru; Shinomiya, Nariyoshi

    2016-01-01

    Urate transporter 1 (URAT1/SLC22A12), a urate transporter gene, is a causative gene for renal hypouricemia type 1. Among several reported nonsynonymous URAT1 variants, R90H (rs121907896) and W258X (rs121907892) are frequent causative mutations for renal hypouricemia. However, no case-control study has evaluated the relationship between gout and these two variants. Additionally, the effect size of these two variants on serum uric acid (SUA) levels remains to be clarified. Here, 1,993 primary gout patients and 4,902 health examination participants (3,305 males and 1,597 females) were genotyped with R90H and W258X. These URAT1 variants were not observed in any gout cases, while 174 subjects had the URAT1 variant in 2,499 health examination participants, respectively (P = 8.3 × 10−46). Moreover, in 4,902 health examination participants, the URAT1 nonfunctional variants significantly reduce the risk of hyperuricemia (P = 6.7 × 10−19; risk ratio = 0.036 in males). Males, having 1 or 2 nonfunctional variants of URAT1, show a marked decrease of 2.19 or 5.42 mg/dl SUA, respectively. Similarly, females, having 1 or 2 nonfunctional variants, also evidence a decrease of 1.08 or 3.89 mg/dl SUA, respectively. We show that URAT1 nonfunctional variants are protective genetic factors for gout/hyperuricemia, and also demonstrated the sex-dependent effect size of these URAT1 variants on SUA (P for interaction = 1.5 × 10−12). PMID:26821810

  15. Synthesis of uranyl(II), vanadyl(II) and zirconyl urate complexes, spectral, thermal and biological studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Megharbel, Samy M; El-Metwaly, Nashwa M; Refat, Moamen S

    2015-01-01

    Three urate chelations were obtained when uric acid was reacted with UO2(CH3COO)2H2O, VOSO4·XH2O and ZrOCl2·XH2O salts with neutralized with 0.1 M NaOH aqueous media. The 1:2 metal-to-ligand complexes [(UO2)2(C5H2N4O3)2](H2O), [(ZrO)2(H2O)2(C5H2N4O3)2] and [VO((C5H3N4O3)2] were characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, (infrared, Raman and UV-vis) spectra, effective magnetic moment in Bohr magnetons, and thermal analysis (TG/DTG). The urate ligand coordinates as mononegative bidentate donor towards the mononuclear central vanadium atom and coordinated as binegative tetradentate mode towards the binuclear dioxouranium and zirconyl centers. The antibacterial activity of the metal complexes were tested against some kind of bacteria and fungi strains and compared with uric acid. The ligand, ZrO(II) and UO2(II) complex showed a week potential degradation on calf thymus DNA, whereas VO(II) complex slightly degraded the DNA.

  16. Carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of hydrazine monohydrate in rats and mice by two-year drinking water treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Michiharu; Kano, Hirokazu; Suzuki, Masaaki; Katagiri, Taku; Umeda, Yumi; Fukushima, Shoji

    2016-04-01

    The carcinogenicity and chronic toxicity of hydrazine monohydrate was examined by administrating hydrazine monohydrate in drinking water to groups of 50 F344/DuCrj rats and 50 Crj:BDF1 mice of both sexes for two years. The drinking water concentration of hydrazine monohydrate was 0, 20, 40 or 80 ppm (wt/wt) for male and female rats and male mice; and 0, 40, 80 or 160 ppm for female mice. Survival rates of each group of males and females rats and mice were similar to the respective controls, except female rats administered 80 ppm. Two-year administration of hydrazine monohydrate produced an increase in the incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas in rats of both sexes along with hepatic foci. In mice, the incidences of hepatocellular adenomas and carcinomas were increased in females, and significantly increased incidences of hepatocellular adenomas in females administered 160 ppm were observed. Thus, hydrazine monohydrate is carcinogenic in two species, rats and mice. Additionally, non-neoplastic renal lesions in rats and mice and non-neoplastic nasal lesions in mice were observed.

  17. EXPRESSION OF BAX AND BCL-2 IN MOUSE OFFSPRING BRAIN AFIER MATERNAL ORAL ADMINISTRATION OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the excitotoxicity of monosodium glutamate(MSG)in the offspring crebral cortex and hippocampal subresions after maternal oral administration of MSG.Methods:Kunming mice were given per os MSG(4.0g/kg)at 17-21 days of pregnancy and their offspring behaviors were studied at 10,20,30days postnatally.By using inmunohistochemical means,the involvment of Bcl-2 and bax in the glutamate-induced cell death in cortical and hippocampal neurons were examined.Cell damage was assessed by direct cell counting.Results:administration of monosodium glutamate during the fetal period in mice resulted in a moderate increase in the expression of Bax in principal neurons in CA1,CA2,CA3,CA4 and in the cerebral cortex at postpartum 10,20,30 days in the offspring mice,whereas Bcl-2 protein expressions were reduced significantly in the same regions as compared with those of controls.Conclusion:These findings suggest that glutamate toxicity results in cellular death via an apoptotic mechanism in which the Bcl-2/Bax-alpha molecular complex may be involved.The glutamate-induced apoptosis appears to be related to the modulation of Bcl-2 family gene products such as Bcl-2 and Bax.

  18. Acute kidney injury observed during phase 1 clinical trials of a novel xanthine oxidase/URAT1 dual inhibitor PF-06743649.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dua, Pinky; Gurrell, Rachel; Kirby, Simon; Sudworth, Maria; Loudon, Peter T

    2016-08-01

    The objective of these clinical studies was to assess the safety and urate lowering activity of a novel urate transporter 1 (URAT1)/ xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitor PF-06743649 in healthy subjects and gout patients. Escalating doses of PF-06743649 or placebo were given to healthy young subjects, healthy elderly subjects and gout patients. Serum uric acid (sUA) and urinary pharmacodynamic markers were assayed, and safety was assessed by collection of adverse events and assessment of safety labs, ECGs and vital signs. Administration of PF-06743649 led to rapid decrease in sUA in all cohorts; in gout patients, a change from baseline of 69 % was observed for the 40 mg dose. Urinary and serum biomarkers were consistent with inhibition of both URAT1 and XO. Although dosing was otherwise well tolerated, two subjects experienced serious adverse events of acute kidney injury. Both subjects exhibited increased serum creatinine and blood urea nitrogen in the first 3 days post first dose and were hospitalised. One subject exhibited oliguria for the first 24 h. Both subjects made a complete recovery with minimal intervention. PF-06743649 was effective at rapidly lowering sUA, but further development was terminated for an identified renal safety risk.

  19. Urate levels predict survival in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: Analysis of the expanded Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS clinical trials database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paganoni, Sabrina; Nicholson, Katharine; Chan, James; Shui, Amy; Schoenfeld, David; Sherman, Alexander; Berry, James; Cudkowicz, Merit; Atassi, Nazem

    2017-08-31

    Urate has been identified as a predictor of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) survival in some but not all studies. Here we leverage the recent expansion of the Pooled Resource Open-Access ALS Clinical Trials (PRO-ACT) database to study the association between urate levels and ALS survival. Pooled data of 1,736 ALS participants from the PRO-ACT database were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards regression models were used to evaluate associations between urate levels at trial entry and survival. After adjustment for potential confounders (i.e., creatinine and body mass index), there was an 11% reduction in risk of reaching a survival endpoint during the study with each 1-mg/dL increase in uric acid levels (adjusted hazard ratio 0.89, 95% confidence interval 0.82-0.97, P < 0.01). Our pooled analysis provides further support for urate as a prognostic factor for survival in ALS and confirms the utility of the PRO-ACT database as a powerful resource for ALS epidemiological research. Muscle Nerve 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Resveratrol, a natural antioxidant, protects monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritic pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhu-Min; Chen, Yong-Cai; Wang, Da-Peng

    2016-10-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic progressive joint disease characterized by advanced joint pain, subchondral bone sclerosis and articular cartilage degeneration. Resveratrol has been shown to have anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective and antioxidant properties and to inhibit platelet aggregation and coagulation. However, the effects of resveratrol on OA have not been examined. In this study, we investigate the protective effects of resveratrol on monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA through inhibition of cyclooxygenase (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) signaling pathway in a rat model. A single intra-articular injection of MIA was injected into rats for the induction of OA. The mechanical, heat and cold hyperalgesia were measured at days 0, 7 and 14. The serum and synovial fluid levels of IL-1β, IL-10 and TNF-α and osteocalcin were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mRNA and protein expressions of IL-1β, IL-10, TNF-α, Il-6, MMP-13 and COX-2 and iNOS were determined by RT-PCR and western blot, respectively. Osteoarthritic lesion in the knee joint was evaluated by histological analysis. MIA-injected rats treated with resveratrol at a dose of either 5 or 10mg/kg body weight were significantly reduced hyperalgesia of mechanical, heat and cold and increased the vertical and horizontal movements. Subsequently, MIA-injected rats increased serum and synovial fluid levels of IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, TNF-α, MMP-13 and osteoclastic activity marker, osteocalcin and its articular cartilage mRNA and protein expressions. Further, MIA-injected rats increased COX-2 and iNOS mRNA and protein expressions were decreased by resveratrol. The protective effect of resveratrol was comparable to a reference drug, etoricoxib. The cartilage damage induced by MIA were attenuated by resveratrol. Taken together, resveratrol has the potential to improve MIA-induced cartilage damage by inhibiting the levels and expressions of inflammatory mediators suggesting

  1. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  2. No effect on intake and liking of soup enhanced with mono-sodium glutamate and celery powder among elderly people with olfactory and/or gustatory loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.; Kleikers, S.M.; Staveren, van W.A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2009-01-01

    Mono-sodium glutamate (MSG) and/or flavors may improve palatability and intake in elderly people. Whether this improvement is related to a decline in chemosensory sensitivity is unclear. We examined the effect of flavor-enhanced tomato soup (1,200 mg/l MSG (0.12% MSG) + 3 g/l celery powder) versus n

  3. No effect on intake and liking of soup enhanced with mono-sodium glutamate and celery powder among elderly people with olfactory and/or gustatory loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.; Kleikers, S.M.; Staveren, van W.A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2009-01-01

    Mono-sodium glutamate (MSG) and/or flavors may improve palatability and intake in elderly people. Whether this improvement is related to a decline in chemosensory sensitivity is unclear. We examined the effect of flavor-enhanced tomato soup (1,200 mg/l MSG (0.12% MSG) + 3 g/l celery powder) versus n

  4. Microscopic Study of Testicular Tissue Structure and Spermatogenesis Following Long Term Dose Dependent Administration of Monosodium Glutamate in Adult Diabetic Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianifard Davoud

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims: Diabetic hyperglycemia leads to structural and functional alterations in body organs including testis. Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a food additive which has toxic effects on human and animal’s tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of MSG on diabetic complications of testicular tissue.

  5. Serum urate gene associations with incident gout, measured in the Framingham Heart Study, are modified by renal disease and not by body mass index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J; Vazquez, Ana I; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Klimentidis, Yann C; Bridges, S Louis; Allison, David B; Singh, Jasvinder A

    2016-02-01

    We hypothesized that serum urate-associated SNPs, individually or collectively, interact with BMI and renal disease to contribute to risk of incident gout. We measured the incidence of gout and associated comorbidities using the original and offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study. We used direct and imputed genotypes for eight validated serum urate loci. We fit binomial regression models of gout incidence as a function of the covariates, age, type 2 diabetes, sex, and all main and interaction effects of the eight serum urate SNPs with BMI and renal disease. Models were also fit with a genetic risk score for serum urate levels which corresponds to the sum of risk alleles at the eight SNPs. Model covariates, age (P = 5.95E-06), sex (P = 2.46E-39), diabetes (P = 2.34E-07), BMI (P = 1.14E-11) and the SNPs, rs1967017 (P = 9.54E-03), rs13129697 (P = 4.34E-07), rs2199936 (P = 7.28E-03) and rs675209 (P = 4.84E-02) were all associated with incident gout. No BMI by SNP or BMI by serum urate genetic risk score interactions were statistically significant, but renal disease by rs1106766 was statistically significant (P = 6.12E-03). We demonstrated that minor alleles of rs1106766 (intergenic, INHBC) were negatively associated with the risk of incident gout in subjects without renal disease, but not for individuals with renal disease. These analyses demonstrate that a significant component of the risk of gout may involve complex interplay between genes and environment.

  6. Serum urate gene associations with incident gout, measured in the Framingham Heart Study, are modified by renal disease and not by body mass index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reynolds, Richard J.; Vazquez, Ana I.; Srinivasasainagendra, Vinodh; Klimentidis, Yann C.; Bridges, S. Louis; Allison, David B.; Singh, Jasvinder A.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction/objectives We hypothesized that serum urate-associated SNPs, individually or collectively, interact with BMI and renal disease to contribute to risk for incident gout. Method We measured the incidence of gout and associated comorbidities using the Original and Offspring cohorts of the Framingham Heart Study. We used direct and imputed genotypes for eight validated serum urate loci. We fit binomial regression models of gout incidence as a function of the covariates, age, type 2 diabetes, sex, and all main and interaction effects of the eight serum urate SNPs with BMI and renal disease. Models were also fit with a genetic risk score for serum urate levels which corresponds to the sum of risk alleles at the 8 SNPs. Results Model covariates, age (P = 5.95E-06), sex (P = 2.46E-39), diabetes (P = 2.34E-07), BMI (P = 1.14E-11) and the SNPs, rs1967017 (P = 9.54E-03), rs13129697 (P = 4.34E-07), rs2199936 (P = 7.28E-03) and rs675209 (P = 4.84E-02) were all associated with incident gout. No BMI by SNP or BMI by serum urate genetic risk score (GRS) interactions were statistically significant, but renal disease by rs1106766 was statistically significant (P=6.12E-03). Conclusions We demonstrated that minor alleles of rs1106766 (intergenic, INHBC) were negatively associated with the risk of incident gout in subjects without renal disease, but not for individuals with renal disease. These analyses demonstrate that a significant component of the risk for gout may involve complex interplay between genes and environment. PMID:26427508

  7. Radiolysis of Sulfuric Acid, Sulfuric Acid Monohydrate, and Sulfuric Acid Tetrahydrate and Its Relevance to Europa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeffler, M. J.; Hudson, R. L.; Moore, M. H.; Carlson, R. W.

    2011-01-01

    We report laboratory studies on the 0.8 MeV proton irradiation of ices composed of sulfuric acid (H2SO4), sulfuric acid monohydrate (H2SO4 H2O), and sulfuric acid tetrahydrate (H2SO4 4H2O) between 10 and 180 K. Using infrared spectroscopy, we identify the main radiation products as H2O, SO2, (S2O3)x, H3O+, HSO4(exp -), and SO4(exp 2-). At high radiation doses, we find that H2SO4 molecules are destroyed completely and that H2SO4 H2O is formed on subsequent warming. This hydrate is significantly more stable to radiolytic destruction than pure H2SO4, falling to an equilibrium relative abundance of 50% of its original value on prolonged irradiation. Unlike either pure H2SO4 or H2SO4 H2O, the loss of H2SO4 4H2O exhibits a strong temperature dependence, as the tetrahydrate is essentially unchanged at the highest irradiation temperatures and completely destroyed at the lowest ones, which we speculate is due to a combination of radiolytic destruction and amorphization. Furthermore, at the lower temperatures it is clear that irradiation causes the tetrahydrate spectrum to transition to one that closely resembles the monohydrate spectrum. Extrapolating our results to Europa s surface, we speculate that the variations in SO2 concentrations observed in the chaotic terrains are a result of radiation processing of lower hydration states of sulfuric acid and that the monohydrate will remain stable on the surface over geological times, while the tetrahydrate will remain stable in the warmer regions but be destroyed in the colder regions, unless it can be reformed by other processes, such as thermal reactions induced by diurnal cycling.

  8. Crystal studies, vibrational spectra and non-linear optical properties of L-histidine chloride monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Ahmed, A; Feki, H; Abid, Y; Boughzala, H; Minot, C

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations on the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a non-linear optical material L-histidine chloride monohydrate. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on geometric parameters available in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystal of L-histidine chloride monohydrate has been growing by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro-symmetric space group P2(1)2(1)2(1) of orthorhombic system. IR spectrum has been recorded in the range [400-4000 cm(-1)]. All the experimental vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations on the basis of our calculations. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method show a good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated vibrational spectra are in well agreement with the experimental one. To investigate microscopic second-order non-linear optical NLO behavior of the examined complex, the electric dipole mu, the polarizability alpha and the hyperpolarizability beta were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was employed to descript the molecular electron structure of the title compound using the B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. According to our calculations, L-histidine chloride monohydrate exhibits non-zero beta value revealing microscopic second-order NLO behavior. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Crystal studies, vibrational spectra and non-linear optical properties of L-histidine chloride monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, A. Ben; Feki, H.; Abid, Y.; Boughzala, H.; Minot, C.

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents the results of our calculations on the geometric parameters, vibrational spectra and hyperpolarizability of a non-linear optical material L-histidine chloride monohydrate. Due to the lack of sufficiently precise information on geometric parameters available in literature, theoretical calculations were preceded by re-determination of the crystal X-ray structure. Single crystal of L-histidine chloride monohydrate has been growing by slow evaporation of an aqueous solution at room temperature. The compound crystallizes in the non-Centro-symmetric space group P2 12 12 1 of orthorhombic system. IR spectrum has been recorded in the range [400-4000 cm -1]. All the experimental vibrational bands have been discussed and assigned to normal mode or to combinations on the basis of our calculations. The optimized geometric bond lengths and bond angles obtained by using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method show a good agreement with the experimental data. The calculated vibrational spectra are in well agreement with the experimental one. To investigate microscopic second-order non-linear optical NLO behavior of the examined complex, the electric dipole μ, the polarizability α and the hyperpolarizability β were computed using DFT//B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. The time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT) was employed to descript the molecular electron structure of the title compound using the B3LYP/6-31G (d) method. According to our calculations, L-histidine chloride monohydrate exhibits non-zero β value revealing microscopic second-order NLO behavior.

  10. The effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation with and without D-pinitol on resistance training adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerksick, Chad M; Wilborn, Colin D; Campbell, William I; Harvey, Travis M; Marcello, Brandon M; Roberts, Mike D; Parker, Adam G; Byars, Allyn G; Greenwood, Lori D; Almada, Anthony L; Kreider, Richard B; Greenwood, Mike

    2009-12-01

    Coingestion of D-pinitol with creatine (CR) has been reported to enhance creatine uptake. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether adding D-pinitol to CR affects training adaptations, body composition, whole-body creatine retention, and/or blood safety markers when compared to CR ingestion alone after 4 weeks of resistance training. Twenty-four resistance trained males were randomly assigned in a double-blind manner to creatine + pinitol (CRP) or creatine monohydrate (CR) prior to beginning a supervised 4-week resistance training program. Subjects ingested a typical loading phase (i.e., 20 g/d-1 for 5 days) before ingesting 5 g/d-1 the remaining 23 days. Performance measures were assessed at baseline (T0), week 1 (T1), and week 4 (T2) and included 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (BP), 1RM leg press (LP), isokinetic knee extension, and a 30-second Wingate anaerobic capacity test. Fasting blood and body composition using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) were determined at T1 and T3. Data were analyzed by repeated measures analysis of variance (ANOVA). Creatine retention increased (p 0.05). Significant improvements in upper- and lower-body strength and body composition occurred in both groups. However, significantly greater increases in lean mass and fat-free mass occurred in the CR group when compared to CRP (p pinitol to creatine monohydrate does not appear to facilitate further physiological adaptations while resistance training. Creatine monohydrate supplementation helps to improve strength and body composition while resistance training. Data from this study assist in determining the potential role the addition of D-pinitol to creatine may aid in facilitating training adaptations to exercise.

  11. Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Lead 2,4,6-Trinitroresorcinate Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU Rong-zu; YAO Pu; LI Jing; CHEN San-ping; GAO Sheng-li; ZHAO Feng-qi; SONG Ji-rong; SHI Qi-zhen; CHEN Pei; LUO Yang; ZHAO Hong-an

    2004-01-01

    The non-isothermal decomposition of lead 2,4,6-trinitroresorcinate monohydrate, Pb (TNR) · H2O. was investigated by means of TG-DTA, DSC and IR. The thermal decomposition mechanism and the dissociated kinetics were also investigated. The kinetic parameters were obtained from the analysis of the DSC curves by integral and differential methods. The most probable kinetic model function of the dehydration reaction of Pb(TNR) · H2O was suggested by the comparison of the kinetic parameters.

  12. Growth kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate. III. Variation of solution composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijvoet, Olav L. M.; Blomen, Leo J. M. J.; Will, Eric J.; van der Linden, Hanneke

    1983-11-01

    The influence of the variations of initial supersaturation, ionic strength and calcium-to-oxalate ratio on the growth kinetics of calcium oxalate monohydrate from suspension at 37°C have been investigated in an isotopic system. All experiments can be described with a single growth formula, containing three constants: kA (growth rate constant), La (thermodynamic solubility product) and [ tm] (a parameter describing the agglomeration of any seed suspension). This formula is able to predict any growth curve when the initial concentrations of seed, oxalate and indifferent electrolyte are known. Comparisons with datak from the literature are discussed.

  13. In vivo comet assay of acrylonitrile, 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate and ethanol in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Yuzuki; Toyoizumi, Tomoyasu; Sui, Hajime; Ohta, Ryo; Kumagai, Fumiaki; Usumi, Kenji; Saito, Yoshiaki; Yamakage, Kohji

    2015-07-01

    As part of the Japanese Center for the Validation of Alternative Methods (JaCVAM)-initiative international validation study of the in vivo rat alkaline comet assay, we examined the ability of acrylonitrile, 9-aminoacridine hydrochloride monohydrate (9-AA), and ethanol to induce DNA damage in the liver and glandular stomach of male rats. Acrylonitrile is a genotoxic carcinogen, 9-AA is a genotoxic non-carcinogen, and ethanol is a non-genotoxic carcinogen. Positive results were obtained in the liver cells of male rats treated with known genotoxic compounds, acrylonitrile and 9-AA.

  14. First Principles Calculation of Terahertz Vibrational Modes of a Disaccharide Monohydrate Crystal of Lactose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, Shigeki; Inerbaev, Talgat M.; Mizuseki, Hiroshi; Igarashi, Nobuaki; Note, Ryunosuke; Kawazoe, Yoshiyuki

    2006-11-01

    First-principles calculations of the crystalline vibrations of a lactose monohydrate crystal in the terahertz (THz) region were performed using periodic density functional theory calculations. The calculated vibrational modes in the THz region were derived from group motions with different sizes: molecules of lactose and crystal water, pyranose rings, and intramolecular frames. The intermolecular modes with large vibrational amplitude of lactose of 17.5-100.6 cm-1 and of crystal-water of 136.1-237.7 cm-1 were clearly separated. This article especially refers to the intermolecular vibrational modes of crystal water with the THz absorption, which provide detectable spectral features of hydrated crystals.

  15. The influence of crystal morphology on the kinetics of growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millan, A.; Sohnel, O.; Grases, F.

    1997-08-01

    The growth of several calcium oxalate monohydrate seeds in the presence and absence of additives (phytate, EDTA and citrate) has been followed by potentiometry measurements. Growth rates have been calculated from precipitate curves by a cubic spline method and represented in logarithmic plots versus supersaturation. Crystal growth kinetics were found to be dependent on crystal morphology, crystal perfection and degree of aggregation. Some seeds were dissolving in supersaturated solutions. Other seeds showed an initial growth phase of high-order kinetics. The effect of the additives was also different on each seed. Three alternative mechanisms for calcium oxalate crystal growth are proposed.

  16. Theoretical calculation of zero field splitting parameters of Cr{sup 3+} doped ammonium oxalate monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kripal, Ram, E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Yadav, Awadhesh Kumar, E-mail: aky.physics@gmail.com

    2015-06-15

    Zero field splitting parameters (ZFSPs) D and E of Cr{sup 3+} ion doped ammonium oxalate monohydrate (AOM) are calculated with formula using the superposition model. The theoretically calculated ZFSPs for Cr{sup 3+} in AOM crystal are compared with the experimental value obtained by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR). Theoretical ZFSPs are in good agreement with the experimental ones. The energy band positions of optical absorption spectra of Cr{sup 3+} in AOM crystal calculated with CFA package are in good match with the experimental values.

  17. The efficacy and safety of febuxostat for urate lowering in gout patients ≥65 years of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackson Robert L

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The incidence of gout rises with increasing age. Management of elderly (≥65 years gout patients can be challenging due to high rates of comorbidities, such as renal impairment and cardiovascular disease, and concomitant medication use. However, there is little data specifically addressing the efficacy and safety of available urate-lowering therapies (ULT in the elderly. The objective of this post hoc analysis was to examine the efficacy and safety of ULT with febuxostat or allopurinol in a subset of elderly subjects enrolled in the CONFIRMS trial. Methods Hyperuricemic (serum urate [sUA] levels ≥ 8.0 mg/dL gout subjects were enrolled in the 6-month, double-blind, randomized, comparative CONFIRMS trial and randomized, 1:1:1, to receive febuxostat, 40 mg or 80 mg, or allopurinol (200 mg or 300 mg based on renal function once daily. Flare prophylaxis was provided throughout the study duration. Study endpoints were the percent of elderly subjects with sUA Results Of 2,269 subjects enrolled, 374 were elderly. Febuxostat 80 mg was significantly more efficacious (82.0% than febuxostat 40 mg (61.7%; p p p = 0.029. In subjects with mild-to-moderate renal impairment, significantly greater ULT efficacy was observed with febuxostat 40 mg (61.6%; p = 0.028 and febuxostat 80 mg (82.5%; p p p = 0.011 groups. Flare rates declined steadily in all treatment groups. Rates of AEs were low and comparable across treatments. Conclusions These data suggest that either dose of febuxostat is superior to commonly prescribed fixed doses of allopurinol (200/300 mg in subjects ≥65 years of age with high rates of renal dysfunction. In addition, in this high-risk population, ULT with either drug was well tolerated. Trial registration clinicaltrials.gov NCT#00430248

  18. Mendelian randomization provides no evidence for a causal role of serum urate in increasing serum triglyceride levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasheed, Humaira; Hughes, Kim; Flynn, Tanya J; Merriman, Tony R

    2014-12-01

    Triglycerides and their lipoprotein transport molecules are risk factors for heart disease. Observational studies have associated elevated levels of serum urate (SU) with triglycerides and risk of heart disease. However, owing to unmeasured confounding, observational studies do not provide insight into the causal relationship between SU and triglyceride. The aim of this study was to test for a causal role of SU in increasing triglyceride using Mendelian randomization that accounts for unmeasured confounding. Subjects were of European ancestry from the atherosclerosis risk in communities (n=5237) and Framingham heart (n=2971) studies. Mendelian randomization by the 2-stage least squares regression method was done with SU as the exposure, a uric acid transporter genetic risk score as instrumental variable, and triglyceride as the outcome. In ordinary linear regression, SU was significantly associated with triglyceride levels (β=2.69 mmol/L change in triglyceride per mmol/L increase in SU). However, Mendelian randomization-based estimation showed no evidence for a direct causal association of SU with triglyceride concentration-there was a nonsignificant 1.01 mmol/L decrease in triglyceride per mmol/L increase in SU attributable to the genetic risk score (P=0.21). The reverse analysis using a triglyceride genetic risk score provided evidence of a causal role for triglyceride in raising urate in men (P(Corrected)=0.018). These data provide no evidence for a causal role for SU in raising triglyceride levels, consistent with a previous Mendelian randomization report of no association between SU and ischemic heart disease. © 2014 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Pitfalls, prevention, and treatment of hyperuricemia during tumor lysis syndrome in the era of rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Pession

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Andrea Pession, Fraia Melchionda, Claudia CastelliniOncologia Ematologia Pediatrica “Lalla Seràgnoli”, Clinica Pediatrica, Università degli Studi di Bologna, Bologna, ItalyAbstract: Along with hydration and urinary alkalinization, allopurinol has been the standard agent for the management of hyperuricemia in patients with a high tumor burden at risk of tumor lysis syndrome; however, this agent often fails to prevent and treat this complication effectively. Rasburicase (recombinant urate oxidase has been shown to be effective in reducing uric acid and preventing uric acid accumulation in patients with hematologic malignancies with hyperuricemia or at high risk of developing it. Rasburicase acts at the end of the purine catabolic pathway and, unlike allopurinol, does not induce accumulation of xanthine or hypoxanthine. Its rapid onset of action and the ability to lower pre-existing elevated uric acid levels are the advantages of rasburicase over allopurinol. Rasburicase represents an effective alternative to allopurinol to promptly reduce uric acid levels, improve patient’s electrolyte status, and reverse renal insufficiency. The drug, initially studied in pediatric patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphoma, seems to show comparable benefit in adults with similar lymphoid malignancies or at high risk of tumor lysis syndrome. Current and future trials will evaluate alternative doses and different schedules of rasburicase to maintain its efficacy while reducing its cost. The review provides a comprehensive and detailed review of pathogenesis, laboratory, and clinical presentation of TLS together with clinical studies already performed both in pediatric and adult patients.Keywords: tumor lysis syndrome, urate oxidase, rasburicase, allopurinol, uric acid

  20. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-06-29

    This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method

  1. CARBOCYSTEINE LYSINE SALT MONOHYDRATE IN TREATMENT OF DISEASES OF LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT IN CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. A. Kruchkova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract are characterized by changes in rheological properties of the phlegm and lower of the mucociliary clearance. Adjustment of mucoregulatory agents is of a special significance in treatment of diseases of the lower respiratory tract in children. Aim: to assess efficacy of carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate as a mucokinetic agent in children with respiratory tract diseases. Patients and methods: 65 children (31 girls and 34 boys aged from 5 to 16 years old with acute respiratory tract diseases received treatment in Belgorod pediatric out-patient clinic № 4 were included into the study. The results of the clinical follow-up of these children are shown in the article. Results: carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate was found to be effective and safe in treatment of acute and chronic inflammatory diseases of the respiratory tract in children. The authors observed quicker convalescence of the patients and possibility of combination of this drug with other medicines used in pediatric practice. Conclusions: the above-mentioned drug when used in combination with antibacterial agents intensifies penetration of the latter into the bronchial secretion and bronchial mucous membrane thereby increasing their efficacy. The drug does not have toxicity, is well-tolerated even when prolonged using and can be recommended for treatment of cough in children both under out- and in-patients conditions.Keywords: children, respiratory tract diseases, carbocysteine.

  2. Dual energy computed tomography for quantification of tissue urate deposits in tophaceous gout: help from modern physics in the management of an ancient disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacani, A Kirstin; McCollough, Cynthia H; Glazebrook, Katrina N; Bond, Jeffrey R; Michet, Clement J; Milks, Jeffrey; Manek, Nisha J

    2012-01-01

    Gout has been recognized for centuries but is also a modern day scourge. It is the most common type of inflammatory arthritis in men and appears to be increasing in both incidence and prevalence (Arromdee et al. in J Rheumatol 29(11):2403-2406, 2002). Despite these facts, few advances have been made in the diagnosis and treatment of gout for over 50 years. Difficult cases of gout challenge available therapeutic options. It is only recently that the Food and Drug Administration has approved febuxostat as a treatment option for patients intolerant of allopurinol. We describe a difficult case of tophaceous gout notable for several reasons: utilization of rasburicase as uricolytic treatment to dramatically reduce tissue urate burden; treatment of gout flares with interleukin-1β inhibition; and quantification of tissue urate with novel dual energy computed tomography technology before and after uricolytic therapy.

  3. The increase in human plasma antioxidant capacity after apple consumption is due to the metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lotito, Silvina B; Frei, Balz

    2004-07-15

    Regular fruit consumption lowers the risk of cardiovascular diseases and certain cancers, which has been attributed in part to fruit-derived antioxidant flavonoids. However, flavonoids are poorly absorbed by humans, and the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity observed after consumption of flavonoid-rich foods often greatly exceeds the increase in plasma flavonoids. In the present study, six healthy subjects consumed five Red Delicious apples (1037 +/- 38 g), plain bagels (263.1 +/- 0.9 g) and water matching the carbohydrate content and mass of the apples, and fructose (63.9 +/- 2.9 g) in water matching the fructose content and mass of the apples. The antioxidant capacity of plasma was measured before and up to 6 h after food consumption as ferric reducing antioxidant potential (FRAP), without or with ascorbate oxidase treatment (FRAPAO) to estimate the contribution of ascorbate. Baseline plasma FRAP and FRAPAO were 445 +/- 35 and 363 +/- 35 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. Apple consumption caused an acute, transient increase in both plasma FRAP and FRAPAO, with increases after 1 h of 54.6 +/- 8.7 and 61.3 = 17.2 microM trolox equivalents, respectively. This increase in plasma antioxidant capacity was paralleled by a large increase in plasma urate, a metabolic antioxidant, from 271 +/- 39 microM at baseline to 367 +/- 43 microM after 1 h. In contrast, FRAP and FRAPAO time-dependently decreased after bagel consumption, together with urate. Consumption of fructose mimicked the effects of apples with respect to increased FRAP, FRAPAO, and urate, but not ascorbate. Taken together, our data show that the increase in plasma antioxidant capacity in humans after apple consumption is due mainly to the well-known metabolic effect of fructose on urate, not apple-derived antioxidant flavonoids.

  4. Gypenosides Inhibits Xanthine Oxidoreductase and Ameliorates Urate Excretion in Hyperuricemic Rats Induced by High Cholesterol and High Fat Food (Lipid Emulsion)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Minxia; Fang, Yingying; Chen, Suhong; Zhu, Xuexin; Shan, Chaowen; Su, Jie; Yu, Jingjing; Li, Bo; Yang, Yao; Chen, Bo; Liang, Kailun; Hu, Huiming; Lv, Guiyuan

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to study the effects of gypenosides (GPS) on lowering uric acid (UA) levels in hyperuricemic rats induced by lipid emulsion (LE) and the related mechanisms. GPS are natural saponins extracted from Gynostemma pentaphyllum. Material/Methods Forty-eight male SD rats were randomly divided into six groups: normal, model, two positive controls, and two GPS treated groups (two different doses of GPS). The normal group rats were fed a basic diet, and the other rats were orally pretreated with LE. Urine and blood were collected at regular intervals. Full automatic biochemical analyzer was used to detect the concentration levels of serum UA (SUA), serum creatinine (SCr), BUN, and urine UA (UUA), and urine creatinine (UCr) and fractional excretion of UA (FEUA). ELISA kits were used to detect enzymes activities: xanthine oxidase (XOD), adenosime deaminase (ADA), guanine deaminase (GDA), and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH). Immunohistochemistry was used to observe kidney changes and protein (URAT1, GLUT9, and OAT1) expression levels. RT-PCR was used to detect the relevant mRNA expression levels. Results Treatment with GPS significantly reduced the SUA, prevented abnormal weight loss caused by LE, and improved kidney pathomorphology. Treatment with GPS also decreased the levels of XOD, ADA, and XDH expression, increased the kidney index and FEUA, downregulated URAT1 and GLUT9 expression and upregulated OAT1 expression in the kidney. Conclusions GPS may be an effective treatment for hyperuricemia via a decrease in xanthine oxidoreductase through the XOD/XDH system; and via an increase in urate excretion through regulating URAT1, GLUT9, and OAT1 transporters. PMID:28258276

  5. Efficacy of boswellic acid on lysosomal acid hydrolases, lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant status in gouty arthritic mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Evan Prince Sabina; Haridas Indu; Mahaboobkhan Rasool

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the efficacy of boswellic acid against monosodium urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice. Methods:The mice were divided into four experimental groups. Group I served as control;mice in group II were injected with monosodium urate crystal;group III consisted of monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with boswellic acid (30 mg/kg/b.w.);group IV comprised monosodium urate crystal-induced mice who were treated with indomethacin (3 mg/kg/b.w.). Paw volume and levels/activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, anti-oxidant status and inflammatory mediator TNF-αwere determined in control and monosodium urate crystal-induced mice. In addition, the levels of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase were also measured in monosodium urate crystal-incubated polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNL) in vitro. Results:The activities of lysosomal enzymes, lipid peroxidation, and tumour necrosis factor-αlevels and paw volume were increased significantly in monosodium urate crystal-induced mice, whereas the activities of antioxidant status were in turn decreased. However, these changes were modulated to near normal levels upon boswellic acid administration. In vitro, boswellic acid reduced the level of β-glucuronidase and lactate dehydrogenase in monosodium urate crystal-incubated PMNL in concentration dependent manner when compared with control cells. Conclusions: The results obtained in this study further strengthen the anti-inflammatory/antiarthritic effect of boswellic acid, which was already well established by several investigators.

  6. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE III FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2010-09-01

    This document provides a final report of Phase III testing activities for the development of modified monosodium titanate (mMST), which exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included characterization of the crystalline phases present at varying temperatures, solids settling characteristics, quantification of the peroxide content; evaluation of the post-synthesis gas release under different conditions; the extent of desorption of {sup 85}Sr, Np, and Pu under washing conditions; and the effects of age and radiation on the performance of the mMST. Key findings and conclusions include the following. The peroxide content of several mMST samples was determined using iodometric titration. The peroxide content was found to decrease with age or upon extended exposure to elevated temperature. A loss of peroxide was also measured after exposure of the material to an alkaline salt solution similar in composition to the simulated waste solution. To determine if the loss of peroxide with age affects the performance of the material, Sr and actinide removal tests were conducted with samples of varying age. The oldest sample (4 years and 8 months) did show lower Sr and Pu removal performance. When compared to the youngest sample tested (1 month), the oldest sample retained only 15% of the DF for Pu. Previous testing with this sample indicated no decrease in Pu removal performance up to an age of 30 months. No loss in Np removal performance was observed for any of the aged samples, and no uptake of uranium occurred at the typical sorbent loading of 0.2 g/L. Additional testing with a uranium only simulant and higher mMST loading (3.0 g/L) indicated a 10% increase of uranium uptake for a sample aged 3 years and 8 months when compared to the results of the same sample measured at an age of 1 year and 5 months. Performance testing with both baseline-MST and mMST that had been irradiated in a gamma source to

  7. Monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine improve the sensory quality of fermented cooked sausages with 50% and 75% replacement of NaCl with KCl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Bibiana Alves; Campagnol, Paulo Cezar Bastianello; Morgano, Marcelo Antônio; Pollonio, Marise Aparecida Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Fermented cooked sausages were produced by replacing 50% and 75% of NaCl with KCl and adding monosodium glutamate, disodium inosinate, disodium guanylate, lysine and taurine. The manufacturing process was monitored by pH and water activity measurements. The sodium and potassium contents of the resulting products were measured. The color values (L*, a* and b*), texture profiles and sensory profiles were also examined. Replacing 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl depreciated the sensory quality of the products. The reformulated sausages containing monosodium glutamate combined with lysine, taurine, disodium inosinate and disodium guanylate masked the undesirable sensory attributes associated with the replacement of 50% and 75% NaCl with KCl, allowing the production of fermented cooked sausages with good sensory acceptance and approximately 68% sodium reduction.

  8. [The characteristics or urolithiasis in flight personnel and the treatment results using a method of extracorporeal shockwave lithotripsy on the Russian lithotripter Urat-P2].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garilevich, B A; Avdeĭchuk, Iu I

    1995-01-01

    Urolithiasis occurs more frequently in the pilots than in the ground-service personnel. To decrease a damaging effect of the focused shock waves on the renal tissue while using remote lithotripsy technique, a new domestic-certified lithotriptor "URAT-P2" which shows a significantly low energy of shock wave with sufficient effectiveness of crushing the renal stones, is devised. Urolithiasis in the pilots is apparent at the early stages of its development and its complicated forms are less common than in the subjects of other professions. The stones are predominantly located in the renal calyces (73,3% of cases), in the left kidney and urethra in 63,3% of cases and there were urate stones in 40% of cases. The clinical use of the URAT-P2 complex in 30 pilots indicated that it holds advantages over the production domestic-certified lithotriptor. The stones are crushed in all the patients but the complications associated with a negative effect of the focused shock waves on the renal tissue are absent. The use of the new lithotriptor for treating urolithiasis in the pilots will allow one to improve the treatment response and to maintain professional worthiness of the pilots for a long time.

  9. Effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols on the thermal stability of a protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Shota; Kinoshita, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    The thermal stability of a protein is lowered by the addition of a monohydric alcohol, and this effect becomes larger as the size of hydrophobic group in an alcohol molecule increases. By contrast, it is enhanced by the addition of a polyol possessing two or more hydroxyl groups per molecule, and this effect becomes larger as the number of hydroxyl groups increases. Here, we show that all of these experimental observations can be reproduced even in a quantitative sense by rigid-body models focused on the entropic effect originating from the translational displacement of solvent molecules. The solvent is either pure water or water-cosolvent solution. Three monohydric alcohols and five polyols are considered as cosolvents. In the rigid-body models, a protein is a fused hard spheres accounting for the polyatomic structure in the atomic detail, and the solvent is formed by hard spheres or a binary mixture of hard spheres with different diameters. The effective diameter of cosolvent molecules and the packing fractions of water and cosolvent, which are crucially important parameters, are carefully estimated using the experimental data of properties such as the density of solid crystal of cosolvent, parameters in the pertinent cosolvent-cosolvent interaction potential, and density of water-cosolvent solution. We employ the morphometric approach combined with the integral equation theory, which is best suited to the physical interpretation of the calculation result. It is argued that the degree of solvent crowding in the bulk is the key factor. When it is made more serious by the cosolvent addition, the solvent-entropy gain upon protein folding is magnified, leading to the enhanced thermal stability. When it is made less serious, the opposite is true. The mechanism of the effects of monohydric alcohols and polyols is physically the same as that of sugars. However, when the rigid-body models are employed for the effect of urea, its addition is predicted to enhance the

  10. Monosodium iodoacetate-induced joint pain is associated with increased phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases in the rat spinal cord

    OpenAIRE

    Jarvis Michael F; Hsieh Gin; Wilcox Denise; Brederson Jill-Desiree; Pai Madhavi; Lee Younglim; Bitner Robert S

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) in the knee joint of rats disrupts chondrocyte metabolism resulting in cartilage degeneration and subsequent nociceptive behavior that has been described as a model of osteoarthritis (OA) pain. Central sensitization through activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) is recognized as a pathogenic mechanism in chronic pain. In the present studies, induction of central sensitization as indicated by spinal ...

  11. EPR and optical absorption studies of Cr3+ ions in d-gluconic acid monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kripal, Ram; Singh, Pragya; Govind, Har

    2009-10-01

    EPR studies are carried out on Cr(3+) ions doped in d-gluconic acid monohydrate (C(6)H(12)O(7)*H(2)O) single crystals at 77 K. From the observed EPR spectra, the spin Hamiltonian parameters g, |D| and |E| are measured to be 1.9919, 349 (x 10(-4)) cm(-1) and 113 (x 10(-4)) cm(-1), respectively. The optical absorption of the crystal is also studied at room temperature. From the observed band positions, the cubic crystal field splitting parameter Dq (2052 cm(-1)) and the Racah interelectronic repulsion parameter B (653 cm(-1)) are evaluated. From the correlation of EPR and optical data the nature of bonding of Cr(3+) ion with its ligands is discussed.

  12. 1,3-Dicyclohexyl-3-[(pyridin-2-ylcarbonyl]urea monohydrate from synchrotron radiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solange M. S. V. Wardell

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The title urea derivative crystallizes as a monohydrate, C19H27N3O2·H2O. The central C3N grouping is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0092 Å, and the amide and pyridine groups are substantially twisted out this plane [dihedral angles = 62.80 (12 and 34.98 (10°, respectively]. Supramolecular double chains propagating along the b-axis direction feature in the crystal packing whereby linear chains sustained by N—H...O hydrogen bonds formed between the amide groups are linked by helical chains of water molecules (linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The H atom that participates in these water chains is disordered over two positions of equal occupancy. The double chains are connected into a two-dimensional array by C—H...O contacts and the layers stack along the a axis.

  13. Crystal structure of potassium (1S-d-lyxit-1-ylsulfonate monohydrate

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    Alan H. Haines

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, K+·C5H11O8S−·H2O [systematic name: potassium (1S,2S,3S,4R-1,2,3,4,5-pentahydroxypentane-1-sulfonate monohydrate], formed by reaction of d-lyxose with potassium hydrogen sulfite in water, crystallizes as colourless square prisms. The anion has an open-chain structure in which the S atom, the C atoms of the sugar chain and the oxygen atom of the hydroxymethyl group form an essentially all-trans chain with the corresponding torsion angles lying between 178.61 (12 and 157.75 (10°. A three-dimensional bonding network exists in the crystal structure involving coordination of two crystallographically independent potassium ions by O atoms (one cation being hexa- and the other octa-coordinate, with each lying on a twofold rotation axis, and extensive intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonding.

  14. A second monoclinic polymorph of ethylenediammonium bis(hydrogen squarate monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Louiza Zenkhri

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C2H10N22+·2HC4O4−·H2O, a new polymorph of ethylenediammonium bis(hydrogen squarate monohydrate, was synthesized by slow evaporation of an acid solution. The asymetric unit contains two hydrogen squarate anions, two half-molecules of protonated ethylenediamine arranged around a twofold axis and one water molecule. In the crystal, N—H...O and O—H...O hydrogen bonds between the hydrogen squarate anions, protonated N atoms from the amine group and water molecules lead to a three-dimensional framework. In particular, the cohesion between the squarate groups is ensured by very short intermolecular hydrogen bonds bonds. The title compound crystallized together with the previously reported polymorph [Mathew et al. (2002. J. Mol. Struct. 641, 263–279].

  15. Nucleation of Alpha lactose monohydrate induced using flow through a venturi orifice

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLeod, J. S.; Paterson, A. H. J.; Bronlund, J. E.; Jones, J. R.

    2010-03-01

    Nucleation is a determinant of the final crystal size distribution produced during a crystallization process. Other studies in the literature have shown that mixing influences alpha lactose monohydrate nucleation. To investigate this in more detail, three different sized Venturi orifices were used to provide a point of passive mixing for supersaturated lactose solutions. This system allowed the study of different factors associated with characterising the mixing process, including cavitation, power input, Reynolds number and vortex formation. A strong relationship was found between the number of vortices created in the system and the nucleation rate. It is speculated that the vortices decrease the distance required for diffusion of molecules in the system, increasing the rate at which they can come together to form a stable nuclei.

  16. N′-[(E-2-Hydroxy-5-iodobenzylidene]furan-2-carbohydrazide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Bikas

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The organic molecule of the title monohydrate, C12H9IN2O3·H2O, features a disordered furyl ring with the major component [site occupancy = 0.575 (18] having the carbonyl O and furyl O atoms syn, and the other conformation having these atoms anti. The molecule is slightly twisted with the dihedral angle between the benzene and furyl rings being 10.3 (6° (major component. An intramolecular O—H...N(imine hydrogen bond is formed. In the crystal, the water molecule accepts a hydrogen bond from an amine H atom, and forms two O—H...O(carbonyl hydrogen bonds, thereby linking three different carbohydrazide molecules. The result is a supramolecular layer parallel to (001. The closest contacts between layers are of the type I...I, at a distance of 3.6986 (6 Å.

  17. Crystallization and Structure Determination of Fac-Triammin-Aquo-Oxalato-Cobalt (III-Nitrate Monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian G. Hrib

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, fac-triammin-aquo-oxalato-cobalt(III-nitrate monohydrate, fac-[Co(NH33(C2O4(H2O]NO3·H2O (2, was prepared according to an original synthetic protocol published exactly 100 years ago by Alfred Werner by dissolving the indigo-blue non-electrolyte complex mer-triammin-chloro-oxalato-cobalt(III, mer-[Co(NH33(C2O4Cl] (1, in boiling half-concentrated nitric acid. Contrary to the literature, it did not crystallize directly from the reaction mixture, but crystallization could be induced by saturating the solution with NaClO4. The structure of 2 has monoclinic (P21/n symmetry. The crystal structure displays an extensive array of N–H···O and O–H···O hydrogen bonding.

  18. Papillary and Nonpapillary Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Renal Calculi: Comparative Study of Etiologic Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrique Pieras

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM renal calculi can be classified into two groups: papillary and nonpapillary. In this paper, a comparative study between etiologic factors of COM papillary and nonpapillary calculi is performed. The study included 40 patients with COM renal calculi. The urine of these individuals was analyzed. Case history, lifestyle, and dietetic habits were obtained.No significant differences between urinary biochemical data of both groups were observed; 50% of COM papillary stone formers and 40% of COM nonpapillary stone formers had urolithiasis family history. A low consumption of phytate-rich products was observed for both groups. A relationship between profession with occupational exposure to cytotoxic products and COM papillary renal lithiasis was detected.The results suggest that COM papillary calculi would be associated to papillary epithelium alterations together with a crystallization inhibitors deficit, whereas COM nonpapillary calculi would be associated to the presence of heterogeneous nucleants and a crystallization inhibitors deficit.

  19. Characterization studies on the additives mixed L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haja Hameed, A.S., E-mail: hajahameed2001@gmail.co [PG and Research Department of Physics, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli 620 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Karthikeyan, C. [PG and Research Department of Physics, Jamal Mohamed College, Tiruchirappalli 620 020, Tamil Nadu (India); Ravi, G. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi 630 003 (India); Rohani, S. [Department of Chemical and Biochemical Engineering, The University of Western Ontario, London, Ontario, N6A 5B9 (Canada)

    2011-04-01

    L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP), potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) mixed LAP (LAP:KSCN) and sodium sulfite (Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) mixed LAP (LAP:Na{sub 2}SO{sub 3}) single crystals were grown by slow cooling technique. The effect of microbial contamination and coloration on the growth solutions was studied. The crystalline powders of the grown crystals were examined by X-ray diffraction and the lattice parameters of the crystals were estimated. From the FTIR spectroscopic analysis, various functional group frequencies associated with the crystals were assigned. Vickers microhardness studies were done on {l_brace}1 0 0{r_brace} faces for pure and additives mixed LAP crystals. From the preliminary surface second harmonic generation (SHG) results, it was found that the SHG intensity at (1 0 0) face of LAP:KSCN crystal was much stronger than that of pure LAP.

  20. (E-4-Methoxy-N′-(2,4,5-trifluorobenzylidenebenzohydrazide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maheswari

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The title Schiff base compound, C15H11F3N2O2·H2O, crystallized as a monohydrate. The conformation about the C=N bond is E. The molecule is almost planar, with the dihedral angle between the planes of the methoxybenzene and trifluorobenzylidene rings being 7.46 (6°. In the crystal, molecules are linked by bifurcated Owater—H...(O,N hydrogen bonds and N—H...Owater and Owater—H...O and C—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming chains along [100]. The chains are linked by C—H...Owater hydrogen bonds, forming slabs parallel to the bc plane. Within the slabs there are offset π–π interactions present [intercentroid distance = 3.7883 (7 Å].

  1. Rotational spectroscopy of the atmospheric photo-oxidation product o-toluic acid and its monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzler, Elijah G; Zenchyzen, Brandi L M; Jäger, Wolfgang

    2016-01-07

    o-Toluic acid, a photo-oxidation product in the atmosphere, and its monohydrate were characterized in the gas phase by pure rotational spectroscopy. High-resolution spectra were measured in the range of 5-14 Hz using a cavity-based molecular beam Fourier-transform microwave spectrometer. Possible conformers were identified computationally, at the MP2/6-311++G(2df,2pd) level of theory. For both species, one conformer was identified experimentally, and no methyl internal rotation splittings were observed, indicative of relatively high barriers to rotation. In the monomer, rocking of the carboxylic acid group is a large amplitude motion, characterized by a symmetrical double-well potential. This and other low-lying out-of-plane vibrations contribute to a significant (methyl top-corrected) inertial defect (-1.09 amu Å(2)). In the monohydrate, wagging of the free hydrogen atom of water is a second large amplitude motion, so the average structure is planar. As a result, no c-type transitions were observed. Water tunneling splittings were not observed, because the water rotation coordinate is characterized by an asymmetrical double-well potential. Since the minima are not degenerate, tunneling is precluded. Furthermore, a concerted tunneling path involving simultaneous rotation of the water moiety and rocking of the carboxylic acid group is precluded, because the hilltop along this coordinate is a virtual, rather than a real, saddle-point. Inter- and intramolecular non-covalent bonding is discussed in terms of the quantum theory of atoms in molecules. The percentage of o-toluic acid hydrated in the atmosphere is estimated to be about 0.1% using statistical thermodynamics.

  2. Dietary consumption of monosodium L-glutamate induces adaptive response and reduction in the life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolaji, Amos O; Olaiya, Charles O; Oluwadahunsi, Oluwagbenga J; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime. Thereafter, the longevity assay, hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ), and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species levels were determined. Also, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and total thiol content were evaluated in the flies. We found that MSG reduced the life span of the flies by up to 23% after continuous exposure. Also, MSG increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and H2 O2 generations and total thiol content as well as the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in D. melanogaster (P melanogaster induced adaptive response, but long-term exposure reduced life span of flies. This study may therefore have public health significance in humans, and thus, moderate consumption of MSG is advocated by the authors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. High dosage of monosodium glutamate causes deficits of the motor coordination and the number of cerebellar Purkinje cells of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prastiwi, D; Djunaidi, A; Partadiredja, G

    2015-11-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) has been widely used throughout the world as a flavoring agent of food. However, MSG at certain dosages is also thought to cause damage to many organs, including cerebellum. This study aimed at investigating the effects of different doses of MSG on the motor coordination and the number of Purkinje cells of the cerebellum of Wistar rats. A total of 24 male rats aged 4 to 5 weeks were divided into four groups, namely, control (C), T2.5, T3, and T3.5 groups, which received intraperitoneal injection of 0.9% sodium chloride solution, 2.5 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG, 3.0 mg/g bw of MSG, and 3.5 mg/g bw of MSG, respectively, for 10 consecutive days. The motor coordination of the rats was examined prior and subsequent to the treatment. The number of cerebellar Purkinje cells was estimated using physical fractionator method. It has been found that the administration of MSG at a dosage of 3.5 mg/g bw, but not at lower dosages, caused a significant decrease of motor coordination and the estimated total number of Purkinje cells of rats. There was also a significant correlation between motor coordination and the total number of Purkinje cells.

  4. Mechanisms of strontium and uranium removal from high-level radioactive waste simulant solutions by the sorbent monosodium titanate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duff, M C; Hunter, D B; Hobbs, D T; Fink, S D; Dai, Z; Bradley, J P

    2004-10-01

    High-level waste (HLW) is a waste associated with the dissolution of spent nuclear fuel for the recovery of weapons-grade material. It is the priority problem for the U.S. Department of Energy's Environmental Management Program. Current HLW treatment processes at the Savannah River Site (Aiken, SC) include the use of monosodium titanate (MST, with a similar stoichiometry to NaTi2O5 x xH2O) to concentrate strontium (Sr) and actinides. The high affinity of MST for Sr and actinides in HLW solutions rich in Na+ is poorly understood. Mechanistic information about the nature of radionuclide uptake will provide insight about MST treatment reliability. Our study characterized the morphology of MST and the chemistry of sorbed Sr2+ and uranium [U(VI)] as uranyl ion, UO2(2+), on MST, which were added (individually) from stock solutions of Sr and 238U(VI) with spectroscopic and transmission electron microscopic techniques. The local structure of sorbed U varied with loading, but the local structure of Sr did not vary with loading. Sorbed Sr exhibited specific adsorption as partially hydrated species whereas sorbed U exhibited specific adsorption as monomeric and dimeric U(VI)-carbonate complexes. Sorption proved site specific. These differences in site specificity and sorption mechanism may account forthe difficulties associated with predicting Sr and U loading and removal kinetics using MST.

  5. Uptake, distribution and elimination of monosodium methanearsonate following long term oral administration of the herbicide to sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C

    1984-08-01

    The rate and extent of accumulation and washout of arsenic, during daily oral administration of the herbicide monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) were evaluated in Iranian dairy sheep and goats. Subjects received a dose of 10 mg of MSMA as arsenic per kg of body weight daily for 28 consecutive days. The total arsenic concentration in blood and milk was measured during and after the period of MSMA administration while arsenic in urine and feces was measured for 10 days following administration of last dosage of MSMA. Arsenic was accumulated slowly during 28 days of MSMA administration and steady states were essentially complete in sheep after 20 days and in goats following 25 days of MSMA administration. Blood arsenic concentration decreased rapidly after termination of MSMA administration. In both test animals, the half-lives of washout were smaller than accumulation. The concentration of arsenic in the urine and feces of both species did not increase significantly over controls and animals were free of arsenic relatively shortly after administration stopped. These data indicate that arsenic from MSMA is mainly absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and is not significantly accumulated in the body. Arsenic is eliminated from body by way of urine and feces with urinary excretion being the most important route.

  6. Distribution and toxicity of monosodium methanearsonate following oral administration of the herbicide to dairy sheep and goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariatpanahi, M; Anderson, A C

    1984-01-01

    Iranian fat-tailed sheep and dairy goats were administered the herbicide monosodium methanearsonate orally at a dose of 10 mg. MSMA (as arsenic) per kg. of body weight. The concentration time curves of MSMA in the blood of sheep and goats followed a first order composite exponential equation of the form: Cb(t) = Ae- alpha t + Be- beta t - C degrees be-kat. Absorption, distribution and elimination of MSMA, therefore, corresponds to an open two-compartment model. Arsenic from MSMA was readily absorbed from gastrointestinal tract and distributed in the body fluids and the various tissues. Approximately 90% of the arsenic was excreted in the urine within 120 hrs and small amounts were also recovered in feces. Arsenic accumulation in the tissues was low and urinary excretion was the most important exit route. Arsenic concentrations in milk were low when compared to the controls, which indicates that arsenic is not excreted in the milk to significant levels. The absorption, distribution and overall elimination rate constants for the two animal species studied were statistically different at the 0.95 level of confidence which indicates that there are apparently differences in MSMA metabolism by sheep and goats.

  7. The contribution of spinal glial cells to chronic pain behaviour in the monosodium iodoacetate model of osteoarthritic pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sagar Devi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical studies of osteoarthritis (OA suggest central sensitization may contribute to the chronic pain experienced. This preclinical study used the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA model of OA joint pain to investigate the potential contribution of spinal sensitization, in particular spinal glial cell activation, to pain behaviour in this model. Experimental OA was induced in the rat by the intra-articular injection of MIA and pain behaviour (change in weight bearing and distal allodynia was assessed. Spinal cord microglia (Iba1 staining and astrocyte (GFAP immunofluorescence activation were measured at 7, 14 and 28 days post MIA-treatment. The effects of two known inhibitors of glial activation, nimesulide and minocycline, on pain behaviour and activation of microglia and astrocytes were assessed. Results Seven days following intra-articular injection of MIA, microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord were activated (p Conclusions Here we provide evidence for a contribution of spinal glial cells to pain behaviour, in particular distal allodynia, in this model of osteoarthritic pain. Our data suggest there is a potential role of glial cells in the central sensitization associated with OA, which may provide a novel analgesic target for the treatment of OA pain.

  8. Toxic effects of wastewater from various phases of monosodium glutamate production on seed germination and root elongation of crops

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Rui; ZHOU Qixing; ZHANG Lanying; GUO Hao

    2007-01-01

    To make a comprehensive assessment on monosodium glutamate(MSG)wastewater pollution,a pollution exposure experiment was carried out on the seed germination and root elongation of wheat,Chinese cabbage and tomato by using the wastewater discharged from different processing phases of MSG production.The results showed that there were significantly positive linear relationships between the inhibitory rates of wheat seed germination and root elongation and the CODcr of the mother liquor scraps.The toxicity of MSG wastewater to the test crops was in the order of tomato>Chinese cabbage>wheat,indicating that tomato was the most sensitive to the wastewater,and could be considered as an ideal toxic bioindicator.The half-effect concentrations(IC50)based on the seed germination and root elongation of the test crops exposed to the wastewater discharged from various processing phases of MSG production was 22.0-32432 and 17.3-3320 mg/L,respectively.

  9. Progressive Depletion of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum in Epithelial Cells of the Small Intestine in Monosodium Glutamate Mice Model of Obesity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazuhiko Nakadate

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic obesity is a known risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about pathological changes in the small intestine associated with chronic obesity. This study investigated cellular and subcellular level changes in the small intestine of obese mice. In this study, a mouse model of obesity was established by early postnatal administration of monosodium glutamate. Changes in body weight were monitored, and pathological changes in the small intestine were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining and light and electron microscopy. Consequently, obese mice were significantly heavier compared with controls from 9 weeks of age. Villi in the small intestine of obese mice were elongated and thinned. There was reduced hematoxylin staining in the epithelium of the small intestine of obese mice. Electron microscopy revealed a significant decrease in and shortening of rough endoplasmic reticulum in epithelial cells of the small intestine of obese mice compared with normal mice. The decrease in rough endoplasmic reticulum in the small intestine epithelial cells of obese mice indicates that obesity starting in childhood influences various functions of the small intestine, such as protein synthesis, and could impair both the defense mechanism against invasion of pathogenic microbes and nutritional absorption.

  10. Monosodium glutamate (MSG intake is associated with the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in a rural Thai population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Insawang Tonkla

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Epidemiology and animal models suggest that dietary monosodium glutamate (MSG may contribute to the onset of obesity and the metabolic syndrome. Methods Families (n = 324 from a rural area of Thailand were selected and provided MSG as the sole source for the use in meal preparation for 10 days. Three hundred forty-nine subjects aged 35–55 years completed the study and were evaluated for energy and nutrient intake, physical activity, and tobacco smoking. The prevalence of overweight and obesity (BMI ≥ 25 kg/m2, insulin resistance (HOMA-IR >3, and the metabolic syndrome (ATP III criteria were evaluated according to the daily MSG intake. Results The prevalence of the metabolic syndrome was significantly higher in the tertile with the highest MSG intake. Further, every 1 g increase in MSG intake significantly increased the risk of having the metabolic syndrome (odds ratio 1.14, 95% confidence interval-CI- 1.12 - 1.28 or being overweight (odds ratio 1.16, 95% CI 1.04 - 1.29, independent of the total energy intake and the level of physical activity. Conclusion Higher amounts of individual MSG consumption are associated with the risk of having the metabolic syndrome and being overweight independent of other major determinants.

  11. Protective effect of Trigonella foenum-graecum Linn. on monosodium glutamate-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of aqueous extract of Trigonella foenum-graecum(AqE-TFG seeds on monosodium glutamate (MSG-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress in Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Neonatal Wistar rats were treated subcutaneously with MSG (4 g/kg b.w. from day 2 to 14 after birth, on alternate days. After attaining six-weeks of age, MSG-treated rats were administered with AqE-TFG (0.5 and 1 g/kg b.w., orally or orlistat (10 mg/kg b.w., orally for 28 days, respectively. Serum chemistry and relevant enzymes in hepato-cardiac tissues were assessed on day 29. Results: AqE-TFG produced significant reduction in serum total cholesterol (TC, triglycerides (TGs, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate amino transferase (AST, alanine amino transferase (ALT, hepatic and cardiac lipid peroxides (MDA levels and elevation in serum high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C, hepatic and cardiac antioxidant enzymes [glutathione (GSH, and superoxide dismutase (SOD and catalase (CAT] levels. Conclusion: Results were comparable with orlistat, a standard anti-obesity drug, and provide clear evidence that the AqE-TFG treatment offered significant protection against MSG-induced dyslipidemia and oxidative stress, and may play an important role in amelioration of the free radical generated consequences like dyslipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  12. Augmented chondroprotective effect of coadministration of celecoxib and rebamipide in the monosodium iodoacetate rat model of osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Su-Jin; Park, Jin-Sil; Jeong, Jeong-Hee; Yang, Eun-Ji; Park, Mi-Kyung; Kim, Eun-Kyung; Park, Sung-Hwan; Kim, Ho-Youn; Cho, Mi-La; Min, Jun-Ki

    2013-01-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a degenerative joint disease characterized by the progressive loss of articular cartilage and chronic pain. Although cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitors such as celecoxib are recommended to patients at high risk of gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events, COX-2 inhibitors do not completely prevent GI adverse events. Rebamipide, a gastroprotective agent, has anti-inflammatory properties and acts as an oxygen radical scavenger. The aim of this study was to investigate the in vivo effects of coadministration of rebamipide and celecoxib in an OA rat model. OA was induced by intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate. Oral administration of rebamipide was initiated on the day of OA induction. In this study, rebamipide showed antinociceptive properties and attenuated cartilage degeneration. Rebamipide reduced the expression of matrix metalloproteinase 13, interleukin-1β, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and nitrotyrosine in OA cartilage. OA rats treated with celecoxib in combination with rebamipide demonstrated a higher pain threshold than those treated with monotherapy. Histological examination also showed that the joints from OA animals treated with combination therapy demonstrated less cartilage damage than those of animals treated with monotherapy. We showed that the potential benefit of combination therapy with celecoxib and rebamipide on pain and cartilage degeneration in OA.

  13. Progressive Depletion of Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum in Epithelial Cells of the Small Intestine in Monosodium Glutamate Mice Model of Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakadate, Kazuhiko; Motojima, Kento; Hirakawa, Tomoya; Tanaka-Nakadate, Sawako

    2016-01-01

    Chronic obesity is a known risk factor for metabolic syndrome. However, little is known about pathological changes in the small intestine associated with chronic obesity. This study investigated cellular and subcellular level changes in the small intestine of obese mice. In this study, a mouse model of obesity was established by early postnatal administration of monosodium glutamate. Changes in body weight were monitored, and pathological changes in the small intestine were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin and Nissl staining and light and electron microscopy. Consequently, obese mice were significantly heavier compared with controls from 9 weeks of age. Villi in the small intestine of obese mice were elongated and thinned. There was reduced hematoxylin staining in the epithelium of the small intestine of obese mice. Electron microscopy revealed a significant decrease in and shortening of rough endoplasmic reticulum in epithelial cells of the small intestine of obese mice compared with normal mice. The decrease in rough endoplasmic reticulum in the small intestine epithelial cells of obese mice indicates that obesity starting in childhood influences various functions of the small intestine, such as protein synthesis, and could impair both the defense mechanism against invasion of pathogenic microbes and nutritional absorption.

  14. Ibuprofen-loaded porous microspheres suppressed the progression of monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jang Won; Yun, Young-Pil; Park, Kyeongsoon; Lee, Jae Yong; Kim, Hak-Jun; Kim, Sung Eun; Song, Hae-Ryong

    2016-11-01

    The objectives of this study were (1) to fabricate ibuprofen-loaded porous microspheres (IBU/PMSs), (2) to evaluate the in vitro anti-inflammatory effects of the microspheres using LPS-induced inflammation in cultured synoviocytes, and (3) to evaluate the in vivo effect of the IBU/PMSs on the progression of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis (OA) in a rat model. A dose-dependent in vitro anti-inflammatory effect on pro-inflammatory cytokine markers (matrix metallopeptidase-3 (MMP-3), matrix metallopeptidase-13 (MMP-13), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), a disintegrin and metalloproteinase with thrombospondin motifs-5 (ADAMTS-5)), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) was observed by confirming with real-time PCR analyses. In vivo, treatment with IBU/PMSs reduced MIA-stimulated mRNA expression of MMP-3, MMP-13, COX-2, ADAMTS-5, IL-6, and TNF-α in rat synoviocytes. In addition, we demonstrated that intra-articular IBU/PMSs suppressed the progression of MIA-induced OA in the rat model via anti-inflammatory mechanisms. In conclusion, IBU/PMSs are a promising therapeutic material to control the pain and progression of OA.

  15. Monosodium L-glutamate and dietary fat exert opposite effects on the proximal and distal intestinal health in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zemeng; Li, Tiejun; Wu, Chunli; Tao, Lihua; Blachier, Francois; Yin, Yulong

    2015-04-01

    The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) is widely used as a flavour enhancer in China. Previous studies have reported that high-fat diet modifies intestinal metabolism and physiology. However, little information is available on the effects of oral MSG on intestine, and no study focus on the interaction of dietary fat and MSG for intestinal health. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of MSG and dietary fat on intestinal health in growing pigs, and to try to identify possible interactions between these 2 nutrients for such effects. A total of 32 growing pigs were used and fed with 4 isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets (basal diet, high-fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG). Parameters related to reactive oxygen species metabolism, epithelial morphology, pro-inflammation factors and tight junction protein expression and several species of intestinal microbe were measured. Overall, dietary fat and MSG had detrimental effects on several of the physiological and inflammatory parameters measured in the proximal intestine, while exerting beneficial effects on the distal intestine in growing pigs, with generally antagonistic effects. These results may be of particular relevance for nutritional concerns in patients with intestinal diseases.

  16. Preliminary Study on Pain Reduction of Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Knee Osteoarthritis in Rats by Carbon Dioxide Laser Moxibustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the effects of CO2 laser moxibustion on the pain and inflammatory cytokine expression in the spinal dorsal horn of rats with monosodium iodoacetate- (MIA- induced knee osteoarthritis (KOA, we designed an experiment by randomly assigning 8 SD rats into 3 groups, namely, a CO2 laser moxibustion group, a sham treatment group, and a blank control group. The treatment group received a laser moxibustion on acupoint Dubi (ST 35; 5 min/treatment, 1 treatment/day for 8 days, and after treatment, the rats exhibited significantly increased interhindpaw differences compared with their preinduction values. Meanwhile, cytokine microarray analysis showed that one cytokine (TIMP-1 was significantly upregulated and two cytokines (Agrin and MMP-8 were significantly downregulated in treatment group. The present study suggested that CO2 laser moxibustion created certain pain reduction in the rats with MIA-induced KOA and significantly inhibited the expression of most inflammatory cytokines in the ipsilateral spinal dorsal horn.

  17. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE MEDIAL GENICULATE BODY OF ADULT WISTAR RATS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O.Eweka

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the medial geniculate body (MGB of adult wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups.The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with grower's mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The medial geniculate body was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the medial geniculate body showed some cellular degenerative changes, autophagic vacuoles with some vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections. These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the medial geniculate body (MGB. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the MGB of adult wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  18. THE HYDROTHERMAL REACTIONS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE, CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE AND SLUDGE IN THE MODULAR SALT PROCESS: A LITERATURE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Pennebaker, F.; Fink, S.

    2010-11-11

    The use of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is proposed for an at-tank process to treat High Level Waste at the Savannah River Site. The proposed configuration includes deployment of ion exchange columns suspended in the risers of existing tanks to process salt waste without building a new facility. The CST is available in an engineered form, designated as IE-911-CW, from UOP. Prior data indicates CST has a proclivity to agglomerate from deposits of silica rich compounds present in the alkaline waste solutions. This report documents the prior literature and provides guidance for the design and operations that include CST to mitigate that risk. The proposed operation will also add monosodium titanate (MST) to the supernate of the tank prior to the ion exchange operation to remove strontium and select alpha-emitting actinides. The cesium loaded CST is ground and then passed forward to the sludge washing tank as feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Similarly, the MST will be transferred to the sludge washing tank. Sludge processing includes the potential to leach aluminum from the solids at elevated temperature (e.g., 65 C) using concentrated (3M) sodium hydroxide solutions. Prior literature indicates that both CST and MST will agglomerate and form higher yield stress slurries with exposure to elevated temperatures. This report assessed that data and provides guidance on minimizing the impact of CST and MST on sludge transfer and aluminum leaching sludge.

  19. EXPRESSION OF BAX AND BCL-2 IN MOUSE OFFSPRING BRAIN AFTER MATERNAL ORAL ADMINIS TRATION OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐磊; 赵晏; 展淑琴; 王会生; 史文春

    2002-01-01

    Objective To analyze the excitotoxicity of monoso dium glutamate (MSG) in the offspring cerebral cortex and hippocampal subregions after maternal oral administration of MSG. Methods Kunming mi ce were given per os MSG ( 4.0 g/kg ) at 17~21 days of pregnancy and their offs pring behaviors were studied at 10, 20 , 30 days postnatally. By using immunohis tochemical means, the involvement of Bcl-2 and Bax in the glutamate-induced c ell death in cortical and hippocampal neur ons were examined. Cell damage was assessed by direct cell counting. Res ults Administration of monosodium glutamate during the fetal period in mice resulted in a moderate increase in the expression of Bax in principal neuro ns in CA1, CA2, CA3, CA4 and in the cerebral cortex at postpartum 10, 20, 30 day s in the offspring mice, whereas Bcl-2 protein expressions were reduced signif icantly in the same regions as compared with those of controls. Conclusi on These findings suggest that glutamate toxicity results in cellular d eath via an apoptotic mechanism in which the Bcl-2/Bax-alpha molecular comple x may be involved. The glutamate-induced apoptosis appears to be related to the modulation of Bcl-2 family gene products such as Bcl-2 and Bax.

  20. Electron attachment to the guanine-cytosine nucleic acid base pair and the effects of monohydration and proton transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Ashutosh; Jaeger, Heather M; Compaan, Katherine R; Schaefer, Henry F

    2012-05-17

    The guanine-cytosine (GC) radical anion and its interaction with a single water molecule is studied using ab initio and density functional methods. Z-averaged second-order perturbation theory (ZAPT2) was applied to GC radical anion for the first time. Predicted spin densities show that the radical character is localized on cytosine. The Watson-Crick monohydrated GC anion is compared to neutral GC·H2O, as well as to the proton-transferred analogue on the basis of structural and energetic properties. In all three systems, local minima are identified that correspond to water positioned in the major and minor grooves of macromolecular DNA. On the anionic surface, two novel structures have water positioned above or below the GC plane. On the neutral and anionic surfaces, the global minimum can be described as water interacting with the minor groove. These structures are predicted to have hydration energies of 9.7 and 11.8 kcal mol(-1), respectively. Upon interbase proton-transfer (PT), the anionic global minimum has water positioned in the major groove, and the hydration energy increases to 13.4 kcal mol(-1). PT GC·H2O(•-) has distonic character; the radical character resides on cytosine, while the negative charge is localized on guanine. The effects of proton transfer are further investigated through the computed adiabatic electron affinities (AEA) of GC and monohydrated GC, and the vertical detachment energies (VDE) of the corresponding anions. Monohydration increases the AEAs and VDEs by only 0.1 eV, while proton-transfer increases the VDEs substantially (0.8 eV). The molecular charge distribution of monohydrated guanine-cytosine radical anion depends heavily on interbase proton transfer.

  1. Potent protection of Danshensu(β-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid)against excitotoxic effects of maternal intragastric administration of monosodium glutamate at a late stage of pregnancy on developing mouse fetal brain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jingen Shen; Lijian Yu; Rundi Ma; Yongping Zhang; Xiaoyu Zhang; Juanzhi Fang; Tingxi Yu

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that ferulic acid[3-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-propenoic acid]and sodium ferulate produce protective effects against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in adult mice.Danshensu(β-3,4-dihydroxyphenyl-lactic acid)has a similar molecular structure and pharmacological action to caffeic acid.This study aimed to validate the protection conferred by Danshensu against excitotoxic effects of maternal intragastric administration of monosodium glutamate at late stages of pregnancy in the developing mouse fetal brain.Behavioral tests,as well as histopathological and immunohistochemical examination of hippocampi were performed in filial mice.Results revealed that maternal intragastric administration of excessive monosodium glutamate(1.0,2.0,4.0 g/kg body weight)at a late stage of pregnancy resulted in a series of behavioral disorders(hyperactivity,lesions of learning and memory,and disturbance in cooperation of movement ability under high-altitude stress),histopathological impairment(neuronal edema,degeneration,necrosis,and hyperplasia)and molecular cellular biological changes(upregulated expression of N-methyI-D-aspartate receptor type 1 and neuropeptide Y in the hippocampal region of the brain of the filial mice from mothers treated with monosodium glutamate).Simultaneous administration of sodium Danshensu partially reversed the effects of monosodium glutamate on the above mentioned phenomena.These findings indicate that sodium Danshensu exhibits obvious protective effects on the excitotoxicity of monosodium glutamate.

  2. Comorbidity burden, healthcare resource utilization, and costs in chronic gout patients refractory to conventional urate-lowering therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Eric Q; Forsythe, Anna; Guérin, Annie; Yu, Andrew P; Latremouille-Viau, Dominick; Tsaneva, Magda

    2012-11-01

    Patients with chronic gout refractory to conventional urate-lowering therapy have high rates of flares and incidence of tophi, which impose a significant disease and potentially economic burden. This study examined healthcare resource use and costs stratified by disease burden. Adult patients diagnosed with gout (ICD-9-CM:274.xx) and having had ≥3 flares defined by clinical surrogates within a 12-month period were selected for the case cohort from the Thomson MarketScan databases (2003/Q3-2008/Q3). Only patients who had received allopurinol treatment and a diagnosis of tophi (ICD-9-CM:274.8x) at any time before the first flare (index date) or within 12 months postindex were included and were matched in a 1:1 ratio with control gout-free subjects. The comorbidity burden, healthcare resource use, and annual healthcare costs (2008 US$) in the 12-month postindex period were compared between both cohorts using regression models adjusted for demographic characteristic and stratified for patients with ≥6 flares. A total of 679 gout patients met the inclusion criteria for the study and had a higher prevalence of comorbidities than their matched controls. Gout cohort had a significantly higher incidence of emergency room, hospitalizations, outpatient visits, and other medical services than did their matched controls (all comparisons, uncorrected P gout cohort incurred an incremental total annual healthcare cost of $10,222 where 40% of the annual medical cost was for gout-related care compared with control cohort (P gout have a significant economic burden compared with a gout-free population.

  3. Research progress on pyroglutamic acid detection methods in monosodium glutamate%味精中焦谷氨酸检测方法的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘馨; 冯旭东; 刘明明

    2013-01-01

      焦谷氨酸是一种环状氨基酸,是许多氨基酸和蛋白质生成过程中的中间产物,广泛存在于动植物界。在味精生产过程中,谷氨酸受热会脱水环化成焦谷氨酸,影响谷氨酸的提取收率,所以为了对焦谷氨酸进行控制,在味精生产过程中对其检测是非常必要的。本文综述了焦谷氨酸的结构及性质,并对味精生产过程可能产生焦谷氨酸的环节做了阐述,重点介绍了焦谷氨酸的检测方法:化学法和高压液相色谱法,并对高压液相色谱法进行了展望。%Pyroglutamic acid is a cyclic amino acid. It is an intermediate during amino acid and protein biosyn-thesis. It is widely distributed in plants and animals. When heated, glutamate is highly unstable and prone to sponta-neous cyclization into pyroglutamic acid during the monosodium glutamate production, which could reduce the yielding amount of glutamic acid. So in order to control the content of pyroglutamic, it was detected during the mo-nosodium glutamate production. This paper provides a brief overview of the structure and chemical properties of py-roglutamic acid and the possible reasons of pyroglutamic acid generation in monosodium glutamate production proc-ess. Focus on chemical method and high pressure liquid chromatography, the development of detection of pyroglu-tamic acid is also viewed.

  4. Glycine regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lean and monosodium glutamate-obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Almanza-Perez, Julio; Blancas, Gerardo; Angeles, Selene; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Roman, Ruben; Cruz, Miguel

    2008-12-03

    Fat tissue plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Increased visceral fat has been associated with a higher production of cytokines that triggers a low-grade inflammatory response, which eventually may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether glycine, an amino acid that represses the expression in vitro of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Kupffer and 3T3-L1 cells, can affect in vivo cytokine production in lean and monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice (MSG/Ob mice). Our data demonstrate that glycine treatment in lean mice suppressed TNF-alpha transcriptional expression in fat tissue, and serum protein levels of IL-6 were suppressed, while adiponectin levels were increased. In MSG/Ob mice, glycine suppressed TNF-alpha and IL-6 gene expression in fat tissue and significantly reduced protein levels of IL-6, resistin and leptin. To determine the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in the modulation of this inflammatory response evoked by glycine, we examined its expression levels in fat tissue. Glycine clearly increased PPAR-gamma expression in lean mice but not in MSG/Ob mice. Finally, to identify alterations in glucose metabolism by glycine, we also examined insulin levels and other biochemical parameters during an oral glucose tolerance test. Glycine significantly reduced glucose tolerance and raised insulin levels in lean but not in obese mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that glycine suppresses the pro-inflammatory cytokines production and increases adiponectin secretion in vivo through the activation of PPAR-gamma. Glycine might prevent insulin resistance and associated inflammatory diseases.

  5. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG-Treated Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    René J. Hernández-Bautista

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old, the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline.

  6. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions.

  7. Role of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the development of joint pain induced by monosodium iodoacetate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Porta, Carmen; Bura, Simona Andreea; Aracil-Fernández, Auxiliadora; Manzanares, Jorge; Maldonado, Rafael

    2013-01-01

    Joint pain is a common clinical problem for which both inflammatory and degenerative joint diseases are major causes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the behavioral, histological, and neurochemical alterations associated with joint pain. The murine model of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) was used to induce joint pain in knockout mice for CB1 (CB1KO) and CB2 cannabinoid receptors (CB2KO) and transgenic mice overexpressing CB2 receptors (CB2xP). In addition, we evaluated the changes induced by MIA in gene expression of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors and μ-, δ- and κ-opioid receptors in the lumbar spinal cord of these mice. Wild-type mice, as well as CB1KO, CB2KO, and CB2xP mice, developed mechanical allodynia in the ipsilateral paw after MIA intra-articular injection. CB1KO and CB2KO demonstrated similar levels of mechanical allodynia of that observed in wild-type mice in the ipsilateral paw, whereas allodynia was significantly attenuated in CB2xP. Interestingly, CB2KO displayed a contralateral mirror image of pain developing mechanical allodynia also in the contralateral paw. All mouse lines developed similar histological changes after MIA intra-articular injection. Nevertheless, MIA intra-articular injection produced specific changes in the expression of cannabinoid and opioid receptor genes in lumbar spinal cord sections that were further modulated by the genetic alteration of the cannabinoid receptor system. These results revealed that CB2 receptor plays a predominant role in the control of joint pain manifestations and is involved in the adaptive changes induced in the opioid system under this pain state.

  8. (p-ClPhSe)2 Reduces Hepatotoxicity Induced by Monosodium Glutamate by Improving Mitochondrial Function in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quines, Caroline B; Chagas, Pietro M; Hartmann, Diane; Carvalho, Nélson R; Soares, Félix A; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2017-02-18

    It is has been demonstrated that mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and chronic inflammatory process are associated with progress of morbid obesity in human patients. For this reason, the searching for safe and effective antiobesity drugs has been the subject of intense research. In this context, the organic selenium compounds have attracted much attention due to their pharmacological properties, such as antihyperglycemic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory. The aim of this study was to evaluate the hepatoprotective action of p-chloro-diphenyl diselenide (p-ClPhSe)2 , an organic selenium compound, in a model of obesity induced by monosodium glutamate (MSG) administration in rats. Wistar rats were treated during the first ten postnatal days with MSG (4 g/kg by subcutaneous injections) and received (p-ClPhSe)2 (10 mg/kg, intragastrically) from 90(th) to 97(th) postnatal day. Mitochondrial function, purine content and the levels of proteins involved in apoptotic (poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)) and inflammatory processes (inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) and p38) were determined in the liver of rats. The present study demonstrated that postnatal administration of MSG to male rats induced a mitochondrial dysfunction, accompanied by oxidative stress and an increase in the ADP levels, without altering the efficiency of phosphorylation in the liver of adult rats. Furthermore, the MSG administration also induces hepatotoxicity, through an increase in PARP, iNOS and p38 levels. (p-ClPhSe)2 treatment had beneficial effects against mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress and modulated protein markers of apoptosis and inflammation in the liver of MSG-treated rats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  9. Biochemical Alterations during the Obese-Aging Process in Female and Male Monosodium Glutamate (MSG)-Treated Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Bautista, René J.; Alarcón-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Escobar-Villanueva, María Del C.; Almanza-Pérez, Julio C.; Merino-Aguilar, Héctor; Konigsberg Fainstein, Mina; López-Diazguerrero, Norma E.

    2014-01-01

    Obesity, from children to the elderly, has increased in the world at an alarming rate over the past three decades, implying long-term detrimental consequences for individual’s health. Obesity and aging are known to be risk factors for metabolic disorder development, insulin resistance and inflammation, but their relationship is not fully understood. Prevention and appropriate therapies for metabolic disorders and physical disabilities in older adults have become a major public health challenge. Hence, the aim of this study was to evaluate inflammation markers, biochemical parameters and glucose homeostasis during the obese-aging process, to understand the relationship between obesity and health span during the lifetime. In order to do this, the monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity mice model was used, and data were evaluated at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 months in both female and male mice. Our results showed that obesity was a major factor contributing to premature alterations in MSG-treated mice metabolism; however, at older ages, obesity effects were attenuated and MSG-mice became more similar to normal mice. At a younger age (four months old), the Lee index, triglycerides, total cholesterol, TNF-α and transaminases levels increased; while adiponectin decreased and glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity levels were remarkably altered. However, from 16 months old-on, the Lee index and TNF-α levels diminished significantly, while adiponectin increased, and glucose and insulin homeostasis was recovered. In summary, MSG-treated obese mice showed metabolic changes and differential susceptibility by gender throughout life and during the aging process. Understanding metabolic differences between genders during the lifespan will allow the discovery of specific preventive treatment strategies for chronic diseases and functional decline. PMID:24979131

  10. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  11. FORMULATION AND EVALUATION OF TASTE MASKED ORALLY DISINTEGRATING TABLETS OF SITAGLIPTIN PHOSPHATE MONOHYDRATE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abbaraju Prasanna Lakshmi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the work is to mask the unpleasant taste of sitagliptin phosphate monohydrate with mannitol by co-grinding method and to formulate it as an oral disintegrating tablet by direct compression method. Drug-mannitol complexes were taken in 1:1, 1:1.5 and 1:2 ratios and tested for in vitro and in vivo bitter masking capacity of mannitol, drug content and molecular property. Different super-disintegrants like croscaramellose, sodium starch glycolate and crospovidone was used as disintegrating agents. The prepared tablets were characterized for tensile strength, wetting time, water absorption ratio, and In vitro and in vivo disintegration time. In addition, aspartame is used as sweetening agent which gives more pleasant taste in the mouth. Among all the formulations F1 to F6, Formulation F6 has good taste masking capacity and fast disintegration within 40sec. Furthermore, 96.7% of the drug has been released in 15min.The results disclosed that the productivity of taste masking of the drug has been done effectively with mannitol and 40mg of crosscarmellose sodium is efficient for rapid disintegrating of tablet.

  12. EPR and optical study of Mn{sup 2+}-doped lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kripal, Ram [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)]. E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Govind, Har [Department of Electronics, Ewing Christian College, Allahabad 211003 (India)]. E-mail: chaurasia_har@yahoo.co.in; Maurya, Manju [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)

    2007-01-15

    EPR study of Mn{sup 2+}-doped lithium hydrogen oxalate monohydrate single crystals are done at room temperature. The Mn{sup 2+} spin-Hamiltonian parameters are evaluated employing a large number of resonant line positions observed for different orientations of the external magnetic field. The values of g, A, B, D, E and a are 1.9942+/-0.0002, 114+/-2x10{sup -4}, 103+/-2x10{sup -4}, 180+/-2x10{sup -4}, 57+/-2x10{sup -4} and 7+/-1x10{sup -4}cm{sup -1}, respectively. The optical absorption study of the crystal is also done. The observed bands are assigned as transitions from the {sup 6}A{sub 1g}(S) ground state to various excited quartet levels of Mn{sup 2+} ion in a cubic crystalline field. These bands are fitted with four parameters, inter-electronic repulsion parameters (B and C), crystal field parameter (D{sub q}) and Tree's correction ({alpha}). The values found for the parameters are B=814cm{sup -1}, C=2255cm{sup -1}, D{sub q}=780cm{sup -1}, and {alpha}=76cm{sup -1}. On the basis of the data obtained, the surrounding crystalline field and the nature of metal-ligand bonding are discussed.

  13. EPR and optical absorption studies of vanadyl ions in potassium oxalate monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kripal, Ram [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)]. E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Maurya, Manju [Department of Physics, University of Allahabad, Allahabad 211002 (India)]. E-mail: mmanju8@yahoo.co.in; Govind, Har [Department of Electronics, Ewing Christian College, Allahabad 211003 (India)

    2007-04-15

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) studies are reported on vanadyl (VO{sup 2+}) ions in potassium oxalate monohydrate (POM) single crystals at room temperature. The results indicate that the paramagnetic impurity takes up an interstitial site in the lattice. The angular variation of EPR spectra in three mutually perpendicular planes are used to determine the spin Hamiltonian parameters and the values obtained are: g{sub x} =2.0153{+-}0.0002, g{sub y} =1.9489{+-}0.0002, g{sub z} =1.9155{+-}0.0002 and A{sub x} =(63{+-}2)x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1}, A{sub y} =(92{+-}2)x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1}, A{sub z} =(193{+-}2)x10{sup -4} cm{sup -1}. The optical absorption spectrum of VO{sup 2+} ions in the crystal lattice is also studied at room temperature. The characteristic spectrum of the VO{sup 2+} ions has four absorption bands. The band positions are calculated using the energy expressions and compared with the observed values to confirm the transitions. The analysis of the spectrum indicates that the first three bands correspond to d-d transitions and the last band is probably charge transfer band. Crystal field parameter (Dq) and tetragonal parameters (Ds and Dt) are also evaluated. From optical and EPR data various bonding parameters are obtained and nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed.

  14. Structural, Hirshfeld surface and spectroscopic studies of the noncentrosymmetric 1-ethylpiperazinediium pentachloroantimonate (III) monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soudani, S.; Zeller, M.; Jelsch, C.; Lefebvre, F.; Ben Nasr, Cherif

    2016-08-01

    1-Ethylpiperazinediium pentachloroantimonate (III) monohydrate, C6H16N2SbCl5·H2O, has been synthesized by the reaction of antimony trioxide (Sb2O3) and 1-ethylpiperazine in an aqueous solution of hydrochloric acid. The structure crystallizes in orthorhombic system, in the non-centrosymmetric space group Pca21 and consists of isolated [C6H16N2]2+ cations, square pyramidal [SbCl5]2- anions and lattice water molecules. Osbnd H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds link the [SbCl5]2- anions and water molecules to form double chains stretching along the [101] direction. The chains in turn are linked to the organic cations via Nsbnd H⋯Cl, Csbnd H⋯Cl, Csbnd H⋯O and Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form a three-dimensional network. This structure presents an example of a general square pyramidal complex ion containing a stereo-chemically active lone pair of electrons. Solid state 13C and 15N CP-MAS NMR spectra are in agreement with the X-ray structure, and vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the NMR peaks and IR absorption bands. The interactions variability of the two independent cations and ten chloride atoms is analyzed via Hirshfeld surface analysis.

  15. Mebendazole mesylate monohydrate: a new route to improve the solubility of mebendazole polymorphs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula, Karina; Camí, Gerardo E; Brusau, Elena V; Narda, Griselda E; Ellena, Javier

    2013-10-01

    Mebendazole mesylate monohydrate, a new stable salt of mebendazole (MBZ), has been synthesized and fully characterized. It was obtained from recrystallization of MBZ forms A, B, or C in diverse solvents with the addition of methyl sulfonic acid solution. The crystal packing is first organized as a two-dimensional array consisting of rows of alternating MBZ molecules linked to columns of mesylate ions by hydrogen bonds. The three-dimensional structure is further developed by classical intermolecular interactions involving water molecules. In addition, nonclassical contacts are also found. The vibrational behavior is consistent with the crystal structure, the most important functional groups showing shifts to lower or higher frequencies in relation to the MBZ polymorphs. Thermal analysis indicates that the compound is stable up to 50°C. Decomposition occurs in five steps. Solubility studies show that the title compound presents a significant higher performance than polymorph C. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci 102:3528-3538, 2013.

  16. The electronic structure of alloxan monohydrate. Spectroscopic and density functional synergic approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elroby, Shaaban A.; Aziz, Saadullah G.; Hilal, Rifaat H.

    2017-02-01

    In the present communication, quantitative interpretation and assignments of the electronic absorption spectra, vibrational and one- and two-dimensional NMR spectra of alloxan, are detailed. A synergic analysis based on DFT and TD-DFT calculations and the experimental findings are performed. Attempt is made to relate these spectral findings to the electronic structure of alloxan. The computed electronic spectrum predicted three well defined bands. Natural transition orbital analysis indicate an intramolecular charge transfer from npπ orbital of the water oxygen atom resulting in the short wavelength nπ* at ∼200 nm. Furthermore, UV-photoabsorption cross section for alloxan and its monohydrate are simulated. The spectrum, composed of 10 excited states, was simulated with the nuclear ensemble approximation, sampling a Wigner distribution with 300 points. The FT-IR spectrum of alloxan, measured in the solid state as KBr pellets is reported and is computed at the DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G** level of theory. All observed vibrations are assigned. The 600 MHz one- and two-dimensional COSY, 1H NMR spectra of alloxan, measured in DMSO, are reported and analyzed and computed theoretically using the GIAO method. Hydrogen-bond interactions are responsible for remarkable downfield shift of 1H NMR peaks for alloxan.

  17. Tuning Ca:P ratio by NaOH from monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Chen; Cao, Peng, E-mail: p.cao@auckland.ac.nz

    2016-09-15

    In this study we report on a continual change of Ca:P ratio in monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) by increasing the amount of NaOH added in to the MCPM. The phase identification, chemical compositions, thermal analysis and micro-morphology of the chemically formed powders were characterised with X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray fluorescence (XRF), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Ca:P ratio is observed to gradually change from 1.0, which corresponds to dicalcium phosphate dehydrate – DCPD, to stoichiometric 1.67 of apatite. Depending on the attained Ca:P ratio in the powder synthesized in the aqueous solutions, subsequent calcination of these chemically formed powders leads to the formation of various single phasic calcium phosphates or biphasic compounds. It is proposed that the high solubility of MCPM results in fast dissolution and reprecipitation. A multi-step chemical reaction is proposed to elucidate the reaction sequence in the aqueous MCPM−NaOH systems. - Highlights: • Ca:P ratio changes from DCPD to stoichiometric apatite by changing NaOH molarity. • Calcination leads to various mono- or bi-phasic calcium phosphate. • The reaction and phase transformation sequences were investigated.

  18. Growth and characterization of a third order nonlinear optical single crystal: Ethylenediamine-4-nitrophenolate monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhanalakshmi, B. [Department of Physics, Asan Memorial College of Engineering and Technology, Chengalpattu 603 203, Tamil Nadu (India); Ponnusamy, S., E-mail: suruponnus@gmail.com [Center for Materials Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603 203, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthamizhchelvan, C.; Subhashini, V. [Center for Materials Science and Nano Devices, Department of Physics, SRM University, Kattankulathur 603 203, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • EDA4NPH crystal possesses negative nonlinear refractive index. • The crystal exhibits high third-order NLO susceptibility. • Wide transparency of the crystal makes it suitable for NLO applications. • Dielectric studies substantiate the suitability for electro-optic applications. • The crystal possesses suitable mechanical strength for device fabrication. - Abstract: Bulk crystals of the charge-transfer complex, ethylenediamine-4-nitrophenolate monohydrate, were grown by slow solvent evaporation method from aqueous solution at room temperature. The X-ray diffraction measurements showed that the crystal belongs to centrosymmetric space group C2/c of monoclinic system. The functional groups in the complex were identified using FTIR, FTRaman and FTNMR analyses. The Z-scan measurements revealed the negative nonlinear refractive index of the crystal. The nonlinear absorption coefficient and third order nonlinear optical susceptibility calculated from the measurements were −3.5823 × 10{sup −3} cm/W and 2.3762 × 10{sup −6} esu respectively. The crystal was shown to be highly transparent above 366 nm by UV–vis spectroscopy and a yellow fluorescence was observed from PL spectrum. The TG–DTA and DSC analyses showed that the crystal is thermally stable up to 117.4 °C. The crystals were characterized by dielectric, etching and microhardness studies.

  19. Influence of ageing, grinding and preheating on the thermal behaviour of alpha-lactose monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garnier, S; Petit, S; Mallet, F; Petit, M-N; Lemarchand, D; Coste, S; Lefebvre, J; Coquerel, G

    2008-09-01

    It is shown that the onset temperature and the magnitude of thermal events observed during DSC analyses of alpha-lactose monohydrate can be strongly affected by various treatments such as ageing, manual grinding and preheating (cycle of preliminary dehydration and rehydration). In the case of grinding and preheating, the change of dehydration pathways was further investigated by using a suitable combination of characterization techniques, including X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) performed with a synchrotron source (allowing an accurate Rietveld analysis), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), laser particle size measurements, FTIR spectroscopy and (1)H NMR for the determination of beta-lactose contents in samples. It appeared that the dehydration mechanism is affected not only by a smaller particle size distribution, but also by residual anisotropic lattice distortions and by the formation of surface defects or high energy surfaces. The fusion-recrystallization process occurring between anhydrous forms of alpha-lactose at ca. 170 degrees C is not significantly affected by grinding, whereas a preheating treatment induces an unexpected large increase of the enthalpy associated with this transition. Our observations and interpretations confirm the important role of water molecules in the crystal cohesion of the title compound and illustrate the necessity to consider the history of each sample for a satisfactory understanding of the physical properties and the behaviour of this important pharmaceutical excipient.

  20. The bulk crystallization of alpha-lactose monohydrate from aqueous solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, S L; Ristic, R I; Sheen, D B; Sherwood, J N

    2001-07-01

    The bulk crystallization of alpha-lactose monohydrate from aqueous solution by primary nucleation has been studied under controlled conditions of supersaturation, temperature, and pH. The induction times to nucleation were extremely long compared with those generally observed for other materials, even at the high supersaturations used in the experiment. As a result, it was necessary to stir the supersaturated solution vigorously to induce nucleation in a reasonable but still lengthy working time. Even then, nucleation only occurred to a limited extent, following which growth ceased for 8-10 h before resuming. After this period, growth recommenced but again slowed to a low rate after another 8 h. At this stage, the yield of product was low and in most cases the particles had achieved sizes close to the maximum noted. The yields increased with further crystallization time (22-72 h total from the recommencement of growth) to give, under high initial supersaturation conditions, amounts of product close to the theoretical value. For the most part, however, the particle size did not increase with this later increase in yield, showing only significant changes after the extremely long total crystallization times. It is proposed that these extreme properties result from the formation in solution by mutarotation of the anomer alpha-lactose, which inhibits nucleation as well as its previously observed influence on growth.

  1. In situ investigation of growth rates and growth rate dispersion of α-lactose monohydrate crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, T. D.; Ogden, M. I.; Parkinson, G. M.

    2009-02-01

    The growth rates and growth rate dispersion (GRD) of four different faces of α-lactose monohydrate crystal were measured at 30, 40 and 50 °C in the relative supersaturation range 0.55-2.33 in aqueous solutions. The overall growth rate of the crystal is around 50-60% of the (0 1 0) face of the crystal. The power law was applied to the growth rates of the four faces and the activation energies were calculated to be between 9.5 and 13.7 kcal/mol. This indicates a diffusion-controlled growth, but the exponents calculated are between 2.5 and 3.1 which are higher than unity. Introduction of critical supersaturation decreased the exponents to between 1.8 and 2.4. The variance of GRD for the (0 1 0) face is twice the variance of the GRD of the (1 1 0) and (1 0 0) faces and 10 times higher than the (1 1¯ 1¯) face at the same supersaturations and temperatures. The GRD of the four faces were similar when expressed as a function of growth rate. However, the (0 1 1) face displayed lower GRD than the other faces at the same temperatures and supersaturations.

  2. Spectroscopic Manifestation of Vibrationally-Mediated Structure Change in the Isolated Formate Monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denton, Joanna K.; Wolke, Conrad T.; Gorlova, Olga; Gerardi, Helen; McCoy, Anne B.; Johnson, Mark

    2016-06-01

    The breadth of the OH stretching manifold observed in the IR for bulk water is commonly attributed to the thermal population of excited states and the presence of many configurations within the water network. Here, I use carboxylate species as a rigid framework to isolate a single water molecule in the gas phase and cold ion vibrational pre-dissociation spectroscopy to explore excited state contributions to bandwidth. The spectrum of the carboxylate monohydrate exhibits a signature series of peaks in the OH stretching region of this system, providing an archetypal model to study vibrationally adiabatic mode separation. Previous analysis of this behavior accounts for the extensive progression in a Franck-Condon formalism involving displaced vibrationally adiabatic potentials. In this talk I will challenge this prediction by using isotopic substation to systematically change the level structure within these potentials. This picture quantitatively accounts for the diffuse spectrum of this complex at elevated temperature providing a convenient spectroscopic reporter for the temperature of ions in a trap. E. M. Myshakin, K. D. Jordan, E. L. Sibert III, M. A. Johnson J. Chem. Phys. 119, 10138 (2003) W.H. Robertson, et al. J. Phys Chem. 107, 6527 (2003)

  3. Effectiveness of carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate on models of airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asti, C; Melillo, G; Caselli, G F; Daffonchio, L; Hernandez, A; Clavenna, G; Omini, C

    1995-06-01

    We investigated the possible effects of the mucoactive drug Carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (CLS.H2O) on experimentally-induced airway inflammation and hyperresponsiveness. CLS.H2O given by the oral route (300 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced neutrophil infiltration into the airway lumen induced by intratracheal injection of IL-1 beta in rats. In addition, CLS.H2O inhibited dose-dependently (100-300 mg kg(-1) p.o.) the formation of pleural exudate and leukocyte recruitment induced by intrapleural injection of carrageenan in rats. Because of the close interaction between the inflammatory process and the development of airway hyperresponsiveness we also tested CLS.H2O on cigarette-smoke-induced inflammation and hyperreactivity in anaesthetized guinea-pigs. The drug, given either by oral (300 mg kg(-1)) or aerosol route (30-100 mg ml(-1)), was able to reduce the increase in airway responsiveness induced by smoke and the associated cell recruitment detected in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluids. These results suggest that CLS.H2O can exert an anti-inflammatory action in addition to its mucoregulatory activity. The anti-inflammatory and anti-hyperreactivity effect of the drug within the airways may be of advantage in the treatment of inflammatory lung diseases where mucus secretion together with airway inflammation and hyperreactivity contribute to airway obstruction.

  4. Carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (SCMC-LYS) is a selective scavenger of reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandolini, Laura; Allegretti, Marcello; Berdini, Valerio; Cervellera, Maria Neve; Mascagni, Patrizia; Rinaldi, Matteo; Melillo, Gabriella; Ghezzi, Pietro; Mengozzi, Manuela; Bertini, Riccardo

    2003-01-01

    Carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (SCMC-Lys) is a well-known mucoactive drug whose therapeutic efficacy is commonly related to the ability of SCMC-Lys to replace fucomucins by sialomucins. The aim of this study was to determine if SCMC-Lys could exert an anti-oxidant action by scavenging reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs). Our results show that SCMC-Lys proved effective as a selective scavenger of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) and hydroxyl radical (OH.), this effect being related to the reactivity of the SCMC tioether group. The scavenger activity of SCMC-Lys was observed in free cellular system as well as in activated human polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs). SCMC-Lys scavenger activity on HOCl was paralleled by a powerful protection from HOCl-mediated inactivation of alpha1-antitripsin (alpha1-AT) inhibitor, the main serum protease inhibitor. Production of interleukin-(IL-)8, a major mediator of PMN recruitment in inflammatory diseases, is known to be mediated by intracellular OH. SCMC-Lys significantly reduced IL-8 production on stimulated human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in the same range of concentrations affecting OH. activity. It is concluded that SCMC-Lys could exert, in addition to its mucoactive capacity, an anti-oxidant action, thus contributing to the therapeutic efficacy of SCMC-Lys.

  5. Growth and characterization of new semiorganic nonlinear optical and piezoelectric lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, Harsh [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Sinha, Nidhi [Department of Physics & Electronics, SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Kumar, Binay, E-mail: b3kumar69@yahoo.co.in [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics & Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • A new semiorganic single crystal of LSO grown by slow evaporation technique. • Morphological studies of the LSO crystal deduced by BFDH law. • In the UV–vis spectrum wide transparent region and large band gap were found. • SHG is equal to KDP crystal and d{sub 33} was found to be equal to 6pC/N. • Grown crystal belongs to softer category. - Abstract: New semiorganic crystal of lithium sulfate monohydrate oxalate (LSO) for nonlinear application was synthesized by controlled slow evaporation method. The growth rate of various planes of the grown crystal was estimated by morphological study. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed that the crystal belongs to triclinic lattice with space group P1. High transparency (∼95%) with large band gap (4.57 eV) was analyzed by UV–vis studies. FTIR and Raman spectroscopy were used to identify various functional groups present in the LSO crystal. SHG efficiency was found to be equal to the KDP crystal. Thermal stability (up to 117.54 °C) and melting point (242 °C) of the crystal were studied by TG-DTA. In dielectric measurements, the value of dielectric constant decreases with increase in frequency. Hardness studies confirmed soft nature of crystals. The piezoelectric coefficient was found to be 6pC/N along [0 0 1].

  6. EPR and optical absorption studies of Cu 2+ doped bis (glycinato) Mg (II) monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Prashant; kripal, Ram

    2010-02-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study of Cu 2+ doped bis (glycinato) Mg (II) monohydrate single crystals is carried out at room temperature. Copper enters the lattice substitutionally and is trapped at two magnetically inequivalent sites. The observed spectra are fitted to a spin-Hamiltonian of rhombic symmetry with the following values of the parameters: Cu 2+ (I), gx = 2.1577 ± 0.0002, gy = 2.2018 ± 0.0002, gz = 2.3259 ± 0.0002, Ax = (87 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1, Ay = (107 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1, Az = (141 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1; Cu 2+ (II), gx = 2.1108 ± 0.0002, gy = 2.1622 ± 0.0002, gz = 2.2971 ± 0.0002, Ax = (69 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1, Ay = (117 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1and Az = (134 ± 2) × 10 -4 cm -1. The ground state wave function of the Cu 2+ ion in this lattice is evaluated to be predominantly | x2 - y2lbond2 . The g-factor anisotropy is also calculated and compared with the experimental value. With the help of the optical absorption study, the nature of bonding in the complex is discussed.

  7. 2-(4-Hydroxyphenyl-1H-benzimidazol-3-ium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jazmin E. González-Padilla

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The title molecular salt, C13H11N2O+·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes as a monohydrate. In the cation, the phenol and benzimidazole rings are almost coplanar, making a dihedral angle of 3.18 (4°. The chloride anion and benzimidazole cation are linked by two N+—H...Cl− hydrogen bonds, forming chains propagating along [010]. These chains are linked through O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds involving the water molecule and the chloride anion, which form a diamond core, giving rise to the formation of two-dimensional networks lying parallel to (10-2. Two π–π interactions involving the imidazolium ring with the benzene and phenol rings [centroid–centroid distances = 3.859 (3 and 3.602 (3 Å, respectively], contribute to this second dimension. A strong O—H...O hydrogen bond involving the water molecule and the phenol substituent on the benzimidazole unit links the networks, forming a three-dimensional structure.

  8. Growth and characterization of new semi-organic L-proline strontium chloride monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Manoj K.; Sinha, Nidhi; Kumar, Binay

    2011-01-01

    The present communication deals with the synthesis, single crystal growth and characterization of a new nonlinear optical material L-proline strontium chloride monohydrate ( L-PSCM). Single crystals have been grown using the slow solvent evaporation technique. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed that the crystal belongs to the orthorhombic structure with lattice parameter a=6.6966(3) Å, b=12.4530(5) Å, c=15.2432(5) Å and space group P2 12 12 1. Presence of various functional groups in L-PSCM and protonation of the ions were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. The melting point of the single crystal was found to be 126 °C using DSC. Ultraviolet-visible spectral analyses showed that the crystal has low UV cut-off at 226 nm combined with very good transparency of 90% in a wide range. The optical band gap was estimated to be 5.82 eV. Capacitance and dielectric-loss measurements were carried out at different temperatures in the frequency range 1 kHz-2 MHz. The dielectric constant and loss factor were found to be 21 and 0.03 at 1 kHz at room temperature, respectively. Microhardness mechanical studies show that hardness number ( Hv) increases with load for L-PSCM single crystals the by Vickers microhardness method. Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was found to be 0.078 times the value of KDP.

  9. Solid-State Characterization and Interconversion of Recrystallized Amodiaquine Dihydrochloride in Aliphatic Monohydric Alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sirikun, Wiriyaporn; Chatchawalsaisin, Jittima; Sutanthavibul, Narueporn

    2016-04-01

    Amodiaquine dihydrochloride monohydrate (AQ-DM) was obtained by recrystallizing amodiaquine dihydrochloride dihydrate (AQ-DD) in methanol, ethanol, and n-propanol. Solid-state characterization of AQ-DD and AQ-DM was performed using X-ray powder diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermogravimetry, and differential scanning calorimetry. All recrystallized samples were identified as AQ-DM. Crystal habits of AQ-DD and AQ-DM were shown to be needle-like and rhombohedral crystals, respectively. When AQ-DD and AQ-DM were exposed to various relative humidity in dynamic vapor sorption apparatus, no solid-state interconversion was observed. However, AQ-DM showed higher solubility than AQ-DD when exposed to bulk water during solubility study, while excess AQ-DM was directly transformed back to a more stable AQ-DD structure. Heating AQ-DM sample to temperatures ≥190°C induced initial change to metastable amorphous form (AQ-DA) which was rapidly recrystallized to AQ-DD upon ≥80%RH moisture exposure. AQ-DD was able to be recrystallized in alcohols (C1-C3) as AQ-DM solid-state structure. In summary, AQ-DM was shown to have different solubility, moisture and temperature stability, and interconversion pathways when compared to AQ-DD. Thus, when AQ-DM was selected for any pharmaceutical applications, these critical transformation and property differences should be observed and closely monitored.

  10. Evaluating the urate-lowering effects of different microbial fermented extracts in hyperuricemic models accompanied with a safety study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rong-Jane Chen

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Uric acid (UA is an end product of purine metabolism by the enzyme xanthine oxidase (XOD. Hyperuricemia is characterized by the accumulation of serum UA and is an important risk factor for gout and many chronic disorders. XOD inhibitors or uricase (catalyzes UA to the more soluble end product can prevent these chronic diseases. However, currently available hypouricemic agents induce severe side effects. Therefore, we developed new microbial fermented extracts (MFEs with substantial XOD inhibition activity from Lactobacillus (MFE-21 and Acetobacter (MFE-25, and MFE-120 with high uricase activity from Aspergillus. The urate-lowering effects and safety of these MFEs were evaluated. Our results showed that MFE-25 exerts superior urate-lowering effects in the therapeutic model. In the preventive model, both MFE-120 and MFE-25 significantly reduced UA. The results of the safety study showed that no organ toxicity and no treatment-related adverse effects were observed in mice treated with high doses of MFEs. Taken together, the results showed the effectiveness of MFEs in reducing hyperuricemia without systemic toxicity in mice at high doses, suggesting that they are safe for use in the treatment and prevention of hyperuricemia.

  11. Assignment of the lowest-lying THz absorption signatures in biotin and lactose monohydrate by solid-state density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allis, D. G.; Fedor, A. M.; Korter, T. M.; Bjarnason, J. E.; Brown, E. R.

    2007-06-01

    The narrow terahertz (THz) features in crystalline biotin and lactose monohydrate observed in recent experimental studies are considered by solid-state density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The lowest-frequency THz features in both solid-state biotin and lactose monohydrate are assigned to external hindered rotational modes and not to the lowest-frequency internal modes predicted from isolated-molecule calculations. The motions of the molecules associated with these narrow THz features and the interactions between molecules in the hydrogen-bonded networks of these molecular crystals are discussed, and comparisons are made to similar studies on molecular crystals not exhibiting strong intermolecular interactions.

  12. EPR and optical absorption study of Cu{sup 2+} doped lithium sulphate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sheela, K. Juliet; Subramanian, P., E-mail: psubramaniangri@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute-Deemed University, Gandhigram, Dindigul-624302, Tamilnadu (India); Krishnan, S. Radha; Shanmugam, V. M. [CSIR-Central Electrochemical Research Institute, Karaikudi-63006, Tamilnadu (India)

    2016-05-23

    EPR study of Cu{sup 2+} doped NLO active Lithium Sulphate monohydrate (Li{sub 2}SO{sub 4.}H{sub 2}O) single crystals were grown successfully by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The principal values of g and A tensors indicate existence of orthorhombic symmetry around the Cu{sup 2+} ion. From the direction cosines of g and A tensors, the locations of Cu{sup 2+} in the lattice have been identified as interstitial site. Optical absorption confirms the rhombic symmetry and ground state wave function of the Cu{sup 2+} ion in a lattice as d{sub x2-y2}.

  13. EPR and optical study of Mn{sup 2+} doped monohydrated dipotassium stannic chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kripal, Ram, E-mail: ram_kripal2001@rediffmail.com; Singh, Manju

    2014-11-15

    Highlights: • EPR study of Mn{sup 2+}: DPSC crystal is done at room temperature. • The spin Hamiltonian parameters for two Mn{sup 2+} sites are determined. • The optical absorption study is also done. • The nature of metal–ligand bonding is discussed on the basis of EPR and optical data. • Theoretical zero-field splitting parameters match well with the experimental values. - Abstract: Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) study at room temperature (RT) is used to investigate the property of Mn{sup 2+} doped monohydrated dipotassium stannic chloride (K{sub 2}SnCl{sub 4}⋅H{sub 2}O) single crystal. EPR spectra show that there exist two substitutional sites, the spin Hamiltonian parameters for which are determined. The optical absorption study is also done at room temperature in the wavelength range 195–1100 nm. The observed bands are assigned as transitions from {sup 6}A{sub 1g}(S) ground state to various excited states. These bands are fitted with four parameters, namely Racah inter-electronic repulsion parameters B = 792 cm{sup −1}, C = 2278 cm{sup −1}; cubic crystal field splitting parameter Dq = 700 cm{sup −1} and Trees correction α = 76 cm{sup −1}. The nature of metal–ligand bonding is discussed on the basis of EPR and optical data. Superposition model (SPM) is used to find out the crystal field (CF) parameters and the perturbation formulae are used to obtain zero-field splitting (ZFS) parameters. Theoretically calculated ZFS parameters match well with the experimental values obtained from EPR study.

  14. Comparison of creatine monohydrate and carbohydrate supplementation on repeated jump height performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Chad A; Benardot, Dan; Cody, Mildred; Thompson, Walter R

    2008-07-01

    Creatine monohydrate (CrMH) supplementation aids the ability to maintain performance during repeated bouts of high-intensity exercise, including jump performance. However, carbohydrate supplementation may also provide similar benefits and is less expensive. This study compared the effects of an energy-free placebo, 2 different caloric concentrations of carbohydrate drinks, and a CrMH supplement on repeated jump heights. Sixty active males (mean age, 22 +/- 3.2 years) performed 2 sets of countermovement static jump height tests (10 jumps over 60 seconds) separated by 5 days to determine the differential effects of the placebo, carbohydrate, and CrMH on jump height sustainability over 10 jumps. Subjects were randomly assigned to groups (15 subjects per group) to receive daily doses (x5 days) of carbohydrate drinks containing 100 or 250 kilocalories (kcal), a 25-g CrMH supplement, or an energy-free placebo. After 5 days, the CrMH group experienced a significant weight gain (+1.52; +/-0.89 kg, p energy-free placebo over the final 3-4 jumps. The 250-kcal carbohydrate-supplemented group experienced a level of benefit (p < 0.01) that was at least equal to that of the CrMH group (p < 0.05), suggesting that the higher dose of carbohydrate was as effective as CrMH in maintaining repeated bouts of high-intensity activity as measured by repeated static jumps. Given the equivalent performance improvement and the absence of weight gain, the carbohydrate supplementation could be considered the preferred option for weight-conscious power athletes involved in activities that require repeated- motion high-intensity activities.

  15. Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate: Preparation, crystal structure, thermal stability and IR-characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovnev, Nicolay N.; Vasiliev, Alexander D.; Kirik, Sergei D.

    2012-08-01

    Enrofloxacinium citrate monohydrate (I), CHFNO3+·CHO7-·HO, [C19H22FN3O3 - enrofloxacin, EnrH] has been crystallized from the mutual solution of citric acid and enrofloxacin in ambient conditions. The colorless crystals have been investigated using X-ray single crystal and powder techniques, and characterized by differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetry and infrared spectroscopy. The obtained compound can be considered as a salt with enrofloxacinium in the role of a cation and citrate as an anion. The ions ratio equals to 1:1. The compound crystallizes in the triclinic lattice with a = 9.0489(8) Å, b = 9.6531(8) Å, c = 14.913(1) Å, α = 98.813(1)°, β = 92.029(1)°, γ = 91.013(1)°, Z = 2, V = 1286.1(2) Å3, S.G. P1¯. The crystal structure determination reveals the importance of inter- and intramolecular interactions in the crystal formation. The EnrH2+ and HCit molecular ions are packed in alternating layers with water molecules inserted into the citrate layers. A citrate ion in the layer is linked via H-bondings with two adjacent ones and three water molecules. Enrofloxacinium cations are packaged by means of a benched mode and every cation is linked by three intermolecular thymus type H-bondings with nitrogens of adjacent cations and by two links with the oxygen of the citrate ions. The infrared spectra gave the evidence of H-bonding formation in the obtained salt. The π-stacking interactions are observed between the aromatic cycles of the adjacent cations which are located in an antiparallel style in a layer.

  16. Growth and characterization of new semi-organic L-proline strontium chloride monohydrate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, Manoj K. [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 7 (India); Sinha, Nidhi [Department of Electronics, SGTB Khalsa College, University of Delhi, Delhi 7 (India); Kumar, Binay, E-mail: bkumar@physics.du.ac.i [Crystal Lab, Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 7 (India)

    2011-01-01

    The present communication deals with the synthesis, single crystal growth and characterization of a new nonlinear optical material L-proline strontium chloride monohydrate (L-PSCM). Single crystals have been grown using the slow solvent evaporation technique. Single crystal XRD analysis confirmed that the crystal belongs to the orthorhombic structure with lattice parameter a=6.6966(3) A, b=12.4530(5) A, c=15.2432(5) A and space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Presence of various functional groups in L-PSCM and protonation of the ions were confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) analysis. The melting point of the single crystal was found to be 126 {sup o}C using DSC. Ultraviolet-visible spectral analyses showed that the crystal has low UV cut-off at 226 nm combined with very good transparency of 90% in a wide range. The optical band gap was estimated to be 5.82 eV. Capacitance and dielectric-loss measurements were carried out at different temperatures in the frequency range 1 kHz-2 MHz. The dielectric constant and loss factor were found to be 21 and 0.03 at 1 kHz at room temperature, respectively. Microhardness mechanical studies show that hardness number (H{sub v}) increases with load for L-PSCM single crystals the by Vickers microhardness method. Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was found to be 0.078 times the value of KDP.

  17. Second prize: Comprehensive proteomic analysis of human calcium oxalate monohydrate kidney stone matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canales, Benjamin K; Anderson, Lorraine; Higgins, Leeann; Slaton, Joel; Roberts, Ken P; Liu, Nathan; Monga, Manoj

    2008-06-01

    Previous efforts to identify the protein content of stone matrix have been limited by the lack of technology necessary to analyze the highly insoluble protein-crystalline complex. Our study objective is to characterize the matrix of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) stones using a comprehensive proteomics approach. Seven pure COM stones were powdered, and proteins were extracted using four different buffer solutions. Detergent cleanup spin columns or concentrators were used to remove detergent and to exchange buffers before trypsin digestion. Tryptic peptides were analyzed with reversed-phase, high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) using a QSTAR Pulsar i quadrapole time of flight mass spectrometer. Tandem mass spectra were searched against National Center for Biotechnology Information human nonredundant database using ProteinPilot 1.0 software (Applied Biosystems, Inc.) for protein hits; peptide MS/MS spectra were manually inspected. Of the four buffers, only 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) samples had normal HPLC and MS/MS elution patterns. We identified 68 distinct proteins with 95% confidence. More than 50 of the proteins have not been previously identified in stone matrix. Of particular note, a significant number of inflammatory proteins were identified, including immunoglobulins, defensin -3, clusterin, complement C3a, kininogen, and fibrinogen. SDS reducing buffer was efficient at solubilizing proteins from stone matrix for further MS-based proteomic analysis. A variety of cellular, structural, and plasma proteins comprise COM stone matrix. Several of the stone proteins are involved in cell injury pathways, which suggests that inflammation plays a role in human COM stone formation.

  18. Calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals internalized into renal tubular cells are degraded and dissolved by endolysosomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaiyarit, Sakdithep; Singhto, Nilubon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-02-25

    Interaction between calcium oxalate crystals and renal tubular cells has been recognized as one of the key mechanisms for kidney stone formation. While crystal adhesion and internalization have been extensively investigated, subsequent phenomena (i.e. crystal degradation and dissolution) remained poorly understood. To explore these mechanisms, we used fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-labelled calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals (1000 μg/ml of crystals/culture medium) to confirm crystal internalization into MDCK (Type II) renal tubular cells after exposure to the crystals for 1 h and to trace the internalized crystals. Crystal size, intracellular and extracellular fluorescence levels were measured using a spectrofluorometer for up to 48 h after crystal internalization. Moreover, markers for early endosome (Rab5), late endosome (Rab7) and lysosome (LAMP-2) were examined by laser-scanning confocal microscopy. Fluorescence imaging and flow cytometry confirmed that FITC-labelled COM crystals were internalized into MDCK cells (14.83 ± 0.85%). The data also revealed a reduction of crystal size in a time-dependent manner. In concordance, intracellular and extracellular fluorescence levels were decreased and increased, respectively, indicating crystal degradation/dissolution inside the cells and the degraded products were eliminated extracellularly. Moreover, Rab5 and Rab7 were both up-regulated and were also associated with the up-regulated LAMP-2 to form large endolysosomes in the COM-treated cells at 16-h after crystal internalization. We demonstrate herein, for the first time, that COM crystals could be degraded/dissolved by endolysosomes inside renal tubular cells. These findings will be helpful to better understand the crystal fate and protective mechanism against kidney stone formation.

  19. The Relationship of hURAT1,SLC2A9 and ABCG2 with Hyperuricemia and Gout and the Clinical Significance%hURAT1、SLC2A9、ABCG2与高尿酸血症、痛风的关系及临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蓓

    2013-01-01

    Hyperuricemia and gout incidence are increased steadily year by year and they have strong relationship with renal and cerebrovascular system diseases,which are drawing wide attention gradually. Recent studies have shown that genovariation of hURAT1, SLC2A9 and ABCG2 are highly correlated with hyperuricemia and gout,playing very important roles in the pathogenesis of the diseasess. Here is to make a review on the relationship between the susceptible genes and hyperuricemia and gout,and their clinical significance.%高尿酸血症和痛风与肾脏和心脑血管系统疾病的发生、发展关系密切,近年来发病率呈逐年升高趋势,逐渐引起人们的广泛重视.最近研究发现人尿酸盐转运蛋白1(hURAT1)、尿酸转运子SLC2A9和ABC转运蛋白2 (ABCG2)三个尿酸盐转运蛋白的基因变异与高尿酸血症和痛风的发生呈高度相关,在疾病发病机制中起到重要的作用.现就hURAT1、SLC2A9和ABCG2与高尿酸血症、痛风的关系及其临床意义进行综述.

  20. Solution properties and taste behavior of lactose monohydrate in aqueous ascorbic acid solutions at different temperatures: Volumetric and rheological approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Abhijit; Sinha, Biswajit

    2016-11-15

    The densities and viscosities of lactose monohydrate in aqueous ascorbic acid solutions with several molal concentrations m=(0.00-0.08)molkg(-1) of ascorbic acid were determined at T=(298.15-318.15)K and pressure p=101kPa. Using experimental data apparent molar volume (ϕV), standard partial molar volume (ϕV(0)), the slope (SV(∗)), apparent specific volumes (ϕVsp), standard isobaric partial molar expansibility (ϕE(0)) and its temperature dependence [Formula: see text] the viscosity B-coefficient and solvation number (Sn) were determined. Viscosity B-coefficients were further employed to obtain the free energies of activation of viscous flow per mole of the solvents (Δμ1(0≠)) and of the solute (Δμ2(0≠)). Effects of molality, solute structure and temperature and taste behavior were analyzed in terms of solute-solute and solute-solvent interactions; results revealed that the solutions are characterized predominantly by solute-solvent interactions and lactose monohydrate behaves as a long-range structure maker.

  1. Synthesis, crystal growth and spectroscopic investigation of novel metal organic crystal: β-Alanine cadmium bromide monohydrate (β-ACBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renugadevi, R.; Kesavasamy, R.

    2014-07-01

    β-Alanine cadmium bromide monohydrate (β-ACBM), a new metal organic crystal has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals have been subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to determine the crystal structure. The β-ACBM crystallized in monoclinic system with space group P21/c. The presence of protons and carbons in the β-alanine cadmium bromide monohydrate was confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. The mode of vibration of different molecular groups present in β-ACBM was identified by FT-IR spectral analysis. Transparency of crystals in UV-Vis-NIR region has also been studied. The thermal characteristics of as-grown crystals were analyzed using thermo gravimetric and differential thermal analyses. The magnetic property of the grown crystal was investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM) at ambient temperature. The mechanical stability of β-ACBM was evaluated by Vickers microhardness measurement.

  2. Synthesis and non linear optical properties of new inorganic-organic hybrid material: 4-Benzylpiperidinium sulfate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessentini, Yassmin; Ahmed, Ali Ben; Al-Juaid, Salih S.; Mhiri, Tahar; Elaoud, Zakaria

    2016-03-01

    Single crystals of 4-benzyl-piperidine sulfate monohydrate were grown by slow evaporation method at room temperature. The synthesized compound was characterized by means of single-crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy, UV-visible and photoluminescence studies. The title compound crystallises at room temperature in the non centrosymmetric space group P212121.The recorded UV-visible spectrum show good transparency in the visible region and indicates a non-zero value of the first Hyperpolarizability. Photoluminescence spectrum shows a broad and intense band at 440 nm and indicates that the crystal emits blue fluorescence. We also report DFT calculations of the electric dipole moments (μ), Polarizability (α), the static first Hyperpolarizability (β) and HOMO-LUMO analysis of the title compound was theoretically investigated by GAUSSIAN 03 package. The calculated static first Hyperpolarizability is equal to 6.4022 × 10-31 esu. The results show that 4-benzyl-piperidine sulfate monohydrate crystal might have important non linear optical behavior and can be a potential non linear optical material of interest.

  3. The crystal structure, vibrational spectra, thermal behaviour and second harmonic generation of aminoguanidinium(1+) hydrogen L-tartrate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macháčková, Zorka; Němec, Ivan; Teubner, Karel; Němec, Petr; Vaněk, Přemysl; Mička, Zdeněk

    2007-04-01

    Aminoguanidinium(1+) hydrogen L-tartrate monohydrate was prepared by crystallisation from aqueous solution and X-ray structural analysis was carried out. The substance crystallises in the orthorhombic system in space group P2 12 12 1, a = 7.1380(2) Å, b = 9.9700(4) Å, c = 14.0790(6) Å, V = 1001.94(7) Å 3, Z = 4, R = 0.0271 for 2272 observed reflections. The crystal structure consists of a 3D framework formed by hydrogen tartrate anions and water molecules with incorporated aminoguanidinium(1+) cations connected by a system of hydrogen bonds. The FTIR and FT Raman spectra of natural and N,O-deuterated compounds were measured and discussed at laboratory temperature. DSC measurements were carried out in the temperature range from 95 to 380 K. A weak anomaly was observed at a temperature of 268 K. Quantitative measurements of second harmonic generation of powdered aminoguanidinium(1+) hydrogen tartrate monohydrate at 800 nm were performed relative to KDP and a relative efficiency of 14% was observed.

  4. Study of Growth, Structural, Thermal and Nonlinear Optical Properties of Silica Gel Grown Calcium Iodate Monohydrate Crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharda J. Shitole

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of calcium iodate, monohydrate [Ca (IO32, H2O] were grown by simple gel technique by single and double diffusion method. Morphologies and habit faces like prismatic, prismatic pyramidal, needle shaped, hopper crystals were obtained. Few crystals were opaque, some were translucent and some good quality transparent crystals were obtained. EDAX spectrum verified that crystals are of calcium iodate, monohydrate indeed and was used to find Atomic % and Weight %. Unit cell parameters were obtained from the X-ray diffractogram. The calculated unit cell parameters, β, and‘d’ values are in good agreement with reported ones. Structural analysis was done by using FTIR spectroscopy which confirmed the presence of fundamental infrared frequencies, generally observed in all iodate compounds. Thermal analysis exhibits three steps explicitly on heating the samples. The first step involves dehydration at 5500C, second step shows decomposition at 5800C, and the third step involves again decomposition at 6400C. Powder second harmonic generation experiments exhibit the nonlinear nature of the substance.

  5. Synthesis and molecular structure of the novel monohydrated 3- p-nitrophenylpyrazole derived from 1,3-diketone malonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiménez-Cruz, Federico; Hernández-Ortega, Simón; Ríos-Olivares, Héctor

    2003-05-01

    The synthesis of dimethyl {2-[3-(4-nitrophenyl)-1 H-pyrazol-5-yl]ethyl}malonate monohydrate 1, C 16H 17N 3O 6·H 2O was performed and the molecular structure has been studied by using NMR, single crystal X-ray diffraction and ab initio calculations. The title compound presents a pyrazole ring (N1 to C5), a phenyl ring (C1″ to C6″) attached to C3 and the ethylene dimethyl malonate frame (C1' to C7') attached to C5. The torsion angle defined by N2C3C1″C2″ (-12.26°) showed that pyrazole and phenyl rings are not in the same plane. Monohydration in ( 1) is present in the structure by a NH⋯OH 2 hydrogen bonding, with a bond length of 1.782 Å. Experimental and theoretical evidences indicated the preference of the 3-tautomer over the corresponding 5-tautomer in the titled pyrazole.

  6. Effects of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate during the finishing period on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and muscle glycolytic potential of broilers subjected to transport stress

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhang, L; Li, J L; Gao, T; Lin, M; Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-01-01

    ...) creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 14 days. On the morning of 42 day, after an 8-h fast, the birds of CMH-free group were divided into two equal groups, and all birds of these four groups were transported according to the follow protocol...

  7. Solubilities of 2-Naphthalenesulfonic Acid Monohydrate and Sodium 2-Naphthalenesulfonate in Sulfuric Acid Solution and Their Application for Preparing Sodium 2-Naphthalenesulfonate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张凤宝; 景晖; 朱文宇; 张林; 刘博; 张国亮; 夏清

    2016-01-01

    The solubilities of 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid monohydrate and sodium 2-naphthalenesulfonate in sul-furic acid solutions were measured at temperatures ranging from 278.15 to 338.15 K by using a dynamic method. The concentration of sulfuric acid solution ranged from 0 to 80wt%,. The solubilities of 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid monohydrate and sodium 2-naphthalenesulfonate increased with temperature, and both of them were the lowest at 70wt%, of sulfuric acid solution(03w=0.70)while the highest in pure water. The solubility data were correlated by the modified Apelblat equation. Based on the solubility difference between 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid monohy-drate and sodium 2-naphthalenesulfonate, a new technique in which sodium sulfate was used to replace sodium sulfite in the neutralization reaction was developed. The suitable mole ratio of H2O to Na2SO4 in the neutralization reaction was 80∶1, and that of 2-naphthalenesulfonic acid monohydrate to Na2SO4 was 3.2∶1. The material bal-ance under the suitable mole ratios was given and discussed.

  8. A randomised controlled trial of the efficacy and safety of allopurinol dose escalation to achieve target serum urate in people with gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stamp, Lisa K; Chapman, Peter T; Barclay, Murray L; Horne, Anne; Frampton, Christopher; Tan, Paul; Drake, Jill; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2017-09-01

    To determine the efficacy and safety of allopurinol dose escalation using a treat-to-target serum urate (SU) approach. A randomised, controlled, parallel-group, comparative clinical trial was undertaken. People with gout receiving at least creatinine clearance (CrCL)-based allopurinol dose for ≥1 month and SU ≥6 mg/dL were recruited. Participants were randomised to continue current dose (control) or allopurinol dose escalation for 12 months. In the dose escalation group, allopurinol was increased monthly until SU was treatment target in most people with gout. Allopurinol dose escalation is well tolerated. ANZCTR12611000845932; Results. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Gene engineered construction of urate oxidase highly-expressing Lactococcus lactis%高产尿酸氧化酶乳酸工程菌的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彦新; 曾雪芳; 刘芳; 蒋云生

    2015-01-01

    目的 将尿酸氧化酶基因克隆到乳酸乳球菌(Llactis)NZ9000中,使之能启动nisA放大系统增加尿酸氧化酶活性,构建一株高效分解尿酸的基因工程菌.方法 根据GenBank上已知的产朊假丝酵母菌尿酸氧化酶基因序列(Uricase,E12709)设计引物,PCR扩增尿酸氧化酶基因片段,将其克隆入质粒PNZ8048、PMG36e,构建重组质粒PNZ8048-U、PMG36e-U,重组质粒电转化L.lactis NZ9000构建基因工程菌L.lactis NZ9000-PNZ8048-U、L.lactis NZ9000-PMG36e-U,经十二烷基硫酸钠-聚丙烯酰氨凝胶电泳(SDS-PAGE)鉴定重组菌体裂解液中的尿酸氧化酶,测定尿酸氧化酶的活性和在高尿酸患者血清中降解尿酸的能力.结果 构建的重组质粒PNZ8048-U、PMG36e-U经酶切和测序显示,尿酸氧化酶基因片段长度为0.9 kb,基因片段序列与GenBank上尿酸氧化酶基因序列完全一致.构建重组基因工二程菌L.lactis NZ9000-PNZ8048-U、L.lactis NZ9000-PMG36e-U,均表达相对分子质量约为34 000的重组蛋白,与从尿酸氧化酶基因序列推测的303个氨基酸的理论分子量相符.体外测定菌酶液活性,L.lactis NZ9000-PNZ8048-U组酶活性为(1.92±0.14)u/ml,产朊假丝酵母菌组酶活性为(0.55±0.05)u/ml,L.lactis NZ9000-PMG36e-U组酶活性为(0.29±0.06) u/ml.高尿酸血症患者血清培养结果显示加入生理盐水的对照组尿酸值(620.0±58.7) μmol/L,L.lactis NZ9000-PNZ8048-U组(321.0±46.2) μmol/L,L.lactis NZ9000-PMG36e-U组(568.0±47.3)μmol/L,产朊假丝酵母菌组(406.0±42.4)μmol/L,其他3组与对照组比较,差异均有统计学意义(均P<0.05).结论 成功构建基因工程菌L.lactis NZ9000-PNZ8048-U,重组菌酶活性较基因来源菌产朊假丝酵母菌高,并可高效分解高尿酸患者血清中的尿酸.%Objective To construct a bacterial strain with genectically-engineered high-efficiency in uric acid degradation,through cloning the urate oxidase gene into Lactococcus lactis NZ9000 so that it can

  10. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATEPHASE II INTERIM REPORT FOR EXTERNAL RELEASE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Mary Thompson, M

    2006-08-31

    This document provides an interim summary report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST materials. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger laboratory scale, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and characterization of the modified MST. Key findings and conclusions include the following: (1) Samples of the modified MST prepared by Method 2 and Method 3 exhibited the best combination of strontium and actinide removal. (2) We selected Method 3 to scale up and test performance with actual waste solution. (3) We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using the Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. (4) Performance tests indicated successful scale-up to the 25-gram scale with excellent performance and reproducibility among each of the three batches. For example, the plutonium decontamination factors (6-hour contact time) for the modified MST samples averaged 13 times higher than that of the baseline MST sample at half the sorbent concentration (0.2 g L{sup -1} for modified MST versus 0.4 g L{sup -1} for baseline MST). (5) Performance tests with actual waste supernate demonstrated that the modified MST exhibited better strontium and plutonium removal performance than that of the baseline MST. For example, the decontamination factors for the modified MST measured 2.6 times higher for strontium and between 5.2 to 11 times higher for plutonium compared to the baseline MST sample. The modified MST did not exhibit improved neptunium removal performance over that of the baseline MST. (6) Two strikes of the modified MST provided increased removal of strontium and actinides from actual waste compared to a single strike. The improved performance

  11. FATE OF FISSILE MATERIAL BOUND TO MONOSODIUM TITANATE DURING COOPER CATALYZED PEROXIDE OXIDATION OF TANK 48H WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-08-09

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), Tank 48H currently holds approximately 240,000 gallons of slurry which contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (TPB). A copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) reaction is currently being examined as a method for destroying the TPB present in Tank 48H. Part of the development of that process includes an examination of the fate of the Tank 48H fissile material which is adsorbed onto monosodium titanate (MST) particles. This report details results from experiments designed to examine the potential degradation of MST during CCPO processing and the subsequent fate of the adsorbed fissile material. Experiments were conducted to simulate the CCPO process on MST solids loaded with sorbates in a simplified Tank 48H simulant. Loaded MST solids were placed into the Tank 48H simplified simulant without TPB, and the experiments were then carried through acid addition (pH adjustment to 11), peroxide addition, holding at temperature (50 C) for one week, and finally NaOH addition to bring the free hydroxide concentration to a target concentration of 1 M. Testing was conducted without TPB to show the maximum possible impact on MST since the competing oxidation of TPB with peroxide was absent. In addition, the Cu catalyst was also omitted, which will maximize the interaction of H{sub 2}O{sub 2} with the MST; however, the results may be non-conservative assuming the Cu-peroxide active intermediate is more reactive than the peroxide radical itself. The study found that both U and Pu desorb from the MST when the peroxide addition begins, although to different extents. Virtually all of the U goes into solution at the beginning of the peroxide addition, whereas Pu reaches a maximum of {approx}34% leached during the peroxide addition. Ti from the MST was also found to come into solution during the peroxide addition. Therefore, Ti is present with the fissile in solution. After the peroxide addition is complete, the Pu and Ti are found to

  12. Inhibition of calcium oxalate monohydrate growth by citrate and the effect of the background electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, Matthew L.; Qiu, S. Roger; Hoyer, John R.; Casey, William H.; Nancollas, George H.; De Yoreo, James J.

    2007-08-01

    Pathological mineralization is a common phenomenon in broad range of plants and animals. In humans, kidney stone formation is a well-known example that afflicts approximately 10% of the population. Of the various calcium salt phases that comprise human kidney stones, the primary component is calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM). Citrate, a naturally occurring molecule in the urinary system and a common therapeutic agent for treating stone disease, is a known inhibitor of COM. Understanding the physical mechanisms of citrate inhibition requires quantification of the effects of both background electrolytes and citrate on COM step kinetics. Here we report the results of an in situ AFM study of these effects, in which we measure the effect of the electrolytes LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl, and the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration for a range of COM supersaturations. We find that varying the background electrolyte results in significant differences in the measured step speeds and in step morphology, with KCl clearly producing the smallest impact and NaCl the largest. The kinetic coefficient for the former is nearly three times larger than for the latter, while the steps change from smooth to highly serrated when KCl is changed to NaCl. The results on the dependence of step speed on citrate concentration show that citrate produces a dead zone whose width increases with citrate concentration as well as a continual reduction in kinetic coefficient with increasing citrate level. We relate these results to a molecular-scale view of inhibition that invokes a combination of kink blocking and step pinning. Furthermore, we demonstrate that the classic step-pinning model of Cabrera and Vermilyea (C-V model) does an excellent job of predicting the effect of citrate on COM step kinetics provided the model is reformulated to more realistically account for impurity adsorption, include an expression for the Gibbs-Thomson effect that is correct for all supersaturations

  13. Choline chloride (ChCl) and monosodium glutamate (MSG)-based green solvents from optimized cactus malic acid for biomass delignification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yiin, Chung Loong; Quitain, Armando T; Yusup, Suzana; Uemura, Yoshimitsu; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Kida, Tetsuya

    2017-08-10

    This work aimed to develop an efficient microwave-hydrothermal (MH) extraction of malic acid from abundant natural cactus as hydrogen bond donor (HBD) whereby the concentration was optimized using response surface methodology. The ideal process conditions were found to be at a solvent-to-feed ratio of 0.008, 120°C and 20min with 1.0g of oxidant, H2O2. Next generation environment-friendly solvents, low transition temperature mixtures (LTTMs) were synthesized from cactus malic acid with choline chloride (ChCl) and monosodium glutamate (MSG) as hydrogen bond acceptors (HBAs). The hydrogen-bonding interactions between the starting materials were determined. The efficiency of the LTTMs in removing lignin from oil palm biomass residues, empty fruit bunch (EFB) was also evaluated. The removal of amorphous hemicellulose and lignin after the pretreatment process resulted in an enhanced digestibility and thermal degradability of biomass. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. FURTHER DEVELOPMENT OF MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE, AN IMPROVED SORBENT FOR PRETREATMENT OF HIGH LEVEL NUCLEAR WASTE AT THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.

    2011-01-12

    High-level nuclear waste produced from fuel reprocessing operations at the Savannah River Site (SRS) requires pretreatment to remove Cs-137, Sr-90, and alpha-emitting radionuclides (i.e., actinides) prior to disposal onsite as low level waste. Separation processes planned at SRS include caustic side solvent extraction, for Cs-137 removal, and sorption of Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides onto monosodium titanate (MST). The predominant alpha-emitting radionuclides in the highly alkaline waste solutions include plutonium isotopes Pu-238, Pu-239, and Pu-240. This paper describes recent results from the development of an improved titanate material that exhibits increased removal kinetics and effective capacity for Sr-90 and alpha-emitting radionuclides compared to the baseline MST material.

  15. Effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hor mone levels, lipid profile and er ythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiedozie Onyejiaka Ibegbulem

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the effects of diet containing monosodium glutamate on visceral organ weights, acute blood steroidal sex hormone levels, serum lipid profile (SLP and erythrocyte antioxidant enzymes activities of Wistar rats. Methods: The Wistar rats were grouped into two groups of six rats each. The ones in Group 1 (control group were placed on water and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum, whereas Group 2 was regarded as test group [Wistar rats (WR-monosodium glutamate (MSG group] and the Wistar rats received water, compounded diet of MSG and pelletized standard guinea feed ad libitum. After 33 days of feeding study, rat body weight was obtained. Rats were sacrificed and the incisions were made into the thoracic cavity and blood samples were drawn by cardiac puncture as a terminal event. Plasma was assayed for estradiol and testosterone concentrations, SLP and erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities. Visceral organ weights were also measured. Results: WR-MSG exhibited marginal alterations in blood estradiol and testosterone concentrations. Elevation of serum triacylglycerol concentration in WR-MSG was corresponded to 77.7%. Increases in serum concentrations of very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol in WR-MSG were corresponded to 70.6% and 41.0% respectively. Erythrocyte peroxidase and catalase activities showed marginal alterations. Alterations in visceral organs-to-body weights ratios were not profound. Conclusions: Blood testosterone and estradiol concentrations were not significantly (P > 0.05 altered, which may not be connected with the low dose of MSG in the diet. Marginal alterations of SLP did not indicate atherogenicity in WR-MSG. The visceral organs were not atrophic or hypertrophic because of the comparatively low dose of MSG consumed by WR-MSG and the duration of the feeding experiment.

  16. (E-2-[(2-Butyl-4-chloro-1H-imidazol-5-ylmethylidene]-N-methylhydrazine-1-carbothioamide monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreenath Reddy Aabaka

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The title thiosemicarbazide derivative, C10H16ClN5S·H2O, crystallized as a monohydrate. The molecule has an E conformation about the azomethine C=N bond that links the methylhydrazine-1-carbothioamide moiety to the imidazole ring. The butyl chain substituent on the imdazole ring is disordered over two sets of sites, with a refined occupancy ratio of 0.509 (9:0.491 (9. In the crystal, molecules are linked by O—H...N and N—H...O hydrogen bonds involving the solvent water molecule, forming chains along the c-axis direction. The chains are linked by O—H...S and N—H...S hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework.

  17. Crystal growth, structural and thermal studies of amino acids admixtured L-arginine phosphate monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandan, P.; Saravanan, T.; Parthipan, G.; Kumar, R. Mohan; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Ravi, G.; Jayavel, R.

    2011-05-01

    To study the improved characteristics of L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals, amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been grown by slow cooling method. Amino acids like glycine, L-alanine, and L-valine have been selected for doping. Optical quality bulk crystals have been harvested after a typical growth period of about twenty days. The effect of amino acids in the crystal lattice and molecular vibrational frequencies of various functional groups in the crystals have been studied using X-ray powder diffraction and Fourier Transform infrared (FTIR) analyses respectively. Thermal behavior of the amino acids mixed LAP crystals have been studied from the TG and DTG analyses. High-resolution X-ray diffraction studies have been carried out to find the crystalline nature. Optical transmission studies have been carried out by UV-vis spectrophotometer. The cut off wavelength is below 240 nm for the grown crystals.

  18. Spectral, optical and mechanical studies on L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (LHC) single crystals grown by unidirectional growth technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert, R. [Department of Physics, Government Arts College (Men), Krishnagiri (India); Justin Raj, C. [Department of Physics, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); Krishnan, S. [Department of Physics, R.M.K. Engineering College, Kavaripettai 601 206 (India); Uthrakumar, R.; Dinakaran, S. [Department of Physics, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India); Jerome Das, S., E-mail: sjeromedas2004@yahoo.co [Department of Physics, Loyola College, Chennai 600 034 (India)

    2010-08-15

    Single crystals of nonlinear optical L-histidine hydrochloride monohydrate (LHC) were grown in an aqueous solution by the unidirectional crystal growth method within a period of 45 days along (1 0 1) plane. The grown crystals were subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis to confirm their orthorhombic structure having space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. Values of several physical parameters were determined for the grown crystal. Optical transmission studies revealed very low absorption and band gap energy was calculated for the LHC crystals. Further, some optical constant were also determined for the grown crystals. Anisotropy in Vicker's microhardness led to the assessment of fracture toughness, brittleness index and yield strength for the synthesized crystals. Nonlinear optical studies were carried out for the grown crystal and second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency was found to be three times that of KDP crystals.

  19. RETRACTED: Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Aloevera amino acid added lithium sulfate monohydrate: A non-linear optical crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manimekalai, R.; Antony Joseph, A.; Ramachandra Raja, C.

    2014-03-01

    This article has been retracted: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal. This article has been retracted at the request of authors. According to the author we have reported Aloevera Amino Acid added Lithium sulphate monohydrate [AALSMH] crystal is a new nonlinear optical crystal. From the recorded high performance liquid chromatography spectrum, by matching the retention times with the known compounds, the amino acids present in our extract are identified as homocystine, isoleucine, serine, leucine and tyrosine. From the thin layer chromatography and colorimetric estimation techniques, presence of isoleucine was identified and it was also confirmed by NMR spectrum. From the above studies, we came to conclude that AALSMH is new nonlinear optical crystal. After further investigation, lattice parameter values of AALSMH are coinciding with lithium sulphate. Therefore we have decided to withdraw our paper. Sorry for the inconvenience and time spent.

  20. Structures of protonated thymine and uracil and their monohydrated gas-phase ions from ultraviolet action spectroscopy and theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Sara Øvad; Byskov, Camilla Skinnerup; Turecek, Frantisek; Brøndsted Nielsen, Steen

    2014-06-19

    The strong UV chromophores thymine (Thy) and uracil (Ura) have identical heteroaromatic rings that only differ by one methyl substituent. While their photophysics has been elucidated in detail, the effect on the excited states of base protonation and single water molecules is less explored. Here we report gas-phase absorption spectra of ThyH(+) and UraH(+) and monohydrated ions and demonstrate that the substituent is not only responsible for spectral shifts but also influences the tautomer distribution, being different for bare and monohydrated ions. Spectra interpretation is aided by calculations of geometrical structures and transition energies. The lowest free-energy tautomer (denoted 178, enol-enol form) accounts for 230-280 nm (ThyH(+)) and 225-270 nm (UraH(+)) bands. ThyH(+) hardly absorbs above 300 nm, whereas a discernible band is measured for UraH(+) (275-320 nm), ascribed to the second lowest free-energy tautomer (138, enol-keto form) comprising a few percent of the UraH(+) population at room temperature. Band widths are similar to those measured of cold ions in support of very short excited-state lifetimes. Attachment of a single water increases the abundance of 138 relative to 178, 138 now clearly present for ThyH(+). 138 resembles more the tautomer present in aqueous solution than 178 does, and 138 may indeed be a relevant transition structure. The band of ThyH(+)(178) is unchanged, that of UraH(+)(178) is nearly unchanged, and that of UraH(+)(138) blue-shifts by about 10 nm. In stark contrast to protonated adenine, more than one solvating water molecule is required to re-establish the absorption of ThyH(+) and UraH(+) in aqueous solution.

  1. The effects of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate on body composition and strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Chronic supplementation with creatine monohydrate has been shown to promote increases in total intramuscular creatine, phosphocreatine, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and muscle fiber size. Furthermore, there is robust evidence that muscular strength and power will also increase after supplementing with creatine. However, it is not known if the timing of creatine supplementation will affect the adaptive response to exercise. Thus, the purpose of this investigation was to determine the difference between pre versus post exercise supplementation of creatine on measures of body composition and strength. Methods Nineteen healthy recreational male bodybuilders (mean ± SD; age: 23.1 ± 2.9; height: 166.0 ± 23.2 cm; weight: 80.18 ± 10.43 kg) participated in this study. Subjects were randomly assigned to one of the following groups: PRE-SUPP or POST-SUPP workout supplementation of creatine (5 grams). The PRE-SUPP group consumed 5 grams of creatine immediately before exercise. On the other hand, the POST-SUPP group consumed 5 grams immediately after exercise. Subjects trained on average five days per week for four weeks. Subjects consumed the supplement on the two non-training days at their convenience. Subjects performed a periodized, split-routine, bodybuilding workout five days per week (Chest-shoulders-triceps; Back-biceps, Legs, etc.). Body composition (Bod Pod®) and 1-RM bench press (BP) were determined. Diet logs were collected and analyzed (one random day per week; four total days analyzed). Results 2x2 ANOVA results - There was a significant time effect for fat-free mass (FFM) (F = 19.9; p = 0.001) and BP (F = 18.9; p supplementation with creatine post workout is possibly more beneficial in comparison to pre workout supplementation with regards to FFM, FM and 1-RM BP. The mean change in the PRE-SUPP and POST-SUPP groups for body weight (BW kg), FFM (kg), FM (kg) and 1-RM bench press (kg) were as follows

  2. A study of the piezoelectric resonance in metal organic NLO single crystals: Sodium D-isoascorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dihydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran, E-mail: rksaripalli@physics.iisc.ernet.in; Sanath Kumar, R.; Elizabeth, Suja [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru-560012 (India); Raghavendra Rao, K. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru-560012 (India); PES University, 100 Feet Ring Road,Banashankari Stage III, Banashankari, Bengaluru-560085 (India); Bhat, H. L. [Department of Physics, Indian Institute of Science, Bengaluru-560012 (India); Centre for Nano and Soft Matter Sciences, Professor UR Rao Road, Jalahalli, Bengaluru-560013 (India)

    2016-05-06

    Large single crystals of Sodium D-isoacsorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dehydrate were grown using solution growth technique. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were monitored as a function of frequency at different temperatures. These are typically characterized by strong resonance peaks. The piezoelectric coefficients d{sub 31}, elastic coefficient (S{sub 11}) and electromechanical coupling coefficient (k{sub 31}) were estimated by resonance-antiresonance method. The temperature dependence of the resonance-peaks frequencies was studied.

  3. A study of the piezoelectric resonance in metal organic NLO single crystals: Sodium D-isoascorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dihydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saripalli, Ravi Kiran; Raghavendra Rao, K.; Sanath Kumar, R.; Bhat, H. L.; Elizabeth, Suja

    2016-05-01

    Large single crystals of Sodium D-isoacsorbate monohydrate and Lithium L-ascorbate dehydrate were grown using solution growth technique. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss were monitored as a function of frequency at different temperatures. These are typically characterized by strong resonance peaks. The piezoelectric coefficients d31, elastic coefficient (S11) and electromechanical coupling coefficient (k31) were estimated by resonance-antiresonance method. The temperature dependence of the resonance-peaks frequencies was studied.

  4. Comment on the paper: "Crystal growth and spectroscopic characterization of Aloevera amino acid added lithium sulfate monohydrate: a non-linear optical crystal".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasan, Bikshandarkoil R

    2015-01-05

    The title paper (Manimekalai et al., 2014) reports a slow evaporation solution growth of a so called 'Aloevera amino acid added lithium sulfate monohydrate' (AALSMH) crystal. In this communication, many points of criticism, concerning the crystal growth, NMR spectrum and X-ray powder pattern of this so called AALSMH nonlinear optical crystal are highlighted. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Study on Thermodynamic Properties for Binary Systems of Water + L-Cysteine Hydrochloride Monohydrate, Glycerol, and D-Sorbitol at Various Temperatures

    OpenAIRE

    F. Koohyar; Rostami, A. A.; Chaichi, M. J.; F. kiani

    2013-01-01

    Viscosities, refractive indices, and densities for aqueous solution of L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate ([LCHCMH]) and D-sorbitol, and also densities (ρ), refractive indices ( ), excess molar volumes ( ), and change of refractive indices on mixing ( ) for aqueous solution of glycerol have been measured at several mole fractions and temperatures (between  K and  K) at atmospheric pressure. The measurements were carried out using a vibrating-tube density meter for density, an Abbe refractom...

  6. Urinary creatine and methylamine excretion following 4 x 5 g x day(-1) or 20 x 1 g x day(-1) of creatine monohydrate for 5 days.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sale, Craig; Harris, Roger C; Florance, James; Kumps, Alain; Sanvura, Robertine; Poortmans, Jacques R

    2009-05-01

    In this study, we examined the effect of two creatine monohydrate supplementation regimes on 24-h urinary creatine and methylamine excretion. Nine male participants completed two trials, separated by 6 weeks. Participants ingested 4 x 5 g x day(-1) creatine monohydrate for 5 days in one trial and 20 x 1 g x day(-1) for 5 days in the other. We collected 24-h urine samples on 2 baseline days (days 1-2), during 5 days of supplementation (days 3-7), and for 2 days post-supplementation (days 8-9). Urine was assayed for creatine using high-performance liquid chromatography and methylamine using gas chromatography. Less creatine was excreted following the 20 x 1 g x day(-1) regime (49.25 +/- 10.53 g) than the 4 x 5 g x day(-1) regime (62.32 +/- 9.36 g) (mean +/- s; P x 1 g x day(-1) and 4 x 5 g x day(-1) regimes, respectively (P x 1 g x day(-1) doses suggests a greater retention in the body and most probably in the muscle. Lower and more frequent doses of creatine monohydrate appear to further attenuate formation of methylamine.

  7. The influence of excipients on the stability of the moisture sensitive drugs aspirin and niacinamide: comparison of tablets containing lactose monohydrate with tablets containing anhydrous lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, J; Hoag, S W

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to test the hypothesis that in tablet formulations, moisture-sensitive drugs formulated with lactose monohydrate have the same stability as formulations containing anhydrous lactose, and to characterize the kinetics of niacinamide degradation in the solid state. Aspirin and niacinamide decomposition were used as indicators of stability. Aspirin and niacinamide tablets containing either lactose monohydrate or anhydrous lactose were separately investigated at different temperatures and relative humidities; the stability tests were done at 25 degrees C--60% RH, 40 degrees C--80% RH, 60 degrees C--60% RH, 60 degrees C--80% RH, and 80 degrees C--80% RH. Official U.S. Pharmacopeia methods were used for the aspirin and niacinamide assays. Statistical analysis showed that tablets containing lactose monohydrate have the same stability as tablets containing anhydrous lactose, which means that even though water is present in the crystal structure, the bound water does not influence the reaction rate. In addition, niacinamide degradation in the solid-state can be described by a third order rate equation.

  8. Connecting the Morphological and Crystal Structural Changes during the Conversion of Lithium Hydroxide Monohydrate to Lithium Carbonate Using Multi-Scale X-ray Scattering Measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greeshma Gadikota

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available While CO2 storage technologies via carbon mineralization have focused on the use of earth-abundant calcium- and magnesium-bearing minerals, there is an emerging interest in the scalable synthesis of alternative carbonates such as lithium carbonate. Lithium carbonate is the carbonated end-product of lithium hydroxide, a highly reactive sorbent for CO2 capture in spacecraft and submarines. Other emerging applications include tuning the morphology of lithium carbonates synthesized from the effluent of treated Li-bearing batteries, which can then be reused in ceramics, glasses, and batteries. In this study, in operando Ultra-Small-Angle, Small-Angle, and Wide-Angle X-ray Scattering (USAXS/SAXS/WAXS measurements were used to link the morphological and crystal structural changes as lithium hydroxide monohydrate is converted to lithium carbonate. The experiments were performed in a flow-through reactor at PCO2 of 1 atm and at temperatures in the range of 25–500 °C. The dehydration of lithium hydroxide monohydrate to form lithium hydroxide occurs in the temperature range of 25–150 °C, while the onset of carbonate formation is evident at around 70 °C. A reduction in the nanoparticle size and an increase in the surface area were noted during the dehydration of lithium hydroxide monohydrate. Lithium carbonate formation increases the nanoparticle size and reduces the surface area.

  9. Does the initiation of urate-lowering treatment during an acute gout attack prolong the current episode and precipitate recurrent attacks: a systematic literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eminaga, Fatma; La-Crette, Jonathan; Jones, Adrian; Abhishek, A

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the literature on effect of initiating urate-lowering treatment (ULT) during an acute attack of gout on duration of index attack and persistence on ULT. OVID (Medline), EMBASE and AMED were searched to identify randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of ULT initiation during acute gout attack published in English language. Two reviewers appraised the study quality and extracted data independently. Standardized mean difference (SMD) and relative risk (RR) were used to pool continuous and categorical data. Meta-analysis was carried out using STATA version 14. A total of 537 studies were selected. A total of 487 titles and abstracts were reviewed after removing duplicates. Three RCTs were identified. There was evidence from two high-quality studies that early initiation of allopurinol did not increase pain severity at days 10-15 [SMDpooled (95 % CI) 0.18 (-0.58, 0.93)]. Data from three studies suggested that initiation of ULT during an acute attack of gout did not associate with dropouts [RRpooled (95 % CI) 1.16 (0.58, 2.31)]. There is moderate-quality evidence that the initiation of ULT during an acute attack of gout does not increase pain severity and risk of ULT discontinuation. Larger studies are required to confirm these findings so that patients with acute gout can be initiated on ULT with confidence.

  10. The rate of adherence to urate-lowering therapy and associated factors in Chinese gout patients: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Rulan; Cao, Haixia; Fu, Ting; Zhang, Qiuxiang; Zhang, Lijuan; Li, Liren; Gu, Zhifeng

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess adherence rate and predictors of non-adherence with urate-lowering therapy (ULT) in Chinese gout patients. A cross-sectional study was administered to 125 gout patients using the Compliance Questionnaire on Rheumatology (CQR) for adherence to ULT. Patients were asked to complete the Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication version II, Health Assessment Questionnaire, Confidence in Gout Treatment Questionnaire, Gout Knowledge Questionnaire, Patient Health Questionnaire-9, Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7, and 36-Item Short Form Health Survey. Data were analyzed by independent sample t test, rank sum test, Chi-square analysis as well as binary stepwise logistic regression modeling. The data showed that the rate of adherence (CQR ≥80%) to ULT was 9.6% in our investigated gout patients. Adherence was associated with functional capacity, gout-related knowledge, satisfaction with medication, confidence in gout treatment and mental components summary. Multivariable analysis of binary stepwise logistic regression identified gout-related knowledge and satisfaction of effectiveness with medication was the independent risk factors of medication non-adherence. Patients unaware of gout-related knowledge, or with low satisfaction of effectiveness with medication, were more likely not to adhere to ULT. Non-adherence to ULT among gout patients is exceedingly common, particularly in patients unaware of gout-related knowledge, or with low satisfaction of effectiveness with medication. These findings could help medical personnel develop useful interventions to improve gout patients' medication adherence.

  11. The Effect of Monosodium Glutamate (MSG On Rat Liver And The Ameliorating Effect Of "Guanidino Ethane Sulfonic acid (GES" (Histological, Histochemical and Electron Microscopy Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanaa F. Waer and *Saleh Edress

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Food additives are chemical substances added intentionally to food stuffs to preserve, color, sweeten and flavor food. Monosodium glutamate (MSG is used as a flavor enhancer and found in most soups, salad dressing and processed meat. The use of MSG in food is growing. Irrational fear had increased in the last few years due to the adverse reactions and toxicity of MSG. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of MSG on the rat liver and the ameliorating effect of taurine analog "Guanidinoethane sulfonic acid (GES". Sixty albino rats (2-3 months old were used in the present study. MSG was given orally at a daily dose of 60 mg/1000 g for one month, two months and was given at a daily dose of 100mg/1000gm for one month. The results revealed that the deleterious effects of MSG were dose related and cumulative. In MSG treated rats, the examined sections showed remarkable alterations varied considerably from moderate structural changes to cytoplasmic lysis and signs of degeneration of cellular organelles. The histological changes showed disturbed liver architecture, hemorrhage in the central veins, areas of necrosis, vacuolation and increased inflammatory cells infiltration. The glycogen granules increased as well as the collagen fibers in the liver cells. Ultrastructural changes showed loss of cytoplasmic differentiation, vacuolation, pyknotic nuclei with irregular nuclear membranes and elongated electron dense mitochondria. Conversely, treatment of rats with taurine analog (GES significantly attenuated the cellular toxicity of MSG.

  12. The fifth dimension of the taste in Spirulina platensis feed. Study on the influence of monosodium glutamate in the development and composition of the Spirulina platensis algae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ştefan MANEA

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Food additives have become a way of life, creating pleasure and food request. But from the point of view of health promotion, it is necessary to demonstrate the risks and find out new possibilities for a good sensorial aspect of the food. This would apply especially in the case of long-term consumption, or in some particular conditions (allergies to different ingredients which appear more often to consumers. Cheap products are manufactured by using E-dangerous. The explanation is simple: the natural E extracted from various fruits and vegetables are very expensive. The study wants to demonstrate that the monosodium glutamate (MSG into the culture medium of plantscan affect their healthiness. Spirulina platensis has the same type of amino acids as humans and this is why it has been chosen as an experiment plant. Four samples obtained from the Spirulina’s culturemedium were studied: one blank and three with 0.2%, 0.4% and respectively 0.6% MSG in the culture medium. The mineral content was evaluated using the Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS and a rapid increase of calcium and magnesium content was registered for the sample with the biggest amount of MSG. The structure of the filaments and the cells appearance were evaluated microscopically. There were changes identified in the structure after three days of cultivating. Also, the sample with 0.6% MSG presented dead cells and the ones which were still alive had profound changes in form and structure.

  13. Lycopene modulates cholinergic dysfunction, Bcl-2/Bax balance, and antioxidant enzymes gene transcripts in monosodium glutamate (E621) induced neurotoxicity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Kadry; Abouzed, Tarek; Nasr, Sherif

    2016-04-01

    The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on brain tissue and the relative ability of lycopene to avert these neurotoxic effects were investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups: group I, untreated (placebo); group II, injected with MSG (5 mg·kg(-1)) s.c.; group III, gastrogavaged with lycopene (10 mg·kg(-1)) p.o.; and group IV received MSG with lycopene with the same mentioned doses for 30 days. The results showed that MSG induced elevation in lipid peroxidation marker and perturbation in the antioxidant homeostasis and increased the levels of brain and serum cholinesterase (ChE), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes BB (CPK-BB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and gene expression were increased and glutathione content was reduced in the MSG-challenged rats, and these effects were ameliorated by lycopene. Furthermore, MSG induced apoptosis in brain tissues reflected in upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax while lycopene upregulated the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Our results indicate that lycopene appears to be highly effective in relieving the toxic effects of MSG by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inducing modifications in the activity of cholinesterase and antioxidant pathways. Interestingly, lycopene protects brain tissue by inhibiting apoptosis signaling induced by MSG.

  14. Study on the Decreasing of COD in Monosodium Glutamate Wastewater by Electrical Aggregation%电凝聚法降低味精废水中COD的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁忠浩; 黄久贵; 翁达; 张惠灵

    2001-01-01

    The monosodium glutamate wastewater is treated by means of electrical aggregation. Theoretical analysis is carried out of the mechanism of the electrical aggregation. With the help of the analysis and of an electrical aggregation efficiency equation deduced from reasonable hypotheses ,the influence of three main factors in electrical aggregation, namely the current intensity, operation time and the organic compound concentration in the wastewater, on the aggregation efficiency has been discussed.%采用电凝聚法对味精废水进行处理,进行了电凝聚机理探讨和理论分析。根据论分析和合理假设推导出的电凝聚效率公式,描述了电凝聚过程中三个主要影响因素-电流强度、通电时间、废水中有机物浓度对电凝聚效率的影响。

  15. Mesophilic batch anaerobic co-digestion of pulp and paper sludge and monosodium glutamate waste liquor for methane production in a bench-scale digester.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yunqin; Wang, Dehan; Li, Qing; Xiao, Minquan

    2011-02-01

    This paper presented results from anaerobic co-digestion of pulp and paper sludge (PPS) and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL). A bench-scale anaerobic digester, 10 L in volume was developed, to operate under mesophilic (37 ± 2°C) batch condition. Under versatile and reliable anaerobic conduct, high efficiency for bioconversion of PPS and MGWL were obtained in the system. The accumulative methane yield attained to 200 mL g(-1) VS(added) and the peak value of methane daily production was 0.5m(3)/(m(3)d). No inhibitions of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and ammonia on anaerobic co-digestion were found. pH 6.0-8.0 and alkalinity 1000-4000 mg CaCO(3)/L were got without adjustment. This work showed that there was a good potential to the use of PPS and MGWL to anaerobic co-digestion for methane production. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Inflammatory Cells, Interleukin-10, Interferon-γ and Histological of Kidney in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdalrauf A Mahmud Yousif

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is considerable evidence, suggest that, consumption of food additives monosodium glutamate (MSG, a flavor enhancer was unhealthy. Herbal medicine Nigella sativa (NS has antioxidant properties able to cure the toxic induced by MSG. This study aimed to evaluate the risks of excessive use of MSG and to study the role of NS to inhibit inflammation and renal damage. Treated rats (twenty four male wistar rats were divided into six group and analyzed by measuring the cells in blood, interleukin-10, interferon-γ serum levels by ELISA method and remove kidneys for histological examination. Histological of kidney for all groups except control, were showed different abnormalities include congestion of some blood vessels, hemorrhage between tubules, widening in the renal tubules, revealed severe dilatation of Bowman's capsule and shrinkage of glomeruli, and areas of huge vacuole, were observed compared with control. Interleukin-10 was reduced in Groups 2,3,4 and 5, whereas increase in NS group compared with control. Interferon-γ was increased in groups 2,3,4 and reduced in groups 5,6 compared with control. Eosinophil was increased in groups 2,5 and reduced in groups 3,4, 6 compared with control. This present study showed that administration of MSG to rats induced many changes effects on inflammatory cells, cytokines and histological of kidneys. NS has benefit in blood parameters, whereas harmful on kidney at these doses.

  17. ArsH is an organoarsenical oxidase that confers resistance to trivalent forms of the herbicide monosodium methylarsenate and the poultry growth promoter roxarsone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jian; Bhattacharjee, Hiranmoy; Rosen, Barry P

    2015-06-01

    Environmental organoarsenicals are produced by microorganisms and are introduced anthropogenically as herbicides and antimicrobial growth promoters for poultry and swine. Nearly every prokaryote has an ars (arsenic resistance) operon, and some have an arsH gene encoding an atypical flavodoxin. The role of ArsH in arsenic resistance has been unclear. Here we demonstrate that ArsH is an organoarsenical oxidase that detoxifies trivalent methylated and aromatic arsenicals by oxidation to pentavalent species. Escherichia coli, which does not have an arsH gene, is very sensitive to the trivalent forms of the herbicide monosodium methylarsenate [MSMA or MAs(V)] and antimicrobial growth promoter roxarsone [Rox(V)], as well as to phenylarsenite [PhAs(III), also called phenylarsine oxide or PAO]. Pseudomonas putida has two chromosomally encoded arsH genes and is highly resistant to the trivalent forms of these organoarsenicals. A derivative of P. putida with both arsH genes deleted is sensitive to MAs(III), PhAs(III) or Rox(III). P. putida arsH expressed in E. coli conferred resistance to each trivalent organoarsenical. Cells expressing PpArsH oxidized the trivalent organoarsenicals. PpArsH was purified, and the enzyme in vitro similarly oxidized the trivalent organoarsenicals. These results suggest that ArsH catalyzes a novel biotransformation that confers resistance to environmental methylated and aromatic arsenicals.

  18. The Neuroprotective Effect of Dark Chocolate in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Nontransgenic Alzheimer Disease Model Rats: Biochemical, Behavioral, and Histological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavadas, Sowmya; Kapgal, Vijaya Kumar; Kutty, Bindu M; Subramanian, Sarada

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability to oxidative stress and cognitive decline continue to increase during both normal and pathological aging. Dietary changes and sedentary life style resulting in mid-life obesity and type 2 diabetes, if left uncorrected, further add to the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD) in the later stages of life. Certain antioxidant agents such as dietary polyphenols, taken in adequate quantities, have been suggested to improve the cognitive processes. In this study, we examined the effect of oral administration of dark chocolate (DC) containing 70% cocoa solids and 4% total polyphenol content for three months at a dose of 500 mg/Kg body weight per day to 17-month-old monosodium glutamate treated obese Sprague-Dawley rats, earlier characterized as a nontransgenic AD (NTAD) rat model after reversal of obesity, diabetes, and consequent cognitive impairments. The results demonstrated that DC reduced the hyperglycemia, inhibited the cholinesterase activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates, and improved the cognitive performance in spatial memory related Barnes maze task. Histological studies revealed an increase in cell volume in the DC treated rats in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. These findings demonstrated the benefits of DC in enhancing cognitive function and cholinergic activity in the hippocampus of the aged NTAD rats while correcting their metabolic disturbances.

  19. Mechanisms underlying hypertriglyceridemia in rats with monosodium L-glutamate-induced obesity: evidence of XBP-1/PDI/MTP axis activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    França, Lucas Martins; Freitas, Larissa Nara Costa; Chagas, Vinicyus Teles; Coêlho, Caio Fernando Ferreira; Barroso, Wermerson Assunção; Costa, Graciomar Conceição; Silva, Lucilene Amorim; Debbas, Victor; Laurindo, Francisco Rafael Martins; Paes, Antonio Marcus de Andrade

    2014-01-10

    Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is intimately associated with insulin resistance and hypertriglyceridemia, whereas many of the mechanisms underlying this association are still poorly understood. In the present study, we investigated the relationship between microsomal triglyceride transfer protein (MTP) and markers of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the liver of rats subjected to neonatal monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. At age 120 days old, the MSG-obese animals exhibited hyperglycemia, hypertriglyceridemia, insulin resistance, and liver steatosis, while the control (CTR) group did not. Analysis using fast protein liquid chromatography of the serum lipoproteins revealed that the triacylglycerol content of the very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) particles was twice as high in the MSG animals compared with the CTR animals. The expression of ER stress markers, GRP76 and GRP94, was increased in the MSG rats, promoting a higher expression of X-box binding protein 1 (XBP-1), protein disulfide isomerase (PDI), and MTP. As the XBP-1/PDI/MTP axis has been suggested to represent a significant lipogenic mechanism in the liver response to ER stress, our data indicate that hypertriglyceridemia and liver steatosis occurring in the MSG rats are associated with increased MTP expression.

  20. Both dietary supplementation with monosodium L-glutamate and fat modify circulating and tissue amino acid pools in growing pigs, but with little interactive effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemeng Feng

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG is widely used as a daily food additive in China. Little information is available on the effects of oral MSG and dietary fat supplementation on the amino acid balance in tissues. The present study aimed to determine the effects of both dietary fat and MSG on amino acid metabolism in growing pigs, and to assess any possible interactions between these two nutrients. METHODS AND RESULTS: Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets (basal diet, high fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG were provided to growing pigs. The dietary supplementation with fat and MSG used alone and in combination were found to modify circulating and tissue amino acid pools in growing pigs. Both dietary fat and MSG modified the expression of gene related to amino acid transport in jejunum. CONCLUSIONS: Both dietary fat and MSG clearly influenced amino acid content in tissues but in different ways. Both dietary fat and MSG enhance the absorption of amino acids in jejunum. However, there was little interaction between the effects of dietary fat and MSG.

  1. Effects of Zuogui Wan on neurocyte apoptosis and down-regulation of TGF-β1 expression in nuclei of arcuate hypothalamus of monosodium glutamate -liver regeneration rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Han-Min Li; Xiang Gao; Mu-Lan Yang; Jia-Jun Mei; Liu-Tong Zhang; Xing-Fan Qiu

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To inquire into the effects and mechanism of Zuogui Wan (Pills for Kidney Yin) on neurocyte apoptosis in nuclei of arcuate hypothalamus (ARN) of monosodium glutamate(MSG)-liver regeneration rats, and the mechanism of liver regeneration by using optic microscope, electron microscope and in situ end labeling technology to adjust nerve-endocrineimmunity network.METHODS: Neurocyte apoptosis in ARN of the experiment rats was observed by using optic microscope, electron microscope andin situ end labeling technology. Expression of TGF-β1 in ARN was observed by using immunohistochemistry method.RESULTS: The expression of TGF-β1 in rats of model group was increased with the increase of ARN neurocyte apoptosis index (AI) (t = 8.3097, 12.9884, P<0.01). As compared with the rats of model group, the expression of TGF-β1 in rats of Zuogui Wan treatment group was decreased with the significant decrease of ARN neurocyte apoptosis (t = 4.5624,11.1420, P<0.01).CONCLUSION: Brain neurocyte calcium ion overexertion and TGF-β1 protein participate in the adjustment and control of ARN neurocyte apoptosis in MSG-liver regeneration-rats. Zuogui Wan can prevent ARN neurocyte apoptosis of MSG-liver regeneration in rats by downregulating the expression of TGF-β1, and influence liver regeneration through adjusting nerve-endocrine-immune network.

  2. Neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment counteracts circadian arrhythmicity induced by phase shifts of the light-dark cycle in female and male Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Brian J; Onishi, Kenneth G; Zucker, Irving

    2013-07-12

    Studies of rats and voles suggest that distinct pathways emanating from the anterior hypothalamic-retrochiasmatic area and the mediobasal hypothalamic arcuate nucleus independently generate ultradian rhythms (URs) in hormone secretion and behavior. We evaluated the hypothesis that destruction of arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons, in concert with dampening of suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) circadian rhythmicity, would compromize the generation of ultradian rhythms (URs) of locomotor activity. Siberian hamsters retain-->of both sexes treated neonatally with monosodium glutamate (MSG) that destroys ARC neurons were subjected in adulthood to a circadian disrupting phase-shift protocol (DPS) that produces SCN arrhythmia. MSG treatments induced hypogonadism and obesity, retain-->and markedly reduced the size of the optic chiasm and optic nerves. MSG-treated hamsters exhibited normal entrainment to the light-dark cycle, but MSG treatretain-->ment counteracted the circadian arrhythmicity induced by the DPS protocol: only 6% of retain-->MSG-treated hamsters exhibited circadian arrhythmia, whereas 50% of control hamsters were circadian disrupted. In MSG-treated hamsters that retained circadian rhythmicity after DPS treatment, quantitative parameters of URs appeared normal, but in the two MSG-treated hamsters that became circadian arrhythmic after DPS, both dark-phase and light-phase URs were abolished. Although preliminary, these data are consistent with reports in voles suggesting that the combined disruption of SCN and ARC function impairs the expression of behavioral URs. The data also suggest that light thresholds for entrainment of circadian rhythms may be lower than those required to disrupt circadian organization.

  3. Supplementing chicken broth with monosodium glutamate reduces energy intake from high fat and sweet snacks in middle-aged healthy women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Torii, Kunio; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2014-08-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) and inosine monophosphate-5 (IMP) are flavor enhancers for umami taste. However, their effects on appetite and food intake are not well-researched. The objective of the current study was to test their additions in a broth preload on subsequent appetite ratings, energy intake and food choice. Eighty-six healthy middle-aged women with normal body weight received three preload conditions on 3 test days 1 week apart - a low-energy chicken flavor broth (200 ml) as the control preload, and broths with added MSG alone (0.5 g/100 ml, MSG broth) or in combination with IMP (0.05 g/100 ml) (MSG+ broth) served as the experimental conditions. Fifteen minutes after preload administration subjects were provided an ad libitum testing meal which consisted of 16 snacks varying in taste and fat content. MSG and MSG+ enhanced savory taste and broth properties of liking and pleasantness. In comparison with control, the MSG preload resulted in less consumption of total energy, as well as energy from sweet and high-fat snacks. Furthermore, MSG broth preload reduced added sugar intake. These findings were not observed after MSG+ preload. Appetite ratings were not different across the three preloads. Results suggest a potential role of MSG addition to a low-energy broth preload in subsequent energy intake and food choice. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT01761045.

  4. Economical production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) using untreated cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor by Bacillus subtilis NX-2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Dan; Feng, Xiaohai; Zhou, Zhe; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Hong

    2012-06-01

    The production of poly(γ-glutamic acid) by Bacillus subtilis NX-2 from cane molasses and monosodium glutamate waste liquor (MGWL) was studied for the first time in this work. When batch fermentation was carried out with untreated molasses, 33.6±0.37 g L(-1) PGA was obtained with a productivity of 0.46±0.006 g L(-1) h(-1). In order to minimize the substrate inhibition, fed-batch fermentation was performed with untreated or hydrolyzed molasses in 7.5 L bioreactor, giving 50.2±0.53 and 51.1±0.51 g L(-1) of PGA at 96 h, respectively. Further studies were carried out by using MGWL as another carbon source, resulting in a PGA concentration of 52.1±0.52 g L(-1) with a productivity of 0.54±0.003 g L(-1) h(-1). These results suggest that the low-cost cane molasses and MGWL can be used for the environmental-friendly and economical production of PGA by B. subtilis NX-2.

  5. Scientific Opinion on safety and efficacy of coated granulated cobaltous carbonate monohydrate as feed additive for all species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available

    Cobalt(III is a component of cobalamin. Its essentiality as trace element results from the capacity of certain animal species to synthesise cobalamin by the gastrointestinal microbiota. Feeding cobalt(II carbonate hydroxide (2:3 monohydrate up to the maximum authorised total cobalt in feed is safe for the target animals. Cobalt is predominantly excreted via the faecal route. Absorbed cobalt follows aqueous excretion routes. About 43 % of body cobalt is stored in muscle; however, kidney and liver are the edible tissues containing the highest cobalt concentrations and are most susceptible to reflect dietary cobalt concentrations. In animals with the capacity to synthesise cobalamin, cobalt is also deposited in tissues as vitamin B12. Cobalt(II cations are genotoxic under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Cobalt(II carbonate has carcinogen, mutagen and reproduction toxicant (CMR properties. No data are available on the potential carcinogenicity of cobalt(II following oral exposure. However, oral exposure may potentially entail adverse threshold-related effects in humans. The estimated population intake of cobalt most likely includes the contribution of foodstuffs from animals fed cobalt-supplemented feedingstuffs. An increase in cobalt exposure by the use of cobalt-containing feed additives is therefore not expected. Considering the population exposure to cobalt, about 4–10 times lower than the health-based guidance value, no safety concern for the consumer is expected for threshold effects of oral cobalt. Cobalt(II carbonate is a skin and eye irritant, and a dermal and respiratory sensitiser. Its dust is a hazard to persons handling the substance. Exposure by inhalation must be avoided. The use of cobalt from any source at the authorised maximum content in feed does not provide a risk to the environment. The coated granulated cobalt(II carbonate hydroxide (2:3 monohydrate is available for cobalamin synthesis in

  6. Crystal structure of zwitterionic 3-(2-hy-droxy-2-phospho-nato-2-phosphono-eth-yl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-1-ium monohydrate (minodronic acid monohydrate): a redetermination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Airoldi, Annalisa; Bettoni, Piergiorgio; Donnola, Monica; Calestani, Gianluca; Rizzoli, Corrado

    2015-01-01

    In a previous study, the X-ray structure of the title compound, C9H12N2O7P2·H2O, was reported [Takeuchi et al., (1998 ▶). Chem. Pharm. Bull. 46, 1703-1709], but neither atomic coordinates nor details of the geometry were published. The structure has been redetermined with high precision as its detailed knowledge is essential to elucidate the presumed polymorphism of minodronic acid monohydrate at room temperature. The mol-ecule crystallizes in a zwitterionic form with cationic imidazolium[1,2a]pyridine and anionic phospho-nate groups. The dihedral angle formed by the planes of the pyridine and imidazole rings is 3.55 (9)°. A short intra-molecular C-H⋯O contact is present. In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by O-H⋯O, N-H⋯O and C-H⋯O hydrogen bonds and π-π inter-actions [centroid-to-centroid distance = 3.5822 (11) Å], forming a three-dimensional structure.

  7. Thermal, Structural and Morphological Characterisation of Freeze-dried Copper(II Acetate Monohydrate and its Solid Decomposition Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellini J.V.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study the thermal decomposition of a freeze-dried copper(II acetate monohydrate powder, (CH3COO2Cu.H2O, (FDCuAcH2O, was analysed by a combination of high-temperature X-ray diffractometry; differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry, up to 700 degreesC. The structure and morphology of the calcined freeze-dried powders were analysed by scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffractometry. The results showed that FDAcCuH2O decomposes during heating in two stages: I (25-225 degreesC FDCuAcH2O dehydrates giving rise to copper(II acetate, (CH3COO2Cu, (AcCu, and II (225-525 degreesC AcCu decomposes to CuO through complex oxidation reactions of Cu and Cu2O, simultaneously. SEM showed that FDCuAcH2O powder has a scale-like morphology, which is created in the freezing stage and retained after freeze-drying. After calcination at 125 and 225 degreesC, clusters of elongated tubes (or filaments compose the resulting powder (AcCu. Subsequent calcination at temperatures above 325 degreesC resulted in hard clusters of spheroid-like CuO particles.

  8. Proteomic Analysis after Sequential Extraction of Matrix Proteins in Urinary Stones Composed of Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate and Calcium Oxalate Dihydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaneko, Kiyoko; Nishii, Shin-ichiro; Izumi, Yoko; Yasuda, Makoto; Yamanobe, Tomoyo; Fukuuchi, Tomoko; Yamaoka, Noriko; Horie, Shigeo

    2015-01-01

    In this study, we performed proteomic analysis following sequential protein extraction on calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) urinary stones to determine the specific matrix proteins according to the crystal components of the stones. After X-ray and IR analysis of 13 urinary stones, matrix proteins were sequentially extracted with KCl, formic acid, guanidine-HCl, and EDTA, before SDS-electrophoresis followed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The electrophoretic patterns of the extracted proteins differed from that of COM and COD stones. LC-MS/MS identified 65 proteins, of which many were cellular plasma proteins, and were frequently detected regardless of the crystal components. However, 6 proteins (protein Z, protein S, prothrombin, osteopontin, fatty acid binding protein 5, and ubiquitin) were detected in the final EDTA fractions of COM stones. These proteins are involved in the coagulation process or osteometabolism, and thus the roles they play are of particular interest.

  9. Growth and characterization of Bis(L-threonine) copper (II) monohydrate single crystals: A semiorganic second order nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subhashini, R.; Sathya, D.; Sivashankar, V.; Latha Mageshwari, P. S.; Arjunan, S.

    2016-12-01

    Highly transparent solitary nonlinear semiorganic optical material Bis(L-threonine) copper (II) monohydrate [BLTCM], was synthesized by a conventional slow evaporation solution growth technique. The grown crystals were subjected to structural, optical, electrical, thermal, mechanical, SHG and Laser damage threshold studies. Single crystal XRD shows that the material crystallizes in monoclinic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P21. FT-IR and FT-RAMAN analyses confirm the various functional groups present in the grown crystal. The transparency range of BLTCM was determined by UV-vis-NIR studies and various optical constants such as extinction coefficient (K), refractive index, optical conductivity and electric susceptibility with real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were calculated using the transmittance data which have applications in optoelectronic devices. Dielectric studies of the crystal were carried out at different frequencies and temperatures to analyze the electrical properties. TGA and DSC analyses were performed to study the thermal behaviour of the sample. The hardness stability of the grown specimen was investigated by Vickers microhardness test. The output intensity of second harmonic generation was confirmed using the Kurtz and Perry powder method. The laser induced surface damage threshold of the crystal was measured using Nd:YAG laser.

  10. Large-Scale Multifunctional Electrochromic-Energy Storage Device Based on Tungsten Trioxide Monohydrate Nanosheets and Prussian White.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Zhijie; Li, Xiaomin; Chen, Yongbo; He, Xiaoli; Xu, Xiaoke; Gao, Xiangdong

    2017-09-06

    A high-performance electrochromic-energy storage device (EESD) is developed, which successfully realizes the multifunctional combination of electrochromism and energy storage by constructing tungsten trioxide monohydrate (WO3·H2O) nanosheets and Prussian white (PW) film as asymmetric electrodes. The EESD presents excellent electrochromic properties of broad optical modulation (61.7%), ultrafast response speed (1.84/1.95 s), and great coloration efficiency (139.4 cm(2) C(-1)). In particular, remarkable cyclic stability (sustaining 82.5% of its initial optical modulation after 2500 cycles as an electrochromic device, almost fully maintaining its capacitance after 1000 cycles as an energy storage device) is achieved. The EESD is also able to visually detect the energy storage level via reversible and fast color changes. Moreover, the EESD can be combined with commercial solar cells to constitute an intelligent operating system in the architectures, which would realize the adjustment of indoor sunlight and the improvement of physical comfort totally by the rational utilization of solar energy without additional electricity. Besides, a scaled-up EESD (10 × 11 cm(2)) is further fabricated as a prototype. Such promising EESD shows huge potential in practically serving as electrochromic smart windows and energy storage devices.

  11. Time-dependent subcellular structure injuries induced by nano-/micron-sized calcium oxalate monohydrate and dihydrate crystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xin-Yuan; Yu, Kai; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2017-10-01

    Comparative studies were conducted to investigate the time effect of cell injury induced by nano-sized (50nm) and micron-sized (10μm) calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and dihydrate (COD) crystals in African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells. The effects of nano-/micron-sized COM and COD exposure on Vero cells were investigated by detecting the cell viability, cell morphology, LDH release, reactive oxygen species, mitochondrial membrane potential, cell cycle, and cell apoptosis, as well as the intracellular and extracellular crystal distribution. Nano-/micron-sized COM and COD exposure lead to subcellular organelle injury in varying degrees, but the injury sequence of various organelles differed. The time sequence of organelle injury presenting significant variation was described as follows: cell membrane injury (1h)crystals lead organelle injury faster than micron-sized crystals, and COM crystals showed more obvious time-dependent effects than the same-sized COD crystals. This study may provide insights into the damage to renal epithelial cells induced by urinary crystals and the formation mechanism of kidney stones. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Growth, spectral, optical, thermal, crystallization perfection and nonlinear optical studies of novel nonlinear optical crystal—Urea thiosemicarbazone monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanumantharao, Redrothu; Kalainathan, S.; Bhagavannarayana, G.

    2012-06-01

    Single crystals of organic nonlinear material urea thiosemicarbazone monohydrate (UTM) have been grown by slow evaporation method. The grown crystals were characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis reveals that sample crystallized in triclinic system with noncentrosymmetric space group P1. Powder XRD pattern confirmed that grown crystal posses highly crystalline nature. FTIR spectrum was recorded to identify the presence of functional groups and molecular structure was confirmed by 1H NMR spectrum. Material confirmation of title compound has been performed by using mass spectroscopic analysis. Elemental composition of grown crystal was confirmed by energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). To study the crystalline perfection of the grown crystals, high-resolution X-ray diffraction (HR-XRD) study was carried out. Thermogravimetric and differential thermal analyses were employed to understand the thermal and physio-chemical stability of the synthesized compound. UV-Vis-NIR spectrum revealed the transmission properties of the crystal specimen. Relative SHG efficiency is measured by Kurtz and Perry method and found to about 0.89 times that of standard potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals.

  13. Novel bioactive composite bone cements based on the beta-tricalcium phosphate-monocalcium phosphate monohydrate composite cement system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huan, Zhiguang; Chang, Jiang

    2009-05-01

    Bioactive composite bone cements were obtained by incorporation of tricalcium silicate (Ca3SiO5, C3S) into a brushite bone cement composed of beta-tricalcium phosphate [beta-Ca3(PO4)2, beta-TCP] and monocalcium phosphate monohydrate [Ca(H2PO4)2.H2O, MCPM], and the properties of the new cements were studied and compared with pure brushite cement. The results indicated that the injectability, setting time and short- and long-term mechanical strength of the material are higher than those of pure brushite cement, and the compressive strength of the TCP/MCPM/C3S composite paste increased with increasing aging time. Moreover, the TCP/MCPM/C3S specimens showed significantly improved in vitro bioactivity in simulated body fluid and similar degradability in phosphate-buffered saline as compared with brushite cement. Additionally, the reacted TCP/MCPM/C3S paste possesses the ability to stimulate osteoblast proliferation and promote osteoblastic differentiation of the bone marrow stromal cells. The results indicated that the TCP/MCPM/C3S cements may be used as a bioactive material for bone regeneration, and might have significant clinical advantage over the traditional beta-TCP/MCPM brushite cement.

  14. Quantification of residual crystallinity in ball milled commercially sourced lactose monohydrate by thermo-analytical techniques and terahertz spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Geoff; Hussain, Amjad; Bukhari, Nadeem Irfan; Ermolina, Irina

    2015-05-01

    The quantification of crystallinity is necessary in order to be able to control the milling process. The use of thermal analysis for this assessment presents certain challenges, particularly in the case of crystal hydrates. In this study, the residual crystallinity on ball milling of lactose monohydrate (LMH), for periods up to 90min, was evaluated by thermo-analytical techniques (TGA, DSC) and terahertz spectroscopy (THz). In general, the results from one of the DSC analysis and the THz measurements agree showing a monotonous decrease in relative residual crystallinity with milling time (∼80% reduction after 60min milling) and a slight increase at the 90min time point. However, the estimates from TGA and two other methods of analyzing DSC curve do not agree with the former techniques and show variability with significantly higher estimates for crystallinity. It was concluded that, the thermal techniques require more complex treatment of the data in the evaluation of changes in crystallinity of a milled material (in particular to account for the de-vitrification and mutarotation of the material that inevitably occurs during the measurement cycle) while the analysis of THz data is more straightforward, with the measurement having no impact on the native state of the material. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Herbal extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata inhibit growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, V. S.; Parekh, B. B.; Joshi, M. J.; Vaidya, A. B.

    2005-02-01

    A large number of people in this world are suffering from urinary stone problem. Calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) containing stones (calculi) are commonly found. In the present study, COM crystals were grown by a double diffusion gel growth technique using U-tubes. The gel was prepared from hydrated sodium metasilicate solution. The gel framework acts like a three-dimensional crucible in which the crystal nuclei are delicately held in the position of their formation, and nutrients are supplied for the growth. This technique can be utilized as a simplified screening static model to study the growth, inhibition and dissolution of urinary stones in vitro. The action of putative litholytic medicinal plants, Tribulus terrestris Linn. ( T.t) and Bergenia ligulata Linn. ( B.l.), has been studied in the growth of COM crystals. Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata are commonly used as herbal medicines for urinary calculi in India. To verify the inhibitive effect, aqueous extracts of Tribulus terrestris and Bergenia ligulata were added along with the supernatant solutions. The growth was measured and compared, with and without the aqueous extracts. Inhibition of COM crystal growth was observed in the herbal extracts. Maximum inhibition was observed in Bergenia ligulata followed by Tribulus terrestris. The results are discussed.

  16. Crystal structure of cis-2-(2-carb-oxy-cyclo-prop-yl)glycine (CCG-III) monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeman, Sergey; Wallock, Nathaniel J; Donaldson, William A

    2015-07-01

    The title compound, C6H9NO4·H2O [systematic name: (αR,1R,2S)-rel-α-amino-2-carb-oxy-cyclo-propane-acetic acid monohydrate], crystallizes with two organic mol-ecules and two water mol-ecules in the asymmetric unit. The space group is P21 and the organic mol-ecules are enanti-omers, thus this is an example of a 'false conglomerate' with two mol-ecules of opposite handedness in the asymmetric unit (r.m.s. overlay fit = 0.056 Å for one mol-ecule and its inverted partner). Each mol-ecule exists as a zwitterion, with proton transfer from the amino acid carb-oxy-lic acid group to the amine group. In the crystal, the components are linked by N-H⋯O and O-H⋯O hydrogen bonds, generating (100) sheets. Conformationally restricted glutamate analogs are of inter-est due to their selective activation of different glutamate receptors, and the naturally occurring (+)-CCG-III is an inhibitor of glutamate uptake and the key geometrical parameters are discussed.

  17. Formation of mutagenic heterocyclic aromatic amines in fried pork from Duroc and Landrace pigs upon feed supplementation with creatine monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfau, Wolfgang; Rosenvold, Katja; Young, Jette F

    2006-12-01

    Heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) have been shown to induce tumours at various organ sites in experimental animal studies and high levels of dietary intake of HAA have been associated with increased cancer risk in humans. These HAA are formed in meat upon heating from precursors such as amino acids, reducing sugars and creatine or creatinine. Groups of ten Duroc and ten Landrace pigs received feed supplemented with creatine monohydrate (CMH) for five days prior to slaughter at dose levels of 12.5, 25 and 50 g per animal per day. Ten control animals of each breed received the non-supplemented feed. Meat from Duroc pigs had been shown to respond to CMH supplementation with regard to waterholding capacity, juiciness, post slaughter pH and colour parameters, meat from Landrace pigs was unaffected. Indeed, while creatine phosphate levels in meat from Duroc pigs increased in a dose-dependent manner with CMH supplementation, no effect was observed in meat from Landrace pigs. Meat slices from longissimus dorsi were fried and considerable mutagenic activity was detected in meat extracts in Salmonella typhimurium YG1019 in the presence of rat-liver homogenate. However, no effect of breed or CMH supplementation was observed in fried pork on the formation of HAA determined as mutagenic activity. It may be concluded that feed supplementation with CMH at levels up to 50 g per day for five days prior to slaughter does not increase the level of heterocyclic aromatic amines detected as mutagenic activity formed upon frying of pork.

  18. Growth, spectral, optical, thermal, and mechanical behaviour of an organic single crystal: Quinolinium 2-carboxy 6-nitrophthalate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohana, J.; Ahila, G.; Bharathi, M. Divya; Anbalagan, G.

    2016-09-01

    Organic single crystals of quinolinium 2-carboxy 6-nitrophthalate monohydrate (QN) were grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique using ethanol and water as a mixed solvent. X-ray powder diffraction analysis revealed that the crystal belongs to the monoclinic crystal system with space group of P21/c. The functional groups present in the crystallized material confirmed its molecular structure. The optical transparency range and the lower cutoff wavelength were identified from the UV-vis spectrum. The optical constants were determined by UV-visible transmission spectrum at normal incidence, measured over the 200-700 nm spectral range. The dispersion of the refractive index was discussed in terms of the single-oscillator Wemple and DiDomenico model. The calculated HOMO and LUMO energies show that the charge transfer occur within the molecule. Electronic excitation properties were discussed within the framework of two level model on the basis of an orbital analysis. The nonlinear optical absorption coefficient (β) and nonlinear refraction (n2) of QN was measured by Z-scan technique and reported here. Thermal stability of QN was determined using TGA/DSC curves. Vicker's microhardness studies were carried out on the (1 1 ̅0) plane to understand the mechanical properties of the grown crystal. The microhardness measurements showed a Vickers hardness value as 18.4 kg/mm2 which is comparable to well-known organic crystal, urea.

  19. Fabrication of optical element from unidirectional grown imidazole-imidazolium picrate monohydrate (IIP) organic crystals for nonlinear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vivek, P.; Murugakoothan, P.

    2014-12-01

    Nonlinear optical bulk single crystal of Imidazole-imidazolium picrate monohydrate (IIP) has been grown by Sankaranarayanan-Ramasamy (SR) method using acetonitrile as solvent. First time we report the bulk growth of IIP crystal by SR method. The transparent IIP single crystal of maximum diameter 21 mm and length 46 mm was obtained by employing SR method. The grown crystal was subjected to high resolution X-ray diffraction, UV-vis-NIR transmittance, refractive index, hardness, dielectric and laser damage threshold studies. The crystalline perfection of the grown crystal was analyzed using HRXRD. Cut off wavelength and optical transmission window of the crystal was assessed by UV-vis-NIR and the refractive index of the crystal was found. The mechanical property of the crystal was estimated by Vicker's hardness test. The dielectric property of the crystal was measured as a function of frequency. The laser damage threshold value was determined. The particle size dependent second harmonic generation efficiency for IIP was evaluated with standard reference material potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) by Kurtz-Perry powder method using Nd:YAG laser, which established the existence of phase matching. The second harmonic generation (SHG) of IIP crystal was investigated by the SHG Maker fringes technique. The mechanism of growth is revealed by carrying out chemical etching using acetonitrile as etchant.

  20. High-throughput platform for design and screening of peptides as inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystallization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farmanesh, Sahar; Chung, Jihae; Chandra, Divya; Sosa, Ricardo D.; Karande, Pankaj; Rimer, Jeffrey D.

    2013-06-01

    Crystal growth modifiers present a versatile tool for controlling crystal shape and size. Our work described here focuses on the design and screening of short peptides as inhibitors of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals using high-throughput approaches. We designed a small library of 13 peptides containing Ala and Asp amino acids arranged in varying sequences that mimic ubiquitous motifs in natural calcium-binding proteins. Peptides were screened using a quick assay to measure their efficacy for inhibiting COM crystallization. Our results show that subtle variations in the placement of Ala and Asp residues in the peptide sequence can have a profound effect on their inhibition potential. We were able to discover peptide sequences that inhibit COM crystallization more effectively than some of the well-known COM inhibitors, such as citrate. Our results also demonstrate that peptides can be engineered to bind to specific faces of COM crystals. Peptide sequences identified in this work are promising candidates for further development as therapies for biomineral-related diseases, such as kidney stone disease. Collectively, our work establishes new paradigms for the design, synthesis, and screening of peptides for controlling crystal habit with the potential to impact a variety of fields, including drug discovery, advanced materials, catalysis and separations.

  1. L-Carnitine Protects Renal Tubular Cells Against Calcium Oxalate Monohydrate Crystals Adhesion Through Preventing Cells From Dedifferentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shujue Li

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The interactions between calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM crystals and renal tubular epithelial cells are important for renal stone formation but still unclear. This study aimed to investigate changes of epithelial cell phenotype after COM attachment and whether L-carnitine could protect cells against subsequent COM crystals adhesion. Methods: Cultured MDCK cells were employed and E-cadherin and Vimentin were used as markers to estimate the differentiate state. AlexaFluor-488-tagged COM crystals were used in crystals adhesion experiment to distinguish from the previous COM attachment, and adhesive crystals were counted under fluorescence microscope, which were also dissolved and the calcium concentration was assessed by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Results: Dedifferentiated MDCK cells induced by transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1 shown higher affinity to COM crystals. After exposure to COM for 48 hours, cell dedifferentiation were observed and more subsequent COM crystals could bind onto, mediated by Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. L-carnitine attenuated this signaling, resulted in inhibition of cell dedifferentiation and reduction of subsequent COM crystals adhesion. Conclusions: COM attachment promotes subsequent COM crystals adhesion, by inducing cell dedifferentiation via Akt/GSK-3β/Snail signaling. L-carnitine partially abolishes cell dedifferentiation and resists COM crystals adhesion. L-carnitine, may be used as a potential therapeutic strategy against recurrence of urolithiasis.

  2. Uric acid: A new look at an old risk marker for cardiovascular disease, metabolic syndrome, and type 2 diabetes mellitus: The urate redox shuttle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tyagi Suresh

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The topical role of uric acid and its relation to cardiovascular disease, renal disease, and hypertension is rapidly evolving. Its important role both historically and currently in the clinical clustering phenomenon of the metabolic syndrome (MS, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, atheroscleropathy, and non-diabetic atherosclerosis is of great importance. Results Uric acid is a marker of risk and it remains controversial as to its importance as a risk factor (causative role. In this review we will attempt to justify its important role as one of the many risk factors in the development of accelerated atherosclerosis and discuss its importance of being one of the multiple injurious stimuli to the endothelium, the arterial vessel wall, and capillaries. The role of uric acid, oxidative – redox stress, reactive oxygen species, and decreased endothelial nitric oxide and endothelial dysfunction cannot be over emphasized. In the atherosclerotic prooxidative environmental milieu the original antioxidant properties of uric acid paradoxically becomes prooxidant, thus contributing to the oxidation of lipoproteins within atherosclerotic plaques, regardless of their origins in the MS, T2DM, accelerated atherosclerosis (atheroscleropathy, or non-diabetic vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques. In this milieu there exists an antioxidant – prooxidant urate redox shuttle. Conclusion Elevations of uric acid > 4 mg/dl should be considered a "red flag" in those patients at risk for cardiovascular disease and should alert the clinician to strive to utilize a global risk reduction program in a team effort to reduce the complications of the atherogenic process resulting in the morbid – mortal outcomes of cardiovascular disease.

  3. Effect of Urate-Lowering Therapy on All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Hyperuricemic Patients without Gout: A Case-Matched Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiunn-Horng; Lan, Joung-Liang; Cheng, Chi-Fung; Liang, Wen-Miin; Lin, Hsiao-Yi; Tsay, Gregory J; Yeh, Wen-Ting; Pan, Wen-Harn

    2015-01-01

    Objectives An increased risk of mortality in patients with hyperuricemia has been reported. We examined (1) the risk of all-cause and cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality in untreated hyperuricemic patients who did not receive urate-lowering therapy (ULT), and (2) the impact of ULT on mortality risk in patients with hyperuricemia. Methods In this retrospective case-matched cohort study during a mean follow-up of 6.4 years, 40,118 Taiwanese individuals aged ≥17 years who had never used ULT and who had never had gout were examined. The mortality rate was compared between 3,088 hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT and reference subjects (no hyperuricemia, no gout, no ULT) matched for age and sex (1:3 hyperuricemic patients/reference subjects), and between 1,024 hyperuricemic patients who received ULT and 1,024 hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT (matched 1:1 based on their propensity score and the index date of ULT prescription). Cox proportional hazard modeling was used to estimate the respective risk of all-cause and CVD (ICD-9 code 390–459) mortality. Results After adjustment, hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT had increased risks of all-cause (hazard ratio, 1.24; 95% confidence interval, 0.97–1.59) and CVD (2.13; 1.34–3.39) mortality relative to the matched reference subjects. Hyperuricemic patients treated with ULT had a lower risk of all-cause death (0.60; 0.41–0.88) relative to hyperuricemic patients who did not receive ULT. Conclusion Under-treatment of hyperuricemia has serious negative consequences. Hyperuricemic patients who received ULT had potentially better survival than patients who did not. PMID:26683302

  4. Dual-Energy Imaging of Urate Crystals in Gout Using Dual-Source CT%双源CT双能量成像对痛风诊断价值的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    靳国庆; 王东林; 王振杰; 李麦福

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨双源CT双能量成像(DECT)技术在痛风患者四肢关节尿酸盐结晶的显示能力及其临床应用价值,并就DECT对痛风的疗效进行初步评估.方法 病例组为临床确诊为痛风或高尿酸血症患者50例,男46例,女4例,足45例,手5例;对照组为非痛风患者10例,两组性别及年龄比较,差异无统计学意义(P年龄=0.234,P性别=0.612,P>0.05).分别对其足/手行DECT非增强扫描及薄层重组(0.75 mm),将原始数据输送加载入Du-al-EnergyGOUT软件内进行图像后处理,比较病例组和对照组患者尿酸盐沉积的差异以及DECT检测尿酸盐沉积部位与临床评估的差异.采用t检验,Fisher精确概率进行统计学分析.结果 病例组均获得了较满意的DECT图像,显示尿酸盐结晶沉积478处,最少2处,最多24处,以足踝部病灶最多;对照组均未见尿酸盐结晶沉积,检出率两组相比,差异有显著统计学意义(P =0.00012,P<0.001).结论 DECT技术可明确显示尿酸盐结晶沉积,对于关节痛及疑似痛风患者,尤其是痛风早期有较高的检出率.经引导下穿刺抽吸,与CT像一致,具有较高的临床应用价值,可作为痛风筛选的常规检查项目,但就DECT对痛风疗效的评估有待于收集更多的病例进一步研究.%Objective To evaluate the capabilities and efficacy of dual energy CT (DECT) in displaying urate crystals in extremities joints of gout. Methods In study group, 50 clinically confirmed patients (46 males and 4 females) with gout or hyperuricemia were collected. Gout involved feet in 45 cases,hands in 5. In control group, 10 normal volunteers were collected. There was no significant difference between the two groups on age and gender (Page =0. 234,Pgendex= 0.612,P >0.05). DECT noncontrast scanning and thin sliced (0.75 mm) reconstruction of foot / hand were performed. The urate deposition were compared between 2 groups. Results The high quality dual energy images were obtained in all

  5. Consumption of strawberries on a daily basis increases the non-urate 2,2-diphenyl-1-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity of fasting plasma in healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prymont-Przyminska, Anna; Zwolinska, Anna; Sarniak, Agata; Wlodarczyk, Anna; Krol, Maciej; Nowak, Michal; de Graft-Johnson, Jeffrey; Padula, Gianluca; Bialasiewicz, Piotr; Markowski, Jaroslaw; Rutkowski, Krzysztof P; Nowak, Dariusz

    2014-07-01

    Strawberries contain anthocyanins and ellagitanins which have antioxidant properties. We determined whether the consumption of strawberries increase the plasma antioxidant activity measured as the ability to decompose 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) in healthy subjects. The study involved 10 volunteers (age 41 ± 6 years, body weight 74.4 ± 12.7 kg) that consumed 500 g of strawberries daily for 9 days and 7 matched controls. Fasting plasma and spot morning urine samples were collected at baseline, during fruit consumption and after a 6 day wash-out period. DPPH decomposition was measured in both deproteinized native plasma specimens and pretreated with uricase (non-urate plasma). Twelve phenolics were determined with HPLC. Strawberries had no effect on the antioxidant activity of native plasma and circulating phenolics. Non-urate plasma DPPH decomposition increased from 5.7 ± 0.6% to 6.6 ± 0.6%, 6.5 ± 1.0% and 6.3 ± 1.4% after 3, 6 and 9 days of supplementation, respectively. The wash-out period reversed this activity back to 5.7 ± 0.8% (purolithin A and 4-hydroxyhippuric (by 8.7- and 5.9-times after 6 days of supplementation with fruits) was noted. Strawberry consumption can increase the non-urate plasma antioxidant activity which, in turn, may decrease the risk of systemic oxidants overactivity.

  6. Comparison between oral and intra-articular antinociceptive effect of dexketoprofen and tramadol combination in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdai, Cecilia; Giuliani, Sandro; Valenti, Claudio; Tramontana, Manuela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2013-08-15

    Dexketoprofen and tramadol, alone or in combination, were evaluated after oral or intra-articular administration on knee osteoarthritis nociception induced by intra-articular (i.ar.) monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 1 mg/25 µl) in the rat right knee while the left knee received saline (25 µl). Seven days after MIA treatment, dexketoprofen, tramadol, their combination or the vehicle were administered. Nociception was evaluated as alteration in hind limb weight distribution with Incapacitance tester at different time-points after drug administration. Oral dexketoprofen (0.1-1 mg/kg) or tramadol (0.5-5 mg/kg) induced maximal antinociception at 1 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. Their combination dose-dependently increased the intensity and duration of antinociception, that was additive and lasted up to 3 days. Also the intra-articular administration of dexketoprofen or tramadol (10-100 µg/25 µl) inhibited MIA-induced nociception, and the combination of the lower doses (10 µg/25 µl) produced a long lasting more than additive antinociceptive effect indicating a synergistic interaction between the two drugs. This effect was significantly reduced by naloxone (10 μg/25 μl, i.ar.) co-administered with both compounds. The intra-articular administration of both drugs at 10 µg/25 µl in the contralateral control knee joint provoked a marked synergistic antinociceptive effect indicating significant systemic diffusion through synovial membrane. The oral or intra-articular combination of dexketoprofen and tramadol produced additive or synergistic antinociceptive effects, respectively, in the model of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rats, that might allow to obtain therapeutic advantages with lower side effects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Polyphenol-rich extract of Syzygium cumini leaf dually improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and pancreatic islet function in monosodium L-glutamate-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rodrigues Sanches

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (Myrtaceae has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed and pulp-fruit, however there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a 2-fold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10 – 1000 ug/mL increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E beta cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating beta cell insulin release

  8. The Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Alpha-ketoglutarate Activity and Histopathologic Changes on Rat Liver Induced by Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Sh Emhemed Eshami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used food additive and found in most soups, fish, and processed meat. The use of MSG in food is growing. However, the fear of consuming MSG has increased in the last few years due to the adverse reactions and toxicity in the liver. Nigella sativa (NS is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its notable pharmacological properties such as inhibit oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different doses of Nigella Sativa on alpha KGDH activity and liver histology of MSG-induced rats. The animals (n=30 were grouped into A (control, B (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw , C (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.1 g/kg.bw, D (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.2 g/kg.bw, E (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.4 g/kg.bw and F (given a daily NS extract 0.2 g/kg.bw. Alpha KGDH activity was investigated using ELISA method and liver histopathology by light microscope. The MSG treatment increased Alpha KGDH activity and disturbed liver architecture, hemorrhage in the central veins, areas of necrosis, vacuolation and increased inflammatory cells infiltration. The condition was normalized by treatment NS on dose 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg.bw. The findings showed that the administration of MSG increases alpha KGDH and induces damage in liver tissue. Nigella sativa extract can reduce alpha KGDH and prevent liver damage caused by MSG.

  9. Monosodium L-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-14

    The umami seasoning, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 25·0-39·9 kg/m²), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (0·5 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders.

  10. Monosodium iodoacetate-induced joint pain is associated with increased phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases in the rat spinal cord

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    Jarvis Michael F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA in the knee joint of rats disrupts chondrocyte metabolism resulting in cartilage degeneration and subsequent nociceptive behavior that has been described as a model of osteoarthritis (OA pain. Central sensitization through activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs is recognized as a pathogenic mechanism in chronic pain. In the present studies, induction of central sensitization as indicated by spinal dorsal horn MAPK activation, specifically ERK and p38 phosphorylation, was assessed in the MIA-OA model. Results Behaviorally, MIA-injected rats displayed reduced hind limb grip force 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-MIA treatment. In the same animals, activation of phospho ERK1/2 was gradually increased, reaching a significant level at post injection week 3. Conversely, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was enhanced maximally at post injection week 1 and decreased, but remained elevated, thereafter. Double labeling from 3-wk MIA rats demonstrated spinal pERK1/2 expression in neurons, but not glia. In contrast, p-p38 was expressed by microglia and a subpopulation of neurons, but not astrocytes. Additionally, there was increased ipsilateral expression of microglia, but not astrocytes, in 3-wk MIA-OA rats. Consistent with increased MAPK immunoreactivity in the contralateral dorsal horn, mechanical allodynia to the contralateral hind-limb was observed 3-wk following MIA. Finally, intrathecal injection of the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 blocked both reduced hind-limb grip force and pERK1/2 induction in MIA-OA rats. Conclusion Results of these studies support the role of MAPK activation in the progression and maintenance of central sensitization in the MIA-OA experimental pain model.

  11. Diphenyl diselenide elicits antidepressant-like activity in rats exposed to monosodium glutamate: A contribution of serotonin uptake and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quines, Caroline B; Rosa, Suzan G; Velasquez, Daniela; Da Rocha, Juliana T; Neto, José S S; Nogueira, Cristina W

    2016-03-15

    Depression is a disorder with symptoms manifested at the psychological, behavioral and physiological levels. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is the most widely used additive in the food industry; however, some adverse effects induced by this additive have been demonstrated in experimental animals and humans, including functional and behavioral alterations. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible antidepressant-like effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2, an organoselenium compound with pharmacological properties already documented, in the depressive-like behavior induced by MSG in rats. Male and female newborn Wistar rats were divided in control and MSG groups, which received, respectively, a daily subcutaneous injection of saline (0.9%) or MSG (4g/kg/day) from the 1st to 5th postnatal day. At 60th day of life, animals received (PhSe)2 (10mg/kg, intragastrically) 25min before spontaneous locomotor and forced swimming tests (FST). The cerebral cortices of rats were removed to determine [(3)H] serotonin (5-HT) uptake and Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity. A single administration of (PhSe)2 was effective against locomotor hyperactivity caused by MSG in rats. (PhSe)2 treatment protected against the increase in the immobility time and a decrease in the latency for the first episode of immobility in the FST induced by MSG. Furthermore, (PhSe)2 reduced the [(3)H] 5-HT uptake and restored Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity altered by MSG. In the present study a single administration of (PhSe)2 elicited an antidepressant-like effect and decrease the synaptosomal [(3)H] 5-HT uptake and an increase in the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in MSG-treated rats.

  12. Validation of high performance liquid chromatographic and spectrophotometric methods for the determination of the antiparkinson agent pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate in pharmaceutical products

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    Serpil Sevim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available abstract The antiparkinson agent pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate was quantified in pharmaceutical products by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC and derivative spectrophotometry. The first method was based on HPLC using tamsulosin HCl as an internal standard. In this method, chromatographic separation was achieved using a LiChrospher 60 RP column at 25°C, with a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min at 263 nm. The eluent comprised 0.01 mol/L ammonium acetate (pH 4.4 and acetonitrile (35:65 by volume. The linearity range was found to be 10.0-30.0 µg/mL with a mean recovery of 100.5 ± 1.10. The limit of detection (8 ng/mL and limit of quantification (50 ng/mL were calculated. In the second method, the first derivative spectrophotometric technique for the determination of pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate was performed by measuring the amplitude at 249 and 280 nm. In the first derivative technique, the absorbance and concentration plot was rectilinear over the 5.0-35.0 µg/mL range with a lower detection limit of 1.5 ng/mL and quantification limit of 4.5 ng/mL. The typical excipients included in the pharmaceutical product do not interfere with the selectivity of either method. The developed methods were validated for robustness, selectivity, specificity, linearity, precision, and accuracy as per the ICH and FDA guidelines (ICH Q2B, 1996; FDA,2000. In conclusion, the developed methods were successful in determining the quantity of the antiparkinson agent pramipexole dihydrochloride monohydrate in pharmaceutical products. The RSD values for the pharmaceutical product used in this study were found to be 0.97% for the HPLC method and 0.00% for the first derivative spectrophotometric method.

  13. Antifeedant, larvicidal and growth inhibitory effects of ononitol monohydrate isolated from Cassia tora L. against Helicoverpa armigera (Hub.) and Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, Kathirvelu; Ignacimuthu, Savarimuthu

    2012-07-01

    Ononitol monohydrate isolated from the ethyl acetate extract of Cassia tora L. using column chromatography was evaluated for its antifeedant, larvicidal and growth inhibitory activities against Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera litura at different concentrations of 125, 250, 500 and 1000 ppm. Leaf disc no-choice method was used for the bioassay. The compound showed significant antifeedant, larvicidal and pupicidal activities against H. armigera and S. litura. The compound also prolonged the larval-pupal duration of the insect at all the tested concentrations. The activities were concentration dependent for both the insects. Ononitol could be used as an agent to prepare botanical new pesticidal formulations.

  14. Effect of pH on the morphology, mechanical and optical properties of L-arginine monohydrobromide monohydrate (LAHBr) single crystals

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Sangeetha; R Ramesh Babu; K Ramamurthi

    2015-09-01

    L-arginine monohydrobromide monohydrate (LAHBr) single crystals were grown from two molar mixtures of L-arginine and HBr acid in 1 : 2 and 1 : 3 ratios. The solution pH of the above molar ratios was measured to be 7.2 and 1.8, respectively. This drastic change in pH has modified the morphology of LAHBr single crystal and influenced the mechanical stability, optical transparency, refractive index, birefringence and laser damage threshold. The decrease in pH from 7.2 to 1.8 has enhanced the optical transparency and laser damage threshold of LAHBr crystal.

  15. Crystal structure of (E-N-{2-[2-(2-chlorobenzylidenehydrazin-1-yl]-2-oxoethyl}-4-methylbenzamide monohydrate

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    H. Purandara

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C17H16ClN3O2·H2O, an acylhydrazone derivative, contains a glycine moiety and two substituted benzene rings on either end of the chain. It crystallized as a monohydrate. The molecules adopt an E conformation with respect to the C=N double bond, as indicated by the N—N=C—C torsion angle of 179.38 (14°. The molecule is twisted in such a way that the almost planar Car—C(=O—N(H—C(H2 and C(H2—C(=ON(H—N=C—Car [r.m.s deviations = 0.009 and 0.025 Å, respectively] segments are inclined to on another by 77.36 (8°, while the benzene rings are normal to one another, making a dihedral angle of 89.69 (9°. In the crystal, the water molecule links three molecules through two O—H...O and one N—H...O hydrogen bonds. The molecules are linked via pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming inversion dimers with an R22(14 ring motif. The dimers are linked by O—H...O hydrogen bonds, involving two molecules of water, forming chains along [100], enclosing R22(14 and R22(18 ring motifs. The chains are linked through C—H...O interactions, forming sheets parallel to (010. Within the sheets, there are C—H...π and parallel slipped π–π stacking interactions present [inter-centroid distance = 3.6458 (12 Å].

  16. The antitumour drug 7-ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin monohydrate and its solid-state hydrolysis mechanism on heating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Md Ashraf; Noguchi, Shuji; Watanabe, Miteki; Iwao, Yasunori; Itai, Shigeru

    2016-10-01

    7-Ethyl-10-hydroxycamptothecin [systematic name: (4S)-4,11-diethyl-4,9-dihydroxy-1H-pyrano[3',4':6,7]indolizino[1,2-b]quinoline-3,14(4H,12H)-dione, SN-38] is an antitumour drug which exerts activity through the inhibition of topoisomerase I. The crystal structure of SN-38 as the monohydrate, C22H20N2O5·H2O, reveals that it is a monoclinic crystal, with one SN-38 molecule and one water molecule in the asymmetric unit. When the crystal is heated to 473 K, approximately 30% of SN-38 is hydrolyzed at its lactone ring, resulting in the formation of the inactive carboxylate form. The molecular arrangement around the water molecule and the lactone ring of SN-38 in the crystal structure suggests that SN-38 is hydrolyzed by the water molecule at (x, y, z) nucleophilically attacking the carbonyl C atom of the lactone ring at (x - 1, y, z - 1). Hydrogen bonding around the water molecules and the lactone ring appears to promote this hydrolysis reaction: two carbonyl O atoms, which are hydrogen bonded as hydrogen-bond acceptors to the water molecule at (x, y, z), might enhance the nucleophilicity of this water molecule, while the water molecule at (-x, y + 1/2, -z), which is hydrogen bonded as a hydrogen-bond donor to the carbonyl O atom at (x - 1, y, z - 1), might enhance the electrophilicity of the carbonyl C atom.

  17. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation and exercise on depression-like behaviors and raphe 5-HT neurons in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Nari; Leem, Yea Hyun; Kato, Morimasa; Chang, Hyukki

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The effects of creatine and exercise on chronic stress-induced depression are unclear. In the present study, we identified the effects of 4-week supplementation of creatine monohydrate and/or exercise on antidepressant behavior and raphe 5-HT expression in a chronic mild stress-induced depressed mouse model. [Methods] Seven-week-old male C57BL/6 mice (n=48) were divided randomly into 5 groups: (1) non-stress control (CON, n=10), (2) stress control (ST-CON, n=10), (3) stress and creatine intake (ST-Cr, n=10), (4) stress and exercise (ST-Ex, n=9), and (5) combined stress, exercise, and creatine intake (ST-Cr+Ex, n=9). After five weeks’ treatment, we investigated using both anti-behavior tests (the Tail Suspension Test (TST) and the Forced Swimming Test (FST)), and 5-HT expression in the raphe nuclei (the dorsal raphe (DR) and median raphe (MnR)). [Results] Stress for 4 weeks significantly increased depressive behaviors in the mice. Treatment with creatine supplementation combined with exercise significantly decreased depressive behaviors as compared with the CON-ST group in both the TST and FST tests. With stress, 5-HT expression in the raphe nuclei decreased significantly. With combined creatine and exercise, 5-HT positive cells increased significantly and had a synergic effect on both DR and MnR. [Conclusion] The present study found that even a single treatment of creatine or exercise has partial effects as an antidepressant in mice with chronic mild stress-induced depression. Furthermore, combined creatine and exercise has synergic effects and is a more effective prescription than a single treatment.

  18. Exhaled Interleukine-6 and 8-isoprostane in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: effect of carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (SCMC-Lys).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carpagnano, Giovanna E; Resta, O; Foschino-Barbaro, Maria P; Spanevello, Antonio; Stefano, Antonio; Di Gioia, Giuseppe; Serviddio, Gaetano; Gramiccioni, Enzo

    2004-11-28

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterized by an airways inflammation and by an enhanced generation of reactive oxygen species. The aim of our study was to assess the inflammation and the oxidative stress in airways of COPD patients with acute exacerbation of disease and in stability. Furthermore, we investigated the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of 6 months treatment with carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (SCMC-Lys) in COPD. We studied 30 mild acute COPD, 10 mild stable COPD and 15 healthy subjects. 8-isoprostane and Interleukine-6 were measured in their breath condensate through immunoassay. Significantly higher concentrations of exhaled 8-isoprostane and Interleukine-6 were found in acute COPD patients compared to stable COPD and healthy controls (21.8+/-5.1 vs. 13.2+/-2.0 vs. 4.7+/-1.8 pg/ml and 7.4+/-0.9 vs. 5.8+/-0.2 vs. 2.7+/-0.6 pg/ml, p<0.0001). COPD patients treated with SCMC-Lys showed a marked reduction of exhaled 8-isoprostane and Interleukine-6 (8.9+/-1.5 and 4.6+/-0.8 pg/ml, p<0.0001). These findings suggest that there is an increase of 8-isoprostane and Interleukine-6 concentrations in the breath condensate of COPD patients compared to healthy controls especially during acute exacerbations of the disease. Moreover, we showed an anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effect of short-term administration of SCMC-Lys in COPD, suggesting the importance of a further placebo-controlled study that should evaluate the effects of this drug.

  19. Dry powder aerosols generated by standardized entrainment tubes from drug blends with lactose monohydrate: 1. Albuterol sulfate and disodium cromoglycate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Zhen; Mansour, Heidi M; Mulder, Tako; McLean, Richard; Langridge, John; Hickey, Anthony J

    2010-08-01

    The major objective of this study was: discriminatory assessment of dry powder aerosol performance using standardized entrainment tubes (SETs) and lactose-based formulations with two model drugs. Drug/lactose interactive physical mixtures (2%w/w) were prepared. Their properties were measured: solid-state characterization of phase behavior and molecular interactions by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction; particle morphology and size by scanning electron microscopy and laser diffraction; aerosol generation by SETs and characterization by twin-stage liquid impinger and Andersen cascade impactor operated at 60 L/min. The fine particle fraction (FPF) was correlated with SET shear stress (tau(s)), using a novel powder aerosol deaggregation equation (PADE). Drug particles were <5 microm in volume diameter with narrow unimodal distribution (Span <1). The lowest shear SET (tau(s) = 0.624 N/m(2)) gave a higher emitted dose (ED approximately 84-93%) and lower FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 7-25%). In contrast, the highest shear SET (tau(s) = 13.143 N/m(2)) gave a lower ED (ED approximately 75-89%) and higher FPF (FPF(6.4) approximately 15-46%). The performance of disodium cromoglycate was superior to albuterol sulfate at given tau(s), as was milled with respect to sieved lactose monohydrate. Excellent correlation was observed (R(2) approximately 0.9804-0.9998) when pulmonary drug particle release from the surface of lactose carriers was interpreted by PADE linear regression for dry powder formulation evaluation and performance prediction.

  20. Effect of Creatine Monohydrate Supplementation on Various Hematological and Serum Biochemical Parameters of Male Albino Mice following Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia Encephalopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shahid Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Present study was designed to report the effect of 2% creatine monohydrate supplementation for 8, 12 and 15 weeks on hematology and serum biochemical profile of male albino mouse following hypoxic ischemic insult on postnatal day 10. Methods. 66 Blood samples (2% creatine monohydrate supplemented (N=34 and unsupplemented (N=32 were analyzed for various hematological (blood glucose, packed cell volume, total WBC count, total RBC count and serum biochemical parameters (cholesterol, AST, ALT, HDL, LDL, total protein, triglycerides. Results. ALT had higher concentrations in mice feeding on normal diet for 8 (P>0.01 and 12 weeks (P>0.01 following asphyxia and in 12 weeks treatment without asphyxia (P=0.006 when compared with the creatine supplemented mice. LDL (P=0.011 and cholesterol (P>0.01 had higher concentrations in mice on normal diet for 12 weeks following hypoxia ischemia. Cholesterol (P>0.01 in 12 and glucose (P=0.006 in 15 week treatment group had significantly lower concentrations in creatine supplemented male albino mice when compared with untreated group following hxpoic-ischemic insult. Conclusion. We concluded that creatine supplementation following hypoxic ischemic insult helps in maintain the normal blood chemistry.

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies of the second- and third-order NLO properties of a semi-organic compound: 6-Aminoquinolinium iodide monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Pedro S. Pereira, E-mail: psidonio@pollux.fis.uc.pt [CEMDRX, Physics Department, University of Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); El Ouazzani, Hasnaa; Pranaitis, Mindaugas [Institut des Sciences et Technologies Moléculaires d’Angers, MOLTECH ANJOU, CNRS UMR 6200, Université d’Angers, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Silva, Manuela Ramos [CEMDRX, Physics Department, University of Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Arranja, Cláudia T.; Sobral, Abilio J.F.N. [Department of Chemistry, University of Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal); Sahraoui, Bouchta [Institut des Sciences et Technologies Moléculaires d’Angers, MOLTECH ANJOU, CNRS UMR 6200, Université d’Angers, 2 Bd Lavoisier, 49045 Angers Cedex (France); Paixão, José A. [CEMDRX, Physics Department, University of Coimbra, P-3004-516 Coimbra (Portugal)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • Synthesis and structure of 6-aminoquinolinium iodide monohydrate is reported. • UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectra are reported. • SHG and THG signals measured with the Maker fringes technique. • Hyperpolarizabilities calculated with the DFT and MP2 methods. • Behaviour of hybrid functionals corrected with ESP charges. - Abstract: A new semi-organic compound, 6-aminoquinolinium iodide monohydrate (I), has been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, UV–vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and nonlinear optical (NLO) measurements. The second- and third-order NLO responses were investigated with the second- and third-harmonic Maker fringes techniques, carried out on thin films at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. From the molecular structure, the molecular hyperpolarizability tensors were determined with density functional theory and second-order Møller–Plesset perturbation method. The second- and third-order susceptibility tensors of the reported crystal were evaluated using the oriented gas model with the Lorenz–Lorentz and the Wortmann–Bishop local-field corrections. The calculations using the Wortmann–Bishop local-field were able to reproduce the correct order of magnitude of the experimental third-order susceptibilities. The value of χ{sup (3)} obtained by summing the effective third-order polarizability calculated for the asymmetric unit surrounded by ESP-derived charges have also the same order of magnitude of the experimental.

  2. Scientific Opinion on the safety and efficacy of iron compounds (E1 as feed additives for all species: Ferrous sulphate monohydrate based on a dossier submitted by Kronos International, Inc.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Additives and Products or Substances used in Animal Feed (FEEDAP

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Ferrous sulphate monohydrate is safe when supplied up to a maximum iron content per kilogram complete feedingstuff of 450 mg for bovines and poultry, 500 mg for ovines, 600 mg for pets, and 750 mg for other species/categories, except horses and fish; for piglets up to one week before weaning a maximum of 250 mg Fe/day is considered safe. Because of insufficient data on horses and fish, as a provisional measure, the current value (750 mg Fe/kg could be maintained. The values for total dietary iron for pigs, ovines, horses, fish and other species/categories (except poultry, bovines and pets are in line with those currently authorised. Iron from ferrous sulphate monohydrate is unlikely to modify the iron concentration in edible tissues and products of animal origin. Consumer exposure in the EU is not associated with a risk of excess iron intake to the general population. Therefore, the FEEDAP Panel does not foresee any concern for consumer safety resulting from the use of ferrous sulphate monohydrate in animal nutrition, provided that the maximum iron content in complete feedingstuffs is respected. Ferrous sulphate monohydrate is irritant and corrosive to the skin, eyes and respiratory tract. The additive contains up to 109 mg Ni/kg. Nickel is a dermal and respiratory sensitiser, and inhalation may cause lung cancer. Thus, handling the additive poses a risk to the user/worker. Considering the high concentration of iron and sulphur in soil and water, the supplementation of feed with the additive is not expected to pose an environmental risk. Ferrous sulphate monohydrate is an effective iron source for all animal species and categories. The FEEDAP Panel recommends that the currently authorised maximum iron content in complete feed be reduced for bovines and poultry from 750 to 450 mg Fe/kg, and for pets from 1250 to 600 mg Fe/kg.

  3. Bulk crystal growth and nonlinear optical characterization of semiorganic single crystal: Cadmium (II) dibromide L - Proline monohydrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balakrishnan, T., E-mail: balacrystalgrowth@gmail.com [Crystal Growth Laboratory, PG & Research Department of Physics, Periyar EVR College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli, 620 023, Tamil Nadu (India); Sathiskumar, S. [Crystal Growth Laboratory, PG & Research Department of Physics, Periyar EVR College (Autonomous), Tiruchirappalli, 620 023, Tamil Nadu (India); Ramamurthi, K. [Crystal Growth and Thin Film Laboratory, Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankulathur, 603 203, Kancheepuram, Tamil Nadu (India); Thamotharan, S. [Department of Bioinformatics, School of Chemical and Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, 613 401 (India)

    2017-01-15

    Single crystal of a novel metal organic nonlinear optical (NLO) cadmium (II) dibromide L - proline monohydrate (CBLPM) of size 7 × 7 × 5 mm{sup 3} was grown from slow evaporation technique. Single crystal X – ray diffraction analysis reveals that the crystal belongs to orthorhombic system with lattice parameters a = 10.1891 (8) Å, b = 13.4961 (11) Å, c = 7.4491 (5) Å and space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1}. The powder X – ray diffraction pattern of CBLPM was recorded and the X – ray diffraction peaks were indexed. The various functional groups of CBLPM were identified by the FT – IR and FT – Raman spectral analyses. The optical transmittance window and lower cut off wavelength of CBLPM were identified from UV – Vis – NIR studies. The mechanical strength of the grown crystal was estimated using Vickers microhardness test. Dielectric constant and dielectric loss measurements were carried out at different temperatures in the frequency range of 50 Hz - 2 MHz. The photoluminescence spectrum was recorded in the wavelength range 200–400 nm and the estimated optical band gap was ∼4.1 eV. Etching studies were carried out for different etching time. Thermal stability of CBLPM was determined using thermogravimetric analysis. Laser induced damage threshold study was carried out for the grown crystal using Nd:YAG laser. Size dependent second harmonic generation efficiency of the grown crystal was determined by Kurtz and Perry powder technique with different particle size using Nd:YAG laser with wavelength 1064 nm. Second harmonic generation efficiency of the powdered CBLPM crystal was ∼2.3 times that of potassium dihydrogen orthophosphate. - Highlights: • CBLPM crystal belongs to orthorhombic crystal system with space group P2{sub 1}2{sub 1}2{sub 1.} • Transmittance of CBLPM is ∼80% in the 650–1100 nm range. • Powder SHG efficiency of CBLPM increases with increase in particle size. • SHG efficiency of 0.57 μm size powdered CBLPM is ∼2

  4. Clinical development of galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate, a small molecule inhibitor of transforming growth factor-beta signaling pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbertz S

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Stephan Herbertz,1 J Scott Sawyer,2 Anja J Stauber,2 Ivelina Gueorguieva,3 Kyla E Driscoll,4 Shawn T Estrem,2 Ann L Cleverly,3 Durisala Desaiah,2 Susan C Guba,2 Karim A Benhadji,2 Christopher A Slapak,2 Michael M Lahn21Lilly Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg, Germany; 2Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Indianapolis, IN, USA; 3Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, Windlesham, Surrey, UK; 4Lilly Research Laboratories, Eli Lilly and Company, New York, NY, USA Abstract: Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-β signaling regulates a wide range of biological processes. TGF-β plays an important role in tumorigenesis and contributes to the hallmarks of cancer, including tumor proliferation, invasion and metastasis, inflammation, angiogenesis, and escape of immune surveillance. There are several pharmacological approaches to block TGF-β signaling, such as monoclonal antibodies, vaccines, antisense oligonucleotides, and small molecule inhibitors. Galunisertib (LY2157299 monohydrate is an oral small molecule inhibitor of the TGF-β receptor I kinase that specifically downregulates the phosphorylation of SMAD2, abrogating activation of the canonical pathway. Furthermore, galunisertib has antitumor activity in tumor-bearing animal models such as breast, colon, lung cancers, and hepatocellular carcinoma. Continuous long-term exposure to galunisertib caused cardiac toxicities in animals requiring adoption of a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic-based dosing strategy to allow further development. The use of such a pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic model defined a therapeutic window with an appropriate safety profile that enabled the clinical investigation of galunisertib. These efforts resulted in an intermittent dosing regimen (14 days on/14 days off, on a 28-day cycle of galunisertib for all ongoing trials. Galunisertib is being investigated either as monotherapy or in combination with standard antitumor regimens (including nivolumab

  5. Comparing the interaction of cyclophosphamide monohydrate to human serum albumin as opposed to holo-transferrin by spectroscopic and molecular modeling methods: evidence for allocating the binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tousi, Shirin Hamed-Akbari; Saberi, Mohammad Reza; Chamani, Jamshidkhan

    2010-12-01

    The interaction between cyclophosphamide monohydrate with human serum albumin (HSA) and human serum transferrin (hTf) was studied with UV absorption, fluorescence and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopies as well as molecular modeling. Based on the fluorescence quenching results, it was determined that HSA and hTf had two classes of apparent binding constants and binding sites at physiological conditions. The K(SV1), K(SV2), n(1) and n(2) values for HSA were found to be 8.6 x 10(8) Lmol(-1), 6.34 x 10(8) Lmol(-1), 0.7 and 0.8, respectively, and the corresponding results for hTf were 6.08 x 10(7) Lmol(-1), 4.65 x 10(7) Lmol(-1), 1.3 and 2.6, respectively. However, the binding affinity of cyclophosphamide monohydrate to HSA was more significant than to hTf. Circular dichroism results demonstrated that the binding of cyclophosphamide to HSA and hTf induced secondary changes in the structure and that the a-helix content became altered into b-sheet, turn and random coil forms. The participation of tyrosyl and tryptophan residues of proteins was also estimated in the drug-HSA and hTf complexes by synchronous fluorescence. The micro-environment of the HSA and hTf fluorophores was transferred to hydrophobic and hydrophilic conditions, respectively. The distance r between donor and acceptor was obtained by the Forster energy according to fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) and found to be 1.84 nm and 1.73 nm for HSA and hTf, respectively. This confirmed the existence of static quenching for both proteins in the presence of cyclophosphamide monohydrate. Site marker competitive displacement experiments demonstrated that cyclophosphamide bound with high affinity to Site II, sub-domain IIIA of HSA, and for hTf, the C-lobe constituted the binding site. Furthermore, a study of molecular modeling showed that cyclophosphamide situated in domain II in HSA was bound through hydrogen bonding with Arg 257 and Ser 287, and that cyclophosphamide was situated in the C-lobe in h

  6. Study of Paramagnetic Monohydrates MeSO4.1H2O (Me = Mn2+, Co2+, Fe2+, Ni2+, Cu2+

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    Jelšovská Kamila

    2000-09-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR of protons of crystrallization water in isomorphous paramagnetic monohydrates MeSO4.1H2O with Me = Mn2+ , Co2+ , Fe2+ , Ni2+ , Cu2+ is studied in the present paper. Several physically important parameters characterizing the studied substances were derived from the NMR spectra. In this paper we analysed the dependences of the NMR second moment M2 on the magnitude of the external magnetic field induction Br and the temperature. The proton NMR spectra in paramagnetic hydrates have an asymmetric form caused by the anisotropy of the local magnetic field acting on resonating nuclei and their second moments, M2, depend linearly on the square of the external magnetic field Br. The parameters M20 (the part of the second moment M2 which corresponds to the nuclear dipole-dipole interactions and á which characterize nuclear dipole-dipole interactions of protons and paramagnetic ions, respectively, are derived from experimentally obtained dependences of M2 vs Br2. The measurements were performed at the room temperature. Calculations were realized using the approximation where two nearest neighbour ions Me2+ to each water molecule are considered. The temperature dependence of the second moment, which was realised in the temperature range 123-313 K, was more informative than the field one. Besides the individual dependences M2(T measured at fr1 and fr2 we analysed the temperature dependence of the difference ∆M2(T. Beside the second moment M20 the Curie-Weiss constant è and the magnetic moment µi of paramagnetic ions were determined from the temperature dependences. The parameters è and M20 were determined directly from the experimental data. Some knowledge on the crystalline structure for the studied substance was required for the calculation of the magnetic moment µi. By means of the classification of substances according to the Curie-Weiss parameter, the negative value of the temperature parameter è for all studied

  7. Calculation and optimization of the copper (II sulphate monohydrate from copper (II sulphate pentahydrate production process in a fluidized bed dryer

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    Kaluđerović-Radoičić Tatjana

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the process of the copper (II sulphate monohydrate from copper (II sulphate pentahydrate (also known as a Blue vitriol or Bluestone production was analyzed. Copper (II sulphate pentahydrate is one of the most important copper salts which has been known since the ancient Egyptians. In the nineteenth century its application as a fungicide was discovered which provoked wide industrial production. Molecule of the copper (II sulphate pentahydrate is a crystalohydrate with five water molecules linked by chemical bonds to a molecule of the copper (II sulphate. Copper (II sulphate exists as a series of compounds that differ in their degree of hydratation. The anhydrous form is a pale green or gray-white powder, whereas the pentahydrate (CuSO4•5H2O, the most commonly encountered salt, is bright blue. In order to obtain copper (II sulphate monohydrate from copper (II sulphate pentahydrate four water molecules need to be removed. To determine the optimum temperature and time required for the removal of four water molecules from a molecule of pentahydrate in this work thermogravimetric (TGA analysis was performed. Thermogravimetric (TGA analysis - dehydration of copper (II sulphate pentahydrate is done using simultaneous TG-DSC thermal analyzer DTG-Q600 SDT from TA Instruments. Analyzes was carried out for two type of samples, the sample containing particles of the average diameter equal to 0.17 mm and the particles of the average diameter 0.5 mm. In addition, fluidization and drying curve was determined using a semi-industrial fluidization column. On top, the industrial fluidization column aimed to produce 300 tones per month of copper (II sulphate monohydrate was designed. Material and energy calculations were performed using software packages Simprosys 3.0 and SuperPro Designer 5.1. Simprosys 3.0 is a software package designed for the modeling and simulation of a drying process as well as for 20 different unit operations. Super

  8. Intoxicação aguda por metano arsonato ácido monossódico em bovinos Acute poisoning by monosodium methanearsonic acid in cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela N. Dantas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou a intoxicação acidental por arsênico em um lote de 24 vacas Girolando, as quais tiveram acesso a pasto pulverizado com herbicida à base de metano arsonato ácido monossódico (MSMA. Os bovinos apresentaram apatia, anorexia e diarreia profusa. Foram necropsiados na fazenda dois animais de 14 que morreram. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram úlceras abomasais e congestão renal. No exame microscópico, as principais lesões observadas foram abomasite e omasite necro-hemorrágica multifocal acentuada e, nos rins, necrose tubular difusa. As concentrações médias de arsênico em vacas com sinais clínicos foram 1,19±0,40, 10,52±2,16 e 76,06±48,37ppm no sangue, leite e fezes, respectivamente. Os níveis de arsênico encontrados em dois animais necropsiados foram 25,58 e 23,85ppm em fígado, e 28,71 e 35,94ppm em rins, respectivamente. No feto de uma vaca necropsiada, os níveis de arsênico mensurados no fígado e rim foram 9,0 e 8,92ppm, respectivamente. A concentração de arsênico no capim do piquete pulverizado foi 111,58ppm. No Brasil, o uso MSMA na composição de pesticidas e herbicidas é permitido somente para uso agrícola, mas não pecuário. A utilização desse ou de outros produtos à base de arsênico na pecuária pode causar altos índices de mortalidade no rebanho, além de diminuição da produção e contaminação de produtos de origem animal.Poisoning by monosodium methanearsonic acid (MSMA is reported in a herd of 24 Girolando cows that were introduced into a pasture sprayed with the herbicide. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and profuse diarrhea. Fourteen cows died and two were necropsied. Abomasal ulcers and renal congestion was observed. Main histologic lesions were multifocal, accentuated, necrotizing and hemorrhagic abomasitis and omasitis, and tubular necrosis in the kidneys. Mean arsenic concentrations in cows with clinical signs were 1.19±0.40, 10.52±2.16, and 76.06

  9. Tricaesium citrate monohydrate, Cs3C6H5O7·H2O: crystal structure and DFT comparison

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alagappa Rammohan

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The crystal structure of tricaesium citrate monohydrate, 3Cs+·C6H5O73−·H2O, has been solved and refined using laboratory X-ray single-crystal diffraction data, and optimized using density functional techniques. This compound is isostructural to the K+ and Rb+ compounds with the same formula. The three independent Cs cations are eight-, eight-, and seven-coordinate, with bond-valence sums of 0.91, 1.22, and 1.12 valence units. The coordination polyhedra link into a three-dimensional framework. The hydroxy group forms the usual S(5 hydrogen bond with the central carboxylate group, and the water molecule acts as a donor in two strong hydrogen bonds.

  10. Effect of VO2+ ions on the EPR and optical absorption investigations of lithium sulphate monohydrate single crystals for non linear optical applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliet sheela, K.; Radha Krishnan, S.; Shanmugam, V. M.; Subramanian, P.

    2017-09-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and optical absorption studies of VO2+ ions in Lithium Sulphate Monohydrate (LSMH) single crystal are carried out at room temperature. Single crystal rotations in each of the three mutually orthogonal crystalline planes, ac, ab, cb indicate three different vanadyl complexes. Three VO2+ ions of EPR spectra indicate among them, that two of them have (the intense two) entered the lattice substitutionally and the third one occupies the interstitial position. From the angular variation, the spin Hamiltonian parameters are evaluated. From the optical absorption spectrum containing four selected bands and EPR data, various bonding parameters are determined and the nature of bonding in the crystal is discussed. Also Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) studies are carried out to confirm the Non Linear Optical (NLO) properties of the given material.

  11. Intramolecular charge delocalization and nonlinear optical properties of push-pull chromophore 1-(4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridinium) acetic acid bromide monohydrate from vibrational spectra.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, C Jesintha; Amalanathan, M; Sajan, D; Lakshmi, K Udaya; Joe, I Hubert

    2011-01-01

    FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of the nonlinear optical crystal 1-(4-N,N-dimethylaminopyridinium) acetic acid bromide monohydrate have been recorded and analyzed. The equilibrium geometry, vibrational wavenumbers and the first order hyperpolarizability of the crystal have been calculated with the help of density functional theory computations. The assignments of the vibrational spectra have been carried out with the help of Scaled Quantum Mechanic force field theory. Optimized geometry gives the charge transfer interaction of the pyridine ring and the amino group in the electron-donor side of the nonlinear optic chromophore. Electron-phonon coupling and O-H⋯O interactions in making the molecule nonlinear optical active have been analyzed based on the vibrational spectral features. The Natural Bond Orbital analysis confirms the occurrence of strong intermolecular O-H⋯O hydrogen bonding. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Cationic cobaltammine as anion receptor: Synthesis, characterization, single crystal X-ray structure and packing analysis of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride ( R, R)-tartrate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bala, Ritu; Sharma, Raj Pal; Venugopalan, Paloth; Harrison, William T. A.

    2007-03-01

    In an effort to utilize the [Co(NH 3) 6] 3+ cation as a new anion receptor (binding agent) for dihydroxy dicarboxylate anion i.e., tartrate, orange single crystals of hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride ( R, R)-tartrate monohydrate, [Co(NH 3) 6]Cl(C 4H 4O 6)·H 2O, were obtained by reacting hexaamminecobalt(III) chloride with potassium-sodium tartrate tetrahydrate in a 1:1 molar ratio in hot water. The single crystal X-ray structure determination of [Co(NH 3) 6]Cl(C 4H 4O 6)·H 2O revealed that a distinctive network of hydrogen bonding interactions (N-H⋯O, N-H⋯Cl -, O-H⋯O) stabilize the crystal lattice. This is the first complex salt of hexaamminecobalt(III) with dihydroxy dicarboxylate anion i.e., tartrate.

  13. Thermodynamic study of binary system Propafenone Hydrocloride with Metoprolol Tartrate: solid-liquid equilibrium and compatibility with α-lactose monohydrate and corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinescu, Daniela-Crina; Pincu, Elena; Meltzer, Viorica

    2013-05-20

    Solid-liquid equilibrium (SLE) for binary mixture of Propafenone Hydrocloride (PP) with Metoprolol Tartrate (MT) was investigated using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and corresponding activity coefficients were calculated. Simple eutectic behavior for this system was observed. The excess thermodynamic functions: G(E) and S(E) for the pre-, post-, and eutectic composition have been obtained using the computed activity coefficients data of the eutectic phase with their excess chemical potentials μi(E) (i=1, 2). The experimental solid-liquid phase temperatures were compared with predictions obtained from available eutectic equilibrium models. The results indicate non-ideality in this mixture. Also, the compatibility of each component and their eutectic mixture with usual excipients was investigated, and the DSC experiments indicate possible weak interactions with α-lactose monohydrate and compatibility with corn starch. The results obtained were confirmed by FT-IR measurements.

  14. Studies on the growth, structural, spectral and third-order nonlinear optical properties of Ammonium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate monohydrate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, A.; Krishna Kumar, M.; Thirunavukkarasu, A.; Mohan Kumar, R.; Umarani, P. R.

    2015-01-01

    An organic nonlinear optical bulk single crystal, Ammonium 3-carboxy-4-hydroxy benzenesulfonate monohydrate (ACHBS) was successfully grown by solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study confirms that, the grown crystal belongs to P21/c space group. Powder X-ray diffraction and high resolution X-ray diffraction analyses revealed the crystallinity of the grown crystal. Infrared spectral analysis showed the vibrational behavior of chemical bonds and its functional groups. The thermal stability and decomposition stages of the grown crystal were studied by TG-DTA analysis. UV-Visible transmittance studies showed the transparency region and cut-off wavelength of the grown crystal. The third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility of the grown crystal was estimated by Z-scan technique using Hesbnd Ne laser source. The mechanical property of the grown crystal was studied by using Vicker's microhardness test.

  15. Two isostructural carbamates: the o-tolyl N-(pyridin-3-yl)carbamate and 2-bromo-phenyl N-(pyridin-3-yl)carbamate monohydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocilac, Pavle; Gallagher, John F

    2015-11-01

    The title carbamate monohydrates, C13H12N2O2·H2O and C12H9BrN2O2·H2O, form isomorphous crystals that are isostructural in their primary hydrogen-bonding modes. In both carbamates, the primary hydrogen bonding and aggregation involves cyclic amide-water-pyridine moieties as (N-H⋯O-H⋯N)2 dimers about inversion centres [as R 4 (4)(14) rings], where the participation of strong hydrogen-bonding donors and acceptors is maximized. The remaining water-carbonyl O-H⋯O=C inter-action extends the aggregation into two-dimensional planar sheets that stack parallel to the (100) plane. The Br derivative does not participate in halogen bonding. A weak intra-molecular C-H⋯O hydrogen bond is observed in each compound.

  16. Librational modes of the water molecules in barium and strontium halide monohydrates, MX 2 · 1H 2O (M = Ba, Sr; X = Cl, Br, I)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, H. D.; Christian, H.

    1983-09-01

    The IR and Raman spectra of the isotypic alkaline earth halide monohydrates, MX 2 · 1H 2O, with M = Sr, Ba and X = Cl, Br, I, and of deuterated samples are presented for the range 200-700 cm -1 and discussed in terms of normal modes, assignment, coupling, correlation with structure data, and temperature dependence of both the H 2O (D 2O) and the HDO librational modes. The normal modes of the out-of-plane librations of HDO molecules are of the wagging and twisting type rather than H and D out-of-plane vibrations [4], at least for water molecules with C2v or nearly C2v symmetry. Thus the observed H 2O/HDO isotopic shifts can be used as a criterion for assigning the H 2O librations. The librational modes of the halide monohydrates (with tetrahedrally coordinated water oxygen atoms) are found in the order ν Rγ ≫ ν Rt ≫ ν Rr. The intensities of the IR and Raman spectra are in the order Rγ ≫ Rr ≫ Rt (or ˜ Rt in the case of strongly distorted H 2O molecules) and Rt ≫ Rr ≫ Rγ, respectively. Correlations of the H 2O librational modes with structural or bonding data are restricted by frequency shifts due to vibrational coupling and by the fact that the oxygen and the hydrogen atoms of the water molecules are generally affected in a different manner by bond interactions. However, in the case of the twisting vibrations, there are clear correlations with both the size of the metal ions, i.e. increase of ν Rt with decreasing size, and the intermolecular bonding of the hydrogen atoms, as shown by the OH stretching frequencies, i.e. increase of ν Rt with decreasing ν OH.

  17. 4-Carbamoylpiperidinium acetate monohydrate

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    Urs D. Wermuth

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In the structure of the title compound, C6H13N2O+·C2H3O2−·H2O, the amide H atoms of the cations form centrosymmetric cyclic hydrogen-bonding associations incorporating two water molecules [graph set R42(8], which are conjoint with cyclic water-bridged amide–amide associations [R44(12] and larger R44(20 associations involving the water molecule and the acetate anions, which bridge through the piperidinium H-bond donors, giving an overall three-dimensional framework structure.

  18. 4-Acetamidoanilinium nitrate monohydrate

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    Sana Riahi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title hydrated salt, C8H11N2O+·NO3−·H2O, the N—C bond distances [1.349 (2 and 1.413 (2 Å] along with the sum of the angles (359.88° around the acetamide N atom clearly indicate that the heteroatom has an sp2 character. The ammonium group is involved in a total of three N—H...O hydrogen bonds, two of these are with a water molecule, which forms two O—H...O hydrogen bonds. All these hydrogen bonds link the ionic units and the water molecule into infinite planar layers parallel to (100. The remaining two N—H...O interactions in which the ammoniun group is involved link these layers into an infinite three-dimensional network.

  19. Cinchonidinium chloride monohydrate

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    Shi-Feng Ni

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C19H23N2O+·Cl−·H2O, the ions and the water molecule are held together by O—H...Cl, N—H...Cl, O—H...O, O—H...N and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming a three-dimensional framework. The vinyl group is disordered over two orientations with refined occupancies of 0.564 (16 and 0.436 (16. The cell parameters of the title compound have been reported previously [Griffiths (1952. Acta Cryst. 5, 290–291].

  20. 4-Nitroanilinium triiodide monohydrate

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    David G. Billing

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C6H7N2O2+·I3−·H2O, the triiodide anions form two-dimensional sheets along the a and c axes. These sheets are separated by the 4-nitroanilinium cations and water molecules, which form part of an extended hydrogen-bonded chain with the triiodide along the c axis, represented by the graph set C33(14. The second important hydrogen-bonding interaction is between the nitro group, the water molecule and the anilinium group, which forms an R22(6 ring and may be the reason for the deviation of the torsion angle between the benzene ring and the nitro group from 180 to 163.2 (4°. These two strong hydrogen-bonding interactions also cause the benzene rings to pack off-centre from one another, with an edge-on-edge π–π stacking distance of 3.634 (6 Å and a centroid–centroid separation of 4.843 (2 Å.

  1. Potassium oxalurate monohydrate

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    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The title salt, poly[aqua-μ3-oxalurato-potassium(I], [K(C3H3N2O4(H2O]n, which was obtained from a water solution of oxaluric acid and KOH at room temperature, crystallizes as potassium and oxalurate ions along with a water molecule. The K+ cation lies on a crystallographic twofold rotation axis (site symmetry 2, Wyckoff position f, and the water and oxalurate molecules are located within different mirror planes (site symmetry m, Wyckoff position g. The K+ cation is eight-coordinated by six O atoms of six oxalurate ligands and two O atoms from two water molecules in a distorted square-antiprismatic geometry. All of the eight coordinated O atoms are in a monodentate bridging mode, with alternate bridged K...K distances of 3.5575 (12 and 3.3738 (12 Å. The oxalurate ligand shows a μ3-bridging coordination mode, which links the K+ cation into a three-dimensional network. The oxalurate ligands and the water molecules are involved in inter- and intramolecular N—H...O, and O—H...O hydrogen bonds, which stabilize the network.

  2. Dipotassium hydrogencarbonate fluoride monohydrate

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    Volker Kahlenberg

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title compound, K2(HCO3F·H2O, were obtained as a secondary product after performing flux synthesis experiments aimed at the preparation of potassium rare earth silicates. The basic building unit of the structure is an [(HCO3(H2OF]2− zigzag chain running parallel to [001]. Both types of anions as well as the water molecules reside on mirror planes perpendicular to [010] at y = 0.25 and y = 0.75, respectively. Linkage between the different constituents of the chains is provided by O—H...O and O—H...F hydrogen bonding. The K+ cations are located between the chains and are coordinated by two F and five O atoms in form of a distorted monocapped trigonal prism.

  3. Benzaldehyde thiosemicarbazone monohydrate

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    Sheng-Jiu Gu

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C8H9N3S·H2O, intramolecular N—H...N hydrogen bonding contributes to the molecular conformation. Water molecules are involved in intermolecular N—H...O and O—H...S hydrogen bonds, which link the molecules into ribbons extended along the a axis. Weak intermolecular N—H...S hydrogen bonds link these ribbons into layers parallel to the ab plane with the phenyl rings pointing up and down.

  4. Quantitative analysis with advanced compensated polarized light microscopy on wavelength dependence of linear birefringence of single crystals causing arthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takanabe, Akifumi; Tanaka, Masahito; Taniguchi, Atsuo; Yamanaka, Hisashi; Asahi, Toru

    2014-07-01

    To improve our ability to identify single crystals causing arthritis, we have developed a practical measurement system of polarized light microscopy called advanced compensated polarized light microscopy (A-CPLM). The A-CPLM system is constructed by employing a conventional phase retardation plate, an optical fibre and a charge-coupled device spectrometer in a polarized light microscope. We applied the A-CPLM system to measure linear birefringence (LB) in the visible region, which is an optical anisotropic property, for tiny single crystals causing arthritis, i.e. monosodium urate monohydrate (MSUM) and calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD). The A-CPLM system performance was evaluated by comparing the obtained experimental data using the A-CPLM system with (i) literature data for a standard sample, MgF2, and (ii) experimental data obtained using an established optical method, high-accuracy universal polarimeter, for the MSUM. The A-CPLM system was found to be applicable for measuring the LB spectra of the single crystals of MSUM and CPPD, which cause arthritis, in the visible regions. We quantitatively reveal the large difference in LB between MSUM and CPPD crystals. These results demonstrate the usefulness of the A-CPLM system for distinguishing the crystals causing arthritis.

  5. 痛风的诊治现状及进展%Progress in the diagnosis and treatment of gout

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨瑞青; 肖镇

    2016-01-01

    Hyperuricemia is an elevated uric acid level in blood. Gout is a common systemic metabolic disease characterized by deposition of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals with resultant acute intense inflammation of the involved joint and soft tissues. The clinical spectrum ranges from asymptomatic hyperuricemia to intermittent acute episodes of gouty arthritis to chronic tophaceous gout and chronic gouty arthropathy. With the rapid development of economy, the incidence rate of hyperuricemia and gout is increasing annually around the world. Therefore, related studies have attracted much attention. This article reviewed the pathophysiology, clinical management and current therapeutic options for hyperuricemia and gout.%高尿酸血症是血尿酸水平增高。痛风是尿酸盐结晶在体内沉积引起组织损伤的一种代谢性疾病。随着各国经济的发展,全球的高尿酸血症及痛风的患病率呈上升趋势,因此相关研究日益增多,本文就近年来有关痛风的现状及进展作一综述。

  6. 2,4,6-三硝基间苯二酚钡一水化合物的热分解动力学%Thermal Decomposition Kinetics of Barium 2,4,6-trinitroresorecinate Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡荣祖; 陈三平; 高胜利; 宋纪蓉; 史启祯; 赵宏安; 姚朴; 李静

    2004-01-01

    Studies of the non-isothermal decomposition of barium 2,4,6-trinitroresorecinate monohydrate, Ba(TNR)· H2O,were carried out by means of TG-DTA, DSC and IR. The thermal decomposition mechanism and associated kinetics were investigated. The kinetic parameters were obtained from an analysis of the DSC curves by integral was suggested by comparison of the kinetic parameters.

  7. Uric Acid Spherulites in the Reflector Layer of Firefly Light Organ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goh, King-Siang; Sheu, Hwo-Shuenn; Hua, Tzu-En; Kang, Mei-Hua; Li, Chia-Wei

    2013-01-01

    Background In firefly light organs, reflector layer is a specialized tissue which is believed to play a key role for increasing the bioluminescence intensity through reflection. However, the nature of this unique tissue remains elusive. In this report, we investigated the role, fine structure and nature of the reflector layer in the light organ of adult Luciola cerata. Principal Findings Our results indicated that the reflector layer is capable of reflecting bioluminescence, and contains abundant uric acid. Electron microscopy (EM) demonstrated that the cytosol of the reflector layer's cells is filled with densely packed spherical granules, which should be the uric acid granules. These granules are highly regular in size (∼700 nm in diameter), and exhibit a radial internal structure. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses revealed that an intense single peak pattern with a d-spacing value of 0.320 nm is specifically detected in the light organ, and is highly similar to the diffraction peak pattern and d-spacing value of needle-formed crystals of monosodium urate monohydrate. However, the molar ratio evaluation of uric acid to various cations (K+, Na+, Ca2+ and Mg2+) in the light organ deduced that only a few uric acid molecules were in the form of urate salts. Thus, non-salt uric acid should be the source of the diffraction signal detected in the light organ. Conclusions In the light organ, the intense single peak diffraction signal might come from a unique needle-like uric acid form, which is different from other known structures of non-salt uric acid form. The finding of a radial structure in the granules of reflector layer implies that the spherical uric acid granules might be formed by the radial arrangement of needle-formed packing matter. PMID:23441187

  8. A systematic investigation of hydrogen-bonding effects on the 17O, 14N, and 2H nuclear quadrupole resonance parameters of anhydrous and monohydrated cytosine crystalline structures: a density functional theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzaei, Mahmoud; Elmi, Fatemeh; Hadipour, Nasser L

    2006-06-08

    A systematic computational study was carried out to characterize the 17O, 14N, and 2H nuclear quadrupole resonance (NQR) parameters in the anhydrous and monohydrated cytosine crystalline structures. To include the hydrogen-bonding effects in the calculations, the most probable interacting molecules with the central molecule in the crystalline phase were considered in the pentameric clusters of both structures. To calculate the parameters, couples of the methods B3LYP and B3PW91 and the basis sets 6-311++G** and CC-pVTZ were employed. The mentioned methods calculated reliable values of 17O, 14N, and 2H NQR tensors in the pentameric clusters, which are in good agreements with the experiment. The different influences of various hydrogen-bonding interactions types, N-H...N, N-H...O, and O-H...O, were observed on the 17O, 14N, and 2H NQR tensors. Lower values of quadrupole coupling constants and higher values of asymmetry parameters in the crystalline monohydrated cytosine indicate the presence of stronger hydrogen-bonding interactions in the monohydrated form rather than that of crystalline anhydrous cytosine.

  9. Structural, Thermoanalytical and Molecular Modeling Studies on N-(3-hydroxypropyl 3α,12α-Dihydroxy-5β-cholan-24-amide and Its Monohydrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reijo Kauppinen

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available The synthetic method for preparing N-(3-hydroxypropyl 3α,12α-dihydroxy-5β- cholan-24-amide can lead to formation of at least three different crystal forms – an anhydrous compound and two monohydrates. The structural and thermal properties of these forms have been characterized by 13C-CP/MAS-NMR and IR spectroscopy, thermo- gravimetry, differential scanning calorimetry and by powder and single crystal x-ray crystallography. In addition, theoretical 13C-NMR chemical shift calculations were also performed for the anhydrous compound and for the first monohydrate, starting from single crystal structures and the structures of these species have now been verified. The first monohydrate, C27H47NO4 · H2O, crystallizes in orthorhombic space group P212121 with cell parameters: a = 7.1148(2, b = 18.1775(5, c = 20.1813(6, Z = 4.

  10. 新生期注射谷氨酸单钠对大鼠脑区损伤程度的比较观察%Comparative Study of Damage to Different Parts of Brain with Injected Monosodium Glutamate in Newborn Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金平; 史玉兰; 金凤霞; 白文忠; 高志国

    2000-01-01

    The damage to 16 parts of brain is comparatively researched in the adult rat. Those experimental animals are injected intraperitoneal different dose monosodium glutamate in the newborn period. The neurons are decrease markedly in most parts of the brain in the experimental rats. But some parts of brain are protected from the neurotoxicity of monosodium glutamate.%比较观察了在新生期腹腔内注射不同剂量谷氨酸单钠后,成年大鼠16个脑区的神经元损伤程度.发现大多数脑区的神经元显著减少,但有的脑区对谷氨酸单钠的神经毒性具有一定保护作用.

  11. Tophaceous Gout in an Anorectic Patient Visualized by Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Dahl; Sheta, Hussam Mahmoud; Morillon, Melanie Birger;

    2016-01-01

    known to have anorexia nervosa. During our clinical examination, we detected plenty of tophi on both hands, but no swollen joints. The diagnosis of gout was made by visualizing crystals in a biopsy from a tophus. The first line of treatment was allopurinol, the second line was rasburicase...... and soft tissue. CONCLUSIONS DECT is an imaging modality useful to assess urate crystal deposits at diagnosis of gout and could be considered during treatment evaluation. Lack of adherence to treatment should be considered when P-urate values vary significantly and when DECT scans over years persistently......BACKGROUND Gout is characterized by deposition of uric acid crystals (monosodium urate) in tissues and fluids. This can cause acute inflammatory arthritis. The 2015 ACR/EULAR criteria for the diagnosis of gout include dual energy computed tomography (DECT)-demonstrated monosodium urate crystals...

  12. Investigation on crystalline perfection, optical transmittance, birefringence, temperature-dependent refractive index, laser damage threshold and pyroelectric characteristics of inversely soluble lithium sulfate monohydrate single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silambarasan, A.; Rajesh, P.; Bhatt, Rajeev; Bhaumik, Indranil; Karnal, A. K.; Ramasamy, P.; Gupta, P. K.

    2016-08-01

    Bulk prismatic lithium sulfate monohydrate (LSMH) single crystals were grown by seed rotation with slow heating method from aqueous solution. Small FWHM obtained from high-resolution X-ray diffraction spectrum shows that the crystals grown by this method have less defects and absence of low-angle grain boundaries. The high transmittance and low reflectance nature of the grown crystal was observed using UV-Vis-NIR spectrometer. The principal refractive indices of a LSMH crystal have been measured by a prism coupling method for the wavelengths of 0.407, 0.532, 0.828, 1.064 and 1.551 µm at room temperature, and Sellmeier equations are determined from the fitting of the data point. The refractive index data confirm that LSMH crystal is negative biaxial and the optic axis lies in YZ plane with an angle (2 V y ) of 51.74° with respect to y axis at 532 nm wavelength. The thermo-optic coefficients were determined from the temperature-dependent refractive indices measured in the range of 30-125 °C for the wavelengths of 532 and 1064 nm. The surface laser damage threshold studies reveal the higher optical radiation stability against 532-nm laser. The pyroelectric coefficients and pyroelectric figure of merit were determined from the pyroelectric current measurement by the Byer and Roundy method.

  13. Studies on the effect of different operational parameters on the crystallization kinetics of α-lactose monohydrate single crystals in aqueous solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parimaladevi, P.; Srinivasan, K.

    2014-09-01

    Supersaturation dependent nucleation, size and morphology of alpha-lactose monohydrate (α-LM) crystals from aqueous solution were investigated by adopting two different crystallization methods, slow evaporation and fast evaporation, in the supersaturation range between σ=0.05 and 1.30. The induction period of nucleation is comparatively long in case of slow evaporation and is very short in case of fast evaporation process as the interconversion between α-L and β-L is uncontrollable in the former and is under control in the latter case. Moreover α-LM crystals with tomahawk morphology were obtained throughout the supersaturation range by slow evaporation method whereas crystals with tomahawk, triangular and needle-like morphologies were obtained in supersaturation ranges σ=0.05-0.5, σ=0.5-0.9 and σ=0.9-1.30 respectively by fast evaporation method. Experimentally observed nucleation parameters were verified with theoretically deuced values. It is realized that the fast evaporation method employed in the present study is found to be highly efficient in controlling the interconversion between α-L and β-L as well as in suppressing the inhibitory activity of β molecule on the nucleation and growth of α-LM crystals when compared to conventional slow evaporation method and is successful in producing the industrially preferred needle-like crystals at high supersaturation ranges.

  14. Cellular adaptive response of distal renal tubular cells to high-oxalate environment highlights surface alpha-enolase as the enhancer of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystal adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanlaya, Rattiyaporn; Fong-Ngern, Kedsarin; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2013-03-27

    Hyperoxaluria is one of etiologic factors of calcium oxalate kidney stone disease. However, response of renal tubular cells to high-oxalate environment remained largely unknown. We applied a gel-based proteomics approach to characterize changes in cellular proteome of MDCK cells induced by 10mM sodium oxalate. A total of 14 proteins were detected as differentially expressed proteins. The oxalate-induced up-regulation of alpha-enolase in whole cell lysate was confirmed by 2-D Western blot analysis. Interaction network analysis revealed that cellular adaptive response under high-oxalate condition involved stress response, energy production, metabolism and transcriptional regulation. Down-regulation of RhoA, which was predicted to be associated with the identified proteins, was confirmed by immunoblotting. In addition, the up-regulation of alpha-enolase on apical surface of renal tubular epithelial cells was also confirmed by immunoblotting of the isolated apical membranes and immunofluorescence study. Interestingly, blockage of alpha-enolase expressed on the cell surface by antibody neutralization significantly reduced the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) crystals adhered on the cells. These results strongly suggest that surface alpha-enolase plays an important role as the enhancer of COM crystal binding. The increase of alpha-enolase expressed on the cell surface may aggravate kidney stone formation in patients with hyperoxaluria. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Obtaining Ca(H2PO4)(2)·H2O, monocalcium phosphate monohydrate, via monetite from brushite by using sonication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Enríquez, J; Reyes-Gasga, J

    2013-05-01

    Brushite was synthesized by precipitation of calcium chloride (CaCl(2)) and sodium phosphate monobasic (Na(2)HPO(4)) dried in vacuum and monetite was obtained from this brushite by sonication with a frequency of 90kHz at 500W for 90min. Monetite itself was also transformed in Ca(H(2)PO(4))(2)·H(2)O, monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM), by sonication with a frequency of 90kHz at 500W for 60min followed by lyophilization. The MCPM was sonicated and lyophilized by three times more until reach over 240min, but any other phase transformation was observed. All these phase transformations were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated a grain size of about 200nm in all the samples. The morphology observed was a corn-flake-like grain for brushite, a pseudo-needle-like grains for monetite, and lamellar-like grains for MCPM.

  16. Stability-Indicating Gradient RP-LC Method for the Determination of Process and Degradation Impurities in Bosentan Monohydrate: An Endothelin Receptor Antagonist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjay A. Jadhav

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Described is a simple, rapid, selective, and stability-indicating RP-LC method for the determination of process and degradation-related impurities of bosentan monohydrate. Chromatographic separation was achieved on Zorbax SB-Phenyl column thermostated at 35°C under gradient elution by a binary mixture of solvent A (60% phosphate buffer, pH 2.5, and 40% methanol and solvent B (acetonitrile at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min. Forced degradation was carried out under acidic, alkaline, oxidative, photolytic, and thermal conditions. Significant degradation is observed in acid and alkali stress conditions. Process- and degradation-related impurities were characterized by mass spectrometry, 1H NMR, and FT-IR spectral data. Validation of the developed method was carried out as per ICH requirements. Regression analysis shows an “r” value (correlation coefficient of greater than 0.999 for bosentan and five potential impurities. This method was capable to detect the five impurities at 0.01% of the test concentration of 1.0 mg mL-1.

  17. Self-assembled supramolecular structure of 1-methyl piperazinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol monohydrate single crystal: Synthesis, growth, thermal and photo physical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagapandiselvi, P; Baby, C; Gopalakrishnan, R

    2015-08-05

    A new photoactive organic crystal, 1-methyl piperazinium 4-nitrophenolate-4-nitrophenol monohydrate (MP4NPM) has been synthesised at 35 °C. Good quality single crystals of MP4NPM have successfully been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that MP4NPM belongs to monoclinic crystal system with space group P2₁/n. The molecular structure was further confirmed by modern spectroscopic techniques like FT-NMR (both 1D and 2D), FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum was performed to understand the range of optical transparency and the results showed its suitability for nonlinear optical applications. Fluorescence emission revealed that MP4NPM can serve as a photo active material. Thermal properties of MP4NPM were investigated using simultaneous TG-DSC analysis. Frequency and temperature dependent dielectric properties were studied in the frequency range 500 Hz-5 MHz and 40-50 °C, respectively. Vicker's microhardness measurements revealed that MP4NPM belongs to the category of soft material. Kurtz and Perry powder technique shows that MP4NPM has SHG efficiency 0.89 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Structural characterization, vibrational study, NLO and DFT calculations of a novel organic sulfate monohydrate templated with (S)-(-)-2,6-diammonium-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barhoumi, Abir; Mhiri, Tahar; Dammak, Thameur; Suñol, Joan Josep; Belhouchet, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    A single crystal of (S)-(-)-2,6-diammonium-4,5,6,7-tetrahydrobenzothiazole sulfate monohydrate has been synthesized and grown at room temperature by slow evaporation of aqueous solution. The studied compound crystallizes in the space group P212121 of the orthorhombic system with cell parameters a = 7.0014(12), b = 8.7631(15), c = 19.773(3) Å. We report the molecular structure and the theoretical and experimental vibrational spectra of the synthesized compound. The atomic arrangement, which is an alternation of organic inorganic layers linked together through hydrogen bonds, gives rise to three types of rings formed by the interconnection of organic-inorganic entities. The experimental FT-IR and the Raman spectra the synthesized compound were recorded and analyzed. The peaks assignment has been made unambiguously from the literature. To confirm the assignment, the experimental spectra were compared with theoretical spectra obtained with the Gaussian 98 program by the Density Functional Theory (DFT) method using B3LYP function with the LanL2DZ basis set. Moreover, to study the nonlinear optical (NLO) property of this compound, the hyperpolarizability βtot, the electric dipole μtot and the polarizability αtot were calculated using the DFT. Based on our calculation the synthesized compound has a non-zero hyperpolarizability suggesting that it may be used in some NLO applications.

  19. Crystal growth and structural investigation of a new metal-organic crystal: β-alanine cadmium bromide monohydrate (β-ACBM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renugadevi, R.; Kesavasamy, R.

    2014-09-01

    A new metal-organic crystal, β-alanine cadmium bromide monohydrate (β-ACBM) has been grown from aqueous solution by slow evaporation technique. The grown crystals have been subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction to determine the crystal structure. The β-ACBM crystallized in monoclinic system, which belongs to the space group P21/c with a = 8.6734(6) Å, b = 13.9451(8) Å, c = 7.6801(5) Å, β = 103.713(2)o, volume = 902.44(10) Å3, Z = 4, calculated density = 2.792 Mg/m3, F(000) = 704, absorption coefficient = 11.231 mm-1, the final R = 0.0252 and wR2 = 0.0601 for 2065 observed reflections [I > 2sigma(I)]. FT-IR spectroscopy analysis was carried out in order to identify the functional groups of the title compound. The presence of proton and carbon in the β-ACBM was confirmed by 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral analysis. The UV-Vis-NIR transmittance spectrum has been recorded for the grown β-ACBM crystal. The refractive index of β-ACBM crystal was determined by Brewster's angle method using He-Ne laser.

  20. Effects of dietary supplementation with creatine monohydrate during the finishing period on growth performance, carcass traits, meat quality and muscle glycolytic potential of broilers subjected to transport stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, L; Li, J L; Gao, T; Lin, M; Wang, X F; Zhu, X D; Gao, F; Zhou, G H

    2014-12-01

    A total of 320 male Arbor Acres broiler chickens (28 days old) were randomly allotted to one of the three experimental diets supplemented with 0 (160 birds), 600 (80 birds) or 1200 mg/kg (80 birds) creatine monohydrate (CMH) for 14 days. On the morning of 42 day, after an 8-h fast, the birds of CMH-free group were divided into two equal groups, and all birds of these four groups were transported according to the follow protocol: 0.75-h transport without CMH supplementation (as a lower stress control group), 3-h transport without CMH supplementation, 3-h transport with 600 or 1200 mg/kg CMH supplementation. Each treatment group was composed of 8 replicates with 10 birds each. The results showed that supplementation of CMH for 14 days before slaughter did not affect the overall growth performance and carcass traits of stressed broilers (P>0.05). A 3-h transport decreased plasma glucose concentration, elevated plasma corticosterone concentration, increased bird live weight loss, breakdown of muscle glycogen, as well as the accumulation of muscle lactate (Pchanges to breast meat quality (lower ultimate pH and higher drip loss, Pmeat quality by reducing the drip loss (Pmeat quality by supplementation of CMH in transported broilers.

  1. Experimental and theoretical studies of the second- and third-order NLO properties of a semi-organic compound: 6-Aminoquinolinium iodide monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Pedro S. Pereira; El Ouazzani, Hasnaa; Pranaitis, Mindaugas; Silva, Manuela Ramos; Arranja, Cláudia T.; Sobral, Abilio J. F. N.; Sahraoui, Bouchta; Paixão, José A.

    2014-01-01

    A new semi-organic compound, 6-aminoquinolinium iodide monohydrate (I), has been synthesized and characterized by single crystal X-ray diffraction, UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy and nonlinear optical (NLO) measurements. The second- and third-order NLO responses were investigated with the second- and third-harmonic Maker fringes techniques, carried out on thin films at a fundamental wavelength of 1064 nm. From the molecular structure, the molecular hyperpolarizability tensors were determined with density functional theory and second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation method. The second- and third-order susceptibility tensors of the reported crystal were evaluated using the oriented gas model with the Lorenz-Lorentz and the Wortmann-Bishop local-field corrections. The calculations using the Wortmann-Bishop local-field were able to reproduce the correct order of magnitude of the experimental third-order susceptibilities. The value of χ obtained by summing the effective third-order polarizability calculated for the asymmetric unit surrounded by ESP-derived charges have also the same order of magnitude of the experimental.

  2. S-carbocysteine-lysine salt monohydrate and cAMP cause non-additive activation of the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator channel in human respiratory epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, G; Doppierio, S; Daffonchio, L; Cremaschi, D

    1997-03-03

    S-Carbocysteine-lysine salt monohydrate (S-CMC-Lys) has been shown to open a Cl- channel in the trachea, thus aiding fluid secretion. The aim of this study was to characterize the channel and the action mechanism on a culture line of human respiratory epithelial cells. The patch-clamp technique (in cell-attached or inside-out configuration) and conventional micro-electrodes were used. The activity and density of a cAMP-dependent Cl- channel, identical to the cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR) channel, proved to be maximally stimulated by 100 microM S-CMC-Lys present in the cAMP-free cell incubation medium for 240-290 min (cell-attached configuration). Subsequent addition of cAMP to the medium did not determine any further activation. S-CMC-Lys acted mostly indirectly as, when placed in direct contact with a membrane patch, activation of the CFTR channel was nil (cytoplasmic side) or limited (external side).

  3. Study on Thermodynamic Properties for Binary Systems of Water + L-Cysteine Hydrochloride Monohydrate, Glycerol, and D-Sorbitol at Various Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Koohyar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Viscosities, refractive indices, and densities for aqueous solution of L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate ([LCHCMH] and D-sorbitol, and also densities (ρ, refractive indices (, excess molar volumes (, and change of refractive indices on mixing ( for aqueous solution of glycerol have been measured at several mole fractions and temperatures (between  K and  K at atmospheric pressure. The measurements were carried out using a vibrating-tube density meter for density, an Abbe refractometer for refractive index, and an Ubbelohde viscometer for viscosity. From these data for aqueous solution of glycerol, the excess molar volumes and the change of refractive indices on mixing were calculated and fitted to the Redlich-Kister polynomial equation. Also for aqueous solutions of [LCHCMH], glycerol, and D-sorbitol, the density and refractive indices were fitted with the experimental equations to estimate the adjustable parameters and relative deviations. It has been observed for aqueous solution of glycerol that the excess molar volumes and change of refractive indices on mixing increase and decrease with increasing temperature, respectively.

  4. Chemical synthesis, crystal structure, vibrational spectroscopy, non-linear optical properties and DFT calculation of bis (2,6-diaminopyridinium) sulfate monohydrate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Hassen, Chaouki; Dammak, Thameur; Chniba-Boudjada, Nassira; Mhiri, Tahar; Boujelbene, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Single crystals of a new organic inorganic hybrid compound "bis (2,6-diaminopyridinium) sulfate monohydrate [C5H8N3]2SO4·H2O ([2,6-HDAP]2SO4·H2O)" was synthesized by slow evaporation method at room temperature and characterized by X-ray single crystal diffraction, infrared spectroscopy and DFT calculation. The new hybrid compound crystallizes in the orthorhombic system with the non-centro symmetric space group Pna21 and the following parameters a = 14.759(2) Å, b = 7.076 (2) Å and c = 28.159 (2) Å. The atomic arrangement can be described as inorganic chains following the b axis connected with the organic groups by means of Nsbnd H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form 3D network. Antiparallelly π-π stacked 2,6-HDAP cations form molecular columns in the spaces between the chains. The optimized molecular structure, vibrational spectra and the optical properties were calculated by the density functional theory (DFT) method using the B3LYP function with the LanL2DV basis set. The wavenumber calculated are in good agreement with the observed frequency values. The calculated hyperpolarizability βtot is about 4.5 times more than that of the reference crystal KDP. Hence, the large β value shows that the title compound is an attractive object for future studies of nonlinear optical properties.

  5. Unidirectional growth of large size urea doped L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate NLO organic crystal and investigations of its crystalline and optical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Sunil; Ramachandra Rao, K.; Kar, S.; Bartwal, K. S.

    2016-01-01

    Organic crystals of urea doped L-cysteine hydrochloride monohydrate have been grown by unidirectional solution growth technique. The crystal grown by this technique has high growth rate as compared to the crystals grown using conventional slow cooling method. This method is ideally suited to grow crystals along a specific direction. The growth process was monitored at regular intervals of time in a time-lapsed manner to estimate the growth rate and also monitor its quality visually. The grown crystal was subjected to different characterizations in order to confirm the phase of the grown crystal, its crystalline perfection and optical properties. The X-ray diffraction confirmed the phase of the crystal. The rocking curve recorded using high resolution X-ray diffraction (HRXRD) technique reveals that the crystal grown using conventional slow cooling method has internal gain boundaries whereas that grown by unidirectional technique has high degree of crystalline perfection. The bonding environment present in the crystal was characterized by FTIR spectroscopy where vibrational frequencies of the different functional groups present were identified. The optical quality of the crystal was characterized using UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer and Mach-Zehnder interferometer. The nonlinear optical response of the crystal was measured using Kurtz-Perry method and found to be 1.4 times that of a KDP crystal.

  6. Self-assembled supramolecular structure of 1-methyl piperazinium 4-nitrophenolate 4-nitrophenol monohydrate single crystal: Synthesis, growth, thermal and photo physical properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagapandiselvi, P.; Baby, C.; Gopalakrishnan, R.

    2015-08-01

    A new photoactive organic crystal, 1-methyl piperazinium 4-nitrophenolate-4-nitrophenol monohydrate (MP4NPM) has been synthesised at 35 °C. Good quality single crystals of MP4NPM have successfully been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis shows that MP4NPM belongs to monoclinic crystal system with space group P21/n. The molecular structure was further confirmed by modern spectroscopic techniques like FT-NMR (both 1D and 2D), FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR and fluorescence. The UV-Vis-NIR spectrum was performed to understand the range of optical transparency and the results showed its suitability for nonlinear optical applications. Fluorescence emission revealed that MP4NPM can serve as a photo active material. Thermal properties of MP4NPM were investigated using simultaneous TG-DSC analysis. Frequency and temperature dependent dielectric properties were studied in the frequency range 500 Hz-5 MHz and 40-50 °C, respectively. Vicker's microhardness measurements revealed that MP4NPM belongs to the category of soft material. Kurtz and Perry powder technique shows that MP4NPM has SHG efficiency 0.89 times that of potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP).

  7. [Antidotal effects of sulfhydryl compounds on acute poisonings by sodium ammonium dimethyl-2-(propane-1,3-dithiosulfate) monohydrate, nereistoxin and cartap].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, B J; Chen, Z K; Chi, Z Q

    1990-03-01

    Sodium dimercaptopropanesulphonate (DMPS) and sodium dimercaptosuccinate (DMS) were discovered to be effective antidotes for acute poisoning of insecticides SCD [sodium ammonium dimethyl-2-(propane-1,3-dithiosulfate) monohydrate], nereistoxin (4-N,N-dimethylamino-1,2-dithiolane) and cartap (dihydronereistoxin dicarbamate). In mice, DMPS (250 mg/kg) or DMS (1000 mg/kg) ip 20 min before SCD increased LD50 of ig SCD from 97 to 374 or 251 mg/kg, respectively. The prophylactic effect of DMPS was better than that of DMS. Administration of DMPS prior to cartap increased LD50 of ig cartap from 130 to 375 mg/kg. The therapeutic effect of DMPS was also demonstrated in SCD-poisoned conscious rabbits. DMPS 62.5 mg/kg or DMS 500 mg/kg iv completely antagonized the neuromuscular blockade and respiratory depression caused by SCD, nereistoxin and cartap in anesthetized rabbits. The antagonism of SCD-induced neuromuscular blockade by cysteine (400 mg/kg, iv) was less effective and of shorter duration than that by DMPS and DMS. Dimercaprol 50 mg/kg im showed little effect on SCD-induced paralysis. The antagonistic actions of sulfhydryl compounds on neuromuscular blockade induced by these insecticides probably belong to chemical antagonism.

  8. A Study of the Monohydrate and Dihydrate Complexes of Perfluoropropionic Acid Using Chirped-Pulse Fourier Transform Microwave (CP-FTMW) Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grubbs, G S; Obenchain, Daniel A; Frank, Derek S; Novick, Stewart E; Cooke, S A; Serrato, Agapito; Lin, Wei

    2015-10-22

    This work reports the first known spectroscopic observation of the monohydrate and dihydrate complexes of perfluoropropionic acid (PFPA). The spectra have been observed using a chirped-pulse Fourier transform microwave (CP-FTMW) spectrometer in the 7750 to 14,250 MHz region. The structures of the species have been confirmed with the aid of ab initio quantum chemical calculations. Rotational constants A, B, and C have been determined and reported for both species along with centrifugal distortion constants ΔJ, ΔJK, ΔK, δJ, δK for H2O-PFPA and ΔJ, ΔJK, and δJ for (H2O)2-PFPA. Effects due to large amplitude motions were not observable in these experiments. Structures of the complexes have been determined using a combination of experimental second moment values and ab initio results. The complexation of the -OH of one or two water molecules has been found to occur in the plane of the carboxylic acid group forming a six- or eight-member ring.

  9. Surface aggregation of urinary proteins and aspartic acid-rich peptides on the faces of calcium oxalate monohydrate investigated by in situ force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weaver, M L; Qiu, S R; Hoyer, J R; Casey, W H; Nancollas, G H; De Yoreo, J J

    2008-05-28

    The growth of calcium oxalate monohydrate in the presence of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP), osteopontin (OPN), and the 27-residue synthetic peptides (DDDS){sub 6}DDD and (DDDG){sub 6}DDD [where D = aspartic acid and X = S (serine) or G (glycine)] was investigated via in situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). The results show that these three growth modulators create extensive deposits on the crystal faces. Depending on the modulator and crystal face, these deposits can occur as discrete aggregates, filamentary structures, or uniform coatings. These proteinaceous films can lead to either the inhibition or increase of the step speeds (with respect to the impurity-free system) depending on a range of factors that include peptide or protein concentration, supersaturation and ionic strength. While THP and the linear peptides act, respectively, to exclusively increase and inhibit growth on the (-101) face, both exhibit dual functionality on the (010) face, inhibiting growth at low supersaturation or high modulator concentration and accelerating growth at high supersaturation or low modulator concentration. Based on analyses of growth morphologies and dependencies of step speeds on supersaturation and protein or peptide concentration, we argue for a picture of growth modulation that accounts for the observations in terms of the strength of binding to the surfaces and steps and the interplay of electrostatic and solvent-induced forces at crystal surface.

  10. 提高味精生产中和料液浓度的研究与实践%Research and practice on increasing the concentration of neut ralization liquid during the monosodium glutamate production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁利和

    2009-01-01

    According to scientific experiments and improvements on the manufacturing technique of monosodium glutamate (MSG), the concentration of the to calculations and experiments, the consumption of the steam will decrease 45 by 1 h. As for a MSG manufacturer whose annual capacity is 100,000 tones, the turnover can be increased by more than RMB 5 Million.%通过科学实验和对生产工艺的调整改造,将味精生产中的中和料液浓度从22°Bé 提到至28°Bé,单个中和罐料液最高浓度可达30°Bé.根据计算和实验,每提高1°Bé浓度,吨味精汽耗可降低45kg,可缩短浓缩结晶锅1h的操作周期,对于生产10万t味精的生产厂,年可增加利润500多万元.

  11. A comparative study of the inhibition effects of benzotriazole and 6-aniline-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium salt on the corrosion of copper by potentiodynamic polarization, AC impedance and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Guoding; Cai, Shengmin; Song, Liqun; Yang, Huaquan; Fujishima, A.; Ibrahim, A.; Lee, Y. G.; Loo, B. H.

    1991-11-01

    The inhibition effects of benzotriazole (BTA) and 6-aniline-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol (ATD) monosodium salt on copper corrosion have been studied by the potentiodynamic polarization, AC impedance and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic techniques. The polarization resistance Rp increases with the concentration of either BTA or ATD. From the plots of the phase shift θ versus logarithm of the frequency, it is found that θ is close to 90° after the copper electrode is immersed for a long period of time in BTA-containing solution which indicates the behavior of an ideal capacitor. In ATD-containing solutions, θ is close to 45 ° which shows the appearance of a Warburg impedance for a diffusion process. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of the competitive adsorption of BTA and ATD on copper surfaces indicate that BTA adsorbs better than ATD. Based on these results, it is concluded that the inhibition action of BTA is better than that of ATD.

  12. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mesfin Yimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA- induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4, 40.5% (week 5, and 22.0% (week 6 in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms.

  13. [Synthesis of stable solvates of monosodium 2-[R*s,9S*)-(4-methoxy-6,7,8, 9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta[b]pyridin-9-yl)sulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Goto, T; Yuasa, S; Yamaguchi, T; Kogi, K

    1996-08-01

    Monosodium 2-[(R*s,9S*)-(4-methoxy-6,7,8, 9-tetrahydro-5H-cyclohepta-[b]pyridin-9-yl)sulfinyl]-1H-benzimidazole (3A), a novel antiulcer agent previously reported by us, was found to be easily decomposed in weakly acidic solutions. In order to improve the stability of the parent compound, 3A, the preparation of 1-substituted benzimidazoles (4A) was attempted. However, the inhibitory effect of 4A against gastric acid secretion was less potent than that of 3A. Then 3A was solvated by EtOH or H2O to afford 5A or 6A, respectively. On the other hand, an another diastereoisomer, (R*s,9R*)-3B, was not solvated by EtOH or H2O under the same conditions. The thus obtained solvates (5A, 6A) are much more stable than that of 3A. The antiulcer activities of 5A and 6A were found to be similar to that of the parent compound (3A). Consequently, 6A was selected as an antiulcer agent for the development.

  14. A simple and sensitive spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of nitrite in environmental and biological samples using 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulphonic acid monosodium salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaraja, Padmarajaiah; Al-Tayar, Naef Ghllab S.; Shivakumar, Anantharaman; Shrestha, Ashwine K.; Gowda, Avinash K.

    2010-05-01

    A very simple, sensitive, fairly selective and rapid spectrophotometric method for the determination of trace amounts of nitrite has been described. This method is based on the diazotized intramolecular coupling of electrophilic diazonium cation with the phenolic group of 4-amino-5-hydroxynaphthalene-2,7-disulphonic acid monosodium salt (AHNDMS) in a phosphate buffer solution of pH 7.5. The cyclic product has a purple color with maximum absorbance at 560 nm and is stable for 6 h. Optimum reaction conditions and other important analytical parameters for the maximum color development were established. Beer's law was found to obey for nitrite in the concentration range of 0.1-1.6 μg ml -1 with molar absorptivity of 2.6 × 10 4 l mol -1 cm -1 and Sandell's sensitivity of 0.0075 μg ml -1. The effect of interfering ions on the determination is described. The recommended method was applied for the determination of nitrite in different water, soil and human saliva samples. The performance of the recommended method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test, which indicated the significance of proposed method over the reference method.

  15. Gout

    OpenAIRE

    Leclercq, P.; Malaise, Michel

    2004-01-01

    In the presence of a clinical acute monoarthritis, a differential diagnosis has to be made between septic arthritis, gout and diffuse chondrocalcinosis. Gout comes from a purine nucleotide metabolism disorder leading to serum urate level elevation. This hyperuricemia can lead to the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints, causing acute attacks. After long-term evolution, others tissues as the kidneys can be involved: it is chronic g...

  16. Studies on the Mechanism of Primary Nucleation of Ciprofloxacin Hydrochloride Monohydrate%一水盐酸环丙沙星初级成核机理的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王静康; 刘勇; 尹秋响

    2002-01-01

    A general expression for the relationship between induction period and supersaturation was developed based on polynuclear approach. Different mechanism of primary nucleation in solution can be illustrated by the expression. The results of induction period determined by laser scattering method shows that the crystallization of ciprofloxacin hydrochloride monohydrate in water/ethanol or aqueous solution is by the mechanism of primary nucleation followed by one-dimensional diffusion growth, and then one-dimensional continuous or "birth and spread"growth on crystal face. The growth mechanism on the crystal face is affected by temperature and solvent.

  17. Phase I pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic study of triciribine phosphate monohydrate, a small-molecule inhibitor of AKT phosphorylation, in adult subjects with solid tumors containing activated AKT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrett, Christopher R; Coppola, Domenico; Wenham, Robert M; Cubitt, Christopher L; Neuger, Anthony M; Frost, Timothy J; Lush, Richard M; Sullivan, Daniel M; Cheng, Jin Q; Sebti, Saïd M

    2011-12-01

    Triciribine phosphate is a potent, small-molecule inhibitor of activation of all three isoforms of AKT in vitro. AKT is an intracellular protein that, when activated, leads to cellular division; it is dysregulated in a large number of malignancies, and constitutively activating AKT mutations are present in a minority of cancers. In this phase I study triciribine phosphate monohydrate (TCN-PM) was administered to subjects whose tumors displayed evidence of increased AKT phosphorylation (p-AKT) as measured by immunohistochemical analysis (IHC). TCN-PM was administered over 30 min on days 1, 8 and 15 of a 28-day cycle. Tumor biopsy specimens, collected before treatment and on day +15, were assessed for p-AKT by IHC and western blot analyses. Nineteen subjects were enrolled; 13 received at least one cycle of therapy, and a total of 34 complete cycles were delivered. One subject was treated at the 45 mg/m(2) dose before the study was closed due to its primary objective having been met. No dose-limiting toxic effects were observed. Modest decreases in tumor p-AKT following therapy with TCN-PM were observed at the 35 mg/m(2) and 45 mg/m(2) dose levels, although definitive conclusions were limited by the small sample size. These preliminary data suggest that treatment with TCN-PM inhibits tumor p-AKT at doses that were tolerable. Although single agent activity was not observed in this enriched population, further combination studies of TCN-PM with other signal transduction pathway inhibitors in solid tumors is warranted.

  18. Synthesis, growth, structural, spectral, thermal and microhardness studies of a new hydrogen bonded organic nonlinear optical material: L-valinium p-toluenesulfonate monohydrate (LVPT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, M.; Bahadur, S. Asath; Athimoolam, S.

    2016-05-01

    A new organic hydrogen bonded material, L-valinium p-toluenesulfonate monohydrate (LVPT), was synthesized and grown as a single crystal by slow evaporation solution growth technique with the dimension of 29 × 7 × 4 mm3. A good X-ray quality single crystal was selected from the grown crop and used for single crystal diffraction study. It reveals that the compound crystallized in a non-centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21 with two set of molecules in unit cell. The plane of the carboxyl group of the cation is making dihedral angle of 85.4(1)° with the plane of the aromatic ring of the anion. The crystal packing features intricate three dimensional hydrogen bonding network through chain and ring motifs. These hydrogen bonded motifs are observed at x = 0 or 1 and aromatic rings of the cations are stacked at x = 1/2 leading to alternate hydrophilic and hydrophobic layers, respectively, along a-axis of the unit cell. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) and Raman (FT-Raman) spectral studies have been performed to identify the functional groups. The optical transmittance and the lower cutoff wavelength of the LVPT have been identified by UV-Vis absorption studies. Second harmonic generation test using a laser with wavelength of 1064 nm confirms the nonlinear optical efficiency of the sample as 1.5 greater than KDP. The thermal and mechanical properties of the sample were examined by TG/DTA and Vicker's microhardness tests, respectively. Further, the solid state properties were calculated and found to be better than the known nonlinear optical material KDP.

  19. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gan, Qiong-Zhi; Sun, Xin-Yuan; Bhadja, Poonam; Yao, Xiu-Qiong; Ouyang, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Background Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear. Methods African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero) cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, malonaldehyde (MDA) content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin–eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM) and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD) crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry. Results The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and Δψm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production, and cell death rate increased. Conclusion Cell injury contributes to crystal adhesion to Vero cell surface. The attached nano-COM and COD crystals can aggravate Vero cell injury. As a consequence, crystal adhesion and aggregation are enhanced. These findings provide further insights into kidney stone

  20. Phase matching, X-Ray topography, optical and thermal analysis of L-alanine cadmium chloride monohydrate: a nonlinear optical material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, Anuj; Vijayan, N.; Riscob, B.; Gour, B. S.; Haranath, D.; Philip, J.; Verma, S.; Jayalakshmy, M. S.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Halder, S. K.

    2014-03-01

    A potential semiorganic nonlinear optical material, L-alanine cadmium chloride monohydrate has been successfully synthesised and single crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature by using double distilled water as the solvent. The lattice dimensions of the grown crystal have been analysed by adopting powder X-ray diffraction technique and found that it crystallised in monoclinic system with space group C2. The crystalline perfection of the as-grown crystal has been assessed by high resolution X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography techniques and observed that the quality of the grown specimen is reasonably good. Its optical properties were examined by UV-Vis and photoluminescence techniques and found that there is no absorption in the entire visible range. Its functional groups were identified from FT-Raman and observed that there is no incorporation of other impurities during crystallisation. Its relative second harmonic generation efficiency has been tested with different particle size by Kurtz powder technique and found that within the coherence length the title compound is phase matchable. Its various thermal properties like thermal conductivity, specific heat, thermal effusivity, etc. have been evaluated by photopyroelectric technique and compared with other organic and inorganic materials. To confirm its piezoelectric response, its piezoelectric charge coefficient was measured using piezometer and found low. Its optical homogeneity as well as birefringence measurement of the grown specimen has been carried out by interferometric technique. The surface defects of the grown LACCM single crystal were analysed with etching at room temperature using water as an etchant.

  1. Effects of creatine monohydrate supplementation on exercise-induced apoptosis in athletes: A randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahman Rahimi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Creatine monohydrate (CrM has been shown to be beneficial to health due to its antioxidant potential. Strenuous exercise is associated with oxidative stress, which could lead to apoptosis. We investigated the ability of CrM in amelioration of apoptosis induced by incremental aerobic exercise (AE to exhaustion in young athletes. Materials and Methods: In a placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized, parallel study, 31 young athletes (age 19.52 ± 2.75 years, body mass 79.24 ± 16.13 kg, height 1.73 ± 6.49 m, body fat 16.37% ± 5.92% were randomly assigned to CrM (4 × 5 g/day, n = 15 or placebo (PL: 4 × 5 g/day of maltodextrine powder; n = 16 to investigate the effect of 7 days CrM on serum p53 and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 concentration after acute incremental AE test to exhaustion. Subjects performed AE before (test 1 and after 7 days of supplementation (test 2. Results: Before supplementation, AE to exhaustion induced a significant increase in serum p53 and IGF-1 concentrations at both CrM and PL groups (P 0.05. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation with CrM prevents apoptosis, as measured by decreases in p53 concentration, induced by AE to exhaustion in young athletes. However, CrM had no effect on IGF-1 concentration after AE to exhaustion in young athletes.

  2. Bulk crystal growth, optical, mechanical and ferroelectric properties of new semiorganic nonlinear optical and piezoelectric Lithium nitrate monohydrate oxalate single crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Jyoti; Kumar, Binay

    2016-01-01

    New semiorganic nonlinear optical single crystals of Lithium nitrate oxalate monohydrate (LNO) were grown by slow evaporation solution technique. Single crystal X-ray diffraction study indicated that LNO crystal belongs to the triclinic system with space group P1. Various functional groups present in the material were identified by FTIR and Raman analysis. UV-vis study showed the high transparency of crystals with a wide band gap 5.01 eV. Various Optical constants i.e. Urbach energy (Eu), extinction coefficient (K), refractive index, optical conductivity, electric susceptibility with real and imaginary parts of dielectric constant were calculated using the transmittance data which have applications in optoelectronic devices. A sharp emission peak was found at 438 nm in photoluminescence measurement, which revealed suitability of crystal for fabricating violet lasers. In dielectric studies, a peak has been observed at 33 °C which is due to ferroelectric to paraelectric phase transition. Piezoelectric charge coefficients (d33 = 9.2 pC/N and g33) have been calculated, which make it a suitable for piezoelectric devices applications. In ferroelectric studies, a saturated loop was found in which the values of coercive field and remnant polarization were found to be 2.18 kV/cm and 0.39 μC/cm2, respectively. Thermal behavior was studied by TGA and DSC studies. The relative SHG efficiency of LNO was found to be 1.2 times that of KDP crystal. In microhardness study, Meyer's index value was found to be 1.78 which revealed its soft nature. These optical, dielectric, piezoelectric, ferroelectric, mechanical and non-linear optical properties of grown crystal establish the usefulness of this material for optoelectronics, non-volatile memory and piezoelectric devices applications.

  3. In vitro degradation and cytocompatibility of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate cements prepared using the monocalcium phosphate monohydrate/hydroxyapatite system reveals rapid conversion to HA as a key mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alge, Daniel L; Goebel, W Scott; Chu, Tien-Min Gabriel

    2012-04-01

    We previously showed that dicalcium phosphate dihydrate (DCPD) cements can be prepared using monocalcium phosphate monohydrate (MCPM) and hydroxyapatite (HA). In this study, we have characterized the degradation properties and biocompatibility of these novel cements. To study the degradation properties, cements were prepared using MCPM:HA molar ratios of 4:1, 2:1, 2:3, and 2:5. Degradation was evaluated in vitro by static soaking in PBS, and changes in pH, mass, compressive strength, and composition were monitored. Conversion of DCPD to HA was noted in the 4:1 group, which initially consisted of pure DCPD. However, the 2:1 group, which initially consisted of DCPD and an intermediate amount of unreacted HA, underwent rapid conversion to HA associated with significantly greater pH drop and mass loss as well as a complete loss of mechanical integrity. On the basis of these results, we directly compared the cytocompatibility of 2:1 MCPM:HA cements to DCPD cements prepared with an equivalent percent molar excess of β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) using an in vitro cell viability assay. Viability of cells co-cultured with 2:1 MCPM:HA cements was significantly reduced after just 48 h, while viability of cells cultured with the β-TCP-based cements was no different from control cells. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that conversion to HA plays an important role in the degradation of DCPD cements prepared with the MCPM/HA system, affecting both physical properties and cytocompatibility. These results could have important clinical implications for MCPM/HA cements.

  4. Compatibility of cholecalciferol, haloperidol, imipramine hydrochloride, levodopa/carbidopa, lorazepam, minocycline hydrochloride, tacrolimus monohydrate, terbinafine, tramadol hydrochloride and valsartan in SyrSpend SF PH4 oral suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonini, H C; Silva, S L; Cunha, C N; Brandão, M A F; Ferreira, A O

    2016-04-01

    A challenge with compounding oral liquid formulations is the limited availability of data to support the physical, chemical and microbiological stability of the formulation. This poses a patient safety concern and a risk for medication errors. The objective of this study was to evaluate the compatibility of the following active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in 10 oral suspensions, using SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) as the suspending vehicle: cholecalciferol 50,000 IU/mL, haloperidol 0.5 mg/mL, imipramine hydrochloride 5.0 mg/mL, levodopa/carbidopa 5.0/1.25 mg/mL, lorazepam 1.0 mg/mL, minocycline hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL, tacrolimus monohydrate 1.0 mg/mL, terbinafine 25.0 mg/mL, tramadol hydrochloride 10.0 mg/mL and valsartan 4.0 mg/mL. The suspensions were stored both refrigerated (2 - 8 degrees C) and at controlled room temperature (20 - 25 degrees C). This is the first stability study for these APIs in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid). Further, the stability of haloperidol,ilmipramine hydrochloride, minocycline, and valsartan in oral suspension has not been previously reported in the literature. Compatibility was assessed by measuring percent recovery at varying time points throughout a 90 days period. Quantification of the APIs was performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV). Given the percentage of recovery of the APIs within the suspensions, the beyond-use date of the final preparations was found to be at least 90 days for most suspensions both refrigerated and at room temperature. Exceptions were: Minocycline hydrochloride at both storage temperatures (60 days), levodopa/carbidopa at room temperature (30 days), and lorazepam at room temperature (60 days). This suggests that compounded suspensions of APIs from different pharmacological classes in SyrSpend SF PH4 (liquid) are stable.

  5. Phase matching, X-Ray topography, optical and thermal analysis of L-alanine cadmium chloride monohydrate: a nonlinear optical material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, Anuj; Vijayan, N.; Haranath, D.; Bhagavannarayana, G.; Halder, S.K. [CSIR - National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India); Riscob, B. [CSIR - National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi (India); Institute of Plasma Research, Bhat, Gandhinagar (India); Gour, B.S. [Rajiv Gandhi Proudyogiki Vishwavidyalaya, Bhopal (India); Philip, J.; Jayalakshmy, M.S. [Cochin University of Science and Technology, Cochin (India); Verma, S. [Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Laser Materials Development and Devices Division, Indore (India)

    2014-03-15

    A potential semiorganic nonlinear optical material, L-alanine cadmium chloride monohydrate has been successfully synthesised and single crystals have been grown by slow evaporation solution growth technique at room temperature by using double distilled water as the solvent. The lattice dimensions of the grown crystal have been analysed by adopting powder X-ray diffraction technique and found that it crystallised in monoclinic system with space group C2. The crystalline perfection of the as-grown crystal has been assessed by high resolution X-ray diffraction and X-ray topography techniques and observed that the quality of the grown specimen is reasonably good. Its optical properties were examined by UV-Vis and photoluminescence techniques and found that there is no absorption in the entire visible range. Its functional groups were identified from FT-Raman and observed that there is no incorporation of other impurities during crystallisation. Its relative second harmonic generation efficiency has been tested with different particle size by Kurtz powder technique and found that within the coherence length the title compound is phase matchable. Its various thermal properties like thermal conductivity, specific heat, thermal effusivity, etc. have been evaluated by photopyroelectric technique and compared with other organic and inorganic materials. To confirm its piezoelectric response, its piezoelectric charge coefficient was measured using piezometer and found low. Its optical homogeneity as well as birefringence measurement of the grown specimen has been carried out by interferometric technique. The surface defects of the grown LACCM single crystal were analysed with etching at room temperature using water as an etchant. (orig.)

  6. Investigation on structural, optical, thermal, mechanical and dielectric properties of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate single crystals: An efficient NLO material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Preeti; Hasmuddin, Mohd [Crystal Growth and XRD Lab, Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025 (India); Shakir, Mohd [Crystal Growth and XRD Lab, Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025 (India); CSIR-National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110 012 (India); Department of Physics, ARSD College, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110021 (India); Vijayan, N. [Department of Physics, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009 (India); Abdullah, M.M. [Crystal Growth and XRD Lab, Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025 (India); Advanced Materials and Nano-research Centre (AMNC), Faculty of Science and Arts, Najran University, P.O. Box-1988, Najran 11001 (Saudi Arabia); Ganesh, V. [Department of Physics, Kakatiya University, Warangal 506 009 (India); Wahab, M.A., E-mail: aries.pre84@gmail.com [Crystal Growth and XRD Lab, Department of Physics, Jamia Millia Islamia, New Delhi 110 025 (India)

    2013-10-01

    In the present work, we have grown single crystals of L-proline cadmium chloride monohydrate (LPCCM) by slow evaporation solution technique (SEST) at room temperature and recorded their live growth kinetics with the help of inverted microscope. Crystal size at various stages of growth and its corresponding morphology was also recorded. Powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis of LPCCM single crystals confirmed the orthorhombic structure. Respective values of crystallite size, strain and dislocation density have been calculated using PXRD data. Metal complex coordination of the single crystal is studied by FTIR spectroscopic. The optical properties of the grown crystals were investigated through UV–VIS spectroscopic studies and shows that the crystals have very low absorption in entire characterized wavelength range 200–800 nm. The optical band gap was calculated and found to be ∼5.6 eV. Optical constants of the material is determined by theoretical calculations. The chemical etching study was also carried out to study the density of defects in the grown crystals. The photoluminous excitation and emission spectra and thermal property by TGA/DTA curve were recorded. Further, the mechanical properties have been studied using Vicker's microhardness tester as well as many parameters such as fracture toughness (K{sub c}), Brittleness index (B{sub i}) and yield strength (σ{sub ν}) are presented. Dielectric studies have been carried out with varying frequency and temperatures. - Highlights: • The morphology of LPCCM crystal was observed during growth under inverted microscope. • Observation also shows defects also grows with the growth of crystal. • Positive temperature coefficient is observed. • The optical study shows its suitability for photonics and optical applications.

  7. Creatine monohydrate supplementation for 10 weeks mediates neuroprotection and improves learning/memory following neonatal hypoxia ischemia encephalopathy in female albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allah Yar, Razia; Akbar, Atif; Iqbal, Furhan

    2015-01-21

    Currently there are no uniform standard treatments for newborn suffering from cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) and to find new and effective strategies for treating the HI injury remains a key direction for future research. Present study was designed to demonstrate that optimal dose (1 or 3%) of creatine monohydrate (Cr) for the treatment of neonatal HI in female albino mice. On postnatal day 10, animals were subjected to left carotid artery ligation followed by 8% hypoxia for 25 minutes. Following weaning on postnatal day 20, mice were divided into three treatments on the basis of diet supplementation (Normal rodent diet, 1% and 3% creatine supplemented diet) for 10 week. A battery of neurological tests (Rota rod, open field and Morris water maze) was used to demonstrate effect of Cr supplementation on neurofunction and infarct size following HI. Open field test results indicated that Cr supplementation had significantly improved locomotory and exploratory behavior in subjects. It was observed that Cr treated mice showed better neuromuscular coordination (rota rod) and improved spatial memory (Morris Water Maze test). A significant affect of creatine supplementation in reducing infarct size was also observed. Post hoc analysis of post hoc multiple comparisons revealed that mice supplemented with 3% Cr for 10 weeks performed better during Morris water maze test while 1% Cr supplementation improved the exploratory behavior and gain in body weight than control group indicating that Cr supplementation has the potential to improve the neurofunction following neonatal brain damage. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Brain and Memory.

  8. A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagim Andrew R

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Creatine monohydrate (CrM has been consistently reported to increase muscle creatine content and improve high-intensity exercise capacity. However, a number of different forms of creatine have been purported to be more efficacious than CrM. The purpose of this study was to determine if a buffered creatine monohydrate (KA that has been purported to promote greater creatine retention and training adaptations with fewer side effects at lower doses is more efficacious than CrM supplementation in resistance-trained individuals. Methods In a double-blind manner, 36 resistance-trained participants (20.2 ± 2 years, 181 ± 7 cm, 82.1 ± 12 kg, and 14.7 ± 5% body fat were randomly assigned to supplement their diet with CrM (Creapure® AlzChem AG, Trostberg, Germany at normal loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days and maintenance (5 g/d for 21-days doses; KA (Kre-Alkalyn®, All American Pharmaceutical, Billings, MT, USA at manufacturer’s recommended doses (KA-L, 1.5 g/d for 28-days; or, KA with equivalent loading (4 x 5 g/d for 7-days and maintenance (5 g/d doses of CrM (KA-H. Participants were asked to maintain their current training programs and record all workouts. Muscle biopsies from the vastus lateralis, fasting blood samples, body weight, DEXA determined body composition, and Wingate Anaerobic Capacity (WAC tests were performed at 0, 7, and 28-days while 1RM strength tests were performed at 0 and 28-days. Data were analyzed by a repeated measures multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA and are presented as mean ± SD changes from baseline after 7 and 28-days, respectively. Results Muscle free creatine content obtained in a subgroup of 25 participants increased in all groups over time (1.4 ± 20.7 and 11.9 ± 24.0 mmol/kg DW, p = 0.03 after 7 and 28-days, respectively, with no significant differences among groups (KA-L −7.9 ± 22.3, 4.7 ± 27.0; KA-H 1.0 ± 12.8, 9.1

  9. 一种来源于克劳氏芽孢杆菌的高碱性尿酸氧化酶的异源表达及重组酶性质分析%Heterologous expression of a high alkaline urate oxidase from Bacillus clausii and characterization of the recombinant enzyme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一恬; 沈微; 陈献忠; 樊游; 王正祥

    2013-01-01

    以碱性蛋白酶生产菌克劳氏芽孢杆菌(Bacillus clausii)基因组DNA为模板PCR扩增获得尿酸氧化酶基因(BcU),插入原核表达载体pET28α中,构建表达载体pET-BcU,并转化大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)获得重组大肠杆菌BL21(DE3)/pET-BcU.经IPTG诱导,重组菌BL21(DE3)/pET-BcU表达出有活性的尿酸氧化酶,含空质粒的重组菌在同样条件下没有酶活.酶学性质分析显示,重组酶最适pH值为9.0,在pH值9.0~11范围内酶活几乎不变,是一种高碱性尿酸氧化酶.%The BcU gene encoding urate oxidase was amplified by PCR with genome DNA of Bacillus clausii as template. The gene BcU was cloned into pET28α resulting in the recombinant plasmid pET-BcU. The recombiant plasmid was transformed into Escherichia coli BL21(DE3). Induced with IPTG, the recombinant strain BL21 ( DE3 )/pET-BcU expressed active urate oxidase, while the control BL21 ( DE3 )/pET did not. The optimum pH for recombinant enzyme was 9. 0 and the enzymatic activity showed almost no difference between pH 9. 0 ~ 11. The recombinant enzyme is a kind of high alkaline urate oxidase.

  10. Effect of osmotic dehydration of olives as pre-fermentation treatment and partial substitution of sodium chloride by monosodium glutamate in the fermentation profile of Kalamata natural black olives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatsou, Stamatoula; Iliopoulos, Vasilis; Mallouchos, Athanasios; Gogou, Eleni; Oikonomopoulou, Vasiliki; Krokida, Magdalini; Taoukis, Petros; Panagou, Efstathios Z

    2017-05-01

    This study examined the effect of osmotic dehydration of Kalamata natural black olives as pre-fermentation treatment in combination with partial substitution of NaCl by monosodium glutamate (MSG) on the fermentation profile of olives. Osmotic dehydration was undertaken by immersing the olives in 70% (w/w) glucose syrup overnight at room temperature. Further on, three different mixtures of NaCl and MSG with/without prior osmotic dehydration of olives were investigated, namely (i) 6.65% NaCl - 0.35% MSG (5% substitution), (ii) 6.30% NaCl - 0.70% MSG (10% substitution), (iii) 5.95% NaCl - 1.05% MSG (15% substitution), and (iv) 7% NaCl without osmotic dehydration (control treatment). Changes in the microbial association (lactic acid bacteria [LAB], yeasts, Enterobacteriaceae), pH, titratable acidity, organic acids, sugars, and volatile compounds in the brine were analyzed for a period of 4 months. The final product was subjected to sensory analysis and the content of MSG in olives was determined. Results demonstrated that osmotic dehydration of olives prior to brining led to vigorous lactic acid processes as indicated by the obtained values of pH (3.7-4.1) and acidity (0.7-0.8%) regardless of the amount of MSG used. However, in non-osmotically dehydrated olives, the highest substitution level of MSG resulted in a final pH (4.5) that was beyond specification for this type of olives. MSG was degraded in the brines being almost completely converted to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) at the end of fermentation. Finally, the sensory assessment of fermented olives with/without osmotic dehydration and at all levels of MSG did not show any deviation compared to the control treatment.

  11. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  12. Synthesis and Crystal Structure of 5-[(1H-1,2,4-Triazol-1- yl)methyl]-4-(2,3-dimethoxybenzylideneamino)-2- 2H-1,2,4-triazole-3(4H)-thione Monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Liang-Zhong; SHANG Yu-Qing; YU Guan-Ping; LI Kai; SI Guo-Dong

    2006-01-01

    The title compound 5-[(1H-1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)methyl]-4-(2,3-dimethoxy-benzyli- deneamino)- 2H-1,2,4-triazole-3(4H)-thione monohydrate 4 has been synthesized by the treatment of 4-amino-3-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-5(4H)-thione 3 with 2,3-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. It crystallizes as a monohydrate in the triclinic system, space group P-1 with a = 8.147(2), b = 10.820(2), c = 10.835(2) (A), α = 73.770(6), β = 84.916(7), γ = 70.679(6)°, C14H17N7O3S, Mr = 363.41, V = 865.4(2) (A)3, Z = 2, Dc = 1.395 g/cm3, F(000) = 380, μ = 0.217 mm-1, the final R = 0.0400 and wR = 0.0975 for 3454 unique reflections. The dihedral angles made by the thione-substituted triazole ring with the other triazole ring and benzene ring are 74.92(3) and 14.81(2)°, respectively. There are some weak hydrogen bonds and C-H…π supramolecular interactions in the lattice, forming a three-dimensional network, which stabilizes the crystal structure.

  13. Management of Gout and Hyperuricemia in CKD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vargas-Santos, Ana Beatriz; Neogi, Tuhina

    2017-09-01

    Hyperuricemia and gout, the clinical manifestation of monosodium urate crystal deposition, are common in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although the presence of CKD poses additional challenges in gout management, effective urate lowering is possible for most patients with CKD. Initial doses of urate-lowering therapy are lower than in the non-CKD population, whereas incremental dose escalation is guided by regular monitoring of serum urate levels to reach the target level of gout flares with presently available agents can be more challenging due to potential nephrotoxicity and/or contraindications in the setting of other common comorbid conditions. At present, asymptomatic hyperuricemia is not an indication for urate-lowering therapy, though emerging data may support a potential renoprotective effect. Copyright © 2017 National Kidney Foundation, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. 无症状高尿酸血症患者及痛风患者四肢关节尿酸盐结晶的双源CT对比分析%Analysis of urate crystal deposition us ing dual-source CT in asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and symptomatic gout patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程留慧; 王道清; 张保朋; 王锁刚; 周舟; 温泽迎

    2015-01-01

    Objective Retrospectively analyze of urate crystal deposition using dual-source CT in asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and symptomatic gout patients.Methods Sixty patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia (uric acid ≥540 μmol/L) and 48 patients with gout (without any change in the appearance of the limbs and obvious gout nodules) were selected.All patients underwent dual-energy CT imaging.The location number and size were analyzed using CT gout software.Results Eighteen patients with asymptomatic hyperuricemia with urate crystal deposition in limb joints (13 in foot and ankle, 7 in the hand and wrist, 2 in knee), the average size of crystal was (0.12±0.04) cm3.Forty-eight gout patients (28 cases of early gout and 20 cases of late gout and 20 gout cases) had urate crystal deposition (48 in foot and ankle, 39 in hand and wrist, 27 in knee), the average size of crystal was (1.7±0.7) cm3.The number and size of urate crystals deposited in the joints, tendons and ligaments was higher in patients with gout than asymptomatic hyperuricemia (x2=52.076, P<0.001;t=44.834, P<0.001).There was no difference between the early gout and late gout in the size of urate crystals (t=0.163, P>0.05).Conclusion Urate crystals can deposite in asymptomatic hyperuricemia.However, more and larger urate crystals appear in gout patients, there is no difference in size and number of urate crystals between the course duration of gout.%目的 利用双源CT(DSCT)双能成像技术对无症状高尿酸血症患者及痛风患者体内尿酸盐结晶沉积进行对比分析.方法 选择60例无症状高尿酸血症(尿酸值≥540 μmol/L)患者及48例经临床确诊且具有临床症状的痛风患者(四肢外观无任何改变和触摸不到明显痛风结节).对所有患者四肢关节进行DSCT双能成像检查,利用痛风分析软件对2组患者尿酸盐结晶沉积部位、数目及大小进行对比分析.统计学处理采用t检验、x2检验.结果 18例无症状高尿酸血症

  15. Reinjury risk of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate and calcium oxalate dihydrate crystals on injured renal epithelial cells: aggravation of crystal adhesion and aggregation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gan QZ

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Qiong-Zhi Gan,1,2 Xin-Yuan Sun,1,2 Poonam Bhadja,1,2 Xiu-Qiong Yao,1,2 Jian-Ming Ouyang1,2 1Department of Chemistry, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China; 2Institute of Biomineralization and Lithiasis Research, Jinan University, Guangzhou, People’s Republic of China Background: Renal epithelial cell injury facilitates crystal adhesion to cell surface and serves as a key step in renal stone formation. However, the effects of cell injury on the adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate crystals and the nano-crystal-induced reinjury risk of injured cells remain unclear.Methods: African green monkey renal epithelial (Vero cells were injured with H2O2 to establish a cell injury model. Cell viability, superoxide dismutase (SOD activity, malonaldehyde (MDA content, propidium iodide staining, hematoxylin–eosin staining, reactive oxygen species production, and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm were determined to examine cell injury during adhesion. Changes in the surface structure of H2O2-injured cells were assessed through atomic force microscopy. The altered expression of hyaluronan during adhesion was examined through laser scanning confocal microscopy. The adhesion of nano-calcium oxalate monohydrate (COM and calcium oxalate dihydrate (COD crystals to Vero cells was observed through scanning electron microscopy. Nano-COM and COD binding was quantitatively determined through inductively coupled plasma emission spectrometry.Results: The expression of hyaluronan on the cell surface was increased during wound healing because of Vero cell injury. The structure and function of the cell membrane were also altered by cell injury; thus, nano-crystal adhesion occurred. The ability of nano-COM to adhere to the injured Vero cells was higher than that of nano-COD crystals. The cell viability, SOD activity, and ΔΨm decreased when nano-crystals attached to the cell surface. By contrast, the MDA content, reactive oxygen species production

  16. Prevention of acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive bronchitis with carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate: a multicenter, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, L; Cordaro, C I; Grassi, C

    1996-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of carbocysteine lysine salt monohydrate (SCMC-Lys) in the prevention of acute exacerbations associated with chronic obstructive bronchitis were evaluated in a multicenter double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel group trial in 662 outpatients. After a 1-month run-in period, patients were randomized to three groups and assigned to receive one of the following oral treatments: continuous SCMC-Lys 2.7 g once daily, intermittent SCMC-Lys at the same dosage (1-week courses alternating with 1-week intervals on placebo) or placebo. Each treatment lasted for 6 months and spanned the cooler months of the year. Evaluation was based on a daily recording of relevant clinical symptoms and signs and subsequent evaluation of the collected data by three blinded independent physicians. A total of 146 patients (23%) failed to complete the 6-month treatment (mostly due to difficulties in complying with protocol requirements), without clear-cut differences in the dropout rate in the three groups. An intention-to-treat analysis revealed that the incidence of patients without exacerbations in the group assigned to continuous SCMC-Lys treatment was significantly higher than in the placebo-treated group (p < 0.001). The total number of patients with at least one exacerbation was 66 (29.6%) in the group treated with continuous SCMC-Lys compared with 100 (45.9%) with placebo. In the former group the time between initiation of treatment and first exacerbation was significantly prolonged. The average number of days with acute respiratory illness was significantly decreased in the group receiving continuous SCMC-Lys compared with the group receiving placebo, and this was associated with a significant reduction in the antibiotic consumption during the trial period. In patients assigned to intermittent treatment, results of the assessed endpoints did not differ significantly from those observed in the placebo group. No serious adverse effects were reported. It is

  17. Evaluation of the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and liver enzymes in rats injected with alloxan monohydrate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chilaka K.C; Ifediba E.C; Ogamba J.O

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the effects of Citrus sinensis seed oil on blood glucose, lipid profile and some liver enzymes activities in alloxan induced diabetic rats.Methods:About 120 mg/kg body weight alloxan monohydrate was injected intraperitoneally into 18 adult male albino rats weighing 180-200 g, which has been acclimatized in our laboratory for two weeks. Approximately 72 h after the alloxan injection, the rat became hyperglycaemic with blood glucose above 200 mg/dL. The diabetic rats were randomly assigned into three diabetic and one control groups of six rats each: normal control, diabetic treated with 1000 mg/kg body weight of emulsified seed oil; diabetic control, diabetic treated with 150 mg/kg body weight of metformin hydrochloride. Both controls received weight-checked solution of 4.8% v/v Tween-80 in distilled water. All injections in all groups were done intraperitoneally once daily for 28 d. The blood glucose estimation was done every week, with one touch glucometer as well as the weight checked with animal weighing balance. Lipid profiles and some liver enzymes activities (AST, ALT and ALP) were analysed using test kits and spectrophotometer. Data obtained were analyzed using One way ANOVA and post hoc test done using graph pad prism-version 6. Results: The results of this study indicated that Citrus sinensis seed oil was able to reduce blood glucose significantly (P<0.001) in the early weeks of the study when compared with both the diabetic control group and the metformin-treated group. The seed oil significantly lowered serum triglyceride, the serum LDL-cholesterol, total cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol; the activities of all the liver enzymes assayed (P<0.05) but significantly increased the HDL-cholesterol in the diabetic oil-treated rats as compared to diabetic control (P<0.05). Conclusions: However, further studies need to be carried out to show its mechanism of action and to isolate the active ingredient in the Citrus sinensis seed oil that is

  18. Imaging modalities for the classification of gout: systematic literature review and meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ogdie, A.; Taylor, W.J.; Weatherall, M.; Fransen, J.; Jansen, T.L.; Neogi, T.; Schumacher, H.R.; Dalbeth, N.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although there has been major progress in gout imaging, no gout classification criteria currently include advanced imaging techniques. OBJECTIVE: To examine the usefulness of imaging modalities in the classification of gout when compared to monosodium urate (MSU) crystal confirmation as

  19. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thyrion, L.; Raedt, R.; Portelli, J.; van Loo, P.; Wadman, W.J.; Glorieux, G.; Lambrecht, B.N.; Janssens, S.; Vonck, K.; Boon, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in sei

  20. Performance of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Gout in a Multi-Center Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogdie, Alexis; Taylor, William J; Neogi, Tuhina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the performance of ultrasound for the diagnosis of gout using presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as the gold standard. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR), a large, multi-center observational cross-sectional study...

  1. The Human and Economic Burden of Difficult-to-Treat Gouty Arthritis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oude Voshaar, Martijn A.H.; Bardin, Thomas; Laar, van de Martinus A.F.J.

    2015-01-01

    Gouty arthritis, one of the most painful and common forms of adult arthritis, is caused by monosodium urate crystal deposits in joints, most often in the lower extremities. Crystals trigger an inflammatory response leading to acute flares characterized by a rapid onset of pain, warmth, swelling, and

  2. Multiplicative interaction of functional inflammasome genetic variants in determining the risk of gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinney, Cushla; Stamp, Lisa K.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Topless, Ruth K.; Day, Richard O.; Kannangara, Diluk R. W.; Williams, Kenneth M.; Janssen, Matthijs; Jansen, Timothy L.; Joosten, Leo A.; Radstake, Timothy R.; Riches, Philip L.; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; Liote, Frederic; So, Alexander; Merriman, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The acute gout flare results from a localised self-limiting innate immune response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposited in joints in hyperuricaemic individuals. Activation of the caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 8 (CARD8) NOD-like receptor pyrin-containing 3 (NLRP3

  3. Multiplicative interaction of functional inflammasome genetic variants in determining the risk of gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinney, C.; Stamp, L.K.; Dalbeth, N.; Topless, R.K.; Day, R.O.; Kannangara, D.R.; Williams, K.M.; Janssen, M; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Radstake, T.R.; Riches, P.L.; Tausche, A.K.; Liote, F.; So, A.; Merriman, T.R.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The acute gout flare results from a localised self-limiting innate immune response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposited in joints in hyperuricaemic individuals. Activation of the caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 8 (CARD8) NOD-like receptor pyrin-containing 3 (NLRP3

  4. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Thyrion; R. Raedt; J. Portelli; P. van Loo; W.J. Wadman; G. Glorieux; B.N. Lambrecht; S. Janssens; K. Vonck; P. Boon

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in sei

  5. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variant rs2149356 and risk of gout in European and polynesian sample sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasheed, Humaira; McKinney, Cushla; Stamp, Lisa K.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Topless, Ruth K.; Day, Richard; Kannangara, Diluk; Williams, Kenneth; Smith, Malcolm; Janssen, Matthijs; Jansen, Tim L.; Joosten, Leo A.; Radstake, Timothy R.; Riches, Philip L.; Tausche, Anne Kathrin; Lioté, Frederic; Lu, Leo; Stahl, Eli A.; Choi, Hyon K.; So, Alexander; Merriman, Tony R.

    2016-01-01

    Deposition of crystallized monosodium urate (MSU) in joints as a result of hyperuricemia is a central risk factor for gout. However other factors must exist that control the progression from hyperuricaemia to gout. A previous genetic association study has implicated the tolllike receptor 4 (TLR4) wh

  6. 利用味精废液发酵枯草芽孢杆菌的培养基配方优化%Optimization of a culture medium for Bacillus subtilis based on monosodium glutamate wastewater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丽; 曾真; 方萍

    2016-01-01

    以营养肉汤(nutrient broth,NB)培养基为对照,通过对比试验、正交试验和单因素试验,对以味精废液为主要营养源的摇瓶培养的枯草芽孢杆菌 F-2培养基配方及培养条件进行优化,以提高 F-2发酵液的活菌密度并实现味精废液的资源化利用.对比试验表明,用12.5 g/L 浓缩味精废液(concentrated monosodium glutamate wastewater,CMGW)培养的 F-2菌悬液的 D(600 nm)值及活菌密度显著高于 NB 培养基,其培养 F-2后的氨基酸含量显著降低.通过 L16(43×26)正交试验筛选出 F-2的优化配方为 CMGW 12.5 g/L,牛肉膏1.0 g/L,蛋白胨4.0 g/L,MnSO4·2 H 2 O 0.5 g/L,H 3 BO30.02 g/L,FeSO4·7 H 2 O 0.1 g/L,MgSO4·7 H 2 O 0.5 g/L.按此优化配方接种培养 F-2菌株,其菌液的活菌密度分别是未经优化的 CMGW 培养基和 NB 培养基的2.9倍和6.3倍.通过单因素试验,筛选出基于该优化配方的 F-2菌株适宜的初始 pH 范围为6.5~7.5,适宜的培养温度为30~35℃.以上结果显示,培养基 CMGW 对菌株 F-2的发酵效果优于 NB 培养基,其优化配方的效果更佳.%Summary Concentrated monosodium glutamate wastewater (CMGW) generated from the production of monosodium glutamate is an organic wastewater with high concentration of ammonia,chemical oxygen demand, biochemical oxygen demand and SO2-4 and low pH. Discharge of CMGW has raised serious environmental problems,and potential secondary pollution existed even treated with traditional physical and chemical processes. It has already been reported that the richness of nitrogen and carbon makes the recycling of this wastewater possible in the way of microbial fermentation as medium.However,the differences of strain and fermentation purpose require that the medium contains different nutritional compositions with a certain dosage.Bacillus subtilis F-2,isolated from a commercial organic fertilizer,can inhibit the growth of 18 plant pathogenic fungi with varying degrees,especially in F

  7. EPR study of gamma irradiated N-methyl taurine (C 3H 9NO 3S) and sodium hydrogen sulphate monohydrate (NaHSO 3·H 2O) single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yıldırım, İlkay; Karabulut, Bünyamin

    2011-03-01

    EPR study of gamma irradiated C 3H 9NO 3S and NaHSO 3.H 2O single crystals have been carried out at room temperature. There is one site for the radicals in C 3H 9NO 3S and two magnetically distinct sites for the radicals in NaHSO 3. The observed lines in the EPR spectra have been attributed to the species of SO3- and RH radicals for N-methyl taurine, and to the SO3- and OH radicals for sodium hydrogen sulfate monohydrate single crystals. The principal values of the g for SO3-, the hyperfine values of RH and OH proton splitting have been calculated and discussed.

  8. Diastereoisomeric β-ethyl aspartate-cobalt(III) complexes: Λ(+)578- and Δ(-)578-bis(ethane-1,2-diamine)[β-ethyl (S)-aspartato]cobalt(III) bis(perchlorate) monohydrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammershøi, Anders; Schau-Magnussen, Magnus; Bendix, Jesper; Mølgaard, Anne

    2010-11-01

    The structures of the diastereoisomers Λ(+)(578)-, (I), and Δ(-)(578)-bis(ethane-1,2-diamine)[β-ethyl (S)-aspartato-κ(2)N,O(1)]cobalt(III) bis(perchlorate) monohydrate, (II), both [Co(C(6)H(10)N(2)O(4))(C(2)H(8)N(2))(2)](ClO(4))(2)·H(2)O, are compared. In both structures, the ester group of the amino acid side chain is engaged only in intramolecular hydrogen bonding to coordinated amine groups. This interaction is stronger in (I) and correlates with previously observed diastereoisomeric equilibrium ratios for related metal complex systems in aqueous media. The two perchlorate anions of (II) are located on twofold axes. Both perchlorates in (I) and one of the perchlorates in (II) are affected by disorder. Both structures exhibit extensive three-dimensional hydrogen-bonding networks.

  9. An experimental and DFT study of a disulfide-linked Schiff base: Synthesis, characterization and crystal structure of bis (3-methoxy-salicylidene-2-aminophenyl) disulfide in its anhydrous and monohydrate forms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraresi-Curotto, Verónica; Echeverría, Gustavo A.; Piro, Oscar E.; Pis-Diez, Reinaldo; González-Baró, Ana C.

    2014-01-01

    A detailed structural and spectroscopic study of the disulfide Schiff base obtained from condensation of 2-aminothiophenol and o-vanillin is reported. It includes the analyses of the anhydrous and monohydrate forms of the title compound. Structures of both solids were resolved by X-ray diffraction methods. A comparison between experimental and theoretical results is presented. The conformational space was searched and geometries were optimized both in gas phase and including solvent effects. Vibrational (IR and Raman) and electronic spectra were measured and assigned with the help of computational methods based on the Density Functional Theory. Calculated MEP-derived atomic charges were calculated to predict coordination sites for metal complexes formation.

  10. Tophaceous Gout in an Anorectic Patient Visualized by Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Dahl; Sheta, Hussam; Birger Morillon, Melanie;

    2016-01-01

    known to have anorexia nervosa. During our clinical examination, we detected plenty of tophi on both hands, but no swollen joints. The diagnosis of gout was made by visualizing crystals in a biopsy from a tophus. The first line of treatment was allopurinol, the second line was rasburicase......BACKGROUND Gout is characterized by deposition of uric acid crystals (monosodium urate) in tissues and fluids. This can cause acute inflammatory arthritis. The 2015 ACR/EULAR criteria for the diagnosis of gout include dual energy computed tomography (DECT)-demonstrated monosodium urate crystals...... as a new criterion. DECT is a spectral decomposition that permits recognition of different types of tissues based on their characteristic energy-dependent photon attenuation. A positive scan is defined as the presence of urate at articular or periarticular sites. CASE REPORT We describe a 51-year-old woman...

  11. Gout in the Spine: Imaging, Diagnosis, and Outcomes.