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Sample records for monosaccharide transporter tmt1

  1. SUT sucrose and MST monosaccharide transporter inventory of the Selaginella genome

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    Sylvie eLalonde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While most metazoa mainly use hexose transporters to acquire hexoses from their diet and as a transport form for distributing carbon and energy within their bodies, insects use trehalose and plants use sucrose as their major form for translocation. Plant genomes contain at least three families of mono- and disaccharide transporters: monosaccharide/polyol transporters that are evolutionary closely related to the yeast and human glucose transporters, sucrose transporters of the SUT family, which similar to the hexose transporters belong to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS, but share only minimal amino acid sequence homology to the hexose transporters, and the family of SWEET sugar transporters conserved between animals and plants. Recently, the genome sequence of the spikemoss Selaginella has been determined. In order to study the evolution of sugar transport in plants, we carried out a careful annotation of the complement of sugar transporters in Selaginella. We review what is known about sugar transport in spikemoss and provide phylogenetic analyses of the complement of MST and SUT homologs in Selaginella.

  2. Molecular cloning, functional characterization and expression analysis of a novel monosaccharide transporter gene OsMST6 from rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chai, C.; Wei, G.; Wei, X.; Xu, H.; Wang, M.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.; Zhu, Z.

    2008-01-01

    Monosaccharides transporters play important roles in assimilate supply for sink tissue development. In this study, a new monosaccharide transporter gene OsMST6 was identified from rice (Oryza sativa L.). The predicted OsMST6 protein shows typical features of sugar transporters and shares 79.6%

  3. Photoaffinity labeling of the human erythrocyte monosaccharide transporter with an aryl azide derivative of D-glucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shanahan, M.F.; Wadzinski, B.E.; Lowndes, J.M.; Ruoho, A.E.

    1985-01-01

    A photoreactive, radioiodinated derivative of glucose, N-(4-iodoazidosalicyl)-6-amido-6-deoxyglucopyranose (IASA-glc), has been synthesized and used as a photoaffinity label for the human erythrocyte monosaccharide transporter. Photoinactivation and photoinsertion are both light-dependent and result in a marked decrease in the absorption spectra of the compound. When [ 125 I]IASA-glc was photolyzed with erythrocyte ghost membranes, photoinsertion of radiolabel was observed in three major regions, spectrin, band 3, and a protein of 58,000 daltons located in the zone 4.5 region. Of the three regions which were photolabeled, only labeling of polypeptides in the zone 4.5 region was partially blocked by D-glucose. In the non-iodinated form, N-(4-azidosalicyl)-6-amido-6-deoxy-glucopyranose inhibited the labeling of the transporter by [ 125 I]IASA-glc more effectively than D-glucose. The ability to synthesize this [ 125 I]containing photoprobe for the monosaccharide transporter at carrier-free levels offers several new advantages for investigating the structure of this transport protein in the erythrocyte

  4. O-Fucose Monosaccharide of Drosophila Notch Has a Temperature-sensitive Function and Cooperates with O-Glucose Glycan in Notch Transport and Notch Signaling Activation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Kuroda, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O.; Aoyama, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Gushiken, Takuma; Okajima, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-01

    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell fate decisions. N has many epidermal growth factor-like repeats that are O-fucosylated by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-Fut1), and the O-fut1 gene is essential for N signaling. However, the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose on N is unclear, because O-Fut1 also appears to have O-fucosyltransferase activity-independent functions, including as an N-specific chaperon. Such an enzymatic activity-independent function could account for the essential role of O-fut1 in N signaling. To evaluate the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose modification in N signaling, here we generated a knock-in mutant of O-fut1 (O-fut1R245A knock-in), which expresses a mutant protein that lacks O-fucosyltransferase activity but maintains the N-specific chaperon activity. Using O-fut1R245A knock-in and other gene mutations that abolish the O-fucosylation of N, we found that the monosaccharide O-fucose modification of N has a temperature-sensitive function that is essential for N signaling. The O-fucose monosaccharide and O-glucose glycan modification, catalyzed by Rumi, function redundantly in the activation of N signaling. We also showed that the redundant function of these two modifications is responsible for the presence of N at the cell surface. Our findings elucidate how different forms of glycosylation on a protein can influence the protein's functions. PMID:25378397

  5. The Vitis vinifera sugar transporter gene family: phylogenetic overview and macroarray expression profiling

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    Atanassova Rossitza

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In higher plants, sugars are not only nutrients but also important signal molecules. They are distributed through the plant via sugar transporters, which are involved not only in sugar long-distance transport via the loading and the unloading of the conducting complex, but also in sugar allocation into source and sink cells. The availability of the recently released grapevine genome sequence offers the opportunity to identify sucrose and monosaccharide transporter gene families in a woody species and to compare them with those of the herbaceous Arabidopsis thaliana using a phylogenetic analysis. Results In grapevine, one of the most economically important fruit crop in the world, it appeared that sucrose and monosaccharide transporter genes are present in 4 and 59 loci, respectively and that the monosaccharide transporter family can be divided into 7 subfamilies. Phylogenetic analysis of protein sequences has indicated that orthologs exist between Vitis and Arabidospis. A search for cis-regulatory elements in the promoter sequences of the most characterized transporter gene families (sucrose, hexoses and polyols transporters, has revealed that some of them might probably be regulated by sugars. To profile several genes simultaneously, we created a macroarray bearing cDNA fragments specific to 20 sugar transporter genes. This macroarray analysis has revealed that two hexose (VvHT1, VvHT3, one polyol (VvPMT5 and one sucrose (VvSUC27 transporter genes, are highly expressed in most vegetative organs. The expression of one hexose transporter (VvHT2 and two tonoplastic monosaccharide transporter (VvTMT1, VvTMT2 genes are regulated during berry development. Finally, three putative hexose transporter genes show a preferential organ specificity being highly expressed in seeds (VvHT3, VvHT5, in roots (VvHT2 or in mature leaves (VvHT5. Conclusions This study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes in Vitis vinifera and

  6. The Malus domestica sugar transporter gene family: identifications based on genome and expression profiling related to the accumulation of fruit sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaoyu; Liu, Fengli; Chen, Cheng; Ma, Fengwang; Li, Mingjun

    2014-01-01

    In plants, sugar transporters are involved not only in long-distance transport, but also in sugar accumulations in sink cells. To identify members of sugar transporter gene families and to analyze their function in fruit sugar accumulation, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the Malus domestica genome. Expression profiling was performed with shoot tips, mature leaves, and developed fruit of "Gala" apple. Genes for sugar alcohol [including 17 sorbitol transporters (SOTs)], sucrose, and monosaccharide transporters, plus SWEET genes, were selected as candidates in 31, 9, 50, and 27 loci, respectively, of the genome. The monosaccharide transporter family appears to include five subfamilies (30 MdHTs, 8 MdEDR6s, 5 MdTMTs, 3 MdvGTs, and 4 MdpGLTs). Phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences indicated that orthologs exist among Malus, Vitis, and Arabidopsis. Investigations of transcripts revealed that 68 candidate transporters are expressed in apple, albeit to different extents. Here, we discuss their possible roles based on the relationship between their levels of expression and sugar concentrations. The high accumulation of fructose in apple fruit is possibly linked to the coordination and cooperation between MdTMT1/2 and MdEDR6. By contrast, these fruits show low MdSWEET4.1 expression and a high flux of fructose produced from sorbitol. Our study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes and demonstrates that sugar transporter gene families in M. domestica are comparable to those in other species. Expression profiling of these transporters will likely contribute to improving our understanding of their physiological functions in fruit formation and the development of sweetness properties.

  7. The Malus domestica sugar transporter gene family: identifications based on genome and expression profiling related to the accumulation of fruit sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoyu eWei

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In plants, sugar transporters are involved not only in long-distance transport, but also in sugar accumulations in sink cells. To identify members of sugar transporter gene families and to analyze their function in fruit sugar accumulation, we conducted a phylogenetic analysis of the Malus domestica genome. Expression profiling was performed with shoot tips, mature leaves, and developed fruit of ‘Gala’ apple. Genes for sugar alcohol (including 17 sorbitol transporters, sucrose, and monosaccharide transporters, plus SWEET genes, were selected as candidates in 31, 9, 50, and 27 loci, respectively, of the genome. The monosaccharide transporter family appears to include five subfamilies (30 MdHTs, 8 MdEDR6s, 5 MdTMTs, 3 MdvGTs, and 4 MdpGLTs. Phylogenetic analysis of the protein sequences indicated that orthologs exist among Malus, Vitis, and Arabidopsis. Investigations of transcripts revealed that 68 candidate transporters are expressed in apple, albeit to different extents. Here, we discuss their possible roles based on the relationship between their levels of expression and sugar concentrations. The high accumulation of fructose in apple fruit is possibly linked to the coordination and cooperation between MdTMT1/2 and MdEDR6. By contrast, these fruits show low MdSWEET4.1 expression and a high flux of fructose produced from sorbitol. Our study provides an exhaustive survey of sugar transporter genes and demonstrates that sugar transporter gene families in M. domestica are comparable to those in other species. Expression profiling of these transporters will likely contribute to improving our understanding of their physiological functions in fruit formation and the development of sweetness properties.

  8. Vibrational Raman optical activity of ketose monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Alasdair F.; Hecht, Lutz; Barron, Laurence D.

    1995-07-01

    The vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of the four ketose sugars D-fructose, L-sorbose, D-tagatose and D-psicose in aqueous solution, which have been measured in backscattering in the range ≈250-1500 cm -1, are reported. These results are combined with those from a previous ROA study of aldose and pentose sugars in an attempt to establish new vibrational assignments and to verify old ones. The high information content of these spectra provides a new perspective on all the central features of monosaccharide stereochemistry including dominant anomeric configuration, ring conformation, exocyclic CH 2OH group conformation and relative disposition of the hydroxyl groups around the ring.

  9. Unusual monosaccharides: components of O-antigenic polysaccharides of microorganisms

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    Kochetkov, Nikolai K.

    1996-09-01

    The data on new monosaccharides detected in O-antigenic polysaccharides of Gram-negative bacteria have been surveyed. The results of isolation and structure determination of these unusual monosaccharides have been arranged and described systematically. The NMR spectroscopy techniques are shown to be promising for the O-antigenic polysaccharides structure determination. The information about fine structure of monosaccharides which constitute the base of important class of microbial polysaccharides, is of great significance for applied studies, first of all, the design and synthesis of biologically active substances. The bibliography includes 216 references.

  10. Subcritical Water Extraction of Monosaccharides from Oil Palm Fronds Hemicelluloses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norsyabilah, R.; Hanim, S.S.; Norsuhaila, M.H.; Noraishah, A.K.; Siti Kartina

    2013-01-01

    Oil palm plantations in Malaysia generate more than 36 million tones of pruned and felled oil palm fronds (OPF) and are generally considered as waste. The composition of monosaccharide in oil palm frond can be extracted using hydrothermal treatment for useful applications. The objectives of this study were to quantify the yield of monosaccharides at various reaction conditions; temperature 170 to 200 degree Celsius, pressure from 500 psi to 800 psi, reaction time from 5 to 15 min using subcritical water extraction and to determine the composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses at optimum condition. The monosaccharides composition of oil palm frond hemicelluloses were analysed using High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). The highest yield of monosaccharides can be extracted from OPF at temperature of 190 degree Celsius, pressure of 600 psi and 10 min of contact time which is xylose the most abundant composition (11.79 %) followed with arabinose (2.82 %), glucose (0.61 %) and mannose (0.66 %). (author)

  11. Monosaccharides as Versatile Units for Water-Soluble Supramolecular Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Christianus M A; Jansen, Gijs; Frissen, Martijn M M; Lafleur, René P M; Voets, Ilja K; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2016-03-18

    We introduce monosaccharides as versatile water-soluble units to compatibilise supramolecular polymers based on the benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) moiety with water. A library of monosaccharide-based BTAs is evaluated, varying the length of the alkyl chain (hexyl, octyl, decyl and dodecyl) separating the BTA and saccharide units, as well as the saccharide units (α-glucose, β-glucose, α-mannose and α-galactose). In all cases, the monosaccharides impart excellent water compatibility. The length of the alkyl chain is the determining factor to obtain either long, one-dimensional supramolecular polymers (dodecyl spacer), small aggregates (decyl spacer) or molecularly dissolved (octyl and hexyl) BTAs in water. For the BTAs comprising a dodecyl spacer, our results suggest that a cooperative self-assembly process is operative and that the introduction of different monosaccharides does not significantly change the self- assembly behaviour. Finally, we investigate the potential of post-assembly functionalisation of the formed supramolecular polymers by taking advantage of dynamic covalent bond formation between the monosaccharides and benzoxaboroles. We observe that the supramolecular polymers readily react with a fluorescent benzoxaborole derivative permitting imaging of these dynamic complexes by confocal fluorescence microscopy. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Monosaccharide analysis of succulent leaf tissue in Aloe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grace, Olwen Megan; Dzajic, Amra; Jäger, Anna

    2013-01-01

    in the genus Aloe using a predictive phylogenetic approach. Methodology – Monosaccharide composition was assessed in 31species, representing the morphological and taxonomic diversity of Aloe sensu stricto. Leaf mesophyll polysaccharides were partially hydrolysed in a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-SilA assay......Introduction – The succulent leaf mesophyll in Aloe species supports a burgeoning natural products industry, particularly in Africa. Comparative data necessary to prioritise species with economic potential have been lacking. Objective – To survey leaf mesophyll monosaccharide composition....... Oximes and trimethylsilyl ether products were detected by GC-MS. Constituent monosaccharides accounting for the greatest variation among species were identified by principal component analysis. Two plant DNA barcoding regions were sequenced in 28 of the sampled species and the resulting maximum...

  13. GC/MS determination of monosaccharides in yogurt products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nam, Sang Kyu; Cheong, Won Jo [Inha Univ., Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-02-01

    Yogurt products are known to be effective for enhancing health and preventing diseases such as cancers. Such effects are generally believed to be due to actions of polysaccharides in yogurt products. In this study we have determined compositions of monosaccharides in hydrolysates of commercial yogurt products as the first step of understanding structures of polysaccharides. The yogurt products were ultracentrifuged, filtered, hydrolyzed in 1M sulfuric acid and neutralized. A porting of the solution was taken and evaporated to dryness, derivatized with TMSI (trimethyl- silylimidazole) and analyzed by GC/MS. We found that the monosaccharides were fructose, glucose, and galactose. Their compositions were variant among several yogurt products.

  14. GC/MS determination of monosaccharides in yogurt products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nam, Sang Kyu; Cheong, Won Jo

    2000-01-01

    Yogurt products are known to be effective for enhancing health and preventing diseases such as cancers. Such effects are generally believed to be due to actions of polysaccharides in yogurt products. In this study we have determined compositions of monosaccharides in hydrolysates of commercial yogurt products as the first step of understanding structures of polysaccharides. The yogurt products were ultracentrifuged, filtered, hydrolyzed in 1M sulfuric acid and neutralized. A porting of the solution was taken and evaporated to dryness, derivatized with TMSI (trimethyl- silylimidazole) and analyzed by GC/MS. We found that the monosaccharides were fructose, glucose, and galactose. Their compositions were variant among several yogurt products

  15. Growth and enzyme production by three Penicillium species on monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Krogh, Astrid Mørkeberg; Krogh, Kristian Bertel Rømer

    2004-01-01

    The growth and preference for utilisation of various sugar by the Penicillium species Penicillium pinophilum IBT 4186, Penicillium persicinum IBT 13226 and Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888 was studied in batch cultivations using various monosaccharides as carbon source, either alone or in mixtur...... producing beta-glucosidase and endoglucanases. Xylose did not repress the enzyme production and it induced the production of endoxylanases and beta-xylosidases....

  16. Influence of estrogenic pesticides on membrane integrity and membrane transfer of monosaccharide into the human red cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ingermann, R.L.

    1989-01-01

    Some natural and synthetic estrogens inhibit carrier-mediated transport of glucose into human red blood cells and membrane vesicles from the placenta. The inhibitory action of these estrogens on transport appears to be a direct effect at the membrane and does not involve receptor binding and protein synthesis. It is not clear, however, whether such inhibition is a common feature among estrogenic agents. Several chlorinated hydrocarbon pesticides have been shown to possess estrogenic activity. These pesticides could have inhibitory effects on the human sodium-independent glucose transporter. Owing to the apparent importance of this membrane transporter in human tissues, direct interaction of hormones and xenobiotics with the glucose transporter is of fundamental significance. Some pesticides have been shown to alter membrane structure directly and alter the passive permeability of membranes. Whether the estrogenic pesticides influence passive diffusion of sugars across membranes has not been established. Finally, preliminary observations have suggested that some estrogens and pesticides have lytic effects on intact cells. Consequently, this study focuses on the ability of several estrogens and estrogenic pesticides to disrupt the cell membrane, influence the monosaccharide transporter, and alter the rate of monosaccharide permeation through the membrane by simple diffusion

  17. [Monosaccharide composition analysis and its content determination of polysaccharides from Rhaponticum uniforum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Fa-Sheng; Xu, Heng-Gui; Yan, Xiao-Mei; Li, Ming-Yang; Liu, Hui

    2008-06-01

    To analyze the monosaccharide composition in the polysaccharides from Rhaponticum uniforum, determine the content of monosaccharide, and provide some references for further research. The monosaccharide composition was determined by high performance anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Phenol-sulfuric acid method was used for the determination of the content of polysaccharide. The monosaccharides composition in polysaccharides from R. uniforum are glucose, arabonose and fructose. Their molar ratios are 1 : 1.61 : 2.21. The content of polysaccharide is 95.78%, taking the mixture of monosaccharide compositions as reference substances. HPAEC-PAD can be used to analyze the monosaccharide composition in the polysaccharide with high precision, and the method of phenol-sulfuric acid is simple, convenient and reliable.

  18. Possibility as monosaccharide laxative of rare sugar alcohols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oosaka, Kazumasa

    2009-05-01

    Allitol, D-talitol and L-iditol are sugar alcohols that are rare in nature. Due to their previous rarity, little is known about the laxative effects of these rare sugar alcohols. Therefore, reliable data on the laxative effect that these sugar alcohols cause in experimental animals could help to evaluate the effectiveness of new monosaccharide laxative drugs. To investigate the laxative effect of rare sugar alcohols, the study was designed to observe the diarrhea that occurred after oral administration of these sugar alcohols in mice. Moreover, to investigate the influence on intestinal function of rare sugar alcohols, the study was designed to examine small intestine transit and the luminal water content. Results indicated that rare sugar alcohols have a laxative effect in mice. Diarrhea started at a dose of 4.95 g/kg of rare sugar alcohols. There was a statistically significant laxative effect for D-talitol and L-iditol at a dose of 9.9 g/kg as compared to vehicle. Moreover, rare sugar alcohols significantly increased the small intestinal transit and the luminal water content of the small intestine and cecum in mice as compared to each vehicle. Overall, L-iditol greatly changes the function of intestine. In conclusion, rare sugar alcohols increase water content in small intestine and accelerate small intestine transit. These results support laxative effect of rare sugar alcohols. Therefore, rare sugar alcohols may be useful as monosaccharide laxatives and may be used to treat constipation.

  19. Recovery of monosaccharides from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by ion exclusion chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lodi, Gabriele; Pellegrini, Laura Annamaria; Aliverti, Alessandro; Rivas Torres, Beatriz; Bernardi, Marco; Morbidelli, Massimo; Storti, Giuseppe

    2017-05-05

    The production of sugars from lignocellulosic biomass is the key to a sustainable, renewable chemical industry. Glucose, xylose and other monosaccharides can be easily produced by hydrolyzing cellulose and hemicellulose, the primary polysaccharides in biomass. However, the hydrolysis of biomass generates byproducts that, together with the mineral acid normally added in the hydrolysis step, have to be removed before the downstream conversion processes. In this work, the recovery of monosaccharides from lignocellulosic hydrolysates by means of Ion Exclusion Chromatography (IEC) has been studied. The analyzed process relies on new pretreatment and hydrolysis steps, involving the neutralization of the hydrolysate with sodium hydroxide. The adsorption behavior of the main components involved in the separation has been experimentally investigated. Pulse tests at the high loading encountered in preparative conditions have been performed for a selected group of model components found in the hydrolysates. For all the electrolytes, the retention volume fraction was always between the interparticle porosity and the total column porosity, confirming that ion exclusion was the dominant retention mechanism. On the other hand, sugars eluted before the total column porosity, indicating partial steric exclusion from the resin pores. This observation was then confirmed by size-exclusion experiments with polyethylene glycol standards, from which the distribution coefficient of the studied sugars has been determined. The comparison between the elution profiles of the same sugars in pure form and as a mixture present in the hydrolysate showed differences in both peak shape and retention times. Therefore, an investigation of the influence of the main electrolytes contained in the hydrolysates on sugars adsorption has been performed through the pulse on a plateau method. The electrolytes were found to enhance the sugars retention by promoting their adsorption onto the resin. However

  20. Bioactive Mushroom Polysaccharides: A Review on Monosaccharide Composition, Biosynthesis and Regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiong; Wang, Feng; Xu, Zhenghong; Ding, Zhongyang

    2017-06-13

    Mushrooms are widely distributed around the world and are heavily consumed because of their nutritional value and medicinal properties. Polysaccharides (PSs) are an important component of mushrooms, a major factor in their bioactive properties, and have been intensively studied during the past two decades. Monosaccharide composition/combinations are important determinants of PS bioactivities. This review summarizes: (i) monosaccharide composition/combinations in various mushroom PSs, and their relationships with PS bioactivities; (ii) possible biosynthetic pathways of mushroom PSs and effects of key enzymes on monosaccharide composition; (iii) regulation strategies in PS biosynthesis, and prospects for controllable biosynthesis of PSs with enhanced bioactivities.

  1. Mechanistic understanding of monosaccharide-air flow battery electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel M.; Tsang, Tsz Ho; Chetty, Leticia; Aloi, Sekotilani; Liaw, Bor Yann

    Recently, an inexpensive monosaccharide-air flow battery configuration has been demonstrated to utilize a strong base and a mediator redox dye to harness electrical power from the partial oxidation of glucose. Here the mechanistic understanding of glucose oxidation in this unique glucose-air power source is further explored by acid-base titration experiments, 13C NMR, and comparison of results from chemically different redox mediators (indigo carmine vs. methyl viologen) and sugars (fructose vs. glucose) via studies using electrochemical techniques. Titration results indicate that gluconic acid is the main product of the cell reaction, as supported by evidence in the 13C NMR spectra. Using indigo carmine as the mediator dye and fructose as the energy source, an abiotic cell configuration generates a power density of 1.66 mW cm -2, which is greater than that produced from glucose under similar conditions (ca. 1.28 mW cm -2). A faster transition from fructose into the ene-diol intermediate than from glucose likely contributed to this difference in power density.

  2. The effect of cathodic polarisation on monosaccharides of Amphora coffeaeformis, a marine fouling diatom

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Evans, L.V.; Edyvean, R.G.J.

    The composition of monosaccharides and their variation in concentration in Amphora coffeaeformis cells on non-polarised and cathodically polarised 304 stainless steel were examined when cells were grown under continous illumination at 18~'C for 8 d...

  3. Effect of Selected Monosaccharide on Growth and Putrescine Production of Serratia marcescens

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pleva, P.; Lazárková, Z.; Andresová, Adéla; Lorencová, E.; Buňka, F.; Buňková, L.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, SI (2012) ISSN 0322-7340 Grant - others:UTB(CZ) IGA/FT/2012/027 Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : monosaccharides * chromatography * microbial metabilic activity Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry

  4. Determination of monosaccharides derivatized with 2-aminobenzoic Acid by capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abo, Mitsuru; He, Li-Ping; Sato, Kae; Okubo, Akira

    2013-01-01

    Reducing monosaccharides were derivatized with 2-aminobenzoic acid (2-AA) through reductive amination using sodium cyanoborohydride as a reductant, and the derivatives were separated by capillary zone electrophoresis with UV detection using 50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 5.5) or 150 mM sodium borate-50 mM sodium phosphate (pH 7.0) running buffer. The derivatives of monosaccharides, which are major components of various carbohydrate materials, were completely separated within 25 min.

  5. Analysis of compositional monosaccharides in fungus polysaccharides by capillary zone electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Tong; Yang, Xingbin; Zhao, Yan

    2014-02-15

    A rapid analytical method of capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) was established for the simultaneous separation and determination of 10 monosaccharides (aldoses and uronic acids). The monosaccharides were labeled with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), and subsequently separated using an uncoated capillary (50 μm i.d. × 58.5 cm) and detected by UV at 245 nm with pH 11.0, 175 mM borate buffer at voltage 20 kV and capillary temperature 25 °C by CZE. The 10 PMP-labeled monosaccharides were rapidly baseline separated within 20 min. The optimized CZE method was successfully applied to the simultaneous separation and identification of the monosaccharide composition in Termitomyces albuminosus polysaccharides (TAPs) and Panus giganteus polysaccharides (PGPs). The quantitative recovery of the component monosaccharides in the fungus polysaccharides was in the range of 92.0-101.0% and the CV value was lower than 3.5%. The results demonstrate that the proposed CZE method is precise and practical for the monosaccharide analysis of fungus polysaccharides. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. [Determination of monosaccharides in Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turner) C. Ag. polysaccharides by ion chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ou, Yunfu; Yin, Pinghe; Zhao, Ling

    2006-07-01

    Sargassum hemiphyllum polysaccharides (SHP) was extracted from dry Sargassum hemiphyllum (Turner) C. Ag. powder using 60 - 80 degrees C purified water and then hydrolyzed with 4.0 g/L trifluoroacetic acid at 80 degrees C. Without any derivatization reaction, the determination of monosaccharides in SHP was developed by anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection with an Au working electrode and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode. Monosaccharides were separated on a CarboPac PA10 anion-column (2 mm i. d. x 250 mm) by using isocratic elution consisting of 14 mmol/L sodium hydroxide at a flow rate of 0.20 mL/min. Six monosaccharides, xylose, galactose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose and fructose, contained in SHP were separated and determined. Their contents in SHP were 2 200, 820, 98, 4 560, 358 and 740 mg/kg, respectively. The recoveries of the six monosaccharides were in the range 86.0% - 108.0%. The detection limits for these monosaccharides ranged from 5.6 to 89.6 microg/kg. The experimental results showed that SHP mainly consisted of xylose and glucose with smaller quantities of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and fructose. This method is suitable for the determination of monosaccharides without any derivatization reaction at the level of microg/kg in dry algae with high sensitivity and good precision.

  7. A comparative study of monosaccharide composition analysis as a carbohydrate test for biopharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harazono, Akira; Kobayashi, Tetsu; Kawasaki, Nana; Itoh, Satsuki; Tada, Minoru; Hashii, Noritaka; Ishii, Akiko; Arato, Teruyo; Yanagihara, Shigehiro; Yagi, Yuki; Koga, Akiko; Tsuda, Yuriko; Kimura, Mikiko; Sakita, Masashi; Kitamura, Satoshi; Yamaguchi, Hideto; Mimura, Hisashi; Murata, Yoshimi; Hamazume, Yasuki; Sato, Takayuki; Natsuka, Shunji; Kakehi, Kazuaki; Kinoshita, Mitsuhiro; Watanabe, Sakie; Yamaguchi, Teruhide

    2011-05-01

    The various monosaccharide composition analysis methods were evaluated as monosaccharide test for glycoprotein-based pharmaceuticals. Neutral and amino sugars were released by hydrolysis with 4-7N trifluoroacetic acid. The monosaccharides were N-acetylated if necessary, and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with fluorometric or UV detection after derivatization with 2-aminopyridine, ethyl 4-aminobenzoate, 2-aminobenzoic acid or 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone, or high pH anion exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD). Sialic acids were released by mild acid hydrolysis or sialidase digestion, and analyzed by HPLC with fluorometric detection after derivatization with 1,2-diamino-4,5-methylenedioxybenzene, or HPAEC-PAD. These methods were verified for resolution, linearity, repeatability, and accuracy using a monosaccharide standard solution, a mixture of epoetin alfa and beta, and alteplase as models. It was confirmed that those methods were useful for ensuring the consistency of glycosylation. It is considered essential that the analytical conditions including desalting, selection of internal standards, release of monosaccharides, and gradient time course should be determined carefully to eliminate interference of sample matrix. Various HPLC-based monosaccharide analysis methods were evaluated as a carbohydrate test for glycoprotein pharmaceuticals by an inter-laboratory study. Copyright © 2011 The International Association for Biologicals. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Analytical Approaches of Determining Monosaccharides from Alkaline-Treated Palm Fiber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khairiah Badri; Juan, C.A.; Osman Hassan; Wan Aida Wan Mustapha

    2015-01-01

    Monosaccharides in oil palm empty fruit bunch fiber (EFB) were determined by methanolysis and acetylation. Three types of EFB samples, namely untreated EFB, EFB pretreated with hot water and EFB pretreated with hot water followed by 10 % (w/ w) sodium hydroxide (NaOH) aqueous solution were used. The FTIR spectrum indicated the disappearance and shifting of aromatic and carbonyl functional groups, syringyl propane unit, guaisacyl propane unit and C-H lignin. The filter cake undergone methanolysis and alditol acetate treatments to detect the composition of reducing sugars. Gas chromatography flame ionization detector (GC-FID) analysis was conducted to determine the type and quantity of reducing sugars produced. Acetylation produced two types of monosaccharides namely glucose and galactose whereas methanolysis detected only one type of monosaccharide, which was xylose. The extracted monosaccharides obtained from hot water pretreatment followed by 10 % (w/ w) NaOH aqueous solution treatment analysed by methanolysis and acetylation were 178.4 mg/ g xylose and 29.9 mg/ g glucose respectively. About 0.76 mg/ g xylose was extracted from hot water pretreated EFB fiber by methanolysis. Acetylation detected monosaccharides in untreated EFB and identified as glucose with the amount of 19.15 mg/ g, whereas monosaccharides from hot water pretreated EFB fiber were identified as glucose and galactose at 6.32 mg/ g and 2.83 mg/ g respectively. (author)

  9. Neutral monosaccharide composition analysis of plant-derived oligo- and polysaccharides by high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Jun; Shi, Songshan; Wang, Hongwei; Liu, Ruimin; Li, Ning; Chen, Yonglin; Wang, Shunchun

    2016-01-20

    A novel analytical method for neutral monosaccharide composition analysis of plant-derived oligo- and polysaccharides was developed using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled to a charged aerosol detector. The effects of column type, additives, pH and column temperature on retention and separation were evaluated. Additionally, the method could distinguish potential impurities in samples, including chloride, sulfate and sodium, from sugars. The results of validation demonstrated that this method had good linearity (R(2) ≥ 0.9981), high precision (relative standard deviation ≤ 4.43%), and adequate accuracy (94.02-103.37% recovery) and sensitivity (detection limit: 15-40 ng). Finally, the monosaccharide compositions of the polysaccharide from Eclipta prostrasta L. and stachyose were successfully profiled through this method. This report represents the first time that all of these common monosaccharides could be well-separated and determined simultaneously by high performance liquid chromatography without additional derivatization. This newly developed method is convenient, efficient and reliable for monosaccharide analysis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The effect of reducing monosaccharides on the atom transfer radical polymerization of butyl methacrylate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vries, de Andrew; Klumperman, B.; Wet-Roos, de D.; Sanderson, R.D.

    2001-01-01

    The effect of various reducing monosaccharides on the rate of atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP) of butyl methacrylate is reported in this study. The addition of reducing sugars affects the rate of ATRP positively with a 100% increase in the rate of polymerization in some cases. In

  11. Determination of the absolute configuration of monosaccharides in complex carbohydrates by capillary G.L.C.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vliegenthart, J.F.G.; Gerwig, G.J.; Kamerling, J.P.

    1979-01-01

    The absolute configuration of neutral monosaccharides, 2-acetamido-2-deoxy sugars, and uronic acids can be determined by capillary g.l.c. on SE-30 after glycosidation with (-)-2-butanol and protection of the remaining polar groups. The method is illustrated by application to mixtures of the

  12. Effect of different monosaccharides and disaccharides on boar sperm quality after cryopreservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Fernández, José; Gómez-Izquierdo, Emilio; Tomás, Cristina; Mocé, Eva; de Mercado, Eduardo

    2012-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the cryoprotectant effect of different non-permeating sugars for boar sperm. Pooled semen from three boars was used for the experiments. In the first experiment, the sperm quality of boar sperm cryopreserved with an egg-yolk based extender supplemented with different monosaccharides (glucose, galactose or fructose) was compared to a control cryopreserved in lactose-egg yolk extender. In the second experiment, the effect of five disaccharides (lactose, sucrose, lactulose, trehalose or melibiose) on boar sperm cryosurvival was studied. Several sperm quality parameters were assessed by flow cytometry in samples incubated for 30 and 150 min at 37°C after thawing: percentages of sperm with intact plasma membrane (SIPM), sperm presenting high plasma membrane fluidity (HPMF), sperm with intracellular reactive oxygen substances production (IROSP) and apoptotic sperm (AS). In addition, the percentages of total motile (TMS) and progressively motile sperm (PMS) were assessed at the same incubation times with a computer-assisted sperm analysis system. Freezing extenders supplemented with each of the monosaccharide presented smaller cryoprotective effect than the control extender supplemented with lactose (Pextender supplemented with lactulose exhibited in general the lowest sperm quality, except for the percentage of capacitated sperm, which was highest (Pextender. Our results suggest that disaccharides have higher cryoprotective effect than monosaccharides, although the monosaccharide composition of the disaccharides is also important, since the best results were obtained with those disaccharides presenting glucose in their composition. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Direct imaging of glycans in Arabidopsis roots via click labeling of metabolically incorporated azido-monosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin; Berghuis, Nathalja; Cramer, Dario; Geurts, Rene; Zuilhof, Han; Wennekes, Tom

    2016-10-10

    Carbohydrates, also called glycans, play a crucial but not fully understood role in plant health and development. The non-template driven formation of glycans makes it impossible to image them in vivo with genetically encoded fluorescent tags and related molecular biology approaches. A solution to this problem is the use of tailor-made glycan analogs that are metabolically incorporated by the plant into its glycans. These metabolically incorporated probes can be visualized, but techniques documented so far use toxic copper-catalyzed labeling. To further expand our knowledge of plant glycobiology by direct imaging of its glycans via this method, there is need for novel click-compatible glycan analogs for plants that can be bioorthogonally labelled via copper-free techniques. Arabidopsis seedlings were incubated with azido-containing monosaccharide analogs of N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, L-fucose, and L-arabinofuranose. These azido-monosaccharides were metabolically incorporated in plant cell wall glycans of Arabidopsis seedlings. Control experiments indicated active metabolic incorporation of the azido-monosaccharide analogs into glycans rather than through non-specific absorption of the glycan analogs onto the plant cell wall. Successful copper-free labeling reactions were performed, namely an inverse-electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction using an incorporated N-acetylglucosamine analog, and a strain-promoted azide-alkyne click reaction. All evaluated azido-monosaccharide analogs were observed to be non-toxic at the used concentrations under normal growth conditions. Our results for the metabolic incorporation and fluorescent labeling of these azido-monosaccharide analogs expand the possibilities for studying plant glycans by direct imaging. Overall we successfully evaluated five azido-monosaccharide analogs for their ability to be metabolically incorporated in Arabidopsis roots and their imaging after fluorescent labeling. This expands

  14. Chemoenzymatic elaboration of monosaccharides using engineered cytochrome P450_(BM3) demethylases

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, Jared C.; Bastian, Sabine; Bennett, Clay S.; Fu, Yu; Mitsuda, Yuuichi; Chen, Mike M.; Greenberg, William A.; Wong, Chi-Huey; Arnold, Frances H.

    2009-01-01

    Polysaccharides comprise an extremely important class of biopolymers that play critical roles in a wide range of biological processes, but the synthesis of these compounds is challenging because of their complex structures. We have developed a chemoenzymatic method for regioselective deprotection of monosaccharide substrates using engineered Bacillus megaterium cytochrome P450 (P450_(BM3)) demethylases that provides a highly efficient means to access valuable intermediate...

  15. Centrifugal partition chromatography in a biorefinery context: Separation of monosaccharides from hydrolysed sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David P; Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Lye, Gary J

    2015-09-11

    A critical step in the bioprocessing of sustainable biomass feedstocks, such as sugar beet pulp (SBP), is the isolation of the component sugars from the hydrolysed polysaccharides. This facilitates their subsequent conversion into higher value chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. Separation methodologies such as centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) offer an alternative to traditional resin-based chromatographic techniques for multicomponent sugar separations. Highly polar two-phase systems containing ethanol and aqueous ammonium sulphate are examined here for the separation of monosaccharides present in hydrolysed SBP pectin: l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-galactose and d-galacturonic acid. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was selected as an effective phase system modifier improving monosaccharide separation. The best phase system identified was ethanol:DMSO:aqueous ammonium sulphate (300gL(-1)) (0.8:0.1:1.8, v:v:v) which enabled separation of the SBP monosaccharides by CPC (200mL column) in ascending mode (upper phase as mobile phase) with a mobile phase flow rate of 8mLmin(-1). A mixture containing all four monosaccharides (1.08g total sugars) in the proportions found in hydrolysed SBP was separated into three main fractions; a pure l-rhamnose fraction (>90%), a mixed l-arabinose/d-galactose fraction and a pure d-galacturonic acid fraction (>90%). The separation took less than 2h demonstrating that CPC is a promising technique for the separation of these sugars with potential for application within an integrated, whole crop biorefinery. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Interaction Between Some Monosaccharides and Aspartic Acid in Dilute Aqueous Solutions

    OpenAIRE

    Kulikova, Galina A.; Parfenyuk, Elena V.

    2007-01-01

    Interaction between aspartic acid and d-glucose, d-galactose, and d-fructose has been studied by isothermal titration calorimetry, calorimetry of dissolution, and densimetry. It has been found that d-glucose and d-fructose form thermodynamically stable associates with aspartic acid, in contrast to d-galactose. The selectivity in the interaction of aspartic acid with monosaccharides is affected by their stereochemical structures.

  17. Ammoxidation of Lignocellulosic Materials: Formation of Nonheterocyclic Nitrogenous Compounds from Monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Ammoxidized technical lignins are valuable soil-improving materials that share many similarities with native terrestrial humic substances. In contrast to lignins, the chemical fate of carbohydrates as typical minor constituents of technical lignins during the ammoxidation processes has not been thoroughly investigated. Recently, we reported the formation of N-heterocyclic, ecotoxic compounds (OECD test 201) from both monosaccharides (d-glucose, d-xylose) and polysaccharides (cellulose, xylan) under ammoxidation conditions and showed that monosaccharides are a source more critical than polysaccharides in this respect. GC/MS-derivatization analysis of the crude product mixtures revealed that ammoxidation of carbohydrates which resembles the conditions encountered in nonenzymatical browning of foodstuff affords also a multitude of nonheterocyclic nitrogenous compounds such as aminosugars, glycosylamines, ammonium salts of aldonic, deoxyaldonic, oxalic and carbaminic acids, urea, acetamide, α-hydroxyamides, and even minor amounts of α-amino acids. d-Glucose and d-xylose afforded largely similar product patterns which differed from each other only for those products that were formed under preservation of the chain integrity and stereoconfiguration of the respective monosaccharide. The kinetics and reaction pathways involved in the formation of the different classes of nitrogenous compounds under ammoxidation conditions are discussed. PMID:23967905

  18. [Study on Monosaccharide Compositions of Polysaccharide in Dendrobium Stems of Different Resources by PMP-HPCE].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Nai-dong; Meng, Yun-fei; Yao, Hou-jun; Cao, Cai-yun; Chen, Chen; Li, Jun

    2015-08-01

    To establish a PMP-HPCE method for comparing the monosaccharides of polysaccharide in tissue-cultured and wild Dedrobium huoshanese and Dedrobium moniliforme as well as wild Dedrobium henanese, in order to investigate the similarities of their bioactive components. The PMP-monosaccharides of polysaccharide from the five investigated Dedrobium samples were separated by HPCE on a fused silica capillary column(100 cm x 50 µm) at 25 °C with 350 mmol/L BAS (adjusted to pH 10 with 1.0 mol/L NaOH) as running buffer for 34 min. The applied voltage was 20 kV and the detection wavelength was set at 250 nm. Total six monosaccharides including xylose, glucose, mannose, galactose, galacturonic acid and ribose were detected in the five Dendrobiurms samples and the similarity coefficients between the ten batches of the same Dendrobium species were all above 0. 98,while remarkable dissimilarity were exhibited among species and different resources. PMP-HPCE technique combined with chemometrics is simple, convenient, precise, reproducible and proved to be an effective strategy for identifying the species and origins, especially in the quality assessment of Dendrobium stems.

  19. Combining multivariate analysis and monosaccharide composition modeling to identify plant cell wall variations by Fourier Transform Near Infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith-Moritz Andreia M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We outline a high throughput procedure that improves outlier detection in cell wall screens using FT-NIR spectroscopy of plant leaves. The improvement relies on generating a calibration set from a subset of a mutant population by taking advantage of the Mahalanobis distance outlier scheme to construct a monosaccharide range predictive model using PLS regression. This model was then used to identify specific monosaccharide outliers from the mutant population.

  20. Determination of 3-O- and 4-O-methylated monosaccharide constituents in snail glycans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepan, Herwig; Bleckmann, Christina; Geyer, Hildegard; Geyer, Rudolf; Staudacher, Erika

    2010-07-02

    The N- and O-glycans of Arianta arbustorum, Achatina fulica, Arion lusitanicus and Planorbarius corneus were analysed for their monosaccharide pattern by reversed-phase HPLC after labelling with 2-aminobenzoic acid or 3-methyl-1-phenyl-2-pyrazolin-5-one and by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Glucosamine, galactosamine, mannose, galactose, glucose, fucose and xylose were identified. Furthermore, three different methylated sugars were detected: 3-O-methyl-mannose and 3-O-methyl-galactose were confirmed to be a common snail feature; 4-O-methyl-galactose was detected for the first time in snails. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Occurrence and origin of carbohydrates in peat samples from a red mangrove environment as reflected by abundances of neutral monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, M. E. C.; Baas, M.; De Leeuw, J. W.; Boon, J. J.; Schenck, P. A.

    1990-09-01

    Acid hydrolysates of fractionated red mangrove peat samples and handpicked roots and rootlets of Rhizophora mangle (red mangrove) from Jewfish Key in the Florida Everglades were analysed for neutral monosaccharides. In the peat samples two major sources of carbohydrates could be determined: (1) vascular plant carbohydrates derived from Rhizophora mangle and (2) microbially derived carbohydrates. Significant correlations exist between the relative contributions of most neutral monosaccharides and the total carbohydrate concentration. The fine-grained peat fractions yielded low total neutral monosaccharides whose distributions indicate contributions of microbial carbohydrates. The coarse-grained peat samples yielded high total neutral monosaccharides with distributions indicating major contributions of vascular plant carbohydrates. It is estimated that a substantial part of the sugars analysed in the finegrained samples originates from microorganisms ([cyano] bacteria, algae).The absence of a trend in total neutral monosaccharide concentrations with depth suggests that microbial degradation is limited to the upper levels of the peat and that the microbial sugars determined at lower peat levels are derived from nonviable or dormant microorganisms. Results from factor analysis may suggest differences in microbial populations in the various peat samples.

  2. Development of Rare Bacterial Monosaccharide Analogs for Metabolic Glycan Labeling in Pathogenic Bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Emily L; Emmadi, Madhu; Krupp, Katharine L; Podilapu, Ananda R; Helble, Jennifer D; Kulkarni, Suvarn S; Dube, Danielle H

    2016-12-16

    Bacterial glycans contain rare, exclusively bacterial monosaccharides that are frequently linked to pathogenesis and essentially absent from human cells. Therefore, bacterial glycans are intriguing molecular targets. However, systematic discovery of bacterial glycoproteins is hampered by the presence of rare deoxy amino sugars, which are refractory to traditional glycan-binding reagents. Thus, the development of chemical tools that label bacterial glycans is a crucial step toward discovering and targeting these biomolecules. Here, we explore the extent to which metabolic glycan labeling facilitates the studying and targeting of glycoproteins in a range of pathogenic and symbiotic bacterial strains. We began with an azide-containing analog of the naturally abundant monosaccharide N-acetylglucosamine and discovered that it is not broadly incorporated into bacterial glycans, thus revealing a need for additional azidosugar substrates to broaden the utility of metabolic glycan labeling in bacteria. Therefore, we designed and synthesized analogs of the rare deoxy amino d-sugars N-acetylfucosamine, bacillosamine, and 2,4-diacetamido-2,4,6-trideoxygalactose and established that these analogs are differentially incorporated into glycan-containing structures in a range of pathogenic and symbiotic bacterial species. Further application of these analogs will refine our knowledge of the glycan repertoire in diverse bacteria and may find utility in treating a variety of infectious diseases with selectivity.

  3. A Newly Isolated Penicillium oxalicum 16 Cellulase with High Efficient Synergism and High Tolerance of Monosaccharide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xi-Hua; Wang, Wei; Tong, Bin; Zhang, Su-Ping; Wei, Dong-Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Compared to Trichoderma reesei RUT-C30 cellulase (Trcel), Penicillium oxalicum 16 cellulase (P16cel) from the fermentation supernatant produced a 2-fold higher glucose yield when degrading microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), possessed a 10-fold higher β-glucosidase (BGL) activity, but obtained somewhat lower other cellulase component activities. The optimal temperature and pH of β-1,4-endoglucanase, cellobiohydrolase, and filter paperase from P16cel were 50-60 °C and 4-5, respectively, but those of BGL reached 70 °C and 5. The cellulase cocktail of P16cel and Trcel had a high synergism when solubilizing MCC and generated 1.7-fold and 6.2-fold higher glucose yields than P16cel and Trcel at the same filter paperase loading, respectively. Additional low concentration of fructose enhanced the glucose yield during enzymatic hydrolysis of MCC; however, additional high concentration of monosaccharide (especially glucose) reduced cellulase activities and gave a stronger monosaccharide inhibition on Trcel. These results indicate that P16cel is a more excellent cellulase than Trcel.

  4. Explicit Consideration of Water Molecules to Study Vibrational Circular DICHROÎSM of Monosaccharide's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussi, Sofiane; Ouamerali, Ourida

    2014-06-01

    Carbohydrates have multiples roles in biological systems. It has been found that the glycoside bond is fundamentally important in many aspects of chemistry and biology and forms the basis of carbohydrate chemistry. That means the stereochemical information, namely, glycosidic linkages α or β, gives an significant features of the carbohydrate glycosidation position of the glycosylic acceptor. For these reasons, much effort was made for the synthesis and analysis of the glycoside bond. Vibrational circular dichroism VCD has some advantages over conventional electronic circular dichroism (ECD) due to the applicability to all organic molecules and the reliability of ab initio quantum calculation. However, for a molecule with many chiral centers such as carbohydrates, determination of the absolute configuration tends to be difficult because the information from each stereochemical center is mixed and averaged over the spectrum. In the CH stretching region, only two VCD studies on carbohydrates have been reported and spectra--structure correlation, as determined for the glycoside band, remains to be investigated. T. Taniguchi and collaborators report that methyl glycosides exhibit a characteristic VCD peak, the sign of which solely reflects the C-1 absolute configuration. This work is a theoretical contribution to study the behaviour of VCD spectrum's of the monosaccharides when the water molecules are taken explicitly. This study is focused on six different monosaccharides in theirs absolute configuration R and S. We used the method of density functional theory DFT by means of the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G * basis set.

  5. A promptly approach from monosaccharides of biomass to oligosaccharides via sharp-quenching thermo conversion (SQTC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiao; Wei, Weiqi; Wu, Shubin; Lei, Ming; Liu, Ying

    2018-06-01

    In this study, a novel and facile approach of conversion monosaccharides (glucose and xylose) to oligosaccharides (Cello-oligosaccharides and Xylo-oligosaccharides) was demonstrated. The approach did not introduce any chemical reagent and the preparation process could be environmentally friendly. Identification and quantification by ion chromatography (IC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) showed that the yields of COS and XOS reached to 44.62% (38 s) and 47.09% (30 s) respectively at 500 °C reaction temperature coupled with sharp-quenching method. Structural characterization indicated that such oligosaccharides showed a degree of polymerization (DP) with 2-6, and the units mainly linked by β-(1 → 4)-glycosidic bond. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Pyranose dehydrogenase ligand promiscuity: a generalized approach to simulate monosaccharide solvation, binding, and product formation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael M H Graf

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The flavoenzyme pyranose dehydrogenase (PDH from the litter decomposing fungus Agaricus meleagris oxidizes many different carbohydrates occurring during lignin degradation. This promiscuous substrate specificity makes PDH a promising catalyst for bioelectrochemical applications. A generalized approach to simulate all 32 possible aldohexopyranoses in the course of one or a few molecular dynamics (MD simulations is reported. Free energy calculations according to the one-step perturbation (OSP method revealed the solvation free energies (ΔGsolv of all 32 aldohexopyranoses in water, which have not yet been reported in the literature. The free energy difference between β- and α-anomers (ΔGβ-α of all d-stereoisomers in water were compared to experimental values with a good agreement. Moreover, the free-energy differences (ΔG of the 32 stereoisomers bound to PDH in two different poses were calculated from MD simulations. The relative binding free energies (ΔΔGbind were calculated and, where available, compared to experimental values, approximated from Km values. The agreement was very good for one of the poses, in which the sugars are positioned in the active site for oxidation at C1 or C2. Distance analysis between hydrogens of the monosaccharide and the reactive N5-atom of the flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD revealed that oxidation is possible at HC1 or HC2 for pose A, and at HC3 or HC4 for pose B. Experimentally detected oxidation products could be rationalized for the majority of monosaccharides by combining ΔΔGbind and a reweighted distance analysis. Furthermore, several oxidation products were predicted for sugars that have not yet been tested experimentally, directing further analyses. This study rationalizes the relationship between binding free energies and substrate promiscuity in PDH, providing novel insights for its applicability in bioelectrochemistry. The results suggest that a similar approach could be applied to study

  7. Relationship between molecular weight, monosaccharide composition and immunobiologic activity of Astragalus polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yiping; Qi, Xiaohui; Gao, Kai; Liu, Wenjun; Li, Na; Cheng, Ningbo; Ding, Gang; Huang, Wenzhe; Wang, Zhenzhong; Xiao, Wei

    2016-10-01

    Four Astragalus polysaccharides (APS1-APS4) were isolated from the water extract of Radix Astragali and purified through ethanol precipitation with 20 %, 40 %, 60 % and 80 % ethanol, respectively. The total sugar content was measured by sulfuric acid-phenol method. Their molecular weight was determined using high performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and their monosaccharide composition was analyzed by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) after pre-column derivatization. Then the immunobiologic activity of APS was evaluated by the experiment of spleen lymphocytes proliferation in vitro. The data suggested that precipitation by different concentration of ethanol will obtain different molecular weight APS, the higher concentration of ethanol the smaller molecular weight for APS. The molecular weights of four APS were 257.7 kDa, 40.1 kDa, 15.3 kDa and 3.2 kDa. Monosaccharide composition analysis indicated that APS1 consisted of glucose only, and APS2 all consisted of arabinose. APS3 consisted of rhamnose, glucose, galactose and arabinose and APS4 consisted of galactose and arabinose, in a molar ratio of 1:10.76:6.55:12 and 3.02:1. The result of immunobiologic activity assay showed that both APS2 and APS3 can effectively stimulate normal spleen lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. Apart from this, the effect of APS2 also showed dose dependent tendency from 6.25 μg/mL to 800 μg/mL. The result of this research indicated that Astragalus polysaccharides, which consist of arabinose and their molecular weight between 15.2 kDa to 40.1 kDa, neither too high nor too low, had significant immune activity.

  8. Seasonal variations of monosaccharide anhydrides in PM1 and PM2.5 aerosol in urban areas

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křůmal, Kamil; Mikuška, Pavel; Vojtěšek, Martin; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 39 (2010), s. 5148-5155 ISSN 1352-2310 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/1A3/148/08 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40310501 Keywords : monosaccharide anhydrides * biomass burning * levoglucosan Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.226, year: 2010

  9. Evaluating the susceptibility of pyrolysis of monosaccharide, disaccharide, and polysaccharide to CO_2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jechan; Tsang, Yiu Fai; Oh, Jeong-Ik; Lee, Sang-Ryong; Kwon, Eilhann E.

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Two-stage pyrolyzer gives a deep insight into sensitivity of biomass structure to CO_2. • The influence of CO_2 in pyrolysis of biomass occurs selectively. • Hemicellulose and lignin are highly sensitive to CO_2 in pyrolysis. • Thermal cracking of VOCs can be expedited by using CO_2 in pyrolysis. - Abstract: This study is aiming at exploring the genuine role of CO_2 in pyrolysis of lignocellulosic biomass by investigating the susceptibility of pyrolysis of monosaccharide (e.g., xylose and glucose), disaccharide (e.g., sucrose), and polysaccharide (e.g., woody biomass) to CO_2. To do this, the thermal degradation of these four biomass samples was characterized in N_2 and CO_2. The thermal characterization results reveal that the physical aspects of biomass decomposition (i.e., thermal degradation rate and residual mass difference) associated with CO_2 were nearly the same; however, the chemical aspects were significantly different. In other words, CO_2 enhanced thermal cracking of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated from thermal degradation of biomass. In addition, our experiment results show that xylose (a major constituent of hemicellulose) and lignin exhibited a high sensitivity to CO_2 in pyrolysis.

  10. A mesophilic Clostridium species that produces butanol from monosaccharides and hydrogen from polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bramono, Sandhi Eko; Lam, Yuen Sean; Ong, Say Leong; He, Jianzhong

    2011-10-01

    A unique mesophilic Clostridium species strain BOH3 is obtained in this study, which is capable of fermenting monosaccharides to produce butanol and hydrolyzing polysaccharides to produce hydrogen (H(2)) and volatile fatty acids (VFAs). From 30 g/L of glucose and xylose each, batch culture BOH3 was able to produce 4.67 and 4.63 g/L of butanol. Enhancement treatments by increasing the inoculated cells improved butanol production to 7.05 and 7.41 g/L, respectively. Hydrogen production (2.47 and 1.93 mmol) was observed when cellulose and xylan (10 g/L each) were used, suggesting that strain BOH3 possesses xylanolytic and cellulolytic capabilities. These unique features reveal the strain's novelty as most wild-type solventogenic strains have not been reported to have such properties. Therefore, culture BOH3 is promising in generating butanol and hydrogen from renewable feedstock. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Recent advances in capillary electrophoresis separation of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Veronica; Galeotti, Fabio; Maccari, Francesca; Volpi, Nicola

    2018-01-01

    This article illustrates the basis and applications of methodologies for the analysis of simple and complex carbohydrates by means of CE. After a description of the most common and novel approaches useful for the analysis and characterization of carbohydrates, this review covers the recent advances in CE separation of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and polysaccharides. Various CE techniques are also illustrated for the study of carbohydrates derived from complex glyco-derivatives such as glycoproteins and glycolipids, essential for biopharmaceutical and glycoproteomics applications as well as for biomarker detection. Most glycans have no significant UV absorption, and derivatization with fluorophore groups prior to separation usually results in higher sensitivity and an improved electrophoretic profile. We also discuss the recent applications and separations by CE of derivatized simple and more complex carbohydrates with different chromophoric active tags. Overall, this review aims to give an overview of the most recent state-of-the-art techniques used in carbohydrate analysis by CE. © 2017 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Monosaccharide composition of acidic gum exudates from Indian Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakhera, Ajeet Kumar; Kumar, Vineet

    2017-01-01

    Acacia tortilis ssp. raddiana (Savi) Brenan commonly known as Israeli Babool has contributed immensely for sand dunes management in Indian desert leading to wind erosion control and increased biological productivity. The species is extensively used in traditional medicine system for a number of therapeutic applications and as nutraceutical. The polysaccharide was isolated in 43.6% yield from gum exudates. The monosaccharides, L-arabinose, D-galactose D-glucose, L-rhamnose and D-mannose were determined in molar ratio of 78.1%, 18.64%, 0.60%, 1.71% and 0.74% respectively. The molar ratio of uronic acids was studied using diverse spectrophotometric methods and compared with GLC. The content of D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic was determined as 3.88% and 4.35% respectively by GLC. The results were compared with the spectrophotometric methods. The results using DMP as chromogenic reagent are closer to that obtained by GLC. Structural analysis of the polysaccharide may provide scientific basis for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biological applications of gum exudates from A. tortilis, which is extensively planted in India. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of the monosaccharide and alcohol content of balsamic and other vinegars by enzymatic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessi, M.; Monzani, A.; Coppini, D.

    1988-01-23

    The contents of monosaccharides and alcohol in bulsamic and other vinegars were determined by the enzymatic method. The traditional, unique balsamic vinegar is produced by the traditional method in modena. The older the balsamic vinegar, the higher the contents of dextrose and fructose are. The existence of wine vinegar added to the traditional balsami vinegar can be judged from the contents of them. The contents of dextrose and fructose in apple vinegar are low or medium, while those in the wine vinegar is very low. The ratio of dextrose to fructose varies according to the samples. Although sorbitol is contained in the apple vinegar, it is hardly contained in the commercially available wine vinegar. A little xylitol is contained in all the samples, while a large amount of it is contained in the apple vinegar. A sure indication of the quality and sound preparation is given by the content of glycerol which is found in all the vinegars and most distingushed in the traditional balsamic vinegar. (6 tabs, 20 refs)

  14. Separation of phenolic acids from monosaccharides by low-pressure nanofiltration integrated with laccase pre-treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Zeuner, Birgitte; Morthensen, Sofie Thage

    2015-01-01

    (e.g. dimers and trimers) were mainly responsible for the adsorption fouling. Free laccase treatment was preferred since it was prone to produce large polymeric products while the biocatalytic membrane with immobilized laccase was not suitable as it generated smaller polymers by in-situ product...... monosaccharides (xylose, arabinose, glucose). Four commercial NF membranes (NF270, NP030, NTR7450 and NP010) were evaluated at different pH values and with various laccase pre-treatments (for polymerization of phenolic acids). The results showed that with increasing pH, the retentions of phenolic acids by NF...... could be polymerized by laccase and then completely retained by the NF membranes via size exclusion at pH 5.15. The formation of large polymeric products by laccase could alleviate the irreversible fouling in/on a NF membrane and decrease the monosaccharide retention, while the small polymeric products...

  15. Variation of acharan sulfate and monosaccharide composition and analysis of neutral N-glycans in African giant snail (Achatina fulica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Youmie; Zhang, Zhenqing; Laremore, Tatiana N; Li, Boyangzi; Sim, Joon-Soo; Im, A-Rang; Ahn, Mi Young; Kim, Yeong Shik; Linhardt, Robert J

    2008-12-01

    Acharan sulfate content from African giant snail (Achatina fulica) was compared in eggs and snails of different ages. Acharan sulfate was not found in egg. Acharan sulfate disaccharide -->4)-alpha-D-GlcNpAc (1-->4)-alpha-L-IdoAp2S(1-->, analyzed by SAX (strong-anion exchange)-HPLC was observed soon after hatching and increases as the snails grow. Monosaccharide compositional analysis showed that mole % of glucosamine, a major monosaccharide of acharan sulfate, increased with age while mole % of galactose decreased with age. These results suggest that galactans represent a major energy source during development, while acharan sulfate appearing immediately after hatching, is essential for the snail growth. The structures of neutral N-glycans released from eggs by peptide N-glycosidase F (PNGase F), were next elucidated using ESI-MS/MS, MALDI-MS/MS, enzyme digestion, and monosaccharide composition analysis. Three types of neutral N-glycan structures were observed, truncated (Hex(2-4)-HexNAc(2)), high mannose (Hex(5-9)-HexNAc(2)), and complex (Hex(3)-HexNAc(2-10)) types. None showed core fucosylation.

  16. Effects of culture conditions on monosaccharide composition of Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharide and on activities of related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Qiao, Shuangkui; Xu, Zhenghong; Guan, Feng; Ding, Zhongyang; Gu, Zhenghua; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Guiyang

    2015-11-20

    We investigated the relationship between monosaccharide composition of Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharide (EPS) and activities of EPS synthesis enzymes under various culture temperatures and initial pH values. The mole percentages of three major EPS monosaccharides, glucose, galactose and mannose, varied depending on culture conditions and the resulting EPS displayed differing anti-tumor activities. In nine tested enzymes, higher enzyme activities were correlated with higher temperature and lower initial pH. Altered mole percentages of galactose and mannose under various culture conditions were associated with activities of α-phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), respectively, and that of mannose was also associated with phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) activity only under various pH. Our findings suggest that mole percentages of G. lucidum EPS monosaccharides can be manipulated by changes of culture conditions that affect enzyme activities, and that novel fermentation strategies based on this approach may enhance production and biological activity of EPS. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry procedure for analysis of monosaccharides from plant gum binders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauk, Volodymyr; Pluháček, Tomáš; Havlíček, Vladimír; Lemr, Karel

    2017-10-09

    The ultra-high performance supercritical fluid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPSFC/MS) procedure for analysis of native monosaccharides was developed. Chromatographic conditions were investigated to separate a mixture of four hexoses, three pentoses, two deoxyhexoses and two uronic acids. Increasing water content in methanol modifier to 5% and formic acid to 4% improved peak shapes of neutral monosaccharides and allowed complete elution of highly polar uronic acids in a single run. An Acquity HSS C18SB column outperformed other three tested stationary phases (BEH (silica), BEH 2-ethylpyridine, CSH Fluoro-Phenyl) in terms of separation of isomers and analysis time (4.5 min). Limits of detection were in the range 0.01-0.12 ng μL -1 . Owing to separation of anomers, identification of critical pairs (arabinose-xylose and glucose-galactose) was possible. Feasibility of the new method was demonstrated on plant-derived polysaccharide binders. Samples of watercolor paints, painted paper and three plant gums widely encountered in painting media (Arabic, cherry and tragacanth) were decomposed prior the analysis by microwave-assisted hydrolysis at 40 bar initial pressure using 2 mol L -1 trifluoroacetic acid. Among tested temperatures, 120 °C ensured appropriate hydrolysis efficiency for different types of gum and avoided excessive degradation of labile monosaccharides. Procedure recovery tested on gum Arabic was 101% with an RSD below 8%. Aqueous hydrolysates containing monosaccharides in different ratios specific to each type of plant gum were diluted or analyzed directly. Filtration of samples before hydrolysis reduced interferences from a paper support and identification of gum Arabic in watercolor-painted paper samples was demonstrated. Successful identification of pure gum Arabic was confirmed for sample quantities as little as 1 μg. Two classification approaches were compared and principal component analysis was superior to analysis based on peak area

  18. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adams, James; Carr, Ron; Chebl, Maroun; Coleman, Robert; Costantini, William; Cox, Robert; Dial, William; Jenkins, Robert; McGovern, James; Mueller, Peter

    2006-01-01

    ...., trains, ships, etc.) and maximizing intermodal efficiency. A healthy balance must be achieved between the flow of international commerce and security requirements regardless of transportation mode...

  19. Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1998-01-01

    Here is the decree of the thirtieth of July 1998 relative to road transportation, to trade and brokerage of wastes. It requires to firms which carry out a road transportation as well as to traders and to brokers of wastes to declare their operations to the prefect. The declaration has to be renewed every five years. (O.M.)

  20. Chronic lactose intake modifies the gastric emptying of monosaccharides but not of disaccharides in weanling rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da-Costa-Pinto E.A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six weanling male Wistar rats were fed for four weeks one of two different chows: a normal rat chow containing 55.5% (w/w starch (control group, N = 48 or a rat chow in which starch was partially replaced by lactose, in such a way that the experimental group (N = 48 received 35.5% (w/w starch and 20% (w/w lactose. The gastric emptying of fluid was then studied by measuring the gastric retention of four test meals containing lactose (5% or 10%, w/v or glucose + galactose (5% or 10%, w/v. Homogenates of the small intestine were assayed for lactase activity. The gastric retention values were obtained 15 min after orogastric infusion of the liquid meals. The median values for gastric retention of the 5% lactose solutions were 37.7% for the control group and 37.0% for the experimental group (P>0.02. For the 10% lactose solution the median values were 51.2% and 47.9% (P>0.02 for the control and experimental groups, respectively. However, for the 2.5% glucose + 2.5% galactose meal the median gastric retention was lower (P<0.02 in the group fed a lactose-enriched chow (38.5% than in the control group (41.6%. For the 5% glucose + 5% galactose solution the median values were not statistically different between groups, 65.0% for the control group and 58.8% for the experimental group. The median values of the specific lactase activity in the small intestine homogenate was 0.74 U/g in the control group and 0.91 U/g in the experimental group. These values were not statistically different (P>0.05. These results suggest that the prolonged ingestion of lactose by young adult rats changes the gastric emptying of a solution containing 5% monosaccharides. This adaptation may reflect the desensitization of intestinal nutrient receptors, possibly by an osmotic effect of lactose present in the chow.

  1. Transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Allshouse, Michael; Armstrong, Frederick Henry; Burns, Stephen; Courts, Michael; Denn, Douglas; Fortunato, Paul; Gettings, Daniel; Hansen, David; Hoffman, D. W; Jones, Robert

    2007-01-01

    .... The ability of the global transportation industry to rapidly move passengers and products from one corner of the globe to another continues to amaze even those wise to the dynamics of such operations...

  2. Analysis of the monosaccharide composition of water-soluble polysaccharides from Sargassum fusiforme by high performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Xiaodan; Jiang, Wei; Lu, Jiajia; Yu, Ying; Wu, Bin

    2014-02-15

    Sargassum fusiforme (hijiki) is the well-known edible algae, whose polysaccharides have been proved to possess interesting bioactivities like antitumor, antioxidant, antimicrobial and immunomodulatory activities. A facile and sensitive method based on high-performance liquid chromatography method of pre-column derivatization with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) coupled with electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-MS) has been established for the analysis of the monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides in S. fusiforme. Monosaccharides have been converted into PMP-labelled derivatives with aqueous ammonia as a catalyst at 70 °C for 30 min. The optimisation of the pre-column derivatization process was studied. The LODs of the monosaccharides were in the range from 0.01 to 0.02 nmol. PMP-labelled mixture of monosaccharides has been well separated by a reverse-phase HPLC and detected by on-line ESI-MS method under optimised conditions. The mobile phase of elution system was chosen as acetonitrile (solvent A) and 20mM aqueous ammonium acetate (solvent B) (pH 3.0) with Zorbax XDB-C18 column at 30 °C for the separation of the monosaccharide derivatives. Identification of the monosaccharides composition was carried out by analysis with mass spectral behaviour and chromatography characteristics of 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) labelled monosaccharides. All PMP-labelled derivatives display high chemical stabilities, whose regular MS fragmentation is specific for reducing labelled sugars. The result showed that the S. fusiforme polysaccharide consisted of mannose, glucose, galactose, xylose, fucose and glucuronic acid or galacturonic acid, or both uronic acids. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Dielectric relaxation study of the dynamics of monosaccharides: D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, K; Kaminska, E; Wlodarczyk, P; Paluch, M; Ziolo, J [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland); Ngai, K L [Naval Research Laboratory, Washington, DC 20375-5320 (United States)

    2008-08-20

    The dielectric loss spectra of two closely related monosaccharides, D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose, measured at ambient and elevated pressures are presented. 2-deoxy-D-ribose and D-ribose are respectively the building blocks of the backbone chains in the nucleic acids DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and RNA (ribonucleic acid). Small differences in the structure between D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose result in changes of the glass transition temperature T{sub g}, as well as the dielectric strength and activation enthalpy of the secondary relaxations. However, the frequency dispersion of the structural {alpha}-relaxation for the same relaxation time remains practically the same. Two secondary relaxations are present in both sugars. The slower secondary relaxation shifts to lower frequencies with increasing applied pressure, but not the faster one. This pressure dependence indicates that the slower secondary relaxation is the important and 'universal' Johari-Goldstein {beta}-relaxation of both sugars according to one of the criteria set up to classify secondary relaxations. Additional confirmation of this conclusion comes from good agreement of the observed relaxation time of the slower secondary relaxation with the primitive relaxation time calculated from the coupling model. All the dynamic properties of D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose are similar to the other monosaccharides, glucose, fructose, galactose and sorbose, except for the much larger relaxation strength of the {alpha}-relaxation of the former compared to the latter. The difference may distinguish the chemical and biological functions of D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose from the other monosaccharides.

  4. Monosaccharide anhydrides, monocarboxylic acids and OC/EC in PM1 aerosols in urban areas in the Czech Republic

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Křůmal, Kamil; Mikuška, Pavel; Večeřa, Zbyněk

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, č. 6 (2015), s. 917-927 ISSN 1309-1042 R&D Projects: GA MŽP SP/1A3/148/08; GA ČR(CZ) GBP503/12/G147; GA ČR GA13-01438S; GA ČR(CZ) GA14-25558S Institutional support: RVO:68081715 Keywords : Monosaccharide anhydrides * carboxylic acids * fatty acids * organic carbon * biomass burning Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 1.401, year: 2015

  5. A simple chip free-flow electrophoresis for monosaccharide sensing via supermolecule interaction of boronic acid functionalized quencher and fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Yang; Dong, Jing-Yu; Wang, Hou-Yu; Li, Si; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2013-08-01

    Here, a simple micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) was developed for fluorescence sensing of monosaccharide via supermolecule interaction of synthesized boronic acid functionalized benzyl viologen (ο-BBV) and fluorescent dye. The μFFE contained two open electrode cavities and an ion-exchange membrane was sandwiched between two polymethylmethacrylate plates. The experiments demonstrated the following merits of developed μFFE: (i) up to 90.5% of voltage efficiency due to high conductivity of ion-exchange membrane; (ii) a strong ability against influence of bubble produced in two electrodes due to open design of electrode cavities; and (iii) reusable and washable separation chamber (45 mm × 17 mm × 100 μm, 77 μL) avoiding the discard of μFFE due to blockage of solute precipitation in chamber. Remarkably, the μFFE was first designed for the sensing of monosaccharide via the supermolecule interaction of synthesized ο-BBV, fluorescent dye, and monosaccharide. Under the optimized conditions, the minimum concentration of monosaccharide that could be detected was 1 × 10(-11) M. Finally, the developed device was used for the detection of 0.3 mM glucose spiked in human urine. All of the results demonstrated the feasibility of monosaccharide detection via the μFFE. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Determination of oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in Hakka rice wine by precolumn derivation high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Bai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a precolumn derivatization procedure with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP reagent to detect oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in Hakka rice wine. The subsequent separation of the derivatized glucose–PMP also was performed using a mobile phase consisting of the molar ratio of acetonitrile to ammonium acetate buffer (0.1M of 22:78 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with the column temperature of 35°C, and the pH of ammonium acetate buffer at 5.5. The optimum derivation conditions were as follows: reaction temperature, 70°C; reaction time, 30 minutes; molar ratio of PMP to glucose, 10:1 (v/v; molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to glucose, 3:1 (v/v. The recovery rates were between 93.13% and 102.08% with relative standard deviation of 0.96–2.48%. The established method provides sufficient sensitivity with values of limit of detection of 0.09–0.26 mg/L and limit of quantification of 0.27–0.87 mg/L for determination of oligosaccharides and monosaccharides.

  7. Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Faculty ii INDUSTRY TRAVEL Domestic Assistant Deputy Under Secretary of Defense (Transportation Policy), Washington, DC Department of...developed between the railroad and trucking industries. Railroads: Today’s seven Class I freight railroad systems move 42% of the nation’s intercity ...has been successfully employed in London to reduce congestion and observed by this industry study during its travels . It is currently being

  8. Rapid Determination of the Monosaccharide Composition and Contents in Tea Polysaccharides from Yingshuang Green Tea by Pre-Column Derivatization HPLC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yujie Ai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pre-column derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed and optimized to characterize and quantify the monosaccharides present in tea polysaccharides (TPS isolated from Yingshuang green tea. TPS sample was hydrolyzed with trifluoroacetic acid, subjected to pre-column derivatization using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP, and separated on an Agilent TC-C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm with UV detection at 250 nm. A mixture of ten PMP derivatives of standard monosaccharides (mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, xylose, galactose, arabinose, and fucose could be baseline separated within 20 min. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the component monosaccharides in Yingshuang green tea TPS was achieved, indicating the TPS consisted of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, xylose, galactose, and arabinose in the molar contents of 0.72, 0.78, 0.89, 0.13, 0.15, 0.36, 0.39, 0.36, 0.36, and 0.38 μM, respectively. Recovery efficiency for component monosaccharides from TPS ranged from 93.6 to 102.4% with RSD values lower than 2.5%. In conclusion, pre-column derivatization HPLC provides a rapid, reproducible, accurate, and quantitative method for analysis of the monosaccharide composition and contents in TPS, which may help to further explore the relationship between TPS monosaccharides isolated from different tea varieties and their biological activity.

  9. INDUCTION OF ENZYME COCKTAILS BY LOW COST CARBON SOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MONOSACCHARIDE-RICH SYRUPS FROM PLANT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline T. Gilleran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and starch-degrading enzymes by the thermophilic aerobic fungus Talaromyces emersonii under liquid state culture on various food wastes was investigated. A comprehensive enzyme screening was conducted, which resulted in the identification of spent tea leaves as a potential substrate for hydrolytic enzyme production. The potent, polysaccharide-degrading enzyme-rich cocktail produced when tea leaves were utilised as sole carbon source was analysed at a protein and mRNA level and shown to exhibit high level production of key cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes. As presented in this paper, the crude enzyme preparation produced after 120 h growth of Talaromyces emersonii on used tea leaves is capable of hydrolysing other lignocellulosic materials into their component monosaccharides, generating high value sugar syrups with a host of industrial applications including conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  10. Characterizing harmful advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and ribosylated aggregates of yellow mustard seed phytocystatin: Effects of different monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are at the core of variety of diseases ranging from diabetes to renal failure and hence gaining wide consideration. This study was aimed at characterizing the AGEs of phytocystatin isolated from mustard seeds (YMP) when incubated with different monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and mannose) using fluorescence, ultraviolet, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and microscopy. Ribose was found to be the most potent glycating agent as evident by AGEs specific fluorescence and absorbance. YMP exists as a molten globule like structure on day 24 as depicted by high ANS fluorescence and altered intrinsic fluorescence. Glycated YMP as AGEs and ribose induced aggregates were observed at day 28 and 32 respectively. In our study we have also examined the anti-aggregative potential of polyphenol, resveratrol. Our results suggested the anti-aggregative behavior of resveratrol as it prevented the in vitro aggregation of YMP, although further studies are required to decode the mechanism by which resveratrol prevents the aggregation.

  11. Chemical shift-based identification of monosaccharide spin-systems with NMR spectroscopy to complement untargeted glycomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klukowski, Piotr; Schubert, Mario

    2018-06-15

    A better understanding of oligosaccharides and their wide-ranging functions in almost every aspect of biology and medicine promises to uncover hidden layers of biology and will support the development of better therapies. Elucidating the chemical structure of an unknown oligosaccharide is still a challenge. Efficient tools are required for non-targeted glycomics. Chemical shifts are a rich source of information about the topology and configuration of biomolecules, whose potential is however not fully explored for oligosaccharides. We hypothesize that the chemical shifts of each monosaccharide are unique for each saccharide type with a certain linkage pattern, so that correlated data measured by NMR spectroscopy can be used to identify the chemical nature of a carbohydrate. We present here an efficient search algorithm, GlycoNMRSearch, that matches either a subset or the entire set of chemical shifts of an unidentified monosaccharide spin system to all spin systems in an NMR database. The search output is much more precise than earlier search functions and highly similar matches suggest the chemical structure of the spin system within the oligosaccharide. Thus searching for connected chemical shift correlations within all electronically available NMR data of oligosaccharides is a very efficient way of identifying the chemical structure of unknown oligosaccharides. With an improved database in the future, GlycoNMRSearch will be even more efficient deducing chemical structures of oligosaccharides and there is a high chance that it becomes an indispensable technique for glycomics. The search algorithm presented here, together with a graphical user interface, is available at http://glyconmrsearch.santos.pwr.edu.pl. Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

  12. Effects of pretreatment of wheat bran on the quality of protein-rich residue for animal feeding and on monosaccharide release for ethanol production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borne, van den J.J.G.C.; Kabel, M.A.; Briens, M.; Poel, van der A.F.B.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2012-01-01

    The effects of hydrothermal conditions for pretreating wheat bran on the quality of residual protein for animal feeding, and on monosaccharide release for ethanol production were studied according to a 4 × 2 × 2 design with the factors, temperature (120, 140, 160, and 180 °C), acidity (pH 2.3 and

  13. Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Niemi, J.V. [HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005-2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October-March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115-225 ng m{sup -3} and 83-98 ng m{sup -} {sup 3}at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19-78 ng m{sup -3}), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222-378 ng m{sup -}3{sup )}. Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles. (orig.)

  14. High throughput exopolysaccharide screening platform: from strain cultivation to monosaccharide composition and carbohydrate fingerprinting in one day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rühmann, Broder; Schmid, Jochen; Sieber, Volker

    2015-05-20

    Microbial exopolysaccharides (EPS) are multifunctional biogenic polymers, which exist in highly diverse chemical structures. To facilitate a fast determination of the carbohydrate composition of novel isolated strains or modified EPS variants a fast screening and analytical method is required. The platform as realized and described in this article is based on the fast carbohydrate analysis via liquid chromatography coupled with ultra violet and electrospray ionization ion trap detection in 96-well format to detect different sugars, sugar derivatives and substituents such as pyruvate. Monosaccharide analysis from hydrolyzed polysaccharides was validated successfully by 16 commercially available polymers with known structure. The method is sensitive enough to distinguish various types of sphingans which solely differ in small alterations in the monomer composition. Even a quantitative detection of single monomers as present in complex plant polysaccharides like karaya gum, with the lowest recovery, was in accordance with literature. Furthermore, 94 bacterial strains for the validation of the screening platform were completely analyzed and 41 EPS producing strains were efficiently identified. Using the method a carbohydrate-fingerprint of the strains was obtained even allowing a very fast differentiation between strains belonging to the same species. This method can become a valuable tool not only in the fast analysis of strain isolates but also in the targeted screening for polysaccharides containing special rare sugars as well in the screening of strain libraries from genetic engineering for altered structures. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of the slow mode in the family of six-carbon monosaccharides monitored by dielectric spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, K; Kaminska, E; Wlodarczyk, P; Adrjanowicz, K; Wojnarowska, Z; Grzybowska, K; Paluch, M [Institute of Physics, Silesian University, ulica Uniwersytecka 4, 40-007 Katowice (Poland)

    2010-09-15

    Broadband dielectric measurements performed on D-glucose, L-sorbose, D-fructose and D-galactose revealed that, except for the structural relaxation process, one can detect in the liquid phase of these carbohydrates a much slower relaxation mode. Recently we have demonstrated that in D-glucose this relaxation mode might be related to the long range correlation of density fluctuations (LRCDF), also called Fischer clusters (FC). Based on the dielectric data obtained for the four monosaccharides we were able to make a more general conclusion about the characteristic dielectric features of the slow mode in the whole family of carbohydrates. We found out that the timescale separation between structural and considered relaxation reaches up to six decades at the glass transition temperature and the dielectric strength decreases significantly with lowering temperature. Another very interesting feature of the slow process is that it can be described by an almost exponential response function. We have found out that the fragility of the slow process lies within the range m = 44-50. Finally, we have also shown that there is a close link between structural and slow relaxation.

  16. Analyte-Size-Dependent Ionization and Quantification of Monosaccharides in Human Plasma Using Cation-Exchanged Smectite Layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Yuqi; Kawakita, Kento; Xu, Jiawei; Akiyama, Kazuhiko; Fujino, Tatsuya

    2015-08-04

    Smectite, a synthetic inorganic polymer with a saponite structure, was subjected to matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI MS). Typical organic matrix molecules 2,4,6-trihydroxyacetophenone (THAP) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHBA) were intercalated into the layer spacing of cation-exchanged smectite, and the complex was used as a new matrix for laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry. Because of layer spacing limitations, only a small analyte that could enter the layer and bind to THAP or DHBA could be ionized. This was confirmed by examining different analyte/matrix preparation methods and by measuring saccharides with different molecular sizes. Because of the homogeneous distribution of THAP molecules in the smectite layer spacing, high reproducibility of the analyte peak intensity was achieved. By using isotope-labeled (13)C6-d-glucose as the internal standard, quantitative analysis of monosaccharides in pretreated human plasma sample was performed, and the value of 8.6 ± 0.3 μg/mg was estimated.

  17. Simple column-switching ion chromatography method for determining eight monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Binhe; Wang, Nani; Wang, Muhua; Chen, Suqing; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Honeydew is excreted by aphids as a sweet waste and nectar is floral honey. Honeydew and nectar are complicated samples which consist of various sugars and amino acids. In this work, a simple ion chromatography with column-switching method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 8 monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar. A reversed-phase column was used as a pretreatment column to eliminate organics on-line and sugars were eluted from a collection loop to analytical column by using column-switching technique. This method showed good linearity (r⩾0.9994) and afforded low limits of detection ranging from 1.55 to 10.17μgL(-1) for all the analytes. Recoveries ranged from 95% to 105% and repeatability results were acceptable with relative standard deviation of less than 3.21% (n=6). This method was successfully applied to quantification of these sugars in honeydew and nectar. These results showed honeydew had much more oligosaccharides than nectar. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.

  19. Integrating membrane transport with male gametophyte development and function through transcriptomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bock, K.W.; Honys, David; Ward, J.M.; Padmanaban, S.; Nawrocki, E.P.; Hirschi, K.D.; Twell, D.; Sze, H.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 140, č. 4 (2006), s. 1151-1168 ISSN 0032-0889 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB6038409 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : POLLEN-TUBE GROWTH * ARABIDOPSIS-THALIANA * MONOSACCHARIDE TRANSPORTER Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 6.125, year: 2006

  20. Comparison of the thermal stabilization of proteins by oligosaccharides and monosaccharide mixtures: Measurement and analysis in the context of excluded volume theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beg, Ilyas; Minton, Allen P; Islam, Asimul; Hassan, Md Imtaiyaz; Ahmad, Faizan

    2018-06-01

    The thermal stability of apo α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and lysozyme was measured in the presence of mixtures of glucose, fructose, and galactose. Mixtures of these monosaccharides in the appropriate stoichiometric ratio were found to have a greater stabilizing effect on each of the two proteins than equal weight/volume concentrations of di- tri- and tetrasaccharides with identical subunit composition (sucrose, trehalose, raffinose, and stachyose). The excluded volume model for the effect of a single saccharide on the stability of a protein previously proposed by Beg et al. [Biochemistry 54 (2015) 3594] was extended to treat the case of saccharide mixtures. The extended model predicts quantitatively the stabilizing effect of all monosaccharide mixtures on α-LA and lysozyme reported here, as well as previously published results obtained for ribonuclease A [Biophys. Chem. 138 (2008) 120] to within experimental uncertainty. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids during Cabernet Sauvignon wine ageing based on a simultaneous analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xin-Ke; Lan, Yi-Bin; Zhu, Bao-Qing; Xiang, Xiao-Feng; Duan, Chang-Qing; Shi, Ying

    2018-01-01

    Monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids are the important flavour-related components in wines. The aim of this article is to develop and validate a method that could simultaneously analyse these compounds in wine based on silylation derivatisation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and apply this method to the investigation of the changes of these compounds and speculate upon their related influences on Cabernet Sauvignon wine flavour during wine ageing. This work presented a new approach for wine analysis and provided more information concerning red wine ageing. This method could simultaneously quantitatively analyse 2 monosaccharides, 8 organic acids and 13 amino acids in wine. A validation experiment showed good linearity, sensitivity, reproducibility and recovery. Multiple derivatives of five amino acids have been found but their effects on quantitative analysis were negligible, except for methionine. The evolution pattern of each category was different, and we speculated that the corresponding mechanisms involving microorganism activities, physical interactions and chemical reactions had a great correlation with red wine flavours during ageing. Simultaneously quantitative analysis of monosaccharides, organic acids and amino acids in wine was feasible and reliable and this method has extensive application prospects. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Compared to Sucrose, Previous Consumption of Fructose and Glucose Monosaccharides Reduces Survival and Fitness of Female Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar—high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). Objectives: We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. Methods: We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays—seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Results: Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. Conclusion: This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. PMID:25733457

  3. Compared to sucrose, previous consumption of fructose and glucose monosaccharides reduces survival and fitness of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-03-01

    Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar-high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays-seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Consumption of a low fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides, and polyols diet and irritable bowel syndrome: A systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helia Pourmand

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of low dietary fermentable carbohydrates, including fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides, and polyols (FODMAP has been hypothesized to improve symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS. This study was done to summarize findings from earlier evidence on the effect of a low FODMAP diet (LFD on the symptoms of IBS. We searched in ISI Web of Knowledge, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar using the following keywords: “FODMAP” OR “oligosaccharides” OR “disaccharides” OR “Monosaccharaides” in combination with “irritable bowel syndrome” or “IBS” or “Gastrointestinal Disease.” The reference lists of the relevant papers were also examined to avoid missing any publication. No time and language restrictions were applied. The relevant studies were selected through an independent search by two investigators. Overall, 778 relevant articles were found in our initial search. After reviewing title and abstracts, 763 papers were excluded from this review and 15 studies were included. All published studies were interventional studies in which patients with IBS had been recommended or randomized to receive a LFD. Three studies had quasi-experimental design, 9 were parallel randomized clinical trial and 3 studies were of randomized cross-over trials. These studies were conducted between 2009 and 2016. Nine studies were done in Europe, 2 in US, 3 in Australia, and one in Asia. Sample sizes of these studies were varied from 12 to 182. All studies had been conducted on both sexes, with the majority of participants as women (>70%. The age range was between 11 and 74 years in different studies. One study was performed on children, 9 on adults, and 5 others were in young-to-middle age groups. Duration of intervention was varied from 2 days to 16 months (2 studies with <1 week, and others with more than 2 weeks. Eight studies had suggested a significant effect of LFD on the improvement of all IBS symptoms, and 1 study had

  5. Rapid Determination of the Monosaccharide Composition and Contents in Tea Polysaccharides from Yingshuang Green Tea by Pre-Column Derivatization HPLC

    OpenAIRE

    Ai, Yujie; Yu, Zhi; Chen, Yuqiong; Zhu, Xiaojing; Ai, Zeyi; Liu, Shuyuan; Ni, Dejiang

    2016-01-01

    A pre-column derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method was developed and optimized to characterize and quantify the monosaccharides present in tea polysaccharides (TPS) isolated from Yingshuang green tea. TPS sample was hydrolyzed with trifluoroacetic acid, subjected to pre-column derivatization using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), and separated on an Agilent TC-C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm) with UV detection at 250 nm. A mixture of ten PMP derivatives of...

  6. A new method for the quantification of monosaccharides, uronic acids and oligosaccharides in partially hydrolyzed xylans by HPAEC-UV/VIS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Dominic; Erasmy, Nicole; Akil, Youssef; Saake, Bodo

    2016-04-20

    A new method for the chemical characterization of xylans is presented, to overcome the difficulties in quantification of 4-O-methyl-α-D-glucuronic acid (meGlcA). In this regard, the hydrolysis behavior of xylans from beech and birch wood was investigated to obtain the optimum conditions for hydrolysis, using sulfuric acid. Due to varying linkage strengths and degradation, no general method for complete hydrolysis can be designed. Therefore, partial hydrolysis was applied, yielding monosaccharides and small meGlcA containing oligosaccharides. For a new method by HPAEC-UV/VIS, these samples were reductively aminated by 2-aminobenzoic acid. By quantification of monosaccharides and oligosaccharides, as well as comparison with borate-HPAEC and (13)C NMR-spectroscopy, we revealed that the concentrations meGlcA are significantly underestimated compared to conventional methods. The detected concentrations are 85.4% (beech) and 76.3% (birch) higher with the new procedure. Furthermore, the quantified concentrations of xylose were 9.3% (beech) and 6.5% (birch) higher by considering the unhydrolyzed oligosaccharides as well. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported...... for the quantitative allocation of plant cell wall monomers into relevant structural polysaccharide elements. By this method the relative molar distribution (mol %) of the different polysaccharides in the red wine grape skins was estimated as 57-62 mol % homogalacturonan, 6.0-14 mol % cellulose, 10-11 mol % xyloglucan......, 7 mol % arabinan, 4.5-5.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan I, 3.5-4.0 mol % rhamnogalacturonan II, 3 mol % arabinogalactan, and 0.5-1.0 mol % mannans; the ranges indicate minor variations in the skin composition of the three different cultivars. These cell wall polysaccharides made up similar to 43...

  8. [Analysis of monosaccharides and uronic acids in polysaccharides by pre-column derivatization with p-aminobenzoic acid and high performance liquid chromatography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, Guitang; Chen, Shangwei; Zhu, Song; Yin, Hongping; Dai, Jun; Cao, Yuhua

    2007-01-01

    An ion-pair reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method for the simultaneous determination of carbohydrate and uronic acids was developed. p-Aminobenzoic acid (p-AMBA) was used for pre-column derivatization of the analytes, enabling fluorescence (lambda(ex) = 313 nm, lambda(em) = 358 nm) or ultraviolet (UV at 303 nm) detection. Reaction conditions such as reaction temperature and reaction time were optimized. Atlantis dC18 column with hydrophilic end capping was selected for the separation of derivatives. Effects of mobile phase compositions such as ion pairs and their concentrations and pH on the retention behaviors and separation results of 9 monosaccharides and 2 uronic acids were investigated. Derivatives of fructose, galactose, glucose, mannose, xylose, arabinose, ribose, galacturonic acid, fucose, glucuronic acid and rhamnose were separated within 42 min, applying tetrabutyl ammonium hydrogen bisulfate (TBAHSO4) as the ion pair reagent. The detection limits were between 3.38 x 10(-8) mol/L and 176 x 10(-8) mol/L for fluorescence detection and between 2.55 x 10(-7) mol/L and 13.4 x 10(-7) mol/L for UV detection. Good linearities were obtained with correlation coefficients (r2) above 0.99. The relative standard deviations (RSDs) of the peak area of the derivatives in 12 - 51 h after derivatization were from 2.5% to 3.9%. This method has been applied for the determination of mono-/disaccharides and uronic acids in spirulina polysaccharide after dissolved in trifluoroacetic acid solution (2 mol/L). The results showed this method is suitable for the analysis of monosaccharide compositions in polysaccharides.

  9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces marxianus Cocultures Allow Reduction of Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols Levels in Whole Wheat Bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struyf, Nore; Laurent, Jitka; Verspreet, Joran; Verstrepen, Kevin J; Courtin, Christophe M

    2017-10-04

    Fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) are small molecules that are poorly absorbed in the small intestine and rapidly fermented in the large intestine. There is evidence that a diet low in FODMAPs reduces abdominal symptoms in approximately 70% of the patients suffering from irritable bowel syndrome. Wheat contains relatively high fructan levels and is therefore a major source of FODMAPs in our diet. In this study, a yeast-based strategy was developed to reduce FODMAP levels in (whole wheat) bread. Fermentation of dough with an inulinase-secreting Kluyveromyces marxianus strain allowed to reduce fructan levels in the final product by more than 90%, while only 56%  reduction was achieved when a control Saccharomyces cerevisiae strain was used. To ensure sufficient CO 2 production, cocultures of S. cerevisiae and K. marxianus were prepared. Bread prepared with a coculture of K. marxianus and S. cerevisiae had fructan levels ≤0.2% dm, and a loaf volume comparable with that of control bread. Therefore, this approach is suitable to effectively reduce FODMAP levels in bread.

  10. Development of SPE for recovery of polysaccharides and its application to the determination of monosaccharides composition of the polysaccharide sample of a lactobacillus KLB 58.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baik, Yoon Suk; Cheong, Won Jo

    2007-07-01

    A new SPE cartridge has been prepared in this study to purify polysaccharides of high molecular weights. A porous nonpolar styrene-divinylbenzene copolymer phase (Hamilton PRP-1) was used to make the new cartridge. The cartridge was conditioned with methanol, water, and ACN in sequence, and the sample dissolved in a small amount of water was loaded. Impurities of low molecular weights were removed first by elution of 80:20 or 90:10 v/v% ACN/water, and polysaccharides were quantitatively recovered by elution of 50:50 v/v% ACN/water or pure water. The recovery of pure dextran 10000 was 90-95%. The SPE method was applied to purification of the polysaccharide sample of KLB58, a new lactobacillus discovered in Korea. The purified KLB 58 sample (weight recovery after SPE purification; 60%) was hydrolyzed for analysis of composition of monosaccharides. The hydrolysate was found to be composed primarily of fructose, glucose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose with small amounts of fucose and ribose.

  11. Plant-based foods containing cell wall polysaccharides rich in specific active monosaccharides protect against myocardial injury in rat myocardial infarction models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Sun Ha; Kim, Yaesil; Yun, Ki Na; Kim, Jin Young; Jang, Jung-Hee; Han, Mee-Jung; Lee, Jongwon

    2016-12-08

    Many cohort studies have shown that consumption of diets containing a higher composition of foods derived from plants reduces mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). Here, we examined the active components of a plant-based diet and the underlying mechanisms that reduce the risk of CHD using three rat models and a quantitative proteomics approach. In a short-term myocardial infarction (MI) model, intake of wheat extract (WE), the representative cardioprotectant identified by screening approximately 4,000 samples, reduced myocardial injury by inhibiting apoptosis, enhancing ATP production, and maintaining protein homeostasis. In long-term post-MI models, this myocardial protection resulted in ameliorating adverse left-ventricular remodelling, which is a predictor of heart failure. Among the wheat components, arabinose and xylose were identified as active components responsible for the observed efficacy of WE, which was administered via ingestion and tail-vein injections. Finally, the food components of plant-based diets that contained cell wall polysaccharides rich in arabinose, xylose, and possibly fucose were found to confer protection against myocardial injury. These results show for the first time that specific monosaccharides found in the cell wall polysaccharides in plant-based diets can act as active ingredients that reduce CHD by inhibiting postocclusion steps, including MI and heart failure.

  12. Distributions of dissolved monosaccharides and polysaccharides in the surface microlayer and surface water of the Jiaozhou Bay and its adjacent area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan-Ping; Yang, Gui-Peng; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Ding, Hai-Bing; Zhang, Hong-Hai

    2013-07-01

    Sea surface microlayer (SML) samples and corresponding bulk surface water (SW) samples were collected in the Jiaozhou Bay and its adjacent area in July and November 2008. The average concentrations of dissolved monosaccharides (MCHO) and polysaccharides (PCHO) revealed similar temporal variability, with higher concentrations during the green-tide period (in July) than during the non-green-tide period (in November). Average enrichment factors (EF) of MCHO and PCHO, defined as the ratio of the concentration in the SML to that in the SW, were 1.3 and 1.4 in July, respectively, while those values in November were 1.9 and 1.6. Our data also showed that the concentrations of MCHO and PCHO in the SML were strongly correlated with those in the SW, indicating that most of the organic materials in the SML came from the SW. The total dissolved carbohydrate concentrations (TDCHO) in the bulk surface water were closely correlated with salinity during the cruises (July: r=-0.580, n=18, P=0.01; November: r=-0.679, n=26, P<0.001), suggesting that riverine input had an important effect on the distribution of TDCHO in surface seawater of the study area.

  13. Intestinal sugar transport

    OpenAIRE

    Drozdowski, Laurie A; Thomson, Alan BR

    2006-01-01

    Carbohydrates are an important component of the diet. The carbohydrates that we ingest range from simple monosaccharides (glucose, fructose and galactose) to disaccharides (lactose, sucrose) to complex polysaccharides. Most carbohydrates are digested by salivary and pancreatic amylases, and are further broken down into monosaccharides by enzymes in the brush border membrane (BBM) of enterocytes. For example, lactase-phloridzin hydrolase and sucrase-isomaltase are two disaccharidases involved ...

  14. Transport Statistics - Transport - UNECE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sustainable Energy Statistics Trade Transport Themes UNECE and the SDGs Climate Change Gender Ideas 4 Change UNECE Weekly Videos UNECE Transport Areas of Work Transport Statistics Transport Transport Statistics About us Terms of Reference Meetings and Events Meetings Working Party on Transport Statistics (WP.6

  15. Radiation Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urbatsch, Todd James [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-06-15

    We present an overview of radiation transport, covering terminology, blackbody raditation, opacities, Boltzmann transport theory, approximations to the transport equation. Next we introduce several transport methods. We present a section on Caseology, observing transport boundary layers. We briefly broach topics of software development, including verification and validation, and we close with a section on high energy-density experiments that highlight and support radiation transport.

  16. Chamber transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, Craig L.

    2001-01-01

    Heavy ion beam transport through the containment chamber plays a crucial role in all heavy ion fusion (HIF) scenarios. Here, several parameters are used to characterize the operating space for HIF beams; transport modes are assessed in relation to evolving target/accelerator requirements; results of recent relevant experiments and simulations of HIF transport are summarized; and relevant instabilities are reviewed. All transport options still exist, including (1) vacuum ballistic transport, (2) neutralized ballistic transport, and (3) channel-like transport. Presently, the European HIF program favors vacuum ballistic transport, while the US HIF program favors neutralized ballistic transport with channel-like transport as an alternate approach. Further transport research is needed to clearly guide selection of the most attractive, integrated HIF system

  17. Revealing the glycation sites in synthetic neoglycoconjugates formed by conjugation of the antigenic monosaccharide hapten of Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Ogawa with the BSA protein carrier using LC-ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahouh, Farid; Saksena, Rina; Kováč, Pavol; Banoub, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present the determination of glycation sites in synthetic neoglycoconjugates formed by conjugation of the antigenic monosaccharide hapten of Vibrio cholerae O1 serotype Ogawa to BSA using nano- liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS). The matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-TOF/TOF-MS/MS analyses of the tryptic digests of the glycoconjugates having a hapten:BSA ratio of 4.3:1, 6.6:1 and 13.2:1 revealed only three glycation sites, on the following lysine residues: Lys 235, Lys 437 and Lys 455. Digestion of the neoglycoconjugates with the proteases trypsin and GluC V8 gave complementary structural information and was shown to maximize the number of recognized glycation sites. Here, we report identification of 20, 27 and 33 glycation sites using LC-ESI-QqTOF-MS/MS analysis of a series of synthetic neoglycoconjugates with a hapten:BSA ratio of, respectively, 4.3:1, 6.6:1 and 13.2:1. We also tentatively propose that all the glycated lysine residues are located mainly near the outer surface of the protein. PMID:22791257

  18. Bis-Indole Derivatives for Polysaccharide Compositional Analysis and Chiral Resolution of D-, L-Monosaccharides by Ligand Exchange Capillary Electrophoresis Using Borate-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Selector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Bin Yang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of aldo-bis-indole derivatives (aldo-BINs was prepared by aromatic C-alkylation reactions of aldoses and indole in acetic acid solution. Common monosaccharides such as glucose, mannose, galactose, fucose, xylose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose and N-acetylglucosamine were smoothly derivatized to form the UV absorbing aldo-BINs. The use of a capillary electrophoretic method to separate these novel aldo-BIN derivatives was established. The capillary electrophoresis conditions were set by using borate buffer (100 mM at high pH (pH 9.0. The limit of determination was assessed to be 25 nM. The enantioseparation of D, L-pairs of aldo-BINs based on chiral ligand-exchange capillary electrophoresis technology was also achieved by using modified hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin as the chiral selector in the presence of borate buffer. This aldose labeling method was applied successfully to the compositional and configurational analysis of saccharides, exemplified by a rapid and efficient method to simultaneously analyze the composition and configuration of saccharides from the medicinal herbs Cordyceps sinensis and Dendrobium huoshanense.

  19. Xylose donor transport is critical for fungal virulence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy X Li

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cryptococcus neoformans, an AIDS-defining opportunistic pathogen, is the leading cause of fungal meningitis worldwide and is responsible for hundreds of thousands of deaths annually. Cryptococcal glycans are required for fungal survival in the host and for pathogenesis. Most glycans are made in the secretory pathway, although the activated precursors for their synthesis, nucleotide sugars, are made primarily in the cytosol. Nucleotide sugar transporters are membrane proteins that solve this topological problem, by exchanging nucleotide sugars for the corresponding nucleoside phosphates. The major virulence factor of C. neoformans is an anti-phagocytic polysaccharide capsule that is displayed on the cell surface; capsule polysaccharides are also shed from the cell and impede the host immune response. Xylose, a neutral monosaccharide that is absent from model yeast, is a significant capsule component. Here we show that Uxt1 and Uxt2 are both transporters specific for the xylose donor, UDP-xylose, although they exhibit distinct subcellular localization, expression patterns, and kinetic parameters. Both proteins also transport the galactofuranose donor, UDP-galactofuranose. We further show that Uxt1 and Uxt2 are required for xylose incorporation into capsule and protein; they are also necessary for C. neoformans to cause disease in mice, although surprisingly not for fungal viability in the context of infection. These findings provide a starting point for deciphering the substrate specificity of an important class of transporters, elucidate a synthetic pathway that may be productively targeted for therapy, and contribute to our understanding of fundamental glycobiology.

  20. Sugars en route to the roots. Transport, metabolism and storage within plant roots and towards microorganisms of the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennion, Nils; Durand, Mickael; Vriet, Cécile; Doidy, Joan; Maurousset, Laurence; Lemoine, Rémi; Pourtau, Nathalie

    2018-04-28

    In plants, root is a typical sink organ that relies exclusively on the import of sugar from the aerial parts. Sucrose is delivered by the phloem to the most distant root tips and, en route to the tip, is used by the different root tissues for metabolism and storage. Besides, a certain portion of this carbon is exuded in the rhizosphere, supplied to beneficial microorganisms and diverted by parasitic microbes. The transport of sugars towards these numerous sinks either occurs symplastically through cell connections (plasmodesmata) or is apoplastically mediated through membrane transporters (MST, SUT/SUC and SWEET) that control monosaccharide and sucrose fluxes. Here, we review recent progresses on carbon partitioning within and outside roots, discussing membrane transporters involved in plant responses to biotic and abiotic factors. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirczenow, G.; Marro, J.

    1974-01-01

    Some simple remarks on the basis of transport theory. - Entropy, dynamics and scattering theory. - Response, relaxation and fluctuation. - Fluctuating hydrodynamics and renormalization of susceptibilities and transport coefficients. - Irreversibility of the transport equations. - Ergodic theory and statistical mechanics. - Correlation functions in Heisenberg magnets. - On the Enskog hard-sphere kinetic eqquation and the transport phenomena of dense simple gases. - What can one learn from Lorentz models. - Conductivity in a magnetic field. - Transport properties in gases in presence of external fields. - Transport properties of dilute gases with internal structure. (orig.) [de

  2. Neurotransmitter transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Ulrik; Andersen, Peter H; Larsson, Orla M

    2006-01-01

    The concentration of neurotransmitters in the extracellular space is tightly controlled by distinct classes of membrane transport proteins. This review focuses on the molecular function of two major classes of neurotransmitter transporter that are present in the cell membrane of neurons and....... Recent research has provided substantial insight into the structure and function of these transporters. In particular, the recent crystallizations of bacterial homologs are of the utmost importance, enabling the first reliable structural models of the mammalian neurotransmitter transporters...

  3. Sustainable Transportation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hall, Ralph P.; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Marsden, Greg

    2014-01-01

    The transportation system is the backbone of economic and social progress and the means by which humans access goods and services and connect with one another. Yet, as the scale of transportation activities has grown worldwide, so too have the negative environmental, social, and economic impacts...... that relate to the construction and maintenance of transportation infrastructure and the operation or use of the different transportation modes. The concept of sustainable transportation emerged in response to these concerns as part of the broader notion of sustainable development. Given the transportation...... sector’s significant contribution to global challenges such as climate change, it is often said that sustainable development cannot be achieved without sustainable transportation....

  4. Fragmentation Pathways of Lithiated Hexose Monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abutokaikah, Maha T.; Frye, Joseph W.; Tschampel, John; Rabus, Jordan M.; Bythell, Benjamin J.

    2018-05-01

    We characterize the primary fragmentation reactions of three isomeric lithiated D-hexose sugars (glucose, galactose, and mannose) utilizing tandem mass spectrometry, regiospecific labeling, and theory. We provide evidence that these three isomers populate similar fragmentation pathways to produce the abundant cross-ring cleavage peaks (0,2A1 and 0,3A1). These pathways are highly consistent with the prior literature (Hofmeister et al. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 113, 5964-5970, 1991, Bythell et al. J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 28, 688-703, 2017, Rabus et al. Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. 19, 25643-25652, 2017) and the present labeling data. However, the structure-specific energetics and rate-determining steps of these reactions differ as a function of precursor sugar and anomeric configuration. The lowest energy water loss pathways involve loss of the anomeric oxygen to furnish B1 ions. For glucose and galactose, the lithiated α-anomers generate ketone structures at C2 in a concerted reaction involving a 1,2-migration of the C2-H to the anomeric carbon (C1). In contrast, the β-anomers are predicted to form 1,3-anhydroglucose/galactose B1 ion structures. Initiation of the water loss reactions from each anomeric configuration requires distinct reactive conformers, resulting in different product ion structures. Inversion of the stereochemistry at C2 has marked consequences. Both lithiated mannose forms expel water to form 1,2-anhydromannose B1 ions with the newly formed epoxide group above the ring. Additionally, provided water loss is not instantaneous, the α-anomer can also isomerize to generate a ketone structure at C2 in a concerted reaction involving a 1,2-migration of the C2-H to C1. This product is indistinguishable to that from α-glucose. The energetics and interplay of these pathways are discussed. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Cellulase Inhibition by High Concentrations of Monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    Biological degradation of biomass on an industrial scale culminates in high concentrations of end products. It is known that the accumulation of glucose and cellobiose, end products of hydrolysis, inhibit cellulases and decrease glucose yields. Aside from these end products, however, other monosa...

  6. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2003-01-01

    During january and february 2003, a unique event concerning nuclear transport was reported and rated 1 on the INES scale. This event concerns the absence of a maintenance operation on a shipping cask. This shipping cask was used for several years for nuclear transport inside La-hague site before being re-assigned to transport on public thoroughfare. The re-assignment of the cask should have been preceded and conditioned by a maintenance operation whose purpose is to check the efficiency of its radiation shield. During this period 2 on-site inspections concerning the transport of nuclear materials were performed. (A.C.)

  7. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... This analysis starts with a review of ocean transportation demand and supply including projections of ship capacity demand and world shipbuilding capacity under various economic and political assumptions...

  8. A Diet Low in Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, and Monosaccharides and Polyols Improves Quality of Life and Reduces Activity Impairment in Patients With Irritable Bowel Syndrome and Diarrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eswaran, Shanti; Chey, William D; Jackson, Kenya; Pillai, Sivaram; Chey, Samuel W; Han-Markey, Theresa

    2017-12-01

    We investigated the effects of a diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) vs traditional dietary recommendations on health-related quality of life (QOL), anxiety and depression, work productivity, and sleep quality in patients with irritable bowel syndrome and diarrhea (IBS-D). We conducted a prospective, single-center, single-blind trial of 92 adult patients with IBS-D (65 women; median age, 42.6 years) randomly assigned to groups placed on a diet low in FODMAPs or a modified diet recommended by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (mNICE) for 4 weeks. IBS-associated QOL (IBS-QOL), psychosocial distress (based on the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale), work productivity (based on the Work Productivity and Activity Impairment), and sleep quality were assessed before and after diet periods. Eighty-four patients completed the study (45 in the low-FODMAP group and 39 in the mNICE group). At 4 weeks, patients on the diet low in FODMAPs had a larger mean increase in IBS-QOL score than did patients on the mNICE diet (15.0 vs 5.0; 95% CI, -17.4 to -4.3). A significantly higher proportion of patients in the low-FODMAP diet group had a meaningful clinical response, based on IBS-QOL score, than in the mNICE group (52% vs 21%; 95% CI, -0.52 to -0.08). Anxiety scores decreased in the low-FODMAP diet group compared with the mNICE group (95% CI, 0.46-2.80). Activity impairment was significantly reduced with the low-FODMAP diet (-22.89) compared with the mNICE diet (-9.44; 95% CI, 2.72-24.20). In a randomized, controlled trial, a diet low in FODMAPs led to significantly greater improvements in health-related QOL, anxiety, and activity impairment compared with a diet based on traditional recommendations for patients with IBS-D. ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01624610. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Neutron transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berthoud, Georges; Ducros, Gerard; Feron, Damien; Guerin, Yannick; Latge, Christian; Limoge, Yves; Santarini, Gerard; Seiler, Jean-Marie; Vernaz, Etienne; Coste-Delclaux, Mireille; M'Backe Diop, Cheikh; Nicolas, Anne; Andrieux, Catherine; Archier, Pascal; Baudron, Anne-Marie; Bernard, David; Biaise, Patrick; Blanc-Tranchant, Patrick; Bonin, Bernard; Bouland, Olivier; Bourganel, Stephane; Calvin, Christophe; Chiron, Maurice; Damian, Frederic; Dumonteil, Eric; Fausser, Clement; Fougeras, Philippe; Gabriel, Franck; Gagnier, Emmanuel; Gallo, Daniele; Hudelot, Jean-Pascal; Hugot, Francois-Xavier; Dat Huynh, Tan; Jouanne, Cedric; Lautard, Jean-Jacques; Laye, Frederic; Lee, Yi-Kang; Lenain, Richard; Leray, Sylvie; Litaize, Olivier; Magnaud, Christine; Malvagi, Fausto; Mijuin, Dominique; Mounier, Claude; Naury, Sylvie; Nicolas, Anne; Noguere, Gilles; Palau, Jean-Marc; Le Pallec, Jean-Charles; Peneliau, Yannick; Petit, Odile; Poinot-Salanon, Christine; Raepsaet, Xavier; Reuss, Paul; Richebois, Edwige; Roque, Benedicte; Royer, Eric; Saint-Jean, Cyrille de; Santamarina, Alain; Serot, Olivier; Soldevila, Michel; Tommasi, Jean; Trama, Jean-Christophe; Tsilanizara, Aime; Behar, Christophe; Provitina, Olivier; Lecomte, Michael; Forestier, Alain; Bender, Alexandra; Parisot, Jean-Francois; Finot, Pierre

    2013-10-01

    This bibliographical note presents a reference book which addresses the study of neutron transport in matter, the study of conditions for a chain reaction and the study of modifications of matter composition due to nuclear reactions. This book presents the main nuclear data, their measurement, assessment and processing, and the spallation. It proposes an overview of methods applied for the study of neutron transport: basic equations and their derived forms, deterministic methods and Monte Carlo method of resolution of the Boltzmann equation, methods of resolution of generalized Bateman equations, methods of time resolution of space kinetics coupled equations. It presents the main calculation codes, discusses the qualification and experimental aspects, and gives an overview of neutron transport applications: neutron transport calculation of reactors, neutron transport coupled with other disciplines, physics of fuel cycle, criticality

  10. Sugar regulation of SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1 (STP1) expression in Arabidopsis thaliana

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordoba, Elizabeth; Aceves-Zamudio, Denise Lizeth; Hernández-Bernal, Alma Fabiola; Ramos-Vega, Maricela; León, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Sugars regulate the expression of many genes at the transcriptional level. In Arabidopsis thaliana, sugars induce or repress the expression of >1800 genes, including the STP1 (SUGAR TRANSPORTER PROTEIN 1) gene, which encodes an H+/monosaccharide cotransporter. STP1 transcript levels decrease more rapidly after the addition of low concentrations of sugars than the levels of other repressed genes, such as DIN6 (DARK-INDUCED 6). We found that this regulation is exerted at the transcriptional level and is initiated by phosphorylatable sugars. Interestingly, the sugar signal that modulates STP1 expression is transmitted through a HEXOKINASE 1-independent signalling pathway. Finally, analysis of the STP1 5′ regulatory region allowed us to delimit a region of 309bp that contains the cis elements implicated in the glucose regulation of STP1 expression. Putative cis-acting elements involved in this response were identified. PMID:25281700

  11. Animal Transports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Ludrovcová

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Purpose and Originality: The research is aimed to the animal transports issue, from two points of view – first is the animal cruelty and second is the policy and economic consideration. The goal is to acquaint the readers with the transports risks and its cruelty and evaluation of the economic, political aspects for he involved countries. The study is oriented on more points of view, what is rare in works with a similar theme. Method: This paper examines many issues and examinations from different authors and subsequently summarized the findings with authors own knowledge to one expanded unit. Results: Results proves, that livestock transports have negative impact on animal´s health, environment. Number of transported animals is rising every year. Society: Research familiarize the society with the animal transports, cruelty against animals during them, and influence of transports on some countries, their economy, policy. People get better informed and can form their own opinion on this topic. They may start acting, undertaking some steps to improve the present situation, what could help a lot to animals and environment. Limitations / further research: Future research could show progress and improvement of transports, quality of food supply and economics.

  12. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... The discussion of technology considers the ocean transportation system as a whole, and the composite subsystems such as hull, outfit, propulsion, cargo handling, automation, and control and interface technology...

  13. Ocean transportation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Frankel, Ernst G; Marcus, Henry S

    1973-01-01

    .... In ocean transportation economics we present investment and operating costs as well as the results of a study of financing of shipping. Similarly, a discussion of government aid to shipping is presented.

  14. Nicaragua - Transportation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Millennium Challenge Corporation — The evaluation examines impacts of the Transportation Project in three ways. First, we calculate economic rates of return associated with reduced user costs for each...

  15. Sediment Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Zhou

    Flow and sediment transport are important in relation to several engineering topics, e.g. erosion around structures, backfilling of dredged channels and nearshore morphological change. The purpose of the present book is to describe both the basic hydrodynamics and the basic sediment transport...... mechanics. Chapter 1 deals with fundamentals in fluid mechanics with emphasis on bed shear stress by currents, while chapter 3 discusses wave boundary layer theory. They are both written with a view to sediment transport. Sediment transport in rivers, cross-shore and longshore are dealt with in chapters 2......, 4 and 5, respectively. It is not the intention of the book to give a broad review of the literature on this very wide topic. The book tries to pick up information which is of engineering importance. An obstacle to the study of sedimentation is the scale effect in model tests. Whenever small...

  16. RF transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choroba, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    This paper deals with the techniques of transport of high-power radiofrequency (RF) power from a RF power source to the cavities of an accelerator. Since the theory of electromagnetic waves in waveguides and of waveguide components is very well explained in a number of excellent text books it will limit itself on special waveguide distributions and on a number of, although not complete list of, special problems which sometimes occur in RF power transportation systems. (author)

  17. Public transport

    OpenAIRE

    Lethbridge, Jane

    2008-01-01

    Public transport plays an essential role in enabling people from low income and other disadvantaged groups to access employment and services. It also contributes to the development of social networks and social capital, by helping people to visit friends and relatives and take part in community and other social activities. Public policy makers have begun to recognise that adequate public transport provision can play an important role in reducing social exclusion. [Taken from introductory para...

  18. Orbital transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oertel, H. Jr.; Koerner, H.

    1993-01-01

    The Third Aerospace Symposium in Braunschweig presented, for the first time, the possibility of bringing together the classical disciplines of aerospace engineering and the natural science disciplines of meteorology and air chemistry in a european setting. In this way, aspects of environmental impact on the atmosphere could be examined quantitatively. An essential finding of the european conference, is the unrestricted agreement of the experts that the given launch frequencies of the present orbital transport result in a negligible amount of pollutants being released in the atmosphere. The symposium does, however, call attention to the increasing need to consider the effect of orbital and atmospheric environmental impact of a future increase in launch frequencies of orbital transport in connection with future space stations. The Third Aerospace Symposium, 'Orbital Transport, Technical, Meteorological and Chemical Aspects', constituted a first forum of discussion for engineers and scientists. Questions of new orbital transport technologies and their environmental impact were to be discussed towards a first consensus. Through the 34 reports and articles, the general problems of space transportation and environmental protection were addressed, as well as particular aspects of high temperatures during reentry in the atmosphere of the earth, precision navigation of flight vehicles or flow behavior and air chemistry in the stratosphere. (orig./CT). 342 figs

  19. Travel and transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bill, Jan; Roesdahl, Else

    2007-01-01

    On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments......On the interrelationship between travel, transport and society; on land transport, sea and river transport, and on winter transport;  on the related technologies and their developments...

  20. Transport system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drenth, K.F.

    1999-01-01

    The transport system comprises at least one road surface (2) and at least one vehicle (4) on wheels (6). The road surface (2) has a substantially bowl-shaped cross section and the vehicle (4) is designed so that the wheels (6) run directly on the road surface (2) while the road surface (2) acts as a

  1. Optimal transport

    CERN Document Server

    Eckmann, B

    2008-01-01

    At the close of the 1980s, the independent contributions of Yann Brenier, Mike Cullen and John Mather launched a revolution in the venerable field of optimal transport founded by G Monge in the 18th century, which has made breathtaking forays into various other domains of mathematics ever since. The author presents a broad overview of this area.

  2. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2001-01-01

    Here is given the decree (2001/1199) of the 10. of december 2001 relative to the passing of safety rules concerning the maritime transport of spent fuels, plutonium and high-level radioactive wastes contained in packages. (O.M.)

  3. Transport fuel

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ronsse, Frederik; Jørgensen, Henning; Schüßler, Ingmar

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, the use of transport fuel derived from biomass increased four-fold between 2003 and 2012. Mainly based on food resources, these conventional biofuels did not achieve the expected emission savings and contributed to higher prices for food commod - ities, especially maize and oilseeds...

  4. Nuclear transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During September and October 2001, 1 event has been reported and classified at the first level of the INES scale. This incident concerns the violation of the European regulation that imposes to any driver of radioactive matter of being the holder of a certificate asserting that he attended a special training. During this period, 13 in-site inspections have been made in places related to nuclear transport. (A.C.)

  5. Identification of Important Amino Acids in Gal2p for Improving the L-arabinose Transport and Metabolism in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengqiang Wang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Efficient and cost-effective bioethanol production from lignocellulosic materials requires co-fermentation of the main hydrolyzed sugars, including glucose, xylose, and L-arabinose. Saccharomyces cerevisiae is a glucose-fermenting yeast that is traditionally used for ethanol production. Fermentation of L-arabinose is also possible after metabolic engineering. Transport into the cell is the first and rate-limiting step for L-arabinose metabolism. The galactose permease, Gal2p, is a non-specific, endogenous monosaccharide transporter that has been shown to transport L-arabinose. However, Gal2p-mediated transport of L-arabinose occurs at a low efficiency. In this study, homologous modeling and L-arabinose docking were used to predict amino acids in Gal2p that are crucial for L-arabinose transport. Nine amino acid residues in Gal2p were identified and were the focus for site-directed mutagenesis. In the Gal2p transport-deficient chassis cells, the capacity for L-arabinose transport of the different Gal2p mutants was compared by testing growth rates using L-arabinose as the sole carbon source. Almost all the tested mutations affected L-arabinose transport capacity. Among them, F85 is a unique site. The F85S, F85G, F85C, and F85T point mutations significantly increased L-arabinose transport activities, while, the F85E and F85R mutations decreased L-arabinose transport activities compared to the Gal2p-expressing wild-type strain. These results verified F85 as a key residue in L-arabinose transport. The F85S mutation, having the most significant effect, elevated the exponential growth rate by 40%. The F85S mutation also improved xylose transport efficiency and weakened the glucose transport preference. Overall, enhancing the L-arabinose transport capacity further improved the L-arabinose metabolism of engineered S. cerevisiae.

  6. Michigan transportation facts & figures : public transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2002-08-16

    This on-line document is part of a series, Transportation Facts & Figures, by the Michigan Department of Transportation (MDOT). The Public Transit section of Transportation Facts & Figures cover such topics as intercity bus service, intercity rail se...

  7. Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis of transport administrators and sustainable transport development in Lagos, Ogun and Oyo States, Nigeria. ... A good transportation system planning and management is considered vital for ... EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT

  8. Transporter Classification Database (TCDB)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The Transporter Classification Database details a comprehensive classification system for membrane transport proteins known as the Transporter Classification (TC)...

  9. Energy transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1982-01-01

    The measurement of primary interaction cross sections and the incorporation of these data into Monte Carlo calculations provide detailed information about the initial spatial distribution of absorbed dose. Our theoretical energy transport studies have focused on the use of this information to predict the evolution of chemical species formed as a result of the energy deposition. This effort has led to a stochastic approach to diffusion kinetics that can account for the influence of track structure on the yield of free radicals in the radiolysis of water. Fluorescence studies with pulsed alpha particle and proton beams provided the first experimental test of our stochastic model of tract structure effects. Our experimental studies use time-resolved emission spectroscopy to investigate the mechanism of energy transport in nonpolar liquids. Studies of the concentration dependence of time-resolved emission from solutions of benzene in cyclohexane also show the importance of using low benzene concentrations to minimize the influence of benzene dimers on the emission kinetics

  10. National transportation statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics : (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including : its physical components, safety reco...

  11. National Transportation Statistics 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-08

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportations Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record...

  12. State Transportation Statistics 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2012, a statistical profile of transportation ...

  13. National Transportation Statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-21

    Compiled and published by the U.S. Department of Transportation's Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), National Transportation Statistics presents information on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, ...

  14. State Transportation Statistics 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-15

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) presents State Transportation Statistics 2014, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Columbia. This is the 12th annual edition of State Transportation Statistics, a ...

  15. Transport of radioactive substances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-12-01

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  16. Expression of a putative grapevine hexose transporter in tobacco alters morphogenesis and assimilate partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leterrier, Marina; Atanassova, Rossitza; Laquitaine, Laurent; Gaillard, Cécile; Coutos-Thévenot, Pierre; Delrot, Serge

    2003-04-01

    Tobacco plants were transformed by leaf disc regeneration with the VvHT1 (Vitis vinifera hexose transporter 1) cDNA under the control of the constitutive CaMV 35S promoter in a sense or antisense orientation. Among the 20 sense plants and 10 antisense plants obtained, two sense plants showed a mutant phenotype when grown in vitro, with stunted growth and an increase in the (leaves+stem)/roots dry weight ratio. The rate of [(3)H]-glucose uptake in leaf discs from these plants was decreased to 25% of the value measured in control plants. The amount of VvHT1 transgene and of host monosaccharide transporter MST transcripts in the leaves were studied by RNA gel blot analysis. The VvHT1 transcripts were usually present, but the amount of MST transcripts was the lowest in the plants that exhibited the most marked phenotype. Although the phenotype was lost when the plants were transferred from in vitro to greenhouse conditions, it was found again in vitro in the progeny obtained by self-pollination or by back-cross. The data show that VvHT1 sense expression resulted in unidirectional post-transcriptional gene inactivation of MST in some of the transformants, with dramatic effects on growth. They provide the first example of plants modified for hexose transport by post-transcriptional gene silencing. Some of the antisense plants also showed reduced expression of MST, and decreased growth. These results indicate that, like the sucrose transporters, hexose transporters play an important role in assimilate transport and in morphogenesis.

  17. Metabolic control of tobacco pollination by sugars and invertases

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goetz, Marc; Guivarc'h, Anne; Hirsche, Jörg

    2017-01-01

    that the functional coupling of sucrose cleavage by invertases and uptake of the released hexoses by monosaccharide transporters are critical for pollination in tobacco. Transcript profiling, in situ hybridization and immunolocalization of extracellular invertases and two monosaccharide transporters in vitro...

  18. Chemical transport reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Schäfer, Harald

    2013-01-01

    Chemical Transport Reactions focuses on the processes and reactions involved in the transport of solid or liquid substances to form vapor phase reaction products. The publication first offers information on experimental and theoretical principles and the transport of solid substances and its special applications. Discussions focus on calculation of the transport effect of heterogeneous equilibria for a gas motion between equilibrium spaces; transport effect and the thermodynamic quantities of the transport reaction; separation and purification of substances by means of material transport; and

  19. Beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    Considerable experience has now been gained with the various beam transport lines, and a number of minor changes have been made to improve the ease of operation. These include: replacement of certain little-used slits by profile monitors (harps or scanners); relocation of steering magnets, closer to diagnostic harps or profile scanners; installation of a scanner inside the isocentric neutron therapy system; and conversion of a 2-doublet quadrupole telescope (on the neutron therapy beamline) to a 2-triplet telescope. The beam-swinger project has been delayed by very late delivery of the magnet iron to the manufacturer, but is now progressing smoothly. The K=600 spectrometer magnets have now been delivered and are being assembled for field mapping. The x,y-table with its associated mapping equipment is complete, together with the driver software. One of the experimental areas has been dedicated to the production of collimated neutron beams and has been equipped with a bending magnet and beam dump, together with steel collimators fixed at 4 degrees intervals from 0 degrees to 16 degrees. Changes to the target cooling and shielding system for isotope production have led to a request for much smaller beam spot sizes on target, and preparations have been made for rearrangement of the isotope beamline to permit installation of quadrupole triplets on the three beamlines after the switching magnet. A practical system of quadrupoles for matching beam properties to the spectrometer has been designed. 6 figs

  20. Glucose uptake and growth of glucose-limited chemostat cultures of Aspergillus niger and a disruptant lacking MstA, a high-affinity glucose transporter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas R; vanKuyk, Patricia A; Poulsen, Bjarne R

    2007-01-01

    This is a study of high-affinity glucose uptake in Aspergillus niger and the effect of disruption of a high-affinity monosaccharide-transporter gene, mstA. The substrate saturation constant (K(s)) of a reference strain was about 15 microM in glucose-limited chemostat culture. Disruption of mst......-affinity uptake system of A. niger. The mstA disruptant and a reference strain were cultivated in glucose-limited chemostat cultures at low, intermediate and high dilution rate (D=0.07 h(-1), 0.14 h(-1) and 0.20 h(-1)). Mycelium harvested from steady-state cultures was subjected to glucose uptake assays...

  1. Plant Transporter Identification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Bo

    Membrane transport proteins (transporters) play a critical role for numerous biological processes, by controlling the movements of ions and molecules in and out of cells. In plants, transporters thus function as gatekeepers between the plant and its surrounding environment and between organs......, tissues, cells and intracellular compartments. Since plants are highly compartmentalized organisms with complex transportation infrastructures, they consequently have many transporters. However, the vast majority of predicted transporters have not yet been experimentally verified to have transport...... activity. This project contains a review of the implemented methods, which have led to plant transporter identification, and present our progress on creating a high-throughput functional genomics transporter identification platform....

  2. Transport of Radioactive Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-01-01

    This address overviews the following aspects: concepts on transport of radioactive materials, quantities used to limit the transport, packages, types of packages, labeling, index transport calculation, tags, labeling, vehicle's requirements and documents required to authorize transportation. These requirements are considered in the regulation of transport of radioactive material that is in drafting step

  3. Transportation and the environment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Banister, D.; Anderton, K.; Bonilla, D.; Givoni, M.; Schwanen, T.

    2011-01-01

    The growth of CO2-intensive transport, mobility and the impact of transport on the environment are reviewed. The recent global exponential growth in transport is unsustainable and must end unless the transport sector can decarbonize. The paper examines solutions for low-carbon transport systems; the

  4. Glucose transporter expression in an avian nectarivore: the ruby-throated hummingbird (Archilochus colubris.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Welch

    Full Text Available Glucose transporter (GLUT proteins play a key role in the transport of monosaccharides across cellular membranes, and thus, blood sugar regulation and tissue metabolism. Patterns of GLUT expression, including the insulin-responsive GLUT4, have been well characterized in mammals. However, relatively little is known about patterns of GLUT expression in birds with existing data limited to the granivorous or herbivorous chicken, duck and sparrow. The smallest avian taxa, hummingbirds, exhibit some of the highest fasted and fed blood glucose levels and display an unusual ability to switch rapidly and completely between endogenous fat and exogenous sugar to fuel energetically expensive hovering flight. Despite this, nothing is known about the GLUT transporters that enable observed rapid rates of carbohydrate flux. We examined GLUT (GLUT1, 2, 3, & 4 expression in pectoralis, leg muscle, heart, liver, kidney, intestine and brain from both zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata and ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris. mRNA expression of all four transporters was probed using reverse-transcription PCR (RT-PCR. In addition, GLUT1 and 4 protein expression were assayed by western blot and immunostaining. Patterns of RNA and protein expression of GLUT1-3 in both species agree closely with published reports from other birds and mammals. As in other birds, and unlike in mammals, we did not detect GLUT4. A lack of GLUT4 correlates with hyperglycemia and an uncoupling of exercise intensity and relative oxidation of carbohydrates in hummingbirds. The function of GLUTs present in hummingbird muscle tissue (e.g. GLUT1 and 3 remain undescribed. Thus, further work is necessary to determine if high capillary density, and thus surface area across which cellular-mediated transport of sugars into active tissues (e.g. muscle occurs, rather than taxon-specific differences in GLUT density or kinetics, can account for observed rapid rates of sugar flux into these

  5. Transportation librarian's toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-12-01

    The Transportation Librarians Toolkit is a product of the Transportation Library Connectivity pooled fund study, TPF- 5(105), a collaborative, grass-roots effort by transportation libraries to enhance information accessibility and professional expert...

  6. Advanced Transportation Institute 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    The seventh version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-08) was conducted in 2008 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered wit...

  7. Advanced Transportation Institute 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    The eighth version of the Advanced Transportation Institute (ATI-09) was conducted in 2009 to encourage high school students to pursue careers in the field of transportation engineering. The University Transportation Center for Alabama partnered with...

  8. Innovative Technologies in Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-12-01

    An historical overview of the transportation infrastructure of the United States and Texas is provided. Data for trends in transportation is analyzed and projections for the future are postulated. A survey of current technologies in transportation is...

  9. State Transportation Statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-14

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2010, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  10. State transportation statistics 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and : Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation : Statistics 2009, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the : District ...

  11. State Transportation Statistics 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-08

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of DOTs Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2011, a statistical profile of transportation in the 50 states and the District of Col...

  12. State Transportation Statistics 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-19

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a part of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOT) Research and Innovative Technology Administration (RITA), presents State Transportation Statistics 2013, a statistical profile of transportatio...

  13. Smart Growth and Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Describes the relationship between smart growth and transportation, focusing smart and sustainable street design, transit-oriented development, parking management, sustainable transportation planning, and related resources.

  14. Neoclassical transport in NCSX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikkelsen, D.R.; Zarnstorff, M.C.; Beidler, C.D.; Maassberg, H.; Houlberg, W.A.; Spong, D.A.; Tribaldos, V.

    2003-01-01

    Methods for calculating neoclassical transport in the National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) are discussed, with particular attention to developing computationally inexpensive predictions of neoclassical transport. (orig.)

  15. Journal of transportation engineering

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    1983-01-01

    The Journal of Transportation Engineering contains technical and professional articles on the planning, design, construction, maintenance, and operation of air, highway, rail, and urban transportation...

  16. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    .... Because the defense sector relies on commercial transportation for both peacetime activities and for power projection, senior military leaders must understand the global transportation industry...

  17. Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Saxton Transportation Operations Laboratory (Saxton Laboratory) is a state-of-the-art facility for conducting transportation operations research. The laboratory...

  18. Modelling freight transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tavasszy, L.A.; Jong, G. de

    2014-01-01

    Freight Transport Modelling is a unique new reference book that provides insight into the state-of-the-art of freight modelling. Focusing on models used to support public transport policy analysis, Freight Transport Modelling systematically introduces the latest freight transport modelling

  19. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2013-01-01

    This ninth chapter presents de CNEN-NE--5.01 norm 'Transport of radioactive material'; the specifications of the radioactive materials for transport; the tests of the packages; the requests for controlling the transport and the responsibilities during the transport of radioactive material

  20. Water-transporting proteins

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeuthen, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    . In the K(+)/Cl(-) and the Na(+)/K(+)/2Cl(-) cotransporters, water is entirely cotransported, while water transport in glucose uniporters and Na(+)-coupled transporters of nutrients and neurotransmitters takes place by both osmosis and cotransport. The molecular mechanism behind cotransport of water...... transport. Epithelial water transport is energized by the movements of ions, but how the coupling takes place is uncertain. All epithelia can transport water uphill against an osmotic gradient, which is hard to explain by simple osmosis. Furthermore, genetic removal of aquaporins has not given support...... to osmosis as the exclusive mode of transport. Water cotransport can explain the coupling between ion and water transport, a major fraction of transepithelial water transport and uphill water transport. Aquaporins enhance water transport by utilizing osmotic gradients and cause the osmolarity...

  1. Blood Sample Transportation by Pneumatic Transportation Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nybo, Mads; Lund, Merete E; Titlestad, Kjell

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pneumatic transportation systems (PTSs) are increasingly used for transportation of blood samples to the core laboratory. Many studies have investigated the impact of these systems on different types of analyses, but to elucidate whether PTSs in general are safe for transportation...... analysis, and the hemolysis index). CONCLUSIONS: Owing to their high degree of heterogeneity, the retrieved studies were unable to supply evidence for the safety of using PTSs for blood sample transportation. In consequence, laboratories need to measure and document the actual acceleration forces...

  2. Magnetic type transportation system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobama, Masao.

    1981-01-01

    Purpose: To enable automatic transportation of nuclear substances with optional setting for the transportation distance, even for a long distance, facilitating the automation of the transportation and decreasing the space for the installation of a direction converging section of the transporting path. Constitution: A transporting vehicle having a pair of permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies mounted with a predetermined gap to each other along the transporting direction is provided in the transporting path including a bent direction change section for transporting specimens such as nuclear materials, and a plurality of driving vehicles having permanent magnets or ferromagnetic bodies for magnetically attracting the transporting vehicle from outside of the transporting path are arranged to the outside of the transporting path. At least one of the driving vehicles is made to run along the transporting direction of the transporting path by a driving mechanism incorporating running section such as an endless chain to drive the transportation vehicle, and the transporting vehicle is successively driven by each of the driving mechanisms. (Kawakami, Y.)

  3. Schisandra chinensis peptidoglycan-assisted transmembrane transport of lignans uniquely altered the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic mechanisms in human HepG2 cell model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charng-Cherng Chyau

    Full Text Available Schisandra chinensis (Turz Baill (S. chinensis (SC fruit is a hepatoprotective herb containing many lignans and a large amount of polysaccharides. A novel polysaccharide (called SC-2 was isolated from SC of MW 841 kDa, which exhibited a protein-to-polysaccharide ratio of 0.4089, and showed a characteristic FTIR spectrum of a peptidoglycan. Powder X-ray diffraction revealed microcrystalline structures within SC-2. SC-2 contained 10 monosaccharides and 15 amino acids (essential amino acids of 78.12%w/w. In a HepG2 cell model, SC-2 was shown by MTT and TUNEL assay to be completely non-cytotoxic. A kinetic analysis and fluorescence-labeling technique revealed no intracellular disposition of SC-2. Combined treatment of lignans with SC-2 enhanced the intracellular transport of schisandrin B and deoxyschisandrin but decreased that of gomisin C, resulting in alteration of cell-killing bioactivity. The Second Law of Thermodynamics allows this type of unidirectional transport. Conclusively, SC-2 alters the transport and cell killing capability by a "Catcher-Pitcher Unidirectional Transport Mechanism".

  4. Transportation Technology: Rail Transport and Logistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Aaron B.

    2011-01-01

    Transportation can simply be defined as the movement of goods, services, and people from one location to another. Without an efficient means to transport goods from place to place, the economy would be nothing like it is today. Throughout the history of the United States, American railroads have paved the way toward creating a nation of great…

  5. Identification of a Novel L-rhamnose Uptake Transporter in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus niger

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloothaak, Jasper; Odoni, Dorett I.; Martins dos Santos, Vitor A. P.; Schaap, Peter J.

    2016-01-01

    The study of plant biomass utilization by fungi is a research field of great interest due to its many implications in ecology, agriculture and biotechnology. Most of the efforts done to increase the understanding of the use of plant cell walls by fungi have been focused on the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and transport and metabolism of their constituent monosaccharides. Pectin is another important constituent of plant cell walls, but has received less attention. In relation to the uptake of pectic building blocks, fungal transporters for the uptake of galacturonic acid recently have been reported in Aspergillus niger and Neurospora crassa. However, not a single L-rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose) transporter has been identified yet in fungi or in other eukaryotic organisms. L-rhamnose is a deoxy-sugar present in plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides (mainly rhamnogalacturonan I and rhamnogalacturonan II), but is also found in diverse plant secondary metabolites (e.g. anthocyanins, flavonoids and triterpenoids), in the green seaweed sulfated polysaccharide ulvan, and in glycan structures from viruses and bacteria. Here, a comparative plasmalemma proteomic analysis was used to identify candidate L-rhamnose transporters in A. niger. Further analysis was focused on protein ID 1119135 (RhtA) (JGI A. niger ATCC 1015 genome database). RhtA was classified as a Family 7 Fucose: H+ Symporter (FHS) within the Major Facilitator Superfamily. Family 7 currently includes exclusively bacterial transporters able to use different sugars. Strong indications for its role in L-rhamnose transport were obtained by functional complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW.4000 strain in growth studies with a range of potential substrates. Biochemical analysis using L-[3H(G)]-rhamnose confirmed that RhtA is a L-rhamnose transporter. The RhtA gene is located in tandem with a hypothetical alpha-L-rhamnosidase gene (rhaB). Transcriptional analysis of rhtA and rha

  6. Identification of a Novel L-rhamnose Uptake Transporter in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloothaak, Jasper; Odoni, Dorett I; Martins Dos Santos, Vitor A P; Schaap, Peter J; Tamayo-Ramos, Juan Antonio

    2016-12-01

    The study of plant biomass utilization by fungi is a research field of great interest due to its many implications in ecology, agriculture and biotechnology. Most of the efforts done to increase the understanding of the use of plant cell walls by fungi have been focused on the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and transport and metabolism of their constituent monosaccharides. Pectin is another important constituent of plant cell walls, but has received less attention. In relation to the uptake of pectic building blocks, fungal transporters for the uptake of galacturonic acid recently have been reported in Aspergillus niger and Neurospora crassa. However, not a single L-rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose) transporter has been identified yet in fungi or in other eukaryotic organisms. L-rhamnose is a deoxy-sugar present in plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides (mainly rhamnogalacturonan I and rhamnogalacturonan II), but is also found in diverse plant secondary metabolites (e.g. anthocyanins, flavonoids and triterpenoids), in the green seaweed sulfated polysaccharide ulvan, and in glycan structures from viruses and bacteria. Here, a comparative plasmalemma proteomic analysis was used to identify candidate L-rhamnose transporters in A. niger. Further analysis was focused on protein ID 1119135 (RhtA) (JGI A. niger ATCC 1015 genome database). RhtA was classified as a Family 7 Fucose: H+ Symporter (FHS) within the Major Facilitator Superfamily. Family 7 currently includes exclusively bacterial transporters able to use different sugars. Strong indications for its role in L-rhamnose transport were obtained by functional complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW.4000 strain in growth studies with a range of potential substrates. Biochemical analysis using L-[3H(G)]-rhamnose confirmed that RhtA is a L-rhamnose transporter. The RhtA gene is located in tandem with a hypothetical alpha-L-rhamnosidase gene (rhaB). Transcriptional analysis of rhtA and rha

  7. Identification of a Novel L-rhamnose Uptake Transporter in the Filamentous Fungus Aspergillus niger.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasper Sloothaak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of plant biomass utilization by fungi is a research field of great interest due to its many implications in ecology, agriculture and biotechnology. Most of the efforts done to increase the understanding of the use of plant cell walls by fungi have been focused on the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, and transport and metabolism of their constituent monosaccharides. Pectin is another important constituent of plant cell walls, but has received less attention. In relation to the uptake of pectic building blocks, fungal transporters for the uptake of galacturonic acid recently have been reported in Aspergillus niger and Neurospora crassa. However, not a single L-rhamnose (6-deoxy-L-mannose transporter has been identified yet in fungi or in other eukaryotic organisms. L-rhamnose is a deoxy-sugar present in plant cell wall pectic polysaccharides (mainly rhamnogalacturonan I and rhamnogalacturonan II, but is also found in diverse plant secondary metabolites (e.g. anthocyanins, flavonoids and triterpenoids, in the green seaweed sulfated polysaccharide ulvan, and in glycan structures from viruses and bacteria. Here, a comparative plasmalemma proteomic analysis was used to identify candidate L-rhamnose transporters in A. niger. Further analysis was focused on protein ID 1119135 (RhtA (JGI A. niger ATCC 1015 genome database. RhtA was classified as a Family 7 Fucose: H+ Symporter (FHS within the Major Facilitator Superfamily. Family 7 currently includes exclusively bacterial transporters able to use different sugars. Strong indications for its role in L-rhamnose transport were obtained by functional complementation of the Saccharomyces cerevisiae EBY.VW.4000 strain in growth studies with a range of potential substrates. Biochemical analysis using L-[3H(G]-rhamnose confirmed that RhtA is a L-rhamnose transporter. The RhtA gene is located in tandem with a hypothetical alpha-L-rhamnosidase gene (rhaB. Transcriptional analysis of rhtA and

  8. Information disclosure on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubo, M.

    1998-01-01

    In Japan, the transport of nuclear fuel materials strictly meets the above international convention and domestic regulations as well. Information on the transport of nuclear fuel materials within the country and between the country and foreign countries is treated carefully. Nuclear fuel materials are categorized for transport and are physically protected accordingly. Certain transportation information is treated with special precautions, including prior arrangements among sender, recipient and carrier, and prior agreement between entities subject to the jurisdiction and regulation of supplier and recipient countries. In the case of international transport, this information includes specifying time, place and procedures for transferring transport and responsibility. (O.M.)

  9. Secure Transportation Management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibbs, P. W.

    2014-01-01

    Secure Transport Management Course (STMC) course provides managers with information related to procedures and equipment used to successfully transport special nuclear material. This workshop outlines these procedures and reinforces the information presented with the aid of numerous practical examples. The course focuses on understanding the regulatory framework for secure transportation of special nuclear materials, identifying the insider and outsider threat(s) to secure transportation, organization of a secure transportation unit, management and supervision of secure transportation units, equipment and facilities required, training and qualification needed.

  10. Monte Carlo Transport for Electron Thermal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chenhall, Jeffrey; Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory

    2015-11-01

    The iSNB (implicit Schurtz Nicolai Busquet multigroup electron thermal transport method of Cao et al. is adapted into a Monte Carlo transport method in order to better model the effects of non-local behavior. The end goal is a hybrid transport-diffusion method that combines Monte Carlo Transport with a discrete diffusion Monte Carlo (DDMC). The hybrid method will combine the efficiency of a diffusion method in short mean free path regions with the accuracy of a transport method in long mean free path regions. The Monte Carlo nature of the approach allows the algorithm to be massively parallelized. Work to date on the method will be presented. This work was supported by Sandia National Laboratory - Albuquerque and the University of Rochester Laboratory for Laser Energetics.

  11. Sustainable Transportation and Health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norbert Mundorf

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available We are experiencing a shift in thinking about Transportation and Mobility, which makes this Special Issue on Sustainable Transportation and Health in the International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health especially timely.[...

  12. Arizona transportation history.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-01

    The Arizona transportation history project was conceived in anticipation of Arizonas centennial, which will be : celebrated in 2012. Following approval of the Arizona Centennial Plan in 2007, the Arizona Department of : Transportation (ADOT) recog...

  13. Department of Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of Drone Integration Pilot Program MEET THE SECRETARY TRANSPORTATION TUESDAY FEATURED NEWS The Briefing Room Connect With ... Carriers - Get a DOT Number Find Your State Transportation Department 5 Star Automobile Crash Test Ratings Office ...

  14. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-10-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification.

  15. TRANSPORTATION ECONOMIC TRENDS 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-05

    The report has eight chapters: - Chapter 1 introduces the Transportation Services Index, a monthly summary of freight and passenger movement. - Chapter 2 explains what transportation contributes to the American economy. - Chapter 3 examines the costs...

  16. Oxygen transport membrane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2015-01-01

    The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof.......The present invention relates to a novel composite oxygen transport membrane as well as its preparation and uses thereof....

  17. Transport not as others

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gruhier, Fabien.

    1979-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials will increase with the development of nuclear power station. Problems arising are examined. Some examples of past accidents are given. Thermal and impact tests of containers and categories of transport are recalled [fr

  18. Transportation Management Workshop: Proceedings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-01-01

    This report is a compilation of discussions presented at the Transportation Management Workshop held in Gaithersburg, Maryland. Topics include waste packaging, personnel training, robotics, transportation routing, certification, containers, and waste classification

  19. National transportation statistics 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    National Transportation Statistics presents statistics on the U.S. transportation system, including its physical components, safety record, economic performance, the human and natural environment, and national security. This is a large online documen...

  20. Transportation Services Index

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — The TSI is a monthly measure of the volume of services performed by the for-hire transportation sector. The index covers the activities of for-hire freight carriers,...

  1. Transport of MOX fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, I.R.; Carr, M.

    1997-01-01

    The regulatory framework which governs the transport of MOX fuel is set out, including packages, transport modes and security requirements. Technical requirements for the packages are reviewed and BNFL's experience in plutonium and MOX fuel transport is described. The safety of such operations and the public perception of safety are described and the question of gaining public acceptance for MOX fuel transport is addressed. The paper concludes by emphasising the need for proactive programmes to improve the public acceptance of these operations. (Author)

  2. Radioactive materials transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Talbi, B.

    1996-01-01

    The development of peaceful applications of nuclear energy results in the increase of transport operations of radioactive materials. Therefore strong regulations on transport of radioactive materials turns out to be a necessity in Tunisia. This report presents the different axes of regulations which include the means of transport involved, the radiation protection of the carriers, the technical criteria of security in transport, the emergency measures in case of accidents and penalties in case of infringement. (TEC). 12 refs., 1 fig

  3. TRANSPORTATION INFORMATION CLEARINGHOUSE

    OpenAIRE

    Allen, Karin; Dijohn, Joseph; Misek, Shamus

    2005-01-01

    The Transportation Information Clearinghouse (TIC) Project was the result of collaboration among the Regional Transportation Authority, the Workforce Boards of Metropolitan Chicago and the Urban Transportation Center (UTC) at the University of Illinois at Chicago (UIC). The primary objective of the project was to identify privatelyprovided, employer-based, non-traditional transportation services in operation as well as specific information about these services in order for employers, Workforc...

  4. Transport statistics 1995

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Haan, ML

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains information on all major modes of transport in South Africa. The transport sector is placed in perspective relative to the macro economy and a number of important transport indicators are given. The document also contains...

  5. Transports of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sousselier, Yves

    1982-01-01

    Transport safety depends on the packaging, and the degree of safety must be adapted to the potential hazards of the substance carried. The various kinds of packagings and their strength are examined and the transport of irradiated fuels from the safety angle is taken as example and a comparison is made with the transport of conventional dangerous substances [fr

  6. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1984-01-01

    Transport of radioactive materials is dependent of transport regulations. In practice integrated doses for personnel during transport are very low but are more important during loading or unloading a facility (reactor, plant, laboratory, ...). Risks occur also if packagings are used outside specifications. Recommendations to avoid these risks are given [fr

  7. Transportation in African Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altschul, Robert D.

    1980-01-01

    Examines the structure, role, and needs of Africa's national and intracontinental transportation system. Characteristics of rail, water, road, and air transportation are examined. The conclusion is that high investment in transportation systems is essential to the development process. (Author/KC)

  8. Competing Transport Networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. van der Leij (Marco)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractIn a circular city model, I consider network design and pricing decisions for a single fast transport connection that faces competition from a slower but better accessible transport mode. To access the fast transport network individuals have to make complementary trips by slow mode. This

  9. NATURAL GAS TRANSPORTATION

    OpenAIRE

    Stanis³aw Brzeziñski

    2007-01-01

    In the paper, Author presents chosen aspects of natural gas transportation within global market. Natural gas transportation is a technicaly complicated and economicly expensive process; in infrastructure construction and activities costs. The paper also considers last and proposed initiatives in natural gas transportation.

  10. Assessing Sensitiveness to Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lieb, Christoph; Suter, Stefan; Sánchez, Alfredo

    Summary The EU-project ASSET (ASessing SEnsitiveness to Transport) aims at developing and implementing a concise concept to assess transport sensitive areas (TSA) in a European context, i.e. areas in which transport leads to more serious impacts than in other areas. The aim of work package 2 (WP2...

  11. Road Transport Entrepreneurs and Road Transportation Revolution ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Toshiba

    upon a massive road-building programme throughout the colony. The rapid expansion ..... transportation problems of his textile customers and palm produce producers and ... unflinching loyalty and solidarity with their illustrious son, General.

  12. Transportation and public health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litman, Todd

    2013-01-01

    This article investigates various ways that transportation policy and planning decisions affect public health and better ways to incorporate public health objectives into transport planning. Conventional planning tends to consider some public health impacts, such as crash risk and pollution emissions measured per vehicle-kilometer, but generally ignores health problems resulting from less active transport (reduced walking and cycling activity) and the additional crashes and pollution caused by increased vehicle mileage. As a result, transport agencies tend to undervalue strategies that increase transport system diversity and reduce vehicle travel. This article identifies various win-win strategies that can help improve public health and other planning objectives.

  13. Convective transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D'Ippolito, D.A.; Myra, J.R.; Russell, D.A.; Krasheninnikov, S.I.; Pigarov, A.Yu.; Yu, G.Q.; Xu, X.Q.; Nevins, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Scrape-off-layer (SOL) convection in fusion experiments appears to be a universal phenomenon that can 'short-circuit' the divertor in some cases. The theory of 'blob' transport provides a simple and robust physical paradigm for studying convective transport. This paper summarizes recent advances in the theory of blob transport and its comparison with 2D and 3D computer simulations. We also discuss the common physical basis relating radial transport of blobs, pellets, and ELMs and a new blob regime that may lead to a connection between blob transport and the density limit. (author)

  14. Theory of contributon transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Painter, J.W.; Gerstl, S.A.W.; Pomraning, G.C.

    1980-10-01

    A general discussion of the physics of contributon transport is presented. To facilitate this discussion, a Boltzmann-like transport equation for contributons is obtained, and special contributon cross sections are defined. However, the main goal of this study is to identify contributon transport equations and investigate possible deterministic solution techniques. Four approaches to the deterministic solution of the contributon transport problem are investigated. These approaches are an attempt to exploit certain attractive properties of the contributon flux, psi = phi phi + , where phi and phi + are the solutions to the forward and adjoint Boltzmann transport equations

  15. Transportation Business Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The Transportation Business Plan is a step in the process of procuring the transportation system. It sets the context for business strategy decisions by providing pertinent background information, describing the legislation and policies governing transportation under the NWPA, and describing requirements of the transportation system. Included in the document are strategies for procuring shipping casks and transportation support services. In the spirit of the NWPA directive to utilize the private sector to the maximum extent possible, opportunities for business ventures are obvious throughout the system development cycle

  16. Transportation safety training

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, E.

    1990-01-01

    Over the past 25 years extensive federal legislation involving the handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste has been passed that has resulted in numerous overlapping regulations administered and enforced by different federal agencies. The handling and transport of hazardous materials/waste involves a significant number of workers who are subject to a varying degree of risk should an accident occur during handling or transport. Effective transportation training can help workers address these risks and mitigate them, and at the same time enable ORNL to comply with the federal regulations concerning the transport of hazardous materials/waste. This presentation will outline how the Environmental and Health Protection Division's Technical Resources and Training Section at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, working with transportation and waste disposal personnel, have developed and implemented a comprehensive transportation safety training program to meet the needs of our workers while satisfying appropriate federal regulations. 8 refs., 3 tabs

  17. Transportation System Requirements Document

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-09-01

    This Transportation System Requirements Document (Trans-SRD) describes the functions to be performed by and the technical requirements for the Transportation System to transport spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) from Purchaser and Producer sites to a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) site, and between CRWMS sites. The purpose of this document is to define the system-level requirements for Transportation consistent with the CRWMS Requirement Document (CRD). These requirements include design and operations requirements to the extent they impact on the development of the physical segments of Transportation. The document also presents an overall description of Transportation, its functions, its segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments and the system-level interfaces with Transportation. The interface identification and description are published in the CRWMS Interface Specification

  18. TRANSPORT/HANDLING REQUESTS

    CERN Multimedia

    Groupe ST/HM

    2002-01-01

    A new EDH document entitled 'Transport/Handling Request' will be in operation as of Monday, 11th February 2002, when the corresponding icon will be accessible from the EDH desktop, together with the application instructions. This EDH form will replace the paper-format transport/handling request form for all activities involving the transport of equipment and materials. However, the paper form will still be used for all vehicle-hire requests. The introduction of the EDH transport/handling request form is accompanied by the establishment of the following time limits for the various services concerned: 24 hours for the removal of office items, 48 hours for the transport of heavy items (of up to 6 metric tons and of standard road width), 5 working days for a crane operation, extra-heavy transport operation or complete removal, 5 working days for all transport operations relating to LHC installation. ST/HM Group, Logistics Section Tel: 72672 - 72202

  19. Transport of radioactive substances; Der Transport radioaktiver Stoffe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2014-12-15

    The report on the transport of radioactive substances covers the following topics: facts on radioactive materials transport, safety of the transport of radioactive substances, legal regulations and guidelines: a multiform but consistent system, transport of nuclear fuels, safety during the transport of nuclear fuel, future transport of spent fuel elements and high-level radioactive wastes in Germany.

  20. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.; Newby, Jay M.

    2013-01-01

    mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually

  1. Modelling of transport phenomena

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kimitaka; Itoh, Sanae; Fukuyama, Atsushi.

    1993-09-01

    In this review article, we discuss key features of the transport phenomena and theoretical modelling to understand them. Experimental observations have revealed the nature of anomalous transport, i.e., the enhancement of the transport coefficients by the gradients of the plasma profiles, the pinch phenomena, the radial profile of the anomalous transport coefficients, the variation of the transport among the Bohm diffusion, Pseudo-classical confinement, L-mode and variety of improved confinement modes, and the sudden jumps such as L-H transition. Starting from the formalism of the transport matrix, the modelling based on the low frequency instabilities are reviewed. Theoretical results in the range of drift wave frequency are examined. Problems in theories based on the quasilinear and mixing-length estimates lead to the renewal of the turbulence theory, and the physics picture of the self-sustained turbulence is discussed. The theory of transport using the fluid equation of plasma is developed, showing that the new approach is very promising in explaining abovementioned characteristics of anomalous transport in both L-mode and improved confinement plasmas. The interference of the fluxes is the key to construct the physics basis of the bifurcation theory for the L-H transition. The present status of theories on the mechanisms of improved confinement is discussed. Modelling on the nonlocal nature of transport is briefly discussed. Finally, the impact of the anomalous transport on disruptive phenomena is also described. (author) 95 refs

  2. Transport, energy and environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-12-01

    Transportation demands a large and increasing share of total energy consumption in Europe. At the same time many European countries are facing difficult decisions in achieving their long term environmental goals. Therefore energy policy, environmental policy and transport policy should be seen and discussed in a common perspective. In particular the relative contribution from the transport sector and the energy sector involves a number of important and difficult issues. The aim of the conference was to bring together economists, scientists, manufactures, energy planners, transport planners, and decision makers in order to discuss the importance of the transport sector in relation to energy demand and long term environmental goals. General conference sessions covered. Trends in Transport Energy Demand and Environmental constraints, Technological Development and New Transport Systems, Lifestyle Changes and the Transport Sector, Megacities: Solutions to the Transport and Air Pollution Problems, Effectiveness of Public Policies, Transport and Energy sector, and Methods, Models and Data. The conference took place at Hotel Marienlyst, Elsinore, Denmark and attracted wide interest. The participants represented 14 different countries covering international organisations, ministries, universities, research centres, consulting firms, industry etc. (EG)

  3. Synthesis and comparative antibacterial studies of some benzylidene monosaccharide benzoates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Matin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some 4,6-O-benzylidene protected 2,3-di-O-benzoates of methyl a-D-glucopyranoside and methyl a-D-mannopyranoside were prepared. All the compounds (1-7 were screened for in vitro antibacterial activity study against ten human pathogenic bacteria. The study revealed that the benzoylated mannopyranosides (5-7 are more prone towards antibacterial functionalities than that of the glucopyranosides (2-3.

  4. Monosaccharide composition of suspended particles from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    , fucose, ribose, arabinose and xylose showed large variations and were generally abundant at greater depths ( 100 m). Glucose contribution to the total carbohydrates, especially at higher depths ( 100 m) was relatively less than that reported from other...

  5. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Dender, Kurt

    2009-01-01

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified.

  6. Energy policy in transport and transport policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Dender, Kurt [Joint Transport Research Centre of the International Transport Forum and the OECD, 2 rue Andre Pascale, F-75775 Paris Cedex 16 (France)

    2009-10-15

    Explanations for, and indirect evidence of, imperfections in the market for private passenger vehicle fuel economy suggest there is a reasonable case for combining fuel economy standards and fuel or carbon taxes to contribute to an energy policy that aims to reduce greenhouse gas emissions and improve energy security. Estimates of key elasticities, including the rebound effect, indicate that the positive and negative side-effects of fuel economy measures on transport activities and external costs are limited. However, an energy policy for transport does not replace a transport policy that aims to manage the main transport externalities including congestion and local pollution. Conventional marginal cost estimates and standard cost-benefit reasoning suggest that policies that address congestion and local pollution likely bring benefits at least as large as those from fuel economy measures. But the large uncertainty on the possible effects of greenhouse gas emissions constitutes a strong challenge for standard cost-benefit reasoning. Emerging results from methods to cope with this uncertainty suggest that policies to stimulate the widespread adoption of low-carbon technologies in transport are justified. (author)

  7. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J. Prouty

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  8. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J. Prouty

    2006-07-14

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment (TSPA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers advective transport and diffusive transport

  9. Transportation: Grade 8. Cluster IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calhoun, Olivia H.

    A curriculum guide for grade 8, the document is devoted to the occupational cluster "Transportation." It is divided into five units: surface transportation, interstate transportation, air transportation, water transportation, and subterranean transportation (the Metro). Each unit is introduced by a statement of the topic, the unit's…

  10. Transport Energy Efficiency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-07-01

    Transport is the sector with the highest final energy consumption and, without any significant policy changes, is forecast to remain so. In 2008, the IEA published 25 energy efficiency recommendations, among which four are for the transport sector. The recommendations focus on road transport and include policies on improving tyre energy efficiency, fuel economy standards for both light-duty vehicles and heavy-duty vehicles, and eco-driving. Implementation of the recommendations has been weaker in the transport sector than others. This paper updates the progress that has been made in implementing the transport energy efficiency recommendations in IEA countries since March 2009. Many countries have in the last year moved from 'planning to implement' to 'implementation underway', but none have fully implemented all transport energy efficiency recommendations. The IEA calls therefore for full and immediate implementation of the recommendations.

  11. Transportation Emissions: some basics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kontovas, Christos A.; Psaraftis, Harilaos N.

    2016-01-01

    transportation and especially carbon dioxide emissions are at the center stage of discussion by the world community through various international treaties, such as the Kyoto Protocol. The transportation sector also emits non-CO2 pollutants that have important effects on air quality, climate, and public health......Transportation is the backbone of international trade and a key engine driving globalization. However, there is growing concern that the Earth’s atmospheric composition is being altered by human activities, including transportation, which can lead to climate change. Air pollution from....... The main purpose of this chapter is to introduce some basic concepts that are relevant in the quest of green transportation logistics. First, we present the basics of estimating emissions from transportation activities, the current statistics and future trends, as well as the total impact of air emissions...

  12. Astrocytic GABA Transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schousboe, Arne; Wellendorph, Petrine; Frølund, Bente

    2017-01-01

    , and several of these compounds have been shown to exhibit pronounced anticonvulsant activity in a variety of animal seizure models. As proof of concept of the validity of this drug development approach, one GABA-transport inhibitor, tiagabine, has been developed as a clinically active antiepileptic drug......Inactivation of GABA-mediated neurotransmission is achieved by high-affinity transporters located at both GABAergic neurons and the surrounding astrocytes. Early studies of the pharmacological properties of neuronal and glial GABA transporters suggested that different types of transporters might...... be expressed in the two cell types, and such a scenario was confirmed by the cloning of four distinctly different GABA transporters from a number of different species. These GABA-transport entities have been extensively characterized using a large number of GABA analogues of restricted conformation...

  13. Transport of radioactive wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuller, C.

    2003-01-01

    In this article author describes the system of transport and processing of radioactive wastes from nuclear power of Slovenske elektrarne, plc. It is realized the assurance of transport of liquid and solid radioactive wastes to processing links from places of their formation, or of preliminary storage and consistent transports of treated radioactive wastes fixed in cement matrix of fibre-concrete container into Rebublic storage of radioactive wastes in Mochovce

  14. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-07-01

    The purpose of this Norm is to establish, relating to the TRANSPORT OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIALS, safety and radiological protection requirements to ensure an adequate control level of the eventual exposure of persons, properties and environment to the ionizing radiation comprising: specifications on radioactive materials for transport; package type selection; specification of the package design and acceptance test requirements; arrangements relating to the transport itself; administrative requirements and responsibilities. (author)

  15. Radioactive material air transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme

    2002-01-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation

  16. Handling and Transport Problems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomarola, J. [Head of Technical Section, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France); Savouyaud, J. [Head of Electro-Mechanical Sub-Division, Atomic Energy Commission, Saclay (France)

    1960-07-01

    Arrangements for special or dangerous transport operations by road arising out of the activities of the Atomic Energy Commission are made by the Works and Installations Division which acts in concert with the Monitoring and Protection Division (MPD) whenever radioactive substances or appliances are involved. In view of the risk of irradiation and contamination entailed in handling and transporting radioactive substances, including waste, a specialized transport and storage team has been formed as a complement to the emergency and decontamination teams.

  17. Transport Nuclear Liability Insurance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Folens, M.

    2006-01-01

    Although transport of nuclear substances represents only a very small part of the global transport of dangerous goods, it takes place every day all over the world and it is part of our daily life. Transport of nuclear material takes also place at every stage of the nuclear fuel cycle; radioactive materials are carried out all over the world by all major modes of transport: sea, air, road and rail. Despite the large number of nuclear transports, they are not considered as posing a serious risk. A major nuclear incident is almost always associated with the operating of fixed installations such as nuclear power plants; just think about Three Mile Island and Chernobyl. This perception is strengthened by the absence so far of serious accidents in the nuclear transport sector and this finding is in fact proof of the very safe conditions of nuclear transport. But accidents can never be excluded entirely and in some cases damages could be as large as those caused by fixed installations. This means that protection of the interests of possible victims should also be covered in a correct way. That is why the special nuclear liability regime has also been developed to cover damage caused by a nuclear transport accident. As stated by Patrick Reyners, the prime motivation for originally adopting a special nuclear regime was the harmonisation of national legislation and that nowhere more than in the field of international transport operations is such harmonisation felt desirable . The international legal regime has been developed along two tracks, one based on the mode of transport and the other based on the notion of dangerous goods. The linkage between those two tracks is of permanent concern and the mode of transport is the key element to determine which international instrument should be applicable. The purpose of this paper is to briefly introduce the financial security provided by the insurance industry to cover the international nuclear liability regime for nuclear

  18. Freight transport and intermodality

    OpenAIRE

    Barbero Mañanes, Eduardo

    2010-01-01

    During recent decades, there has been very substantial growth in the freight transport sector. Freight transport is increasing faster than the economy or passenger transport. Demand is increasing more rapidly than supply and is resulting in environmental and social problems. Increasing congestion, too, is affecting efficient and reliable freight distribution, and consequently having a deleterious effect on local economies. Intermodality is therefore needed to make better use of alternative mo...

  19. Climate Change and Transportation

    OpenAIRE

    Yevdokimov, Yuri

    2010-01-01

    As stated at the beginning of this chapter, the relationship between transportation and climate is two-directional. Based on our statistical analysis performed for Canada, we can make some general conclusions about this relationship. On the one hand, transportation is one of the largest contributors to GHG emissions which, in turn, cause various changes in climate. On the other hand, these climate changes negatively affect transportation in terms of its infrastructure and operations. Therefor...

  20. Transport barriers in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R

    2012-01-01

    We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.

  1. Urban transportation projects conceptualised:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pineda, Andres Felipe Valderrama

    is straightforward: transportation projects transform cities. The paradoxical reality thus is that a problem that has been traditionally conceptualized in technical terms (transportation engineering, transportation economics, planning theory, traffic engineering, urban planning, etc.), has tremendous consequences...... operation when discussing transportation projects in big cities. The tradition of Science and Technology Studies might have provided some clues. In the following paper we discuss the most prominent aspects of some theories in STS in order to understand and conceptualize the cases of Bogotá and Copenhagen...

  2. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weddle, D.C.; Novotny, R.; Cron, J.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''

  3. WASTE PACKAGE TRANSPORTER DESIGN

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.C. Weddle; R. Novotny; J. Cron

    1998-09-23

    The purpose of this Design Analysis is to develop preliminary design of the waste package transporter used for waste package (WP) transport and related functions in the subsurface repository. This analysis refines the conceptual design that was started in Phase I of the Viability Assessment. This analysis supports the development of a reliable emplacement concept and a retrieval concept for license application design. The scope of this analysis includes the following activities: (1) Assess features of the transporter design and evaluate alternative design solutions for mechanical components. (2) Develop mechanical equipment details for the transporter. (3) Prepare a preliminary structural evaluation for the transporter. (4) Identify and recommend the equipment design for waste package transport and related functions. (5) Investigate transport equipment interface tolerances. This analysis supports the development of the waste package transporter for the transport, emplacement, and retrieval of packaged radioactive waste forms in the subsurface repository. Once the waste containers are closed and accepted, the packaged radioactive waste forms are termed waste packages (WP). This terminology was finalized as this analysis neared completion; therefore, the term disposal container is used in several references (i.e., the System Description Document (SDD)) (Ref. 5.6). In this analysis and the applicable reference documents, the term ''disposal container'' is synonymous with ''waste package''.

  4. EUROPEAN MARITIME TRANSPORT POLICY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerzy Kujawa

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The article describes the common EU policy on maritime transport, which comprises almost 80% of the volume of external trade of the Union and about 40% of internal transport needs. The first part of the paper presents the origins of the common maritime transport policy and the difficulties encountered during its initial formation. Subsequently, the evolution of the concepts of the policy and its current shape is discussed. The final, substantial part of the article describes the main aims and directions of the EU maritime transport policy and includes an evaluation of the effects of the policy.

  5. Intelligent Freigth Transport Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Overø, Helene Martine; Larsen, Allan; Røpke, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    is to enhance the efficiency and lower the environmental impact in freight transport. In this paper, a pilot project involving real-time waste collection at a Danish waste collection company is described, and a solution approach is proposed. The problem corresponds to the dynamic version of the waste collection......The Danish innovation project entitled “Intelligent Freight Transport Systems” aims at developing prototype systems integrating public intelligent transport systems (ITS) with the technology in vehicles and equipment as well as the IT-systems at various transport companies. The objective...

  6. Moisture Transport in Wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Astrup, Thomas; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Hoffmeyer, Preben

    2005-01-01

    Modelling of moisture transport in wood is of great importance as most mechanical and physical properties of wood depend on moisture content. Moisture transport in porous materials is often described by Ficks second law, but several observations indicate that this does not apply very well to wood....... Recently at the Technical University of Denmark, Department of Civil Engineering, a new model for moisture transport in wood has been developed. The model divides the transport into two phases, namely water vapour in the cell lumens and bound water in the cell walls....

  7. UZ Colloid Transport Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McGraw, M.

    2000-01-01

    The UZ Colloid Transport model development plan states that the objective of this Analysis/Model Report (AMR) is to document the development of a model for simulating unsaturated colloid transport. This objective includes the following: (1) use of a process level model to evaluate the potential mechanisms for colloid transport at Yucca Mountain; (2) Provide ranges of parameters for significant colloid transport processes to Performance Assessment (PA) for the unsaturated zone (UZ); (3) Provide a basis for development of an abstracted model for use in PA calculations

  8. Heavy transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haas, K.F.

    1975-01-01

    Assuming that very often a long transport route from the factory of the manufacturer to the provided site has to be reckoned with, in general only transport with a ship is possible. As each site is only called by a certain steamship line, at a very early stage of planning the nuclear power plant the possibilities and capacities of the lines and means of transportation under discussion should be investigated. In planning the unloading equipment at the site, due consideration should be given to the fact that at a later time this equipment should also be suitable for the transport of heavy components and spent fuel assemblies. (orig.) [de

  9. Heme transport and erythropoiesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Xiaojing; Fleming, Mark D.; Hamza, Iqbal

    2013-01-01

    In humans, systemic heme homeostasis is achieved via coordinated regulation of heme synthesis, transport and degradation. Although the heme biosynthesis and degradation pathways have been well characterized, the pathways for heme trafficking and incorporation into hemoproteins remains poorly understood. In the past few years, researchers have exploited genetic, cellular and biochemical tools, to identify heme transporters and, in the process, reveal unexpected functions for this elusive group of proteins. However, given the complexity of heme trafficking pathways, current knowledge of heme transporters is fragmented and sometimes contradictory. This review seeks to focus on recent studies on heme transporters with specific emphasis on their functions during erythropoiesis. PMID:23415705

  10. Hopping transport in solids

    CERN Document Server

    Pollak, M

    1991-01-01

    The hopping process, which differs substantially from conventional transport processes in crystals, is the central process in the transport phenomena discussed in this book. Throughout the book the term ``hopping'' is defined as the inelastic tunneling transfer of an electron between two localized electronic states centered at different locations. Such processes do not occur in conventional electronic transport in solids, since localized states are not compatible with the translational symmetry of crystals.The rapid growth of interest in hopping transport has followed in the footsteps of the

  11. Dinâmica do conteúdo de monossacarídeos em gemas e ramos de dois anos de macieira durante a endodormência Dynamics of monosaccharides content in two year old buds and stems of apple tree during the dormancy period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruy Inacio Neiva de Carvalho

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi determinar as variações do conteúdo de glucose, frutose e sorbitol em gemas e ramos de dois anos de macieira que receberam ou não frio suplementar durante o período de dormência. Os ramos da cultivar Imperial Gala foram coletados em Porto Amazonas-PR, região de baixa ocorrência de frio, em intervalos de 21 dias, de abril a agosto, e receberam ou não tratamento com frio suplementar de 1.440 horas, à temperatura de 4 a 7°C. As análises dos monossacarídeos foram realizadas em gemas e porções de ramos adjacentes a elas por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (HPLC. Houve acúmulo de glucose e frutose em gemas de macieira de abril a agosto, e este aumento foi estimulado pelo tratamento com 1.440 horas de frio. O conteúdo de glucose e frutose nos ramos adjacentes às gemas elevou-se de abril ao início de agosto, com posterior queda no final de agosto e o tratamento com frio antecipou esta dinâmica. O conteúdo de sorbitol em gemas e ramos de macieira oscilou de abril a agosto, e sua dinâmica foi alterada pelo frio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the variation of glucose, fructose and sorbitol content in two year old buds and stems of apple trees during the dormancy period. Stems of cv. Imperial Gala were collected in Porto Amazonas, Parana State, Brazil, a region of low chill occurence, at intervals of 21 days from April to August and were treated or not with 1,440 hours of chill (4 to 7°C. The monosaccharides were analysed in buds and stem tissues close to buds by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. There was an increase of glucose and fructose content in buds from April to August and it was stimulated by the chill treatment. The glucose and fructose content in stems increased from April to August 2nd followed by a reduction in August 23rd and the chill treatment advanced this dynamics. The sorbitol content in buds and stems of apple tree oscillated from April to August and

  12. Canadian pipeline transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-07-01

    In addition to regulating the construction and operation of 70,000 km of oil and natural gas pipelines in Canada, the National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. This report provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system in relation to its ability to provide a robust energy infrastructure. Data was collected from NEB-regulated pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources to determine if adequate pipeline capacity is in place to transport products to consumers. The NEB also used throughput and capacity information received from pipeline operators as well as members of the investment community. The study examined price differentials compared with firm service tolls for transportation paths, as well as capacity utilization on pipelines and the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. This review indicated that in general, the Canadian pipeline transportation system continues to work effectively, with adequate pipeline capacity in place to move products to consumers who need them. 9 tabs., 30 figs., 3 appendices.

  13. Passenger transport research

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mokonyama, Mathetha T

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available In South Africa, airport and airline services epitomise what many would like to see in everyday public transport. The CSIR investigates what it will take to provide a commercial public transport service in South Africa which resembles commercial air...

  14. Bronchial mucus transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Schans, Cees P.

    Effective clearance of inhaled particles requires mucus production and continuous mucus transport from the lower airways to the oropharynx. Mucus production takes place mainly in the peripheral airways. Mucus transport is achieved by the action of the ciliated cells that cover the inner surface of

  15. Biofuels for sustainable transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neufeld, S.

    2000-05-23

    Biomass is an attractive energy source, and transportation fuels made from biomass offer a number of benefits. Developing the technology to produce and use biofuels will create transportation fuel options that can positively impact the national energy security, the economy, and the environment. Biofuels include ethanol, methanol, biodiesel, biocrude, and methane.

  16. Emissions of road transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maekelae, K.; Tuominen, A.

    2001-01-01

    Information on the emissions and energy consumption of different vehicles per transported amount of goods has up to last years been minimal. The unit emissions mean the amount of harmful compounds in the flue gases of a vehicle per service, time or energy unit. National three-year MOBILE 2-research program, started in 1999, determines the unit emissions of all the traffic sectors in Finland. VTT Building and Transport mainly carry out the research, but the Institute of Transportation Engineering of the Tampere University of Technology (TTKK) is responsible for a part of the research. The objective of the project is to create common rules for the determination of unit emissions values, and to determine the best possible values for Finnish conditions. Unit emission data is mainly needed for evaluation of the environmental impacts of production plants and other activities containing transportation of commodities. At the web sites of VTT Building and Transport there are about 60 pages of text and tables (about 4000 values) on unit emissions. The URL of the pages is http://www.vtt.fi/rte/projects/lipastoe/index.htm. These web pages present data on all the transportation sectors (road, railroad, water and air transportation), most of the materials concerning road transportation. Following compounds and values are included: CO, HC, NO x , particulates, SO 2 , CO 2 and energy consumption. Methane and nitrous oxide emissions values have also been presented

  17. Trajectory structures and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlad, Madalina; Spineanu, Florin

    2004-01-01

    The special problem of transport in two-dimensional divergence-free stochastic velocity fields is studied by developing a statistical approach, the nested subensemble method. The nonlinear process of trapping determined by such fields generates trajectory structures whose statistical characteristics are determined. These structures strongly influence the transport

  18. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nelson, Nathan; Lill, H

    1994-01-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma

  19. Nuclear materials transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ushakov, B.A.

    1986-01-01

    Various methods of nuclear materials transportation at different stages of the fuel cycle (U 3 O 8 , UF 6 production enrichment, fuel element manufacturing, storage) are considered. The advantages and drawbacks of railway, automobile, maritime and air transport are analyzed. Some types of containers are characterized

  20. Human peptide transporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Carsten Uhd; Brodin, Birger; Jørgensen, Flemming Steen

    2002-01-01

    Peptide transporters are epithelial solute carriers. Their functional role has been characterised in the small intestine and proximal tubules, where they are involved in absorption of dietary peptides and peptide reabsorption, respectively. Currently, two peptide transporters, PepT1 and PepT2, wh...

  1. Transport of plutonium nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-02-01

    This leaflet discusses the subject under the headings: why do we need plutonium; why must we transport it; what action is carried out; how is it moved; what are the risks. The transport of the material in specially designed containers, from Dounreay in Caithness by road and sea to Sellafield in Cumbria, is described. (U.K.)

  2. Electronic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Young, W.H.

    1985-01-01

    The theory of the electron transport properties of liquid alkali metals is described. Conductivity coefficients, Boltzmann theory, Ziman theory, alkali form factors, Ziman theory and alkalis, Faber-Ziman alloy theory, Faber-Ziman theory and alkali-alkali methods, status of Ziman theory, and other transport properties, are all discussed. (UK)

  3. Transport and Sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kaj

    1997-01-01

    Ph.D. study of the scope for sustainable transport in Denmark, and particularly of the role of the motor vehicle in this context. The distribution of groceries is used as case study of the introduction of the motor vehicle in Denmark, concluding that this has resulted in increases of the transport...

  4. Macropores and macropore transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Bo Vangsø; Lamandé, Mathieu; Torp, Søren Bent

    2012-01-01

    Preferential transport of water through soil macropores is a governing process in the facilitated transport of strongly sorbing compounds. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationships between macropore density and the hydraulic conductivity of the soil and to test the sampling...

  5. Transport in the Nordic countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gustafsson, B.; Pettersson, S.; Vilkamo, S.

    1989-01-01

    Transport of radioactive material from different fields of operation is well advanced in the Nordic countries: waste from the medical sector, industry, research, and now in increasing amounts from reactor operation, including spent fuel. In the future, waste from decommissioning will also be transported. This report gives the amount of radioactive waste material to be transported in the Nordic countries. Transport routes, transport containers, and transport systems are described. Legislations and transport regulatins are discussed. (author)

  6. Planning Public Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jonas Lohmann Elkjær; Landex, Alex

    2009-01-01

    This good practice guide is composed for the master course 13120 Public Transport Planning held at the Department of Transport, Technical University of Denmark. It is intended to use as guide in the different planning aspects and assignments of the course. Since the course is about the planning...... of new public transport infrastructure this guide also focuses on the planning of new infrastructure. Furthermore, the new infrastructure in the course is expected to be a light rail and even though this guide aims at being general for public transport some of the issues evidently become more relevant...... will enable a capability for planning both bus and rail. The guide is build as a full sketch investigation of a new public transport project ranging chronological from project clarification to physical and timetable planning to traffic modeling and project appraisal. The same steps that are expected...

  7. Porters and neurotransmitter transporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, N; Lill, H

    1994-11-01

    Uptake of neurotransmitters involves multiple transporters acting in different brain locations under different physiological conditions. The vesicular transporters are driven by a proton-motive force generated by a V-ATPase and their substrates are taken up via proton/substrate exchange. The plasma membrane transporters are driven by an electrochemical gradient of sodium generated by a Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Two distinct families of transporters were identified in this group. One cotransports sodium with glutamate and other amino acids and requires additionally an outwardly directed potassium gradient. The second cotransports sodium, chloride and a variety of neurotransmitters, including gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glycine and monoamines. Genes and cDNA encoding several members of the latter family have been cloned and studied in detail. The structure and function as well as the evolutionary relationships among these neurotransmitter transporters are discussed.

  8. Fuel transporting device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiratori, Hirozo.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: In a liquid-metal cooled reactor, to reduce the waiting time of fuel handling apparatuses and shorten the fuel exchange time. Constitution: A fuel transporting machine is arranged between a reactor vessel and an out-pile storage tank, thereby dividing the transportation line of the pot for contracting fuel and transporting the same. By assuming such a construction, the flow of fuel transportation which has heretofore been carried out through fuel transportation pipes is not limited to one direction but the take-out of fuels from the reactor and the take-in thereof from the storage tank can be carried out constantly, and much time is not required for fuel exchange. (Kamimura, M.)

  9. Fuelling tomorrow's transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cadwallader, S.; Donovan, N.

    1995-11-01

    Fuelling Tomorrow's Transport provides a thorough analysis of key industry trends; developments in technology, fuel use and efficiency; environmental and legislative constraints; and company and governmental policy. It discusses in detail the changes facing the transport industry and analyses how the various technological, political and economic developments will affect the industry into the next century. Key issues addressed include: current and future fuel use in road, marine and aviation transport; growth in the transport sector and the impact on the oil market; likely scenarios for future transport fuelling; the latest developments in alternative fuels and engines, including electricity, natural gas, nuclear power and liquid hydrogen, and the commercial feasibility of these technologies; government policy and current and proposed legislative and fiscal incentives for the development and take-up of alternative fuels and engines; the driving force of the environmental debate; the current research and development programmes of individual companies; and the commercial openings offered by these developments. (author)

  10. Transport, environment and sustainability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Joumard, Robert; Gudmundsson, Henrik; Kehagia, Fotini

    2010-01-01

    This report is the final report of the action COST 356 'EST - Towards the definition of a measurable environmentally sustainable transport'. It tries to answer the following questions: How can environmental impacts of transport be measured? How can measurements be transformed into operational...... indicators? How can several indicators be jointly considered? And how can indicators be used in planning and decision making? Firstly we provide definition of 'indicator of environmental sustainability in transport'. The functions, strengths and weaknesses of indicators as measurement tools, and as decision...... support tools are discussed. We define what "environmental sustainability in transport" may mean through the transport system, the concepts of sustainable development and of environment. The concept of 'chain of causality' between a source and a final target is developed, as a common reference...

  11. Transmembrane transporter expression regulated by the glucosylceramide pathway in Cryptococcus neoformans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Arpita; Rella, Antonella; Schwacke, John; Vacchi-Suzzi, Caterina; Luberto, Chiara; Del Poeta, Maurizio

    2015-11-16

    The sphingolipid glucosylceramide (GlcCer) and factors involved in the fungal GlcCer pathways were shown earlier to be an integral part of fungal virulence, especially in fungal replication at 37 °C, in neutral/alkaline pH and 5 % CO2 environments (e.g. alveolar spaces). Two mutants, ∆gcs 1 lacking glucosylceramide synthase 1 gene (GCS1) which catalyzes the formation of sphingolipid GlcCer from the C9-methyl ceramide and ∆smt1 lacking sphingolipid C9 methyltransferase gene (SMT1), which adds a methyl group to position nine of the sphingosine backbone of ceramide, of this pathway were attenuated in virulence and have a growth defect at the above-mentioned conditions. These mutants with either no or structurally modified GlcCer located on the cell-membrane have reduced membrane rigidity, which may have altered not only the physical location of membrane proteins but also their expression, as the pathogen's mode of adaptation to changing need. Importantly, pathogens are known to adapt themselves to the changing host environments by altering their patterns of gene expression. By transcriptional analysis of gene expression, we identified six genes whose expression was changed from their wild-type counterpart grown in the same conditions, i.e. they became either down regulated or up regulated in these two mutants. The microarray data was validated by real-time PCR, which confirmed their fold change in gene expression. All the six genes we identified, viz siderochrome-iron transporter (CNAG_02083), monosaccharide transporter (CNAG_05340), glucose transporter (CNAG_03772), membrane protein (CNAG_03912), membrane transport protein (CNAG_00539), and sugar transporter (CNAG_06963), are membrane-localized and have significantly altered gene expression levels. Therefore, we hypothesize that these genes function either independently or in tandem with a structurally modified cell wall/plasma membrane resulting from the modifications of the GlcCer pathway and thus possibly

  12. A novel high-affinity sucrose transporter is required for virulence of the plant pathogen Ustilago maydis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Wahl

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant pathogenic fungi cause massive yield losses and affect both quality and safety of food and feed produced from infected plants. The main objective of plant pathogenic fungi is to get access to the organic carbon sources of their carbon-autotrophic hosts. However, the chemical nature of the carbon source(s and the mode of uptake are largely unknown. Here, we present a novel, plasma membrane-localized sucrose transporter (Srt1 from the corn smut fungus Ustilago maydis and its characterization as a fungal virulence factor. Srt1 has an unusually high substrate affinity, is absolutely sucrose specific, and allows the direct utilization of sucrose at the plant/fungal interface without extracellular hydrolysis and, thus, without the production of extracellular monosaccharides known to elicit plant immune responses. srt1 is expressed exclusively during infection, and its deletion strongly reduces fungal virulence. This emphasizes the central role of this protein both for efficient carbon supply and for avoidance of apoplastic signals potentially recognized by the host.

  13. Logistic innovations in transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosław Antonowicz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The article discusses the issue of logistic innovations in transport. The essentials of logistic innovations in transport together with some examples of specific innovations are presented. The role of the client's needs in transport innovations is indicated. The most vital postulates affecting the innovativeness of shipping companies and derived from the author's experience as well as scholarly publications, are time, safety, reliability as well as comprehensiveness of service offer. Following the analysis of the issue, and on the grounds of Kaizen's and Lean's method, the concept of continuous innovations is suggested as very useful for the development of transport. The potential of clusters as the source of logistic innovations in transport is emphasised. Methods: The discussion of the issue was preceded by the author's analysis of written sources on innovativeness, the evaluation of ratings of innovativeness as well as the analysis of rewarded innovative solutions in transport subsequent to the businesses participation in the programme of innovative solutions in transport. The role of innovation practical business operations is argued following the analysis of some strategic documents such as: 2011 White Paper and the Strategy for the Development of Transport by 2020 adopted by the Polish government in 2013. Aim: The aim of the article is to present the role and significance of the issue of logistic innovations in transport and to cite instances of practical solutions implemented by shipping companies, the solutions which resulted in measurable effects. Following the author's observation of the instances of innovative solutions as well as his analysis of the ratings of innovativeness, the article aims to present the conclusions as for the specific kinds of activities which are indispensable to foster innovativeness in transport. Conclusions: The conclusions derived from the author's analyses and observations show that logistic

  14. Transportation Consumer Education Curriculum Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finn, Peter; And Others

    Materials in this curriculum guide represent a selection of the major transportation consumer topics and ideas and are designed to set the stage for more intensive transportation consumer education curriculum development and teacher efforts. (Eleven manuals covering the four transportation topics of public transportation, transportation and the…

  15. Children and transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon

    2003-12-09

    This issue of the 'Sustainable Transportation Monitor', published by the Centre for Sustainable Transportation located in Mississauga, Ontario, reports on key findings from a project involving children and transportation in the Halton and Peel regions of Ontario, recently completed by the Centre. Excerpts from the report summarized in this issue include data on children's travel in Halton and Peel, and a discussion on possible contribution of transport practices to the growing incidence of obesity among Canadian children. Results of the study indicate that until about age 18, travel by children on schooldays is dominated by the journey to and from school. School bus is the choice of 28 per cent, and passenger car by 23 per cent among 11-to-14- year-olds; the share of travel by car is larger for older young people and also likely larger among 6-to-10-year-olds. Physical inactivity has been highlighted as the contributing factor to excess body weight and obesity in this, and other studies. Data collected for this study corroborates the findings of other studies by showing a positive correlation between obesity and transport energy use in 18 affluent countries, suggesting that a high level of use of motorized transport contributes to inactivity and body weight gain. Several alternate means of transportation, with the potential to combat obesity, are proposed. 46 refs.

  16. Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system : transportation assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2006-06-01

    This document provided an assessment of the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system. In addition to regulating the construction and operation of Canada's 45,000 km of pipeline that cross international and provincial borders, Canada's National Energy Board (NEB) regulates the trade of natural gas, oil and natural gas liquids. The ability of pipelines to delivery this energy is critical to the country's economic prosperity. The pipeline system includes large-diameter, cross-country, high-pressure natural gas pipelines, low-pressure crude oil and oil products pipelines and small-diameter pipelines. In order to assess the hydrocarbon transportation system, staff at the NEB collected data from pipeline companies and a range of publicly available sources. The Board also held discussions with members of the investment community regarding capital markets and emerging issues. The assessment focused largely on evaluating whether Canadians benefit from an efficient energy infrastructure and markets. The safety and environmental integrity of the pipeline system was also evaluated. The current adequacy of pipeline capacity was assessed based on price differentials compared with firm service tolls for major transportation paths; capacity utilization on pipelines; and, the degree of apportionment on major oil pipelines. The NEB concluded that the Canadian hydrocarbon transportation system is working effectively, with an adequate capacity in place on existing natural gas pipelines, but with a tight capacity on oil pipelines. It was noted that shippers continue to indicate that they are reasonably satisfied with the services provided by pipeline companies and that the NEB-regulated pipeline companies are financially stable. 14 refs, 11 tabs., 28 figs., 4 appendices

  17. Transports and environment; Transports et environnements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon,

    2004-07-01

    In the framework of the greenhouse gases reduction, this study proposes many advices to control the fuel consumption of the vehicles and to change habits in the transportation sector. It presents also the alternatives to the pollutant today vehicles in the domain of the vehicles and buses fuels but also the new motors. Many Internet addresses are provided to complete the presentation. (A.L.B.)

  18. Transport of hazardous goods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    The course 'Transport of hazardous goods' was held in Berlin in November 1988 in cooperation with the Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung. From all lecturs, two are recorded separately: 'Safety of tank trucks - requirements on the tank, development possibiities of active and passive safety' and 'Requirements on the transport of radioactive materials - possible derivations for other hazardous goods'. The other lectures deal with hazardous goods law, requirements on packinging, risk assessment, railroad transport, hazardous goods road network, insurance matters, EC regulations, and waste tourism. (HSCH) [de

  19. TRANSPORTATION SYSTEM REQUIREMENTS DOCUMENT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    This document establishes the Transportation system requirements for the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS). These requirements are derived from the Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System Requirements Document (CRD). The Transportation System Requirements Document (TSRD) was developed in accordance with LP-3.1Q-OCRWM, Preparation, Review, and Approval of Office of National Transportation Level-2 Baseline Requirements. As illustrated in Figure 1, the TSRD forms a part of the DOE Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Technical Baseline

  20. Transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maassberg, H.; Brakel, R.; Burhenn, R.; Gasparino, U.; Grigull, P.; Kick, M.; Kuehner, G.; Ringler, H.; Sardei, F.; Stroth, U.; Weller, A.

    1993-01-01

    The local electron and ion heat transport as well as the particle and impurity transport properties in stellarators are reviewed. In this context, neoclassical theory is used as a guideline for the comparison of the experimental results of the quite different confinement concepts. At sufficiently high temperatures depending on the specific magnetic configuration, neoclassical predictions are confirmed by experimental findings. The confinement properties in the LMFP collisionality regime are discussed with respect to the next stellarator generation, for which at higher temperatures the neoclassical transport is expected to become more important. (orig.)

  1. CNG transport opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon

    2000-01-01

    The recent announcement by the Australian Government of funding for a dramatic increase in supply infrastructure for Compressed Natural Gas (CNG) powered vehicles has shored up predictions that natural gas will achieve a thirty-fold increase in its share of the Australian transport energy market by 2015. This projection, would put sales of natural gas for transport fuel in the year 2014/15 at about 10% of current retail sales across the nation. In the general transport sector, the lower particulate and noise pollution, compared with diesel-powered vehicles, is a significant advantage

  2. Means of Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balle, Søren Hattesen

    The car is probably one of the most central signifiers of modern scientific and technological progress. Not only did its introduction in early 20th century America quite literally move scientific progress into the street, it also provided its increasing number of users with new and technologically....... According to film theorist Julian Smith, the automobile has been just as much “embraced … as a form of emotional transport, the state or condition of being transported by ecstasy” as “perceived as a mode of transportation in the primary and ordinary sense of the word.” This paper analyses the ways in which...

  3. Transport Coefficients of Fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Eu, Byung Chan

    2006-01-01

    Until recently the formal statistical mechanical approach offered no practicable method for computing the transport coefficients of liquids, and so most practitioners had to resort to empirical fitting formulas. This has now changed, as demonstrated in this innovative monograph. The author presents and applies new methods based on statistical mechanics for calculating the transport coefficients of simple and complex liquids over wide ranges of density and temperature. These molecular theories enable the transport coefficients to be calculated in terms of equilibrium thermodynamic properties, and the results are shown to account satisfactorily for experimental observations, including even the non-Newtonian behavior of fluids far from equilibrium.

  4. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-08-25

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport

  5. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.D. Schreiber

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to develop and analyze the engineered barrier system (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, consistent with Level I and Level II model validation, as identified in ''Technical Work Plan for: Near-Field Environment and Transport: Engineered Barrier System: Radionuclide Transport Abstraction Model Report Integration'' (BSC 2005 [DIRS 173617]). The EBS radionuclide transport abstraction (or EBS RT Abstraction) is the conceptual model used in the total system performance assessment for the license application (TSPA-LA) to determine the rate of radionuclide releases from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ). The EBS RT Abstraction conceptual model consists of two main components: a flow model and a transport model. Both models are developed mathematically from first principles in order to show explicitly what assumptions, simplifications, and approximations are incorporated into the models used in the TSPA-LA. The flow model defines the pathways for water flow in the EBS and specifies how the flow rate is computed in each pathway. Input to this model includes the seepage flux into a drift. The seepage flux is potentially split by the drip shield, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the drip shield and some passing through breaches in the drip shield that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. The flux through drip shield breaches is potentially split by the waste package, with some (or all) of the flux being diverted by the waste package and some passing through waste package breaches that might result from corrosion or seismic damage. Neither the drip shield nor the waste package survives an igneous intrusion, so the flux splitting submodel is not used in the igneous scenario class. The flow model is validated in an independent model validation technical review. The drip shield and waste package flux splitting algorithms are developed and validated using experimental data. The transport model considers

  6. NJ transportation fact book, 2007

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The New Jersey Transportation Fact Book 2006-07 presents information about the New Jersey Department of Transportation : and other agencies that provide transportation services in New Jersey. We hope it will prove helpful.

  7. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2013 (NTAD2013) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  8. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2015 (NTAD2015) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  9. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2012 (NTAD2012) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  10. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2011 (NTAD2011) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  11. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2009.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2009 (NTAD2009) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  12. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2014 (NTAD2014) is a set of nationwide geographic datasets of transportation facilities, transportation networks, associated infrastructure, and other political and administrative entities. These datasets i...

  13. National Transportation Atlas Databases : 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    The National Transportation Atlas Databases 2010 (NTAD2010) is a set of nationwide geographic databases of transportation facilities, transportation networks, and associated infrastructure. These datasets include spatial information for transportatio...

  14. Development of Indian passenger transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramanathan, R. [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India)

    1998-05-01

    The Indian transport sector has been studied using logistic substitution. The share of rail transport is declining, while road and air transport are increasing. These developments are not desirable from an energy-efficiency perspective. (author)

  15. Transportation statistics annual report 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information compiled by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportations (USDOTs) Research and Innovative Technology Admini...

  16. Transportation statistics annual report 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report (TSAR) presents data and information selected by the Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS), a component of the U.S. Department of Transportation's (USDOT's) Research and Innovative Technology Administra...

  17. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The Bureau of Transportation Statistics (BTS) of the Research and Innovative Technology Administration produces the Pocket Guide to Transportation as a compact resource that provides snapshots of the U.S. transportation system and highlights major tr...

  18. Pocket Guide to Transportation 2018

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The 2018 BTS Pocket Guide to Transportation is a quick reference guide that provides transportation statistics at your fingertips. It provides key information and highlights major trends on the U.S. transportation system. This year features a new and...

  19. Accident resistant transport container

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, J.A.; Cole, K.K.

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident.

  20. Molecular electronic junction transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solomon, Gemma C.; Herrmann, Carmen; Ratner, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Whenasinglemolecule,oracollectionofmolecules,isplacedbetween two electrodes and voltage is applied, one has a molecular transport junction. We discuss such junctions, their properties, their description, and some of their applications. The discussion is qualitative rather than quantitative, and f...

  1. Transportation energy data book

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    The Transportation Energy Data Book: Edition 28 is a statistical compendium prepared and : published by Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) under contract with the U.S. Department of : Energy, Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Vehicl...

  2. Interfacial transport phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Slattery, John C; Oh, Eun-Suok

    2007-01-01

    Revised and updated extensively from the previous editionDiscusses transport phenomena at common lines or three-phase lines of contactProvides a comprehensive summary about the extensions of continuum mechanics to the nanoscale.

  3. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-07-01

    The norm which establishes the requirements of radiation protection and safety related to the transport of radioactive materials, aiming to keep a suitable control level of eventual exposure of personnels, materials and environment of ionizing radiation, including: specifications on radioactive materials for transport, selection of package type; specification of requirements of the design and assays of acceptance of packages; disposal related to the transport; and liability and administrative requirements, are presented. This norm is applied to: truckage, water carriage and air service; design, fabrication, assays and mantenaince of packages; preparation, despatching, handling, loading storage in transition and reception in the ultimate storage of packages; and transport of void packages which have been contained radioactive materials. (M.C.K.) [pt

  4. Transport and the environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharp, C; Jennings, T

    1976-01-01

    This book examines the impact of transport operations on the environment. Noise, air pollution, vibration, accidents, delays caused by slow-moving vehicles, road wear, visual intrusion, the severance of communities--all these social costs of transport are studied, together with policies that might reduce them. The difficulties in measuring costs and benefits and the value judgments that may guide transport policy are reviewed. Specific problems examined include the journey to work, traffic-free shopping streets, urban motor-ways, and inter-change depots for goods vehicles. The role of central and local government is considered, particular attention being given to methods of allowing for environmental benefits when planning new transport investment; the implications of EEC policy are also noted.

  5. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    The existing U.S. hub-and-spoke air transportation system is reaching saturation. Major aspects of the current system, such as capacity, safety, mobility, customer satisfaction, security, communications, and ecological effects, require improvements. The changing dynamics - increased presence of general aviation, unmanned autonomous vehicles, military aircraft in civil airspace as part of homeland defense - contributes to growing complexity of airspace. The system has proven remarkably resistant to change. NASA Langley Research Center and the National Institute of Aerospace conducted a workshop on Transportation Network Topologies on 9-10 December 2003 in Williamsburg, Virginia. The workshop aimed to examine the feasibility of traditional methods for complex system analysis and design as well as potential novel alternatives in application to transportation systems, identify state-of-the-art models and methods, conduct gap analysis, and thus to lay a foundation for establishing a focused research program in complex systems applied to air transportation.

  6. Modelling Ballast Water Transport

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Jayakumar, S.; Babu, M.T.; Vethamony, P.

    Ballast water discharges in the coastal environs have caused a great concern over the recent periods as they account for transporting marine organisms from one part of the world to the other. The movement of discharged ballast water as well...

  7. Transportation Industry 2004

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Miller, Evan; Kathir, Nathan; Brogan, Dennis M

    2004-01-01

    ... and the environment in which the private sector operates. They must also assess the role of government in determining transportation policy, as federal, state, and local agencies regulate every mode of this industry. While the U.S...

  8. Transportation Security Administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... content Official website of the Department of Homeland Security Transportation Security Administration A - Z Index Blog What Can I ... Search form Search the Site Main menu Travel Security Screening Special Procedures TSA Pre✓® Passenger Support Travel ...

  9. Remote controlled transport device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakahira, Masataka; Oka, Kiyoshi; Ito, Akira; Tada, Eisuke; Sato, Masaki

    1998-01-01

    The present invention provides a device for transporting equipments for maintenance and parts between a maintenance port and a facility for maintenance by remote control in a radioactive material handling facility such as a nuclear power plant. Namely, a power supply bus bar is disposed along a transferring path in order to supply power to a transporting means, and is divided into every region having a predetermined length. Each of the power supply bus bar regions is controlled for the power supply by a control device. Accordingly, the transporting means can be moved and driven successively being independent on every power supply bus bar region. Accordingly, a plurality of transporting means can be operated independently in a transferring path without laying around power cables and control signal cables. (I.S.)

  10. Active transport and heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tait, Peter W

    2011-07-01

    Increasing heat may impede peoples' ability to be active outdoors thus limiting active transport options. Co-benefits from mitigation of and adaptation to global warming should not be assumed but need to be actively designed into strategies.

  11. Transportation and Tourism

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-01

    This project explored the link between transportation and tourism in Texas. A session on transit and tourism was organized and conducted as part of the 2012 Texas Transit Conference. Speakers at the session described public transit services oriented ...

  12. Risicobeheersing transport diervoeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, G.A.L.; Houwers, H.W.J.; Ipema, A.H.; Boekhoff, M.

    2007-01-01

    Welke knelpunten en oplossingsrichtingen bestaan in de praktijk van het transport diervoeders met betrekking tot de implementatie van de diervoederhygiëneverordening, toegespitst op informatievoorziening over wettelijke en bovenwettelijke eisen, naleving, controle en handhaving?

  13. Offsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1997-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the offsite transportation of hazardous material from the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by the US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 151.1. Offsite transportation accidents are categorized using the DOE system to assist communication within the DOE and assure that appropriate assistance is provided to the people in charge at the scene. The assistance will initially include information about the load and the potential hazards. Local authorities will use the information to protect the public following a transportation accident. This Hazards Assessment will focus on the material being transported from the Hanford Site. Shipments coming to Hanford are the responsibility of the shipper and the carrier and, therefore, are not included in this Hazards Assessment, unless the DOE elects to be the shipper of record

  14. Manpower and Transportation Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lai, S.W.

    2014-01-01

    This thesis studies three routing and scheduling problems arising in manpower and transportation planning. These problems are rooted in real applications, and carry interesting characteristics. By exploiting the structures of the problems, this thesis provides effective mathematical models and

  15. Energy and transportation(*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermans J.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  16. MANAGEMENT OF TOURISM TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Cecilia STĂNCIULESCU

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Undoubtedly, the relevance of transport activities in relation to tourism activities is essential, because it is extremely important and necessary to offer feasible information about tourism services to help consumer to choose the mode of travel to destinations ideal holiday. The methods used in the development of this hypothesis were explanation, exemplification (brief presentation of each mode of transport comparison etc. Analyzing the current situation of national, European and World Wide tourism transportation, the paper proposes practical applications able to explain that the conduct of economic activities as an integral part of the sector of trade and services within a national economy, would not be possible without the involvement of transport, whether by road, rail and air and naval. The results of the analysis are perfectly applicable offering guests the opportunity to reach the most remote corners of the world in a short time, high degree of comfort and affordable price.

  17. Crew Transportation Operations Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mango, Edward J.; Pearson, Don J. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    The Crew Transportation Operations Standards contains descriptions of ground and flight operations processes and specifications and the criteria which will be used to evaluate the acceptability of Commercial Providers' proposed processes and specifications.

  18. Accident resistant transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, J.A.; Cole, J.K.

    1980-01-01

    The invention relates to a container for the safe air transport of plutonium having several intermediate wood layers and a load spreader intermediate an inner container and an outer shell for mitigation of shock during a hypothetical accident

  19. Cooperative Transport Planning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zutt, J.; De Weerdt, M.M.

    2000-01-01

    To test and compare different forms of cooperative planning algorithms developed in the CABS project we use a generic simulator called MARS. Examples in the transportation sector are implemented in this simulator.

  20. Energy and transportation(*)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermans, J.

    2015-08-01

    Transportation takes a considerable and increasing fraction of the energy use worldwide, and more than half the oil consumption. By far the largest part is used by cars powered by internal combustion engines. The advantage of using internal combustion engines is that the energy density of liquid fuels is extremely high. The disadvantage is that gasoline and diesel engines have a poor performance: 20 to 25% only. How does this compare with electric cars? What are the alternative transportation systems and their efficiencies anyway? In this lecture we analyse the efficiency of various transport systems, using elementary physics principles. We will look at cars, buses, trains and TGVs, ships and aircraft. In addition, the efficiency of human powered vehicles will be considered. New and promising developments in the field of Intelligent Transportation Systems, like Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control, are also discussed.

  1. Transport statistics 1996

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Shepperson, L

    1997-12-01

    Full Text Available This publication contains transport and related statistics on roads, vehicles, infrastructure, passengers, freight, rail, air, maritime and road traffic, and international comparisons. The information compiled in this publication has been gathered...

  2. CHARTB multigroup transport package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baker, L.

    1979-03-01

    The physics and numerical implementation of the radiation transport routine used in the CHARTB MHD code are discussed. It is a one-dimensional (Cartesian, cylindrical, and spherical symmetry), multigroup,, diffusion approximation. Tests and applications will be discussed as well

  3. Animal transportation networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perna, Andrea; Latty, Tanya

    2014-01-01

    Many group-living animals construct transportation networks of trails, galleries and burrows by modifying the environment to facilitate faster, safer or more efficient movement. Animal transportation networks can have direct influences on the fitness of individuals, whereas the shape and structure of transportation networks can influence community dynamics by facilitating contacts between different individuals and species. In this review, we discuss three key areas in the study of animal transportation networks: the topological properties of networks, network morphogenesis and growth, and the behaviour of network users. We present a brief primer on elements of network theory, and then discuss the different ways in which animal groups deal with the fundamental trade-off between the competing network properties of travel efficiency, robustness and infrastructure cost. We consider how the behaviour of network users can impact network efficiency, and call for studies that integrate both network topology and user behaviour. We finish with a prospectus for future research. PMID:25165598

  4. On linear transport problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatovich, V.K.

    1989-01-01

    The equations. governing the transport of radiation in plane media of finite thickness are formulated and solved in terms reflection and extintion of radiation inthe case of semi infinite media. 13 refs

  5. Improved electron transport layer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2012-01-01

    The present invention provides: a method of preparing a coating ink for forming a zinc oxide electron transport layer, comprising mixing zinc acetate and a wetting agent in water or methanol; a coating ink comprising zinc acetate and a wetting agent in aqueous solution or methanolic solution......; a method of preparing a zinc oxide electron transporting layer, which method comprises: i) coating a substrate with the coating ink of the present invention to form a film; ii) drying the film; and iii) heating the dry film to convert the zinc acetate substantially to ZnO; a method of preparing an organic...... photovoltaic device or an organic LED having a zinc oxide electron transport layer, the method comprising, in this order: a) providing a substrate bearing a first electrode layer; b) forming an electron transport layer according to the following method: i) coating a coating ink comprising an ink according...

  6. Transportation Network Topologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmes, Bruce J.; Scott, John

    2004-01-01

    A discomforting reality has materialized on the transportation scene: our existing air and ground infrastructures will not scale to meet our nation's 21st century demands and expectations for mobility, commerce, safety, and security. The consequence of inaction is diminished quality of life and economic opportunity in the 21st century. Clearly, new thinking is required for transportation that can scale to meet to the realities of a networked, knowledge-based economy in which the value of time is a new coin of the realm. This paper proposes a framework, or topology, for thinking about the problem of scalability of the system of networks that comprise the aviation system. This framework highlights the role of integrated communication-navigation-surveillance systems in enabling scalability of future air transportation networks. Scalability, in this vein, is a goal of the recently formed Joint Planning and Development Office for the Next Generation Air Transportation System. New foundations for 21st thinking about air transportation are underpinned by several technological developments in the traditional aircraft disciplines as well as in communication, navigation, surveillance and information systems. Complexity science and modern network theory give rise to one of the technological developments of importance. Scale-free (i.e., scalable) networks represent a promising concept space for modeling airspace system architectures, and for assessing network performance in terms of scalability, efficiency, robustness, resilience, and other metrics. The paper offers an air transportation system topology as framework for transportation system innovation. Successful outcomes of innovation in air transportation could lay the foundations for new paradigms for aircraft and their operating capabilities, air transportation system architectures, and airspace architectures and procedural concepts. The topology proposed considers air transportation as a system of networks, within which

  7. Heat transport and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Despois, J.

    1977-01-01

    Recalling the close connections existing between heat transport and storage, some general considerations on the problem of heat distribution and transport are presented 'in order to set out the problem' of storage in concrete form. This problem is considered in its overall plane, then studied under the angle of the different technical choices it involves. The two alternatives currently in consideration are described i.e.: storage in a mined cavity and underground storage as captive sheet [fr

  8. Transportation and its Infrastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Ribeiro, Suzana K; Kobayashi, Shigeki; Beuthe, Michel; Gasca, Jorge; Greene, David; Lee, David S.; Muromachi, Yasunori; Newton, Peter J.; Plotkin, Steven; Sperling, Daniel; Wit, Ron; Zhou, Peter J

    2007-01-01

    Transport activity, a key component of economic development and human welfare, is increasing around the world as economies grow. For most policymakers, the most pressing problems associated with this increasing transport activity are traffic fatalities and injuries, congestion, air pollution and petroleum dependence. These problems are especially acute in the most rapidly growing economies of the developing world. Mitigating greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions can take its place among these other ...

  9. Transportation of radioactive elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thubert, Francis; Rentien, Guy; Jacquet, Michel

    1981-01-01

    The production and marketing of artificial radioactive elements engaged in by the 'Office des Rayonnements Ionisants' requires the use of specially designed packagings and assorted means of transport. The authors begin by describing the different kinds of products involved and the forms of packagings needed, and go on to discuss the various means of transport used, underlining the fact that, in terms of number and gravity, the incidents that have occurred to date have indeed been few and far between [fr

  10. Tape transport mechanism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groh, E.F.; McDowell, W.; Modjeski, N.S.; Keefe, D.J.; Groer, P.

    1979-01-01

    A device is provided for transporting, in a stepwise manner, tape between a feed reel and takeup reel. An indexer moves across the normal path of the tape displacing it while the tape on the takeup reel side of the indexer is braked. After displacement, the takeup reel takes up the displaced tape while the tape on the feed reel side of the indexer is braked, providing stepwise tape transport in precise intervals determined by the amount of displacement caused by the indexer

  11. Monitoring of transport contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turkin, N.F.

    1980-01-01

    Organization of monitoring of transport contamination is considered. A particularly thorough monitoring is recommended to be carried out in loading-unloading operations. The monitoring is performed when leaving loading-unloading site and zone under control and prior to preventive examination, technical service or repair. The method of monitoring of auto transport contamination with high-energy β-emitters by means of a special stand permitting the automation of the monitoring process is described [ru

  12. Digital intelligence sources transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Zhen; Wang Renbo

    2011-01-01

    It presents from the collection of particle-ray counting, infrared data communication, real-time monitoring and alarming, GPRS and other issues start to realize the digital management of radioactive sources, complete the real-time monitoring of all aspects, include the storing of radioactive sources, transporting and using, framing intelligent radioactive sources transporter, as a result, achieving reliable security supervision of radioactive sources. (authors)

  13. Spin transport in nanowires

    OpenAIRE

    Pramanik, S.; bandyopadhyay, S.; Cahay, M.

    2003-01-01

    We study high-field spin transport of electrons in a quasi one-dimensional channel of a $GaAs$ gate controlled spin interferometer (SPINFET) using a semiclassical formalism (spin density matrix evolution coupled with Boltzmann transport equation). Spin dephasing (or depolarization) is predominantly caused by D'yakonov-Perel' relaxation associated with momentum dependent spin orbit coupling effects that arise due to bulk inversion asymmetry (Dresselhaus spin orbit coupling) and structural inve...

  14. Thermoelectric transport in superlattices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinecke, T L; Broido, D A

    1997-07-01

    The thermoelectric transport properties of superlattices have been studied using an exact solution of the Boltzmann equation. The role of heat transport along the barrier layers, of carrier tunneling through the barriers, of valley degeneracy and of the well width and energy dependences of the carrier-phonon scattering rates on the thermoelectric figure of merit are given. Calculations are given for Bi{sub 2}Te{sub 3} and for PbTe, and the results of recent experiments are discussed.

  15. Transport of reservoir fines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yuan, Hao; Shapiro, Alexander; Stenby, Erling Halfdan

    Modeling transport of reservoir fines is of great importance for evaluating the damage of production wells and infectivity decline. The conventional methodology accounts for neither the formation heterogeneity around the wells nor the reservoir fines’ heterogeneity. We have developed an integral...... dispersion equation in modeling the transport and the deposition of reservoir fines. It successfully predicts the unsymmetrical concentration profiles and the hyperexponential deposition in experiments....

  16. Climate change : transportation table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ogilvie, K.

    1999-01-01

    The Kyoto Protocol sets greenhouse gas (GHG) reduction targets for the post-2000 period. If ratified, Canada will be committed to reduce emissions of GHGs by 6 per cent below 1990 levels during the period 2008-2012. A recommended national strategy is to establish 'issue tables' that will advise the Ministers of Energy and Environment on preferred options to reach the Kyoto target and to identify early actions that can be taken. The 'Transportation Table' which is the focus of this paper, is one of the 15 sectoral tables. The Transportation Table will identify by July 1999, specific measures to mitigate GHG emissions from Canada's transportation sector. Currently, GHG emissions from the transportation sector are predicted to be 27 per cent above 1990 levels by 2010. Fuel taxes, emissions trading, and research into improved vehicle technologies and automotive fuels are some of the recommended options which can help reduce emissions trading from the transportation sector. Studies are underway to deal with emissions from transport in two sub-groups, freight and passenger. 1 fig

  17. Experimental constraints on transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luce, T.C.; Petty, K.H.; Burrell, K.H.; Forest, C.B.; Gohil, P.; Groebner, R.J.; De Haas, J.C.M.; James, R.A.; Makowski, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    Characterization of the cross-field energy transport in magnetic confinement experiments in a manner applicable to the accurate assessment of future machine performance continues to be a challenging goal. Experimental results from the DIII-D tokamak in the areas of dimensionless scaling and non-diffusive transport represent progress toward this goal. Dimensionless scaling shows how beneficial the increase in machine size and magnetic field is for future devices. The experiments on DIII-D are the first to determine separately the electron and ion scaling with normalized gyroradius ρ * ; the electrons scale as expected from gyro-Bohm class theories, while the ions scale consistent with the Goldston empirical scaling. This result predicts an increase in transport relative to Bohm diffusion as ρ * decreases in future devices. The existence of distinct ρ * scalings for ions and electrons cautions against a physical interpretation of one-fluid or global analysis. The second class of experiments reported here are the first to demonstrate the existence of non-diffusive energy transport. Electron cyclotron heating was applied at the half radius; the electron temperature profile remains substantially peaked. Power balance analysis indicates that heat must flow in the direction of increasing temperature, which is inconsistent with purely diffusive transport. The dynamics of electron temperature perturbations indicate the presence in the heat flux of a term dependent on temperature rather than its gradient. These two observations strongly constrain the types of models which can be applied to cross-field heat transport

  18. Transportation of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brobst, W.A.

    1977-01-01

    Twenty years of almost accident-free transport of nuclear materials is pointed to as evidence of a fundamentally correct approach to the problems involved. The increased volume and new technical problems in the future will require extension of these good practices in both regulations and packaging. The general principles of safety in the transport of radioactive materials are discussed first, followed by the transport of spent fuel and of radioactive waste. The security and physical protection of nuclear shipments is then treated. In discussing future problems, the question of public understanding and acceptance is taken first, thereafter transport safeguards and the technical bases for the safety regulations. There is also said to be a need for a new technology for spent fuel casks, while a re-examination of the IAEA transport standards for radiation doses is recommended. The IAEA regulations regarding quality assurance are said to be incomplete, and more information is required on correlations between engineering analysis, scale model testing and full scale crash testing. Transport stresses on contents need to be considered while administrative controls have been neglected. (JIW)

  19. Transport processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    1988-01-01

    This part is devoted to the classical transport theory in plasmas. Ch. 1 is a chapter of 'pure' hamiltonian mechanics and starts with the study of the motion of an individual charged particle in the presence of an electromagnetic field. Ch. 2 introduces the tools of statistical mechanics for the study of large collections of charged particles. A kinetic theory is derived as a basic tool for transport theory. In ch. 3 the hydro-dynamic - or plasmadynamic - balance equations are derived. The macroscopic dynamical equations have the structure of an infinite hierarchy. This introduces the necessity of construction of a transport theory, by which te infinite set of equations can be reduced to a finite, closed set. This can only be done by a detailed analysis of the kinetic equation under well defined conditions. The tools for such nan analysis are developed in ch. 4. In ch. 5 the transport equations, relating the unknown fluxes of matter, momentum, energy and electricity to the hydrodynamic variables, are derived and discussed. In ch. 6 the results are incorporated into the wider framework of non-equilibrium thermodynamics by connecting the transport processes to the central concept of entropy production. In ch. 7 the results of transport theory are put back into the equations of plasmadynamics

  20. Transport of radioisotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aoki, Shigefumi

    1978-01-01

    Presently the amount of radioisotopes increased very much and the application spread to wide fields in Japan. Since facilities using radioisotopes are distributed to every place in the country, every transport means such as airplanes, automobiles, railways, ships and mail are employed. The problems in the transport of radioisotopes include too much difference in the recognition of criticality among the persons concerning the transportation and treatment, knowledges of shielding and energy difference in the types of radiation and handling of sealed and unsealed sources and the casks for transport. IAEA established the latest regulation on the package of radioisotopes in 1973, and in Japan, the related regulations will be revised according to the IAEA's regulation in near future. The present status in the inspection at the time of shipment, supervision, and the measures to the accidents are described for the transport means of airplanes, ships and automobiles. Finally, concerning the insurance for cargo, the objects of the insurance for radioisotopes include either the radioisotopes contained in casks for transportation or radioisotopes only. Generally, radioisotopes are accepted in all-risk condition including casks and limited to the useful radioisotopes for peaceful use. (Wakatsuki, Y

  1. Paleoclassical transport explains electron transport barriers in RTP and TEXTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hogeweij, G. M. D.; Callen, J.D.

    2008-01-01

    The recently developed paleoclassical transport model sets the minimum level of electron thermal transport in a tokamak. This transport level has proven to be in good agreement with experimental observations in many cases when fluctuation-induced anomalous transport is small, i.e. in (near-) ohmic

  2. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properties. Every transportation system has advantages and disadvantages over each other. Therefore, comprehensive plans for future periods have to be prepared and how the sources of the country should be reasonably distributed among transportation systems must be investigated. Also, transportation plans have to be prepared to get coordinated operations among transportation systems while great investments are instituted in the entire country. There is no doubt that it is possible with combined transportation instead of concentration on one transportation system. Transportation policies in Turkey should be questioned since the level of highway transportation usage reaches to 95 % and level of sea transportation usage drops to less than 1 % in spite of being surrounded with sea in three sides of our land. In this paper, transportation systems and transportation policies in Turkey are evaluated in general and problems are analysed. Proposals are presented for the solutions of these problems.

  3. Spent fuel transportation problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondrat'ev, A.N.; Kosarev, Yu.A.; Yulikov, E.A.

    1977-01-01

    In this paper, problems of transportation of nuclear spent fuel to reprocessing plants are discussed. The solutions proposed are directed toward the achievement of the transportation as economic and safe as possible. The increase of the nuclear power plants number in the USSR and the great distances between these plants and the reprocessing plants involve an intensification of the spent fuel transportation. Higher burnup and holdup time reduction cause the necessity of more bulky casks. In this connection, the economic problems become still more important. One of the ways of the problem solution is the development of rational and cheap cask designs. Also, the enforcement in the world of the environmental and personnel health protection requires to increase the transportation reliability and safety. The paper summarizes safe transportation rules with clarifying the following questions: the increase of the transport unit quantity of the spent fuel; rational shipment organization that minimizes vehicle turnover cycle duration; development of the reliable calculation methods to determine strength, thermal conditions and nuclear safety of transport packaging as applied to the vehicles of high capacity; maximum unification of vehicles, calculation methods and documents; and cask testing on models and in pilot scale on specific test rigs to assure that they meet the international safe fuel shipment rules. Besides, some considerations on the choice and use of structural materials for casks are given, and problems of manufacturing such casks from uranium and lead are considered, as well as problems of the development of fireproof shells, control instrumentation, vehicles decontamination, etc. All the problems are considered from the point of view of normal and accidental shipment conditions. Conclusions are presented [ru

  4. Intelligent Transport Systems in the Management of Road Transportation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalupová, Blanka; Hlavoň, Ivan

    2016-11-01

    Extension of European Union causes increase of free transfer of people and goods. At the same time they raised the problems associated with the transport, e.g. congestion and related accidents on roads, air traffic delays and more. To increase the efficiency and safety of transport, the European Commission supports the introduction of intelligent transport systems and services in all transport sectors. Implementation of intelligent transport systems and services in the road transport reduces accident frequency, increases the capacity of existing infrastructure and reduces congestions. Use of toll systems provides resources needed for the construction and operation of a new road network, improves public transport, cycling transport and walking transport, and also their multimodal integration with individual car transport.

  5. An ATP Binding Cassette Transporter Mediates the Uptake of α-(1,6)-Linked Dietary Oligosaccharides in Bifidobacterium and Correlates with Competitive Growth on These Substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ejby, Morten; Fredslund, Folmer; Andersen, Joakim Mark; Vujičić Žagar, Andreja; Henriksen, Jonas Rosager; Andersen, Thomas Lars; Svensson, Birte; Slotboom, Dirk Jan; Abou Hachem, Maher

    2016-09-16

    The molecular details and impact of oligosaccharide uptake by distinct human gut microbiota (HGM) are currently not well understood. Non-digestible dietary galacto- and gluco-α-(1,6)-oligosaccharides from legumes and starch, respectively, are preferentially fermented by mainly bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in the human gut. Here we show that the solute binding protein (BlG16BP) associated with an ATP binding cassette (ABC) transporter from the probiotic Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 binds α-(1,6)-linked glucosides and galactosides of varying size, linkage, and monosaccharide composition with preference for the trisaccharides raffinose and panose. This preference is also reflected in the α-(1,6)-galactoside uptake profile of the bacterium. Structures of BlG16BP in complex with raffinose and panose revealed the basis for the remarkable ligand binding plasticity of BlG16BP, which recognizes the non-reducing α-(1,6)-diglycoside in its ligands. BlG16BP homologues occur predominantly in bifidobacteria and a few Firmicutes but lack in other HGMs. Among seven bifidobacterial taxa, only those possessing this transporter displayed growth on α-(1,6)-glycosides. Competition assays revealed that the dominant HGM commensal Bacteroides ovatus was out-competed by B. animalis subsp. lactis Bl-04 in mixed cultures growing on raffinose, the preferred ligand for the BlG16BP. By comparison, B. ovatus mono-cultures grew very efficiently on this trisaccharide. These findings suggest that the ABC-mediated uptake of raffinose provides an important competitive advantage, particularly against dominant Bacteroides that lack glycan-specific ABC-transporters. This novel insight highlights the role of glycan transport in defining the metabolic specialization of gut bacteria. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Radioactive material transporting container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watabe, Yukio.

    1990-01-01

    As a supporting member of a sealing container for containing spent fuels, etc., a straight pipe or a cylinder has been used. However, upon dropping test, the supporting member is buckled toward the central axis of a transporting container and a shock absorber is crushed in the axial direction to prevent its pushing force to the outer side, which may possibly hinder normal shock moderating function. Then, at least more than one-half of the supporting member is protruded radially to the outer side of the sealing container beyond the fixed portion with the sealed container, so that the member has a portion extended in the radial outside of the transporting container with an angle greater than the angle formed between a line connecting the outer circumference at the bottom of an outer cylinder with the gravitational center of the transporting container and the central axis of the transporting container. As a result, buckling of the supporting member toward the central axis of the transporting container upon dropping test can be prevented and the deformation of the shock absorber is neither not prevented to exhibit normal shock absorbing effect. This can improve the reliability and reduce the amount of shock absorbers. (N.H.)

  7. Sustainable Urban Transport Planning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boitor Melania R.

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Environmental protection has become a common issue in every area, but extremely important for the domains which deal with intensive energy consumption as it is the case of the transportation. Achieving the sustainable cities on the other hand, is also focused on the protection of the environment in order to provide a higher quality of life for the population. Therefore it is considered that by improving the urban transportation planning additional benefits could be provided for both the environment and the sustainable development of the cities. One possibility is to supplement the traditionally land-use plans with the transportrelated zones analysis, where the city is divided in public transport, pedestrian and caroriented zones. Analyzing the transport-related zones of a city is important as it provides additional information in the assessment of the development trend. The process of zoning was conducted for the city of Cluj-Napoca, Romania. In this paper, the outcome of the zoning was analyzed for a more comprehensive review of the urban transport in order to attain a sustainable-oriented approach of the urban area development.

  8. A new transport hub

    CERN Multimedia

    Corinne Pralavorio

    2016-01-01

    CERN’s new Mobility Centre, allowing you to switch easily from one mode of transport to another, has just been officially opened.   Inauguration of the CERN Mobility Centre by Martin Steinacher, Director for Finance and Human Resources, and Lluis Miralles, Head of the SMB department. CERN’s new Mobility Centre, on the car park next to the Globe of Science and Innovation was officially opened on Tuesday, 22 March. The centre brings together all of CERN’s transport options in a single location. "Our aim is to create an intermodal hub where CERN users and personnel can switch from one mode of transport to another, and from CERN transport to public transport," explains Lluis Miralles, head of the Site Management and Buildings (SMB) department. The Mobility Centre incorporates the CERN bike and car rental services, the self-service car- and bike-sharing schemes, and SIXT car rental facilities (for long-distance journeys). It is located right ne...

  9. Nuclear materials transport worldwide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stellpflug, J.

    1987-01-01

    This Greenpeace report shows: nuclear materials transport is an extremely hazardous business. There is no safe protection against accidents, kidnapping, or sabotage. Any moment of a day, at any place, a nuclear transport accident may bring the world to disaster, releasing plutonium or radioactive fission products to the environment. Such an event is not less probable than the MCA at Chernobyl. The author of the book in hand follows the secret track of radioactive materials around the world, from uranium mines to the nuclear power plants, from reprocessing facilities to the waste repositories. He explores the routes of transport and the risks involved, he gives the names of transport firms and discloses incidents and carelessness, tells about damaged waste drums and plutonium that 'disappeared'. He also tells about worldwide, organised resistance to such nuclear transports, explaining the Greenpeace missions on the open sea, or the 'day X' operation at the Gorleben site, informing the reader about protests and actions for a world freed from the threat of nuclear energy. (orig./HP) [de

  10. Hydrogen and transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomsons, E.

    2007-01-01

    In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 43 PJ, which makes up 23% of the total priMary resources used in the country. On the world scale this latter figure was 17.6% in 2003. On the 1st October of 2005 in Latvia 808.6 thous. of cars, 119.9 thous. of lorries, 10,7 thous. of buses and 27.1 thous. of motorcycles were registred. The annual growth in the number of light motor cars in the last years was 5.5% on the average. In 2005 the Latvian transport consumed 335 thous. tons of petrol and 542 thous. tons of diesel fuel, which makes up 87.4% of the total resources used (in terms of the combustion heat). In the period of 2002-2005 the annual growth of energy resources consumed by transport was 4.87% on the average. According to forecasts, in 2015 the transports of our country will spend 1.64 times more energy resources as compared with 2005. If the transport of 2015 uses hydrogen, then for Latvia 270 thous. tons of this product will be needed. To obtain 270 thous. tons of hydrogen from water using the up-to-date equipment for electrolysis a considerable amount of electric energy is required. Such amount can be produced by generating stations of the total capacity of 1680 MWe(net). This figure is close to that for the total installed capacity of electric energy production already existing in Latvia. (Author)

  11. Transportation and air quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roseland, M.

    1992-01-01

    In the greater Vancouver regional district (GVRD), some 80% of the annual production of 600,000 tonnes of air pollutants come from motor vehicles. Three critical air quality issues in the GVRD are discussed: local air pollution, ozone layer depletion, and greenhouse gas emissions, all of which are fundamentally linked to transportation. Overall air quality in the GVRD has been judged acceptable by current federal standards, but ground-level ozone has exceeded maximum tolerable levels at some locations and concentrations of suspended particulates are above maximum acceptable levels. Serious deterioration in air quality has been predicted unless a concerted effort is made to manage air quality on an airshed-wide basis. The GVRD is developing Canada's first Air Management Plan with the goal of halving atmospheric emissions by 2000. GVRD transportation priorities stress public transit, walking, cycling, car pooling, and reducing of travel demand; however, the viability of such strategies depends on decisions made outside the transportation sector. Restricted authority and jurisdiction also hinder GVRD goals; the regional level of government has no authority over highways or transit and only has authority for pollution control in some parts of the Fraser Valley. Airshed quality management, using the Los Angeles example, is seen as a possible direction for future GVRD policymaking in the transportation sector. A single regional planning agency with responsibility for transportation, land use, and air quality management appears as the best option for an integrated approach to solve multiple problems. 19 refs

  12. Transport in Stochastic Media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haran, O.; Shvarts, D.; Thieberger, R.

    1998-01-01

    Classical transport of neutral particles in a binary, scattering, stochastic media is discussed. It is assumed that the cross-sections of the constituent materials and their volume fractions are known. The inner structure of the media is stochastic, but there exist a statistical knowledge about the lump sizes, shapes and arrangement. The transmission through the composite media depends on the specific heterogeneous realization of the media. The current research focuses on the averaged transmission through an ensemble of realizations, frm which an effective cross-section for the media can be derived. The problem of one dimensional transport in stochastic media has been studied extensively [1]. In the one dimensional description of the problem, particles are transported along a line populated with alternating material segments of random lengths. The current work discusses transport in two-dimensional stochastic media. The phenomenon that is unique to the multi-dimensional description of the problem is obstacle bypassing. Obstacle bypassing tends to reduce the opacity of the media, thereby reducing its effective cross-section. The importance of this phenomenon depends on the manner in which the obstacles are arranged in the media. Results of transport simulations in multi-dimensional stochastic media are presented. Effective cross-sections derived from the simulations are compared against those obtained for the one-dimensional problem, and against those obtained from effective multi-dimensional models, which are partially based on a Markovian assumption

  13. Thermal Transport in Phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Guangzhao; Hu, Ming

    2018-03-01

    Phosphorene, a novel elemental 2D semiconductor, possesses fascinating chemical and physical properties which are distinctively different from other 2D materials. The rapidly growing applications of phosphorene in nano/optoelectronics and thermoelectrics call for comprehensive studies of thermal transport properties. In this Review, based on the theoretical and experimental progresses, the thermal transport properties of single-layer phosphorene, multilayer phosphorene (nanofilms), and bulk black phosphorus are summarized to give a general view of the overall thermal conductivity trend from single-layer to bulk form. The mechanism underlying the discrepancy in the reported thermal conductivity of phosphorene is discussed by reviewing the effect of different functionals and cutoff distances on the thermal transport evaluations. This Review then provides fundamental insight into the thermal transport in phosphorene by reviewing the role of resonant bonding in driving giant phonon anharmonicity and long-range interactions. In addition, the extrinsic thermal conductivity of phosphorene is reviewed by discussing the effects of strain and substrate, together with phosphorene based heterostructures and nanoribbons. This Review summarizes the progress of thermal transport in phosphorene from both theoretical calculations and experimental measurements, which would be of significance to the design and development of efficient phosphorene based nanoelectronics. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. ANALYISIS OF TRANSPORTATION SYSTEMS AND TRANSPORTATION POLICIES IN TURKEY

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Payıdar AKGÜNGÖR; Abdulmuttalip DEMİREL

    2004-01-01

    Transportation systems have to be considered and analysed as a whole while transportation demand, becoming as a natural outcome of socioeconomic and socio-cultural structure, is being evaluated. It is desired that transportation system, which will be selected for both passenger and freight transport, should be rapid, economic, safe, causing least harm to environment and appropriate for the conditions of a country. However, it is difficult for a transportation system to have all these properti...

  15. Transport regulation for radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ha Vinh Phuong.

    1986-01-01

    Taking into account the specific dangers associated with the transport of radioactive materials (contamination, irradiation, heat, criticality), IAEA regulations concerning technical specifications and administrative procedures to ward off these dangers are presented. The international agreements related to the land transport, maritime transport and air transport of radioactive materials are also briefly reviewed

  16. Transport Research Needs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ortúzar, Juan de Dios; Cherchi, Elisabetta; Rizzi, Luis

    2014-01-01

    Transport is a large, multidisciplinary and fascinating field, encompassing vastly different areas of research. In fact transport interests span from not very well understood (in fieldwork) issues related with survey methods to highly complex questions associated with the dynamic equilibration...... of supply and demand in strategic planning contexts; the latter involving large zoning systems, huge multimodal networks and highly complex dynamic modelling approaches (Mahmassani, 2001). But questions also arise at a more macro level (and in a different time span) regarding the interaction of transport....... For these reasons, in this chapter we will just concentrate on issues related with modelling the demand for travel in the relatively short term. In particular, we will refer to modelling discrete short-term choices, such as mode, route and/or trip timing; although in our analysis we will pay attention to research...

  17. Transportation Institutional Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1986-08-01

    This Institutional Plan is divided into three chapters. Chapter 1 provides background information, discusses the purposes of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system, and describes the projected system and the plans for its integrated development. Chapter 2 discusses the major participants who must interact to build the system. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will foster wide participation in program planning and implementation and provides a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. Also included in this Plan are four appendices. Of particular importance is Appendix A, which includes detailed discussion of specific transportation issues. Appendices B, C, and D provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions.

  18. Large orbit neoclassical transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, Z.; Tang, W.M.; Lee, W.W.

    1997-01-01

    Neoclassical transport in the presence of large ion orbits is investigated. The study is motivated by the recent experimental results that ion thermal transport levels in enhanced confinement tokamak plasmas fall below the open-quotes irreducible minimum levelclose quotes predicted by standard neoclassical theory. This apparent contradiction is resolved in the present analysis by relaxing the basic neoclassical assumption that the ions orbital excursions are much smaller than the local toroidal minor radius and the equilibrium scale lengths of the system. Analytical and simulation results are in agreement with trends from experiments. The development of a general formalism for neoclassical transport theory with finite orbit width is also discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  19. Transportable criticality alarm system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clem, W.E.

    1988-09-01

    The Transportable Criticality Alarm System was developed at the Hanford Site in 1982 to comply with the requirements of US Department of Energy Order DOE 5480.1, 12/18/80, and ANSI/ANS-8.3- 1979. The portable unit that it replaced failed to comply with the new requirements in that it did not provide the necessary warning of malfunctions, nor did it provide the Hanford Site standard criticality alarm signal. Modern technology allowed the Transportable Criticality Alarm System to comply with the criticality requirements cited and to incorporate other features that make it more usable, maintainable, and reliable. The Transportable Criticality Alarm System (TCAS) provides temporary criticality coverage in manned areas where the facility criticality alarm system is not operable. This gamma radiation-sensitive system has been in use for the past 6 yr at the Hanford Site. 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  20. Electrical railway transportation systems

    CERN Document Server

    Brenna, Morris; Zaninelli, Dario

    2018-01-01

    Allows the reader to deepen their understanding of various technologies for both fixed power supply installations of railway systems and for railway rolling stock. This book explores the electric railway systems that play a crucial role in the mitigation of congestion and pollution caused by road traffic. It is divided into two parts: the first covering fixed power supply systems, and the second concerning the systems for railway rolling stock. In particular, after a historical introduction to the framework of technological solutions in current use, the authors investigate electrification systems for the power supply of rail vehicles, trams, and subways. Electrical Railway Transportation Systems explores the direct current systems used throughout the world for urban and suburban transport, which are also used in various countries for regional transport. It provides a study of alternating current systems, whether for power supply frequency or for special railway frequency, that are used around the world for ...

  1. Economical motor transport operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, P

    1979-09-01

    Motor transport is one area in a company where energy conservation is a function primarily of operative education and motivation rather than mechanical or technical control and monitoring. Unless the driver wants to save energy by proper operation of the vehicle, there is nothing the company can do to force him, whatever equipment it fits to the vehicles, or incentives it offers. This article gives an overview of the use of energy in road transport and examines a number of actions that can be taken to conserve energy. It discusses the question of the cost-effectiveness of transport energy conservation in the light of the complex issues involved. The problems and opportunities of implementing energy-saving programs are examined. (MCW)

  2. Fuel element transport container

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benna, P.; Neuenfeldt, W.

    1979-01-01

    The reprocessing system includes a large number of waterfilled ponds next to each other for the intermediate storage of fuel elements from LWR's. The fuel element transport device is allocated to a middle pond. The individual ponds are separated from each other by walls, and are only accessible from the middle pond via narrow passages. The transport device includes a telescopic running rail for a trolley with a grab device for the fuel element. The running rail is supported in turn by a second trolley, which can be moved by wheels on rails. Part of the drive of the first trolley is arranged on the second one. Using this transport device, adjacent ponds can be served through the passage openings. (DG) [de

  3. Preface: Nonclassical Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolshov, L.; Kondratenko, P.; Pruess, K.

    2008-01-01

    Transport phenomena in highly heterogeneous media can be dramatically different from those in homogeneous media and therefore are of great fundamental and practical interest. Anomalous transport occurs in semiconductor physics, plasma physics, astrophysics, biology, and other areas. It plays an especially important role in hydrogeology because it may govern the rate of migration and degree of dispersion of groundwater contaminants from hazardous waste sites. The series of four articles in this special section of Vadose Zone Journal is devoted to transport phenomena in heterogeneous media in the context of geologic disposal of radioactive waste. It contains the results of joint investigations performed at the Nuclear Safety Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in California. The work was supported by the U.S. DOE (under Contract No. DEAC02-05CH11231). The problems addressed in this research involve a broad range of space and time scales and were approached using modern methods of theoretical and computational physics, such as scaling analysis and diagrammatic techniques used before in critical phenomena theory. Special attention is paid to the asymptotics of concentration behavior (concentration tails). This issue is exceptionally important for the reliability assessments of radioactive waste disposal because, depending on the structure of the tails, concentrations at large distances from the source can differ by many orders of magnitude. In the first paper of this special section, Bolshov et al. (2008b) present an overview of field and laboratory observations that demonstrate nonclassical flow and transport behavior in geologic media. It is recognized that natural fracture networks as a rule have fractal geometry and can be classified as percolation systems. This is one of the main factors giving rise to anomalous transport in geologic media. Another important factor is the presence of contaminant traps provided by

  4. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  5. Air transport system

    CERN Document Server

    Schmitt, Dieter

    2016-01-01

    The book addresses all major aspects to be considered for the design and operation of aircrafts within the entire transportation chain. It provides the basic information about the legal environment, which defines the basic requirements for aircraft design and aircraft operation. The interactions between  airport, air traffic management and the airlines are described. The market forecast methods and the aircraft development process are explained to understand the very complex and risky business of an aircraft manufacturer. The principles of flight physics as basis for aircraft design are presented and linked to the operational and legal aspects of air transport including all environmental impacts. The book is written for graduate students as well as for engineers and experts, who are working in aerospace industry, at airports or in the domain of transport and logistics.

  6. Transportable hyperpolarized metabolites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xiao; Bornet, Aurélien; Vuichoud, Basile; Milani, Jonas; Gajan, David; Rossini, Aaron J.; Emsley, Lyndon; Bodenhausen, Geoffrey; Jannin, Sami

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear spin hyperpolarization of 13C-labelled metabolites by dissolution dynamic nuclear polarization can enhance the NMR signals of metabolites by several orders of magnitude, which has enabled in vivo metabolic imaging by MRI. However, because of the short lifetime of the hyperpolarized magnetization (typically <1 min), the polarization process must be carried out close to the point of use. Here we introduce a concept that markedly extends hyperpolarization lifetimes and enables the transportation of hyperpolarized metabolites. The hyperpolarized sample can thus be removed from the polarizer and stored or transported for use at remote MRI or NMR sites. We show that hyperpolarization in alanine and glycine survives 16 h storage and transport, maintaining overall polarization enhancements of up to three orders of magnitude. PMID:28072398

  7. LNG in transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madden, Mike; White, Nick; Le Fevre, Chris

    2014-01-01

    This document summarizes the content of a 402 p. study published by CEDIGAZ, the International Center for Natural Gas Information. According to this study, LNG as a fuel will capture a significant market share in the transport sector by 2035. The greatest potential is seen in road transport, were annual demand is projected to reach 96 million tons per year (mtpa) in CEDIGAZ' base scenario while demand in the marine sector could grow to an estimated 77 mtpa. The rail sector could add another 6 mtpa to global demand. However, the development of LNG as a transport fuel faces a number of challenges, and will have to go hand in hand with the development of fueling infrastructure

  8. Paleoclassical electron heat transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Callen, J.D.

    2005-01-01

    Radial electron heat transport in low collisionality, magnetically-confined toroidal plasmas is shown to result from paleoclassical Coulomb collision processes (parallel electron heat conduction and magnetic field diffusion). In such plasmas the electron temperature equilibrates along magnetic field lines a long length L, which is the minimum of the electron collision length and a maximum effective half length of helical field lines. Thus, the diffusing field lines induce a radial electron heat diffusivity M ≅ L/(πR 0q ) ∼ 10 >> 1 times the magnetic field diffusivity η/μ 0 ≅ ν e (c/ω p ) 2 . The paleoclassical electron heat flux model provides interpretations for many features of 'anomalous' electron heat transport: magnitude and radial profile of electron heat diffusivity (in tokamaks, STs, and RFPs), Alcator scaling in high density plasmas, transport barriers around low order rational surfaces and near a separatrix, and a natural heat pinch (or minimum temperature gradient) heat flux form. (author)

  9. Bæredygtig transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haas, Henning de; Søndergaard, Mads

    2009-01-01

    I denne artikel sættes fokus på bæredygtighed og transport. Baggrunden for artiklen er en undersøgelse af status for bæredygtig transport i et antal danske virksomheder i samarbejde med DHL. Indledningen giver en baggrund for fokus på bæredygtighed, efterfølgende sættes der fokus på "Green SCM......" for at afklare hvad det indeholder, definitioner mv. Dette er udgangspunktet for en præsentation af resultaterne fra undersøgelsen af bæredygtig transport. Undersøgelsen opsummeres og leder frem til en række implikationer for henholdsvis kunder (transportkøberne) og transportleverandørerne....

  10. TRANSPORTATION INDUSTRY EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. I. Kuznetsov

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Main aspects that determine conditions of transportation industry effective management and decrease of transportation expenses are discussed. Theoretical concepts making it possible to solve the problem of scientific management of the whole country’s goods transportation costs are provided for. Main approaches are presented to the solution of motor transport operation ecological optimization problem as well as to the rise of motor transport workers’ labor productivity, to the increase of transportation vehicles use efficiency and to determine functional capacity of the motor transport complex.

  11. Onsite transportation hazards assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnside, M.E.

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the emergency preparedness Hazards Assessment for the onsite transportation of hazardous material at the Hanford Site. The assessment is required by US Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5500.3A and provides the technical basis for the emergency classification and response procedures. A distinction is made between onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness and onsite for the purpose of applying US Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations. Onsite for the purpose of emergency preparedness is considered to be within the physical boundary of the entire Hanford Site. Onsite for the purpose of applying DOT regulations is north of the Wye Barricade

  12. Transport of radioactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1960-04-15

    The increasing use of radioactive substances, not only in reactor operations but also in medicine, industry and other fields, is making the movement of these materials progressively wider, more frequent and larger in volume. Although regulations for the safe transport of radioactive materials have been in existence for many years, it has now become necessary to modify or supplement the existing provisions on an international basis. It is essential that the regulations should be applied uniformly by all countries. It is also desirable that the basic regulations should be uniform for all modes of transport so as to simplify the procedures to be complied with by shippers and carriers

  13. The Trojan. [supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    The Trojan is the culmination of thousands of engineering person-hours by the Cones of Silence Design Team. The goal was to design an economically and technologically viable supersonic transport. The Trojan is the embodiment of the latest engineering tools and technology necessary for such an advanced aircraft. The efficient design of the Trojan allows for supersonic cruise of Mach 2.0 for 5,200 nautical miles, carrying 250 passengers. The per aircraft price is placed at $200 million, making the Trojan a very realistic solution for tomorrows transportation needs. The following is a detailed study of the driving factors that determined the Trojan's super design.

  14. Constrained Optimal Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekren, Ibrahim; Soner, H. Mete

    2018-03-01

    The classical duality theory of Kantorovich (C R (Doklady) Acad Sci URSS (NS) 37:199-201, 1942) and Kellerer (Z Wahrsch Verw Gebiete 67(4):399-432, 1984) for classical optimal transport is generalized to an abstract framework and a characterization of the dual elements is provided. This abstract generalization is set in a Banach lattice X with an order unit. The problem is given as the supremum over a convex subset of the positive unit sphere of the topological dual of X and the dual problem is defined on the bi-dual of X. These results are then applied to several extensions of the classical optimal transport.

  15. Transportation of nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prowse, D.R.

    1979-01-01

    Shipment of used fuel from nuclear reactors to a central fuel management facility is discussed with particular emphasis on the assessment of the risk to the public due to these shipments. The methods of transporting used fuel in large shipping containers is reviewed. In terms of an accident scenario, it is demonstrated that the primary risk of transport of used fuel is due to injury and death in common road accidents. The radiological nature of the used fuel cargo is, for all practical purposes, an insignificant factor in the total risk to the public. (author)

  16. Transporte de equinos

    OpenAIRE

    Marrero, Diego

    2012-01-01

    El transporte de caballos es una actividad muy frecuente que se realiza por distintos motivos: competencias de equitación, cría, subastas, tratamientos, etc. En todos los casos, una de las principales preocupaciones de los propietarios es procurar un traslado seguro y confortable. Esto sucede porque si el medio de transporte no es el adecuado puede provocar en los equinos un importante distrés, que se manifiesta en patologías de origen respiratorio, así como traumatismos en los miembros, lo q...

  17. Transportation of hazardous goods

    CERN Multimedia

    TS Department

    2008-01-01

    A general reminder: any transportation of hazardous goods by road is subject to the European ADR rules. The goods concerned are essentially the following: Explosive substances and objects; Gases (including aerosols and non-flammable gases such as helium and nitrogen); Flammable substances and liquids (inks, paints, resins, petroleum products, alcohols, acetone, thinners); Toxic substances (acids, thinners); Radioactive substances; Corrosive substances (paints, acids, caustic products, disinfectants, electrical batteries). Any requests for the transport of hazardous goods must be executed in compliance with the instructions given at this URL: http://ts-dep.web.cern.ch/ts-dep/groups/he/HH/adr.pdf Heavy Handling Section TS-HE-HH 73793 - 160364

  18. TRANSPORT OF COUNTERFEIT GOODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Babčanová

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper is focused on a current problem of transport of counterfeit goods in the European Union. Counterfeiting has a strong influence on the distribution organizations worldwide because most of counterfeit goods threaten the health and safety of consumers. Counterfeiting is a serious problem in the world economy today. The purpose of this paper is to point out the danger of counterfeiting in connection with the transport of Intellectual Property (IP rights - infringing goods. Background of the paper’s content is based on secondary data research of publicly available sources - international statistics and world reports.

  19. Transcellular transport of calcium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terepka, A R; Coleman, J R; Armbrecht, H J; Gunter, T E

    1976-01-01

    Studies of two calcium transporting epithelia, embryonic chick chorioallantoic membrane and the small intestine of rat and chick, have strongly suggested that the transfer of calcium across a cell involves processes distinctly different from intracellular calcium ion regulation. In the proposed model, transcellular calcium transport is considered as a specialized process developed only by certain cells in those tissues charged with bulk transfer of calcium. The overall effect of the endocytotic mechanism is bulk calcium movement across a cell, protection of mitochondria from exposure to high concentrations of calcium, and the avoidance of wide and potentially toxic fluctuations in cytosol ionic calcium levels. (MFB)

  20. PIPELINE TRANSPORTATION PLANNERS

    OpenAIRE

    FREDERICO DOS SANTOS LIPORACE

    2005-01-01

    Oleodutos têm um papel importante no transporte de petróleo e de seus derivados, pois são a maneira mais eficaz de transportar grandes volumes por longas distâncias. A motivação deste trabalho é que uma parte não negligenciável do preço final de um derivado de petróleo é influenciada pelo custo de transporte. Apesar disso, até onde sabemos, apenas alguns autores trabalharam neste problema específico, a maioria utilizando técnicas de programação inteira. Este tr...

  1. Transport of nuclear materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    2002-01-01

    During november and december 2001, 2 events concerning nuclear transport were reported and classified on the first grade (grade 1) of the INES scale. The first event concerns a hole in a transport cask of contaminated tools. The hole seems to have been made by the fork of a handling equipment. The second event concerns the loss of a parcel containing a technetium generator, this generator represented an activity of about 141 G Becquerel of 99 Mo the day it left the premises of CIS-bio in Saclay. (A.C.)

  2. Introduction to radiation transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olson, G.L.

    1998-01-01

    This lecture will present time-dependent radiation transport where the radiation is coupled to a static medium, i.e., the material is not in motion. In reality, radiation exerts a pressure on the materials it propagates through and will accelerate the material in the direction of the radiation flow. This fully coupled problem with radiation transport and materials in motion is referred to as radiation-hydrodynamics (or in a shorthand notation: rad-hydro) and is beyond the scope of this lecture

  3. Energy for Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Figueroa, Maria; Lah, Oliver; Fulton, Lewis M.

    2014-01-01

    Global transportation energy use is steeply rising, mainly as a result of increasing population and economic activity. Petroleum fuels remain the dominant energy source, reflecting advantages such as high energy density, low cost, and market availability. The movement of people and freight makes......, cost, distribution, infrastructure, storage, and public acceptability. The transition to low-carbon equitable and sustainable transport will take time but can be fostered by numerous short- and medium-term strategies that would benefit energy security, health, productivity, and sustainability....

  4. Evaluation of public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flyvbjerg, Bent; Kahr, Kjeld; Petersen, Peter Bo

    1986-01-01

    by a given supply of transport. In contrast with conventional methods, this method operates with real measures, i.e. real location (instead of traffic zones), real time (instead of average travel time), and real costs (instead of proxy-costs). The purpose is to produce relevant and easily understandable......This paper discusses a method to evaluate sceduled, fixed-route public transport. One major evaluation criterion in the method is total travel time, subdivided into walking time, waiting time, time on vehicle, transfer time, and concealed waiting time. The other major criterion is cost incurred...

  5. Transport research: Quo Vadis?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Rust, FC

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available the national R&D programme in transport became fragmented and consequently very little R&D has been done in the 2000s. This paper analyses the lessons learnt from six historic research programmes in both the public and private sector and in several project...

  6. Transportation cask contamination weeping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, P.C.; Doughty, D.H.; Chambers, W.B.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes the problem of cask contamination weeping, and efforts to understand the phenomenon and to eliminate its occurrence during spent nuclear fuel transport. The paper summarizes analyses of field experience and scoping experiments, and concentrates on current modelling and experimental validation efforts. (J.P.N.)

  7. Urban Transportation Renewal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolter, Kurt A.; Foster, Patrick N.

    1995-01-01

    Describes a learning activity that involves planning a community and then altering the transportation system to meet new specifications. Includes the rationale for the activity, how it fits into the technology education curriculum, and how it was implemented to fit a variety of age and grade levels. (JOW)

  8. Urban Mass Transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mervine, K. E.

    This bibliography is part of a series of Environmental Resource Packets prepared under a grant from EXXON Education Foundation. The most authoritative and accessible references in the urban transportation field are reviewed. The authors, publisher, point of view, level, and summary are given for each reference. The references are categorized…

  9. Transport for smart cities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Niels Buus; Pedersen, Allan Schrøder

    2011-01-01

    ’ activities can be reached within the relative close distances of the city. However, urbanisation has also led to significant disadvantages, of which transport accounts for some of the most severe. Traffic accidents and emissions of air pollutants and noise take heavy tolls in terms of people killed...

  10. Transport near slippery interfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haase, A. Sander

    2016-01-01

    Some surfaces exhibit wall slip, meaning that a owing uid has a velocity relative to that surface. This leads to increased advection in the direct vicinity of the wall. As this directly a ects the rate of transport at larger scales, slippery surfaces have a potentially important application in

  11. Transport processes in plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balescu, R.

    1988-01-01

    This part is devoted to the neoclassical transport theory. Ch. 8 deals with toroidal magnetic confinement. Ch. 9 studies the motion of an individual particle in a toroidal field. Ch.'s 10 and 11 are devoted to the study of the kinetic equation appropriate to the situation that prevails in the neoclassical theory. Ch. 12 is devoted to the general study of the macroscopic moment equations in toroidal geometry. In ch. 13 the first new transport equations are derived. They include the strange Pfirsch-Schlueter effect. In ch. 14 the method of solution of the kinetic equation in the long free path regime is developed. In ch. 15 the typical long mean free path neoclassical transport equations are obtained and discussed; their very pecular differences with the classicial ones are emphasized. Ch. 16 introduces a mean free path regime as well as a method of interpolation of the results over the whole range of collisionalities. Ch. 17 provides the connection of the transport theory with non-equilibrium thermodynamics in a regime (long mean free path) where the applicability of the latter seems, at first sight, questionable. Nevertheless a complete and consistent thermodynamic theory can be set up, even in this regime. Finally, ch. 18 goes back to the hydrodynamical equations and treats the problem of their closure (in toroidal geometry)

  12. Transport Infrastructure Slot Allocation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koolstra, K.

    2005-01-01

    In this thesis, transport infrastructure slot allocation has been studied, focusing on selection slot allocation, i.e. on longer-term slot allocation decisions determining the traffic patterns served by infrastructure bottlenecks, rather than timetable-related slot allocation problems. The

  13. Helium transport in TFTR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strachan, J.D.; Chan, A.

    1986-09-01

    Initial measurements of the 15 MeV protons produced in TFTR by the d( 3 He, p)α fusion reaction have been used to determine the time evolution of the central 3 He density. The signals following short 3 He gas puffs indicate inward transport times of about 100 msec

  14. Draft Transportation Institutional Plan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-09-01

    The Department of Energy recognizes that the success of its program to develop and implement a national system for nuclear waste management and disposal depends on broad-based public understanding and acceptance. While each program element has its particular sensitivity, the transportation of the waste may potentially affect the greatest number of people, and accordingly is highly visible and potentially issue-laden. Therefore, the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management has developed this Transportation Institutional Plan to lay the foundation for interaction among all interested parties for the purpose of identifying and resolving issues of concern. The Plan is divided into four chapters. Chapter 1 provides bachground information and discusses the purpose of the Plan and the policy guidance for establishing the transportation system. Chapter 2 introduces the major participants who must interact to build both the system itself and the consensus philosophy that is essential for effective operations. Chapter 3 suggests mechanisms for interaction that will ensure wide participation in program planning and implementation. And, finally, Chapter 4 suggests a framework for managing and resolving the issues related to development and operation of the transportation system. A list of acronyms and a glossary are included for the reader's convenience. The Plan's appendices provide supporting material to assist the reader in understanding the roles of the involved institutions. 4 figs., 1 tab

  15. Solute transport in soil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zee, van der S.E.A.T.M.; Leijnse, A.

    2013-01-01

    Solute transport is of importance in view of the movement of nutrient elements, e.g. towards the plant root system, and because of a broad range of pollutants. Pollution is not necessarily man induced, but may be due to geological or geohydrological causes, e.g. in the cases of pollution with

  16. Demographic Change and Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haustein, Sonja; Siren, Anu Kristiina; Framke, Elisabeth

    This report is the literature review on demographic changes and transport of Work Package 1 of the EU project CONSOL, “CONcerns and SOLutions – Road Safety in the Ageing Societies” (contract period: 2011-2013). The report is a state-of-the art report that combines current knowledge with new...

  17. What can Transport Deliver?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kobayashi, Shigeki; Fulton, Lewis; Figueroa, Maria J.

    We compare detailed projections of transport energy consumption and CO2 emissions up to the year 2050 and review representative pathways towards the specific mitigation targets outlined in the Fifth Assessment report by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC-AR5), contrasting sectora...

  18. Lightweight Monorail Transport System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weir, Harold F.; Wood, Kenneth E.; Strecker, Myron T.

    1987-01-01

    Report proposes monorail transportation system for zero-gravity environment. System carries materials and parts between locations on space station. Includes tubular rails instead of open channels usually found in overhead conveyor systems. Since resistance to torque of closed tube greater than that of open channel for same amount of material, tubular monorail designed for higher loads or for greater spacing between support points.

  19. Transport properties of liquids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajagopal, K.

    1976-07-01

    The transport coefficients, self diffusivity, dinamical viscosity,total viscosity (i.e., the first and second viscosity coefficient) and thermal conductivity, are calculated at several temperatures and saturation pressures for the Argon, Krypton and Xenon liquids, from the Mie otential and the hard sphere theory. (L.C.) [pt

  20. Phloem transport in trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael G. Ryan; Shinichi. Asao

    2014-01-01

    Phloem is like an enigmatic central banker: we know how important phloem is to plant function, but very little about how phloem functions as part of a whole-plant economy. Phloem transports carbohydrates, produced by photosynthesis and hydrolysis of reserve compounds, to sink tissues for growth, respiration and storage. At photosynthetic tissues, carbohydrates are...

  1. Artificial oxygen transport protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutton, P. Leslie

    2014-09-30

    This invention provides heme-containing peptides capable of binding molecular oxygen at room temperature. These compounds may be useful in the absorption of molecular oxygen from molecular oxygen-containing atmospheres. Also included in the invention are methods for treating an oxygen transport deficiency in a mammal.

  2. Decentralization in Air Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Udluft, H.

    2017-01-01

    In this work,we demonstrate that decentralized control can result in stable, efficient, and robust operations in the Air Transportation System. We implement decentralized control for aircraft taxiing operations and use Agent-Based Modeling and Simulation to analyze the resulting system behavior

  3. Atomic transport properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freyss, M.

    2015-01-01

    As presented in the first chapter of this book, atomic transport properties govern a large panel of nuclear fuel properties, from its microstructure after fabrication to its behaviour under irradiation: grain growth, oxidation, fission product release, gas bubble nucleation. The modelling of the atomic transport properties is therefore the key to understanding and predicting the material behaviour under irradiation or in storage conditions. In particular, it is noteworthy that many modelling techniques within the so-called multi-scale modelling scheme of materials make use of atomic transport data as input parameters: activation energies of diffusion, diffusion coefficients, diffusion mechanisms, all of which are then required to be known accurately. Modelling approaches that are readily used or which could be used to determine atomic transport properties of nuclear materials are reviewed here. They comprise, on the one hand, static atomistic calculations, in which the migration mechanism is fixed and the corresponding migration energy barrier is calculated, and, on the other hand, molecular dynamics calculations and kinetic Monte-Carlo simulations, for which the time evolution of the system is explicitly calculated. (author)

  4. Radioactive materials transport experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langhaar, J.W.

    1976-01-01

    This paper presents a brief review of the kinds of packaging suitable for different types of waste, the roles of highway and rail transport, restrictions imposed by political entities and carriers, and safety. The U. S. accident record is described, with some statistics given

  5. Water transport and energy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fricke, Wieland

    2017-06-01

    Water transport in plants occurs along various paths and is driven by gradients in its free energy. It is generally considered that the mode of transport, being either diffusion or bulk flow, is a passive process, although energy may be required to sustain the forces driving water flow. This review aims at putting water flow at the various organisational levels (cell, organ, plant) in the context of the energy that is required to maintain these flows. In addition, the question is addressed (1) whether water can be transported against a difference in its chemical free energy, 'water potential' (Ψ), through, directly or indirectly, active processes; and (2) whether the energy released when water is flowing down a gradient in its energy, for example during day-time transpiration and cell expansive growth, is significant compared to the energy budget of plant and cell. The overall aim of review is not so much to provide a definite 'Yes' and 'No' to these questions, but rather to stimulate discussion and raise awareness that water transport in plants has its real, associated, energy costs and potential energy gains. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. VIVITRON beam transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nadji, A.

    1989-07-01

    The VIVITRON is a new 35 MV particle accelerator which presents a great number of innovations. One of the major problem is the beam transport in this electrostatic machine of 50 m length for ions with masses between 1 and 200. Our work consisted in the study of various experimental and theoretical aspects of the beam transport in Tandem accelerators from the ion source to the analysing magnet. Calculations of the beam optics were performed with a Strasbourg version of the computer code Transport. They allowed us to optimize the beam transport parameters of the VIVITRON elements. Special attention has been focused on the design of the charge state selector to be installed in the terminal of the new machine. Beam transmission measurements were carried out in the Strasbourg MP 10 Tandem accelerator for ions beams of masses between 1 and 127 and for terminal voltages from 9 to 15 MV. Partial and total transmissions were obtained and explanations of the beam losses were proposed in terms of the vacuum pressure and/or the optics of the beam accelerator system. The results have been extrapolated to the VIVITRON for which the best working conditions are now clearly defined [fr

  7. Bystruktur og transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Thomas Alexander Sick

    2003-01-01

    Paperet præsenterer hovedkonklusionerne fra et PhD-studie af sammenhængene mellem bystruktur (særligt boliglokalisering) og transport i Aalborg. Det konkluderes at boliglokaliseringen har væsentlig betydning for transporten i det daglige. Det gælder især lokaliseringen i forhold til det samlede...

  8. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-01-01

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R col is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R col that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k att , and detachment rate constants, k det , of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R col uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant retardation. Radionuclides irreversibly

  9. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Troy Reed; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Lei Zhou

    2000-01-30

    This is the second quarterly progress report for Year 2 of the ACTS project. It includes a review of progress made in Flow Loop development and research during the period of time between Oct 1, 2000 and December 31, 2000. This report presents a review of progress on the following specific tasks: (a) Design and development of an Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility (Task 2: Addition of a foam generation and breaker system), (b) Research project (Task 6): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (c) Research project (Task 7): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Research project (Task 8): ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (e) Research project (Task 9): ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Research project (Task 10): ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Mud Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (g) Research on instrumentation tasks to measure: Cuttings concentration and distribution in a flowing slurry (Task 11), and Foam properties while transporting cuttings. (Task 12), (h) Development of a Safety program for the ACTS Flow Loop. Progress on a comprehensive safety review of all flow-loop components and operational procedures. (Task 1S). (i) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with Petroleum and service company members, and increasing the number of JIP members. The tasks Completed During This Quarter are Task 7 and Task 8.

  10. Nevada Transportation Options Study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    P. GEHNER; E.M. WEAVER; L. FOSSUM

    2006-01-01

    This study performs a cost and schedule analysis of three Nevada Transportation options that support waste receipt at the repository. Based on the U.S. Department of Energy preference for rail transportation in Nevada (given in the Final Environmental Impact Statement), it has been assumed that a branch rail line would be constructed to support waste receipt at the repository. However, due to potential funding constraints, it is uncertain when rail will be available. The three Nevada Transportation options have been developed to meet a varying degree of requirements for transportation and to provide cost variations used in meeting the funding constraints given in the Technical Direction Letter guidelines for this study. The options include combinations of legal-weight truck, heavy-haul truck, and rail. Option 1 uses a branch rail line that would support initial waste receipt at the repository in 2010. Rail transportation would be the primary mode, supplemented by legal weight trucks. This option provides the highest level of confidence in cost and schedule, lowest public visibility, greatest public acceptability, lowest public dose, and is the recommended option for support of waste receipt. The completion of rail by 2010 will require spending approximately $800 million prior to 2010. Option 2 uses a phased rail approach to address a constrained funding scenario. To meet funding constraints, Option 2 uses a phased approach to delay high cost activities (final design and construction) until after initial waste receipt in 2010. By doing this, approximately 95 percent of the cost associated with completion of a branch rail line is deferred until after 2010. To support waste receipt until a branch rail line is constructed in Nevada, additional legal-weight truck shipments and heavy-haul truck shipments (on a limited basis for naval spent nuclear fuel) would be used to meet the same initial waste receipt rates as in Option 1. Use of heavy-haul shipments in the absence

  11. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, H.

    2004-01-01

    ustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the "sustainable transport" concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...... and weaknesses are highlighted with regard to the support they provide for sustainable transport development....

  12. Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data | Transportation Research |

    Science.gov (United States)

    NREL Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Transportation-Related Consumer Preference Data Photo of reporters test driving Toyota prototype electric and fuel cell vehicles. Consumer for the development and implementation of these technologies. NREL collects, analyzes, and reports on

  13. SAFETY AND QUALITY CONTROL OF TRANSPORT SERVICES ON RAILWAY TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. P. Sadlovska

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the provisions to improve procedure of licensing of passenger and freight transportation, technical specifications for services related to the passenger and freight transportations.

  14. Transportation programs : challenges facing the department of transportation and congress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    A safe, efficient, and convenient : transportation system is integral to : the health of our economy and : quality of life. Our nations vast : transportation system of airways, : railways, roads, transit systems, : and waterways has served this : ...

  15. Transporter taxonomy - a comparison of different transport protein classification schemes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viereck, Michael; Gaulton, Anna; Digles, Daniela; Ecker, Gerhard F

    2014-06-01

    Currently, there are more than 800 well characterized human membrane transport proteins (including channels and transporters) and there are estimates that about 10% (approx. 2000) of all human genes are related to transport. Membrane transport proteins are of interest as potential drug targets, for drug delivery, and as a cause of side effects and drug–drug interactions. In light of the development of Open PHACTS, which provides an open pharmacological space, we analyzed selected membrane transport protein classification schemes (Transporter Classification Database, ChEMBL, IUPHAR/BPS Guide to Pharmacology, and Gene Ontology) for their ability to serve as a basis for pharmacology driven protein classification. A comparison of these membrane transport protein classification schemes by using a set of clinically relevant transporters as use-case reveals the strengths and weaknesses of the different taxonomy approaches.

  16. Rotation, Stability and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J. W.

    2007-07-01

    Tokamak plasmas can frequently exhibit high levels of rotation and rotation shear. This can usually be attributed to various sources: injection of momentum, e.g. through neutral beams, flows driven by plasma gradients or torques resulting from non-ambipolar particle loss; however, the source sometimes remains a mystery, such as the spontaneous rotation observed in Ohmic plasmas. The equilibrium rotation profile is given by the balance of these sources with transport and other losses; the edge boundary conditions can play an important role in determining this profile . Such plasma rotation, particularly sheared rotation, is predicted theoretically to have a significant influence on plasma behaviour. In the first place, sonic flows can significantly affect tokamak equilibria and neoclassical transport losses. However, the influence of rotation on plasma stability and turbulence is more profound. At the macroscopic level it affects the behaviour of the gross MHD modes that influence plasma operational limits. This includes sawteeth, the seeding of neoclassical tearing modes, resistive wall modes and the onset of disruptions through error fields, mode locking and reconnection. At the microscopic level it has a major effect on the stability of ballooning modes, both ideal MHD and drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. In the non-linear state, as unstable drift waves evolve into turbulent structures, sheared rotation also tears apart eddies, thereby reducing the resulting transport. There is considerable experimental evidence for these effects on both MHD stability and plasma confinement. In particular, the appearance of improved confinement modes with transport barriers, such as edge H-mode barriers and internal transport barriers (ITBs) appears to correlate well with the presence of sheared plasma rotation. This talk will describe the theory underlying some of these phenomena involving plasma rotation, on both macroscopic and microscopic

  17. EBS Radionuclide Transport Abstraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schreiner, R.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of this work is to develop the Engineered Barrier System (EBS) radionuclide transport abstraction model, as directed by a written development plan (CRWMS M and O 1999a). This abstraction is the conceptual model that will be used to determine the rate of release of radionuclides from the EBS to the unsaturated zone (UZ) in the total system performance assessment-license application (TSPA-LA). In particular, this model will be used to quantify the time-dependent radionuclide releases from a failed waste package (WP) and their subsequent transport through the EBS to the emplacement drift wall/UZ interface. The development of this conceptual model will allow Performance Assessment Operations (PAO) and its Engineered Barrier Performance Department to provide a more detailed and complete EBS flow and transport abstraction. The results from this conceptual model will allow PA0 to address portions of the key technical issues (KTIs) presented in three NRC Issue Resolution Status Reports (IRSRs): (1) the Evolution of the Near-Field Environment (ENFE), Revision 2 (NRC 1999a), (2) the Container Life and Source Term (CLST), Revision 2 (NRC 1999b), and (3) the Thermal Effects on Flow (TEF), Revision 1 (NRC 1998). The conceptual model for flow and transport in the EBS will be referred to as the ''EBS RT Abstraction'' in this analysis/modeling report (AMR). The scope of this abstraction and report is limited to flow and transport processes. More specifically, this AMR does not discuss elements of the TSPA-SR and TSPA-LA that relate to the EBS but are discussed in other AMRs. These elements include corrosion processes, radionuclide solubility limits, waste form dissolution rates and concentrations of colloidal particles that are generally represented as boundary conditions or input parameters for the EBS RT Abstraction. In effect, this AMR provides the algorithms for transporting radionuclides using the flow geometry and radionuclide concentrations determined by other

  18. On the relation between neoclassical transport and turbulent transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shaing, K.C.

    2005-01-01

    It is demonstrated through the flux-force relationship in the neoclassical theory that when neoclassical transport fluxes are improved, the damping rate of the radial electric field of the zonal flow is reduced. This, in turn, leads to improved turbulent transport fluxes. Thus, two seemingly unrelated transport fluxes are intimately connected through the momentum equation, and the neoclassical flux-force relation. This also implies a method to improve turbulent transport by improving neoclassical fluxes

  19. Perspectives of transport logistics in the railway transport enterprises

    OpenAIRE

    Elagin, Yu; Obruch, A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, the authors study the main directions of development of transport logistics. Identified as the main types of general transport logistics, as well as the rail sector, in which logistics acquires a dominant role in terms of reform. Also highlights the main features of transport logistics for railway transport enterprises and proved the importance of integrating function in modern conditions of development. The authors noted that to ensure the effective development of railway tran...

  20. Mass Transport within Soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKone, Thomas E.

    2009-03-01

    Contaminants in soil can impact human health and the environment through a complex web of interactions. Soils exist where the atmosphere, hydrosphere, geosphere, and biosphere converge. Soil is the thin outer zone of the earth's crust that supports rooted plants and is the product of climate and living organisms acting on rock. A true soil is a mixture of air, water, mineral, and organic components. The relative proportions of these components determine the value of the soil for agricultural and for other human uses. These proportions also determine, to a large extent, how a substance added to soil is transported and/or transformed within the soil (Spositio, 2004). In mass-balance models, soil compartments play a major role, functioning both as reservoirs and as the principal media for transport among air, vegetation, surface water, deeper soil, and ground water (Mackay, 2001). Quantifying the mass transport of chemicals within soil and between soil and atmosphere is important for understanding the role soil plays in controlling fate, transport, and exposure to multimedia pollutants. Soils are characteristically heterogeneous. A trench dug into soil typically reveals several horizontal layers having different colors and textures. As illustrated in Figure 1, these multiple layers are often divided into three major horizons: (1) the A horizon, which encompasses the root zone and contains a high concentration of organic matter; (2) the B horizon, which is unsaturated, lies below the roots of most plants, and contains a much lower organic carbon content; and (3) the C horizon, which is the unsaturated zone of weathered parent rock consisting of bedrock, alluvial material, glacial material, and/or soil of an earlier geological period. Below these three horizons lies the saturated zone - a zone that encompasses the area below ground surface in which all interconnected openings within the geologic media are completely filled with water. Similarly to the unsaturated

  1. Nuclear fuel transport and particularly spent fuel transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lenail, B.

    1986-01-01

    Nuclear material transport is an essential activity for COGEMA linking the different steps of the fuel cycle transport systems have to be safe and reliable. Spent fuel transport is more particularly examined in this paper because the development of reprocessing plant. Industrial, techmical and economical aspects are reviewed [fr

  2. Competitiveness in Road Transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borgström, Benedikte; Gammelgaard, Britta; Bruun, Poul

    Road transport is an important sector, connecting time and space of production and consumption. Its market conditions has changed. The EU single market implementation has increased price pressure due to supply of low cost road freight transport from counties with lower cost structures. Changes...... in the market also encourage strategic development of some road hauliers into providers of unique services. Such road haulier strategic development contributes to efficiency and effectiveness in basically all business sectors of EU. Little research is available of such strategic and operational management....... In this paper we will explore that knowledge gap and analyze what value proposition(s) and capabilities can transform potential cost disadvantages of acting in a market that includes both high- and low-cost-country actors? And in conceptual terminology, how are capabilities deployed and developed to construct...

  3. Anomalous transport in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wootton, A.J.

    1989-01-01

    A review is presented of what is known about anomalous transport in tokamaks. It is generally thought that this anomalous transport is the result of fluctuations in various plasma parameters. In the plasma edge detailed measurements of the quantities required to directly determine the fluctuation driven fluxes are available. The total flux of particles is well explained by the measured electrostatic fluctuation driven flux. However, a satisfactory model to explain the origin of the fluctuations has not been identified. The processes responsible for determining the edge energy flux are less clear, but electrostatic convection plays an important part. In the confinement region experimental observations are presently restricted to measurements of density and potential fluctuations and their correlations. The characteristics of the measured fluctuations are discussed and compared with the predictions of various models. Comparisons between measured particle, electron heat and ion heat fluxes, and those fluxes predicted to result from the measured fluctuations, are made. Magnetic fluctuations is discussed

  4. Rail transport systems approach

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book shows how the systems approach is employed by scientists in various countries to solve specific problems concerning railway transport. In particular, the book describes the experiences of scientists from Romania, Germany, the Czech Republic, the UK, Russia, Ukraine, Lithuania and Poland. For many of these countries there is a problem with the historical differences between the railways. In particular, there are railways with different rail gauges, with different signaling and communication systems, with different energy supplies and, finally, with different political systems, which are reflected in the different approaches to the management of railway economies. The book’s content is divided into two main parts, the first of which provides a systematic analysis of individual means of providing and maintaining rail transport. In turn, the second part addresses infrastructure and management development, with particular attention to security issues. Though primarily written for professionals involved...

  5. Near field transport processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neretnieks, I.

    1991-01-01

    In repositories for nuclear waste there are many processes which will be instrumental in corroding the canisters and releasing the nuclides. Based on experiences from studies on the performance of repositories and on an actual design the major mechanisms influencing the integrity and performance of a repository are described and discussed. The paper addresses only conditions in crystalline rock repositories. The low water flow rate in fractures and channels plays a dominant role in limiting the interaction between water and waste. Molecular diffusion in the backfill and rock matrix as well as in the mobile water is an important transport process but actually limits the exchange rate because diffusive transport is slow. Solubility limits of both waste matrix and of individual nuclides are also important. Complicating processes include gas generation by iron corrosion and alpha-radiolysis. (au) (19 refs., 2 figs.)

  6. Cellular iron transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrick, Michael D; Garrick, Laura M

    2009-05-01

    Iron has a split personality as an essential nutrient that also has the potential to generate reactive oxygen species. We discuss how different cell types within specific tissues manage this schizophrenia. The emphasis in enterocytes is on regulating the body's supply of iron by regulating transport into the blood stream. In developing red blood cells, adaptations in transport manage the body's highest flux of iron. Hepatocytes buffer the body's stock of iron. Macrophage recycle the iron from effete red cells among other iron management tasks. Pneumocytes provide a barrier to prevent illicit entry that, when at risk of breaching, leads to a need to handle the dangers in a fashion essentially shared with macrophage. We also discuss or introduce cell types including renal cells, neurons, other brain cells, and more where our ignorance, currently still vast, needs to be removed by future research.

  7. Shielded Canister Transporter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eidem, G.G. Jr.; Fages, R.

    1993-01-01

    The Hanford Waste Vitrification Plant (HWVP) will produce canisters filled with high-level radioactive waste immobilized in borosilicate glass. This report discusses a Shielded Canister Transporter (SCT) which will provide the means for safe transportation and handling of the canisters from the Vitrification Building to the Canister Storage Building (CSB). The stainless steel canisters are 0.61 meters in diameter, 3.0 meters tall, and weigh approximately 2,135 kilograms, with a maximum exterior surface dose rate of 90,000 R/hr. The canisters are placed into storage tubes to a maximum of three tall (two for overpack canisters) with an impact limiter placed at the tube bottom and between each canister. A floor plug seals the top of the storage tube at the operating floor level of the CSB

  8. GERENCIAMENTO DE TRANSPORTE COLETIVO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena Bodmer

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Trata-se da primeira produção acadêmica voltada para as necessidades do setor de transporte de passageiros. O trabalho, destinado não só aos executivos das empresas, como também aos técnicos, aos pesquisadores e consultores da área de transporte de passageiros, traz no seu bojo a preocupação de aproximar as contribuições teóricas ao estado da prática nas empresas operadoras. O livro, através dos seus oito capítulos, abre as portas para os tópicos que devem ser considerados essenciais para as possibilidades de aperfeiçoamento e modernização gerencial.

  9. retardo de transporte

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Niño-Suárez

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se presenta la obtención del modelo exacto en tiempo discreto de un robot móvil tipo (2,0, bajo la consideración de la existencia de retardos de transporte en la señal de control, producidos por la propagación de las señales entre los sensores y actuadores del robot y el control remoto. El modelo obtenido es evaluado mediante simulación, comparando su desempeño con un modelo discreto aproximado que incluye también retardos de transporte y con el modelo en tiempo continuo del mismo sistema.

  10. Axisymmetric tokamak scapeoff transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singer, C.E.; Langer, W.D.

    1982-08-01

    We present the first self-consistent estimate of the magnitude of each term in a fluid treatment of plasma transport for a plasma lying in regions of open field lines in an axisymmetric tokamak. The fluid consists of a pure hydrogen plasma with sources which arise from its interaction with neutral hydrogen atoms. The analysis and results are limited to the high collisionality regime, which is optimal for a gaseous neutralizer divertor, or to a cold plasma mantle in a tokamak reactor. In this regime, both classical and neoclassical transport processes are important, and loss of particles and energy by diamagnetic flow are also significant. The prospect of extending the analysis to the lower collisionality regimes encountered in many existing experiments is discussed

  11. Fuel cell water transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderborgh, Nicholas E.; Hedstrom, James C.

    1990-01-01

    The moisture content and temperature of hydrogen and oxygen gases is regulated throughout traverse of the gases in a fuel cell incorporating a solid polymer membrane. At least one of the gases traverses a first flow field adjacent the solid polymer membrane, where chemical reactions occur to generate an electrical current. A second flow field is located sequential with the first flow field and incorporates a membrane for effective water transport. A control fluid is then circulated adjacent the second membrane on the face opposite the fuel cell gas wherein moisture is either transported from the control fluid to humidify a fuel gas, e.g., hydrogen, or to the control fluid to prevent excess water buildup in the oxidizer gas, e.g., oxygen. Evaporation of water into the control gas and the control gas temperature act to control the fuel cell gas temperatures throughout the traverse of the fuel cell by the gases.

  12. Transporting radioactive rock

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pearce, G.

    1990-01-01

    The case is made for exempting geological specimens from the IAEA Regulations for Safer Transport of Radioactive Materials. It is pointed out that many mineral collectors in Devon and Cornwall may be unwittingly infringing these regulations by taking naturally radioactive rocks and specimens containing uranium ores. Even if these collectors are aware that these rocks are radioactive, and many are not, few have the necessary equipment to monitor the activity levels. If the transport regulations were to be enforced alarm could be generated and the regulations devalued in case of an accident. The danger from a spill of rock specimens is negligible compared with an accident involving industrial or medical radioactive substances yet would require similar special treatment. (UK)

  13. Transport of radioactive material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lombard, J.

    1996-01-01

    This work deals with the transport of radioactive materials. The associated hazards and potential hazards are at first described and shows the necessity to define specific safety regulations. The basic principles of radiological protection and of the IAEA regulations are given. The different types of authorized packages and of package labelling are explained. The revision, updating and the monitoring of the regulations effectiveness is the subject of the last part of this conference. (O.M.)

  14. Radioactive material transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, M.C.

    1979-10-01

    All movements of radioactive materials in Canada are governed by a comprehensive body of regqlations, both national and international. These regulations are designed to maximize shielding to the public and transport workers, allow for heat dissipation, and to prevent criticality accidents, by prescribing specific packaging arrangements, administrative controls, labelling and storage measures. This report describes in some detail specific requirements and summarizes some incidents that occurred between 1974 and 1978

  15. Urban Transport and Communication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irandu, E.M.

    1999-01-01

    The population according to the 1989 census was 21,448,774 inhabitants. This figure shows that on average the total population has been increasing by more than 40% every decade since 1948. As a result the widening gap between fertility and mortality, the population is growing at an accelerated rate. The current official population growth rate figure of 3.4% per annum puts the country among the world's most rapidly growing nations. It is projected that by the year 2010, the population will be about 37.4 million. At present the urban centres with a population size of 2,000 people and above constitute about 18.1% of the total population (Kenya, 1994). Rapid economic growth has led to the development of a number of urban centres as centres of commerce, industry and tourism. Consequently, this has led to rural urban drift. This drift to urban areas causes a number of problems which if unresolved will limit the ability of the urban centres to support their population The rapid increase in urban population causes a shortage of facilities to meet the increasing demand in services such as public transport, water supply, sewage and housing (Ramatullah, 1997: 161-168). Urban Transport acts as catalyst to both urban and national development, by facilitating the movements associated with urban and national Development. They provide a means by which goods and services are made available to industry and consumers, creating opportunity for social and economic interaction and employment. Without urban transport, access to health, education and employment would not be possible. Indeed urban transport is what gives life to urban development

  16. Transport phenomena II essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena II covers forced convention, temperature distribution, free convection, diffusitivity and the mechanism of mass transfer, convective mass transfer, concentration

  17. Beam Extraction and Transport

    CERN Document Server

    Kalvas, T.

    2013-12-16

    This chapter gives an introduction to low-energy beam transport systems, and discusses the typically used magnetostatic elements (solenoid, dipoles and quadrupoles) and electrostatic elements (einzel lens, dipoles and quadrupoles). The ion beam emittance, beam space-charge effects and the physics of ion source extraction are introduced. Typical computer codes for analysing and designing ion optical systems are mentioned, and the trajectory tracking method most often used for extraction simulations is described in more detail.

  18. Energy use in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allan, R. R.

    1977-10-15

    Brief data and information on consumption of oil-based fuels in New Zealand transport are presented. Then the role of the private car, conservation attitudes and behavior, social impacts of energy conservation are discussed. Apart from the methanol and LP-gas options which do not conserve energy, but only substitute energy sources by local supplies, noticeable fuel savings without sacrificing mobility and changing living patterns can be achieved only by concerted implementation of a package of measures.

  19. Transport Phenomena in Gel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Tokita

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Gel becomes an important class of soft materials since it can be seen in a wide variety of the chemical and the biological systems. The unique properties of gel arise from the structure, namely, the three-dimensional polymer network that is swollen by a huge amount of solvent. Despite the small volume fraction of the polymer network, which is usually only a few percent or less, gel shows the typical properties that belong to solids such as the elasticity. Gel is, therefore, regarded as a dilute solid because its elasticity is much smaller than that of typical solids. Because of the diluted structure, small molecules can pass along the open space of the polymer network. In addition to the viscous resistance of gel fluid, however, the substance experiences resistance due to the polymer network of gel during the transport process. It is, therefore, of importance to study the diffusion of the small molecules in gel as well as the flow of gel fluid itself through the polymer network of gel. It may be natural to assume that the effects of the resistance due to the polymer network of gel depends strongly on the network structure. Therefore, detailed study on the transport processes in and through gel may open a new insight into the relationship between the structure and the transport properties of gel. The two typical transport processes in and through gel, that is, the diffusion of small molecules due to the thermal fluctuations and the flow of gel fluid that is caused by the mechanical pressure gradient will be reviewed.

  20. Polaronic transport in polysilanes

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Nešpůrek, Stanislav; Nožár, Juraj; Kadashchuk, A.; Fishchuk, I. I.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 193, č. 1 (2009), s. 1-4 ISSN 1742-6588. [International Conference on Electron Dynamics in Semiconductors, Optoelectronics and Nanostructures /16./. Montpellier, 24.08.2009-28.08.2009] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100100622; GA AV ČR KAN400720701 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : polaronic transport * polysilanes * charge carrier mobility Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  1. Ion transport in stellarators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, D.D.M.; Kulsrud, R.M.

    1985-09-01

    Stellarator ion transport in the low-collisionality regime with a radial electric field is calculated by a systematic expansion of the drift-Boltzmann equation. The shape of the helical well is taken into account in this calculation. It is found that the barely trapped ions with three to four times the thermal energy give the dominant contribution to the diffusion. Expressions for the ion particle and energy fluxes are derived

  2. Transportation of medical isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-11-19

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document.

  3. Multiscale thermal transport.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, Samuel Jr. (; .); Wong, C. C.; Piekos, Edward Stanley

    2004-02-01

    A concurrent computational and experimental investigation of thermal transport is performed with the goal of improving understanding of, and predictive capability for, thermal transport in microdevices. The computational component involves Monte Carlo simulation of phonon transport. In these simulations, all acoustic modes are included and their properties are drawn from a realistic dispersion relation. Phonon-phonon and phonon-boundary scattering events are treated independently. A new set of phonon-phonon scattering coefficients are proposed that reflect the elimination of assumptions present in earlier analytical work from the simulation. The experimental component involves steady-state measurement of thermal conductivity on silicon films as thin as 340nm at a range of temperatures. Agreement between the experiment and simulation on single-crystal silicon thin films is excellent, Agreement for polycrystalline films is promising, but significant work remains to be done before predictions can be made confidently. Knowledge gained from these efforts was used to construct improved semiclassical models with the goal of representing microscale effects in existing macroscale codes in a computationally efficient manner.

  4. Thermalhydraulics and activity transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDonald, B.H.; Wren, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The potential consequences of a reactor accident, in terms of its impact on public safety, rest on the source term of radioactive fission products. The source term, as, as defined by an international group of experts, is the quantity of radioactive material which might be released in a nuclear accident: its physical and chemical form and the other quantities needed to completely specify its dispersion in the environment (e.g., energy in the plume, height of release, duration of release etc.). Although there are a large number of physical and chemical factors that will contribute to the determination of the source term for a given accident scenario, those factors having a direct impact on the rate of transport are of obvious importance. The thermalhydraulic conditions controlling the rate of mass transport, among other things, are probably the most important factors influencing the source term. This paper is an overview of the areas in which thermalhydraulics most strongly influences activity transport during a severe accident in a water-cooled reactor. It also includes some discussion of the areas where coupling between the physics used in separate computer models of the two phenomena must be considered in any mechanistic best-estimate calculations of the source term

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Len Volk; Mark Pickell; Evren Ozbayoglu; Barkim Demirdal; Paco Vieira; Affonso Lourenco

    1999-10-15

    This report includes a review of the progress made in ACTF Flow Loop development and research during 90 days pre-award period (May 15-July 14, 1999) and the following three months after the project approval date (July15-October 15, 1999) The report presents information on the following specific subjects; (a) Progress in Advanced Cuttings Transport Facility design and development, (b) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Flow of Synthetic Drilling Fluids Under Elevated Pressure and Temperature Conditions'', (c) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Foam Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (d) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Cuttings Transport with Aerated Muds Under LPAT Conditions (Joint Project with TUDRP)'', (e) Progress report on the research project ''Study of Foam Flow Behavior Under EPET Conditions'', (f) Progress report on the instrumentation tasks (Tasks 11 and 12) (g) Activities towards technology transfer and developing contacts with oil and service company members.

  6. Energy transport in dendrimers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Supritz, C.; Engelmann, A.; Reineker, P.

    2006-01-01

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core

  7. Energy transport in dendrimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Supritz, C. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)]. E-mail: christoph.supritz@uni-ulm.de; Engelmann, A. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany); Reineker, P. [Abteilung Theoretische Physik, Universitaet Ulm, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, 89069 Ulm (Germany)

    2006-07-15

    Dendrimers are highly branched polymers which are expected to be useful, for example, as efficient artificial light harvesting systems in nano-technological applications. There are two different classes of dendrimers: compact dendrimers with constant distance between neighboring branching points throughout the macromolecule and extended dendrimers where this distance increases from the system periphery to the center. An open question is still whether energy transport (via Frenkel excitons) occurs in a coherent or incoherent manner. We model the hyperbranched dendrimer molecule as an arrangement of two-level systems and apply the Frenkel exciton concept. The two-level systems are interacting with each other via transfer integrals modeling the special spatial structure of dendrimers. To take into account the electron-phonon interaction we introduce a heat bath that interacts with the exciton in a stochastic manner. In this way we describe the coupled coherent and incoherent Frenkel exciton transport inside a dendrimer. In order to mimic the influence of an energy capturing reaction center (like in photosynthesis) on exciton transport, we attach a sink to the dendrimer core.

  8. The transport safety programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selling, H.A.

    1994-01-01

    The transport safety programme is one of the smaller technical sub-programmes in the Radiation Safety Section of the Division of Nuclear Safety, in terms of both regular budget and professional staff allocations. The overall aim of the programme is to promote the safe movement of radioactive material worldwide. The specific objectives are the development, review and maintenance of the Regulations for the Safe Transport of Radioactive Material, Safety Series No 6, and its supporting documents Safety Series Nos 7, 37 and 80 and the assistance to Member States and International Organizations in the proper implementation of the Regulations. One of the important issues that emerged during an ongoing Review/Revision process is the transport of Low-Specific Activity (LSA) material and Surface Contaminated Objects (SCO). Many of the radioactive waste materials fall in one of these categories. The subject has gained substance because it is expected that in the next decade radioactive waste could become available in so far unprecedented quantities and volumes due to decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. (author)

  9. Transportation of medical isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nielsen, D.L.

    1997-01-01

    A Draft Technical Information Document (HNF-1855) is being prepared to evaluate proposed interim tritium and medical isotope production at the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). This assessment examines the potential health and safety impacts of transportation operations associated with the production of medical isotopes. Incident-free and accidental impacts are assessed using bounding source terms for the shipment of nonradiological target materials to the Hanford Site, the shipment of irradiated targets from the FFTF to the 325 Building, and the shipment of medical isotope products from the 325 Building to medical distributors. The health and safety consequences to workers and the public from the incident-free transportation of targets and isotope products would be within acceptable levels. For transportation accidents, risks to works and the public also would be within acceptable levels. This assessment is based on best information available at this time. As the medical isotope program matures, this analysis will be revised, if necessary, to support development of a final revision to the Technical Information Document

  10. Bubble transport in bifurcations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph; Qamar, Adnan

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment, we examine the transport of bubbles entrained in liquid. In gas embolotherapy, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that originate from acoustic vaporization of vascular droplets. In the case of non-functionalized droplets with the objective of vessel occlusion, the bubbles are transported by flow through vessel bifurcations, where they may split prior to eventually reach vessels small enough that they become lodged. This splitting behavior affects the distribution of bubbles and the efficacy of flow occlusion and the treatment. In these studies, we investigated bubble transport in bifurcations using computational and theoretical modeling. The model reproduces the variety of experimentally observed splitting behaviors. Splitting homogeneity and maximum shear stress along the vessel walls is predicted over a variety of physical parameters. Maximum shear stresses were found to decrease with increasing Reynolds number. The initial bubble length was found to affect the splitting behavior in the presence of gravitational asymmetry. This work was supported by NIH Grant R01EB006476.

  11. Lunar transportation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The University Space Research Association (USRA) requested the University of Minnesota Spacecraft Design Team to design a lunar transportation infrastructure. This task was a year long design effort culminating in a complete conceptual design and presentation at Johnson Space Center. The mission objective of the design group was to design a system of vehicles to bring a habitation module, cargo, and crew to the lunar surface from LEO and return either or both crew and cargo safely to LEO while emphasizing component commonality, reusability, and cost effectiveness. During the course of the design, the lunar transportation system (LTS) has taken on many forms. The final design of the system is composed of two vehicles, a lunar transfer vehicle (LTV) and a lunar excursion vehicle (LEV). The LTV serves as an efficient orbital transfer vehicle between the earth and the moon while the LEV carries crew and cargo to the lunar surface. Presented in the report are the mission analysis, systems layout, orbital mechanics, propulsion systems, structural and thermal analysis, and crew systems, avionics, and power systems for this lunar transportation concept.

  12. Transportation Statistics Annual Report, 2017

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report describes the Nations transportation system, the systems performance, its contributions to the economy, and its effects on people and the environment. This 22nd edition of the report is based on infor...

  13. Rural transportation emergency preparedness plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-07-01

    Improving the emergency preparedness of rural transportation systems is the overall goal of this research. Unique characteristics exist in rural transportation systems including widely dispersed and diverse populations and geographic areas. Exploring...

  14. Globalisation, transport and the environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    OECD and the International Transport Forum (ITF) held a GLobal Forum on Transport and Environment in a Globalising World, 10-12 November 2008 in Guadalajara, Mexico. There were around 200 participants from 23 countries at the global forum, representi...

  15. SAFETY PLATFORM OF POLISH TRANSPORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna CHRUZIK

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Analyzing the level of Polish transport safety culture can be seen that it is now dependent on the culture of safety management within the organization and the requirements and recommendations of law in this field for different modes of transport (air, rail, road, water. Of the four basic types of transport requirements are widely developed in the aviation, rail, and water – the sea. In order to harmonize the requirements for transport safety so it appears advisable to develop a platform for exchange of safety information for different modes of transport, and the development of good practices multimodal offering the possibility of improving Polish transport safety. Described in the publication of the proposal in addition to the alignment platform experience and knowledge in the field of transport safety in all its kinds, it can also be a tool for perfecting new operators of public transport.

  16. North American Transportation Statistics Database

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — Contains tables of data for the United States, Canada, and Mexico. Data tables are divided up into 12 categories, including a country overview, transportation flows,...

  17. Transport of encapsulated nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broman, Ulrika; Dybeck, Peter; Ekendahl, Ann-Mari

    2005-12-01

    The transport system for encapsulated fuel is described, including a preliminary drawing of a transport container. In the report, the encapsulation plant is assumed to be located to Oskarshamn, and the repository to Oskarshamn or Forsmark

  18. Solute carrier transporters: Pharmacogenomics research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghogho

    2010-12-27

    Dec 27, 2010 ... This paper reviews the solute carrier transporters and highlights the fact that there is much to be learnt from .... transporters, drug targets, effect or proteins and meta- ... basolateral or apical plasma membrane of polarized cells,.

  19. Transportation statistics annual report, 2015

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report : describes the Nations transportation system, : the systems performance, its contributions to : the economy, and its effects on people and the : environment. This 20th edition of the report is : base...

  20. Transportation statistics annual report, 2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Transportation Statistics Annual Report : describes the Nations transportation system, : the systems performance, its contributions to : the economy, and its effects on people and the : environment. This 18th edition of the report is : base...

  1. Diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    A report on the progress towards the goal of estimating the diffusion coefficient for anomalous transport is given. The gyrokinetic theory is used to identify different time and length scale inherent to the characteristics of plasmas which exhibit anomalous transport

  2. Defense Programs Transportation Risk Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clauss, D.B.

    1994-01-01

    This paper provides an overview of the methodology used in a probabilistic transportation risk assessment conducted to assess the probabilities and consequences of inadvertent dispersal of radioactive materials arising from severe transportation accidents. The model was developed for the Defense Program Transportation Risk Assessment (DPTRA) study. The analysis incorporates several enhancements relative to previous risk assessments of hazardous materials transportation including newly-developed statistics on the frequencies and severities of tractor semitrailer accidents and detailed route characterization using the 1990 Census data

  3. 'Resilience thinking' in transport planning

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, JYT

    2015-01-01

    Resilience has been discussed in ecology for over forty years. While some aspects of resilience have received attention in transport planning, there is no unified definition of resilience in transportation. To define resilience in transportation, I trace back to the origin of resilience in ecology with a view of revealing the essence of resilience thinking and its relevance to transport planning. Based on the fundamental concepts of engineering resilience and ecological resilience, I define "...

  4. The transport of radioactive waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Appleton, P.R.; Poulter, D.R.

    1989-01-01

    Regulations have been developed to ensure the safe transport of all radioactive materials by all modes (road, rail, sea and air). There are no features of radioactive waste which set it aside from other radioactive materials for transport, and the same regulations control all radioactive material transport. These regulations and their underlying basis are described in this paper, and their application to waste transport is outlined. (author)

  5. Transport infrastructure development in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bouraima Mouhamed Bayane

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the historical configuration process of transportation systems in China and examines the relationship between economic development and transport system at three different levels. The current status of transport infrastructure system development in China is summarized at national and regional level. The investment trends for transport infrastructure in China are also depicted. The keys issues relating to government initiatives are presented.

  6. Nanoscale thermal transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahill, David G.; Ford, Wayne K.; Goodson, Kenneth E.; Mahan, Gerald D.; Majumdar, Arun; Maris, Humphrey J.; Merlin, Roberto; Phillpot, Simon R.

    2003-01-01

    Rapid progress in the synthesis and processing of materials with structure on nanometer length scales has created a demand for greater scientific understanding of thermal transport in nanoscale devices, individual nanostructures, and nanostructured materials. This review emphasizes developments in experiment, theory, and computation that have occurred in the past ten years and summarizes the present status of the field. Interfaces between materials become increasingly important on small length scales. The thermal conductance of many solid-solid interfaces have been studied experimentally but the range of observed interface properties is much smaller than predicted by simple theory. Classical molecular dynamics simulations are emerging as a powerful tool for calculations of thermal conductance and phonon scattering, and may provide for a lively interplay of experiment and theory in the near term. Fundamental issues remain concerning the correct definitions of temperature in nonequilibrium nanoscale systems. Modern Si microelectronics are now firmly in the nanoscale regime—experiments have demonstrated that the close proximity of interfaces and the extremely small volume of heat dissipation strongly modifies thermal transport, thereby aggravating problems of thermal management. Microelectronic devices are too large to yield to atomic-level simulation in the foreseeable future and, therefore, calculations of thermal transport must rely on solutions of the Boltzmann transport equation; microscopic phonon scattering rates needed for predictive models are, even for Si, poorly known. Low-dimensional nanostructures, such as carbon nanotubes, are predicted to have novel transport properties; the first quantitative experiments of the thermal conductivity of nanotubes have recently been achieved using microfabricated measurement systems. Nanoscale porosity decreases the permittivity of amorphous dielectrics but porosity also strongly decreases the thermal conductivity. The

  7. Transportation of irradiated fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    A critique is presented of current methods of transporting spent nuclear fuel and the inadequacies of the associated contingency plans, with particular reference to the transportation of irradiated fuel through London. Anti-nuclear and pro-nuclear arguments are presented on a number of factors, including tests on flasks, levels of radiation exposure, routine transport arrangements and contingency arrangements. (U.K.)

  8. NWMO transportation technical work program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatton, C.

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes technical work program for the transportation nuclear waste by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Transportation work program involves risk assessment which under normal conditions involves dose assessment to the worker and the public as well as consideration of transportation system routing and operations. It also involves possible accident scenarios using forensic modelling and probability analysis.

  9. Improving Hygiene in Food Transportation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thoden van Velzen, E.U.; Lukasse, L.J.S.

    2016-01-01

    The hygiene aspect of food transport has become an issue for European transport operators. This development started roughly in 1990, when national governments urged transport operators to act on food safety. However, nowadays retailers and food producers are demanding more hygiene measures from

  10. Lectures on neutron transport theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benoist, P.

    1986-02-01

    This note is divided in two parts. In the first one the basis of transport theory, that is, the principal forms of the transport equation and the resulting theorems, are presented. The second part is particularly devoted to the applications of integral transport theory to reactor lattice problems [fr

  11. Transport, chaos and plasma physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benkadda, S.; Doveil, F.; Elskens, Y.

    1993-01-01

    This workshop made it possible to gather for the first time plasma physicists, dynamical systems physicists and mathematicians, around a general theme focusing on the characterisation of chaotic transport. The participations have been divided into 4 topics: - dynamical systems and microscopic models of chaotic transport, - magnetic fluctuations and transport in tokamaks, - drift wave turbulence, self-organisation and intermittency, and - Wave-particle interactions

  12. Transport studies for ignition experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nocentini, A.; Schultz, G.

    1990-07-01

    The results of a predictive study of plasma energy confinement in IGNITOR, performed with a 1 1/2-D transport code and the Tang an Redi transport model, are reported. For comparison, performance predictions for NET adopting similar assumptions on plasma transport are also presented. (author) 16 figs., 5 tabs., 13 refs

  13. NWMO transportation technical work program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, C. [Nuclear Waste Management Organization, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2015-07-01

    This paper describes technical work program for the transportation nuclear waste by the Nuclear Waste Management Organization (NWMO). Transportation work program involves risk assessment which under normal conditions involves dose assessment to the worker and the public as well as consideration of transportation system routing and operations. It also involves possible accident scenarios using forensic modelling and probability analysis.

  14. Transportation Brokerage: An Instructional Module.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Linda

    A concept-based introduction to transportation brokerage is provided in this instructional module for undergraduate and graduate transportation-related courses for disciplines such as engineering, business, marketing, and technology. The concept of transportation brokerage is defined as an assignment of the management of a specific element of a…

  15. Saturated Zone Colloid Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H. S. Viswanathan

    2004-10-07

    This scientific analysis provides retardation factors for colloids transporting in the saturated zone (SZ) and the unsaturated zone (UZ). These retardation factors represent the reversible chemical and physical filtration of colloids in the SZ. The value of the colloid retardation factor, R{sub col} is dependent on several factors, such as colloid size, colloid type, and geochemical conditions (e.g., pH, Eh, and ionic strength). These factors are folded into the distributions of R{sub col} that have been developed from field and experimental data collected under varying geochemical conditions with different colloid types and sizes. Attachment rate constants, k{sub att}, and detachment rate constants, k{sub det}, of colloids to the fracture surface have been measured for the fractured volcanics, and separate R{sub col} uncertainty distributions have been developed for attachment and detachment to clastic material and mineral grains in the alluvium. Radionuclides such as plutonium and americium sorb mostly (90 to 99 percent) irreversibly to colloids (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170025], Section 6.3.3.2). The colloid retardation factors developed in this analysis are needed to simulate the transport of radionuclides that are irreversibly sorbed onto colloids; this transport is discussed in the model report ''Site-Scale Saturated Zone Transport'' (BSC 2004 [DIRS 170036]). Although it is not exclusive to any particular radionuclide release scenario, this scientific analysis especially addresses those scenarios pertaining to evidence from waste-degradation experiments, which indicate that plutonium and americium may be irreversibly attached to colloids for the time scales of interest. A section of this report will also discuss the validity of using microspheres as analogs to colloids in some of the lab and field experiments used to obtain the colloid retardation factors. In addition, a small fraction of colloids travels with the groundwater without any significant

  16. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Troy Reed; Ergun Kuru

    2004-09-30

    The Advanced Cuttings Transport Study (ACTS) was a 5-year JIP project undertaken at the University of Tulsa (TU). The project was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and JIP member companies. The objectives of the project were: (1) to develop and construct a new research facility that would allow three-phase (gas, liquid and cuttings) flow experiments under ambient and EPET (elevated pressure and temperature) conditions, and at different angle of inclinations and drill pipe rotation speeds; (2) to conduct experiments and develop a data base for the industry and academia; and (3) to develop mechanistic models for optimization of drilling hydraulics and cuttings transport. This project consisted of research studies, flow loop construction and instrumentation development. Following a one-year period for basic flow loop construction, a proposal was submitted by TU to the DOE for a five-year project that was organized in such a manner as to provide a logical progression of research experiments as well as additions to the basic flow loop. The flow loop additions and improvements included: (1) elevated temperature capability; (2) two-phase (gas and liquid, foam etc.) capability; (3) cuttings injection and removal system; (4) drill pipe rotation system; and (5) drilling section elevation system. In parallel with the flow loop construction, hydraulics and cuttings transport studies were preformed using drilling foams and aerated muds. In addition, hydraulics and rheology of synthetic drilling fluids were investigated. The studies were performed under ambient and EPET conditions. The effects of temperature and pressure on the hydraulics and cuttings transport were investigated. Mechanistic models were developed to predict frictional pressure loss and cuttings transport in horizontal and near-horizontal configurations. Model predictions were compared with the measured data. Predominantly, model predictions show satisfactory agreements with the measured data. As a

  17. The transportation institutional plan: Cooperative planning for NWPA transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denny, S.H.; Livingston-Behan, E.A.

    1987-01-01

    The Transportation Institutional Plan, published in 1986 by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM), defines a process for effective interaction among those who may be affected by transportation activities conducted under provisions of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). The Plan describes formal mechanisms for identifying, addressing, and resolving specific transportation issues. An appendix to the Plan includes detailed discussion of the following transportation issues: (1) the transportation of defense waste; (2) prenotification; (3) physical and rail shipments; (4) highway routing; (5) rail routing; (6) inspection and enforcement for highway and rail shipments; (7) emergency response; (8) liability coverage for transportation to NWPA facilities; (9) cask design and testing; (10) overweight truck shipments; (11) rail service analysis; (12) mixture of transportation modes; (13) transportation infrastructure improvements; (14) OCRWM training standards; (15) transportation operational procedures; and (16) State, Tribal, and local regulation of transportation. The OCRWM's intent is to provide an open accounting of planning, to identify opportunities for public involvement in program activities, and to foster communication and negotiation in the cooperative development of a safe, efficient, and cost-effective NWPA transportation program

  18. The transport forecast - an important stage of transport management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragu, Vasile; Dinu, Oana; Oprea, Cristina; Alina Roman, Eugenia

    2017-10-01

    The transport system is a powerful system with varying loads in operation coming from changes in freight and passenger traffic in different time periods. The variations are due to the specific conditions of organization and development of socio-economic activities. The causes of varying loads can be included in three groups: economic, technical and organizational. The assessing of transport demand variability leads to proper forecast and development of the transport system, knowing that the market price is determined on equilibrium between supply and demand. The reduction of transport demand variability through different technical solutions, organizational, administrative, legislative leads to an increase in the efficiency and effectiveness of transport. The paper presents a new way of assessing the future needs of transport through dynamic series. Both researchers and practitioners in transport planning can benefit from the research results. This paper aims to analyze in an original approach how a good transport forecast can lead to a better management in transport, with significant effects on transport demand full meeting in quality terms. The case study shows how dynamic series of statistics can be used to identify the size of future demand addressed to the transport system.

  19. Products - transport - storage; Produits - transports - stockages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    2005-04-15

    9 articles are gathered in this data-sheet; they deal with LPG products, transport and storage. Blackmer offers a full line of LPG equipment for the transfer of propane, butane and anhydrous ammonia. Clesse Industries and Gas Equipment Company equip luxury hotels in Dubai and Abu Dhabi. Since 1975 the company FAS Flussiggas-Anlagen Gmbh, Salzgitter - Germany is one of the leading manufacturers of LPG equipment and components for mobile and stationary bulk plants in Europe. The main products are dispensers, pumps, Auto-gas filling stations, vaporizers, loading arms, electronic cylinder filling scales, flanged valves and safety equipment. FAS is certified with 2 process orientated management systems according to DIN EN ISO 9001:2000 and to PED - Module H1 - Category IV. The company supplies all products and services according to the Pressure Equipment Directive 97/23/EC with CE-mark as well according to regulations ATEX, OIML, TUV, PTB... ECII Engineered Controls International/Rego USA is well known as a worldwide leader and designer/manufacturer of LPG and anhydrous ammonia equipment. The 10. of January Per Sture Jenssen retired from Ragasco A.S. Managing Director after 6 years in the company. Oyvind Hamre who has taken over from Mr. Jenssen, is 39 years of age and he has been 10 years with Ragasco, most recently as R and D Manager. Per Sture Jenssen will still be present in the company until summer 2005 to support during the transition. Corken has put in the market two new products: a new valve and a new pump. Impco Technologies announces completion of BRC acquisition. VOC reduction is a common discussion issue in almost all sectors of the oil business and beyond. Each industry sector has a different strategy towards this issue according to its perceived impact on the business. Although largely motivated by the need to satisfy national and international emission standards, the move towards reduction has encouraged equipment manufacturers to develop advanced

  20. The small intestinal epithelia of beef steers differentially express sugar transporter messenger ribonucleic acid in response to abomasal versus ruminal infusion of starch hydrolysate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, S F; Harmon, D L; Vanzant, E S; McLeod, K R; Boling, J A; Matthews, J C

    2010-01-01

    In mammals, the absorption of monosaccharides from small intestinal lumen involves at least 3 sugar transporters (SugT): sodium-dependent glucose transporter 1 (SGLT1; gene SLC5A1) transports glucose and galactose, whereas glucose transporter (GLUT) 5 (GLUT5; gene SLC2A5) transports fructose, across the apical membrane of enterocytes. In contrast, GLUT2 (gene SLC2A2) transports all of these sugars across basolateral and apical membranes. To compare the distribution patterns and sensitivity with nutritional regulation of these 3 SugT mRNA in beef cattle small intestinal tissue, 18 ruminally and abomasally catheterized Angus steers (BW approximately 260 kg) were assigned to water (control), ruminal cornstarch (partially hydrolyzed by alpha-amylase; SH), or abomasal SH infusion treatments (n = 6) and fed an alfalfa-cube-based diet at 1.3 x NE(m) requirement. The SH infusions amounted to 20% of ME intake. After 14- or 16-d of infusion, steers were killed; duodenal, jejunal, and ileal epithelia harvested; and total RNA extracted. The relative amount of SugT mRNA in epithelia was determined using real-time reverse transcription-PCR quantification methods. Basal expression of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA was greater (P content of GLUT5 mRNA was greater (P content of GLUT5 mRNA in small intestinal epithelia was not affected (P > or = 0.16) by either SH infusion treatment. In contrast, GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA content in the ileal epithelium was increased (P content also was increased (P = 0.07) by 64% after ruminal SH infusion. These results demonstrate that the ileum of beef cattle small intestine adapts to an increased luminal supply of glucose by increasing SGLT1 and GLUT2 mRNA content, whereas increased ruminal SH supply results in duodenal upregulation of SGLT1 mRNA content. These adaptive responses of GLUT2 and SGLT1 mRNA to abomasal or ruminal SH infusion suggest that beef cattle can adapt to increase their carbohydrate assimilation through small intestinal epithelia, assuming

  1. Impact of public transportation market share and other transportation and environmental policy variables on sustainable transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Policies that encourage reduced travel, such as traveling shorter distances, and increased use of more efficient transportation modes, such as public transportation and high-occupancy private automobiles, are often considered one of several possible ...

  2. Transportation Options | Climate Neutral Research Campuses | NREL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transportation Options Transportation Options Transportation to, from, and within a research campus from business travel often enlarge the footprint more than expected. To understand options for climate

  3. Environmental Baseline File National Transportation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, M.

    1999-01-01

    This Environmental Baseline File summarizes and consolidates information related to the national-level transportation of commercial spent nuclear fuel. Topics addressed include: shipments of commercial spent nuclear fuel based on mostly truck and mostly rail shipping scenarios; transportation routing for commercial spent nuclear fuel sites and DOE sites; radionuclide inventories for various shipping container capacities; transportation routing; populations along transportation routes; urbanized area population densities; the impacts of historical, reasonably foreseeable, and general transportation; state-level food transfer factors; Federal Guidance Report No. 11 and 12 radionuclide dose conversion factors; and national average atmospheric conditions

  4. Sustainable Transport and Performance Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gudmundsson, Henrik

    2004-01-01

    Sustainable transport has become a major policy concern in recent years. The term suggests a need to consider transport in a comprehensive perspective including the well-being of both present and future generations, and taking environmental, social and economic issues into account. Indicators...... in forecasting and tracking the performance of transport systems increasingly guide sustainable transport policy making. This review explores the implications of the sustainable transport” concept and how it can be made operational with indicators. A number of indicator systems are reviewed, and some strengths...

  5. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Mengjiao Yu; Ramadan Ahmed; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Lei Zhou; Zhu Chen; Aimee Washington; Crystal Redden

    2003-09-30

    The Quarter began with installing the new drill pipe, hooking up the new hydraulic power unit, completing the pipe rotation system (Task 4 has been completed), and making the SWACO choke operational. Detailed design and procurement work is proceeding on a system to elevate the drill-string section. The prototype Foam Generator Cell has been completed by Temco and delivered. Work is currently underway to calibrate the system. Literature review and preliminary model development for cuttings transportation with polymer foam under EPET conditions are in progress. Preparations for preliminary cuttings transport experiments with polymer foam have been completed. Two nuclear densitometers were re-calibrated. Drill pipe rotation system was tested up to 250 RPM. Water flow tests were conducted while rotating the drill pipe up to 100 RPM. The accuracy of weight measurements for cuttings in the annulus was evaluated. Additional modifications of the cuttings collection system are being considered in order to obtain the desired accurate measurement of cuttings weight in the annular test section. Cutting transport experiments with aerated fluids are being conducted at EPET, and analyses of the collected data are in progress. The printed circuit board is functioning with acceptable noise level to measure cuttings concentration at static condition using ultrasonic method. We were able to conduct several tests using a standard low pass filter to eliminate high frequency noise. We tested to verify that we can distinguish between different depths of sand in a static bed of sand. We tested with water, air and a mix of the two mediums. Major modifications to the DTF have almost been completed. A stop-flow cell is being designed for the DTF, the ACTF and Foam Generator/Viscometer which will allow us to capture bubble images without the need for ultra fast shutter speeds or microsecond flash system.

  6. ADVANCED CUTTINGS TRANSPORT STUDY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ergun Kuru; Stefan Miska; Nicholas Takach; Kaveh Ashenayi; Gerald Kane; Mark Pickell; Len Volk; Mike Volk; Barkim Demirdal; Affonso Lourenco; Evren Ozbayoglu; Paco Vieira; Neelima Godugu

    2000-07-30

    ACTS flow loop is now operational under elevated pressure and temperature. Currently, experiments with synthetic based drilling fluids under pressure and temperature are being conducted. Based on the analysis of Fann 70 data, empirical correlations defining the shear stress as a function of temperature, pressure and the shear rate have been developed for Petrobras synthetic drilling fluids. PVT equipment has been modified for testing Synthetic oil base drilling fluids. PVT tests with Petrobras Synthetic base mud have been conducted and results are being analyzed Foam flow experiments have been conducted and the analysis of the data has been carried out to characterize the rheology of the foam. Comparison of pressure loss prediction from the available foam hydraulic models and the test results has been made. Cuttings transport experiments in horizontal annulus section have been conducted using air, water and cuttings. Currently, cuttings transport tests in inclined test section are being conducted. Foam PVT analysis tests have been conducted. Foam stability experiments have also been conducted. Effects of salt and oil concentration on the foam stability have been investigated. Design of ACTS flow loop modification for foam and aerated mud flow has been completed. A flow loop operation procedure for conducting foam flow experiments under EPET conditions has been prepared Design of the lab-scale flow loop for dynamic foam characterization and cuttings monitoring instrumentation tests has been completed. The construction of the test loop is underway. As part of the technology transport efforts, Advisory Board Meeting with ACTS-JIP industry members has been organized on May 13, 2000.

  7. Transport of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huck, W.

    1992-01-01

    The book presents a systematic survey of the legal provisions governing the transport of radioactive materials, placing emphasis on the nuclear licensing provisions of sections 4, 4b of the Atomic Energy, Act (AtG) and sections 8-10 of the Radiation Protection Ordinance (StrlSchV), also considering the provisions of the traffic law governing the carriage of hazardous goods. The author's goal is to establish a systematic basis by comparative analysis of the licensing regulations under atomic energy law, for the purpose of formulating a proposed amendment to the law, for the sake of clarity. The author furthermore looks for and develops criteria that can be of help in distinguishing the regulations governing the carriage of hazardous goods from the nuclear regulatory provisions. He also examines whether such a differentiation is detectable, particularly in those amendments to the StrlSchV which came after the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The regulations governing the transport of radioactive materials under the AtG meet with the problem of different classification systems being applied, to radioactive materials in the supervisory regulations on the one hand, and to nuclear materials in Annex 1 to the AtG on the other hand. A classification of natural, non-nuclear grade uranium e.g. by the financial security provisions is difficult as a result of these differences in the laws. The author shows that the transport regulations of the StrlSchV represent an isolated supervisory instrument that has no connecting factor to the sections 28 ff StrlSchV, as radiation protection is provided for by the regulations of the Act on Carriage of Hazardous Goods. The author suggests an amendment of existing law incorporating the legal intent of sections 8-10 StrlSchV and of sections 4, 4b AtG into two sections, and abolishing the supervisory provisions of the StrlSchV altogether. (orig./HP) [de

  8. The Edge supersonic transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agosta, Roxana; Bilbija, Dushan; Deutsch, Marc; Gallant, David; Rose, Don; Shreve, Gene; Smario, David; Suffredini, Brian

    1992-01-01

    As intercontinental business and tourism volumes continue their rapid expansion, the need to reduce travel times becomes increasingly acute. The Edge Supersonic Transport Aircraft is designed to meet this demand by the year 2015. With a maximum range of 5750 nm, a payload of 294 passengers and a cruising speed of M = 2.4, The Edge will cut current international flight durations in half, while maintaining competitive first class, business class, and economy class comfort levels. Moreover, this transport will render a minimal impact upon the environment, and will meet all Federal Aviation Administration Part 36, Stage III noise requirements. The cornerstone of The Edge's superior flight performance is its aerodynamically efficient, dual-configuration design incorporating variable-geometry wingtips. This arrangement combines the benefits of a high aspect ratio wing at takeoff and low cruising speeds with the high performance of an arrow-wing in supersonic cruise. And while the structural weight concerns relating to swinging wingtips are substantial, The Edge looks to ever-advancing material technologies to further increase its viability. Heeding well the lessons of the past, The Edge design holds economic feasibility as its primary focus. Therefore, in addition to its inherently superior aerodynamic performance, The Edge uses a lightweight, largely windowless configuration, relying on a synthetic vision system for outside viewing by both pilot and passengers. Additionally, a fly-by-light flight control system is incorporated to address aircraft supersonic cruise instability. The Edge will be produced at an estimated volume of 400 aircraft and will be offered to airlines in 2015 at $167 million per transport (1992 dollars).

  9. Pluto's Volatile Transport

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Leslie

    2012-10-01

    Pluto's varying subsolar latitude and heliocentric distance leads to large variations in the surface volatile distribution and surface pressure. I present results of new volatile transport models (Young 2012a, b). The models include insolation, thermal emission, subsurface conduction, heating of a volatile slab, internal heat flux, latent heat of sublimation, and strict global mass balance. Numeric advances include initial conditions that allow for rapid convergence, efficient computation with matrix arithmetic, and stable Crank-Nicholson timesteps for both bare and volatile-covered areas. Runs of the model show six distinct seasons on Pluto. (1) As Pluto approaches perihelion, the volatiles on the old winter pole (the Rotational North Pole, RNP) becomes more directly illuminated , and the pressure and albedo rise rapidly. (2) When a new ice cap forms on the Rotational South Pole, RSP, volatiles are exchanged between poles. The pressure and albedo change more slowly. (3) When all volatiles have sublimed from the RNP, the albedo and pressure drop rapidly. (4-6) A similar pattern is repeated near aphelion with a reversal of the roles and the poles. I will compare results with earlier Pluto models of Hansen and Paige (1996), show the dependence on parameters such as substrate inertia, and make predictions for the New Horizons flyby of Pluto in 2015. This work was supported, in part, by funding from NASA Planetary Atmospheres Grant NNG06GF32G and the Spitzer project (JPL research support Agreement 1368573). Hansen, C. J. and D. A. Paige 1996. Seasonal Nitrogen Cycles on Pluto. Icarus 120, 247-265. Young, L. A. 2012a. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: I - Analytic expressions, with application to Pluto’s day. Icarus, in press Young, L. A. 2012b. Volatile transport on inhomogeneous surfaces: II. Numerical calculations, with application to Pluto's season. In preparation.

  10. Stochastic models of intracellular transport

    KAUST Repository

    Bressloff, Paul C.

    2013-01-09

    The interior of a living cell is a crowded, heterogenuous, fluctuating environment. Hence, a major challenge in modeling intracellular transport is to analyze stochastic processes within complex environments. Broadly speaking, there are two basic mechanisms for intracellular transport: passive diffusion and motor-driven active transport. Diffusive transport can be formulated in terms of the motion of an overdamped Brownian particle. On the other hand, active transport requires chemical energy, usually in the form of adenosine triphosphate hydrolysis, and can be direction specific, allowing biomolecules to be transported long distances; this is particularly important in neurons due to their complex geometry. In this review a wide range of analytical methods and models of intracellular transport is presented. In the case of diffusive transport, narrow escape problems, diffusion to a small target, confined and single-file diffusion, homogenization theory, and fractional diffusion are considered. In the case of active transport, Brownian ratchets, random walk models, exclusion processes, random intermittent search processes, quasi-steady-state reduction methods, and mean-field approximations are considered. Applications include receptor trafficking, axonal transport, membrane diffusion, nuclear transport, protein-DNA interactions, virus trafficking, and the self-organization of subcellular structures. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  11. Radiation transport in MEDUSA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rose, S.J.; Evans, R.G.

    1983-09-01

    The transport of energy by X-ray photons has been included in the lD Lagrangian hydrodynamics code, MEDUSA. Calculations of the implosion by 0.53 μm laser irradiation of plastic and glass microballoons of current interest at the Central Laser Facility show that radiation preheats the fill gas and alters the temperature and density profiles during the implosion. A lower maximum gas temperature is obtained and this results, for a DT gas fill, in a greatly reduced neutron yield. (author)

  12. Neutralized transport experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy, P.K.; Yu, S.S.; Eylon, S.; Henestroza, E.; Anders, A.; Gilson, E.P.; Bieniosek, F.M.; Greenway, W.G.; Logan, B.G.; Waldron, W.L.; Shuman, D.B.; Vanecek, D.L.; Welch, D.R.; Rose, D.V.; Thoma, C.; Davidson, R.C.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kaganovich, I.; Sefkow, A.B.; Sharp, W.M.

    2005-01-01

    Experimental details on providing active neutralization of high brightness ion beam have been demonstrated for Heavy Ion Fusion program. A K + beam was extracted from a variable-perveance injector and transported through 2.4 m long quadrupole lattice for final focusing. Neutralization was provided by a localized cathode arc plasma plug and a RF volume plasma system. Effects of beam perveance, emittance, convergence focusing angle, and axial focusing position on neutralization have been investigated. Good agreement has been observed with theory and experiment throughout the study

  13. Urban regeneration and transportation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Van Wyk, Llewellyn V

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available -density development, progressively reducing in density as it moves out from the centre. Transit-Oriented Development includes design features such as (Morris 1996; Renne 2009): A neighbourhood designed for cycling and walking and having sufficient facilities...://transport.dot.gov.za/communication_centre_sub.aspx? DOT 2009. ?DOT Secretary Ray LaHood, HUD Secretary Shaun Donovan and EPA Administrator Lisa Jackson Announce Interagency Partnership for Sustainable Communities?, Press release, Tuesday June 16, 2009, http://www.dot-gov/affairs/2009 DTI 2010...

  14. Crew Transportation Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeitler, Pamela S. (Compiler); Mango, Edward J.

    2013-01-01

    The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Commercial Crew Program (CCP) has been chartered to facilitate the development of a United States (U.S.) commercial crew space transportation capability with the goal of achieving safe, reliable, and cost effective access to and from low Earth orbit (LEO) and the International Space Station (ISS) as soon as possible. Once the capability is matured and is available to the Government and other customers, NASA expects to purchase commercial services to meet its ISS crew rotation and emergency return objectives.

  15. Recoil transporter devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madhavan, N.

    2005-01-01

    The study of sparsely produced nuclear reaction products in the direction of intense primary beam is a challenging task, the pursuit of which has given rise to the advent or several types of selective devices. These range from a simple parallel plate electrostatic deflector to state-of-the-art electromagnetic separators. There is no single device which can satisfy all the requirements of an ideal recoil transporter, simultaneously. An overview of such devices and their building blocks is presented, which may help in the proper choice of the device as per the experimental requirements. (author)

  16. Transport theory and codes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clancy, B.E.

    1986-01-01

    This chapter begins with a neutron transport equation which includes the one dimensional plane geometry problems, the one dimensional spherical geometry problems, and numerical solutions. The section on the ANISN code and its look-alikes covers problems which can be solved; eigenvalue problems; outer iteration loop; inner iteration loop; and finite difference solution procedures. The input and output data for ANISN is also discussed. Two dimensional problems such as the DOT code are given. Finally, an overview of the Monte-Carlo methods and codes are elaborated on

  17. Heat transport system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pierce, B.L.

    1978-01-01

    A heat transport system of small size which can be operated in any orientation consists of a coolant loop containing a vaporizable liquid as working fluid and includes in series a vaporizer, a condenser and two one-way valves and a pressurizer connected to the loop between the two valves. The pressurizer may be divided into two chambers by a flexible diaphragm, an inert gas in one chamber acts as a pneumatic spring for the system. This system is suitable for use in a nuclear-powered artificial heart

  18. Management of Transportation Equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    Record% % %. "jP -M -. M LIh TRANSPORTATION MAENTKENAI4CE SHOP WORKLOAD CONTROL WORK CENTER SADR A-OR .a’* tLR 4.,R53 8114LM 0 o 251 50 75 100 125 ISO ...PDBP 06 7 4892 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 14001-20000 PDBP 06 7 4893 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 20001-27000 PDBP 06 7 4894 TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 27001 PDBP...27K TRACTOR, WHEEL, INDUST, 27001 PDBP & UP P-i LINE ITEM 07 LIGHTING AND POWER GENERATION EQUIPMENT 5110 T FLOODLIGHT ELEC FLOODLIGHT, ELEC, TRUCK

  19. Transport phenomena I essentials

    CERN Document Server

    REA, The Editors of

    2012-01-01

    REA's Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals. Transport Phenomena I includes viscosity, flow of Newtonian fluids, velocity distribution in laminar flow, velocity distributions with more than one independent variable, thermal con

  20. Innovations for sustainable public transport

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hrelja, Robert; Hansson, Lisa; Richardson, Tim

    The aim of the project has been to analyse institutional and planning conditions for public transport in the Scandinavian countries from a comparative perspective, looking at the county of Skåne (Sweden) and the municipalities of Aarhus (Denmark) and Trondheim (Norway). The report considers...... qualitative case- studies of public transport in Skåne, Aarhus, and Trondheim, and uses an empirical material consisting of written material and interviews. It concludes that: (i) new forms of coordination between organizations and policy areas are called for in a number of critical areas, if public transport...... is to contribute effectively to the development of an efficient and sustainable transport system (for example, forms for the coordination of public transport, land use, and infrastructure planning); (ii) public transport must not be seen as an end in itself, or as merely a technical transport system; (iii...

  1. Crew Transportation Technical Management Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mckinnie, John M. (Compiler); Lueders, Kathryn L. (Compiler)

    2013-01-01

    Under the guidance of processes provided by Crew Transportation Plan (CCT-PLN-1100), this document, with its sister documents, International Space Station (ISS) Crew Transportation and Services Requirements Document (CCT-REQ-1130), Crew Transportation Technical Standards and Design Evaluation Criteria (CCT-STD-1140), Crew Transportation Operations Standards (CCT STD-1150), and ISS to Commercial Orbital Transportation Services Interface Requirements Document (SSP 50808), provides the basis for a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) certification for services to the ISS for the Commercial Provider. When NASA Crew Transportation System (CTS) certification is achieved for ISS transportation, the Commercial Provider will be eligible to provide services to and from the ISS during the services phase.

  2. Transport barrier in Helical system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ida, Katsumi

    1998-01-01

    Experiments on the transport barrier in Helical plasmas are reviewed. There are two mechanisms of transport improvement, that results in the formation of the transport barrier. One is the improvement of neoclassical transport by reducing the ripple loss with radial electric field, which exist only in helical plasma. The other is the improvement of anomalous transport due to the suppression of fluctuations associated with a radial electric field shear both in tokamak and helical plasma. The formation of the transport barrier can be triggered by the radial electric field shear associated with the transition of the radial electric field (L/H transition or ion-electron root transition) or the peaked density or the optimization of magnetic field shear. The mechanisms of transport barrier formation are also discussed. (author). 60 refs

  3. Environmental assessment of freight transportation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flodstroem, E. [MariTerm AB, Goeteborg (Sweden)

    1998-04-01

    This report is a short version in English of two reports in Swedish: KFB report 1994:6 `Environmental effects of change of transport mode for goods transportation` and `Combining of transport models` which was performed as a commission for the Swedish environmental protection agency. The aim of both studies is to investigate the environmental effects of political measures to transfer goods from one transport mode to another. To be able to calculate the environmental effects a method to follow the transport chains has been developed. By defining the transport chains with a main transport mode it has been possible to relate the emissions to the different modes. The main results are that the transferable volumes are limited and even if a maximum volume is transferred, the positive environmental effects are small compared to the effects of measures to reduce the emissions from the vehicles 3 refs, 22 figs, 34 tabs

  4. Advanced transport modeling of toroidal plasmas with transport barriers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuyama, A.; Murakami, S.; Honda, M.; Izumi, Y.; Yagi, M.; Nakajima, N.; Nakamura, Y.; Ozeki, T.

    2005-01-01

    Transport modeling of toroidal plasmas is one of the most important issue to predict time evolution of burning plasmas and to develop control schemes in reactor plasmas. In order to describe the plasma rotation and rapid transition self-consistently, we have developed an advanced scheme of transport modeling based on dynamical transport equation and applied it to the analysis of transport barrier formation. First we propose a new transport model and examine its behavior by the use of conventional diffusive transport equation. This model includes the electrostatic toroidal ITG mode and the electromagnetic ballooning mode and successfully describes the formation of internal transport barriers. Then the dynamical transport equation is introduced to describe the plasma rotation and the radial electric field self-consistently. The formation of edge transport barriers is systematically studied and compared with experimental observations. The possibility of kinetic transport modeling in velocity space is also examined. Finally the modular structure of integrated modeling code for tokamaks and helical systems is discussed. (author)

  5. Charge transport problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E.P.

    1977-01-01

    In a recent report (UCID 17346, ''Relativistic Particle Beam in a Semi-Infinite Axially Symmetric conducting channel extending from a perfectly conducting plane,'' Dec. 13, 1976) Cooper and Neil demonstrate that the net charge transported by a beam pulse injected into a channel of finite conductivity equals the charge of the beam itself. The channel is taken to be infinite in the positive z direction, has finite radius and is terminated by a conducting ground plane at z =0. This result is not an obvious one, and it is restricted in its applicability by the special model assumed for the channel. It is the purpose to explain the result of Cooper and Neil in more qualitative terms and to make similar calculations using several other channel models. It must be emphasized that these calculations are not concerned with the fate of the transported charge after the pulse has stopped, but rather with how much charge leaves the ground plane assuming the pulse does not stop

  6. Toward Optimal Transport Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexandrov, Natalia; Kincaid, Rex K.; Vargo, Erik P.

    2008-01-01

    Strictly evolutionary approaches to improving the air transport system a highly complex network of interacting systems no longer suffice in the face of demand that is projected to double or triple in the near future. Thus evolutionary approaches should be augmented with active design methods. The ability to actively design, optimize and control a system presupposes the existence of predictive modeling and reasonably well-defined functional dependences between the controllable variables of the system and objective and constraint functions for optimization. Following recent advances in the studies of the effects of network topology structure on dynamics, we investigate the performance of dynamic processes on transport networks as a function of the first nontrivial eigenvalue of the network's Laplacian, which, in turn, is a function of the network s connectivity and modularity. The last two characteristics can be controlled and tuned via optimization. We consider design optimization problem formulations. We have developed a flexible simulation of network topology coupled with flows on the network for use as a platform for computational experiments.

  7. Transport roads on peatland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonsson, G

    1984-01-01

    Laboratory tests have given good experiences to develop the technology of building transport roads for truck on peat bogs. The experiences can be summarized in the following points: The bearing capacity can be increased 15-20 times by mixing down, to the depth of 0,5 m, a mixture of gypsum and T-lime. high bearing surface capacity has been achieved at laboratory tests by mixing sulfonated lignin/sodiumbichromate or cement into peat. These mixtures can take a load of 610 kPa will be tested in the field. An ordinary base machine can be used with some modifications for the new technique. Costs for building roads and stores with the new technique can save 6 MSEK/year in Sweden. Remainig problems at full scale tests are: Testroads should be built to get knowledge of settlement, bearing capacity cost of maintenance etc. Heavy metals pollution. Machinery for transportation and admixture of the stabilizing agents must be deloped. By experience a good mixture between firm soil and peat is difficult to achieve. Technique and dimensioning to make a soft mixture ought to be studied.

  8. Analysis of colloid transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Travis, B.J.; Nuttall, H.E.

    1985-01-01

    The population balance methodology is described and applied to the transport and capture of polydispersed colloids in packed columns. The transient model includes particle growth, capture, convective transport, and dispersion. We also follow the dynamic accumulation of captured colloids on the solids. The multidimensional parabolic partial differential equation was solved by a recently enhanced method of characteristics technique. This computational technique minimized numerical dispersion and is computationally very fast. The FORTRAN 77 code ran on a VAX-780 in less than a minute and also runs on an IBM-AT using the Professional FORTRAN compiler. The code was extensively tested against various simplified cases and against analytical models. The packed column experiments by Saltelli et al. were re-analyzed incorporating the experimentally reported size distribution of the colloid feed material. Colloid capture was modeled using a linear size dependent filtration function. The effects of a colloid size dependent filtration factor and various initial colloid size distributions on colloid migration and capture were investigated. Also, we followed the changing colloid size distribution as a function of position in the column. Some simple arguments are made to assess the likelihood of colloid migration at a potential NTS Yucca Mountain waste disposal site. 10 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  9. Transport equation solving methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granjean, P.M.

    1984-06-01

    This work is mainly devoted to Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. CN method: starting from a lemma stated by Placzek, an equivalence is established between two problems: the first one is defined in a finite medium bounded by a surface S, the second one is defined in the whole space. In the first problem the angular flux on the surface S is shown to be the solution of an integral equation. This equation is solved by Galerkin's method. The Csub(N) method is applied here to one-velocity problems: in plane geometry, slab albedo and transmission with Rayleigh scattering, calculation of the extrapolation length; in cylindrical geometry, albedo and extrapolation length calculation with linear scattering. Fsub(N) method: the basic integral transport equation of the Csub(N) method is integrated on Case's elementary distributions; another integral transport equation is obtained: this equation is solved by a collocation method. The plane problems solved by the Csub(N) method are also solved by the Fsub(N) method. The Fsub(N) method is extended to any polynomial scattering law. Some simple spherical problems are also studied. Chandrasekhar's method, collision probability method, Case's method are presented for comparison with Csub(N) and Fsub(N) methods. This comparison shows the respective advantages of the two methods: a) fast convergence and possible extension to various geometries for Csub(N) method; b) easy calculations and easy extension to polynomial scattering for Fsub(N) method [fr

  10. OXYGEN TRANSPORT CERAMIC MEMBRANES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Sukumar Bandopadhyay; Dr. Nagendra Nagabhushana

    2000-10-01

    This is the third quarterly report on oxygen Transport Ceramic Membranes. In the following, the report describes the progress made by our university partners in Tasks 1 through 6, experimental apparatus that was designed and built for various tasks of this project, thermodynamic calculations, where applicable and work planned for the future. (Task 1) Design, fabricate and evaluate ceramic to metal seals based on graded ceramic powder/metal braze joints. (Task 2) Evaluate the effect of defect configuration on ceramic membrane conductivity and long term chemical and structural stability. (Task 3) Determine materials mechanical properties under conditions of high temperatures and reactive atmospheres. (Task 4) Evaluate phase stability and thermal expansion of candidate perovskite membranes and develop techniques to support these materials on porous metal structures. (Task 5) Assess the microstructure of membrane materials to evaluate the effects of vacancy-impurity association, defect clusters, and vacancy-dopant association on the membrane performance and stability. (Task 6) Measure kinetics of oxygen uptake and transport in ceramic membrane materials under commercially relevant conditions using isotope labeling techniques.

  11. Lunar magma transport phenomena

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spera, Frank J.

    1992-01-01

    An outline of magma transport theory relevant to the evolution of a possible Lunar Magma Ocean and the origin and transport history of the later phase of mare basaltic volcanism is presented. A simple model is proposed to evaluate the extent of fractionation as magma traverses the cold lunar lithosphere. If Apollo green glasses are primitive and have not undergone significant fractionation en route to the surface, then mean ascent rates of 10 m/s and cracks of widths greater than 40 m are indicated. Lunar tephra and vesiculated basalts suggest that a volatile component plays a role in eruption dynamics. The predominant vapor species appear to be CO CO2, and COS. Near the lunar surface, the vapor fraction expands enormously and vapor internal energy is converted to mixture kinetic energy with the concomitant high-speed ejection of vapor and pyroclasts to form lunary fire fountain deposits such as the Apollo 17 orange and black glasses and Apollo 15 green glass.

  12. Neutron transportation simulator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uenohara, Yuzo.

    1995-01-01

    In the present invention, problems in an existent parallelized monte carlo method is solved, and behaviors of neutrons in a large scaled system are accurately simulated at a high speed. Namely, a neutron transportation simulator according to the monte carlo method simulates movement of each of neutrons by using a parallel computer. In this case, the system to be processed is divided based on a space region and an energy region to which neutrons belong. Simulation of neutrons in the divided regions is allotted to each of performing devices of the parallel computer. Tarry data and nuclear data of the neutrons in each of the regions are memorized dispersedly to memories of each of the performing devices. A transmission means for simulating the behaviors of the neutrons in the region by each of the performing devices, as well as transmitting the information of the neutrons, when the neutrons are moved to other region, to the performing device in a transported portion are disposed to each of the performing devices. With such procedures, simulation for the neutrons in the allotted region can be conducted with small capacity of memories. (I.S.)

  13. Biofuels for transport

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2004-01-01

    In the absence of strong government policies, the IEA projects that the worldwide use of oil in transport will nearly double between 2000 and 2030, leading to a similar increase in greenhouse gas emissions. Biofuels, such as ethanol, bio-diesel, and other liquid and gaseous fuels, could offer an important alternative to petroleum over this time frame and help reduce atmospheric pollution. This book looks at recent trends in biofuel production and considers what the future might hold if such alternatives were to displace petroleum in transport. The report takes a global perspective on the nascent biofuels industry, assessing regional similarities and differences as well as the cost and benefits of the various initiatives being undertaken around the world. In the short term, conventional biofuel production processes in IEA countries could help reduce oil use and thence greenhouse gas emissions, although the costs may be high. In the longer term, possibly within the next decade, advances in biofuel production and the use of new feedstocks could lead to greater, more cost-effective reductions. Countries such as Brazil are already producing relatively low-cost biofuels with substantial reductions in fossil energy use and greenhouse gas emissions. This book explores the range of options on offer and asks whether a global trade in biofuels should be more rigorously pursued

  14. Resolving the mystery of transport within internal transport barriers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Staebler, G. M.; Belli, E. A.; Candy, J.; Waltz, R. E.; Greenfield, C. M.; Lao, L. L.; Smith, S. P. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kinsey, J. E. [CompX, P.O. Box 2672, Del Mar, California 92014-5672 (United States); Grierson, B. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Chrystal, C. [University of California-San Diego, 9500 Gilman Dr., La Jolla, California 92093-0417 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    The Trapped Gyro-Landau Fluid (TGLF) quasi-linear model [G. M. Staebler, et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 102508 (2005)], which is calibrated to nonlinear gyrokinetic turbulence simulations, is now able to predict the electron density, electron and ion temperatures, and ion toroidal rotation simultaneously for internal transport barrier (ITB) discharges. This is a strong validation of gyrokinetic theory of ITBs, requiring multiple instabilities responsible for transport in different channels at different scales. The mystery of transport inside the ITB is that momentum and particle transport is far above the predicted neoclassical levels in apparent contradiction with the expectation from the theory of suppression of turbulence by E×B velocity shear. The success of TGLF in predicting ITB transport is due to the inclusion of ion gyro-radius scale modes that become dominant at high E×B velocity shear and to improvements to TGLF that allow momentum transport from gyrokinetic turbulence to be faithfully modeled.

  15. Quality Assurance Plan for Transportation Management Division Transportation Training Programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1994-10-01

    The U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT) implemented new rules requiring minimum levels of training for certain key individuals who handle, package, transport, or otherwise prepare hazardous materials for transportation. In response to these rules, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Transportation Management Division (TMD), has developed a transportation safety training program. This program supplies designed instructional methodology and course materials to provide basic levels of DOT training to personnel for whom training has become mandatory. In addition, this program provides advanced hazardous waste and radioactive material packaging and transportation training to help personnel achieve proficiency and/or certification as hazardous waste and radioactive material shippers. This training program does not include site-specific or task-specific training beyond DOT requirements

  16. TRANSPORT OUTSOURCING AND TRANSPORT COLLABORATION RELATIONSHIP - THE RISK HEDGING PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đurđica M. Stojanović

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Although transport outsourcing decision-making and collaborative transport management (CTM have been “hot topics” for years, their links are still not thoroughly explored. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the relationship between them. In particular, we focus on the conflicting and complementary features of these concepts with regard to their capability to hedge against transport outsourcing-related risks. Transport outsourcing is often a tool for transferring part of the demand risks from the primary parties in supply chains to transport service providers. However, new relationships introduce some new risks - outsourcing contract risks. It is important to identify, estimate and compare such kinds of risks. Transport collaboration may decrease both the demand risks and the outsourcing contract risks, although the relationship with the latter is more complex. It is used an exploratory research based on a combination of a literature review and empirical examples.

  17. Radioactive material air transportation; Transporte aereo de material radioativo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pader y Terry, Claudio Cosme [Varig Logistica (VARIGLOG), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2002-07-01

    As function of the high aggregated value, safety regulations and the useful life time, the air transportation has been used more regularly because is fast, reliable, and by giving great security to the cargo. Based on the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), the IATA (International Air Transportation Association) has reproduced in his dangerous goods manual (Dangerous Goods Regulations - DGR IATA), the regulation for the radioactive material air transportation. Those documents support this presentation.

  18. Up-gradient transport in a probabilistic transport model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavnholt, J.; Juul Rasmussen, J.; Garcia, O.E.

    2005-01-01

    The transport of particles or heat against the driving gradient is studied by employing a probabilistic transport model with a characteristic particle step length that depends on the local concentration or heat gradient. When this gradient is larger than a prescribed critical value, the standard....... These results supplement recent works by van Milligen [Phys. Plasmas 11, 3787 (2004)], which applied Levy distributed step sizes in the case of supercritical gradients to obtain the up-gradient transport. (c) 2005 American Institute of Physics....

  19. Boron transport in plants: co-ordinated regulation of transporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miwa, Kyoko; Fujiwara, Toru

    2010-01-01

    Background The essentiality of boron (B) for plant growth was established >85 years ago. In the last decade, it has been revealed that one of the physiological roles of B is cross-linking the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan II in primary cell walls. Borate cross-linking of pectic networks serves both for physical strength of cell walls and for cell adhesion. On the other hand, high concentrations of B are toxic to plant growth. To avoid deficiency and toxicity problems, it is important for plants to maintain their tissue B concentrations within an optimum range by regulating transport processes. Boron transport was long believed to be a passive, unregulated process, but the identification of B transporters has suggested that plants sense and respond to the B conditions and regulate transporters to maintain B homeostasis. Scope Transporters responsible for efficient B uptake by roots, xylem loading and B distribution among leaves have been described. These transporters are required under B limitation for efficient acquisition and utilization of B. Transporters important for tolerating high B levels in the environment have also been identified, and these transporters export B from roots back to the soil. Two types of transporters are involved in these processes: NIPs (nodulin-26-like intrinsic proteins), boric acid channels, and BORs, B exporters. It is demonstrated that the expression of genes encoding these transporters is finely regulated in response to B availability in the environment to ensure tissue B homeostasis. Furthermore, plants tolerant to stress produced by low B or high B in the environment can be generated through altered expression of these transporters. Conclusions The identification of the first B transporter led to the discovery that B transport was a process mediated not only by passive diffusion but also by transporters whose activity was regulated in response to B conditions. Now it is evident that plants sense internal and external B

  20. Efficiency improvements in transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schramm, J. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Christensen, Linda; Jensen, Thomas C. [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Transport, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2012-11-15

    Transport of people, personal belongings and goods in private cars is fundamental to our modern welfare society and economic growth, and has grown steadily over many decades. Motor fuels have been based almost entirely on crude oil for the last century. During the last couple of decades engines built for traditional fuels have become more advanced and efficient; this has reduced fuel consumption by around 40% and emissions by more than 90%. Only in the same time span have we begun to look at alternatives to fossil fuels. Biofuels such as biodiesel, bioethanol, biomethanol and biogas can replace petrol and diesel, and in recent years algae have shown a new potential for diesel fuel. Natural gas is also becoming an interesting fuel due to its large resources worldwide. GTL, CTL and BTL are liquid fuels produced from solid or gaseous sources. GTL and CTL are expensive to produce and not very CO{sub 2}-friendly, but they are easily introduced and need little investment in infrastructure and vehicles. DME is an excellent fuel for diesel engines. Methanol and DME produced from biomass are among the most CO{sub 2}-reducing fuels and at the same time the most energy-efficient renewable fuels. Fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) are currently fuelled by hydrogen, but other fuels are also possible. There are, however, several barriers to the implementation of fuel cell vehicles. In particular, a hydrogen infrastructure needs to be developed. Electric vehicles (EVs) have the advantage that energy conversion is centralised at the power plant where it can be done at optimum efficiency and emissions. EVs have to be charged at home, and also away from home when travelling longer distances. With an acceptable fast charging infrastructure at least 85% of the one-car families in Denmark could be potential EV customers. Range improvements resulting from better batteries are expected to create a large increase in the number of EVs in Denmark between 2020 and 2030. The hybrid electric vehicle