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Sample records for monosodium glutamate-induced arcuate

  1. Monosodium glutamate-induced arcuate nucleus damage affects both natural torpor and 2DG-induced torpor-like hypothermia in Siberian hamsters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelz, Kimberly M; Routman, David; Driscoll, Joseph R; Kriegsfeld, Lance J; Dark, John

    2008-01-01

    Siberian hamsters (Phodopus sungorus) have the ability to express daily torpor and decrease their body temperature to approximately 15 degrees C, providing a significant savings in energy expenditure. Daily torpor in hamsters is cued by winterlike photoperiods and occurs coincident with the annual nadirs in body fat reserves and chronic leptin concentrations. To better understand the neural mechanisms underlying torpor, Siberian hamster pups were postnatally treated with saline or MSG to ablate arcuate nucleus neurons that likely possess leptin receptors. Body temperature was studied telemetrically in cold-acclimated (10 degrees C) male and female hamsters moved to a winterlike photoperiod (10:14-h light-dark cycle) (experiments 1 and 2) or that remained in a summerlike photoperiod (14:10-h light-dark cycle) (experiment 3). In experiment 1, even though other photoperiodic responses persisted, MSG-induced arcuate nucleus ablations prevented the photoperiod-dependent torpor observed in saline-treated Siberian hamsters. MSG-treated hamsters tended to possess greater fat reserves. To determine whether reductions in body fat would increase frequency of photoperiod-induced torpor after MSG treatment, hamsters underwent 2 wk of food restriction (70% of ad libitum) in experiment 2. Although food restriction did increase the frequency of torpor in both MSG- and saline-treated hamsters, it failed to normalize the proportion of MSG-treated hamsters undergoing photoperiod-dependent torpor. In experiment 3, postnatal MSG treatments reduced the proportion of hamsters entering 2DG-induced torpor-like hypothermia by approximately 50% compared with saline-treated hamsters (38 vs. 72%). In those MSG-treated hamsters that did become hypothermic, their minimum temperature during hypothermia was significantly greater than comparable saline-treated hamsters. We conclude that 1) arcuate nucleus mechanisms mediate photoperiod-induced torpor, 2) food-restriction-induced torpor may also be

  2. Metabolomic profiling of urinary changes in mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pelantová, Helena; Bártová, Simona; Anýž, J.; Holubová, Martina; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Novák, D.; Lacinová, Z.; Šulc, Miroslav; Haluzík, M.; Kuzma, Marek

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 408, č. 2 (2016), s. 567-578 ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-14105S; GA MŠk LO1509 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 ; RVO:61388963 Keywords : Mouse model * Monosodium glutamate (MSG) induced obesity * Diabetes Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.431, year: 2016

  3. Ginger and Propolis Exert Neuroprotective Effects against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usama K. Hussein

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Central nervous system cytotoxicity is linked to neurodegenerative disorders. The objective of the study was to investigate whether monosodium glutamate (MSG neurotoxicity can be reversed by natural products, such as ginger or propolis, in male rats. Four different groups of Wistar rats were utilized in the study. Group A served as a normal control, whereas group B was orally administered with MSG (100 mg/kg body weight, via oral gavage. Two additional groups, C and D, were given MSG as group B along with oral dose (500 mg/kg body weight of either ginger or propolis (600 mg/kg body weight once a day for two months. At the end, the rats were sacrificed, and the brain tissue was excised and levels of neurotransmitters, ß-amyloid, and DNA oxidative marker 8-OHdG were estimated in the brain homogenates. Further, formalin-fixed and paraffin-embedded brain sections were used for histopathological evaluation. The results showed that MSG increased lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide, neurotransmitters, and 8-OHdG as well as registered an accumulation of ß-amyloid peptides compared to normal control rats. Moreover, significant depletions of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase as well as histopathological alterations in the brain tissue of MSG-treated rats were noticed in comparison with the normal control. In contrast, treatment with ginger greatly attenuated the neurotoxic effects of MSG through suppression of 8-OHdG and β-amyloid accumulation as well as alteration of neurotransmitter levels. Further improvements were also noticed based on histological alterations and reduction of neurodegeneration in the brain tissue. A modest inhibition of the neurodegenerative markers was observed by propolis. The study clearly indicates a neuroprotective effect of ginger and propolis against MSG-induced neurodegenerative disorders and these beneficial effects could be attributed to the polyphenolic compounds present in these natural products.

  4. Anorexigenic Lipopeptides Ameliorate Central Insulin Signaling and Attenuate Tau Phosphorylation in Hippocampi of Mice with Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Obesity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Špolcová, Andrea; Mikulášková, Barbora; Holubová, Martina; Nagelová, Veronika; Pirník, Zdenko; Zemenová, Jana; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka; Galas, M. C.; Maletínská, Lenka

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 45, č. 3 (2015), s. 823-835 ISSN 1387-2877 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP303/12/0576 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : Alzheimer's disease * insulin signaling * liraglutide * monosodium glutamate-obese mice * obesity * pre- diabetes * prolactin-releasing peptide Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 3.920, year: 2015

  5. Dietary consumption of monosodium L-glutamate induces adaptive response and reduction in the life span of Drosophila melanogaster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abolaji, Amos O; Olaiya, Charles O; Oluwadahunsi, Oluwagbenga J; Farombi, Ebenezer O

    2017-04-01

    Adaptive response is the ability of an organism to better counterattack stress-induced damage in response to a number of different cytotoxic agents. Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), the sodium salt of amino acid glutamate, is commonly used as a food additive. We investigated the effects of MSG on the life span and antioxidant response in Drosophila melanogaster (D. melanogaster). Both genders (1 to 3 days old) of flies were fed with diet containing MSG (0.1, 0.5, and 2.5-g/kg diet) for 5 days to assess selected antioxidant and oxidative stress markers, while flies for longevity were fed for lifetime. Thereafter, the longevity assay, hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and reactive oxygen and nitrogen species levels were determined. Also, catalase, glutathione S-transferase and acetylcholinesterase activities, and total thiol content were evaluated in the flies. We found that MSG reduced the life span of the flies by up to 23% after continuous exposure. Also, MSG increased reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and H 2 O 2 generations and total thiol content as well as the activities of catalase and glutathione S-transferase in D. melanogaster (P reduced life span of flies. This study may therefore have public health significance in humans, and thus, moderate consumption of MSG is advocated by the authors. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Antioxidant Actions Of Irradiated Hibiscus SABDARIFFA L. (KARKADE) Against Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Stress In Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    FARAG, M.F.S.; OSMAN, N.N.

    2009-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) continues to function as a flavour enhancer in diets. Aqueous extract of dried flowers of irradiated Hibiscus sabdariffa L. (HS), (Karkade), was investigated for its antioxidant action in MSG treated rats. MSG was injected intraperitoneally at a dose of 4 mg/g body weight for 15 days to male Wistar rats. Lipid peroxidation as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were examined in brain, heart, kidney and testes. MSG markedly increases the TBARS formation in rat organs. Meanwhile, it decreased significantly the activities of SOD and CAT in the same examined organs. The GSH level was also reduced due to MSG. In MSG treated rats, simultaneous oral administration of HS water extract (HSAE; 540 mg /kg/day) significantly reduced the MSG mediated increase in TBARS. Moreover, the administered HSAE was effective in ameliorating the changes in the activities of SOD and CAT in the examined organs. It also restored the decrease in GSH content. Overall, these findings are suggestive of the protective and the possible anti oxidative role played by dried flowers of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. against the oxidative damage due to MSG administration to rats.

  7. Qing brick tea (QBT) aqueous extract protects monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice against metabolic syndrome and involves up-regulation Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) antioxidant pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wenqi; Xiao, Changyi; Hu, Jun; Chen, Biaoxin; Wang, Chunyan; Cui, Bangping; Deng, Pengyi; Yang, Jian; Deng, Zhifang

    2018-04-18

    Qing brick tea (QBT), traditional and popular beverage for Chinese people, is an important post-fermentation dark tea. Our present study was performed to investigate the ameliorative effects of QBT aqueous extract on metabolic syndrome (Mets) in monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice and the potential mechanisms. Monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice were used to evaluate the anti-Mets effects of QBT. Content levels of malonaldehyde (MDA), reactive oxygen species (ROS) and protein carbonylation, antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), catalase (CAT), glutathione reductase (GR) in the skeletal muscle were assessed by commercial kits, respectively. Western blot and Q-PCR were used to detect the expressions of Transcription Factor Nuclear Factor-Erythroid 2-Related Factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway and downstream antioxidant factors. In addition, activity of AKT signaling and expression of glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4) in the skeletal muscle were investigated by western blot. QBT treatment limited gain of body weight, waistline and LEE index, improved insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, reduced lipid level in MSG mice. Content levels of MDA, ROS and protein carbonylation in skeletal muscle of QBT group were significantly improved compared to those of MSG mice. The antioxidant enzyme activities of SOD, GPx, CAT, and GR were increased in skeletal muscle of MSG mice intervened with QBT. After 20-week QBT treatment, Nrf2 signaling pathway and downstream antioxidant factors were both increased in the skeletal muscle. In addition, QBT treatment improved insulin signaling by preferentially augmenting AKT signaling, as well as increased the protein expression of GLUT4 in the skeletal muscle. Our results showed that QBT intake was effective in protecting monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice against metabolic syndrome and involved in the Nrf2 signaling pathway in the skeletal muscle. Copyright © 2018

  8. The Neuroprotective Effect of Dark Chocolate in Monosodium Glutamate-Induced Nontransgenic Alzheimer Disease Model Rats: Biochemical, Behavioral, and Histological Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhavadas, Sowmya; Kapgal, Vijaya Kumar; Kutty, Bindu M; Subramanian, Sarada

    2016-01-01

    The vulnerability to oxidative stress and cognitive decline continue to increase during both normal and pathological aging. Dietary changes and sedentary life style resulting in mid-life obesity and type 2 diabetes, if left uncorrected, further add to the risk of cognitive decline and Alzheimer disease (AD) in the later stages of life. Certain antioxidant agents such as dietary polyphenols, taken in adequate quantities, have been suggested to improve the cognitive processes. In this study, we examined the effect of oral administration of dark chocolate (DC) containing 70% cocoa solids and 4% total polyphenol content for three months at a dose of 500 mg/Kg body weight per day to 17-month-old monosodium glutamate treated obese Sprague-Dawley rats, earlier characterized as a nontransgenic AD (NTAD) rat model after reversal of obesity, diabetes, and consequent cognitive impairments. The results demonstrated that DC reduced the hyperglycemia, inhibited the cholinesterase activity in the hippocampal tissue homogenates, and improved the cognitive performance in spatial memory related Barnes maze task. Histological studies revealed an increase in cell volume in the DC treated rats in the CA3 region of the hippocampus. These findings demonstrated the benefits of DC in enhancing cognitive function and cholinergic activity in the hippocampus of the aged NTAD rats while correcting their metabolic disturbances.

  9. Polyphenol-Rich Extract of Syzygium cumini Leaf Dually Improves Peripheral Insulin Sensitivity and Pancreatic Islet Function in Monosodium L-Glutamate-Induced Obese Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches, Jonas R.; França, Lucas M.; Chagas, Vinicyus T.; Gaspar, Renato S.; dos Santos, Kayque A.; Gonçalves, Luciana M.; Sloboda, Deborah M.; Holloway, Alison C.; Dutra, Richard P.; Carneiro, Everardo M.; Cappelli, Ana Paula G.; Paes, Antonio Marcus de A.

    2016-01-01

    Syzygium cumini (L.) Skeels (Myrtaceae) has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed, and pulp-fruit, however. there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc) on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG)-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg) or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a twofold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10–1000 μg/mL) increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E β-cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating β-cell insulin release, which was associated

  10. Diphenyl diselenide ameliorates monosodium glutamate induced anxiety-like behavior in rats by modulating hippocampal BDNF-Akt pathway and uptake of GABA and serotonin neurotransmitters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Suzan Gonçalves; Quines, Caroline Brandão; Stangherlin, Eluza Curte; Nogueira, Cristina Wayne

    2016-03-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG), a flavor enhancer used in food, administered to neonatal rats causes neuronal lesions and leads to anxiety when adulthood. We investigated the anxiolytic-like effect of diphenyl diselenide (PhSe)2 and its mechanisms on anxiety induced by MSG. Neonatal male and female Wistar rats received a subcutaneous injection of saline (0.9%) or MSG (4 g/kg/day) from the 1st to 10th postnatal day. At 60 days of life, the rats received (PhSe)2 (1mg/kg/day) or vehicle by the intragastric route for 7 days. The spontaneous locomotor activity (LAM), elevated plus maze test (EPM) and contextual fear conditioning test (CFC) as well as neurochemical ([(3)H]GABA and [(3)H]5-HT uptake) and molecular analyses (Akt and p-Akt and BDNF levels) were carried out after treatment with (PhSe)2. Neonatal exposure to MSG increased all anxiogenic parameters in LAM, EPM and CFC tests. MSG increased GABA and 5-HT uptake in hippocampus of rats, without changing uptake in cerebral cortex. The levels of BDNF and p-Akt were reduced in hippocampus of rats treated with MSG. The administration of (PhSe)2 to rats reversed all behavioral anxiogenic parameters altered by MSG. The increase in hippocampal GABA and 5-HT uptake induced by MSG was reversed by (PhSe)2. (PhSe)2 reversed the reduction in hippocampal BDNF and p-Akt levels induced by MSG. In conclusion, the anxiolytic-like action of (PhSe)2 in rats exposed to MSG during their neonatal period is related to its modulation of hippocampal GABA and 5-HT uptake as well as the BDNF-Akt pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Altered cytochrome P450 activities and expression levels in the liver and intestines of the monosodium glutamate-induced mouse model of human obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomankova, Veronika; Liskova, Barbora; Skalova, Lenka; Bartikova, Hana; Bousova, Iva; Jourova, Lenka; Anzenbacher, Pavel; Ulrichova, Jitka; Anzenbacherova, Eva

    2015-07-15

    Cytochromes P450 (CYPs) are enzymes present from bacteria to man involved in metabolism of endogenous and exogenous compounds incl. drugs. Our objective was to assess whether obesity leads to changes in activities and expression of CYPs in the mouse liver, small intestine and colon. An obese mouse model with repeated injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG) to newborns was used. Controls were treated with saline. All mice were sacrificed at 8 months. In the liver and intestines, levels of CYP mRNA and proteins were analyzed using RT-PCR and Western blotting. Activities of CYP enzymes were measured with specific substrates of human orthologous forms. At the end of the experiment, body weight, plasma insulin and leptin levels as well as the specific content of hepatic CYP enzymes were increased in obese mice. Among CYP enzymes, hepatic CYP2A5 activity, protein and mRNA expression increased most significantly in obese animals. Higher activities and protein levels of hepatic CYP2E1 and 3A in the obese mice were also found. No or a weak effect on CYPs 2C and 2D was observed. In the small intestine and colon, no changes of CYP enzymes were detected except for increased expression of CYP2E1 and decreased expression of CYP3A mRNAs in the colon of the obese mice. Results of our study suggest that the specific content and activities of some liver CYP enzymes (especially CYP2A5) can be increased in obese mice. Higher activity of CYP2A5 (CYP2A6 human ortholog) could lead to altered metabolism of drug substrates of this enzyme (valproic acid, nicotine, methoxyflurane). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Polyphenol-rich extract of Syzygium cumini leaf dually improves peripheral insulin sensitivity and pancreatic islet function in monosodium L-glutamate-induced obese rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Rodrigues Sanches

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Syzygium cumini (L. Skeels (Myrtaceae has been traditionally used to treat a number of illnesses. Ethnopharmacological studies have particularly addressed antidiabetic and metabolic-related effects of extracts prepared from its different parts, especially seed and pulp-fruit, however there is a lack of studies on phytochemical profile and biological properties of its leaf. As there is considerable interest in bioactive compounds to treat metabolic syndrome and its clustered risk factors, we sought to characterize the metabolic effects of hydroethanolic extract of S. cumini leaf (HESc on lean and monosodium L-glutamate (MSG-induced obese rats. HPLC-MS/MS characterization of the HESc polyphenolic profile, at 254 nm, identified 15 compounds pertaining to hydrolysable tannin and flavanol subclasses. At 60 days of age, both groups were randomly assigned to receive HESc (500 mg/kg or vehicle for 30 days. At the end of treatment, obese+HESc exhibited significantly lower body weight gain, body mass index, and white adipose tissue mass, compared to obese rats receiving vehicle. Obese rats treated with HESc showed a 2-fold increase in lipolytic activity in the periepididymal fat pad, as well as, brought triglyceride levels in serum, liver and skeletal muscle back to levels close those found in lean animals. Furthermore, HESc also improved hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance in obese+HESc rats, which resulted in partial reversal of glucose intolerance, as compared to obese rats. HESc had no effect in lean rats. Assessment of ex vivo glucose-stimulated insulin secretion showed HESc potentiated pancreatic function in islets isolated from both lean and obese rats treated with HESc. In addition, HESc (10 – 1000 ug/mL increased glucose stimulated insulin secretion from both isolated rat islets and INS-1E beta cells. These data demonstrate that S. cumini leaf improved peripheral insulin sensitivity via stimulating/modulating beta cell insulin release

  13. Estradiol target neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and lateral ventromedial nucleus of young adult, reproductively senescent, and monosodium glutamate-lesioned female golden hamsters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blaha, G.C.; Lamperti, A.A.

    1983-01-01

    Histoautoradiographic methods were used to assess estrogen target neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventromedial nucleus, lateral portion (LVM), comparing young adult and aged female golden hamsters. A subgroup of young adult females had ARC lesions induced by monosodium glutamate at neonatal day 8. All were ovariectomized to remove endogenous estrogens. Controls were given nonradioactive estradiol. After 3 H-estradiol ( 3 H-E2) was injected intravenously, hypothalami were removed, frozen, and processed for histoautoradiography. In the ARC and LVM the ratio of 3 H-E2 labelled neurons to total neurons counted was significantly lower in the older animals. Young females with ARC lesions had very few 3 H-E2 labelled neurons remaining in the ARC but had a normal complement in the LVM. Although 3 H-E2 labelled ARC neurons were notably decreased in old females, those ARC neurons that were labelled in the old had virtually the same frequency distribution of the labelling index as in the young, suggesting no change in the average estrogen uptake per target cell

  14. Monosodium glutamate induced testicular lesions in rats (histological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aisha D. Alalwani

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: MSG may have some deleterious effects on the testes of Wistar rats and by extension may contribute to the causes of male infertility. Thus, it is important to reconsider the usage of MSG as a flavor enhancer.

  15. Comparison of the Obesity Phenotypes Related to Monosodium Glutamate Effect on Arcuate Nucleus and/or the High Fat Diet Feeding in C57BL/6 and NMRI Mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matyšková, Resha; Maletínská, Lenka; Maixnerová, Jana; Pirnik, Z.; Kiss, A.; Železná, Blanka

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 57, č. 5 (2008), s. 727-734 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/05/0614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : C57BL/6 * NMRI * mouse * monosodium glutamate obesity Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.653, year: 2008

  16. Monosodium Glutamate Toxicity

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Olaleye

    The brain is reportedly sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) toxicity via oxidative stress. Sida acuta leaf ethanolic .... wherein the right hemisphere, was preserved for histology and fixed in 10% ... Biochemical Assays: The left hemisphere of the brain samples was ...... development in male and female rats. Exp Physiol.

  17. Monosodium titanate particle characterization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chandler, G.T.; Hobbs, D.T.

    1993-01-01

    A characterization study was performed on monosodium titanate (MST) particles to determine the effect of high shear forces expected from the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process pumps on the particle size distribution. The particles were characterized using particle size analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). No significant changes in particle size distributions were observed between as-received MST and after 2--4 hours of shearing. Both as-received and sheared MST particles contained a large percentage of porosity with pore sizes on the order of 500 to 2,000 Angstroms. Because of the large percentage of porosity, the overall surface area of the MST is dominated by the internal surfaces. The uranium and plutonium species present in the waste solution will have access to both interior and exterior surfaces. Therefore, uranium and plutonium loading should not be a strong function of MST particle size

  18. Protective Role of Co-administration of Vitamin D in Monosodium Glutamate Induced Obesity in Female Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nandan, Padmanabha; Nayanatara, Arun Kumar; Poojary, Roopesh; Bhagyalakshmi, K; Nirupama, M; Kini, Rekha D

    2018-02-01

    Obesity in females is an emerging health problem. The consumption of MSG has been considered as a risk factor for obesity. The tastemakers in Chinese and fast foods, such as fish sauce and soy sauce, contain very high levels of glutamate. The deficiency of Vitamin D is associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effect of co-administration of Vitamin D on body weight control in MSG-induced obese rats. Eighteen adult female Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups equally. The first group (Group I) was treated with saline served as the control; the second group (Group II) received a daily oral dose of 5 g/kg Body weight of MSG; the third group (Group III) received the same dose of MSG along with calcitriol (0.2 mcg/kg BW) for 15 days. The body weight, food, and water intake were measured. MSG treated rats showed a significant increase (P body weight, food, and water intake but significant decrease (P body weight gain in MSG-induced obese rats. Active agents in Vitamin D are useful for the prevention and treatment of obesity. Foods tested with high glutamate levels can be fortified with minute quantities of calcitriol to combat the adverse effects without compromising on the taste of the food processed. The fortification of junk foods might also combat largely prevalent Vitamin D deficiency in India. Copyright © 2018 National Medical Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Oleuropein isolated from Fraxinus rhynchophylla inhibits glutamate-induced neuronal cell death by attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Mi Hye; Min, Ju-Sik; Lee, Joon Yeop; Chae, Unbin; Yang, Eun-Ju; Song, Kyung-Sik; Lee, Hyun-Shik; Lee, Hong Jun; Lee, Sang-Rae; Lee, Dong-Seok

    2017-04-27

    Glutamate-induced neurotoxicity is related to excessive oxidative stress accumulation and results in the increase of neuronal cell death. In addition, glutamate has been reported to lead to neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's diseases.It is well known that Fraxinus rhynchophylla contains a significant level of oleuropein (Ole), which exerts various pharmacological effects. However, the mechanism of neuroprotective effects of Ole is still poorly defined. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether Ole prevents glutamate-induced toxicity in HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells. The exposure of the glutamate treatment caused neuronal cell death through an alteration of Bax/Bcl-2 expression and translocation of mitochondrial apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) to the cytoplasm of HT-22 cells. In addition, glutamate induced an increase in dephosphorylation of dynamin-related protein 1 (Drp1), mitochondrial fragmentation, and mitochondrial dysfunction. The pretreatment of Ole decreased Bax expression, increased Bcl-2 expression, and inhibited the translocation of mitochondrial AIF to the cytoplasm. Furthermore, Ole amended a glutamate-induced mitochondrial dynamic imbalance and reduced the number of cells with fragmented mitochondria, regulating the phosphorylation of Drp1 at amino acid residue serine 637. In conclusion, our results show that Ole has a preventive effect against glutamate-induced toxicity in HT-22 hippocampal neuronal cells. Therefore, these data imply that Ole may be an efficient approach for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebenol on glutamate-induced neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Choi, Yung Hyun; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2015-09-01

    α-Iso-cubebenol is a natural compound isolated from Schisandra chinensis, and is reported to have beneficial bioactivity including anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activities. Glutamate-induced oxidative neuronal damage has been implicated in a variety of neurodegenerative disorders. Here we investigated the mechanisms of α-iso-cubebenol protection of mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal cells (HT22 cells) from apoptotic cell death induced by the major excitatory neurotransmitter, glutamate. Pretreatment with α-iso-cubebenol markedly attenuated glutamate-induced loss of cell viability and release of lactate dehydrogenase), in a dose-dependent manner. α-Iso-cubebenol significantly reduced glutamate-induced intracellular reactive oxygen species and calcium accumulation. Strikingly, α-iso-cubebenol inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial depolarization, which releases apoptosis-inducing factor from mitochondria. α-Iso-cubebenol also suppressed glutamate-induced phosphorylation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases. Furthermore, α-iso-cubebenol induced CREB phosphorylation and Nrf-2 nuclear accumulation and increased the promoter activity of ARE and CREB in HT22 cells. α-Iso-cubebenol also upregulated the expression of phase-II detoxifying/antioxidant enzymes such as HO-1 and NQO1. Subsequent studies revealed that the inhibitory effects of α-iso-cubebenol on glutamate-induced apoptosis were abolished by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of CREB and Nrf-2. These findings suggest that α-iso-cubebenol prevents excitotoxin-induced oxidative damage to neurons by inhibiting apoptotic cell death, and might be a potential preventive or therapeutic agent for neurodegenerative disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Morphine Protects Spinal Cord Astrocytes from Glutamate-Induced Apoptosis via Reducing Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is not only a neurotransmitter but also an important neurotoxin in central nervous system (CNS. Chronic elevation of glutamate induces both neuronal and glial cell apoptosis. However, its effect on astrocytes is complex and still remains unclear. In this study, we investigated whether morphine, a common opioid ligand, could affect glutamate-induced apoptosis in astrocytes. Primary cultured astrocytes were incubated with glutamate in the presence/absence of morphine. It was found that morphine could reduce glutamate-induced apoptosis of astrocytes. Furthermore, glutamate activated Ca2+ release, thereby inducing endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress in astrocytes, while morphine attenuated this deleterious effect. Using siRNA to reduce the expression of κ-opioid receptor, morphine could not effectively inhibit glutamate-stimulated Ca2+ release in astrocytes, the protective effect of morphine on glutamate-injured astrocytes was also suppressed. These results suggested that morphine could protect astrocytes from glutamate-induced apoptosis via reducing Ca2+ overload and ER stress pathways. In conclusion, this study indicated that excitotoxicity participated in the glutamate mediated apoptosis in astrocytes, while morphine attenuated this deleterious effect via regulating Ca2+ release and ER stress.

  2. Arcuate foramen and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cakmark, O.; Gurdal, E.; Cavdar, S.; Ekinci, G.; Yildiz, E.

    2005-01-01

    The present study determines the degree of ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in dry bone, plane lateral cervical spine radiographs and computer tomography (CT). The average length, width and the area of the arcuate foramen were measured on dry bone and on cervical CT. Further, age, gender and complaints of the patients of shoulder and arm pain, neck pain, headache, vertigo, and lacrimation in relation to the presence of bony complete or incomplete arcuate foramen were evaluated. From February 2004 to January 2005 60 dry atlases were obtained from the Anatomy Department, University of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey and 416 lateral cervical spine radiographs were obtained from the Radiology department for neurological and orthopedic evaluations. Each complete arcuate foramen was calculated with the aid of Clemex Vision PE demo version computer program. Among the 60 dry atlases examined 7 (11.7%) had complete and 2 (3.3 %) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 416 plane lateral cervical spine radiographs examined, 30 (7.2%) had complete and 26 (6.25%) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 30 complete arcuate foramen 24 (80%) were females and 6 (20%) were males. The frequency of having a complete arcuate foramen in females was 8.45%, and in males it was 4.55%. Further, of the 26 incomplete arcuate foramen 20 (76.9%) were females and 6 (23.1%) were males. The frequency of having an incomplete arcuate foramen in females was 7%, and in males was 4.55%. The statistical evaluations showed that patients with complete arcuate foramen had significant complaints of shoulder-arm pain (p=0.0072), neck pain (p=0.0072) and vertigo (p=0.0598) compared to patients with incomplete arcuate foramen. The patients with complete arcuate foramen had a headache ratio of 12:30 and this ratio was 2:26 in patients with incomplete arcuate foramen and the difference between complete and incomplete arcuate foramen was statistically significant (p=0.0062). Further

  3. Riluzole protects against glutamate-induced slowing of neurofilament axonal transport.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Stevenson, Alison

    2009-04-24

    Riluzole is the only drug approved for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) but its precise mode of action is not properly understood. Damage to axonal transport of neurofilaments is believed to be part of the pathogenic mechanism in ALS and this has been linked to defective glutamate handling and increased phosphorylation of neurofilament side-arm domains. Here, we show that riluzole protects against glutamate-induced slowing of neurofilament transport. Protection is associated with decreased neurofilament side-arm phosphorylation and inhibition of the activities of two neurofilament kinases, ERK and p38 that are activated in ALS. Thus, the anti-glutamatergic properties of riluzole include protection against glutamate-induced changes to neurofilament phosphorylation and transport.

  4. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H; Mattson, Mark P; Camandola, Simonetta

    2013-04-19

    Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  5. Protective Effect of Edaravone on Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Spiral Ganglion Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohui Bai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter in mammalian brains, but excessive amount of glutamate can cause “excitotoxicity” and lead to neuronal death. As bipolar neurons, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs function as a “bridge” in transmitting auditory information from the ear to the brain and can be damaged by excessive glutamate which results in sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, edaravone, a free radical scavenger, elicited both preventative and therapeutic effects on SGNs against glutamate-induced cell damage that was tested by MTT assay and trypan blue staining. Ho.33342 and PI double staining revealed that apoptosis as well as necrosis took place during glutamate treatment, and apoptosis was the main type of cell death. Oxidative stress played an important role in glutamate-induced cell damage but pretreatment with edaravone alleviated cell death. Results of western blot demonstrated that mechanisms underlying the toxicity of glutamate and the protection of edaravone were related to the PI3K pathway and Bcl-2 protein family.

  6. Protective Effect of Edaravone on Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in Spiral Ganglion Neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Xiaohui; Zhang, Chi; Chen, Aiping; Liu, Wenwen; Li, Jianfeng; Sun, Qian

    2016-01-01

    Glutamate is an important excitatory neurotransmitter in mammalian brains, but excessive amount of glutamate can cause “excitotoxicity” and lead to neuronal death. As bipolar neurons, spiral ganglion neurons (SGNs) function as a “bridge” in transmitting auditory information from the ear to the brain and can be damaged by excessive glutamate which results in sensorineural hearing loss. In this study, edaravone, a free radical scavenger, elicited both preventative and therapeutic effects on SGNs against glutamate-induced cell damage that was tested by MTT assay and trypan blue staining. Ho.33342 and PI double staining revealed that apoptosis as well as necrosis took place during glutamate treatment, and apoptosis was the main type of cell death. Oxidative stress played an important role in glutamate-induced cell damage but pretreatment with edaravone alleviated cell death. Results of western blot demonstrated that mechanisms underlying the toxicity of glutamate and the protection of edaravone were related to the PI3K pathway and Bcl-2 protein family. PMID:27957345

  7. Protective effect of cinnamaldehyde against glutamate-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Chao; Yuan, Xing; Zeng, Hua-Wu; Liu, Run-Hui; Zhang, Wei-Dong

    2017-11-15

    Cinnamaldehyde is a main ingredient of cinnamon oils from the stem bark of Cinnamomum cassia, which has been widely used in food and traditional herbal medicine in Asia. In the present study, the neuroprotective effects and the potential mechanisms of cinnamaldehyde against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells were investigated. Exposure to 4mM glutamate altered the GSH, MDA levels and SOD activity, caused the generation of reactive oxygen species, resulted in the induction of oxidative stress in PC12 cell, ultimately induced cell death. However, pretreatment with cinnamaldehyde at 5, 10 and 20μM significantly attenuated cell viability loss, reduced the generation of reactive oxygen species, stabilised mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), decreased the release of cytochrome c and limited the activities of caspase-9 and -3. In addition, cinnamaldehyde also markedly increased Bcl-2 while inhibiting Bax expression,and decreased the LC3-II/LC3-I ratio. These results indicate that cinnamaldehyde exists a potential protective effect against glutamate-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in PC12 cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Curcumin-Protected PC12 Cells Against Glutamate-Induced Oxidative Toxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Huang Chang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Glutamate is a major excitatory neurotransmitter present in the central nervous system. The glutamate/cystine antiporter system xc– connects the antioxidant defense with neurotransmission and behaviour. Overactivation of ionotropic glutamate receptors induces neuronal death, a pathway called excitotoxicity. Glutamate-induced oxidative stress is a major contributor to neurodegenerative diseases including cerebral ischemia, Alzheimer’s and Huntington’s disease. Curcuma has a wide spectrum of biological activities regarding neuroprotection and neurocognition. By reducing the oxidative damage, curcumin attenuates a spinal cord ischemia-reperfusion injury, seizures and hippocampal neuronal loss. The rat pheochromocytoma (PC12 cell line exhibits many characteristics useful for the study of the neuroprotection and neurocognition. This investigation was carried out to determine whether the neuroprotective effects of curcumin can be observed via the glutamate-PC12 cell model. Results indicate that glutamate (20 mM upregulated glutathione peroxidase 1, glutathione disulphide, Ca2+ influx, nitric oxide production, cytochrome c release, Bax/Bcl-2 ratio, caspase-3 activity, lactate dehydrogenase release, reactive oxygen species, H2O2, and malondialdehyde; and downregulated glutathione, glutathione reductase, superoxide dismutase and catalase, resulting in enhanced cell apoptosis. Curcumin alleviates all these adverse effects. Conclusively, curcumin can effectively protect PC12 cells against the glutamate-induced oxidative toxicity. Its mode of action involves two pathways: the glutathione-dependent nitric oxide-reactive oxygen species pathway and the mitochondria-dependent nitric oxide-reactive oxygen species pathway.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene against glutamate-induced damage in the HT22 hippocampal neuronal cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sun Young; Jung, Won Jung; Kang, Jum Soon; Kim, Cheol-Min; Park, Geuntae; Choi, Young-Whan

    2015-02-01

    Since oxidative stress is critically involved in excitotoxic damage, we sought to determine whether the activation of the transcription factors, cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) and nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 2 (Nrf2, also known as NFE2L2), by α-iso-cubebene is involved in its protective effects against glutamate-induced neuronal cell death. Pre-treatment with α-iso-cubebene significantly attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in mouse hippocampus-derived neuronal cells. α-iso-cubebene also reduced the glutamate-induced generation of reactive oxygen species and calcium influx, thus preventing apoptotic cell death. α-iso-cubebene inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial membrane depolarization and, consequently, inhibited the release of the apoptosis-inducing factor from the mitochondria. Immunoblot anlaysis revealed that the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) by glutamate was reduced in the presence of α-iso-cubebene. α-iso-cubebene activated protein kinase A (PKA), CREB and Nrf2, which mediate the expression of the antioxidant enzymes, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and NAD(P)H dehydrogenase [quinone] 1 (NQO1), involved in neuroprotection. In addition, α-iso-cubebene induced the expression of antioxidant responsive element and CRE transcriptional activity, thus conferring neuroprotection against glutamate-induced oxidative injury. α-iso-cubebene also induced the expression of Nrf2-dependent genes encoding HO-1 and NQO1. Furthermore, the knockdown of CREB and Nrf2 by small interfering RNA attenuated the neuroprotective effects of α-iso-cubebene. Taken together, our results indicate that α-iso-cubebene protects HT22 cells from glutamate-induced oxidative damage through the activation of Nrf2/HO-1/NQO-1, as well as through the PKA and CREB signaling pathways.

  10. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M.; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H. [Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Mattson, Mark P. [Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States); Department of Neuroscience, Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD (United States); Camandola, Simonetta, E-mail: camandolasi@mail.nih.gov [Laboratory of Neurosciences, National Institute on Aging, Intramural Research Program, 251 Bayview Blvd., Baltimore, MD 21224 (United States)

    2013-04-19

    Highlights: •Naphthazarin activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Naphthazarin induces Nrf2-driven genes in neurons and astrocytes. •Naphthazarin protects neurons against excitotoxicity. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

  11. Naphthazarin protects against glutamate-induced neuronal death via activation of the Nrf2/ARE pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Son, Tae Gen; Kawamoto, Elisa M.; Yu, Qian-Sheng; Greig, Nigel H.; Mattson, Mark P.; Camandola, Simonetta

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: •Naphthazarin activates the Nrf2/ARE pathway. •Naphthazarin induces Nrf2-driven genes in neurons and astrocytes. •Naphthazarin protects neurons against excitotoxicity. -- Abstract: Nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway is an important cellular stress response pathway involved in neuroprotection. We previously screened several natural phytochemicals and identified plumbagin as a novel activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway that can protect neurons against ischemic injury. Here we extended our studies to natural and synthetic derivatives of plumbagin. We found that 5,8-dimethoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (naphthazarin) is a potent activator of the Nrf2/ARE pathway, up-regulates the expression of Nrf2-driven genes in primary neuronal and glial cultures, and protects neurons against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity

  12. Exogenous glutamate induces short and long-term potentiation in the rat medial vestibular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grassi, S; Frondaroli, A; Pessia, M; Pettorossi, V E

    2001-08-08

    In rat brain stem slices, high concentrations of exogenous glutamate induce long-term potentiation (LTP) of the field potentials evoked in the medial vestibular nuclei (MVN) by vestibular afferent stimulation. At low concentrations, glutamate can also induce short-term potentiation (STP), indicating that LTP and STP are separate events depending on the level of glutamatergic synapse activation. LTP and STP are prevented by blocking NMDA receptors and nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. Conversely, blocking platelet-activating factor (PAF) and group I metabotropic glutamate receptors only prevents the full development of LTP. Moreover, in the presence of blocking agents, glutamate causes transient inhibition, suggesting that when potentiation is impeded, exogenous glutamate can activate presynaptic mechanisms that reduce glutamate release.

  13. The neuroprotective action of pyrroloquinoline quinone against glutamate-induced apoptosis in hippocampal neurons is mediated through the activation of PI3K/Akt pathway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Qi; Shen Mi; Ding Mei; Shen Dingding; Ding Fei

    2011-01-01

    Pyrroloquinoline quinone (PQQ), a cofactor in several enzyme-catalyzed redox reactions, possesses a potential capability of scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) and inhibiting cell apoptosis. In this study, we investigated the effects of PQQ on glutamate-induced cell death in primary cultured hippocampal neurons and the possible underlying mechanisms. We found that glutamate-induced apoptosis in cultured hippocampal neurons was significantly attenuated by the ensuing PQQ treatment, which also inhibited the glutamate-induced increase in Ca2+ influx, caspase-3 activity, and ROS production, and reversed the glutamate-induced decrease in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. The examination of signaling pathways revealed that PQQ treatment activated the phosphorylation of Akt and suppressed the glutamate-induced phosphorylation of c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase (JNK). And inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt cascade by LY294002 and wortmannin significantly blocked the protective effects of PQQ, and alleviated the increase in Bcl-2/Bax ratio. Taken together, our results indicated that PQQ could protect primary cultured hippocampal neurons against glutamate-induced cell damage by scavenging ROS, reducing Ca2+ influx, and caspase-3 activity, and suggested that PQQ-activated PI3K/Akt signaling might be responsible for its neuroprotective action through modulation of glutamate-induced imbalance between Bcl-2 and Bax. - Research Highlights: →PQQ attenuated glutamate-induced cell apoptosis of cultured hippocampal neurons. →PQQ inhibited glutamate-induced Ca 2+ influx and caspase-3 activity. →PQQ reduced glutamate-induced increase in ROS production. →PQQ affected phosphorylation of Akt and JNK signalings after glutamate injury. →PI3K/Akt was required for neuroprotection of PQQ by modulating Bcl-2/Bax ratio.

  14. 78 FR 76321 - Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-17

    ... (Preliminary)] Monosodium Glutamate From China and Indonesia Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Indonesia of monosodium glutamate, provided for in subheading... United States at less than fair value (LTFV) and subsidized by the Governments of China and Indonesia. \\1...

  15. Effects of aromatic amino acids on glutamate-induced neuronal cell death

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zafar, Z.; Sumners, C.

    2005-01-01

    Glutamate accumulation is believed to lead to overstimulation of glutamate receptors which results in neuronal death. The protective effects of aromatic amino acids on glutamate induced neuronal cell death were examined using rat cerebral cortical neurons. Neuronal death is quantified by measuring lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) using a spectrophotometric microtiter plate reader (ELISA reader). Neuronal cells were incubated with varying doses of glutamate plus or minus the aromatic amino acid D-Phenylalanine (D-Phe) for different time periods to observe protection against cytotoxicity. Percent cytotoxicity was seen to follow a dose dependent rise with increasing concentrations of glutamate, reaching a plateau at around 100 -500 uM glutamate. Lower levels of cytotoxicity were achieved with cell exposed to D-Phe and Dibromo tyrosine (DBrT). 48-hour experimental runs were also carried out to further investigate the mode of action of D-Phe. It was found that the difference between cytotoxicity levels of control cells and protected cells was higher over longer time. (author)

  16. Effect of head irradiation with X-rays on neuroendocrine in male rats of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus lesions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Shouliang; Li Xiuyi; Wei Jun; Liu Shuzheng

    1992-01-01

    It has been demonstrated that neonatal administration of monosodium glutamine (MSG) results in clearly defined lesions of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. The present study showed that neuroendocrine function changed significantly in adulthood when baby rats were injected with MSG (4 mg/g BW, ip) 2 and 4 days after their birth. The serum LH, FSH, TSH and GH and serum and urine testosterone (TS) levels and pituitary cAMP content were lower in MSG treated rats than those of intact rats, but the serum PRL level increased significantly and the testicular cAMP content did not change. Forty eight hours after head irradiation with 10 Gy X-rays in the male rats treated with MSG, the serum LH, FSH, TSH and GH and serum and urine TS levels tended to decrease, while the serum PRL level tended to increase and the pituitary and testicular cAMP contents didn't change. The results suggest that the functional irregularity of neuroendocrine system in MSG treated rats with extensive lesions of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus were not so significant as those of intact rats in response to irradiation

  17. Creatine affords protection against glutamate-induced nitrosative and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha, Mauricio P; Lieberknecht, Vicente; Ramos-Hryb, Ana Belén; Olescowicz, Gislaine; Ludka, Fabiana K; Tasca, Carla I; Gabilan, Nelson H; Rodrigues, Ana Lúcia S

    2016-05-01

    Creatine has been reported to exert beneficial effects in several neurodegenerative diseases in which glutamatergic excitotoxicity and oxidative stress play an etiological role. The purpose of this study was to investigate the protective effects of creatine, as compared to the N-Methyl-d-Aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine (MK-801), against glutamate or hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced injury in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Exposure of cells to glutamate (60-80 mM) or H2O2 (200-300 μM) for 24 h decreased cellular viability and increased dichlorofluorescein (DCF) fluorescence (indicative of increased reactive oxygen species, ROS) and nitric oxide (NO) production (assessed by mono-nitrogen oxides, NOx, levels). Creatine (1-10 mM) or MK-801 (0.1-10 μM) reduced glutamate- and H2O2-induced toxicity. The protective effect of creatine against glutamate-induced toxicity involves its antioxidant effect, since creatine, similar to MK-801, prevented the increase on DCF fluorescence induced by glutamate or H2O2. Furthermore, creatine or MK-801 blocked glutamate- and H2O2-induced increases in NOx levels. In another set of experiments, the repeated, but not acute, administration of creatine (300 mg/kg, po) in mice prevented the decreases on cellular viability and mitochondrial membrane potential (assessed by tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester, TMRE, probe) of hippocampal slices incubated with glutamate (10 mM). Creatine concentration-dependent decreased the amount of nitrite formed in the reaction of oxygen with NO produced from sodium nitroprusside solution, suggesting that its protective effect against glutamate or H2O2-induced toxicity might be due to its scavenger activity. Overall, the results suggest that creatine may be useful as adjuvant therapy for neurodegenerative disease treatments. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Histochemical Studies of the Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    Key words: Monosodium glutamate; histochemical effect; liver enzymes; hepatocytes; atrophic and degenerative changes;. Wistar rats. ... disease, Huntington‟s disease, and amyotrophic ... ascending grade of alcohol (ethanol), cleared in.

  19. Teratogenicity and brain aromatase-induction of monosodium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Teratogenicity and brain aromatase-induction of monosodium glutamate in estrogen-responsive mosaic transgenic zebra fish Danio rerio. Tamer Said Abdelkader, Chang Seo-Na, Kim Tae-Hyun, Song Juha, Kim Dongso, Jae-Hak Park ...

  20. Protection of cortical cells by equine estrogens against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is mediated through a calcium independent mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perrella Joel

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High concentrations of glutamate can accumulate in the brain and may be involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease. This form of neurotoxicity involves changes in the regulation of cellular calcium (Ca2+ and generation of free radicals such as peroxynitrite (ONOO-. Estrogen may protect against glutamate-induced cell death by reducing the excitotoxic Ca2+ influx associated with glutamate excitotoxicity. In this study, the inhibition of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptor and nitric oxide synthase (NOS along with the effect of 17β-estradiol (17β-E2 and a more potent antioxidant Δ8, 17β-estradiol (Δ8, 17β-E2 on cell viability and intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i, following treatment of rat cortical cells with glutamate, was investigated. Results Primary rat cortical cells were cultured for 7–12 days in Neurobasal medium containing B27 supplements. Addition of glutamate (200 μM decreased cell viability to 51.3 ± 0.7% compared to control. Treatment with the noncompetitive NMDAR antagonist, MK-801, and the NOS inhibitor, L-NAME, completely prevented cell death. Pretreatment (24 hrs with 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2 (0.01 to 10 μM significantly reduced cell death. 17β-E2 was more potent than Δ8, 17β-E2. Glutamate caused a rapid 2.5 fold increase in [Ca2+]i. Treatment with 0.001 to 10 μM MK-801 reduced the initial Ca2+ influx by 14–41% and increased cell viability significantly. Pretreatment with 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2 had no effect on Ca2+ influx but protected the cortical cells against glutamate-induced cell death. Conclusion Glutamate-induced cell death in cortical cultures can occur through NMDAR and NOS-linked mechanisms by increasing nitric oxide and ONOO-. Equine estrogens: 17β-E2 and Δ8, 17β-E2, significantly protected cortical cells against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity by a mechanism that appears to be independent of Ca2+ influx. To our knowledge, this is a first

  1. Monosodium Glutamate Analysis in Meatballs Soup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marlina, D.; Amran, A.; Ulianas, A.

    2018-04-01

    The analysis of monosodium glutamate (MSG) in meatball soup using Cu2+ ion as a MSG complex by UV-Vis spectrophotometry has carried out. Reaction of MSG with Cu2+ ions have formed complex compounds [Cu(C5H8NO4)2]2+ characterized by the color change of Cu2+ ion solution from light blue to dark blue. Maximum of complex absorbance [Cu(C5H8NO4)2]2+ is at 621 nm wavelength. The results showed that, the greatest condition of complex [Cu(C5H8NO4)2]2+ was at pH 10, concentration of Cu2+ 0.01 M, complex time is a 30 minute and stable for 170 minutes. Linear response and detection limit of MSG analysis with Cu2+ ions are 0.0005-0.025 M (R2 = 0.994) and (LOD) 0.0003 M. repeatability and recovery method is quite good (% RSD = 0.89% and %recovery = 93%). The analysis of MSG content in meatball soup with MSG complex method was 0.00372 M in sample A and 0.00370 M in sample B.

  2. Arcuate nucleus of hypothalamus is involved in mediating the satiety effect of electroacupuncture in obese rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fei Wang; Tian, De Run; Tso, Patrick; Han, Ji Sheng

    2011-12-01

    Obesity is a major health problem in the world. Since effective remedies are rare, researchers are trying to discover new therapies for obesity, and acupuncture is among the most popular alternative approaches. This study investigated the anti-obesity mechanisms of EA, using a rat model of diet-induced obesity. After feeding with a high-fat diet for 9 weeks, a number of rats who gained weight that surpassed the maximal body weight of rats in the chow-fed group were considered obese and employed in the study. A 2 Hz EA treatment at the acupoints ST36/SP6 with the intensity increasing stepwise from 0.5-1-1.5 mA was given once a day for 30 min. Rats treated with EA showed significantly decreased food intake and reduced body weight compared with the rats in DIO and restraint group. EA treatment increased peptide levels of α-MSH and mRNA levels of its precursor POMC in the arcuate nuclear of hypothalamus (ARH) neurons. In addition, the cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) content of α-MSH was elevated by EA application. ARH lesions by monosodium glutamate abolished the inhibition effect of EA on food intake and body weight. A non-acupoint stimulation did not show the benefit effect on food intake inhibition and body weight reduction compared with restraint and ST36/SP6 EA treatment. We concluded that EA treatment at ST36/SP6 acted through ARH to significantly inhibit food intake and body weight gain when fed a high-fat diet and that the stimulation of α-MSH expression and release might be involved in the mechanism. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Neuroprotective Properties of Compounds Extracted from Dianthus superbus L. against Glutamate-induced Cell Death in HT22 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Bo-Ra; Yang, Hye Jin; Weon, Jin Bae; Lee, Jiwoo; Eom, Min Rye; Ma, Choong Je

    2016-01-01

    Dianthus superbus L. has been used in Chinese herbal medicine as a diuretic and anti-inflammatory agent. In this study, we isolated ten bioactive compounds from D. superbus and evaluated their neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced cell death in the hippocampal neuronal HT22 cells. New compound, (E)-methyl-4-hydroxy-4-(8a-methyl-3-oxodecahydronaphthalen-4a-yl) (1) and, nine known compounds, diosmetin-7-O (2'',6''-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-pentyl ester benzenepropanoic acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 4-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (5), 4-methoxybenzeneacetic acid (6), (E)-4-methoxycinnamic acid (7), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol (8), hydroferulic acid (9), and methyl hydroferulate (10), were isolated by bioactivity-guided separation. Structures of the isolated compounds were identified on the basis of (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), (13)C NMR, and two-dimensional NMR spectra, while their neuroprotective properties were evaluated by performing the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay. D. superbus extract had a neuroprotective effect and isolated 10 compounds. Among the compounds, compounds 5 and 6 effectively protected HT22 cells against glutamate toxicity. In conclusion, the extract of D. superbus and compounds isolated from it exhibited neuroprotective properties, suggesting therapeutic potential for applications in neurotoxic diseases. D. superbus extract significantly protected on glutamate-induced cell death in HT22 cellsNew compound, (E)-methyl-4-hydroxy-4-(8a-methyl-3-oxodecahydronaphthalen-4a-yl) (1) and, nine known compounds, diosmetin-7-O(2'',6''-di-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2), 4-hydroxy-3-methoxy-pentyl ester benzenepropanoic acid (3), vanillic acid (4), 4-hydroxy-benzeneacetic acid (5), 4-methoxybenzeneacetic acid (6), (E)-4-methoxycinnamic acid (7), 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethanol (8), hydroferulic acid (9), and methyl hydroferulate (10

  4. Effects of Angelica Oil and the Isolated Butylphthalides on Glutamate-induced Neurotoxicity in PC12 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lu-Si Liu

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Angelica sinensis contains a large amount of essential oil (angelica oil, which is rich in phthalide derivatives with a lot of bioactivities. In vitro activity screening of angelica oil from the roots of A. sinensis found that it had concentration-dependent effect on glutamate-induced injury in PC12 cells. Further phytochemical investigation on this angelica oil led to the isolation of nine butylphthalides (1 –9 including two new compounds (1 and 2. Their structures were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analyses. It is noteworthy that most of the isolated butylphthalides also displayed protective activity at low concentrations and cytotoxicity at high concentrations. These results imply that angelica oil and its main chemical components have protective effect for injured neurons only in appropriate concentration range.

  5. Lysine and arginine reduce the effects of cerebral ischemic insults and inhibit glutamate-induced neuronal activity in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takashi Kondoh

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Intravenous administration of arginine was shown to be protective against cerebral ischemic insults via nitric oxide production and possibly via additional mechanisms. The present study aimed at evaluating the neuroprotective effects of oral administration of lysine (a basic amino acid, arginine, and their combination on ischemic insults (cerebral edema and infarction and hemispheric brain swelling induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion/reperfusion in rats. Magnetic resonance imaging and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining were performed two days after ischemia induction. In control animals, the major edematous areas were observed in the cerebral cortex and striatum. The volumes associated with cortical edema were significantly reduced by lysine (2.0 g/kg, arginine (0.6 g/kg, or their combined administration (0.6 g/kg each. Protective effects of these amino acids on infarction were comparable to the inhibitory effects on edema formation. Interestingly, these amino acids, even at low dose (0.6 g/kg, were effective to reduce hemispheric brain swelling. Additionally, the effects of in vivo microiontophoretic (juxtaneuronal applications of these amino acids on glutamate-evoked neuronal activity in the ventromedial hypothalamus were investigated in awake rats. Glutamate-induced neuronal activity was robustly inhibited by microiontophoretic applications of lysine or arginine onto neuronal membranes. Taken together, our results demonstrate the neuroprotective effects of oral ingestion of lysine and arginine against ischemic insults (cerebral edema and infarction, especially in the cerebral cortex, and suggest that suppression of glutamate-induced neuronal activity might be the primary mechanism associated with these neuroprotective effects.

  6. Hydrogen-rich saline protects retina against glutamate-induced excitotoxic injury in guinea pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lihua; Ge, Li; Qin, Shucun; Shi, Yunzhi; Du, Changqing; Du, Hui; Liu, Liwei; Yu, Yang; Sun, Xuejun

    2012-01-01

    Molecular hydrogen (H(2)) is an efficient antioxidant that can selectively reduce hydroxyl radicals and inhibit oxidative stress-induced injuries. We investigated the protective effects and mechanism of hydrogen-rich saline in a glutamate-induced retinal injury model. Retinal excitotoxicity was induced in healthy guinea pigs by injecting glutamate into the vitreous cavity. After 30 min, hydrogen-rich saline was injected into the vitreous cavity, the peritoneal cavity or both. Seven days later, the retinal stress response was evaluated by examining the stress biomarkers, inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) and glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78). The impaired glutamate uptake was assessed by the expression of the excitatory amino acid transporter 1(EAAT-1). The retinal histopathological changes were investigated, focusing on the thicknesses of the entire retina and its inner layer, the number of cells in the retinal ganglion cell layer (GCL) and the ultrastructure of the retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) and glial cells. Compared with the glutamate-induced injury group, the hydrogen-rich saline treatment reduced the loss of cells in the GCL and thinning of the retina and attenuated cellular morphological damage. These improvements were greatest in animals that received H(2) injections into both the vitreous and the peritoneal cavities. The hydrogen-rich saline also inhibited the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) in Müller cells, CD11b in microglia, and iNOS and GRP78 in glial cells. Moreover, the hydrogen-rich saline increased the expression of EAAT-1. In conclusion, the administration of hydrogen-rich saline through the intravitreal or/and intraperitoneal routes could reduce the retinal excitotoxic injury and promote retinal recovery. This result likely occurs by inhibiting the activation of glial cells, decreasing the production of the iNOS and GRP78 and promoting glutamate clearance. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute headache attributed to whiplash in arcuate foramen and non-arcuate foramen subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Luis; Mata-Escolano, Federico; Blanco-Pérez, Esther; Llidó, Susanna; Bastir, Markus; Sanchis-Gimeno, Juan A

    2017-04-01

    To test the association between arcuate foramen (AF) in the first cervical vertebra with acute headache attributed to whiplash. Retrospective study of 128 patients that suffered a whiplash. The presence or absence of AF was recorded after a radiographic study, as well as the presence or absence of acute headache after the whiplash. The frequency of AF was 17.2%. Patients with bilateral AF presented a significant (p = 0.000, Fisher's test) increase in the frequency of acute headache (90.9%) in comparison with the non-AF group (5.7%). The ratio between the presence and absence of acute headache was 166.6 times higher (IC 95% 18.2-1526.22) in subjects with bilateral AF in comparison with non-AF subjects. The presence of bilateral AF is associated to an increased frequency of acute headache after suffering a whiplash, information of interest for the attention to these patients.

  8. MONOSODIUM TITANATE MULTI-STRIKE TESTING

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    BARNES, MARKJ

    2004-01-01

    Research over the past decade has studied the adsorption of plutonium and uranium onto monosodium titanate (MST) in alkaline solutions. Tests showed that MST would remove the targeted radionuclides from simulated alkaline waste. Testing also indicated that Pu removal kinetics and Np capacity of the MST material impacts the size of equipment and waste blending plans for the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF). Additionally, calculations suggested the baseline MST process may not achieve the desired decontamination in wastes containing elevated concentrations of Pu and Np. In this task, the authors investigated the performance of non-baseline process parameters and their effectiveness for treating waste feed in the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The work addresses a DOE request in support of technical needs expressed, in part, by the Engineering, Procurement, and Construction Contractors for the Salt Waste Processing Facility. The work investigated the effect of increased MST addition (up to 1.2 g/L) and the benefit of extra filtration steps with multiple additions of MST to salt waste containing actinides and strontium. Both simulant and actual waste testing occurred. Actual waste tests used a Tank 39H composite waste solution. In addition, testing to determine desorption of actinides from residual MST occurred. The release of sorbed Sr and actinides from loaded MST during the washing stages in the Salt Waste Processing Facility is an unresolved process behavior. Desorption tests assessed this potential problem using loaded MST from the residue of the MST adsorption tests. Analysis of non-radioactive Sr in the tests proved difficult due to the low concentration of nonradioactive Sr and its nearness to the method detection limit for ICP-MS. Efforts to use AMP to minimize dilution of actual waste for removal from the cell did not help for this analysis since instrument dilution still proved necessary due to the salt content

  9. Water extract from the leaves of Withania somnifera protect RA differentiated C6 and IMR-32 cells against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hardeep Kataria

    Full Text Available Glutamate neurotoxicity has been implicated in stroke, head trauma, multiple sclerosis and neurodegenerative disorders. Search for herbal remedies that may possibly act as therapeutic agents is an active area of research to combat these diseases. The present study was designed to investigate the neuroprotective role of Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha, also known as Indian ginseng, against glutamate induced toxicity in the retinoic acid differentiated rat glioma (C6 and human neuroblastoma (IMR-32 cells. The neuroprotective activity of the Ashwagandha leaves derived water extract (ASH-WEX was evaluated. Cell viability and the expression of glial and neuronal cell differentiation markers was examined in glutamate challenged differentiated cells with and without the presence of ASH-WEX. We demonstrate that RA-differentiated C6 and IMR-32 cells, when exposed to glutamate, undergo loss of neural network and cell death that was accompanied by increase in the stress protein HSP70. ASH-WEX pre-treatment inhibited glutamate-induced cell death and was able to revert glutamate-induced changes in HSP70 to a large extent. Furthermore, the analysis on the neuronal plasticity marker NCAM (Neural cell adhesion molecule and its polysialylated form, PSA-NCAM revealed that ASH-WEX has therapeutic potential for prevention of neurodegeneration associated with glutamate-induced excitotoxicty.

  10. Neurons efficiently repair glutamate-induced oxidative DNA damage by a process involving CREB-mediated up-regulation of apurinic endonuclease 1

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yang, Jenq-Lin; Tadokoro, Takashi; Keijzers, Guido

    2010-01-01

    inhibitor (KN-93) blocked the ability of glutamate to induce CREB phosphorylation and APE1 expression. Selective depletion of CREB using RNA interference prevented glutamate-induced up-regulation of APE1. Thus, glutamate receptor stimulation triggers Ca(2+)- and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species...

  11. Glycine regulates the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in lean and monosodium glutamate-obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alarcon-Aguilar, F J; Almanza-Perez, Julio; Blancas, Gerardo; Angeles, Selene; Garcia-Macedo, Rebeca; Roman, Ruben; Cruz, Miguel

    2008-12-03

    Fat tissue plays an important role in the regulation of inflammatory processes. Increased visceral fat has been associated with a higher production of cytokines that triggers a low-grade inflammatory response, which eventually may contribute to the development of insulin resistance. In the present study, we investigated whether glycine, an amino acid that represses the expression in vitro of pro-inflammatory cytokines in Kupffer and 3T3-L1 cells, can affect in vivo cytokine production in lean and monosodium glutamate-induced obese mice (MSG/Ob mice). Our data demonstrate that glycine treatment in lean mice suppressed TNF-alpha transcriptional expression in fat tissue, and serum protein levels of IL-6 were suppressed, while adiponectin levels were increased. In MSG/Ob mice, glycine suppressed TNF-alpha and IL-6 gene expression in fat tissue and significantly reduced protein levels of IL-6, resistin and leptin. To determine the role of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPAR-gamma) in the modulation of this inflammatory response evoked by glycine, we examined its expression levels in fat tissue. Glycine clearly increased PPAR-gamma expression in lean mice but not in MSG/Ob mice. Finally, to identify alterations in glucose metabolism by glycine, we also examined insulin levels and other biochemical parameters during an oral glucose tolerance test. Glycine significantly reduced glucose tolerance and raised insulin levels in lean but not in obese mice. In conclusion, our findings suggest that glycine suppresses the pro-inflammatory cytokines production and increases adiponectin secretion in vivo through the activation of PPAR-gamma. Glycine might prevent insulin resistance and associated inflammatory diseases.

  12. PGC-1α may associated with the anti-obesity effect of taurine on rats induced by arcuate nucleus lesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Peng-juan; Jin, Yong-jun; Li, Ming-e; Zhou, Rong; Yang, Mei-zi

    2016-01-01

    To observe the effect of taurine treatment in rats with monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. Rats with MSG-induced obesity were administered taurine for five weeks. The Lee's index, food intake, blood pressure, body temperature, body mass index (BMI), fat weight, and triglyceride (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), and high density lipoprotein (HDL) levels were compared. The PGC-1α expression levels in white and brown adipose were measured using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blotting, and pathological changes in the arcuate nucleus and liver were examined. Compared with the model group, BMI, TG, and LDL in the high and low taurine dose groups were significantly lower, while HDL was higher. Body temperature in the taurine treatment groups was higher, and blood pressure was lower. The weight of brown fat in the taurine treatment groups was significantly higher than in the model group, while the white fat weight was significantly lower. Compared with the control group, the PGC-1α levels in white and brown adipose were higher in the taurine treatment groups and more significantly up-regulated in brown adipose. This study suggests that taurine prevents obesity in MSG-treated rats and may be closely associated with energy metabolism.

  13. Monosodium glutamate toxicity: Sida acuta leaf extract ameliorated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The brain is reportedly sensitive to monosodium glutamate (MSG) toxicity via oxidative stress. Sida acuta leaf ethanolic extract (SALEE) possesses antioxidant activity which can mitigate this neurotoxicity. The present study investigated the possible protective effect of SALEE on MSG-induced toxicity in rats. Twenty-six ...

  14. The arcuate fasciculus network and verbal deficits in psychosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenney Joanne P.M.

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Verbal learning (VL and fluency (VF are prominent cognitive deficits in psychosis, of which the precise neuroanatomical contributions are not fully understood. We investigated the arcuate fasciculus (AF and its associated cortical regions to identify structural abnormalities contributing to these verbal impairments in early stages of psychotic illness.

  15. Cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits glutamate-induced Zn2+ signaling and neuronal cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting Ca2+-induced mitochondrial depolarization and formation of reactive oxygen species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ji Seon; Perveen, Shazia; Ha, Tae Joung; Kim, Seong Yun; Yoon, Shin Hee

    2015-05-05

    Cyanidin-3-glucoside (C3G), a member of the anthocyanin family, is a potent natural antioxidant. However, effects of C3G on glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase and neuronal cell death remain unknown. We studied the effects of C3G on glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase and cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons from embryonic day 17 maternal Sprague-Dawley rats using digital imaging methods for Zn(2+), Ca(2+), reactive oxygen species (ROS), mitochondrial membrane potential and a MTT assay for cell survival. Treatment with glutamate (100 µM) for 7 min induces reproducible [Zn(2+)]i increase at 35 min interval in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. The intracellular Zn(2+)-chelator TPEN markedly blocked glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase, but the extracellular Zn(2+) chelator CaEDTA did not affect glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase. C3G inhibited the glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i response in a concentration-dependent manner (IC50 of 14.1 ± 1.1 µg/ml). C3G also significantly inhibited glutamate-induced [Ca(2+)]i increase. Two antioxidants such as Trolox and DTT significantly inhibited the glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i response, but they did not affect the [Ca(2+)]i responses. C3G blocked glutamate-induced formation of ROS. Trolox and DTT also inhibited the formation of ROS. C3G significantly inhibited glutamate-induced mitochondrial depolarization. However, TPEN, Trolox and DTT did not affect the mitochondrial depolarization. C3G, Trolox and DTT attenuated glutamate-induced neuronal cell death in cultured rat hippocampal neurons, respectively. Taken together, all these results suggest that cyanidin-3-glucoside inhibits glutamate-induced [Zn(2+)]i increase through a release of Zn(2+) from intracellular sources in cultured rat hippocampal neurons by inhibiting Ca(2+)-induced mitochondrial depolarization and formation of ROS, which is involved in neuroprotection against glutamate-induced cell death. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Glutamate-induced apoptosis in primary cortical neurons is inhibited by equine estrogens via down-regulation of caspase-3 and prevention of mitochondrial cytochrome c release

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang YueMei

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apoptosis plays a key role in cell death observed in neurodegenerative diseases marked by a progressive loss of neurons as seen in Alzheimer's disease. Although the exact cause of apoptosis is not known, a number of factors such as free radicals, insufficient levels of nerve growth factors and excessive levels of glutamate have been implicated. We and others, have previously reported that in a stable HT22 neuronal cell line, glutamate induces apoptosis as indicated by DNA fragmentation and up- and down-regulation of Bax (pro-apoptotic, and Bcl-2 (anti-apoptotic genes respectively. Furthermore, these changes were reversed/inhibited by estrogens. Several lines of evidence also indicate that a family of cysteine proteases (caspases appear to play a critical role in neuronal apoptosis. The purpose of the present study is to determine in primary cultures of cortical cells, if glutamate-induced neuronal apoptosis and its inhibition by estrogens involve changes in caspase-3 protease and whether this process is mediated by Fas receptor and/or mitochondrial signal transduction pathways involving release of cytochrome c. Results In primary cultures of rat cortical cells, glutamate induced apoptosis that was associated with enhanced DNA fragmentation, morphological changes, and up-regulation of pro-caspase-3. Exposure of cortical cells to glutamate resulted in a time-dependent cell death and an increase in caspase-3 protein levels. Although the increase in caspase-3 levels was evident after 3 h, cell death was only significantly increased after 6 h. Treatment of cells for 6 h with 1 to 20 mM glutamate resulted in a 35 to 45% cell death that was associated with a 45 to 65% increase in the expression of caspase-3 protein. Pretreatment with caspase-3-protease inhibitor z-DEVD or pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD significantly decreased glutamate-induced cell death of cortical cells. Exposure of cells to glutamate for 6 h in the presence or

  17. Alkaloids from the hook-bearing branch of Uncaria rhynchophylla and their neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Wen; Yue, Si-Jia; Sun, Jia-Hong; Simpkins, James W.; Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Dan

    2015-01-01

    One new alkaloid, 4-geissoschizine N-oxide methyl ether (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the hook-bearing branch of Uncaria rhynchophylla, together with 10 known alkaloids, 3-epi-geissoschizine methyl ether (2) isolated from U. rhynchophylla for the first time, geissoschizine methyl ether (3), 4-hirsuteine N-oxide (4), hirsuteine (5), hirsutine (6), 3α-dihydro-cadambine (7), 3β-isodihydro-cadambine (8), cadambine (9), strictosamide (10), and akuammigine (11). The structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including UV, ESI-QTOF MS, NMR, and circular dichroism experiments. Neuroprotective effects of 1–9 were investigated against 3 mM glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. The activity assay showed that 2, 3, 5, and 6 exhibited potent neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death. However, only weak neuroprotective activities were observed for 1, 4, 7, 8, and 9. PMID:24899363

  18. ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for glycyrrhizic acid-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated PC12 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.; Guo, T.Q.; Wang, Z.Y.; Lu, J.H.; Liu, D.P.; Meng, Q.F.; Xie, J.; Zhang, X.L.; Liu, Y.; Teng, L.S.

    2014-01-01

    The present study focuses on the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a major compound separated from Glycyrrhiza Radix, which is a crude Chinese traditional drug) against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cells. The results showed that GA treatment improved cell viability and ameliorated abnormal glutamate-induced alterations in mitochondria in DPC12 cells. GA reversed glutamate-suppressed B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, inhibited glutamate-enhanced expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and reduced cytochrome C (Cyto C) release. Exposure to glutamate strongly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); however, GA pretreatment enhanced activation of ERKs but not AKT. The presence of PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase [MEK] inhibitor) but not LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) diminished the potency of GA for improving viability of glutamate-exposed DPC12 cells. These results indicated that ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for the neuroprotective effect of GA against glutamate-induced toxicity in DPC12 cells. The present study provides experimental evidence supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases

  19. Neuroprotective Effect of Puerarin on Glutamate-Induced Cytotoxicity in Differentiated Y-79 Cells via Inhibition of ROS Generation and Ca(2+) Influx.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ke; Zhu, Xue; Zhang, Kai; Wu, Zhifeng; Sun, Song; Zhou, Fanfan; Zhu, Ling

    2016-07-11

    Glutamate toxicity is estimated to be the key cause of photoreceptor degeneration in the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases. Oxidative stress and Ca(2+) influx induced by glutamate are responsible for the apoptosis process of photoreceptor degeneration. Puerarin, a primary component of Kudzu root, has been widely used in the clinical treatment of retinal degenerative diseases in China for decades; however, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying this effect remains unclear. In this study, the neuroprotective effect of puerarin against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in the differentiated Y-79 cells was first investigated through cytotoxicity assay. Then the molecular mechanism of this effect regarding anti-oxidative stress and Ca(2+) hemostasis was further explored with indirect immunofluorescence, flow cytometric analysis and western blot analysis. Our study showed that glutamate induced cell viability loss, excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation, calcium overload and up-regulated cell apoptosis in differentiated Y-79 cells, which effect was significantly attenuated with the pre-treatment of puerarin in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, our data indicated that the neuroprotective effect of puerarin was potentially mediated through the inhibition of glutamate-induced activation of mitochondrial-dependent signaling pathway and calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII)-dependent apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1(ASK-1)/c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK)/p38 signaling pathway. The present study supports the notion that puerarin may be a promising neuroprotective agent in the prevention of retinal degenerative diseases.

  20. ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for glycyrrhizic acid-mediated neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity in differentiated PC12 cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Guo, T.Q. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Wang, Z.Y. [State Key Laboratory of Theoretical and Computational Chemistry, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Lu, J.H.; Liu, D.P.; Meng, Q.F.; Xie, J. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Zhang, X.L. [Faculty of ScienceNational University of Singapore (Singapore); Liu, Y. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); Teng, L.S. [School of Life Sciences, Jilin University, Changchun (China); The State Engineering Laboratory of AIDS Vaccine, Jilin University, Changchun (China)

    2014-07-25

    The present study focuses on the neuroprotective effect of glycyrrhizic acid (GA, a major compound separated from Glycyrrhiza Radix, which is a crude Chinese traditional drug) against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in differentiated PC12 (DPC12) cells. The results showed that GA treatment improved cell viability and ameliorated abnormal glutamate-induced alterations in mitochondria in DPC12 cells. GA reversed glutamate-suppressed B-cell lymphoma 2 levels, inhibited glutamate-enhanced expressions of Bax and cleaved caspase 3, and reduced cytochrome C (Cyto C) release. Exposure to glutamate strongly inhibited phosphorylation of AKT (protein kinase B) and extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs); however, GA pretreatment enhanced activation of ERKs but not AKT. The presence of PD98059 (a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase [MEK] inhibitor) but not LY294002 (a phosphoinositide 3-kinase [PI3K] inhibitor) diminished the potency of GA for improving viability of glutamate-exposed DPC12 cells. These results indicated that ERKs and mitochondria-related pathways are essential for the neuroprotective effect of GA against glutamate-induced toxicity in DPC12 cells. The present study provides experimental evidence supporting GA as a potential therapeutic agent for use in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

  1. Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weihe, Johan Petur; Birger Morillon, Melanie; Lambrechtsen, Jess

    Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa......Dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging of tophi and monosodium urate deposits in a patient with longstanding anorexia nervosa...

  2. Molecularly Imprinted Polymers Chitosan-Glutaraldehyde for Monosodium Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulyasuryani, Ani; Haryanto, Edi; Sulistyarti, Hermin; Rumhayati, Barlah

    2018-01-01

    Chitosan has been used as a functional monomer in the synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIP) for monosodium glutamate (MSG). MIP is made from a mixture of 5 g chitosan, 50 mg glutaraldehyde and 2 g MSG, MIP is formed as flakes and beads. MIPs are identified by the FTIR spectrum, SEM image and their adsorption capabilities. MIP flakes and beads have no structural differences if they are based on FTIR or SEM spectra, but MIP adsorption capacity of beads higher than flakes. Adsorption capacity of MIP flakes is 548 mg/g and MIP beads 627 mg/g.

  3. Monosodium glutamate and aspartame in perceived pain in fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vellisca, María Y; Latorre, José I

    2014-07-01

    Our aim was to assess the effect of dietary elimination of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame on perceived pain in fibromyalgia. A total of 72 female patients with fibromyalgia were randomized to discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame (n = 36) or waiting list (n = 36). Patients were requested to rate their pain using a seven-point scale. Comparisons between both groups showed no significant differences on pain referred during the baseline or after the elimination of dietary MSG and aspartame. The discontinuation of dietary MSG and aspartame did not improve the symptoms of fibromyalgia.

  4. Protection by imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine of glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured cerebellar granule cells through blockade of NMDA receptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmos, G; DeGregorio-Rocasolano, N; Paz Regalado, M; Gasull, T; Assumpció Boronat, M; Trullas, R; Villarroel, A; Lerma, J; García-Sevilla, J A

    1999-07-01

    This study was designed to assess the potential neuroprotective effect of several imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine on glutamate-induced necrosis and on apoptosis induced by low extracellular K+ in cultured cerebellar granule cells. Exposure (30 min) of energy deprived cells to L-glutamate (1-100 microM) caused a concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, as determined 24 h later by a decrease in the ability of the cells to metabolize 3-(4,5-dimethythiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT) into a reduced formazan product. L-glutamate-induced neurotoxicity (EC50=5 microM) was blocked by the specific NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 (dizocilpine). Imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine fully prevented neurotoxicity induced by 20 microM (EC100) L-glutamate with the rank order (EC50 in microM): antazoline (13)>cirazoline (44)>LSL 61122 [2-styryl-2-imidazoline] (54)>LSL 60101 [2-(2-benzofuranyl) imidazole] (75)>idazoxan (90)>LSL 60129 [2-(1,4-benzodioxan-6-yl)-4,5-dihydroimidazole](101)>RX82 1002 (2-methoxy idazoxan) (106)>agmatine (196). No neuroprotective effect of these drugs was observed in a model of apoptotic neuronal cell death (reduction of extracellular K+) which does not involve stimulation of NMDA receptors. Imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine fully inhibited [3H]-(+)-MK-801 binding to the phencyclidine site of NMDA receptors in rat brain. The profile of drug potency protecting against L-glutamate neurotoxicity correlated well (r=0.90) with the potency of the same compounds competing against [3H]-(+)-MK-801 binding. In HEK-293 cells transfected to express the NR1-1a and NR2C subunits of the NMDA receptor, antazoline and agmatine produced a voltage- and concentration-dependent block of glutamate-induced currents. Analysis of the voltage dependence of the block was consistent with the presence of a binding site for antazoline located within the NMDA channel pore with an IC50 of 10-12 microM at 0 mV. It is concluded that imidazol(ine) drugs and agmatine are

  5. Monosodium glutamate neonatal treatment induces cardiovascular autonomic function changes in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signorá Peres Konrad

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to evaluate cardiovascular autonomic function in a rodent obesity model induced by monosodium glutamate injections during the first seven days of life. METHOD: The animals were assigned to control (control, n = 10 and monosodium glutamate (monosodium glutamate, n = 13 groups. Thirty-three weeks after birth, arterial and venous catheters were implanted for arterial pressure measurements, drug administration, and blood sampling. Baroreflex sensitivity was evaluated according to the tachycardic and bradycardic responses induced by sodium nitroprusside and phenylephrine infusion, respectively. Sympathetic and vagal effects were determined by administering methylatropine and propranolol. RESULTS: Body weight, Lee index, and epididymal white adipose tissue values were higher in the monosodium glutamate group in comparison to the control group. The monosodium glutamate-treated rats displayed insulin resistance, as shown by a reduced glucose/insulin index (-62.5%, an increased area under the curve of total insulin secretion during glucose overload (39.3%, and basal hyperinsulinemia. The mean arterial pressure values were higher in the monosodium glutamate rats, whereas heart rate variability (>7 times, bradycardic responses (>4 times, and vagal (~38% and sympathetic effects (~36% were reduced as compared to the control group. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that obesity induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment impairs cardiac autonomic function and most likely contributes to increased arterial pressure and insulin resistance.

  6. Neuroprotective Effect of Total and Sequential Extract of Scrophularia striata Boiss. in Rat Cerebellar Granule Neurons Following Glutamate- Induced Neurotoxicity: An In-vitro Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salavati, Parvin; Ramezani, Mina; Monsef-Esfahani, Hamid R; Hajiagha, Reza; Parsa, Maliheh; Tavajohi, Shoreh; Ostad, Seyed Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Neuroprotective effect of the extract from aerial parts of Scrophularia striata Boiss (Scrophulariaceae) was investigated against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity on cultured rat pups Cerebellar Granule Neurons (CGNs). CGNs from 8 days old Sprague-Dawley rat were prepared and cultured. The experiments were performed after 8 days in culture. The plant was collected from the northeastern part (Ruin region) of Iran and air-dried at room temperature. The total extract was prepared with maceration of prepared powder in ethanol 80% for three times. Sequential extracts were obtained using dried and powdered aerial parts with increasingly polar solvents: petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and methanol 80% solution. Cultured cells were exposed to 125 μM of glutamate for 12 h following a 24 h of incubation with test fractions at concentration of 10 mcg/mL. Morphological assay was performed using invert light microscope after fixation and staining with haematoxylin. Neuronal viability was measured using MTT assay. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS software. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed by Tukey post-hoc test. Values were considered statistically significant when p-value ≤ 0.05. Results of this study showed a significant neuroprotective activity of high polarity methanolic fraction of aerial parts of Scrophularia striata against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dosedependent manner. Treatment with 10 mcg/mL of the fractions showed the best result. PMID:24250613

  7. Glutamate-induced apoptosis in neuronal cells is mediated via caspase-dependent and independent mechanisms involving calpain and caspase-3 proteases as well as apoptosis inducing factor (AIF and this process is inhibited by equine estrogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavnani Bhagu R

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Glutamate, a major excitatory amino acid neurotransmitter, causes apoptotic neuronal cell death at high concentrations. Our previous studies have shown that depending on the neuronal cell type, glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death was associated with regulation of genes such as Bcl-2, Bax, and/or caspase-3 and mitochondrial cytochrome c. To further delineate the intracellular mechanisms, we have investigated the role of calpain, an important calcium-dependent protease thought to be involved in apoptosis along with mitochondrial apoptosis inducing factor (AIF and caspase-3 in primary cortical cells and a mouse hippocampal cell line HT22. Results Glutamate-induced apoptotic cell death in neuronal cells was associated with characteristic DNA fragmentation, morphological changes, activation of calpain and caspase-3 as well as the upregulation and/or translocation of AIF from mitochondria into cytosol and nuclei. Our results reveal that primary cortical cells and HT22 cells display different patterns of regulation of these genes/proteins. In primary cortical cells, glutamate induces activation of calpain, caspase-3 and translocation of AIF from mitochondria to cytosol and nuclei. In contrast, in HT22 cells, only the activation of calpain and upregulation and translocation of AIF occurred. In both cell types, these processes were inhibited/reversed by 17β-estradiol and Δ8,17β-estradiol with the latter being more potent. Conclusion Depending upon the neuronal cell type, at least two mechanisms are involved in glutamate-induced apoptosis: a caspase-3-dependent pathway and a caspase-independent pathway involving calpain and AIF. Since HT22 cells lack caspase-3, glutamate-induced apoptosis is mediated via the caspase-independent pathway in this cell line. Kinetics of this apoptotic pathway further indicate that calpain rather than caspase-3, plays a critical role in the glutamate-induced apoptosis. Our studies further indicate

  8. Arcuate NPY neurons sense and integrate peripheral metabolic signals to control feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Daisuke; Yada, Toshihiko

    2012-12-01

    NPY neuron in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus is a key feeding center. Studies have shown that NPY neuron in the arcuate nucleus has a role to induce food intake. The arcuate nucleus is structurally unique with lacking blood brain barrier. Peripheral energy signals including hormones and nutrition can reach the arcuate nucleus. In this review, we discuss sensing and integrating peripheral signals in NPY neurons. In the arcuate nucleus, ghrelin mainly activates NPY neurons. Leptin and insulin suppress the ghrelin-induced activation in 30-40% of the ghrelin-activated NPY neurons. Lowering glucose concentration activates 40% of NPY neurons. These results indicate that NPY neuron in the arcuate nucleus is a feeding center in which major peripheral energy signals are directly sensed and integrated. Furthermore, there are subpopulations of NPY neurons in regard to their responsiveness to peripheral signals. These findings suggest that NPY neuron in the arcuate nucleus is an essential feeding center to induce food intake in response to peripheral metabolic state. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Brain Innate Immunity Regulates Hypothalamic Arcuate Neuronal Activity and Feeding Behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Reis, Wagner L.; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanqing; Tschöp, Mathias H.; Stern, Javier E.

    2015-01-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation, involving microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), is proposed as a novel underlying mechanism in obesity, insulin and leptin resistance. However, whether activated microglia affects ARC neuronal activity, and consequently basal and hormonal-induced food intake,

  10. The arcuate artery in renal transplants: An insensitive indicator of rejection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McIntire, J.N.; Angtuaco, T.L.; Boyd, C.; Flanigan, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    The authors performed 65 duplex US examinations in 28 patients within 2 years of transplantation. During this time 15 episodes of rejection were diagnosed by US and confirmed clinically. Of the remaining 50 examinations, 14 showed negligible or absent diastolic flow (suggesting rejection) in the arcuate arteries with normal diastolic flow in the main renal, segmental, and interlobar branches. No other criteria for rejection were present in these patients. It is concluded that the arcuate artery is an insensitive indicator of transplant rejection

  11. Correlation between language function and the left arcuate fasciculus detected by diffusion tensor imaging tractography after brain tumor surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yutaka; Kinoshita, Masashi; Nakada, Mitsutoshi; Hamada, Jun-ichiro

    2012-11-01

    Disturbance of the arcuate fasciculus in the dominant hemisphere is thought to be associated with language-processing disorders, including conduction aphasia. Although the arcuate fasciculus can be visualized in vivo with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) tractography, its involvement in functional processes associated with language has not been shown dynamically using DTI tractography. In the present study, to clarify the participation of the arcuate fasciculus in language functions, postoperative changes in the arcuate fasciculus detected by DTI tractography were evaluated chronologically in relation to postoperative changes in language function after brain tumor surgery. Preoperative and postoperative arcuate fasciculus area and language function were examined in 7 right-handed patients with a brain tumor in the left hemisphere located in proximity to part of the arcuate fasciculus. The arcuate fasciculus was depicted, and its area was calculated using DTI tractography. Language functions were measured using the Western Aphasia Battery (WAB). After tumor resection, visualization of the arcuate fasciculus was increased in 5 of the 7 patients, and the total WAB score improved in 6 of the 7 patients. The relative ratio of postoperative visualized area of the arcuate fasciculus to preoperative visualized area of the arcuate fasciculus was increased in association with an improvement in postoperative language function (p = 0.0039). The role of the left arcuate fasciculus in language functions can be evaluated chronologically in vivo by DTI tractography after brain tumor surgery. Because increased postoperative visualization of the fasciculus was significantly associated with postoperative improvement in language functions, the arcuate fasciculus may play an important role in language function, as previously thought. In addition, postoperative changes in the arcuate fasciculus detected by DTI tractography could represent a predicting factor for postoperative language

  12. Arcuate Fasciculus in Autism Spectrum Disorder Toddlers with Language Regression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Lin

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Language regression is observed in a subset of toddlers with autism spectrum disorder (ASD as initial symptom. However, such a phenomenon has not been fully explored, partly due to the lack of definite diagnostic evaluation methods and criteria. Materials and Methods: Fifteen toddlers with ASD exhibiting language regression and fourteen age-matched typically developing (TD controls underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI. DTI parameters including fractional anisotropy (FA, average fiber length (AFL, tract volume (TV and number of voxels (NV were analyzed by Neuro 3D in Siemens syngo workstation. Subsequently, the data were analyzed by using IBM SPSS Statistics 22. Results: Compared with TD children, a significant reduction of FA along with an increase in TV and NV was observed in ASD children with language regression. Note that there were no significant differences between ASD and TD children in AFL of the arcuate fasciculus (AF. Conclusions: These DTI changes in the AF suggest that microstructural anomalies of the AF white matter may be associated with language deficits in ASD children exhibiting language regression starting from an early age.

  13. Monosodium glutamate intake, dietary patterns and asthma in Chinese adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zumin Shi

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Emerging evidence shows that diet is related to asthma. The aim of this analysis was to investigate the association between monosodium glutamate (MSG intake, overall dietary patterns and asthma. METHODS: Data from 1486 Chinese men and women who participated in the Jiangsu Nutrition Study (JIN were analyzed. In this study, MSG intake and dietary patterns were quantitatively assessed in 2002. Information on asthma history was collected during followed-up in 2007. RESULTS: Of the sample, 1.4% reported ever having asthma. MSG intake was not positively associated with asthma. There was a significant positive association between 'traditional' (high loadings on rice, wheat flour, and vegetable food pattern and asthma. No association between 'macho' (rich in meat and alcohol, 'sweet tooth' (high loadings on cake, milk, and yoghurt 'vegetable rich' (high loadings on whole grain, fruit, and vegetable food patterns and asthma was found. Smoking and overweight were not associated with asthma in the sample. CONCLUSION: While a 'Traditional' food pattern was positively associated with asthma among Chinese adults, there was no significant association between MSG intake and asthma.

  14. Taste responses to monosodium glutamate after alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrobel, Elzbieta; Skrok-Wolska, Dominika; Ziolkowski, Marcin; Korkosz, Agnieszka; Habrat, Boguslaw; Woronowicz, Bohdan; Kukwa, Andrzej; Kostowski, Wojciech; Bienkowski, Przemyslaw; Scinska, Anna

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of acute and chronic exposure to alcohol on taste responses to a prototypic umami substance, monosodium glutamate (MSG). The rated intensity and pleasantness of MSG taste (0.03-10.0%) was compared in chronic male alcoholics (n = 35) and control subjects (n = 25). In a separate experiment, the effects of acute exposure of the oral mucosa to ethanol rinse (0.5-4.0%) on MSG taste (0.3-3.0%) were studied in 10 social drinkers. The alcoholic and control group did not differ in terms of the rated intensity and pleasantness of MSG taste. Electrogustometric thresholds were significantly (P alcohol-dependent subjects. The difference remained significant after controlling for between-group differences in cigarette smoking and coffee drinking. Rinsing with ethanol did not alter either intensity or pleasantness of MSG taste in social drinkers. The present results suggest that: (i) neither acute nor chronic alcohol exposure modifies taste responses to MSG; (ii) alcohol dependence may be associated with deficit in threshold taste reactivity, as assessed by electrogustometry.

  15. Adsorption of biometals to monosodium titanate in biological environments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOBBS, D.T.; MESSER, R. L. W.; LEWIS, J. B.; CLICK, D. R. LOCKWOOD, P. E.; WATAHA, J. C.

    2005-06-06

    Monosodium titanate (MST) is an inorganic sorbent/ion exchanger developed for the removal of radionuclides from nuclear wastes. We investigated the ability of MST to bind Cd(II), Hg(II), or Au(III) to establish the utility of MST for applications in environmental decontamination or medical therapy (drug delivery). Adsorption isotherms for MST were determined at pH 7-7.5 in water or phosphate-buffered saline. The extent of metal binding was determined spectroscopically by measuring the concentrations of the metals in solution before and after contact with the MST. Cytotoxic responses to MST were assessed using THP1 monocytes and succinate dehydrogenase activity. Monocytic activation by MST was assessed by TNF{alpha} secretion (ELISA) with or without lipopolysaccharide (LPS) activation. MST sorbed Cd(II), Hg(II), and Au(III) under conditions similar to that in physiological systems. MST exhibited the highest affinity for Cd(II) followed by Hg(II) and Au (III). MST (up to 100 mg/L) exhibited only minor (< 25% suppression of succinate dehydrogenase) cytotoxicity and did not trigger TNF{alpha} secretion nor modulate LPS-induced TNF{alpha} secretion from monocytes. MST exhibits high affinity for biometals with no significant biological liabilities in these introductory studies. MST deserves further scrutiny as a substance with the capacity to decontaminate biological environments or deliver metals in a controlled fashion.

  16. Induction of osteoarthritis by injecting monosodium iodoacetate into the patellofemoral joint of an experimental rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Ikufumi; Matsuzaki, Taro; Kuroki, Hiroshi; Hoso, Masahiro

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the histopathological changes in the patellofemoral joint using a rat model of osteoarthritis that was induced using monosodium iodoacetate, and to establish a novel model of patellofemoral osteoarthritis in a rat model using histopathological analysis. Sixty male rats were used. Osteoarthritis was induced through a single intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate in both knee joints. Animals were equally divided into two experimental groups based on the monosodium iodoacetate dose: 0.2 mg and 1.0 mg. Histopathological changes in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint and the infrapatellar fat pad were examined at 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 8 weeks, and 12 weeks after the monosodium iodoacetate injection. In the 1.0-mg group, the representative histopathological findings of osteoarthritis were observed in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint over time. Additionally, the Osteoarthritis Research Society International scores of the patellofemoral joint increased over time. The synovitis scores of the infrapatellar fat pad in both groups were highest at 3 days, and then the values decreased over time. The fibrosis score of the infrapatellar fat pad in the 1.0-mg group increased with time, whereas the fibrosis score in the 0.2-mg group remained low. Representative histopathological findings of osteoarthritis were observed in the articular cartilage of the patellofemoral joint in a rat model of osteoarthritis induced using monosodium iodoacetate. With appropriate selection, this model may be regarded as an ideal patellofemoral osteoarthritis model.

  17. Phase I Technical Report for the Engineering of Monosodium Titanate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NASH, CHARLES

    2004-01-01

    Monosodium titanate (MST) is an inorganic adsorbent that effectively removes strontium, plutonium, uranium, and other trace elements from alkaline salt supernate. Current plans use the MST in batch contact processes to treat Savannah River Site (SRS) waste solutions that require 90Sr and actinide removal to meet low level disposal criteria. More effective use of MST may be realized if the MST could be engineered into a form suitable for a continuous treatment process such as an adsorption column. The main benefits of column operation are (1) enhanced loading due to equilibration with feed adsorbate levels versus product levels, and (2) a small footprint relative to that of a batch contact tank. The current baseline MST material features particles of nominally 0.5-35 micron in size, which are much too fine for use in an adsorption column. An extensive review of the literature and consultation with technical experts identified candidate methods to produce engineered forms of MST. From this list a review team selected five candidate methods for further study. Laboratory syntheses at Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and offsite produced representative samples for characterization and performance testing. Testing identified two suitable methods. The two methods include internal gelation, which is patented technology of Oak Ridge National Laboratory, and internal hydrolysis, a method in which the MST is produced within a porous substrate. A commercial sodium titanate, SrTreat(R), produced by Fortum Engineering (Finland), demonstrated good performance as well although plutonium removal kinetics appeared much slower than observed for the other engineered MST materials

  18. The sensitivity of male rat reproductive organs to monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitthichai Iamsaard

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective. This study aimed to investigate the sensitivity of the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, and sperm acrosome reaction (AR to monosodium L- glutamate (MSG in rats. Materials and methods. Rats were divided into four groups and fed with non-acidic MSG at 0.25, 3 or 6 g/kg body weight for 30 days or without MSG. The morphological changes in the reproductive organs were studied. The plasma testosterone level, epididymal sperm concentration, and sperm AR status were assayed. Results. Compared to the control, no significant changes were discerned in the morphology and weight of the testes, or the histological structures of epididymis, vas deferens and seminal vesicle. In contrast, significant decreases were detected in the weight of the epididymis, testosterone levels, and sperm concentration of rats treated with 6 g/kg body weight of MSG. The weight loss was evident in the seminal vesicle in MSG-administered rats. Moreover, rats treated with MSG 3 and 6 g/kg exhibited partial testicular damage, characterized by sloughing of spermatogenic cells into the seminiferous tubular lumen, and their plasma testosterone levels were significantly decreased. In the 6 g/kg MSG group, the sperm concentration was significantly decreased compared with the control or two lower dose MSG groups. In AR assays, there was no statistically significant difference between MSG-rats and normal rats. Conclusion. Testicular morphological changes, testosterone level, and sperm concentration were sensitive to high doses of MSG while the rate of AR was not affected. Therefore, the consumption of high dose MSG must be avoided because it may cause partial infertility in male.

  19. Cudarflavone B Provides Neuroprotection against Glutamate-Induced Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell Damage through the Nrf2 and PI3K/Akt Signaling Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Sung Lee

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Oxidative cell damage contributes to neuronal degeneration in many central nervous system (CNS diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, and ischemia. Nrf2 signaling-mediated heme oxygenase (HO-1 expression acts against oxidants that are thought to play a key role in the pathogenesis of neuronal diseases. Cudraflavone B is a prenylated flavone isolated from C. tricuspidata which has shown anti-proliferative activity, mouse brain monoamine oxidase (MAO inhibitory effects, apoptotic actions in human gastric carcinoma cells and mouse melanoma cells, and hepatoprotective activity. In this study, cudraflavone B showed neuroprotective effects and reactive oxygen species (ROS inhibition against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity by inducing the expression of HO-1 in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. Furthermore, cudraflavone B caused the nuclear accumulation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2 and increased the promoter activity of antioxidant response elements (ARE in mouse hippocampal HT22 cells. In addition, we found that the Nrf2-midiated HO-1 expression by cudraflavone B is involved in the cell protective response and ROS reductions, and cudraflavone B-induced expression of HO-1 was mediated through the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K/Akt pathway in HT22 cells. Our results demonstrated the potential application of naturally occurring cudraflavone B as a therapeutic agent from neurodegenerative disease.

  20. The Methanolic Extract from Murraya koenigii L. Inhibits Glutamate-Induced Pain and Involves ATP-Sensitive K+ Channel as Antinociceptive Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nushrat Sharmin Ani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii L. is a perennial shrub, belonging to the family Rutaceae. Traditionally, the leaves of this plant are extensively used in treatment of a wide range of diseases and disorders including pain and inflammation. Although researchers have revealed the antinociceptive effects of this plant’s leaves during past few years, the mechanisms underlying these effects are still unknown. Therefore, the present study evaluated some antinociceptive mechanisms of the methanolic extract of M. koenigii (MEMK leaves along with its antinociceptive potential using several animal models. The antinociceptive effects of MEMK were evaluated using formalin-induced licking and acetic acid-induced writhing tests at the doses of 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg. In addition, we also justified the possible participations of glutamatergic system and ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the observed activities. Our results demonstrated that MEMK significantly (p<0.01 inhibited the pain thresholds induced by formalin and acetic acid in a dose-dependent manner. MEMK also significantly (p<0.01 suppressed glutamate-induced pain. Moreover, pretreatment with glibenclamide (an ATP-sensitive potassium channel blocker at 10 mg/kg significantly (p<0.05 reversed the MEMK-mediated antinociception. These revealed that MEMK might have the potential to interact with glutamatergic system and the ATP-sensitive potassium channels to exhibit its antinociceptive activities. Therefore, our results strongly support the antinociceptive effects of M. koenigii leaves and provide scientific basis of their analgesic uses in the traditional medicine.

  1. Neuroprotective effect of prenylated arylbenzofuran and flavonoids from morus alba fruits on glutamate-induced oxidative injury in HT22 hippocampal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Lee, Dae-Young; Jeong, Rak-Hun; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Young-Eon; Hong, Eock-Kee; Kim, Youn-Chul; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-04-01

    A prenylated arylbenzofuran and six flavonoids were isolated from the fruits of Morus alba L. through silica gel, octadecyl silica gel, and Diaion HP-20 column chromatography. Based on the nuclear magnetic resonance, mass spectrometry, and infrared spectroscopic data, the chemical structures of the compounds were determined to be artoindonesianin O (1), isobavachalcone (2), morachalcone A (3), quercetin (4), astragalin (5), isoquercetin (6), and rutin (7). The isolated compounds were evaluated for protection of HT22-immortalized hippocampal cells against glutamate-induced oxidative stress. Compounds 1 and 3 exhibited protective effects with EC(50) values of 19.7±1.2 and 35.5±2.1 μM, respectively. The major compounds 1-3 and 7 were quantified using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry analysis and were determined to be 1.88±2.1, 1.90±1.8, 0.78±1.5, and 37.29±2.2 mg/kg, respectively, in the ethanol extract of M. alba L. fruits.

  2. Clinical and radiologic review of uncommon cause of profound iron deficiency anemia: Median arcuate ligament syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gunduz, Yasemin; Asil, Kiyasrttin; Aksoy, Yakup Ersel; Ayhan, Lacin Tatli

    2014-01-01

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome is an anatomic and clinical entity characterized by dynamic compression of the proximal celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament, which leads to postprandial epigastric pain, vomiting, and weight loss. These symptoms are usually nonspecific and are easily misdiagnosed as functional dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, or gastropathy. In this report, we presented a 72-year-old male patient with celiac artery compression syndrome causing recurrent abdominal pain associated with gastric ulcer and iron deficiency anemia. This association is relatively uncommon and therefore not well determined. In addition, we reported the CT angiography findings and three-dimensional reconstructions of this rare case.

  3. Clinical and radiologic review of uncommon cause of profound iron deficiency anemia: Median arcuate ligament syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gunduz, Yasemin; Asil, Kiyasrttin; Aksoy, Yakup Ersel; Ayhan, Lacin Tatli [Dept. of Radiology, Sakarya University Medical Faculty, Sakarya (Turkmenistan)

    2014-08-15

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome is an anatomic and clinical entity characterized by dynamic compression of the proximal celiac artery by the median arcuate ligament, which leads to postprandial epigastric pain, vomiting, and weight loss. These symptoms are usually nonspecific and are easily misdiagnosed as functional dyspepsia, peptic ulcer disease, or gastropathy. In this report, we presented a 72-year-old male patient with celiac artery compression syndrome causing recurrent abdominal pain associated with gastric ulcer and iron deficiency anemia. This association is relatively uncommon and therefore not well determined. In addition, we reported the CT angiography findings and three-dimensional reconstructions of this rare case.

  4. Effect of cholecystokinin on feeding is attenuated in monosodium glutamate obese mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Maletínská, Lenka; Toma, Resha Shamas; Pirnik, Z.; Kiss, A.; Slaninová, Jiřina; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 136, č. 1/3 (2006), s. 58-63 ISSN 0167-0115 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA303/05/0614 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : monosodium glutamate * obesity * cholecistokinin * feeding behavior Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.442, year: 2006

  5. 75 FR 17733 - Monosodium Methanearsonate (MSMA); Notice of Receipt of Requests to Voluntarily Cancel Pesticide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-07

    ... that would merit its further review of the requests, or unless the registrants withdraw their requests within this period. Upon acceptance of these requests, any sale, distribution, or use of products listed... arsenical monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA). The requests would not terminate the last MSMA products...

  6. Osmotic and Salt Stresses Modulate Spontaneous and Glutamate-Induced Action Potentials and Distinguish between Growth and Circumnutation in Helianthus annuus Seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Stolarz

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Action potentials (APs, i.e., long-distance electrical signals, and circumnutations (CN, i.e., endogenous plant organ movements, are shaped by ion fluxes and content in excitable and motor tissues. The appearance of APs and CN as well as growth parameters in seedlings and 3-week old plants of Helianthus annuus treated with osmotic and salt stress (0–500 mOsm were studied. Time-lapse photography and extracellular measurements of electrical potential changes were performed. The hypocotyl length was strongly reduced by the osmotic and salt stress. CN intensity declined due to the osmotic but not salt stress. The period of CN in mild salt stress was similar to the control (~164 min and increased to more than 200 min in osmotic stress. In sunflower seedlings growing in a hydroponic medium, spontaneous APs (SAPs propagating basipetally and acropetally with a velocity of 12–20 cm min−1 were observed. The number of SAPs increased 2–3 times (7–10 SAPs 24 h−1plant−1 in the mild salt stress (160 mOsm NaCl and KCl, compared to the control and strong salt stress (3–4 SAPs 24 h−1 plant−1 in the control and 300 mOsm KCl and NaCl. Glutamate-induced series of APs were inhibited in the strong salt stress-treated seedlings but not at the mild salt stress and osmotic stress. Additionally, in 3-week old plants, the injection of the hypo- or hyperosmotic solution at the base of the sunflower stem evoked series of APs (3–24 APs transmitted along the stem. It has been shown that osmotic and salt stresses modulate differently hypocotyl growth and CN and have an effect on spontaneous and evoked APs in sunflower seedlings. We suggested that potassium, sodium, and chloride ions at stress concentrations in the nutrient medium modulate sunflower excitability and CN.

  7. Adiponectin potentiates the acute effects of leptin in arcuate Pomc neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Sun

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Adiponectin receptors (AdipoRs are located on neurons of the hypothalamus involved in metabolic regulation – including arcuate proopiomelanocortin (Pomc and Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP neurons. AdipoRs play a critical role in regulating glucose and fatty acid metabolism by initiating several signaling cascades overlapping with Leptin receptors (LepRs. However, the mechanism by which adiponectin regulates cellular activity in the brain remains undefined. Methods: In order to resolve this issue, we utilized neuron-specific transgenic mouse models to identify Pomc and NPY/AgRP neurons which express LepRs for patch-clamp electrophysiology experiments. Results: We found that leptin and adiponectin synergistically activated melanocortin neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Conversely, NPY/AgRP neurons were inhibited in response to adiponectin. The adiponectin-induced depolarization of arcuate Pomc neurons occurred via activation of Phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K signaling, independent of 5′ AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK activity. Adiponectin also activated melanocortin neurons at various physiological glucose levels. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate a requirement for PI3K signaling in the acute adiponectin-induced effects on the cellular activity of arcuate melanocortin neurons. Moreover, these data provide evidence for PI3K as a substrate for both leptin and adiponectin to regulate energy balance and glucose metabolism via melanocortin activity. Author Video: Author Video Watch what authors say about their articles Keywords: Melanocortin, Obesity, Diabetes, Energy balance, Patch-clamp, Electrophysiology

  8. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding

    OpenAIRE

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states...

  9. Transition duct system with arcuate ceramic liner for delivering hot-temperature gases in a combustion turbine engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiebe, David J.

    2017-11-07

    A transition duct system (10) for delivering hot-temperature gases from a plurality of combustors in a combustion turbine engine is provided. The system includes an exit piece (16) for each combustor. The exit piece may include an arcuate connecting segment (36). An arcuate ceramic liner (60) may be inwardly disposed onto a metal outer shell (38) along the arcuate connecting segment of the exit piece. Structural arrangements are provided to securely attach the ceramic liner in the presence of substantial flow path pressurization. Cost-effective serviceability of the transition duct systems is realizable since the liner can be readily removed and replaced as needed.

  10. Study of the Protective Effects of Quince (Cydonia Oblonga Leaf Extract on Fertility Alterations and Gonadal Dysfunction Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Adult Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kianifard Davoud

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aims: Starting from the cytotoxic effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG, the aim of this study was to evaluate the protective effects of quince leaf extract as natural antioxidant on the reproductive dysfunction induced by monosodium glutamate in rats. Material and methods: Monosodium glutamate was administrated with a dose of 30 and 60 mg/kg and quince leaf extract was administrated with a dose of 500 mg/kg. At the end of study, body and testicular weight measurement, hormonal and epididymal sperm analysis were performed. Results: Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH and testosterone levels were reduced after administration of monosodium glutamate. The levels of luteinizing hormone (LH exhibited no significant changes. Treatment with quince leaf extract led to improvement in follicle stimulating hormone and testosterone levels. Epididymal sperm population was reduced after administration of monosodium glutamate and treatment with quince leaf extract. The increased sperm motility rate induced by monosodium glutamate was reduced after treatment with quince leaf extract. Administration of monosodium glutamate led to more body weight gain in comparison to combined administration monosodium glutamate and quince leaf extract. Conclusions: The quince leaf extract can be effective in reduction of functional alterations of reproductive system induced by monosodium glutamate.

  11. Does monosodium glutamate really cause headache? : a systematic review of human studies

    OpenAIRE

    Obayashi, Yoko; Nagamura, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Although monosodium glutamate (MSG) is classified as a causative substance of headache in the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd edition (ICHD-III beta), there is no literature in which causal relationship between MSG and headache was comprehensively reviewed. We performed systematic review of human studies which include the incidence of headache after an oral administration of MSG. An analysis was made by separating the human studies with MSG administration with or withou...

  12. Paleomagnetism and tectonics of the Jura arcuate mountain belt in France and Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gehring, Andreas U.; Keller, Peter; Heller, Friedrich

    1991-02-01

    Goethite and hematite in ferriferous oolitic beds of Callovian age from the Jura mountains (Switzerland, France) carry either pre- and/or post-tectonic magnetization. The frequent pre-tectonic origin of goethite magnetization indicates a temperature range during formation of the arcuate Jura mountain belt below the goethite Néel temperature of about 100°C. The scatter of the pre-tectonic paleomagnetic directions ( D = 11.5° E, I = 55.5°; α95 = 4.7) which reside both in goethite and hematite, provides strong evidence that the arcuate mountain belt was shaped without significant rotation. The paleomagnetic results support tectonic thin-skinned models for the formation of the Jura mountain belt.

  13. Glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, Shigetomo; Maekawa, Fumihiko; Maejima, Yuko; Kubota, Naoto; Kadowaki, Takashi; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-08-09

    Adiponectin regulates glucose and lipid metabolism, acting against metabolic syndrome and atherosclerosis. Accumulating evidence suggest that adiponectin acts on the brain including hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), where proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons play key roles in feeding regulation. Several studies have examined intracerebroventricular (ICV) injection of adiponectin and reported opposite effects, increase or decrease of food intake. These reports used different nutritional states. The present study aimed to clarify whether adiponectin exerts distinct effects on food intake and ARC POMC neurons depending on the glucose concentration. Adiponectin was ICV injected with or without glucose for feeding experiments and administered to ARC slices with high or low glucose for patch clamp experiments. We found that adiponectin at high glucose inhibited POMC neurons and increased food intake while at low glucose it exerted opposite effects. The results demonstrate that glucose level determines excitatory or inhibitory effects of adiponectin on arcuate POMC neuron activity and feeding.

  14. High plasma triglyceride levels strongly correlate with low kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus of male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overgaard, A; Axel, A M; Lie, M E

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: It is well known that reproductive capacity is lower in obese individuals, but what mediators and signals are involved is unclear. Kisspeptin is a potent stimulator of GnRH release, and it has been suggested that kisspeptin neurons located in the arcuate nucleus transmit metabolic...... signals to the GnRH neurons. METHODS: In this study, we measured body weight and plasma concentrations of leptin, insulin, testosterone, and triglycerides after high fat diet exposure and correlated these parameters with the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of male rats...... with increased fat in the diet. Kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells are not correlated with body weight, testosterone, leptin or insulin. However, we find that the number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells is strongly and negatively correlated with the level of plasma triglycerides (R2=0.49, p=0.004). CONCLUSION: We...

  15. The arcuate nucleus of the C57BL/6J mouse hindbrain is a displaced part of the inferior olive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Yu Hong; Watson, Charles

    2012-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus is a prominent cell group in the human hindbrain, characterized by its position on the pial surface of the pyramid. It is considered to be a precerebellar nucleus and has been implicated in the pathology of several disorders of respiration. An arcuate nucleus has not been convincingly demonstrated in other mammals, but we have found a similarly positioned nucleus in the C57BL/6J mouse. The mouse arcuate nucleus consists of a variable group of neurons lying on the pial surface of the pyramid. The nucleus is continuous with the ventrolateral part of the principal nucleus of the inferior olive and both groups are calbindin positive. At first we thought that this mouse nucleus was homologous with the human arcuate nucleus, but we have discovered that the neurons of the human nucleus are calbindin negative, and are therefore not olivary in nature. We have compared the mouse arcuate neurons with those of the inferior olive in terms of molecular markers and cerebellar projection. The neurons of the arcuate nucleus and of the inferior olive share three major characteristics: they both contain neurons utilizing glutamate, serotonin or acetylcholine as neurotransmitters; they both project to the contralateral cerebellum, and they both express a number of genes not present in the major mossy fiber issuing precerebellar nuclei. Most importantly, both cell groups express calbindin in an area of the ventral hindbrain almost completely devoid of calbindin-positive cells. We conclude that the neurons of the hindbrain mouse arcuate nucleus are a displaced part of the inferior olive, possibly separated by the caudal growth of the pyramidal tract during development. The arcuate nucleus reported in the C57BL/6J mouse can therefore be regarded as a subgroup of the rostral inferior olive, closely allied with the ventral tier of the principal nucleus. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Pediatric traumatic brain injury: Language outcomes and their relationship to the arcuate fasciculus

    OpenAIRE

    Liégeois, Frédérique J.; Mahony, Kate; Connelly, Alan; Pigdon, Lauren; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Morgan, Angela T.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in long-lasting language impairments alongside dysarthria, a motor-speech disorder. Whether this co-morbidity is due to the functional links between speech and language networks, or to widespread damage affecting both motor and language tracts, remains unknown. Here we investigated language function and diffusion metrics (using diffusion-weighted tractography) within the arcuate fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the corpus callosum in 3...

  17. Pediatric traumatic brain injury: Language outcomes and their relationship to the arcuate fasciculus

    OpenAIRE

    Liégeois, F. J.; Mahony, K.; Connelly, A.; Tournier, J-D; Pigdon, L.; Morgan, A. T.

    2013-01-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in long-lasting language impairments alongside dysarthria, a motor-speech disorder. Whether this co-morbidity is due to the functional links between speech and language networks, or to widespread damage affecting both motor and language tracts, remains unknown.Here we investigated language function and diffusion metrics (using diffusion-weighted tractography) within the arcuate fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the corpus callosum in 32...

  18. Arcuate AgRP neurons mediate orexigenic and glucoregulatory actions of ghrelin

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Chen; Uchida, Aki; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Walker, Angela; Liu, Tiemin; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Mason, Brittany L.; Mosher, Christina; Berglund, Eric D.; Elmquist, Joel K.; Zigman, Jeffrey M.

    2014-01-01

    The hormone ghrelin stimulates eating and helps maintain blood glucose upon caloric restriction. While previous studies have demonstrated that hypothalamic arcuate AgRP neurons are targets of ghrelin, the overall relevance of ghrelin signaling within intact AgRP neurons is unclear. Here, we tested the functional significance of ghrelin action on AgRP neurons using a new, tamoxifen-inducible AgRP-CreERT2 transgenic mouse model that allows spatiotemporally-controlled re-expression of physiologi...

  19. Pediatric traumatic brain injury: language outcomes and their relationship to the arcuate fasciculus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liégeois, Frédérique J; Mahony, Kate; Connelly, Alan; Pigdon, Lauren; Tournier, Jacques-Donald; Morgan, Angela T

    2013-12-01

    Pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result in long-lasting language impairments alongside dysarthria, a motor-speech disorder. Whether this co-morbidity is due to the functional links between speech and language networks, or to widespread damage affecting both motor and language tracts, remains unknown. Here we investigated language function and diffusion metrics (using diffusion-weighted tractography) within the arcuate fasciculus, the uncinate fasciculus, and the corpus callosum in 32 young people after TBI (approximately half with dysarthria) and age-matched healthy controls (n=17). Only participants with dysarthria showed impairments in language, affecting sentence formulation and semantic association. In the whole TBI group, sentence formulation was best predicted by combined corpus callosum and left arcuate volumes, suggesting this "dual blow" seriously reduces the potential for functional reorganisation. Word comprehension was predicted by fractional anisotropy in the right arcuate. The co-morbidity between dysarthria and language deficits therefore seems to be the consequence of multiple tract damage. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Neuroprotective effects of Arctium lappa L. roots against glutamate-induced oxidative stress by inhibiting phosphorylation of p38, JNK and ERK 1/2 MAPKs in PC12 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xing; Sui, Shuang; Huang, Jin; Bai, Jun-Peng; Ren, Tian-Shu; Zhao, Qing-Chun

    2014-07-01

    Many studies have shown that glutamate-induced oxidative stress can lead to neuronal cell death involved in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In this work, protective effects of ethyl acetate extract (EAE) of Arctium lappa L. roots against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in PC12 cells were evaluated. Also, the effects of EAE on antioxidant system, mitochondrial pathway, and signal transduction pathway were explored. Pretreatment with EAE significantly increased cell viability, activities of GSH-Px and SOD, mitochondrial membrane potential and reduced LDH leakage, ROS formation, and nuclear condensation in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, western blot results revealed that EAE increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio, and inhibited the up-regulation of caspase-3, release of cytochrome c, phosphorylation of p38, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK 1/2). Therefore, our results indicate that EAE may be a promising neuroprotective agent for the prevention and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases implicated with oxidative stress. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The immunoreactivity of satellite glia of the spinal ganglia of rats treated with monosodium glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Ewa Krawczyk

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Satellite glia of the peripheral nervous system ganglia provide metabolic protection to the neurons. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of monosodium glutamate administered parenterally to rats on the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100β protein and Ki-67 antigen in the satellite glial cells. Adult, 60-day-old male rats received monosodium glutamate at two doses of 2 g/kg b.w. (group 1 and 4 g/kg b.w. (group 2 subcutaneously for 3 consecutive days. Animals in the control group (group C were treated with corresponding doses of 0.9% sodium chloride. Immediately after euthanasia, spinal ganglia of the lumbar region were dissected. Immunohistochemical peroxidase anti-peroxidase reactions were performed on the sections containing the examined material using antibodies against glial fibrillary acidic protein, S-100β and Ki-67. Next, morphological and morphometric analyses of immunopositive and immunonegative glia were conducted. The data were presented as the mean number of cells with standard deviation. Significant differences were analysed using ANOVA (P < 0.05. In all 63-day-old rats, immunopositivity for the examined proteins glia was observed. Increased number of cells expressing glial fibrillary acidic protein was demonstrated in group 2, whereas the number of S-100β-positive glia grew in the groups with the increasing doses of monosodium glutamate. The results indicate the early stage reactivity of glia in response to increased levels of glutamate in the extracellular space. These changes may be of a neuroprotective nature under the conditions of excitotoxicity induced by the action of this excitatory neurotransmitter.

  2. Monosodium glutamate delivered in a protein-rich soup improves subsequent energy compensation

    OpenAIRE

    Masic, Una; Yeomans, Martin R.

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that monosodium glutamate (MSG) may have a biphasic effect on appetite, increasing appetite within a meal with its flavour-enhancing effect, but enhancing subsequent satiety due to its proposed role as a predictor of protein content. The present study explored this by assessing the impact of a 450 g soup preload differing in MSG concentration (1 % MSG added (MSG+) or no MSG (MSG-)) and nutrient content (low-energy control or high-energy carbohydrate or high-energy p...

  3. [Role of estrogen-sensitive neurons in the arcuate region of the hypothalamus in the mechanism of luteinizing hormone release].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, V N; Ignatkov, V Ia

    1978-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on rats; estradiol brought to the arcuate region of the hypothalamus by means of microionophoresis led to the increase of the region of the hypothalamus by means of microionophoresis led to the increase of the blood luteinizing hormone (LH) level during the following stages of the estral cycle-diestrus 1, diestrus 2, and the first half day of the proestrus; as to the second half of the proestrus day--estradiol decreased its level. Changes in the LH level in the hypophysis under the influence of the microionophoretic introduction of estradiol into the arcuate region occurred during the second half of the day of diestrus 2 (reduction), and during the estrus (elevation). In the majority of cases a rise of the blood level was combined with the neuron activation in the arcuate region under the influence of estradiol.

  4. Effect of sludge solids to mono-sodium titanate (MST) ratio on MST-treated sludge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saito, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    The Salt Disposition Systems Engineering Team has selected two cesium removal technologies for further development to replace the In-Tank Precipitation process: small tank tetraphenylborate (TPB) precipitation and crystalline silicotitanate (CST) ion exchange. In the CST ion exchange process, incoming salt solution from storage tanks containing entrained sludge solids is pretreated with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and plutonium. The resulting slurry is filtered using a cross-flow filter, with the permeate sent forward to CST ion exchange columns for cesium removal prior to conversion into Class A grout at the Saltstone Facility. The MST and sludge solids are to be sent for vitrification at the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). The High Level Waste Division (HLWD) requested that the Waste Processing Technology Section (WPTS) study varying the insoluble sludge solids to MST ratio to determine the relative impact of sludge and MST on filter performance. The purpose of this study was not for an exhaustive comprehensive search for an optimized insoluble sludge solids to monosodium titanate (MST) ratio, but as a scoping study to identify any effects of having an excess of either material. This document reports the results obtained

  5. Gambaran Histologi Regenerasi Hati Pasca Penghentian Pajanan Monosodium Glutamat pada Tikus Wistar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heryanto Andreas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Monosodium glutamat (MSG merupakan bahan penyedap masakan yang sering digunakan, namun konsumsi MSG berlebihan dapat merusak hati. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahuipengaruh pajanan MSG terhadap gambaran histologis hati tikus jantan galur wistar dankemampuan regenerasinya. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain eksperimental post-test only.Tikus dibagi menjadi 9 kelompok, yang terdiri atas 3 kelompok perlakuan dalam 3 periode yang berbeda (28, 42, dan 56 hari. Kelompok kontrol positif 1, 2, dan 3 diberikan akuades selama 28 hari, 42 hari, 56 hari; kelompok kontrol negatif 1, 2, dan 3 diberikan MSG 5 mg/gBB/hari selama 28hari, 42 hari, 56 hari; kelompok perlakuan regenerasi 1, 2, 3 diberikan MSG 5 mg/gBB/hari selama28 hari kemudian dihentikan selama 0 hari, 14 hari, 28 hari. Variabel yang diukur adalah derajatkerusakan jaringan hati. Pada analisis one way ANOVA terdapat perbedaan signifikan (p<0,05.Uji post hoc LSD menunjukkan perbedaan signifikan antara kelompok kontrol positif dengankelompok kontrol negatif (p<0,05 dan tidak terdapat perbedaan signifikan antara kelompok kontrolpositif dengan perlakuan regenerasi 14 hari (p>0,05 dan perlakuan regenerasi 28 hari (p>0,05.Disimpulkan pajanan MSG mengakibatkan kerusakan hati dan terjadi regenerasi hati setelah 14hari penghentian pajanan MSG. Kata kunci: monosodium glutamat, regenerasi, kerusakan hati Histological Study of Liver Regeneration after Cessation ofMonosodium Glutamat on Rats Abstract Monosodium glutamat (MSG is flavor enhancer that has been used in various food products. Excessive consumption of MSG have been reported to damage liver. The purpose of this experimentis to determine effect of MSG on male wistar rats’s liver histology and it’s regeneration capability.This is an experimental research with post-test only goup design. Rats were divided into 9 goups,consisted of 3 treatment goups with 3 different period

  6. Chronic methamphetamine exposure significantly decreases microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lloyd, Steven A; Corkill, Beau; Bruster, Matthew C; Roberts, Rick L; Shanks, Ryan A

    2017-07-01

    Methamphetamine is a powerful psychostimulant drug and its use and abuse necessitates a better understanding of its neurobiobehavioral effects. The acute effects of binge dosing of methamphetamine on the neurons in the CNS are well studied. However, the long-term effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine are less well characterized, especially in other cell types and areas outside of the major dopamine pathways. Mice were administered 5mg/kg/day methamphetamine for ten days and brain tissue was analyzed using histochemistry and image analysis. Increased microglia activity in the striatum confirmed toxic effects of methamphetamine in this brain region using this dosing paradigm. A significant decrease in microglia activity in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus was observed with no effect noted on dopamine neurons in the arcuate nucleus. Given the importance of this area in homeostatic and neuroendocrine regulation, the current study highlights the need to more fully understand the systemic effects of chronic, low-dose methamphetamine use. The novel finding of microglia downregulation after chronic methamphetamine could lead to advances in understanding neuroinflammatory responses towards addiction treatment and protection from psychostimulant-induced neurotoxicity. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Single-Center Experience with 23 Patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nasr, Layla A. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon); Faraj, Walid G. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Lebanon); Al-Kutoubi, Aghiad [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon); Hamady, Mohamad [Imperial College-London Faculty of Medicine, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (United Kingdom); Khalifeh, Mohamad; Hallal, Ali; Halawani, Hamzeh M. [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Department of Surgery (Lebanon); Wazen, Joelle; Haydar, Ali A., E-mail: ah24@aub.edu.lb [American University of Beirut Medical Center, Division of Interventional Radiology, Department of Radiology (Lebanon)

    2017-05-15

    BackgroundMedian arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a rare entity that occurs when the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm is low-lying, causing a compression to the underlying celiac trunk. We reviewed the vascular changes associated with MALS in an effort to emphasize the seriousness of this disease and the complications that may result.MethodsThis is a retrospective descriptive analysis of 23 consecutive patients diagnosed with MALS between January 1, 2012 and December 31, 2015 at a tertiary medical center. Computed tomographic (CT) scans, medical records, and patient follow-up were reviewed.ResultsThe number of patients included herein was 23. The median age was 56 years (17–83). Sixteen patients (69.6%) had a significant arterial collateral circulation. Eleven patients (47.8%) were found to have visceral artery aneurysms; 4 patients (36.4%) bled secondary to aneurysm rupture. All ruptured aneurysms were treated with endovascular approach. The severity of the hemodynamic changes appears to be greater with complete occlusion,ConclusionsMALS causes pathological hemodynamic changes within the abdominal vasculature. Follow-up is advised for patients who develop a collateral circulation. Resulting aneurysms should preferably be treated when the size ratio approaches three. Treatment of these aneurysms can be done via an endovascular approach coupled with possible celiac artery decompression to restore physiologic blood flow.

  8. Lower- and higher-order aberrations predicted by an optomechanical model of arcuate keratotomy for astigmatism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Rafael; Palos, Fernando; Lanchares, Elena; Calvo, Begoña; Cristóbal, José A

    2009-01-01

    To develop a realistic model of the optomechanical behavior of the cornea after curved relaxing incisions to simulate the induced astigmatic change and predict the optical aberrations produced by the incisions. ICMA Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Científicas and Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain. A 3-dimensional finite element model of the anterior hemisphere of the ocular surface was used. The corneal tissue was modeled as a quasi-incompressible, anisotropic hyperelastic constitutive behavior strongly dependent on the physiological collagen fibril distribution. Similar behaviors were assigned to the limbus and sclera. With this model, some corneal incisions were computer simulated after the Lindstrom nomogram. The resulting geometry of the biomechanical simulation was analyzed in the optical zone, and finite ray tracing was performed to compute refractive power and higher-order aberrations (HOAs). The finite-element simulation provided new geometry of the corneal surfaces, from which elevation topographies were obtained. The surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) of the simulated incisions according to the Lindstrom nomogram was computed by finite ray tracing. However, paraxial computations would yield slightly different results (undercorrection of astigmatism). In addition, arcuate incisions would induce significant amounts of HOAs. Finite-element models, together with finite ray-tracing computations, yielded realistic simulations of the biomechanical and optical changes induced by relaxing incisions. The model reproduced the SIA indicated by the Lindstrom nomogram for the simulated incisions and predicted a significant increase in optical aberrations induced by arcuate keratotomy.

  9. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent) treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalik, Maciej; Dowgiałło-Wnukiewicz, Natalia; Lech, Paweł; Majda, Kaja; Gutowski, Piotr

    2016-01-01

    Celiac trunk (CT) compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL) is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT - the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis.

  10. 21 CFR 582.4521 - Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. 582.4521 Section 582.4521 Food and... Monosodium phosphate derivatives of mono- and diglycerides of edible fats or oils, or edible fat-forming... oils, or edible fat-forming fatty acids. (b) Conditions of use. This substance is generally recognized...

  11. Serotonin 2C receptor activates a distinct population of arcuate pro-opiomelanocortin neurons via TRPC channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serotonin 2C receptors (5-HT2CRs) expressed by pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus regulate food intake, energy homeostasis ,and glucose metabolism. However, the cellular mechanisms underlying the effects of 5-HT to regulate POMC neuronal activity via 5-HT2CRs have no...

  12. A molecular census of arcuate hypothalamus and median eminence cell types

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Campbell, John N; Macosko, Evan Z; Fenselau, Henning

    2017-01-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate-median eminence complex (Arc-ME) controls energy balance, fertility and growth through molecularly distinct cell types, many of which remain unknown. To catalog cell types in an unbiased way, we profiled gene expression in 20,921 individual cells in and around the adult...... mouse Arc-ME using Drop-seq. We identify 50 transcriptionally distinct Arc-ME cell populations, including a rare tanycyte population at the Arc-ME diffusion barrier, a new leptin-sensing neuron population, multiple agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) subtypes, and an orexigenic...... somatostatin neuron population. We extended Drop-seq to detect dynamic expression changes across relevant physiological perturbations, revealing cell type-specific responses to energy status, including distinct responses in AgRP and POMC neuron subtypes. Finally, integrating our data with human genome...

  13. CART neurons in the arcuate nucleus and lateral hypothalamic area exert differential controls on energy homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jackie Lau

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART codes for a pivotal neuropeptide important in the control of appetite and energy homeostasis. However, limited understanding exists for the defined effector sites underlying CART function, as discrepant effects of central CART administration have been reported. Methods: By combining Cart-cre knock-in mice with a Cart adeno-associated viral vector designed using the flip-excision switch (AAV-FLEX technology, specific reintroduction or overexpression of CART selectively in CART neurons in the arcuate nucleus (Arc and lateral hypothalamic area (LHA, respectively, was achieved. The effects on energy homeostasis control were investigated. Results: Here we show that CART neuron-specific reintroduction of CART into the Arc and LHA leads to distinct effects on energy homeostasis control. Specifically, CART reintroduction into the Arc of otherwise CART-deficient Cartcre/cre mice markedly decreased fat mass and body weight, whereas CART reintroduction into the LHA caused significant fat mass gain and lean mass loss, but overall unaltered body weight. The reduced adiposity in ArcCART;Cartcre/cre mice was associated with an increase in both energy expenditure and physical activity, along with significantly decreased Npy mRNA levels in the Arc but with no change in food consumption. Distinctively, the elevated fat mass in LHACART;Cartcre/cre mice was accompanied by diminished insulin responsiveness and glucose tolerance, greater spontaneous food intake, and reduced energy expenditure, which is consistent with the observed decrease of brown adipose tissue temperature. This is also in line with significantly reduced tyrosine hydroxylase (Th and notably increased corticotropin-releasing hormone (Crh mRNA expressions in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Conclusions: Taken together, these results identify catabolic and anabolic effects of CART in the Arc and LHA, respectively, demonstrating for

  14. Hybrid (laparoscopy + stent treatment of celiac trunk compression syndrome (Dunbar syndrome, median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maciej Michalik

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction : Celiac trunk (CT compression syndrome caused by the median arcuate ligament (MAL is a rarely diagnosed disease because of its nonspecific symptoms, which cause a delay in the correct diagnosis. Intestinal ischemia occurs, which causes symptoms of abdominal angina. One method of treatment for this disease is surgical release of the CT – the intersection of the MAL. Laparoscopy is the first step of the hybrid technique combined with percutaneous angioplasty and stenting of the CT. Aim: To demonstrate the usefulness and advantages of the laparoscopic approach in the treatment of Dunbar syndrome. Material and methods : Between 2013 and 2016 in the General and Minimally Invasive Surgery Department of the Medical Sciences Faculty of the University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, 6 laparoscopic procedures were performed because of median arcuate ligament syndrome. During the laparoscopy the MAL was cut with a harmonic scalpel. One month after laparoscopy 5 patients had Doppler percutaneous angioplasty of the CT with stent implantation in the Vascular Surgery Department in Pomeranian Medical University in Szczecin. Results : In one case, there was a conversion of laparoscopic surgery to open due to unmanageable intraoperative bleeding. In one case, postoperative ultrasound examination of the abdominal cavity demonstrated the presence of a large hematoma in the retroperitoneal space. All patients reported relief of symptoms in the first days after the operation. Conclusions : The hybrid method, combining laparoscopy and angioplasty, seems to be a long-term solution, which increases the comfort of the patient, brings the opportunity for normal functioning and minimizes the risk of restenosis.

  15. A review of the arcuate structures in the Iberian Variscides; constraints and genetic models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, R.; Ribeiro, A.; Romão, J.; Coke, C.; Moreira, N.

    2016-06-01

    The main Ibero-Armorican Arc (IAA) is essentially defined by a predominant NW-SE trend in the Iberian branch and an E-W trend in the Brittany one. However, in northern Spain it presents a 180° rotation, sometimes known as the Cantabrian Arc (CA). The relation between both arcs is controversial, being considered either as a single arc due to one tectonic event, or as the result of a polyphasic process. According to the last assumption, there is a later arcuate structure (CA), overlapping a previous major one (IAA). Whatever the models, they must be able to explain the presence of a Variscan sinistral transpression in Iberia and a dextral one in Armorica, and a deformation spanning from the Devonian to the Upper Carboniferous. Another arcuate structure, in continuity with the CA, the Central-Iberian Arc (CIA) was recently proposed mainly based upon on magnetic anomalies, geometry of major folds and Ordovician paleocurrents. The critical review of the structural, stratigraphic and geophysical data supports both the IAA and the CA, but as independent structures. However, the presence of a CIA is highly questionable and could not be supported. The complex strain pattern of the IAA and the CA could be explained by a Devonian - Carboniferous polyphasic indentation of a Gondwana promontory. In this model the CA is essentially a thin-skinned arc, while the IAA has a more complex and longer evolution that has led to a thick-skinned first order structure. Nevertheless, both arcs are essentially the result of a lithospheric bending process during the Iberian Variscides.

  16. Effect of arcuate keratomy on decreasing astigmatism in IOL implantation after intracapsular cataract extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhong-Yu Xu

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study an approach to visual acuity correction after intracapsular cataract extraction by phase-II intraocular lens implantation through the individualized arcuate keratotomy. METHODS: For demonstration, 48 postoperative patients(50 eyesreceiving the intracapsular cataract extraction were gathered up. Each patient received a scleral tunnel major incision along the radial line of the maximum corneal refractive power determined by a cornea curvimeter, and a arcuate keratotomy was made opposite to the major one; through the major incision an iris-claw intraocular lens is implanted. Each patient was measured for their corneal astigmatism and uncorrected visual acuity before and after the surgery.RESULTS: The results suggested the average corneal astigmatism before the surgery and that 3d, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo after the surgery as +3.18±0.68, -1.56±0.73, +0.87±0.51, +1.21±0.70, +1.33±0.68 and +1.48±0.48 respectively. The uncorrected visual acuities 3d, 1, 3, 6 and 12mo after the surgery are 0.5±0.38, 0.56±0.23, 0.55±0.24, 0.52±0.28 and 0.51±0.25 respectively. CONCLUSION: Phase-II intraocular lens implantation witharcuate keratotomy is helpful to improve the postoperative visual acuity and reduce preoperative corneal astigmatism after the intracapsular cataract extraction aphakic eyes, It is also a low-cost surgery, and easy to perform, with minor surgical injuries, particularly available for surgical visual acuity correction of the aphakic eye receiving intracapsular cataract extraction.

  17. Ghrelin is an orexigenic and metabolic signaling peptide in the arcuate and paraventricular nuclei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Paul J; Mirza, Aaisha; Fuld, Rebecca; Park, Diana; Vasselli, Joseph R

    2005-08-01

    Ghrelin is a 28-amino acid acylated peptide and is the endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHS-R). The GHS-R is expressed in hypothalamic nuclei, including the arcuate nucleus (Arc) where it is colocalized with neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. In the present study, we examined the effects of ghrelin on feeding and energy substrate utilization (respiratory quotient; RQ) following direct injections into either the arcuate or the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. Ghrelin was administered at the beginning of the dark cycle at doses of 15-60 pmol to male and female rats. In feeding studies, food intake was measured 2 and 4 h postinjection. Separate groups of rats were injected with ghrelin, and the RQ (VCO(2)/VO(2)) was measured using an open circuit calorimeter over a 4-h period. Both Arc and PVN injections of ghrelin increased food intake in male and female rats. Ghrelin also increased RQ, reflecting a shift in energy substrate utilization in favor of carbohydrate oxidation. Because these effects are similar to those observed after PVN injection of NPY, we then assessed the impact of coinjecting ghrelin with NPY into the PVN. When rats were pretreated with very low doses of ghrelin (2.5-10 pmol), NPY's (50 pmol) effects on eating and RQ were potentiated. Overall, these data are in agreement with evidence suggesting that ghrelin functions as a gut-brain endocrine hormone implicated in the regulation of food intake and energy metabolism. Our findings are also consistent with a possible interactive role of hypothalamic ghrelin and NPY systems.

  18. The Effect of MSG (Monosodium Glutamate Addition on The Quality of Yoghurt Frozen Culture Starter Viewed Viability, pH Value and Acidity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aris Sri Widati

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate wether the effect of percentage monosodium glutamat addition on the quality of yoghurt frozen culture starter viewed viability, pH value and acidity.The experimental design used in this study was Randomised Complete Design and the treatment were four levels of monosodium glutamate concentration respectively 0% (without monosodium glutamat 10%, 15% and 20% from medium. Each treatment were three times replicated. The research result showed that the difference of monosodium glutamate concentration  did not gave a significant effect (P>0.05 on viability of yoghurt frozen culture starter and acidity of yoghurt made by frozen culture starter but it gave a significant effect (P<0.05 on pH value. It can be concluded that different monosodium glutamate concentration had a different quality on frozen culture starter yoghurt. The addition of monosodium glutamate up to 20% necessarily indicate increase on quality of yoghurt frozen culture starter. Keywords: culture starter yoghurt, freezing, cryoprotectant

  19. Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fridriksson, Julius; Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

    2013-11-01

    Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca's area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer picture of cortical damage in non-fluent aphasia, the current study examined brain damage that negatively influences speech fluency in patients with aphasia. It controlled for some basic speech and language comprehension factors in order to better isolate the contribution of different mechanisms to fluency, or its lack. Cortical damage was related to overall speech fluency, as estimated by clinical judgements using the Western Aphasia Battery speech fluency scale, diadochokinetic rate, rudimentary auditory language comprehension, and executive functioning (scores on a matrix reasoning test) in 64 patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke. A region of interest analysis that included brain regions typically implicated in speech and language processing revealed that non-fluency in aphasia is primarily predicted by damage to the anterior segment of the left arcuate fasciculus. An improved prediction model also included the left uncinate fasciculus, a white matter tract connecting the middle and anterior temporal lobe with frontal lobe regions, including the pars triangularis. Models that controlled for diadochokinetic rate, picture-word recognition, or executive functioning also revealed a strong relationship between anterior segment involvement and speech fluency. Whole brain analyses corroborated the findings from the region of interest analyses. An additional exploratory analysis revealed that involvement of the uncinate fasciculus adjudicated between Broca's and global aphasia

  20. Diffusion tensor tractography of the arcuate fasciculus in patients with brain tumors: Comparison between deterministic and probabilistic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhixi; Peck, Kyung K; Brennan, Nicole P; Jenabi, Mehrnaz; Hsu, Meier; Zhang, Zhigang; Holodny, Andrei I; Young, Robert J

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the deterministic and probabilistic tracking methods of diffusion tensor white matter fiber tractography in patients with brain tumors. We identified 29 patients with left brain tumors probabilistic method based on an extended Monte Carlo Random Walk algorithm. Tracking was controlled using two ROIs corresponding to Broca's and Wernicke's areas. Tracts in tumoraffected hemispheres were examined for extension between Broca's and Wernicke's areas, anterior-posterior length and volume, and compared with the normal contralateral tracts. Probabilistic tracts displayed more complete anterior extension to Broca's area than did FACT tracts on the tumor-affected and normal sides (p probabilistic tracts than FACT tracts (p probabilistic tracts than FACT tracts (p = 0.01). Probabilistic tractography reconstructs the arcuate fasciculus more completely and performs better through areas of tumor and/or edema. The FACT algorithm tends to underestimate the anterior-most fibers of the arcuate fasciculus, which are crossed by primary motor fibers.

  1. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT TERHADAP KADAR HORMON ESTRADIOL DAN KADAR HORMON PROGESTERON PADA TIKUS PUTIH BETINA (Rattus norvegicus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    andri ani

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Perubahan pola demografi di negara maju dan negara berkembang, angka kejadian infertilitas di negara maju dilaporkan sekitar 5%-8% dan di negara berkembang sekitar 30%.WHO memperkirakan sekitar 8%-10% atau sekitar 50-80 juta pasangan suami istri di seluruh dunia mengalami masalah infertilitas, sehingga membuat infertilitas menjadi masalah mendesak. Untuk itu diperlukan pengendalian infertilitas, salah satunya adalah kewaspadaan perubahan gaya hidup, perubahan ini juga mempengaruhi pola konsumsi makanan dengan lebih banyak mengkonsumsi jenis makanan cepat saji yang banyak mengandung zat aditif (penyedap rasa. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui pengaruh pemberian monosodium glutamate terhadap kadar hormon estradiol dan kadar hormon progesteron pada tikus putih betina ( Rattus norvegicus .Penelitian ini menggunakan metode pendekatan post test only control group design, terhadap tikus putih betina dengan berat 200 – 250 gr. Sampel terdiri dari 24 ekor tikus yang dibagi 4 kelompok yaitu kelompok kontrol ( K , perlakuan I, II dan III . Kelompok perlakuan diberikan monosodium glutamat dengan dosis masing-masing : 45 mg, 54 mg dan 63 mg setiap hari diberikan peroral yang dilarutkan dengan aquabides 2 ml selama 20 hari yang dimulai pada awal fase proestrus. Setelah 20 hari perlakuan tikus di korbankan dan diambil darahnya. Pemeriksaan kadar hormone estradiol dan progesteron menggunakan Elisa Spectrophotometer.  Kemudian hasilnya dianalisa dengan menggunakan One Way ANOVA dan dilanjutkan dengan uji Multiple Comparison jenis Bonferroni.Hasil penelitian pemberian  monosodium glutamat dengan dosis 45 mg/ ekor/ hari, 54 mg/ekor/ hari dan 63 mg/ ekor /hari dapat menurunkan kadar hormon estradiol tikus putih betina (Rattus norvegicus secara signifikan. Dan pemberian monosodium glutamate dengan dosis 45 mg/ ekor/ hari dapat menurunkan kadar hormon progesteron tikus putih betina (Rattus norvegicus walaupun tidak berpengaruh secara signifikan , dan pada

  2. Vocabulary growth rate from preschool to school-age years is reflected in the connectivity of the arcuate fasciculus in 14-year-old children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mengmeng; Thiebaut de Schotten, Michel; Zhao, Jingjing; Song, Shuang; Zhou, Wei; Gong, Gaolang; McBride, Catherine; Ramus, Franck; Shu, Hua

    2018-02-06

    The acquisition of language involves the functional specialization of several cortical regions. Connectivity between these brain regions may also change with the development of language. Various studies have demonstrated that the arcuate fasciculus was essential for language function. Vocabulary learning is one of the most important skills in language acquisition. In the present longitudinal study, we explored the influence of vocabulary development on the anatomical properties of the arcuate fasciculus. Seventy-nine Chinese children participated in this study. Between age 4 and age 10, they were administered the same vocabulary task repeatedly. Following a previous study, children's vocabulary developmental trajectories were clustered into three subgroups (consistently good, catch-up, consistently poor). At age 14, diffusion tensor imaging data were collected. Using ROI-based tractography, the anterior, posterior and direct segments of the bilateral arcuate fasciculus were delineated in each child's native space. Group comparisons showed a significantly reduced fractional anisotropy in the left arcuate fasciculus of children in the consistently poor group, in particular in the posterior and direct segments of the arcuate fasciculus. No group differences were observed in the right hemisphere, nor in the left anterior segment. Further regression analyses showed that the rate of vocabulary development, rather than the initial vocabulary size, was a specific predictor of the left arcuate fasciculus connectivity. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Diffusion tensor MRI tractography reveals increased fractional anisotropy (FA) in arcuate fasciculus following music-cued motor training.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Emma; Schaefer, Rebecca S; Bastin, Mark E; Roberts, Neil; Overy, Katie

    2017-08-01

    Auditory cues are frequently used to support movement learning and rehabilitation, but the neural basis of this behavioural effect is not yet clear. We investigated the microstructural neuroplasticity effects of adding musical cues to a motor learning task. We hypothesised that music-cued, left-handed motor training would increase fractional anisotropy (FA) in the contralateral arcuate fasciculus, a fibre tract connecting auditory, pre-motor and motor regions. Thirty right-handed participants were assigned to a motor learning condition either with (Music Group) or without (Control Group) musical cues. Participants completed 20minutes of training three times per week over four weeks. Diffusion tensor MRI and probabilistic neighbourhood tractography identified FA, axial (AD) and radial (RD) diffusivity before and after training. Results revealed that FA increased significantly in the right arcuate fasciculus of the Music group only, as hypothesised, with trends for AD to increase and RD to decrease, a pattern of results consistent with activity-dependent increases in myelination. No significant changes were found in the left ipsilateral arcuate fasciculus of either group. This is the first evidence that adding musical cues to movement learning can induce rapid microstructural change in white matter pathways in adults, with potential implications for therapeutic clinical practice. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Developmental process of the arcuate fasciculus from infancy to adolescence: a diffusion tensor imaging study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong Jun Tak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the radiologic developmental process of the arcuate fasciculus (AF using subcomponent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI analysis in typically developing volunteers. DTI data were acquired from 96 consecutive typically developing children, aged 0-14 years. AF subcomponents, including the posterior, anterior, and direct AF tracts were analyzed. Success rates of analysis (AR and fractional anisotropy (FA values of each subcomponent tract were measured and compared. AR of all subcomponent tracts, except the posterior, showed a significant increase with aging (P < 0.05. Subcomponent tracts had a specific developmental sequence: First, the posterior AF tract, second, the anterior AF tract, and last, the direct AF tract in identical hemispheres. FA values of all subcomponent tracts, except right direct AF tract, showed correlation with subject′s age (P < 0.05. Increased AR and FA values were observed in female subjects in young age (0-2 years group compared with males (P < 0.05. The direct AF tract showed leftward hemispheric asymmetry and this tendency showed greater consolidation in older age (3-14 years groups (P < 0.05. These findings demonstrated the radiologic developmental patterns of the AF from infancy to adolescence using subcomponent DTI analysis. The AF showed a specific developmental sequence, sex difference in younger age, and hemispheric asymmetry in older age.

  5. Single-Cell Gene Expression Analysis of Cholinergic Neurons in the Arcuate Nucleus of the Hypothalamus.

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    Jae Hoon Jeong

    Full Text Available The cholinoceptive system in the hypothalamus, in particular in the arcuate nucleus (ARC, plays a role in regulating food intake. Neurons in the ARC contain multiple neuropeptides, amines, and neurotransmitters. To study molecular and neurochemical heterogeneity of ARC neurons, we combine single-cell qRT-PCR and single-cell whole transcriptome amplification methods to analyze expression patterns of our hand-picked 60 genes in individual neurons in the ARC. Immunohistochemical and single-cell qRT-PCR analyses show choline acetyltransferase (ChAT-expressing neurons in the ARC. Gene expression patterns are remarkably distinct in each individual cholinergic neuron. Two-thirds of cholinergic neurons express tyrosine hydroxylase (Th mRNA. A large subset of these Th-positive cholinergic neurons is GABAergic as they express the GABA synthesizing enzyme glutamate decarboxylase and vesicular GABA transporter transcripts. Some cholinergic neurons also express the vesicular glutamate transporter transcript gene. POMC and POMC-processing enzyme transcripts are found in a subpopulation of cholinergic neurons. Despite this heterogeneity, gene expression patterns in individual cholinergic cells appear to be highly regulated in a cell-specific manner. In fact, membrane receptor transcripts are clustered with their respective intracellular signaling and downstream targets. This novel population of cholinergic neurons may be part of the neural circuitries that detect homeostatic need for food and control the drive to eat.

  6. Arcuate AgRP neurons and the regulation of energy balance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Céline eCansell

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus contains at least two crucial populations of neurons that continuously monitor signals reflecting energy status and promote the appropriate behavioral and metabolic responses to changes in energy demand. Neurons making pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC decrease food intake and increase energy expenditure through activation of G protein-coupled receptors melanocortin receptors (MCR via the release of a-melanocyte stimulating hormone. A prevailing idea until recently was that the neighboring neurons expressing the orexigenic neuropeptides, agouti-related protein (AgRP and neuropeptide Y (NPY (AgRP neurons increased feeding by opposing the anorexigenic actions of the POMC neurons. AgRP neurons activation but not POMC neurons inhibition was recently demonstrated to be necessary and sufficient to promote feeding. AgRP expressing axons were identified in mesolimbic, midbrain and pontine structure where they regulate feeding but also feeding-independent functions such as reward or peripheral nutrient partitioning. Post-synaptic Gamma aminobutyric acid (GABA, lasting in a timeline similar to neuromodulation, was identified as the core mechanism by which hunger-activated neurons regulate feeding and non-food related processes in a melanocortin independent manner.

  7. GHRELIN ACTIVATES HYPOPHYSIOTROPIC CORTICOTROPIN-RELEASING FACTOR NEURONS INDEPENDENTLY OF THE ARCUATE NUCLEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabral, Agustina; Portiansky, Enrique; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Zigman, Jeffrey M.; Perello, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Previous work has established that the hormone ghrelin engages the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal neuroendocrine axis via activation of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) neurons of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). The neuronal circuitry that mediates this effect of ghrelin is currently unknown. Here, we show that ghrelin-induced activation of PVN CRF neurons involved inhibition of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inputs, likely via ghrelin binding sites that were localized at GABAergic terminals within the PVN. While ghrelin activated PVN CRF neurons in the presence of neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor antagonists or in arcuate nucleus (ARC)-ablated mice, it failed to do it so in mice with ghrelin receptor expression limited to ARC agouti gene related protein (AgRP)/NPY neurons. These data support the notion that ghrelin activates PVN CRF neurons via inhibition of local GABAergic tone, in an ARC-independent manner. Furthermore, these data suggest that the neuronal circuits mediating ghrelin’s orexigenic action vs. its role as a stress signal are anatomically dissociated. PMID:26874559

  8. Detection of the arcuate fasciculus in congenital amusia depends on the tractography algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joyce L Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The advent of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging allows researchers to virtually dissect white matter fibre pathways in the brain in vivo. This, for example, allows us to characterize and quantify how fibre tracts differ across populations in health and disease, and change as a function of training. Based on diffusion MRI, prior literature reports the absence of the arcuate fasciculus (AF in some control individuals and as well in those with congenital amusia. The complete absence of such a major anatomical tract is surprising given the subtle impairments that characterize amusia. Thus, we hypothesize that failure to detect the AF in this population may relate to the tracking algorithm used, and is not necessarily reflective of their phenotype. Diffusion data in control and amusic individuals were analyzed using three different tracking algorithms: deterministic and probabilistic, the latter either modeling two or one fibre populations. Across the three algorithms, we replicate prior findings of a left greater than right AF volume, but do not find group differences or an interaction. We detect the AF in all individuals using the probabilistic 2-fibre model, however, tracking failed in some control and amusic individuals when deterministic tractography was applied. These findings show that the ability to detect the AF in our sample is dependent on the type of tractography algorithm. This raises the question of whether failure to detect the AF in prior studies may be unrelated to the underlying anatomy or phenotype.

  9. Detection of the arcuate fasciculus in congenital amusia depends on the tractography algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joyce L; Kumar, Sukhbinder; Williamson, Victoria J; Scholz, Jan; Griffiths, Timothy D; Stewart, Lauren

    2015-01-01

    The advent of diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) allows researchers to virtually dissect white matter fiber pathways in the brain in vivo. This, for example, allows us to characterize and quantify how fiber tracts differ across populations in health and disease, and change as a function of training. Based on diffusion MRI, prior literature reports the absence of the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in some control individuals and as well in those with congenital amusia. The complete absence of such a major anatomical tract is surprising given the subtle impairments that characterize amusia. Thus, we hypothesize that failure to detect the AF in this population may relate to the tracking algorithm used, and is not necessarily reflective of their phenotype. Diffusion data in control and amusic individuals were analyzed using three different tracking algorithms: deterministic and probabilistic, the latter either modeling two or one fiber populations. Across the three algorithms, we replicate prior findings of a left greater than right AF volume, but do not find group differences or an interaction. We detect the AF in all individuals using the probabilistic 2-fiber model, however, tracking failed in some control and amusic individuals when deterministic tractography was applied. These findings show that the ability to detect the AF in our sample is dependent on the type of tractography algorithm. This raises the question of whether failure to detect the AF in prior studies may be unrelated to the underlying anatomy or phenotype.

  10. Catalase inhibition in the Arcuate nucleus blocks ethanol effects on the locomotor activity of rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchis-Segura, Carles; Correa, Mercé; Miquel, Marta; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2005-03-07

    Previous studies have demonstrated that there is a bidirectional modulation of ethanol-induced locomotion produced by drugs that regulate brain catalase activity. In the present study we have assessed the effect in rats of intraperitoneal, intraventricular or intracraneal administration of the catalase inhibitor sodium azide in the locomotor changes observed after ethanol (1 g/kg) administration. Our results show that sodium azide prevents the effects of ethanol in rats locomotion not only when sodium azide was systemically administered but also when it was intraventricularly injected, then confirming that the interaction between catalase and ethanol takes place in Central Nervous System (CNS). Even more interestingly, the same results were observed when sodium azide administration was restricted to the hypothalamic Arcuate nucleus (ARC), a brain region which has one of the highest levels of expression of catalase. Therefore, the results of the present study not only confirm a role for brain catalase in the mediation of ethanol-induced locomotor changes in rodents but also point to the ARC as a major neuroanatomical location for this interaction. These results are in agreement with our reports showing that ethanol-induced locomotor changes are clearly dependent of the ARC integrity and, especially of the POMc-synthesising neurons of this nucleus. According to these data we propose a model in which ethanol oxidation via catalase could produce acetaldehyde into the ARC and to promote a release of beta-endorphins that would activate opioid receptors to produce locomotion and other ethanol-induced neurobehavioural changes.

  11. Assessment of the anatomical relationship between the arcuate eminence and superior semicircular canal by computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Yoshinobu; Ito, Tamio; Sasaki, Takehiko; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Nakamura, Hirohiko

    2007-01-01

    The anatomical relationship between the arcuate eminence (AE) and the superior semicircular canal (SSC) was examined by computed tomography (CT) in 52 petrous bones of 26 patients. After acquiring volume data by multidetector CT, 1-mm thick oblique bone window images perpendicular to the SSC were obtained from the axial images. The distances between the AE and the SSC, and the SSC and the superior surface of the petrous bone were measured. The AE corresponded exactly with the SSC in only 2/52 petrous bones, and corresponded well in 7/52. The AE was lateral to the SSC in 25/52 cases, medial to the SSC in 6/52 cases, intersected in 3/52 cases, and was indiscernible in 9/52 cases. The distance between the SSC and the petrous surface was 0 mm in 45/52 petrous bones, 1 mm in 5/52, 2 mm in 1/52, and 3 mm in 1/52. The SSC typically does not correspond exactly with the AE, and is generally located just under the surface of the petrous bone. Planning of the middle cranial fossa approach requires location of the SSC by CT. (author)

  12. Pediatric Chronic Abdominal Pain and Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Review and Psychosocial Comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mak, Grace Zee; Lucchetti, Amanda R; Drossos, Tina; Fitzsimmons-Craft, Ellen E; Accurso, Erin C; Stiles-Shields, Colleen; Newman, Erika A; Skelly, Christopher L

    2016-07-01

    Chronic abdominal pain (CAP) occurs in children and adolescents with a reported prevalence of 4% to 41% with significant direct and indirect costs to the child, family, and society. Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS) is a vascular compression syndrome of the celiac artery that may cause symptoms of epigastric pain and weight loss and is a frequently overlooked cause of CAP in the pediatric population. We have observed that the psychosocial presentation of patients with MALS is notable for various psychiatric comorbidities. In this article, we review MALS as well as our study results of the psychosocial profile of 30 MALS patients. Our data suggest that children and adolescents with MALS have similar psychosocial profiles to children with other gastrointestinal disorders resulting in CAP. The overlap of physical and psychosocial symptoms of patients who have MALS with other CAP disorders leads us to recommend that patients with CAP should be evaluated for MALS. [Pediatr Ann. 2016;45(7):e257-e264.]. Copyright 2016, SLACK Incorporated.

  13. Brain innate immunity regulates hypothalamic arcuate neuronal activity and feeding behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Wagner L; Yi, Chun-Xia; Gao, Yuanqing; Tschöp, Mathias H; Stern, Javier E

    2015-04-01

    Hypothalamic inflammation, involving microglia activation in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), is proposed as a novel underlying mechanism in obesity, insulin and leptin resistance. However, whether activated microglia affects ARC neuronal activity, and consequently basal and hormonal-induced food intake, is unknown. We show that lipopolysaccharide, an agonist of the toll-like receptor-4 (TLR4), which we found to be expressed in ARC microglia, inhibited the firing activity of the majority of orexigenic agouti gene-related protein/neuropeptide Y neurons, whereas it increased the activity of the majority of anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin neurons. Lipopolysaccharide effects in agouti gene-related protein/neuropeptide Y (but not in proopiomelanocortin) neurons were occluded by inhibiting microglia function or by blocking TLR4 receptors. Finally, we report that inhibition of hypothalamic microglia altered basal food intake, also preventing central orexigenic responses to ghrelin. Our studies support a major role for a TLR4-mediated microglia signaling pathway in the control of ARC neuronal activity and feeding behavior.

  14. Arcuate AgRP neurons mediate orexigenic and glucoregulatory actions of ghrelin★

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Chen; Uchida, Aki; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Walker, Angela; Liu, Tiemin; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Mason, Brittany L.; Mosher, Christina; Berglund, Eric D.; Elmquist, Joel K.; Zigman, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    The hormone ghrelin stimulates eating and helps maintain blood glucose upon caloric restriction. While previous studies have demonstrated that hypothalamic arcuate AgRP neurons are targets of ghrelin, the overall relevance of ghrelin signaling within intact AgRP neurons is unclear. Here, we tested the functional significance of ghrelin action on AgRP neurons using a new, tamoxifen-inducible AgRP-CreERT2 transgenic mouse model that allows spatiotemporally-controlled re-expression of physiological levels of ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) specifically in AgRP neurons of adult GHSR-null mice that otherwise lack GHSR expression. AgRP neuron-selective GHSR re-expression partially restored the orexigenic response to administered ghrelin and fully restored the lowered blood glucose levels observed upon caloric restriction. The normalizing glucoregulatory effect of AgRP neuron-selective GHSR expression was linked to glucagon rises and hepatic gluconeogenesis induction. Thus, our data indicate that GHSR-containing AgRP neurons are not solely responsible for ghrelin's orexigenic effects but are sufficient to mediate ghrelin's effects on glycemia. PMID:24567905

  15. Arcuate AgRP neurons mediate orexigenic and glucoregulatory actions of ghrelin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Liu, Chen; Uchida, Aki; Chuang, Jen-Chieh; Walker, Angela; Liu, Tiemin; Osborne-Lawrence, Sherri; Mason, Brittany L; Mosher, Christina; Berglund, Eric D; Elmquist, Joel K; Zigman, Jeffrey M

    2014-02-01

    The hormone ghrelin stimulates eating and helps maintain blood glucose upon caloric restriction. While previous studies have demonstrated that hypothalamic arcuate AgRP neurons are targets of ghrelin, the overall relevance of ghrelin signaling within intact AgRP neurons is unclear. Here, we tested the functional significance of ghrelin action on AgRP neurons using a new, tamoxifen-inducible AgRP-CreER(T2) transgenic mouse model that allows spatiotemporally-controlled re-expression of physiological levels of ghrelin receptors (GHSRs) specifically in AgRP neurons of adult GHSR-null mice that otherwise lack GHSR expression. AgRP neuron-selective GHSR re-expression partially restored the orexigenic response to administered ghrelin and fully restored the lowered blood glucose levels observed upon caloric restriction. The normalizing glucoregulatory effect of AgRP neuron-selective GHSR expression was linked to glucagon rises and hepatic gluconeogenesis induction. Thus, our data indicate that GHSR-containing AgRP neurons are not solely responsible for ghrelin's orexigenic effects but are sufficient to mediate ghrelin's effects on glycemia.

  16. Does monosodium glutamate really cause headache? : a systematic review of human studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obayashi, Yoko; Nagamura, Yoichi

    2016-01-01

    Although monosodium glutamate (MSG) is classified as a causative substance of headache in the International Classification of Headache Disorders 3rd edition (ICHD-III beta), there is no literature in which causal relationship between MSG and headache was comprehensively reviewed. We performed systematic review of human studies which include the incidence of headache after an oral administration of MSG. An analysis was made by separating the human studies with MSG administration with or without food, because of the significant difference of kinetics of glutamate between those conditions (Am J Clin Nutr 37:194-200, 1983; J Nutr 130:1002S-1004S, 2000) and there are some papers which report the difference of the manifestation of symptoms after MSG ingestion with or without food (Food Chem Toxicol 31:1019-1035, 1993; J Nutr 125:2891S-2906S, 1995). Of five papers including six studies with food, none showed a significant difference in the incidence of headache except for the female group in one study. Of five papers including seven studies without food, four studies showed a significant difference. Many of the studies involved administration of MSG in solution at high concentrations (>2 %). Since the distinctive MSG is readily identified at such concentrations, these studies were thought not to be properly blinded. Because of the absence of proper blinding, and the inconsistency of the findings, we conclude that further studies are required to evaluate whether or not a causal relationship exists between MSG ingestion and headache.

  17. Vitamin C Protects Chondrocytes against Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis by Multiple Pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Pu-Rong; Hu, Yu-Chen; Huang, Tzu-Ching; Hsieh, Bau-Shan; Yeh, Jou-Pei; Cheng, Hsiao-Ling; Huang, Li-Wen; Chang, Kee-Lung

    2016-12-27

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is the most prevalent joint disease. Dietary intake of vitamin C relates to a reduction in cartilage loss and OA. This study examined the efficacy of vitamin C to prevent OA with the in vitro chondrosarcoma cell line (SW1353) and the in vivo monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA rat. Results demonstrated that, in SW1353 cells, treatment with 5 μM MIA inhibited cell growth and increased oxidative stress, apoptosis, and proteoglycan loss. In addition, the expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 were increased. All of these MIA-induced changes could be prevented with treatment of 100 μM vitamin C. In an animal model, intra-articular injection of MIA-induced cartilage degradation resembled the pathological changes of OA, and treatment of vitamin C could lessen these changes. Unexpectedly, vitamin C's effects did not strengthen with the increasing dosage, while the 100 mg/kg dosage was more efficient than the 200 or 300 mg/kg dosages. Vitamin C possessed multiple capacities for prevention of OA progress, including a decrease in apoptosis and in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs in addition to the well-known antioxidation.

  18. Vitamin C Protects Chondrocytes against Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis by Multiple Pathways

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pu-Rong Chiu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is the most prevalent joint disease. Dietary intake of vitamin C relates to a reduction in cartilage loss and OA. This study examined the efficacy of vitamin C to prevent OA with the in vitro chondrosarcoma cell line (SW1353 and the in vivo monosodium iodoacetate (MIA-induced OA rat. Results demonstrated that, in SW1353 cells, treatment with 5 μM MIA inhibited cell growth and increased oxidative stress, apoptosis, and proteoglycan loss. In addition, the expression levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-6, IL-17A, and TNF-α and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs MMP-1, MMP-3, and MMP-13 were increased. All of these MIA-induced changes could be prevented with treatment of 100 μM vitamin C. In an animal model, intra-articular injection of MIA-induced cartilage degradation resembled the pathological changes of OA, and treatment of vitamin C could lessen these changes. Unexpectedly, vitamin C’s effects did not strengthen with the increasing dosage, while the 100 mg/kg dosage was more efficient than the 200 or 300 mg/kg dosages. Vitamin C possessed multiple capacities for prevention of OA progress, including a decrease in apoptosis and in the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines and MMPs in addition to the well-known antioxidation.

  19. HISTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF THE EFFECTS OF MONOSODIUM GLUTAMATE ON THE INFERIOR COLLICULUS OF ADULT WISTAR RATS.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.O. Eweka.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Histological effects of Monosodium glutamate (MSG commonly used as food additive on the inferior colliculus (IC of adult Wistar rats were carefully studied. The rats of both sexes (n=24, average weight of 185g were randomly assigned into two treatments (n=16 and control (n=8 groups. The rats in the treatment groups received 3g and 6g of MSG thoroughly mixed with their feeds for fourteen days, while the control rats received equal amounts of feeds without MSG added. The rats were fed with growers' mash purchased from Edo Feeds and Flour Mill Ltd, Ewu, Edo State and were given water liberally. The rats were sacrificed on day fifteen of the experiment. The inferior colliculus was carefully dissected out and quickly fixed in 10% formal saline for routine histological study after H&E method.The histological findings after H&E methods indicated that the treated sections of the inferior colliculus showed some cellular degenerative changes, cellular hypertrophy, and autophagic vacuoles with some intercellular vacuolations appearing in the stroma, and some degree of neuronal hypertrophy when compared to the control sections.These findings indicate that MSG consumption may have a deleterious effect on the neurons of the inferior colliculus (IC. MSG may probably have adverse effects on the auditory sensibilities by its deleterious effects on the nerve cells of the IC of adult Wistar rats. It is recommended that further studies aimed at corroborating these observations be carried out.

  20. Monosodium glutamate derived tricolor fluorescent carbon nanoparticles for cell-imaging application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Nannan; Ding, Sha; Zhou, Xingping

    2016-06-01

    Fluorescent carbon nanoparticle (FCN) is a new type of carbon-based materials. Because of its wide raw material sources, excellent optical properties and good biocompatibility, FCN is getting more and more attentions. However, its synthesis from resources at low cost under mild conditions is still a challenge. Here we report a novel and simple method derived from monosodium glutamate carbonization to make tricolor fluorescent carbon nanoparticles with an average size below 10nm, a high yield up to 35.2% based on the carbon content in the resource, a long life-time of 3.71ns, and a high fluorescence quantum yield up to 51.5% by using quinine sulfate as the standard substance. We discovered that the fluorescent stability of the FCNs was very excellent under UV irradiation for hours in aqueous solutions of pH ranged from 2.0 to 9.0. The cell viability tested under a pretty high concentration of FCNs indicated their safety for biological applications. Based on their high fluorescence quantum efficiency and the advantages mentioned above, these FCNs were then used for cell imaging and exhibited a perfect performance under 3 kinds of excitation bands (UV, blue, and green lights). Thus, they can be practically applied to immune labeling and imaging in vivo in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Mixotrophic growth and biochemical analysis of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yan; Hu, Wenrong; Li, Xiuqing; Ma, Guixia; Song, Mingming; Pei, Haiyan

    2014-01-01

    Monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) is a potential medium for microbial cultivation because of containing abundant organic nutrient. This paper seeks to evaluate the feasibility of growing Chlorella vulgaris with MSGW and assess the influence of MSGW concentration on the biomass productivity and biochemical compositions. The MSGW diluted in different concentrations was prepared for microalga cultivation. C. vulgaris growth was greatly promoted with MSGW compared with the inorganic BG11 medium. C. vulgaris obtained the maximum biomass concentration (1.02 g/L) and biomass productivity (61.47 mg/Ld) with 100-time diluted MSGW. The harvested biomass was rich in protein (36.01-50.64%) and low in lipid (13.47-25.4%) and carbohydrate (8.94-20.1%). The protein nutritional quality and unsaturated fatty acids content of algal increased significantly with diluted MSGW. These results indicated that the MSGW is a feasible alternative for mass cultivation of C. vulgaris. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Antiosteoarthritic Effects of ChondroT in a Rat Model of Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Osteoarthritis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Joon Bae

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Ganghwaljetongyeum is a traditional Korean herbal medicine used to treat joint pain, limited motion, fever, and swelling; it also inhibits inflammatory processes associated with arthritis. ChondroT, a water extract of Ganghwaljetongyeum, is a new complex herbal medicine. This study investigated the effects of ChondroT using a rat model of monosodium iodoacetate- (MIA- induced osteoarthritis. Thirty-six rats were randomly divided into three ChondroT groups and a normal, control, and positive control group. Changes in paw edema volume, histopathology, and plantar withdrawal response were analyzed. Further, inflammatory cytokines, arachidonic acids, liver and kidney function, and hematological features were measured. ChondroT significantly decreased paw edema by the 5th day and notably improved articular cartilage damage; it also significantly improved the plantar withdrawal response in terms of both reaction time and force intensity. Moreover, treatment with ChondroT significantly decreased the serum levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha, interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, and prostaglandin E2 and significantly increased serum aspartate aminotransferase and alanine aminotransferase levels. This study demonstrates that ChondroT has anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects in a MIA-induced osteoarthritis rat model. These results support the clinical relevance of ChondroT for future use in patients with osteoarthritis. However, further studies are required to elucidate the corresponding mechanisms.

  3. Micro-CT Arthrographic Analysis of Monosodium Iodoacetate- Induced Osteoarthritis in Rat Knees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwon, Jong Won; Kang, Heung Sik; Hong, Sung Hwan

    2010-01-01

    To evaluate the arthrographic findings of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rat knees using the micro-CT arthrography. Intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection-induced arthritis was induced in the right knees of twelve rats; their left knees served as the control group. Eight weeks after MIA injection, micro-CT arthrography was performed on each knee. We measured the thickness of retro-patellar cartilages, the distances of tibio-femoral joint space, subchondral bone plate thickness, tibial epiphyseal height, and transverse patellar diameter. Subchondral trabecular bone indices were measured in the tibial lateral condylar epiphysis. The data were analyzed statistically using a paired t-test. The retro-patellar articular cartilage showed thinning on the right side that had been induced to develop osteoarthritis. The right knees showed a significant reduction in the distance of the tibio-femoral joint space, prominent patellar osteophytes, and the resorption of subchondral bone. Among the subchondral trabecular bone indices, percent bone volume, and trabecular thickness was reduced on the right side. The articular cartilage thickness of MIA-induced arthritis model could be measured using micro- CT arthrography. It was possible to evaluate the osteoarthritic findings including the change in subchondral bone plate thickness, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone resorption, as well as quantitatively analyze the trabecular bone indices

  4. Micro-CT Arthrographic Analysis of Monosodium Iodoacetate- Induced Osteoarthritis in Rat Knees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwon, Jong Won [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University Bundang Hospital, Seongnam (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Hwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-10-15

    To evaluate the arthrographic findings of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rat knees using the micro-CT arthrography. Intra-articular monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) injection-induced arthritis was induced in the right knees of twelve rats; their left knees served as the control group. Eight weeks after MIA injection, micro-CT arthrography was performed on each knee. We measured the thickness of retro-patellar cartilages, the distances of tibio-femoral joint space, subchondral bone plate thickness, tibial epiphyseal height, and transverse patellar diameter. Subchondral trabecular bone indices were measured in the tibial lateral condylar epiphysis. The data were analyzed statistically using a paired t-test. The retro-patellar articular cartilage showed thinning on the right side that had been induced to develop osteoarthritis. The right knees showed a significant reduction in the distance of the tibio-femoral joint space, prominent patellar osteophytes, and the resorption of subchondral bone. Among the subchondral trabecular bone indices, percent bone volume, and trabecular thickness was reduced on the right side. The articular cartilage thickness of MIA-induced arthritis model could be measured using micro- CT arthrography. It was possible to evaluate the osteoarthritic findings including the change in subchondral bone plate thickness, osteophyte formation, and subchondral bone resorption, as well as quantitatively analyze the trabecular bone indices.

  5. Impact of monosodium glutamate and /or gamma irradiation on pregnant rats and their embryos

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibrahim, M.F.; Darwish, M.M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the destructive impact of the widely used nutritional flavouring agent, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and/or radiation stress on the female rats mothers and their developing embryos as judged by the maternal biochemical and embryological morphological and histopathological lesions induced. MSG is the sodium salt of glutamic acid, widely used as a food additive and flavour enhancer in modern nutrition. MSG (4 mg/rat) was daily administered subcutaneously to pregnant female rats from the 10 th to the 15 th gestational days during which they were subjected to intermittent radiation dose levels of 0.5 Gy increments delivered every other day up to a cumulative dose of 1.5 Gy whereas investigation has been carried out one day prior to parturition. MSG and radiation dual treatment resulted in increased maternal serum levels of lipid peroxides, total lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol and sodium together with decreased calcium concentrations. consequently, the developing embryos in the uteri, due to their increased sensitivity, showed various teratological and histological impairments . MSG and/or radiation induced effects were detected as growth retardation, malformations, intrauterine death and embryonic resorption. moreover, embryonic histological examination revealed ill-shaped vertebrae with degenerated osteogenic layer together with severely degenerated neurons

  6. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT (MSG PADA TIKUS JANTAN (Rattus Norvegicus TERHADAP FSH DAN LH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zulkarnain Edward

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakKemajuan teknologi informasi membawa dampak terhadap perubahan gaya hidup masyarakat, termasuk perubahan pola konsumsi makanan yang lebih banyak mengkonsumsi jenis makanan cepat saji, makanan kemasan dan makanan awetan yang belakangan ini semakin banyak dijual dipasar tradisional dan swalayan. Penggunaan bahan tambahan makanan sering dijumpai, salah satunya adalah bahan penyedap yang banyak sekali digunakan seperti senyawa L-asam glutamat yang digunakan dalam bentuk garam yaitu monosodium glutamat (MSG. Berbagai merk dagang MSG telah dikenal dimasyarakat secara luas seperti ajinomoto, vetsin, micin, sasa, miwon dan sebagainya.MSG adalah garam monosodium dengan asam glutamat yang sering digunakan sebagai bahan penyedap masakan untuk merangsang selera makan. Pemberian MSG mengakibatkan gangguan hormonal pada hewan coba, ion glutamat dalam sirkulasi portal akan mempengaruhi hipotalamus dalam memproduksi GnRH yang selanjutnya akan mengganggu hipofise anterior dalam memproduksi FSH dan LH. Fungsi FSH adalah untuk bekerja pada tubulus seminiferus terutama pada sel sertoli untuk meningkatkan spermatogenesis, sedangkan LH berfungsi pada sel Leydig untuk mengatur sekresi testosteron.Penelitian ini bersifat eksperimen dengan rancangan post only group design. Penelitian dilakukan di laboratorium Biologi dan laboratorium Biokimia Fakultas Kedokteran Unand Padang dari tanggal 20 Desember 2009 sampai 30 Februari 2010. Populasi adalah tikus putih jantan strain Jepang (Rattus norvegicus yang berasal dari laboratorium Fakultas Matematika dan Ilmu Pengetahuan Alam Unand. Sampel berjumlah 20 ekor dibagi atas 4 kelompok dengan satu kelompok kontrol dan tiga kelompok perlakuan. Dosis MSG yang digunakan yaitu P1= 4800 mg/kgbb/hari, P2=7200 mg/kgbb/hari dan P3= 9600 mg/kgbb/hari diberikan peroral sebanyak dua siklus epitel seminiferus. Analisa dengan uji Anova dengan derajat kepercayaan 95% dan jika bermakna dilanjutkan dengan uji Multiple Comparissons jenis

  7. Interactions between tenocytes and monosodium urate monohydrate crystals: implications for tendon involvement in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhana, Ashika; Callon, Karen E; Dray, Michael; Pool, Bregina; Naot, Dorit; Gamble, Greg D; Coleman, Brendan; McCarthy, Geraldine; McQueen, Fiona M; Cornish, Jillian; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2014-09-01

    Advanced imaging studies have demonstrated that urate deposition in periarticular structures, such as tendons, is common in gout. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals on tenocyte viability and function. The histological appearance of tendons in joints affected by advanced gout was examined using light microscopy. In vitro, colorimetric assays and flow cytometry were used to assess cell viability in primary rat and primary human tenocytes cultured with MSU crystals. Real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the relative mRNA expression levels of tendon-related genes, and Sirius red staining was used to measure changes in collagen deposition in primary rat tenocytes. In joint samples from patients with gout, MSU crystals were identified within the tendon, adjacent to and invading into tendon, and at the enthesis. MSU crystals reduced tenocyte viability in a dose-dependent manner. MSU crystals decreased the mRNA expression of tendon collagens, matrix proteins and degradative enzymes and reduced collagen protein deposition by tenocytes. These data indicate that MSU crystals directly interact with tenocytes to reduce cell viability and function. These interactions may contribute to tendon damage in people with advanced gout. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Foraging enrichment modulates open field response to monosodium glutamate in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle J; Onaolapo, Adejoke Y; Akanmu, Moses A; Olayiwola, Gbola

    2015-07-01

    Environmental enrichment can enhance expression of species-specific behaviour. While foraging enrichment is encouraged in laboratory animals, its impact on novelty induced behaviour remain largely unknown. Here, we studied behavioural response of mice to acute and subchronic oral monosodium glutamate (MSG) in an open field with /without foraging enrichment. Adult male mice, assigned to five groups were administered vehicle (distilled water), or one of four selected doses of MSG (10, 20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) for 21 days. Open field novelty induced behaviours i.e. horizontal locomotion, rearing and grooming were assessed after the first and last doses of MSG. Results were analysed using MANOVA followed by Tukey HSD multiple comparison test and expressed as mean ± S.E.M. Following acute MSG administration without enrichment, locomotor activity reduced, grooming increased, while rearing activity reduced at lower doses and increased at higher doses. Subchronic administration without enrichment was associated with increased locomotor activity and reduction in grooming, rearing activity however still showed a biphasic response. Addition of enrichment with acute administration resulted in sustained reduction in locomotor and rearing activities with a biphasic grooming response. Subchronically, there was reduction in horizontal locomotion, biphasic rearing response and sustained increase in grooming activity. Behavioural response to varying doses of MSG as observed in the open field is affected by modifications such as foraging enrichment, which can reverse or dampen the central effects seen irrespective of duration of administration.

  9. Performance of japanese quail chickens injected with monosodium glutamate in the early post hatch period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fahmy, M.O.; Ezzat, I.E. and others

    2002-01-01

    Neo hatched Japanese quails chicks were divided equally into three groups (G1, G2 and G3) and injected once subcutaneously with monosodium glutamate (MSG) at 0,2 or 4 mg/g body weight for G1, G2 and G3 respectively. The obtained results clear that, 1-At-marketing stage, body weight increased by about 4% and 6%, feed conversion ratio reduced by 8.7% and 5.7% in-groups G2 and G3 respectively. 2-MSG had no significant effect on male and female serum T4 as well as male serum T3. The injection with 2-mg MSG per gram body weight increased female serum T3 significantly. 3-MSG increased significantly fat % DM in the male and female quails. This treatment in was positively correlated with the amount of injected MSG. Ash % DM and protein % DM were decreased significantly in both injected males and females and the reduction was dose dependent. 5-in males, weights of heart, spleen and testes besides weights and lengths of gastrointestinal tract regions were not significantly affected by MSG administration. 6-in females, the injection with MSG (2 mg/g body weight) significantly reduced the weight as percent body weight, moreover, the administration of MSG had no significant effect on the weights or the lengths of the remain parameters of the females gastrointestinal tract regions, ovary, oviduct, heart and spleen

  10. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on monosodium iodoacetate‑induced osteoarthritis pain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Jin; Cho, Young-Rak; Oh, Joa Sub; Ahn, Eun-Kyung

    2017-10-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. (T. terrestris) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of diuretic, lithontriptic, edema and urinary infections. Previous studies have indicated that it is effective in improving inflammation by regulating tumor necrosis factor‑α (TNF)‑α, interleukin (IL)‑6, IL‑10, nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase (COX)‑2. However, the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on osteoarthritis (OA) remain unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of T. terrestris (ETT) in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)‑induced OA animal model. OA was induced in LEW/SSNHSD rats by intra‑articular injection of MIA. Morphometric changes and parameters of the tibial trabecular bone were determined using micro‑computed tomography. The molecular mechanisms of ETT in OA were investigated using reverse transcription‑polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and gelatin zymogram analysis. Treatment with ETT attenuated MIA‑induced OA, and this effect was mediated by the downregulation of NO synthase 2, COX‑2, TNF‑α and IL‑6. Furthermore, the ETT‑mediated attenuation of OA was also dependent on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases‑2 and ‑9. The results of the current study indicate that further evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the attenuation of MIA‑induced OA by ETT are required, and may support the development of ETT as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as OA.

  11. Effects of Tribulus terrestris on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis pain in rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Young Jin; Cho, Young-Rak; Oh, Joa Sub; Ahn, Eun-Kyung

    2017-01-01

    Tribulus terrestris L. (T. terrestris) has been used as a traditional medicine for the treatment of diuretic, lithontriptic, edema and urinary infections. Previous studies have indicated that it is effective in improving inflammation by regulating tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, nitric oxide (NO) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. However, the effects and mechanism of action of T. terrestris on osteoarthritis (OA) remain unknown. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effects of the ethanolic extract of T. terrestris (ETT) in a monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA animal model. OA was induced in LEW/SSNHSD rats by intra-articular injection of MIA. Morphometric changes and parameters of the tibial trabecular bone were determined using micro-computed tomography. The molecular mechanisms of ETT in OA were investigated using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and gelatin zymogram analysis. Treatment with ETT attenuated MIA-induced OA, and this effect was mediated by the downregulation of NO synthase 2, COX-2, TNF-α and IL-6. Furthermore, the ETT-mediated attenuation of OA was also dependent on the expression of matrix metalloproteinases-2 and −9. The results of the current study indicate that further evaluation of the mechanisms underlying the attenuation of MIA-induced OA by ETT are required, and may support the development of ETT as a potential therapeutic agent for the treatment of inflammatory diseases such as OA. PMID:28849084

  12. Impact of soil organic carbon on monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA) sorption and species transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Ling; Gannon, Travis W; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2017-11-01

    Monosodium methyl arsenate (MSMA), a common arsenical herbicide, is a major contributor of anthropogenic arsenic (As) to the environment. Uncertainty about controls on MSMA fate and the rates and products of MSMA species transformation limits effective MSMA regulation and management. The main objectives of this research were to quantify the kinetics and mechanistic drivers of MSMA species transformation and removal from solution by soil. Laboratory MSMA incubation studies with two soils and varying soil organic carbon (SOC) levels were conducted. Arsenic removal from solution was more extensive and faster in sandy clay loam incubations than sand incubations, but for both systems, As removal was biphasic, with initially fast removal governed by sorption, followed by slower As removal limited by species transformation. Dimethylarsinic acid was the dominant product of species transformation at first, but inorganic As(V) was the ultimate transformation product by experiment ends. SOC decreased As removal and enhanced As species transformation, and SOC content had linear relationships with As removal rates (R 2  = 0.59-0.95) for each soil and reaction phase. These results reveal the importance of edaphic conditions on inorganic As production and overall mobility of As following MSMA use, and such information should be considered in MSMA management and regulatory decisions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Monosodium glutamate delivered in a protein-rich soup improves subsequent energy compensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masic, Una; Yeomans, Martin R

    2014-01-01

    Previous research suggests that monosodium glutamate (MSG) may have a biphasic effect on appetite, increasing appetite within a meal with its flavour-enhancing effect, but enhancing subsequent satiety due to its proposed role as a predictor of protein content. The present study explored this by assessing the impact of a 450 g soup preload differing in MSG concentration (1 % MSG added (MSG+) or no MSG (MSG-)) and nutrient content (low-energy control or high-energy carbohydrate or high-energy protein) on rated appetite and ad libitum intake of a test meal in thirty-five low-restraint male volunteers using a within-participant design. Protein-rich preloads significantly reduced intake at the test meal and resulted in more accurate energy compensation than did carbohydrate-rich preloads. This energy compensation was stronger in the MSG+ protein conditions when compared with MSG+ carbohydrate conditions. No clear differences in rated appetite were seen in MSG or the macronutrient conditions alone during preload ingestion or 45 min after intake. Overall, these findings indicate that MSG may act to further improve energy compensation when provided in a protein-rich context.

  14. Evaluation of body growth and myoenteric neurons of Wistar rats after neonatal treatment with monosodium glutamate = Avaliação do crescimento corporal e dos neurônios mioentéricos de ratos Wistar após tratamento neonatal com glutamato monossódico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Carlos Sousa

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluating how the neonatal treatment withmonosodium glutamate reflects on body parameters and on myoenteric neurons of Wistar rats. Male rats were injected with monosodium glutamate during the first five postnatal days. Body growth was recorded until the age of 90 days, when the animals were killed.Fasting plasma glucose, caloric density and weight of organs were assayed. Gastric and duodenal whole-mounts stained with NADH diaphorase were observed for neuronal numbers and sizes. Growth, relative weight of organs and testicular caloric density of theinjected rats were smaller than those of the controls, while their Lee index and relative fat content were greater. The number of duodenal neurons and the mean size of gastric neurons were smaller in the injected animals. These results are discussed in light of theendocrine, autonomic and behavioral changes stemming from the lesion of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus by monosodium glutamate.Este trabalho objetivou avaliar como o tratamento neonatal com glutamato monossódico se reflete em parâmetros corporais e nos neurônios mioentéricos de ratos Wistar. Ratos machos foram injetados com glutamato monossódico durante os primeiros 5 dias após o nascimento. O crescimento corporal foi registrado até os 90 dias, quando os animais foram sacrificados. Glicose plasmática de jejum, densidade calórica e peso dos órgãos foram avaliados. Preparados de membrana gástricos e duodenais corados com NADH-diaforase foramobservados quanto a número e tamanho dos neurônios. Crescimento, peso relativo dos órgãos e densidade calórica testicular dos ratos injetados foram menores que nos controles, enquanto o índice de Lee e o conteúdo relativo de gordura foram maiores. O número de neurônios duodenais e o tamanho médio dos neurônios gástricos foram menores nosanimais injetados. Esses resultados são discutidos à luz das alterações endócrinas, autonômicas e comportamentais

  15. Diffusion tensor imaging--arcuate fasciculus and the importance for the neurosurgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hana, Ardian; Dooms, Georges; Boecher-Schwarz, Hans; Hertel, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Tumors in eloquent areas of the brain like Broca or Wernicke might have disastrous consequences for patients. We intended to visualize the arcuate fasciculus (AF) and to demonstrate his relation with the corticospinal tract and the visual pathway using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). We depicted between 2012 and 2014 the AF in 71 patients. Men and women of all ages were included. Eleven patients had postoperative controls also. We used a 3DT1-sequence for the navigation. Furthermore T2- and DTI-sequences were performed. The FOV was 200 × 200 mm(2), slice thickness 2mm, and an acquisition matrix of 96 × 96 yielding nearly isotropic voxels of 2 × 2 × 2 mm. 3-Tesla-MRI was carried out strictly axial using 32 gradient directions and one b0-image. We used Echo-Planar-Imaging (EPI) and ASSET parallel imaging with an acceleration factor of 2. b-Value was 800 s/mm(2). Additional scanning time was less than 9 min. AF was portrayed in 63 patients bilaterally. In one glioblastoma patient it was impossible to visualize the left AF and in seven other patients we could not portray the right one. The lesions affected AF by disrupting or displacing the fibers. DTI might be a useful tool to portray AF. It is time-saving and can be used to preserve morbidity in patients with lesions in eloquent brain areas. It might give deeper insights of the white matter and the reorganization of AF-fibers postoperatively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of practice and experience on the arcuate fasciculus: comparing singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gus F. Halwani

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Structure and function of the human brain are affected by training in both linguistic and musical domains. Individuals with intensive vocal musical training provide a useful model for investigating neural adaptations of learning in the vocal-motor domain and can be compared with learning in a more general musical domain. Here we confirm general differences in macrostructure (tract volume and microstructure (fractional anisotropy (FA of the arcuate fasciculus (AF, a prominent white-matter tract connecting temporal and frontal brain regions, between singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians. Both groups of musicians differed from non-musicians in having larger tract volume and higher FA values of the right and left AF. The AF was then subdivided in a dorsal (superior branch connecting the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (STG<–>IFG, and ventral (inferior branch connecting the middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (MTG<–>IFG. Relative to instrumental musicians, singers had a larger tract volume but lower FA values in the left dorsal AF (STG<–>IFG, and a similar trend in the left ventral AF (MTG<–>IFG. This between-group comparison controls for the general effects of musical training, although FA was still higher in singers compared to non-musicians. Both musician groups had higher tract volumes in the right dorsal and ventral tracts compared to non-musicians, but did not show a significant difference between each other. Furthermore, in the singers’ group, FA in the left dorsal branch of the AF was inversely correlated with the number of years of participants’ vocal training. Our findings suggest that long-term vocal-motor training might lead to an increase in volume and microstructural complexity of specific white matter tracts connecting regions that are fundamental to sound perception, production, and its feedforward and feedback control which can be differentiated from a more general musician

  17. Effects of practice and experience on the arcuate fasciculus: comparing singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwani, Gus F; Loui, Psyche; Rüber, Theodor; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2011-01-01

    Structure and function of the human brain are affected by training in both linguistic and musical domains. Individuals with intensive vocal musical training provide a useful model for investigating neural adaptations of learning in the vocal-motor domain and can be compared with learning in a more general musical domain. Here we confirm general differences in macrostructure (tract volume) and microstructure (fractional anisotropy, FA) of the arcuate fasciculus (AF), a prominent white-matter tract connecting temporal and frontal brain regions, between singers, instrumentalists, and non-musicians. Both groups of musicians differed from non-musicians in having larger tract volume and higher FA values of the right and left AF. The AF was then subdivided in a dorsal (superior) branch connecting the superior temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (STG ↔ IFG), and ventral (inferior) branch connecting the middle temporal gyrus and the inferior frontal gyrus (MTG ↔ IFG). Relative to instrumental musicians, singers had a larger tract volume but lower FA values in the left dorsal AF (STG ↔ IFG), and a similar trend in the left ventral AF (MTG ↔ IFG). This between-group comparison controls for the general effects of musical training, although FA was still higher in singers compared to non-musicians. Both musician groups had higher tract volumes in the right dorsal and ventral tracts compared to non-musicians, but did not show a significant difference between each other. Furthermore, in the singers' group, FA in the left dorsal branch of the AF was inversely correlated with the number of years of participants' vocal training. Our findings suggest that long-term vocal-motor training might lead to an increase in volume and microstructural complexity of specific white-matter tracts connecting regions that are fundamental to sound perception, production, and its feedforward and feedback control which can be differentiated from a more general musician

  18. Defining Subpopulations of Arcuate Nucleus GABA Neurons in Male, Female, and Prenatally Androgenized Female Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Christopher J; Desroziers, Elodie; McLennan, Timothy; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2017-01-01

    Arcuate nucleus (ARN) γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) neurons are implicated in many critical homeostatic mechanisms, from food intake to fertility. To determine the functional relevance of ARN GABA neurons, it is essential to define the neurotransmitters co-expressed with and potentially co-released from ARN GABA neurons. The present study investigated the expression of markers of specific signaling molecules by ARN GABA neurons in brain sections from male, female, and, in some cases, prenatally androgen-treated (PNA) female, vesicular GABA transporter (VGaT)-ires-Cre/tdTomato reporter mice. Immunofluorescence for kisspeptin, β-endorphin, neuropeptide Y (NPY), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) was detected by confocal microscopy, and co-localization with tdTomato VGaT reporter expression throughout the ARN was quantified. GABA neurons rarely co-localized with kisspeptin (95%) co-localized with VGaT across groups. Both TH and nNOS labeling was co-localized with ∼10% of ARN GABA neurons. The proportion of TH neurons co-localized with VGaT was significantly greater in males than either control or PNA females, and the proportion of nNOS neurons co-localizing VGaT was higher in control and PNA females compared with males. These data highlight NPY as a significant subpopulation of ARN GABA neurons, demonstrate no significant impact of PNA on signal co-expression, and, for the first time, show sexually dimorphic co-expression patterns of TH and nNOS with ARN GABA neurons. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  19. Contemporary management of median arcuate ligament syndrome provides early symptom improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Columbo, Jesse A.; Trus, Thadeus; Nolan, Brian; Goodney, Philip; Rzucidlo, Eva; Powell, Richard; Walsh, Daniel; Stone, David

    2017-01-01

    Objective Optimal diagnosis and management of median arcuate ligament (MAL) syndrome (MALS) remains unclear in contemporary practice. The advent and evolution of laparoscopic and endovascular techniques has redirected management toward a less invasive therapeutic algorithm. This study examined our contemporary outcomes of patients treated for MALS. Methods All patients treated for MALS at Dartmouth-Hitchcock Medical Center from 2000 to 2013 were retrospectively reviewed. Demographics and comorbidities were recorded. Freedom from symptoms and freedom from reintervention were the primary end points. Return to work or school was assessed. Follow-up by clinic visits and telephone allowed quantitative comparisons among the patients. Results During the study interval, 21 patients (24% male), with a median age of 42 years, were treated for MALS. All patients complained of abdominal pain in the presence of a celiac stenosis, 16 (76%) also reported weight loss at the time of presentation, and 57% had a concomitant psychiatric history. Diagnostic imaging most commonly used included duplex ultrasound (81%), computed tomography angiography (66%), angiography (57%), and magnetic resonance angiography (5%). Fourteen patients (67%) underwent multiple diagnostic studies. All patients underwent initial laparoscopic MAL release. Seven patients (33%) underwent subsequent celiac stent placement in the setting of recurrent or unresolved symptoms with persistent celiac stenosis at a mean interval of 49 days. Two patients required surgical bypass after an endovascular intervention failed. The 6-month freedom from symptoms was 75% and freedom from reintervention was 64%. Eighteen patients (81%) reported early symptom improvement and weight gain, and 66% were able to return to work. Conclusions A multidisciplinary treatment approach using initial laparoscopic release and subsequent stent placement and bypass surgery provides symptom improvement in most patients treated for MALS. The

  20. Microbial-driven arsenic cycling in rice paddies amended with monosodium methanearsonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maguffin, S. C.; McClung, A.; Rohila, J. S.; Derry, L. A.; Huang, R.; Reid, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Rice consumption is the second largest contributor to human arsenic exposure worldwide and is linked to many serious diseases. Because rice is uniquely adapted for agricultural production under flooded soils, arsenic species solubilized in such environments can be effectively transported into plant tissue via root transporters. Through this process, both inorganic and organic (methylated) arsenic species can accumulate to problematic concentrations and may affect grain yield as well as crop value. The distribution of these species in plant tissue is determined by arsenic sources, as well as enzymatic redox and methylation-demethylation reactions in soils and pore water. Historic use of organoarsenic-based pesticides in US agriculture may provide an enduring source of arsenic in rice paddies. However, it is unclear how persistent these organic species are in the adsorbed phase or how available they remain to rice cultivars throughout the growing season. We conducted a field experiment in a 2x2 factorial design examining the effects of irrigation methods (continuous flooding and alternate wetting and drying) and monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA) application on the abundance and speciation of arsenic in pore water, soil, and rice plant tissues. We monitored arsenic speciation and partitioning between these reservoirs at semi-weekly to semi-monthly frequencies. Pore water arsenic speciation was determined using LC-ICP-MS, and X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) analysis was employed to speciate the arsenic within solid-phase soil and plant tissue throughout the growing season. These data help clarify the role of two irrigation methods and MSMA amendments for arsenic bioavailability and speciation in rice. Furthermore, the study illuminates the significance of microbial metabolism in the reapportionment of arsenic within the soil-plant-water system and its impact on arsenic levels in rice grains.

  1. Interactive effects of neonatal exposure to monosodium glutamate and aspartame on glucose homeostasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Collison Kate S

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent evidence suggests that the effects of certain food additives may be synergistic or additive. Aspartame (ASP and Monosodium Glutamate (MSG are ubiquitous food additives with a common moiety: both contain acidic amino acids which can act as neurotransmitters, interacting with NMDA receptors concentrated in areas of the Central Nervous System regulating energy expenditure and conservation. MSG has been shown to promote a neuroendocrine dysfunction when large quantities are administered to mammals during the neonatal period. ASP is a low-calorie dipeptide sweetener found in a wide variety of diet beverages and foods. However, recent reports suggest that ASP may promote weight gain and hyperglycemia in a zebrafish nutritional model. Methods We investigated the effects of ASP, MSG or a combination of both on glucose and insulin homeostasis, weight change and adiposity, in C57BL/6 J mice chronically exposed to these food additives commencing in-utero, compared to an additive-free diet. Pearson correlation analysis was used to investigate the associations between body characteristics and variables in glucose and insulin homeostasis. Results ASP alone (50 mg/Kgbw/day caused an increase in fasting blood glucose of 1.6-fold, together with reduced insulin sensitivity during an Insulin Tolerance Test (ITT P  Conclusions Aspartame exposure may promote hyperglycemia and insulin intolerance. MSG may interact with aspartame to further impair glucose homeostasis. This is the first study to ascertain the hyperglycemic effects of chronic exposure to a combination of these commonly consumed food additives; however these observations are limited to a C57BL/6 J mouse model. Caution should be applied in extrapolating these findings to other species.

  2. Adjusting irradiance to enhance growth and lipid production of Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with monosodium glutamate wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Ji, Yan; Hu, Wenrong; Pei, Haiyan; Nie, Changliang; Ma, Guixia; Song, Mingming

    2016-09-01

    Light is one of the most important factors affecting microalgae growth and biochemical composition. The influence of illumination on Chlorella vulgaris cultivated with diluted monosodium glutamate wastewater (MSGW) was investigated. Six progressive illumination intensities (0, 30, 90, 150, 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1)), were used for C. vulgaris cultivation at 25°C. Under 150μmol·m(-2)s(-1), the corresponding specific light intensity of 750×10(-6)μmol·m(-2)s(-1) per cell, algae obtained the maximum biomass concentration (1.46g·L(-1)) on the 7th day, which was 3.5 times of that under 0μmol·m(-2)s(-1), and the greatest average specific growth rate (0.79 d(-1)) in the first 7days. The results showed the importance role of light in mixotrophic growth of C. vulgaris. High light intensities of 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1) would inhibit microalgae growth to a certain degree. The algal lipid content was the greatest (30.5%) at 150μmol·m(-2)s(-1) light intensity, which was 2.42 times as high as that cultured in dark. The protein content of C. vulgaris decreased at high light intensities of 200 and 300μmol·m(-2)s(-1). The effect of irradiance on carbohydrate content was inversely correlated with that on protein. The available light at an appropriate intensity, not higher than 200μmol·m(-2)s(-1), was feasible for economical cultivation of C. vulgaris in MSGW. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Management considerations to minimize environmental impacts of arsenic following monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) applications to turfgrass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahoney, Denis J; Gannon, Travis W; Jeffries, Matthew D; Matteson, Audrey R; Polizzotto, Matthew L

    2015-03-01

    Monosodium methylarsenate (MSMA) is an organic arsenical herbicide currently utilized in turfgrass and cotton systems. In recent years, concerns over adverse impacts of arsenic (As) from MSMA applications have emerged; however, little research has been conducted in controlled field experiments using typical management practices. To address this knowledge gap, a field lysimeter experiment was conducted during 2012-2013 to determine the fate of As following MSMA applications to a bareground and an established turfgrass system. Arsenic concentrations in soil, porewater, and aboveground vegetation, were measured through one yr after treatment. Aboveground vegetation As concentration was increased compared to nontreated through 120 d after initial treatment (DAIT). In both systems, increased soil As concentrations were observed at 0-4 cm at 30 and 120 DAIT and 0-8 cm at 60 and 365 DAIT, suggesting that As was bound in shallow soil depths. Porewater As concentrations in MSMA-treated lysimeters from a 30-cm depth (22.0-83.8 μg L(-1)) were greater than those at 76-cm depth (0.4-5.1 μg L(-1)). These results were combined with previous research to devise management considerations in systems where MSMA is utilized. MSMA should not be applied if rainfall is forecasted within 7 DAIT and/or in areas with shallow water tables. Further, disposing of MSMA-treated turfgrass aboveground vegetation in a confined area - a common management practice for turfgrass clippings - may be of concern due to As release to surface water or groundwater as the vegetation decomposes. Finally, long-term MSMA use may cause soil As accumulation and thus downward migration of As over time; therefore, MSMA should be used in rotation with other herbicides. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Histological changes in kidneys of adult rats treated with Monosodium glutamate: A light microscopic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh BR, Ujwal Gajbe, Anil Kumar Reddy, Vandana Kumbhare

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Monosodium Glutamate (MSG, which is chemically known as AJI-NO-MOTO also familiar as MSG in routine life. MSG is always considered to be a controversial food additive used in the world. It is a natural excitatory neurotransmitter, helps in transmitting the fast synaptic signals in one third of CNS. Liver and kidney play a crucial role in metabolism as well as elimination of MSG from the body. Present study is to detect structural changes in adult rat kidney tissue treated with MSG; observations are done with a light microscope. Materials & Methods: The study was conducted in the department of Anatomy, J.N.M.C, Sawangi (M Wardha. Thirty (30 adult Wistar rats (2-3 months old weighing about (200 ± 20g were used in the current study, animals were divided into three groups (Group – A, B, C. Group A: Control, Group B: 3 mg /gm body weight, Group C: 6 mg /gm body weight, MSG were administered orally daily for 45 days along with the regular diet. Observations & Results: The Mean values of animals weight at the end of experiment (46th day respectively were 251.2 ± 13, 244.4 ± 19.9 and 320 ± 31.1. Early degenerative changes like, Glomerular shrinkage (GSr, loss of brush border in proximal convoluted tubules and Cloudy degeneration was observed in sections of kidney treated with 3 mg/gm body weight of MSG. Animals treated with 6 mg/gm body weight of MSG showed rare changes like interstitial chronic inflammatory infiltrate with vacuolation in some of the glomeruli, and much glomerular shrinkage invaginated by fatty lobules. Conclusion: The effects of MSG on kidney tissues of adult rats revealed that the revelatory changes are directly proportional to the doses of MSG.

  5. Ultrasonography shows disappearance of monosodium urate crystal deposition on hyaline cartilage after sustained normouricemia is achieved.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiele, Ralf G; Schlesinger, Naomi

    2010-02-01

    This study aimed at determining whether lowering serum urate (SU) to less than 6 mg/dl in patients with gout affects ultrasonographic findings. Seven joints in five patients with monosodium urate (MSU) crystal proven gout and hyperuricemia were examined over time with serial ultrasonography. Four of the five patients were treated with urate lowering drugs (ULDs) (allopurinol, n = 3; probenecid, n = 1). One patient was treated with colchicine alone. Attention was given to changes in a hyperechoic, irregular coating of the hyaline cartilage in the examined joints (double contour sign or "urate icing"). This coating was considered to represent precipitate of MSU crystals. Index joints included metacarpophalangeal (MCP) joints (n = 2), knee joints (n = 3), and first metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joints (n = 2). The interval between baseline and follow-up images ranged from 7 to 18 months. Serial SU levels were obtained during the follow-up period. During the follow-up period, three patients treated with ULD (allopurinol, n = 2; probenecid, n = 1) achieved a SU level of or =7 mg/dl. In one patient treated with allopurinol, SU levels improved from 13 to 7 mg/dl during the follow-up period. Decrease, but not resolution of the hyperechoic coating was seen in this patient. In the patient treated with colchicine alone, SU levels remained >8 mg/dl, and no sonographic change was observed. In our patients, sonographic signs of deposition of MSU crystals on the surface of hyaline cartilage disappeared completely if sustained normouricemia was achieved. This is the first report showing that characteristic sonographic changes are influenced by ULDs once SU levels remain studies are needed to further assess these potentially important findings.

  6. Wastewater from monosodium glutamate industry as a low cost fertilizer source for corn (Zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Satnam; Rekha, P.D.; Arun, A.B.; Huang, Y.-M.; Shen, F.-T.; Young, Chiu-Chung

    2011-01-01

    Nitrogen rich wastewater from monosodium glutamate industry (MSG) and paper-mill wastewater were used in this study as low cost fertilizers for growing corn, a common fuel crop. Detailed characterization of the wastewaters and toxicity testes were conducted to assure the safety of these wastewaters. In a greenhouse pot experiment, effects of these wastewaters on corn growth and biomass yield along with the soil properties were evaluated. MSG-wastewater was applied at three rates i.e., zero, 5 m 3 ha -1 and 7.5 m 3 ha -1 and paper-mill wastewater was applied at and zero, 3.5 m 3 ha -1 and 5 m 3 ha -1 in a complete randomized blocks design experiment. Significant increase in the corn biomass yield was observed in all the wastewater treatments compared to the Control. Both these wastewaters did not show any adverse effects on plant. N-use efficiency from the MSG-wastewater was comparable to urea-N application. This study emphasizes on sustainable practices for energy crop production by utilizing wastewaters as fertilizer sources. Hence, we report for the first time that the MSG-wastewater can be used for growing corn as a low cost green practice without adverse affects on the soil properties. -- Highlights: → MSG-wastewater acidity neutralization with highly alkaline paper-mill effluent is sustainable practice. → Growing fuel crops using wastewaters comprises multiple benefits on plant, soil, and environment. → Organic rich wastewaters improve SOC. → Co-application of MSG and paper-mill wastewaters stimulates humification.

  7. Taste sensitivity for monosodium glutamate and an increased liking of dietary protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luscombe-Marsh, Natalie D; Smeets, Astrid J P G; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2008-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine individuals' taste threshold for monosodium glutamate (MSG) alone and in combination with inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP-5) and to examine if this threshold was related to an increase in sensory properties (including pleasantness of taste) and/or to one's preference for dietary protein over carbohydrate and fat. Using the triangle tasting method, the taste threshold was determined for thirty-six women and twenty-four men. Thresholds varied from zero to infinite as determined using a clear soup with added MSG in the concentration range of 0.1 to 0.8 % (w/w) MSG. Subjects rated fourteen sensory properties of the soup and also their 'liking', 'eating frequency' and 'preference' of twenty-two common high-protein, high-carbohydrate and high-fat food items. The taste threshold (and therefore sensitivity) of MSG was lowered from 0.33 (sem 0.24) to 0.26 (sem 0.22) % MSG when 0.25 % (w/w) IMP-5 was added. None of the sensory properties assessed was associated with the taste threshold of MSG +/- 0.25 % IMP-5 in the overall study population. However, the taste descriptor 'meatiness' was associated with the threshold data for individuals who could taste concentrations of

  8. Invariant Natural Killer T Cells Ameliorate Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Inflammation in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Wang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Gout is an inflammatory arthritis caused by deposition of intra-articular monosodium urate (MSU crystal. Previous studies have focused on resident macrophage, infiltrating monocyte, and neutrophil responses to MSU crystal; yet the mechanisms of cellular changes and the potential involvement of other regulatory immune cells remain largely unknown. Invariant natural killer T (iNKT cells, an innate type of T cell, are involved in the development of various inflammatory diseases. Here, we investigate the role of iNKT cells in MSU crystal-induced gouty inflammation. MSU crystal-induced inflammatory profiles in an air-pouch model were examined in iNKT-deficient CD1d knockout (KO and wild-type (WT control mice. To explore potential mechanisms of iNKT cell regulation of gouty inflammation, we cocultured CD4+ or CD4−iNKT cells with bone marrow-derived macrophages (BMDMs. We found that iNKT cells quickly migrated to the site of inflammation upon MSU crystal stimulation in WT mice. The total number of infiltrating cells in CD1d KO mice, especially neutrophils, was dramatically increased at 6 and 12 h (P < 0.01 post-MSU crystal challenge, compared with WT controls. BMDMs cocultured with CD4+iNKT cells produced less tumor necrosis factor-α and expressed higher levels of M2 macrophage markers, including Clec7a, Pdcd1Ig2, and interleukin-4 (P < 0.01, compared with BMDMs cocultured with CD4−iNKT cells or conventional CD4+ T cells. CD4+iNKT cells are one of the key regulators of MSU crystal-induced gouty inflammation through the control of macrophage polarization. iNKT cells may serve as a new therapeutic target for gout.

  9. Diffusion tensor imaging depicting damage to the arcuate fasciculus in patients with conduction aphasia: a study of the Wernicke-Geschwind model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yumei; Wang, Chunxue; Zhao, Xingquan; Chen, Hongyan; Han, Zaizhu; Wang, Yongjun

    2010-09-01

    In contrast with disorders of comprehension and spontaneous expression, conduction aphasia is characterized by poor repetition, which is a hallmark of the syndrome. There are many theories on the repetition impairment of conduction aphasia. The disconnection theory suggests that a damaged in the arcuate fasciculus, which connects Broca's and Wernicke's area, is the cause of conduction aphasia. In this study, we examined the disconnection theory. We enrolled ten individuals with conduction aphasia and ten volunteers, and analysed their arcuate fasciculus using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and obtained fractional anisotropy (FA) values. Then, the results of the left hemisphere were compared with those of the right hemisphere, and the results of the conduction aphasia cases were compared with those of the volunteers. There were significant differences in the FA values between the left and right hemispheres of volunteers and conduction cases. In volunteers, there was an increase in fiber in the left hemisphere compared with the right hemisphere, whereas there was an increase in fiber in the right hemisphere compared with the left hemisphere in conduction aphasia patients. The results of diffusion tensor tractography suggested that the configuration of the arcuate fasciculus was different between conduction aphasia patients and volunteers, suggesting that there was damage to the arcuate fasciculus of conduction aphasia cases. The damage seen in the arcuate fasciculus of conduction aphasia cases in this study supports the Wernicke-Geschwind disconnection theory. A disconnection between Broca's area and Wernicke's area is likely to be one mechanism of conduction aphasia repetition impairment.

  10. Modeling of glutamate-induced dynamical patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faurby-Bentzen, Christian Krefeld; Zhabotinsky, A.M.; Laugesen, Jakob Lund

    2009-01-01

    Based on established physiological mechanisms, the paper presents a detailed computer model, which supports the hypothesis that temporal lobe epilepsy may be caused by failure of glutamate reuptake from the extracellular space. The elevated glutamate concentration causes an increased activation...

  11. Detection and Growth Pattern of Arcuate Fasciculus from Newborn to Adult

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Molly Wilkinson

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Fractional anisotropy (FA threshold is commonly used to perform diffusion MRI tractography. However, FA threshold may be one aspect of tractography that needs additional scrutiny in accurately assessing pathways in immature, developing brains, as well as in adult brains. Using high-angular resolution diffusion MRI (HARDI tractography without an FA threshold, we identified the arcuate fasciculus (AF of 83 healthy subjects ranging in age from 40 gestational weeks (GW (newborns to 28-year-old adults. The AF was identified in both hemispheres in all subjects with high inter-rater reliability. The detected AF included regions with very low FA values. The entire AF was segmented into anterior, posterior, and long tracts. Growth and laterality patterns were investigated using tract count (number of detected streamlines, total volume of imaging voxels (touched by the detected streamlines, mean length, mean FA, and mean apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC. Comparison of subjects under 3 years old, to those that were older, revealed the three AF tracts that took different developmental courses. As expected, the anterior and long tracts showed lower ADC values in subjects over 3 years old, while the posterior tract showed higher ADC in that same age range. The posterior tract did not show age-related effect in terms of FA, tract count, length, and volume. These results suggest that the posterior AF tract shows a matured state, indexed by most of the used measurements in early postnatal developmental ages, and ADC is a measurement that can detect further maturation of the posterior tract. Interestingly, in all tracts, hemispheric asymmetries were found in raw (leftright tract count, as well as in raw volume (left

  12. Penetrating and Intrastromal Corneal Arcuate Incisions in Rabbit and Human Cadaver Eyes: Manual Diamond Blade and Femtosecond Laser-Created Incisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Brad; Binder, Perry S; Huang, Ling C; Hill, Jim; Salvador-Silva, Mercedes; Gwon, Arlene

    2016-07-01

    To compare morphologic differences between freehand diamond or femtosecond laser-assisted penetrating and intrastromal arcuate incisions. Freehand diamond blade, corneal arcuate incisions (180° apart, 60° arc lengths) and 150 kHz femtosecond laser (80% scheimpflug pachymetry depth corneal thickness) arcuate incisions were performed in rabbits. Intrastromal arcuate incisions (100 μm above Descemet's membrane, 100 μm below epithelium) were performed in rabbit corneas (energy 1.2 μJ, spot line separation 3 × 3 μm, 90° side cut angle). Eyes were examined by slit lamp and light microscopy up to 47 days post-procedure. Freehand diamond blade penetrating incisions, and femtosecond laser penetrating and intrastromal arcuate incisions (energy 1.8 μJ, spot line separation 2 × 2 μm) were performed in cadaver eyes. Optical coherence tomography was performed immediately after surgery and the corneas were fixed for light scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The rabbit model showed anterior stromal inflammation with epithelial hyperplasia in penetrating blade and laser penetrating wounds. The laser intrastromal and penetrating incisions showed localized constriction of the stromal layers of the cornea near the wound. In cadaver eyes, penetrating wound morphology was similar between blade and laser whereas intrastromal wounds did not affect the cornea above or below incisions. Penetrating femtosecond laser arcuate incisions have more predictable and controlled outcomes shown by less post-operative scarring than incisions performed with a diamond blade. Intrastromal incisions do not affect uncut corneal layers as demonstrated by histopathology. The femtosecond laser has significant advantages in its ability to make intrastromal incisions which are not achievable by traditional freehand or mechanical diamond blades.

  13. Arcuate ligament of the wrist: normal MR appearance and its relationship to palmar midcarpal instability: a cadaveric study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Weiling; Peduto, Anthony J.; Aguiar, Rodrigo O.C.; Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L.

    2007-01-01

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross anatomic appearance of the scaphocapitate (SC) ligament and triquetrohamocapitate (THC) ligament, which are the radial and ulnar limbs of the composite arcuate ligament, a critical volar midcarpal stabilizing ligament. T1 spin-echo and 3D gradient-echo MR imaging in the standard, coronal oblique, and axial oblique planes were performed both before and following midcarpal arthrography in seven cadaveric wrists. The seven specimens were then sectioned in selected planes to optimally visualize the SC and THC ligaments. These specimens were analyzed and correlated with their corresponding MR images. The SC and THC ligaments can be visualized in MR images as structures of low signal intensity that form an inverted ''V'' joining the proximal and distal carpal rows. The entire ligamentous complex is best visualized with coronal and axial oblique MR imaging but can also be seen in standard imaging planes. SC and THC ligaments together form the arcuate ligament of the wrist. Their function is crucial to the normal functioning of the wrist. Palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) is a resulting condition when abnormalities of these ligaments occur. Dedicated MR imaging in the coronal and axial imaging planes can be performed in patients suspected of having PCMI. (orig.)

  14. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C; James, Jija S; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan; Thomas, Sanjeev V

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms--visual verb generation and word pair task--were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities.

  15. Arcuate ligament of the wrist: normal MR appearance and its relationship to palmar midcarpal instability: a cadaveric study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Weiling [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Sharp-Grossmont Hospital, Department of Radiology, La Mesa, CA (United States); Peduto, Anthony J. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Westmead Hospital and Western Clinical School of Sydney University, Department of Radiology, Sydney (Australia); Aguiar, Rodrigo O.C. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States); Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janerio (Brazil); Trudell, Debra J.; Resnick, Donald L. [Veterans Administration Medical Center, Department of Radiology, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2007-07-15

    To describe the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging and gross anatomic appearance of the scaphocapitate (SC) ligament and triquetrohamocapitate (THC) ligament, which are the radial and ulnar limbs of the composite arcuate ligament, a critical volar midcarpal stabilizing ligament. T1 spin-echo and 3D gradient-echo MR imaging in the standard, coronal oblique, and axial oblique planes were performed both before and following midcarpal arthrography in seven cadaveric wrists. The seven specimens were then sectioned in selected planes to optimally visualize the SC and THC ligaments. These specimens were analyzed and correlated with their corresponding MR images. The SC and THC ligaments can be visualized in MR images as structures of low signal intensity that form an inverted ''V'' joining the proximal and distal carpal rows. The entire ligamentous complex is best visualized with coronal and axial oblique MR imaging but can also be seen in standard imaging planes. SC and THC ligaments together form the arcuate ligament of the wrist. Their function is crucial to the normal functioning of the wrist. Palmar midcarpal instability (PMCI) is a resulting condition when abnormalities of these ligaments occur. Dedicated MR imaging in the coronal and axial imaging planes can be performed in patients suspected of having PCMI. (orig.)

  16. Influence of Monosodium Glutamate on Radiation-Induced Biochemical Alterations in Male Albino Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saada, H. N.; Said, U. Z.; Shedid, S.M.; Mahdy, E. M. E.; Elmezayen, H. E.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Humans are frequently exposed to RAD and MSG from various food additives, therapeutic treatments and the environment. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe, their combined effects remain unclear. The present study proposed to investigate neurotoxic potentials of exposure to MSG and/or RAD on oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders in the rat’s brain tissue. MSG was supplemented daily by gavages to rats at a dose of 450 mg/Kg bwt/day (equivalent to 5 g/day human consumption) for 7 days pre- and 21 days post-exposure to whole body gamma rays at doses of 2 Gy/week up to a total dose of 8 Gy. Exposure to MSG and/or RAD -induced oxidative stress, neurotransmitters disturbance and metabolic disorders. Oxidative stress was manifested by a significant increase in lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde (MDA) and decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione content. The administration of MSG daily during exposure to gamma radiation has potentiated oxidative stress regarding each single treatment. MSG-exposure induced a highly significant decrease of serotonin (P<0.01) and a slight non significant increase (P>0.05) of aspartic and glutamic acids levels while in RAD- group the decrease of serotonin and the increase of amino acids were very highly significant (P<0.001). MSG + RAD-exposure had potentiated the decrease of serotonin and produced an additive effect on the increase of neurotransmitters amino acids. MSG as well as RAD-exposure increased (P<0.05) glucose and insulin levels with

  17. PILOT SCALE TESTING OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE MIXING FOR THE SRS SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE PROCESS - 11224

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, M.; Restivo, M.; Williams, M.; Herman, D.; Steeper, T.

    2011-01-25

    The Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process is being developed to remove cesium, strontium, and select actinides from Savannah River Site (SRS) Liquid Waste using an existing waste tank (i.e., Tank 41H) to house the process. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is conducting pilot-scale mixing tests to determine the pump requirements for suspending monosodium titanate (MST), crystalline silicotitanate (CST), and simulated sludge. The purpose of this pilot scale testing is to determine the requirements for the pumps to suspend the MST particles so that they can contact the strontium and actinides in the liquid and be removed from the tank. The pilot-scale tank is a 1/10.85 linear scaled model of SRS Tank 41H. The tank diameter, tank liquid level, pump nozzle diameter, pump elevation, and cooling coil diameter are all 1/10.85 of their dimensions in Tank 41H. The pump locations correspond to the proposed locations in Tank 41H by the SCIX program (Risers B5 and B2 for two pump configurations and Risers B5, B3, and B1 for three pump configurations). The conclusions from this work follow: (i) Neither two standard slurry pumps nor two quad volute slurry pumps will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. (ii) Two Submersible Mixer Pumps (SMPs) will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. However, the testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is close to the maximum discharge velocity of the pump (within 12%). (iii) Three SMPs will provide sufficient power to initially suspend MST in an SRS waste tank. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 66% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. (iv) Three SMPs are needed to resuspend MST that has settled in a waste tank at nominal 45 C for four weeks. The testing shows the required pump discharge velocity is 77% of the maximum discharge velocity of the pump. Two SMPs are not sufficient to resuspend MST that settled under these

  18. Assessment of arcuate fasciculus with diffusion-tensor tractography may predict the prognosis of aphasia in patients with left middle cerebral artery infarcts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosomi, Akiko; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Kuriyama, Nagato; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori; Yamada, Kei; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2009-01-01

    It is often clinically difficult to assess the severity of aphasia in the earliest stage of cerebral infarction. A method enabling objective assessment of verbal function is needed for this purpose. We examined whether diffusion tensor (DT) tractography is of clinical value in assessing aphasia. Thirteen right-handed patients with left middle cerebral artery infarcts who were scanned within 2 days after stroke onset were enrolled in this study. Magnetic resonance data of ten control subjects were also examined by DT tractography. Based on the severity of aphasia at discharge, patients were divided into two groups: six patients in the aphasic group and seven in the nonaphasic group. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and number of arcuate fasciculus fibers were evaluated. Asymmetry index was calculated for both FA and number of fibers. FA values for the arcuate fasciculus fibers did not differ between hemispheres in either the patient groups or the controls. Number of arcuate fasciculus fibers exhibited a significant leftward asymmetry in the controls and the nonaphasic group but not in the aphasic group. Asymmetry index of number of fibers was significantly lower (rightward) in the aphasic group than in the nonaphasic (P = 0.015) and control (P = 0.005) groups. Loss of leftward asymmetry in number of AF fibers predicted aphasia at discharge with a sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.86. Asymmetry of arcuate fasciculus fibers by DT tractography may deserve to be assessed in acute infarction for predicting the fate of vascular aphasia. (orig.)

  19. Assessment of arcuate fasciculus with diffusion-tensor tractography may predict the prognosis of aphasia in patients with left middle cerebral artery infarcts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosomi, Akiko; Nagakane, Yoshinari; Kuriyama, Nagato; Mizuno, Toshiki; Nakagawa, Masanori [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Neurology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan); Yamada, Kei; Nishimura, Tsunehiko [Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto (Japan)

    2009-09-15

    It is often clinically difficult to assess the severity of aphasia in the earliest stage of cerebral infarction. A method enabling objective assessment of verbal function is needed for this purpose. We examined whether diffusion tensor (DT) tractography is of clinical value in assessing aphasia. Thirteen right-handed patients with left middle cerebral artery infarcts who were scanned within 2 days after stroke onset were enrolled in this study. Magnetic resonance data of ten control subjects were also examined by DT tractography. Based on the severity of aphasia at discharge, patients were divided into two groups: six patients in the aphasic group and seven in the nonaphasic group. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and number of arcuate fasciculus fibers were evaluated. Asymmetry index was calculated for both FA and number of fibers. FA values for the arcuate fasciculus fibers did not differ between hemispheres in either the patient groups or the controls. Number of arcuate fasciculus fibers exhibited a significant leftward asymmetry in the controls and the nonaphasic group but not in the aphasic group. Asymmetry index of number of fibers was significantly lower (rightward) in the aphasic group than in the nonaphasic (P = 0.015) and control (P = 0.005) groups. Loss of leftward asymmetry in number of AF fibers predicted aphasia at discharge with a sensitivity of 0.83 and specificity of 0.86. Asymmetry of arcuate fasciculus fibers by DT tractography may deserve to be assessed in acute infarction for predicting the fate of vascular aphasia. (orig.)

  20. The feasibility of using complex wastewater from a monosodium glutamate factory to cultivate Spirulina subsalsa and accumulate biochemical composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Liqun; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Ji, Yan; Han, Lin; Ma, Guixia

    2015-03-01

    This paper is mainly observations on the growth and biomass accumulation of Spirulina subsalsa in modified Zarrouk medium supplemented with complex wastewater (CW, from a monosodium glutamate factory) in different concentrations. High ammonia in 75% and 100% CW inhibits algae growth, but maximum biomass production (2.86mgL(-1)) was obtained in 25% CW (concentration of CW in medium was 25%). Different CW concentration promoted biomass composition accumulation at different degrees, 41% of protein content in 25% CW and 18% of carbohydrate in 50% CW. In terms of economy, a concentration of 25% CW was suitable for protein production and 50% for lipid and carbohydrate production. These results suggested that CW is a feasible replacement in part for cultivation of S. subsalsa to economize input of water and nutrients. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: OPTIMIZED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE II FINAL REPORT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hobbs, D; Thomas Peters, T; Michael Poirier, M; Mark Barnes, M; Major Thompson, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-01-01

    This document provides a final report of Phase II testing activities for the development of a modified monosodium titanate (MST) that exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included determining the key synthesis conditions for preparation of the modified MST, preparation of the modified MST at a larger scale by a commercial vendor, demonstration of the strontium and actinide removal characteristics with actual tank waste supernate and measurement of filtration characteristics. Key findings and conclusions include the following. Testing evaluated three synthetic methods and eleven process parameters for the optimum synthesis conditions for the preparation on an improved form of MST. We selected the post synthesis method (Method 3) for continued development based on overall sorbate removal performance. We successfully prepared three batches of the modified MST using Method 3 procedure at a 25-gram scale. The laboratory prepared modified MST exhibited increased sorption kinetics with simulated and actual waste solutions and similar filtration characteristics to the baseline MST. Characterization of the modified MST indicated that the post synthesis treatment did not significantly alter the particle size distribution, but did significantly increase the surface area and porosity compared to the original MST. Testing indicated that the modified MST exhibits reduced affinity for uranium compared to the baseline MST, reducing risk of fissile loading. Shelf-life testing indicated no change in strontium and actinide performance removal after storing the modified MST for 12-months at ambient laboratory temperature. The material releases oxygen during the synthesis and continues to offgas after the synthesis at a rapidly diminishing rate until below a measurable rate after 4 months. Optima Chemical Group LLC prepared a 15-kilogram batch of the modified MST using the post synthesis procedure (Method

  2. The value of using dual-energy CT in the detection of monosodium urate crystals in patients with gout

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu Huijuan; Liao Meiyan; Tian Zhixiong; Peng Birong

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical value of dual-energy CT in the detection of monosodium urate crystals in patients with gout. Methods: One hundred and eight patients who experienced unilateral arthrocele and (or) joint pain in the past two weeks were enrolled into our study. DECT were performed for the upper or lower extremity. Ninety-five patients were enrolled into the gout study group based on the American rheumatism association (ACR) classification standard; The 0.3 linear blended images group were regarded as conventional CT group, DE (80 kV and 140 kV) datasets were reconstructed via gout-recognition software, the pseudo-color images group as the postprocessed group. Imagings were reviewed independently by two senior radiologists. Chi-square test were used for statistical analysis with the SPSS 13.0 software. Results: In the conventional CT group, DECT scans revealed a total of 298 areas of urate deposition in 51 patients; The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 53.7%, 84.6%, and 57.4%. In the postprocessed group, 401 areas of green urate deposition were detected in 69 patients, the sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy were 72.6%, 100.0%, 75.9% respectively, the differences had statistical significance (χ 2 =7.329 and 8.333, P<0.05). Conclusions: DECT gout recognition technology can detect smaller amount of monosodium urate in the other parts of the body, with a great potential in early diagnosis and treatment monitoring of patients with gout. (authors)

  3. Monosodium glutamate-associated alterations in open field, anxiety-related and conditioned place preference behaviours in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onaolapo, Olakunle James; Aremu, Olaleye Samuel; Onaolapo, Adejoke Yetunde

    2017-07-01

    The present study investigated changes in behaviour associated with oral monosodium glutamate (a flavouring agent), using the open field, elevated plus maze and conditioned place preference (CPP) paradigms, respectively. Mice were assigned to two groups for CPP [monosodium glutamate (MSG)-naïve (n = 40) and MSG-pretreated (n = 40)] and two groups for open field (OF) and elevated plus maze (EPM) tests [n = 40 each], respectively. Animals in respective groups were then divided into four subgroups (n = 10) (vehicle or MSG (80, 160 and 320 mg/kg)). MSG-naïve mice were observed in the CPP box in three phases (pre-conditioning, conditioning and post-conditioning). Mice were conditioned to MSG or an equivalent volume of saline. The MSG pretreatment group received vehicle or respective doses of MSG daily for 21 days, prior to conditioning. Mice in the OF or EPM groups received vehicle or doses of MSG (orally) for 21 days, at 10 ml/kg. Open field or EPM behaviours were assessed on days 1 and 21. At the end of the experiments, mice in the OF groups were sacrificed and brain homogenates used to assay glutamate and glutamine. Results showed that administration of MSG was associated with a decrease in rearing, dose-related mixed horizontal locomotor, grooming and anxiety-related response and an increase in brain glutamate/glutamine levels. Following exposure to the CPP paradigm, MSG-naïve and MSG-pretreated mice both showed 'drug-paired' chamber preference. The study concluded that MSG (at the administered doses) was associated with changes in open field activities, anxiety-related behaviours and brain glutamate/glutamine levels; its ingestion also probably leads to a stimulation of the brain reward system.

  4. Medial arcuate ligament: a new anatomic landmark facilitates the location of the renal artery in retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Wei; Li, Hong Zhao; Zhang, Xu; Song, Yong; Ma, Xin; Dong, Jun; Chen, Wenzheng; Chen, Guang-Fu; Xu, Yong; Lu, Jin Shan; Wang, Bao-Jun; Shi, Tao-Ping

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to introduce a new method for locating the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. The medial arcuate ligament (MAL) is a tendinous arch in the fascia under the diaphragm that arches across the psoas major muscle and is attached medially to the side of the first or the second lumbar vertebra. The renal artery arises at the level of the intervertebral disc between the L1 and L2 vertebrae. We evaluate the role of the MAL that serves as an anatomic landmark for locating the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. There is a reproducible consistent anatomic relationship between MAL and the renal artery in 210 cases of retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery. Two main types of the MAL, the "narrow arch" and the "fascial band" types, can be observed. MAL can serve as an accurate and reproducible anatomic landmark for the identification of the renal artery during retroperitoneal laparoscopic renal surgery.

  5. Acute inflammation reduces kisspeptin immunoreactivity at the arcuate nucleus and decreases responsiveness to kisspeptin independently of its anorectic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, J M; Bentsen, A H; Romero, M

    2010-01-01

    -IR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that was not observed under conditions of metabolic stress induced by 48-h fasting. In addition, absolute responses to kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), in terms of LH and testosterone secretion, were significantly attenuated in LPS-treated males that also displayed a decrease in food intake...... and body weight. Yet pair-fed males did not show similar alterations in LH and testosterone secretory responses to Kp-10, whose magnitude was preserved, if not augmented, during food restriction. In summary, our data document the impact of acute inflammation on kisspeptin content at the ARC as key center......Severe inflammatory challenges are frequently coupled to decreased food intake and disruption of reproductive function, the latter via deregulation of different signaling pathways that impinge onto GnRH neurons. Recently, the hypothalamic Kiss1 system, a major gatekeeper of GnRH function...

  6. Acute inflammation reduces kisspeptin immunoreactivity at the arcuate nucleus and decreases responsiveness to kisspeptin independently of its anorectic effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castellano, J M; Bentsen, A H; Romero, M

    2010-01-01

    , was suggested as potential target for transmitting immune-mediated repression of the gonadotropic axis during acute inflammation, and yet key facets of such a phenomenon remain ill defined. Using lipopolysaccharide S (LPS)-treated male rats as model of inflammation, we document herein the pattern......-IR in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) that was not observed under conditions of metabolic stress induced by 48-h fasting. In addition, absolute responses to kisspeptin-10 (Kp-10), in terms of LH and testosterone secretion, were significantly attenuated in LPS-treated males that also displayed a decrease in food intake...... and body weight. Yet pair-fed males did not show similar alterations in LH and testosterone secretory responses to Kp-10, whose magnitude was preserved, if not augmented, during food restriction. In summary, our data document the impact of acute inflammation on kisspeptin content at the ARC as key center...

  7. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu; Menon, Amitha C.; Thomas, Sanjeev V.; James, Jija S.; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan

    2015-01-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms - visual verb generation and word pair task - were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm 3 ) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm 3 ) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities. (orig.)

  8. Structural development and stress evolution of an arcuate fold-and-thrust system, southwestern Greater Caucasus, Republic of Georgia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tibaldi, A.; Bonali, F. L.; Russo, E.; Pasquarè Mariotto, F. A.

    2018-05-01

    The southern front of the Greater Caucasus is quite rectilinear in plan view, with the exception of part of the Rioni Basin, where marine and continental deposits of Cretaceous-Neogene age were locally folded and uplifted; this resulted in the formation of an arcuate fold-and-thrust system that extends 45 km into the foreland. Although previous studies suggested that this system has developed only since Miocene times, our new detailed and systematic field measurements of brittle and ductile structures show a very complex history, consisting in four main phases of brittle deformation and folding, dated from Eocene to Quaternary times. We collected microtectonic data at 248 faults, and calculated the related paleostress tensors. The first two phases which we document here, predated folding and were characterised by dominant transcurrent faulting and subordinate reverse motions; the greatest principal stress σ1 was perpendicular and later parallel to the mountain belt. Afterwards, NW-SE, E-W and NE-SW trending, south-vergent asymmetrical folds started to form. In the western sector of the study area, folds are sinuous in plan view, whereas to the east they show a left-stepping, en-échelon geometry. Another two, brittle deformation phases took place after the folding, due to the activity of a set of right-lateral, strike-slip faults that strike NW-SE and NE-SW, respectively, as well as by left-lateral strike-slip faults, mostly striking NW-SE, NE-SW and NNE-SSW. These two additional phases were produced by a NE-SW to N-S trending σ1. The arcuate belt is marked by along-strike variations in the tectonic regime and deformation geometry, plus belt-parallel stretching. Based on our field data, integrated with published analogue models, we suggest a possible explanation for the Rioni structure, in terms of the oblique, asymmetric indentation of an upper crustal blocks moving to the SSW.

  9. Arcuate fasciculus laterality by diffusion tensor imaging correlates with language laterality by functional MRI in preadolescent children

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreedharan, Ruma Madhu [Government Medical College Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India); Menon, Amitha C.; Thomas, Sanjeev V. [Sree Chitra, Thirunal Institute for Medical Sciences and Technology, Department of Neurology, Thiruvananthapuram, Kerala (India); James, Jija S.; Kesavadas, Chandrasekharan [SCTIMST, Department of Imaging Science and Interventional Radiology, Trivandrum, Kerala (India)

    2015-03-01

    Language lateralization is unique to humans. Functional MRI (fMRI) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) enable the study of language areas and white matter fibers involved in language, respectively. The objective of this study was to correlate arcuate fasciculus (AF) laterality by diffusion tensor imaging with that by fMRI in preadolescent children which has not yet been reported. Ten children between 8 and 12 years were subjected to fMRI and DTI imaging using Siemens 1.5 T MRI. Two language fMRI paradigms - visual verb generation and word pair task - were used. Analysis was done using SPM8 software. In DTI, the fiber volume of the arcuate fasciculus (AFV) and fractional anisotropy (FA) was measured. The fMRI Laterality Index (fMRI-LI) and DTI Laterality Index (DTI-LI) were calculated and their correlation assessed using the Pearson Correlation Index. Of ten children, mean age 10.6 years, eight showed left lateralization while bilateral language lateralization was seen in two. AFV by DTI was more on the left side in seven of the eight children who had left lateralization by fMRI. DTI could not trace the AF in one child. Of the two with bilateral language lateralization on fMRI, one showed larger AFV on the right side while the other did not show any asymmetry. There was a significant correlation (p < 0.02) between fMRI-LI and DTI-LI. Group mean of AFV by DTI was higher on the left side (2659.89 ± 654.75 mm{sup 3}) as compared to the right (1824.11 ± 582.81 mm{sup 3}) (p < 0.01). Like fMRI, DTI also reveals language laterality in children with a high degree of correlation between the two imaging modalities. (orig.)

  10. Anorexigenic effect of cholecystokinin is lost but that of CART (cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript) peptide is preserved in monosodium glutamate obese mice

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Železná, Blanka; Maixnerová, Jana; Matyšková, Resha; Haugvicová, Renata; Blokešová, Darja; Maletínská, Lenka

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 58, č. 5 (2009), s. 717-723 ISSN 0862-8408 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/05/0614 Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA305/06/0427 Program:GA Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : monosodium glutamate (MSG) obesity * neuropeptide Y (NPY) * cholecystokinin Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 1.430, year: 2009

  11. TAILORING INORGANIC SORBENTS FOR SRS STRONTIUM AND ACTINIDE SEPARATIONS: MODIFIED MONOSODIUM TITANATE PHASE III FINAL REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Hobbs, D.

    2010-09-01

    This document provides a final report of Phase III testing activities for the development of modified monosodium titanate (mMST), which exhibits improved strontium and actinide removal characteristics compared to the baseline MST material. The activities included characterization of the crystalline phases present at varying temperatures, solids settling characteristics, quantification of the peroxide content; evaluation of the post-synthesis gas release under different conditions; the extent of desorption of {sup 85}Sr, Np, and Pu under washing conditions; and the effects of age and radiation on the performance of the mMST. Key findings and conclusions include the following. The peroxide content of several mMST samples was determined using iodometric titration. The peroxide content was found to decrease with age or upon extended exposure to elevated temperature. A loss of peroxide was also measured after exposure of the material to an alkaline salt solution similar in composition to the simulated waste solution. To determine if the loss of peroxide with age affects the performance of the material, Sr and actinide removal tests were conducted with samples of varying age. The oldest sample (4 years and 8 months) did show lower Sr and Pu removal performance. When compared to the youngest sample tested (1 month), the oldest sample retained only 15% of the DF for Pu. Previous testing with this sample indicated no decrease in Pu removal performance up to an age of 30 months. No loss in Np removal performance was observed for any of the aged samples, and no uptake of uranium occurred at the typical sorbent loading of 0.2 g/L. Additional testing with a uranium only simulant and higher mMST loading (3.0 g/L) indicated a 10% increase of uranium uptake for a sample aged 3 years and 8 months when compared to the results of the same sample measured at an age of 1 year and 5 months. Performance testing with both baseline-MST and mMST that had been irradiated in a gamma source to

  12. ESHRE/ESGE female genital tract anomalies classification system-the potential impact of discarding arcuate uterus on clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knez, J; Saridogan, E; Van Den Bosch, T; Mavrelos, D; Ambler, G; Jurkovic, D

    2018-04-01

    What would be a potential impact of implementing the new ESHRE/European Society of Gynaecological Endoscopy (ESGE) female genital anomalies classification system on the management of women with previous diagnosis of arcuate uteri based on the modified American Society for Reproductive Medicine (ASRM) criteria? A significant number of women with previous diagnosis of arcuate uteri are reclassified as having partial septate uteri according to the new ESHRE/ESGE classification system which may increase the number of remedial surgical procedures. The ESHRE/ESGE classification system has defined measurement techniques, reference points and specific cut-offs to facilitate the differentiation between normal and septate uteri. These criteria have been arbitrarily defined and they rely on the measurement of uterine wall thickness and depth of distortion of uterine fundus. This was a retrospective cohort study. We searched our ultrasound clinic database from January 2011 to December 2014 to identify all women diagnosed with arcuate uterus on three-dimensional ultrasound according to the modified ASRM criteria. For each woman, the ultrasound images were stored in our clinical database and they were re-examined according to ESHRE/ESGE specifications. The presence and location of all acquired uterine anomalies, such as fibroids or adenomyosis was noted. We applied the two diagnostic approaches as specified by the ESHRE/ESGE classification: the main option (MO) and the alternative option (AO). We used the Kappa statistic to quantify the agreement between the two approaches. We also compared the number of previous miscarriages in women with normal and partial septate uteri according to the ESHRE/ESGE classification. Non-parametric Mann-Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used for the analyses and receiver-operating characteristic curves were constructed to assess the predictive values of the calculated uterine distortion indices for the detection of women at risk of suffering

  13. Síndrome do Ligamento Arqueado Mediano - Relato de Caso/ Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome – Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro Urquiza Marques Alves da Silva

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A Síndrome do Ligamento Arqueado Mediano, também denominada Síndrome da Compressão do Tronco Celíaco decorre da compressão do Tronco Celíaco pelo ligamento Arqueado Mediano, comprometendo o fluxo sanguíneo e causando sintomas. O grau de compressão varia com as fases do ciclo respiratório, devido a mobilidade das estruturas, sendo maior na expiração. Casuística: O trabalho relata o caso de uma paciente com quadro de dor abdominal crônica, mal definida, há cerca de 25 anos. Os sintomas eram desencadeados pela ingestão de alimentos. Foram realizados exames de imagem para investigação diagnóstica que demonstraram alterações típicas da compressão do Tronco Celíaco pelo Ligamento Arqueado Mediano, como o aspecto em “gancho” na angiotomografia multislice do abdome e aumento das velocidades sistólica e diastólica, no estudo ultrassonográfico com Doppler. Discussão: Diante do quadro clínico apresentado pela paciente, estabeleceu-se o diagnóstico da Síndrome do Ligamento Arqueado Mediano, caracterizada pelos achados imagenológicos citados, associados aos sintomas de dor abdominal crônica, mal definida, geralmente desencadeada pela alimentação. Os estudos de imagem também permitiram a exclusão de outras patologias que poderiam ser a causa das dores da paciente. Conclusão: Os achados de imagem são fundamentais para o diagnóstico da síndrome, pois quando presentes têm alta especificidade e ainda podem excluir outras condições que poderiam causar dor abdominal crônica. O tratamento consiste na secção do ligamento, sua indicação ainda permanece controversa na literatura. Introduction: The Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome, also called Syndrome Compression of the results from of Celiac Trunk compression by the ligament Arched Median, compromising blood flow and causing symptoms. The degree of compression varies with the phases of the respiratory cycle, because of the mobility of the structures

  14. Insertion of a straight peritoneal catheter in an arcuate subcutaneous tunnel by a tunneler: long-term experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favazza, A; Petri, R; Montanaro, D; Boscutti, G; Bresadola, F; Mioni, G

    1995-01-01

    This study describes the results of the insertion of a straight Tenckhoff peritoneal catheter (PC) in an arcuate, caudally concave tunnel using a tunneler designed by the authors. It has a semicircular shape and a bending radius of 4.5 cm. A hospital renal unit. From June 1988 to February 1994, 112 straight Tenckhoff PCs, 62 with one deep cuff (single-cuff PC) and 50 with two cuffs (double-cuff PC), were inserted as first catheters in 112 patients (mean age 62 +/- 13 years), who underwent continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD). The follow-up was 1099 months (mean 18 +/- 13 months) for single-cuff PCs and 1264 months (mean 25 +/- 15 months) for double-cuff PCs, respectively. After intraperitoneal placement of the PCs by median laparotomy, a 180 degrees arc bend tunnel, with both external and peritoneal exits directed downwards, was created by means of the tunneler. The rate of exit-site infection (ESI) was 0.27 episodes/year (epis/year). The probability of remaining ESI-free was 76%, 60%, and 55% at 1, 2, and 3 years. The rate of tunnel infection (TI) was 0.046 epis/year. The incidence of the double-cuff PC-related ESI and TI tended to be lower than the incidence observed with the single-cuff PC. Episodes of peritonitis were 60 (0.30 epis/year), where 6 were subsequent to ESI and/or TI. Two PCs were lost due to ESI, 3 due to TI, and 11 due to peritonitis. Drainage failure, due to displacement of the PC caused by straightening, involved 3 PCs; 2 were lost. PC survival was 92%, 82%, and 74% at 1, 2 and 3 years, respectively. By an easily used semicircular tunneler, the standard straight Tenckhoff PC can be stably positioned in an arcuate tunnel with both inner and outer exits directed downwards. This tunnel shape, as already suggested by some authors, appears to be an effective technical solution to reducing the PC-related complication rates.

  15. The kisspeptin/neurokinin B/dynorphin (KNDy) cell population of the arcuate nucleus: sex differences and effects of prenatal testosterone in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Guanliang; Coolen, Lique M; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L; Lehman, Michael N

    2010-01-01

    Recent work in sheep has identified a neuronal subpopulation in the arcuate nucleus that coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (referred to here as KNDy cells) and that mediate the negative feedback influence of progesterone on GnRH secretion. We hypothesized that sex differences in progesterone negative feedback are due to sexual dimorphism of KNDy cells and compared neuropeptide and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in this subpopulation between male and female sheep. In addition, because sex differences in progesterone negative feedback and neurokinin B are due to the influence of testosterone (T) during fetal life, we determined whether prenatal T exposure would mimic sex differences in KNDy cells. Adult rams had nearly half the number of kisspeptin, neurokinin B, dynorphin, and progesterone receptor-positive cells in the arcuate nucleus as did females, but the percentage of KNDy cells colocalizing progesterone receptors remained high in both sexes. Prenatal T treatment also reduced the number of dynorphin, neurokinin B, and progesterone receptor-positive cells in the female arcuate nucleus; however, the number of kisspeptin cells remained high and at levels comparable to control females. Thus, sex differences in kisspeptin in the arcuate nucleus, unlike that of dynorphin and neurokinin B, are not due solely to exposure to prenatal T, suggesting the existence of different critical periods for multiple peptides coexpressed within the same neuron. In addition, the imbalance between inhibitory (dynorphin) and stimulatory (kisspeptin) neuropeptides in this subpopulation provides a potential explanation for the decreased ability of progesterone to inhibit GnRH neurons in prenatal T-treated ewes.

  16. The Kisspeptin/Neurokinin B/Dynorphin (KNDy) Cell Population of the Arcuate Nucleus: Sex Differences and Effects of Prenatal Testosterone in Sheep

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Guanliang; Coolen, Lique M.; Padmanabhan, Vasantha; Goodman, Robert L.; Lehman, Michael N.

    2009-01-01

    Recent work in sheep has identified a neuronal subpopulation in the arcuate nucleus that coexpresses kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (referred to here as KNDy cells) and that mediate the negative feedback influence of progesterone on GnRH secretion. We hypothesized that sex differences in progesterone negative feedback are due to sexual dimorphism of KNDy cells and compared neuropeptide and progesterone receptor immunoreactivity in this subpopulation between male and female sheep. In ...

  17. Altered integrity of the right arcuate fasciculus as a trait marker of schizophrenia: a sibling study using tractography-based analysis of the whole brain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chen-Hao; Hwang, Tzung-Jeng; Chen, Yu-Jen; Hsu, Yun-Chin; Lo, Yu-Chun; Liu, Chih-Min; Hwu, Hai-Gwo; Liu, Chen-Chung; Hsieh, Ming H; Chien, Yi Ling; Chen, Chung-Ming; Tseng, Wen-Yih Isaac

    2015-03-01

    Trait markers of schizophrenia aid the dissection of the heterogeneous phenotypes into distinct subtypes and facilitate the genetic underpinning of the disease. The microstructural integrity of the white matter tracts could serve as a trait marker of schizophrenia, and tractography-based analysis (TBA) is the current method of choice. Manual tractography is time-consuming and limits the analysis to preselected fiber tracts. Here, we sought to identify a trait marker of schizophrenia from among 74 fiber tracts across the whole brain using a novel automatic TBA method. Thirty-one patients with schizophrenia, 31 unaffected siblings and 31 healthy controls were recruited to undergo diffusion spectrum magnetic resonance imaging at 3T. Generalized fractional anisotropy (GFA), an index reflecting tract integrity, was computed for each tract and compared among the three groups. Ten tracts were found to exhibit significant differences between the groups with a linear, stepwise order from controls to siblings to patients; they included the right arcuate fasciculus, bilateral fornices, bilateral auditory tracts, left optic radiation, the genu of the corpus callosum, and the corpus callosum to the bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortices, bilateral temporal poles, and bilateral hippocampi. Posthoc between-group analyses revealed that the GFA of the right arcuate fasciculus was significantly decreased in both the patients and unaffected siblings compared to the controls. Furthermore, the GFA of the right arcuate fasciculus exhibited a trend toward positive symptom scores. In conclusion, the right arcuate fasciculus may be a candidate trait marker and deserves further study to verify any genetic association. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Words are not enough: nonword repetition as an indicator of arcuate fasciculus integrity during brain tumor resection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sierpowska, Joanna; Gabarrós, Andreu; Fernandez-Coello, Alejandro; Camins, Àngels; Castañer, Sara; Juncadella, Montserrat; Morís, Joaquín; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-02-01

    OBJECTIVE Subcortical electrical stimulation during brain surgery may allow localization of functionally crucial white matter fibers and thus tailoring of the tumor resection according to its functional limits. The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a white matter bundle connecting frontal, temporal, and parietal cortical areas that is often disrupted by left brain lesions. It plays a critical role in several cognitive functions related to phonological processing, but current intraoperative monitoring methods do not yet allow mapping of this tract with sufficient precision. In the present study the authors aimed to test a new paradigm for the intraoperative monitoring of the AF. METHODS In this report, the authors studied 12 patients undergoing awake brain surgery for tumor resection with a related risk of AF damage. To preserve AF integrity and the cognitive processes sustained by this tract in the intraoperative context, the authors used real word repetition (WR) and nonword repetition (NWR) tasks as complements to standard picture naming. RESULTS Compared with the errors identified by WR or picture naming, the NWR task allowed the detection of subtle errors possibly related to AF alterations. Moreover, only 3 patients demonstrated phonological paraphasias in standard picture naming, and in 2 of these patients the paraphasias co-occurred with the total loss of WR and NWR ability. Before surgery, lesion volume predicted a patient's NWR performance. CONCLUSIONS The authors suggest that monitoring NWR intraoperatively may complement the standard naming tasks and could permit better preservation of the important language production functions subserved by the AF.

  19. Lessons learned from a case of multivessel median arcuate ligament syndrome in the setting of an Arc of Buhler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin O'Brien, M.D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The median arcuate ligament (MAL can rarely compress both the celiac axis and superior mesenteric artery. We present a case of a 70-year male who presented with isolated episodes of upper abdominal pain and diarrhea associated with sweats and nausea. Angiography images demonstrated complete occlusion of the celiac axis and compression of the superior mesenteric artery during the expiration phases. The celiac axis was reconstituted distal to its origin by a patent Arc of Buhler. Other reported cases of multivessel MALs have produced severe symptoms in young adults requiring surgical and/or endovascular intervention. In this case, our patient's Arc of Buhler was protective against more severe chronic mesenteric ischemia. We suggest that a patent Arc of Buhler is protective against symptoms in a single vessel MALs patient. A significant percentage of patients receiving surgical intervention for MALs do not have relief of symptoms. There should be a search for an Arc of Buhler before surgical management of patients suspected to have single vessel MALs.

  20. The pectinate zone is stiff and the arcuate zone determines passive basilar membrane mechanics in the gerbil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Hongyi; Steele, Charles R.; Puria, Sunil

    2018-05-01

    The gerbil basilar membrane (BM) differs from other mammalian BMs in that the lower collagen-fiber layer of the pectinate zone (PZ) forms an arch, the upper fiber layer is flat, and ground substance separates the two layers. The role of this arch has been unknown, but can be elucidated by models. In the standard simple beam model (SBM), the upper and lower collagen-fiber layers of the BM are represented as a single layer in both the PZ and the arcuate zone (AZ). In our new arch-beam model (ABM), the upper fiber layer is flat, the lower layer forms an arch in the PZ, and the two layers combine to form the flat portion of the BM in the AZ. This design is incorporated into a 3D finite-element tapered-box model of the cochlea with viscous fluid. We find in the model that the PZ rotates as a rigid body, so its specific properties have little influence, while the AZ thickness and collagen volume fraction primarily determine passive BM mechanics.

  1. Ethanol injected into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces behavioral stimulation in rats: an effect prevented by catalase inhibition and naltrexone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pastor, Raúl; Aragon, Carlos M G

    2008-10-01

    It is suggested that some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including its psychomotor properties, are mediated by beta-endorphin and opioid receptors. Ethanol-induced increases in the release of hypothalamic beta-endorphin depend on the catalasemic conversion of ethanol to acetaldehyde. Here, we evaluated the locomotor activity in rats microinjected with ethanol directly into the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ArcN), the main site of beta-endorphin synthesis in the brain and a region with high levels of catalase expression. Intra-ArcN ethanol-induced changes in motor activity were also investigated in rats pretreated with the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0-2 mg/kg) or the catalase inhibitor 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT; 0-1 g/kg). We found that ethanol microinjections of 64 or 128, but not 256 microg, produced locomotor stimulation. Intra-ArcN ethanol (128 microg)-induced activation was prevented by naltrexone and AT, whereas these compounds did not affect spontaneous activity. The present results support earlier evidence indicating that the ArcN and the beta-endorphinic neurons of this nucleus are necessary for ethanol to induce stimulation. In addition, our data suggest that brain structures that, as the ArcN, are rich in catalase may support the formation of ethanol-derived pharmacologically relevant concentrations of acetaldehyde and, thus be of particular importance for the behavioral effects of ethanol.

  2. The lateralized arcuate fasciculus in developmental pitch disorders among mandarin amusics: left for speech and right for music.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xizhuo; Zhao, Yanxin; Zhong, Suyu; Cui, Zaixu; Li, Jiaqi; Gong, Gaolang; Dong, Qi; Nan, Yun

    2018-05-01

    The arcuate fasciculus (AF) is a neural fiber tract that is critical to speech and music development. Although the predominant role of the left AF in speech development is relatively clear, how the AF engages in music development is not understood. Congenital amusia is a special neurodevelopmental condition, which not only affects musical pitch but also speech tone processing. Using diffusion tensor tractography, we aimed at understanding the role of AF in music and speech processing by examining the neural connectivity characteristics of the bilateral AF among thirty Mandarin amusics. Compared to age- and intelligence quotient (IQ)-matched controls, amusics demonstrated increased connectivity as reflected by the increased fractional anisotropy in the right posterior AF but decreased connectivity as reflected by the decreased volume in the right anterior AF. Moreover, greater fractional anisotropy in the left direct AF was correlated with worse performance in speech tone perception among amusics. This study is the first to examine the neural connectivity of AF in the neurodevelopmental condition of amusia as a result of disrupted music pitch and speech tone processing. We found abnormal white matter structural connectivity in the right AF for the amusic individuals. Moreover, we demonstrated that the white matter microstructural properties of the left direct AF is modulated by lexical tone deficits among the amusic individuals. These data support the notion of distinctive pitch processing systems between music and speech.

  3. Arcuate hypothalamic AgRP and putative POMC neurons show opposite changes in spiking across multiple timescales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mandelblat-Cerf, Yael; Ramesh, Rohan N; Burgess, Christian R; Patella, Paola; Yang, Zongfang; Lowell, Bradford B; Andermann, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    Agouti-related-peptide (AgRP) neurons—interoceptive neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC)—are both necessary and sufficient for driving feeding behavior. To better understand the functional roles of AgRP neurons, we performed optetrode electrophysiological recordings from AgRP neurons in awake, behaving AgRP-IRES-Cre mice. In free-feeding mice, we observed a fivefold increase in AgRP neuron firing with mounting caloric deficit in afternoon vs morning recordings. In food-restricted mice, as food became available, AgRP neuron firing dropped, yet remained elevated as compared to firing in sated mice. The rapid drop in spiking activity of AgRP neurons at meal onset may reflect a termination of the drive to find food, while residual, persistent spiking may reflect a sustained drive to consume food. Moreover, nearby neurons inhibited by AgRP neuron photostimulation, likely including satiety-promoting pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, demonstrated opposite changes in spiking. Finally, firing of ARC neurons was also rapidly modulated within seconds of individual licks for liquid food. These findings suggest novel roles for antagonistic AgRP and POMC neurons in the regulation of feeding behaviors across multiple timescales. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.07122.001 PMID:26159614

  4. High-frequency stimulation-induced peptide release synchronizes arcuate kisspeptin neurons and excites GnRH neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Jian; Nestor, Casey C; Zhang, Chunguang; Padilla, Stephanie L; Palmiter, Richard D

    2016-01-01

    Kisspeptin (Kiss1) and neurokinin B (NKB) neurocircuits are essential for pubertal development and fertility. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (Kiss1ARH) co-express Kiss1, NKB, dynorphin and glutamate and are postulated to provide an episodic, excitatory drive to gonadotropin-releasing hormone 1 (GnRH) neurons, the synaptic mechanisms of which are unknown. We characterized the cellular basis for synchronized Kiss1ARH neuronal activity using optogenetics, whole-cell electrophysiology, molecular pharmacology and single cell RT-PCR in mice. High-frequency photostimulation of Kiss1ARH neurons evoked local release of excitatory (NKB) and inhibitory (dynorphin) neuropeptides, which were found to synchronize the Kiss1ARH neuronal firing. The light-evoked synchronous activity caused robust excitation of GnRH neurons by a synaptic mechanism that also involved glutamatergic input to preoptic Kiss1 neurons from Kiss1ARH neurons. We propose that Kiss1ARH neurons play a dual role of driving episodic secretion of GnRH through the differential release of peptide and amino acid neurotransmitters to coordinate reproductive function. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.16246.001 PMID:27549338

  5. Effects of Extract from Mangifera indica Leaf on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yan; You, Xiao-Ying; Fu, Kong-Long; Yin, Wan-Le

    2012-01-01

    The leaves of Mangifera indica L. (Anacardiaceae) is used as a medicinal material in traditional herb medicine for a long time in India, China, and other Eastern Asian countries. Our present study investigated the therapeutic effects of the ethanol extract from Mangifera indica (EMI) in rat with monosodium urate (MSU) crystals-induced gouty arthritis. Effects of EMI (50, 100, and 200 mg/kg, p.o.) administrated for 9 days on the ankle swelling, synovial tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) levels were assessed in MSU crystal rat. Data from our study showed that rat with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystal demonstrated an elevation in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. Oral administration of 100 and 200 mg/kg EMI for 9 days reversed the abnormalities in ankle swelling, synovial TNF-α, IL-1β mRNA, and protein levels. The results indicated that the beneficial antigouty arthritis effect of EMI may be mediated, at least in part, by inhibiting TNF-α and IL-1β expression in the synovial tissues. Our study suggests that Mangifera indica and its extract may have a considerable potential for development as an anti-gouty arthritis agent for clinical application. PMID:23304232

  6. Effects of RuPeng15 Powder (RPP15 on Monosodium Urate Crystal-Induced Gouty Arthritis in Rats

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    Y.-Y. Kou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available RuPeng15 Powder (RPP15 is a herbal multicompound remedy that originates from traditional Tibetan medicine and possesses antigout, anti-inflammatory, and antihyperuricemic properties based on the traditional conceptions. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the therapeutic effect of PRP15 in rat gouty arthritis induced by monosodium urate (MSU crystals. In the present study, we found that treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg in rats with gouty arthritis induced by MSU crystals significantly attenuated the knee swelling. Histomorphometric and immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that MSU-induced inflammatory cell infiltration and the elevated expressions of nuclear transcription factor-κB p65 (NF-κB p65 in synovial tissues were significantly inhibited, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA result showed that MSU-induced high levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α, interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β, and interleukin-8 (IL-8 in synovial fluid were reduced by treatment with RPP15 (0.4, 0.8, and 1.2 g/kg. We conclude that RPP15 may be a promising candidate for the development of a new treatment for gout and its activity of antigout may be partially related to inhibiting TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-8, and NF-κB p65 expression in the synovial tissues.

  7. Monosodium Urate in the Presence of RANKL Promotes Osteoclast Formation through Activation of c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase

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    Jung-Yoon Choe

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to clarify the role of monosodium urate (MSU crystals in receptor activator of nuclear factor kB ligand- (RANKL- RANK-induced osteoclast formation. RAW 264.7 murine macrophage cells were incubated with MSU crystals or RANKL and differentiated into osteoclast-like cells as confirmed by staining for tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP and actin ring, pit formation assay, and TRAP activity assay. MSU crystals in the presence of RANKL augmented osteoclast differentiation, with enhanced mRNA expression of NFATc1, cathepsin K, carbonic anhydrase II, and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, in comparison to RAW 264.7 macrophages incubated in the presence of RANKL alone. Treatment with both MSU crystals and RANKL induced osteoclast differentiation by activating downstream molecules in the RANKL-RANK pathway including tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 6 (TRAF-6, JNK, c-Jun, and NFATc1. IL-1b produced in response to treatment with both MSU and RANKL is involved in osteoclast differentiation in part through the induction of TRAF-6 downstream of the IL-1b pathway. This study revealed that MSU crystals contribute to enhanced osteoclast formation through activation of RANKL-mediated pathways and recruitment of IL-1b. These findings suggest that MSU crystals might be a pathologic causative agent of bone destruction in gout.

  8. The effects of monosodium urate monohydrate crystals on chondrocyte viability and function: implications for development of cartilage damage in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhana, Ashika; Callon, Karen E; Pool, Bregina; Naot, Dorit; Gamble, Gregory D; Dray, Michael; Pitto, Rocco; Bentley, Jarome; McQueen, Fiona M; Cornish, Jillian; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    Cartilage damage is frequently observed in advanced destructive gout. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals on chondrocyte viability and function. The alamarBlue assay and flow cytometry were used to assess the viability of primary human chondrocytes and cartilage explants following culture with MSU crystals. The number of dead chondrocytes in cartilage explants cultured with MSU crystals was quantified. Real-time PCR was used to determine changes in the relative mRNA expression levels of chondrocytic genes. The histological appearance of cartilage in joints affected by gout was also examined. MSU crystals rapidly reduced primary human chondrocyte and cartilage explant viability in a dose-dependent manner (p gout, normal cartilage architecture was lost, with empty chondrocyte lacunae observed. MSU crystals have profound inhibitory effects on chondrocyte viability and function. Interactions between MSU crystals and chondrocytes may contribute to cartilage damage in gout through reduction of chondrocyte viability and promotion of a catabolic state.

  9. THE HYDROTHERMAL REACTIONS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE, CRYSTALLINE SILICOTITANATE AND SLUDGE IN THE MODULAR SALT PROCESS: A LITERATURE SURVEY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F.; Pennebaker, F.; Fink, S.

    2010-11-11

    The use of crystalline silicotitanate (CST) is proposed for an at-tank process to treat High Level Waste at the Savannah River Site. The proposed configuration includes deployment of ion exchange columns suspended in the risers of existing tanks to process salt waste without building a new facility. The CST is available in an engineered form, designated as IE-911-CW, from UOP. Prior data indicates CST has a proclivity to agglomerate from deposits of silica rich compounds present in the alkaline waste solutions. This report documents the prior literature and provides guidance for the design and operations that include CST to mitigate that risk. The proposed operation will also add monosodium titanate (MST) to the supernate of the tank prior to the ion exchange operation to remove strontium and select alpha-emitting actinides. The cesium loaded CST is ground and then passed forward to the sludge washing tank as feed to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Similarly, the MST will be transferred to the sludge washing tank. Sludge processing includes the potential to leach aluminum from the solids at elevated temperature (e.g., 65 C) using concentrated (3M) sodium hydroxide solutions. Prior literature indicates that both CST and MST will agglomerate and form higher yield stress slurries with exposure to elevated temperatures. This report assessed that data and provides guidance on minimizing the impact of CST and MST on sludge transfer and aluminum leaching sludge.

  10. Anti-Osteoarthritic Effects of the Litsea japonica Fruit in a Rat Model of Osteoarthritis Induced by Monosodium Iodoacetate.

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    Yong Joon Jeong

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a degenerative chronic disease that affects various tissues surrounding the joints, such as the subchondral bone and articular cartilage. The onset of OA is associated with uncontrolled catabolic and anabolic remodeling processes of the joints, including the cartilage and subchondral bone, to adapt to local biological and biochemical signals. In this study, we determined whether 70% ethanolic (EtOH extract of Litsea japonica fruit (LJFE had beneficial effects on the articular cartilage, including structural changes in the tibial subchondral bone, matrix degradation, and inflammatory responses, in OA by using a rat model of monosodium iodoacetate-induced OA. Our results showed that administration of LJFE increased the bone volume and cross-section thickness, but the mean number of objects per slice in this group was lower than that in the OA control (OAC group. In addition, the LJFE decreased the expression of inflammatory cytokines. Compared to the OAC group, the group treated with high doses of LJFE (100 and 200 mg/kg showed a more than 80% inhibition of the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases. Our results suggest that LJFE can be used as a potential anti-osteoarthritic agent.

  11. The contribution of spinal glial cells to chronic pain behaviour in the monosodium iodoacetate model of osteoarthritic pain

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    Sagar Devi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Clinical studies of osteoarthritis (OA suggest central sensitization may contribute to the chronic pain experienced. This preclinical study used the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA model of OA joint pain to investigate the potential contribution of spinal sensitization, in particular spinal glial cell activation, to pain behaviour in this model. Experimental OA was induced in the rat by the intra-articular injection of MIA and pain behaviour (change in weight bearing and distal allodynia was assessed. Spinal cord microglia (Iba1 staining and astrocyte (GFAP immunofluorescence activation were measured at 7, 14 and 28 days post MIA-treatment. The effects of two known inhibitors of glial activation, nimesulide and minocycline, on pain behaviour and activation of microglia and astrocytes were assessed. Results Seven days following intra-articular injection of MIA, microglia in the ipsilateral spinal cord were activated (p Conclusions Here we provide evidence for a contribution of spinal glial cells to pain behaviour, in particular distal allodynia, in this model of osteoarthritic pain. Our data suggest there is a potential role of glial cells in the central sensitization associated with OA, which may provide a novel analgesic target for the treatment of OA pain.

  12. Activation of reciprocal pathways between arcuate nucleus and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray during electroacupuncture: involvement of VGLUT3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zhi-Ling; Longhurst, John C.

    2010-01-01

    Electroacupuncture (EA) at the Jianshi-Neiguan acupoints (P5-P6, overlying the median nerve) attenuates sympathoexcitatory responses through activation of the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and ventrolateral periaqueductal gray (vlPAG). Activation of the ARC or vlPAG respectively leads to neuronal excitation of the both nuclei during EA. However, direct projections between these two nuclei that could participate in central neural processing during EA have not been identified. The vesicular glutamate transporter 3 (VGLUT3) marks glutamatergic neurons. Thus, the present study evaluated direct neuronal projections between the ARC and vlPAG during EA, focusing on neurons containing VGLUT3. Seven to ten days after unilateral microinjection of a rodamine-conjugated microsphere retrograde tracer (100 nl) into the vlPAG or ARC, rats were subjected to EA or served as a sham-operated control. Low frequency (2 Hz) EA was performed bilaterally for 30 min at the P5-P6 acupoints. Perikarya containing the microsphere tracer were found in the ARC and vlPAG of both groups. Compared to controls (needle placement without electrical stimulation), c-Fos immunoreactivity and neurons double-labeled with c-Fos, an immediate early gene and the tracer were increased significantly in the ARC and vlPAG of EA-treated rats (both P<0.01). Moreover, some neurons were triple-labeled with c-Fos, the retrograde tracer and VGLUT3 in the two nuclei following EA stimulation (P<0.01, both nuclei). These results suggest that direct reciprocal projections between the ARC and vlPAG are available to participate in prolonged modulation by EA of sympathetic activity and that VGLUT3-containing neurons are an important neuronal phenotype involved in this process. PMID:20836994

  13. Male sexual behavior and catecholamine levels in the medial preoptic area and arcuate nucleus in middle-aged rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Joyce C; Tsai, Houng-Wei; Yeh, Kuei-Ying; Tai, Mei-Yun; Tsai, Yuan-Feen

    2007-12-12

    The correlation between male sexual behavior and catecholamine levels in the medial preoptic area (MPOA) and arcuate nucleus (ARN) was studied in middle-aged rats. Male rats (18-19 months) were assigned to three groups: (1) Group MIE, consisting of rats showing mounts, intromissions, and ejaculations; (2) Group MI, consisting of rats showing mounts and intromissions, but no ejaculation; and (3) Group NC, consisting of non-copulators showing no sexual behavior. Young adult rats (4-5 months) displaying complete copulatory behavior were used as the control group. Dopamine (DA) and norepinephrine (NE) tissue levels in the MPOA and ARN were measured by high pressure liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection. There were no differences between MIE rats and young controls in DA or NE tissue levels in these two brain areas. Furthermore, no differences were found between the MI and NC groups in DA or NE tissue levels in either the MPOA or ARN. DA tissue levels in the MPOA and ARN in the MI and NC groups were significantly lower than those in the MIE group. NE tissue levels in the MPOA of the NC group were significantly lower than those in the MIE group, but no differences in NE tissue levels in the ARN were seen between the four groups. These results suggest that, in male rats, complete male sexual performance is related to tissue levels of DA, but not of NE, in the MPOA and/or ARN. Furthermore, ejaculatory behavior might be associated with critical DA tissue levels in the MPOA and/or ARN in middle-aged rats.

  14. Arterial anomalies of the celiac trunk and median arcuate ligament compression in dogs and cats assessed by computed tomography angiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Pommellet, Hélène M; Scansen, Brian A; Mathys, Dimitria A; Mollenkopf, Dixie F; Reeves, Lauren; Skinas, Melissa L; Patel, Mira

    2018-02-01

    To identify abnormalities of the celiac artery (CA) and major branches in dogs and cats by computed tomography angiography (CTA). Multi-institutional retrospective case series. Two hundred fifty-four dogs and 13 cats. Abdominal CTA images from 2009 to 2017 were reviewed. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between CA abnormalities and sex, age, size of dog, concurrent venous anomaly, or presence of gastrointestinal signs. Abnormalities in the CA were observed in 32 animals (11.9%) including 9 with abnormal branching (3.4%) and 23 with CA compression (8.6%). A celiacomesenteric trunk was observed in 8 (2.9%; 6 dogs, 2 cats). The splenic artery originated from the cranial mesenteric artery in 1 dog; the hepatic arterial branches originated from the left gastric artery in another. Four out of 32 animals (12.5%) with an arterial anomaly had another vascular abnormality. Large breed dogs were more likely to have an arterial anomaly (OR 4.3, 95% CI: 1.18-15.5, P = .02) and 12 times more likely to have CA compression (OR 12.0, 95% CI: 1.4-97.7, P = .02) compared to small breed dogs. Dogs with CA compression were more likely to present for gastrointestinal signs (OR 3.6, 95% CI: 1.2-10.3, P = .01). Anomalies of the celiac trunk are apparent on CTA and may impact surgical or image-guided intervention. Compression at the origin of the CA was apparent on imaging, similar to the median arcuate ligament syndrome in people, although the significance of this finding in dogs is unknown. © 2017 The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  15. HYPERPHAGIA INDUCED BY SUCROSE: RELATION TO CIRCULATING AND CSF GLUCOSE AND CORTICOSTERONE AND OREXIGENIC PEPTIDES IN THE ARCUATE NUCLEUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaysinskaya, V. A.; Karatayev, O.; Shuluk, J.; Leibowitz, S. F.

    2010-01-01

    Sucrose-rich diets compared to starch-rich diets are known to stimulate overeating under chronic conditions. The present study in normal-weight rats established an acute “preload-to-test meal” paradigm for demonstrating sucrose-induced hyperphagia and investigating possible mechanisms that mediate this behavioral phenomenon. In this acute paradigm, the rats were first given a small (15 kcals) sucrose preload (30% sucrose) for 30 min compared to an equicaloric, starch preload (25% starch with 5% sucrose) and then allowed to freely consume a subsequent test meal of lab chow. The sucrose preload, when compared to a starch preload equal in energy density and palatability, consistently increased food intake in the subsequent test meal occurring between 60–120 min after the end of the preload. Measurements of hormones, metabolites and hypothalamic peptides immediately preceding this hyperphagia revealed marked differences between the sucrose vs starch groups that could contribute to the increase in food intake. Whereas the sucrose group compared to starch group immediately after the preload (at 10 min) had elevated levels of glucose in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) along with reduced expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and agouti-related protein (AgRP) in the arcuate nucleus (ARC), the subsequent effects (at 30–60 min) just preceding the test meal hyperphagia were the reverse. Along with lower levels of glucose, they included markedly elevated serum and CSF levels of corticosterone and mRNA levels of NPY and AgRP in the ARC. In addition to establishing an animal model for sucrose-induced hyperphagia, these results demonstrate peripheral and central mechanisms that may mediate this behavioral phenomenon. PMID:21036188

  16. Modulation of the arcuate nucleus-medial preoptic nucleus lordosis regulating circuit: a role for GABAB receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinchak, Kevin; Dewing, Phoebe; Ponce, Laura; Gomez, Liliana; Christensen, Amy; Berger, Max; Micevych, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Estradiol rapidly activates a microcircuit in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) that is needed for maximal female sexual receptivity. Membrane estrogen receptor-α complexes with and signals through the metabotropic glutamate receptor-1a stimulating NPY release within the ARH activating proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons. These POMC neurons project to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN) and release β-endorphin. Estradiol treatment induces activation/internalization of MPN μ-opioid receptors (MOR) to inhibit lordosis. Estradiol membrane action modulates ARH gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor-B (GABAB) activity. We tested the hypothesis that ARH GABAB receptors mediate estradiol-induced MOR activation and facilitation of sexual receptivity. Double label immunohistochemistry revealed expression of GABAB receptors in NPY, ERα and POMC expressing ARH neurons. Approximately 70% of POMC neurons expressed GABAB receptors. Because estradiol initially activates an inhibitory circuit and maintains activation of this circuit, the effects of blocking GABAB receptors were evaluated before estradiol benzoate (EB) treatment and after at the time of lordosis testing. Bilateral infusions of the GABAB receptor antagonist, CGP52432, into the ARH prior to EB treatment of ovariectomized rats prevented estradiol-induced activation/internalization of MPN MOR, and the rats remained unreceptive. However, in EB treated rats, bilateral CGP52432 infusions 30 minutes before behavior testing attenuated MOR internalization and facilitated lordosis. These results indicated that GABAB receptors were located within the lordosis-regulating ARH microcircuit and are necessary for activation and maintenance of the estradiol inhibition of lordosis behavior. Although GABAB receptors positively influence estradiol signaling, they negatively regulate lordosis behavior since GABAB activity maintains the estradiol-induced inhibition. PMID:23756153

  17. Moderate long-term modulation of neuropeptide Y in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus induces energy balance alterations in adult rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia Sousa-Ferreira

    Full Text Available Neuropeptide Y (NPY produced by arcuate nucleus (ARC neurons has a strong orexigenic effect on target neurons. Hypothalamic NPY levels undergo wide-ranging oscillations during the circadian cycle and in response to fasting and peripheral hormones (from 0.25 to 10-fold change. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of a moderate long-term modulation of NPY within the ARC neurons on food consumption, body weight gain and hypothalamic neuropeptides. We achieved a physiological overexpression (3.6-fold increase and down-regulation (0.5-fold decrease of NPY in the rat ARC by injection of AAV vectors expressing NPY and synthetic microRNA that target the NPY, respectively. Our work shows that a moderate overexpression of NPY was sufficient to induce diurnal over-feeding, sustained body weight gain and severe obesity in adult rats. Additionally, the circulating levels of leptin were elevated but the immunoreactivity (ir of ARC neuropeptides was not in accordance (POMC-ir was unchanged and AGRP-ir increased, suggesting a disruption in the ability of ARC neurons to response to peripheral metabolic alterations. Furthermore, a dysfunction in adipocytes phenotype was observed in these obese rats. In addition, moderate down-regulation of NPY did not affect basal feeding or normal body weight gain but the response to food deprivation was compromised since fasting-induced hyperphagia was inhibited and fasting-induced decrease in locomotor activity was absent.These results highlight the importance of the physiological ARC NPY levels oscillations on feeding regulation, fasting response and body weight preservation, and are important for the design of therapeutic interventions for obesity that include the NPY.

  18. Cardiovascular responses to chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in the rat: role of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Kawabe

    Full Text Available The mechanism of cardiovascular responses to chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARCN was studied in urethane-anesthetized adult male Wistar rats. At the baseline mean arterial pressure (BLMAP close to normal, ARCN stimulation elicited decreases in MAP and sympathetic nerve activity (SNA. The decreases in MAP elicited by ARCN stimulation were attenuated by either gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA, neuropeptide Y (NPY, or beta-endorphin receptor blockade in the ipsilateral hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN. Combined blockade of GABA-A, NPY1 and opioid receptors in the ipsilateral PVN converted the decreases in MAP and SNA to increases in these variables. Conversion of inhibitory effects on the MAP and SNA to excitatory effects following ARCN stimulation was also observed when the BLMAP was decreased to below normal levels by an infusion of sodium nitroprusside. The pressor and tachycardic responses to ARCN stimulation at below normal BLMAP were attenuated by blockade of melanocortin 3/4 (MC3/4 receptors in the ipsilateral PVN. Unilateral blockade of GABA-A receptors in the ARCN increased the BLMAP and heart rate (HR revealing tonic inhibition of the excitatory neurons in the ARCN. ARCN stimulation elicited tachycardia regardless of the level of BLMAP. ARCN neurons projecting to the PVN were immunoreactive for glutamic acid decarboxylase 67 (GAD67, NPY, and beta-endorphin. These results indicated that: 1 at normal BLMAP, decreases in MAP and SNA induced by ARCN stimulation were mediated via GABA-A, NPY1 and opioid receptors in the PVN, 2 lowering of BLMAP converted decreases in MAP following ARCN stimulation to increases in MAP, and 3 at below normal BLMAP, increases in MAP and HR induced by ARCN stimulation were mediated via MC3/4 receptors in the PVN. These results provide a base for future studies to explore the role of ARCN in cardiovascular diseases.

  19. Overexpression of suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 in the arcuate nucleus of juvenile Phodopus sungorus alters seasonal body weight changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganjam, Goutham K; Benzler, Jonas; Pinkenburg, Olaf; Boucsein, Alisa; Stöhr, Sigrid; Steger, Juliane; Culmsee, Carsten; Barrett, Perry; Tups, Alexander

    2013-12-01

    The profound seasonal cycle in body weight exhibited by the Djungarian hamster (Phodopus sungorus) is associated with the development of hypothalamic leptin resistance during long day photoperiod (LD, 16:8 h light dark cycle), when body weight is elevated relative to short day photoperiod (SD, 8:16 h light dark cycle). We previously have shown that this seasonal change in physiology is associated with higher levels of mRNA for the potent inhibitor of leptin signaling, suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3), in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) of LD hamsters relative to hamsters in SD. The alteration in SOCS3 gene expression preceded the body weight change suggesting that SOCS3 might be the molecular switch of seasonal body weight changes. To functionally characterize the role of SOCS3 in seasonal body weight regulation, we injected SOCS3 expressing recombinant adeno-associated virus type-2 (rAAV2-SOCS3) constructs into the ARC of leptin sensitive SD hamsters immediately after weaning. Hamsters that received rAAV2 expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (rAAV2-EGFP) served as controls. ARC-directed SOCS3 overexpression led to a significant increase in body weight over a period of 12 weeks without fully restoring the LD phenotype. This increase was partially due to elevated brown and white adipose tissue mass. Gene expression of pro-opiomelanocortin was increased while thyroid hormone converting enzyme DIO3 mRNA levels were reduced in SD hamsters with SOCS3 overexpression. In conclusion, our data suggest that ARC-directed SOCS3 overexpression partially overcomes the profound seasonal body weight cycle exhibited by the hamster which is associated with altered pro-opiomelanocortin and DIO3 gene expression.

  20. Inhibition of metastin (kisspeptin-54)-GPR54 signaling in the arcuate nucleus-median eminence region during lactation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, S; Uenoyama, Y; Kinoshita, M; Iwata, K; Takase, K; Matsui, H; Adachi, S; Inoue, K; Maeda, K-I; Tsukamura, H

    2007-05-01

    Follicular development and ovulation are suppressed during lactation in various mammalian species, mainly due to the suppression of pulsatile GnRH/LH secretion. Metastin (kisspeptin-54), a KiSS-1 gene product, is an endogenous ligand for GPR54, a G-protein-coupled receptor, and suggested to play a critical role in regulating the gonadal axis. The present study therefore aims to determine whether metastin (kisspeptin-54)-GPR54 signaling in discrete brain areas is inhibited by the suckling stimulus that causes suppression of LH secretion in lactating rats. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that the KiSS-1 mRNA level was significantly lower in the arcuate nucleus (ARC)-median eminence region in lactating ovariectomized (OVX) and estrogen-treated OVX rats than in nonlactating controls. KiSS-1 mRNA in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus was kept at a low level in both lactating and nonlactating rats despite estrogen treatment. GPR54 mRNA levels were significantly lower in lactating than nonlactating rats in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus, but the levels in lactating mothers of the preoptic area and ARC-median eminence were comparable with nonlactating controls. Although KiSS-1 mRNA-expressing cells or metastin (kisspeptin-54) immunoreactivities were densely located in the ARC of nonlactating controls, few were found in the ARC of lactating OVX animals. Various doses of metastin (kisspeptin-54) (0.02, 0.2, and 2 nmol) injected into the third ventricle caused a significant increase in LH secretion in both lactating and nonlactating OVX rats, suggesting that lactating rats are responsive to metastin (kisspeptin-54) stimulus. Thus, the present study demonstrated that KiSS-1 mRNA/metastin (kisspeptin-54) expression is inhibited in the ARC by the suckling stimulus, suggesting that the inhibition is most probably involved in suppressing LH secretion in lactating rats.

  1. Enhancement of a robust arcuate GABAergic input to gonadotropin-releasing hormone neurons in a model of polycystic ovarian syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Aleisha M; Prescott, Mel; Marshall, Christopher J; Yip, Siew Hoong; Campbell, Rebecca E

    2015-01-13

    Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS), the leading cause of female infertility, is associated with an increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse frequency, implicating abnormal steroid hormone feedback to gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurons. This study investigated whether modifications in the synaptically connected neuronal network of GnRH neurons could account for this pathology. The PCOS phenotype was induced in mice following prenatal androgen (PNA) exposure. Serial blood sampling confirmed that PNA elicits increased LH pulse frequency and impaired progesterone negative feedback in adult females, mimicking the neuroendocrine abnormalities of the clinical syndrome. Imaging of GnRH neurons revealed greater dendritic spine density that correlated with increased putative GABAergic but not glutamatergic inputs in PNA mice. Mapping of steroid hormone receptor expression revealed that PNA mice had 59% fewer progesterone receptor-expressing cells in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARN). To address whether increased GABA innervation to GnRH neurons originates in the ARN, a viral-mediated Cre-lox approach was taken to trace the projections of ARN GABA neurons in vivo. Remarkably, projections from ARN GABAergic neurons heavily contacted and even bundled with GnRH neuron dendrites, and the density of fibers apposing GnRH neurons was even greater in PNA mice (56%). Additionally, this ARN GABA population showed significantly less colocalization with progesterone receptor in PNA animals compared with controls. Together, these data describe a robust GABAergic circuit originating in the ARN that is enhanced in a model of PCOS and may underpin the neuroendocrine pathophysiology of the syndrome.

  2. Changes in the female arcuate nucleus morphology and neurochemistry after chronic ethanol consumption and long-term withdrawal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rebouças, Elce C C; Leal, Sandra; Silva, Susana M; Sá, Susana I

    2016-11-01

    Ethanol is a macronutrient whose intake is a form of ingestive behavior, sharing physiological mechanisms with food intake. Chronic ethanol consumption is detrimental to the brain, inducing gender-dependent neuronal damage. The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARN) is a modulator of food intake that expresses feeding-regulatory neuropeptides, such as alpha melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) and neuropeptide Y (NPY). Despite its involvement in pathways associated with eating disorders and ethanol abuse, the impact of ethanol consumption and withdrawal in the ARN structure and neurochemistry in females is unknown. We used female rat models of 20% ethanol consumption for six months and of subsequent ethanol withdrawal for two months. Food intake and body weights were measured. ARN morphology was stereologically analyzed to estimate its volume, total number of neurons and total number of neurons expressing NPY, α-MSH, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) and estrogen receptor alpha (ERα). Ethanol decreased energy intake and body weights. However, it did not change the ARN morphology or the expression of NPY, α-MSH and TH, while increasing ERα expression. Withdrawal induced a significant volume and neuron loss that was accompanied by an increase in NPY expression without affecting α-MSH and TH expression. These findings indicate that the female ARN is more vulnerable to withdrawal than to excess alcohol. The data also support the hypothesis that the same pathways that regulate the expression of NPY and α-MSH in long-term ethanol intake may regulate food intake. The present model of long-term ethanol intake and withdrawal induces new physiological conditions with adaptive responses. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Hippocampal Ghrelin-positive neurons directly project to arcuate hypothalamic and medial amygdaloid nuclei. Could they modulate food-intake?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russo, Cristina; Russo, Antonella; Pellitteri, Rosalia; Stanzani, Stefania

    2017-07-13

    Feeding is a process controlled by a complex of associations between external and internal stimuli. The processes that involve learning and memory seem to exert a strong control over appetite and food intake, which is modulated by a gastrointestinal hormone, Ghrelin (Ghre). Recent studies claim that Ghre is involved in cognitive and neurobiological mechanisms that underlie the conditioning of eating behaviors. The expression of Ghre increases in anticipation of food intake based on learned behaviors. The hippocampal Ghre-containing neurons neurologically influence the orexigenic hypothalamus and consequently the learned feeding behavior. The CA1 field of Ammon's horn of the hippocampus (H-CA1) constitutes the most important neural substrate to control both appetitive and ingestive behavior. It also innervates amygdala regions that in turn innervate the hypothalamus. A recent study also implies that Ghre effects on cue-potentiated feeding behavior occur, at the least, via indirect action on the amygdala. In the present study, we investigate the neural substrates through which endogenous Ghre communicates conditioned appetite and feeding behavior within the CNS. We show the existence of a neural Ghre dependent pathway whereby peripherally-derived Ghre activates H-CA1 neurons, which in turn activate Ghre-expressing hypothalamic and amygdaloid neurons to stimulate appetite and feeding behavior. To highlight this pathway, we use two fluorescent retrograde tracers (Fluoro Gold and Dil) and immunohistochemical detection of Ghre expression in the hippocampus. Triple fluorescent-labeling has determined the presence of H-CA1 Ghre-containing collateralized neurons that project to the hypothalamus and amygdala monosynaptically. We hypothesize that H-Ghre-containing neurons in H-CA1 modulate food-intake behavior through direct pathways to the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus and medial amygdaloid nucleus. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Arcuate Na+,K+-ATPase senses systemic energy states and regulates feeding behavior through glucose-inhibited neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurita, Hideharu; Xu, Kai Y; Maejima, Yuko; Nakata, Masanori; Dezaki, Katsuya; Santoso, Putra; Yang, Yifei; Arai, Takeshi; Gantulga, Darambazar; Muroya, Shinji; Lefor, Alan K; Kakei, Masafumi; Watanabe, Eiju; Yada, Toshihiko

    2015-08-15

    Feeding is regulated by perception in the hypothalamus, particularly the first-order arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons, of the body's energy state. However, the cellular device for converting energy states to the activity of critical neurons in ARC is less defined. We here show that Na(+),K(+)-ATPase (NKA) in ARC senses energy states to regulate feeding. Fasting-induced systemic ghrelin rise and glucose lowering reduced ATP-hydrolyzing activity of NKA and its substrate ATP level, respectively, preferentially in ARC. Lowering glucose concentration (LG), which mimics fasting, decreased intracellular NAD(P)H and increased Na(+) concentration in single ARC neurons that subsequently exhibited [Ca(2+)]i responses to LG, showing that they were glucose-inhibited (GI) neurons. Third ventricular injection of the NKA inhibitor ouabain induced c-Fos expression in agouti-related protein (AgRP) neurons in ARC and evoked neuropeptide Y (NPY)-dependent feeding. When injected focally into ARC, ouabain stimulated feeding and mRNA expressions for NPY and AgRP. Ouabain increased [Ca(2+)]i in single NPY/AgRP neurons with greater amplitude than in proopiomelanocortin neurons in ARC. Conversely, the specific NKA activator SSA412 suppressed fasting-induced feeding and LG-induced [Ca(2+)]i increases in ARC GI neurons. NPY/AgRP neurons highly expressed NKAα3, whose knockdown impaired feeding behavior. These results demonstrate that fasting, via ghrelin rise and LG, suppresses NKA enzyme/pump activity in ARC and thereby promotes the activation of GI neurons and NPY/AgRP-dependent feeding. This study identifies ARC NKA as a hypothalamic sensor and converter of metabolic states to key neuronal activity and feeding behaviour, providing a new target to treat hyperphagic obesity and diabetes. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Impact of Flax Seed and Canola Oils Mixture Supplementation on The Physiological and Biochemical Changes Induced by Monosodium Glutamate in Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Mohamed, N.E.

    2010-01-01

    One of the most important problems in the human health nutrition field is the use of food flavor. Monosodium glutamate is one of the main flavors used as an ingredient in various food products, however it produces physiological and biochemical changes. The main objective of this study is to evaluate the supplementation of flax seed and canola oils mixture against the physiological and biochemical changes induced by monosodium glutamate in rats. In addition to analyses the physical and chemical characteristics of flax seed and canola oil and fatty acids composition by using gas liquid chromatography. The results concerning that unsaturated fatty acids of flax seed oil were oleic (18:1) 22%, linoleic acid (18:2) 30 % and linolenic acid (18:3) 36%. Total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in flaxseed oil was 88% and total saturated fatty acids 12%. The unsaturated fatty acids of canola oil were oleic (18:1) 66%, linoleic acid (18:2) 18% and linolenic acid (18:3) 7%, total unsaturated fatty acids percentage in canola oil was 92% and total saturated fatty acids was 8%. On the other hand, treatment of rats with monosodium glutamate for ten consecutive days led to a decrease in RBCs, Hb, Hct % and increased platelet count with decrease in WBCs and undesirable changes in its differential count. There is also, high significant increase in testicular thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) which is accompanied with significant reduction in catalase (CAT) activity, reduced glutathione (GSH) content and serum testosterone level. These disturbances were associated with significant increase in the liver enzymes ALT,AST and ALP and increase in the level of total biluribin and glucose. Also, significant increase in urea, creatinine and uric acid were recorded. The supplementation with mixture of flax seed and canola oils mixture for one month after the injection of monosodium glutamate caused noticeable amelioration in the damage occurred as a result of this flavor. To

  6. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-07-31

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times.

  7. The administration to Indonesians of monosodium L-glutamate in Indonesian foods: an assessment of adverse reactions in a randomized double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prawirohardjono, W; Dwiprahasto, I; Astuti, I; Hadiwandowo, S; Kristin, E; Muhammad, M; Kelly, M F

    2000-04-01

    Monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) has been suggested to cause postprandial symptoms after the ingestion of Chinese or oriental meals. Therefore, we examined whether such symptoms could be elicited in Indonesians ingesting levels of MSG typically found in Indonesian cuisine. Healthy volunteers (n = 52) were treated with capsules of placebo or MSG (1.5 and 3.0 g/person) as part of a standardized Indonesian breakfast. The study used a rigorous, randomized, double-blind, crossover design. The occurrence of symptoms after MSG ingestion did not differ from that after consumption of the placebo.

  8. Rheology Of MonoSodium Titanate (MST) And Modified Mst (mMST) Mixtures Relevant To The Salt Waste Processing Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koopman, D. C.; Martino, C. J.; Shehee, T. C.; Poirier, M. R.

    2013-01-01

    The Savannah River National Laboratory performed measurements of the rheology of suspensions and settled layers of treated material applicable to the Savannah River Site Salt Waste Processing Facility. Suspended solids mixtures included monosodium titanate (MST) or modified MST (mMST) at various solid concentrations and soluble ion concentrations with and without the inclusion of kaolin clay or simulated sludge. Layers of settled solids were MST/sludge or mMST/sludge mixtures, either with or without sorbed strontium, over a range of initial solids concentrations, soluble ion concentrations, and settling times

  9. Enhancement of Saltiness Perception by Monosodium Glutamate Taste and Soy Sauce Odor: A Near-Infrared Spectroscopy Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onuma, Takuya; Maruyama, Hiroaki; Sakai, Nobuyuki

    2018-02-26

    Previous studies have reported that the umami taste of monosodium l-glutamate (MSG) and salty-smelling odors (e.g., soy sauce, bacon, sardines) enhance the perception of saltiness. This study aimed to investigate the neural basis of the enhancement of saltiness in human participants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS). University students who had passed a taste panel test participated in this study. Sodium chloride solutions were presented with or without either 0.10% MSG or the odor of soy sauce. The participants were asked to drink a cup of the stimulus and to evaluate only saltiness intensity in Experiment 1, as well as other sensory qualities in Experiment 2, and temporal brain activity was measured using fNIRS. In Experiment 3, the participants were asked to evaluate saltiness intensity using the time-intensity (TI) method, and the response of the parotid salivary glands was measured using fNIRS. The fNIRS data showed that the added MSG and soy sauce enhanced the hemodynamic response in temporal brain regions, including the frontal operculum, but no effect on the hemodynamic salivary responses was detected. These results indicate that the perceived enhancement of saltiness occurs in the brain region that is involved in central gustatory processing. Furthermore, the results of the sensory evaluations suggest that enhancement of saltiness by the addition of MSG is mainly based on fusion of the salty-like property of MSG and saltiness of NaCl, whereas enhancement by the addition of soy sauce odor is mainly based on modulation of the temporal dynamics of saltiness perception.

  10. Changes in hippocampal synaptic functions and protein expression in monosodium glutamate-treated obese mice during development of glucose intolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki-Hamada, Sachie; Hojo, Yuki; Koyama, Hajime; Otsuka, Hayuma; Oka, Jun-Ichiro

    2015-05-01

    Glucose is the sole neural fuel for the brain and is essential for cognitive function. Abnormalities in glucose tolerance may be associated with impairments in cognitive function. Experimental obese model mice can be generated by an intraperitoneal injection of monosodium glutamate (MSG; 2 mg/g) once a day for 5 days from 1 day after birth. MSG-treated mice have been shown to develop glucose intolerance and exhibit chronic neuroendocrine dysfunction associated with marked cognitive malfunctions at 28-29  weeks old. Although hippocampal synaptic plasticity is impaired in MSG-treated mice, changes in synaptic transmission remain unknown. Here, we investigated whether glucose intolerance influenced cognitive function, synaptic properties and protein expression in the hippocampus. We demonstrated that MSG-treated mice developed glucose intolerance due to an impairment in the effectiveness of insulin actions, and showed cognitive impairments in the Y-maze test. Moreover, long-term potentiation (LTP) at Schaffer collateral-CA1 pyramidal synapses in hippocampal slices was impaired, and the relationship between the slope of extracellular field excitatory postsynaptic potential and stimulus intensity of synaptic transmission was weaker in MSG-treated mice. The protein levels of vesicular glutamate transporter 1 and GluA1 glutamate receptor subunits decreased in the CA1 region of MSG-treated mice. These results suggest that deficits in glutamatergic presynapses as well as postsynapses lead to impaired synaptic plasticity in MSG-treated mice during the development of glucose intolerance, though it remains unknown whether impaired LTP is due to altered inhibitory transmission. It may be important to examine changes in glucose tolerance in order to prevent cognitive malfunctions associated with diabetes. © 2015 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Monosodium urate monohydrate crystals inhibit osteoblast viability and function: implications for development of bone erosion in gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhana, Ashika; Callon, Karen E; Pool, Bregina; Naot, Dorit; Watson, Maureen; Gamble, Greg D; McQueen, Fiona M; Cornish, Jillian; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2011-09-01

    Bone erosion is a common manifestation of chronic tophaceous gout. To investigate the effects of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals on osteoblast viability and function. The MTT assay and flow cytometry were used to assess osteoblast cell viability in the MC3T3-E1 and ST2 osteoblast-like cell lines, and primary rat and primary human osteoblasts cultured with MSU crystals. Quantitative real-time PCR and von Kossa stained mineralised bone formation assays were used to assess the effects of MSU crystals on osteoblast differentiation using MC3T3-E1 cells. The numbers of osteoblasts and bone lining cells were quantified in bone samples from patients with gout. MSU crystals rapidly reduced viability in all cell types in a dose-dependent manner. The inhibitory effect on cell viability was independent of crystal phagocytosis and was not influenced by differing crystal length or addition of serum. Long-term culture of MC3T3-E1 cells with MSU crystals showed a reduction in mineralisation and decreased mRNA expression of genes related to osteoblast differentiation such as Runx2, Sp7 (osterix), Ibsp (bone sialoprotein), and Bglap (osteocalcin). Fewer osteoblast and lining cells were present on bone directly adjacent to gouty tophus than bone unaffected by tophus in patients with gout. MSU crystals have profound inhibitory effects on osteoblast viability and differentiation. These data suggest that bone erosion in gout occurs at the tophus-bone interface through alteration of physiological bone turnover, with both excessive osteoclast formation, and reduced osteoblast differentiation from mesenchymal stem cells.

  12. Enrichment of anammox bacteria from three sludge sources for the startup of monosodium glutamate industrial wastewater treatment system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li-dong, Shen; An-hui, Hu; Ren-cun, Jin; Dong-qing, Cheng; Ping, Zheng; Xiang-yang, Xu; Bao-lan, Hu

    2012-01-15

    Three activated sludges from a landfill leachate treatment plant (S1), a municipal sewage treatment plant (S2) and a monosodium glutamate (MSG) wastewater treatment plant (S3) were used as inocula to enrich anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria for the startup of MSG industrial wastewater treatment system. After 360 days of cultivation using MSG wastewater, obvious anammox activity was observed in all three cultures. The maximum specific anammox activities of cultures S1, S2 and S3 were 0.11 kg N kg(-1) VSS day(-1), 0.09 kg N kg(-1) VSS day(-1) and 0.16 kg N kg(-1) VSS day(-1), respectively. Brownish-red anammox granules having diameters in the range of 0.2-1.0mm were visible in cultures S1 and S2, and large red granules having diameters in the range of 0.5-2.5mm were formed in culture S3 after 420 days of cultivation. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA genes showed that Kuenenia organisms were the dominant anammox species in all three cultures. The copy numbers of 16S rRNA genes of anammox bacteria in cultures S1, S2 and S3 were 6.8 × 10(7) copies mL(-1), 9.4 × 10(7) copies mL(-1) and 7.5 × 10(8) copies mL(-1), respectively. The results of this study demonstrated that anammox cultivation from conventional activated sludges was highly possible using MSG wastewater. Thus the anammox process has possibility of applying to the nitrogen removal from MSG wastewater. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Cognitive and biochemical effects of monosodium glutamate and aspartame, administered individually and in combination in male albino mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem M; A, Zyadah M; Ajarem, Jamaan S; Ahmad, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the in vivo effects of monosodium glutamate (MSG) and aspartame (ASM) individually and in combination on the cognitive behavior and biochemical parameters like neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices in the brain tissue of mice. Forty male Swiss albino mice were randomly divided into four groups of ten each and were exposed to MSG and ASM through drinking water for one month. Group I was the control and was given normal tap water. Groups II and III received MSG (8 mg/kg) and ASM (32 mg/kg) respectively dissolved in tap water. Group IV received MSG and ASM together in the same doses. After the exposure period, the animals were subjected to cognitive behavioral tests in a shuttle box and a water maze. Thereafter, the animals were sacrificed and the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices were estimated in their forebrain tissue. Both MSG and ASM individually as well as in combination had significant disruptive effects on the cognitive responses, memory retention and learning capabilities of the mice in the order (MSG+ASM)>ASM>MSG. Furthermore, while MSG and ASM individually were unable to alter the brain neurotransmitters and the oxidative stress indices, their combination dose (MSG+ASM) decreased significantly the levels of neurotransmitters (dopamine and serotonin) and it also caused oxidative stress by increasing the lipid peroxides measured in the form of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and decreasing the level of total glutathione (GSH). Further studies are required to evaluate the synergistic effects of MSG and ASM on the neurotransmitters and oxidative stress indices and their involvement in cognitive dysfunctions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Protective Effect of Deer Bone Oil on Cartilage Destruction in Rats with Monosodium Iodoacetate (MIA)-Induced Osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyeon-Son; Im, Suji; Park, Je Won; Suh, Hyung Joo

    2016-01-01

    The anti-osteoarthritic activity of the methanol fraction of deer bone oil extract (DBO-M) was evaluated in interleukin (IL)-1β-inflamed primary rabbit chondrocytes and in rats with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced osteoarthritis. The active compound in DBO-M was analyzed using a direct infusion liquid chromatography quadrupole (LCQ) ion-trap electrospray ionization (ESI)-mass spectrometer (MS). DBO-M significantly suppressed the IL-1β-induced sulfated-glycosaminoglycan (s-GAG) release from chondrocyte, and lowered mRNA levels of the collagen-degrading enzymes matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3 in a dose-dependent manner. Upon treatment with high doses of DBO-M, the levels of IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and IL-6 decreased by around 40, 70, and 50%, respectively, compared to the control in the serum of rats with MIA-induced osteoarthritis. Bone volume fraction (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) increased by over 40% in rats treated with DBO-M compared to the values reported for the MIA-treated control group, while trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) showed a significant decrease (ca. 38%), as confirmed through micro-computed tomography (CT) analysis of MIA-induced destruction of articular bones. Furthermore, direct infusion ESI-MS analysis showed that DBO-M contains gangliosides, which are glycosphingolipids with monosialic acid (GM3), as a major compound. Our results suggest that DBO-M effectively improves MIA-induced osteoarthritis by suppressing inflammatory responses, and that gangliosides could be one of the DBO-derived anti-inflammatory components.

  15. Lowering glucose level elevates [Ca2+]i in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus NPY neurons through P/Q-type Ca2+ channel activation and GSK3β inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu; Zhou, Jun; Xie, Na; Huang, Chao; Zhang, Jun-qi; Hu, Zhuang-li; Ni, Lan; Jin, You; Wang, Fang; Chen, Jian-guo; Long, Li-hong

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To identify the mechanisms underlying the elevation of intracellular Ca2+ level ([Ca2+]i) induced by lowering extracellular glucose in rat hypothalamic arcuate nucleus NPY neurons. Methods: Primary cultures of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC) neurons were prepared from Sprague-Dawley rats. NPY neurons were identified with immunocytochemical method. [Ca2+]i was measured using fura-2 AM. Ca2+ current was recorded using whole-cell patch clamp recording. AMPK and GSK3β levels were measured using Western blot assay. Results: Lowering glucose level in the medium (from 10 to 1 mmol/L) induced a transient elevation of [Ca2+]i in ARC neurons, but not in hippocampal and cortical neurons. The low-glucose induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in ARC neurons depended on extracellular Ca2+, and was blocked by P/Q-type Ca2+channel blocker ω-agatoxin TK (100 nmol/L), but not by L-type Ca2+ channel blocker nifedipine (10 μmol/L) or N-type Ca2+channel blocker ω-conotoxin GVIA (300 nmol/L). Lowering glucose level increased the peak amplitude of high voltage-activated Ca2+ current in ARC neurons. The low-glucose induced elevation of [Ca2+]i in ARC neurons was blocked by the AMPK inhibitor compound C (20 μmol/L), and enhanced by the GSK3β inhibitor LiCl (10 mmol/L). Moreover, lowering glucose level induced the phosphorylation of AMPK and GSK3β, which was inhibited by compound C (20 μmol/L). Conclusion: Lowering glucose level enhances the activity of P/Q type Ca2+channels and elevates [Ca2+]i level in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus neurons via inhibition of GSK3β. PMID:22504905

  16. Celiac Plexus Block as a Predictor of Surgical Outcome for Sympathetically Mediated Abdominal Pain in a Case of Suspected Median Arcuate Ligament Syndrome: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhuo; Fritz, David A; Turner, Suzanne; Hardy, David M; Meiler, Steffen E; Martin, Dan C; Dua, Anterpreet

    2018-02-14

    Median arcuate ligament syndrome (MALS), also known as celiac artery compression syndrome, is an uncommon condition classically characterized by chronic abdominal pain, weight loss, and abdominal bruit. Chronic mesenteric ischemia caused by intermittent compression of the celiac artery by the MAL provokes upper abdominal pain that is sympathetically mediated via the celiac plexus. Because it is a diagnosis of exclusion, diagnosis of MALS in the clinical setting is typically challenging. We present an atypical case which highlights the utility of celiac plexus block as both an assistant diagnostic tool and a predictor of surgical outcomes for suspected MALS.

  17. Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities in the arcuate-median eminence complex and their link to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Romero-Fernandez

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunohistochemistry and Golgi techniques were used to study the structure of the adult rat arcuate-median eminence complex, and determine the distribution of the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities therein, particularly in relation to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Punctate dopamine D1 and D2 receptor immunoreactivities, likely located on nerve terminals, were enriched in the lateral palisade zone built up of nerve terminals, while the densities were low to modest in the medial palisade zone. A codistribution of dopamine D1 receptor or dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactive puncta with tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve terminals was demonstrated in the external layer. Dopamine D1 receptor but not dopamine D2 receptor immnunoreactivites nerve cell bodies were found in the ventromedial part of the arcuate nucleus and in the lateral part of the internal layer of the median eminence forming a continuous cell mass presumably representing neuropeptide Y immunoreactive nerve cell bodies. The major arcuate dopamine/ tyrosine hydroxylase nerve cell group was found in the dorsomedial part. A large number of tyrosine hydroxylase immunoreactive nerve cell bodies in this region demonstrated punctate dopamine D1 receptor immunoreactivity but only a few presented dopamine D2 receptor immunoreactivity which were mainly found in a substantial number of tyrosine hydroxylase cell bodies of the ventral periventricular hypothalamic nucleus, also belonging to the tubero-infundibular dopamine neurons. Structural evidence for projections of the arcuate nerve cells into the median eminence was also obtained. Distal axons formed horizontal axons in the internal layer issuing a variable number of collaterals classified into single or multiple strands located in the external layer increasing our understanding of the dopamine nerve terminal networks in this region.  Dopamine D1 and D2 receptors may therefore directly

  18. Nutritional Programming of Accelerated Puberty in Heifers: Involvement of Pro-Opiomelanocortin Neurones in the Arcuate Nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardoso, R C; Alves, B R C; Sharpton, S M; Williams, G L; Amstalden, M

    2015-08-01

    The timing of puberty and subsequent fertility in female mammals are dependent on the integration of metabolic signals by the hypothalamus. Pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) neurones in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) comprise a critical metabolic-sensing pathway controlling the reproductive neuroendocrine axis. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH), a product of the POMC gene, has excitatory effects on gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) neurones and fibres containing αMSH project to GnRH and kisspeptin neurones. Because kisspeptin is a potent stimulator of GnRH release, αMSH may also stimulate GnRH secretion indirectly via kisspeptin neurones. In the present work, we report studies conducted in young female cattle (heifers) aiming to determine whether increased nutrient intake during the juvenile period (4-8 months of age), a strategy previously shown to advance puberty, alters POMC and KISS1 mRNA expression, as well as αMSH close contacts on GnRH and kisspeptin neurones. In Experiment 1, POMC mRNA expression, detected by in situ hybridisation, was greater (P high-gain, HG; n = 6) compared to heifers that gained 0.5 kg/day (low-gain, LG; n = 5). The number of KISS1-expressing cells in the middle ARC was reduced (P < 0.05) in HG compared to LG heifers. In Experiment 2, double-immunofluorescence showed limited αMSH-positive close contacts on GnRH neurones, and the magnitude of these inputs was not influenced by nutritional status. Conversely, a large number of kisspeptin-immunoreactive cells in the ARC were observed in close proximity to αMSH-containing varicosities. Furthermore, HG heifers (n = 5) exhibited a greater (P < 0.05) percentage of kisspeptin neurones in direct apposition to αMSH fibres and an increased (P < 0.05) number of αMSH close contacts per kisspeptin cell compared to LG heifers (n = 6). These results indicate that the POMC-kisspeptin pathway may be important in mediating the nutritional acceleration of puberty in heifers.

  19. Functional expression of P2 purinoceptors in a primary neuroglial cell culture of the rat arcuate nucleus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollatzek, Eric; Hitzel, Norma; Ott, Daniela; Raisl, Katrin; Reuter, Bärbel; Gerstberger, Rüdiger

    2016-07-07

    The arcuate nucleus (ARC) plays an important role in the hypothalamic control of energy homeostasis. Expression of various purinoceptor subtypes in the rat ARC and physiological studies suggest a modulatory function of P2 receptors within the neuroglial ARC circuitry. A differentiated mixed neuronal and glial microculture was therefore established from postnatal rat ARC, revealing neuronal expression of ARC-specific transmitters involved in food intake regulation (neuropeptide Y (NPY), proopiomelanocortin (POMC), tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)). Some NPYergic neurons cosynthesized TH, while POMC and TH expression proved to be mutually exclusive. Stimulation with the general purinoceptor agonists 2-methylthioadenosine-5'triphosphate (2-MeSATP) and ATP but not the P2X1/P2X3 receptor subtype agonist α,β-methyleneadenosine-5'triphosphate (α,β-meATP) induced intracellular calcium signals in ARC neurons and astrocytes. Some 5-10% each of 2-MeSATP responsive neurons expressed POMC, NYP or TH. Supporting the calcium imaging data, radioligand binding studies to hypothalamic membranes showed high affinity for 2-MeSATP, ATP but not α,β-meATP to displace [α-(35)S]deoxyadenosine-5'thiotriphosphate ([(35)S]dATPαS) from P2 receptors. Repetitive superfusion with equimolar 2-MeSATP allowed categorization of ARC cells into groups with a high or low (LDD) degree of purinoceptor desensitization, the latter allowing further receptor characterization. Calcium imaging experiments performed at 37°C vs. room temperature showed further reduction of desensitization. Agonist-mediated intracellular calcium signals were suppressed in all LDD neurons but only 25% of astrocytes in the absence of extracellular calcium, suggestive of metabotropic P2Y receptor expression in the majority of ARC astrocytes. The highly P2Y1-selective receptor agonists MRS2365 and 2-methylthioadenosine-5'diphosphate (2-MeSADP) activated 75-85% of all 2-MeSATP-responsive ARC astrocytes. Taking into consideration the

  20. A novel nomogram for the treatment of astigmatism with femtosecond-laser arcuate incisions at the time of cataract surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baharozian CJ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Connor J Baharozian,1 Christian Song,2,3 Kathryn M Hatch,2,3 Jonathan H Talamo2,3 1Boston University School of Medicine, 2Massachusetts Eye and Ear Infirmary, 3Department of Ophthalmology, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine an arcuate incision (AI nomogram to treat astigmatism during femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. Methods: This is a retrospective, cohort study. Femtosecond laser (FSL-assisted transepithelial AIs were created at a 9.0 mm optical zone, 80% depth, centered on the limbus. We modified the manual Donnenfeld limbal relaxing incision nomogram to 70% for with-the-rule (WTR, 80% for oblique (OBL, and 100% for against-the-rule (ATR astigmatism. The correction index (CI equaled AI-induced astigmatism/target-induced astigmatism. Measures included preoperative keratometric corneal cylinder (Pre Kcyl, postoperative Kcyl (Post Kcyl, and postoperative residual refractive astigmatism (Post RRA. Results: Mean Pre Kcyl and 1–2 months Post RRA in 161 eyes of 116 patients were 0.626±0.417 diopters (D (range 0.5–2 D, and 0.495±0.400 D (range 0–1.5 D, respectively. Mean absolute astigmatic changes (Pre Kcyl–Post Kcyl without accounting for axis change in the WTR, ATR, and OBL groups were 0.165±0.383 D (P<0.001, 0.374±0.536 D (P<0.001, and 0.253±0.416 D (P=0.02, respectively. Mean absolute astigmatic changes using RRA as the postoperative measurement (Pre Kcyl–Post RRA without accounting for axis change were 0.440±0.461 D (P<0.001, 0.238±0.571 D (P<0.05, 0.154±0.450 (P=0.111 in WTR, ATR, and OBL groups, respectively. CIs for WTR, ATR, and OBL were 0.53, 1.01, and 0.95, respectively. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications related to the AIs.Conclusion: Transepithelial FSL-AIs using the modified Donnenfeld nomogram show potential for management of mild to moderate corneal astigmatism. An increase in the magnitude or reduction of the optical zone

  1. A novel nomogram for the treatment of astigmatism with femtosecond-laser arcuate incisions at the time of cataract surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baharozian, Connor J; Song, Christian; Hatch, Kathryn M; Talamo, Jonathan H

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine an arcuate incision (AI) nomogram to treat astigmatism during femtosecond laser-assisted cataract surgery. This is a retrospective, cohort study. Femtosecond laser (FSL)-assisted transepithelial AIs were created at a 9.0 mm optical zone, 80% depth, centered on the limbus. We modified the manual Donnenfeld limbal relaxing incision nomogram to 70% for with-the-rule (WTR), 80% for oblique (OBL), and 100% for against-the-rule (ATR) astigmatism. The correction index (CI) equaled AI-induced astigmatism/target-induced astigmatism. Measures included preoperative keratometric corneal cylinder (Pre Kcyl), postoperative Kcyl (Post Kcyl), and postoperative residual refractive astigmatism (Post RRA). Mean Pre Kcyl and 1-2 months Post RRA in 161 eyes of 116 patients were 0.626±0.417 diopters (D) (range 0.5-2 D), and 0.495±0.400 D (range 0-1.5 D), respectively. Mean absolute astigmatic changes (Pre Kcyl-Post Kcyl) without accounting for axis change in the WTR, ATR, and OBL groups were 0.165±0.383 D ( P <0.001), 0.374±0.536 D ( P <0.001), and 0.253±0.416 D ( P =0.02), respectively. Mean absolute astigmatic changes using RRA as the postoperative measurement (Pre Kcyl-Post RRA) without accounting for axis change were 0.440±0.461 D ( P <0.001), 0.238±0.571 D ( P <0.05), 0.154±0.450 ( P =0.111) in WTR, ATR, and OBL groups, respectively. CIs for WTR, ATR, and OBL were 0.53, 1.01, and 0.95, respectively. There were no intraoperative or postoperative complications related to the AIs. Transepithelial FSL-AIs using the modified Donnenfeld nomogram show potential for management of mild to moderate corneal astigmatism. An increase in the magnitude or reduction of the optical zone size for the treatment of WTR and ATR astigmatism for this nomogram may further improve refractive accuracy.

  2. Engagement of fatty acids with Toll-like receptor 2 drives interleukin-1beta production via the ASC/caspase 1 pathway in monosodium urate monohydrate crystal-induced gouty arthritis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Joosten, L.A.B.; Netea, M.G.; Mylona, E.; Koenders, M.I.; Malireddi, R.K.; Oosting, M.; Stienstra, R.; Veerdonk, F.L. van de; Stalenhoef, A.F.H.; Giamarellos-Bourboulis, E.J.; Kanneganti, T.D.; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The concept that intraarticular crystals of uric acid by themselves trigger episodes of painful gouty arthritis is inconsistent with the clinical reality. Patients with large deposits of monosodium urate monohydrate (MSU) crystals (tophi) do not necessarily experience gouty attacks. In

  3. Spinacia oleracea extract attenuates disease progression and sub-chondral bone changes in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhary, Dharmendra; Kothari, Priyanka; Tripathi, Ashish Kumar; Singh, Sonu; Adhikary, Sulekha; Ahmad, Naseer; Kumar, Sudhir; Dev, Kapil; Mishra, Vijay Kumar; Shukla, Shubha; Maurya, Rakesh; Mishra, Prabhat R; Trivedi, Ritu

    2018-02-20

    Spinacia oleracea is an important dietary vegetable in India and throughout the world and has many beneficial effects. It is cultivated globally. However, its effect on osteoarthritis that mainly targets the cartilage cells remains unknown. In this study we aimed to evaluate the anti-osteoarthritic and chondro-protective effects of SOE on chemically induced osteoarthritis (OA). OA was induced by intra-patellar injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) at the knee joint in rats. SOE was then given orally at 250 and 500 mg.kg - 1  day - 1 doses for 28 days to these rats. Anti-osteoarthritic potential of SOE was evaluated by micro-CT, mRNA and protein expression of pro-inflammatory and chondrogenic genes, clinically relevant biomarker's and behavioural experiments. In vitro cell free and cell based assays indicated that SOE acts as a strong anti-oxidant and an anti-inflammatory agent. Histological analysis of knee joints at the end of the experiment by safranin-o and toluidine blue staining established its protective effect. Radiological data corroborated the findings with improvement in the joint space and irregularity of the articular and atrophied femoral condyles and tibial plateau. Micro-CT analysis of sub-chondral bone indicated that SOE had the ability to mitigate OA effects by increasing bone volume to tissue volume (BV/TV) which resulted in decrease of trabecular pattern factor (Tb.Pf) by more than 200%. SOE stimulated chondrogenic marker gene expression with reduction in pro-inflammatory markers. Purified compounds isolated from SOE exhibited increased Sox-9 and Col-II protein expression in articular chondrocytes. Serum and urine analysis indicated that SOE had the potential to down-regulate glutathione S-transferase (GST) activity, clinical markers of osteoarthritis like cartilage oligometric matrix protein (COMP) and CTX-II. Overall, this led to a significant improvement in locomotion and balancing activity in rats as assessed by Open-field and Rota

  4. Interleukin 37 limits monosodium urate crystal-induced innate immune responses in human and murine models of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Xue, Yu; Zhu, Yingfeng; Xuan, Dandan; Yang, Xue; Liang, Minrui; Wang, Juan; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Zhang, Jiong; Zou, Hejian

    2016-11-18

    Interleukin (IL)-37 has emerged as a fundamental inhibitor of innate immunity. Acute gout is a self-limiting inflammatory response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. In the current study, we assessed the preventive and therapeutic effect of recombinant human IL-37 (rhIL-37) in human and murine gout models. We investigated the expression of IL-37 in patients with active and inactive gouty arthritis and assessed the effect of rhIL-37 in human and murine gout models: a human monocyte cell line (THP-1) and human synovial cells (containing macrophage-like and fibroblast-like synoviocytes) exposed to MSU crystals, a peritoneal murine model of gout and a murine gouty arthritis model. After inhibition of Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (Mertk), levels of IL-1β, IL-8 and chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2 (CCL-2) were detected by ELISA and expression of mammalian homologs of the drosophila Mad gene 3 (Smad), suppressor of cytokine signaling 3 (SOCS3), NACHT-LRR-PYD-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), and IL-8R of THP-1 were assessed by qPCR and western blot to explore the molecular mechanisms. Our studies strongly indicated that rhIL-37 played a potent immunosuppressive role in the pathogenesis of experimental gout models both in vitro and in vivo, by downregulating proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines, markedly reducing neutrophil and monocyte recruitment, and mitigating pathological joint inflammation. In our studies, rhIL-37 suppressed MSU-induced innate immune responses by enhancing expression of Smad3 and IL-1R8 to trigger multiple intracellular switches to block inflammation, including inhibition of NLRP3 and activation of SOCS3. Mertk signaling participated in rhIL-37 inhibitory pathways in gout models. By inhibition of Mertk, the anti-inflammatory effect of rhIL-37 was partly abrogated, and IL-1R8, Smad3 and S​OCS3 expression were suppressed, whereas NLRP3 expression was reactivated. Our studies reveal that IL-37 limits runaway inflammation initiated by MSU crystal

  5. Studies on the influences of. gamma. -ray irradiation upon food additives, (6). Radiolysis of monosodium glutamate due to. gamma. -ray irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, M [Shimonoseki Univ. of Fisheries, Yamaguchi (Japan); Gohya, Y; Ishio, S

    1981-08-01

    The effect of ..gamma..-ray irradiation on monosodium glutamate (MSG) in aqueous solution and in ''kamaboko'' was investigated to evaluate the rate of decomposition of MSG and to elucidate the safety of the decomposed products, under the concentration of 106.9 mmol/l aqueous solution and 1% content of MSG in ''kamaboko''. In aqueous solution, MSG was decomposed by ..gamma..-ray irradiation, and G value was estimated to be 1.24. The decomposition of MSG resulted from deamination reaction was estimated to be 40% of the total decomposition. Glutamic acid content decreased as the dose of ..gamma..-ray increased in MSG-enriched ''kamaboko'', while it increased as the dose of ..gamma..-ray increased in MSG-free ''kamaboko''. Glutamic acid was liberated from the protein in ''kamaboko'', therefore the apparent decomposition rate of MSG in ''kamaboko'' was regarded as lower than actual.

  6. Effect of ghrelin receptor agonist and antagonist on the activity of arcuate nucleus tyrosine hydroxylase containing neurons in C57BL/6 male mice exposed to normal or high fat diet

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pirník, Z.; Majerčíková, Z.; Holubová, Martina; Pirník, R.; Železná, Blanka; Maletínská, Lenka; Kiss, A.

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 65, č. 4 (2014), s. 477-486 ISSN 0867-5910 Institutional support: RVO:61388963 Keywords : growth hormone secretagogue receptor * ghrelin receptor agonist * ghrelin receptor antagonist * high fat diet * tyrosine hydroxylase * arcuate nucleus * food intake Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 2.386, year: 2014

  7. Fate Of Fissile Material Bound To Monosodium Titanate During Cooper Catalyzed Peroxide Oxidation Of Tank 48H Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.

    2012-01-01

    At the Savannah River Site (SRS), Tank 48H currently holds approximately 240,000 gallons of slurry which contains potassium and cesium tetraphenylborate (TPB). A copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) reaction is currently being examined as a method for destroying the TPB present in Tank 48H. Part of the development of that process includes an examination of the fate of the Tank 48H fissile material which is adsorbed onto monosodium titanate (MST) particles. This report details results from experiments designed to examine the potential degradation of MST during CCPO processing and the subsequent fate of the adsorbed fissile material. Experiments were conducted to simulate the CCPO process on MST solids loaded with sorbates in a simplified Tank 48H simulant. Loaded MST solids were placed into the Tank 48H simplified simulant without TPB, and the experiments were then carried through acid addition (pH adjustment to 11), peroxide addition, holding at temperature (50 C) for one week, and finally NaOH addition to bring the free hydroxide concentration to a target concentration of 1 M. Testing was conducted without TPB to show the maximum possible impact on MST since the competing oxidation of TPB with peroxide was absent. In addition, the Cu catalyst was also omitted, which will maximize the interaction of H 2 O 2 with the MST; however, the results may be non-conservative assuming the Cu-peroxide active intermediate is more reactive than the peroxide radical itself. The study found that both U and Pu desorb from the MST when the peroxide addition begins, although to different extents. Virtually all of the U goes into solution at the beginning of the peroxide addition, whereas Pu reaches a maximum of ∼34% leached during the peroxide addition. Ti from the MST was also found to come into solution during the peroxide addition. Therefore, Ti is present with the fissile in solution. After the peroxide addition is complete, the Pu and Ti are found to precipitate from

  8. Biochemical Studies on the Effect of Monosodium Glutamate and Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shedid, S. M.E. [National Center for Radiation Research and Technology (NCRRT), Cairo (Egypt)

    2014-07-01

    The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe their combined effect remain unclear. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of fish oil (FO); rich in the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA), on some biochemical alterations induced by exposure to MSG, RAD and MSG+RAD. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups and treated in parallel: 1-Control, 2-FO: received FO (400 mg/Kg/day), 3-MSG: received MSG (450 mg/Kg/day), 4- FO+MSG: received FO with MSG, 5-RAD: whole body irradiated with 2Gy/week up to 8Gy, 6-FO+RAD: received FO daily during RAD exposure, 7- MSG+RAD: received MSG daily during RAD exposure. 8- FO+MSG+RAD: received FO daily during MSG+RAD exposure. Exposure to RAD and/or MSG induced oxidative stress evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (marker of lipid peroxidation), and protein carbonyl (marker of protein oxidation) associated to decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione content (antioxidant biomarkers). Alteration in neurotransmitters was noted by a decrease in the level of serotonin (inhibitory neurotransmitter) and increased aspartic and glutamic acids (excitatory amino acids) though this increase was not recorded after exposure to MSG alone. The level of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA was decreased. Furthermore, exposure to RAD and/or MSG elevate serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol though this decrease was not observed after MSG exposure alone

  9. Biochemical Studies on the Effect of Monosodium Glutamate and Omega 3 Fatty Acids in Gamma-Irradiated Rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shedid, S.M.E.

    2014-01-01

    The consumption of foods and beverages containing additives has intensely increased over the past decades. Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is one of the main flavor enhancer that can be consumed in high concentrations. Also, human exposure to ionizing radiation (RAD) has become inevitable with its vast application in diagnosis and industry. Although the use of additives and exposure to RAD in therapeutic treatments are believed to be relatively safe their combined effect remain unclear. The objective of this work was to evaluate the role of fish oil (FO); rich in the omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic (EPA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA), on some biochemical alterations induced by exposure to MSG, RAD and MSG+RAD. Male albino rats were divided into 8 groups and treated in parallel: 1-Control, 2-FO: received FO (400 mg/Kg/day), 3-MSG: received MSG (450 mg/Kg/day), 4- FO+MSG: received FO with MSG, 5-RAD: whole body irradiated with 2Gy/week up to 8Gy, 6-FO+RAD: received FO daily during RAD exposure, 7- MSG+RAD: received MSG daily during RAD exposure. 8- FO+MSG+RAD: received FO daily during MSG+RAD exposure. Exposure to RAD and/or MSG induced oxidative stress evidenced by increased malondialdehyde (marker of lipid peroxidation), and protein carbonyl (marker of protein oxidation) associated to decreased superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and glutathione content (antioxidant biomarkers). Alteration in neurotransmitters was noted by a decrease in the level of serotonin (inhibitory neurotransmitter) and increased aspartic and glutamic acids (excitatory amino acids) though this increase was not recorded after exposure to MSG alone. The level of omega-3 fatty acids EPA and DHA was decreased. Furthermore, exposure to RAD and/or MSG elevate serum glucose, insulin, triglycerides, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and decreased high-density lipoprotein cholesterol though this decrease was not observed after MSG exposure alone

  10. Comparison of the Tastes of L-Alanine and Monosodium Glutamate in C57BL/6J Wild Type and T1r3 Knockout Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K; Delay, Eugene R

    2017-09-01

    Previous research showed that L-alanine and monosodium L-glutamate elicit similar taste sensations in rats. This study reports the results of behavioral experiments designed to compare the taste capacity of C57BL/6J wild type and T1r3- mice for these 2 amino acids. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA) experiments, wild-type mice exhibited greater sensitivity than knockout mice for both L-amino acids, although knockout mice were clearly able to detect both amino acids at 50 mM and higher concentrations. Generalization of CTA between L-alanine and L-glutamate was bidirectionally equivalent for both mouse genotypes, indicating that both substances elicited similar tastes in both genotypes. This was verified by the discrimination experiments in which both mouse genotypes performed at or near chance levels at 75 and 150 mM. Above 150 mM, discrimination performance improved, suggesting the taste qualities of the 2 L-amino acids are not identical. No differences between knockout and wild-type mice in discrimination ability were detected. These results indicate that while the T1r3 receptor is important for tasting L-alanine and L-glutamate, other receptors are also important for tasting these amino acids. © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. Curcumin Protects against Monosodium Glutamate Neurotoxicity and Decreasing NMDA2B and mGluR5 Expression in Rat Hippocampus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rania M. Khalil

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a flavor enhancer used in food industries. MSG is well documented to induce neurotoxicity. Curcumin (CUR reportedly possesses beneficial effects against various neurotoxic insults. Hence, this present study has been designed to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of curcumin on MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats. Methods: Thirty-two male Wister rats were divided into four groups (n=8: Control group, MSG group, CUR group and MSG + CUR group. CUR (Curcumin 150 mg/kg, orally was given day after day for four weeks along with MSG (4 mg/kg, orally. After 4 weeks, rats were sacrificed and brain hippocampus was isolated immediately on ice. Inflammatory marker TNFα and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity (marker for cholinergic function were estimated. Gene expressions of metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5 and N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor 2B (NMDA2B along with glutamate concentration were assessed. Results: Treatment with CUR significantly attenuated AChE activity and TNFα in MSG-treated animals. The anti-inflammatory properties of CUR may be responsible for this observed neuroprotective action. A possible role of CUR to attenuate both glutamate level and gene expression of NMDA2B and mGLUR5 in brain hippocampus was established when compared to MSG group. Conclusion: We concluded that CUR as flavor enhancer protects against MSG-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

  12. Lycopene modulates cholinergic dysfunction, Bcl-2/Bax balance, and antioxidant enzymes gene transcripts in monosodium glutamate (E621) induced neurotoxicity in a rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadek, Kadry; Abouzed, Tarek; Nasr, Sherif

    2016-04-01

    The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on brain tissue and the relative ability of lycopene to avert these neurotoxic effects were investigated. Thirty-two male Wistar rats were distributed into 4 groups: group I, untreated (placebo); group II, injected with MSG (5 mg·kg(-1)) s.c.; group III, gastrogavaged with lycopene (10 mg·kg(-1)) p.o.; and group IV received MSG with lycopene with the same mentioned doses for 30 days. The results showed that MSG induced elevation in lipid peroxidation marker and perturbation in the antioxidant homeostasis and increased the levels of brain and serum cholinesterase (ChE), total creatine phosphokinase (CPK), creatine phosphokinase isoenzymes BB (CPK-BB), and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Glutathione S-transferase (GST), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities and gene expression were increased and glutathione content was reduced in the MSG-challenged rats, and these effects were ameliorated by lycopene. Furthermore, MSG induced apoptosis in brain tissues reflected in upregulation of pro-apoptotic Bax while lycopene upregulated the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2. Our results indicate that lycopene appears to be highly effective in relieving the toxic effects of MSG by inhibiting lipid peroxidation and inducing modifications in the activity of cholinesterase and antioxidant pathways. Interestingly, lycopene protects brain tissue by inhibiting apoptosis signaling induced by MSG.

  13. Both dietary supplementation with monosodium L-glutamate and fat modify circulating and tissue amino acid pools in growing pigs, but with little interactive effect.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zemeng Feng

    Full Text Available The Chinese population has undergone rapid transition to a high-fat diet. Furthermore, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG is widely used as a daily food additive in China. Little information is available on the effects of oral MSG and dietary fat supplementation on the amino acid balance in tissues. The present study aimed to determine the effects of both dietary fat and MSG on amino acid metabolism in growing pigs, and to assess any possible interactions between these two nutrients.Four iso-nitrogenous and iso-caloric diets (basal diet, high fat diet, basal diet with 3% MSG and high fat diet with 3% MSG were provided to growing pigs. The dietary supplementation with fat and MSG used alone and in combination were found to modify circulating and tissue amino acid pools in growing pigs. Both dietary fat and MSG modified the expression of gene related to amino acid transport in jejunum.Both dietary fat and MSG clearly influenced amino acid content in tissues but in different ways. Both dietary fat and MSG enhance the absorption of amino acids in jejunum. However, there was little interaction between the effects of dietary fat and MSG.

  14. Differential gene regulation of GHSR signaling pathway in the arcuate nucleus and NPY neurons by fasting, diet-induced obesity, and 17β-estradiol.

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    Yasrebi, Ali; Hsieh, Anna; Mamounis, Kyle J; Krumm, Elizabeth A; Yang, Jennifer A; Magby, Jason; Hu, Pu; Roepke, Troy A

    2016-02-15

    Ghrelin's receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. Fasting, diet-induced obesity (DIO), and 17β-estradiol (E2) influence ARC Ghsr expression. It is unknown if these effects occur in NPY neurons. Therefore, we examined the expression of Npy, Agrp, and GHSR signaling pathway genes after fasting, DIO, and E2 replacement in ARC and pools of NPY neurons. In males, fasting increased ARC Ghsr and NPY Foxo1 but decreased NPY Ucp2. In males, DIO decreased ARC and NPY Ghsr and Cpt1c. In fed females, E2 increased Agrp, Ghsr, Cpt1c, and Foxo1 in ARC. In NPY pools, E2 decreased Foxo1 in fed females but increased Foxo1 in fasted females. DIO in females suppressed Agrp and augmented Cpt1c in NPY neurons. In summary, genes involved in GHSR signaling are differentially regulated between the ARC and NPY neurons in a sex-dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Differential gene regulation of GHSR signaling pathway in the arcuate nucleus and NPY neurons by fasting, diet-induced obesity, and 17β-estradiol

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    Yasrebi, Ali; Hsieh, Anna; Mamounis, Kyle J.; Krumm, Elizabeth A.; Yang, Jennifer A.; Magby, Jason; Hu, Pu; Roepke, Troy A.

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin’s receptor, growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR), is highly expressed in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) and in neuropeptide Y (NPY) neurons. Fasting, diet-induced obesity (DIO), and 17β-estradiol (E2) influence ARC Ghsr expression. It is unknown if these effects occur in NPY neurons. Therefore, we examined the expression of Npy, Agrp, and GHSR signaling pathway genes after fasting, DIO, and E2 replacement in ARC and pools of NPY neurons. In males, fasting increased ARC Ghsr and NPY Foxo1 but decreased NPY Ucp2. In males, DIO decreased ARC and NPY Ghsr and Cpt1c. In fed females, E2 increased Agrp, Ghsr, Cpt1c, and Foxo1 in ARC. In NPY pools, E2 decreased Foxo1 in fed females but increased Foxo1 in fasted females. DIO in females suppressed Agrp and augmented Cpt1c in NPY neurons. In summary, genes involved in GHSR signaling are differentially regulated between the ARC and NPY neurons in a sex-dependent manner. PMID:26577678

  16. [Concentration of monoamines and activity of several enzymes in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus in young and aging rats during the estrous cycle].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grantyn', V A

    1976-07-01

    The arcuate nucleus (AN) and the median eminence (ME) of the hypothalamus were investigated in young and ageing female rats. During the estral cycle (EC) the monoamine (MA) content, the monoaminoxidase (MAO), NADP and NAD-diaphorase activities were determined in the AN, and the MA content and the activity of alkaline phosphatase (AP) -- in the ME. In young rats in the proestrus-estrus there was an increase in the activity of the NADP and NAD-diaphorase and of the MA content, but a decrease of the MAO activity. This indicated an intensified function of the nucleus at these stages of the EC. Accumulation of the MA in the ME was noted in the diestrus, while in the proestrus their concentration sharply fell; on the other hand, the activity of the AP was considerably increased. In the ageing rats the dynamics of the indices under study during the EC were largely unchanged. However, the functional activity of the AN proved to increase, and in the ME and elevation of the MA concentration and disturbance of its release from the nerve terminals was seen.

  17. Reconstruction of the arcuate fasciculus for surgical planning in the setting of peritumoral edema using two-tensor unscented Kalman filter tractography.

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    Chen, Zhenrui; Tie, Yanmei; Olubiyi, Olutayo; Rigolo, Laura; Mehrtash, Alireza; Norton, Isaiah; Pasternak, Ofer; Rathi, Yogesh; Golby, Alexandra J; O'Donnell, Lauren J

    2015-01-01

    Diffusion imaging tractography is increasingly used to trace critical fiber tracts in brain tumor patients to reduce the risk of post-operative neurological deficit. However, the effects of peritumoral edema pose a challenge to conventional tractography using the standard diffusion tensor model. The aim of this study was to present a novel technique using a two-tensor unscented Kalman filter (UKF) algorithm to track the arcuate fasciculus (AF) in brain tumor patients with peritumoral edema. Ten right-handed patients with left-sided brain tumors in the vicinity of language-related cortex and evidence of significant peritumoral edema were retrospectively selected for the study. All patients underwent 3-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) including a diffusion-weighted dataset with 31 directions. Fiber tractography was performed using both single-tensor streamline and two-tensor UKF tractography. A two-regions-of-interest approach was applied to perform the delineation of the AF. Results from the two different tractography algorithms were compared visually and quantitatively. Using single-tensor streamline tractography, the AF appeared disrupted in four patients and contained few fibers in the remaining six patients. Two-tensor UKF tractography delineated an AF that traversed edematous brain areas in all patients. The volume of the AF was significantly larger on two-tensor UKF than on single-tensor streamline tractography (p tensor UKF tractography provides the ability to trace a larger volume AF than single-tensor streamline tractography in the setting of peritumoral edema in brain tumor patients.

  18. Effects of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area and arcuate hypothalamic nucleus on food intake and brain reward function in female rats.

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    Bruijnzeel, Adrie W; Corrie, Lu W; Rogers, Jessica A; Yamada, Hidetaka

    2011-06-01

    There is evidence for a role of insulin and leptin in food intake, but the effects of these adiposity signals on the brain reward system are not well understood. Furthermore, the effects of insulin and leptin on food intake in females are underinvestigated. These studies investigated the role of insulin and leptin in the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus (Arc) on food intake and brain reward function in female rats. The intracranial self-stimulation procedure was used to assess the effects of insulin and leptin on the reward system. Elevations in brain reward thresholds are indicative of a decrease in brain reward function. The bilateral administration of leptin into the VTA (15-500 ng/side) or Arc (15-150 ng/side) decreased food intake for 72 h. The infusion of leptin into the VTA or Arc resulted in weight loss during the first 48 (VTA) or 24 h (Arc) after the infusions. The administration of insulin (0.005-5 mU/side) into the VTA or Arc decreased food intake for 24 h but did not affect body weights. The bilateral administration of low, but not high, doses of leptin (15 ng/side) or insulin (0.005 mU/side) into the VTA elevated brain reward thresholds. Neither insulin nor leptin in the Arc affected brain reward thresholds. These studies suggest that a small increase in leptin or insulin levels in the VTA leads to a decrease in brain reward function. A relatively large increase in insulin or leptin levels in the VTA or Arc decreases food intake. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Expression of ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box protein 4 (Asb-4) in proopiomelanocortin neurons of the arcuate nucleus of mice produces a hyperphagic, lean phenotype.

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    Li, Ji-Yao; Chai, Biao-Xin; Zhang, Weizhen; Wang, Hui; Mulholland, Michael W

    2010-01-01

    Ankyrin repeat and suppressor of cytokine signaling box-containing protein 4 (Asb-4) is specifically expressed in the energy homeostasis-related brain areas and colocalizes with proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons of the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Injection of insulin into the third ventricle of the rat brain increased Asb-4 mRNA expression in the paraventricular nucleus but not in the ARC of the hypothalamus, whereas injection of leptin (ip) increased Asb-4 expression in both mouse paraventricular nucleus and ARC. A transgenic mouse in which Myc-tagged Asb-4 is specifically expressed in POMC neurons of the ARC was made and used to study the effects of Asb-4 on ingestive behavior and metabolic rate. Animals with overexpression of Asb-4 in POMC neurons demonstrated an increase in food intake. However, POMC-Asb-4 transgenic animals gained significantly less weight from 6-30 wk of age. The POMC-Asb-4 mice had reduced fat mass and increased lean mass and lower levels of blood leptin. The transgenic animals were resistant to high-fat diet-induced obesity. Transgenic mice had significantly higher rates of oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production than wild-type mice during both light and dark periods. The locomotive activity of transgenic mice was increased. The overexpression of Asb-4 in POMC neurons increased POMC mRNA expression in the ARC. The transgenic animals had no observed effect on peripheral glucose metabolism and the activity of the autonomic nervous system. These results indicate that Asb-4 is a key regulatory protein in the central nervous system, involved in the control of feeding behavior and metabolic rate.

  20. Expression of neuropeptide Y and pro-opiomelanocortin in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus in 17α-ethinyl estradiol-induced intrahepatic cholestasis pregnant rat offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Qingyun; Wang, Jingjing; Yan, Shi; Zhao, Jin; Li, Hongxia

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the expression of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and pro-opiomelanocortin (POMC) in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of intrahepatic cholestasis pregnant (ICP) offspring. The model of ICP rats was established by injecting s.c. 17α-ethinyl estradiol. The expression of NPY and POMC in female offspring was determined by quantitative real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, western blotting and immunohistochemistry at birthday and 6 months. ICP group offspring had lower bodyweight at birthday. ICP offspring were markedly heavier than control offspring after 6 months. mRNA and protein expression of NPY and POMC significantly increased at 6 months as compared with the birthday among control offspring. Among ICP offspring, mRNA and protein expression of NPY and POMC also were higher at 6 months than at birthday. The mRNA and protein expression of NPY were higher in ICP offspring than that of control offspring at birthday. The mRNA and protein expression of POMC were decreased in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. After 6 months, the mRNA expression and protein expression of NPY also were higher in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. The mRNA expression and protein expression of POMC also were decreased in ICP offspring than that of control offspring. The results were confirmed by immunohistochemistry. ICP offspring demonstrated evidence of persistent appetite stimulation with significantly upregulated NPY expression and reduced POMC expression at birthday and 6 months. ICP offspring showed a hunger state and then gained weight. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Research © 2013 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  1. Enhanced expressions of mRNA for neuropeptide Y and interleukin 1 beta in hypothalamic arcuate nuclei during adjuvant arthritis-induced anorexia in Lewis rats.

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    Stofkova, Andrea; Haluzik, Martin; Zelezna, Blanka; Kiss, Alexander; Skurlova, Martina; Lacinova, Zdenka; Jurcovicova, Jana

    2009-01-01

    Food intake is activated by hypothalamic orexigenic neuropeptide Y (NPY), which is mainly under the dual control of leptin and ghrelin. Rat adjuvant arthritis (AA), similarly as human rheumatoid arthritis, is associated with cachexia caused by yet unknown mechanisms. The aim of our study was to evaluate NPY expression in hypothalamic arcuate nuclei (nARC) under the conditions of AA-induced changes in leptin, ghrelin and adiponectin. Since IL-1beta is involved in the central induction of anorexia, we studied its expression in the nARC as well. AA was induced to Lewis rats using complete Freund's adjuvant. On days 12, 15 and 18 after complete Freund's adjuvant injection, the levels of leptin, adiponectin, ghrelin and IL-1beta were determined by RIA or ELISA. The mRNA expressions for NPY, leptin receptor (OB-R), ghrelin receptor (Ghsr) and IL-1beta were determined by TaqMan RT-PCR from isolated nARC. In AA rats, decreased appetite, body mass and epididymal fat stores positively correlated with reduced circulating and epididymal fat leptin and adiponectin. Ghrelin plasma levels were increased. In nARC, mRNA for OB-R, Ghsr and NPY were overexpressed in AA rats. AA rats showed overexpression of mRNA for IL-1beta in nARC while circulating, and spleen IL-1beta was unaltered. During AA, overexpression of orexigenic NPY mRNA in nARC along with enhanced plasma ghrelin and lowered leptin levels occur. Decreased food intake indicates a predominant effect of the anorexigenic pathway. Activated expression of IL-1beta in nARC suggests its role in keeping AA-induced anorexia in progress. The reduction in adiponectin may also contribute to AA-induced anorexia. Copyright 2009 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  2. Long-Term Recordings of Arcuate Nucleus Kisspeptin Neurons Reveal Patterned Activity That Is Modulated by Gonadal Steroids in Male Mice.

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    Vanacker, Charlotte; Moya, Manuel Ricu; DeFazio, R Anthony; Johnson, Michael L; Moenter, Suzanne M

    2017-10-01

    Pulsatile release of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) is key to fertility. Pulse frequency is modulated by gonadal steroids and likely arises subsequent to coordination of GnRH neuron firing activity. The source of rhythm generation and the site of steroid feedback remain critical unanswered questions. Arcuate neurons that synthesize kisspeptin, neurokinin B, and dynorphin (KNDy) may be involved in both of these processes. We tested the hypotheses that action potential firing in KNDy neurons is episodic and that gonadal steroids regulate this pattern. Targeted extracellular recordings were made of green fluorescent protein-identified KNDy neurons in brain slices from adult male mice that were intact, castrated, or castrated and treated with estradiol or dihydrotestosterone (DHT). KNDy neurons exhibited marked peaks and nadirs in action potential firing activity during recordings lasting 1 to 3.5 hours. Peaks, identified by Cluster analysis, occurred more frequently in castrated than intact mice, and either estradiol or DHT in vivo or blocking neurokinin type 3 receptor in vitro restored peak frequency to intact levels. The frequency of peaks in firing rate and estradiol regulation of this frequency is similar to that observed for GnRH neurons, whereas DHT suppressed firing in KNDy but not GnRH neurons. We further examined the patterning of action potentials to identify bursts that may be associated with increased neuromodulator release. Burst frequency and duration are increased in castrated compared with intact and steroid-treated mice. The observation that KNDy neurons fire in an episodic manner that is regulated by steroid feedback is consistent with a role for these neurons in GnRH pulse generation and regulation. Copyright © 2017 Endocrine Society.

  3. A cadaveric study of the anatomical variation of the origins of the celiac trunk and the superior mesenteric artery: a role in median arcuate ligament syndrome?

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    Katz-Summercorn, Annalise; Bridger, John

    2013-11-01

    Gray's Anatomy states, "the celiac trunk is the first anterior branch of the abdominal aorta and arises just below the aortic hiatus. The superior mesenteric artery originates from the aorta c1.0 cm below the celiac trunk." (Standring, 2008a, Gray's Anatomy. 40th Ed. London: Churchill Livingstone Elsevier, p. 1073-1074). During dissection classes with medical students we found this not to be the case. We have re-evaluated the anatomy of the origins of the celiac trunk (CT) and superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and the relationship of the CT to the median arcuate ligament (MAL) in 99 cadavers. We have found the external distance between the CT and SMA to range from 0 to 20 mm (mean 3.4 mm, SD 5.17 mm), with the two in direct apposition in 57.6% (n = 99) of cases: a higher figure than previously documented. However, the internal distance between the CT and SMA ranged from 10 to 30 mm (mean 18.9 mm, SD 4.09 mm). There was no distance measurable between the MAL and the CT in 88 cadavers (92.6%, n = 95) and, of these, 32 (33.7%) showed evidence of compression or kinking of the CT. We suspect that the MAL is responsible for the approximation of the CT to the SMA in these cadavers, and that the high incidence of kinking of the CT (33.7% of cases) may have implications with regard to its role in MAL syndrome. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  4. A population of kisspeptin/neurokinin B neurons in the arcuate nucleus may be the central target of the male effect phenomenon in goats.

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    Sakamoto, Kohei; Wakabayashi, Yoshihiro; Yamamura, Takashi; Tanaka, Tomomi; Takeuchi, Yukari; Mori, Yuji; Okamura, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Exposure of females to a male pheromone accelerates pulsatile gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in goats. Recent evidence has suggested that neurons in the arcuate nucleus (ARC) containing kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) play a pivotal role in the control of GnRH secretion. Therefore, we hypothesized that these neurons may be the central target of the male pheromone. To test this hypothesis, we examined whether NKB signaling is involved in the pheromone action, and whether ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons receive input from the medial nucleus of the amygdala (MeA)--the nucleus suggested to relay pheromone signals. Ovariectomized goats were implanted with a recording electrode aimed at a population of ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons, and GnRH pulse generator activity, represented by characteristic increases in multiple-unit activity (MUA) volleys, was measured. Pheromone exposure induced an MUA volley and luteinizing hormone (LH) pulse in control animals, whereas the MUA and LH responses to the pheromone were completely suppressed by the treatment with an NKB receptor antagonist. These results indicate that NKB signaling is a prerequisite for pheromone action. In ovariectomized goats, an anterograde tracer was injected into the MeA, and possible connections between the MeA and ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons were examined. Histochemical observations demonstrated that a subset of ARC kisspeptin/NKB neurons receive efferent projections from the MeA. These results suggest that the male pheromone signal is conveyed via the MeA to ARC kisspeptin neurons, wherein the signal stimulates GnRH pulse generator activity through an NKB signaling-mediated mechanism in goats.

  5. Comparison between oral and intra-articular antinociceptive effect of dexketoprofen and tramadol combination in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

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    Cialdai, Cecilia; Giuliani, Sandro; Valenti, Claudio; Tramontana, Manuela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2013-08-15

    Dexketoprofen and tramadol, alone or in combination, were evaluated after oral or intra-articular administration on knee osteoarthritis nociception induced by intra-articular (i.ar.) monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 1 mg/25 µl) in the rat right knee while the left knee received saline (25 µl). Seven days after MIA treatment, dexketoprofen, tramadol, their combination or the vehicle were administered. Nociception was evaluated as alteration in hind limb weight distribution with Incapacitance tester at different time-points after drug administration. Oral dexketoprofen (0.1-1 mg/kg) or tramadol (0.5-5 mg/kg) induced maximal antinociception at 1 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. Their combination dose-dependently increased the intensity and duration of antinociception, that was additive and lasted up to 3 days. Also the intra-articular administration of dexketoprofen or tramadol (10-100 µg/25 µl) inhibited MIA-induced nociception, and the combination of the lower doses (10 µg/25 µl) produced a long lasting more than additive antinociceptive effect indicating a synergistic interaction between the two drugs. This effect was significantly reduced by naloxone (10 μg/25 μl, i.ar.) co-administered with both compounds. The intra-articular administration of both drugs at 10 µg/25 µl in the contralateral control knee joint provoked a marked synergistic antinociceptive effect indicating significant systemic diffusion through synovial membrane. The oral or intra-articular combination of dexketoprofen and tramadol produced additive or synergistic antinociceptive effects, respectively, in the model of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rats, that might allow to obtain therapeutic advantages with lower side effects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Monosodium L-glutamate in soup reduces subsequent energy intake from high-fat savoury food in overweight and obese women.

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    Miyaki, Takashi; Imada, Toshifumi; Hao, Susan Shuzhen; Kimura, Eiichiro

    2016-01-14

    The umami seasoning, monosodium L-glutamate (MSG), has been shown to increase satiety in normal body weight adults, although the results have not been consistent. The satiety effect of MSG in overweight and obese adults has not been examined yet. The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of MSG in a vegetable soup on subsequent energy intakes as well as food selection in overweight and obese adult women without eating disorders. A total of sixty-eight overweight and obese women (BMI range: 25·0-39·9 kg/m²), otherwise healthy, were recruited to our study. A fixed portion (200 ml) of control vegetable soup or the same soup with added MSG (0·5 g/100 ml) was provided 10 min before an ad libitum lunch and an ad libitum snack in the mid-afternoon. The control soup had equivalent amount of Na to the soup with added MSG. Energy intakes at the ad libitum lunch and ad libitum snack time after the soup preload were assessed using a randomised, double-blind, two-way cross-over design. The soup with MSG in comparison with the control soup resulted in significantly lower consumption of energy at lunch. The addition of MSG in the soup also reduced energy intake from high-fat savoury foods. The soup with MSG showed lower but no significant difference in energy intake at mid-afternoon. The addition of umami seasoning MSG in a vegetable soup may decrease subsequent energy intake in overweight and obese women who do not have eating disorders.

  7. Oxidative stress by monosodium urate crystals promotes renal cell apoptosis through mitochondrial caspase-dependent pathway in human embryonic kidney 293 cells: mechanism for urate-induced nephropathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choe, Jung-Yoon; Park, Ki-Yeun; Kim, Seong-Kyu

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to clarify the effect of oxidative stress on monosodium urate (MSU)-mediated apoptosis of renal cells. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunoblotting for Bcl-2, caspase-9, caspase-3, iNOS, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, TNF receptor-associated factor-6 (TRAF-6), and mitogen-activated protein kinases were performed on human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells, which were stimulated by MSU crystals. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting was performed using annexin V for assessment of apoptosis. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) were measured. IL-1β siRNA was used for blocking IL-1β expression. MSU crystals promoted ROS, iNOS, and COX-2 expression and also increased TRAF-6 and IL-1β expression in HEK293 cells, which was inhibited by an antioxidant ascorbic acid. Caspase-dependent renal cell apoptosis was induced through attenuation of Bcl-2 and enhanced caspase-3 and caspase-9 expression by MSU crystals, which was significantly reversed by ascorbic acid and transfection of IL-1β siRNA to HEK293 cells. Ascorbic acid inhibited phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase and Jun N-terminal protein kinase stimulated by MSU crystals. ROS accumulation and iNOS and COX-2 mRNA expression by MSU crystals was also suppressed by transfection with IL-1β siRNA. Oxidative stress generated by MSU crystals promotes renal apoptosis through the mitochondrial caspase-dependent apoptosis pathway.

  8. The Effect of Nigella Sativa Extract on Alpha-ketoglutarate Activity and Histopathologic Changes on Rat Liver Induced by Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ala Sh Emhemed Eshami

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium glutamate (MSG is a commonly used food additive and found in most soups, fish, and processed meat. The use of MSG in food is growing. However, the fear of consuming MSG has increased in the last few years due to the adverse reactions and toxicity in the liver. Nigella sativa (NS is used as traditional medicine for the treatment of many diseases. It has been extensively investigated in recent years due to its notable pharmacological properties such as inhibit oxidative stress. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of different doses of Nigella Sativa on alpha KGDH activity and liver histology of MSG-induced rats. The animals (n=30 were grouped into A (control, B (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw , C (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.1 g/kg.bw, D (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.2 g/kg.bw, E (treated with MSG 1g/kg.bw and NS 0.4 g/kg.bw and F (given a daily NS extract 0.2 g/kg.bw. Alpha KGDH activity was investigated using ELISA method and liver histopathology by light microscope. The MSG treatment increased Alpha KGDH activity and disturbed liver architecture, hemorrhage in the central veins, areas of necrosis, vacuolation and increased inflammatory cells infiltration. The condition was normalized by treatment NS on dose 0.2 and 0.4 g/kg.bw. The findings showed that the administration of MSG increases alpha KGDH and induces damage in liver tissue. Nigella sativa extract can reduce alpha KGDH and prevent liver damage caused by MSG.

  9. Monosodium iodoacetate-induced joint pain is associated with increased phosphorylation of mitogen activated protein kinases in the rat spinal cord

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    Jarvis Michael F

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Intra-articular injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA in the knee joint of rats disrupts chondrocyte metabolism resulting in cartilage degeneration and subsequent nociceptive behavior that has been described as a model of osteoarthritis (OA pain. Central sensitization through activation of mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs is recognized as a pathogenic mechanism in chronic pain. In the present studies, induction of central sensitization as indicated by spinal dorsal horn MAPK activation, specifically ERK and p38 phosphorylation, was assessed in the MIA-OA model. Results Behaviorally, MIA-injected rats displayed reduced hind limb grip force 1, 2, and 3 weeks post-MIA treatment. In the same animals, activation of phospho ERK1/2 was gradually increased, reaching a significant level at post injection week 3. Conversely, phosphorylation of p38 MAPK was enhanced maximally at post injection week 1 and decreased, but remained elevated, thereafter. Double labeling from 3-wk MIA rats demonstrated spinal pERK1/2 expression in neurons, but not glia. In contrast, p-p38 was expressed by microglia and a subpopulation of neurons, but not astrocytes. Additionally, there was increased ipsilateral expression of microglia, but not astrocytes, in 3-wk MIA-OA rats. Consistent with increased MAPK immunoreactivity in the contralateral dorsal horn, mechanical allodynia to the contralateral hind-limb was observed 3-wk following MIA. Finally, intrathecal injection of the MEK1 inhibitor PD98059 blocked both reduced hind-limb grip force and pERK1/2 induction in MIA-OA rats. Conclusion Results of these studies support the role of MAPK activation in the progression and maintenance of central sensitization in the MIA-OA experimental pain model.

  10. Sweet taste receptor serves to activate glucose- and leptin-responsive neurons in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus and participates in glucose responsiveness.

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    Daisuke Kohno

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC: glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanism underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood. The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of taste type 1 receptor 2 (T1R2 and taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3 and senses sweet tastes. T1R2 and T1R3 receptors are distributed in multiple organs including the tongue, pancreas, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus. However, the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC remains to be clarified. To examine the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC, cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i in isolated single ARC neurons were measured using Fura-2 fluorescent imaging. An artificial sweetener, sucralose at 10-5 M-10-2 M dose dependently increased [Ca2+]i in 12-16% of ARC neurons. The sucralose-induced [Ca2+]i increase was suppressed by a sweet taste receptor inhibitor, gurmarin. The sucralose-induced [Ca2+]i increase was inhibited under an extracellular Ca2+-free condition and in the presence of an L-type Ca2+ channel blocker, nitrendipine. Sucralose-responding neurons were activated by high-concentration of glucose. This response to glucose was markedly suppressed by gurmarin. More than half of sucralose-responding neurons were activated by leptin but not ghrelin. Percentage of proopiomelanocortin (POMC neurons among sucralose-responding neurons and sweet taste receptor expressing neurons were low, suggesting that majority of sucralose-responding neurons are non-POMC neurons. These data suggest that sweet taste receptor-mediated cellular

  11. Sweet Taste Receptor Serves to Activate Glucose- and Leptin-Responsive Neurons in the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus and Participates in Glucose Responsiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohno, Daisuke; Koike, Miho; Ninomiya, Yuzo; Kojima, Itaru; Kitamura, Tadahiro; Yada, Toshihiko

    2016-01-01

    The hypothalamic feeding center plays an important role in energy homeostasis. In the feeding center, whole-body energy signals including hormones and nutrients are sensed, processed, and integrated. As a result, food intake and energy expenditure are regulated. Two types of glucose-sensing neurons exist in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC): glucose-excited neurons and glucose-inhibited neurons. While some molecules are known to be related to glucose sensing in the hypothalamus, the mechanisms underlying glucose sensing in the hypothalamus are not fully understood. The sweet taste receptor is a heterodimer of taste type 1 receptor 2 (T1R2) and taste type 1 receptor 3 (T1R3) and senses sweet tastes. T1R2 and T1R3 are distributed in multiple organs including the tongue, pancreas, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus. However, the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC remains to be clarified. To examine the role of sweet taste receptors in the ARC, cytosolic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] i ) in isolated single ARC neurons were measured using Fura-2 fluorescent imaging. An artificial sweetener, sucralose at 10 -5 -10 -2 M dose dependently increased [Ca 2+ ] i in 12-16% of ARC neurons. The sucralose-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increase was suppressed by a sweet taste receptor inhibitor, gurmarin. The sucralose-induced [Ca 2+ ] i increase was inhibited under an extracellular Ca 2+ -free condition and in the presence of an L-type Ca 2+ channel blocker, nitrendipine. Sucralose-responding neurons were activated by high-concentration of glucose. This response to glucose was markedly suppressed by gurmarin. More than half of sucralose-responding neurons were activated by leptin but not ghrelin. Percentages of proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons among sucralose-responding neurons and sweet taste receptor expressing neurons were low, suggesting that majority of sucralose-responding neurons are non-POMC neurons. These data suggest that sweet taste receptor-mediated cellular activation

  12. Immuno-histochemical localization of LH-RH during different phases of estrus cycle of rat, with reference to the preoptic and arcuate neurons, and the ependymal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naik, D V

    1976-10-06

    Immunohistochemical localization of luteinizing hormone-releasing hormone (LH-RH), during different phases of the estrus cycle, in the preoptic, suprachiasmatic and arcuate nuclei, and in the OVLT of rats, with special emphasis on the ependymal cells, was studied by light, fluorescent and electron microscopy, by using rabbit anti serum to synthetic LH-RH. The LH-RH neurons in the above mentioned areas, were very active during late diestrus and early proestrus phases. Specialized ependymal cells bordering the 3rd ventricle also showed varied LH-RH positive reaction during different phases of the estrus cycle. Immunofluorescent studies showed cyclic variations in the LH-RH material in the CSF of the preoptic and infundibular recesses, as well as in the 3rd ventricle near OVLT, in that, it was maximum during late diestrus and early proestrus phases. Immediately after this, the LH-RH late proestrus was reached. We have also observed that during the proestrus phase, as the LH-RH material started declining in the CSF, it had started building up in the specialized ependyma. Estrus, metaestrus and early diestrus phases showed very weak immunofluorescent LH-RH material in the lumen of the infundibular recess and in the specialized ependyma. Our immuno-electron microscopic observations showed pleomorphic LH-RH granules in the specialized ependyma during late kiestrus and proestrus phases. All these observations lead us to believe that LH-RH is not synthesized in the ependymal cells,but is phagocytosed from the CSF of the 3rd ventricle by the specialized ependyma, which transports it to the ME portal system. In males, the fluorescent LH-RH material did not show any noticeable changes. With the present and previous work,it is concluded that the neurons in differentnuclei synthesize LH-RH and transport it to the ME portal system,primarily through the nerve fibers and secondarily by the ventricular route. It is also suggested that the ependymal transport of LH-RH to the ME

  13. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ controls ingestive behavior, agouti-related protein, and neuropeptide Y mRNA in the arcuate hypothalamus.

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    Garretson, John T; Teubner, Brett J W; Grove, Kevin L; Vazdarjanova, Almira; Ryu, Vitaly; Bartness, Timothy J

    2015-03-18

    Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) is clinically targeted for type II diabetes treatment; however, rosiglitazone (ROSI), a PPARγ agonist, increases food intake and body/fat mass as side-effects. Mechanisms for these effects and the role of PPARγ in feeding are not understood. Therefore, we tested this role in Siberian hamsters, a model of human energy balance, and C57BL/6 mice. We tested the following: (1) how ROSI and/or GW9662 (2-chloro-5-nitro-N-phenylbenzamide; PPARγ antagonist) injected intraperitoneally or into the third ventricle (3V) affected Siberian hamster feeding behaviors; (2) whether food deprivation (FD) co-increases agouti-related protein (AgRP) and PPARγ mRNA expression in Siberian hamsters and mice; (3) whether intraperitoneally administered ROSI increases AgRP and NPY in ad libitum-fed animals; (4) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ antagonism blocks FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY; and finally, (5) whether intraperitoneally administered PPARγ modulation affects plasma ghrelin. Third ventricular and intraperitoneally administered ROSI increased food hoarding and intake for 7 d, an effect attenuated by 3V GW9662, and also prevented (intraperitoneal) FD-induced feeding. FD hamsters and mice increased AgRP within the arcuate hypothalamic nucleus with concomitant increases in PPARγ exclusively within AgRP/NPY neurons. ROSI increased AgRP and NPY similarly to FD, and GW9662 prevented FD-induced increases in AgRP and NPY in both species. Neither ROSI nor GW9662 affected plasma ghrelin. Thus, we demonstrated that PPARγ activation is sufficient to trigger food hoarding/intake, increase AgRP/NPY, and possibly is necessary for FD-induced increases in feeding and AgRP/NPY. These findings provide initial evidence that FD-induced increases in AgRP/NPY may be a direct PPARγ-dependent process that controls ingestive behaviors. Copyright © 2015 the authors 0270-6474/15/354571-11$15.00/0.

  14. Monosodium urate crystal deposition associated with the progress of radiographic grade at the sacroiliac joint in axial SpA: a dual-energy CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Junqing; Li, Aiwu; Jia, Ertao; Zhou, Yi; Xu, Juan; Chen, Shixian; Huang, Yinger; Xiao, Xiang; Li, Juan

    2017-05-02

    Previous studies have revealed that ankylosing spondylitis (AS), as the progenitor of axial spondyloarthritis (AxSpA), has been characterized by the insidiously progressive nature of sacroiliitis and spondylitis. Dual-energy computed tomography (DECT) has recently been used to analyse the deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals with higher sensitivity and specificity. However, it remains unclear whether the existence of the MSU crystal deposition detected by DECT at the sacroiliac joint in patients with AxSpA also is associated with the existing structural damage. Here, we performed this study to show the DECT MSU crystal deposits in AxSpA patients without coexisting gout and to ascertain the relationship between the MSU crystal deposition and the structural joint damage of sacroiliac joints. One hundred and eighty-six AxSpA patients without coexisting gout were recruited. The plain radiographs of the sacroiliac joint were obtained, along with the DECT scans at the pelvis and the clinical variables. All statistics based on the left or right sacroiliac joint damage grading (0-4) were calculated independently. Bivariate analysis and ordinal logistic regression was performed between the clinical features and radiographic grades at the sacroiliac joint. At the pelvis, large quantities of MSU crystal deposition were found in patients with AxSpA. The average MSU crystal volume at the left sacroiliac joint, the right sacroiliac joint, and the pelvis were 0.902 ± 1.345, 1.074 ± 1.878, and 5.272 ± 9.044 cm 3 , values which were correlated with serum uric acid concentrations (r = 0.727, 0.740, 0.896; p sacroiliac joint damage. Further, the AxSpA duration, BASFI score, and the volume of MSU crystal at both sides of sacroiliac joint were associated with the progress of radiographic grade at the sacroiliac joints in the ordinal logistic models (left AOR = 1.180, 3.800, 1.920; right AOR = 1.190, 3.034, 1.418; p sacroiliac joint is associated

  15. KB-R7943 reduces 4-aminopyridine-induced epileptiform activity in adult rats after neuronal damage induced by neonatal monosodium glutamate treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez-Ojeda, Mariana; Ureña-Guerrero, Monica E; Gutierrez-Barajas, Paola E; Cardenas-Castillo, Jazmin A; Camins, Antoni; Beas-Zarate, Carlos

    2017-05-09

    Neonatal monosodium glutamate (MSG) treatment triggers excitotoxicity and induces a degenerative process that affects several brain regions in a way that could lead to epileptogenesis. Na + /Ca 2+ exchangers (NCX1-3) are implicated in Ca 2+ brain homeostasis; normally, they extrude Ca 2+ to control cell inflammation, but after damage and in epilepsy, they introduce Ca 2+ by acting in the reverse mode, amplifying the damage. Changes in NCX3 expression in the hippocampus have been reported immediately after neonatal MSG treatment. In this study, the expression level of NCX1-3 in the entorhinal cortex (EC) and hippocampus (Hp); and the effects of blockade of NCXs on the seizures induced by 4-Aminopyridine (4-AP) were analysed in adult rats after neonatal MSG treatment. KB-R7943 was applied as NCXs blocker, but is more selective to NCX3 in reverse mode. Neonatal MSG treatment was applied to newborn male rats at postnatal days (PD) 1, 3, 5, and 7 (4 g/kg of body weight, s.c.). Western blot analysis was performed on total protein extracts from the EC and Hp to estimate the expression level of NCX1-3 proteins in relative way to the expression of β-actin, as constitutive protein. Electrographic activity of the EC and Hp were acquired before and after intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) infusion of 4-AP (3 nmol) and KB-R7943 (62.5 pmol), alone or in combination. All experiments were performed at PD60. Behavioural alterations were also recorder. Neonatal MSG treatment significantly increased the expression of NCX3 protein in both studied regions, and NCX1 protein only in the EC. The 4-AP-induced epileptiform activity was significantly higher in MSG-treated rats than in controls, and KB-R7943 co-administered with 4-AP reduced the epileptiform activity in more prominent way in MSG-treated rats than in controls. The long-term effects of neonatal MSG treatment include increases on functional expression of NCXs (mainly of NCX3) in the EC and Hp, which seems to contribute to

  16. Intoxicação aguda por metano arsonato ácido monossódico em bovinos Acute poisoning by monosodium methanearsonic acid in cattle

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    Gabriela N. Dantas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho estudou a intoxicação acidental por arsênico em um lote de 24 vacas Girolando, as quais tiveram acesso a pasto pulverizado com herbicida à base de metano arsonato ácido monossódico (MSMA. Os bovinos apresentaram apatia, anorexia e diarreia profusa. Foram necropsiados na fazenda dois animais de 14 que morreram. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram úlceras abomasais e congestão renal. No exame microscópico, as principais lesões observadas foram abomasite e omasite necro-hemorrágica multifocal acentuada e, nos rins, necrose tubular difusa. As concentrações médias de arsênico em vacas com sinais clínicos foram 1,19±0,40, 10,52±2,16 e 76,06±48,37ppm no sangue, leite e fezes, respectivamente. Os níveis de arsênico encontrados em dois animais necropsiados foram 25,58 e 23,85ppm em fígado, e 28,71 e 35,94ppm em rins, respectivamente. No feto de uma vaca necropsiada, os níveis de arsênico mensurados no fígado e rim foram 9,0 e 8,92ppm, respectivamente. A concentração de arsênico no capim do piquete pulverizado foi 111,58ppm. No Brasil, o uso MSMA na composição de pesticidas e herbicidas é permitido somente para uso agrícola, mas não pecuário. A utilização desse ou de outros produtos à base de arsênico na pecuária pode causar altos índices de mortalidade no rebanho, além de diminuição da produção e contaminação de produtos de origem animal.Poisoning by monosodium methanearsonic acid (MSMA is reported in a herd of 24 Girolando cows that were introduced into a pasture sprayed with the herbicide. Clinical signs were apathy, anorexia, and profuse diarrhea. Fourteen cows died and two were necropsied. Abomasal ulcers and renal congestion was observed. Main histologic lesions were multifocal, accentuated, necrotizing and hemorrhagic abomasitis and omasitis, and tubular necrosis in the kidneys. Mean arsenic concentrations in cows with clinical signs were 1.19±0.40, 10.52±2.16, and 76.06

  17. Ethanolic extracts of babandotan leaves (Ageratum conyzoides L.) prevents inflammation and proteoglycan degradation by inhibiting TNF-α andMMP-9 on osteoarthritis rats induced by monosodium iodoacetate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Anton Bahtiar; Mutiara Nurazizah; Tirza Roselina; Anita Paulina Tambunan; Ade Arsianti

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the effects of Ageratum conyzoides L. on the monosodium iodoacetate induced osteoarthritis rats. Methods: Thin layer chromatography was performed to analyze the constituents of the babandotan extract leaves. White male Sprague-Dawley rats used in this study were divided into 6 groups: normal control and negative control groups, both given 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose; the positive control group that was given glucosamine and chondroitin suspension (486 mg/200 g B.W.); the 3 dose variation extract groups including dose 1, 2, and 3 that were given 40, 80, and 160 mg/200 g B.W. respectively on day 29 until 50. All the groups were induced with 0.05 mL monosodium iodoacetate (20 mg/mL) on day 1, except normal control induced by saline. Measurement of edema volume of rat knees was performed on day 0, 8, 15, 22, 29, 43, and 50. Hematology data was measured at day 1, 29 and 50. Serum was collected at day 50 to evaluate TNF-α and MMP-9 by ELISA. Cartilagehistopathology was evaluated by staining with H&E and Safranin-o-fast green staining on day 50. Results: The babandotan leaves extract dose 2 (80 mg/200 g B.W.) and dose 3 (160 mg/200 g B.W.) could decrease the edema volume, increase the area and thickness of articular cartilage, and increase proteoglycan level. Particularly, dose 3 (160 mg/200 g B.W.) of extract babandotan leaves were able to significantly decrease the number of leukocytes, lymphocytes and udem volume, and decrease TNF alpha and MMP-9 levels. Conclusions: Babandotan leaves extract can recover inflammation and cartilages degradation by inhibiting TNF-α ininflammation processes and MMP-9 in the collagenase reaction in the cartilages.

  18. Evaluation of body growth and myoenteric neurons of Wistar rats after neonatal treatment with monosodium glutamate = Avaliação do crescimento corporal e dos neurônios mioentéricos de ratos Wistar após tratamento neonatal com glutamato monossódico

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Carlos Sousa; Maria Montserrat Diaz Pedrosa Furlan; Rosana Torrezan; Josy Fraccaro de Marins; Melina Rizzato Vismara

    2007-01-01

    This work aimed at evaluating how the neonatal treatment withmonosodium glutamate reflects on body parameters and on myoenteric neurons of Wistar rats. Male rats were injected with monosodium glutamate during the first five postnatal days. Body growth was recorded until the age of 90 days, when the animals were killed.Fasting plasma glucose, caloric density and weight of organs were assayed. Gastric and duodenal whole-mounts stained with NADH diaphorase were observed for neuronal numbers and ...

  19. Amelioration of Behavioural, Biochemical, and Neurophysiological Deficits by Combination of Monosodium Glutamate with Resveratrol/Alpha-Lipoic Acid/Coenzyme Q10 in Rat Model of Cisplatin-Induced Peripheral Neuropathy

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    Naini Bhadri

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Cisplatin or cis-diamminedichloroplatinum (II (CDDP is a cytotoxic chemotherapeutic agent with dose-dependent peripheral neuropathy as a foremost side effect characterised by ataxia, pain, and sensory impairment. Cumulative drug therapy of CDDP is known to produce severe oxidative damage. It mainly targets and accumulates in dorsal root ganglia that in turn cause damage resulting in secondary nerve fibre axonopathy. In the present study, we investigated the neuroprotective effect of the combination of monosodium glutamate (MSG with three individual antioxidants, that is, resveratrol, alpha-lipoic acid (ALA, and coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10, in cisplatin (2 mg/kg i.p. twice weekly induced peripheral neuropathy in rats. After 8 weeks of treatment the degree of neuroprotection was determined by measuring behavioral and electrophysiological properties and sciatic nerve lipid peroxidation, as well as glutathione and catalase levels. The results suggested that pretreatment with the combination of MSG (500 mg/kg/day po with resveratrol (10 mg/kg/day i.p. or ALA (20 mg/kg/day i.p. or CoQ10 (10 mg/kg weekly thrice i.p. exhibited neuroprotective effect. The maximum neuroprotection of MSG was observed in the combination with resveratrol.

  20. UP3005, a Botanical Composition Containing Two Standardized Extracts of Uncaria gambir and Morus alba, Improves Pain Sensitivity and Cartilage Degradations in Monosodium Iodoacetate-Induced Rat OA Disease Model

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    Mesfin Yimam

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Osteoarthritis (OA is a multifactorial disease primarily noted by cartilage degradation in association with inflammation that causes significant morbidity, joint pain, stiffness, and limited mobility. Present-day management of OA is inadequate due to the lack of principal therapies proven to be effective in hindering disease progression where symptomatic therapy focused approach masks the actual etiology leading to irreversible damage. Here, we describe the effect of UP3005, a composition containing a proprietary blend of two standardized extracts from the leaf of Uncaria gambir and the root bark of Morus alba, in maintaining joint structural integrity and alleviating OA associated symptoms in monosodium-iodoacetate- (MIA- induced rat OA disease model. Pain sensitivity, micro-CT, histopathology, and glycosaminoglycans (GAGs level analysis were conducted. Diclofenac at 10 mg/kg was used as a reference compound. UP3005 resulted in almost a complete inhibition in proteoglycans degradation, reductions of 16.6% (week 4, 40.5% (week 5, and 22.0% (week 6 in pain sensitivity, statistically significant improvements in articular cartilage matrix integrity, minimal visual subchondral bone damage, and statistically significant increase in bone mineral density when compared to the vehicle control with MIA. Therefore, UP3005 could potentially be considered as an alternative therapy from natural sources for the treatment of OA and/or its associated symptoms.

  1. Monosodium Urate Crystals Induce Upregulation of NK1.1-Dependent Killing by Macrophages and Support Tumor-Resident NK1.1+ Monocyte/Macrophage Populations in Antitumor Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steiger, Stefanie; Kuhn, Sabine; Ronchese, Franca; Harper, Jacquie L

    2015-12-01

    Macrophages display phenotypic and functional heterogeneity dependent on the changing inflammatory microenvironment. Under some conditions, macrophages can acquire effector functions commonly associated with NK cells. In the current study, we investigated how the endogenous danger signal monosodium urate (MSU) crystals can alter macrophage functions. We report that naive, primary peritoneal macrophages rapidly upregulate the expression of the NK cell-surface marker NK1.1 in response to MSU crystals but not in response to LPS or other urate crystals. NK1.1 upregulation by macrophages was associated with mechanisms including phagocytosis of crystals, NLRP3 inflammasome activation, and autocrine proinflammatory cytokine signaling. Further analysis demonstrated that MSU crystal-activated macrophages exhibited NK cell-like cytotoxic activity against target cells in a perforin/granzyme B-dependent manner. Furthermore, analysis of tumor hemopoietic cell populations showed that effective, MSU-mediated antitumor activity required coadministration with Mycobacterium smegmatis to induce IL-1β production and significant accumulation of monocytes and macrophages (but not granulocytes or dendritic cells) expressing elevated levels of NK1.1. Our findings provide evidence that MSU crystal-activated macrophages have the potential to develop tumoricidal NK cell-like functions that may be exploited to boost antitumor activity in vivo. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  2. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions significantly reversed the weight-bearing deficit and the overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn in the monosodium iodoacetate induced model of osteoarthritis pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Degang Yu

    Full Text Available Chronic pain is the most prominent and disabling symptom of osteoarthritis (OA. Clinical data suggest that subchondral bone lesions contribute to the occurrence of joint pain. The present study investigated the effect of the inhibition of subchondral bone lesions on joint pain.Osteoarthritic pain was induced by an injection of monosodium iodoacetate (MIA into the rat knee joint. Zoledronic acid (ZOL, a third generation of bisphosphonate, was used to inhibit subchondral bone lesions. Joint histomorphology was evaluated using X-ray micro computed tomography scanning and hematoxylin-eosin staining. The activity of osteoclast in subchondral bone was evaluated using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. Joint pain was evaluated using weight-bearing asymmetry, the expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP in the dorsal root ganglion (DRG, and spinal glial activation status using glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP and ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 (Iba-1 immunofluorescence. Afferent neurons in the DRGs that innervated the joints were identified using retrograde fluorogold labeling.MIA injections induced significant histomorphological alterations and joint pain. The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions by ZOL significantly reduced the MIA-induced weight-bearing deficit and overexpression of CGRP in DRG neurons, GFAP and Iba-1 in the spinal dorsal horn at 3 and 6 weeks after MIA injection; however, joint swelling and synovial reaction were unaffected.The inhibition of subchondral bone lesions alleviated joint pain. Subchondral bone lesions should be a key target in the management of osteoarthritic joint pain.

  3. Bilateral arcuate foramen associated with partial defect of the posterior arch of the atlas in a medieval skeleton: case report and review of the literature. Looking backward to go forward.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Travan, Luciana; Saccheri, Paola; Sabbadini, Gastone; Crivellato, Enrico

    2011-08-01

    We observed a complex atlas (C1) dysmorphism in a human medieval skeleton dug up from the sixth to the seventh century necropolis located in the north-eastern Italy. We analyzed such a dysmorphism in the light of pertinent literature and discussed the functional and clinical implications related to this type of C1 structural malformation. Macroscopical and CT-SCAN examinations of the atlas were carried out. Bone findings consisted of partial aplasia of the posterior arch of the C1 accompanied by a bilateral arcuate foramen. In addition, the spinous processes of C7 and T1 were found to be bifid. Although such abnormalities are supposed to be clinically inconspicuous, yet they may become challenging or even dangerous in the context of trauma. They may even complicate specific diagnostic or surgical procedures. In addition, they may cause a great number of symptoms, ranging from headache and neck pain to loss of postural muscle tone and consciousness, due to the close and complex relationship of bone structures with nerves, blood vessels, muscles, and ligaments. As a result, radiologists, clinicians, surgeons, and chiropractors should consider in their clinical reasoning the possibility that atlas dysmorphisms may occur.

  4. The effects of black garlic ethanol extract on the spatial memory and estimated total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus of monosodium glutamate-exposed adolescent male Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermawati, Ery; Sari, Dwi Cahyani Ratna; Partadiredja, Ginus

    2015-09-01

    Monosodium glutamate (MSG) is believed to exert deleterious effects on various organs, including the hippocampus, likely via the oxidative stress pathway. Garlic (Alium sativum L.), which is considered to possess potent antioxidant activity, has been used as traditional remedy for various ailments since ancient times. We have investigated the effects of black garlic, a fermented form of garlic, on spatial memory and estimated the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus in adolescent male Wistar rats treated with MSG. Twenty-five rats were divided into five groups: C- group, which received normal saline; C+ group, which was exposed to 2 mg/g body weight (bw) of MSG; three treatment groups (T2.5, T5, T10), which were treated with black garlic extract (2.5, 5, 10 mg/200 g bw, respectively) and MSG. The spatial memory test was carried out using the Morris water maze (MWM) procedure, and the total number of pyramidal cells of the hippocampus was estimated using the physical disector design. The groups treated with black garlic extract were found to have a shorter path length than the C- and C+ groups in the escape acquisition phase of the MWM test. The estimated total number of pyramidal cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was higher in all treated groups than that of the C+ group. Based on these results, we conclude that combined administration of black garlic and MSG may alter the spatial memory functioning and total number of pyramidal neurons of the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats.

  5. Estradiol upregulates progesterone receptor and orphanin FQ colocalization in arcuate nucleus neurons and opioid receptor-like receptor-1 expression in proopiomelanocortin neurons that project to the medial preoptic nucleus in the female rat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanathara, Nayna M.; Moreas, Justine; Mahavongtrakul, Matthew; Sinchak, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    Background Ovarian steroids regulate sexual receptivity in the female rat by acting on neurons that converge on proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH) that project to the medial preoptic nucleus (MPN). Estradiol rapidly activates these neurons to release β-endorphin that activates MPN μ-opioid receptors (MOP) to inhibit lordosis. Lordosis is facilitated by the subsequent action of progesterone that deactivates the estradiol-induced MPN MOP activation. Orphanin FQ (OFQ/N; aka nociceptin) infusions into the ARH, like progesterone, deactivate MPN MOP and facilitate lordosis in estradiol-primed rats. OFQ/N reduces the activity of ARH β-endorphin neurons through post- and presynaptic mechanisms via its cognate receptor, ORL-1. Methods We tested the hypotheses that progesterone receptors (PR) are expressed in ARH OFQ/N neurons by immunohistochemistry and ORL-1 is expressed in POMC neurons that project to the MPN by combining Fluoro-Gold injection into the MPN and double-label fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). We also hypothesized that estradiol increases coexpression of PR-OFQ/N and ORL-1-POMC in ARH neurons of ovariectomized rats. Results The number of PR and OFQ/N immunopositive ARH neurons was increased as was their colocalization by estradiol treatment. FISH for ORL-1 and POMC mRNA revealed a subpopulation of ARH neurons that was triple-labeled indicating these neurons project to the MPN and coexpress ORL-1 and POMC mRNA. Estradiol was shown to upregulate ORL-1 and POMC expression in MPN-projecting ARH neurons. Conclusion Estradiol upregulates the ARH OFQ/N-ORL-1 system projecting to the MPN that regulates lordosis. PMID:24821192

  6. Neural input is critical for arcuate hypothalamic neurons to mount intracellular signaling responses to systemic insulin and deoxyglucose challenges in male rats: implications for communication within feeding and metabolic control networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arshad M; Walker, Ellen M; Dominguez, Nicole; Watts, Alan G

    2014-02-01

    The hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARH) controls rat feeding behavior in part through peptidergic neurons projecting to the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH). Hindbrain catecholaminergic (CA) neurons innervate both the PVH and ARH, and ablation of CA afferents to PVH neuroendocrine neurons prevents them from mounting cellular responses to systemic metabolic challenges such as insulin or 2-deoxy-d-glucose (2-DG). Here, we asked whether ablating CA afferents also limits their ARH responses to the same challenges or alters ARH connectivity with the PVH. We examined ARH neurons for three features: (1) CA afferents, visualized by dopamine-β-hydroxylase (DBH)- immunoreactivity; (2) activation by systemic metabolic challenge, as measured by increased numbers of neurons immunoreactive (ir) for phosphorylated ERK1/2 (pERK1/2); and (3) density of PVH-targeted axons immunoreactive for the feeding control peptides Agouti-related peptide and α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (αMSH). Loss of PVH DBH immunoreactivity resulted in concomitant ARH reductions of DBH-ir and pERK1/2-ir neurons in the medial ARH, where AgRP neurons are enriched. In contrast, pERK1/2 immunoreactivity after systemic metabolic challenge was absent in αMSH-ir ARH neurons. Yet surprisingly, axonal αMSH immunoreactivity in the PVH was markedly increased in CA-ablated animals. These results indicate that (1) intrinsic ARH activity is insufficient to recruit pERK1/2-ir ARH neurons during systemic metabolic challenges (rather, hindbrain-originating CA neurons are required); and (2) rats may compensate for a loss of CA innervation to the ARH and PVH by increased expression of αMSH. These findings highlight the existence of a hierarchical dependence for ARH responses to neural and humoral signals that influence feeding behavior and metabolism.

  7. Neuroprotection of the rat’s retinal ganglion cells against glutamate-induced toxicity

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    Kariman M.A El-Gohari

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion Taurine protects the retina against glutamate excitotoxicity and could have clinical implications in protecting the ganglion cells from several ophthalmic diseases such as glaucoma and diabetic retinopathy.

  8. Effects of Bee Venom on Glutamate-Induced Toxicity in Neuronal and Glial Cells

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    Sang Min Lee

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Bee venom (BV, which is extracted from honeybees, is used in traditional Korean medical therapy. Several groups have demonstrated the anti-inflammatory effects of BV in osteoarthritis both in vivo and in vitro. Glutamate is the predominant excitatory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS. Changes in glutamate release and uptake due to alterations in the activity of glutamate transporters have been reported in many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. To assess if BV can prevent glutamate-mediated neurotoxicity, we examined cell viability and signal transduction in glutamate-treated neuronal and microglial cells in the presence and absence of BV. We induced glutamatergic toxicity in neuronal cells and microglial cells and found that BV protected against cell death. Furthermore, BV significantly inhibited the cellular toxicity of glutamate, and pretreatment with BV altered MAP kinase activation (e.g., JNK, ERK, and p38 following exposure to glutamate. These findings suggest that treatment with BV may be helpful in reducing glutamatergic cell toxicity in neurodegenerative diseases.

  9. Curcumin Protects Neurons from Glutamate-Induced Excitotoxicity by Membrane Anchored AKAP79-PKA Interaction Network

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    Kui Chen

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Now stimulation of AMPA receptor as well as its downstream pathways is considered as potential central mediators in antidepressant mechanisms. As a signal integrator which binds to AMPA receptor, A-kinase anchoring protein 79-(AKAP79- PKA complex is regarded as a potential drug target to exert neuroprotective effects. A well-tolerated and multitarget drug curcumin has been confirmed to exert antidepressant-like effects. To explore whether AKAP79-PKA complex is involved in curcumin-mediated antiexcitotoxicity, we detected calcium signaling, subcellular location of AKAP79-PKA complex, phosphorylation of glutamate receptor, and ERK and AKT cascades. In this study, we found that curcumin protected neurons from glutamate insult by reducing Ca2+ influx and blocking the translocation of AKAP79 from cytomembrane to cytoplasm. In parallel, curcumin enhanced the phosphorylation of AMPA receptor and its downstream pathways in PKA-dependent manner. If we pretreated cells with PKA anchoring inhibitor Ht31 to disassociate PKA from AKAP79, no neuroprotective effects were observed. In conclusion, our results show that AKAP79-anchored PKA facilitated the signal relay from AMPA receptor to AKT and ERK cascades, which may be crucial for curcumin-mediated antiexcitotoxicity.

  10. Secretory phospholipase A2 potentiates glutamate-induced rat striatal neuronal cell death in vivo

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, M; Bruhn, T; Christensen, Thomas

    1999-01-01

    The secretory phospholipases A2 (sPLA2) OS2 (10, 20 and 50 pmol) or OS1, (50 pmol) purified from taipan snake Oxyuranus scutellatus scutellatus venom, and the excitatory amino acid glutamate (Glu) (2.5 and 5.0 micromol) were injected into the right striatum of male Wistar rats. Injection of 10...... no tissue damage or neurological abnormality. After injection of 5.0 micromol Glu, the animals initially circled towards the side of injection, and gradually developed generalized clonic convulsions. These animals showed a well demarcated striatal infarct. When non-toxic concentrations of 20 pmol OS2 and 2.......5 micromol Glu were co-injected, a synergistic neurotoxicity was observed. Extensive histological damage occurred in the entire right hemisphere, and in several rats comprising part of the contralateral hemisphere. These animals were apathetic in the immediate hours following injection, with circling towards...

  11. Glutamate-induced glutamate release: A proposed mechanism for calcium bursting in astrocytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larter, Raima; Craig, Melissa Glendening

    2005-12-01

    Here we present a new model for the generation of complex calcium-bursting patterns in astrocytes, a type of brain cell recently implicated in a variety of neural functions including memory formation. The model involves two positive feedback processes, in which the key feedback species are calcium ion and glutamate. The latter is the most abundant excitatory neurotransmitter in the brain and has been shown to be involved in bidirectional communication between astrocytes and nearby neurons. The glutamate feedback process considered here is shown to be critical for the generation of complex bursting oscillations in the astrocytes and to, perhaps, code for information which may be passed from neuron to neuron via the astrocyte. These processes may be involved in memory storage and formation as well as in mechanisms which lead to dynamical diseases such as epilepsy.

  12. Glutamate Induced Thermal Equilibrium Intermediate and Counteracting Effect on Chemical Denaturation of Proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anumalla, Bramhini; Prabhu, N Prakash

    2018-01-25

    When organisms are subjected to stress conditions, one of their adaptive responses is accumulation of small organic molecules called osmolytes. These osmolytes affect the structure and stability of the biological macromolecules including proteins. The present study examines the effect of a negatively charged amino acid osmolyte, glutamate (Glu), on two model proteins, ribonuclease A (RNase A) and α-lactalbumin (α-LA), which have positive and negative surface charges at pH 7, respectively. These proteins follow two-state unfolding transitions during both heat and chemical induced denaturation processes. The addition of Glu stabilizes the proteins against temperature and induces an early equilibrium intermediate during unfolding. The stability is found to be enthalpy-driven, and the free energy of stabilization is more for α-LA compared to RNase A. The decrease in the partial molar volume and compressibility of both of the proteins in the presence of Glu suggests that the proteins attain a more compact state through surface hydration which could provide a more stable conformation. This is also supported by molecule dynamic simulation studies which demonstrate that the water density around the proteins is increased upon the addition of Glu. Further, the intermediates could be completely destabilized by lower concentrations (∼0.5 M) of guanidinium chloride and salt. However, urea subverts the Glu-induced intermediate formed by α-LA, whereas it only slightly destabilizes in the case of RNase A which has a positive surface charge and could possess charge-charge interactions with Glu. This suggests that, apart from hydration, columbic interactions might also contribute to the stability of the intermediate. Gdm-induced denaturation of RNase A and α-LA in the absence and the presence of Glu at different temperatures was carried out. These results also show the Glu-induced stabilization of both of the proteins; however, all of the unfolding transitions followed two-state transitions during chemical denaturation. The extent of stability exerted by Glu is higher for RNase A at higher temperature, whereas it provides more stability for α-LA at lower temperature. Thus, the experiments indicate that Glu induces a thermal equilibrium intermediate and increases the thermodynamic stability of proteins irrespective of their surface charges. The extent of stability varies between the proteins in a temperature-dependent manner.

  13. Application of in vivo micro-computed tomography in the temporal characterisation of subchondral bone architecture in a rat model of low-dose monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Osteoarthritis (OA) is a complex, multifactorial joint disease affecting both the cartilage and the subchondral bone. Animal models of OA aid in the understanding of the pathogenesis of OA and testing suitable drugs for OA treatment. In this study we characterized the temporal changes in the tibial subchondral bone architecture in a rat model of low-dose monosodium iodoacetate (MIA)-induced OA using in vivo micro-computed tomography (CT). Methods Male Wistar rats received a single intra-articular injection of low-dose MIA (0.2 mg) in the right knee joint and sterile saline in the left knee joint. The animals were scanned in vivo by micro-CT at two, six, and ten weeks post-injection, analogous to early, intermediate, and advanced stages of OA, to assess architectural changes in the tibial subchondral bone. The articular cartilage changes in the tibiae were assessed macroscopically and histologically at ten weeks post-injection. Results Interestingly, tibiae of the MIA-injected knees showed significant bone loss at two weeks, followed by increased trabecular thickness and separation at six and ten weeks. The trabecular number was decreased at all time points compared to control tibiae. The tibial subchondral plate thickness of the MIA-injected knee was increased at two and six weeks and the plate porosity was increased at all time points compared to control. At ten weeks, histology revealed loss of proteoglycans, chondrocyte necrosis, chondrocyte clusters, cartilage fibrillation, and delamination in the MIA-injected tibiae, whereas the control tibiae showed no changes. Micro-CT images and histology showed the presence of subchondral bone sclerosis, cysts, and osteophytes. Conclusions These findings demonstrate that the low-dose MIA rat model closely mimics the pathological features of progressive human OA. The low-dose MIA rat model is therefore suitable to study the effect of therapeutic drugs on cartilage and bone in a non-trauma model of OA. In vivo

  14. Protective Effect of Water Extracted Spirulina maxima on Glutamate-induced Neuronal Cell Death in Mouse Hippocampal HT22 Cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyeon Yong; Ryu, Ga Hee; Choi, Woon Yong; Yang, Woo Seung; Lee, Hyeon Woo; Ma, Choong Je

    2018-01-01

    Spirulina maxima was used as important nutritional source in the Aztec civilization because it is rich in proteins and vitamins. It contains various antioxidants such as phycocyanin and flavonoids. Based on abundant antioxidants, S. maxima is known to possess anti-inflammatory effect, especially on neuronal cells. S. maxima was extracted in water and contain of phycocyanin was identified by high-performance liquid chromatography. Cell viability test was performed with treatment of S. maxima extract. After, oxidative stress-related mechanisms were evaluated by detecting the accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca 2+ influx, and decrease of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) level. Then, the glutathione (GSH) related assays were conducted. The water extracted S. maxima exerted the neuroprotective activity by attenuating the ROS and Ca 2+ formation, maintaining the MMP level, and protecting the activity of the antioxidant enzymes by increasing reduced GSH against oxidative stress compared to control. The results suggested that water extracted S. maxima showed powerful neuroprotective effect through the mechanism related to antioxidant activity, able to preventing the radical-mediated cell death. Water extracted Spirulina maxima contains C-phycocyaninWater extracted Spirulina maxima exerts neuroprotective effect on HT22 cellTo investigate the protective mechanisms, reactive oxygen species, Ca 2+ , mitochondrial membrane potential, Glutathione-related assays were performed. Abbreviations used: ROS: Reactive oxygen species; MMP: Mitochondrial membrane potential; GSH: Glutathione; GSSG: Glutathione disulfide, oxidized glutathione; GPx: Glutathione peroxidase; GR: Glutathione reductase; DMEM: Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium; FBS: Fetal bovine serum; DCF-DA: 2',7'-dichlorofluorescein diacetate; PBS: Phosphate buffered serum; Rho 123: Rhodamine 123; NADPH: Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate; DTNB: 5,5'-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid, Ellman's reagent; GSSG-R: Glutathione disulfide reductase; MTT: 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide; DMSO: Dimethyl sulfoxide; HPLC: High-performance liquid chromatography.

  15. The Role of the Neuropeptide Somatostatin on Methamphetamine and Glutamate-Induced Neurotoxicity in the Striatum of Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afanador, Lauriaselle; Mexhitaj, Ina; Diaz, Carolyn; Ordonez, Dalila; Baker, Lisa; Angulo, Jesus A.

    2014-01-01

    A large body of evidence shows that methamphetamine (METH) causes sustained damage to the brain in animal models and human METH users. In chronic users there are indications of cognitive and motor deficits. Striatal neuropeptides are in a position to modulate the neurochemical effects of METH and consequently striatal neural damage. Somatostatin (SST) is an intrinsic striatal neuropeptide that has been shown to inhibit glutamate transmission; glutamate is integral to METH toxicity and contributes to nitric oxide (NO) synthesis. We hypothesize that SST will protect from METH by inhibition of NO synthesis and thus reducing oxidative stress. To this end, the SST analogue octreotide (OCT) was microinjected into the striatum prior to a systemic injection of METH (30 mg/kg). We then assessed 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), an indirect index of NO production, tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) protein levels (dopamine terminal marker) and Fluoro-Jade C positive cells (degenerating cells). The SST agonist OCT dose dependently attenuated the METH-induced accumulation of striatal 3-NT. Moreover, pretreatment with OCT effectively mitigated cell death but failed to protect dopamine terminals. Next we co-infused OCT and NMDA and measured 3-NT and Fluoro-Jade C staining. Treatment with OCT had no effect on these parameters. The data demonstrate that SST attenuates the METH-induced production of NO protecting the striatum from the METH-induced cell loss. However, SST failed to prevent the toxicity of the dopamine terminals suggesting that pre- and post-synaptic striatal damage occur via independent mechanisms. PMID:23524190

  16. Effect of neurotrophin-3 precursor on glutamate-induced calcium homeostasis deregulation in rat cerebellum granule cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safina, Dina R; Surin, Alexander M; Pinelis, Vsevolod G; Kostrov, Sergey V

    2015-12-01

    Neurotrophin-3 (NT-3) belongs to the family of highly conserved dimeric growth factors that controls the differentiation and activity of various neuronal populations. Mammals contain both the mature (NT-3) and the precursor (pro-NT-3) forms of neurotrophin. Members of the neurotrophin family are involved in the regulation of calcium homeostasis in neurons; however, the role of NT-3 and pro-NT-3 in this process remains unclear. The current study explores the effects of NT-3 and pro-NT-3 on disturbed calcium homeostasis and decline of mitochondrial potential induced by a neurotoxic concentration of glutamate (Glu; 100 µM) in the primary culture of rat cerebellar granule cells. In this Glu excitotoxicity model, mature NT-3 had no effect on the induced changes in Ca²⁺ homeostasis. In contrast, pro-NT-3 decreased the period of delayed calcium deregulation (DCD) and concurrent strong mitochondrial depolarization. According to the amplitude of the increase in the intracellular free Ca²⁺ concentration ([Ca²⁺]i ) and Fura-2 fluorescence quenching by Mn²⁺ within the first 20 sec of exposure to Glu, pro-NT-3 had no effect on the initial rate of Ca²⁺ entry into neurons. During the lag period preceding DCD, the mean amplitude of [Ca²⁺]i rise was 1.2-fold greater in the presence of pro-NT-3 than in the presence of Glu alone (1.67 ±  0.07 and 1.39 ± 0.04, respectively, P < 0.05). The Glu-induced changes in Са²⁺ homeostasis in the presence of pro-NT-3 likely are due to the decreased rate of Са²⁺ removal from the cytosol during the DCD latency period. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Characterization of glutamate-induced formation of N- acylphosphatidylethanolamine and N-acylethanolamine in cultured neocortical neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Lauritzen, L.; Strand, A.M.

    1997-01-01

    ) assay). The increase in NAPE and NAE could be detected earlier than the neuronal death. Neither cyclic AMP, cyclic GMP, nitric oxide, protein kinase C, nor peroxidation appears to be involved in the formation of NAPE and NAE, as assessed by the use of different pharmacological agents. Exposure to 5 m...... receptors as seen by the inhibitory action of the NMDA-selective receptor antagonists D(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate and N- (1-(2-thienyl)-cyclohexyl)piperidine and the lack of effect of the a-amino- 3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA)/kainate-receptor antagonist 6-cyano-7-nitro......-quinoxaline-2,3-dione (CNQX). In 6-day-old cultures, exposure to NMDA (100 µM for 24 h) induced a linear increase in the formation of NAPE and NAE as well as a 40-50% neuronal death, as measured by a decrease in cellular formazan formation [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)- 2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT...

  18. Combined treatment with capsaicin and resveratrol enhances neuroprotection against glutamate-induced toxicity in mouse cerebral cortical neurons

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.G.; Yon, J.M.; Lin, C.; Jung, A.Y.; Jung, K.Y.; Nam, S.Y.

    2012-01-01

    Capsaicin and resveratrol as natural products have a variety of beneficial effects. However, capsaicin is also a neurotoxic agent, rendering its effect on the nervous system confusing. The aim of this study was to investigate whether capsaicin and/or resveratrol have a protective effect against

  19. Formation of N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine and N-acylethanolamine (including anandamide) during glutamate-induced neurotoxicity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Harald S.; Moesgaard, B.; Hansen, H.H.

    1999-01-01

    N-acyl-phosphatidylethanolamine (NAPE) is present in very small amounts in mammalian tissues (less than 0.1% of total phospholipids). However, NAPE as well as its degradation production, N-acylethanolamine (NAE), can be formed in certain neuronal tissues in response to increased [Ca ](i). A high...... activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate-receptor. Both NAPE and, to a lesser extent, NAE accumulate in a linear fashion for many hours while at the same time the neurons are dying. Likewise, in neurons prelabeled with C-arachidonic acid, C-arachidonic acid-labeled NAPE, and anandamide (= N...

  20. Celiac Injury Due to Arcuate Ligament: An Endovascular Approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zini, Chiara, E-mail: zini.chiara@gmail.com; Corona, Mario, E-mail: mario.corona@uniroma.it; Boatta, Emanuele, E-mail: emanuele.boatta@yahoo.it; Wlderk, Andrea, E-mail: a.wlderk@virgilio.it; Salvatori, Filippo Maria, E-mail: filippomaria.salvatori@uniroma1.it; Fanelli, Fabrizio, E-mail: fabrizio.fanelli@uniroma1.it [' Sapienza,' -University of Rome, Vascular and Interventional Radiology Unit, Radiology, Oncology and Pathology Department (Italy)

    2013-06-15

    Celiac trunk injures are rare events, with high mortality rates and difficult management. Endovascular treatment may be considered to avoid bleeding. We report a case of severe bleeding in a 37-year-old man resulting from celiac trunk stretching after a motorcycle crash. Because direct celiac trunk catheterization was not possible, a retrograde catheterization of the common hepatic artery was performed via the superior mesenteric artery. Two vascular plugs (type IV) were released, and the exclusion of the celiac trunk origin was completed with the deployment of an aortic cuff. The patient's clinical condition immediately improved, and after 6 months' follow-up, imaging confirmed the complete exclusion of the celiac trunk.

  1. Celiac Injury Due to Arcuate Ligament: An Endovascular Approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zini, Chiara; Corona, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Wlderk, Andrea; Salvatori, Filippo Maria; Fanelli, Fabrizio

    2013-01-01

    Celiac trunk injures are rare events, with high mortality rates and difficult management. Endovascular treatment may be considered to avoid bleeding. We report a case of severe bleeding in a 37-year-old man resulting from celiac trunk stretching after a motorcycle crash. Because direct celiac trunk catheterization was not possible, a retrograde catheterization of the common hepatic artery was performed via the superior mesenteric artery. Two vascular plugs (type IV) were released, and the exclusion of the celiac trunk origin was completed with the deployment of an aortic cuff. The patient’s clinical condition immediately improved, and after 6 months’ follow-up, imaging confirmed the complete exclusion of the celiac trunk.

  2. Earthquake source characteristics along the arcuate Himalayan belt ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A positive correlation between plate and stress obliquities is established for this dif- fuse plate boundary. ..... plane of maximum shear stress related to the prin- cipal compressive stress at 85 ..... carry out the present work. References. Ahnert F ...

  3. Effect of the oral administration of monosodium glutamate during pregnancy and breast-feeding in the offspring of pregnant Wistar rats Efeito da administração de glutamato monossódico durante a gestação e amamentação na prole de ratas Wistar prenhes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius von Diemen

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Determine the effects of the MSG (monosodium glutamate in the offspring of pregnant rats through the comparison of the weight, NAL (nasal-anal length and IL (Index of Lee at birth and with 21 days of life. METHODS: Pregnant Wistar rats and their offspring were divided into 3 groups: GC, G10 and G20. Each of the groups received 0%, 10% and 20% of MSG, respectively from coupling until the end of the weaning period. RESULTS: Neither weight nor NAL were different among the groups at birth. The group G20 at birth had an IL lower than the group GC (pOBJETIVO: Avaliar o efeito do glutamato monossódico (GMS nos fetos de ratas prenhes por meio da comparação do peso, comprimento nasal-anal (CNA e índice de Lee (IL ao nascimento e com 21 dias de vida. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizadas ratas prenhes da linhagem Wistar distribuídas em três grupos: grupo controle (GC, G10 e G20. Estes, respectivamente, foram alimentados com ração contendo 0, 10 e 20% de GMS desde o período de acasalamento até o final da amamentação. RESULTADOS: O peso e o CNA não foram diferentes entre os grupos ao nascimento. O grupo G20, ao nascimento, teve IL menor que o grupo GC (p < 0,05 e, aos 21 dias de vida, apresentou peso e CNA menores que o grupo G10, o qual foi menor que o GC (p < 0,01. O grupo G20, aos 21 dias de vida, teve IL semelhante aos outros dois grupos. O percentual de ganho de peso do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida foi menor no G20 em relação aos outros dois grupos (p < 0,01. O grupo G20 teve percentual de aumento de CNA do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida menor que o grupo G10, e este menor que o grupo GC (p < 0,01. CONCLUSÕES: O GMS nas concentrações de 10 e 20% na ração de ratas prenhes Wistar apresentou uma relação dose-dependente nas variáveis peso e CNA. Houve diminuição no padrão de ganho de peso e de aumento de CNA do nascimento ao 21º dia de vida com uso de GMS. O IL na prole do grupo G20 aumentou em relação ao do grupo GC após 3

  4. Effect of monosodium glutamate and aspartame on behavioral and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-13

    Apr 13, 2016 ... Department of Basic Sciences, College of Education, Dammam University, P. O. Box ... hemoglobin concentration, white blood cell count platelets count and ... between 20 and 22°C. Food (Pilsbury's Diet) and water were.

  5. Reduction of sodium content in spicy soups using monosodium glutamate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jinap, Selamat; Hajeb, Parvaneh; Karim, Roslina

    2016-01-01

    reduction was investigated.Methods and Results: The trained panellists were presented with basic spicy soups (curry chicken and chili chicken) containing different amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) (0-1.2%) and MSG (0-1.2%). They tasted the optimum concentrations of NaCl and MSG for the two spicy soups...... and the overall acceptability were 0.8% and 0.7%, respectively. There was no significant effect of spiciness level on the saltiness and umami taste of both soups. The optimum levels of combined NaCl and MSG for overall acceptance in the chili and curry soups were 0.3% and 0.7%, respectively. The results showed...... that with the addition of MSG, it is possible to reduce sodium intake without changing the overall acceptability of the spicy soup. A 32.5% reduction in sodium level is made feasible by adding 0.7% MSG to the spicy soups.Conclusions: This study suggests that low-sodium soups can be developed by the addition...

  6. Testing and Characterization of Engineered Forms of Monosodium Titanate (MST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-01-01

    Engineered forms of MST and mMST were prepared at ORNL using an internal gelation process. Samples of these two materials were characterized at SRNL to examine particle size and morphology, peroxide content, tapped densities, and Na, Ti, and C content. Batch contact tests were also performed to examine the performance of the materials. The E mMST material was found to contain less than 10% of the peroxide found in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. This was also evidenced in batch contact testing with both simulated and actual waste, where little difference in performance was seen between the two engineered materials, E MST and E mMST. Based on these results, attempts were made to increase the peroxide content of the materials by post-treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide treatment resulted in a slight (∼10%) increase in peroxide content; however, the peroxide:Ti molar ratio was still much lower (∼0.1 X) than what is seen in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. Testing with simulated waste showed the performance of the peroxide treated materials was improved. Batch contact tests were also performed with an earlier (2003) prepared lot of E MST to examine the effect of ionic strength on the performance of the material. In general the results showed a decrease in removal performance with increasing ionic strength, which is consistent with previous testing with MST. A Sr loading isotherm was also determined, and the E MST material was found to reach a Sr loading as high as 13.2 wt % after 100 days of contact at a phase ratio of 20000 mL/g. At the typical MST phase ratio of 2500 mL/g (0.4 g/L), a Sr loading of 2.64 wt % was reached after 506 hours of contact. Samples of E MST and the post-peroxide treated E mMST were also tested in a column configuration using simulated waste solution. The breakthrough curves along with analysis of the sorbent beds at the conclusion of the experiments showed that the peroxide treated E mMST has a higher Sr and Np capacity, but that both materials have similar Pu capacities. The E MST removed a larger percentage of U than the peroxide treated E mMST, which is consistent with previous testing which showed that mMST has little affinity for U under these conditions.

  7. Solubility of fumaric acid and its monosodium salt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roa Engel, C.A.; Horst, J.H. ter; Pieterse, M.; Wielen, L.A.M. van der; Straathof, A.J.J.

    2013-01-01

    Fumaric acid is a dicarboxylic acid applied in food industry and in some polymers. Currently, its fermentative production from renewable resources is receiving much attention, and crystallization is used to recover it. To determine the window of operation for crystallization from multicomponent

  8. Effect of monosodium glutamate and aspartame on behavioral and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sunny t

    2016-04-13

    Apr 13, 2016 ... scientific researches to investigate their effect on other parameters. ..... pointed the overlapping imbalance in neurotransmitters ... research works show anxiety disorders change serotonin, which is ..... lesions inhibit the N-Methyl-Daspartate - induced growth hormone but not Prolactin release in rats. Life Sci.

  9. Monosodium Luminol for Improving Brain Function in Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-10-01

    much attention. First, veterans who were stationed in the battlefield areas believed to have consumed pills of pyridostigmine bromide (PB) during...966, 2007; Yassa and Stark, Trends Neurosci , 34: 515-525). Maintenance of this function depends upon the integrity of the hippocampus particularly...as described in our published report (Hattiangady et al., Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2014). We examined rats belonging to different

  10. The effect of monosodium glutamate (MSG) on blood glucose in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The animals were grouped into two: groups A (control) and B (Test B1 and Test B2). Group A received water and feed (grower's mash) with grass supplementation. Group B (Test B1 and B2) received 3.33mg/ml and 6.66mg/ml of MSG respectively at libitum. At the end of each week, fasting blood glucose levels were ...

  11. Monosodium Luminol for Improving Brain Function in Gulf War Illness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-01

    of BrdU+ cells (i.e. newly born cells), doublecortin (DCX, a marker of newly born neurons ), glial fibrillary acidic protein, (GFAP, a marker of...can reduce hydrogen peroxide and short chain organic, fatty acid , and phospholipid hydroperoxides. It is also believed to play a role in the...gene encoding thioredoxin reductase 1, which reduces thioredoxins as well as other substrates, and plays a role in selenium metabolism and protection

  12. Acute poisoning by monosodium methanearsonic acid in cattle

    OpenAIRE

    Dantas, Gabriela N.; Santarosa, Bianca P.; Cagnini, Didier Q.; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo M.; Chiacchio, Simone B.; Gonçalves, Roberto C.; Riet-Correa, Franklin; Borges, Alexandre S.

    2012-01-01

    O presente trabalho estudou a intoxicação acidental por arsênico em um lote de 24 vacas Girolando, as quais tiveram acesso a pasto pulverizado com herbicida à base de metano arsonato ácido monossódico (MSMA). Os bovinos apresentaram apatia, anorexia e diarreia profusa. Foram necropsiados na fazenda dois animais de 14 que morreram. Os principais achados macroscópicos foram úlceras abomasais e congestão renal. No exame microscópico, as principais lesões observadas foram abomasite e omasite necr...

  13. TESTING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ENGINEERED FORMS OF MONOSODIUM TITANATE (MST)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K.; Nash, C.; Hobbs, D.

    2012-05-14

    Engineered forms of MST and mMST were prepared at ORNL using an internal gelation process. Samples of these two materials were characterized at SRNL to examine particle size and morphology, peroxide content, tapped densities, and Na, Ti, and C content. Batch contact tests were also performed to examine the performance of the materials. The {sup E}mMST material was found to contain less than 10% of the peroxide found in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. This was also evidenced in batch contact testing with both simulated and actual waste, where little difference in performance was seen between the two engineered materials, {sup E}MST and {sup E}mMST. Based on these results, attempts were made to increase the peroxide content of the materials by post-treatment with hydrogen peroxide. The peroxide treatment resulted in a slight ({approx}10%) increase in peroxide content; however, the peroxide:Ti molar ratio was still much lower ({approx}0.1 X) than what is seen in a freshly prepared batch of mMST. Testing with simulated waste showed the performance of the peroxide treated materials was improved. Batch contact tests were also performed with an earlier (2003) prepared lot of {sup E}MST to examine the effect of ionic strength on the performance of the material. In general the results showed a decrease in removal performance with increasing ionic strength, which is consistent with previous testing with MST. A Sr loading isotherm was also determined, and the {sup E}MST material was found to reach a Sr loading as high as 13.2 wt % after 100 days of contact at a phase ratio of 20000 mL/g. At the typical MST phase ratio of 2500 mL/g (0.4 g/L), a Sr loading of 2.64 wt % was reached after 506 hours of contact. Samples of {sup E}MST and the post-peroxide treated {sup E}mMST were also tested in a column configuration using simulated waste solution. The breakthrough curves along with analysis of the sorbent beds at the conclusion of the experiments showed that the peroxide treated {sup E}mMST has a higher Sr and Np capacity, but that both materials have similar Pu capacities. The {sup E}MST removed a larger percentage of U than the peroxide treated {sup E}mMST, which is consistent with previous testing which showed that mMST has little affinity for U under these conditions.

  14. Histological Studies of the Effects of Monosodium Glutamate on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Uche

    environmental influences. Such harmful ... organisms, trauma, dietary deficiencies and hereditary ... meals, MSG influences the appetite positively, and induces .... brain and other organs. 15 ... (http://www.asrm.org/Patients/faqs.html). (FAQ).

  15. Alkaloids from the hook-bearing branch of Uncaria rhynchophylla and their neuroprotective effects against glutamate-induced HT22 cell death

    OpenAIRE

    Qi, Wen; Yue, Si-Jia; Sun, Jia-Hong; Simpkins, James W.; Zhang, Lin; Yuan, Dan

    2014-01-01

    One new alkaloid, 4-geissoschizine N-oxide methyl ether (1), was isolated from the EtOH extract of the hook-bearing branch of Uncaria rhynchophylla, together with 10 known alkaloids, 3-epi-geissoschizine methyl ether (2) isolated from U. rhynchophylla for the first time, geissoschizine methyl ether (3), 4-hirsuteine N-oxide (4), hirsuteine (5), hirsutine (6), 3α-dihydro-cadambine (7), 3β-isodihydro-cadambine (8), cadambine (9), strictosamide (10), and akuammigine (11). The structures were elu...

  16. Effect of parenteral glutamate treatment on the localization of neurotransmitters in the mediobasal hypothalamus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walaas, I; Fonnum, F

    1978-01-01

    The localization of cholinergic, aminergic and amino acid-ergic neurones in the mediobasal hypothalamus has been studied in normal rat brain and in brains where neurones in nucleus arcuatus were destroyed by repeated administration of 2 mg/g body weight monosodium glutamate to newborn animals. In normal animals acetylcholinesterase staining, choline acetyltransferase and aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase were concentrated in the median eminence and the arcuate nucleus. Glutamate decarboxylase was concentrated at the boundary between the ventromedial and the arcuate nuclei, with lower activity in the arcuate nucleus and very low activity in the median eminence. Nucleus arcuatus contained an intermediate level of high affinity glutamate uptake. In the lesioned animals, there were significant decreases in choline acetyltransferase, acetylcholinesterase staining and glutamate decarboxylase in the median eminence, whereas choline acetyltransferase activity and acetylcholinesterase staining, but not glutamate decarboxylase activity, were decreased in nucleus arcuatus. Aromatic L-amino acid decarboxylase was unchanged in all regions studied. The high affinity uptakes of glutamate, dopamine and noradrenaline, and the endogenous amino acid levels were also unchanged in the treated animals. The results indicate the existence of acetylcholine- and GABA-containing elements in the tuberoinfundibular tract. They further indicate that the dopamine cells in the arcuate nucleus are less sensitive to the toxic effect of glutamate than other cell types, possibly because they contain less glutamate receptors.

  17. Suprachiasmatic Nucleus Interaction with the Arcuate Nucleus; Essential for Organizing Physiological Rhythms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buijs, Frederik N.; Guzmán-Ruiz, Mara; León-Mercado, Luis; Basualdo, Mari Carmen; Escobar, Carolina; Kalsbeek, Andries; Buijs, Ruud M.

    2017-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) is generally considered the master clock, independently driving all circadian rhythms. We recently demonstrated the SCN receives metabolic and cardiovascular feedback adeptly altering its neuronal activity. In the present study, we show that microcuts effectively

  18. Emerging Signaling Pathway in Arcuate Feeding-Related Neurons: Role of the Acbd7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damien Lanfray

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The understanding of the mechanisms whereby energy balance is regulated is essential to the unraveling of the pathophysiology of obesity. In the last three decades, focus was put on the metabolic role played by the hypothalamic neurons expressing proopiomelanocortin (POMC and cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript (CART and the neurons co-localizing agouti-related peptide (AgRP, neuropeptide Y (NPY, and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA. These neurons are part of the leptin-melanocortin pathway, whose role is key in energy balance regulation. More recently, the metabolic involvement of further hypothalamic uncharacterized neuron populations has been suggested. In this review, we discuss the potential homeostatic implication of hypothalamic GABAergic neurons that produce Acyl-Coa-binding domain containing protein 7 (ACBD7, precursor of the nonadecaneuropeptide (NDN, which has recently been characterized as a potent anorexigenic neuropeptide capable of relaying the leptin anorectic/thermogenic effect via the melanocortin system.

  19. Role of the Hypothalamic Arcuate Nucleus in Regulation of Food Intake (Review Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshid Hamidi

    2017-05-01

    Based on the literature, the ARC is the part of brain where some neurotransmitters exert the most potent orexigenic or anorexigenic effects in mammals and birds. Food intake is inhibited by leptin, insulin, αMSH, and serotonin and activated by NP Y, Agrp, NO F/Q, and GABA. However, a few neurotransmitter such as ghrelin has a dual function, ghrelin stimulates feeding in mammals, although it attenuates food intake in birds.

  20. Damage to the anterior arcuate fasciculus predicts non-fluent speech production in aphasia

    OpenAIRE

    Fridriksson, Julius; Guo, Dazhou; Fillmore, Paul; Holland, Audrey; Rorden, Chris

    2013-01-01

    Non-fluent aphasia implies a relatively straightforward neurological condition characterized by limited speech output. However, it is an umbrella term for different underlying impairments affecting speech production. Several studies have sought the critical lesion location that gives rise to non-fluent aphasia. The results have been mixed but typically implicate anterior cortical regions such as Broca’s area, the left anterior insula, and deep white matter regions. To provide a clearer pictur...

  1. Insulin in the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus reduces fat consumption in rats

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, G; de Groote, C; Chavez, M; van der Werf, Y; Steffens, AB; Strubbe, JH

    1997-01-01

    Data are accumulating that insulin acting in the central nervous system is a physiological regulator of food intake and body weight, presumably via its effect in the hypothalamus. The present study investigated whether infusion of a small dose of insulin into two major hypothalamic insulin-binding

  2. Beyond the Arcuate Fasciculus: Consensus and Controversy in the Connectional Anatomy of Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dick, Anthony Steven; Tremblay, Pascale

    2012-01-01

    The growing consensus that language is distributed into large-scale cortical and subcortical networks has brought with it an increasing focus on the connectional anatomy of language, or how particular fibre pathways connect regions within the language network. Understanding connectivity of the language network could provide critical insights into…

  3. Apelin-13 enhances arcuate POMC neuron activity via inhibiting M-current.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong Kun Lee

    Full Text Available The hypothalamus is a key element of the neural circuits that control energy homeostasis. Specific neuronal populations within the hypothalamus are sensitive to a variety of homeostatic indicators such as circulating nutrient levels and hormones that signal circulating glucose and body fat content. Central injection of apelin secreted by adipose tissues regulates feeding and glucose homeostasis. However, the precise neuronal populations and cellular mechanisms involved in these physiological processes remain unclear. Here we examine the electrophysiological impact of apelin-13 on proopiomelanocortin (POMC neuron activity. Approximately half of POMC neurons examined respond to apelin-13. Apelin-13 causes a dose-dependent depolarization. This effect is abolished by the apelin (APJ receptor antagonist. POMC neurons from animals pre-treated with pertussis toxin still respond to apelin, whereas the Gβγ signaling inhibitor gallein blocks apelin-mediated depolarization. In addition, the effect of apelin is inhibited by the phospholipase C and protein kinase inhibitors. Furthermore, single-cell qPCR analysis shows that POMC neurons express the APJ receptor, PLC-β isoforms, and KCNQ subunits (2, 3 and 5 which contribute to M-type current. Apelin-13 inhibits M-current that is blocked by the KCNQ channel inhibitor. Therefore, our present data indicate that apelin activates APJ receptors, and the resultant dissociation of the Gαq heterotrimer triggers a Gβγ-dependent activation of PLC-β signaling that inhibits M-current.

  4. Prediction Models for Plutonium, Strontium, Uranium and Neptunium Loading onto Monosodium Titanate (MST)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fondeur, F. F.; Hobbs, D. T.; Barnes, M. J.; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2005-01-01

    The DA isotherm parameters for U, Pu, Sr and Np have been updated to include additional data obtained since the original derivation. The DA isotherms were modified to include a kinetic function derived by Rahn to describe sorbate loading from the beginning of sorption up to equilibrium. The final functions describe both kinetic and thermodynamic sorption. We selected the Rahn function to describe radionuclide sorption because it originates from diffusion and absorption controlled sorption. An investigation of the thermal behavior of radionuclide sorption on MST as shown by this data revealed the sorption process is diffusion (or transport) controlled (in solution). Transport in solution can in theory be accelerated by vigorous mixing but the range of available mixing speed in the facility design will probably not be sufficient to markedly increase radionuclide sorption rate on MST from diffusion-controlled sorption. The laboratory studies included mixing energies hydraulically-scaled to match those of the Actinide Removal Process and these likely approximate the range of energies available in the Salt Waste Processing Facility

  5. 78 FR 65278 - Monosodium Glutamate From the People's Republic of China, and the Republic of Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... by subparagraph (A); or (ii) determine industry support using a statistically valid sampling method... for convenience and customs purposes; however, the written description of the scope is dispositive...

  6. 78 FR 65269 - Monosodium Glutamate From the People's Republic of China and the Republic of Indonesia...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-31

    ... support using a statistically valid sampling method to poll the ``industry.'' Section 771(4)(A) of the Act... classifications, CAS registry number, and UNII number are provided for convenience and customs purposes; however...

  7. 78 FR 57881 - Monosodium Glutamate from China and Indonesia; Institution of Antidumping and Countervailing Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-20

    ... than fair value and alleged to be subsidized by the Governments of China and Indonesia. Unless the... duties will each be collectively allocated one hour within which to make an oral presentation at the... investigations. Parties may file written testimony in connection with their presentation at the conference no...

  8. PEROXOTITANATE- AND MONOSODIUM METAL-TITANATE COMPOUNDS AS INHIBITORS OF BACTERIAL GROWTH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hobbs, D.

    2011-01-19

    Sodium titanates are ion-exchange materials that effectively bind a variety of metal ions over a wide pH range. Sodium titanates alone have no known adverse biological effects but metal-exchanged titanates (or metal titanates) can deliver metal ions to mammalian cells to alter cell processes in vitro. In this work, we test a hypothesis that metal-titanate compounds inhibit bacterial growth; demonstration of this principle is one prerequisite to developing metal-based, titanate-delivered antibacterial agents. Focusing initially on oral diseases, we exposed five species of oral bacteria to titanates for 24 h, with or without loading of Au(III), Pd(II), Pt(II), and Pt(IV), and measuring bacterial growth in planktonic assays through increases in optical density. In each experiment, bacterial growth was compared with control cultures of titanates or bacteria alone. We observed no suppression of bacterial growth by the sodium titanates alone, but significant (p < 0.05, two-sided t-tests) suppression was observed with metal-titanate compounds, particularly Au(III)-titanates, but with other metal titanates as well. Growth inhibition ranged from 15 to 100% depending on the metal ion and bacterial species involved. Furthermore, in specific cases, the titanates inhibited bacterial growth 5- to 375-fold versus metal ions alone, suggesting that titanates enhanced metal-bacteria interactions. This work supports further development of metal titanates as a novel class of antibacterials.

  9. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gheller, Ana Carla Guidini Valentini; Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  10. Pengaruh Pemberian Madu Terhadap Fungsi Hati Tikus Wistar Jantan Yang Diinduksi Monosodium Glutamat

    OpenAIRE

    Aliftiyo, Widi Taufik; Tjahjono DK, Kusmiyati; Johan, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Background: Consuming high dose of MSG may damage liver. MSG increases oxidative stress and causing hepatocellular injury. Hepatocellular injury marked by increased transaminases serum. Honey has antioxidant properties. Honey may attenuate MSG induced hepatocellular injury.Aim: Study the effect of honey on Wistar rats's liver function which induced by MSG.Methods: This study was a true experimental study with post test randomized controlled group design. 31 samples assigned into 4 groups. K1 ...

  11. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerkhoff, Jacqueline; Vieira Júnior, Gerardo Magela; de Campos, Kleber Eduardo; Sugui, Marina Mariko

    2017-01-01

    Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg) induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis. PMID:28197528

  12. Antimutagenic Effect of Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Aqueous Extract on Rats Treated with Monosodium Glutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carla Guidini Valentini Gheller

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus sabdariffa L. is a plant of the Malvaceae family, commonly known as roselle. H. sabdariffa is known to contain antioxidant, cholesterol-lowering, antiobesity, insulin resistance reduction, antihypertensive, and skin cancer chemopreventive properties. This study evaluated the effects of H. sabdariffa aqueous extract against cyclophosphamide (CPA, 25 mg/Kg induced damage to DNA in male Wistar rats by micronucleus test. Samples of H. sabdariffa calyx were obtained in the municipality of Barra do Garças, Mato Grosso, Brazil. The aqueous extract was prepared by infusion and each animal received a daily dose of 400 mg/Kg by gavage for 15 consecutive days of treatment. The presence of anthocyanins was confirmed by ferric chloride test and phenolic compounds using high-performance liquid chromatography, with emphasis on the identification of rutin. The animals were sacrificed by deepening of anaesthesia to obtain bone marrow and determination of the frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes. The group treated with the aqueous extract of H. sabdariffa revealed a 91% reduction in micronucleus frequency when compared with the positive control group. Under the conditions tested, H. sabdariffa L. presented a protective effect to CPA-induced damage to DNA of the treated animals, and it is a potential candidate as a chemopreventive agent against carcinogenesis.

  13. 75 FR 40824 - Monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA); Cancellation Order for Certain Pesticide Registrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... distribution, sale, or use of existing stocks of the products identified in Table 1 of Unit II. in a manner... of Receipt of Requests from the registrants listed in Table 2 of Unit II. to voluntarily cancel these... are listed in sequence by registration number in Table 1 of this unit. Table 1.--MSMA Product...

  14. Prevention of reflex natriuresis after acute unilateral nephrectomy by neonatal administration of MSG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, S.Y.; Wiedemann, E.; Deschepper, C.F.; Alper, R.H.; Humphreys, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Acute unilateral nephrectomy (AUN) results in natriuresis from the remaining kidney through reflex pathways involving the central nervous system and requiring an intact pituitary gland. The natriuresis is accompanied by an increase in the plasma concentration of a peptide or peptides derived from the N-terminal fragment (NTF) of proopiomelanocortin. The authors measured plasma immunoreactive NTF-like material (IR-NTF) by radioimmunoassay, before and after AUN in control rats and rats treated neonatally with monosodium glutamate (MSG), a procedure that produces neuroendocrine dysfunction by destroying cell bodies in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus, median eminence, and other brain regions. In control rats, IR-NTF increased from 85.8 +/- 54.9 (SD) to 207 +/- 98.1 fmol/ml after AUN as sodium excretion (U/sub Na/V) doubled. In MSG-treated rats, AUN produced no change in plasma IR-NTF concentration, nor did U/sub Na/V increase. Tissue content of IR-NTF was reduced in the arcuate nucleus and anterior lobe of pituitaries from MSG-treated rats compared with controls, but was no different in the neurointermediate lobe. These results indicate that the hypothalamic lesion produced by neonatal administration of MSG prevents both the increase in plasma IR-NTF concentration and the natruiuresis after AUN, and therefore lend further support to the concept of a casual relationship between these two consequences of AUN

  15. Effect of progesterone on kisspeptin and neurokinin B cell numbers in the arcuate nucleus of the female pig

    Science.gov (United States)

    Progesterone acts at the hypothalamus to inhibit LH secretion in the pig, but the mechanism for this is unknown. Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) have both been shown to influence GnRH/LH secretion and mediate steroid negative feedback in several species and to be critical for normal reproductive f...

  16. Apolipoprotein A-IV inhibits AgRP/NPY neurons and activates POMC neurons in the arcuate nucleus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apolipoprotein A-IV (apoA-IV) in the brain potently suppresses food intake. However the mechanisms underlying its anorexigenic effects remain to be identified. We first examined the effects of apoA-IV on cellular activities in hypothalamic neurons that co-express agouti-related peptide (AgRP) and ne...

  17. A free-choice high-fat high-sugar diet induces changes in arcuate neuropeptide expression that support hyperphagia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    La Fleur, S. E.; van Rozen, A. J.; Luijendijk, M. C. M.; Groeneweg, F.; Adan, R. A. H.

    2010-01-01

    The mechanisms for how saturated fat and sugar-based beverages contribute to human obesity are poorly understood. This paper describes a series of experiments developed to examine the response of hypothalamic neuropeptides to diets rich in sugar and fat, using three different diets: a high-fat

  18. Recovery of injured Broca's portion of arcuate fasciculus in the dominant hemisphere in a patient with traumatic brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Sung Ho; Ha, Ji Wan; Kim, Hyun Young; Seo, You Sung

    2017-12-01

    Recovery of injured AF in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been reported. In this study, we report on a patient with TBI who recovered from an injury to Broca's portion of AF in the dominant hemisphere, diagnosed by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). A 28-year-old right-handed male patient suffered head trauma resulting from sliding while riding a motorcycle. He was diagnosed with a traumatic contusional hemorrhage in the left frontal lobe, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and subdural hemorrhage in the left fronto-temporal lobe. He underwent craniectomy on the left fronto-temporal area, and hematoma removal for the subdural hemorrhage in the neurosurgery department of a university hospital. Two weeks after the injury, he was transferred to the rehabilitation department of another university hospital. He showed severe aphasia and brain MRI showed leukomalactic lesion in the left frontal lobe. The result WAB for the patient showed severe aphasia, with an aphasia quotient of 45.3 percentile. However, his aphasia improved rapidly by 9 months with an aphasia quotient at the 100.0 percentile. 2-week DTT detected discontinuity in the subcortical white matter at the branch to Broca's area of left AF. By contrast, on 9-month DTT, the discontinued portion of left AF was elongated to the left Broca's area. Recovery of injured Broca's portion of AF in the dominant hemisphere along with excellent improvement of aphasia was demonstrated in a patient with TBI. This study has important implications in brain rehabilitation because the mechanism of recovery from aphasia following TBI has not been elucidated. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Recovery of injured Broca's portion of arcuate fasciculus in the dominant hemisphere in a patient with traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Jang, Sung Ho; Ha, Ji Wan; Kim, Hyun Young; Seo, You Sung

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: Recovery of injured AF in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) has not been reported. In this study, we report on a patient with TBI who recovered from an injury to Broca's portion of AF in the dominant hemisphere, diagnosed by diffusion tensor tractography (DTT). Patient concerns: A 28-year-old right-handed male patient suffered head trauma resulting from sliding while riding a motorcycle. Diagnoses: He was diagnosed with a traumatic contusional hemorrhage in the le...

  20. PENGARUH PEMBERIAN MONOSODIUM GLUTAMAT TERHADAP KADAR HORMON ESTRADIOL DAN KADAR HORMON PROGESTERON PADA TIKUS PUTIH BETINA (Rattus norvegicus)

    OpenAIRE

    ani, andri

    2018-01-01

    Perubahan pola demografi di negara maju dan negara berkembang, angka kejadian infertilitas di negara maju dilaporkan sekitar 5%-8% dan di negara berkembang sekitar 30%.WHO memperkirakan sekitar 8%-10% atau sekitar 50-80 juta pasangan suami istri di seluruh dunia mengalami masalah infertilitas, sehingga membuat infertilitas menjadi masalah mendesak. Untuk itu diperlukan pengendalian infertilitas, salah satunya adalah kewaspadaan perubahan gaya hidup, perubahan ini juga mempengaruhi pola konsum...

  1. Interim salt disposition program macrobatch 6 tank 21H qualification monosodium titanate and cesium mass transfer tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washington, A. L. II; Peters, T. B.; Fink, S. D.

    2013-02-25

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) performed experiments on qualification material for use in the Interim Salt Disposition Program (ISDP) Batch 6 processing. This qualification material was a set of six samples from Tank 21H in October 2012. This sample was used as a real waste demonstration of the Actinide Removal Process (ARP) and the Extraction-Scrub-Strip (ESS) tests process. The Tank 21H sample was contacted with a reduced amount (0.2 g/L) of MST and characterized for strontium and actinide removal at 0 and 8 hour time intervals in this salt batch. {sup 237}Np and {sup 243}Am were both observed to be below detection limits in the source material, and so these results are not reported in this report. The plutonium and uranium samples had decontamination factor (DF) values that were on par or slightly better than we expected from Batch 5. The strontium DF values are slightly lower than expected but still in an acceptable range. The Extraction, Scrub, and Strip (ESS) testing demonstrated cesium removal, stripping and scrubbing within the acceptable range. Overall, the testing indicated that cesium removal is comparable to prior batches at MCU.

  2. Effect of alcoholic extract of Entada pursaetha DC on monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis pain in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi R Kumari

    2015-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: The present findings showed that the EPE was not only able to mitigate pain and hyperalgesia but also inhibited MIA-induced cartilage degeneration in vivo. EPE may have the potential to become therapeutic modality in the treatment of osteoarthritis. However, further studies need to be done to confirm these findings in other models and clinical trials.

  3. Cranberry extract-enriched diets increase NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase and catalase activities in obese but not in nonobese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boušová, Iva; Bártíková, Hana; Matoušková, Petra; Lněničková, Kateřina; Zappe, Lukáš; Valentová, Kateřina; Szotáková, Barbora; Martin, Jan; Skálová, Lenka

    2015-10-01

    Consumption of antioxidant-enriched diets is 1 method of addressing obesity, which is associated with chronic oxidative stress and changes in the activity/expression of various enzymes. In this study, we hypothesized that the modulation of antioxidant enzymes and redox status through a cranberry extract (CBE)-enriched diet would differ between obese and nonobese mice. The CBE used in this study was obtained from the American cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon, Ericaceae), a popular constituent of dietary supplements that is a particularly rich source of (poly)phenols and has strong antioxidant properties. The present study was designed to test and compare the in vivo effects of 28-day consumption of a CBE-enriched diet (2%) on the antioxidant status of nonobese mice and mice with monosodium glutamate-induced obesity. Plasma, erythrocytes, liver, and small intestine were studied concurrently to obtain more complex information. The specific activities, protein, and messenger RNA expression levels of antioxidant enzymes as well as the levels of malondialdehyde and thiol (SH) groups were analyzed. Cranberry extract treatment increased the SH group content in plasma and the glutathione S-transferase activity in the erythrocytes of the obese and nonobese mice. In addition, in the obese animals, the CBE treatment reduced the malondialdehyde content in erythrocytes and increased quinone oxidoreductase (liver) and catalase (erythrocytes and small intestine) activities. The elevation of hepatic quinone oxidoreductase activity was accompanied by an increase in the corresponding messenger RNA levels. The effects of CBE on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and redox status were more pronounced in the obese mice compared with the nonobese mice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Variation in gene expression in the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus of gilts with differences in pubertal status and subjected to dietary energy restriction

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the earliest indicators of sow reproductive longevity is the age at which a gilt expresses puberty. Genetic variants and nutrition could contribute to differences in puberty onset and reproductive longevity. Some of the regulatory sequence variants responsible for the differences in gene expr...

  5. Integration of gene expression profiling of hypothalamic arcuate nucleus with genome-wide associations to discover functional variants associated with age at puberty in gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Age at puberty (AP) in gilts is a moderately heritable trait (h2 = 0.37) and the earliest indicator of sow reproductive longevity. Therefore, quantifying the pleiotropic sources that influence both AP and reproductive longevity is important in understanding the differences in sow fertility. In this ...

  6. The prevalence of the ponticulus posticus (arcuate foramen) and its importance in the Goel-Harms procedure: meta-analysis and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, Robert E; Tanweer, Omar

    2014-01-01

    We reviewed published radiographic and cadaver series describing the incidence of the anatomical anomaly ponticulus posticus and discuss its relevance to C1 lateral mass screw (C1LMS) insertion. Online databases were searched for English-language articles describing the presence of ponticulus posticus in cadaver and radiographic studies. Forty-four reports describing 21,789 patients (n = 15,542) or bony/cadaver specimens (n = 6247) fulfilled inclusion criteria. Meta-analysis techniques were applied to estimate the prevalence of this anomaly. The overall prevalence of ponticulus posticus was 16.7%. The anomaly was identified in 18.8% of cadaver, 17.2% of computed tomographic, and 16.6% on radiographic studies. The anomaly composed a complete foramen in 9.3% of patients and was partial/incomplete in 8.7%. It was present bilaterally in 5.4% of cases and unilateral in 7.6%. There was no significant difference in prevalence between males (15.8%) and females (14.6%). Review of that literature demonstrated a dramatic increase in the number of patients treated with C1LMS through the posterior arch since first described in 2002, necessitating recognition of this anomaly when performing the Goel-Harms procedure. The atlantal anomaly ponticulus posticus is not rare, occurring in 16.7% of patients in radiographic and cadaver studies. This anomaly may give the false impression that the posterior arch of the atlas is of adequate size to accommodate a C1LMS and may lead to inadvertent vertebral artery injury. Careful assessment via preoperative multiplanar computed tomographic imaging should be performed before consideration of C1LMS implantation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Enhanced expressions of mRNA for neuropeptide Y and interleukin 1 beta in hypothalamic arcuate nuclei during adjuvant arthritis-induced anorexia in Lewis rats

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Stofková, A.; Haluzík, M.; Železná, Blanka; Kiss, A.; Skurlová, M.; Lacinová, Z.; Jurcovicová, J.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 6 (2009), s. 377-384 ISSN 1021-7401 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA305/06/0427 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : adjuvant arthritis * anorexia * leptin * adiponectin Subject RIV: CC - Organic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.034, year: 2009

  8. Training simulator for teaching a technique to the long transmission of ball in basket-ball by a method by an arcuated hand from above with threaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikova K.M.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Technical devices which used in basket-ball are considered. The features of constructing of trainers and method of their application are selected in a training process. A trainer is offered for teaching a technique to the long transmission of ball in basket-ball. A trainer is a moving on a rope imitator of basket-ball ball. This construction allows to design initial position, замах for implementation of transmission and line of acceleration of ball in the final phase of motion. The method of the use of trainer is developed in an educational process.

  9. Depletion of brain alpha-MSH alters prostaglandin and interleukin fever in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S M; Malkinson, T J; Veale, W L; Pittman, Q J

    1990-09-03

    Alpha-melanocyte stimulating hormone (alpha-MSH), a putative endogenous antipyretic agent, is synthesized largely within neurons in the arcuate nucleus. To test the hypothesis that destruction of this area would increase the febrile response, male Wistar rats, treated as neonates with intraperitoneal injections of monosodium glutamate (MSG) or saline, were given intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of prostaglandin E1 (20 ng; 200 ng) or purified interleukin-1 (20 U) and body temperature was monitored. The fevers displayed by the MSG-treated animals were significantly greater (P less than 0.05) than those of the controls for the lower dose of PGE1 at 10-30 min and for IL-1 at 3-6 h after the injections. MSG-treated rats showed significant reduction (P less than 0.01) in alpha-MSH content of the medial basal hypothalamus and lateral septum when compared to saline controls. Body temperature response of non-febrile animals to high ambient temperature was not affected by the MSG treatment. These data support the hypothesis that alpha-MSH is an endogenous antipyretic in the rat.

  10. Diet-induced and monosodium-glutamate obesity in mice: Relationship among neuropeptide Y, CART peptide and cholecystokinin in feeding behavior

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Železná, Blanka; Matyšková, Resha; Maixnerová, Jana; Haugvicová, Renata; Blokešová, Darja; Maletínská, Lenka

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 88, č. 4 (2007), s. 557 ISSN 0006-3525. [American Peptide Society Symposium /20./. 26.06.2007-30.06.2007, Montreal] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506; CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : cocaine and amphetamine regulated transcript peptide * cholecystokinin Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  11. Mutual diffusion coefficients of L-glutamic acid and monosodium L-glutamate in aqueous solutions at T = 298.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribeiro, Ana C.F.; Rodrigo, M.M.; Barros, Marisa C.F.; Verissimo, Luis M.P.; Romero, Carmen; Valente, Artur J.M.; Esteso, Miguel A.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Interdiffusion coefficients of L-glutamic acid and sodium L-glutamate were measured. • The L-glutamic acid behaves as a monoprotic weak acid. • The sodium L-glutamate shows a symmetrical 1:1 non-associated behaviour. • Limiting diffusion coefficients and ionic conductivities were estimated. • Diffusion coefficients were discussed on the basis of the Onsager–Fuoss equations. - Abstract: Mutual diffusion coefficient values for binary aqueous solutions of both L-glutamic acid (H 2 Glu) and sodium L-glutamate (NaHGlu) were measured with the Taylor dispersion technique, at T = 298.15 K, and concentrations ranging from (0.001 to 0.100) mol · dm −3 . The results were discussed on the basis of the Onsager–Fuoss and the Nernst theoretical equations, by considering the H 2 Glu as a weak acid (monoprotic acid, with K 2 = 5.62 · 10 −5 ). The smaller values found for the acid with respect to those of the salt, confirm this association hypothesis. From the diffusion coefficient values at infinitesimal concentration, limiting ionic conductivities as well as the hydrodynamic radius of the hydrogen glutamate ion (HGlu − ) were derived and analyzed in terms of the chain methylene groups. The effect of different phenomena, such as association or complexation, were also taken into consideration and discussed. Values for the dissociation degree for H 2 Glu were also estimated

  12. Effect of neonatal administration of mono-sodium glutamate in rats on adult body weight and some blood lipids during acute radiation sickness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abd El-Moneim, A.E.; Shousha, M.A.

    1993-01-01

    When a single dose of 4.0 mg MSG/g body weight was administered subcutaneously in new rats, they showed increased body weight (P< 0.01) than vehicle-injected control animals of the same strain at 1,2 and 3 months post-natal. This syndrome was most remarkable during the suckling period. At various time intervals of the trial, a marked sex difference (P< 0.01) was also observed. Experimental males were greater in weight than females. Two days following irradiation of one half the treated animals, serum triglycerides (T G) and total. cholesterol (Ch) in MSG-irradiated rats were significantly (P 0.01)) higher by comparison with MSG-treated and saline injected groups of their own sex. Although, sex has no significant effect on serum T G and Ch, MSG-irradiated males (the heavier in body weight) showed lower levels of these lipid fractions than females during the period of acute radiation sickness. 2 tabs

  13. 1626-IJBCS-Article-Etienne maclewe Tchaou

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hp

    Effects of food flavour enhancer (Monosodium Glutamate and Maggi Poulet) supplementation on glucose .... mechanism underlying MSG-induced obesity and insulin resistance in ..... of hypercaloric diet and monosodium glutamate: oxidative ...

  14. Imaging the structure of the Northern Lesser Antilles (Guadeloupe - Virgin Island) to assess the tectonic and thermo-mechanical behavior of an arcuate subduction zone that undergoes increasing convergence obliquity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laurencin, M.; Marcaillou, B.; Klingelhoefer, F.; Jean-Frederic, L.; Graindorge, D.; Bouquerel, H.; Conin, M.; Crozon, J.; De Min, L.; De Voogd, B.; Evain, M.; Heuret, A.; Laigle, M.; Lallemand, S.; Lucazeau, F.; Pichot, T.; Prunier, C.; Rolandone, F.; Rousset, D.; Vitard, C.

    2015-12-01

    Paradoxically, the Northern Lesser Antilles is the less-investigated and the most tectonically and seismically complex segment of the Lesser Antilles subduction zone: - The convergence obliquity between the North American and Caribbean plates increases northward from Guadeloupe to Virgin Islands raising questions about the fore-arc tectonic partitioning. - The margin has undergone the subduction of the rough sediment-starved Atlantic Ocean floor spiked with ridges as well as banks docking, but the resulting tectonic deformation remains hypothetical in the absence of a complete bathymetry and of any seismic line. - Recent geodetic data and low historical seismic activity suggest a low interplate coupling between Saint-Martin and Anegada, but the sparse onshore seismometers located far from source zone cast doubt on this seismic gap. To shed new light on these questions, the ANTITHESIS project, 5 Marine Geophysical legs totaling 72 days, aims at recording a complete bathymetric map, deep and shallow seismic reflexion lines, wide-angle seismic data, heat-flow measurements and the seismic activity with a web of sea-bottom seismometers. Our preliminary results suggest that: - A frontal sliver of accretionary prism is stretched and expulsed northward by 50km along the left-lateral Bunce fault that limits the prism from the margin basement as far southward as 18.5°N. So far, this structure is the only interpreted sign of tectonic partitioning in the fore-arc. - The Anegada Passage extends eastward to the accretionary prism through strike-slip faults and pull-apart basins that possibly form a lef-lateral poorly-active system inherited from a past tectonic phase, consistently with geodetic and seismologic data. - The anomalously cold interplate contact, consistent with a low interseismic coupling, is possibly due to fluid circulation within the shallow crustal aquifer or a depressed thermal structure of the oceanic crust related to the slow-spreading at the medio-Atlantic ridge.

  15. Características nociceptivas e histomorfométricas de nervos medianos de ratos com obesidade induzida pelo glutamato monossódico = Nociceptive and histomorphometric characteristics of median nerves of rats with obesity induced by monosodium glutamate

    OpenAIRE

    Coradini, Josinéia Gresele

    2014-01-01

    Objetivos: Comparar a nocicepção e, histomorfometricamente, a secção transversa de nervos periféricos de ratos Wistar submetidos ao modelo de obesidade induzida pelo glutamato monossódico com animais controle Métodos: Foram utilizados ratos Wistar, divididos em grupo obeso e grupo controle. Desde o nascimento, durante os primeiros cinco dias de vida, os ratos do grupo obeso receberam uma injeção diária subcutânea de glutamato monossódico (4g/kg de peso corporal/dia), enquanto os ratos do g...

  16. Apparatus for electrical-assisted incremental forming and process thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roth, John; Cao, Jian

    2018-04-24

    A process and apparatus for forming a sheet metal component using an electric current passing through the component. The process can include providing an incremental forming machine, the machine having at least one arcuate tipped tool and at least electrode spaced a predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is operable to perform a plurality of incremental deformations on the sheet metal component using the arcuate tipped tool. The machine is also operable to apply an electric direct current through the electrode into the sheet metal component at the predetermined distance from the arcuate tipped tool while the machine is forming the sheet metal component.

  17. Migraines

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may trigger migraines: Aged, canned, cured or processed meat, including bologna, game, ham, herring, hot dogs, pepperoni and sausage Aged cheese Alcoholic beverages, especially red wine Aspartame Avocados Beans, ... Lentils Meat tenderizer Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Nuts and peanut butter ...

  18. A challenging case of hypercalcaemia

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-10-08

    Oct 8, 2012 ... of monosodium urate crystals from an inflamed joint, .... (CIMT) is a surrogate marker of subclinical atherosclerosis and a predictor ... Low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, apolipoprotein A-1, apolipoprotein B:A-1 ratio and.

  19. Migraine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Certain foods and food additives such as Alcohol Chocolate Aged cheeses Monosodium glutamate (MSG) Some fruits and ... consistent sleep schedule and eating regular meals. Hormone therapy may help some women whose migraines seem to ...

  20. Headache

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Migraines may be triggered by foods, such as chocolate, certain cheeses, or monosodium glutamate (MSG). Caffeine withdrawal, ... while chewing, or weight loss. You have a history of cancer or immune system problem (such as ...

  1. Managing migraines at home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... certain foods. The most common are: Any processed, fermented, pickled, or marinated foods, as well as foods that contain monosodium glutamate (MSG) Baked goods, chocolate, nuts, and dairy products Fruits (such as avocado, banana, and citrus ...

  2. Dynamical patterns of calcium signaling in a functional model of neuron-astrocyte networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Postnov, D.E.; Koreshkov, R.N.; Brazhe, N.A.

    2009-01-01

    We propose a functional mathematical model for neuron-astrocyte networks. The model incorporates elements of the tripartite synapse and the spatial branching structure of coupled astrocytes. We consider glutamate-induced calcium signaling as a specific mode of excitability and transmission...... in astrocytic-neuronal networks. We reproduce local and global dynamical patterns observed experimentally....

  3. Neuroprotective effects of the novel glutamate transporter inhibitor (-)-3-hydroxy-4,5,6,6a-tetrahydro-3aH-pyrrolo[3,4-d]-isoxazole-4-carboxylic acid, which preferentially inhibits reverse transport (glutamate release) compared with glutamate reuptake

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Colleoni, Simona; Jensen, Anders Asbjørn; Landucci, Elisa

    2008-01-01

    on the three hEAAT subtypes. (-)-HIP-A maintained the remarkable property, previously reported with the racemates, of inhibiting synaptosomal glutamate-induced [3H]D-aspartate release (reverse transport) at concentrations significantly lower than those inhibiting [3H]L-glutamate uptake. New data suggest...

  4. Secretory phospholipase A2-mediated neuronal cell death involves glutamate ionotropic receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kolko, Miriam; de Turco, Elena B; Diemer, Nils Henrik

    2002-01-01

    To define the significance of glutamate ionotropic receptors in sPLA -mediated neuronal cell death we used the NMDA receptor antagonist MK-801 and the AMPA receptor antagonist PNQX. In primary neuronal cell cultures both MK-801 and PNQX inhibited sPLA - and glutamate-induced neuronal death. [ H...

  5. Depolarization by K+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in GABAergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of GABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, G H; Schousboe, A

    1993-01-01

    was also reduced by organic (verapamil) and inorganic (Co++) Ca++ channel blockers but was insensitive to the GABA transport inhibitor SKF 89976A. In contrast, the second phase was less sensitive to nocodazole and Ca++ channel antagonists but could be inhibited by SKF 89976A. The glutamate-induced [3H...

  6. Avaliação do crescimento corporal e dos neurônios mioentéricos de ratos Wistar após tratamento neonatal com glutamato monossódico - DOI: 10.4025/actascibiolsci.v29i1.128 Evaluation of body growth and myoenteric neurons of Wistar rats after neonatal treatment with monosodium glutamate

    OpenAIRE

    Josy Fraccaro de Martins; Melina Rizzato Vismara; Rosana Torrezan; Maria Montserrat Dias Pedrosa Furlan; Fernando Carlos Souza

    2007-01-01

    Avaliação do crescimento corporal e dos neurônios mioentéricos de ratos Wistar após tratamento neonatal com glutamato monossódico. Este trabalho objetivou avaliar como o tratamento neonatal com glutamato monossódico se reflete em parâmetros corporais e nos neurônios mioentéricos de ratos Wistar. Ratos machos foram injetados com glutamato monossódico durante os primeiros 5 dias após o nascimento. O crescimento corporal foi registrado até os 90 dias, quando os animais foram sacrificados. Glicos...

  7. Glutamate receptor antibodies in neurological diseases: anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies, anti-mGluR1 antibodies or anti-mGluR5 antibodies are present in subpopulations of patients with either: epilepsy, encephalitis, cerebellar ataxia, systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and neuropsychiatric SLE, Sjogren's syndrome, schizophrenia, mania or stroke. These autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies can bind neurons in few brain regions, activate glutamate receptors, decrease glutamate receptor's expression, impair glutamate-induced signaling and function, activate blood brain barrier endothelial cells, kill neurons, damage the brain, induce behavioral/psychiatric/cognitive abnormalities and ataxia in animal models, and can be removed or silenced in some patients by immunotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levite, Mia

    2014-08-01

    Glutamate is the major excitatory neurotransmitter of the Central Nervous System (CNS), and it is crucially needed for numerous key neuronal functions. Yet, excess glutamate causes massive neuronal death and brain damage by excitotoxicity--detrimental over activation of glutamate receptors. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity is the main pathological process taking place in many types of acute and chronic CNS diseases and injuries. In recent years, it became clear that not only excess glutamate can cause massive brain damage, but that several types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, that are present in the serum and CSF of subpopulations of patients with a kaleidoscope of human neurological diseases, can undoubtedly do so too, by inducing several very potent pathological effects in the CNS. Collectively, the family of anti-glutamate receptor autoimmune antibodies seem to be the most widespread, potent, dangerous and interesting anti-brain autoimmune antibodies discovered up to now. This impression stems from taking together the presence of various types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies in a kaleidoscope of human neurological and autoimmune diseases, their high levels in the CNS due to intrathecal production, their multiple pathological effects in the brain, and the unique and diverse mechanisms of action by which they can affect glutamate receptors, signaling and effects, and subsequently impair neuronal signaling and induce brain damage. The two main families of autoimmune anti-glutamate receptor antibodies that were already found in patients with neurological and/or autoimmune diseases, and that were already shown to be detrimental to the CNS, include the antibodies directed against ionotorpic glutamate receptors: the anti-AMPA-GluR3 antibodies, anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies and anti-NMDA-NR2 antibodies, and the antibodies directed against Metabotropic glutamate receptors: the anti-mGluR1 antibodies and the anti-mGluR5 antibodies. Each type of these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies is discussed separately in this very comprehensive review, with regards to: the human diseases in which these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies were found thus far, their presence and production in the nervous system, their association with various psychiatric/behavioral/cognitive/motor impairments, their possible association with certain infectious organisms, their detrimental effects in vitro as well as in vivo in animal models in mice, rats or rabbits, and their diverse and unique mechanisms of action. The review also covers the very encouraging positive responses to immunotherapy of some patients that have either of the above-mentioned anti-glutamate receptor antibodies, and that suffer from various neurological diseases/problems. All the above are also summarized in the review's five schematic and useful figures, for each type of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies separately. The review ends with a summary of all the main findings, and with recommended guidelines for diagnosis, therapy, drug design and future investigations. In the nut shell, the human studies, the in vitro studies, as well as the in vivo studies in animal models in mice, rats and rabbit revealed the following findings regarding the five different types of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies: (1) Anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies are present in ~25-30% of patients with different types of Epilepsy. When these anti-glutamate receptor antibodies (or other types of autoimmune antibodies) are found in Epilepsy patients, and when these autoimmune antibodies are suspected to induce or aggravate the seizures and/or the cognitive/psychiatric/behavioral impairments that sometimes accompany the seizures, the Epilepsy is called 'Autoimmune Epilepsy'. In some patients with 'Autoimmune Epilepsy' the anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies associate significantly with psychiatric/cognitive/behavior abnormalities. In vitro and/or in animal models, the anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies by themselves induce many pathological effects: they activate glutamate/AMPA receptors, kill neurons by 'Excitotoxicity', and/or by complement activation modulated by complement regulatory proteins, cause multiple brain damage, aggravate chemoconvulsant-induced seizures, and also induce behavioral/motor impairments. Some patients with 'Autoimmune Epilepsy' that have anti-AMPA-GluR3B antibodies respond well (although sometimes transiently) to immunotherapy, and thanks to that have reduced seizures and overall improved neurological functions. (2) Anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies are present in patients with autoimmune 'Anti-NMDA-receptor Encephalitis'. In humans, in animal models and in vitro the anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies can be very pathogenic since they can cause a pronounced decrease of surface NMDA receptors expressed in hippocampal neurons, and also decrease the cluster density and synaptic localization of the NMDA receptors. The anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies induce these effects by crosslinking and internalization of the NMDA receptors. Such changes can impair glutamate signaling via the NMDA receptors and lead to various neuronal/behavior/cognitive/psychiatric abnormalities. Anti-NMDA-NR1 antibodies are frequently present in high levels in the CSF of the patients with 'Anti-NMDA-receptor encephalitis' due to their intrathecal production. Many patients with 'Anti-NMDA receptor Encephalitis' respond well to several modes of immunotherapy. (3) Anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies are present in a substantial number of patients with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) with or without neuropsychiatric problems. The exact percentage of SLE patients having anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies varies in different studies from 14 to 35%, and in one study such antibodies were found in 81% of patients with diffuse 'Neuropshychiatric SLE', and in 44% of patients with focal 'Neuropshychiatric SLE'. Anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies are also present in subpopulations of patients with Epilepsy of several types, Encephalitis of several types (e.g., chronic progressive limbic Encephalitis, Paraneoplastic Encephalitis or Herpes Simplex Virus Encephalitis), Schizophrenia, Mania, Stroke, or Sjorgen syndrome. In some patients, the anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies are present in both the serum and the CSF. Some of the anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies cross-react with dsDNA, while others do not. Some of the anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies associate with neuropsychiatric/cognitive/behavior/mood impairments in SLE patients, while others do not. The anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies can undoubtedly be very pathogenic, since they can kill neurons by activating NMDA receptors and inducing 'Excitotoxicity', damage the brain, cause dramatic decrease of membranal NMDA receptors expressed in hippocampal neurons, and also induce behavioral cognitive impairments in animal models. Yet, the concentration of the anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies seems to determine if they have positive or negative effects on the activity of glutamate receptors and on the survival of neurons. Thus, at low concentration, the anti-NMDA-NR2A/B antibodies were found to be positive modulators of receptor function and increase the size of NMDA receptor-mediated excitatory postsynaptic potentials, whereas at high concentration they are pathogenic as they promote 'Excitotoxcity' through enhanced mitochondrial permeability transition. (4) Anti-mGluR1 antibodies were found thus far in very few patients with Paraneoplastic Cerebellar Ataxia, and in these patients they are produced intrathecally and therefore present in much higher levels in the CSF than in the serum. The anti-mGluR1 antibodies can be very pathogenic in the brain since they can reduce the basal neuronal activity, block the induction of long-term depression of Purkinje cells, and altogether cause cerebellar motor coordination deficits by a combination of rapid effects on both the acute and the plastic responses of Purkinje cells, and by chronic degenerative effects. Strikingly, within 30 min after injection of anti-mGluR1 antibodies into the brain of mice, the mice became ataxic. Anti-mGluR1 antibodies derived from patients with Ataxia also caused disturbance of eye movements in animal models. Immunotherapy can be very effective for some Cerebellar Ataxia patients that have anti-mGluR1 antibodies. (5) Anti-mGluR5 antibodies were found thus far in the serum and CSF of very few patients with Hodgkin lymphoma and Limbic Encephalopathy (Ophelia syndrome). The sera of these patients that contained anti-GluR5 antibodies reacted with the neuropil of the hippocampus and cell surface of live rat hippocampal neurons, and immunoprecipitation from cultured neurons and mass spectrometry demonstrated that the antigen was indeed mGluR5. Taken together, all these evidences show that anti-glutamate receptor antibodies are much more frequent among various neurological diseases than ever realized before, and that they are very detrimental to the nervous system. As such, they call for diagnosis, therapeutic removal or silencing and future studies. What we have learned by now about the broad family of anti-glutamate receptor antibodies is so exciting, novel, unique and important, that it makes all future efforts worthy and essential.

  8. Diffuse alterations in grey and white matter associated with cognitive impairment in Shwachman–Diamond syndrome: Evidence from a multimodal approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Perobelli

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairment in Shwachman–Diamond syndrome subjects is associated with diffuse brain anomalies in the grey matter (verbal skills with BA44 and BA20 in the right hemisphere; perceptual skills with BA5, 37, 20, 21, 42 in the left hemisphere and white matter connectivity (verbal skills with alterations in the fronto-occipital fasciculus and with the inferior-longitudinal fasciculus; perceptual skills with the arcuate fasciculus, limbic and ponto-cerebellar fasciculus; memory skills with the arcuate fasciculus; executive functions with the anterior cingulated and arcuate fasciculus.

  9. Independent contribution of individual white matter pathways to language function in pediatric epilepsy patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Paldino, M.D.

    2014-01-01

    Conclusions: Scalar metrics derived from the left uncinate, inferior fronto-occipital, and arcuate fasciculi were independently associated with language function. These results support the importance of these pathways in human language function in patients with MCDs.

  10. Rail for inspection/maintenance device in TOKAMAK type container of a thermonuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, Kenji.

    1996-01-01

    A circular rail divided into four arcuate parts for an inspection/maintenance device which runs in a TOKAMAK type container is disposed. Each of the divided rails is supported at the center of the outer surface rotatably by extendable rail supporting shafts. Each of the divided rail is constituted such that it can be contained between limiters disposed at the outer side of the TOKAMAK container when each of the rail support shafts is contracted. With such a constitution, each of the rail support shafts and arcuate rail is contracted and rotated from the outside of the TOKAMAK type container by an actuator. In order to form a circular rail, each of the rail support shafts is extended toward the center of the TOKAMAK type container, and then each of the arcuate rails is rotated into a horizontal state. Then, the joint portions of each of the arcuate rails are connected by using remote controllable locking rods. (I.S.)

  11. A Rare Cause of Postprandial Abdominal Pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    causes abdominal symptoms. Median ... compression of the coeliac artery by the median arcuate ligament. ... existing symptoms might cause frustration to patient and relatives. ... disease, chest pathology, etc., were excluded from the study.

  12. Types of Glaucoma in a University Health Centre in Al‑Ahsa, Saudi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ninety‑one percent of the visual field defects were arcuate scotomata. Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) ..... for their early detection and treatment. ... REFERENCES. 1. Casson RJ, Chidlow G, Wood JP, Crowston JG, Goldberg I. Definition.

  13. Effects of a free-choice high-fathigh-sugar diet on brain PER2 and BMAL1 protein expression in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Blancas-Velazquez, Aurea; la Fleur, Susanne E.; Mendoza, Jorge

    2017-01-01

    The suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) times the daily rhythms of behavioral processes including feeding. Beyond the SCN, the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (ARC), involved in feeding regulation and metabolism, and the epithalamic lateral habenula (LHb), implicated in reward processing, show circadian

  14. The Effects of Loranthus parasiticus on Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Bae Weon

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is undertaken to evaluate cognitive enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect of Loranthus parasiticus. Cognitive enhancing effect of Loranthus parasiticus was investigated on scopolamine-induced amnesia model in Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test. We also examined the neuroprotective effect on glutamate-induced cell death in HT22 cells by MTT assay. These results of Morris water maze test and passive avoidance test indicated that 10 and 50 mg/kg of Loranthus parasiticus reversed scopolamine-induced memory deficits. Loranthus parasiticus also protected against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in HT22 cells. As a result of in vitro test for elucidating possible mechanism, Loranthus parasiticus inhibited AChE activity, ROS production, and Ca2+ accumulation. Loranthus parasiticus showed memory enhancing effect and neuroprotective effect and these effects may be related to inhibition of AChE activity, ROS level, and Ca2+ influx.

  15. Protective effect of zinc against ischemic neuronal injury in a middle cerebral artery occlusion model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, Youji; Iida, Yasuhiko; Abe, Jun; Ueda, Masashi; Mifune, Masaki; Kasuya, Fumiyo; Ohta, Masayuki; Igarashi, Kazuo; Saito, Yutaka; Saji, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effect of vesicular zinc on ischemic neuronal injury. In cultured neurons, addition of a low concentration (under 100 microM) of zinc inhibited both glutamate-induced calcium influx and neuronal death. In contrast, a higher concentration (over 150 microM) of zinc decreased neuronal viability, although calcium influx was inhibited. These results indicate that zinc exhibits biphasic effects depending on its concentration. Furthermore, in cultured neurons, co-addition of glutamate and CaEDTA, which binds extra-cellular zinc, increased glutamate-induced calcium influx and aggravated the neurotoxicity of glutamate. In a rat transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model, the infarction volume, which is related to the neurotoxicity of glutamate, increased rapidly on the intracerebral ventricular injection of CaEDTA 30 min prior to occlusion. These results suggest that zinc released from synaptic vesicles may provide a protective effect against ischemic neuronal injury.

  16. Tegaserod Mimics the Neurostimulatory Glycan Polysialic Acid and Promotes Nervous System Repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    syndrome and constipation (Muller-Lissner et al., 2001) by stimu- lating 5-HT4 receptors on enteric neurons (Liu et al., 2005, 2009). The present study...and kept under standard laboratory conditions with food and water supply ad libitum and with an artificial 12 h light/dark cycle. Twelve-week-old...Neural cell adhesion molecule-associated polysialic acid inhibits NR2B-containing N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors and prevents glutamate-induced cell

  17. Involvement of heme oxygenase-1 expression in neuroprotection by piceatannol, a natural analog and a metabolite of resveratrol, against glutamate-mediated oxidative injury in HT22 neuronal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Yong; Byun, Seung Jae; Pae, Hyun-Ock

    2013-08-01

    Neuronal cell death caused by oxidative stress is common in a variety of neural diseases and can be investigated in detail in cultured HT22 neuronal cells, where the amino acid glutamate at high concentrations causes glutathione depletion by inhibition of the glutamate/cystine antiporter system, intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and eventually oxidative stress-induced neuronal cell death. Using this paradigm, we have previously reported that resveratrol (3,5,4'-trans-trihydroxystilbene) protects HT22 neuronal cells from glutamate-induced oxidative stress by inducing heme oxygenase (HO)-1 expression. Piceatannol (3,5,4',3'-trans-trihydroxystilbene), which is a hydroxylated resveratrol analog and one of the resveratrol metabolites, is estimated to exert neuroprotective effect similar to that of resveratrol. The aim of this study, thus, is to determine whether piceatannol, similarly to resveratrol, would protect HT22 neuronal cells from glutamate-induced oxidative stress. Glutamate at high concentrations induced neuronal cell death and ROS formation. Piceatannol reduced glutamate-induced cell death and ROS formation. The observed cytoprotective effect was much higher when HT22 neuronal cells were pretreated with piceatannol for 6 or 12 h prior to glutamate treatment than when pretreated for 0.5 h. Piceatannol also increased HO-1 expression and HO activity via its activation of nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Interestingly, neuroprotective effect of piceatannol was partly (but not completely) abolished by either down-regulation of HO-1 expression or blockage of HO-1 activity. Taken together, our results suggest that piceatannol, similar to resveratrol, is capable of protecting HT22 neuronal cells against glutamate-induced cell death, at least in part, by inducing Nrf2-dependent HO-1 expression.

  18. Neuroprotective 2-(2-phenylethyl)chromones of Imperata cylindrica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jeong Seon; Lee, Mi Kyeong; Sung, Sang Hyun; Kim, Young Choong

    2006-02-01

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of the methanolic extract of the rhizomes of Imperata cylindrica afforded a new compound, 5-hydroxy-2-(2-phenylethyl)chromone (1), together with three known compounds, 5-hydroxy-2-[2-(2-hydroxyphenyl)ethyl]chromone (2), flidersiachromone (3), and 5-hydroxy-2-styrylchromone (4). Among these four compounds, 1 and 2 showed significant neuroprotective activity against glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultures of rat cortical cells.

  19. The Chinese restaurant syndrome: an anecdote revisited.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, R A

    1986-04-01

    The Chinese Restaurant Syndrome arose from an anecdote of discomfort experienced after eating Chinese cuisine. Monosodium glutamate has been implicated as the causative agent. Work over the past 17 years has consistently failed to reveal any objective sign accompanying the transient sensations that some individuals experience after the experimental ingestion of monosodium glutamate and it is questionable whether the term 'Chinese Restaurant Syndrome' has any validity. When some common food materials are used in the same experimental setting, similar symptoms can be produced in a limited number of people. Double-blind testing of individuals who identify themselves as suffering the 'syndrome' has failed to confirm the role of monosodium glutamate as the provocative agent.

  20. Exposure to high glutamate concentration activates aerobic glycolysis but inhibits ATP-linked respiration in cultured cortical astrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Yao; Tian, Yueyang; Shi, Xiaojie; Yang, Jianbo; Ouyang, Li; Gao, Jieqiong; Lu, Jianxin

    2014-08-01

    Astrocytes play a key role in removing the synaptically released glutamate from the extracellular space and maintaining the glutamate below neurotoxic level in the brain. However, high concentration of glutamate leads to toxicity in astrocytes, and the underlying mechanisms are unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether energy metabolism disorder, especially impairment of mitochondrial respiration, is involved in the glutamate-induced gliotoxicity. Exposure to 10-mM glutamate for 48 h stimulated glycolysis and respiration in astrocytes. However, the increased oxygen consumption was used for proton leak and non-mitochondrial respiration, but not for oxidative phosphorylation and ATP generation. When the exposure time extended to 72 h, glycolysis was still activated for ATP generation, but the mitochondrial ATP-linked respiration of astrocytes was reduced. The glutamate-induced astrocyte damage can be mimicked by the non-metabolized substrate d-aspartate but reversed by the non-selective glutamate transporter inhibitor TBOA. In addition, the glutamate toxicity can be partially reversed by vitamin E. These findings demonstrate that changes of bioenergetic profile occur in cultured cortical astrocytes exposed to high concentration of glutamate and highlight the role of mitochondria respiration in glutamate-induced gliotoxicity in cortical astrocytes. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  1. Soybean-Derived Phytoalexins Improve Cognitive Function through Activation of Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Yeon Seo

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available As soy-derived glyceollins are known to induce antioxidant enzymes in various types of cells and tissues, we hypothesized that the compounds could protect neurons from damage due to reactive oxygen species (ROS. In order to examine the neuroprotective effect of glyceollins, primary cortical neurons collected from mice and mouse hippocampal HT22 cells were challenged with glutamate. Glyceollins attenuated glutamate-induced cytotoxicity in primary cortical neuron isolated from mice carrying wild-type nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2-like 2 (Nrf2, but the compounds were ineffective in those isolated from Nrf2 knockout mice, suggesting the involvement of the Nrf2 signaling pathway in glyceollin-mediated neuroprotection. Furthermore, the inhibition of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1, a major downstream enzyme of Nrf2, abolished the suppressive effect of glyceollins against glutamate-induced ROS production and cytotoxicity, confirming that activation of HO-1 by glyceollins is responsible for the neuroprotection. To examine whether glyceollins also improve cognitive ability, mice pretreated with glyceollins were challenged with scopolamine and subjected to behavioral tests. Glyceollins attenuated scopolamine-induced cognitive impairment of mice, but failed to enhance memory in Nrf2 knockout mice, suggesting that the memory-enhancing effect is also mediated by the Nrf2 signaling pathway. Overall, glyceollins showed neuroprotection against glutamate-induced damage, and attenuated scopolamine-induced memory deficits in an Nrf2-dependent manner.

  2. Experimental research on the interactions between some anxiolytics and dietary sodium monoglutamate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzescu Anca

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Monosodium glutamate, the salt of glutamic acid, is largely used as a flavour enhancer (E621. In this study, we determine if monosodium glutamate, after repeated oral administration, can induce any degree of anxiety. Taking into account the interdependence between glutamate and GABA neurotransmissions, we studied the possible interactions of monosodium glutamate with some representatives belonging to benzodiazepines therapeutical class, diazepam and alprazolam, used as first line therapy for the treatment of anxiety. Methods: For determining the degree of anxiety, the specific cross-labyrinth test was used. The medium time spent in the closed-arms of the crosslabyrinth is correlated with increased anxiety and the medium time spent in the opened arms is correlated with a low degree anxiety. NMRI adult mice received 300 mg/kg monosodium glutamate for 21 days, dose representing 1/50 from mice LD50 (15000mg/kg and twice the maximum admitted dose/ day for human. Results: When compared to control group, the group receiving monosodium glutamate, showed a not statistically significant slight increase in the degree of anxiety. The groups receiving benzodiazepines presented a significant reduction of the degree of anxiety, proving their anxiolytic effect. The groups receiving glutamate and diazepam or alprazolam, showed a lower reduction of the degree of anxiety, than group receiving only benzodiazepines, phenomenon which proves an antagonism between glutamate and the anxiolytics used in this study. Conclusions: The oral administration of monosodium glutamate increases slightly, not statistically significant, the degree of anxiety in mice and significantly alters the response to the benzodiazepines therapy, reducing the effect for both alprazolam and diazepam.

  3. Determination of the impact of glycolate on ARP and MCU operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Peters, T. B. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Fondeur, F. F. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Shehee, T. C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Washington, A. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-05-17

    Savannah River Remediation (SRR) is evaluating an alternate flowsheet for the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) using glycolic acid as a reductant. An important aspect of the development of the glycolic acid flowsheet is determining if glycolate has any detrimental downstream impacts. Testing was performed to determine if there is any impact to the strontium and actinide sorption by monosodium titanate (MST) and modified monosodium titanate (mMST) or if there is an impact to the cesium removal, phase separation, or coalescer performance at the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Processing Unit (MCU).

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging and diffusion tensor imaging-fibre tractograph depict the mechanisms of Broca-like and Wernicke-like conduction aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xinjie; Dornbos, David; Lai, Zongli; Zhang, Yumei; Li, Tieshan; Chen, Hongyan; Yang, Zhonghua

    2011-06-01

    Conduction aphasia is usually considered a result of damage of the arcuate fasciculus, which is subjacent to the parietal portion of the supra-marginal gyrus and the upper part of the insula. It is important to stress that many features of conduction aphasia relate to a cortical deficit, more than a pure disconnection mechanism. In this study, we explore the mechanism of Broca-like and Wernicke-like conduction aphasia by using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and diffusion tensor imaging-fibre tractograph (DT-FT). We enrolled five Broca-like conduction aphasia cases, five Wernicke-like aphasia conduction cases and 10 healthy volunteers residing in Beijing and speaking Mandarin. All are right handed. We analyzed the arcuate fasciculus, Broca's areas and Wernicke's areas by DTI and measured fractional anisotrogy (FA). The results of left and right hemispheres were compared in both conduction aphasia cases and volunteers. Then the results of the conduction aphasia cases were compared with those of volunteers. The fibre construction of Broca's and Wernicke's areas was also compared by DTI-FT. The FA occupied by the identified connective pathways (Broca's area, Wernicke's area and the arcuate fasciculus) in the left hemisphere was larger than that in the right hemisphere in the control group (Paphasia cases, the FA of the left Broca's area was smaller than that of the right mirror side (PWernicke-like conduction aphasia patients, the FA of the left Wernicke's area was smaller than that of right mirror side (Paphasia results from not only arcuate fasciculus destruction, but also from disruption of the associated cortical areas. Along different segments of the arcuate fasciculus, the characteristics of language disorders of conduction aphasia were different. A lesion involving Broca's area and the anterior segments of the arcuate fasciculus would lead to Broca-like conduction aphasia, whereas a lesion involved Wernicke's area and posterior segments of the arcuate fasciculus

  5. Verifying the hypothesis of disconnection syndrome in patients with conduction aphasia using diffusion tensor imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanqin Guo; Jing Xu; Yindong Yang

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: It is thought in disconnection theory that connection of anterior and posterior language function areas, i.e. the lesion of arcuate fasciculus causes conduction aphasia.OBJECTIVE: To verify the theory of disconnection elicited by repetition disorder in patients with conduction aphasia by comparing the characteristics of diffusion tensor imaging between healthy persons and patients with conduction aphasia.DESIGN: Case-control observation.SETTING: Department of Neurology, Hongqi Hospital Affiliated to Mudanjiang Medical College.PARTICIPANTS: Five male patients with cerebral infarction-involved arcuate fasciculus conduction aphasia, averaged (43±2) years, who hospitalized in the Department of Neurology, Hongqi Hospital Affiliated to Mudanjiang Medical College from February 2004 to February 2005 were involved in this experiment. The involved patients were all confirmed as cerebral infarction by skull CT and MRI, and met the diagnosis criteria revised in 1995 4th Cerebrovascular Conference. They were examined by the method of Aphasia Battery of Chinese (ABC) edited by Surong Gao. The results were poorer than auditory comprehension disproportionately, and consistented with the mode of conduction aphasia. Another 5 male healthy persons, averaged (43 ± 1 ) years, who were physicians receiving further training in the Department of Neurology, Beijing Tiantan Hospital were also involved in this experiment. Informed consents of detected items were obtained from all the subjects.METHODS: All the subjects were performed handedness assessment with assessment criteria of handedness formulated by Department of Neurology, First Hospital Affiliated to Beijing Medical University. Arcuate fasciculus of involved patients and health controls were analyzed with diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and divided into 3 parts (anterior, middle and posterior segments) for determining FA value (mean value was obtained after three times of measurements), and a comparison of FA value was

  6. Determination of Arsenical Herbicide Residues in Plant Tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.M. Sachs; J.L. Michael; F.B. Anastasia; W.A. Wells

    1971-01-01

    Paper chromatographic separation of hydroxydimethylarsine oxide (cacodylic acid), monosodium methanearsonate (MSMA), sodium arsenate, and sodium arsenite was achieved with the aid of four solvent systems. Aqueous extracts of plant tissues removed essentially all the arscnicals applied, but mechanoiic fractionation was required before the extracts could be analyzed by...

  7. An overview of herbs, spices and plant extracts used as seasonings ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seasonings include Spices such as pepper, herbs such as the leaves of cloves and bay, vegetable bulbs such as garlic and onions, sweeteners such as sugar and monosodium glutamate, and plant extracts such as that of Ocimum grattisimum or 'scent leaf'. Spices are the bark, roots, seeds, buds or berries of plants, most ...

  8. Can we spice up our Christmas dinner? Busting the myth of the 'Chinese restaurant syndrome'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Berg, N. W. E.; Neefs, J.; Berger, W. R.; Baalman, S. W. E.; Meulendijks, E.; Kawasaki, M.; Kemper, E. M.; Piersma, F. R.; Veldkamp, M. W.; Wesselink, R.; Krul, S. P. J.; de Groot, J. R.

    2017-01-01

    Background Monosodium glutamate (MSG), also referred to as Vetsin or E621, is a flavour enhancer frequently used in Asian cuisine and abundantly present in the famous Chinese dish Peking duck. MSG is notorious for triggering the onset of the so-called 'Chinese restaurant syndrome' (CRS), a complex

  9. L-Glutamic acid production by Bacillus spp. isolated from vegetable ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2011-06-15

    Jun 15, 2011 ... 2Department of Botany and Microbiology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Oyo state, Nigeria. ... monosodium salt as a flavor enhancer in foods (Kikunae, ...... Madhavan KN, Ashok P (1996). Solid state fermentation for L – glutamic acid production using Brevibacterium sp. DSM 20411. J. Food. Sci. Technol.

  10. The toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) variant rs2149356 and risk of gout in European and polynesian sample sets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rasheed, Humaira; McKinney, Cushla; Stamp, Lisa K.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Topless, Ruth K.; Day, Richard; Kannangara, Diluk; Williams, Kenneth; Smith, Malcolm; Janssen, Matthijs; Jansen, Tim L.; Joosten, Leo A.; Radstake, Timothy R.; Riches, Philip L.; Tausche, Anne Kathrin; Lioté, Frederic; Lu, Leo; Stahl, Eli A.; Choi, Hyon K.; So, Alexander; Merriman, Tony R.

    2016-01-01

    Deposition of crystallized monosodium urate (MSU) in joints as a result of hyperuricemia is a central risk factor for gout. However other factors must exist that control the progression from hyperuricaemia to gout. A previous genetic association study has implicated the tolllike receptor 4 (TLR4)

  11. Uric acid is released in the brain during seizure activity and increases severity of seizures in a mouse model for acute limbic seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thyrion, L.; Raedt, R.; Portelli, J.; van Loo, P.; Wadman, W.J.; Glorieux, G.; Lambrecht, B.N.; Janssens, S.; Vonck, K.; Boon, P.

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence points at an important role of endogenous cell-damage induced pro-inflammatory molecules in the generation of epileptic seizures. Uric acid, under the form of monosodium urate crystals, has shown to have pro-inflammatory properties in the body, but less is known about its role in

  12. Microstructural properties of high level waste concentrates and gels with raman and infrared spectroscopies. 1997 annual progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Agnew, S.F.; Coarbin, R.A.; Johnston, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    'Monosodium aluminate, the phase of aluminate found in waste tanks, is only stable over a fairly narrow range of water vapor pressure (22% relative humidity at 22 C). As a result, aluminate solids are stable at Hanford (seasonal average RH ∼20%) but are not be stable at Savannah River (seasonal average RH ∼40%). Monosodium aluminate (MSA) releases water upon precipitation from solution. In contrast, trisodium aluminate (TSA) consumes water upon precipitation. As a result, MSA precipitates gradually over time while TSA undergoes rapid accelerated precipitation, often gelling its solution. Raman spectra reported for first time for monosodium and trisodium aluminate solids. Ternary phase diagrams can be useful for showing effects of water removal, even with concentrated waste. Kinetics of monosodium aluminate precipitation are extremely slow (several months) at room temperature but quite fast (several hours) at 60 C. As a result, all waste simulants that contain aluminate need several days of cooking at 60 C in order to truly represent the equilibrium state of aluminate. The high level waste (HLW) slurries that have been created at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites over that last fifty years constitute a large fraction of the remaining HLW volumes at both sites. In spite of the preponderance of these wastes, very little quantitative information is available about their physical and chemical properties other than elemental analyses.'

  13. Revisiting the pathogenesis of podagra: why does gout target the foot?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roddy Edward

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This invited paper provides a summary of a keynote lecture delivered at the 2011 Australasian Podiatry Conference. Gout is the most prevalent inflammatory arthropathy. It displays a striking predilection to affect the first metatarsophalangeal joint as well as joints within the mid-foot and ankle. A number of factors are known to reduce urate solubility and enhance nucleation of monosodium urate crystals including decreased temperature, lower pH and physical shock, all of which may be particularly relevant to crystal deposition in the foot. An association has also been proposed between monosodium urate crystal deposition and osteoarthritis, which also targets the first metatarsophalangeal joint. Cadaveric, clinical and radiographic studies indicate that monosodium urate crystals more readily deposit in osteoarthritic cartilage. Transient intra-articular hyperuricaemia and precipitation of monosodium urate crystals is thought to follow overnight resolution of synovial effusion within the osteoarthritic first metatarsophalangeal joint. The proclivity of gout for the first metatarsophalangeal joint is likely to be multi-factorial in origin, arising from the unique combination of the susceptibility of the joint to osteoarthritis and other determinants of urate solubility and crystal nucleation such as temperature and minor physical trauma which are particularly relevant to the foot.

  14. The Resistance to Freeze-Drying and to Storage Was Determined as the Cellular Ability to Recover Its Survival Rate and Acidification Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibourahema Coulibaly

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The protective effects of the fatty acid composition and membrane action of the acidification activity of two strains of Lactobacillus kept at 20∘C were studied. The addition of sorbitol, monosodium glutamate and glycerol during storage is causing the decline of acidification and increased concentrations of unsaturated fatty acids observed in both strains. The addition of sorbitol and monosodium glutamate does not alter the fatty acid composition, whatever the strain, but increases the resistance to freeze-drying of L. plantarum CWBI-B1419 and improves survival during storage. The addition of these preservatives and decreased activity of acidification improves the ratio unsaturated. These results indicate that the survival during storage and freeze-drying resistance are closely related to the composition of membrane fatty acids. This behaviour can be interpreted as an adaptation of L. plantarum B1419-CWBI supplemented by cryoprotectant additives such as sorbitol or monosodium glutamate sorbitol and monosodium glutamate as an additive. L. plantarum CWBI-B1419 presents a greater adaptation to culture conditions than L. paracasei ssp. paracasei LMG9192T.

  15. New gout test: enhanced ex vivo cytokine production from PBMCS in common gout patients and a gout patient with Kearns-Sayre syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, T.L.; Berendsen, D.; Crisan, T.O.; Cleophas, M.C.; Janssen, M.C.; Joosten, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Monosodium urate (MSU) monohydrate crystals synergize with various toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands to induce interleukin-(IL)-1beta production. Data are shown from a young male with mitochondriopathy in Kearns-Sayre syndrome (KSS) who developed gout and underwent urate-lowering therapy (ULT) versus

  16. Multiplicative interaction of functional inflammasome genetic variants in determining the risk of gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinney, Cushla; Stamp, Lisa K.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Topless, Ruth K.; Day, Richard O.; Kannangara, Diluk R. W.; Williams, Kenneth M.; Janssen, Matthijs; Jansen, Timothy L.; Joosten, Leo A.; Radstake, Timothy R.; Riches, Philip L.; Tausche, Anne-Kathrin; Liote, Frederic; So, Alexander; Merriman, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: The acute gout flare results from a localised self-limiting innate immune response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposited in joints in hyperuricaemic individuals. Activation of the caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 8 (CARD8) NOD-like receptor pyrin-containing 3

  17. Multiplicative interaction of functional inflammasome genetic variants in determining the risk of gout

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McKinney, C.; Stamp, L.K.; Dalbeth, N.; Topless, R.K.; Day, R.O.; Kannangara, D.R.; Williams, K.M.; Janssen, M; Jansen, T.L.Th.A.; Joosten, L.A.B.; Radstake, T.R.; Riches, P.L.; Tausche, A.K.; Liote, F.; So, A.; Merriman, T.R.

    2015-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The acute gout flare results from a localised self-limiting innate immune response to monosodium urate (MSU) crystals deposited in joints in hyperuricaemic individuals. Activation of the caspase recruitment domain-containing protein 8 (CARD8) NOD-like receptor pyrin-containing 3

  18. Taste perception with age: pleasantness and its relationships with threshold sensitivity and supra-threshold intensity of five taste qualities

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mojet, J.; Christ-Hazelhof, E.; Heidema, J.

    2005-01-01

    The relationships between threshold sensitivity, supra-threshold intensity of NaCl, KCl, sucrose, aspartame, acetic acid, citric acid, caffeine, quinine HCl, monosodium glutamate (MSG) and inosine 5¿-monophosphate (IMP), and the pleasantness of these stimuli in products, were studied in 21 young

  19. Study of electroless copper plating on ABS resin surface modified by ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    6-(3-triethoxysilyl- propyl)amino-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-dithiol monosodium (TES) was synthesized by the reaction between 6-(3-triethoxysi-. 71 ... Palladium chloride and stannous chloride crystals were stored in a vacuum dessicator prior to use.

  20. African Journal of Biotechnology - Vol 11, No 48 (2012)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... brain aromatase-induction of monosodium glutamate in estrogen-responsive mosaic transgenic zebra fish Danio rerio · EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. Tamer Said Abdelkader, Chang Seo-Na, Kim Tae-Hyun, Song Juha, Kim Dongso, Jae-Hak Park ...

  1. Performance of Ultrasound in the Diagnosis of Gout in a Multi-Center Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ogdie, Alexis; Taylor, William J; Neogi, Tuhina

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To examine the performance of ultrasound for the diagnosis of gout using presence of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals as the gold standard. METHODS: We analyzed data from the Study for Updated Gout Classification Criteria (SUGAR), a large, multi-center observational cross-sectional stu...

  2. Behavioral deficits in adult rats treated neonatally with glutamate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hliňák, Zdeněk; Gandalovičová, D.; Krejčí, I.

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 27, č. 3 (2005), s. 465-473 ISSN 0892-0362 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NF6474 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5011922 Keywords : neonatal treatment * monosodium glutamate * long-term effect Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 1.940, year: 2005

  3. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Farinmade, Ayomide E. Vol 12, No 13 (2013) - Articles Genotoxic and cytotoxic effects of food flavor enhancer, monosodium glutamate (MSG) using Allium cepa assay. Abstract PDF. ISSN: 1684-5315. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors · FAQ's · More about ...

  4. Effects of Physical Exercise on the Intestinal Mucosa of Rats Submitted to a Hypothalamic Obesity Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, J R; Freitas, J R; Grassiolli, S

    2016-10-01

    The small intestine plays a role in obesity as well as in satiation. However, the effect of physical exercise on the morphology and function of the small intestine during obesity has not been reported to date. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of physical exercise on morphological aspects of the rat small intestine during hypothalamic monosodium glutamate (MSG)-induced obesity. The rats were divided into four groups: Sedentary (S), Monosodium Glutamate (MSG), Exercised (E), and Exercised Monosodium Glutamate (EMSG). The MSG and EMSG groups received a daily injection of monosodium glutamate (4 g/kg) during the 5 first days after birth. The S and E groups were considered as control groups and received injections of saline. At weaning, at 21 days after birth, the EMSG and E groups were submitted to swimming practice 3 times a week until the 90th day, when all groups were sacrificed and the parameters studied recorded. Exercise significantly reduced fat deposits and the Lee Index in MSG-treated animals, and also reduced the thickness of the intestinal wall, the number of goblet cells and intestinal alkaline phosphatase activity. However, physical activity alone increased the thickness and height of villi, and the depth of the crypts. In conclusion, regular physical exercise may alter the morphology or/and functions of the small intestine, reducing the prejudicial effects of hypothalamic obesity. Anat Rec, 299:1389-1396, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. No effect of 16 weeks flavor enhancement on dietary intake and nutritional status of nursing home eldery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Essed, N.H.; Staveren, van W.A.; Kok, F.J.; Graaf, de C.

    2007-01-01

    There is a lack of data to support the long-term effect of flavor enhancement on food intake and nutritional status. Our aim was to determine if daily addition of 700 mg flavor and/or 300 mg monosodium glutamate (MSG) to the animal protein part of the cooked meal for 16 weeks leads to an increase in

  6. Assessment of Different Sampling Methods for Measuring and Representing Macular Cone Density Using Flood-Illuminated Adaptive Optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shu; Gale, Michael J; Fay, Jonathan D; Faridi, Ambar; Titus, Hope E; Garg, Anupam K; Michaels, Keith V; Erker, Laura R; Peters, Dawn; Smith, Travis B; Pennesi, Mark E

    2015-09-01

    To describe a standardized flood-illuminated adaptive optics (AO) imaging protocol suitable for the clinical setting and to assess sampling methods for measuring cone density. Cone density was calculated following three measurement protocols: 50 × 50-μm sampling window values every 0.5° along the horizontal and vertical meridians (fixed-interval method), the mean density of expanding 0.5°-wide arcuate areas in the nasal, temporal, superior, and inferior quadrants (arcuate mean method), and the peak cone density of a 50 × 50-μm sampling window within expanding arcuate areas near the meridian (peak density method). Repeated imaging was performed in nine subjects to determine intersession repeatability of cone density. Cone density montages could be created for 67 of the 74 subjects. Image quality was determined to be adequate for automated cone counting for 35 (52%) of the 67 subjects. We found that cone density varied with different sampling methods and regions tested. In the nasal and temporal quadrants, peak density most closely resembled histological data, whereas the arcuate mean and fixed-interval methods tended to underestimate the density compared with histological data. However, in the inferior and superior quadrants, arcuate mean and fixed-interval methods most closely matched histological data, whereas the peak density method overestimated cone density compared with histological data. Intersession repeatability testing showed that repeatability was greatest when sampling by arcuate mean and lowest when sampling by fixed interval. We show that different methods of sampling can significantly affect cone density measurements. Therefore, care must be taken when interpreting cone density results, even in a normal population.

  7. Peripherally administered baclofen reduced food intake and body weight in db/db as well as diet-induced obese mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Ikuko; Arima, Hiroshi; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Ozaki, Nobuaki; Watanabe, Minemori; Goto, Motomitsu; Shimizu, Hiroshi; Hayashi, Masayuki; Banno, Ryouichi; Nagasaki, Hiroshi; Oiso, Yutaka

    2007-10-16

    Peripheral administration of baclofen significantly reduced food intake and body weight increase in both diabetic (db/db) and diet-induced obese mice for 5 weeks, whereas it had no significant effects on energy balance in their lean control mice. Despite the decreased body weight, neuropeptide Y expression in the arcuate nucleus was significantly decreased, whereas pro-opiomelanocortin expression was significantly increased by baclofen treatment. These data demonstrate that the inhibitory effects of baclofen on body weight in the obese mice were mediated via the arcuate nucleus at least partially, and suggest that GABA(B) agonists could be a new therapeutic reagent for obesity.

  8. Novel application of stem cell-derived neurons to evaluate the time- and dose-dependent progression of excitotoxic injury.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian M Gut

    Full Text Available Glutamate receptor (GluR-mediated neurotoxicity is implicated in a variety of disorders ranging from ischemia to neural degeneration. Under conditions of elevated glutamate, the excessive activation of GluRs causes internalization of pathologic levels of Ca(2+, culminating in bioenergetic failure, organelle degradation, and cell death. Efforts to characterize cellular and molecular aspects of excitotoxicity and conduct therapeutic screening for pharmacologic inhibitors of excitogenic progression have been hindered by limitations associated with primary neuron culture. To address this, we evaluated glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in highly enriched glutamatergic neurons (ESNs derived from murine embryonic stem cells. As of 18 days in vitro (DIV 18, ESNs were synaptically coupled, exhibited spontaneous network activity with neurotypic mEPSCs and expressed NMDARs and AMPARs with physiological current:voltage behaviors. Addition of 0.78-200 μM glutamate evoked reproducible time- and dose-dependent metabolic failure in 6 h, with a calculated EC50 value of 0.44 μM at 24 h. Using a combination of cell viability assays and electrophysiology, we determined that glutamate-induced toxicity was specifically mediated by NMDARs and could be inhibited by addition of NMDAR antagonists, increased extracellular Mg(2+ or substitution of Ba(2+ for Ca(2+. Glutamate treatment evoked neurite fragmentation and focal swelling by both immunocytochemistry and scanning electron microscopy. Presentation of morphological markers of cell death was dose-dependent, with 0.78-200 μM glutamate resulting in apoptosis and 3000 μM glutamate generating a mixture of necrosis and apoptosis. Addition of neuroprotective small molecules reduced glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in a dose-dependent fashion. These data indicate that ESNs replicate many of the excitogenic mechanisms observed in primary neuron culture, offering a moderate-throughput model of excitotoxicity that combines the

  9. Percutaneous and Endovascular Embolization of Ruptured Hepatic Artery Aneurysm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Little, Andrew F.; Lee, Wai Kit

    2002-01-01

    A 72-year-old woman presented with an intraperitoneal hemorrhage from a ruptured intrahepatic arteryaneurysm, with an associated pseudoaneurysm developing a high-flow arteriovenous fistula. Persistent coagulopathy and a median arcuate ligament stenosis of the celiac axis further complicated endovascular management. Aneurysm thrombosis required percutaneous embolization with coils, a removable core guidewire and polyvinyl alcohol particles

  10. Orexin - does it have a role in mental illness? | Moosa | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Orexin-A and Orexin-B (also known as hypocretin 1 and 2) are, respectively, 33- and 28-amino acid residue peptides that activate a G-protein-coupled 'orphan\\' receptor, i.e. which has no known ligand.1 Immuno-cytochemical studies show that orexin-positive neurons are located in the lateral hypothalamic area and arcuate ...

  11. Satellite gravity anomalies and crustal features of the Central Indian Ocean Basin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rao, D.G.; Krishna, K.S.; Neprochnov, Y.P.; Grinko, B.N.

    -air anomalies due to volcanic constructs that trend in arcuate shape from north to south parallel to 82.5 degrees E are noted as southern continuity of the 85 degrees E Ridge, which terminates at the Afanasy Nikitin seamount. Change in rheology of the crustal...

  12. Structure and origin of the 85 degrees E ridge

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.; Subrahmanyam, V.; Chaubey, A.K.; Ramprasad, T.; Sarma, K.V.L.N.S.; Krishna, K.S.; Desa, M.; Murty, G.P.S.; Subrahmanyam, C

    The submerged 85 degrees E Ridge in the Bay of Bengal trends approximately N-S between 19 degrees N and 6 degrees N latitudes. Off the southeast coast of Sri Lanka it takes an arcuate shape and seems to terminate with the northweard extension...

  13. Shoreline configurations control on the concentration of nearshore heavy minerals: A case study from Konkan-Maharashtra, central west coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Gujar, A.R.; Rajamanickam, G.V.; Wagle, B.G.

    . The Ambolgarh Bay which has the highest concentration is arcuate with gentle gradient. NE-SW orientation appears to be more suitable for the accumulation of more heavy minerals. Wada-Vetye Bay with steep gradient almost oriented in N-S direction and causes...

  14. Energy balance affects luteinizing hormone pulses and expression of neurokinin B in the hypothalamus of ovariectomized gilts

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pubertal transition of gonadotropin secretion in pigs is metabolically gated, but the mechanisms that underpin this regulation are unknown. Kisspeptin and neurokinin B (NKB) are coexpressed in neurons within the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARC) and are thought to play an important role ...

  15. Hormones and Diet, but Not Body Weight, Control Hypothalamic Microglial Activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, Yuanqing; Ottaway, Nickki; Schriever, Sonja C.; Legutko, Beata; García-Cáceres, Cristina; de la Fuente, Esther; Mergen, Clarita; Bour, Susanne; Thaler, Joshua P.; Seeley, Randy J.; Filosa, Jessica; Stern, Javier E.; Perez-Tilve, Diego; Schwartz, Michael W.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Yi, Chun-Xia

    2014-01-01

    The arcuate nucleus (ARC) of the hypothalamus plays a key role in sensing metabolic feedback and regulating energy homeostasis. Recent studies revealed activation of microglia in mice with high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity (DIO), suggesting a potential pathophysiological role for inflammatory

  16. Differential regulation of kiss1 expression by melatonin and gonadal hormones in male and female Syrian hamsters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ansel, L; Bolborea, M; Bentsen, A H

    2010-01-01

    ). In rodents, Kiss1 is expressed in the anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and in the arcuate nucleus (ARC). Because both the duration of the nocturnal peak of melatonin and circulating sex steroid levels vary with photoperiod, the aim of this study was to determine whether melatonin and sex steroids...

  17. The lateral hypothalamus : A site for integration of nutrient and fluid balance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Dijk, Gertjan; Evers, Simon S.; Guidotti, Stefano; Thornton, Simon N.; Scheurink, Anton J. W.; Nyakas, Csaba

    2011-01-01

    This paper reviews seemingly obligatory relations between nutrient and fluid balance. A relatively novel neuronal pathway involving interplay between acetylcholine and the melanocortins, alpha MSH and AGRP in the arcuate nucleus (Arc) of the hypothalamus projecting to the lateral hypothalamus (LH)

  18. Tectonic inheritance and continental rift architecture: Numerical and analogue models of the East African Rift System.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Corti, G.; van Wijk, J.W.; Cloetingh, S.A.P.L.; Morley, C.

    2007-01-01

    The western branch of the East African Rift is composed of an arcuate succession of elongate asymmetric basins, which differ in terms of interaction geometry, fault architecture and kinematics, and patterns of uplift/subsidence and erosion/sedimentation. The basins are located within Proterozoic

  19. Curvilinear ridges and related features in southwest Cydonia Mensae, Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Timothy J.; Schneeberger, Dale M.; Pieri, David C.; Saunders, R. Stephen

    1987-01-01

    Examined is a region on Mars in southwest Cydonia Mensae (32 deg lat., 17 deg long.) just northwest of the lowland/upland boundary escarpment. The dominant morphological features in this region are the clusters of large massifs and plateau outliers (PI), knobby material (K), and smooth lowland plains (Ps). Surrounding the clusters and linking many isolated knobs is a system of curvilinear ridges and arcuate terrain boundaries which tend to separate the massifs and knobs from the smooth plains. Curvilinear ridges are arcuate to nearly linear and smoother in plan than wrinkle ridges and show no apparent correlation with regional structural grain. They are typically 5 to 10 km long but can range from as little as 2 or 3 km to greater than 50 km long. The widths vary from about 100 m to as much as 2 km. Curvilinear ridges are most numerous within 100 km of the lowland/upland boundary escarpment and are associated with massifs and knobby terrain. Arcuate terrain boundaries appear between units of different apparent albedo or arcuate breaks in slope.

  20. Statistical analysis of long term spatial and temporal trends of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    (2011–2099) in the middle catchment of Sutlej river basin, India. The future time series of ... to the Purvanchal in east and is arcuate in shape. It covers a vast area of ... of climate change because of the fact that perturba- tion occurring due to ...

  1. Müllerian duct anomalies diagnosed by saline contrast sonohysterography

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreisler, Eva; Stampe Sørensen, Søren

    2014-01-01

    (S): The shape of the uterus was dynamically evaluated in the transversal and longitudinal planes during SCSH and classified in accordance with American Fertility Society as normal, arcuate, septate (partial, complete), bicorn (partial, complete), or unicorn. History of previous miscarriage and menstrual cycle...

  2. Structural Alterations of the Language Connectome in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vydrová, R.; Komárek, V.; Šanda, J.; Štěrbová, K.; Jahodová, A.; Maulisová, A.; Žáčková, J.; Reissigová, Jindra; Kršek, P.; Kyncl, M.

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 151, December (2015), s. 35-41 ISSN 0093-934X Institutional support: RVO:67985807 Keywords : Specific language disorder * DTI * Arcuate fascicle * IFOF * Ventral stream Subject RIV: BB - Applied Statistics, Operational Research Impact factor: 3.038, year: 2015

  3. Journal of Earth System Science | Indian Academy of Sciences

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Paharpur gabbroic intrusive is an arcuate body running east–west paralleling the foliation of Chhotanagpur Granite Gneiss which acts as country rock. The main gabbroic body is intruded by a number of dolerite dykes running north–south. It is composed of clinopyroxene (Wo48En40Fs12–Wo51En40Fs09, mg no. 72–82) ...

  4. Bilingualism modulates the white matter structure of language-related pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hämäläinen, Sini; Sairanen, Viljami; Leminen, Alina; Lehtonen, Minna

    2017-05-15

    Learning and speaking a second language (L2) may result in profound changes in the human brain. Here, we investigated local structural differences along two language-related white matter trajectories, the arcuate fasciculus and the inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), between early simultaneous bilinguals and late sequential bilinguals. We also examined whether early exposure to two languages might lead to a more bilateral structural organization of the arcuate fasciculus. Fractional anisotropy, mean and radial diffusivities (FA, MD, and RD respectively) were extracted to analyse tract-specific changes. Additionally, global voxel-wise effects were investigated with Tract-Based Spatial Statistics (TBSS). We found that relative to late exposure, early exposure to L2 leads to increased FA along a phonology-related segment of the arcuate fasciculus, but induces no modulations along the IFOF, associated to semantic processing. Late sequential bilingualism, however, was associated with decreased MD along the bilateral IFOF. Our results suggest that early vs. late bilingualism may lead to qualitatively different kind of changes in the structural language-related network. Furthermore, we show that early bilingualism contributes to the structural laterality of the arcuate fasciculus, leading to a more bilateral organization of these perisylvian language-related tracts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Stimulatory effect of RFRP-3 on the gonadotrophic axis in the male Syrian hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ancel, Caroline; Bentsen, Agnete H; Sébert, Marie-Emilie

    2012-01-01

    on the gonadotrophic axis in the Syrian hamster. We show that acute central injection of RFRP-3 induces c-Fos expression in GnRH neurons and increases LH, FSH, and testosterone secretion. Moreover, chronic central administration of RFRP-3 restores testicular activity and Kiss1 levels in the arcuate nucleus of hamsters...

  6. Survival of spray-dried Lactobacillus kefir is affected by different protectants and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golowczyc, Marina A; Gerez, Carla L; Silva, Joana; Abraham, Analía G; De Antoni, Graciela L; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-04-01

    Survival of two Lactobacillus kefir strains after spray drying in reconstituted skim milk with or without the addition of 12.5 g monosodium glutamate/l, 20 g sucrose/l, or 20 g fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)/l and during subsequent storage under different conditions of temperature (20 and 30°C) and relative humidity (RH) (0, 11 and 23%) was evaluated. After being dried, L. kefir 8321 and L. kefir 8348 had a decrease in viability of 0.29 and 0.70 log cfu/ml respectively, while the addition of different protectants improved the survival of both strains significantly. During storage, bacterial survival was significantly higher under lower conditions of RH (0-11%), and monosodium glutamate and FOS proved to be the best protectants.

  7. Tophaceous Gout in an Anorectic Patient Visualized by Dual Energy Computed Tomography (DECT)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Heidi Dahl; Sheta, Hussam; Birger Morillon, Melanie

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Gout is characterized by deposition of uric acid crystals (monosodium urate) in tissues and fluids. This can cause acute inflammatory arthritis. The 2015 ACR/EULAR criteria for the diagnosis of gout include dual energy computed tomography (DECT)-demonstrated monosodium urate crystals...... known to have anorexia nervosa. During our clinical examination, we detected plenty of tophi on both hands, but no swollen joints. The diagnosis of gout was made by visualizing crystals in a biopsy from a tophus. The first line of treatment was allopurinol, the second line was rasburicase...... and soft tissue. CONCLUSIONS DECT is an imaging modality useful to assess urate crystal deposits at diagnosis of gout and could be considered during treatment evaluation. Lack of adherence to treatment should be considered when P-urate values vary significantly and when DECT scans over years persistently...

  8. AnAnalytical Study of Chinese Salt (MSG: Is it Halal or Haram (Urdu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Junaid Akbar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Monosodium Glutamate is the scientific name of Chinese salt, which also called Ajinomoto. Monosodium Glutamate was first discovered by the Japanese chemist Ikeda Kibunae in 1908. The MSG was firstly derived from seaweed. Later on MSG was got from meat, gluten,and vegetables etc. It can be derived from Najasul‘ain and GherNajasul‘ain things. If it was got from Najasul ‘ain, then there is a question about MSG that is it Halal(permissible/ lawful or Haram(non-permissible/unlawful. This research in this article is concluded that if the culture of MSG is Halal or the properIsti Halah has been done in Najas; MSG will be Halal(permissible/ lawful. However, where no such details are available about the culture of MSG, it should be avoid, although it cannot be declared Haram as per Islamic Jurisprudence rules

  9. Lithium-Induced Neuroprotection is Associated with Epigenetic Modification of Specific BDNF Gene Promoter and Altered Expression of Apoptotic-Regulatory Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar eDwivedi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bipolar disorder (BD, one of the most debilitating mental disorders, is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Lithium is the first line of treatment option for BD and is often used for maintenance therapy. Recently, the neuroprotective action of lithium has gained tremendous attention, given that BD is associated with structural and functional abnormalities of the brain. However, the precise molecular mechanism by which lithium exerts its neuroprotective action is not clearly understood. In hippocampal neurons, the effects of lithium on neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity, dendritic length and number, and expression and methylation of BDNF promoter exons and expression of apoptotic regulatory genes were studied. In rat hippocampal neurons, lithium not only increased dendritic length and number, but also neuronal viability against glutamate-induced cytotoxicity. While lithium increased the expression of BDNF as well as genes associated with neuroprotection such as Bcl2 and Bcl-XL, it decreased the expression of pro-apoptotic genes Bax, Bad, and caspases 3. Interestingly, lithium activated transcription of specific exon IV to induce BDNF gene expression. This was accompanied by hypomethylation of BDNF exon IV promoter. This study delineates mechanisms by which lithium mediates its effects in protecting neurons.

  10. Up-regulation of DRP-3 long isoform during the induction of neural progenitor cells by glutamate treatment in the ex vivo rat retina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuda, Kazuhiro, E-mail: r502um@yamaguchi-u.ac.jp [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Department of Biochemistry and Functional Proteomics, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Kuramitsu, Yasuhiro; Byron, Baron; Kitagawa, Takao [Department of Biochemistry and Functional Proteomics, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Tokuda, Nobuko [Faculty of Health Sciences, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube (Japan); Kobayashi, Daiki; Nagayama, Megumi; Araki, Norie [Department of Tumor Genetics and Biology, Graduate School of Medical Sciences, Kumamoto University, Kumamoto (Japan); Sonoda, Koh-Hei [Department of Ophthalmology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan); Nakamura, Kazuyuki [Department of Biochemistry and Functional Proteomics, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube, Yamaguchi (Japan)

    2015-08-07

    Glutamate has been shown to induce neural progenitor cells in the adult vertebrate retina. However, protein dynamics during progenitor cell induction by glutamate are not fully understood. To identify specific proteins involved in the process, we employed two-dimensional electrophoresis-based proteomics on glutamate untreated and treated retinal ex vivo sections. Rat retinal tissues were incubated with 1 mM glutamate for 1 h, followed by incubation in glutamate-free media for a total of 24 h. Consistent with prior reports, it was found that mitotic cells appeared in the outer nuclear layer without any histological damage. Immunohistological evaluations and immunoblotting confirmed the emergence of neuronal progenitor cells in the mature retina treated with glutamate. Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of dihydropyrimidinase-related protein 3 (DRP-3), DRP-2 and stress-induced-phosphoprotein 1 (STIP1) during neural progenitor cell induction by glutamate. Moreover, mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased in the treated retina compared to that in the untreated retina. These results may indicate that glutamate induces neural progenitor cells in the mature rat retina by up-regulating the proteins which mediate cell mitosis and neurite growth. - Highlights: • Glutamate induced neuronal progenitor cells in the mature rat retina. • Proteomic analysis revealed the up-regulation of DRP-3, DRP-2 and STIP1. • mRNA expression of DRP-3, especially, its long isoform, robustly increased.

  11. Green Tea Polyphenols Attenuated Glutamate Excitotoxicity via Antioxidative and Antiapoptotic Pathway in the Primary Cultured Cortical Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Cong

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Green tea polyphenols are a natural product which has antioxidative and antiapoptotic effects. It has been shown that glutamate excitotoxicity induced oxidative stress is linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease and Parkinson’s disease. In this study we explored the neuroprotective effect of green teen polyphenols against glutamate excitotoxicity in the primary cultured cortical neurons. We found that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate induced neurotoxicity in the cortical neurons as measured by MTT and TUNEL assays. Green tea polyphenols were then showed to inhibit the glutamate induced ROS release and SOD activity reduction in the neurons. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols restored the dysfunction of mitochondrial pro- or antiapoptotic proteins Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 caused by glutamate. Interestingly, the neuroprotective effect of green tea polyphenols was abrogated when the neurons were incubated with siBcl-2. Taken together, these results demonstrated that green tea polyphenols protected against glutamate excitotoxicity through antioxidative and antiapoptotic pathways.

  12. Central Antinociceptive and Mechanism of Action of Pereskia bleo Kunth Leaves Crude Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Carvalho Guilhon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E, hexane (H, ethyl acetate (EA, or butanol (B fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o., sitosterol (from hexane and vitexin (from ethyl acetate, were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p., atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p., and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p. were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o. in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway.

  13. Pifithrin-α provides neuroprotective effects at the level of mitochondria independently of p53 inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neitemeier, Sandra; Ganjam, Goutham K; Diemert, Sebastian; Culmsee, Carsten

    2014-12-01

    Impaired mitochondrial integrity and function are key features of intrinsic death pathways in neuronal cells. Therefore, key regulators of intrinsic death pathways acting upstream of mitochondria are potential targets for therapeutic approaches of neuroprotection. The tumor suppressor p53 is a well-established regulator of cellular responses towards different kinds of lethal stress, including oxidative stress. Recent reports suggested that p53 may affect mitochondrial integrity and function through both, transcriptional activation of mitochondria-targeted pro-death proteins and direct effects at the mitochondrial membrane. In the present study, we compared the effects of pharmacological inhibition of p53 by pifithrin-α with those of selective p53 gene silencing by RNA interference. Using MTT assay and real-time cell impedance measurements we confirmed the protective effect of both strategies against glutamate-induced oxidative stress in immortalized mouse hippocampal HT-22 neurons. Further, we observed full restoration of mitochondrial membrane potential and inhibition of glutamate-induced mitochondrial fragmentation by pifithrin-α which was, in contrast, not achieved by p53 gene silencing. Downregulation of p53 by siRNA decreased p53 transcriptional activity and reduced expression levels of p21 mRNA, while pifithrin-α did not affect these endpoints. These results suggest a neuroprotective effect of pifithrin-α which occurred at the level of mitochondria and independently of p53 inhibition.

  14. Phytoceramide Shows Neuroprotection and Ameliorates Scopolamine-Induced Memory Impairment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seikwan Oh

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The function and the role phytoceramide (PCER and phytosphingosine (PSO in the central nervous system has not been well studied. This study was aimed at investigating the possible roles of PCER and PSO in glutamate-induced neurotoxicity in cultured neuronal cells and memory function in mice. Phytoceramide showed neuro-protective activity in the glutamate-induced toxicity in cultured cortical neuronal cells. Neither phytosphingosine nor tetraacetylphytosphingosine (TAPS showed neuroproective effects in neuronal cells. PCER (50 mg/kg, p.o. recovered the scopolamine-induced reduction in step-through latency in the passive avoidance test; however, PSO did not modulate memory function on this task. The ameliorating effects of PCER on spatial memory were confirmed by the Morris water maze test. In conclusion, through behavioral and neurochemical experimental results, it was demonstrated that central administration of PCER produces amelioration of memory impairment. These results suggest that PCER plays an important role in neuroprotection and memory enhancement and PCER could be a potential new therapeutic agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s disease.

  15. D-aspartate and NMDA, but not L-aspartate, block AMPA receptors in rat hippocampal neurons

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gong, Xiang-Qun; Frandsen, Anne; Lu, Wei-Yang

    2005-01-01

    1 The amino acid, D-aspartate, exists in the mammalian brain and is an agonist at the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) subtype of ionotropic glutamate receptors. Here, for the first time, we studied the actions of D-aspartate on alpha-amino-3-hydroxyl-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionate receptors (AMPARs......) in acutely isolated rat hippocampal neurons. 2 In the presence of the NMDA receptor channel blocker, MK801, D-aspartate inhibited kainate-induced AMPAR current in hippocampal neurons. The inhibitory action of D-aspartate on kainate-induced AMPAR current was concentration-dependent and was voltage......-independent in the tested voltage range (-80 to +60 mV). 3 The estimated EC50 of the L-glutamate-induced AMPAR current was increased in the presence of D-aspartate, while the estimated maximum L-glutamate-induced AMPAR current was not changed. D-aspartate concentration-dependently shifted the dose-response curve of kainate...

  16. Type II and III Taste Bud Cells Preferentially Expressed Kainate Glutamate Receptors in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang-Bok; Lee, Cil-Han; Kim, Se-Nyun; Chung, Ki-Myung; Cho, Young-Kyung; Kim, Kyung-Nyun

    2009-12-01

    Glutamate-induced cobalt uptake reveals that non-NMDA glutamate receptors (GluRs) are present in rat taste bud cells. Previous studies involving glutamate induced cobalt staining suggest this uptake mainly occurs via kainate type GluRs. It is not known which of the 4 types of taste bud cells express subunits of kainate GluR. Circumvallate and foliate papillae of Sprague-Dawley rats (45~60 days old) were used to search for the mRNAs of subunits of non-NMDA GluRs using RT-PCR with specific primers for GluR1-7, KA1 and KA2. We also performed RT-PCR for GluR5, KA1, PLCbeta2, and NCAM/SNAP 25 in isolated single cells from taste buds. Taste epithelium, including circumvallate or foliate papilla, express mRNAs of GluR5 and KA1. However, non-taste tongue epithelium expresses no subunits of non-NMDA GluRs. Isolated single cell RT-PCR reveals that the mRNAs of GluR5 and KA1 are preferentially expressed in Type II and Type III cells over Type I cells.

  17. Mitochondrial dysfunction associated with nitric oxide pathways in glutamate neurotoxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manucha, Walter

    Multiple mechanisms underlying glutamate-induced neurotoxicity have recently been discussed. Likewise, a clear deregulation of the mitochondrial respiratory mechanism has been described in patients with neurodegeneration, oxidative stress, and inflammation. This article highlights nitric oxide, an atypical neurotransmitter synthesized and released on demand by the post-synaptic neurons, and has many important implications for nerve cell survival and differentiation. Consequently, synaptogenesis, synapse elimination, and neurotransmitter release, are nitric oxide-modulated. Interesting, an emergent role of nitric oxide pathways has been discussed as regards neurotoxicity from glutamate-induced apoptosis. These findings suggest that nitric oxide pathways modulation could prevent oxidative damage to neurons through apoptosis inhibition. This review aims to highlight the emergent aspects of nitric oxide-mediated signaling in the brain, and how they can be related to neurotoxicity, as well as the development of neurodegenerative diseases development. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  18. The Influence of Glutamate on Axonal Compound Action Potential In Vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abouelela, Ahmed; Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background  Our previous experiments demonstrated modulation of the amplitude of the axonal compound action potential (CAP) by electrical stimulation. To verify assumption that glutamate released from axons could be involved in this phenomenon, the modification of the axonal CAP induced by glutamate was investigated. Objectives  The major objective of this research is to verify the hypothesis that axonal activity would trigger the release of glutamate, which in turn would interact with specific axonal receptors modifying the amplitude of the action potential. Methods  Segments of the sciatic nerve were exposed to exogenous glutamate in vitro, and CAP was recorded before and after glutamate application. In some experiments, the release of radioactive glutamate analog from the sciatic nerve exposed to exogenous glutamate was also evaluated. Results  The glutamate-induced increase in CAP was blocked by different glutamate receptor antagonists. The effect of glutamate was not observed in Ca-free medium, and was blocked by antagonists of calcium channels. Exogenous glutamate, applied to the segments of sciatic nerve, induced the release of radioactive glutamate analog, demonstrating glutamate-induced glutamate release. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that axolemma contains components necessary for glutamatergic neurotransmission. Conclusion  The proteins of the axonal membrane can under the influence of electrical stimulation or exogenous glutamate change membrane permeability and ionic conductance, leading to a change in the amplitude of CAP. We suggest that increased axonal activity leads to the release of glutamate that results in changes in the amplitude of CAPs.

  19. Differential Signatures of Second Language Syntactic Performance and Age on the Structural Properties of the Left Dorsal Pathway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayako Yamamoto

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In adult second language (L2 acquisition, individual differences are considerably large even among people with similar experiences. The neural mechanisms underlying this variability would include structural plasticity of language-related pathways. To elucidate such neuroplasticity, we focused on the transitional period of adolescence, which is associated with certain plasticity toward maturation following the sensitive period of language acquisition (≤12 years old. The adolescent brain would thus be influenced by age-dependent factors, as well as performances in L2. Here, we examined individual differences in L2 performances controlling the duration of experience to reveal the differential signatures of performances and age on the plasticity of structural properties in major language-related pathways. We recruited Japanese students at two ages, i.e., junior (age: 13–14 and senior (age: 16–17 high-school students, all of whom started to expose to English at age 12 or 13. We divided them into subgroups, so that either L2 performance [Junior (High/Senior (Low] or age [Senior (Low/Senior (High] was matched in group comparisons; the duration of L2 experience was also controlled between the Senior (Low and Senior (High groups. We then examined the thickness and fractional anisotropy (FA of the dorsal and ventral pathways, i.e., the arcuate fasciculus (Arcuate and inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF, respectively, using semi-automatic methods for selecting regions without branches. Regarding FA in the left Arcuate, the Senior (High group showed significantly higher FA than the other two groups, indicating performance-related group differences. Further, FA in the left Arcuate was selectively correlated with the accuracy of a syntactic task. Regarding the thickness of the left Arcuate, the Senior (High and Senior (Low groups showed significantly larger thickness than the Junior (High group, indicating age-related group differences. These

  20. Influence of Nitrogen Source, Thiamine, and Light on Biosynthesis of Abscisic Acid by Cercospora rosicola Passerini

    OpenAIRE

    Norman, Shirley M.; Maier, Vincent P.; Echols, Linda C.

    1981-01-01

    Abscisic acid production by Cercospora rosicola Passerini in liquid shake culture was measured with different amino acids in combination and singly as nitrogen sources and with different amounts of thiamine in the media. Production of abscisic acid was highest with aspartic acid-glutamic acid and aspartic acid-glutamic acid-serine mixtures as nitrogen sources. Single amino acids that supported the highest production of abscisic acid were asparagine and monosodium glutamate. Thiamine was impor...

  1. Relevant aspects of imaging in the diagnosis and management of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Avila Fernandes, Eloy; Bergamaschi, Samuel Brighenti; Rodrigues, Tatiane Cantarelli; Dias, Gustavo Coelho; Malmann, Ralff; Ramos, Germano Martins; Monteiro, Soraya Silveira

    Gout is an inflammatory arthritis characterized by the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the synovial membrane, articular cartilage and periarticular tissues leading to inflammation. Men are more commonly affected, mainly after the 5th decade of life. Its incidence has been growing with the population aging. In the majority of the cases, the diagnosis is made by clinical criteria and synovial fluid analysis, in search for monosodium urate crystals. Nonetheless, gout may sometimes have atypical presentations, complicating the diagnosis. In these situations, imaging methods have a fundamental role, aiding in the diagnostic confirmation or excluding other possible differential diagnosis. Conventional radiographs are still the most commonly used method in gout patients' evaluation; nevertheless, this is not a sensitive method, since it detect only late alterations. In the last years, there have been several advances in imaging methods for gout patients. Ultrasound has shown a great accuracy in the diagnosis of gout, identifying monosodium urate deposits in the synovial membrane and articular cartilage, in detecting and characterizing tophi and in identifying tophaceous tendinopathy and enthesopathy. Ultrasound has also been able to show crystal deposition in patients with articular pain in the absence of a classical gout crisis. Computed tomography is an excellent method for detecting bone erosions, being useful in spine involvement. Dual-energy CT is a new method able to provide information about the chemical composition of tissues, with high accuracy in the identification of monosodium urate deposits, even in the early stages of the disease and in cases of difficult characterization. Magnetic resonance imaging is useful in the evaluation of deep tissues not accessible by ultrasound. Besides the diagnosis, with the emergence of new drugs that aim to reduce tophaceous burden, imaging methods have become useful tools in monitoring the treatment of patients with

  2. Multifunctional Graphene/Platinum/Nafion Hybrids via Ice Templating

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis; Kelarakis, Antonios; Gong, Qianming; Da’ as, Eman H.; Giannelis, Emmanuel P.

    2011-01-01

    We report the synthesis of multifunctional hybrids in both films and bulk form, combining electrical and ionic conductivity with porosity and catalytic activity. The hybrids are synthesized by a two-step process: (a) ice templation of an aqueous suspension comprised of Nafion, graphite oxide, and chloroplatinic acid to form a microcellular porous network and (b) mild reduction in hydrazine or monosodium citrate which leads to graphene-supported Pt nanoparticles on a Nafion scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  3. 21 CFR 558.258 - Fenbendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... feed: Salt (sodium chloride) 59.00 6-04-152 Monosodium phosphate 31.16 6-04-288 Dried cane molasses 3.12 4-04-695 Zinc sulfate 0.76 6-05-556 Copper sulfate 0.45 6-01-720 Fenbendazole 20% Type A article 5.51 n/a (2) Free-choice, dry Type C feed: Salt (sodium chloride) 35.93 6-04-152 Dicalcium phosphate...

  4. Low fish oil intake improves insulin sensitivity, lipid profile and muscle metabolism on insulin resistant MSG-obese rats

    OpenAIRE

    Iagher Fabiola; Aikawa Julia; Rocha Ricelli ER; Machado Juliano; Kryczyk Marcelo; Schiessel Dalton; Borghetti Gina; Yamaguchi Adriana A; Pequitto Danielle CT; Coelho Isabela; Brito Gleisson AP; Yamazaki Ricardo K; Naliwaiko Katya; Tanhoffer Ricardo A; Nunes Everson A

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background Obesity is commonly associated with diabetes, cardiovascular diseases and cancer. The purpose of this study was to determinate the effect of a lower dose of fish oil supplementation on insulin sensitivity, lipid profile, and muscle metabolism in obese rats. Methods Monosodium glutamate (MSG) (4 mg/g body weight) was injected in neonatal Wistar male rats. Three-month-old rats were divided in normal-weight control group (C), coconut fat-treated normal weight group (CO), fish...

  5. Impact of Strontium Nitrate and Sodium Permanganate Addition on Solid-Liquid Separation of SRS High Level Waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2002-01-01

    As a pretreatment step for the caustic side solvent extraction (CSSX) flowsheet, the process contacts the incoming salt solution containing entrained sludge with monosodium titanate (MST) to adsorb strontium and actinides. An operation filters the resulting slurry to remove the sludge and MST. Previous work for the River Protection Program at Hanford suggests that addition of strontium nitrate and sodium permanganate for strontium and actinide removal, rather than MST, improves the filtration rate for comparable waste streams

  6. Filtration of Sludge and Sodium Nonatitanate Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier, M.R.

    2000-01-01

    The proposed facility designs for the ion exchange and solvent extraction flowsheets under development to treat high level waste at the Savannah River Site use crossflow filtration to remove entrained sludge and monosodium titanate (MST). Bench-scale and pilot-scale testing performed with simulated feed streams showed much lower filtration rates than desired for the process. This report documents an investigation of the impact on filtration of using Honeywell sodium nonatitanate (ST), rather than MST, for strontium and actinide removal

  7. OPERATIONS REVIEW OF THE SAVANNAH RIVER SITE INTEGRATED SALT DISPOSITION PROCESS - 11327

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peters, T.; Poirier, M.; Fondeur, F.; Fink, S.; Brown, S.; Geeting, M.

    2011-02-07

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) is removing liquid radioactive waste from its Tank Farm. To treat waste streams that are low in Cs-137, Sr-90, and actinides, SRS developed the Actinide Removal Process and implemented the Modular Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX) Unit (MCU). The Actinide Removal Process contacts salt solution with monosodium titanate to sorb strontium and select actinides. After monosodium titanate contact, the resulting slurry is filtered to remove the monosodium titanate (and sorbed strontium and actinides) and entrained sludge. The filtrate is transferred to the MCU for further treatment to remove cesium. The solid particulates removed by the filter are concentrated to {approx} 5 wt %, washed to reduce the sodium concentration, and transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The CSSX process extracts the cesium from the radioactive waste using a customized solvent to produce a Decontaminated Salt Solution (DSS), and strips and concentrates the cesium from the solvent with dilute nitric acid. The DSS is incorporated in grout while the strip acid solution is transferred to the Defense Waste Processing Facility for vitrification. The facilities began radiological processing in April 2008 and started processing of the third campaign ('MarcoBatch 3') of waste in June 2010. Campaigns to date have processed {approx}1.2 million gallons of dissolved saltcake. Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) personnel performed tests using actual radioactive samples for each waste batch prior to processing. Testing included monosodium titanate sorption of strontium and actinides followed by CSSX batch contact tests to verify expected cesium mass transfer. This paper describes the tests conducted and compares results from facility operations. The results include strontium, plutonium, and cesium removal, cesium concentration, and organic entrainment and recovery data. Additionally, the poster describes lessons learned during

  8. Ophaceous Gout Involving the Whole Spine: An Unusual Case Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Min Woo; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho [Dept. of Radiology, Sanggye Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-02-15

    Gout is a relatively common, crystal deposition disease, in which monosodium urate crystals are deposited in joint and periarticular tissues of the extremities. Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. Most patients with spinal gout present with symptomatic spinal cord compression. Diffuse involvement of tophi deposition inside the spinal central canal has not been reported. We now present a case of chronic tophaceous gout with extensive spinal involvement that resulted in diffuse spinal cord compression and led to paraplegia.

  9. Ophaceous Gout Involving the Whole Spine: An Unusual Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shin, Min Woo; Lee, Ji Hae; Cho, Woo Ho

    2012-01-01

    Gout is a relatively common, crystal deposition disease, in which monosodium urate crystals are deposited in joint and periarticular tissues of the extremities. Involvement of the spine is exceedingly rare. Most patients with spinal gout present with symptomatic spinal cord compression. Diffuse involvement of tophi deposition inside the spinal central canal has not been reported. We now present a case of chronic tophaceous gout with extensive spinal involvement that resulted in diffuse spinal cord compression and led to paraplegia.

  10. High-density lipoproteins inhibit urate crystal-induced inflammation in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Scanu Anna; Luisetto Roberto; Oliviero Francesca; Gruaz Lyssia; Sfriso Paolo; Burger Danielle; Punzi Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the effects and mechanisms of action of high density lipoproteins (HDL) in monosodium urate (MSU) crystal induced inflammation—that is gouty inflammation in vivo. Methods Air pouches raised on the backs of mice were injected with MSU crystals or tumour necrosis factor (TNF) in the presence or absence of HDL and/or interleukin (IL) 1 receptor antagonist (IL 1Ra) for 3 h. Leucocyte count and neutrophil percentage in pouch fluids were measured using a haemocytometer an...

  11. The regeneration of polluted active carbon by radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Hu Longxin; Zhou Riumin; Zhu Jinliang

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the regeneration of polluted active carbon from monosodium glutamate factory by combination of radiation and acid-alkali chemical techniques. The experimental results show that the polluted active carbon will be highly regenerated on the conditions of process concentration 3%, process time 0.5 hour and the adjustment process concentration 2%, time 0.5 hour, radiation dose 5kGy. As regeneration times increase, the regenerated active carbon behaves with good repetition and stable property

  12. Multifunctional Graphene/Platinum/Nafion Hybrids via Ice Templating

    KAUST Repository

    Estevez, Luis

    2011-04-27

    We report the synthesis of multifunctional hybrids in both films and bulk form, combining electrical and ionic conductivity with porosity and catalytic activity. The hybrids are synthesized by a two-step process: (a) ice templation of an aqueous suspension comprised of Nafion, graphite oxide, and chloroplatinic acid to form a microcellular porous network and (b) mild reduction in hydrazine or monosodium citrate which leads to graphene-supported Pt nanoparticles on a Nafion scaffold. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

  13. Neuroprotection of rat retinal ganglion cells mediated through alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, K; Mata, D; Linn, D M; Linn, C L

    2013-05-01

    Glutamate-induced excitotoxicity is thought to play an important role in several neurodegenerative diseases in the central nervous system (CNS). In this study, neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity was analyzed using acetylcholine (ACh), nicotine and the α7 specific nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) agonist, N-[(3R)-1-azabicyclo[2.2.2]oct-3-yl]-4-chlorobenzamide hydrochloride (PNU-282987), in cultured adult rat retinal neurons. Adult Long Evans rat retinas were dissociated and retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) were isolated from all other retinal tissue using a two-step panning technique. Once isolated, RGCs were cultured under various pharmacological conditions to demonstrate excitotoxicity and neuroprotection against excitotoxicity. After 3 days, RGCs were immunostained with antibodies against the glycoprotein, Thy 1.1, counted and cell survival was assessed relative to control untreated conditions. 500 μM glutamate induced excitotoxicity in large and small RGCs in an adult rat dissociated culture. After 3 days in culture with glutamate, the cell survival of large RGCs decreased by an average of 48.16% while the cell survival of small RGCs decreased by an average of 42.03%. Using specific glutamate receptor agonists and antagonists, we provide evidence that the excitotoxic response was mediated through α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA)/kainic acid (KA) and N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) glutamate receptors through an apoptotic mechanism. However, the excitotoxic effect of glutamate on all RGCs was eliminated if cells were cultured for an hour with 10 μM ACh, 100 μM nicotine or 100 nM of the α7 nAChR agonist, PNU-282987, before the glutamate insult. Inhibition studies using 10nM methyllycaconitine (MLA) or α-bungarotoxin (α-Bgt) supported the hypothesis that neuroprotection against glutamate-induced excitotoxicity on rat RGCs was mediated through α7 nAChRs. In immunocytochemical studies, double

  14. Language pathway tracking: comparing nTMS-based DTI fiber tracking with a cubic ROIs-based protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negwer, Chiara; Sollmann, Nico; Ille, Sebastian; Hauck, Theresa; Maurer, Stefanie; Kirschke, Jan S; Ringel, Florian; Meyer, Bernhard; Krieg, Sandro M

    2017-03-01

    OBJECTIVE Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) fiber tracking (FT) has been widely used in glioma surgery in recent years. It can provide helpful information about subcortical structures, especially in patients with eloquent space-occupying lesions. This study compared the newly developed navigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (nTMS)-based DTI FT of language pathways with the most reproducible protocol for language pathway tractography, using cubic regions of interest (ROIs) for the arcuate fascicle. METHODS Thirty-seven patients with left-sided perisylvian lesions underwent language mapping by repetitive nTMS. DTI FT was performed using the cubic ROIs-based protocol and the authors' nTMS-based DTI FT approach. The same minimal fiber length and fractional anisotropy were chosen (50 mm and 0.2, respectively). Both protocols were performed with standard clinical tractography software. RESULTS Both methods visualized language-related fiber tracts (i.e., corticonuclear tract, arcuate fascicle, uncinate fascicle, superior longitudinal fascicle, inferior longitudinal fascicle, arcuate fibers, commissural fibers, corticothalamic fibers, and frontooccipital fascicle) in all 37 patients. Using the cubic ROIs-based protocol, 39.9% of these language-related fiber tracts were detected in the examined patients, as opposed to 76.0% when performing nTMS-based DTI FT. For specifically tracking the arcuate fascicle, however, the cubic ROIs-based approach showed better results (97.3% vs 75.7% with nTMS-based DTI FT). CONCLUSIONS The cubic ROIs-based protocol was designed for arcuate fascicle tractography, and this study shows that it is still useful for this intention. However, superior results were obtained using the nTMS-based DTI FT for visualization of other language-related fiber tracts.

  15. Prolactin receptors in Rip-cre cells, but not in AgRP neurones, are involved in energy homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladyman, S R; MacLeod, M A; Khant Aung, Z; Knowles, P; Phillipps, H R; Brown, R S E; Grattan, D R

    2017-10-01

    Among its many functions, prolactin has been implicated in energy homeostasis, particularly during pregnancy and lactation. The arcuate nucleus is a key site in the regulation of energy balance. The present study aimed to examine whether arcuate nucleus neuronal populations involved in energy homeostasis are prolactin responsive and whether they can mediate the effects of prolactin on energy homeostasis. To determine whether Agrp neurones or Rip-Cre neurones are prolactin responsive, transgenic mice expressing the reporter td-tomato in Agrp neurones (td-tomato/Agrp-Cre) or Rip-Cre neurones (td-tomato/Rip-Cre) were treated with prolactin and perfused 45 minutes later. Brains were processed for double-labelled immunohistochemistry for pSTAT5, a marker of prolactin-induced intracellular signalling, and td-tomato. In addition, Agrp-Cre mice and Rip-Cre mice were crossed with mice in which the prolactin receptor gene (Prlr) was flanked with LoxP sites (Prlr lox/lox mice). The Prlr lox/lox construct was designed such that Cre-mediated recombination resulted in deletion of the Prlr and expression of green fluorescent protein (GFP) in its place. In td-tomato/Rip-Cre mice, prolactin-induced pSTAT5 was co-localised with td-tomato, indicating that there is a subpopulation of Rip-Cre neurones in the arcuate nucleus that respond to prolactin. Furthermore, mice with a specific deletion of Prlr in Rip-Cre neurones had lower body weights, increased oxygen consumption, increased running wheel activity and numerous cells in the arcuate nucleus had positive GFP staining indicating deletion of Prlr from Rip-Cre neurones. By contrast, no co-localisation of td-tomato and pSTAT5 was observed in td-tomato/Agrp-Cre mice after prolactin treatment. Moreover, Prlr lox/lox /Agrp-Cre mice had no positive GFP staining in the arcuate nucleus and did not differ in body weight compared to littermate controls. Overall, these results indicate that Rip-Cre neurones in the arcuate nucleus are

  16. Strength of Temporal White Matter Pathways Predicts Semantic Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripollés, Pablo; Biel, Davina; Peñaloza, Claudia; Kaufmann, Jörn; Marco-Pallarés, Josep; Noesselt, Toemme; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni

    2017-11-15

    Learning the associations between words and meanings is a fundamental human ability. Although the language network is cortically well defined, the role of the white matter pathways supporting novel word-to-meaning mappings remains unclear. Here, by using contextual and cross-situational word learning, we tested whether learning the meaning of a new word is related to the integrity of the language-related white matter pathways in 40 adults (18 women). The arcuate, uncinate, inferior-fronto-occipital and inferior-longitudinal fasciculi were virtually dissected using manual and automatic deterministic fiber tracking. Critically, the automatic method allowed assessing the white matter microstructure along the tract. Results demonstrate that the microstructural properties of the left inferior-longitudinal fasciculus predict contextual learning, whereas the left uncinate was associated with cross-situational learning. In addition, we identified regions of special importance within these pathways: the posterior middle temporal gyrus, thought to serve as a lexical interface and specifically related to contextual learning; the anterior temporal lobe, known to be an amodal hub for semantic processing and related to cross-situational learning; and the white matter near the hippocampus, a structure fundamental for the initial stages of new-word learning and, remarkably, related to both types of word learning. No significant associations were found for the inferior-fronto-occipital fasciculus or the arcuate. While previous results suggest that learning new phonological word forms is mediated by the arcuate fasciculus, these findings show that the temporal pathways are the crucial neural substrate supporting one of the most striking human abilities: our capacity to identify correct associations between words and meanings under referential indeterminacy. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT The language-processing network is cortically (i.e., gray matter) well defined. However, the role of the

  17. Posterolateral supporting structures of the knee: findings on anatomic dissection, anatomic slices and MR images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maeseneer, M. de; Shahabpour, M.; Vanderdood, K.; Ridder, F. de; Osteaux, M. [Dept. of Radiology, Free Univ. Brussels (Belgium); Roy, F. van [Dept. of Experimental Anatomy, Free Univ. Brussels (Belgium)

    2001-11-01

    In this article we study the ligaments and tendons of the posterolateral corner of the knee by anatomic dissection, MR-anatomic correlation, and MR imaging. The posterolateral aspect of two fresh cadaveric knee specimens was dissected. The MR-anatomic correlation was performed in three other specimens. The MR images of 122 patients were reviewed and assessed for the visualization of different posterolateral structures. Anatomic dissection and MR-anatomic correlation demonstrated the lateral collateral, fabellofibular, and arcuate ligaments, as well as the biceps and popliteus tendons. On MR images of patients the lateral collateral ligament was depicted in all cases. The fabellofibular, arcuate, and popliteofibular ligaments were visualized in 33, 25, and 38% of patients, respectively. Magnetic resonance imaging allows a detailed appreciation of the posterolateral corner of the knee. (orig.)

  18. Mariner 10 data analysis. 1: Scarps, ridges, troughs, and other lineaments on Mercury. 2: Geologic significance of photometric variations on Mercury. Ph.D. Thesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dzurisin, D.

    1977-01-01

    Volcanic and tectonic implications of the surface morphology of Mercury are discussed. Mercurian scarps, ridges, troughs, and other lineaments are described and classified as planimetrically linear, arcuate, lobate, or irregular. A global pattern of lineaments is interpreted to reflect modification of linear crustal joints formed in response to stresses induced by tidal spindown. Large arcuate scarps on Mercury most likely record a period of compressional tectonism near the end of heavy bombardment. Shrinkage owing to planetary cooling is the mechanism preferred for their production. Measurements of local normal albedo are combined with computer-generated photometric maps of Mercury to provide constraints on the nature of surface materials and processes. If the mercurian surface obeys the average lunar photometric function, its normal albedo at 554 nm is .16 + or - .03.

  19. Peripapillary Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer Thickness Corresponds to Drusen Location and Extent of Visual Field Defects in Superficial and Buried Optic Disc Drusen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malmqvist, Lasse; Wegener, Marianne; Sander, Birgit A

    2016-01-01

    (P = 0.002) than eyes with buried ODD. There was a correlation between mean peripapillary RNFL thinning and visual field defects as measured by perimetric mean deviation (R-0.66; P = 0.0001). The most frequent visual field abnormalities were arcuate and partial arcuate defects. CONCLUSIONS...... of patients with ODD and to compare the peripapillary RNFL thickness to the extent of visual field defects and anatomic location (superficial or buried) of ODD. METHODS: Retrospective, cross sectional study. RESULTS: A total of 149 eyes of 84 ODD patients were evaluated. Sixty-five percent were female and 76......% had bilateral ODD. Of 149 eyes, 109 had superficial ODD and 40 had buried ODD. Peripapillary RNFL thinning was seen in 83.6% of eyes, where optical coherence tomography was performed (n = 61). Eyes with superficial ODD had greater mean peripapillary RNFL thinning (P ≤ 0.0001) and visual field defects...

  20. Maturation of kisspeptinergic neurons coincides with puberty onset in male rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bentsen, Agnete H; Ansel, Laura; Simonneaux, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    receptor is the primary component in the initiation of puberty and where in the hypothalamus regulation of the kisspeptin/Kiss1R system occurs is unresolved. Using immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization, we analyzed the level of Kiss1 mRNA and kisspeptin-immunoreactivity in the anteroventral...... periventricular nucleus (AVPV) and the arcuate nucleus of male rats along pubertal development. Neurons expressing Kiss1 mRNA were first detected at PND15, but increased significantly around puberty, and declined again in the adult rat. While virtually no immunoreactive cell bodies were detectable in the AVPV...... at any age, numerous kisspeptin-positive neurons in the arcuate nucleus were detected in the adult rat. Increasing doses of kisspeptin-54 given peripherally to male rats at PND15, 30, 45, and 60 evoked roughly similar effects, as revealed by the induction of c-Fos in the pituitary and secretion of LH...

  1. Hypothalamic CART is a new anorectic peptide regulated by leptin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kristensen, P; Judge, M E; Thim, L; Ribel, U; Christjansen, K N; Wulff, B S; Clausen, J T; Jensen, P B; Madsen, O D; Vrang, N; Larsen, P J; Hastrup, S

    1998-05-07

    The mammalian hypothalamus strongly influences ingestive behaviour through several different signalling molecules and receptor systems. Here we show that CART (cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript), a brain-located peptide, is a satiety factor and is closely associated with the actions of two important regulators of food intake, leptin and neuropeptide Y. Food-deprived animals show a pronounced decrease in expression of CART messenger RNA in the arcuate nucleus. In animal models of obesity with disrupted leptin signalling, CART mRNA is almost absent from the arcuate nucleus. Peripheral administration of leptin to obese mice stimulates CART mRNA expression. When injected intracerebroventricularly into rats, recombinant CART peptide inhibits both normal and starvation-induced feeding, and completely blocks the feeding response induced by neuropeptide Y. An antiserum against CART increases feeding in normal rats, indicating that CART may be an endogenous inhibitor of food intake in normal animals.

  2. Effect of acupuncture on adrenocortical hormone production in rabbits with a central lesion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Y.Y.; Seto, K.; Saitoh, H.; Kawakami, M.

    A study was made of adrenocortical hormone production under electroacupuncture stimulation of the Tsu-San-Li locus in rabbits with a lesion in the fornix, stria terminalis, ventromedial nucleus or arcuate nucleus. In rabbits with a lesion in the stria terminalis or ventromedial nucleus, electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li resulted in no increase in phase 1 but an increase in phase 2 of adrenocortical hormone production. In rabbits with a lesion in the fornix or arcuate nucleus electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li was followed by increased adrenocortical hormone production in the both phases. These results show that the stria terminalis and the ventromedial nucleus play a major role in the augmentation of adrenocortical hormone production by electroacupuncture stimulation of Tsu-San-Li.

  3. Glutamatergic postsynaptic block by Pamphobeteus spider venoms in crayfish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araque, A; Ferreira, W; Lucas, S; Buño, W

    1992-01-31

    The effects of toxins from venom glands of two south american spiders (Pamphobeteus platyomma and P. soracabae) on glutamatergic excitatory synaptic transmission were studied in the neuromuscular junction of the opener muscle of crayfish. The toxins selectively and reversibly blocked both excitatory postsynaptic currents and potentials in a dose-dependent manner. They also reversibly abolished glutamate-induced postsynaptic membrane depolarization. They had no effect on resting postsynaptic membrane conductance nor on postsynaptic voltage-gated currents. The synaptic facilitation and the frequency of miniature postsynaptic potentials were unaffected by the toxins, indicating that presynaptic events were not modified. Picrotoxin, a selective antagonist of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor, did not modify toxin effects. We conclude that both toxins specifically block the postsynaptic glutamate receptor-channel complex.

  4. Synthesis and characterization of a series of diarylguanidines that are noncompetitive N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor antagonists with neuroprotective properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keana, J.F.W.; McBurney, R.N.; Scherz, M.W.

    1989-01-01

    Four diarylguanidine derivatives were synthesized. These compounds were found to displace, at submicromolar concentrations, 3 H-labeled 1-[1-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine and (+)-[ 3 H]MK-801 from phencyclidine receptors in brain membrane preparations. In electrophysiological experiments the diarylguanidines blocked N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA)-activated ion channels. These dairylguanidines also protected rat hippocampal neurons in vitro from glutamate-induced cell death. The results show that some diarylguanidines are noncompetitive antagonists of NMDA receptor-mediated responses and have the neuroprotective property that is commonly associated with blockers of the NMDA receptor-gated cation channel. Diarylguanidines are structurally unrelated to known blockers of NMDA channels and, therefore, represent a new compound series for the development of neuroprotective agents with therapeutic value in patients suffering from stroke, from brain or spinal cord trauma, from hypoglycemia, and possibly from brain ischemia due to heart attack

  5. Depolarization by K+ and glutamate activates different neurotransmitter release mechanisms in GABAergic neurons: vesicular versus non-vesicular release of GABA

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belhage, B; Hansen, Gert Helge; Schousboe, A

    1993-01-01

    differences in the mode of action of the two depolarizing stimuli were reflected in the properties of the increase in [Ca++]i elicited by 55 mM K+ and 100 microM glutamate, respectively. The K(+)-induced increase in [Ca++]i was reduced by both verapamil and Ca(++)-free media whereas the corresponding...... neurotransmitter glutamate (100 microM). Both depolarizing stimuli exerted prompt increases in the release of preloaded [3H]GABA as well as in [Ca++]i. However, the basic properties of transmitter release and the increase in [Ca++]i under a variety of conditions were different during stimulation with K...... was also reduced by organic (verapamil) and inorganic (Co++) Ca++ channel blockers but was insensitive to the GABA transport inhibitor SKF 89976A. In contrast, the second phase was less sensitive to nocodazole and Ca++ channel antagonists but could be inhibited by SKF 89976A. The glutamate-induced [3H...

  6. Endorphinic neurons are contacting the tuberoinfundibular dopaminergic neurons in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morel, G.; Pelletier, G.

    1986-01-01

    The anatomical relationships between endorphinic neurons and dopaminergic neurons were evaluated in the rat hypothalamus using a combination of immunocytochemistry and autoradiography. In the arcuate nucleus, endorphinic endings were seen making contacts with dopaminergic cell bodies and dendrites. No synapsis could be observed at the sites of contacts. These results strongly suggest that the endorphinic neurons are directly acting on dopaminergic neurons to modify the release of dopamine into the pituitary portal system

  7. What makes a frontal area of primate brain the frontal eye field?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pierre ePouget

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The frontal eye field region (FEF of the oculomotor pathways has been intensely studied. The primary goal of this review is to illustrate the phylogenetic displacement of the FEF locus in primate species. The locus is arrayed along the arcuate sulcus in monkeys and abuts into the primary motor strip region in humans. The strengths and limitations of the various functional, anatomical and histological methodologies used to identify such regions are also discussed.

  8. Mounting apparatus for a nozzle guide vane assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Gary L.; Shaffer, James E.

    1995-01-01

    The present invention provides a ceramic nozzle guide assembly with an apparatus for mounting it to a metal nozzle case that includes an intermediate ceramic mounting ring. The mounting ring includes a plurality of projections that are received within a plurality of receptacles formed in the nozzle case. The projections of the mounting ring are secured within the receptacles by a ceramic retainer that allows contact between the two components only along arcuate surfaces thus eliminating sliding contact between the components.

  9. Magnetic resonance imaging of the kidneys: A comparative study with anatomical sections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zilch, H.G.; Posel, P.; Muenchen Univ.

    1986-01-01

    Specimens of human kidneys (n=24) were investigated using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and compared with the corresponding cross-sections that had been prepared later from the same kidneys. The tomographs reveal detailed informations of renal fine structure. In particular, parenchyma and sinus can be easily differentiated from vasculature. It is possible to visualize vessel arborisation, including the arcuate vessels of the renal cortex. The clinical significance of renal MR tomographs is discussed. (orig.) [de

  10. Gray and white matter asymmetries in healthy individuals aged 21-29 years: a voxel-based morphometry and diffusion tensor imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takao, Hidemasa; Abe, Osamu; Yamasue, Hidenori; Aoki, Shigeki; Sasaki, Hiroki; Kasai, Kiyoto; Yoshioka, Naoki; Ohtomo, Kuni

    2011-10-01

    The hemispheres of the human brain are functionally and structurally asymmetric. The study of structural asymmetries provides important clues to the neuroanatomical basis of lateralized brain functions. Previous studies have demonstrated age-related changes in morphology and diffusion properties of brain tissue. In this study, we simultaneously explored gray and white matter asymmetry using voxel-based morphometry (VBM) and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) in 109 young healthy individuals (58 females and 51 males). To eliminate the potential confounding effects of aging and handedness, we restricted the study to right-handed subjects aged 21-29 years. VBM and voxel-based analysis of fractional anisotropy (FA) maps derived from DTI revealed a number of gray matter volume asymmetries (including the right frontal and left occipital petalias and leftward asymmetry of the planum temporale) and white matter FA asymmetries (including leftward asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus, cingulum, and corticospinal tract). There was no significant effect of sex on gray and white matter asymmetry. Leftward volume asymmetry of the planum temporale and leftward FA asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus were simultaneously demonstrated. Post hoc analysis showed that the gray matter volume of the planum temporale and FA of the arcuate fasciculus were positively related (Pearson correlation coefficient, 0.43; P < 0.0001). The results of our study demonstrate gray and white matter asymmetry in right-handed healthy young adults and suggest that leftward volume asymmetry of the planum temporale and leftward FA asymmetry of the arcuate fasciculus may be related. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  11. DESACYL GHRELIN INHIBITS THE OREXIGENIC EFFECT OF PERIPHERALLY INJECTED GHRELIN IN RATS

    OpenAIRE

    Inhoff, Tobias; Mönnikes, Hubert; Noetzel, Steffen; Stengel, Andreas; Goebel, Miriam; Dinh, Q. Thai; Riedl, Andrea; Bannert, Norbert; Wisser, Anna-Sophia; Wiedenmann, Bertram; Klapp, Burghard F.; Taché, Yvette; Kobelt, Peter

    2008-01-01

    Studies showed that the metabolic unlike the neuroendocrine effects of ghrelin could be abrogated by co-administered unacylated ghrelin. The aim was to investigate the interaction between ghrelin and desacyl ghrelin administered intraperitoneally on food intake and neuronal activity (c-Fos) in the arcuate nucleus in non-fasted rats. Ghrelin (13 μg/kg) significantly increased food intake within the first 30 min post injection. Desacyl ghrelin at 64 and 127 μg/kg injected simultaneously with gh...

  12. Nuclear reactor machine refuelling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cashen, W.S.; Erwin, D.

    1977-01-01

    Part of an on-line fuelling machine for a CANDU pressure-tube reactor is described. The present invention provides a refuelling machine wherein the fuelling components, including the fuel carrier and the closure adapter, are positively positioned and retained within the machine magazine or positively secured to the machine charge tube head, and cannot be accidentally disengaged as in former practice. The positive positioning devices include an arcuate keeper plate. Simplified hooked fingers are used. (NDH)

  13. Neurocomputational Consequences of Evolutionary Connectivity Changes in Perisylvian Language Cortex

    OpenAIRE

    Schomers, M.R.; Garagnani, M.; Pulvermüller, F.

    2017-01-01

    The human brain sets itself apart from that of its primate relatives by specific neuroanatomical features, especially the strong linkage of left perisylvian language areas (frontal and temporal cortex) by way of the arcuate fasciculus (AF). AF connectivity has been shown to correlate with verbal working memory?a specifically human trait providing the foundation for language abilities?but a mechanistic explanation of any related causal link between anatomical structure and cognitive function i...

  14. Visual field abnormalities in multiple sclerosis.

    OpenAIRE

    Patterson, V H; Heron, J R

    1980-01-01

    Visual fields were examined with a tangent screen in 54 patients with multiple sclerosis (MS) or optic neuritis (ON). Visual fields were abnormal in all patients with definite MS, 94% with probable MS and 81% with possible MS. Three-quarters of the MS patients with no history of visual symptoms had abnormal fields. The commonest defect found was an arcuate scotoma. As a diagnostic test of visual pathway involvement in MS, tangent screen examination compares favourably with more sophisticated ...

  15. Indicaxanthin from Opuntia ficus-indica Crosses the Blood-Brain Barrier and Modulates Neuronal Bioelectric Activity in Rat Hippocampus at Dietary-Consistent Amounts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allegra, Mario; Carletti, Fabio; Gambino, Giuditta; Tutone, Marco; Attanzio, Alessandro; Tesoriere, Luisa; Ferraro, Giuseppe; Sardo, Pierangelo; Almerico, Anna Maria; Livrea, Maria Antonia

    2015-08-26

    Indicaxanthin is a bioactive and bioavailable betalain pigment from the Opuntia ficus-indica fruits. In this in vivo study, kinetic measurements showed that indicaxanthin is revealed in the rat brain within 1 h from oral administration of 2 μmol/kg, an amount compatible with a dietary consumption of cactus pear fruits in humans. A peak (20 ± 2.4 ng of indicaxanthin per whole brain) was measured after 2.5 h; thereafter the molecule disappeared with first order kinetics within 4 h. The potential of indicaxanthin to affect neural activities was in vivo investigated by a microiontophoretic approach. Indicaxanthin, administered in a range between 0.085 ng and 0.34 ng per neuron, dose-dependently modulated the rate of discharge of spontaneously active neurons of the hippocampus, with reduction of the discharge and related changes of latency and duration of the effect. Indicaxanthin (0.34 ng/neuron) showed inhibitory effects on glutamate-induced excitation, indicating activity at the level of glutamatergic synapses. A molecular target of indicaxanthin is suggested by in silico molecular modeling of indicaxanthin with N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR), the most represented of the glutamate receptor family in hippocampus. Therefore, at nutritionally compatible amounts indicaxanthin (i) crosses the rat BBB and accumulates in brain; (ii) can affect the bioelectric activity of hippocampal neurons locally treated with amounts comparable with those measured in the brain; and (iii) modulates glutamate-induced neuronal excitation. The potential of dietary indicaxanthin as a natural neuromodulatory agent deserves further mechanistic and neurophysiologic investigation.

  16. Agmatine protects against cell damage induced by NMDA and glutamate in cultured hippocampal neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wei-Ping; Iyo, Abiye H.; Miguel-Hidalgo, Javier; Regunathan, Soundar; Zhu, Meng-Yang

    2010-01-01

    Agmatine is a polyamine and has been considered as a novel neurotransmitter or neuromodulator in the central nervous system. In the present study, the neuroprotective effect of agmatine against cell damage caused by N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) and glutamate was investigated in cultured rat hippocampal neurons. Lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity assay, β-tubulin III immunocytochemical staining and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate (dUTP) nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay were conducted to detect cell damage. Exposure of 12-day neuronal cultures of rat hippocampus to NMDA or glutamate for 1 h caused a concentration-dependent neurotoxicity, as indicated by the significant increase in released LDH activities. Addition of 100 µM agmatine into media ablated the neurotoxicity induced by NMDA or glutamate, an effect also produced by the specific NMDA receptor antagonist dizocilpine hydrogen maleate (MK801). Arcaine, an analog of agmatine with similar structure as agmatine, fully prevented the NMDA- or glutamate-induced neuronal damage. Spermine and putrescine, the endogenous polyamine and metabolic products of agmatine without the guanidine moiety of agmatine, failed to show this effect, indicating a structural relevance for this neuroprotection. Immunocytochemical staining and TUNEL assay confirmed the findings in the LDH measurement. That is, agmatine and MK801 markedly attenuated NMDA-induced neuronal death and significantly reduced TUNEL-positive cell numbers induced by exposure of cultured hippocampal neurons to NMDA. Taken together, these results demonstrate that agmatine can protect cultured hippocampal neurons from NMDA- or glutamate-induced excitotoxicity, through a possible blockade of the NMDA receptor channels or a potential anti-apoptotic property. PMID:16546145

  17. Studies on medicinal herbs for cognitive enhancement based on the text mining of Dongeuibogam and preliminary evaluation of its effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, Malk Eun; Kim, Yu Ri; Kim, Ha Neui; Ahn, Sung Min; Shin, Hwa Kyoung; Baek, Jin Ung; Choi, Byung Tae

    2016-02-17

    In literature on Korean medicine, Dongeuibogam (Treasured Mirror of Eastern Medicine), published in 1613, represents the overall results of the traditional medicines of North-East Asia based on prior medicinal literature of this region. We utilized this medicinal literature by text mining to establish a list of candidate herbs for cognitive enhancement in the elderly and then performed an evaluation of their effects. Text mining was performed for selection of candidate herbs. Cell viability was determined in HT22 hippocampal cells and immunohistochemistry and behavioral analysis was performed in a kainic acid (KA) mice model in order to observe alterations of hippocampal cells and cognition. Twenty four herbs for cognitive enhancement in the elderly were selected by text mining of Dongeuibogam. In HT22 cells, pretreatment with 3 candidate herbs resulted in significantly reduced glutamate-induced cell death. Panax ginseng was the most neuroprotective herb against glutamate-induced cell death. In the hippocampus of a KA mice model, pretreatment with 11 candidate herbs resulted in suppression of caspase-3 expression. Treatment with 7 candidate herbs resulted in significantly enhanced expression levels of phosphorylated cAMP response element binding protein. Number of proliferated cells indicated by BrdU labeling was increased by treatment with 10 candidate herbs. Schisandra chinensis was the most effective herb against cell death and proliferation of progenitor cells and Rehmannia glutinosa in neuroprotection in the hippocampus of a KA mice model. In a KA mice model, we confirmed improved spatial and short memory by treatment with the 3 most effective candidate herbs and these recovered functions were involved in a higher number of newly formed neurons from progenitor cells in the hippocampus. These established herbs and their combinations identified by text-mining technique and evaluation for effectiveness may have value in further experimental and clinical

  18. Isoprenylated flavonoids from the root bark of Morus alba and their hepatoprotective and neuroprotective activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jae-Woo; Ko, Won-Min; Park, Ji-Hae; Seo, Kyeong-Hwa; Oh, Eun-Ji; Lee, Dae-Young; Lee, Dong-Sung; Kim, Youn-Chul; Lim, Dong-Wook; Han, Daeseok; Baek, Nam-In

    2015-11-01

    A new isoprenylated flavonoid, 2S-5,7,2',4'-tetrahydroxy-3',5'-di-(γ,γ-dimethylallyl)flavanone, sanggenol Q (1), along with seven known isoprenylated flavonoids, sanggenol A (2), sanggenol L (3), kuwanon T (4), cyclomorusin (5), sanggenon F (6), sanggenol O (7), and sanggenon N (8), three known Diels-Alder type adducts, sanggenon G (9), mulberrofuran G (10), and mulberrofuran C (11), and a known benzofuran, moracin E (12), were isolated from the root bark of Morus alba using silica gel, ODS, and Sephadex LH-20 column chromatography. Chemical structures were determined based on spectroscopic data analyses including NMR, MS, CD, and IR. For the first time, compounds 1 and 7 were isolated from the root bark of M. alba. All compounds were evaluated for hepatoprotective activity on t-BHP-induced oxidative stress in HepG2 cells and neuroprotective activity on glutamate-induced cell death in HT22 cells. Compounds 1, 4, 8, 10, and 11 showed protective effects on t-BHP-induced oxidative stress with EC50 values of 6.94 ± 0.38, 30.32 ± 6.82, 23.45 ± 4.72, 15.31 ± 2.21, and 0.41 ± 0.48 μM, respectively, and compounds 1, 2, 10, 11, and 12 showed protective effects on glutamate-induced cell death with EC50 values of 5.54 ± 0.86, 34.03 ± 7.71, 19.71 ± 0.71, 16.50 ± 7.82, and 1.02 ± 0.13 μM, respectively.

  19. Phycocyanobilin promotes PC12 cell survival and modulates immune and inflammatory genes and oxidative stress markers in acute cerebral hypoperfusion in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marín-Prida, Javier [Centre for Research and Biological Evaluations (CEIEB), Institute of Pharmacy and Food, University of Havana, Ave. 23 e/ 214 y 222, La Lisa, PO Box: 430, Havana (Cuba); Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy [International Centre for Neurological Restoration (CIREN), Ave. 25 e/ 158 y 160, Playa, PO Box: 11300, Havana (Cuba); Llópiz-Arzuaga, Alexey; Fernández-Massó, Julio R. [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba); Delgado-Roche, Liván [Centre for Research and Biological Evaluations (CEIEB), Institute of Pharmacy and Food, University of Havana, Ave. 23 e/ 214 y 222, La Lisa, PO Box: 430, Havana (Cuba); Mendoza-Marí, Yssel; Santana, Seydi Pedroso; Cruz-Ramírez, Alieski; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen; Nazábal-Gálvez, Marcelo; Cintado-Benítez, Alberto [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba); Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L. [Centre for Research and Biological Evaluations (CEIEB), Institute of Pharmacy and Food, University of Havana, Ave. 23 e/ 214 y 222, La Lisa, PO Box: 430, Havana (Cuba); Polentarutti, Nadia [Istituto Clinico Humanitas (IRCCS), Rozzano (Italy); Riva, Federica [Department of Veterinary Science and Public Health (DIVET), University of Milano (Italy); Pentón-Arias, Eduardo [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba); Pentón-Rol, Giselle [Centre for Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology (CIGB), Ave. 31 e/158 y 190, Playa, PO Box: 6162, Havana (Cuba)

    2013-10-01

    Since the inflammatory response and oxidative stress are involved in the stroke cascade, we evaluated here the effects of Phycocyanobilin (PCB, the C-Phycocyanin linked tetrapyrrole) on PC12 cell survival, the gene expression and the oxidative status of hypoperfused rat brain. After the permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAo), the animals were treated with saline or PCB, taking samples 24 h post-surgery. Global gene expression was analyzed with GeneChip Rat Gene ST 1.1 from Affymetrix; the expression of particular genes was assessed by the Fast SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix and Bioplex methods; and redox markers (MDA, PP, CAT, SOD) were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The PCB treatment prevented the H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell injury assessed by the MTT assay, and modulated 190 genes (93 up- and 97 down-regulated) associated to several immunological and inflammatory processes in BCCAo rats. Furthermore, PCB positively modulated 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment and counteracted the oxidative imbalance in the treated BCCAo animals. Our results support the view of an effective influence of PCB on major inflammatory mediators in acute cerebral hypoperfusion. These results suggest that PCB has a potential to be a treatment for ischemic stroke for which further studies are needed. - Highlights: • Phycocyanobilin (PCB) prevents H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and glutamate induced PC12 cell viability loss. • Anterior cortex and striatum are highly vulnerable to cerebral hypoperfusion (CH). • PCB modulates 190 genes associated to inflammation in acute CH. • PCB regulates 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment. • PCB restores redox and immune balances showing promise as potential stroke therapy.

  20. Phycocyanobilin promotes PC12 cell survival and modulates immune and inflammatory genes and oxidative stress markers in acute cerebral hypoperfusion in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marín-Prida, Javier; Pavón-Fuentes, Nancy; Llópiz-Arzuaga, Alexey; Fernández-Massó, Julio R.; Delgado-Roche, Liván; Mendoza-Marí, Yssel; Santana, Seydi Pedroso; Cruz-Ramírez, Alieski; Valenzuela-Silva, Carmen; Nazábal-Gálvez, Marcelo; Cintado-Benítez, Alberto; Pardo-Andreu, Gilberto L.; Polentarutti, Nadia; Riva, Federica; Pentón-Arias, Eduardo; Pentón-Rol, Giselle

    2013-01-01

    Since the inflammatory response and oxidative stress are involved in the stroke cascade, we evaluated here the effects of Phycocyanobilin (PCB, the C-Phycocyanin linked tetrapyrrole) on PC12 cell survival, the gene expression and the oxidative status of hypoperfused rat brain. After the permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (BCCAo), the animals were treated with saline or PCB, taking samples 24 h post-surgery. Global gene expression was analyzed with GeneChip Rat Gene ST 1.1 from Affymetrix; the expression of particular genes was assessed by the Fast SYBR Green RT-PCR Master Mix and Bioplex methods; and redox markers (MDA, PP, CAT, SOD) were evaluated spectrophotometrically. The PCB treatment prevented the H 2 O 2 and glutamate induced PC12 cell injury assessed by the MTT assay, and modulated 190 genes (93 up- and 97 down-regulated) associated to several immunological and inflammatory processes in BCCAo rats. Furthermore, PCB positively modulated 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment and counteracted the oxidative imbalance in the treated BCCAo animals. Our results support the view of an effective influence of PCB on major inflammatory mediators in acute cerebral hypoperfusion. These results suggest that PCB has a potential to be a treatment for ischemic stroke for which further studies are needed. - Highlights: • Phycocyanobilin (PCB) prevents H 2 O 2 and glutamate induced PC12 cell viability loss. • Anterior cortex and striatum are highly vulnerable to cerebral hypoperfusion (CH). • PCB modulates 190 genes associated to inflammation in acute CH. • PCB regulates 19 genes mostly related to a detrimental pro-inflammatory environment. • PCB restores redox and immune balances showing promise as potential stroke therapy

  1. Anticonvulsive effect of paeoniflorin on experimental febrile seizures in immature rats: possible application for febrile seizures in children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hitomi Hino

    Full Text Available Febrile seizures (FS is the most common convulsive disorder in children, but there have been no clinical and experimental studies of the possible treatment of FS with herbal medicines, which are widely used in Asian countries. Paeoniflorin (PF is a major bioactive component of Radix Paeoniae alba, and PF-containing herbal medicines have been used for neuromuscular, neuropsychiatric, and neurodegenerative disorders. In this study, we analyzed the anticonvulsive effect of PF and Keishikashakuyaku-to (KS; a PF-containing herbal medicine for hyperthermia-induced seizures in immature rats as a model of human FS. When immature (P5 male rats were administered PF or KS for 10 days, hyperthermia-induced seizures were significantly suppressed compared to control rats. In cultured hippocampal neurons, PF suppressed glutamate-induced elevation of intracellular Ca(2+ ([Ca(2+](i, glutamate receptor-mediated membrane depolarization, and glutamate-induced neuronal death. In addition, PF partially suppressed the elevation in [Ca(2+](i induced by activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5, but not that mediated by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolpropionic acid (AMPA or N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA receptors. However, PF did not affect production or release of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in hippocampal neurons. These results suggest that PF or PF-containing herbal medicines exert anticonvulsive effects at least in part by preventing mGluR5-dependent [Ca(2+](i elevations. Thus, it could be a possible candidate for the treatment of FS in children.

  2. Mapping Vesta Mid-Latitude Quadrangle V-12EW: Mapping the Edge of the South Polar Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Schenk, P.; Williams, D. A.; Hiesinger, H.; Garry, W. B.; Yingst, R.; Buczkowski, D.; McCord, T. B.; Jaumann, R.; Pieters, C. M.; Gaskell, R. W.; Neukum, G.; Schmedemann, N.; Marchi, S.; Nathues, A.; Le Corre, L.; Roatsch, T.; Preusker, F.; White, O. L.; DeSanctis, C.; Filacchione, G.; Raymond, C. A.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft arrived at the asteroid 4Vesta on July 15, 2011, and is now collecting imaging, spectroscopic, and elemental abundance data during its one-year orbital mission. As part of the geological analysis of the surface, a series of 15 quadrangle maps are being produced based on Framing Camera images (FC: spatial resolution: ~65 m/pixel) along with Visible & Infrared Spectrometer data (VIR: spatial resolution: ~180 m/pixel) obtained during the High-Altitude Mapping Orbit (HAMO). This poster presentation concentrates on our geologic analysis and mapping of quadrangle V-12EW. This quadrangle is dominated by the arcuate edge of the large 460+ km diameter south polar topographic feature first observed by HST (Thomas et al., 1997). Sparsely cratered, the portion of this feature covered in V-12EW is characterized by arcuate ridges and troughs forming a generalized arcuate pattern. Mapping of this terrain and the transition to areas to the north will be used to test whether this feature has an impact or other (e.g., internal) origin. We are also using FC stereo and VIR images to assess whether their are any compositional differences between this terrain and areas further to the north, and image data to evaluate the distribution and age of young impact craters within the map area. The authors acknowledge the support of the Dawn Science, Instrument and Operations Teams.

  3. Outcomes of Diffusion Tensor Tractography-Integrated Stereotactic Radiosurgery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koga, Tomoyuki, E-mail: kouga-tky@umin.ac.jp [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Maruyama, Keisuke; Kamada, Kyousuke; Ota, Takahiro; Shin, Masahiro [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Itoh, Daisuke [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Kunii, Naoto [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Ino, Kenji; Terahara, Atsuro; Aoki, Shigeki; Masutani, Yoshitaka [Department of Radiology, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan); Saito, Nobuhito [Department of Neurosurgery, University of Tokyo Hospital, Tokyo (Japan)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To analyze the effect of use of tractography of the critical brain white matter fibers created from diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging on reduction of morbidity associated with radiosurgery. Methods and Materials: Tractography of the pyramidal tract has been integrated since February 2004 if lesions are adjacent to it, the optic radiation since May 2006, and the arcuate fasciculus since October 2007. By visually confirming the precise location of these fibers, the dose to these fiber tracts was optimized. One hundred forty-four consecutive patients with cerebral arteriovenous malformations who underwent radiosurgery with this technique between February 2004 and December 2009 were analyzed. Results: Tractography was prospectively integrated in 71 of 155 treatments for 144 patients. The pyramidal tract was visualized in 45, the optic radiation in 22, and the arcuate fasciculus in 13 (two tracts in 9). During the follow-up period of 3 to 72 months (median, 23 months) after the procedure, 1 patient showed permanent worsening of pre-existing dysesthesia, and another patient exhibited mild transient hemiparesis 12 months later but fully recovered after oral administration of corticosteroid agents. Two patients had transient speech disturbance before starting integration of the arcuate fasciculus tractography, but no patient thereafter. Conclusion: Integrating tractography helped prevent morbidity of radiosurgery in patients with brain arteriovenous malformations.

  4. A review of conduction aphasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardila, Alfredo

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, a historical overview of the interpretation of conduction aphasia is initially presented. It is emphasized that the name conduction aphasia was proposed by Wernicke and was interpreted as a disconnection between the temporal and frontal brain language areas; this interpretation was re-taken by Geschwind, attributing the arcuate fasciculus the main role in speech repetition disturbances and resulting in the so-called Wernicke-Geschwind model of language. With the introduction of contemporary neuroimaging techniques, this interpretation of conduction aphasia as a disconnection syndrome due to an impairment of the arcuate fasciculus has been challenged. It has been disclosed that the arcuate fasciculus does not really connect Wernicke's and Broca's areas, but Wernicke's and motor/premotor frontal areas. Furthermore, conduction aphasia can be found in cases of cortical damage without subcortical extension. It is concluded that conduction aphasia remains a controversial topic not only from the theoretic point of view, but also from the understanding of its neurologic foundations.

  5. The Role of Kiss1 Neurons As Integrators of Endocrine, Metabolic, and Environmental Factors in the Hypothalamic–Pituitary–Gonadal Axis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shel-Hwa Yeo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Kisspeptin–GPR54 signaling in the hypothalamus is required for reproduction and fertility in mammals. Kiss1 neurons are key regulators of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH release and modulation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG axis. Arcuate Kiss1 neurons project to GnRH nerve terminals in the median eminence, orchestrating the pulsatile secretion of luteinizing hormone (LH through the intricate interaction between GnRH pulse frequency and the pituitary gonadotrophs. Arcuate Kiss1 neurons, also known as KNDy neurons in rodents and ruminants because of their co-expression of neurokinin B and dynorphin represent an ideal hub to receive afferent inputs from other brain regions in response to physiological and environmental changes, which can regulate the HPG axis. This review will focus on studies performed primarily in rodent and ruminant species to explore potential afferent inputs to Kiss1 neurons with emphasis on the arcuate region but also considering the rostral periventricular region of the third ventricle (RP3V. Specifically, we will discuss how these inputs can be modulated by hormonal, metabolic, and environmental factors to control gonadotropin secretion and fertility. We also summarize the methods and techniques that can be used to study functional inputs into Kiss1 neurons.

  6. Glut2-dependent glucose-sensing controls thermoregulation by enhancing the leptin sensitivity of NPY and POMC neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mounien, Lourdes; Marty, Nell; Tarussio, David; Metref, Salima; Genoux, David; Preitner, Frédéric; Foretz, Marc; Thorens, Bernard

    2010-06-01

    The physiological contribution of glucose in thermoregulation is not completely established nor whether this control may involve a regulation of the melanocortin pathway. Here, we assessed thermoregulation and leptin sensitivity of hypothalamic arcuate neurons in mice with inactivation of glucose transporter type 2 (Glut2)-dependent glucose sensing. Mice with inactivation of Glut2-dependent glucose sensors are cold intolerant and show increased susceptibility to food deprivation-induced torpor and abnormal hypothermic response to intracerebroventricular administration of 2-deoxy-d-glucose compared to control mice. This is associated with a defect in regulated expression of brown adipose tissue uncoupling protein I and iodothyronine deiodinase II and with a decreased leptin sensitivity of neuropeptide Y (NPY) and proopiomelanocortin (POMC) neurons, as observed during the unfed-to-refed transition or following i.p. leptin injection. Sites of central Glut-2 expression were identified by a genetic tagging approach and revealed that glucose-sensitive neurons were present in the lateral hypothalamus, the dorsal vagal complex, and the basal medulla but not in the arcuate nucleus. NPY and POMC neurons were, however, connected to nerve terminals from Glut2-expressing neurons. Thus, our data suggest that glucose controls thermoregulation and the leptin sensitivity of NPY and POMC neurons through activation of Glut2-dependent glucose-sensing neurons located outside of the arcuate nucleus.

  7. Application of diet-derived taste active components for clinical nutrition: perspectives from ancient Ayurvedic medical science, space medicine, and modern clinical nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Anil D; Sundaresan, Alamelu; Rashid, Muhammad J; Yamamoto, Shigeru; Karkow, Francisco

    2014-01-01

    The principal objective of this paper is to demonstrate the role of taste and flavor in health from the ancient science of Ayurveda to modern medicine; specifically their mechanisms and roles in space medicine and their clinical relevance in modern heath care. It also describes the brief history of the use of the monosodium glutamate or flavor enhancers ("Umami substance") that improve the quality of food intake by stimulating chemosensory perception. In addition, the dietary nucleotides are known to be the components of "Umami substance" and the benefit of their use has been proposed in various types of patients with cancer, radiation therapy, organ transplantation, and for application in space medicine.

  8. Coexistence of Sarcoidosis and Gouty Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semiz, Hüseyin; Kobak, Senol

    2017-08-21

    Sarcoidosis is an inflammatory disease with unknown cause characterized by non-caseating granuloma formations. It may present with bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy, skin lesions, the involvement of eye and symptoms on the locomotor system. Gouty arthritis is an autoinflammatory disease characterized by hyperuricemia, recurrent arthritis attacks and the deposition of monosodium urate crystals in the joints and the surrounding tissues. We reported the coexistence of sarcoidosis and gouty arthritis in this paper. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Reumatología y Colegio Mexicano de Reumatología. All rights reserved.

  9. EFFECT OF FOOD-MICROORGANISMS ON GAMMA-AMINOBUTYRIC ACID PRODUCTION BY FERMENTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jozef Hudec

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB are nice targets in order to study γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production that has been reported to be effective in order to reduce blood pressure in experimental animals and human beings. In this study, we aimed to γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production in aerobical and anaerobical conditions, using different sources of microorganisms. The highest selectivity of GABA from precursor L-monosodium glutamate (82.22% has been reported using of microorganisms from banana, and with addition of pyridoxal-5-phosphate (P-5-P. For augmentation of selectivity the application of the further stimulating factors of GABA biosynthesis is needed.

  10. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of y-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 µM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP, produced 187 mM of GABA.

  11. Submerged fermentation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9 for γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qian

    2013-01-01

    γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in central nervous system, and its application in drugs and functional foods has attracted great attention. To enhance production of γ-aminobutyric acid, Lactobacillus rhamnosus YS9, a strain isolated from Chinese traditional fermented food pickled vegetable, was grown under submerged fermentation. Its cultivation conditions were investigated. When culture pH condition was adjusted to the optimal pH of glutamate decarboxylase activity, culture of Lb. rhamnosus YS9 in medium supplemented with 200 mM of monosodium glutamate and 200 μM of pyridoxal phosphate (PLP), produced 187 mM of GABA. PMID:24159304

  12. Acute gouty bursitis: report of 15 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canoso, J J; Yood, R A

    1979-01-01

    Fifteen cases of acute gouty bursitis were seen among 136 crystal-proved cases of gout. Bursal aspirate yielded yellow or pink fluid in 10, chalky white fluid in 1, and a small amount of bloody fluid in 4. Monosodium urate crystals were present in all. Bursal fluid leucocyte counts averaged 2.9 X 10(9)/1 compared with synovial fluid leucocyte counts that averaged 25.5 X 10(9)/1 in cases of articular gout (P less than 0.05). Gouty, septic, and idiopathic (traumatic) bursitis share clinical features, and detailed bursal fluid analysis is crucial for diagnosis. PMID:496446

  13. Update on Importance of Diet in Gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyl, Randall N; Hughes, Laura; Morgan, Sarah

    2016-11-01

    Gout is an inflammatory arthritis caused by deposition of monosodium urate crystals within synovial joints. Although it is most well-known for its arthritis, gout has an intimate relationship with many other cardiovascular and metabolic conditions. Current recommendations support aggressive medical therapy to treat gout, whereas dietary counseling has become less emphasized. This article argues for the absolute importance of dietary counseling in gout and proves why this counseling may impact the long term well-being of a patient with gout. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc [Hopital Cochin, Service de Radiologie B, Paris Cedex 14 (France); Liote, Frederic [Hopital Lariboisiere, Federation de Rhumatologie, Paris (France); Carlier, Robert [Hopital Raymond Poincare, Radiologie, Garches (France)

    2006-02-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  15. Cervical spine and crystal-associated diseases: imaging findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feydy, Antoine; Chevrot, Alain; Drape, Jean-Luc; Liote, Frederic; Carlier, Robert

    2006-01-01

    The cervical spine may be specifically involved in crystal-associated arthropathies. In this article, we focus on the three common crystals and diseases: hydroxyapatite crystal deposition disease, calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) deposition disease, and monosodium urate crystals (gout). The cervical involvement in crystal-associated diseases may provoke a misleading clinical presentation with acute neck pain, fever, or neurological symptoms. Imaging allows an accurate diagnosis in typical cases with calcific deposits and destructive lesions of the discs and joints. Most of the cases are related to CPPD or hydroxyapatite crystal deposition; gout is much less common. (orig.)

  16. Gout in the spotlight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Alexander

    2008-01-01

    Understanding how uric acid crystals provoke inflammation is crucial to improving our management of acute gout. It is well known that urate crystals stimulate monocytes and macrophages to elaborate inflammatory cytokines, but the tissue response of the synovium is less well understood. Microarray analysis of mRNA expression by these lining cells may help to delineate the genes that are modulated. Employing a murine air-pouch model, a number of genes expressed by innate immune cells were found to be rapidly upregulated by monosodium urate crystals. These findings provide new research avenues to investigate the physiopathology of gouty inflammation, and may eventually lead to new therapeutic targets in acute gout.

  17. The genetic basis of gout.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merriman, Tony R; Choi, Hyon K; Dalbeth, Nicola

    2014-05-01

    Gout results from deposition of monosodium urate (MSU) crystals. Elevated serum urate concentrations (hyperuricemia) are not sufficient for the development of disease. Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) have identified 28 loci controlling serum urate levels. The largest genetic effects are seen in genes involved in the renal excretion of uric acid, with others being involved in glycolysis. Whereas much is understood about the genetic control of serum urate levels, little is known about the genetic control of inflammatory responses to MSU crystals. Extending knowledge in this area depends on recruitment of large, clinically ascertained gout sample sets suitable for GWAS. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. HDL inhibit cytokine production in a mouse model of urate crystal-induced inflammation

    OpenAIRE

    L. Punzi; D. Burger; J.M Dayer; P. Sfriso; R. Luisetto; F. Oliviero; A. Scanu

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: To evaluate whether high density lipoproteins (HDL) affect monosodium urate (MSU) crystal-induced inflammation in the murine air pouch model. Methods: MSU crystals were prepared by Denko’s method and sterilized by heating at 180°C for 2 h before each experiment. Human HDL were isolated from peripheral blood of healthy volunteers. MSU crystals (2 mg in 1 ml of PBS) were injected into subcutaneous air pouches in mice in the presence or absence of HDL (0.1 mg). Negative control pouch...

  19. The Determination of Sugars by Chromatographic Method

    OpenAIRE

    Sumartini, Sri; Kantasubrata, Julia

    1992-01-01

    Experiments have been carried out to analyse sugars using TLC and HPLC methods, In the TLC method, separation of sugars was performed on silica plates impregnated with monosodium phosphate and using mixture of ethylacettuel pyridinde/water as an eluent. Whilst in the HPLC method, the use of three column types i.e. diol, RP-18 and modified silica column were tested. The results showed that TLC method was able to measure three sugars i:e. sucrose, glucose and fructose with standard deviations o...

  20. Prolyl carboxypeptidase in Agouti-related Peptide neurons modulates food intake and body weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Bruschetta

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Prolyl carboxypeptidase (PRCP plays a role in the regulation of energy metabolism by inactivating hypothalamic α-melanocyte stimulating hormone (α-MSH levels. Although detected in the arcuate nucleus, limited PRCP expression has been observed in the arcuate POMC neurons, and its site of action in regulating metabolism is still ill-defined. Methods: We performed immunostaining to assess the localization of PRCP in arcuate Neuropeptide Y/Agouti-related Peptide (NPY/AgRP neurons. Hypothalamic explants were then used to assess the intracellular localization of PRCP and its release at the synaptic levels. Finally, we generated a mouse model to assess the role of PRCP in NPY/AgRP neurons of the arcuate nucleus in the regulation of metabolism. Results: Here we show that PRCP is expressed in NPY/AgRP-expressing neurons of the arcuate nucleus. In hypothalamic explants, stimulation by ghrelin increased PRCP concentration in the medium and decreased PRCP content in synaptic extract, suggesting that PRCP is released at the synaptic level. In support of this, hypothalamic explants from mice with selective deletion of PRCP in AgRP neurons (PrcpAgRPKO showed reduced ghrelin-induced PRCP concentration in the medium compared to controls mice. Furthermore, male PrcpAgRPKO mice had decreased body weight and fat mass compared to controls. However, this phenotype was sex-specific as female PrcpAgRPKO mice show metabolic differences only when challenged by high fat diet feeding. The improved metabolism of PrcpAgRPKO mice was associated with reduced food intake and increased energy expenditure, locomotor activity, and hypothalamic α-MSH levels. Administration of SHU9119, a potent melanocortin receptor antagonist, selectively in the PVN of PrcpAgRPKO male mice increased food intake to a level similar to that of control mice. Conclusions: Altogether, our data indicate that PRCP is released at the synaptic levels and that PRCP in AgRP neurons contributes to