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Sample records for monosaccharide composition analysis

  1. Analysis of the monosaccharide composition of fucoidan by precolumn derivation HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Jingjing; ZHANG Quanbin; WANG Jing; SHI Xuelian; ZHANG Zhongshan

    2009-01-01

    We developed an HPLC method for analysis of the monosaccharide composition of fucoidans. The fucoidan was hydrolyzed into monosaccharides with 2 mol/L trifluoroacetic acid. Using ribose as the internal standard, the monosaccharide derivatives, obtained with 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-5- pyrazolone (PMP), were separated by reverse-phase HPLC using a gradient elution process, and monitored by ultraviolet detection at 245 nm. In the concentration range of 0.1-2.0 mmol/L, the peak area of each monosaccharide had a good linear relationship with its concentration (r2>0.998). The average recoveries of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, and fucose were 86.2%, 95.1%, 62.5%, 102.0%, 94.8%, 66.6%, and 105.1%, respectively. This method was accurate and had good reproducibility and could be used to determine the monosaccharide contents of fucoidans.

  2. Analysis of the monosaccharide composition of fucoidan by precolumn derivation HPLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingjing; Zhang, Quanbin; Wang, Jing; Shi, Xuelian; Zhang, Zhongshan

    2009-09-01

    We developed an HPLC method for analysis of the monosaccharide composition of fucoidans. The fucoidan was hydrolyzed into monosaccharides with 2 mol/L trifluoroacetic acid. Using ribose as the internal standard, the monosaccharide derivatives, obtained with 1-Phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP), were separated by reverse-phase HPLC using a gradient elution process, and monitored by ultraviolet detection at 245 nm. In the concentration range of 0.1-2.0 mmol/L, the peak area of each monosaccharide had a good linear relationship with its concentration ( r 2>0.998). The average recoveries of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, glucose, galactose, xylose, and fucose were 86.2%, 95.1%, 62.5%, 102.0%, 94.8%, 66.6%, and 105.1%, respectively. This method was accurate and had good reproducibility and could be used to determine the monosaccharide contents of fucoidans.

  3. Influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of acidic, neutral and basic polysaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qing-Chi; Zhao, Xia; Pu, Jiang-Hua; Luan, Xiao-Hong

    2016-06-05

    Monosaccharide composition analysis is important for structural characterization of polysaccharides. To investigate the influences of acidic reaction and hydrolytic conditions on monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides, we chose alginate, starch, chitosan and chondroitin sulfate as representative of acidic, neutral, basic and complex polysaccharides to compare the release degree of monosaccharides under different hydrolytic conditions. The hydrolysis stability of 10 monosaccharide standards was also explored. Results showed that the basic sugars were hard to release but stable, the acidic sugars (uronic acids) were easy to release but unstable, and the release and stability of neutral sugars were in between acidic and basic sugars. In addition, the hydrolysis process was applied to monosaccharide composition analysis of Hippocampus trimaculatus polysaccharide and the appropriate hydrolytic condition was accorded with that of the above four polysaccharides. Thus, different hydrolytic conditions should be used for the monosaccharide composition analysis of polysaccharides based on their structural characteristics.

  4. Monosaccharide composition analysis of immunomodulatory polysaccharides by on-line hollow fiber microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nani; Wang, Xuping; Huang, Xiaowen; Mao, Zhujun; Zhang, Yang; Yu, Yong; Shou, Dan

    2016-03-01

    The monosaccharide compositions of functional polysaccharides are essential for structure elucidation and biological activity determination. A sensitive method based on on-line hollow-fiber liquid-phase microextraction with high-performance liquid chromatography has been established for the analysis of ten monosaccharide compositions (two uronic acids, two amino sugars and six neutral sugars) of the immunomodulatory polysaccharides. After derivatization, the sample was injected into the lumen of a hollow fiber immersed in butyl ether and separated by liquid chromatography. Under optimized conditions, the calibration curves were linear (r ≥ 0.9996) in the range of 10-2000 μmol L(-1) . The limits of detection were in the range of 0.04-1.58 μmol L(-1) , and the recoveries were in the range of 92.1-99.6%, which shows that the method is applicable to the analysis of the monosaccharide composition of various polysaccharides.

  5. Combining multivariate analysis and monosaccharide composition modeling to identify plant cell wall variations by Fourier Transform Near Infrared spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith-Moritz Andreia M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract We outline a high throughput procedure that improves outlier detection in cell wall screens using FT-NIR spectroscopy of plant leaves. The improvement relies on generating a calibration set from a subset of a mutant population by taking advantage of the Mahalanobis distance outlier scheme to construct a monosaccharide range predictive model using PLS regression. This model was then used to identify specific monosaccharide outliers from the mutant population.

  6. Monosaccharide-NAIM Derivatives for D-, L-Configurational Analysis

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    Chunchi Lin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The D-, L-enantiomeric pairs of common monosaccharides (xylose, ribose, rhamnose, arabinose, fucose, glucose, mannose, galactose, N-acetylgalactosamine, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid were derivatized with 2,3-naphthalenediamine to form the corresponding D-, L-aldo-NAIM derivatives. A simple and facile capillary electrophoretic method was established for sugar composition analysis by simultaneously determining the migration times of these aldo-NAIMs using borate buffer at high pH (100 mM, pH 9.0. The methodology is also applicable to sialic acid (ketose monosaccharides. The quantitation level of the proposed method was in the 10~500 ppm range and the LOD was 1 ppm. The enantioseparation of D, L pairs of aldo-NAIMs were also achieved by using modified sulfated-a-cyclodextrin as the chiral selector in phosphate buffer (300 mM, pH 3.0. In addition, the combination by reductive amination of amino-aldo-NAIM agent and D-, L-enantiomeric pairs of monosaccharides formed a diastereomeric pair for saccharide configuration analysis. Aldo-NAIM derivatives are thus shown to be rapid and efficient agents for analyzing saccharide compositions and configurations with good linearity and short analysis times via capillary electrophoresis.

  7. Monosaccharide composition of glycans based on Q-HSQC NMR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sassaki, Guilherme Lanzi; Guerrini, Marco; Serrato, Rodrigo Vassoler; Santana Filho, Arquimedes Paixão; Carlotto, Juliane; Simas-Tosin, Fernanda; Cipriani, Thales Ricardo; Iacomini, Marcello; Torri, Giangiacomo; Gorin, Philip Albert James

    2014-04-15

    Glycans have essential functions related to structural architecture and specific cell surface phenomena, such as differentiation, biosignalling, recognition and cell-cell interaction, with the carbohydrate structure determining main function in the cell. Due to the importance of the primary structure, the monosaccharide composition is crucial to show the glycan structure. We now present a method for complex carbohydrates based on NMR spectroscopy, which has shown to give similar results to those obtained by the classic GC-MS-carboxy-reduction/deuterium labeling approach. Quantitative HSQC, through JCH dependence showed 155 Hz as the best value for (1)H/(13)C anomeric aldoses, allowing milli-microM detection using conventional inverse probe heads. Combining the quantification of native monosaccharide units of the glycan and those from the hydrolyzed product, a strong correlation occurs between the molecular mobility of the monosaccharide units, giving rise to some insights on the dynamic properties of the parent glycan.

  8. Analysis of Monosaccharide Composition of Pu-erh Tea Polysaccaride by Pre-column Derivatization HPLC%柱前衍生HPLC法分析普洱茶多糖中单糖组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭威; 周斌星; 罗玲; 李扬; 柴洁; 杨超; 马存强

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study aimed to establish a pre-column derivatization HPLC method for the identification and analysis of monosaccharide composition of Pu-erh tea polysaccharide.[Method] Pu-erh tea polysaccharide was extracted using the water extraction method,further isolated and purified by DEAE cellulose-52 columns.The obtained tea polysaccharide and four components TPS1,TPS2,TPS3 and TPS4 were first derived by 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP),and then the PMP derivatives of monosaccharide were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC).[Result] Pu-erh tea polysaccharide contained eight kinds of monosac-charides (mannose,rhamnose,glucuronic acid,galacturonic acid,glucose,galactose,arabinose,fucose),without xylose; so it was the same with TPS1; each of TPS2,TPS3 and TPS4 contained seven monosaccharides,while no fucose.[Conclusion]This method is simplified and rapid,which can be used to determine the monosac-charide composition of Pu-erh tea polysaccharide and monosaccharide content.%[目的]建立柱前衍生HPLC法鉴别和分析普洱茶多糖中单糖组成.[方法]采用水提法提取普洱茶多糖,经DEAE Cellulose-52纤维素柱分离纯化;茶多糖及其组分TPS1、TPS2、TPS3、TPS4经1-苯基-3-甲基-5-吡唑啉酮(PMP)衍生化后,利用高效液相色谱法,分析单糖的PMP衍生物.[结果]普洱茶多糖中含有甘露糖、鼠李糖、葡萄糖醛酸、半乳糖醛酸、葡萄糖、半乳糖、阿拉伯糖、岩藻糖8种单糖,不含有木糖;TPS1中含有全部8种单糖;TPS2、TPS3和TPS4均由7种单糖组成,且都不含岩藻糖.[结论]此方法简便,快速;可用于测定普洱茶多糖中单糖的组成分析和含量测定.

  9. Molecular Weight and Monosaccharide Composition of Astragalus Polysaccharides

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    Pei-Pei Wang

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Two polysaccharides (APS-I and APS-II were isolated from the water extract of Radix Astragali and purified through ethanol precipitation, deproteination and by ion-exchange and gel-filtration chromatography. Their molecular weight was determined using high performance liquid chromatography and gel permeation chromatography (HPLC-GPC and their monosaccharide composition was analyzed by TLC and HPLC methods, using a refractive index detector (RID and an NH2 column. It was shown that APS-I consisted of arabinose and glucose and APS-II consisted of rhamnose, arabinose and glucose, in a molar ratio of 1:3.45 and 1:6.25:17.86, respectively. The molecular weights (Mw of APS-I and APS-II were 1,699,100 Da and 1,197,600 Da, respectively.

  10. Analysis of Monosaccharide Composition in Tremella Polysaccharides by Precolumn Derivatization HPLC%柱前衍生化高效液相色谱法分析银耳多糖的单糖组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈英红; 姜翔之; 罗浩铭; 王颖; 姜瑞芝

    2012-01-01

    The reversed-phase high performance liquid chiomatographic (HPLC) method of precolumn-derivatization with l-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone was used to establish the optimized separation condition of five traditional monosaccharides. And this optimized separation condition was used to analyze the monosaccharide composition of Tremella polysaccharides. The results of HPLC analysis showed that Tremella polysaccharides consisted of mannose, glucuronic acid, glucose, xylose, fucose with the molar ratio of 3.894:1.264:0.044:1.000: 0.265. The HPLC method is simple, rapid, sensitive, and convenient So it can be applied the quality control of Tremella polysaccharides.%采用1-苯基-3-甲基-5-吡唑啉酮柱前衍生化反相高效液相色谱法,建立了5种常见单糖的最佳分离条件,并将该条件用于银耳多糖的单糖组成分析.银耳多糖中含有甘露糖、葡萄糖醛酸、葡萄糖、木糖、岩藻糖,摩尔比为3.894:1.264:0.044:1.000:0.265.该方法简单、快速、灵敏度高、重现性良好,可用于银耳多糖的质量控制.

  11. Monosaccharide composition of Herniaria glabra L. and Herniaria polygama J.Gay

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    Kozachok Solomiia

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The plants from Herniaria genus (Caryophyllaceae family are mainly applied as diuretic agents for the treatment of kidney and gall-stones, gouts, urinary tract infections, hypertension and diabetes. The most widely spread species in Europe is Herniaria glabra L. (HG. Herniaria polygama J.Gay (HP is found growing from Eastern Europe to Asia. Surprisingly, no work has been reported on the analysis of primary metabolites of HP yet and there is only a limited data on HG. The aim of our study was to establish the monosaccharide composition after a complete hydrolysis and in a free state in the entire herbs of HG and HP harvested in the western and central parts of Ukraine. The carbohydrates were separated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry after conversion into volatile derivatives as aldononitrile acetate. As a result, the monosaccharide composition after a total hydrolysis was established with the contribution of the following components: D-rhamnose, D-arabinose, D-fucose, D-xylose, D-manose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, myo-inisitol, D-mannitol, D-dulcitol. In a free state it was detected: D-fructose, D-glucose, D-galactose, D-pinitol, myo-inisitol, D-mannitol and D-saccharose. The following monosaccharides were found in the most abundant quantities in HG and HP respectively: glucose was determined as the major component – 33.40 and 22.80 mg/g, the second dominant sugar was pinitol – 16.80 and 18.07 mg/g, followed by galactose – 13.88 mg/g in HG and arabinose – 8.13 mg/g in HP. Sugars were determined in these plant species for the first time and this finding shed new light on their pharmacological application.

  12. Bis-Indole Derivatives for Polysaccharide Compositional Analysis and Chiral Resolution of D-, L-Monosaccharides by Ligand Exchange Capillary Electrophoresis Using Borate-Cyclodextrin as a Chiral Selector

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    Wen-Bin Yang

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A series of aldo-bis-indole derivatives (aldo-BINs was prepared by aromatic C-alkylation reactions of aldoses and indole in acetic acid solution. Common monosaccharides such as glucose, mannose, galactose, fucose, xylose, rhamnose, ribose, arabinose and N-acetylglucosamine were smoothly derivatized to form the UV absorbing aldo-BINs. The use of a capillary electrophoretic method to separate these novel aldo-BIN derivatives was established. The capillary electrophoresis conditions were set by using borate buffer (100 mM at high pH (pH 9.0. The limit of determination was assessed to be 25 nM. The enantioseparation of D, L-pairs of aldo-BINs based on chiral ligand-exchange capillary electrophoresis technology was also achieved by using modified hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin as the chiral selector in the presence of borate buffer. This aldose labeling method was applied successfully to the compositional and configurational analysis of saccharides, exemplified by a rapid and efficient method to simultaneously analyze the composition and configuration of saccharides from the medicinal herbs Cordyceps sinensis and Dendrobium huoshanense.

  13. Rapid Determination of the Monosaccharide Composition and Contents in Tea Polysaccharides from Yingshuang Green Tea by Pre-Column Derivatization HPLC

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    Yujie Ai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A pre-column derivatization high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method was developed and optimized to characterize and quantify the monosaccharides present in tea polysaccharides (TPS isolated from Yingshuang green tea. TPS sample was hydrolyzed with trifluoroacetic acid, subjected to pre-column derivatization using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP, and separated on an Agilent TC-C18 column (4.6 mm × 250 mm, 5 μm with UV detection at 250 nm. A mixture of ten PMP derivatives of standard monosaccharides (mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, xylose, galactose, arabinose, and fucose could be baseline separated within 20 min. Moreover, quantitative analysis of the component monosaccharides in Yingshuang green tea TPS was achieved, indicating the TPS consisted of mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid, galacturonic acid, glucose, xylose, galactose, and arabinose in the molar contents of 0.72, 0.78, 0.89, 0.13, 0.15, 0.36, 0.39, 0.36, 0.36, and 0.38 μM, respectively. Recovery efficiency for component monosaccharides from TPS ranged from 93.6 to 102.4% with RSD values lower than 2.5%. In conclusion, pre-column derivatization HPLC provides a rapid, reproducible, accurate, and quantitative method for analysis of the monosaccharide composition and contents in TPS, which may help to further explore the relationship between TPS monosaccharides isolated from different tea varieties and their biological activity.

  14. Monosaccharide analysis of succulent leaf tissue in Aloe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grace, Olwen Megan; Dzajic, Amra; Jäger, Anna

    2013-01-01

    in the genus Aloe using a predictive phylogenetic approach. Methodology – Monosaccharide composition was assessed in 31species, representing the morphological and taxonomic diversity of Aloe sensu stricto. Leaf mesophyll polysaccharides were partially hydrolysed in a trifluoroacetic acid (TFA)-SilA assay...

  15. Effects of culture conditions on monosaccharide composition of Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharide and on activities of related enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Lin; Qiao, Shuangkui; Xu, Zhenghong; Guan, Feng; Ding, Zhongyang; Gu, Zhenghua; Zhang, Liang; Shi, Guiyang

    2015-11-20

    We investigated the relationship between monosaccharide composition of Ganoderma lucidum exopolysaccharide (EPS) and activities of EPS synthesis enzymes under various culture temperatures and initial pH values. The mole percentages of three major EPS monosaccharides, glucose, galactose and mannose, varied depending on culture conditions and the resulting EPS displayed differing anti-tumor activities. In nine tested enzymes, higher enzyme activities were correlated with higher temperature and lower initial pH. Altered mole percentages of galactose and mannose under various culture conditions were associated with activities of α-phosphoglucomutase (PGM) and phosphoglucose isomerase (PGI), respectively, and that of mannose was also associated with phosphomannose isomerase (PMI) activity only under various pH. Our findings suggest that mole percentages of G. lucidum EPS monosaccharides can be manipulated by changes of culture conditions that affect enzyme activities, and that novel fermentation strategies based on this approach may enhance production and biological activity of EPS.

  16. Distinguishing Monosaccharide Stereo- and Structural Isomers with ToF-SIMS and Multivariate Statistical Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berman, E F; Kulp, K S; Knize, M G; Wu, L; Nelson, E J; Nelson, D O; Wu, K J

    2006-05-04

    Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is utilized to examine the mass spectra and fragmentation patterns of seven isomeric monosaccharides. Multivariate statistical analysis techniques, including principal component analysis (PCA), allow discrimination of the extremely similar mass spectra of stereoisomers. Furthermore, PCA identifies those fragment peaks which vary significantly between spectra. Heavy isotope studies confirm that these peaks are indeed sugar fragments, allow identification of the fragments, and provide clues to the fragmentation pathways. Excellent reproducibility is shown by multiple experiments performed over time and on separate samples. This study demonstrates the combined selectivity and discrimination power of ToF-SIMS and PCA, and suggests new applications of the technique including differentiation of subtle chemical changes in biological samples that may provide insights into cellular processes, disease progress, and disease diagnosis.

  17. Carbon allocation in ectomycorrhizas: identification and expression analysis of an Amanita muscaria monosaccharide transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nehls, U; Wiese, J; Guttenberger, M; Hampp, R

    1998-03-01

    Ectomycorrhizas are formed between certain soil fungi and fine roots of predominantly woody plants. An important feature of this symbiosis is the supply of plant-derived carbohydrates to the fungus. As a first step toward a better understanding of the molecular basis of this process, we cloned a monosaccharide transporter from the ectomycorrhizal fungus Amanita muscaria. Degenerate oligonucleotide primers were designed to match conserved regions from known fungal sugar transporters. A cDNA fragment of the transporter was obtained from mycorrhizal mRNA by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. This fragment was used to identify a clone (AmMst1) encoding the entire monosaccharide transporter in a Picea abies/A. muscaria mycorrhizal cDNA library. The cDNA codes for an open reading frame of 520 amino acids, showing best homology to a Neurospora crassa monosaccharide transporter. The function of AmMST1 as monosaccharide transporter was confirmed by heterologous expression of the cDNA in a Schizosaccharomyces pombe mutant lacking a monosaccharide uptake system. AmMst1 was constitutively expressed in fungal hyphae under all growth conditions. Nevertheless, in mycorrhizas as well as in hyphae grown at monosaccharide concentrations above 5 mM, the amount of AmMst1 transcript increased fourfold. We therefore suggest that AmMst1 is upregulated in ectomycorrhizas by a monosaccharide-controlled mechanism.

  18. Quantitative Prediction of Cell Wall Polysaccharide Composition in Grape (Vitis vinifera L.) and Apple (Malus domestica) Skins from Acid Hydrolysis Monosaccharide Profiles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arnous, Anis; Meyer, Anne S.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of monosaccharide analysis after acid hydrolysis of fruit skin samples of three wine grape cultivars, Vitis vinifera L. Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, and Shiraz, and of two types of apple, Malus domestica Red Delicious and Golden Delicious, an iterative calculation method is reported...

  19. [Effects of Atractylodes macrocephala monosaccharide composition on cytodifferentiation and villin expression of IEC-6 cells in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhou; Li, Ru-Liu; Xu, Song-Fen; Chen, Wei-Wen

    2010-06-01

    To study the influence of Atractylodes macrocephala monosaccharide composition (AMMC) on IEC-6 cells by observing cytodifferentiation and expression of villin. Observed cell morphous under light microscope, observed cell ultramicrostructure under transmission electron microscope, evaluated villin mRNA by way of RT-PCR, and detected protein of villin by immunofluorescence. Cells were divided into the groups including blank control,positive control (given with gastrin 250 microg/L) and AMMC groups (given with AMMC 62.5, 125, 250, 500, 1000 mg/L respectively). 1. Cells in blank control group were immature under light microscope, which were in state of differentiation in groups with gastrin and different concentration of AMMC. 2. Cells in blank control group had bigger nucleuses with higher ratio of heterochromatin and much less villin at the edge of cells, which in groups with gastrin and different concentration of AMMC had smaller nucleuses with normal ratio of heterochromatin/heterochromatin and abundance of villin at the edge of cells. 3. Villin mRNA of IEC-6 cells in groups with gastrin and different concentration of AMMC were obviously much more than that of cells in blank control group 6 h afeer treatment. 4. Little protein of villin was detected by immunofluorescence in blank control group, which was much brighter in group with gastrin, and less bright in group with different concentration of AMMC, in which specific villin assembled. AMMC can promote cytodifferentiation by up-regulating the expression and distribution of villin in IEC-6 cells.

  20. Molecular cloning and expression analysis of a monosaccharide transporter gene OsMST4 from rice (Oryza sativa L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, Y.; Xu, H.; Wei, X.; Chai, C.; Xiao, Y.; Zhang, Y.; Chen, B.; Xiao, G.; Ouwerkerk, P.B.F.; Wang, M.; Zhu, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Monosaccharide transporters mediate the membrane transport of a variable range of monosaccharides, which plays a crucial role in sugar distribution throughout the plant. To investigate the significance of monosaccharide transporters for rice (Oryza sativa L.) seed development, cDNA of a new putative

  1. 红芪多糖3中4个组分的单糖组成分析及多糖含量测定%Analysis of the Composition of Monosaccharides and the Contents of Polysaccharides in Four Components of Radix Hedysari Polysaccharide 3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈同强; 封士兰; ADILBEKOV J.; 赵良功; 王娟; 沈孝丽; 石义凯; 胡芳弟; 王昌; 赵安娜

    2012-01-01

    目的 对红芪多糖3(HPS-3)进行分离纯化,研究红芪多糖3中4个组分单糖组成以及多糖含量测定.方法 红芪多糖经水提醇沉,Sevag法脱蛋白,H2O2脱色,醇沉,透析,再经DEAE-cellulose 52和Sephadex G-100柱色谱纯化,得到HPS-3-A、HPS-3-B、HPS-3-C、HPS-3-D 4个组分;HPGPC法分析,4个组分均为单一组分;TLC法与GC法分析4个组分单糖组成;改良苯酚硫酸法测定4个组分中多糖含量.结果 HPS-3-A主要由葡萄糖组成,多糖含量为99.2%;而HPS-3-B、HPS-3-C、HPS-3-D主要由阿拉伯糖与半乳糖组成.多糖含量依次为96.5%,95.3%,95.2%.结论 本实验为红芪多糖3构效关系研究提供基础.%OBJECTIVE To isolate and purify radix hedysari polysaccharide 3(HPS-3) and determine the monosaccharide composition and the contents of polysaccharide in its four components. METHODS Radix Hedysari polysaccharide was extracted by water, precipitated with ethanol, treated with Sevag method, decolored with H2O2 , then precipitated with ethanol and dialyzed. By using DEAE-cellulose 52 and Sephadex G-100, HPS-3-A, HPS-3-B, HPS-3-C and HPS-3-D were purified. Their purity were determined by high performance gel permeation chromatography ( HPGPC). By TLC and GC, the monosaccharide composition of four components was analyzed, and then the modified phenol sulfuric acid method was used to determine the content of polysaccharide of the four fractions. RESULTS HPS-3-A was composed mainly of glucose, and the content of polysaccharide was 99. 2%. But HPS-3-B, HPS-3-C and HPS-3-D were all composed mainly of arabinose and galactose. The contents of polysaccharide of them were 96. 5% , 95. 3% and 95. 2% , respectively. CONCLUSION This study provides the foundation for the research of structure-function relationship of Radix Hedysari polysaccharide 3.

  2. 肉苁蓉多糖水解产物单糖组分的气相色谱法测定%Determination of monosaccharides composition of Cistanche tubulosa polysaccharides by gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王鑫彤; 张敏; 仰榴青; 王未; 吴慧玉; 汪松美; 刘红阳; 李倩; 贾清东; 张胜洋; 赵婷

    2016-01-01

    目的:研究气相色谱法测定肉苁蓉多糖中单糖组分的方法。方法:采用单因素实验,考察各因素对肉苁蓉多糖水解的影响;采用气相色谱法测定肉苁蓉多糖中的单糖组成。结果:肉苁蓉多糖水解的最佳条件为硫酸浓度3.0 mol/L,水解时间8 h和水解温度110℃;各单糖精密度RSD为0.92%~4.68%,重复性RSD为0.92%~1.77%,稳定性RSD为1.61%~3.61%,加样回收率为99.3%~100.3%,精密度、重复性、稳定性和回收率良好;肉苁蓉多糖主要由甘露糖、葡萄糖和半乳糖组成,摩尔比为2.01∶5.72∶2。结论:此法适用于肉苁蓉多糖中单糖组成分析。%Objective:To explore the optimal methods for analysis of the monosaccharides composition of Cistanche tubulosa polysaccharide.Methods:To investigate modifying factors of the polysaccharide hydroly-sis was determined by single factor method,and the monosaccharide composition analysis of Cistanche tubu-losa polysaccharide by gas chromatography.Results:The optimal hydrolysis conditions were sulfuric acid concentration 3.0 mol/L,hydrolysis time 8 h and temperature 1 10 ℃;the RSD value of precision was be-tween 0.92% and 4.68%,the RSD value of repeatability was between 0.92%and 1 .77%,the RSD value of stability was between 1.61% and 3.61%,the recovery rate were between 99.3% and 100.3%;Cistanche tubulosa polysaccharide was mainly composed of mannose,glucose and galactose in a molar ratio of 2.01 ∶5.72 ∶2.Conclusion:The refined method can be used for monosaccharides composition analy-sis of Cistanche tubulosa polysaccharides.

  3. Ion-exchange chromatography combined with direct current amperometric detection at CuNPs/reduced graphene oxide-chitosan composite film modified electrode for determination of monosaccharide composition of polysaccharides from Phellinus igniarius.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Lingling; Wang, Fengli; Zhu, Zuoyi; Huang, Zhongping; Zhu, Yan

    2014-02-01

    A novel Cu nanoparticles/reduced graphene oxide-chitosan (CuNPs/r-GO-chitosan) composite film modified glassy carbon electrode (GCE) was fabricated by dispersing CuNPs uniformly on a stable r-GO-chitosan thin film through electrodeposition process. The modified electrode was characterized by cyclic voltammetry, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and exhibited efficiently electrocatalytic oxidation toward monosaccharides with high stability. The good electrocatalytic activity of this modified electrode might be attributed to the synergistic effect of r-GO and CuNPs, and the stability might be attributed to the r-GO and chitosan thin matrix film. When the CuNPs/r-GO-chitosan/GCE was used as an electrochemical sensor in high performance anion exchange chromatography-direct current amperometric detection (HPAEC-DC) flowing system for the determination of monosaccharides under constant working potential of +0.55 V, the detection limits (S/N=3) ranged from 0.006 to 0.02 mg L(-1) for the analyzed sugars, and the dynamic linear ranges spanned from 0.02 to 500 mg L(-1). The proposed method has been applied for the determination of monosaccharide composition of crude polysaccharides from phellinus igniarius real samples, and the results were satisfactory.

  4. G-lignin and hemicellulosic monosaccharides distinctively affect biomass digestibility in rapeseed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Yanjie; Li, Yuyang; Zhang, Youbing; Yu, Changbing; Fu, Tingdong; Zou, Jun; Tu, Yuanyuan; Peng, Liangcai; Chen, Peng

    2016-03-01

    In this study, total 19 straw samples from four Brassica species were determined with a diverse cell wall composition and varied biomass enzymatic digestibility under sulfuric acid or lime pretreatment. Correlation analysis was then performed to detect effects of cell wall compositions and wall polymer features (cellulose crystallinity, hemicellulosic monosaccharides and lignin monomers) on rapeseeds biomass digestibility. As a result, coniferyl alcohol (G-lignin) showed a strongly negative effect on biomass saccharification, whereas hemicellulosic monosaccharides (fucose, galactose, arabinose and rhamnose) were positive factors on lignocellulose digestions. Notably, chemical analyses of four typical pairs of samples indicated that hemicellulosic monosaccharides and G-lignin may coordinately influence biomass digestibility in rapeseeds. In addition, Brassica napus with lower lignin content exhibited more efficiency on both biomass enzymatic saccharification and ethanol production, compared with Brassica junjea. Hence, this study has at first time provided a genetic strategy on cell wall modification towards bioenergy rapeseed breeding.

  5. Nickel-catalyzed proton-deuterium exchange (HDX) procedures for glycosidic linkage analysis of complex carbohydrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structural analysis of complex carbohydrates typically requires the assignment of three parameters: monosaccharide composition, the position of glycosidic linkages between monosaccharides, and the position and nature of non-carbohydrate substituents. The glycosidic linkage positions are often de...

  6. Analysis of monosaccharides, fatty constituents and rare O-acetylated sialic acids from gonads of the starfish Asterias rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanetta, Jean-Pierre; Srinivasan, Vinayaga; Schauer, Roland

    2006-02-01

    A previous study (Bergwerff et al., Biochimie 74 (1992) 25-37) reported that sialic acids present in Asterias rubens gonads were essentially composed of 8-methyl-N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc8Me), a large part of it being acetylated in position 9. Using GC/MS of heptafluorobutyrate derivatives (Zanetta et al., Glycobiology 11 (2001) 663-676) on the chloroform/methanol soluble and insoluble fractions, we showed that most sialic acids were found in the latter and demonstrated that all sialic acids were derived from N-glycolylneuraminic acid, most of them being 8-methylated, but that the majority were also acetylated in position 4 or 7 (or both positions). GC/MS analyses of the constituents liberated using acid-catalysed methanolysis verified that major glycoprotein-bound glycans were N-linked and of the gluco-oligomannosidic type. Major fatty acids were poly-unsaturated (especially C20:4) and long-chain bases were C22:1 phytosphingosine and C22:2 6-hydroxysphingenine. Major monosaccharides found in the chloroform/methanol extract (quinovose and fucose) were derived from steroidal saponins.

  7. 气相色谱法分析北方水果中膳食纤维的单糖组成%Determination of Monosaccharide Composition in Dietary Fiber of Fruits in Northern China by GC Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕明霞; 李媛; 张飞; 何童森; 侯栋; 王洋; 崔同

    2012-01-01

    Using GC method analyzed dietary fiber (DF) contents and monosaccharide composition of seven kinds of northern China fruits (apple, pear, peach, apricot, Chinese hawthorn, strawberry and mulberry). The results indicated that total dietary fiber (TDF) contents in these fruits was between 0.26% (apricot) and 1.17%(peach), SDF/TDF ranged from 38.5% (apricot) to 86.3% (peach). Calacturonic acid was the main component in SDF, between 33.1% (mulberry) and 91.1% (Chinese hawthorn). The insoluble dietary fiber (IDF), not only had a high content of galacturonic acid (4.5% and 46.5%), but also had a considerable contents of arabinose (9.4% and 37.7%), galactose (8.3% and 24.2%), xylose (8.7% and 20.3%) and fucose (8.0% and 23.7%), the ratio of glucose ranged between 0.7% (peach) and 15.6% (Chinese hawthorn), the ratio of mannose and rhamnose was below 6%. Different kinds of fruits had significantly different monosaccharide composition in DF.%采用糖腈乙酰化衍生GC法分析中国北方地区7种水果(苹果、梨、桃、杏、山楂、草莓和桑椹)膳食纤维(DF)的含量和单糖组成,结果表明这些水果中总膳食纤维(TDF)含量在0.26%(杏)~1.17%(桃)之间,其中水溶性膳食纤维(SDF)占TDF的比例在38.5%(杏)~86.3%(桃)之间.半乳糖醛酸是SDF的主要成分,占33.1%(桑椹)~91.1%(山楂)之间.不溶性膳食纤维中除含有较高比例的半乳糖醛酸(4.5%~46.5%)外,阿拉伯糖(9.4%~37.7%)、半乳糖(8.3%~24.2%)、木糖(8.7%~20.3%)和岩藻糖(8.0%~23.7%)也有相当含量,葡萄糖的比例在0.7%(桃)~15.6%(山楂)之间,甘露糖和鼠李糖的比例在6%以下.不同水果之间DF的单糖组成差异明显.

  8. Determination of monosaccharide composition in polysaccharide of ant nest of Macrotermes annadalei by HPLC%高效液相色谱法测定土垅大白蚁菌圃多糖的单糖组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林葵; 苏青; 黄岛平; 黄瑞松; 徐慧; 刘婧

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To determine monosaccharide composition in polysaccharide of ant nest of Macrotermes annadalei by high performance liquid chromatography.Methods:The polysaccharides of ant nest of Macrotermes annadalei were extracted by water extraction and alcohol precipitation method,and then hydrolyzed by trifluoroacetic acid.The hydrolysate was reacted with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP)to produce the PMP derivatives that were analyzed by HPLC.The chromatographic conditions were as follows:chromatographic column C18 (4.6 mm × 250 mm,5 μm),column temperature 25 ℃ ;the mobile phase consisted of 0.05 mol · L-1 potassium dihydrogen phosphate solution (pH 6.8) and methyl cyanide,the flow rate was 1.0 mL · min-1 with gradient mode of time gradient 0→5→10→30→35 min,the corresponding gradient of PBS phosphate buffer solution was 83%→82%→81%→80%→83% ;the detection wavelength was 250 nm with the sample volume of 10μL.Results:The molar ratio of mannose,rhamnose,galacturonicaicd,glucose,galactose and xylose arabonose was 3.55∶ 1.00∶ 1.19∶3.54∶ 2.54∶ 4.41∶1.90 in polysaccharide of ant nest of Macrotermes annadalei.Conclusion:This method is simple,rapid,with high separating efficiency,and can be used to determine monosaccharide composition in polysaccharide of ant nest of Macrotermes annadalei.%目的:测定土垅大白蚁菌圃多糖中单糖的组成.方法:采用水提醇沉法提取土垅大白蚁菌圃多糖,三氟乙酸水解后,经衍生化试剂1-苯基-3-甲基-吡唑啉酮(PMP)衍生化,高效液相色谱法(HPLC)分析.色谱条件:色谱柱C18 (4.6 mm×250 mm,5μ,m),柱温25℃;流动相为0.05 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钾溶液(pH 6.8)-乙腈,流速1.0 mL·min-1,梯度模式:时间梯度为0→5→10→30→35 min,相应的磷酸盐缓冲溶液梯度为83%→82%→81%→80%→83%;检测波长250 nm;进样体积10 μL.结果:土垅大白蚁菌圃多糖中含甘露糖、鼠李糖、半乳糖醛酸、葡萄糖

  9. Identification of Cultured and Natural Astragalus Root Based on Monosaccharide Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Li

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available As the main substances responsible for immunomodulatory activity, saccharides can be used as quality indicators for Astragalus root (RA. Saccharide content is commonly determined by ultraviolet spectroscopy, which lacks species specificity and has not been applied in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia. Monosaccharide mapping based on trifluoroacetic acid (TFA hydrolysis can be used for quantitative analysis of saccharide compositions. In addition, species specificity can be evaluated by analysis of the mapping characteristics. In this study, monosaccharide mapping of soluble saccharides in the cytoplasm and polysaccharides in the cell wall of 24 batches of RA samples with different growth patterns were obtained based on TFA hydrolysis followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Results indicated that the mapping and the molar ratios of saccharide compositions of the cultured and natural RA samples were different for both cytoplasm and cell wall. For example, the molar ratio of mannose and arabinose was more than 3.5:1 in cytoplasm in cultured RA, whereas the ratio was less than 3.5:1 in natural RA. This research not only lays a foundation for screening indicators for RA, but also provided new ways of evaluating the quality of Chinese medicinal materials in which saccharides are the main bioactive substances.

  10. Analysis of monosaccharides in Radix Rehmanniae by GC%气相色谱分析生地黄多糖的单糖组成及其含量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张艳萍; 俞远志; 张虹

    2009-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and purify the polysaccharides from Radix Rehmanniae and analysis the monosaccharides composition. Method: The polysaccharides were extracted with hot water and precipitated by alcohol. Proteins in the precipitates were removed by TCA method. The products were further purified with column chromatography on Superdex 200 and Sephadex G100. The SRP I and SRP II were identified as homogeneous polysaccharide by HPLC, respectively, and then analysised by GC after being hydrolysised. Result: Two homogeneous polysaccharides(SRP I and SRP II) were obtained from Radix Rehmanniae. Conclusion: SRP I containedrhamnose, arabinose, glucose and galactose in the percentage of 6.11%. 66.46%. 3.93% and 21.50%. SRP I was composed of rhamnose, fucose, mannose, galactose and fructose in the percentage of 21.82%, 24.47%, 10.48%, 29.94% and 13.29%.%目的:对生地黄多糖进行分离纯化,并进行组成分析.方法:经沸水抽提、乙醇沉淀、三氯乙酸脱蛋白,再经superdex 200和sephadex G100凝胶色谱得到纯化的生地黄多糖SRP Ⅰ和SRP Ⅱ,经凝胶色谱分析,均为单一多糖.经水解、衍生化后,用气相色谱分析其多糖的组分.结果:经分离纯化,从生地黄中得到了2个单一的纯品多糖SRP Ⅰ和SRPⅡ.结论:生地黄多糖SRP Ⅰ是由鼠李糖、阿拉伯糖、葡萄糖和半乳糖等单糖组成,其质量分数分别为6.11%,66.46%,3.93%和21.50%;而生地黄多糖SRP Ⅱ是由鼠李糖、岩藻糖、甘露糖、半乳糖和果糖等单糖组成,质量分数分别为21.82%,24.47%,10.48%,29.94%和13.29%.

  11. Development of sample pretreatment and chromatography analysis of monosaccharides in plants%植物中单糖的样品前处理及色谱分析方法研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张英; 晋艳; 李海芳; 林金明

    2014-01-01

    The extraction methods of saccharides from plants were developed from solid-liquid extraction toultrasonic extraction and microwave assisted extraction, and achieved the results of sample and solvent con-sumption, high speed and environment friendly. The solid phase extraction was adopted into purification process, and its packings have being modified all the way on structures and functions, the materials variedfrom C18, NH2,ion exchange column to molecularly imprinting materials and optimized ionic liquid column. As to detec-tion, different methods were developed for monosaccharides to meet the requirements of chromatographic analysis, because most of them leak UV absorption and fluorescence properties. In this paper, the development of sample pretreatment methods and chromatographic analysis of monosaccharides in the plant samples was reviewed. The extraction, purification, separation and detection of monosaccharides from different samples were discussed.%植物中单糖的提取从传统的固-液萃取发展到超声萃取、微波辅助萃取等,实现了样品和溶剂用量少、萃取速度快、绿色环保等目的。纯化过程通常使用固相萃取柱,其填料从商业化的C18柱、NH2柱和离子交换柱,到分子印迹固相萃取柱、离子液体优化的萃取柱,结构和功能上不断完善。因单糖多数不具有紫外吸收和荧光性质,在分离检测中,人们采取了多种方法来解决这一问题,以满足色谱分析的需要。本文综述了植物中单糖的样品前处理方法及色谱分析方法。针对单糖提取、纯化、分离检测存在的问题以及解决方案进行了论述,并对植物中单糖的色谱分析方法的发展进行了展望。

  12. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment

    OpenAIRE

    Veuger, Bart; van Oevelen, Dick; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-01-01

    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with C-13-enriched glucose and N-15-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up to 371 days. Analysis of total concentrations and C-13- and N-15 content of bulk sediment, hydrolysable amino acids (including D-alanine), monosaccharides, total fatty acids (TFAs), and phospholip...

  13. Cellulase Inhibition by High Concentrations of Monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hsieh, Chia-Wen; Cannella, David; Jørgensen, Henning

    2014-01-01

    that low free water availability contributes to cellulase inhibition. Of the hydrolytic enzymes involved, those acting on the cellulose substrate, that is, exo- and endoglucanases, were the most inhibited. The β -glucosidases were shown to be less sensitive to high monosaccharide concentrations except...

  14. Neutral monosaccharides from a hypersaline tropical environment: Applications to the characterization of modern and ancient ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moers, M. E. C.; Larter, S. R.

    1993-07-01

    Surficial and buried sediment samples from a hypersaline lagoon-sabkha system (Abu Dhabi, United Arab Emirates) were analysed for carbohydrates (as neutral monosaccharides) to distinguish and characterise various types of recent and ancient tropical ecosystems on a molecular level. The samples consisted of surficial and buried microbial mats, lagoonal sediments containing seagrass ( Halodule uninervis), and mangrove ( Avicennia marina) paleosoils and handpicked mangrove leaves, ranging in age from contemporary to ca. 6000 yr Bp. Analysis of quantitative neutral monosaccharide data by multivariate techniques shows that various groups can be distinguished: intact vascular plant material (mangrove leaf) contains high amounts of arabinose and glucose and hardly any partially methylated monosaccharides, whereas microbial mats in general and lagoonal seagrass sediments show high contributions of fucose, ribose, mannose, galactose and partially methylated monosaccharides. Moreover, surficial microbial mats consisting of filamentous cyanobacteria ( Microcoleus chtonoplastes, Lyngbya aestuarii) can be distinguished from other mats and sediments containing coccoid cyanobacteria ( Entophysalis major) and/or fermenting, sulphate reducing, and methanogenic bacteria on the basis of high contributions of specific groups of partially methylated monosaccharides and other "minor" saccharides. The neutral monosaccharides present in mangrove paleosoils are for a substantial part derived from microorganisms.

  15. Citrate-Linked Keto- and Aldo-Hexose Monosaccharide Cellulose Conjugates Demonstrate Selective Human Neutrophil Elastase-Lowering Activity in Cotton Dressings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonya Caston-Pierre

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Sequestration of harmful proteases as human neutrophil elastase (HNE from the chronic wound environment is an important goal of wound dressing design and function. Monosaccharides attached to cellulose conjugates as ester-appended aldohexoses and ketohexoses were prepared on cotton gauze as monosccharide-citrate-cellulose-esters for HNE sequestration. The monosaccharide-cellulose analogs demonstrated selective binding when the derivatized cotton dressings were measured for sequestration of HNE. Each monosaccharide-cellulose conjugate was prepared as a cellulose citrate-linked monosaccharide ester on the cotton wound dressing, and assayed under wound exudate-mimicked conditions for elastase sequestration activity. A series of three aldohexose and four ketohexose ester cellulose conjugates were prepared on cotton gauze through citric acid-cellulose cross linking esterification. The monosaccharide portion of the conjugate was characterized by hydrolysis of the citrate-monosaccharide ester bond, and subsequent analysis of the free monosaccharide with high performance anion exchange chromatography. The ketohexose and aldohexose conjugate levels on cotton were quantified on cotton using chromatography and found to be present in milligram/gram amounts. The citrate-cellulose ester bonds were characterized with FTIR. Ketohexose-citrate-cellulose conjugates sequestered more elastase activity than aldohexose-citrate-cellulose conjugates. The monosaccharide cellulose conjugate families each gave distinctive profiles in elastase-lowering effects. Possible mechanisms of elastase binding to the monosaccharide-cellulose conjugates are discussed.

  16. DETECTION OF BACTERIAL TOXINS WITH MONOSACCHARIDE ARRAYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngundi, Miriam M.; Taitt, Chris R.; McMurry, Scott A.; Kahne, Daniel; Ligler, Frances S.

    2006-01-01

    A large number of bacterial toxins, viruses and bacteria target carbohydrate derivatives on the cell surface to attach to and gain entry into the cell. We report here the use of a monosaccharide-based array to detect protein toxins. The array-based technique provides the capability to perform simultaneous multianalyte analyses. Arrays of N-acetyl galactosamine (GalNAc) and N-acetylneuraminic acid (Neu5Ac) derivatives were immobilized on the surface of a planar waveguide and were used as receptors for protein toxins. These arrays were probed with fluorescently labeled bacterial cells and protein toxins. While Salmonella typhimurium, Listeria monocytogenes, Escherichia coli and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) did not bind to either of the monosaccharides, both cholera toxin and tetanus toxin bound to GalNAc and Neu5Ac. The results show that the binding of the toxins to the carbohydrates is density dependent and semi-selective. Both toxins were detectable at 100 ng/ml. PMID:15946840

  17. Spectral Properties and Monosaccharides Compositon Analysis of Polysaccharide from Potentilla anserina L%藏药蕨麻多糖的光谱性质及单糖组成分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏莲; 孙志伟; 李国梁; 索有瑞; 尤进茂

    2011-01-01

    The polysaccharide of Potentilla anserine L was extracted and purified,and its contents was determined as 98.4% by phenyl-sulfuric acid method. The polysaccharide was identified by IR spectrum and UV scanning spectrum. The IR spectrum indicates that the characteristic absorption peaks at 3600-3200,3200-2800,1400-1200,1200-1000 cm-1,and 845 cm-1 belonged the characteristic peak of α-pyranose. In addition,the peak at 1630 cm-1 assigned to the C = O of acetamide moiety stretching vibration meant that amino sugars exited in the polysaccharide. A method was developed for the separation of derivatized carbohydrates of Potentilla anserine L. using 1-naphthyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (NMP) as derivatization reagent by capillary zone electrophoresis, and the results shows that the monosaccharides compositions of the polysaccharide from Potentilla anserine L. are xylose, arabinose, glucose, rhamnose, mannose, fucose, galactose, glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid with contents of 3. 945,77. 445,17.568,17.646,3. 942,2. 165,65. 268,13. 037 μg/mg,and 33. 484 μg/mg,respectively,which are consistent with the results carried out by GC-MS.%本研究对藏药蕨麻多糖进行了分离提纯,并测定其水溶性多糖含量为99.4%;通过紫外光谱与红外光谱分析表明,蕨麻多糖为分子量较小的α-吡比喃糖,并含有氨基糖;蕨麻多糖的水解单糖经过NMP衍生后进行毛细管电泳分析,测得其单糖组成为木糖、阿拉伯糖、葡萄糖、鼠李糖、甘露糖、岩藻糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖醛酸和半乳糖醛酸,含量分别为3.945、77.445、17.568、17.646、3.942、2.165、65.268、13.037 μg/mg和33.484μg/mg,与GC-MS的定性分析结果一致.

  18. Identification of structurally closely related monosaccharide and disaccharide isomers by PMP labeling in conjunction with IM-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hongmei; Shi, Lei; Zhuang, Xiaoyu; Su, Rui; Wan, Debin; Song, Fengrui; Li, Jinying; Liu, Shuying

    2016-06-16

    It remains particularly difficult for gaining unambiguous information on anomer, linkage, and position isomers of oligosaccharides using conventional mass spectrometry (MS) methods. In our laboratory, an ion mobility (IM) shift strategy was employed to improve confidence in the identification of structurally closely related disaccharide and monosaccharide isomers using IMMS. Higher separation between structural isomers was achieved using 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP) derivatization in comparison with phenylhydrazine (PHN) derivatization. Furthermore, the combination of pre-IM fragmentation of PMP derivatives provided sufficient resolution to separate the isomers not resolved in the IMMS. To chart the structural variation observed in IMMS, the collision cross sections (CCSs) for the corresponding ions were measured. We analyzed nine disaccharide and three monosaccharide isomers that differ in composition, linkages, or configuration. Our data show that coexisting carbohydrate isomers can be identified by the PMP labeling technique in conjunction with ion-mobility separation and tandem mass spectrometry. The practical application of this rapid and effective method that requires only small amounts of sample is demonstrated by the successful analysis of water-soluble ginseng extract. This demonstrated the potential of this method to measure a variety of heterogeneous sample mixtures, which may have an important impact on the field of glycomics.

  19. Compositional analysis of silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazmerski, L. L.

    1985-05-01

    The use of surface analysis methods in the detection and evaluation of elemental and impurity species in Si is presented. Examples are provided from polycrystalline Si and high-efficiency MINP cells. Auger electron spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry are used to complement microelectrical data obtained by electron-beam induced-current measurements. A new method is discussed which utilizes the volume indexing of digital secondary ion mass spectroscopy signals, providing compositional information and impurity maps on internal materials/device interfaces.

  20. Proximate Composition Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The proximate composition of foods includes moisture, ash, lipid, protein and carbohydrate contents. These food components may be of interest in the food industry for product development, quality control (QC) or regulatory purposes. Analyses used may be rapid methods for QC or more accurate but time-consuming official methods. Sample collection and preparation must be considered carefully to ensure analysis of a homogeneous and representative sample, and to obtain accurate results. Estimation methods of moisture content, ash value, crude lipid, total carbohydrates, starch, total free amino acids and total proteins are put together in a lucid manner.

  1. Analysis and glycosyl composition of the exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of Ganoderma lucidum CG144

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosália Rubel

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The evaluation of glycosyl composition is an essential step to guide future research designs applied in bioactivity. In the same way, the unexplored potential bioactivity of exopolysaccharide from Ganoderma lucidum is huge. Therefore, this study investigated the glycosyl composition of the exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of G. lucidum to serve as guide for future studies on bioactivity. Glycosyl content and composition were evaluated by combined GC/MS of the TMS derivatives of the monosaccharide methyl glycosides produced from the sample by acidic methanolysis. Glycosyl composition analysis showed that the dominant carbohydrate component in all samples of exopolysaccharide isolated from submerged fermentation of G. lucidum CG 144 was glucose (58.1%, mannose (26.6% and galactose (12.5% which can be referred to as heteroglycan. These results suggest that this Ganoderma exopolysaccharide may be a new immunomodulatory agent.

  2. 羊肚菌胞内多糖的提取及单糖组成分析∗%Extraction and Monosaccharide Composition of Intracellular Polysaccharide of Morchella conica Fr

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    矫丽曼

    2016-01-01

    以人工培养的羊肚菌菌丝为材料,通过单因素和正交试验的方法,筛选羊肚菌胞内多糖( MIP)的最佳提取方法,并用硅胶G薄层层析和高效液相色谱法对MIP纯品的单糖组分进行分析。结果表明,羊肚菌多糖最佳的提取工艺为加水倍数25倍、提取温度90℃、浸提时间2h、用95%乙醇沉淀多糖,其多糖得率为7.694%。其MIP由D-甘露糖和D-半乳糖两种单糖组成,摩尔比为1︰1.059。%The mycelium of the planted Morchella conica Fr as materials, the best extraction method of intracellu-lar polysaccharide by single factor analysis and orthogonal experiment were studied. The composition sugars of MIP was also analyzed with Silica gel G thin-layer chromatography and HPLC. The results show that the optimal extrac-tion technology is : the water multiple with 25 , the extractive temperature with 90℃, the extractive time with 2 hours, the alcohol concentration with 95%. At this condition, the yield is 7. 694% , and the MIP is constituted by D-mannose and D-galactose, the mol proportion is 1︰1. 059.

  3. GPS Composite Clock Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Wright, James R.

    2008-01-01

    The GPS composite clock defines GPS time, the timescale used today in GPS operations. GPS time is illuminated by examination of its role in the complete estimation and control problem relative to UTC/TAI. The phase of each GPS clock is unobservable from GPS pseudorange measurements, and the mean phase of the GPS clock ensemble (GPS time) is unobservable. A new and useful observability definition is presented, together with new observability theorems, to demonstrate explicitly that GPS time is...

  4. Monosaccharides as Versatile Units for Water-Soluble Supramolecular Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leenders, Christianus M A; Jansen, Gijs; Frissen, Martijn M M; Lafleur, René P M; Voets, Ilja K; Palmans, Anja R A; Meijer, E W

    2016-03-18

    We introduce monosaccharides as versatile water-soluble units to compatibilise supramolecular polymers based on the benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) moiety with water. A library of monosaccharide-based BTAs is evaluated, varying the length of the alkyl chain (hexyl, octyl, decyl and dodecyl) separating the BTA and saccharide units, as well as the saccharide units (α-glucose, β-glucose, α-mannose and α-galactose). In all cases, the monosaccharides impart excellent water compatibility. The length of the alkyl chain is the determining factor to obtain either long, one-dimensional supramolecular polymers (dodecyl spacer), small aggregates (decyl spacer) or molecularly dissolved (octyl and hexyl) BTAs in water. For the BTAs comprising a dodecyl spacer, our results suggest that a cooperative self-assembly process is operative and that the introduction of different monosaccharides does not significantly change the self- assembly behaviour. Finally, we investigate the potential of post-assembly functionalisation of the formed supramolecular polymers by taking advantage of dynamic covalent bond formation between the monosaccharides and benzoxaboroles. We observe that the supramolecular polymers readily react with a fluorescent benzoxaborole derivative permitting imaging of these dynamic complexes by confocal fluorescence microscopy.

  5. Analysis of monosaccharides in the saffron corm glycoconjugate by capillary electrophoresis%毛细管电泳法分析藏红花植物细胞多糖中单糖组成

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马海宁; 华玉娟; 屠春燕; 袁丽红; 韦萍

    2012-01-01

    以对甲氧基苯胺为衍生试剂,采用毛细管电泳法分析了藏红花植物细胞多糖中的单糖组成.对衍生条件进行了优化,并对毛细管分离条件进行了系统的研究.衍生反应在醋酸含量9.5% (v/v)、80℃下反应2h的衍生产率最大,衍生产物紫外检测波长234 nm.在优化的毛细管电泳分离条件(未涂层熔融石英毛细管柱(60 cm(有效长度50 cm)×50μm),柱温25℃,电压20 kV,使用350 mmol/L硼酸电解液(pH 10.21),压力(3.447 5 kPa)进样5s)下,基线分离了11种结构相近的醛糖(来苏糖、木糖、核糖、葡萄糖、甘露糖、半乳糖、鼠李糖、纤维二糖、麦芽糖、乳糖)、酮糖(果糖)的衍生产物.应用该方法定量检测了藏红花植物细胞多糖水解物中糖的成分,各糖的回收率为94.3%~105.4%,相对标准偏差为3.3%~4.6%.%The monosaccharides in the saffron corm glycoconjugate were separated by capillary electrophoresis ( CE) coupled with pre-column derivatization. 4-Methoxyaniline was used as derivatization reagent. The derivatization and CE separation conditions were investigated. The ultraviolet detection wavelength was 234 nm. The maximum yield of this derivatization reaction was obtained under the presence of 9.5% (v/v) acetic acid at 80 t for 2 h. An uncoated fused-silica capillary of 50 μm I. D. And 50/60 cm length (effective length/total length) was employed, and a pressure injection (3. 447 5 kPa, 5 s) was applied. The baseline separation of 11 monosaccharides and disaccharides (lyxose, xylose, ribose, glucose, mannose, galactose, rhamnose, cellobiose, maltose, lactose, fructose) was reached at 25 t, 20 kV of separation voltage and with 350 mmol/L boric acid (pH 10. 21) as running buffer. The developed method has been successfully applied to quantitatively determine the components of saffron corm glycoconjugate , and the results showed that the recovery of each monosaccharide was in the range of 94. 3% - 105. 4%, the

  6. 柱前衍生高效液相色谱法分析海带岩藻聚糖的单糖及糖醛酸组成%Analysis of Monosaccharides and Uronic Acids in Fucoidon from Seaweed by Pre-column Derivatization High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王泽文; 冷凯良; 孙伟红; 翟毓秀; 邢丽红; 苗钧魁

    2011-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) was employed for the analysis of monosaccharide and uronic acids in fucoidon from fresh seaweed with pre-column derivatization. After degradated by 4 mol/L trifluoroacetic acid and derivatived with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone(PMP),monosaccharides and uronic acids in fucoidon were separated by reversed-phase HPLC with gradient elution, and monitored by ultraviolet detector at 250 nm. The result show that fucoidon consists of 5 kinds of monosaccharides and 2 kinds of uronic acids. The ratio of mannose, rhamnose, glucuronic acid,galacturonic acid, glucose, galactoses, fucose is 0.03:3.7:0. 22:0.74:0.12: 1.1: 4.1. The developed method is suitable for the rapid analysis of polysaccharide with good reproducibility.%建立了一种柱前衍生高效液相色谱法同时测定海带中岩藻聚糖的单糖及糖醛酸组成的方法.岩藻聚糖经4 mol/L三氟乙酸降解后,用1-苯基-3-甲基-5-吡唑啉酮(PMP)进行衍生化,并采用配有紫外检测器的反相高效液相色谱仪在250 nm波长下进行测定,实现了7种单糖和糖醛酸的良好分离.结果表明:该岩藻聚糖样品由5种单糖和2种糖醛酸组成,其物质量之比为甘露糖:鼠李糖:葡萄糖醛酸:半乳糖醛酸:葡萄糖:半乳糖:岩藻糖=0.03:3.7:0.22:0.74:0.12:1.1:4.1.该方法重现性良好,能够快速对多糖样品进行组成分析.

  7. Growth and enzyme production by three Penicillium species on monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Krogh, Astrid Mørkeberg; Krogh, Kristian Bertel Rømer;

    2004-01-01

    The growth and preference for utilisation of various sugar by the Penicillium species Penicillium pinophilum IBT 4186, Penicillium persicinum IBT 13226 and Penicillium brasilianum IBT 20888 was studied in batch cultivations using various monosaccharides as carbon source, either alone or in mixtures...

  8. Improved method for the analysis of the composition of polysaccharides by total acid hydrolysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mochtar, M.; Delavier, H.J.; Oei Ban Liang

    1985-06-20

    The analysis of the composition of polysaccharides, i.e. dextran, by total acid hydrolysis, in the presence or absence of oxygen, and by different methods of neutralization of the hydrolysate, is presented. It was found that hydrolysis of polysaccharides under nitrogen atmosphere, in the absence of oxygen, diminishes the possibility of a decomposition of monosaccharides formed during hydrolysis. The neutralization of the acid hydrolysate by passing it through a column of weak-base ion exchange resin. Amberlite IRA-94, instead of neutralizing the hydrolysate by Ba(OH)/sub 2/ diminishes the possibility of epimerization of glucose to other saccharides. This improved method gives more reliable results, even in the presence of readily decomposed polysaccharides.

  9. Compositional analysis for linear systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2010-01-01

    Compositional analysis techniques such as assume-guarantee reasoning are frequently used in computer science to validate the design of complex process models. Since many engineering systems are built modularly from interconnections of components, the resulting mathematical models can be arbitrarily

  10. Monosaccharide composition of suspended particles from the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Sankaran, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    Neutral carbohydrates were determined as alditol acetates by capillary gas chromatography in the hydrolysates of suspended particulate samples (40) collected from 8 depths (approx 1 to 1,000 m) at 5 stations of the Bay of Bengal. Eight individual...

  11. Fermentable oligosaccharide, disaccharide, monosaccharide and polyol content of foods commonly consumed by ethnic minority groups in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prichard, Rebeca; Rossi, Megan; Muir, Jane; Yao, Ck; Whelan, Kevin; Lomer, Miranda

    2016-06-01

    Dietary restriction of fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) is an effective management approach for functional bowel disorders; however, its application is limited by the paucity of food composition data available for ethnic minority groups. The aim was to identify and measure the FODMAP content of these commonly consumed foods. According to their perceived importance to clinical practise, the top 20 ranked foods underwent FODMAP analysis using validated analytical techniques (total fructans, Megazyme hexokinase (HK) assay; all others, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with evaporative light scattering detectors). Of the 20 foods analysed, five were identified as significant sources of at least one FODMAP. Fructans and galacto-oligosaccharides were the major FODMAPs in these foods, including channa dal (0.13 g/100 g; 0.36 g/100 g), fenugreek seeds (1.11 g/100 g; 1.27 g/100 g), guava (0.41 g/100 g; not detected), karela (not detected; 1.12 g/100 g) and tamarind (2.35 g/100 g; 0.02 g/100 g). Broadening the availability of FODMAP composition data will increase the cultural application of low FODMAP dietary advice.

  12. Enantiomeric Excess Determination for Monosaccharides Using Chiral Transmission to Cold Gas-Phase Tryptophan in Ultraviolet Photodissociation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujihara, Akimasa; Maeda, Naoto; Doan, Thuc N.; Hayakawa, Shigeo

    2017-02-01

    Chiral transmission between monosaccharides and amino acids via photodissociation in the gas phase was examined using a tandem mass spectrometer fitted with an electrospray ionization source and a cold ion trap in order to investigate the origin of the homochirality of biomolecules in molecular clouds. Ultraviolet photodissociation mass spectra of cold gas-phase noncovalent complexes of the monosaccharide enantiomers glucose (Glc) and galactose (Gal) with protonated l-tryptophan H+( l-Trp) were obtained by photoexcitation of the indole ring of l-Trp. l-Trp dissociated via Cα-Cβ bond cleavage when noncovalently complexed with d-Glc; however, no dissociation of l-Trp occurred in the homochiral H+( l-Trp)( l-Glc) noncovalent complex, where the energy absorbed by l-Trp was released through the evaporation of l-Glc. This enantioselective photodissociation of Trp was due to the transmission of chirality from Glc to Trp via photodissociation in the gas-phase noncovalent complexes, and was applied to the quantitative chiral analysis of monosaccharides. The enantiomeric excess of monosaccharides in solution could be determined by measuring the relative abundance of the two product ions in a single photodissociation mass spectrum of the cold gas-phase noncovalent complex with H+( l-Trp), and by referring to the linear relationships derived in this work.

  13. Analysis of Monosaccharides in High Fructose Syrup by LEX-RID High Performance Liquid Chromatography%配位体交换色谱法分析果葡糖浆中的单糖

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾鹏禹; 孙蕊; 何冬亮; 黄学英

    2013-01-01

      建立了果葡糖浆中单糖的配位体交换-示差折光检测高效液相色谱分析方法。分离柱采用 Sepax Carbomix Pb-NP10(300×7.8 mm ID,10μm,8%交联度)色谱柱,配保护柱,柱温80℃;流动相采用纯水,流速0.6 mL·min-1;示差折光检测器温度30℃,响应时间6 s。葡萄糖和果糖基线分离无干扰,在5.0~100.0 mg·mL-1浓度范围内呈现良好的线性关系,方法检测限分别为0.94 mg·mL-1和0.46 mg·mL-1。方法处理简便,重现性好。%  The determination method of monosaccharides in high fructose syrup was established with LEX-RID HPLC in this paper. Sepax Carbomix Pb-NP10 (300×7.8 mm ID,10 μm,8% crosslinkage)column was used for the seperation at 80 ℃. Mobile phase was water (HPLC grade)and flow rate was 0.6 mL·min-1. Temperature of RI detector was 30 ℃,and response time was 6 s. The calibration curve was linear in the mass concentration range of 5.0~100.0 mg·mL-1,the LOD of glucose and fructose was 0.94 mg·mL-1 and 0.46 mg·mL-1 respectively. The method was simple,accurated and reproducible.

  14. Monosaccharides in the water of the Gulf of Gdansk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waldemar Grzybowski

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available The concentration of monosaccharides in samples collected in the Gulf of Gdansk area was determined in water filtered through ~0.8 µm pore size filters. Seawater concentrations ranged from about 0.2 to 1.1 mg C dm-3, the highest values being detected at the mouth of the river Vistula. Seasonality was detectable in the data distribution; the majority of autumn values lay within the 0.2–0.4 range while concentrations in the spring samples were higher and the values more widely scattered. Measurements of monosaccharide concentrations at selected points during the whole observation period showed that values increased from spring to autumn as much as 5-fold. Concomitant analyses in Vistula river water yielded concentrations from 0.4 to 1.2 mg C dm-3. These latter values were all higher than those recorded in seawater in the corresponding months.

  15. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veuger, Bart; van Oevelen, Dick; Middelburg, Jack J.

    2012-04-01

    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with 13C-enriched glucose and 15N-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up to 371 days. Analysis of total concentrations and 13C- and 15N content of bulk sediment, hydrolysable amino acids (including D-alanine), monosaccharides, total fatty acids (TFAs), and phospholipid-derived fatty acids (PLFAs) allowed us to trace the fate of microbial biomass and -detritus and the major biochemical groups therein (proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids) over intermediate time scales (weeks-months). Moreover, the unidentified fraction of the labeled material (i.e. not analyzed as HAA, FA, or carbohydrate) provided information on the formation and fate of molecularly uncharacterizable organic matter. Loss of 13C and 15N from the sediment was slow (half live of 433 days) which may have been due to the permanently anoxic conditions in the experiment. Loss rates for the different biochemical groups were also low with the following order of loss rate constants: PLFA > TFA > HAA > monosaccharides. The unidentified 13C-pool was rapidly formed (within days) and then decreased relatively slowly, resulting in a gradual relative accumulation of this pool over time. Degradation and microbial reworking of the labeled material resulted in subtle, yet consistent, diagenetic changes within the different biochemical groups. In the HAA pool, glycine, lysine, and proline were lost relatively slowly (i.e. best preserved) while there was no accumulation of D-alanine relative to L-alanine, indicating no relative accumulation of bacterial macromolecules rich in D-alanine. In the fatty acid pool, there was very little difference between PLFAs and TFAs, indicating a very similar lability of these pools. Differences between individual fatty acids included a relatively slow loss of i15

  16. Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2014-07-01

    At the Biomass Compositional Analysis Laboratory, NREL scientists have more than 20 years of experience supporting the biomass conversion industry. They develop, refine, and validate analytical methods to determine the chemical composition of biomass samples before, during, and after conversion processing. These high-quality compositional analysis data are used to determine feedstock compositions as well as mass balances and product yields from conversion processes.

  17. Explicit Consideration of Water Molecules to Study Vibrational Circular DICHROÎSM of Monosaccharide's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moussi, Sofiane; Ouamerali, Ourida

    2014-06-01

    Carbohydrates have multiples roles in biological systems. It has been found that the glycoside bond is fundamentally important in many aspects of chemistry and biology and forms the basis of carbohydrate chemistry. That means the stereochemical information, namely, glycosidic linkages α or β, gives an significant features of the carbohydrate glycosidation position of the glycosylic acceptor. For these reasons, much effort was made for the synthesis and analysis of the glycoside bond. Vibrational circular dichroism VCD has some advantages over conventional electronic circular dichroism (ECD) due to the applicability to all organic molecules and the reliability of ab initio quantum calculation. However, for a molecule with many chiral centers such as carbohydrates, determination of the absolute configuration tends to be difficult because the information from each stereochemical center is mixed and averaged over the spectrum. In the CH stretching region, only two VCD studies on carbohydrates have been reported and spectra--structure correlation, as determined for the glycoside band, remains to be investigated. T. Taniguchi and collaborators report that methyl glycosides exhibit a characteristic VCD peak, the sign of which solely reflects the C-1 absolute configuration. This work is a theoretical contribution to study the behaviour of VCD spectrum's of the monosaccharides when the water molecules are taken explicitly. This study is focused on six different monosaccharides in theirs absolute configuration R and S. We used the method of density functional theory DFT by means of the B3LYP hybrid functional and 6-31G * basis set.

  18. The effect of cathodic polarisation on monosaccharides of Amphora coffeaeformis, a marine fouling diatom

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhosle, N.B.; Evans, L.V.; Edyvean, R.G.J.

    , concentrations of monosaccharides were higher by a factor of 8 to 40 in A. coffeaeformis cells attached to non-polarised steel. The abundance of monosaccharides increased over the period of cultivation in the cells on non-polarised steel. Eight individual...

  19. Specific rotation as a property to validate monosaccharide conformations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Renato R; da Silva, Clarissa O

    2012-03-01

    Specific rotation ([α](D)) values were calculated for the 15 conformations of xylopyranose that are the most stable in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. The effects of different theoretical descriptions and the medium on the geometry of the conformers and the [α](D) values are evaluated. Differences in [α](D) values found for the same conformer in all descriptions used were smaller than those found between any two different conformers in the same description. The difference between [α](D) values is prominent, even for two conformations that are distinguished from each other only by the orientation of one secondary hydroxyl group. This finding suggests that [α](D) values may potentially be used in the validation of monosaccharide conformations that are theoretically sampled. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Electricity production from twelve monosaccharides using microbial fuel cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Catal, Tunc [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Li, Kaichang [Department of Wood Science and Engineering, Oregon State University, 102 Richardson Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States); Bermek, Hakan [Department of Molecular Biology and Genetics, Istanbul Technical University, 34469-Maslak, Istanbul (Turkey); Liu, Hong [Department of Biological and Ecological Engineering, Oregon State University, 116 Gilmore Hall, Corvallis, OR 97331 (United States)

    2008-01-03

    Direct generation of electricity from monosaccharides of lignocellulosic biomass was examined using air cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Electricity was generated from all carbon sources tested, including six hexoses (D-glucose, D-galactose, D(-)-levulose (fructose), L-fucose, L-rhamnose, and D-mannose), three pentoses (D-xylose, D(-)-arabinose, and D(-)-ribose), two uronic acids (D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic acid) and one aldonic acid (D-gluconic acid). The mixed bacterial culture, which was enriched using acetate as a carbon source, adapted well to all carbon sources tested, although the adaptation times varied from 1 to 70 h. The maximum power density obtained from these carbon sources ranged from 1240 {+-} 10 to 2770 {+-} 30 mW m{sup -2} at current density range of 0.76-1.18 mA cm{sup -2}. D-Mannose resulted in the lowest maximum power density, whereas D-glucuronic acid generated the highest one. Coulombic efficiency ranged from 21 to 37%. For all carbon sources tested, the relationship between the maximum voltage output and the substrate concentration appeared to follow saturation kinetics at 120 {omega} external resistance. The estimated maximum voltage output ranged between 0.26 and 0.44 V and half-saturation kinetic constants ranged from 111 to 725 mg L{sup -1}. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was over 80% for all carbon sources tested. Results from this study indicated that lignocellulosic biomass-derived monosaccharides might be a suitable resource for electricity generation using MFC technology. (author)

  1. Electricity production from twelve monosaccharides using microbial fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catal, Tunc; Li, Kaichang; Bermek, Hakan; Liu, Hong

    Direct generation of electricity from monosaccharides of lignocellulosic biomass was examined using air cathode microbial fuel cells (MFCs). Electricity was generated from all carbon sources tested, including six hexoses (D-glucose, D-galactose, D(-)-levulose (fructose), L-fucose, L-rhamnose, and D-mannose), three pentoses (D-xylose, D(-)-arabinose, and D(-)-ribose), two uronic acids (D-galacturonic acid and D-glucuronic acid) and one aldonic acid (D-gluconic acid). The mixed bacterial culture, which was enriched using acetate as a carbon source, adapted well to all carbon sources tested, although the adaptation times varied from 1 to 70 h. The maximum power density obtained from these carbon sources ranged from 1240 ± 10 to 2770 ± 30 mW m -2 at current density range of 0.76-1.18 mA cm -2. D-Mannose resulted in the lowest maximum power density, whereas D-glucuronic acid generated the highest one. Coulombic efficiency ranged from 21 to 37%. For all carbon sources tested, the relationship between the maximum voltage output and the substrate concentration appeared to follow saturation kinetics at 120 Ω external resistance. The estimated maximum voltage output ranged between 0.26 and 0.44 V and half-saturation kinetic constants ranged from 111 to 725 mg L -1. Chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was over 80% for all carbon sources tested. Results from this study indicated that lignocellulosic biomass-derived monosaccharides might be a suitable resource for electricity generation using MFC technology.

  2. A monosaccharide transporter is localized to sieve plate and plasmodesmal channel in developing apple fruit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Lingyun; PENG Changcao; ZOU Keqin; WANG Xiuling; FAN Renchun; YU Xiangchun; ZHANG Xiaoyan; SHEN Yuanyue; ZHANG Dapeng

    2005-01-01

    Two major classes of plant sugar transporters, sucrose and monosaccharide transporters, may be localized to tonoplast or plasma membrane. The monosaccharide transporters may also be localized in plastid. However, whether these transporters reside in other subcellular compartments remains unclear. We recently detected in apple fruit a 52 kD plasma membrane-localized monosaccharide transporter, and showed that this transporter may be functional in phloem unloading in the fruit. In this paper, we report that this monosaccharide transporter is also localized to sieve plate and plasmodesmal channel in apple fruit. The amount of this sieve plate- and plasmodesma-associated transporter changes during fruit development. This amount of the transporter expression may be altered in the phloem sieve elements but not in the parenchyma cells by a photoassimilate deficiency applied by the shoot girdling treatment, suggesting that the monosaccharide transporter of the special sub-cellular localization may be of biological significance.

  3. Promoter activity of a putative pollen monosaccharide transporter in Petunia hybrida and characterisation of a transposon insertion mutant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, D.; Busscher-Lange, J.; Tunen, van A.J.

    2006-01-01

    For the growth of the male reproductive cells of plants, the pollen, the presence of sufficient sucrose or monosaccharides is of vital importance. From Petunia hybrida a pollen-specific putative monosaccharide transporter designated PMT1 (for petunia monosaccharide transporter) has been identified p

  4. Analysis of composite structural elements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Baier

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The themes of the study are composite structural components. For this purpose have been designed and built several research positions.Design/methodology/approach: Using different structural materials to build new device components requires multiple tests of the components. Research posts were designed in the advanced graphical program CAx Siemens NX 7.5. Analysed samples were made from the glass fibre, aramid and carbon of various weights. Due to the specific use of composite materials it focuses on the elements in the form of plates and flat bars. For the examination of experimental strain gauge technique was used bead, the force sensor and displacement sensor. The experimental methods were compared with computer simulation using the FEM.Findings: The aim of this study was to determine the basic material constants and a comparison of the experimental method and the method of computer simulation.Research limitations/implications: Change the number of layers and how to connect the laminate with the steel plate changes mechanical properties of the structural component.Practical implications: The ultimate result will be knowledge on the different forms of laminates, such as material properties, the stresses in all layers, strain and comparing the results obtained by two methods.Originality/value: The expected outcome of the study will be the composition and method of joining composite laminate with a steel plate to the possible application in the repair and construction of structural elements of freight wagons.

  5. Static aeroelastic analysis of composite wing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, IN; Hong, Chang Sun; Miura, Hirokazu; Kim, Seung KO

    1990-01-01

    A static aeroelastic analysis capability that can predict aerodynamic loads for the deformed shape of the composite wing has been developed. The finite element method (FEM) was used for composite plate structural analysis, and the linear vortex lattice method (VLM) was used for steady aerodynamic analysis. The final deformed shape of the wing due to applied forces is determined by iterative manner using FEM and VLM. FEM and VLM analysis are related by a surface spline interpolation procedure. The wing with Gr/Ep composite material has been investigated to see the wing deformation effect. Aerodynamic load change due to wing flexibility has been investigated. Also, the effect of fiber orientation and sweep angle on the deformation pattern and aerodynamic coefficients are examined. For a certain fiber orientation, the deflection and aerodynamic loading of the composite wing is very much reduced. The swept forward wing has more significant effect of wing flexibility on aerodynamic coefficient than the swept back wing does.

  6. Comparative analysis of nutritional composition of Amaranthus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative analysis of nutritional composition of Amaranthus caudatus ... and Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle), using standard analytical methods The result ... content (74.8%) and lipid content (5.5%), while Hibiscus sabdariffa (Roselle) contain ...

  7. Ultrasonic analysis of spherical composite test specimens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brosey, W.D.

    1984-08-22

    Filament wound spherical test specimens have been examined ultrasonically as part of a program to determine the effectiveness of various nondestructive evaluation techniques for analysis of mechanical characteristics of a composite with enclosed geometry. The Kevlar-epoxy composite specimens contained simulated defect conditions which were located, and the extent of damage determined, using ultrasonic analysis. Effects of transducer frequency and signal parameters have been examined to determine optimum conditions for flaw detection. The data were displayed in rectangular and axonometric projection.

  8. On the structural analysis of textile composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogdanovich, Alexander E.; Pastore, Christopher M.

    The local structural inhomogeneities which distinguish textile composites from laminated materials are discussed. Techniques for quantifying these inhomogeneities through three dimensional geometric modelling are introduced and methods of translating them into elastic properties are presented. Some basic ideas on application of spline functions to the stress field analysis in textile composites are proposed. The significance of internal continuity conditions for these materials is emphasized. Several analytical techniques based on the concept of a meso-volume are discussed. An example is presented to demonstrate the application of the method to structural analysis of textile composites.

  9. Ab initio molecular simulations on specific interactions between amyloid beta and monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nomura, Kazuya; Okamoto, Akisumi; Yano, Atsushi; Higai, Shin'ichi; Kondo, Takashi; Kamba, Seiji; Kurita, Noriyuki

    2012-09-01

    Aggregation of amyloid β (Aβ) peptides, which is a key pathogenetic event in Alzheimer's disease, can be caused by cell-surface saccharides. We here investigated stable structures of the solvated complexes of Aβ with some types of monosaccharides using molecular simulations based on protein-ligand docking and classical molecular mechanics methods. Moreover, the specific interactions between Aβ and the monosaccharides were elucidated at an electronic level by ab initio fragment molecular orbital calculations. Based on the results, we proposed which type of monosaccharide prefers to have large binding affinity to Aβ and inhibit the Aβ aggregation.

  10. Enthalpy and entropy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with some monosaccharides in water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUO; Kelei; WANG; Jianji; BAI; Guangyue; YAN; Haike; WANG

    2004-01-01

    Dilution enthalpies of sodium chloride and some monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, xylose, arabinose, and fructose) in water and mixing enthalpies of aqueous sodium chloride and these monosaccharide solutions were measured by using an improved precision semimicro-titration calorimeter. Transfer enthalpies of sodium chloride from water to aqueous saccharide solutions were evaluated as well as enthalpy interaction parameters of sodium chloride with these monosaccharides in water. Combined with Gibbs energy interaction parameters, entropy interaction parameters were also obtained. The results show that interactions of the saccharides with sodium chloride depend on the stereochemistry of saccharide molecules. These interaction parameters can identify stereochemical structure of saccharide molecules.

  11. Mechanistic understanding of monosaccharide-air flow battery electrochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott, Daniel M.; Tsang, Tsz Ho; Chetty, Leticia; Aloi, Sekotilani; Liaw, Bor Yann

    Recently, an inexpensive monosaccharide-air flow battery configuration has been demonstrated to utilize a strong base and a mediator redox dye to harness electrical power from the partial oxidation of glucose. Here the mechanistic understanding of glucose oxidation in this unique glucose-air power source is further explored by acid-base titration experiments, 13C NMR, and comparison of results from chemically different redox mediators (indigo carmine vs. methyl viologen) and sugars (fructose vs. glucose) via studies using electrochemical techniques. Titration results indicate that gluconic acid is the main product of the cell reaction, as supported by evidence in the 13C NMR spectra. Using indigo carmine as the mediator dye and fructose as the energy source, an abiotic cell configuration generates a power density of 1.66 mW cm -2, which is greater than that produced from glucose under similar conditions (ca. 1.28 mW cm -2). A faster transition from fructose into the ene-diol intermediate than from glucose likely contributed to this difference in power density.

  12. Diverse Functional Roles of Monosaccharide Transporters and their Homologs in Vascular Plants: A Physiological Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thomas L. Slewinski

    2011-01-01

    Vascular plants contain two gene families that encode monosaccharide transporter proteins. The classical monosaccharide transporter(-like)gene superfamily is large and functionally diverse, while the recently identified SWEET transporter family is smaller and, thus far, only found to transport glucose. These transporters play essential roles at many levels, ranging from organelles to the whole plant. Many family members are essential for cellular homeostasis and re-productive success. Although most transporters do not directly participate in long-distance transport, their indirect roles greatly impact carbon allocation and transport flux to the heterotrophic tissues of the plant. Functional characterization of some members from both gene families has revealed their diverse roles in carbohydrate partitioning, phloem function,resource allocation, plant defense, and sugar signaling. This review highlights the broad impacts and implications of monosaccharide transport by describing some of the functional roles of the monosaccharide transporter(-like)superfamily and the SWEET transporter family.

  13. Safety of GM crops: compositional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brune, Philip D; Culler, Angela Hendrickson; Ridley, William P; Walker, Kate

    2013-09-04

    The compositional analysis of genetically modified (GM) crops has continued to be an important part of the overall evaluation in the safety assessment program for these materials. The variety and complexity of genetically engineered traits and modes of action that will be used in GM crops in the near future, as well as our expanded knowledge of compositional variability and factors that can affect composition, raise questions about compositional analysis and how it should be applied to evaluate the safety of traits. The International Life Sciences Institute (ILSI), a nonprofit foundation whose mission is to provide science that improves public health and well-being by fostering collaboration among experts from academia, government, and industry, convened a workshop in September 2012 to examine these and related questions, and a series of papers has been assembled to describe the outcomes of that meeting.

  14. SYNTHESIS,HELICITY,AND BIOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF MONOSACCHARIDE-CONTAINING POLY(PHENYLACETYLENE)S

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jacky W.Y.Lam; Kevin K.L.Cheuk; Bing-shi Li; Yong Xie; Ben-zhong Tang

    2007-01-01

    Poly(phenylacetylene)s bearing monosaccharide pendant groups are synthesized in high yields by [Rh(nbd)Cl]2 catalyst.The polymers have high molecular weights and give satisfactory spectroscopic data corresponding to their molecular structures.They are thermally quite stable(≥300℃)and show strong circular dichroism signals in the visible spectral region owing to the helicity of the polyene backbone.The monosaccharide-containing polyacetylenes are cytophilic and can stimulate the growth of living cells.

  15. Study on Molecular Recognition of Crown Ethers to Aniline and Monosaccharides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Li-Ya; TENG Qi-Wen; WU Shi; LIU Zheng-Zheng

    2005-01-01

    Theoretical study on coordinates between crown ethers and aniline as well as monosaccharides is performed by AM1, MNDO and PM3 methods.It is indicated that crown ethers possess ability to recognize polar guests especially ionic guests and monosaccharides.Electronic spectra of coordinates are computed by the INDO/SCI method.The reason of the blue-shift for UV absorption of complexes relative to that of hosts is discussed and electronic transition is theoretic- cally assigned.

  16. Targeting and Imaging of Cancer Cells via Monosaccharide-Imprinted Fluorescent Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shuangshou; Yin, Danyang; Wang, Wenjing; Shen, Xiaojing; Zhu, Jun-Jie; Chen, Hong-Yuan; Liu, Zhen

    2016-03-01

    The recognition of cancer cells is a key for cancer diagnosis and therapy, but the specificity highly relies on the use of biorecognition molecules particularly antibodies. Because biorecognition molecules suffer from some apparent disadvantages, such as hard to prepare and poor storage stability, novel alternatives that can overcome these disadvantages are highly important. Here we present monosaccharide-imprinted fluorescent nanoparticles (NPs) for targeting and imaging of cancer cells. The molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) probe was fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) doped silica NPs with a shell imprinted with sialic acid, fucose or mannose as the template. The monosaccharide-imprinted NPs exhibited high specificity toward the target monosaccharides. As the template monosaccharides used are over-expressed on cancer cells, these monosaccharide-imprinted NPs allowed for specific targeting cancer cells over normal cells. Fluorescence imaging of human hepatoma carcinoma cells (HepG-2) over normal hepatic cells (L-02) and mammary cancer cells (MCF-7) over normal mammary epithelial cells (MCF-10A) by these NPs was demonstrated. As the imprinting approach employed herein is generally applicable and highly efficient, monosaccharide-imprinted NPs can be promising probes for targeting cancer cells.

  17. Chemiczna charakterystyka substancji pektynowych w liściach tytoniu [Chemical analysis of the pectic substances in the tobacco leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Blaim

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Chromatographic analysis of pectic substances from leaves of Nicotiana tabacum, N. rustica and N. glauca has shown that the pectic substances from these species have similar composition of monosaccharides. The only differences found are in the relative quantities of the sugars present in pectic substances.

  18. Composites Similarity Analysis Method Based on Knowledge Set in Composites Quality Control

    OpenAIRE

    Li Haifeng

    2016-01-01

    Composites similarity analysis is an important link of composites review, it can not only to declare composites review rechecking, still help composites applicants promptly have the research content relevant progress and avoid duplication. This paper mainly studies the composites similarity model in composites review. With the actual experience of composites management, based on the author’s knowledge set theory, paper analyzes deeply knowledge set representation of composites knowledge, impr...

  19. STRESS ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE PROPELLER BY USING FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.SRIDHAR REDDY

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Present work proposes a methodology to design a propeller with a metal and composite material to analyze its strength and deformation using Ansys software. In order to evaluate the effectiveness of composite over metals, stress analysis is performed on both composite and metal propeller using Ansys. Proposed methodology showed substantial improvements in metal propellers. The mean deflection, normal stress and shear stress were found for both metallic and composite propeller by using Ansys. From the results, stressanalysis composite propeller is safe resonance phenomenon. In this work effort is made to reduce stress levels so that advantage of weight reduction along with stresses can be obtained. The comparison analysis of metallic and composite propeller was made for the maximum deformation and normal stresses.

  20. Compositional Data Analysis Theory and Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Pawlowsky-Glahn, Vera

    2011-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in compositional data analysis and will feature a collection of papers covering theory, applications to various fields of science and software. Areas covered will range from geology, biology, environmental sciences, forensic sciences, medicine and hydrology. Key features:Provides the state-of-the-art text in compositional data analysisCovers a variety of subject areas, from geology to medicineWritten by leading researchers in the fieldIs supported by a website featuring R code

  1. Springback analysis of thermoplastic composite plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stavrovský V.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Residual stresses, which are set in the fiber reinforced composites during the laminate curing in a closed form, lead to dimensional changes of composites after extracting from the form and cooling. One of these dimensional changes is called “springback” of the angle sections. Other dimensional changes are warpage of flat sections of composite or displacement of single layers of composite for example. In our case four different lay-ups were analysed (three symmetrical and one unsymmetrical. An analytical model which covers temperature changes, chemical shrinkage during curing and moisture change was used. Also a FEM analysis was done for predicting the springback, and both calculations were compared with the measured data from manufacturer.

  2. Two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy strongly enhances soil organic matter composition analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soucemarianadin, Laure; Erhagen, Björn; Öquist, Mats; Nilsson, Mats; Hedenström, Mattias; Schleucher, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) is the largest terrestrial carbon pool and strongly affects soil properties. With climate change, understanding SOM processes and turnover and how they could be affected by increasing temperatures becomes critical. This is particularly key for organic soils as they represent a huge carbon pool in very sensitive ecosystems, like boreal ecosystems and peatlands. Nevertheless, characterization of SOM molecular composition, which is essential to elucidate soil carbon processes, is not easily achieved, and further advancements in that area are greatly needed. Solid-state one-dimensional (1D) 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy is often used to characterize its molecular composition, but only provides data on a few major functional groups, which regroup many different molecular fragments. For instance, in the carbohydrates region, signals of all monosaccharides present in many different polymers overlap. This overlap thwarts attempts to identify molecular moieties, resulting in insufficient information to characterize SOM composition. Here we show that two-dimensional (2D) liquid-state 1H-13C NMR spectra provided much richer data on the composition of boreal plant litter and organic surface soil. The 2D spectra indeed resolved overlaps observed in 1D 13C spectra and displayed signals from hundreds of identifiable molecular groups. For example, in the aromatics region, signals from individual lignin units could be recognized. It was hence possible to follow the fate of specific structural moieties in soils. We observed differences between litter and soil samples, and were able to relate them to the decomposition of identifiable moieties. Sample preparation and data acquisition were both simple and fast. Further, using multivariate data analysis, we aimed at linking the detailed chemical fingerprints of SOM to turnover rates in a soil incubation experiment. With the multivariate models, we were able to identify specific molecular

  3. Atmospheric Data Package for the Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Napier, Bruce A.; Ramsdell, James V.

    2005-09-01

    The purpose of this data package is to summarize our conceptual understanding of atmospheric transport and deposition, describe how this understanding will be simplified for numerical simulation as part of the Composite Analysis (i.e., implementation model), and finally to provide the input parameters needed for the simulations.

  4. Critical Discourse Analysis and Rhetoric and Composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huckin, Thomas; Andrus, Jennifer; Clary-Lemon, Jennifer

    2012-01-01

    Over the past two decades, critical discourse analysis has emerged as a major new multidisciplinary approach to the study of texts and contexts in the public sphere. Developed in Europe, CDA has lately become increasingly popular in North America, where it is proving especially congenial to new directions in rhetoric and composition. This essay…

  5. Multiaxial analysis of dental composite materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotche, Miiri; Drummond, James L; Sun, Kang; Vural, Murat; DeCarlo, Francesco

    2009-02-01

    Dental composites are subjected to extreme chemical and mechanical conditions in the oral environment, contributing to the degradation and ultimate failure of the material in vivo. The objective of this study is to validate an alternative method of mechanically loading dental composite materials. Confined compression testing more closely represents the complex loading that dental restorations experience in the oral cavity. Dental composites, a nanofilled and a hybrid microfilled, were prepared as cylindrical specimens, light-cured in ring molds of 6061 aluminum, with the ends polished to ensure parallel surfaces. The samples were subjected to confined compression loading to 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15% axial strain. Upon loading, the ring constrains radial expansion of the specimen, generating confinement stresses. A strain gage placed on the outer wall of the aluminum confining ring records hoop strain. Assuming plane stress conditions, the confining stress (sigma(c)) can be calculated at the sample/ring interface. Following mechanical loading, tomographic data was generated using a high-resolution microtomography system developed at beamline 2-BM of the Advanced Photon Source at Argonne National Laboratory. Extraction of the crack and void surfaces present in the material bulk is numerically represented as crack edge/volume (CE/V), and calculated as a fraction of total specimen volume. Initial results indicate that as the strain level increases the CE/V increases. Analysis of the composite specimens under different mechanical loads suggests that microtomography is a useful tool for three-dimensional evaluation of dental composite fracture surfaces.

  6. Waveform Analysis of AE in Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, William H.

    1998-01-01

    Advanced, waveform based acoustic emission (AE) techniques have been developed to evaluate damage mechanisms in the testing of composite materials. This approach, more recently referred to as Modal AE, provides an enhanced capability to discriminate and eliminate noise signals from those generated by damage mechanisms. Much more precise source location can also be obtained in comparison to conventional, threshold crossing arrival time determination techniques. Two successful examples of the application of Modal AE are presented in this work. In the first, the initiation of transverse matrix cracking in cross-ply, tensile coupons was monitored. In these tests, it was documented that the same source mechanism, matrix cracking, can produce widely different AE signal amplitudes dependent on laminate stacking sequence and thickness. These results, taken together with well known propagation effects of attenuation and dispersion of AE signals in composite laminates, cast further doubt on the validity of simple amplitude or amplitude distribution analysis for AE source determination. For the second example, delamination propagation in composite ring specimens was monitored. Pressurization of these composite rings is used to simulate the stresses in a composite rocket motor case. AE signals from delamination propagation were characterized by large amplitude flexural plate mode components which have long signal durations because of the large dispersion of this mode.

  7. Synthesis of a series of monosaccharide-fipronil conjugates and their phloem mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Jian-Guo; Wu, Han-Xiang; Lu, Meng-Ling; Song, Gao-Peng; Xu, Han-Hong

    2013-05-08

    To test the effect of adding different monosaccharide groups to a non-phloem-mobile insecticide on the phloem mobility of the insecticide, a series of conjugates of different monosaccharides and fipronil were synthesized using the trichloroacetimidate method. Phloem mobility tests in castor bean ( Ricinus communis L.) seedlings indicated that the phloem mobility of these conjugates varied markedly. L-Rhamnose-fipronil and D-fucose-fipronil displayed the highest phloem mobility among all of the tested conjugates. Conjugating hexose, pentose, or deoxysugar to fipronil through an O-glycosidic linkage can confer phloem mobility to fipronil in R. communis L. effectively, while the -OH orientation of the monosaccharide substantially affected the phloem mobility of the conjugates.

  8. Theoretical studies of binding of mannose-binding protein to monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aida-Hyugaji, Sachiko; Takano, Keiko; Takada, Toshikazu; Hosoya, Haruo; Kojima, Naoya; Mizuochi, Tsuguo; Inoue, Yasushi

    2004-11-01

    Binding properties of mannose-binding protein (MBP) to monosaccharides are discussed based on ab initio molecular orbital calculations for cluster models constructed. The calculated binding energies indicate that MBP has an affinity for N-acetyl- D-glucosamine, D-mannose, L-fucose, and D-glucose rather than D-galactose and N-acetyl- D-galactosamine, which is consistent with the biochemical experimental results. Electrostatic potential surfaces at the binding site of four monosaccharides having binding properties matched well with that of MBP. A vacant frontier orbital was found to be localized around the binding site of MBP, suggesting that MBP-monosaccharide interaction may occur through electrostatic and orbital interactions.

  9. Ceramic compositional analysis in archaeological perspective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, R.L.; Rands, R.L.; Holley, G.R.

    1980-01-01

    The primary significance of compositional analysis in archaeology lies on the spatial dimension, in distinguishing products made by locally or regionally-based groups. If compositional analysis is to be carried beyond the descriptive recording of similarities and differences, the resource procurement zone (and its geographical relationship to inferred places of manufacture) is a basic operational concept (Rands and Bishop 1980). A zonal concept is clearly indicated in the case of pottery, which frequently is derived from raw materials, clay and temper, that do not necessarily coincide in their place of procurement. Moreover, depending on geomorphological and geochemical variables, these materials may show considerable homogeneity over a fairly extended area. On the other hand, unless there is strong, selective patterning in the exploitation of resources, great heterogeneity within a restricted region may result in fragmented procurement zones that are difficult to equate with the products of specific manufacturing centers. Under favorable circumstances, however, it appears that methods of compositional analysis are approaching the point at which microzones of limited geographical extent can be recognized and assigned heuristically useful boundaries.

  10. Separation of monosaccharides by solid-phase extraction with ionic liquid-modified microporous polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Minglei; Bi, Wentao; Row, Kyung H

    2011-11-01

    Ionic liquid-modified porous polymers with large surface area and large amount of functional groups were developed and used in SPE to separate four monosaccharides. Adsorption isotherm showed that the sorbent with amino ionic liquid groups had the highest interaction with the target compounds. The mobile phase of acetonitrile/water 85:15 and 73:30 v/v can successfully separate the monosaccharides. The sorbent produced reproducible results and performed stably, demonstrating its potential applicability in the separation of extract from natural plant. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Development and analysis of composite flour bread.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menon, Lakshmi; Majumdar, Swarnali Dutta; Ravi, Usha

    2015-07-01

    The study elucidates the effect of utilizing cereal-pulse-fruit seed composite flour in the development and quality analysis of leavened bread. The composite flour was prepared using refined wheat flour (WF), high protein soy flour (SF), sprouted mung bean flour (MF) and mango kernel flour (MKF). Three variations were formulated such as V-I (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 85:5:5:5), V-II (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 70:10:10:10), and V-III (WF: SF: MF: MKF = 60:14:13:13). Pertinent functional, physico-chemical and organoleptic attributes were studied in composite flour variations and their bread preparations. Physical characteristics of the bread variations revealed a percentage decrease in loaf height (14 %) and volume (25 %) and 20 % increase in loaf weight with increased substitution of composite flour. The sensory evaluation of experimental breads on a nine-point hedonic scale revealed that V-I score was 5 % higher than the standard bread. Hence, the present study highlighted the nutrient enrichment of bread on incorporation of a potential waste material mango kernel, soy and sprouted legume. Relevant statistical tests were done to analyze the significance of means for all tested parameters.

  12. Structural dynamic analysis of composite beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, J. K.; Venkatesan, C.; Ramamurti, V.

    1990-12-01

    In the treatment of the structural dynamic problem of composite materials, two alternate types of formulations, based on the elastic modulus and compliance quantities, exist in the literature. The definitions of the various rigidities are observed to differ in these two approaches. Following these two types of formulation, the structural dynamic characteristics of a composite beam are analyzed. The results of the analysis are compared with those available in the literature. Based on the comparison, the influence of the warping function in defining the coupling terms in the modulus approach and also on the natural frequencies of the beam has been identified. It is found from the analysis that, in certain cases, the difference between the results of the two approaches is appreciable. These differences may be attributed to the constraints imposed on the deformation and flexibility of the beam by the choice of the description of the warping behaviour. Finally, the influence of material properties on the structural dynamic characteristics of the beam is studied for different composites for various angles of orthotropy.

  13. Wind induced vibration analysis of composite footbridge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartosz Sobczyk

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In the work, we describe a simplified method for numerical analysis of a FRP composite footbridge in the field of wind induced vibrations. We consider a simply supported structure with a span length of 16 m and U-shape cross-section. Firstly, a two dimensional flow analysis is performed of the fixed bridge cross-section which is subjected to a lateral wind action with 10 m/s velocity. Calculations are performed using ANSYSSYSSYS FLUENT 14 software. Results of the flow analysis (Strouhal’s number are compared with the results presented in a monograph by A. Flaga, entitled Inżynieria Wiatrowa. Podstawy i zastosowania (Wind Engineering. The bases and applications (in Polish, Arkady, Warszawa, 2008, in order to validate calculations. After that, a three dimensional spatial model of the footbridge is built in ABAQUS 6.12-3 finite element method software. A modal dynamics problem is solved, where the loading conditions are adopted on the basis of the flow analysis and applied as an evenly distributed pressure on the bridge deck surface. Finally, the users’ vibration comfort criterion is checked for the considered structure.[b]Keywords[/b]: composite shell footbridge, wind flow, modal method, footbridges vibrations

  14. Centrifugal partition chromatography in a biorefinery context: Separation of monosaccharides from hydrolysed sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David P; Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Hewitson, Peter; Ignatova, Svetlana; Lye, Gary J

    2015-09-11

    A critical step in the bioprocessing of sustainable biomass feedstocks, such as sugar beet pulp (SBP), is the isolation of the component sugars from the hydrolysed polysaccharides. This facilitates their subsequent conversion into higher value chemicals and pharmaceutical intermediates. Separation methodologies such as centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) offer an alternative to traditional resin-based chromatographic techniques for multicomponent sugar separations. Highly polar two-phase systems containing ethanol and aqueous ammonium sulphate are examined here for the separation of monosaccharides present in hydrolysed SBP pectin: l-rhamnose, l-arabinose, d-galactose and d-galacturonic acid. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) was selected as an effective phase system modifier improving monosaccharide separation. The best phase system identified was ethanol:DMSO:aqueous ammonium sulphate (300gL(-1)) (0.8:0.1:1.8, v:v:v) which enabled separation of the SBP monosaccharides by CPC (200mL column) in ascending mode (upper phase as mobile phase) with a mobile phase flow rate of 8mLmin(-1). A mixture containing all four monosaccharides (1.08g total sugars) in the proportions found in hydrolysed SBP was separated into three main fractions; a pure l-rhamnose fraction (>90%), a mixed l-arabinose/d-galactose fraction and a pure d-galacturonic acid fraction (>90%). The separation took less than 2h demonstrating that CPC is a promising technique for the separation of these sugars with potential for application within an integrated, whole crop biorefinery.

  15. Comparative decomposition kinetics of neutral monosaccharides by microwave and induction heating treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubaki, Shuntaro; Oono, Kiriyo; Onda, Ayumu; Yanagisawa, Kazumichi; Azuma, Jun-ichi

    2013-06-28

    The stabilities of five neutral monosaccharides (glucose, galactose, mannose, arabinose, and xylose) were kinetically compared after the molecules were submitted to microwave heating (internal heating) and induction heating (external heating) under completely identical thermal histories by employing PID (proportional, integral, and derivative) temperature controlled ovens and homogeneous mixing. By heating in water at 200°C, the rate constants for the decomposition reactions varied from 2.13×10(-4) to 3.87×10(-4)s(-1) for microwave heating; however, the values increased by 1.1- to 1.5-fold for induction heating. Similarly, in a dilute (0.8%) sulfuric acid solution, the decomposition rate constants varied from 0.61×10(-3) to 2.00×10(-3)s(-1) for microwave heating; however, the values increased by 1.5- to 2.2-fold for induction heating. The results show that microwave heating imparts greater stability to neutral monosaccharides than does induction heating. The undesirable decomposition of monosaccharides at the surface boundary of reactor walls may have increased the probability of monosaccharide decomposition during induction heating.

  16. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, B.; van Oevelen, D.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with C-13-enriched glucose and N-15-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up

  17. Fate of microbial nitrogen, carbon, hydrolysable amino acids, monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veuger, B.; Van Oevelen, D.; Middelburg, J.J.

    2012-01-01

    The fate of microbial carbon, nitrogen, hydrolysable amino acids (HAAs), monosaccharides, and fatty acids in sediment was investigated experimentally. The microbial community of a tidal flat sediment was labeled with 13C-enriched glucose and 15N-enriched ammonium, and sediment was incubated for up t

  18. Monosaccharide-responsive phenylboronate-polyol cell scaffolds for cell sheet and tissue engineering applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachamalla Maheedhar Reddy

    Full Text Available Analyte-responsive smart polymeric materials are of great interest and have been actively investigated in the field of regenerative medicine. Phenylboronate containing copolymers form gels with polyols under alkaline conditions. Monosaccharides, by virtue of their higher affinity towards boronate, can displace polyols and solubilize such gels. In the present study, we investigate the possibility of utilizing phenylboronate-polyol interactions at physiological pH in order to develop monosaccharide-responsive degradable scaffold materials for systems dealing with cells and tissues. Amine assisted phenylboronate-polyol interactions were employed to develop novel hydrogel and cryogel scaffolds at neutral pH. The scaffolds displayed monosaccharide inducible gel-sol phase transformability. In vitro cell culture studies demonstrated the ability of scaffolds to support cell adhesion, viability and proliferation. Fructose induced gel degradation is used to recover cells cultured on the hydrogels. The cryogels displayed open macroporous structure and superior mechanical properties. These novel phase transformable phenylboronate-polyol based scaffolds displayed a great potential for various cell sheet and tissue engineering applications. Their monosaccharide responsiveness at physiological pH is very useful and can be utilized in the fields of cell immobilization, spheroid culture, saccharide recognition and analyte-responsive drug delivery.

  19. Analysis of Online Composite Mirror Descent Algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Yunwen; Zhou, Ding-Xuan

    2017-03-01

    We study the convergence of the online composite mirror descent algorithm, which involves a mirror map to reflect the geometry of the data and a convex objective function consisting of a loss and a regularizer possibly inducing sparsity. Our error analysis provides convergence rates in terms of properties of the strongly convex differentiable mirror map and the objective function. For a class of objective functions with Hölder continuous gradients, the convergence rates of the excess (regularized) risk under polynomially decaying step sizes have the order [Formula: see text] after [Formula: see text] iterates. Our results improve the existing error analysis for the online composite mirror descent algorithm by avoiding averaging and removing boundedness assumptions, and they sharpen the existing convergence rates of the last iterate for online gradient descent without any boundedness assumptions. Our methodology mainly depends on a novel error decomposition in terms of an excess Bregman distance, refined analysis of self-bounding properties of the objective function, and the resulting one-step progress bounds.

  20. Analysis of Asymmetric Piezoelectric Composite Beam

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, J -S; Wu, K -C

    2008-01-01

    This paper deals with the vibration analysis of an asymmetric composite beam composed of glass a piezoelectric material. The Bernoulli's beam theory is adopted for mechanical deformations, and the electric potential field of the piezoelectric material is assumed such that the divergence-free requirement of the electrical displacements is satisfied. The accuracy of the analytic model is assessed by comparing the resonance frequencies obtained by the analytic model with those obtained by the finite element method. The model developed can be used as a tool for designing piezoelectric actuators such as micro-pumps.

  1. Direct imaging of glycans in Arabidopsis roots via click labeling of metabolically incorporated azido-monosaccharides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogenboom, Jorin; Berghuis, Nathalja; Cramer, Dario; Geurts, Rene; Zuilhof, Han; Wennekes, Tom

    2016-10-10

    Carbohydrates, also called glycans, play a crucial but not fully understood role in plant health and development. The non-template driven formation of glycans makes it impossible to image them in vivo with genetically encoded fluorescent tags and related molecular biology approaches. A solution to this problem is the use of tailor-made glycan analogs that are metabolically incorporated by the plant into its glycans. These metabolically incorporated probes can be visualized, but techniques documented so far use toxic copper-catalyzed labeling. To further expand our knowledge of plant glycobiology by direct imaging of its glycans via this method, there is need for novel click-compatible glycan analogs for plants that can be bioorthogonally labelled via copper-free techniques. Arabidopsis seedlings were incubated with azido-containing monosaccharide analogs of N-acetylglucosamine, N-acetylgalactosamine, L-fucose, and L-arabinofuranose. These azido-monosaccharides were metabolically incorporated in plant cell wall glycans of Arabidopsis seedlings. Control experiments indicated active metabolic incorporation of the azido-monosaccharide analogs into glycans rather than through non-specific absorption of the glycan analogs onto the plant cell wall. Successful copper-free labeling reactions were performed, namely an inverse-electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition reaction using an incorporated N-acetylglucosamine analog, and a strain-promoted azide-alkyne click reaction. All evaluated azido-monosaccharide analogs were observed to be non-toxic at the used concentrations under normal growth conditions. Our results for the metabolic incorporation and fluorescent labeling of these azido-monosaccharide analogs expand the possibilities for studying plant glycans by direct imaging. Overall we successfully evaluated five azido-monosaccharide analogs for their ability to be metabolically incorporated in Arabidopsis roots and their imaging after fluorescent labeling. This expands

  2. Shear-Resistant Behavior Analysis of Light Composite Shear Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李升才; 江见鲸; 于庆荣

    2002-01-01

    Shear test results for a composite wall panel in a light composite structure system are compared with test results for shear walls in Japan in this paper. The analysis results show that this kind of composite wall panel works very well, and can be regarded as a solid panel. The composite wall panel with a hidden frame is essential for bringing its effect on shear resistance into full play. Comprehensive analysis of the shear-resistant behavior of the composite wall panel suggests that the shear of the composite shear wall panel can be controlled by the cracking strength of the web shearing diagonal crack.

  3. Analysis of composition and microstructural uniformity of hybrid glass/carbon fibre composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beauson, Justine; Markussen, Christen Malte; Madsen, Bo

    2013-01-01

    In hybrid fibre composites, the intermixing of the two types of fibres imposes challenges to obtain materials with a well-defined and uniform microstructure. In the present paper, the composition and the microstructural uniformity of hybrid glass/carbon fibre composites mixed at the fibre bundle...... fibre volume fractions are determined using volumetric calculations. A model is presented to predict the interrelation of volume fractions in hybrid fibre composites. The microstructural uniformity of the composites is analysed by the determined variation in composite volume fractions. Two analytical...... level are investigated. The different levels of compositions in the composites are defined and experimentally determined. The composite volume fractions are determined using an image analysis based procedure. The global fibre volume fractions are determined using a gravimetrical based method. The local...

  4. NMR analysis of compositional heterogeneity in polysaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many copolysaccharides are compositionally heterogeneous, and the composition determined by the usual analytical or spectroscopic methods provides only an average value. For some polysaccharides, the NMR data contain copolymer sequence information, such as diad, triad, and tetrad sequence intensiti...

  5. Effect of monosaccharides and ethyleneglycol on the interaction between Escherichia coli bacteria and Octyl-Sepharose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohman, L; Magnusson, K E; Stendahl, O

    1985-04-01

    Combined effects of monosaccharides and reduced surface tension of the medium were studied in relation to the hydrophobic binding of Escherichia coli bacteria, with and without mannose-specific structures. Hydrophobic binding was analyzed by hydrophobic interaction chromatography on Octyl-Sepharose. The results showed that ethyleneglycol, as well as mannose, reduced the hydrophobic interaction of the bacteria with mannose-specific structures. This effect was potentiated by combining ethyleneglycol and mannose. No other monosaccharides tested (galactose and fucose) had any effect on the hydrophobic interaction of bacteria with mannose-specific structures. These results further strengthen the hypothesis that the mannose-specific interaction of Escherichia coli bacteria is, at least in part, mediated by hydrophobic forces.

  6. Interaction Between Some Monosaccharides and Aspartic Acid in Dilute Aqueous Solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulikova, Galina A.

    2008-01-01

    Interaction between aspartic acid and d-glucose, d-galactose, and d-fructose has been studied by isothermal titration calorimetry, calorimetry of dissolution, and densimetry. It has been found that d-glucose and d-fructose form thermodynamically stable associates with aspartic acid, in contrast to d-galactose. The selectivity in the interaction of aspartic acid with monosaccharides is affected by their stereochemical structures. PMID:19669542

  7. Visualization of the relationship between Fischer and Haworth projections of monosaccharides by animation on a microcomputer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewart, J F; Kirby, G H; Rayner, J D

    1994-06-01

    An animation is described to assist in the visualization of the relationship between the Fischer and Haworth projections of monosaccharides. The animation helps the understanding of two quite different, commonly used representations of the same molecule. The animation runs on a 386-based PC with VGA graphics. The method for realizing such an animation on this hardware is described in detail; C code is provided in the Appendix.

  8. Safety evaluation of the human-identical milk monosaccharide, l-fucose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sharon S H; Lynch, Barry S; Baldwin, Nigel; Dakoulas, Emily W; Roy, Shambhu; Moore, Carey; Thorsrud, Bjorn A; Röhrig, Christoph H

    2015-06-01

    l-Fucose is a natural monosaccharide present in mammals where it is found predominantly as an O-glycosidically linked component of glycoproteins, glycolipids, and oligosaccharides. It is also present in its free form in human breast milk (human milk monosaccharide). l-Fucose plays important roles in the development of the immune and nervous systems and is involved in cognitive function and memory formation. The human-identical milk monosaccharide l-fucose is therefore proposed for use in infant formulas to better simulate the free saccharides present in human breast milk. As part of the safety evaluation of l-fucose, a subchronic dietary toxicity study preceded by an in utero phase was conducted in Sprague-Dawley rats. l-Fucose was without maternal toxicity or compound-related adverse effects on female reproduction and general growth and development of offspring at a maternal dietary level up to 1%, equivalent to a dose of 1655 mg/kg body weight (bw)/day. During the subchronic phase, no compound-related adverse effects were observed in first generation rats at dietary levels of up to 1% (highest level tested), corresponding to doses of 516 and 665 mg/kg bw/day in males and females, respectively. l-Fucose was non-genotoxic in a series of in vitro genotoxicity/mutagenicity tests. These results support the safe use of l-fucose in infant formula and as a food ingredient at levels equivalent to those present in human breast milk.

  9. Buckling analysis of composite cylindrical shell using numerical analysis method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Hae Young; Bae, Won Byung [Pusan Nat' l Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jong Rae [Korea Maritime Univ., Busan (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Woo Hyung [Underwater Vehicle Research Center, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-01-15

    The objective of this paper is to predict the buckling pressure of a composite cylindrical shell using buckling formulas (ASME 2007, NASA SP 8007) and finite element analysis. The model in this study uses a stacking angle of [0/90]12t and USN 125 composite material. All specimens were made using a prepreg method. First, finite element analysis was conducted, and the results were verified through comparison with the hydrostatic pressure bucking experiment results. Second, the values obtained from the buckling formula and the buckling pressure values obtained from the finite element analysis were compared as the stacking angle was changed in 5 .deg. increments from 20 .deg. to 90 .deg. The linear and nonlinear results of the finite element analysis were consistent with the results of the experiment, with a safety factor of 0.85-1. Based on the above result, the ASME 2007 formula, a simplified version of the NASA SP 8007 formula, is regarded as a buckling formula that provides a reliable safety factor.

  10. A Sensitive Derivatization Method for the Determination of the Sugar Composition after Pre-column Reductive Amination with 3-Amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) by High-Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG, Ying; HUANG, Lin-Juan; WANG, Zhong-Fu

    2007-01-01

    3-Amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) was employed for monosaccharide derivatization. The derivatives can be analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with an ultraviolet detection (wavelength: 254 nm).Monosaccharides were quantitatively derivatized with 3-amino-9-ethylcarbazole (AEC) at 70 ℃ for 60 min. The method was linear for all samples over the concentration range tested (r>0.999), the precision was found to be satisfactory (R.S.D.<3%), and the recovery ratios were >98.62%. The stability analysis showed R.S.D. Was between 1.81%-3.16%. Detection limits for the samples (D-glucose, L-xylose, D-mannose, L-arabinose, and L-rhamnose)ranged from 0.06 to 1.97 ng/mL (S/N=3). Under the optimized derivatization and HPLC conditions, five monosaccharides were well separated using a narrow bore C18 column (250 mm× 4.6 mm) with 0.1 mol/L ammonium acetate containing 25% acetonitrile at a flow rate of 0.5 mL/min. As an application, the method has been successfully applied to the determination of monosaccharide compositions of three polysaccharides SPPA-1, SPPB-1 and SPPC- 1 of Spirulina platensis. This method also has potential application to oligosaccharide or glycan analyses.

  11. Release Data Package for the 2004 Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert G.; Lopresti, Charles A.

    2004-08-02

    This data package contains all the key parameter data necessary for implementation of the Release Module to conduct the 2004 Composite Analysis. A composite analysis is required by DOE Order 435.1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with Hanford.

  12. Statistical analysis and interpolation of compositional data in materials science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesenson, Misha Z; Suram, Santosh K; Gregoire, John M

    2015-02-01

    Compositional data are ubiquitous in chemistry and materials science: analysis of elements in multicomponent systems, combinatorial problems, etc., lead to data that are non-negative and sum to a constant (for example, atomic concentrations). The constant sum constraint restricts the sampling space to a simplex instead of the usual Euclidean space. Since statistical measures such as mean and standard deviation are defined for the Euclidean space, traditional correlation studies, multivariate analysis, and hypothesis testing may lead to erroneous dependencies and incorrect inferences when applied to compositional data. Furthermore, composition measurements that are used for data analytics may not include all of the elements contained in the material; that is, the measurements may be subcompositions of a higher-dimensional parent composition. Physically meaningful statistical analysis must yield results that are invariant under the number of composition elements, requiring the application of specialized statistical tools. We present specifics and subtleties of compositional data processing through discussion of illustrative examples. We introduce basic concepts, terminology, and methods required for the analysis of compositional data and utilize them for the spatial interpolation of composition in a sputtered thin film. The results demonstrate the importance of this mathematical framework for compositional data analysis (CDA) in the fields of materials science and chemistry.

  13. Micromechanics-BEM Analysis for Piezoelectric Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIN Qinghua

    2005-01-01

    The effective material properties of piezoelectric composites are predicted using micromechanics models of the composite structure combined with a boundary element method (BEM) solution of the governing equation. The composites consist of inclusion and matrix phases. The micromechanics method gives formulae for the overall material constants as functions of the concentration matrix, while the boundary element simulation gives numerical solutions of the boundary displacement and electric potential equations for inclusion or hole problems. Numerical results for a piezoelectric plate with circular inclusions are presented to illustrate applications of the proposed micromechanics-BEM formulation.

  14. Compositional data analysis of household waste recycling centres in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, J. A.; Boldrin, Alessio

    of these projects on the recycling rates does not exist. Thus, compositional data analysis technique was applied to analyze consistently waste data. Based on the waste composition obtained from a recycling center in Denmark, we analyzed the composition of waste treatment and disposal options. Zero and non......-zero pattern was used to describe historical changes in the definition and components of waste fractions. Variation array was applied to determine the relationship between waste treatment and disposal options. As a result, compositional data analysis technique enables to analyze waste data regardless...

  15. Compositional Safety Analysis using Barrier Certificates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sloth, Christoffer; Pappas, George J.; Wisniewski, Rafael

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a compositional method for verifying the safety of a dynamical system, given as an interconnection of subsystems. The safety verification is conducted by the use of the barrier certificate method; hence, the contribution of this paper is to show how to obtain compositional...... conditions for safety verification. We show how to formulate the verification problem, as a composition of coupled subproblems, each given for one subsystem. Furthermore, we show how to find the compositional barrier certificates via linear and sum of squares programming problems. The proposed method makes...... it possible to verify the safety of higher dimensional systems, than the method for centrally computed barrier certificates. This is demonstrated by verifying the safety of an emergency shutdown of a wind turbine....

  16. Acoustic emission analysis of tooth-composite interfacial debonding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, N Y; Ferracane, J L; Lee, I B

    2013-01-01

    This study detected tooth-composite interfacial debonding during composite restoration by means of acoustic emission (AE) analysis and investigated the effects of composite properties and adhesives on AE characteristics. The polymerization shrinkage, peak shrinkage rate, flexural modulus, and shrinkage stress of a methacrylate-based universal hybrid, a flowable, and a silorane-based composite were measured. Class I cavities on 49 extracted premolars were restored with 1 of the 3 composites and 1 of the following adhesives: 2 etch-and-rinse adhesives, 2 self-etch adhesives, and an adhesive for the silorane-based composite. AE analysis was done for 2,000 sec during light-curing. The silorane-based composite exhibited the lowest shrinkage (rate), the longest time to peak shrinkage rate, the lowest shrinkage stress, and the fewest AE events. AE events were detected immediately after the beginning of light-curing in most composite-adhesive combinations, but not until 40 sec after light-curing began for the silorane-based composite. AE events were concentrated at the initial stage of curing in self-etch adhesives compared with etch-and-rinse adhesives. Reducing the shrinkage (rate) of composites resulted in reduced shrinkage stress and less debonding, as evidenced by fewer AE events. AE is an effective technique for monitoring, in real time, the debonding kinetics at the tooth-composite interface.

  17. Dual Roles of O-Glucose Glycans Redundant with Monosaccharide O-Fucose on Notch in Notch Trafficking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2016-06-24

    Notch is a transmembrane receptor that mediates cell-cell interactions and controls various cell-fate specifications in metazoans. The extracellular domain of Notch contains multiple epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like repeats. At least five different glycans are found in distinct sites within these EGF-like repeats. The function of these individual glycans in Notch signaling has been investigated, primarily by disrupting their individual glycosyltransferases. However, we are just beginning to understand the potential functional interactions between these glycans. Monosaccharide O-fucose and O-glucose trisaccharide (O-glucose-xylose-xylose) are added to many of the Notch EGF-like repeats. In Drosophila, Shams adds a xylose specifically to the monosaccharide O-glucose. We found that loss of the terminal dixylose of O-glucose-linked saccharides had little effect on Notch signaling. However, our analyses of double mutants of shams and other genes required for glycan modifications revealed that both the monosaccharide O-glucose and the terminal dixylose of O-glucose-linked saccharides function redundantly with the monosaccharide O-fucose in Notch activation and trafficking. The terminal dixylose of O-glucose-linked saccharides and the monosaccharide O-glucose were required in distinct Notch trafficking processes: Notch transport from the apical plasma membrane to adherens junctions, and Notch export from the endoplasmic reticulum, respectively. Therefore, the monosaccharide O-glucose and terminal dixylose of O-glucose-linked saccharides have distinct activities in Notch trafficking, although a loss of these activities is compensated for by the presence of monosaccharide O-fucose. Given that various glycans attached to a protein motif may have redundant functions, our results suggest that these potential redundancies may lead to a serious underestimation of glycan functions.

  18. Stochastic analysis of laminated composite plate considering stochastic homogenization problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    S. SAKATA; K. OKUDA; K. IKEDA

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses a multiscale stochastic analysis of a laminated composite plate consisting of unidirectional fiber reinforced composite laminae. In particular, influence of a microscopic random variation of the elastic properties of component materials on mechanical properties of the laminated plate is investigated. Laminated composites are widely used in civil engineering, and therefore multiscale stochastic analysis of laminated composites should be performed for reliability evaluation of a composite civil structure. This study deals with the stochastic response of a laminated composite plate against the microscopic random variation in addition to a random variation of fiber orientation in each lamina, and stochastic properties of the mechanical responses of the laminated plate is investigated. Halpin-Tsai formula and the homogenization theory-based finite element analysis are employed for estimation of effective elastic properties of lamina, and the classical laminate theory is employed for analysis of a laminated plate. The Monte-Carlo simulation and the first-order second moment method with sensitivity analysis are employed for the stochastic analysis. From the numerical results, importance of the multiscale stochastic analysis for reliability evaluation of a laminated composite structure and applicability of the sensitivity-based approach are discussed.

  19. Preparation and Characterization Analysis of Hydroxyapatite/Gelatin Composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The hydroxyapatite (HAp)/gelatin composite was prepared by self-assembly method. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the inorganic phase in the composite was HAp. The Fourier transform infra-red spectrum(FT-IR) indicated the presence of amide and hydroxyl groups in the composite. The organic-inorganic ratio of the composite is similar to that of the human bone, which was determined by differential thermal analysis ( DTA )and thermogravimetric analysis ( TGA ). Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) showed that the composite is composed by spindly grains and the multilayer nanostructure can also be seen. Gelatin in the composite assembled orderly and directionally ; and the HAp crystals grew along the gelatin molecule at nearly the same direction. A model was established to explain the process of the interaction between gelatin and HAp.

  20. Compositional data analysis of household food waste in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edjabou, Vincent Maklawe Essonanawe; Pivnenko, Kostyantyn; Petersen, Claus

    waste. Although, food waste composition carries relative information, no attempt was made to analysis food waste composition as compositional data. Thus the relationship between food waste fractions has been analysed by mean of Pearson correlation test and log-ratio analysis. The food waste data...... amount of discarded edible food waste by 2020 within the European Union (EU) Member States. Reliable data on food waste and a better understanding of the food waste generation patterns are crucial for planning the avoidable food waste reduction and an environmental sound treatment of unavoidable food...... household per week), (b) percentage composition of food waste based on the total food waste, and (c) percentage composition of food waste based on the total residual household waste. The Pearson correlation test showed different results when different datasets are used, whereas the log-ratio analysis showed...

  1. An Analysis on Errors in University Students' Compositions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    呼媛玲

    2011-01-01

    Based on some research and collections of students' English compositions, the thesis mainly clarifies errors in students' compositions into different types. Then, it makes an analysis of the causes through many examples in detail. In the conclusion part the thesis tries to find the solutions to improve Chinese learners' writing ability and foreign language teaching.

  2. Maximum entropy analysis of cosmic ray composition

    CERN Document Server

    Nosek, Dalibor; Vícha, Jakub; Trávníček, Petr; Nosková, Jana

    2016-01-01

    We focus on the primary composition of cosmic rays with the highest energies that cause extensive air showers in the Earth's atmosphere. A way of examining the two lowest order moments of the sample distribution of the depth of shower maximum is presented. The aim is to show that useful information about the composition of the primary beam can be inferred with limited knowledge we have about processes underlying these observations. In order to describe how the moments of the depth of shower maximum depend on the type of primary particles and their energies, we utilize a superposition model. Using the principle of maximum entropy, we are able to determine what trends in the primary composition are consistent with the input data, while relying on a limited amount of information from shower physics. Some capabilities and limitations of the proposed method are discussed. In order to achieve a realistic description of the primary mass composition, we pay special attention to the choice of the parameters of the sup...

  3. Failure Analysis of Composite Structure Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-05-01

    8MATERIAL STRUCTURES DISCONTINUITY T•R PLY DROPOFF i 7ARC LAP/GAP . PRPAATION A, ,OM LY , 1e, ’ •INS ERVICE MAINTENANCE DAMAGE SVv , S IMPACT \\\\ CHESIE ...composite joints such as box beam members, for example, are difficult to inspect by ultrasonic techniques, and the X-ray attenuation coefficients of

  4. Simple column-switching ion chromatography method for determining eight monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Chengzhu; Zhu, Binhe; Wang, Nani; Wang, Muhua; Chen, Suqing; Zhang, Jiajie; Zhu, Yan

    2016-03-01

    Honeydew is excreted by aphids as a sweet waste and nectar is floral honey. Honeydew and nectar are complicated samples which consist of various sugars and amino acids. In this work, a simple ion chromatography with column-switching method was developed for the simultaneous analysis of 8 monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in honeydew and nectar. A reversed-phase column was used as a pretreatment column to eliminate organics on-line and sugars were eluted from a collection loop to analytical column by using column-switching technique. This method showed good linearity (r⩾0.9994) and afforded low limits of detection ranging from 1.55 to 10.17μgL(-1) for all the analytes. Recoveries ranged from 95% to 105% and repeatability results were acceptable with relative standard deviation of less than 3.21% (n=6). This method was successfully applied to quantification of these sugars in honeydew and nectar. These results showed honeydew had much more oligosaccharides than nectar.

  5. Compositional analysis of Gothic architecture in Europe and Ukraine

    OpenAIRE

    Hots, Anna; Rudenko, Leonila

    2013-01-01

    The article carried the compositional analysis of Gothic architecture in Europe, namely France, Italy and Germany. The authors investigated and compared patterns in proportions for example Ukrainian gothic cathedral and churches of Western Europe.

  6. A New Method To Convert the Fischer Projection of a Monosaccharide to the Haworth Projection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qing-Zhi; Zhang, Shen-Song

    1999-06-01

    This method is based upon the R,S-configuration designation of each asymmetric carbon of a monosaccharide. According to the rule of configurational retention of each original asymmetric carbon, the Fischer projection of a monosaccharide can be converted into different views of the Haworth projection (the carbon-numbering orientation of the Haworth ring can be in either a clockwise or a counterclockwise direction, and the oxygen atom can be written at any corner of the ring). The D,L-configuration of a sugar in Haworth projection can be directly determined by designating the R,S-configuration of the highest-numbered asymmetric carbon; that is, the most distant carbon from the anomeric carbon. The R-configuration at this carbon corresponds to the D-family, and S- to the L-family. By comparing the stereochemistry of the anomeric carbon with that of the highest-numbered asymmetric carbon, the a, b-anomer of a Haworth projection is directly notated. If these two carbons have the same configuration (R,R or S,S), the anomer is b; if different (R,S or S,R), the anomer is a. This method proves to be general and widely applicable.

  7. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites (strip hybrids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics were applied to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends to illustrate the use of these methods for the a priori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-glass random composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  8. Analysis/design of strip reinforced random composites /strip hybrids/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1978-01-01

    Results are described which were obtained by applying advanced analysis methods and composite mechanics to a strip-reinforced random composite square panel with fixed ends. This was done in order to illustrate the use of these methods for the apriori assessment of the composite panel when subjected to complex loading conditions. The panel was assumed to be of E-Glass/Random Composite. The strips were assumed to be of three advanced unidirectional composites to cover a range of low, intermediate, and high modulus stiffness. The panels were assumed to be subjected to complex loadings to assess their adequacy as load-carrying members in auto body, aircraft engine nacelle, and windmill blade applications. The results show that strip hybrid panels can be several times more structurally efficient than the random composite base materials. Some of the results are presented in graphical form and procedures are described for use of these graphs as guides for preliminary design of strip hybrids.

  9. Static Analysis of Functionally Graded Composite Beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, S.; Sarangi, S. K.

    2016-09-01

    This paper presents a study of functionally graded (FG) composite beam. The FG material for the beam is considered to be composed of different layers of homogeneous material. The fiber volume fraction corresponding to each layer is calculated by considering its variation along the thickness direction (z) according to a power law. Accordingly, the effective properties of the homogeneous layers are estimated and a beam composed of this FG material is modelled using the commercially available ANSYS software. The solid 186 layered structural solid element has been used for discretization of the model of the FG beam. The model developed is validated by comparing the results with those numerical results available in literature. Results are presented for simply supported and fixed boundary conditions for the FG beam. The stress distribution across the thickness of the FG composite beam has also been analyzed.

  10. A LOWER BOUND LIMIT ANALYSIS OF DUCTILE COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Hongtao; Liu Yinghua; Xu Bingye

    2005-01-01

    The plastic load-bearing capacity of ductile composites such as metal matrix composites is studied with an insight into the microstructures. The macroscopic strength of a composite is obtained by combining the homogenization theory with static limit analysis, where the temperature parameter method is used to construct the self-equilibrium stress field. An interface failure model is proposed to account for the effects of the interface on the failure of composites.The static limit analysis with the finite-element method is then formulated as a constrained nonlinear programming problem, which is solved by the Sequential Quadratic Programming (SQP)method. Finally, the macroscopic transverse strength of perforated materials, the macroscopic transverse and off-axis strength of fiber-reinforced composites are obtained through numerical calculation. The computational results are in good agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Buckling analysis of a ring stiffened hybrid composite cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potluri, Rakesh; Eswara Kumar, A.; Navuri, Karteek; Nagaraju, M.; Mojeswara Rao, Duduku

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to understand the response of the ring stiffened cylinders made up of hybrid composites subjected to buckling loads by using the concepts of Design of Experiments (DOE) and optimization by using Finite Element Method (FEM) simulation software Ansys workbench V15. Carbon epoxy and E-glass epoxy composites were used in the hybrid composite. This hybrid composite was analyzed by using different layup angles. Central composite design (CCD) was used to perform design of experiments (D.O.E) and kriging method was used to generate a response surface. The response surface optimization (RSO) was performed by using the method of the multi-objective genetic algorithm (MOGA). After optimization, the best candidate was chosen and applied to the ring stiffened cylinder and eigenvalue buckling analysis was performed to understand the buckling behavior. Best laminate candidates with high buckling strength have been identified. A generalized procedure of the laminate optimization and analysis have been shown.

  12. 6th International Workshop on Compositional Data Analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Thió-Henestrosa, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    The authoritative contributions gathered in this volume reflect the state of the art in compositional data analysis (CoDa). The respective chapters cover all aspects of CoDa, ranging from mathematical theory, statistical methods and techniques to its broad range of applications in geochemistry, the life sciences and other disciplines. The selected and peer-reviewed papers were originally presented at the 6th International Workshop on Compositional Data Analysis, CoDaWork 2015, held in L’Escala (Girona), Spain. Compositional data is defined as vectors of positive components and constant sum, and, more generally, all those vectors representing parts of a whole which only carry relative information. Examples of compositional data can be found in many different fields such as geology, chemistry, economics, medicine, ecology and sociology. As most of the classical statistical techniques are incoherent on compositions, in the 1980s John Aitchison proposed the log-ratio approach to CoDa. This became the foundation...

  13. Design, Static Analysis And Fabrication Of Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathiselvan, G.; Gobinath, R.; Yuvaraja, S.; Raja, T.

    2017-05-01

    The Bonded joints will be having one of the important issues in the composite technology is the repairing of aging in aircraft applications. In these applications and also for joining various composite material parts together, the composite materials fastened together either using adhesives or mechanical fasteners. In this paper, we have carried out design, static analysis of 3-D models and fabrication of the composite joints (bonded, riveted and hybrid). The 3-D model of the composite structure will be fabricated by using the materials such as epoxy resin, glass fibre material and aluminium rivet for preparing the joints. The static analysis was carried out with different joint by using ANSYS software. After fabrication, parametric study was also conducted to compare the performance of the hybrid joint with varying adherent width, adhesive thickness and overlap length. Different joint and its materials tensile test result have compared.

  14. Design and analysis of reinforced fiber composites

    CERN Document Server

    Yamagata, Nobuki

    2016-01-01

    The papers in this volume present a broad range of applications for reinforced fiber composites - from thin shell structures to tires. Linear and nonlinear structural behavior (from linear buckling to nonlinear yelding and fracture) are discussed as well as different materials are presented. Latest developments in computational methods for constructíons are presented which will help to save money and time. This is an edited collection of papers presented at a symposium at the WCCM, Barcelona, 2014.

  15. Progressive Failure Analysis of Advanced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-07-25

    NASA – Langley Research Center 1 Joan Andreu Mayugo University of Girona 1 2 Contents 1 Introduction 11 2 UVARM subroutine 13 2.1 Overview...32] Turon A, Camanho PP, Costa J, Dávila CG. A damage model for the simulation of delamination in advanced composites under variable- mode loading...conference, New York, 1960. p. 63–78. [34] Turon A, Dávila CG, Camanho PP, Costa J. An engineering solution for using coarse meshes in the

  16. Separation of phenolic acids from monosaccharides by low-pressure nanofiltration integrated with laccase pre-treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Jianquan; Zeuner, Birgitte; Morthensen, Sofie Thage

    2015-01-01

    monosaccharides (xylose, arabinose, glucose). Four commercial NF membranes (NF270, NP030, NTR7450 and NP010) were evaluated at different pH values and with various laccase pre-treatments (for polymerization of phenolic acids). The results showed that with increasing pH, the retentions of phenolic acids by NF...... increased, reaching 86–88% for NTR7450 and 90–94% for NF270 at pH 9.55. The retentions of monosaccharides kept almost constant (pH but significantly increased at pH 9.55 for the NF270 membrane due to enhancement of solute interactions. Phenolic acids...... could be polymerized by laccase and then completely retained by the NF membranes via size exclusion at pH 5.15. The formation of large polymeric products by laccase could alleviate the irreversible fouling in/on a NF membrane and decrease the monosaccharide retention, while the small polymeric products...

  17. Transient pressure analysis in composite reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tang, R.W.K.; Brigham, W.E.

    1982-08-01

    The problem of fluid flow in a radially composite reservoir is discussed. Recently published was the most general analytic solution available thus far. That analytic solution is analyzed, and the results are presented. The solution is dependent upon the following dimensionless parameters (if well-bore storage and skin effect are neglected): (1) dimensionless time based on the discontinuity radius, (2) the dimensionless discontinuity radius, (3) the mobility ratio, and (4) the diffusivity ratio. The range of parameters used in generating the results include dimensionless radius time of 0.01 t

  18. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. K. JADHAO,

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011 can be used which was more economical this will reduce total cost of composite leaf spring. A spring with constant width and thickness was fabricated by hand lay-up technique which was very simple and economical. The experiments were conducted on UTM and numerical analysis was done via (FEA using ANSYS software. Stresses and deflection results were verified for analytical and experimental results. Result shows that, the composite spring has stresses much lower than steel leaf spring and weight of composite spring was nearly reduced up to 85%.

  19. Reliability analysis of ceramic matrix composite laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, David J.; Wetherhold, Robert C.

    1991-01-01

    At a macroscopic level, a composite lamina may be considered as a homogeneous orthotropic solid whose directional strengths are random variables. Incorporation of these random variable strengths into failure models, either interactive or non-interactive, allows for the evaluation of the lamina reliability under a given stress state. Using a non-interactive criterion for demonstration purposes, laminate reliabilities are calculated assuming previously established load sharing rules for the redistribution of load as the failure of laminae occur. The matrix cracking predicted by ACK theory is modeled to allow a loss of stiffness in the fiber direction. The subsequent failure in the fiber direction is controlled by a modified bundle theory. Results using this modified bundle model are compared with previous models which did not permit separate consideration of matrix cracking, as well as to results obtained from experimental data.

  20. Analysis of scorpion venom composition by Raman Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Zérega, Brenda E.; González-Solís, José L.

    2015-01-01

    In this work we study the venom of two Centruroides scorpion species using Raman spectroscopy. The spectra analysis allows to determine the venoms chemical composition and to establish the main differences and similarities among the species. It is also shown that the use of Principal Component Analysis may help to tell apart between the scorpion species.

  1. Stiffness analysis of the sarafix external fixator of composite materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Pervan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a structural analysis of the CAD model three versions fixators Sarafix which to explore the possibility of introducing composite materials in the construction of the connecting rod fixators comparing values of displacement and stiffness at characteristic points structure. Namely, we investigated constructional performance of fixators Sarafix with a connecting rod formed from three different composite materials, the same matrix (epoxy resin with three different types of fibers (E glass, kevlar 49 and carbon M55J. Results of structural analysis fixators Sarafix with a connecting rod made of composite materials are compared with the results of tubular connecting rod fixators made of stainless steel. After comparing the results, from the aspect of stiffness, we gave the final considerations about composite material which provides an adequate substitution for the existing material.

  2. Rate Dependent Deformation and Strength Analysis of Polymer Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldberg, Robert K.; Stouffer, Donald C.

    1999-01-01

    A research program is being undertaken to develop rate dependent deformation and failure models for the analysis of polymer matrix composite materials. In previous work in this program, strain-rate dependent inelastic constitutive equations used to analyze polymers have been implemented into a mechanics of materials based composite micromechanics method. In the current work, modifications to the micromechanics model have been implemented to improve the calculation of the effective inelastic strain. Additionally, modifications to the polymer constitutive model are discussed in which pressure dependence is incorporated into the equations in order to improve the calculation of constituent and composite shear stresses. The Hashin failure criterion is implemented into the analysis method to allow for the calculation of ply level failure stresses. The deformation response and failure stresses for two representative uniaxial polymer matrix composites, IM7/977-2 and AS4-PEEK, are predicted for varying strain rates and fiber orientations. The predicted results compare favorably to experimentally obtained values.

  3. Analysis of high velocity impact on hybrid composite fan blades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamis, C. C.; Sinclair, J. H.

    1979-01-01

    This paper describes recent developments in the analysis of high velocity impact of composite blades using a computerized capability which consists of coupling a composites mechanics code with the direct-time integration features of NASTRAN. The application of the capability to determine the linear dynamic response of an intraply hybrid composite aircraft engine fan blade is described in detail. The predicted results agree with measured data. The results also show that the impact stresses reach sufficiently high magnitudes to cause failures in the impact region at early times of the impact event.

  4. Viscoelasticity of Axisymmetric Composite Structures: Analysis and Experimental Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    are currently used for lightweight pressure vessels and highly efficient rotors for energy storage . For both applications, pre-stresses are built in...analysis can be applied to composite pressure vessels, gun barrels, and flywheels . 15. SUBJECT TERMS viscoelasticity, creep, composite, gun barrel... flywheel 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT UU 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 28 19a. NAME OF RESPONSIBLE PERSON Jerome T

  5. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    OpenAIRE

    Ranjeet Mithari; Amar Patil; Prof. E. N. Aitavade

    2012-01-01

    Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy) leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite materi...

  6. A Numerical Model for Torsion Analysis of Composite Ship Hulls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionel Chirica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new methodology based on a macroelement model proposed for torsional behaviour of the ship hull made of composite material is proposed in this paper. A computer program has been developed for the elastic analysis of linear torsion. The results are compared with the FEM-based licensed soft COSMOS/M results and measurements on the scale simplified model of a container ship, made of composite materials.

  7. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croitoru, Catalin [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Patachia, Silvia, E-mail: st.patachia@unitbv.ro [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Papancea, Adina [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Product Design Environment and Mechatronics Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania); Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea [“Transilvania” University of Brasov, Materials Engineering and Welding Department, Eroilor 29 Str., 500036 Brasov (Romania)

    2015-12-15

    Highlights: • Glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites surface analysis by photographic method. • The composites are submitted to accelerated ageing by UV irradiation at 254 nm. • The UV irradiation promotes differences in the surface chemistry of the composites. • MB dye is differently adsorbed on surfaces with different degradation degrees. • Good correlation between the colouring degree and surface chemistry. - Abstract: The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  8. Fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) and nonallergic food intolerance: FODMAPs or food chemicals?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Jacqueline S; Gibson, Peter R

    2012-07-01

    Food intolerance in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is increasingly being recognized, with patients convinced that diet plays a role in symptom induction. Evidence is building to implicate fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPs) in the onset of abdominal pain, bloating, wind and altered bowel habit through their fermentation and osmotic effects. Hypersensitivity to normal levels of luminal distension is known to occur in patients with IBS, with consideration of food chemical intolerance likely to answer many questions about this physiological process. This paper summarizes the evidence and application of the most common approaches to managing food intolerance in IBS: the low-FODMAP diet, the elimination diet for food chemical sensitivity and others including possible noncoeliac gluten intolerance.

  9. Fluorene-based boronic acids as fluorescent chemosensor for monosaccharides at physiological pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hosseinzadeh, Rahman; Mohadjerani, Maryam; Pooryousef, Mona

    2015-08-01

    Two fluorene-based boronic acids, 9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2-yl-2-boronic acid (1) and 9,9-dimethyl-9H-fluoren-2,7-diyl-2,7-diboronic acid (2), were synthesized and their sensing abilities for detection of D-monosaccharides were investigated by fluorescence at physiological pH. It was found that both boronic acids 1 and 2 have high selectivity and sensitivity for D-fructose with stability constant of 47.2 and 412.9, respectively. The sensor 2 showed a linear response toward D-fructose in the concentration range from 5 × 10(-5) to 10(-1) mol L(-1) with the detection limit of 2 × 10(-5) mol L(-1). Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Chemical composition analysis and authentication of whisky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiśniewska, Paulina; Dymerski, Tomasz; Wardencki, Waldemar; Namieśnik, Jacek

    2015-08-30

    Whisky (whiskey) is one of the most popular spirit-based drinks made from malted or saccharified grains, which should mature for at least 3 years in wooden barrels. High popularity of products usually causes a potential risk of adulteration. Thus authenticity assessment is one of the key elements of food product marketing. Authentication of whisky is based on comparing the composition of this alcohol with other spirit drinks. The present review summarizes all information about the comparison of whisky and other alcoholic beverages, the identification of type of whisky or the assessment of its quality and finally the authentication of whisky. The article also presents the various techniques used for analyzing whisky, such as gas and liquid chromatography with different types of detectors (FID, AED, UV-Vis), electronic nose, atomic absorption spectroscopy and mass spectrometry. In some cases the application of chemometric methods is also described, namely PCA, DFA, LDA, ANOVA, SIMCA, PNN, k-NN and CA, as well as preparation techniques such SPME or SPE.

  11. Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leone, Frank A., Jr.; Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.

    2012-01-01

    The present work is related to the development and application of progressive damage modeling techniques to bonded joint technology. The joint designs studied in this work include a conventional composite splice joint and a NASA-patented durable redundant joint. Both designs involve honeycomb sandwich structures with carbon/epoxy facesheets joined using adhesively bonded doublers.Progressive damage modeling allows for the prediction of the initiation and evolution of damage within a structure. For structures that include multiple material systems, such as the joint designs under consideration, the number of potential failure mechanisms that must be accounted for drastically increases the complexity of the analyses. Potential failure mechanisms include fiber fracture, intraply matrix cracking, delamination, core crushing, adhesive failure, and their interactions. The bonded joints were modeled using highly parametric, explicitly solved finite element models, with damage modeling implemented via custom user-written subroutines. Each ply was discretely meshed using three-dimensional solid elements. Layers of cohesive elements were included between each ply to account for the possibility of delaminations and were used to model the adhesive layers forming the joint. Good correlation with experimental results was achieved both in terms of load-displacement history and the predicted failure mechanism(s).

  12. Thermomechanical analysis of a composite grating

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cid, Jose [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Centro de Pesquisas; Araujo, Marcia [PETROBRAS, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); DeJoode, Alex; Abd, Imad [Reverse Engineering Ltd, Didsbury, Manchester (United Kingdom)

    2000-07-01

    The aim of the work carried out was to assess the structural performance of polymer composite gratings during a fire. The gratings are made from Fibre Reinforced Plastic (GRP) and are proposed for use as walkways on offshore platforms. During a fire, the gratings are subjected to high temperatures which reduce their structural performance. A numerical model based on experimental results, as well as data published in the literature was developed. The investigation focused on assessing the grating load capacity to carry a fire-fighter and fire-fighting equipment during a fire situation. It was assumed that 120 deg C would be the highest practical temperature for a fire-fighter to attack a fire. Subsequently, the grating performance was investigated for a range of temperatures from ambient to 120 deg C with the temperatures 60, 90 and 120 deg C representing the key targets for lower middle and upper limits. The requirements to assess the mechanical performance of the grating at the local level and global levels necessitated the need to develop a numerical technique to enhance the conventional functionality of the finite element code. The developed material model and the associated numerical technique produced a sophisticated numerical tool capable of assessing the structural response of the gratings at elevated temperatures up to 120 deg C. The comparison between the numerical results and the measured data illustrates robustness of the developed numerical tools, although certain predictions showed relatively poorer agreement than anticipated. (author)

  13. Analysis of multifrequency langevin composite ultrasonic transducers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Shuyu

    2009-09-01

    The multimode coupled vibration of Langevin composite ultrasonic transducers with conical metal mass of large cross-section is analyzed. The coupled resonance and anti-resonance frequency equations are derived and the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is analyzed. The effect of the geometrical dimensions on the resonance frequency, the anti-resonance frequency, and the effective electromechanical coupling coefficient is studied. It is illustrated that when the radial dimension is large compared with the longitudinal dimension, the vibration of the Langevin transducer becomes a multifrequency multimode coupled vibration. Numerical methods are used to simulate the coupled vibration; the simulated results are in good agreement with those from the analytical results. Some Langevin transducers of large cross-section are designed and manufactured and their resonance frequencies are measured. It can be seen that the resonance frequencies obtained from the coupled resonance frequency equations are in good agreement with the measured results. It is expected that by properly choosing the dimensions, multifrequency Langevin transducers can be designed and used in ultrasonic cleaning, ultrasonic sonochemistry, and other applications.

  14. Substituting missing data in compositional analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Real, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.real@usc.es [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Escuela Politecnica Superior, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 27002 Lugo (Spain); Angel Fernandez, J.; Aboal, Jesus R.; Carballeira, Alejo [Area de Ecologia, Departamento de Biologia Celular y Ecologia, Facultad de Biologia, Universidad de Santiago de Compostela, 15782 Santiago de Compostela (Spain)

    2011-10-15

    Multivariate analysis of environmental data sets requires the absence of missing values or their substitution by small values. However, if the data is transformed logarithmically prior to the analysis, this solution cannot be applied because the logarithm of a small value might become an outlier. Several methods for substituting the missing values can be found in the literature although none of them guarantees that no distortion of the structure of the data set is produced. We propose a method for the assessment of these distortions which can be used for deciding whether to retain or not the samples or variables containing missing values and for the investigation of the performance of different substitution techniques. The method analyzes the structure of the distances among samples using Mantel tests. We present an application of the method to PCDD/F data measured in samples of terrestrial moss as part of a biomonitoring study. - Highlights: > Missing values in multivariate data sets must be substituted prior to analysis. > The substituted values can modify the structure of the data set. > We developed a method to estimate the magnitude of the alterations. > The method is simple and based on the Mantel test. > The method allowed the identification of problematic variables in a sample data set. - A method is presented for the assessment of the possible distortions in multivariate analysis caused by the substitution of missing values.

  15. Compositional Analysis for Linear Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of physical and engineering systems, both in terms of the governing physical phenomena and the number of subprocesses involved, is mirrored in ever more complex mathematical models. While the demand for precise models is indisputable, the analysis of such system models remains

  16. Compositional Analysis for Linear Control Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerber, Florian; Schaft, Arjan van der

    2010-01-01

    The complexity of physical and engineering systems, both in terms of the governing physical phenomena and the number of subprocesses involved, is mirrored in ever more complex mathematical models. While the demand for precise models is indisputable, the analysis of such system models remains challen

  17. Composition heterogeneity analysis for DUPIC fuel(I) - Statistical analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Hang Bok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-08-01

    The fuel composition heterogeneity effect on reactor performance parameters was assessed by refueling simulations for three DUPIC fuel options of fuel composition heterogeneity control: the fissile content adjustment, the reactivity control by slightly enriched and depleted uranium, and the reactivity control by natural uranium. For each DUPIC fuel option, the simulations were performed using 30 heterogeneous fuel types which were determined by the agglomerative hierarchical clustering method. The heterogeneity effect was considered during the refueling simulation by randomly selecting fuel types for the refueling operation. The refueling simulations of the heterogeneous core have shown that the key performance parameters such as the maximum channel power (MCP), maximum bundle power (MBP), and channel power peaking factor (CPPF) are close to those of the core that has single fuel type. For the three DUPIC fuel options, the uncertainties of MCP, MBP, and CPPF due to the fuel composition heterogeneity are less than 0.6, 1.5 and 0.8%, respectively, including the uncertainty of the group-average fuel property. This study has shown that the three DUPIC fuel options reduces the composition heterogeneity effectively and the zone power control system has a sufficient margin to adjust the perturbations cased by the fuel composition heterogeneity. 15 refs., 28 figs.,10 tabs. (Author)

  18. Strength analysis of filament-wound composite tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasović Ivana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The subject of this work is focused on strength analysis of filament-wound composite tubes made of E glass/polyester under internal pressure. The primary attention of this investigation is to develop a reliable computation procedure for stress, displacement and initial failure analysis of layered composite tubes. For that purpose we have combined the finite element method (FEM with corresponding initial failure criterions. In addition, finite element analyses using commercial code, MSC/NASTRAN, were performed to predict the behavior of filament wound structures. Computation results are compared with experiments. Good agreement between computation and experimental results are obtained.

  19. Analysis of Composite Leaf Spring Enhanced With Nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ganesan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Weight reduction is now the main issue in automobile industries. In this work due to reduce the weight of steel spring with composite leaf spring due to high strength ratio is need to improve. The main aim is to compare to the load carrying capacity, stiffness and weight savings of composite leaf spring with that of steel leaf spring at rated-load and over-load condition. The analysis has been carried out for the leaf spring made up of steel and Composite materials. Composite specimens are fabricated with two different staking sequences like the (resin with clay and enhanced with Nanoparticles. The thickness and width for constant cross section is maintained on the moulding techniques. The design of multi leaf spring was modeled in PRO-E and imported in ANSYS 14.5.the dimensions of an existing multi leaf spring is taken for modeling and analysis of a laminated composite multi leaf spring with different composite sequence materials subjected to the same load as that of steel spring.

  20. Computational modeling and impact analysis of textile composite structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Hae-Kyu

    This study is devoted to the development of an integrated numerical modeling enabling one to investigate the static and the dynamic behaviors and failures of 2-D textile composite as well as 3-D orthogonal woven composite structures weakened by cracks and subjected to static-, impact- and ballistic-type loads. As more complicated modeling about textile composite structures is introduced, some of homogenization schemes, geometrical modeling and crack propagations become more difficult problems to solve. To overcome these problems, this study presents effective mesh-generation schemes, homogenization modeling based on a repeating unit cell and sinusoidal functions, and also a cohesive element to study micro-crack shapes. This proposed research has two: (1) studying behavior of textile composites under static loads, (2) studying dynamic responses of these textile composite structures subjected to the transient/ballistic loading. In the first part, efficient homogenization schemes are suggested to show the influence of textile architectures on mechanical characteristics considering the micro modeling of repeating unit cell. Furthermore, the structures of multi-layered or multi-phase composites combined with different laminar such as a sub-laminate, are considered to find the mechanical characteristics. A simple progressive failure mechanism for the textile composites is also presented. In the second part, this study focuses on three main phenomena to solve the dynamic problems: micro-crack shapes, textile architectures and textile effective moduli. To obtain a good solutions of the dynamic problems, this research attempts to use four approaches: (I) determination of governing equations via a three-level hierarchy: micro-mechanical unit cell analysis, layer-wise analysis accounting for transverse strains and stresses, and structural analysis based on anisotropic plate layers, (II) development of an efficient computational approach enabling one to perform transient

  1. Vibration analysis and optimization of sandwich composite with curvilinear fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, S.; Narita, Y.

    2016-09-01

    The present paper develops a shell element based on the refined zigzag theory (RZT) and applies it to the vibration analysis and optimization problem of the composite sandwich plate composed of CFRP skins and soft-cores. The RZT accepts large differences in layer stiffness, and requires less calculation effort than the layer-wise or three-dimensional theories. Numerical results revealed that the present method predicts vibration characteristics of composite sandwich plates with soft-core accurately. Then, shapes of reinforcing fibers in CFRP composite skins are optimized to maximize fundamental frequencies. As an optimizer, the particle swarm optimization (PSO) approach is employed since curvilinear fiber shapes are defined by continuous design variables. Obtained results showed that the composite sandwich with optimum curvilinear fiber shapes indicates higher fundamental frequencies compared with straight fibers.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of a Natural Fiber (Maize Composite Beam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Saravana Bavan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber composites are termed as biocomposites or green composites. These fibers are green, biodegradable, and recyclable and have good properties such as low density and low cost when compared to synthetic fibers. The present work is investigated on the finite element analysis of the natural fiber (maize composite beam, processed by means of hand lay-up method. Composite beam material is composed of stalk-based fiber of maize and unsaturated polyester resin polymer as matrix with methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEKP as a catalyst and Cobalt Octoate as a promoter. The material was modeled and resembled as a structural beam using suitable assumption and analyzed by means of finite element method using ANSYS software for determining the deflection and stress properties. Morphological analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis for the fiber were examined by means of scanning electron microscope (SEM and X-ray diffractometer. From the results, it has been found that the finite element values are acceptable with proper assumptions, and the prepared natural fiber composite beam material can be used for structural engineering applications.

  3. 3D Guided Wave Motion Analysis on Laminated Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Zhenhua; Leckey, Cara; Yu, Lingyu

    2013-01-01

    Ultrasonic guided waves have proved useful for structural health monitoring (SHM) and nondestructive evaluation (NDE) due to their ability to propagate long distances with less energy loss compared to bulk waves and due to their sensitivity to small defects in the structure. Analysis of actively transmitted ultrasonic signals has long been used to detect and assess damage. However, there remain many challenging tasks for guided wave based SHM due to the complexity involved with propagating guided waves, especially in the case of composite materials. The multimodal nature of the ultrasonic guided waves complicates the related damage analysis. This paper presents results from parallel 3D elastodynamic finite integration technique (EFIT) simulations used to acquire 3D wave motion in the subject laminated carbon fiber reinforced polymer composites. The acquired 3D wave motion is then analyzed by frequency-wavenumber analysis to study the wave propagation and interaction in the composite laminate. The frequency-wavenumber analysis enables the study of individual modes and visualization of mode conversion. Delamination damage has been incorporated into the EFIT model to generate "damaged" data. The potential for damage detection in laminated composites is discussed in the end.

  4. Structural Analysis of Ciprofloxacin-Carbopol Polymeric Composites ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    XRD) peaks of the pure ... relative intensity of these peaks was higher in the polymeric composites. ... oscillator, was set to alternately emit sound ... In order to prepare a sample for analysis, a glass slide was clipped to the top face of the sample.

  5. Compositional data analysis for elemental data in forensic science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Gareth P; Curran, James M; Miskelly, Gordon M; Coulson, Sally; Yaxley, Gregory M; Grunsky, Eric C; Cox, Simon C

    2009-07-01

    Discrimination of material based on elemental composition was achieved within a compositional data (CoDa) analysis framework in a form appropriate for use in forensic science. The methods were carried out on example data from New Zealand nephrite. We have achieved good separation of the in situ outcrops of nephrite from within a well-defined area. The most significant achievement of working within the CoDa analysis framework is that the implications of the constraints on the data are acknowledged and dealt with, not ignored. The full composition was reduced based on collinearity of elements, principal components analysis (PCA) and scalings from a backwards linear discriminant analysis (LDA). Thus, a descriptive subcomposition was used for the final discrimination, using LDA, and proved to be more successful than using the full composition. The classification based on the LDA model showed a mean error rate of 2.9% when validated using a 10 repeat, three-fold cross-validation. The methods presented lend objectivity to the process of interpretation, rather than relying on subjective pattern matching type approaches.

  6. Thermoviscoelastic Analysis of Dimensionally Stable Fiber Composite Space Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1984-08-01

    strains which are constant in time and the latter - the response to average stresses constant in time . For details see [3]. However, unlike the...to be nearly constant in time . Having determined the composite response to step mechanical and temperature loadings, an analysis was performed

  7. Ecological Characterization Data for the 2004 Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Downs, Janelle L.; Simmons, Mary A.; Stegen, Jennifer A.; Bunn, Amoret L.; Tiller, Brett L.; Thorsten, Susan L.; Zufelt, Rhett K.

    2004-11-01

    A composite analysis is required by U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 435.1 to ensure public safety through the management of active and planned low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities associated with the Hanford Site. The original Hanford Site Composite Analysis of 1998 must be revised and submitted to DOE Headquarters (DOE-HQ) in 2004 because of revisions to waste site information in the 100, 200, and 300 Areas, updated performance assessments and environmental impact statements (EIS), changes in inventory estimates for key sites and constituents, and a change in the definition of offsite receptors. Beginning in fiscal year (FY) 2003, the DOE Richland Operations Office (DOE-RL) initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support the 2004 Composite Analysis. This report describes the data compiled in FY 2003 to support ecological site assessment modeling for the 2004 Composite Analysis. This work was conducted as part of the Characterization of Systems Task of the Groundwater Remediation Project (formerly the Groundwater Protection Program) managed by Fluor Hanford, Inc., Richland, Washington. The purpose of this report is to provide summaries of the characterization information and available spatial data on the biological resources and ecological receptors found in the upland, riparian, aquatic, and island habitats on the Hanford Site. These data constitute the reference information used to establish parameters for the ecological risk assessment module of the System Assessment Capability and other assessment activities requiring information on the presence and distribution of biota on the Hanford Site.

  8. Numerical and Experimental Stress Analysis of a Composite Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaveri A. Katake

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Automobile sector is always focusing on enhancing level of comfort, fuel economy, customer satisfaction and safety. Vehicle weight reduction increases the overall fuel efficiency. Use of composite materials has made it possible to reduce the weight of the vehicle, without reduction in load carrying capacity. Now a day's manufacturers and researchers are trying to replace conventional material parts with composites. The composite materials have more elastic strain energy storage capacity and high strength to weight ratio as compared to steel. This paper is related to Numerical and experimental strength analysis of suspension leaf springs for a light motor vehicle made of composite materials. Two materials Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic (GFRP and Carbon Fiber Reinforced Plastic (CFRP are selected for manufacturing of leaf spring. The strength of these composite depends on angle orientation, volume to weight ratio of reinforcement and length to depth ratio of fiber. In this work two leaf springs made of GFRP and a sandwich of CFRP and GFRP are developed. Numerical and experimental static stress analyses are carried out for these two springs. These results are compared with analytical results of conventional metal spring. The comparison shows that composite material springs have compatible strength to withstand load. Comparative results for weight, cost and deformation are presented at the end of the paper.

  9. Analysis of composition of microbiomes: a novel method for studying microbial composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siddhartha Mandal

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Understanding the factors regulating our microbiota is important but requires appropriate statistical methodology. When comparing two or more populations most existing approaches either discount the underlying compositional structure in the microbiome data or use probability models such as the multinomial and Dirichlet-multinomial distributions, which may impose a correlation structure not suitable for microbiome data. Objective: To develop a methodology that accounts for compositional constraints to reduce false discoveries in detecting differentially abundant taxa at an ecosystem level, while maintaining high statistical power. Methods: We introduced a novel statistical framework called analysis of composition of microbiomes (ANCOM. ANCOM accounts for the underlying structure in the data and can be used for comparing the composition of microbiomes in two or more populations. ANCOM makes no distributional assumptions and can be implemented in a linear model framework to adjust for covariates as well as model longitudinal data. ANCOM also scales well to compare samples involving thousands of taxa. Results: We compared the performance of ANCOM to the standard t-test and a recently published methodology called Zero Inflated Gaussian (ZIG methodology (1 for drawing inferences on the mean taxa abundance in two or more populations. ANCOM controlled the false discovery rate (FDR at the desired nominal level while also improving power, whereas the t-test and ZIG had inflated FDRs, in some instances as high as 68% for the t-test and 60% for ZIG. We illustrate the performance of ANCOM using two publicly available microbial datasets in the human gut, demonstrating its general applicability to testing hypotheses about compositional differences in microbial communities. Conclusion: Accounting for compositionality using log-ratio analysis results in significantly improved inference in microbiota survey data.

  10. DYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF UNDERGROUND COMPOSITE STRUCTURES UNDER EXPLOSION LOADING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵晓兵; 薛大为; 赵玉祥

    2004-01-01

    In selecting rational types of underground structures resisting explosion, in order to improve stress states of the structural section and make full use of material strength of each part of the section, the research method of composite structures is presented. Adopting the analysis method of micro-section free body, equilibrium equations, constraint equations and deformation coordination equations are given. Making use of the concept of generalized work and directly introducing Lagrange multiplier specific in physical meaning, the validity of the constructed generalized functional is proved by using variation method. The rational rigidity matching relationship of composite structure section is presented through example calculations.

  11. Metamodel for nonlinear dynamic response analysis of damaged laminated composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoudi S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Damage affects negatively the safety of the structure and can lead to failure. Thus, it is recommended to use structural health monitoring techniques in order to detect, localize and quantify damage. The main aim of the current work is the development of a numerical metamodel to investigate the dynamic behavior of damaged composite structures. Hence, a metamodelling for damage prediction and dynamic behavior analysis of laminate composite structures is proposed, wherein the stress state in the structure is used as indicative parameters and artificial neural networks as a learning tool.

  12. ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING BY USING ANALYTICAL & FEA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranjeet Mithari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Leaf spring are of the oldest suspension component they are still frequently used. The current leaf spring is multiple leaf spring types with a steel material. It has high weight, low natural frequency, high corrosion, more noise. Therefore current multiple leaf spring is replaced by mono composite (E- Glass epoxy leaf spring which has high natural frequency, low weight etc. The maximum stress produced at the cylindrically joint than fixed joint. Therefore stress analysis of composite material mono leaf spring is carried out. The result of finite element method is verified with analytical calculation. Also compare the natural frequency by FFT analyzer with FEA.

  13. Asymptotic Ergodic Capacity Analysis of Composite Lognormal Shadowed Channels

    KAUST Repository

    Ansari, Imran Shafique

    2015-05-01

    Capacity analysis of composite lognormal (LN) shadowed links, such as Rician-LN, Gamma-LN, and Weibull-LN, is addressed in this work. More specifically, an exact closed-form expression for the moments of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of a single composite link transmission system is presented in terms of well- known elementary functions. Capitalizing on these new moments expressions, we present asymptotically tight lower bounds for the ergodic capacity at high SNR. All the presented results are verified via computer-based Monte-Carlo simulations. © 2015 IEEE.

  14. Capillary Zone Electrophoresis with Amperometric Detection for Composition Analysis of Laminarin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王清江; 丁飞; 李辉; 何品刚; 方禹之

    2003-01-01

    The composition of laminartn was firstly determined by analyz-ing its hydrolysis monosaccharides with capillary zone elec.lected opamum conditions, fucose, galactose, glucose, man-nose and xylose, which are hydrolysis products of iaminarin,could be perfectly separated within 20 min and showed signifi-cant current responses at copper electrodes. The linear ranges of fucose, galactose and glucose were from 1.0 × 10-6 to 2.0 ×10-4 mol·L-1, those of mannose and xylose were from 1.0×10-6 to 2.0× 10-4 mol·L-1, and their detect/on limits were at 10-7mol·L-1 level (S/N =3). The molar ratio of fucose,galactose,glucose,mannose and xylose in laminartn was 10.5:2.8:1.0:7.3:3.4 and the purity of this polysaccharide leached by the introduced leaching method was 95.7%. Compared to usual UV-vis and other spectrometric methods, analyzing polysaccharide by this method has some merit sof quickness,low-volume sampling,simple instrumentation,high sensitivity and high reproducibility.

  15. Drilling analysis of coir–fibre-reinforced polyester composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S Jayabal; U Natarajan

    2011-12-01

    An investigation has been carried out to make use of coir, a natural fibre abundantly available in India. Coir–polyester composites were prepared and their mechanical and machinability characteristics were studied. The short coir–fibre-reinforced composites exhibited the tensile, flexural and impact strength of 16.1709 MPa, 29.2611 MPa and 46.1740 J/m, respectively. The regression equations were developed and optimized for studying drilling characteristics of coir–polyester composites using the Taguchi approach. A drill bit diameter of 6 mm, spindle speed of 600 rpm and feed rate of 0.3 mm/rev gave the minimum value of thrust force, torque and tool wear in drilling analysis.

  16. Formability Analysis of Bamboo Fabric Reinforced Poly (Lactic Acid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Fazita M. R.

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Poly (lactic acid (PLA composites have made their way into various applications that may require thermoforming to produce 3D shapes. Wrinkles are common in many forming processes and identification of the forming parameters to prevent them in the useful part of the mechanical component is a key consideration. Better prediction of such defects helps to significantly reduce the time required for a tooling design process. The purpose of the experiment discussed here is to investigate the effects of different test parameters on the occurrence of deformations during sheet forming of double curvature shapes with bamboo fabric reinforced-PLA composites. The results demonstrated that the domes formed using hot tooling conditions were better in quality than those formed using cold tooling conditions. Wrinkles were more profound in the warp direction of the composite domes compared to the weft direction. Grid Strain Analysis (GSA identifies the regions of severe deformation and provides useful information regarding the optimisation of processing parameters.

  17. Finite element analysis of a composite artificial ankle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, Leigh Ann; Johnston, Lawrence; Denniston, Charles; Czekalski, Blaise E.

    1993-01-01

    Ultra-light carbon fiber composite materials are being utilized in artificial limbs with increasing frequency in recent years. Dr. Arthur Copes, an orthotist from Baton Rouge, Louisiana, has developed a graphite expoxy composite material artificial ankle (Copes/Bionic Ankle) that is intended to be used by amputees who require the most advanced above-and-below-the-knee prosthetic devices. The Copes/Bionic Ankle is designed to reproduce the function of the natural ankle joint by allowing the composite material to act as a spring mechanism without the use of metal mechanical parts. NASA Marshall Space Flight Center has agreed to participate in the design effort by providing the structural analysis of the artificial ankle design.

  18. Sulfonic acid heterogeneous catalysts for dehydration of C6-monosaccharides to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in dimethyl sulfoxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gabriel Morales; Juan A.Melero; Marta Paniagua; Jose Iglesias; Blanca Hernández; María Sanz

    2014-01-01

    Sulfonic acid-functionalized heterogeneous catalysts have been evaluated in the catalytic dehydra-tion of C6 monosaccharides into 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as solvent. Sulfonic commercial resin Amberlyst-70 was the most active catalyst, which was as-cribed to its higher concentration of sulfonic acid sites as compared with the other catalysts, and it gave 93 mol%yield of HMF from fructose in 1 h. With glucose as the starting material, which is a much more difficult reaction, the reaction conditions (time, temperature, and catalyst loading) were optimized for Amberlyst-70 by a response surface methodology, which gave a maximum HMF yield of 33 mol%at 147°C with 23 wt%catalyst loading based on glucose and 24 h reaction time. DMSO promotes the dehydration of glucose into anhydroglucose, which acts as a reservoir of the substrate to facilitate the production of HMF by reducing side reactions. Catalyst reuse without a regeneration treatment showed a gradual but not very significant decay in catalytic activity.

  19. SUT Sucrose and MST Monosaccharide Transporter Inventory of the Selaginella Genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lalonde, Sylvie; Frommer, Wolf B

    2012-01-01

    Most metazoa use hexose transporters to acquire hexoses from their diet and as a transport form for distributing carbon and energy within their bodies; insects use trehalose, and plants use sucrose as their major form for translocation. Plant genomes contain at least three families of mono- and disaccharide transporters: monosaccharide/polyol transporters that are evolutionary closely related to the yeast and human glucose transporters, sucrose transporters of the SUT family, which similar to the hexose transporters belong to the major facilitator superfamily, but share only minimal amino acid sequence homology with the hexose transporters, and the family of SWEET sugar transporters conserved between animals and plants. Recently, the genome sequence of the spikemoss Selaginella has been determined. In order to study the evolution of sugar transport in plants, we carefully annotated of the complement of sugar transporters in Selaginella. We review the current knowledge regarding sugar transport in spikemoss and provide phylogenetic analyses of the complement of MST and SUT homologs in Selaginella (and Physcomitrella).

  20. SUT sucrose and MST monosaccharide transporter inventory of the Selaginella genome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvie eLalonde

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available While most metazoa mainly use hexose transporters to acquire hexoses from their diet and as a transport form for distributing carbon and energy within their bodies, insects use trehalose and plants use sucrose as their major form for translocation. Plant genomes contain at least three families of mono- and disaccharide transporters: monosaccharide/polyol transporters that are evolutionary closely related to the yeast and human glucose transporters, sucrose transporters of the SUT family, which similar to the hexose transporters belong to the major facilitator superfamily (MFS, but share only minimal amino acid sequence homology to the hexose transporters, and the family of SWEET sugar transporters conserved between animals and plants. Recently, the genome sequence of the spikemoss Selaginella has been determined. In order to study the evolution of sugar transport in plants, we carried out a careful annotation of the complement of sugar transporters in Selaginella. We review what is known about sugar transport in spikemoss and provide phylogenetic analyses of the complement of MST and SUT homologs in Selaginella.

  1. Novel monosaccharide fermentation products in Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus identified using NMR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isern, Nancy G.; Xue, Junfeng; Rao, Jaya V.; Cort, John R.; Ahring, Birgitte K.

    2013-04-03

    Profiles of metabolites produced by the thermophilic obligately anaerobic cellulose-degrading Gram-positive bacterium Caldicellulosiruptor saccharolyticus DSM 8903 strain following growth on different monosaccharides (D-glucose, D-mannose, L-arabinose, D-arabinose, D-xylose, L-fucose, and D-fucose) as carbon sources revealed several unexpected fermentation products, suggesting novel metabolic capacities and unexplored metabolic pathways in this organism. Both 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to determine intracellular and extracellular metabolite profiles. Metabolite profiles were determined from 1-D 1H NMR spectra by curve fitting against spectral libraries provided in Chenomx software. To reduce uncertainties due to unassigned, overlapping, or poorly-resolved peaks, metabolite identifications were confirmed with 2-D homonuclear and heteronuclear NMR experiments. In addition to expected metabolites such as acetate, lactate, glycerol, and ethanol, several novel fermentation products were identified: ethylene glycol (from growth on D-arabinose, though not L-arabinose), acetoin and 2,3-butanediol (from D-glucose and L-arabinose), and hydroxyacetone (from D-mannose and L-arabinose). Production of ethylene glycol from D-arabinose was particularly notable, with around 10% of the substrate carbon converted into this uncommon fermentation product. The novel products have not previously been reported to be produced by C. saccharolyticus, nor would they be easily predicted from the current genome annotation, and show new potentials for using this strain for production of bioproducts.

  2. In vitro Effect of Monosaccharides on the Virulence of Acanthamoeba Isolated from Patients with Amoebic Keratitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Maroofi

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Acanthamoeba is free-living amoeba that is found in soil, water, air as well as in human pharynx. Acanthamoeba is causative agent of granulomatose amoebic encephalitis (GAE in immunosuppressed and AIDS individuals and amoebic keratitis in people who use the lens. Pathogenic species of Acanthamoeba have protein receptors named mannose binding protein (MBP. Acanthamoeba via MBP adhere to the glycoproteins included mannose. Acanthamoeba adhesion to the target cells induces a protease secretion is called mannose inducing protein-133 (MIP-133. Exogense mannose can inhibit the adherence of Acanthamoeba; also, it can increase the cytopathatic effect (CPE through increase the secretion of MIP-133. In the present work, the effect of monosaccharides on the virulance of Acanthamoeba isolated from patient with amoebic keratitis, in HeLa cell culture was investigated.Materials & Methods: The isolates were cultured in HeLa cell culture, then 100, 50, 10, 1 and 0.1 mM of galactose, glucose and mannose were added to plates. Plates were observed with invert microscope in 8, 16, 32, 48, and 72 hours after culture.Results: Data implicated that mannose (100 mM showed the highest effect on increasing cytopathy of Acanthamoeba in HeLa cell culture. Meanwhile, galactose (100 mM increased the virulence of Acanthamoeba in the cell culture after 32 hours.Conclusion: Adding mannose and galactose to HeLa cell culture contain Acanthamoeba can increase the virulence of the parasite significantly.

  3. Determination of the monosaccharide and alcohol content of balsamic and other vinegars by enzymatic methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plessi, M.; Monzani, A.; Coppini, D.

    1988-01-23

    The contents of monosaccharides and alcohol in bulsamic and other vinegars were determined by the enzymatic method. The traditional, unique balsamic vinegar is produced by the traditional method in modena. The older the balsamic vinegar, the higher the contents of dextrose and fructose are. The existence of wine vinegar added to the traditional balsami vinegar can be judged from the contents of them. The contents of dextrose and fructose in apple vinegar are low or medium, while those in the wine vinegar is very low. The ratio of dextrose to fructose varies according to the samples. Although sorbitol is contained in the apple vinegar, it is hardly contained in the commercially available wine vinegar. A little xylitol is contained in all the samples, while a large amount of it is contained in the apple vinegar. A sure indication of the quality and sound preparation is given by the content of glycerol which is found in all the vinegars and most distingushed in the traditional balsamic vinegar. (6 tabs, 20 refs)

  4. Production of monosaccharides from napier grass by hydrothermal process with phosphoric acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Eri; Tsutsumi, Ken; Tsutsumi, Yuji; Tabata, Kenji

    2013-09-01

    The production of monosaccharides from napier grass was investigated in the presence of acid catalysts using the hydrothermal process. When the napier grass was treated with 3 wt.% phosphoric acid at 160°C for 15min, the xylose yield reached 10.3 wt.%, corresponding to 72.0% of the xylan in it, whereas glucose was hardly obtained. A combined process was then conducted using an 85 wt.% phosphoric acid treatment at 60 °C for 1h followed by a hydrothermal treatment with 3 wt.% phosphoric acid. In the initial treatment with concentrated phosphoric acid the most of xylan was hydrolyzed to xylose, and the crystalline cellulose was converted to its amorphous form. The hydrolysis of cellulose to glucose was significantly enhanced during the following hydrothermal process with 3 wt.% phosphoric acid at 200 °C for 8 min. Consequently, 77.2% yield of xylose and 50.0% yield of glucose were obtained from the combined process.

  5. Analysis of gallstone composition and structure in Jharkhand region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Rajani; Soy, Snehi; Kumar, Chandan; Sachan, Shashwati Ghosh; Sharma, Shubha Rani

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze gallstones structurally and chemically as this may help to direct the measures for its treatment. On the basis of morphology, 459 gallstones were categorized into pigmented, cholesterol, and mixed gallstones and analyzed for their chemical structure and composition. Elementary analysis was done with the help of inductively coupled plasma, optical emission spectrophotometry. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy was used for compound analysis. The effects of thermal stability were analyzed by thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Statistical analysis was done to correlate gallstone composition with their shape and number in gallbladder. Pigmented gallstones were predominant and generally occurred in multiple forms, cholesterol as solitaire and black pigmented as slug (χ (2) = 3.56; p gallstones while pigmented gallstones were more compact in structure. Both types of structure were seen in mixed stones while black pigmented stones were amorphous in nature. This difference in structures might be due to difference in chemical compositions. Cholesterol and mixed stones contained basically cholesterol, brown pigmented constituted bilirubin as a major component, and black stones differed from brown pigmented stones by the presence of Ca palmitate. Bilirubin and palmitate were thermally more stable than cholesterol; hence pigmented gallstones were thermally more stable than cholesterol gallstones, as seen in TGA study. Pigmented gallstones were most common in this study of gallstones from the Jharkhand region.

  6. Dynamic analysis of composite columns in Inelastic state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsen Rezaie Hajidehi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study is analyzing Seismic behavior of composite columns in frame in inelastic state under dynamic load. Therefore, three type of composite column have been used in this paper. IPB Steel section embedded in concrete (type 1, Concrete-filled thin-walled steel sections (type 2, half concreted IPB sections (type 3 which are designed for 3 and 8 floor frame tenement in plastic way. Three earthquake accelerogram have been used for analyzing model seismic behavior and model analysis has been done in non-linear dynamic analysis with Seismostruct application. The results demonstrated that frame designed by composite columns type 1 and 3 in the flexural behavior, have similar construction behavior in the way that plasticity, softness and good function to dispose lateral forces are the same.  Although Type 2 composite model have large sections, have poor performance in tolerating flexural moment. This event refers to poor role of concrete in tension. On the other hand, the amount of concrete is important in Withstand compressive forces and in constructions with high compressive forces, type 1 and 2 have better performance.

  7. Analysis of surface hardness of artificially aged resin composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Cremonezzi Tornavoi

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of artificially accelerated aging (AAA on the surface hardness of eight composite resins: Filtek Z250, Filtek Supreme, 4 Seasons, Herculite, P60, Tetric Ceram, Charisma, and Filtek Z100. Sixteen specimens were made from the test piece of each material, using an 8.0 × 2.0 mm teflon matrix. After 24 hours, eight specimens from each material were submitted to three surface hardness readings using a Shimadzu Microhardness Tester for 5 seconds at a load of 50 gf. The other eight specimens remained in the artificially accelerated aging machine for 382 hours and were submitted to the same surface hardness analysis. The means of each test specimen were submitted to the Kolmogorov-Smirnov test (p > 0.05, ANOVA and Tukey test (p < 0.05. With regard to hardness (F = 86.74, p < 0.0001 the analysis showed significant differences among the resin composite brands. But aging did not influence the hardness of any of the resin composites (F = 0.39, p = 0.53. In this study, there was interaction between the resin composite brand and the aging factors (F = 4.51, p < 0.0002. It was concluded that notwithstanding the type of resin, AAA did not influence surface hardness. However, with regard to hardness there was a significant difference among the resin brands.

  8. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of Ester-Linked Docetaxel-Monosaccharide Conjugates as Water-Soluble Prodrugs

    OpenAIRE

    Naoji Kubota; Kei Shimoda

    2011-01-01

    Three new docetaxel prodrugs, i.e., 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glycopyranosides, which contain ester-linked monosaccharides, were synthesized by a chemo-enzymatic procedure involving enzymatic transglycosylations with lactase, b-galactosidase, or b-xylosidase. The water-solubility of 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside was 52-fold higher than that of docetaxel. 7-Propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-xylopyranoside were effectively hydr...

  9. Buckling Analysis of Unidirectional PolymerMatrix Composite Plates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jawad Kadhim Uleiwi

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available This study deals with the estimation of critical load of unidirectional polymer matrix composite plates by using experimental and finite element techniques at different fiber angles and fiber volume fraction of the composite plate.Buckling analysis illustrated that the critical load decreases in nonlinear relationship with the increase of the fiber angle and that it increases with the increase of the fiber volume fraction.The results show that the maximum value of the critical load is (629.54 N/m at (? = 0? and (Vf = 40 % for the finite element method, while the minimum value of the critical load is (49 N/m at (? = 90? and (Vf = 10 % for the experimental results. The results also indicated that the maximum difference between the finite element analysis and experimental work is about (11 % at ( ? = 0? and (Vf = 40 %

  10. Better Finite-Element Analysis of Composite Shell Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarke, Gregory

    2007-01-01

    A computer program implements a finite-element-based method of predicting the deformations of thin aerospace structures made of isotropic materials or anisotropic fiber-reinforced composite materials. The technique and corresponding software are applicable to thin shell structures in general and are particularly useful for analysis of thin beamlike members having open cross-sections (e.g. I-beams and C-channels) in which significant warping can occur.

  11. River Data Package for the 2004 Composite Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, Cynthia L.; Guensch, Gregory R.; Patton, Gregory W.

    2004-08-01

    Beginning in fiscal year 2003, the DOE Richland Operations Office initiated activities, including the development of data packages, to support the 2004 Composite Analysis. The river data package provides calculations of flow and transport in the Columbia River system. This document presents the data assembled to run the river module components for the section of the Columbia River from Vernita Bridge to the confluence with the Yakima River.

  12. Stress analysis in curved composites due to thermal loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polk, Jared Cornelius

    Many structures in aircraft, cars, trucks, ships, machines, tools, bridges, and buildings, consist of curved sections. These sections vary from straight line segments that have curvature at either one or both ends, segments with compound curvatures, segments with two mutually perpendicular curvatures or Gaussian curvatures, and segments with a simple curvature. With the advancements made in multi-purpose composites over the past 60 years, composites slowly but steadily have been appearing in these various vehicles, compound structures, and buildings. These composite sections provide added benefits over isotropic, polymeric, and ceramic materials by generally having a higher specific strength, higher specific stiffnesses, longer fatigue life, lower density, possibilities in reduction of life cycle and/or acquisition cost, and greater adaptability to intended function of structure via material composition and geometry. To be able to design and manufacture a safe composite laminate or structure, it is imperative that the stress distributions, their causes, and effects are thoroughly understood in order to successfully accomplish mission objectives and manufacture a safe and reliable composite. The objective of the thesis work is to expand upon the knowledge of simply curved composite structures by exploring and ascertaining all pertinent parameters, phenomenon, and trends in stress variations in curved laminates due to thermal loading. The simply curved composites consist of composites with one radius of curvature throughout the span of the specimen about only one axis. Analytical beam theory, classical lamination theory, and finite element analysis were used to ascertain stress variations in a flat, isotropic beam. An analytical method was developed to ascertain the stress variations in an isotropic, simply curved beam under thermal loading that is under both free-free and fixed-fixed constraint conditions. This is the first such solution to Author's best knowledge

  13. Energy Finite Element Analysis Developments for Vibration Analysis of Composite Aircraft Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlahopoulos, Nickolas; Schiller, Noah H.

    2011-01-01

    The Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) has been utilized successfully for modeling complex structural-acoustic systems with isotropic structural material properties. In this paper, a formulation for modeling structures made out of composite materials is presented. An approach based on spectral finite element analysis is utilized first for developing the equivalent material properties for the composite material. These equivalent properties are employed in the EFEA governing differential equations for representing the composite materials and deriving the element level matrices. The power transmission characteristics at connections between members made out of non-isotropic composite material are considered for deriving suitable power transmission coefficients at junctions of interconnected members. These coefficients are utilized for computing the joint matrix that is needed to assemble the global system of EFEA equations. The global system of EFEA equations is solved numerically and the vibration levels within the entire system can be computed. The new EFEA formulation for modeling composite laminate structures is validated through comparison to test data collected from a representative composite aircraft fuselage that is made out of a composite outer shell and composite frames and stiffeners. NASA Langley constructed the composite cylinder and conducted the test measurements utilized in this work.

  14. Numerical analysis on thermal drilling of aluminum metal matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hynes, N. Rajesh Jesudoss; Maheshwaran, M. V.

    2016-05-01

    The work-material deformation is very large and both the tool and workpiece temperatures are high in thermal drilling. Modeling is a necessary tool to understand the material flow, temperatures, stress, and strains, which are difficult to measure experimentally during thermal drilling. The numerical analysis of thermal drilling process of aluminum metal matrix composite has been done in the present work. In this analysis the heat flux of different stages is calculated. The calculated heat flux is applied on the surface of work piece and thermal distribution is predicted in different stages during the thermal drilling process.

  15. Estimation of elemental composition from proximate analysis of black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vakkilainen, E.K. [Andritz-Ahlstrom Corporation, Espoo (Finland)

    2000-07-01

    The black liquor properties will vary depending on the raw material used for pulping, the pulping conditions, the equipment used for pulping and the treatment of the liquor after the pulping. Accurate analysis of black liquor is needed to determine energy efficiency of o pulp mill, to calculate gas flows for environmental compliance reports and for production statistics. Black liquor composition and combustion properties can be estimated from known spread of data. Main source has been an internal company black liquor databank, which contains over 900 black liquor analysis. Regression equations for black liquor carbon, hydrogen, and inorganic element contents were derived. (orig.)

  16. 若干双子叶与单子叶植物细胞壁果胶结构单糖组成特征研究%Comparison of pectin structural monosaccharides in cell wall of dicotyledon and monocotyledon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程小乔; 李科; 陈雪梅; 蒋湘宁; 盖颖

    2012-01-01

    To study the angiosperm pectin monosaccharide components and content in primary cell wall as well as its relation with plants’ systematics between dicotyledon and monocotyledon,gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry ( GC / MS) was performed to detect the pectin monosaccharide components and content in 22 angiosperms and the data were analyzed by principal component analysis ( PCA ) ,Student’s test and Shannon-Weiner index analysis. Seven monosaccharides were found in angiosperm pectin including xylose,rhamnose,fucose,arabinose,galactose,glucose and mannose. The pectin was particularly rich in rhamnose,arabinose and galactose,but with little fucose and mannose. Five pectin monosaccharides were screened from 22 plants by PCA,and they were xylose,arabinose,rhamnose,galactose,and glucose respectively. Two-dimensional chart and Student’s test showed that the significantly different content of xylose or galactose in pectin could provide a reference for distinguishing class dicotyledon from class monocotyledon ( P 〈 0. 01 ) . The Shannon-Wiener index showed the more diversities of monosaccharide in dicotyledon than monocotyledon ( P 〈 0. 01) . Taken together,the different content of pectin monosaccharide could provide a reference for the angiosperms’ systematics between dicotyledon and monocotyledon.%为了系统研究被子植物初生壁果胶结构单糖的组成成分及其与被子植物两纲分类的关系,结合单糖单一环式的衍生化方法,采用GC/MS测定22种被子植物初生壁果胶中单糖组分及含量,并对测得的结果进行主成分、t检验和香农一威纳指数分析。结果表明:被子植物细胞壁果胶由木糖、鼠李糖、岩藻糖、阿拉伯糖、半乳糖、葡萄糖、甘露糖7种单糖组成,其中鼠李糖、阿拉伯糖和半乳糖含量较高;岩藻糖和甘露糖含量极少。主成分分析筛选出决定22种被子植物间糖含量差异的5种果胶单糖分别为:木糖、阿拉伯糖

  17. Asymptotic Analysis of Fiber-Reinforced Composites of Hexagonal Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalamkarov, Alexander L.; Andrianov, Igor V.; Pacheco, Pedro M. C. L.; Savi, Marcelo A.; Starushenko, Galina A.

    2016-08-01

    The fiber-reinforced composite materials with periodic cylindrical inclusions of a circular cross-section arranged in a hexagonal array are analyzed. The governing analytical relations of the thermal conductivity problem for such composites are obtained using the asymptotic homogenization method. The lubrication theory is applied for the asymptotic solution of the unit cell problems in the cases of inclusions of large and close to limit diameters, and for inclusions with high conductivity. The lubrication method is further generalized to the cases of finite values of the physical properties of inclusions, as well as for the cases of medium-sized inclusions. The analytical formulas for the effective coefficient of thermal conductivity of the fiber-reinforced composite materials of a hexagonal structure are derived in the cases of small conductivity of inclusions, as well as in the cases of extremely low conductivity of inclusions. The three-phase composite model (TPhM) is applied for solving the unit cell problems in the cases of the inclusions with small diameters, and the asymptotic analysis of the obtained solutions is performed for inclusions of small sizes. The obtained results are analyzed and illustrated graphically, and the limits of their applicability are evaluated. They are compared with the known numerical and asymptotic data in some particular cases, and very good agreement is demonstrated.

  18. Probabilistic Failure Analysis for Wound Composite Ceramic Cladding Assembly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemrick, James Gordon [ORNL; Lara-Curzio, Edgar [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Advanced ceramic matrix composites based on silicon carbide (SiC) are being considered as candidate material systems for nuclear fuel cladding in light water reactors. The SiC composite structure is considered due to its assumed exceptional performance under accident scenarios, where its excellent high-temperature strength and slow reaction kinetics with steam and associated mitigated hydrogen production are desirable. The specific structures of interest consist of a monolithic SiC cylinder surrounded by interphase-coated SiC woven fibers in a tubular form and infiltrated with SiC. Additional SiC coatings on the outermost surface of the assembly are also being considered to prevent hydrothermal corrosion of the fibrous structure. The inner monolithic cylinder is expected to provide a hermetic seal to contain fission products under normal conditions. While this approach offers the promise of higher burn-up rates and safer behavior in the case of LOCA events, the reliability of such structures must be demonstrated in advance. Therefore, a probability failure analysis study was performed of such monolithic-composite hybrid structures to determine the feasibility of these design concepts. This analysis will be used to predict the future performance of candidate systems in an effort to determine the feasibility of these design concepts and to make future recommendations regarding materials selection.

  19. Dynamic analysis of C/C composite finger seal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Guoding; Wang Li’na; Yu Qiangpeng; Su Hua

    2014-01-01

    A seal device as an important component of aeroengines has decisive influence on per-formance, reliability, and working life of aeroengines. With the development of aeroengines, demands on the performance characteristics of seal devices are made strictly. Finger seal as a novel kind of sealing device, recently attracts more and more attentions in academic circles and engineer-ing fields at home and abroad. Research on finger seals has been extensively developed, especially on leakage and wear performances under dynamic conditions. However, it is a pity that the work on finger seals has been limited with a single approach that is improving the performance by structural optimization;in addition, the technology of dynamic analysis on finger seals is weak. Aiming at the problems mentioned above, a distributed mass equivalent dynamic model of finger seals considering the coupling effect of overlaid laminates is established in the present paper, the dynamic perfor-mance of 2.5 dimension C/C composite finger seal is analyzed with the model, and then the effects of fiber bundle density and fiber bundle preparation direction on finger seal’s dynamic performance are discussed, as well as compared with those of Co-based alloy finger seal. The current work is about dynamic analysis of finger seals and application of C/C composite in this paper may have much academic significance and many engineering values for improving research level of finger seal dynamics and exploring feasibility of C/C composite being used for finger seals.

  20. Structural Analysis of Composite Laminates using Analytical and Numerical Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanghi Divya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A laminated composite material consists of different layers of matrix and fibres. Its properties can vary a lot with each layer’s or ply’s orientation, material property and the number of layers itself. The present paper focuses on a novel approach of incorporating an analytical method to arrive at a preliminary ply layup order of a composite laminate, which acts as a feeder data for the further detailed analysis done on FEA tools. The equations used in our MATLAB are based on analytical study code and supply results that are remarkably close to the final optimized layup found through extensive FEA analysis with a high probabilistic degree. This reduces significant computing time and saves considerable FEA processing to obtain efficient results quickly. The result output by our method also provides the user with the conditions that predicts the successive failure sequence of the composite plies, a result option which is not even available in popular FEM tools. The predicted results are further verified by testing the laminates in the laboratory and the results are found in good agreement.

  1. Dynamic analysis of C/C composite finger seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Guoding

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A seal device as an important component of aeroengines has decisive influence on performance, reliability, and working life of aeroengines. With the development of aeroengines, demands on the performance characteristics of seal devices are made strictly. Finger seal as a novel kind of sealing device, recently attracts more and more attentions in academic circles and engineering fields at home and abroad. Research on finger seals has been extensively developed, especially on leakage and wear performances under dynamic conditions. However, it is a pity that the work on finger seals has been limited with a single approach that is improving the performance by structural optimization; in addition, the technology of dynamic analysis on finger seals is weak. Aiming at the problems mentioned above, a distributed mass equivalent dynamic model of finger seals considering the coupling effect of overlaid laminates is established in the present paper, the dynamic performance of 2.5 dimension C/C composite finger seal is analyzed with the model, and then the effects of fiber bundle density and fiber bundle preparation direction on finger seal’s dynamic performance are discussed, as well as compared with those of Co-based alloy finger seal. The current work is about dynamic analysis of finger seals and application of C/C composite in this paper may have much academic significance and many engineering values for improving research level of finger seal dynamics and exploring feasibility of C/C composite being used for finger seals.

  2. Double-composite rectangular truss bridge and its joint analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yongjian Liu

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel composite tubular truss bridge with concrete slab and concrete-filled rectangular chords. With concrete slab plus truss system and joints reinforced with concrete and Perfobond Leiste rib, double composite truss bridge proved to be a fairly suitable solution in negative moment area. Perfobond Leiste shear connector (PBL is widely implemented in the composite structure for its outstanding fatigue resistance. In this pilot bridge, Perfobond Leister ribs (PBR were installed in the truss girder's joints, which played double roles as shear connector and stiffener. An erection method and overall bridge structural analysis were then presented. Typical joints in the pilot bridge were selected to analyze the effect of PBR. Investigation of the effect of PBR in concrete-filled tubular joints was elaborated. Comparison has revealed that concrete-filled tubular joints with PBR have much higher constraint capability than joints without PBR. For rectangular tubular truss, the punching shear force of the concrete filled joint with PBR is approximately 43% larger than that of the joint without PBR. Fatigue performance of the joint installed with PBR was improved, which was found through analysis of the stress concentration factor of joint. The PBR installed in the joints mitigated the stress concentration factor in the chord face. Therefore, the advantages of this new type of bridge are demonstrated, including the convenience of construction using rectangular truss, innovative concept of structural design and better global and local performances.

  3. Compositional analysis in the nano-regime:A SIMS perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subhendu Sarkar; Purushottam Chakraborty

    2005-01-01

    A serious problem in secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) analysis is its "matrix effect" that hinders the quantification of a certain species in a sample and consequently, appropriate corrective measures are taken to calibrate the secondary ion currents into respective concentrations for accurate compositional analysis. Use of "calibration standards" is necessary for this purpose. Detection of molecular MCsn+ ions (M-element to be analyzed, n=1, 2, 3,....) under Cs+ ion bombardment is a possible mean to minimize such matrix effect, enabling one to quantify without the need of calibration standards. Our recent studies on MCsn+ molecular ions aim towards the understanding of their formation mechanisms, which are important to know their effects on SIMS quantification.In-depth quantitative analysis is a major strength of SIMS for which 'depth resolution' is of significant relevance. The optimal choice of the impact parameters during SIMS analyses can play an effective role in obtaining data with ultra-high depth resolution. SIMS is possible at depth resolution in the nm or even sub-nm range, with quantifiable data obtained from the top monolayer onwards into the material. With optimized experimental conditions, like extremely low beam current (down to ~10 nA), and low bombarding energy (below 1 keV), ultra-high depth resolution SIMS has enabled interfacial composition analysis of ultra-thin films, quantum wells, heterostructures, etc. and complex low-dimensional structures with high precision and repeatability.

  4. Mechanical property analysis of kenaf–glass fibre reinforced polymer composites using finite element analysis

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    M Ramesh; S Nijanthan

    2016-02-01

    Nowadays, natural fibres are used as a reinforcing material in polymer composites, owing to severe environmental concerns. Among many different types of natural resources, kenaf plants have been extensively exploited over the past few years. In this experimental study, partially eco-friendly hybrid composites were fabricated by using kenaf and glass fibres with two different fibre orientations of 0° and 90°. The mechanical properties such as tensile, flexural and impact strengths of these composites have been evaluated. From the experiment, it was observed that the composites with the 0° fibre orientation can withstand the maximum tensile strength of 49.27 MPa, flexural strength of 164.35 MPa, and impact strength of 6 J. Whereas, the composites with the 90° fibre orientation hold the maximum tensile strength of 69.86 MPa, flexural strength of 162.566 MPa and impact strength of 6.66 J. The finite element analysis was carried out to analyse the elastic behaviour of the composites and to predict the mechanical properties by using NX Nastran 9.0 software. The experimental results were compared with the predicted values and a high correlation between the results was observed. The morphology of the fractured surfaces of the composites was analysed using a scanning electron microscopy analysis. The results indicated that the properties were in the increasing trend and comparable with pure synthetic fibre reinforced composites, which shows the potential for hybridization of kenaf fibre with glass fibre.

  5. Proximate composition analysis posterior to the cryopreservation of Chaetoceros calcitrans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joan Salas-Leiva

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The effect of cryopreservation on the proximate composition of microalgae Chaetoceros calcitrans was evaluated. Materials and methods. C. calcitrans was cultured and cryopreserved using 5% (v/v dimethylsulfoxide as cryoprotectant. The freezing was controlled at a rate of 3°C/min, up to -60°C and then the microalgae were immersed in liquid nitrogen (-196°C. After storage in liquid nitrogen, microalgae were rapidly thawed out and subcultured. The percentage of proteins, lipids and carbohydrates was analyzed using absorption spectrophotometry and the organic matter was studied by gravimetric analysis. Results. There was no significant variation between the proximate composition of C. calcitrans cryopreserved and the controls (p>0.05. Conclusion. Our results show that, despite low cell recovery after the preservation of this organism at low temperatures, there is no apparent loss of nutritional characteristics caused by the storing process at low temperatures.

  6. Viable Compositional Analysis of an Eleven Species Oral Polymicrobial Biofilm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Leighann; Lappin, Gillian; O'Donnell, Lindsay E.; Millhouse, Emma; Millington, Owain R.; Bradshaw, David J.; Axe, Alyson S.; Williams, Craig; Nile, Christopher J.; Ramage, Gordon

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Polymicrobial biofilms are abundant in clinical disease, particularly within the oral cavity. Creating complex biofilm models that recapitulate the polymicrobiality of oral disease are important in the development of new chemotherapeutic agents. In order to do this accurately we require the ability to undertake compositional analysis, in addition to determine individual cell viability, which is difficult using conventional microbiology. The aim of this study was to develop a defined multispecies denture biofilm model in vitro, and to assess viable compositional analysis following defined oral hygiene regimens. Methods: An in vitro multispecies denture biofilm containing various oral commensal and pathogenic bacteria and yeast was created on poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA). Denture hygiene regimens tested against the biofilm model included brushing only, denture cleansing only and combinational brushing and denture cleansing. Biofilm composition and viability were assessed by culture (CFU) and molecular (qPCR) methodologies. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were also employed to visualize changes in denture biofilms following treatment. Results: Combinational treatment of brushing and denture cleansing had the greatest impact on multispecies denture biofilms, reducing the number of live cells by more than 2 logs, and altering the overall composition in favor of streptococci. This was even more evident during the sequential testing, whereby daily sequential treatment reduced the total and live number of bacteria and yeast more than those treated intermittently. Bacteria and yeast remaining following treatment tended to aggregate in the pores of the PMMA, proving more difficult to fully eradicate the biofilm. Conclusions: Overall, we are the first to develop a method to enable viable compositional analysis of an 11 species denture biofilm following chemotherapeutic challenge. We were able to demonstrate viable cell

  7. Composite analysis E-area vaults and saltstone disposal facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    1997-09-01

    This report documents the Composite Analysis (CA) performed on the two active Savannah River Site (SRS) low-level radioactive waste (LLW) disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults (EAV) Disposal Facility. The analysis calculated potential releases to the environment from all sources of residual radioactive material expected to remain in the General Separations Area (GSA). The GSA is the central part of SRS and contains all of the waste disposal facilities, chemical separations facilities and associated high-level waste storage facilities as well as numerous other sources of radioactive material. The analysis considered 114 potential sources of radioactive material containing 115 radionuclides. The results of the CA clearly indicate that continued disposal of low-level waste in the saltstone and EAV facilities, consistent with their respective radiological performance assessments, will have no adverse impact on future members of the public.

  8. Nonlinear damage detection in composite structures using bispectral analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciampa, Francesco; Pickering, Simon; Scarselli, Gennaro; Meo, Michele

    2014-03-01

    Literature offers a quantitative number of diagnostic methods that can continuously provide detailed information of the material defects and damages in aerospace and civil engineering applications. Indeed, low velocity impact damages can considerably degrade the integrity of structural components and, if not detected, they can result in catastrophic failure conditions. This paper presents a nonlinear Structural Health Monitoring (SHM) method, based on ultrasonic guided waves (GW), for the detection of the nonlinear signature in a damaged composite structure. The proposed technique, based on a bispectral analysis of ultrasonic input waveforms, allows for the evaluation of the nonlinear response due to the presence of cracks and delaminations. Indeed, such a methodology was used to characterize the nonlinear behaviour of the structure, by exploiting the frequency mixing of the original waveform acquired from a sparse array of sensors. The robustness of bispectral analysis was experimentally demonstrated on a damaged carbon fibre reinforce plastic (CFRP) composite panel, and the nonlinear source was retrieved with a high level of accuracy. Unlike other linear and nonlinear ultrasonic methods for damage detection, this methodology does not require any baseline with the undamaged structure for the evaluation of the nonlinear source, nor a priori knowledge of the mechanical properties of the specimen. Moreover, bispectral analysis can be considered as a nonlinear elastic wave spectroscopy (NEWS) technique for materials showing either classical or non-classical nonlinear behaviour.

  9. Statistical analysis of wines using a robust compositional biplot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hron, K; Jelínková, M; Filzmoser, P; Kreuziger, R; Bednář, P; Barták, P

    2012-02-15

    Eight phenolic acids (vanillic, gentisic, protocatechuic, syringic, gallic, coumaric, ferulic and caffeic) were quantitatively determined in 30 commercially available wines from South Moravia by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Raw (untransformed) and centered log-ratio transformed data were evaluated by classical and robust version of principal component analysis (PCA). A robust compositional biplot of the centered log-ratio transformed data gives the best resolution of particular categories of wines. Vanillic, syringic and gallic acids were identified as presumed markers occurring in relatively higher concentrations in red wines. Gentisic and caffeic acid were tentatively suggested as prospective technological markers, reflecting presumably some kinds of technological aspects of wine making.

  10. NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF DELAMINATION GROWTH FOR STIFFENED COMPOSITE LAMINATED PLATES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白瑞祥; 陈浩然

    2004-01-01

    A study of postbuckling and delamination propagation behavior in delaminated stiffened composite plates was presented. A methodology was proposed for simulating the multi-failure responses, such as initial and postbuckling, delamination onset and propagation, etc. A finite element analysis was conducted on the basis of the Mindlin first order shear effect theory and the von-Krmn nonlinear deformation assumption. The total energy release rate used as the criteria of delamination growth was estimated with virtual crack closure technique (VCCT). A self-adaptive grid moving technology was adopted to model the delamination growth process. Moreover, the contact effect along delamination front was also considered during the numerical simulation process. By some numerical examples, the influence of distribution and location of stiffener, configuration and size of the delamination, boundary condition and contact effect upon the delamination growth behavior of the stiffened composite plates were investigated. The method and numerical conclusion provided should be of great value to engineers dealing with composite structures.

  11. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    Memory Pieces are open compositions to be realised solo by an improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them...

  12. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2010-01-01

    New Year is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. It is included in "From the Danish Seasons" (see under this title). See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You...

  13. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Strategies are open compositions to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample. Please DOWNLOAD them to hear them in full...

  14. Hemicellulases and auxiliary enzymes for improved conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to monosaccharides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermanson Spencer

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background High enzyme loading is a major economic bottleneck for the commercial processing of pretreated lignocellulosic biomass to produce fermentable sugars. Optimizing the enzyme cocktail for specific types of pretreated biomass allows for a significant reduction in enzyme loading without sacrificing hydrolysis yield. This is especially important for alkaline pretreatments such as Ammonia fiber expansion (AFEX pretreated corn stover. Hence, a diverse set of hemicellulases supplemented along with cellulases is necessary for high recovery of monosaccharides. Results The core fungal cellulases in the optimal cocktail include cellobiohydrolase I [CBH I; glycoside hydrolase (GH family 7A], cellobiohydrolase II (CBH II; GH family 6A, endoglucanase I (EG I; GH family 7B and β-glucosidase (βG; GH family 3. Hemicellulases tested along with the core cellulases include xylanases (LX1, GH family 10; LX2, GH family 10; LX3, GH family 10; LX4, GH family 11; LX5, GH family 10; LX6, GH family 10, β-xylosidase (LβX; GH family 52, α-arabinofuranosidase (LArb, GH family 51 and α-glucuronidase (LαGl, GH family 67 that were cloned, expressed and/or purified from different bacterial sources. Different combinations of these enzymes were tested using a high-throughput microplate based 24 h hydrolysis assay. Both family 10 (LX3 and family 11 (LX4 xylanases were found to most efficiently hydrolyze AFEX pretreated corn stover in a synergistic manner. The optimal mass ratio of xylanases (LX3 and LX4 to cellulases (CBH I, CBH II and EG I is 25:75. LβX (0.6 mg/g glucan is crucial to obtaining monomeric xylose (54% xylose yield, while LArb (0.6 mg/g glucan and LαGl (0.8 mg/g glucan can both further increase xylose yield by an additional 20%. Compared with Accellerase 1000, a purified cocktail of cellulases supplemented with accessory hemicellulases will not only increase both glucose and xylose yields but will also decrease the total enzyme loading

  15. Chronic lactose intake modifies the gastric emptying of monosaccharides but not of disaccharides in weanling rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    da-Costa-Pinto E.A.L.

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Ninety-six weanling male Wistar rats were fed for four weeks one of two different chows: a normal rat chow containing 55.5% (w/w starch (control group, N = 48 or a rat chow in which starch was partially replaced by lactose, in such a way that the experimental group (N = 48 received 35.5% (w/w starch and 20% (w/w lactose. The gastric emptying of fluid was then studied by measuring the gastric retention of four test meals containing lactose (5% or 10%, w/v or glucose + galactose (5% or 10%, w/v. Homogenates of the small intestine were assayed for lactase activity. The gastric retention values were obtained 15 min after orogastric infusion of the liquid meals. The median values for gastric retention of the 5% lactose solutions were 37.7% for the control group and 37.0% for the experimental group (P>0.02. For the 10% lactose solution the median values were 51.2% and 47.9% (P>0.02 for the control and experimental groups, respectively. However, for the 2.5% glucose + 2.5% galactose meal the median gastric retention was lower (P<0.02 in the group fed a lactose-enriched chow (38.5% than in the control group (41.6%. For the 5% glucose + 5% galactose solution the median values were not statistically different between groups, 65.0% for the control group and 58.8% for the experimental group. The median values of the specific lactase activity in the small intestine homogenate was 0.74 U/g in the control group and 0.91 U/g in the experimental group. These values were not statistically different (P>0.05. These results suggest that the prolonged ingestion of lactose by young adult rats changes the gastric emptying of a solution containing 5% monosaccharides. This adaptation may reflect the desensitization of intestinal nutrient receptors, possibly by an osmotic effect of lactose present in the chow.

  16. Centrifugal partition chromatography in a biorefinery context: Optimisation and scale-up of monosaccharide fractionation from hydrolysed sugar beet pulp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, David P; Hewitson, Peter; Cárdenas-Fernández, Max; Hamley-Bennett, Charlotte; Díaz-Rodríguez, Alba; Douillet, Nathalie; Adams, Joseph P; Leak, David J; Ignatova, Svetlana; Lye, Gary J

    2017-05-12

    The isolation of component sugars from biomass represents an important step in the bioprocessing of sustainable feedstocks such as sugar beet pulp. Centrifugal partition chromatography (CPC) is used here, as an alternative to multiple resin chromatography steps, to fractionate component monosaccharides from crude hydrolysed sugar beet pulp pectin. CPC separation of samples, prepared in the stationary phase, was carried out using an ethanol: ammonium sulphate (300gL(-1)) phase system (0.8:1.8v:v) in ascending mode. This enabled removal of crude feedstream impurities and separation of monosaccharides into three fractions (l-rhamnose, l-arabinose and d-galactose, and d-galacturonic acid) in a single step. Throughput was improved three-fold by increasing sample injection volume, from 4 to 16% of column volume, with similar separation performance maintained in all cases. Extrusion of the final galacturonic acid fraction increased the eluted solute concentration, reduced the total separation time by 24% and removed the need for further column regeneration. Reproducibility of the separation after extrusion was validated by using multiple stacked injections. Scale-up was performed linearly from a semi-preparative 250mL column to a preparative 950mL column with a scale-up ratio of 3.8 applied to mobile phase flow rate and sample injection volume. Throughputs of 9.4gL(-1)h(-1) of total dissolved solids were achieved at the preparative scale with a throughput of 1.9gL(-1)h(-1) of component monosaccharides. These results demonstrate the potential of CPC for both impurity removal and target fractionation within biorefinery separations. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Requalification analysis of a circular composite slab for seismic load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, M.G.; Kot, C.A.

    1992-11-01

    The circular roof slab of an existing facility was analyzed to requalify the structure for supporting a significant seismic load that it was not originally designed for. The slab has a clear span of 66 ft and consists of a 48 in thick reinforced concrete member and a steel liner plate. Besides a number of smaller penetrations, the slab contains two significant cutouts: a 9 ft square opening and a 3 ft dia hole. The issues that complicated the analysis of this non-typical structure, i.e., composite action and nonlinear stiffness of reinforced concrete (R. C.) sections, are discussed. It was possible to circumvent the difficulties by making conservative and simplifying assumptions. If codes incorporate guidelines on practical methods for dynamic analysis of R. C. structures, some of the unneeded conservatism could be eliminated in future designs.

  18. Analysis of guided wave propagation in a tapered composite panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wandowski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Pawel; Moll, Jochen; Radzienski, Maciej; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2015-03-01

    Many studies have been published in recent years on Lamb wave propagation in isotropic and (multi-layered) anisotropic structures. In this paper, adiabatic wave propagation phenomenon in a tapered composite panel made out of glass fiber reinforced polymers (GFRP) will be considered. Such structural elements are often used e.g. in wind turbine blades and aerospace structures. Here, the wave velocity of each wave mode does not only change with frequency and the direction of wave propagation. It further changes locally due to the varying cross-section of the GFRP panel. Elastic waves were excited using a piezoelectric transducer. Full wave-field measurements using scanning Laser Doppler vibrometry have been performed. This approach allows the detailed analysis of elastic wave propagation in composite specimen with linearly changing thickness. It will be demonstrated here experimentally, that the wave velocity changes significantly due to the tapered geometry of the structure. Hence, this work motivates the theoretical and experimental analysis of adiabatic mode propagation for the purpose of Non-Destructive Testing and Structural Health Monitoring.

  19. Analysis of SMA Hybrid Composite Structures using Commercial Codes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Travis L.; Patel, Hemant D.

    2004-01-01

    A thermomechanical model for shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators and SMA hybrid composite (SMAHC) structures has been recently implemented in the commercial finite element codes MSC.Nastran and ABAQUS. The model may be easily implemented in any code that has the capability for analysis of laminated composite structures with temperature dependent material properties. The model is also relatively easy to use and requires input of only fundamental engineering properties. A brief description of the model is presented, followed by discussion of implementation and usage in the commercial codes. Results are presented from static and dynamic analysis of SMAHC beams of two types; a beam clamped at each end and a cantilevered beam. Nonlinear static (post-buckling) and random response analyses are demonstrated for the first specimen. Static deflection (shape) control is demonstrated for the cantilevered beam. Approaches for modeling SMAHC material systems with embedded SMA in ribbon and small round wire product forms are demonstrated and compared. The results from the commercial codes are compared to those from a research code as validation of the commercial implementations; excellent correlation is achieved in all cases.

  20. µCT-3D visualization analysis of resin composite polymerization and dye penetration test of composite adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshikawa, Takako; Sadr, Alireza; Tagami, Junji

    2017-08-25

    This study evaluated the effects of the light curing methods and resin composite composition on composite polymerization contraction behavior and resin composite adaptation to the cavity wall using μCT-3D visualization analysis and dye penetration test. Cylindrical cavities were restored using Clearfil tri-S Bond ND Quick adhesive and filled with Clearfil AP-X or Clearfil Photo Bright composite. The composites were cured using the conventional or the slow-start curing method. The light-cured resin composite, which had increased contrast ratio during polymerization, improved adaptation to the cavity wall using the slow-start curing method. In the μCT-3D visualization method, the slow-start curing method reduced polymerization shrinkage volume of resin composite restoration to half of that produced by the conventional curing method in the cavity with adhesive for both composites. Moreover, μCT-3D visualization method can be used to detect and analyze resin composite polymerization contraction behavior and shrinkage volume as 3D image in the cavity.

  1. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Palm fibre reinforced Epoxy composites and Sisal fibre reinforced Polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Muthu Chozha Rajan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was investigated to evaluate tensile, flexural and Impact properties of Palm fibre reinforced Epoxy composites (PFRP and compared with Sisal fibre reinforced Polyester composites (SFRP. Untreated chopped Palmyra Palm fruit fibre was used as reinforcement in Epoxy resin matrix and chopped sisal fibre was used as reinforcement in Polyester resin matrix. The chopped palm fibrereinforced composite were prepared in volume fractions (Vf such as 10 %, 20 % and 30 % of specimens by using Epoxy and the chopped sisalfibre reinforced composite were prepared in volume fractions (Vf such as 10 %, 20 % and 30 % of specimens by using Polyester. The specimens are tested for their mechanical Properties strictly as per ASTM procedures. Static analysis is performed by FEA based software ANSYS R15 with design constraints as Equivalent stress, Shear stress and deflection.The experimental result and analysis shows that the fibre volume fraction increases the tensile, flexural, Impact strength and modulus of the fibre reinforced composites

  2. Carbohydrate analysis of hemicelluloses by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of acteylated methyl glycosides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sárossy, Zsuzsa; Plackett, David; Egsgaard, Helge

    2012-01-01

    A method based on gas chromatography–mass spectrometry analysis of acetylated methyl glycosides was developed in order to analyze monosaccharides obtained from various hemicelluloses. The derivatives of monosaccharide standards, arabinose, glucose, and xylose were studied in detail and 13C...

  3. A simple chip free-flow electrophoresis for monosaccharide sensing via supermolecule interaction of boronic acid functionalized quencher and fluorescent dye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xiao-Yang; Dong, Jing-Yu; Wang, Hou-Yu; Li, Si; Fan, Liu-Yin; Cao, Cheng-Xi

    2013-08-01

    Here, a simple micro free-flow electrophoresis (μFFE) was developed for fluorescence sensing of monosaccharide via supermolecule interaction of synthesized boronic acid functionalized benzyl viologen (ο-BBV) and fluorescent dye. The μFFE contained two open electrode cavities and an ion-exchange membrane was sandwiched between two polymethylmethacrylate plates. The experiments demonstrated the following merits of developed μFFE: (i) up to 90.5% of voltage efficiency due to high conductivity of ion-exchange membrane; (ii) a strong ability against influence of bubble produced in two electrodes due to open design of electrode cavities; and (iii) reusable and washable separation chamber (45 mm × 17 mm × 100 μm, 77 μL) avoiding the discard of μFFE due to blockage of solute precipitation in chamber. Remarkably, the μFFE was first designed for the sensing of monosaccharide via the supermolecule interaction of synthesized ο-BBV, fluorescent dye, and monosaccharide. Under the optimized conditions, the minimum concentration of monosaccharide that could be detected was 1 × 10(-11) M. Finally, the developed device was used for the detection of 0.3 mM glucose spiked in human urine. All of the results demonstrated the feasibility of monosaccharide detection via the μFFE.

  4. PLASTIC LIMIT ANALYSIS OF DUCTILE COMPOSITE STRUCTURES FROM MICRO-TO MACRO-MECHANICAL ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hongtao Zhang; Yinghua Liu; Bingye Xu

    2009-01-01

    The load-bearing capacity of ductile composite structures comprised of periodic composites is studied by a combined micro/macromechanical approach. Firstly, on the microscopic level, a representative volume element (RVE) is selected to reflect the microstructures of the composite materials and the constituents are assumed to be elastic perfectly-plastic. Based on the homogenization theory and the static limit theorem, an optimization formulation to directly calculate the macroscopic strength domain of the RVE is obtained. The finite element modeling of the static limit analysis is formulated as a nonlinear mathematical programming and solved by the sequential quadratic programming method, where the temperature parameter method is used to construct the self-stress field. Secondly, Hill's yield criterion is adopted to connect the micromechanical and macromechanical analyses. And the limit loads of composite structures are worked out on the macroscopic scale. Finally, some examples and comparisons are shown.

  5. Analysis of the thermal properties of nanomodified epoxy composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOMIN Nikolay Egorovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of experimental research of epoxy composites modified by nanoparticles. The results were obtained by the method of thermogravimetric analysis. The dependences between the intensity of the processes of thermal degradation in the air and technological factors and content of nanoparticles have been determined. The optimal concentration of 5 types of nanomodifiers besed on carbon nanoclusters adducts, which are functionalized carbon compounds has been revealed. The obvious advantage of these modifiers is their high solubility in polar solvents, that makes the use of these modifiers easier and allows disusing the additional sonication. Investigation of thermooxidation processes of modified epoxy resins was performed in a dynamic mode using TGA/SDTA851e module of STARe System in the temperature range 25÷800⁰C in air atmosphere with simultaneous removal of the gaseous decomposition products. Aluminum oxide (Al₂O₃ was used as the etalon, the temperature speed set was 10 deg./min. It was found out that the process of thermal degradation consists of two stages. The first step is characterized by the main oxidative degradation of polymer and the loss of up to 80% of the original sample weight, the second step is accompanied by the further oxidative decomposition of epoxy composite related to the carbon skeleton destruction. It was proved experimentally that injection of modifiers changes thermal-oxidative decomposition processes and also changes specific energy of epoxy composite according to the type and concentration of nanomodifier. It was shown that the injection of optimal amounts of modifier allows increase of the thermal and energy characteristics, and as a result, the durability of epoxy coatings exposed to aggressive climatic factors.

  6. Composite Operator Method Analysis of the Underdoped Cuprates Puzzle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Avella

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The microscopical analysis of the unconventional and puzzling physics of the underdoped cuprates, as carried out lately by means of the composite operator method (COM applied to the 2D Hubbard model, is reviewed and systematized. The 2D Hubbard model has been adopted as it has been considered the minimal model capable of describing the most peculiar features of cuprates held responsible for their anomalous behavior. COM is designed to endorse, since its foundation, the systematic emergence in any SCS of new elementary excitations described by composite operators obeying noncanonical algebras. In this case (underdoped cuprates—2D Hubbard model, the residual interactions—beyond a 2-pole approximation—between the new elementary electronic excitations, dictated by the strong local Coulomb repulsion and well described by the two Hubbard composite operators, have been treated within the noncrossing approximation. Given this recipe and exploiting the few unknowns to enforce the Pauli principle content in the solution, it is possible to qualitatively describe some of the anomalous features of high-Tc cuprate superconductors such as large versus small Fermi surface dichotomy, Fermi surface deconstruction (appearance of Fermi arcs, nodal versus antinodal physics, pseudogap(s, and kinks in the electronic dispersion. The resulting scenario envisages a smooth crossover between an ordinary weakly interacting metal sustaining weak, short-range antiferromagnetic correlations in the overdoped regime to an unconventional poor metal characterized by very strong, long-but-finite-range antiferromagnetic correlations leading to momentum-selective non-Fermi liquid features as well as to the opening of a pseudogap and to the striking differences between the nodal and the antinodal dynamics in the underdoped regime.

  7. Failure analysis of resin composite bonded to ceramic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Bona, Alvaro; Anusavice, Kenneth J; Mecholsky, John J

    2003-12-01

    To use fractographic principles to classify the mode of failure of resin composite bonded to ceramic specimens after microtensile testing. A leucite-based ceramic (IPS Empress)-E1) and a lithia disilicate-based ceramic (IPS Empress2)-E2) were selected for the study. Fifteen blocks of E1 and E2 were polished through 1 microm alumina abrasive. The following ceramic surface treatments were applied to three blocks of each ceramic: (1) 9.5% hydrofluoric acid (HF) for 2 min; (2) 4% acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) for 2 min; (3) Silane coating (S); (4) HF+S; (5) APF+S. An adhesive resin and a resin composite were applied to all treated surfaces and light cured. Twenty bar specimens for each group were prepared from the composite-ceramic blocks and stored in 37 degrees C distilled water for 30 days before loading to failure under tension in an Instron testing machine. Fracture surfaces were examined using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray dot mapping. Statistical analysis was performed using one-way ANOVA, Duncan's multiple range test, and Weibull analyses. Similar surface treatments were associated with significantly different bond strengths and modes of failures for E1 and E2. All fractures occurred within the adhesion zone. The microstructural difference between etched E1 and E2 ceramics was a major controlling factor on adhesion. The quality of the bond should not be assessed based on bond strength data alone. Mode of failure and fractographic analyses should provide important information leading to predictions of clinical performance limits.

  8. Discussion on the Standardization of Shielding Materials — Sensitivity Analysis of Material Compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ogata Tomohiro

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The overview of standardization activities for shielding materials is described. We propose a basic approach for standardizing material composition used in radiation shielding design for nuclear and accelerator facilities. We have collected concrete composition data from actual concrete samples to organize a representative composition and its variance data. Then the sensitivity analysis of the composition variance has been performed through a simple 1-D dose calculation. Recent findings from the analysis are summarized.

  9. Effect of pectins on the mass transfer kinetics of monosaccharides, amino acids, and a corn oil-in-water emulsion in a Franz diffusion cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espinal-Ruiz, Mauricio; Restrepo-Sánchez, Luz-Patricia; Narváez-Cuenca, Carlos-Eduardo

    2016-10-15

    The effect of high (HMP) and low (LMP) methoxylated pectins (2%w/w) on the rate and extent of the mass transfer of monosaccharides, amino acids, and a corn oil-in-water emulsion across a cellulose membrane was evaluated. A sigmoidal response kinetic analysis was used to calculate both the diffusion coefficients (rate) and the amount of nutrients transferred through the membrane (extent). In all cases, except for lysine, HMP was more effective than LMP in inhibiting both the rate and extent of the mass transfer of nutrients through the membrane. LMP and HMP, e.g., reduced 1.3 and 3.0times, respectively, the mass transfer rate of glucose, as compared to control (containing no pectin), and 1.3 and 1.5times, respectively, the amount of glucose transferred through the membrane. Viscosity, molecular interactions, and flocculation were the most important parameters controlling the mass transfer of electrically neutral nutrients, electrically charged nutrients, and emulsified lipids, respectively.

  10. Compositional analysis of silicon oxide/silicon nitride thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meziani Samir

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen, amorphous silicon nitride (SiNx:H abbreviated SiNx films were grown on multicrystalline silicon (mc-Si substrate by plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (PECVD in parallel configuration using NH3/SiH4 gas mixtures. The mc-Si wafers were taken from the same column of Si cast ingot. After the deposition process, the layers were oxidized (thermal oxidation in dry oxygen ambient environment at 950 °C to get oxide/nitride (ON structure. Secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS, Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS, Auger electron spectroscopy (AES and energy dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX were employed for analyzing quantitatively the chemical composition and stoichiometry in the oxide-nitride stacked films. The effect of annealing temperature on the chemical composition of ON structure has been investigated. Some species, O, N, Si were redistributed in this structure during the thermal oxidation of SiNx. Indeed, oxygen diffused to the nitride layer into Si2O2N during dry oxidation.

  11. Mass balance and composition analysis of shredder residue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomykala, J. A., Jr.; Jody, B. J.; Spangenberger, J. S.; Daniels, E. J.; Energy Systems

    2007-01-01

    The process of shredding end-of-life vehicles to recover metals results in a byproduct commonly referred to as shredder residue. The four-and-a-half million metric tons of shredder residue produced annually in the United States is presently land filled. To meet the challenges of automotive materials recycling, the U.S. Department of Energy is supporting research at Argonne National Laboratory in cooperation with the Vehicle Recycling Partnership (VRP) of the United States Council for Automotive Research (USCAR) and the American Plastics Council. This paper presents the results of a study that was conducted by Argonne to determine variations in the composition of shredder residue from different shredders. Over 90 metric tons of shredder residues were processed through the Argonne pilot plant. The contents of the various separated streams were quantitatively analyzed to determine their composition and to identify materials that should be targeted for recovery. The analysis established a reliable mass balance for the different materials in shredder residue.

  12. Analysis of fatty acid content and composition in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breuer, Guido; Evers, Wendy A C; de Vree, Jeroen H; Kleinegris, Dorinde M M; Martens, Dirk E; Wijffels, René H; Lamers, Packo P

    2013-10-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of commercial interest, because they can be used for production of transportation fuels, bulk chemicals, nutraceuticals (ω-3 fatty acids), and food commodities. To develop commercial applications, reliable analytical methods for quantification of fatty acid content and composition are needed. Microalgae are single cells surrounded by a rigid cell wall. A fatty acid analysis method should provide sufficient cell disruption to liberate all acyl lipids and the extraction procedure used should be able to extract all acyl lipid classes. With the method presented here all fatty acids present in microalgae can be accurately and reproducibly identified and quantified using small amounts of sample (5 mg) independent of their chain length, degree of unsaturation, or the lipid class they are part of. This method does not provide information about the relative abundance of different lipid classes, but can be extended to separate lipid classes from each other. The method is based on a sequence of mechanical cell disruption, solvent based lipid extraction, transesterification of fatty acids to fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs), and quantification and identification of FAMEs using gas chromatography (GC-FID). A TAG internal standard (tripentadecanoin) is added prior to the analytical procedure to correct for losses during extraction and incomplete transesterification.

  13. Geometrically Nonlinear Finite Element Analysis of a Composite Space Reflector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kee-Joo; Leet, Sung W.; Clark, Greg; Broduer, Steve (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Lightweight aerospace structures, such as low areal density composite space reflectors, are highly flexible and may undergo large deflection under applied loading, especially during the launch phase. Accordingly, geometrically nonlinear analysis that takes into account the effect of finite rotation may be needed to determine the deformed shape for a clearance check and the stress and strain state to ensure structural integrity. In this study, deformation of the space reflector is determined under static conditions using a geometrically nonlinear solid shell finite element model. For the solid shell element formulation, the kinematics of deformation is described by six variables that are purely vector components. Because rotational angles are not used, this approach is free of the limitations of small angle increments. This also allows easy connections between substructures and large load increments with respect to the conventional shell formulation using rotational parameters. Geometrically nonlinear analyses were carried out for three cases of static point loads applied at selected points. A chart shows results for a case when the load is applied at the center point of the reflector dish. The computed results capture the nonlinear behavior of the composite reflector as the applied load increases. Also, they are in good agreement with the data obtained by experiments.

  14. The nutritional role of free sialic acid, a human milk monosaccharide, and its application as a functional food ingredient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Christoph H; Choi, Sharon S H; Baldwin, Nigel

    2017-03-24

    N-Acetyl-d-neuraminic acid (NANA), more commonly known by its trivial name sialic acid, is an endogenous human and ubiquitous nutritional monosaccharide. As a bound sugar at the terminal positions of glycans NANA is known to play important roles in many biological events. The data that exist on the occurrence of the free monosaccharide in breast milk and nutrition, however, are less commonly discussed. In most foods of animal origin, sialic acid occurs as a mixture of NANA and N-glycolyl-d-neuraminic acid (NGNA), a hydroxylated derivative of NANA that is not found in humans. The dietary intake of NGNA has been identified as a risk factor for long-term adverse health effects. Therefore, we present summaries on the biochemistry, metabolism, bioavailability, and the data on NANA and NGNA levels that occur in diverse foods. Finally, we discuss the emerging data demonstrating that free NANA is linked to positive nutritional effects including pronounced antioxidative properties. These data and the extremely high safety profile of NANA justify dietary enrichment at levels that correspond to the dietary intake of NANA in infants through breast milk.

  15. Determination of oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in Hakka rice wine by precolumn derivation high-performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weidong Bai

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a precolumn derivatization procedure with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone (PMP reagent to detect oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in Hakka rice wine. The subsequent separation of the derivatized glucose–PMP also was performed using a mobile phase consisting of the molar ratio of acetonitrile to ammonium acetate buffer (0.1M of 22:78 at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/min with the column temperature of 35°C, and the pH of ammonium acetate buffer at 5.5. The optimum derivation conditions were as follows: reaction temperature, 70°C; reaction time, 30 minutes; molar ratio of PMP to glucose, 10:1 (v/v; molar ratio of sodium hydroxide to glucose, 3:1 (v/v. The recovery rates were between 93.13% and 102.08% with relative standard deviation of 0.96–2.48%. The established method provides sufficient sensitivity with values of limit of detection of 0.09–0.26 mg/L and limit of quantification of 0.27–0.87 mg/L for determination of oligosaccharides and monosaccharides.

  16. Polysaccharide composition of raw and cooked chayote (Sechium edule Sw.) fruits and tuberous roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiga, Tânia M; Peroni-Okita, Fernanda Helena Gonçalves; Carpita, Nicholas C; Lajolo, Franco Maria; Cordenunsi, Beatriz Rosana

    2015-10-05

    Chayote is a multipurpose table vegetable widely consumed in Latin America countries. Chayote fruits, leaves and tuberous roots contain complex carbohydrates as dietary fiber and starch, vitamins and minerals. The complex polysaccharides (cell walls and starch) were analyzed in the black and green varieties of chayote fruits as well as in green chayote tuberous root before and after a controlled cooking process to assess changes in their composition and structure. The monosaccharide composition and linkage analysis indicated pectins homogalacturonans and rhamnogalacturonan I backbones constitute about 15-20% of the wall mass, but are heavily substituted with, up to 60% neutral arabinans, galactans, arabinogalactans. The remainder is composed of xyloglucan, glucomannans and galactoglucomannans. Chayote cell-wall polysaccharides are highly stable under normal cooking conditions, as confirmed by the optical microscopy of wall structure. We found also that tuberous roots constitute a valuable additional source of quality starch and fiber.

  17. Analysis of chemical composition of high viscous oils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Germanovna Yashchenko

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The spatial distribution of viscous oils which are considered as an important reserve for oil-production in future were studied on base of information from global database on oil physical and chemical properties. Changes in chemical composition of viscous oils in different basins and continents were analyzed as well. It is shown, on average, viscous oils are sulfur-bearing, low paraffin, highly resinous oils with an average content of asphaltenes and low content of the fraction boiling at 200 C. Study results of viscous oils peculiarities of Canada, Russia and Venezuela are given. The analysis results can be used to determine the optimal layouts and conditions of oil transportation, to improve the search methods of geochemical exploration, and to solve other problems in the oil chemistry.

  18. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fan-dan; Yu, Yang-lun; Zhang, Ya-mei; Yu, Wen-ji; Gao, Jian-min

    2016-05-01

    In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  19. Compositional Analysis of Drugs by Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beldjilali, S. A.; Axente, E.; Belasri, A.; Baba-Hamed, T.; Hermann, J.

    2017-07-01

    The feasibility of the compositional analysis of drugs by calibration-free laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) was investigated using multivitamin tablets as a sample material. The plasma was produced by a frequencyquadrupled Nd:YAG laser delivering UV pulses with a duration of 5 ns and an energy of 12 mJ, operated at a repetition rate of 10 Hz. The relative fractions of the elements composing the multivitamin drug were determined by comparing the emission spectrum of the laser-produced plume with the spectral radiance computed for a plasma in a local thermodynamic equilibrium. Fair agreement of the measured fractions with those given by the manufacturer was observed for all elements mentioned in the leafl et of the drug. Additional elements such as Ca, Na, Sr, Al, Li, K, and Si were detected and quantifi ed. The present investigations demonstrate that laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy is a viable technique for the quality control of drugs.

  20. Vibration analysis of composite laminate plate excited by piezoelectric actuators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Her, Shiuh-Chuan; Lin, Chi-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Piezoelectric materials can be used as actuators for the active vibration control of smart structural systems. In this work, piezoelectric patches are surface bonded to a composite laminate plate and used as vibration actuators. A static analysis based on the piezoelectricity and elasticity is conducted to evaluate the loads induced by the piezoelectric actuators to the host structure. The loads are then employed to develop the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate excited by piezoelectric patches subjected to time harmonic voltages. An analytical solution of the vibration response of a simply supported laminate rectangular plate under time harmonic electrical loading is obtained and compared with finite element results to validate the present approach. The effects of location and exciting frequency of piezoelectric actuators on the vibration response of the laminate plate are investigated through a parametric study. Numerical results show that modes can be selectively excited, leading to structural vibration control.

  1. Adhesive Characterization and Progressive Damage Analysis of Bonded Composite Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolamo, Donato; Davila, Carlos G.; Leone, Frank A.; Lin, Shih-Yung

    2014-01-01

    The results of an experimental/numerical campaign aimed to develop progressive damage analysis (PDA) tools for predicting the strength of a composite bonded joint under tensile loads are presented. The PDA is based on continuum damage mechanics (CDM) to account for intralaminar damage, and cohesive laws to account for interlaminar and adhesive damage. The adhesive response is characterized using standard fracture specimens and digital image correlation (DIC). The displacement fields measured by DIC are used to calculate the J-integrals, from which the associated cohesive laws of the structural adhesive can be derived. A finite element model of a sandwich conventional splice joint (CSJ) under tensile loads was developed. The simulations indicate that the model is capable of predicting the interactions of damage modes that lead to the failure of the joint.

  2. Genomic compositions and phylogenetic analysis of Shigella boydii subgroup

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Comparative Genomic Hybridization (CGH) microarray analysis was used to compare the genomic compositions of all eighteen Shigella boydii serotype representative strains. The results indicated the genomic "backbone" of this subgroup contained 2552 ORFs homologous to nonpathogenic E. coli K12. Compared with the genome of K12199 ORFs were found to be absent in all S. boydii serotype representatives, including mainly outer membrane protein genes and O-antigen biosynthesis genes. Yet the specific ORFs of S. boydii subgroup contained basically bacteriophage genes and the function unknown (FUN) genes. Some iron metabolism, transport and type II secretion system related genes were found in most representative strains. According to the CGH phylogenetic analysis, the eighteen S. boydii serotype representatives were divided into four groups, in which serotype C13 strain was remarkably distinguished from the other serotype strains. This grouping result corresponded to the distribution of some metabolism related genes. Furthermore, the analysis of genome backbone genes, specific genes, and the phylogenetic trees allowed us to discover the evolution laws of S. boydii and to find out important clues to pathogenesis research, vaccination and the therapeutic medicine development.

  3. Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergstrøm-Nielsen, Carl

    2014-01-01

    Cue Rondo is an open composition to be realised by improvising musicians. See more about my composition practise in the entry "Composition - General Introduction". Caution: streaming the sound/video files will in some cases only provide a few minutes' sample, or the visuals will not appear at all....... Please DOWNLOAD them to see/hear them in full length! This work is licensed under a Creative Commons "by-nc" License. You may for non-commercial purposes use and distribute it, performance instructions as well as specially designated recordings, as long as the author is mentioned. Please see http...

  4. A Digital Algorithm for Composite Laminate Analysis - FORTRAN. Revision

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-10-01

    Introduction to Composite Materials ,’! by...TAKEN FROM ’ INTRODUCTION TO COMPOSITE MATERIALS ’ BY S.W. TSAI AND H.T. HAHN. 2 strength prediction of hygrothermal loads are not included. However...1. S. W. Tsai and H. T. Hahn, Introduction to Composite Materials , Technomic Publishing Co., Westport, CT 06880, July 1980. 2. S. W. Tsai and R.

  5. Compositional Analysis of Fine Particulate Matter in Fairbanks, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nattinger, K.; Simpson, W. R.; Huff, D.

    2015-12-01

    Fairbanks, AK experiences extreme pollution episodes that result in winter violations of the fine particulate matter (PM2.5) National Ambient Air Quality Standards. This poses a significant health risk for the inhabitants of the area. These high levels result from trapping of pollution in a very shallow boundary layer due to local meteorology, but the role of primary (direct emission) of particulate matter versus secondary production (in the atmosphere) of particulate matter is not understood. Analysis of the PM2.5 composition is being conducted to provide insight into sources, trends, and chemistry. Methods are developed to convert carbon data from IMPROVE (post-2009 analysis method) to NIOSH (pre-2009 method) utilizing blank subtraction, sampler bias adjustment, and inter-method correlations from co-located samples. By converting all carbon measurements to a consistent basis, long-term trends can be analyzed. The approach shows excellent mass closure between PM2.5 mass reconstructed from constituents and gravimetric-analyzed mass. This approach could be utilized in other US locations where the carbon analysis methods also changed. Results include organic and inorganic fractional mass percentages, analyzed over an eight-year period for two testing sites in Fairbanks and two in the nearby city of North Pole. We focus on the wintertime (Nov—Feb) period when most air quality violations occur and find that the particles consist primarily of organic carbon, with smaller percentages of sulfate, elemental carbon, ammonium, and nitrate. The Fairbanks area PM2.5 organic carbon / elemental carbon partitioning matches the source profile of wood smoke. North Pole and Fairbanks PM2.5 have significant compositional differences, with North Pole having a larger percentage of organic matter. Mass loadings in SO42-, NO3-, and total PM2.5 mass correlate with temperature. Multi-year temporal trends show little if any change with a strong effect from temperature. Insights from this

  6. Surface chemical composition analysis of heat-treated bamboo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Fan-dan, E-mail: fandan_meng@163.com [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China); Yu, Yang-lun, E-mail: yuyanglun@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Zhang, Ya-mei, E-mail: zhangyamei@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Yu, Wen-ji, E-mail: yuwenji@caf.ac.cn [Research Institute of Wood Industry, Chinese Academy of Forestry, No 1 Dongxiaofu, Haidian District, Beijing 100091 (China); Gao, Jian-min, E-mail: gaojm@bjfu.edu.cn [MOE Key Laboratory of Wooden Material Science and Application, Beijing Forestry University, 35 Qinghua East Road, Haidian District, Beijing 100083 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Investigate the detailed chemical components contents change of bamboo due to heating. • Chemical analysis of bamboo main components during heating. • Identify the connection between the oxygen to carbon atomic ratio changes and chemical degradation. - Abstract: In this study, the effect of heat treatment on the chemical composition of bamboo slivers was studied. The chemical properties of the samples were examined by chemical analysis. Results showed a decrease in the contents of holocellulose and α-cellulose, as well as an increase in the contents of lignin and extractives. Changes in the chemical structure of bamboo components were analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). FTIR spectroscopy results indicated that hemicellulose contents decrease, whereas lignin contents increase after heat treatment. Ester formation linked to lignin decreased the hygroscopicity of the bamboo samples and consequently improved their dimensional stability and durability. XPS spectroscopy results showed that hemicelluloses and celluloses are relatively more sensitive to the heating process than lignin. As a consequence, hemicellulose and cellulose contents decreased, whereas lignin contents increased during heat treatment. The results obtained in this study provide useful information for the future utilization of heat-treated bamboo.

  7. Composite analysis for solid waste storage area 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, D.W.

    1997-09-01

    The composite analysis (CA) provides an estimate of the potential cumulative impacts to a hypothetical future member of the public from the Solid Waste Storage Area 6 (SWSA 6) disposal operations and all of the other sources of radioactive material in the ground on the ORR that may interact with contamination originating in SWSA 6.The projected annual dose to hypothetical future member of the public from all contributing sources is compared to the primary dose limit of 100 mrem per year and a dose constraint of 30 mrem per year. Consistent with the CA guidance, dose estimates for the first 1000 years after disposal are emphasized for comparison with the primary dose limit and dose constraint.The current land use plan for the ORR is being revised, and may include a reduction in the land currently controlled by DOE on the ORR. The possibility of changes in the land use boundary is considered in the CA as part of the sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of the results, the interpretation of results, and the conclusions.

  8. [Body composition analysis in obesity: radionuclide and non radionuclide methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzotzas, Themistoklis; Krassas, Gerasimos E; Doumas, Argirios

    2008-01-01

    Body composition (BC) assessment provides important information regarding the absolute or relative amount of bone, lean and fat tissue. Different somatometric techniques have been applied in numerous epidemiological and experimental studies, as well as in every day clinical practice. Traditional techniques for BC analysis include skin fold thickness measurements, radioisotope dilution methods, hydrodensitometry and underwater weighing, while newer techniques include bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), dual energy X-rays absorptiometry (DEXA), computer tomography and magnetic resonance imaging. In addition, positron emission tomography helped to the functional investigation of adipose tissue, in particular of brown tissue. All these techniques have contributed a lot to the understanding of physiological conditions such as exercise training, menopause and ageing, adolescence health parameters, as well as pathological conditions such as disorders of nutrition, cancer, obesity and diabetes mellitus. In obesity, BC contributed to diagnosis and the pathological impact of visceral adipose tissue. In addition, conditions such as pseudo- or hypermuscular obesity and sarcopenia, which are often observed in various endocrine diseases, were investigated in detail by using such methods. During weight loss, some of these methods were quite accurate in measuring changes in fat and lean mass. Apart from anthropometric measurements, a BC measurement if possible should be included in obesity assessment. Measurements of skin fold thickness combined with BIA are quite sufficient for routine clinical practice. However, in specialized clinics and in research, more sophisticated methods like ADP or DEXA are used.

  9. The strength of composite repair patches - A laminate analysis approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robson, J. E.; Matthews, F. L.; Kinloch, A. J.

    1992-07-01

    Some guidelines for the selection of extra plies for vacuum-pressure-cured composite repair patches are deduced by comparing the strength and stiffness of vacuum-cured materials with their autoclaved counterparts, using classical laminate analysis. The guidelines are based on the minimum number of extra plies needed to equal or exceed the stiffness or strength of an autoclave-cured laminate, when using vacuum curing methods. Strength and stiffness data are presented in tabular form for quasi-isotropic laminates, cross-ply laminates, and angle-ply laminates. The analysis does not take into account repair geometry, and is concerned with intrinsic laminate properties. It is found that adding extra plies to a laminate will never be detrimental to its strength and stiffness, but in order to be beneficial, the extra plies need to be aligned with a load direction. If a laminate is likely to be under a combination of loads it is important for a balance of strengths to be maintained.

  10. The Sigiriya Royal Gardens. Analysis of the Landscape Architectonic Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jude Nilan Cooray

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Besides the efforts that are of descriptive and celebrative nature, studies related to Sri Lanka’s historical built heritage are largely to view material remains in historical, sociological, socio-historical and semiological perspectives. But there is hardly any serious attempt to view such material remains from a technical-analytical approach to understand the compositional aspects of their designs. The 5th century AC royal complex at Sigiriya is no exception in this regard.The enormous wealth of information and the unearthed material remains during more than hundred years of field-based research by several generations of archaeologists at Sigiriya provide ideal opportunity for such an analysis. The present study is, therefore, to fill the gap in research related to Sri Lanka’s historical built heritage in general and to Sigiriya in particular. Therefore the present research attempts to read Sigiriya as a landscape architectonic design to expose its architectonic composition and design instruments.The study which is approached from a technical-analytical point of view follows a methodological framework that is developed at the Landscape Design Department of the Faculty of Architecture at Delft University of Technology. The study reveals that the architectonic design of Sigiriya constitutes multiple design layers and multiple layers of significance with material-spatial-metaphorical-functional coherence, and that it has both general and unique landscape architectonic elements, aspects, characteristics and qualities.The richness of its composition also enables to identify the landscape architectural value of the Sigiriya, which will help re-shape the policies related to conservation and presentation of Sigiriya as a heritage site as well as the protection and management as a green monument. The positive results of the study also underline that the methodology adapted in this research has devised a framework for the study of other examples of

  11. A Comparative Study of Ferulic Acid on Different Monosaccharide-Mediated Protein Glycation and Oxidative Damage in Bovine Serum Albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sirichai Adisakwattana

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Three dietary monosaccharides, (glucose, fructose, and ribose, have different rates of protein glycation that accelerates the production of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs. The present work was conducted to investigate the effect of ferulic acid (FA on the three monosaccharide-mediated protein glycations and oxidation of BSA. Comparing the percentage reduction, FA (1–5 mM reduced the level of fluorescence AGEs (F-AGEs and Nε-(carboxymethyl lysine (Nε-CML in glucose-glycated BSA (F-AGEs = 12.61%–36.49%; Nε-CML = 33.61%–66.51%, fructose-glycated BSA (F-AGEs = 25.28%–56.42%; Nε-CML = 40.21%–62.91%, and ribose-glycated BSA (F-AGEs = 25.63%–51.18%; Nε-CML = 26.64%–64.08%. In addition, the percentages of FA reduction of fructosamine (Frc and amyloid cross β-structure (Amy were Frc = 20.45%–43.81%; Amy = 17.84%–34.54% in glucose-glycated BSA, Frc = 25.17%–36.92%; Amy = 27.25%–39.51% in fructose-glycated BSA, and Frc = 17.34%–29.71%; Amy = 8.26%–59.92% in ribose-glycated BSA. FA also induced a reduction in protein carbonyl content (PC and loss of protein thiol groups (TO in glucose-glycated BSA (PC = 37.78%–56.03%; TO = 6.75%–13.41%, fructose-glycated BSA (PC = 36.72%–52.74%; TO = 6.18%–20.08%, and ribose-glycated BSA (PC = 25.58%–33.46%; TO = 20.50%–39.07%. Interestingly, the decrease in fluorescence AGEs by FA correlated with the level of Nε-CML, fructosamine, amyloid cross β-structure, and protein carbonyl content. Therefore, FA could potentially be used to inhibit protein glycation and oxidative damage caused by monosaccharides, suggesting that it might prevent AGEs-mediated pathologies during diabetic complications.

  12. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Mariusz

    2017-01-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  13. The analysis of thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Książek, Mariusz

    2016-07-01

    Specific chemical environments step out in the industry objects. Portland cement composites (concrete and mortar) were impregnated by using the special polymerized sulfur and technical soot as a filler (polymer sulfur composite). Sulfur and technical soot was applied as the industrial waste. Portland cement composites were made of the same aggregate, cement and water. The process of special polymer sulfur composite applied as the industrial waste is a thermal treatment process in the temperature of about 150-155°C. The result of such treatment is special polymer sulfur composite in a liquid state. This paper presents the plastic constants and coefficients of thermal expansion of special polymer sulfur composites, with isotropic porous matrix, reinforced by disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions with orthotropic symmetry of the thermoplastic properties. The investigations are based on the stochastic differential equations of solid mechanics. A model and algorithm for calculating the effective characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites are suggested. The effective thermoplastic characteristics of special polymer sulfur composites, with disoriented ellipsoidal inclusions, are calculated in two stages: First, the properties of materials with oriented inclusions are determined, and then effective constants of a composite with disoriented inclusions are determined on the basis of the Voigt or Rice scheme. A brief summary of new products related to special polymer sulfur composites is given as follows: Impregnation, repair, overlays and precast polymer concrete will be presented. Special polymer sulfur as polymer coating impregnation, which has received little attention in recent years, currently has some very interesting applications.

  14. Analysis of the fracture behavior of polypropylene: sawdust composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João C. Miguez Suarez

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Natural fiber reinforced composite is an emerging area in Polymer science. The use of lignocellulosic materials in thermoplastic composites may contribute to reduce the waste of vegetal biomass. The natural fibers are biodegradable, low cost materials having density and specific properties comparable to those of conventional fiber composites. In this work composites of polypropylene (PP plus maleated polypropylene (MAPP filled with sawdust were prepared under fixed processing conditions (mixing temperature, mixing time and rate of rotation. The composites were fractured by tension and the fracture mechanisms were characterized by scanning electron microscopy. The SEM studies of the fractured surfaces of the composites indicate that the failure is due to fiber pull-out accompanied by tearing of the matrix; the pull-out increases with MAPP content.

  15. High conversion of sugarcane bagasse into monosaccharides based on sodium hydroxide pretreatment at low water consumption and wastewater generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wen; Wang, Qiong; Tan, Xuesong; Qi, Wei; Yu, Qiang; Zhou, Guixiong; Zhuang, Xinshu; Yuan, Zhenhong

    2016-10-01

    The generation of a great quantity of black liquor (BL) and waste wash water (WWW) has been key problems of the alkaline pretreatment. This work tried to build a sustainable way to recycle the BL for pretreating sugarcane bagasse (SCB) and the WWW for washing the residual solid (RS) of alkali-treated SCB which would be subsequently hydrolysed and fermented. The enzymatic hydrolysis efficiency of the washed RS decreased with the recycling times of BL and WWW increasing. Tween80 at the loading of 0.25% (V/V) could notably improve the enzymatic hydrolysis and had no negative impact on the downstream fermentation. Compared with the non-recycling and BL recycling ways based on alkaline pretreatment, the BL-WWW recycling way could not only maintain high conversion of carbohydrate into monosaccharides and save alkali amount of 45.5%, but also save more than 80% water and generate less than 15% waste water.

  16. Characterizing harmful advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) and ribosylated aggregates of yellow mustard seed phytocystatin: Effects of different monosaccharides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Azaj; Shamsi, Anas; Bano, Bilqees

    2017-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are at the core of variety of diseases ranging from diabetes to renal failure and hence gaining wide consideration. This study was aimed at characterizing the AGEs of phytocystatin isolated from mustard seeds (YMP) when incubated with different monosaccharides (glucose, ribose and mannose) using fluorescence, ultraviolet, circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy and microscopy. Ribose was found to be the most potent glycating agent as evident by AGEs specific fluorescence and absorbance. YMP exists as a molten globule like structure on day 24 as depicted by high ANS fluorescence and altered intrinsic fluorescence. Glycated YMP as AGEs and ribose induced aggregates were observed at day 28 and 32 respectively. In our study we have also examined the anti-aggregative potential of polyphenol, resveratrol. Our results suggested the anti-aggregative behavior of resveratrol as it prevented the in vitro aggregation of YMP, although further studies are required to decode the mechanism by which resveratrol prevents the aggregation.

  17. Chemo-Enzymatic Synthesis of Ester-Linked Docetaxel-Monosaccharide Conjugates as Water-Soluble Prodrugs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoji Kubota

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Three new docetaxel prodrugs, i.e., 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glycopyranosides, which contain ester-linked monosaccharides, were synthesized by a chemo-enzymatic procedure involving enzymatic transglycosylations with lactase, b-galactosidase, or b-xylosidase. The water-solubility of 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside was 52-fold higher than that of docetaxel. 7-Propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-xylopyranoside were effectively hydrolyzed by the relevant enzyme(s of human cancer cells to release docetaxel, whereas 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-galactopyranoside was relatively resistant under similar conditions. 7-Propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-glucopyranoside and 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-xylopyranoside showed in vitro cytotoxic activity against human cancer cells, whereas 7-propionyldocetaxel 3''-O-b-D-galactopyranoside exerted low cytotoxicity.

  18. INDUCTION OF ENZYME COCKTAILS BY LOW COST CARBON SOURCES FOR PRODUCTION OF MONOSACCHARIDE-RICH SYRUPS FROM PLANT MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline T. Gilleran

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The production of cellulases, hemicellulases, and starch-degrading enzymes by the thermophilic aerobic fungus Talaromyces emersonii under liquid state culture on various food wastes was investigated. A comprehensive enzyme screening was conducted, which resulted in the identification of spent tea leaves as a potential substrate for hydrolytic enzyme production. The potent, polysaccharide-degrading enzyme-rich cocktail produced when tea leaves were utilised as sole carbon source was analysed at a protein and mRNA level and shown to exhibit high level production of key cellulose and hemicellulose degrading enzymes. As presented in this paper, the crude enzyme preparation produced after 120 h growth of Talaromyces emersonii on used tea leaves is capable of hydrolysing other lignocellulosic materials into their component monosaccharides, generating high value sugar syrups with a host of industrial applications including conversion to fuels and chemicals.

  19. [Malabsorption of fermentable oligo-, di-, or monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) as a common cause of unclear abdominal discomfort].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goebel-Stengel, M; Mönnikes, H

    2014-06-01

    Carbohydrate malabsorption is a frequent but underestimated cause of unexplained gastrointestinal symptoms like meteorism, flatulence, pain and diarrhea. By means of hydrogen and/or methane breath test after ingestion of the respective carbohydrate it can be identified and diagnosed easily, fast and reliably by successful nutritional therapy. Besides the well known complaints caused by lactose and fructose malabsorption, other fermentable oligo-, di-, or monosaccharides and polyols (akronym: FODMAP) can cause abdominal discomfort and IBS-like symptoms. In addition to lactose (dairy products) and fructose (apples, pears, mango, watermelon), FODMAPs comprise galactans (legumes), fructans (wheat, onions, garlic, artichoke) and the artificial sweeteners sorbitol, mannitol, maltitol and xylitol (sugar free candy, light products). A general restriction of all FODMAP components can be beneficial in relieving symptoms and improving quality of life in patients with functional gastrointestinal complaints.

  20. [Analysis of volatile composition of different specification of Panax notoginseng].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-Ming; Ren, Bin; Guo, Jie-Wen; Deng, Zhi-Jun; Liu, Ruo-Xuan

    2013-06-01

    To analyse the volatile compositions of different specification of Panax notoginseng. Volatile compositions from different specification of Panax notoginseng were detected by Headspace Solid-Phase Micro-Extraction with GC/MS. Terpenoids were the main compositions in different specification of Panax Notoginseng, and a-guaiene was the fundamental ingredient. The type, content and quantity of the compounds were different in different type of Panax notoginseng. Terpenoids were the main pharmacodynamics of the volatile compositions of Panax notoginseng and worthy of further study.

  1. Interactive effect of brassinosteroids and cytokinins on growth, chlorophyll, monosaccharide and protein content in the green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajguz, Andrzej; Piotrowska-Niczyporuk, Alicja

    2014-07-01

    Interaction between brassinosteroids (BRs) (brassinolide, BL; 24-epibrassinolide, 24-epiBL; 28-homobrassinolide, 28-homoBL; castasterone, CS; 24-epicastasterone, 24-epiCS; 28-homocastasterone, 28-homoCS) and adenine- (trans-zeatin, tZ; kinetin, Kin) as well as phenylurea-type (1,3-diphenylurea, DPU) cytokinins (CKs) in the regulation of cell number, phytohormone level and the content of chlorophyll, monosaccharide and protein in unicellular green alga Chlorella vulgaris (Trebouxiophyceae) were examined. Chlorella vulgaris exhibited sensitivity to CKs in the following order of their stimulating properties: 10 nM tZ > 100 nM Kin >1 μM DPU. Exogenously applied BRs possessed the highest biological activity in algal cells at concentration of 10 nM. Among the BRs, BL was characterized by the highest activity, while 28-homoCS - by the lowest. The considerable increase in the level of all endogenous BRs by 27-46% was observed in C. vulgaris culture treated with exogenous 10 nM tZ. It can be speculated that CKs may stimulate BR activity in C. vulgaris by inducing the accumulation of endogenous BRs. CKs interacted synergistically with BRs increasing the number of cells and endogenous accumulation of proteins, chlorophylls and monosaccharides in C. vulgaris. The highest stimulation of algal growth and the contents of analyzed biochemical parameters were observed for BL applied in combination with tZ, whereas the lowest in the culture treated with both 28-homoCS and DPU. However, regardless of the applied mixture of BRs with CKs, the considerable increase in cell number and the metabolite accumulation was found above the level obtained in cultures treated with any single phytohormone in unicellular green alga C. vulgaris.

  2. Experimental and computational analysis of composite ankle-foot orthosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dequan Zou, DSc

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon fiber (CF ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs can improve gait by increasing ankle plantar-flexor power and improving plantar-flexor ankle joint moment and energy efficiency compared with posterior leaf spring AFOs made of thermoplastic. However, fabricating a CF AFO to optimize the performance of the individual user may require multiple AFOs and expensive fabrication costs. Finite element analysis (FEA models were developed to predict the mechanical behavior of AFOs in this study. Three AFOs, two made of CF composite material and one made of thermoplastic material, were fabricated and then mechanically tested to produce force-displacement data. The FEA models were validated by comparing model predictions with mechanical testing data performed under the same loading and boundary conditions. The actual mechanical testing demonstrated that CF performs better than thermoplastic. The simulation results showed that FEA models produced accurate predictions for both types of orthoses. The relative error of the energy return ratio predicted by the CF AFO FEA model developed in this study is less than 3%. We conclude that highly accurate FEA models will allow orthotists to improve CF AFO fabrication without wasting resources (time and money on trial and error fabrications that are expensive and do not consistently improve AFO and user performance.

  3. Analysis of Orthogonal Cutting of Aluminium-based Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ravinder Reddy

    2002-10-01

    Full Text Available A turning test on aluminium-based metal-matrix composites (MMCs (aluminium-30% silicon carbide was performed with K-20 carbide tool material and wear patterns and the wear land growth rates were analysed to evaluate the wear characteristics and to classify the relationship between the physical (mechanical properties and the flank wear of cutting tools. The study was also extended to the machining aspects and the width of cuts on MMCs and the influence of various cutting parameters. The experiments were conducted to measure the temperature along the cutting tool edge using thermocouple at various cutting speeds, and depth of cuts, keeping the feed rate constant while turning with K-20 carbide cutting tool. The finite-element method was used to simulate the orthogonal cutting of aluminium-based MMCs. The heat generation at the chip-tool interface, frictional heat generation at the tool flank, and the heat generation at the work tool interface were calculated analytically and imposed as boundary conditions. The analysis of the steady-state heat transfer was carried out and the temperature distribution at cutting edge, shear zone, and interface regions have been reported.

  4. Fatigue Life Analysis of Tapered Hybrid Composite Flexbeams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murri, Gretchen B.; Schaff, Jeffery R.; Dobyns, Alan L.

    2002-01-01

    Nonlinear-tapered flexbeam laminates from a full-size composite helicopter rotor hub flexbeam were tested under combined constant axial tension and cyclic bending loads. The two different graphite/glass hybrid configurations tested under cyclic loading failed by delamination in the tapered region. A 2-D finite element model was developed which closely approximated the flexbeam geometry, boundary conditions, and loading. The analysis results from two geometrically nonlinear finite element codes, ANSYS and ABAQUS, are presented and compared. Strain energy release rates (G) obtained from the above codes using the virtual crack closure technique (VCCT) at a resin crack location in the flexbeams are presented for both hybrid material types. These results compare well with each other and suggest that the initial delamination growth from the resin crack toward the thick region of the flexbeam is strongly mode II. The peak calculated G values were used with material characterization data to calculate fatigue life curves and compared with test data. A curve relating maximum surface strain to number of loading cycles at delamination onset compared reasonably well with the test results.

  5. Experimental and computational analysis of composite ankle-foot orthosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Dequan; He, Tao; Dailey, Michael; Smith, Kirk E; Silva, Matthew J; Sinacore, David R; Mueller, Michael J; Hastings, Mary K

    2014-01-01

    Carbon fiber (CF) ankle-foot orthoses (AFOs) can improve gait by increasing ankle plantar-flexor power and improving plantar-flexor ankle joint moment and energy efficiency compared with posterior leaf spring AFOs made of thermoplastic. However, fabricating a CF AFO to optimize the performance of the individual user may require multiple AFOs and expensive fabrication costs. Finite element analysis (FEA) models were developed to predict the mechanical behavior of AFOs in this study. Three AFOs, two made of CF composite material and one made of thermoplastic material, were fabricated and then mechanically tested to produce force-displacement data. The FEA models were validated by comparing model predictions with mechanical testing data performed under the same loading and boundary conditions. The actual mechanical testing demonstrated that CF performs better than thermoplastic. The simulation results showed that FEA models produced accurate predictions for both types of orthoses. The relative error of the energy return ratio predicted by the CF AFO FEA model developed in this study is less than 3%. We conclude that highly accurate FEA models will allow orthotists to improve CF AFO fabrication without wasting resources (time and money) on trial and error fabrications that are expensive and do not consistently improve AFO and user performance.

  6. Analysis of codon usage and nucleotide composition bias in polioviruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Yuan-xing

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Poliovirus, the causative agent of poliomyelitis, is a human enterovirus and a member of the family of Picornaviridae and among the most rapidly evolving viruses known. Analysis of codon usage can reveal much about the molecular evolution of the viruses. However, little information about synonymous codon usage pattern of polioviruses genome has been acquired to date. Methods The relative synonymous codon usage (RSCU values, effective number of codon (ENC values, nucleotide contents and dinucleotides were investigated and a comparative analysis of codon usage pattern for open reading frames (ORFs among 48 polioviruses isolates including 31 of genotype 1, 13 of genotype 2 and 4 of genotype 3. Results The result shows that the overall extent of codon usage bias in poliovirus samples is low (mean ENC = 53.754 > 40. The general correlation between base composition and codon usage bias suggests that mutational pressure rather than natural selection is the main factor that determines the codon usage bias in those polioviruses. Depending on the RSCU data, it was found that there was a significant variation in bias of codon usage among three genotypes. Geographic factor also has some effect on the codon usage pattern (exists in the genotype-1 of polioviruses. No significant effect in gene length or vaccine derived polioviruses (DVPVs, wild viruses and live attenuated virus was observed on the variations of synonymous codon usage in the virus genes. The relative abundance of dinucleotide (CpG in the ORFs of polioviruses are far below expected values especially in DVPVs and attenuated virus of polioviruses genotype 1. Conclusion The information from this study may not only have theoretical value in understanding poliovirus evolution, especially for DVPVs genotype 1, but also have potential value for the development of poliovirus vaccines.

  7. O-fucose monosaccharide of Drosophila Notch has a temperature-sensitive function and cooperates with O-glucose glycan in Notch transport and Notch signaling activation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Kuroda, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O; Aoyama, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Gushiken, Takuma; Okajima, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    ...), and the O-fut1 gene is essential for N signaling. However, the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose on N is unclear, because O-Fut1 also appears to have O-fucosyltransferase activity-independent functions, including as an N-specific chaperon...

  8. Diagnostics for the Analysis of Surface Chemistry Effects on Composite Energetic Material Reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-10-30

    Distribution Unlimited Final Report: Diagnostics for the Analysis of Surface Chemistry Effects on Composite Energetic Material Reactions The views...peer-reviewed journals: Final Report: Diagnostics for the Analysis of Surface Chemistry Effects on Composite Energetic Material Reactions Report...2.00 4.00 Evan Vargas, Michelle L. Pantoya, Mohammed A Saed, Brandon L Weeks. Advanced Susceptors for Microwave Heating of Energetic Materials

  9. Glass fibres reinforced polyester composites degradation monitoring by surface analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croitoru, Catalin; Patachia, Silvia; Papancea, Adina; Baltes, Liana; Tierean, Mircea

    2015-12-01

    The paper presents a novel method for quantification of the modifications that occur on the surface of different types of gel-coated glass fibre-reinforced polyester composites under artificial UV-ageing at 254 nm. The method implies the adsorption of an ionic dye, namely methylene blue, on the UV-aged composite, and computing the CIELab colour space parameters from the photographic image of the coloured composite's surface. The method significantly enhances the colour differences between the irradiated composites and the reference, in contrast with the non-coloured ones. The colour modifications that occur represent a good indicative of the surface degradation, alteration of surface hydrophily and roughness of the composite and are in good correlation with the ATR-FTIR spectroscopy and optical microscopy results. The proposed method is easier, faster and cheaper than the traditional ones.

  10. Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, John G.

    The Composites market is arguably the most challenging and profitable market for phenolic resins aside from electronics. The variety of products and processes encountered creates the challenges, and the demand for high performance in critical operations brings value. Phenolic composite materials are rendered into a wide range of components to supply a diverse and fragmented commercial base that includes customers in aerospace (Space Shuttle), aircraft (interiors and brakes), mass transit (interiors), defense (blast protection), marine, mine ducting, off-shore (ducts and grating) and infrastructure (architectural) to name a few. For example, phenolic resin is a critical adhesive in the manufacture of honeycomb sandwich panels. Various solvent and water based resins are described along with resin characteristics and the role of metal ions for enhanced thermal stability of the resin used to coat the honeycomb. Featured new developments include pultrusion of phenolic grating, success in RTM/VARTM fabricated parts, new ballistic developments for military vehicles and high char yield carbon-carbon composites along with many others. Additionally, global regional market resin volumes and sales are presented and compared with other thermosetting resin systems.

  11. Damage Analysis of Rectangular Section Composite Beam under Pure Bending

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yiping; Xiao, Fan; Liu, Zejia; Tang, Liqun; Fang, Daining

    2013-02-01

    Laminated composite beams are commonly used in engineering applications involving macro to nano structures. Based on the assumption that plain sections remain plain after deformation, this paper analyzes stress distributions in cross-ply laminated composite beams with rectangular cross-sections, and formulates the basic damage equations through Kachanov's damage definition and Janson's failure criterion. The location of the neutral axis and the ultimate bending moment are obtained for pure bending cases. The effect of the elastic modulus of the two layers on the damage evolution is analyzed; a reasonable damage composite beam model is proposed to predict the ultimate bending moment.

  12. Molecular Diversity of Sea Spray Aerosol Particles: Impact of Ocean Biology on Particle Composition and Hygroscopicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochran, Richard E.; Laskina, Olga; Trueblood, Jonathan; Estillore, Armando D.; Morris, Holly S.; Jayarathne, Thilina; Sultana, Camile M.; Lee, Christopher; Lin, Peng; Laskin, Julia; Laskin, Alexander; Dowling, Jackie; Qin, Zhen; Cappa, Christopher; Bertram, Timothy; Tivanski, Alexei V.; Stone, Elizabeth; Prather, Kimberly; Grassian, Vicki H.

    2017-05-01

    The impact of sea spray aerosol (SSA) on climate depends on the size and chemical composition of individual particles that make-up the total SSA ensemble. While the organic fraction of SSA has been characterized from a bulk perspective, there remains a lack of understanding as to the composition of individual particles within the SSA ensemble. To better understand the molecular components within SSA particles and how SSA composition changes with ocean biology, simultaneous measurements of seawater and SSA were made during a month-long mesocosm experiment performed in an ocean-atmosphere facility. Herein, we deconvolute the composition of freshly emitted SSA devoid of anthropogenic and terrestrial influences by characterizing classes of organic compounds as well as specific molecules within individual SSA particles. Analysis of SSA particles show that the diversity of molecules within the organic fraction varies between two size fractions (submicron and supermicron) with contributions from fatty acids, monosaccharides, polysaccharides and siliceous material. Significant changes in the distribution of these compounds within individual particles are observed to coincide with the rise and fall of phytoplankton and bacterial populations within the seawater. Furthermore, water uptake is impacted as shown by hygroscopicity measurements of model systems composed of representative organic compounds. Thus, the how changes in the hygroscopic growth of SSA evolves with composition can be elucidated. Overall, this study provides an important connection between biological processes that control the composition of seawater and changes in single particle composition which will enhances our ability to predict the impact of SSA on climate.

  13. Family of Ricinus communis Monosaccharide Transporters and RcSTP1 in Promoting the Uptake of a Glucose-Fipronil Conjugate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Gen-Lin; Yan, Yin; Chen, Yan; Wang, Bing-Feng; Xu, Fei-Fei; Zhang, Zhi-Xiang; Lin, Fei; Xu, Han-Hong

    2017-08-02

    Enhancing the systemic distribution of a bioactive compound by exploiting the vascular transport system of a plant presents a means of reducing both the volume and frequency of pesticide/fungicide application. The foliar uptake of the glucose-fipronil conjugate N-[3-cyano-1-[2,6-dichloro-4-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-4-[(trifluoromethyl)sulfinyl]-1H-pyrazol-5-yl]-1-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-1H-1,2,3-triazole-4-methanamine (GTF) achieved in castor bean (Ricinus communis) and its transport via the phloem are known to be mediated by monosaccharide transporter(s) [MST(s)], although neither the identity of the key MST(s) involved nor the mechanistic basis of its movement have yet to be described. On the basis of homology with Arabidopsis thaliana sugar transporters, the castor bean genome was concluded to harbor 53 genes encoding a sugar transporter, falling into the eight previously defined subfamilies INT, PMT, VGT, STP, ERD6, pGlucT, TMT, and SUT. Transcriptional profiling identified the product of RcSTP1 as a candidate for mediating GTF uptake, because this gene was induced by exposure of the plant to GTF. When RcSTP1 was transiently expressed in onion epidermis cells, the site of RcSTP1 deposition was shown to be the plasma membrane. A functional analysis based on RcSTP1 expression in Xenopus laevis oocytes demonstrated that its product has a high affinity for GTF. The long-distance root-to-shoot transport of GTF was enhanced in a transgenic soybean chimera constitutively expressing RcSTP1.

  14. Theoretical analysis on bending behavior of functionally graded composite beam crack-controlled by ultrahigh toughness cementitious composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Ultrahigh toughness cementitious composites (UHTCC) obviously show strain hardening property under tensile or bending loading. The failure pattern of the UHTCC components exhibits multiple fine cracks under uniaxial tensile loading with prominent tensile strain capacity in excess of 3%, with merely 60 μm average crack width even corresponding to the ultimate tensile strain state. The approach adopted is based on the concept of functionally-graded concrete, where part of the concrete, which surrounds the main longitudinal reinforcement in a RC (reinforced concrete) member, is strategically replaced with UHTCC with excellent crack-controlling ability. Investigations on bending behavior of functionally-graded composite beam crack controlled by UHTCC has been carried out, including theo- retical analysis, experimental research on long composite beams without web reinforcement, validation and comparison between experimental and theoretical results, and analysis on crack control. In addition to improving bearing capacity, the results indicate that functionally-graded composite beams using UHTCC has been found to be very effective in preventing corrosion-induced damage compared with RC beams. Therefore, durability and service life of the structure could be enhanced. This paper discusses the development of internal force and crack propagation during loading process, and presents analysis of the internal force in different stages, moment-curvature relationship from loading to damage and calculation of mid-span deflection and ductility index. In the end, the theoretical formulae have been validated by experimental results.

  15. Analysis of flexural wave propagation in poroelastic composite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    DR OKE

    of flexural vibrations of poroelastic composite hollow cylinder is obtained. ... The equations of motion of a homogeneous, isotropic poroelastic solid (Biot 1956) in the presence of dissipation b are: 2. 2. 11. 12. 2 ...... Vibration and Control, Vol.

  16. Composition Analysis by Scanned Femtosecond Laser Ultraprobing (CASFLU/DOCMT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, M Y; Armstrong, J P; Stuart, B C; Wood, L L; Wynne, A E

    2001-02-26

    A new technology for ultrahigh-spatial resolution mapping of the isotopic, molecular, and chemical compositions of complex, multi-dimensional objects, in semiconductor, archaeological, paleontological, biological and materials R&D.

  17. Structural Analysis of Novel Lignin-derived Carbon Composite Anodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNutt, Nicholas W [ORNL; Rios, Orlando [ORNL; Feygenson, Mikhail [ORNL; Proffen, Thomas E [ORNL; Keffer, David J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    The development of novel lignin-based carbon composite anodes consisting of nanocrystalline and amorphous domains motivates the understanding of a relationship of the structural properties characterizing these materials, such as crystallite size, intracrystallite dspacing, crystalline volume fraction and composite density, with their pair distribution functions (PDF), obtained from both molecular dynamics simulation and neutron scattering. A model for these composite materials is developed as a function of experimentally measurable parameters and realized in fifteen composite systems, three of which directly match all parameters of their experimental counterparts. The accurate reproduction of the experimental PDFs using the model systems validates the model. The decomposition of the simulated PDFs provides an understanding of each feature in the PDF and allows for the development of a mapping between the defining characteristics of the PDF and the material properties of interest.

  18. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION & NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING

    OpenAIRE

    K. K. JADHAO,; DR. R.S DALU

    2011-01-01

    The Automobile Industry has shown keen interest for replacement of steel leaf spring with that of glass fiber composite leaf spring, since the composite material has high strength to weight ratio, good corrosion resistance and tailor-able properties. The objective of present study was to replace material for leaf spring. In present study the material selected was glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) and the polyester resin (NETPOL 1011) can be used which was more economical this will reduce ...

  19. Comparative experimental analysis of composite pulses in 14N NQR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhaltsevitch, V T; Rudakov, T N; Flexman, J H; Hayes, P A; Chisholm, W P

    2004-01-01

    Experimental results of comparing composite pulses in nitrogen-14 NQR, that are analogous to common 90 degrees RF pulses in powder, are presented. All tested pulses have been taken from publications in journals. Comparative diagrams of the measurement results for induction signals and echo signals are presented. The results of the measurements demonstrate that the best outcomes are achieved when the composite pulse (45)0(95)180(164)0 is used.

  20. Numerical analysis of impact behaviour on aeronautical composite protections

    OpenAIRE

    Portilla Bullido, Alberto

    2011-01-01

    In this project, a complete study of impacts against protection composite materials is presented, taking into account all parameters involved in the process: from the organic fibre that is part of the composite, to the projectile impacting on the protection panels. The project was done during an internship in the department of Structural Dynamics and Aeroelasticity at Airbus Military (EADS-CASA), therefore most of the impacts studied here are typical from aeronautics industry. During the impa...

  1. Analysis of Composite Material Blended With Thermoplastics and Jute Fibre

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Venugopal S

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently natural fibres have been receiving considerable attention as substitutes for synthetic fibre reinforcements due to their low cost, low density, acceptable specific strength, good thermal insulation properties, reduced tool wear, reduced thermal and respiratory irritation and renewable resources. The aim of this work is to develop chemically treated and chemically untreated fibre reinforced composite material with optimum properties so that it can replace the existing synthetic fibre reinforced composite material for a suitable application. In this work, polyester resin has been reinforced with jute fabric, so as to develop jute fibre reinforced plastic (JFRP with a weight ratio of 10:1:1 Hand lay-up technique was used to manufacture the composites where Methyl Ethyl Ketone Peroxide and cobalt Naphthalene were used as coupling agent and accelerator respectively. The thickness of the composite specimen was obtained by laying up layer of fibre and matrix. The untreated composites have been used and mechanical properties are compared with natural fibre and jute fibre composite by using the Ansys method.

  2. FRP/steel composite damage acoustic emission monitoring and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dongsheng; Chen, Zhi

    2015-04-01

    FRP is a new material with good mechanical properties, such as high strength of extension, low density, good corrosion resistance and anti-fatigue. FRP and steel composite has gotten a wide range of applications in civil engineering because of its good performance. As the FRP/steel composite get more and more widely used, the monitor of its damage is also getting more important. To monitor this composite, acoustic emission (AE) is a good choice. In this study, we prepare four identical specimens to conduct our test. During the testing process, the AE character parameters and mechanics properties were obtained. Damaged properties of FRP/steel composite were analyzed through acoustic emission (AE) signals. By the growing trend of AE accumulated energy, the severity of the damage made on FRP/steel composite was estimated. The AE sentry function has been successfully used to study damage progression and fracture emerge release rate of composite laminates. This technique combines the cumulative AE energy with strain energy of the material rather than analyzes the AE information and mechanical separately.

  3. Multivariate factor analysis of Girgentana goat milk composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pietro Giaccone

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The interpretation of the several variables that contribute to defining milk quality is difficult due to the high degree of  correlation among them. In this case, one of the best methods of statistical processing is factor analysis, which belongs  to the multivariate groups; for our study this particular statistical approach was employed.  A total of 1485 individual goat milk samples from 117 Girgentana goats, were collected fortnightly from January to July,  and analysed for physical and chemical composition, and clotting properties. Milk pH and tritable acidity were within the  normal range for fresh goat milk. Morning milk yield resulted 704 ± 323 g with 3.93 ± 1.23% and 3.48±0.38% for fat  and protein percentages, respectively. The milk urea content was 43.70 ± 8.28 mg/dl. The clotting ability of Girgentana  milk was quite good, with a renneting time equal to 16.96 ± 3.08 minutes, a rate of curd formation of 2.01 ± 1.63 min-  utes and a curd firmness of 25.08 ± 7.67 millimetres.  Factor analysis was performed by applying axis orthogonal rotation (rotation type VARIMAX; the analysis grouped the  milk components into three latent or common factors. The first, which explained 51.2% of the total covariance, was  defined as “slow milks”, because it was linked to r and pH. The second latent factor, which explained 36.2% of the total  covariance, was defined as “milk yield”, because it is positively correlated to the morning milk yield and to the urea con-  tent, whilst negatively correlated to the fat percentage. The third latent factor, which explained 12.6% of the total covari-  ance, was defined as “curd firmness,” because it is linked to protein percentage, a30 and titatrable acidity. With the aim  of evaluating the influence of environmental effects (stage of kidding, parity and type of kidding, factor scores were anal-  ysed with the mixed linear model. Results showed significant effects of the season of

  4. Identification of Quantitative Trait Loci Affecting Hemicellulose Characteristics Based on Cell Wall Composition in a Wild and Cultivated Rice Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si-Ju Zhang; Xue-Qin Song; Bai-Sheng Yu; Bao-Cai Zhang; Chuan-Qing Sun; J. Paul Knox; Yi-Hua Zhou

    2012-01-01

    Cell wall hemicellulosic polysaccharides are structurally complex and diverse.Knowledge about the synthesisof cell wall hemicelluloses and their biological roles is limited.Quantitative trait loci (QTL) mapping is a helpful tool for the dissection of complex phenotypes for gene identification.In this study,we exploited the natural variation in cell wall monosaccharide levels between a common wild rice,Yuanj,and an elite indica cultivar,Teqing,and performed QTL mapping with their introgression lines (ILs).Chemical analyses conducted on the culms of Yuanj and Teqing showed that the major alterations are found in glucose and xylose levels,which are correlated with specific hemicellulosic polymers.Glycosidic linkage examination revealed that,in Yuanj,an increase in glucose content results from a higher level of mixed linkage β-glucan (MLG),whereas a reduction in xylose content reflects a low level of xylan backbone and a varied arabinoxylan (AX) structure.Seventeen QTLs for monosaccharides have been identified through composition analysis of the culm residues of 95 core ILs.Four major QTLs affecting xylose and glucose levels are responsible for 19 and 21% of the phenotypic variance,respectively.This study provides a unique resource for the genetic dissection of rice cell wall formation and remodeling in the vegetative organs.

  5. Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmielewski, M.; Nosewicz, S.; Pietrzak, K.; Rojek, J.; Strojny-Nędza, A.; Mackiewicz, S.; Dutkiewicz, J.

    2014-11-01

    It is commonly known that the properties of sintered materials are strongly related to technological conditions of the densification process. This paper shows the sintering behavior of a NiAl-Al2O3 composite, and its individual components sintered separately. Each kind of material was processed via the powder metallurgy route (hot pressing). The progress of sintering at different stages of the process was tested. Changes in the microstructure were examined using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. Metal-ceramics interface was clean and no additional phases were detected. Correlation between the microstructure, density, and mechanical properties of the sintered materials was analyzed. The values of elastic constants of NiAl/Al2O3 were close to intermetallic ones due to the volume content of the NiAl phase particularly at low densities, where small alumina particles had no impact on the composite's stiffness. The influence of the external pressure of 30 MPa seemed crucial for obtaining satisfactory stiffness for three kinds of the studied materials which were characterized by a high dense microstructure with a low number of isolated spherical pores.

  6. Stress relieving behaviour of flowable composite liners: A finite element analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anatavara, Sarida; Sitthiseripratip, Kriskrai; Senawongse, Pisol

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the consequences of using flowable composite as a liner beneath class I resin composite restorations on polymerization shrinkage stress and occlusal force. Models of class I resin composite restorations were generated. A control model received no flowable composite liner. Thirteen test models received different flowable composite liners with varying elastic modulus. Finite element analysis was used. The polymerization shrinkage of the resin composite and an occlusal force were simulated in the models. The stress and strain energy density in each model were investigated. The results demonstrated that all flowable composite linings were able to reduce polymerization shrinkage stress and occlusal force in enamel, dentin, the hybrid layer, and the adhesive layer to various degrees in tooth-restoration systems. Therefore, additional techniques may be applied to reduce the remaining stress and to ensure the long-term success of restorations.

  7. Embodied language, best-fit analysis, and formal compositionality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jerome

    2010-12-01

    This review brings together two fundamental, but unreconciled, aspects of human language: embodiment and compositionality. One major scientific advance in recent decades has been Embodiment - the realization that scientific understanding of mind and language entails detailed modeling of the human brain and how it evolved to control a physical body in a social community. The ability to learn and use language is one of the most characteristically human traits. Many animals signal, but only people can express and understand an essentially unbounded range of messages. The technical term for the ability of human language to support all these messages from a few dozen alphabetic symbols is Compositionality. Rigor is essential for the advancement of any science, but there has been essentially no overlap between efforts to formalize language compositionality and the manifest embodiment of thought. Recent developments suggest that it is feasible to formalize the compositionality of embodied language, but that this requires a focus on conceptual composition and better understanding of contextual best-fit.

  8. Embodied language, best-fit analysis, and formal compositionality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Jerome

    2010-12-01

    This review brings together two fundamental, but unreconciled, aspects of human language: embodiment and compositionality. One major scientific advance in recent decades has been Embodiment - the realization that scientific understanding of mind and language entails detailed modeling of the human brain and how it evolved to control a physical body in a social community. The ability to learn and use language is one of the most characteristically human traits. Many animals signal, but only people can express and understand an essentially unbounded range of messages. The technical term for the ability of human language to support all these messages from a few dozen alphabetic symbols is Compositionality. Rigor is essential for the advancement of any science, but there has been essentially no overlap between efforts to formalize language compositionality and the manifest embodiment of thought. Recent developments suggest that it is feasible to formalize the compositionality of embodied language, but that this requires a focus on conceptual composition and better understanding of contextual best-fit.

  9. Cost analysis of composite fan blade manufacturing processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stelson, T. S.; Barth, C. F.

    1980-01-01

    The relative manufacturing costs were estimated for large high technology fan blades prepared by advanced composite fabrication methods using seven candidate materials/process systems. These systems were identified as laminated resin matrix composite, filament wound resin matrix composite, superhybrid solid laminate, superhybrid spar/shell, metal matrix composite, metal matrix composite with a spar and shell, and hollow titanium. The costs were calculated utilizing analytical process models and all cost data are presented as normalized relative values where 100 was the cost of a conventionally forged solid titanium fan blade whose geometry corresponded to a size typical of 42 blades per disc. Four costs were calculated for each of the seven candidate systems to relate the variation of cost on blade size. Geometries typical of blade designs at 24, 30, 36 and 42 blades per disc were used. The impact of individual process yield factors on costs was also assessed as well as effects of process parameters, raw materials, labor rates and consumable items.

  10. Addendum to Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergeron, Marcel P.; Freeman, Eugene J.; Wurstner, Signe K.; Kincaid, Charles T.; Coony, Mike M.; Strenge, Dennis L.; Aaberg, Rosanne L.; Eslinger, Paul W.

    2001-09-28

    This report summarizes efforts to complete an addendum analysis to the first iteration of the Composite Analysis for Low-Level Waste Disposal in the 200 Area Plateau of the Hanford Site (Composite Analysis). This document describes the background and performance objectives of the Composite Analysis and this addendum analysis. The methods used, results, and conclusions for this Addendum analysis are summarized, and recommendations are made for work to be undertaken in anticipation of a second analysis.

  11. Modeling Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index Using Time Series Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayo, W. S.; Urrutia, J. D.; Temple, J. M. F.; Sandoval, J. R. D.; Sanglay, J. E. A.

    2015-06-01

    This study was conducted to develop a time series model of the Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index and its volatility using the finite mixture of ARIMA model with conditional variance equations such as ARCH, GARCH, EG ARCH, TARCH and PARCH models. Also, the study aimed to find out the reason behind the behaviorof PSEi, that is, which of the economic variables - Consumer Price Index, crude oil price, foreign exchange rate, gold price, interest rate, money supply, price-earnings ratio, Producers’ Price Index and terms of trade - can be used in projecting future values of PSEi and this was examined using Granger Causality Test. The findings showed that the best time series model for Philippine Stock Exchange Composite index is ARIMA(1,1,5) - ARCH(1). Also, Consumer Price Index, crude oil price and foreign exchange rate are factors concluded to Granger cause Philippine Stock Exchange Composite Index.

  12. THE ERROR ANALYSIS IN WRITING AN ENGLISH NARRATIVE COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paramita Kusumawardhani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the research is to analyze about morphology in writing an English narrative composition. Morphology is the study of morphemes which are the smallest significant units of grammar. There are two kinds of morphology, they are derivational and inflectional. Affixes such as suffixes, infixes, prefixes, ablaut and reduplication are kinds of derivational morphology, meanwhile plural, possessive, past time, progressive, comparative and superlative are kinds of inflectional morphology. Morphology mostly used in writing and writing is the most difficult part in English subject as what it is said different from what it is written. Writing is related to composition and there 4 kinds of composition, they are: argumentation, description, exposition and narration. The morphology itself sometimes gives some difficulties to the learners when they are studying about writing.

  13. Micromechanical analysis of interaction energy for SMA reinforced composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The energy of the interaction between the matrix and the inclusions in shape memory alloy (SMA) re- inforced composite is one of the most important and complicated parts in thermodynamic constitutive theory. In this paper, the interaction energy is derived based on the classical theory of micromechanics and the thermodynamic theory. The SMA composite is treated as three phases, namely the austenitic phase, the martensite phase and the matrix phase. The interaction among the three phases is analyzed in a way close to the fact. The present expression is used to calculate the interaction energy of a typical SMA composite with attentions paid to understand of the effects of the matrix material, the fiber ge- ometry, and the fiber/matrix volume ratio. It is shown that the method developed in this paper is credible compared with the references. Some useful conclusions are obtained.

  14. Micromechanical analysis of interaction enersy for SMA reinforced composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU YuPing; DUI GuanSuo; DUO Liu

    2009-01-01

    The energy of the interaction between the matrix and the inclusions in shape memory alloy (SMA) re-inforced composite is one of the most important and complicated parts in thermodynamic constitutive theory. In this paper, the interaction energy is derived based on the classical theory of micromechanics and the thermodynamic theory. The SMA composite is treated as three phases, namely the austenitic phase, the martensite phase and the matrix phase. The interaction among the three phases is analyzed in a way close to the fact. The present expression is used to calculate the interaction energy of a typical SMA composite with attentions paid to understand of the effects of the matrix material, the fiber ge-ometry, and the fiber/matrix volume ratio. It is shown that the method developed in this paper is credi-ble compared with the references. Some useful conclusions are obtained.

  15. Design and analysis of composite structures with applications to aerospace structures

    CERN Document Server

    Kassapoglou, Christos

    2010-01-01

    Design and Analysis of Composite Structures enables graduate students and engineers to generate meaningful and robust designs of complex composite structures. Combining analysis and design methods for structural components, the book begins with simple topics such as skins and stiffeners and progresses through to entire components of fuselages and wings. Starting with basic mathematical derivation followed by simplifications used in real-world design, Design and Analysis of Composite Structures presents the level of accuracy and range of applicability of each method. Examples taken from ac

  16. A Multiscale, Nonlinear, Modeling Framework Enabling the Design and Analysis of Composite Materials and Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2012-01-01

    A framework for the multiscale design and analysis of composite materials and structures is presented. The ImMAC software suite, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center, embeds efficient, nonlinear micromechanics capabilities within higher scale structural analysis methods such as finite element analysis. The result is an integrated, multiscale tool that relates global loading to the constituent scale, captures nonlinearities at this scale, and homogenizes local nonlinearities to predict their effects at the structural scale. Example applications of the multiscale framework are presented for the stochastic progressive failure of a SiC/Ti composite tensile specimen and the effects of microstructural variations on the nonlinear response of woven polymer matrix composites.

  17. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah

    2011-01-01

    The sugar composition and viscoelastic behaviour of Iranian gum tragacanth exuded by six species of Astragalus was investigated at a concentration of 1.3% and varying ionic strength using a controlled shear-rate rheometer. Compositional analysis of the six species of gum tragacanth by high...

  18. Genetic analysis of protein composition of bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopen, G.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of the Dutch Milk Genomics Initiative, and the general aim was to obtain more insight into the genetic background of bovine milk protein composition. Morning milk samples from roughly 2000 cows were analyzed for the six major milk proteins (αS1-casein, αS2-casein, β-casein,

  19. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem C.; Hattel, Jesper H.

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation c

  20. Probabilistic thermo-chemical analysis of a pultruded composite rod

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baran, Ismet; Tutum, Cem Celal; Hattel, Jesper Henri

    2012-01-01

    In the present study the deterministic thermo-chemical pultrusion simulation of a composite rod taken from the literature [7] is used as a validation case. The predicted centerline temperature and cure degree profiles of the rod match well with those in the literature [7]. Following the validation...

  1. Blast testing and analysis of composite steel stud wall panels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wesevich, J.W.; Lowak, M.J.; Hu, W.; Bingham, B.L. [Baker Engineering and Risk Consultants Inc., San Antonio, TX (United States); Hallisy, J. [Fiberwrap Composite Technologies, Calverton, NY (United States); Calcetas, P. [Lafarge North America, Concord, ON (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This paper described a novel modular blast resistant composite steel stud wall panel system. The system was manufactured by casting steel studs with thin, high-strength concrete. Ten composite panel design specimens were evaluated and tested at a shock tube test facility. Specimens included both 12 and 16 gauge 6 inch cold-formed double or single studs spaced at either 12 or 16 inches on center. Samples also included both steam and ambient cured concretes with steel or organic fibers ranging in thickness between 1 and 2 inches. A welded wire mesh within the concrete layer was used to provide composite action. Results of the blast tests showed that the composite panels achieved minimal damage levels under applied blast loads, which ranged from between 15.9 psi to 205 psi. Peak dynamic reflections ranged from between 2.75 increase to 12 inches. It was concluded that finite element models and single-degree-of-freedom (SDOF) analyses showed good agreement with the experimental studies.

  2. High Content Analysis of Compositional Heterogeneities to Study GPCR Oligomerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Samuel McEwen

    In this thesis I demonstrate how the natural compositional heterogeneities of synthetic and living cell model systems can be used to quantitate the mechanics of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomerization with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The thesis is structured around three a...

  3. Error Analysis in Composition of Iranian Lower Intermediate Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taghavi, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    Learners make errors during the process of learning languages. This study examines errors in writing task of twenty Iranian lower intermediate male students aged between 13 and 15. A subject was given to the participants was a composition about the seasons of a year. All of the errors were identified and classified. Corder's classification (1967)…

  4. Vibration Analysis of Composite Rectangular Plates Reinforced along Curved Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinya; Oonishi, Yoshimasa; Narita, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Katsuhiko

    In the past few decades, composite materials composed of straight fibers and polymer matrix have gained their status as the most promising material for light-weight structures. Technical merit of the composites as tailored material also provided practical advantages in the optimum design process. Recently, it is reported that the fabrication machine has been developed to make curved fibers embedded in the matrix material. Based on such technical advancement, this paper proposes an analytical method to study vibration of composite rectangular plates reinforced along curved lines. The approach is based on the Ritz method where variable fiber direction can be accommodated. For this purpose, the fibers continuously changing their direction are formulated as the variable bending stiffness in the total potential energy. A frequency equation is derived by the Ritz minimizing process, and frequency parameters are calculated as the eigenvlaues in the eigenvalue problem. In numerical results, the accuracy of the method is presented by comparing present results with FEM results. The advantages of present plate are confirmed by comparing natural frequencies and mode shapes with those of conventional composite and isotropic plates, and the effectiveness of the new solution to the most recent problem is demonstrated.

  5. Analysis of Damage in a Ceramic Matrix Composite

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Bent F.; Talreja, Ramesh

    1993-01-01

    Mechanisms of damage and the associated mechanical response are stud ied for a unidirectionally fiber-reinforced ceramic matrix composite subjected to uniaxial tensile loading parallel to fibers. A multi-stage development of damage is identified, and for each stage the governing mechanisms...

  6. Buckling Analysis of Grid-Stiffened Composite Shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, D.; Abdalla, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in grid-stiffened composite structures; they are not only competitive with conventional stiffened constructions and sandwich shells in terms of weight but also enjoy superior damage tolerance properties. In this paper, both global and local structural instabilities are

  7. Technical note: stress analysis of cellulosic-manure composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Y.H. Ro; J.F. Hunt; R.E. Rowlands

    2017-01-01

    Ability to determine stresses in loaded, perforated cellulosic-manure composites from recorded temperature information was demonstrated. Being able to stress analyze such green materials addresses several societal issues. These include providing engineering members fabricated from materials that are suitable for developed and developing nations, relieving a troubling...

  8. Automated Analysis of Composition and Style of Photographs and Paintings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Computational aesthetics is a newly emerging cross-disciplinary field with its core situated in traditional research areas such as image processing and computer vision. Using a computer to interpret aesthetic terms for images is very challenging. In this dissertation, I focus on solving specific problems about analyzing the composition and style…

  9. Buckling Analysis of Grid-Stiffened Composite Shells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, D.; Abdalla, M.M.

    2014-01-01

    There is a renewed interest in grid-stiffened composite structures; they are not only competitive with conventional stiffened constructions and sandwich shells in terms of weight but also enjoy superior damage tolerance properties. In this paper, both global and local structural instabilities are in

  10. [Analysis of fatty composition from different parts of Ganoderma lucidum].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jing-jing; Liu, Jing-jing; Si, Jin-ping; Cao, Long-shu

    2015-07-01

    The oil content and fatty acid composition of Ganoderma lucidum collected from different producing areas, varieties, tissue types and growth periods were measured and analyzed. The results showed that the oil content was 23. 61%-34.17% in different domestic producing areas of China; the oil content of fruiting bodies from major varieties cultured in Zhejiang province were 0.81%-1.87%, wall-unbroken spores were 0.07%-0.24%, wall-broken spores were 27.54%-34.17%, so the oil content of wall-unbroken spores were much higher than fruiting bodies, and wall-breaking treatment would increase the oil extraction rate 150-340 times. G. lucidum spores oil was mainly composed of unsaturated fatty acid composition. oleic acid and linoleic content were 53.26%-58.16% and 10.69%-16.87% respectively. Fatty acid composition ratio of spores and fruiting bodies were significantly different by PLS-DA. Determining the composition of fatty acid, especially the content of oleic acid, stearic acid and palmitic acid, could identify the tissue types of G. lucidum products' sources. In addition, the study result showed that the spores and fruiting bodies collected in the first year contained richer oil and fatty acid than second year's samples from the same variety of G. lucidum.

  11. Probabilistic FE analysis of a cable stayed composite bridge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boer, A. de; Waarts, P.H.

    1999-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a new cable stayed composite bridge near Kampen in the Netherlands. In the design process, the safety of bridges is insured by means of partial safety factors for both strength and load parameters. As a result it is generally accepted that the structure as a whole

  12. Analysis of Fatty Acid Content and Composition in Microalgae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breuer, G.; Evers, W.A.C.; Vree, de J.H.; Kleinegris, D.M.M.; Martens, D.E.; Wijffels, R.H.; Lamers, P.P.

    2013-01-01

    A method to determine the content and composition of total fatty acids present in microalgae is described. Fatty acids are a major constituent of microalgal biomass. These fatty acids can be present in different acyl-lipid classes. Especially the fatty acids present in triacylglycerol (TAG) are of c

  13. Hierarchical Scheduling Framework Based on Compositional Analysis Using Uppaal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boudjadar, Jalil; David, Alexandre; Kim, Jin Hyun

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a reconfigurable compositional scheduling framework, in which the hierarchical structure, the scheduling policies, the concrete task behavior and the shared resources can all be reconfigured. The behavior of each periodic preemptive task is given as a list of timed actions, ...

  14. Fractographic analysis of tensile failures of aerospace grade composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masa Suresh Kumar

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes fractographic features observed in aerospace composites failed under tensile loads. Unidirectional Carbon Fibre Reinforced Plastic (UD CFRP and Unidirectional Glass Fibre Reinforced Plastic (UD GFRP composite specimens were fabricated and tested in tension. The morphology of fractured surfaces was studied at various locations to identify failure mechanism and characteristic fractographic features. CFRP composites displayed transverse crack propagation and the fracture surface showed three distinct regions, viz., crack origin, propagation and final failure. Significant variations in the fractographic features were noticed in crack propagation and final failure regions. Crack propagation region exhibited brittle fracture with chevron lines emanating from the crack origin. The entire crack propagation region exhibited radial marks on the individual fibre broken ends. On the other hand, the final fracture region revealed longitudinal matrix splitting and radial marks in majority of locations, and chop marks at some locations. The change in fracture mode in the final fracture was attributed to superimposition of bending loads. GFRP composites exhibited broom like fracture with extensive longitudinal splitting with radial marks present on individual fibre broken ends. Transverse fracture was observed at a few locations. These fracture features were analyzed and correlated with the loading conditions.

  15. A Simplified Analysis of the Brazier Effect in Composite Beams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Damkilde, Lars; Lund, B.

    2009-01-01

    In the design of windturbine blades composite beams are often used as the load bearing element. The beam is primarily subjected to bending moments, and the deformations are relatively large. The large displacements result in a kind of ovalization of the beam section, the so-called Brazier effect...

  16. High Content Analysis of Compositional Heterogeneities to Study GPCR Oligomerization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Walsh, Samuel McEwen

    In this thesis I demonstrate how the natural compositional heterogeneities of synthetic and living cell model systems can be used to quantitate the mechanics of G-protein coupled receptor (GPCR) oligomerization with Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET). The thesis is structured around three a...

  17. Genetic analysis of protein composition of bovine milk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schopen, G.C.B.

    2010-01-01

    This thesis is part of the Dutch Milk Genomics Initiative, and the general aim was to obtain more insight into the genetic background of bovine milk protein composition. Morning milk samples from roughly 2000 cows were analyzed for the six major milk proteins (αS1-casein, αS2-casein, β-casein, κ-cas

  18. Stress analysis of composite spur gear using the finite element approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayarangan, S.; Ganesan, N.

    1993-03-01

    Engineering components made of composite materials find increasing applications ranging from spacecraft to small instruments. Many types of gear pump use composite gears, however little literature is available on their use. In this paper results obtained by static stress analysis of composite gears using a three-dimensional finite element approach are presented. Performance of two orthotropic material gears are presented and compared with mild steel gear. From the results it is concluded that composite material such as graphite/epoxy can be thought of as a material for power transmission gears.

  19. Radioactive waste management complex low-level waste radiological composite analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCarthy, J.M.; Becker, B.H.; Magnuson, S.O.; Keck, K.N.; Honeycutt, T.K.

    1998-05-01

    The composite analysis estimates the projected cumulative impacts to future members of the public from the disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLW) at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) Radioactive Waste Management Complex (RWMC) and all other sources of radioactive contamination at the INEEL that could interact with the LLW disposal facility to affect the radiological dose. Based upon the composite analysis evaluation, waste buried in the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) at the RWMC is the only source at the INEEL that will significantly interact with the LLW facility. The source term used in the composite analysis consists of all historical SDA subsurface disposals of radionuclides as well as the authorized LLW subsurface disposal inventory and projected LLW subsurface disposal inventory. Exposure scenarios evaluated in the composite analysis include all the all-pathways and groundwater protection scenarios. The projected dose of 58 mrem/yr exceeds the composite analysis guidance dose constraint of 30 mrem/yr; therefore, an options analysis was conducted to determine the feasibility of reducing the projected annual dose. Three options for creating such a reduction were considered: (1) lowering infiltration of precipitation through the waste by providing a better cover, (2) maintaining control over the RWMC and portions of the INEEL indefinitely, and (3) extending the period of institutional control beyond the 100 years assumed in the composite analysis. Of the three options investigated, maintaining control over the RWMC and a small part of the present INEEL appears to be feasible and cost effective.

  20. Ehealth monitoring in irritable bowel syndrome patients treated with low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols diet

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Natalia; Vegh, Zsuzsanna; Burisch, Johan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www.ibs.constant-care......In the present study we report on changes in irritable bowel syndrome-severity scoring system (IBS-SSS) and irritable bowel syndrome-quality of life (IBS-QoL) in 19 IBS patients, aged 18 to 74 years (F/M: 14/5), during 12 wk registering their symptoms on the web-application (www.......ibs.constant-care.dk). During a control period of the first 6-wk patients were asked to register their IBS-SSS and IBS-QoL on the web-application weekly without receiving any intervention. Thereafter, low fermentable oligo-, di-, mono-saccharides and polyols (FODMAP) diet (LFD) was introduced for the next 6 wk while continuing...... the registration. Though a small sample size a significant improvement in disease activity (IBS-SSS) was observed during both the control period, median: 278 (range: 122-377), P = 0.02, and subsequently during the LFD period, median: 151 (range: 29-334), P

  1. Using monosaccharide anhydrides to estimate the impact of wood combustion on fine particles in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saarnio, K.; Saarikoski, S. [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Helsinki (Finland); Niemi, J.V. [HSY Helsinki Region Environmental Services Authority, Helsinki (Finland)

    2012-11-01

    The spatiotemporal variation of ambient particles under the influence of biomass burning emissions was studied in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area (HMA) in selected periods during 2005-2009. Monosaccharide anhydrides (MAs; levoglucosan, mannosan and galactosan), commonly known biomass burning tracers, were used to estimate the wood combustion contribution to local particulate matter (PM) concentration levels at three urban background sites close to the city centre, and at three suburban sites influenced by local small-scale wood combustion. In the cold season (October-March), the mean MAs concentrations were 115-225 ng m{sup -3} and 83-98 ng m{sup -} {sup 3}at the suburban and urban sites, respectively. In the warm season, the mean MAs concentrations were low (19-78 ng m{sup -3}), excluding open land fire smoke episodes (222-378 ng m{sup -}3{sup )}. Regionally distributed wood combustion particles raised the levels over the whole HMA while particles from local wood combustion sources raised the level at suburban sites only. The estimated average contribution of wood combustion to fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) ranged from 18% to 29% at the urban sites and from 31% to 66% at the suburban sites in the cold season. The PM measurements from ambient air and combustion experiments showed that the proportions of the three MAs can be utilised to separate the wildfire particles from residential wood combustion particles. (orig.)

  2. SemanticSCo: A platform to support the semantic composition of services for gene expression analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guardia, Gabriela D A; Ferreira Pires, Luís; da Silva, Eduardo G; de Farias, Cléver R G

    2017-02-01

    Gene expression studies often require the combined use of a number of analysis tools. However, manual integration of analysis tools can be cumbersome and error prone. To support a higher level of automation in the integration process, efforts have been made in the biomedical domain towards the development of semantic web services and supporting composition environments. Yet, most environments consider only the execution of simple service behaviours and requires users to focus on technical details of the composition process. We propose a novel approach to the semantic composition of gene expression analysis services that addresses the shortcomings of the existing solutions. Our approach includes an architecture designed to support the service composition process for gene expression analysis, and a flexible strategy for the (semi) automatic composition of semantic web services. Finally, we implement a supporting platform called SemanticSCo to realize the proposed composition approach and demonstrate its functionality by successfully reproducing a microarray study documented in the literature. The SemanticSCo platform provides support for the composition of RESTful web services semantically annotated using SAWSDL. Our platform also supports the definition of constraints/conditions regarding the order in which service operations should be invoked, thus enabling the definition of complex service behaviours. Our proposed solution for semantic web service composition takes into account the requirements of different stakeholders and addresses all phases of the service composition process. It also provides support for the definition of analysis workflows at a high-level of abstraction, thus enabling users to focus on biological research issues rather than on the technical details of the composition process. The SemanticSCo source code is available at https://github.com/usplssb/SemanticSCo. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. ENSO Forecasts in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble: Composite Analysis and Verification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, L. C.

    2015-12-01

    In this study, we examine precipitation and temperature forecasts during El Nino/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) events in six models in the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME), including the CFSv2, CanCM3, CanCM4, FLOR, GEOS5, and CCSM4 models, by comparing the model-based ENSO composites to the observed. The composite analysis is conducted using the 1982-2010 hindcasts for each of the six models with selected ENSO episodes based on the seasonal Ocean Nino Index (ONI) just prior to the date the forecasts were initiated. Two sets of composites are constructed over the North American continent: one based on precipitation and temperature anomalies, the other based on their probability of occurrence in a tercile-based system. The composites apply to monthly mean conditions in November, December, January, February, and March, respectively, as well as to the five-month aggregates representing the winter conditions. For the anomaly composites, we use the anomaly correlation coefficient and root-mean-square error against the observed composites for evaluation. For the probability composites, unlike conventional probabilistic forecast verification assuming binary outcomes to the observations, both model and observed composites are expressed in probability terms. Performance metrics for such validation are limited. Therefore, we develop a probability anomaly correlation measure and a probability score for assessment, so the results are comparable to the anomaly composite evaluation. We found that all NMME models predict ENSO precipitation patterns well during wintertime; however, some models have large discrepancies between the model temperature composites and the observed. The skill is higher for the multi-model ensemble, as well as the five-month aggregates. Comparing to the anomaly composites, the probability composites have superior skill in predicting ENSO temperature patterns and are less sensitive to the sample used to construct the composites, suggesting that

  4. Automated Design and Analysis Tool for CLV/CEV Composite and Metallic Structural Components Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The innovation of the proposed effort is a unique automated process for the analysis, design, and sizing of CLV/CEV composite and metallic structures. This developed...

  5. Addendum to the composite analysis for the E-Area Vaults and Saltstone Disposal Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cook, J.R.

    2000-03-13

    This report documents the composite analysis performed on the two active SRS low-level radioactive waste disposal facilities. The facilities are the Z-Area Saltstone Disposal Facility and the E-Area Vaults Disposal Facility.

  6. Absorption capacity of fructose in healthy adults. Comparison with sucrose and its constituent monosaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rumessen, J J; Gudmand-Høyer, E

    1986-01-01

    The capacity to absorb fructose in 10 healthy adults was investigated by means of hydrogen breath analysis. Fructose absorption was quantified with lactulose standards. Significant hydrogen production (greater than or equal to 20 ppm rise of breath hydrogen) was found after challenge with 10...

  7. Effects of Structural Damage on Dynamic Behavior at Sandwich Composite Beams – Part II- FEM Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Tufoi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents results obtained by modal analysis on composite beam like structures in healthy and damaged state. The aim is to obtain damage “signatures” for all possible damage scenarios and to use these data to assess transversal cracks based on vibration techniques, by involving natural frequency shifts. The analysis was performed in SolidWorks software for a five-layer composite, 20 vibration modes being obtained by numerical simulation.

  8. Effect of roasting on the carbohydrate composition of Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Coffee beans (arabica) with different degrees of roast were sequentially extracted with water (90 °C, 1 h), water (170 °C, 30 min), and 0.05 M NaOH (0 °C, 1 h). The amount and composition of polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in the extracts and residues were analyzed. The results

  9. Effect of roasting on the carbohydrate composition of Coffea arabica beans.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oosterveld, A.; Voragen, A.G.J.; Schols, H.A.

    2003-01-01

    Coffee beans (arabica) with different degrees of roast were sequentially extracted with water (90 °C, 1 h), water (170 °C, 30 min), and 0.05 M NaOH (0 °C, 1 h). The amount and composition of polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and monosaccharides in the extracts and residues were analyzed. The results

  10. Composition of Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) produced by Flavobacterium columnare isolated from tropical fish in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Alexandre Sebastião, Fernanda; Pilarski, Fabiana; Lemos, Manoel Victor Franco

    2013-01-01

    Thirty nine isolates of Flavobacterium columnare from Brazilian fish farms had their carbohydrate composition of EPS evaluated by high efficiency liquid chromatography, using the phenol-sulfuric acid method of EPS. The occurrence of capsules on F. columnare cells was not directly related to biofilm formation, and the predominant monosaccharide is glucose.

  11. Analysis of fatty acid composition in human bone marrow aspirates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshimaru, Ryota; Ishitani, Ken; Makita, Kazuya; Horiguchi, Fumi; Nozawa, Shiro

    2005-09-01

    In the present study, the fatty acid composition of bone marrow aspirates and serum phospholipids in nine patients with hematologic diseases was investigated, and the effect of fatty acids on osteoblast differentiation in ST2 cells was examined. The concentrations of oleic acid and palmitic acid were significantly higher in bone marrow aspirates than in serum phospholipids, but the concentrations of other fatty acids did not differ. The rate of alkaline phosphatase positive ST2 cells induced by BMP2 was significantly increased by oleic acid, but was unaffected by the presence or absence of palmitic acid. We conclude that the fatty acid composition of bone marrow aspirates differs from that of serum phospholipids. This difference may affect osteoblast differentiation in the bone marrow microenvironment.

  12. Body composition as measured by in vivo neutron activation analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohn, S.H.; Sawitsky, A.; Vartsky, D.; Yasumura, S.; Zanzi, I.; Gartenhaus, W.; Ellis, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A large scale study is currently underway on the changes in body composition resulting from the cachexia of malignancy. The ultimate objective of the overall project is to assess the changes in body composition associated with hyperalimentation and other modes of nutritional support to cancer patients. The first phase of this study is now in progress. In this phase, a study is being made of a control group of normal patients to provide baseline data against which data from cancer patients can be evaluated. Total body nitrogen and potassium are measured in a group of normal men and women, and are analyzed as a function of age. Additionally, changes in skeletal mass (total body calcium) are also recorded, and body water is measured simultaneously with the use of tritiated water.

  13. Peridynamics for analysis of failure in advanced composite materials

    KAUST Repository

    Askari, A.

    2015-08-14

    Peridynamics has been recently introduced as a way to simulate the initiation and propagation of multiple discontinuities (e.g. cracks). It is an alternative to classical continuum damage mechanics and fracture mechanics and is based on a nonlocal rewriting of the equilibrium equation. This new technique is particularly promising in the case of composite materials, in which very complex mechanisms of degradation must be described. We present here some fundamental aspects of peridynamics models for composite materials, and especially laminates. We also propose an approach to couple peridynamics domains with classical continuum mechanics (which relies on the concept of contact forces) by the use of a recently introduced coupling technique: the morphing technique, that appears to be a very versatile and powerful tool for coupling local to nonlocal descriptions.

  14. Failure analysis and surety design of composite patching systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamoush, Sameer (North Carolina A& T State University, Greensboro, NC)

    2004-08-01

    This work presents an experimental evaluation of patch repair of solid laminated composites. The study was focused on destructive and nondestructive tests of full-scale repaired panels under static tension loading conditions. The testing program consisted of ten panels: three pristine, three damaged, three repaired and one repaired with mismatched fiber orientation patch. The evaluated panels were (300 mm x 675 mm) in size and consisted of 6-ply ((-60 /60/0){sub s}) quasi-isotropic laminates. The destructive tests were performed by North Carolina A&T State University and the nondestructive tests were performed by Iowa State University using Pulse-echo C-scan, Air coupled TTU and Auto-Tap. Sandia National Laboratories validated the NDT tests by implementing NDE field methods. Based on the evaluation performed in this study, it appears that the patch repair is an effective means in retrofitting damaged solid composite laminates.

  15. Analysis of laminated composite shells under internal pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, F. G.

    1991-01-01

    A closed form solution is presented that predicts the response of filament wound composite shells subjected to internal pressure. The material of the shell is assumed to be general cylindrically anisotropic. Based on the theory of cylindrical anisotropic elasticity coupled differential equations are developed using Lekhnitskii's stress function approach. Two composite systems, graphite/epoxy and glass/epoxy, are selected to demonstrate the influence of degree of material anisotropy and fiber orientations on the axial and induced twisting deformation. Detailed stress distributions of (45) off-axis unidirectional and (45/-45)s symmetric angle-ply fiber-reinforced laminated shells are shown to illustrate the effect of radius-to-thickness ratio and stacking sequence.

  16. The Interlayer Stress Analysis of Polyethylene-steel Composite Pipes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WEI Xu-guang

    2016-01-01

    Polyethylene-steel Composite Pipes is widely used in conveying corrosive media occasions, but the pipe may lose effectiveness in the process of transporting hot and cold media, so the research of stress distribution and variation in polyethylene-steel composite pipes is very necessary.This article first assume that a thin adhesive layer is in between the polyethylene and steel, the adhesive layer along the axial shear stress is the major cause of the polyethylene layer and the steel pipe off sticky.Secondly, we use a method of finite element to computer simulation by ANSYS, and verify initial assumptions. Finally, based on simulation data, we analyse the adhesive layer stress distribution and the variation with different parameters to change.Through the above research, preliminarily summarize the variation and distribution of interlaminar stress, and provide technical support for future design and process improvement of polyethylenesteel pipe.

  17. New numerical analysis method in computational mechanics: composite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A new type of FEM, called CEM (composite element method), is proposed to solve the static and dynamic problems of engineering structures with high accuracy and efficiency. The core of this method is to define two sets of coordinate systems for DOF's description after discretizing the structure, i.e. the nodal coordinate system UFEM(ξ) for employing the conventional FEM, and the field coordinate system UCT(ξ) for utilizing classical theory. Then, coupling these two sets of functional expressions could obtain the composite displacement field U(ξ) of CEM. The computations of the stiffness and mass matrices can follow the conventional procedure of FEM. Since the CEM inherents some good properties of the conventional FEM and classical analytical method, it has the powerful versatility to various complex geometric shapes and excellent approximation. Many examples are presented to demonstrate the ability of CEM.

  18. Flexural analysis of palm fiber reinforced hybrid polymer matrix composite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venkatachalam, G.; Gautham Shankar, A.; Raghav, Dasarath; Santhosh Kiran, R.; Mahesh, Bhargav; Kumar, Krishna

    2015-07-01

    Uncertainty in availability of fossil fuels in the future and global warming increased the need for more environment friendly materials. In this work, an attempt is made to fabricate a hybrid polymer matrix composite. The blend is a mixture of General Purpose Resin and Cashew Nut Shell Liquid, a natural resin extracted from cashew plant. Palm fiber, which has high strength, is used as reinforcement material. The fiber is treated with alkali (NaOH) solution to increase its strength and adhesiveness. Parametric study of flexure strength is carried out by varying alkali concentration, duration of alkali treatment and fiber volume. Taguchi L9 Orthogonal array is followed in the design of experiments procedure for simplification. With the help of ANOVA technique, regression equations are obtained which gives the level of influence of each parameter on the flexure strength of the composite.

  19. New numerical analysis method in computational mechanics: composite element method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾攀

    2000-01-01

    A new type of FEM, called CEM (composite element method), is proposed to solve the static and dynamic problems of engineering structures with high accuracy and efficiency. The core of this method is to define two sets of coordinate systems for DOF’ s description after discretizing the structure, i.e. the nodal coordinate system UFEM(ζ) for employing the conventional FEM, and the field coordinate system UCT(ζ) for utilizing classical theory. Then, coupling these two sets of functional expressions could obtain the composite displacement field U(ζ) of CEM. The computations of the stiffness and mass matrices can follow the conventional procedure of FEM. Since the CEM inherents some good properties of the conventional FEM and classical analytical method, it has the powerful versatility to various complex geometric shapes and excellent approximation. Many examples are presented to demonstrate the ability of CEM.

  20. Finite Element Analysis of Adaptive-Stiffening and Shape-Control SMA Hybrid Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Xiujie; Burton, Deborah; Turner, Travis L.; Brinson, Catherine

    2005-01-01

    Shape memory alloy hybrid composites with adaptive-stiffening or morphing functions are simulated using finite element analysis. The composite structure is a laminated fiber-polymer composite beam with embedded SMA ribbons at various positions with respect to the neutral axis of the beam. Adaptive stiffening or morphing is activated via selective resistance heating of the SMA ribbons or uniform thermal loads on the beam. The thermomechanical behavior of these composites was simulated in ABAQUS using user-defined SMA elements. The examples demonstrate the usefulness of the methods for the design and simulation of SMA hybrid composites. Keywords: shape memory alloys, Nitinol, ABAQUS, finite element analysis, post-buckling control, shape control, deflection control, adaptive stiffening, morphing, constitutive modeling, user element

  1. THE ERROR ANALYSIS IN WRITING AN ENGLISH NARRATIVE COMPOSITION

    OpenAIRE

    Paramita Kusumawardhani

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the research is to analyze about morphology in writing an English narrative composition. Morphology is the study of morphemes which are the smallest significant units of grammar. There are two kinds of morphology, they are derivational and inflectional. Affixes such as suffixes, infixes, prefixes, ablaut and reduplication are kinds of derivational morphology, meanwhile plural, possessive, past time, progressive, comparative and superlative are kinds of inflectional morphology. ...

  2. O-fucose monosaccharide of Drosophila Notch has a temperature-sensitive function and cooperates with O-glucose glycan in Notch transport and Notch signaling activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishio, Akira; Sasamura, Takeshi; Ayukawa, Tomonori; Kuroda, Junpei; Ishikawa, Hiroyuki O; Aoyama, Naoki; Matsumoto, Kenjiroo; Gushiken, Takuma; Okajima, Tetsuya; Yamakawa, Tomoko; Matsuno, Kenji

    2015-01-02

    Notch (N) is a transmembrane receptor that mediates the cell-cell interactions necessary for many cell fate decisions. N has many epidermal growth factor-like repeats that are O-fucosylated by the protein O-fucosyltransferase 1 (O-Fut1), and the O-fut1 gene is essential for N signaling. However, the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose on N is unclear, because O-Fut1 also appears to have O-fucosyltransferase activity-independent functions, including as an N-specific chaperon. Such an enzymatic activity-independent function could account for the essential role of O-fut1 in N signaling. To evaluate the role of the monosaccharide O-fucose modification in N signaling, here we generated a knock-in mutant of O-fut1 (O-fut1(R245A knock-in)), which expresses a mutant protein that lacks O-fucosyltransferase activity but maintains the N-specific chaperon activity. Using O-fut1(R245A knock-in) and other gene mutations that abolish the O-fucosylation of N, we found that the monosaccharide O-fucose modification of N has a temperature-sensitive function that is essential for N signaling. The O-fucose monosaccharide and O-glucose glycan modification, catalyzed by Rumi, function redundantly in the activation of N signaling. We also showed that the redundant function of these two modifications is responsible for the presence of N at the cell surface. Our findings elucidate how different forms of glycosylation on a protein can influence the protein's functions.

  3. Monitoring of monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, ethanol and glycerol during wort fermentation by biosensors, HPLC and spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monošík, Rastislav; Magdolen, Peter; Stredanský, Miroslav; Šturdík, Ernest

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze sugar levels (namely maltose, maltotriose, glucose and fructose) and alcohols (ethanol and glycerol) during the fermentation process in wort samples by amperometric enzymatic biosensors developed by our research group for industrial application, HPLC and spectrophotometry, and to compare the suitability of the presented methods for determination of individual analytes. We can conclude that for the specific monitoring of maltose or maltotriose only the HPLC method was suitable. On the other hand, biosensors and spectrophotometry reflected a decrease in total sugar concentration better and were able to detect both glucose and fructose in the later stages of fermentation, while HPLC was not. This can be attributed to the low detection limits and good sensitivity of the proposed methods. For the ethanol and glycerol analysis all methods proved to be suitable. However, concerning the cost expenses and time analysis, biosensors represented the best option.

  4. High-Resolution Melt Analysis for Rapid Comparison of Bacterial Community Compositions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjelmsø, Mathis Hjort; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Bælum, Jacob

    2014-01-01

    and fertilization treatments. The HRM analysis identified a shift in the bacterial community composition in two of the treatments, both including the soil fumigant Basamid GR. These results were confirmed with both denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analysis and 454-based 16S rRNA gene amplicon......In the study of bacterial community composition, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing is today among the preferred methods of analysis. The cost of nucleotide sequence analysis, including requisite computational and bioinformatic steps, however, takes up a large part of many research budgets. High......-resolution melt (HRM) analysis is the study of the melt behavior of specific PCR products. Here we describe a novel high-throughput approach in which we used HRM analysis targeting the 16S rRNA gene to rapidly screen multiple complex samples for differences in bacterial community composition. We hypothesized...

  5. Determination of replicate composite bone material properties using modal analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leuridan, Steven; Goossens, Quentin; Pastrav, Leonard; Roosen, Jorg; Mulier, Michiel; Denis, Kathleen; Desmet, Wim; Sloten, Jos Vander

    2017-02-01

    Replicate composite bones are used extensively for in vitro testing of new orthopedic devices. Contrary to tests with cadaveric bone material, which inherently exhibits large variability, they offer a standardized alternative with limited variability. Accurate knowledge of the composite's material properties is important when interpreting in vitro test results and when using them in FE models of biomechanical constructs. The cortical bone analogue material properties of three different fourth-generation composite bone models were determined by updating FE bone models using experimental and numerical modal analyses results. The influence of the cortical bone analogue material model (isotropic or transversely isotropic) and the inter- and intra-specimen variability were assessed. Isotropic cortical bone analogue material models failed to represent the experimental behavior in a satisfactory way even after updating the elastic material constants. When transversely isotropic material models were used, the updating procedure resulted in a reduction of the longitudinal Young's modulus from 16.00GPa before updating to an average of 13.96 GPa after updating. The shear modulus was increased from 3.30GPa to an average value of 3.92GPa. The transverse Young's modulus was lowered from an initial value of 10.00GPa to 9.89GPa. Low inter- and intra-specimen variability was found. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimental analysis of electrical properties of composite materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiala, L.; Rovnaník, P.; Černý, R.

    2017-02-01

    Dry cement-based composites are electrically non-conductive materials that behave in electric field like dielectrics. However, a relatively low amount of electrically conductive admixture significantly increases the electrical conductivity which extends applicability of such materials in practice. Therefore, they can be used as self-monitoring sensors controlling development of cracks; as sensors monitoring moisture content or when treated by an external electrical voltage as heat sources used for deicing of material's surface layer. Alkali-activated aluminosilicates (AAA), as competing materials to cement-based materials, are intensively investigated in the present due to their superior durability and environmental impact. Whereas the electrical properties of AAA are similar to those cement-based, they can be enhanced in the same way. In both cases, it is crucial to find a reasonable amount of electrically conductive phase to design composites with a sufficient electrical conductivity at an affordable price. In this paper, electrical properties of composites based on AAA binder and electrically conductive admixture represented by carbon nanotubes (CNT) are investigated. Measurements of electrical properties are carried out by means of 2-probes DC technique on nine types of samples; reference sample without the conductive phase and samples with CNT admixture in amount of 0.1 % - 2.5 % by vol. A significant increase of the electrical conductivity starts from the amount of 0.5 % CNT admixture and in case of 2.5 % CNT is about three orders of magnitude higher compared to the reference sample.

  7. Modal analysis of additive manufactured carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite framework: Experiment and modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dryginin, N. V.; Krasnoveikin, V. A.; Filippov, A. V.; Tarasov, S. Yu.; Rubtsov, V. E.

    2016-11-01

    Additive manufacturing by 3D printing is the most advanced and promising trend for making the multicomponent composites. Polymer-based carbon fiber reinforced composites demonstrate high mechanical properties combined with low weight characteristics of the component. This paper shows the results of 3D modeling and experimental modal analysis on a polymer composite framework obtained using additive manufacturing. By the example of three oscillation modes it was shown the agreement between the results of modeling and experimental modal analysis with the use of laser Doppler vibrometry.

  8. An engineering analysis of penetration of metal ball into fibre-reinforced composite targets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-chi LI; Zhi-hai WANG; Xiao-jun WANG; Xiu-zhang HU

    2009-01-01

    An engineering analysis of computing the penetration problem of a steel ball penetrating into fibre-reinforced composite targets is presented. Assume the metal ball is a rigid body, and the composite target is a transversely isotropic elasto-plastic material. In the analysis, a spherical cavity dilatation model is incorporated in the cylindrical cavity penetration method. Simulation results based on the modified model are in good agreement with the results for 3-D Kevlar woven (3DKW) composite anti-penetration experiments. Effects of the target material parameters and impact parameters on the penetration problem are also studied.

  9. Generalized solution of design optimization and failure analysis of composite drive shaft

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kollipalli, K.; Shivaramakrishna, K.V.S.; Prabhakaran, R.T.D. [Birla Institute of Technology and Science, Goa (India)

    2012-07-01

    Composites have an edge over conventional metals like steel and aluminum due to higher stiffness-to-weight ratio and strength-to-weight ratio. Due to these advantages, composites can bring out a revolutionary change in materials used in automotive engineering, as weight savings has positive impacts on other attributes like fuel economy and possible noise, vibration and harshness (NVH). In this paper, the drive line system of an automotive system is targeted for use of composites by keeping constraints in view such as such as torque transmission, torsional buckling load and fundamental natural frequency. Composite drive shafts made of three different composites ('HM Carbon/HS Carbon/E-glass'-epoxy) was modeled using Catia V5R16 CPD workbench and a finite element analysis with boundary conditions, fiber orientation and stacking sequence was performed using ANSYS Composite module. Results obtained were compared to theoretical results and were found to be accurate and in the limits. This paper also speaks on drive shaft modeling and analysis generalization i.e., changes in stacking sequence in the future can be incorporated directly into ANSYS model without modeling it again in Catia. Hence the base model and analysis method made up in this analysis generalization facilitated by CAD/CAE can be used to carry out any composite shaft design optimization process. (Author)

  10. Isogeometric analysis for thin-walled composite structures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Guo, Y.

    2016-01-01

    The conceptual ideas behind isogeometric analysis (IGA) are aimed at unifying computer aided design (CAD) and finite element analysis (FEA). Isogeometric analysis employs the non-uniform rational B-spline functions (NURBS) used for the geometric description of a structure to approximate its physical

  11. Compositional analysis of polycrystalline hafnium oxide thin films by heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, F.L. [Departamento de Electronica y Tecnologia de Computadoras, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Campus Universitario Muralla del Mar, E-30202 Cartagena (Spain)]. E-mail: Felix.Martinez@upct.es; Toledano, M. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28025 Madrid (Spain); San Andres, E. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28025 Madrid (Spain); Martil, I. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28025 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Diaz, G. [Departamento de Fisica Aplicada III, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, E-28025 Madrid (Spain); Bohne, W. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abteilung SF-4, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Roehrich, J. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abteilung SF-4, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Strub, E. [Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin, Abteilung SF-4, D-14109 Berlin (Germany)

    2006-10-25

    The composition of polycrystalline hafnium oxide thin films has been measured by heavy-ion elastic recoil detection analysis (HI-ERDA). The films were deposited by high-pressure reactive sputtering (HPRS) on silicon wafers using an oxygen plasma at pressures between 0.8 and 1.6 mbar and during deposition times between 0.5 and 3.0 h. Hydrogen was found to be the main impurity and its concentration increased with deposition pressure. The composition was always slightly oxygen-rich, which is attributed to the oxygen plasma. Additionally, an interfacial silicon oxide thin layer was detected and taken into account. The thickness of the hafnium oxide film was found to increase linearly with deposition time and to decrease exponentially with deposition pressure, whereas the thickness of the silicon oxide interfacial layer has a minimum as a function of pressure at around 1.2 mbar and increases slightly as a function of time. The measurements confirmed that this interfacial layer is formed mainly during the early stages of the deposition process.

  12. Analytical Micromechanics Modeling Technique Developed for Ceramic Matrix Composites Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, James B.

    2005-01-01

    Ceramic matrix composites (CMCs) promise many advantages for next-generation aerospace propulsion systems. Specifically, carbon-reinforced silicon carbide (C/SiC) CMCs enable higher operational temperatures and provide potential component weight savings by virtue of their high specific strength. These attributes may provide systemwide benefits. Higher operating temperatures lessen or eliminate the need for cooling, thereby reducing both fuel consumption and the complex hardware and plumbing required for heat management. This, in turn, lowers system weight, size, and complexity, while improving efficiency, reliability, and service life, resulting in overall lower operating costs.

  13. Switchgrass alkaline pretreatment, enzymatic saccharification, and fermentation with residual oligosaccharide product analysis by mass spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switchgrass (SG) is a potential renewable biomass source for conversion to liquid biofuels. Efficient conversion requires effective strategies for pretreatment and enzymatic saccharification to fermentable sugars. Standard analysis of fermentation broth includes detection of monosaccharides and etha...

  14. Compositional analysis: a valid approach to analyze microbiome high-throughput sequencing data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gloor, Gregory B; Reid, Gregor

    2016-08-01

    A workshop held at the 2015 annual meeting of the Canadian Society of Microbiologists highlighted compositional data analysis methods and the importance of exploratory data analysis for the analysis of microbiome data sets generated by high-throughput DNA sequencing. A summary of the content of that workshop, a review of new methods of analysis, and information on the importance of careful analyses are presented herein. The workshop focussed on explaining the rationale behind the use of compositional data analysis, and a demonstration of these methods for the examination of 2 microbiome data sets. A clear understanding of bioinformatics methodologies and the type of data being analyzed is essential, given the growing number of studies uncovering the critical role of the microbiome in health and disease and the need to understand alterations to its composition and function following intervention with fecal transplant, probiotics, diet, and pharmaceutical agents.

  15. Experimental research and statistic analysis of polymer composite adhesive joints strength

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudawska, Anna; Miturska, Izabela; Szabelski, Jakub; Skoczylas, Agnieszka; Droździel, Paweł; Bociąga, Elżbieta; Madleňák, Radovan; Kasperek, Dariusz

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this paper is to determine the effect of arrangement of fibreglass fabric plies in a polymer composite on adhesive joint strength. Based on the experimental results, the real effect of plies arrangement and their most favourable configuration with respect to strength is determined. The experiments were performed on 3 types of composites which had different fibre orientations. The composites had three plies of fabric. The plies arrangement in Composite I was unchanged, in Composite II the central ply had the 45° orientation, while in Composite III the outside ply (tangential to the adhesive layer) was oriented at 45°. Composite plates were first cut into smaller specimens and then adhesive-bonded in different combinations with Epidian 61/Z1/100:10 epoxy adhesive. After stabilizing, the single-lap adhesive joints were subjected to shear strength tests. It was noted that plies arrangement in composite materials affects the strength of adhesive joints made of these composites between the values of the strength of the confidence level of 0.95. The statistical analysis of the results also showed that there are no statistical significant differences in average values of surface free energy (0.95 confidence level).

  16. Proteomics based compositional analysis of complex cellulase-hemicellulase mixtures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chundawat, Shishir P.; Lipton, Mary S.; Purvine, Samuel O.; Uppugundla, Nirmal; Gao, Dahai; Balan, Venkatesh; Dale, Bruce E.

    2011-10-07

    Efficient deconstruction of cellulosic biomass to fermentable sugars for fuel and chemical production is accomplished by a complex mixture of cellulases, hemicellulases and accessory enzymes (e.g., >50 extracellular proteins). Cellulolytic enzyme mixtures, produced industrially mostly using fungi like Trichoderma reesei, are poorly characterized in terms of their protein composition and its correlation to hydrolytic activity on cellulosic biomass. The secretomes of commercial glycosyl hydrolase producing microbes was explored using a proteomics approach with high-throughput quantification using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Here, we show that proteomics based spectral counting approach is a reasonably accurate and rapid analytical technique that can be used to determine protein composition of complex glycosyl hydrolase mixtures that also correlates with the specific activity of individual enzymes present within the mixture. For example, a strong linear correlation was seen between Avicelase activity and total cellobiohydrolase content. Reliable, quantitative and cheaper analytical methods that provide insight into the cellulosic biomass degrading fungal and bacterial secretomes would lead to further improvements towards commercialization of plant biomass derived fuels and chemicals.

  17. Analysis of composition complicated binary mixture by quantitative SEC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhengnian CHEN; Hongfeng XIE; Hu YANG; Zhiliu WANG; Rongshi CHENG

    2008-01-01

    The analyses of the composition of a binary mixture composed of two kinds of industrial complicated materials have great importance for formulation in practice.The present paper provides a quantitative size exclusion chromatography (SEC) method based on the principle of absolute quantification of SEC to solve the problem. The conventional data treatment procedure for the differential refractive index (DRI) signal of SEC H(V) is improved first by dividing it with the injected sample weight and leads to a novel defined weight normalized distribution Hw(V) and its integral Iw(V). These two distributions reflect the response constant of the sample in addition to the conventional normalized distribution F(V). The difference of the average response constants of the composing components provides a sensitive method to compute the composition of their mixture from its Hw(V) or Iw(V). The method was applied to mixtures of a kind of industrial asphalt and paraffin diluents as an example, and successful results are obtained.

  18. Microstructure Analysis of Internally Oxidized Cu-C Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rudolf, R.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of experimentally obtained data, it was established that submicron-size bubbles are formed by the internal oxidation of Cu-C composite with fine dispersed graphite particles. They are homogeneously distributed in the Cu-matrix. This process starts with the dissolution of oxygen into the metal at the free surfaces, and continues with the diffusion of oxygen atoms into the volume of copper crystal lattice where they react with the graphite particles. The reactions of dissolved oxygen with carbon yield the gas products (CO2, CO, which cannot be dissolved in the crystal lattice of the matrix. The gas molecules, which are enclosed in the space previously occupied by the graphite, have a greater specific volume than the solid graphite. Consequently, compressive stresses arise in the copper matrix around the bubbles. The interaction of these stress fields with gliding dislocations during loading could improve the mechanical properties of the copper. The internal oxidation kinetic in Cu-C composite depends on the diffusion of oxygen in the copper matrix, and the penetration depth of the internal oxidation front indicates the parabolic nature of the process.

  19. Strain analysis of nanowire interfaces in multiscale composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakooti, Mohammad H.; Zhou, Zhi; Spears, John H.; Shankwitz, Timothy J.; Sodano, Henry A.

    2016-04-01

    Recently, the reinforcement-matrix interface of fiber reinforced polymers has been modified through grafting nanostructures - particularly carbon nanotubes and ZnO nanowires - on to the fiber surface. This type of interface engineering has made a great impact on the development of multiscale composites that have high stiffness, interfacial strength, toughness, and vibrational damping - qualities that are mutually exclusive to a degree in most raw materials. Although the efficacy of such nanostructured interfaces has been established, the reinforcement mechanisms of these multiscale composites have not been explored. Here, strain transfer across a nanowire interphase is studied in order to gain a heightened understanding of the working principles of physical interface modification and the formation of a functional gradient. This problem is studied using a functionally graded piezoelectric interface composed of vertically aligned lead zirconate titanate nanowires, as their piezoelectric properties can be utilized to precisely control the strain on one side of the interface. The displacement and strain across the nanowire interface is captured using digital image correlation. It is demonstrated that the material gradient created through nanowires cause a smooth strain transfer from reinforcement phase into matrix phase that eliminates the stress concentration between these phases, which have highly mismatched elasticity.

  20. Advanced Polymer Composite Molding Through Intelligent Process Analysis and Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-11-30

    In this project. process analysis of Resin Transfer Molding (RTM) was carried out and adaptive process control models were developed. In addition, a...aforementioned work in three separate sections: (1) process analysis and adaptive control modeling, (2) manufacturing of non-invasive sensor, end (3) list of publications resulting from this project.

  1. Analysis of Compositions Written by a Chinese Child in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spence, Lucy; Tao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    This discourse analysis focuses on the Chinese and Japanese writing of a young student living in Japan who is ethnically Chinese and multilingual. A method for analyzing linguistically diverse student writing was used to explore the literary elements and heteroglossic voices in this student's writing. Such analysis has been shown to be beneficial…

  2. Compared to Sucrose, Previous Consumption of Fructose and Glucose Monosaccharides Reduces Survival and Fitness of Female Mice123

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-01-01

    Background: Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar—high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). Objectives: We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. Methods: We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays—seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Results: Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. Conclusion: This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. PMID:25733457

  3. Compared to sucrose, previous consumption of fructose and glucose monosaccharides reduces survival and fitness of female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, James S; Hugentobler, Sara A; Suchy, Amanda K; Sosa, Mirtha M; Tanner, Ruth E; Hite, Megumi E; Morrison, Linda C; Gieng, Sin H; Shigenaga, Mark K; Potts, Wayne K

    2015-03-01

    Intake of added sugar has been shown to correlate with many human metabolic diseases, and rodent models have characterized numerous aspects of the resulting disease phenotypes. However, there is a controversy about whether differential health effects occur because of the consumption of either of the two common types of added sugar-high-fructose corn syrup (fructose and glucose monosaccharides; F/G) or table sugar (sucrose, a fructose and glucose disaccharide). We tested the equivalence of sucrose- vs. F/G-containing diets on mouse (Mus musculus) longevity, reproductive success, and social dominance. We fed wild-derived mice, outbred mice descended from wild-caught ancestors, a diet in which 25% of the calories came from either an equal ratio of F/G or an isocaloric amount of sucrose (both diets had 63% of total calories as carbohydrates). Exposure lasted 40 wk, starting at weaning (21 d of age), and then mice (104 females and 56 males) were released into organismal performances assays-seminatural enclosures where mice competed for territories, resources, and mates for 32 wk. Within enclosures all mice consumed the F/G diet. Females initially fed the F/G diet experienced a mortality rate 1.9 times the rate (P = 0.012) and produced 26.4% fewer offspring than females initially fed sucrose (P = 0.001). This reproductive deficiency was present before mortality differences, suggesting the F/G diet was causing physiologic performance deficits prior to mortality. No differential patterns in survival, reproduction, or social dominance were observed in males, indicating a sex-specific outcome of exposure. This study provides experimental evidence that the consumption of human-relevant levels of F/G is more deleterious than an isocaloric amount of sucrose for key organism-level health measures in female mice. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  4. Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract inhibits reducing monosaccharide-induced protein glycation and oxidation of bovine serum albumin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nunthanawanich, Pornpimon; Sompong, Weerachat; Sirikwanpong, Sukrit; Mäkynen, Kittana; Adisakwattana, Sirichai; Dahlan, Winai; Ngamukote, Sathaporn

    2016-01-01

    Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) play an important factor for pathophysiology of diabetes and its complications. Moringa oleifera is one of the medicinal plants that have anti-hyperglycemic activity. However, anti-glycation property of Moringa oleifera leaf extract on the different types of reducing monosaccharides-induced protein glycation has not been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the protective effect of Moringa oleifera aqueous leaf extract (MOE) on reducing sugars-induced protein glycation and protein oxidation. Total phenolic content of MOE was measured using the Folin-Ciocalteu method. Bovine serum albumin was incubated with 0.5 M of reducing sugars (glucose or fructose) with or without MOE (0.5-2.0 mg/mL) for 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks. The results found that total phenolic content was 38.56 ± 1.50 mg gallic acid equivalents/g dry extract. The formation of fluorescent and non-fluorescent AGEs [N (ε)-(carboxymethyl) lysine (CML)] and the level of fructosamine were determined to indicate protein glycation, whereas the level of protein carbonyl content and thiol group were examined for protein oxidation. MOE (0.5-2.0 mg/mL) significantly inhibited the formation of fluorescent, N (ε)-CML and markedly decreased fructosamine level (P < 0.05). Moreover, MOE significantly prevented protein oxidation manifested by reducing protein carbonyl and the depletion of protein thiol in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.05). Thus, the findings indicated that polyphenols containing in MOE have high potential for decreasing protein glycation and protein oxidation that may delay or prevent AGE-related diabetic complications.

  5. ELASTIC BEHAVIOR ANALYSIS OF 3D ANGLE-INTERLOCK WOVEN CERAMIC COMPOSITES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chang Yanjun; Jiao Guiqiong; Wang Bo; Liu Wei

    2006-01-01

    A micromechanical model for elastic behavior analysis of angle-interlock woven ceramic composites is proposed in this paper. This model takes into account the actual fabric structure by considering the fiber undulation and continuity in space, the cavities between adjacent yarns and the actual cross-section geometry of the yarn. Based on the laminate theory, the elastic properties of 3D angle-interlock woven ceramic composites are predicted. Different numbers of interlaced wefts have almost the same elastic moduli. The thickness of ceramic matrix has little effect on elastic moduli. When the undulation ratio increases longitudinal modulus decreases and the other Young's moduli increase. Good agreement between theoretical predictions and experimental results demonstrates the feasibility of the proposed model in analyzing the elastic properties of3D angle-interlock woven ceramic composites. The results of this paper verify the fact that the method of analyzing polyester matrix composites is suitable for woven ceramic composites.

  6. Analysis of the Flexure Behavior and Compressive Strength of Fly Ash Core Sandwiched Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijaykumar H.K

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, commercially available Fly Ash and Epoxy is used for the core material, woven glass fabric as reinforcing skin material, epoxy as matrix/adhesive materials used in this study for the construction of sandwich composite. Analysis is carried out on different proportions of epoxy and fly ash sandwiched composite material for determining the flexural strength and compressive strength, three different proportions of epoxy and fly ash used for the study. Those are 65%-35% (65% by weight fly ash and 35% by weight epoxy resin composite material, 60%-40% and 55%-45% composite material. 60%-40% composite material specimen shows better results in the entire test carried out i.e. Flexure and Compression. The complete experimental results are discussed and presented in this paper.

  7. Flexural, Impact Properties and Sem Analysis of Bamboo and Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Rao. H

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The Flexural, Impact properties and Scanning electron microscope analysis of Bamboo/glass fibers Reinforced polyester Hybrid composites were studied. The effect of alkali treatment of the bamboo fibers on these properties was also studied. It was observed that the Flexural, impact properties of the hybrid composite increase with glass fiber content. These properties found to be higher when alkali treated bamboo fibers were used in the hybrid composites. The elimination of amorphous hemi-cellulose with alkali treated leading to higher crystallinity of the bamboo fibers with alkali treatment may be responsible for these observations. The author investigated the interfacial bonding between Glass/Bamboo reinforced polyester composites. The effect of alkali treatment on the bonding between Glass/Bamboo composites was also studied.

  8. Machining analysis of natural fibre reinforced composites using fuzzy logic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, K.; Sultan, M. T. H.; Cardona, F.; Rajeswari, N.

    2016-10-01

    In this work, a new composite plate with natural jute fibre as the reinforcement fibres and isophthalic polyester as the resin was manufactured and subjected to a series of end milling operation by changing three input factors namely speed, feed rate and depth of cut. During each operation, the output responses namely thrust force and torque were measured. The responses were analyzed using Taguchi method to examine the relation between the input factors and output responses, and also to know the most influencing factors on the responses. The data was also analyzed using fuzzy rule model for prediction of responses for a range of input factors. The results showed that all three factors chosen have significant effect on the responses. The fuzzy model data in comparison with the experimental values shows only a marginal error and hence the prediction was highly satisfactory.

  9. Analysis of a New Composite Material for Watercraft Manufacturing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Alexandre Wahrhaftig; Henrique Ribeiro; Ademar Nascimento; Milton Filho

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the properties of an alternative material for use in marine engineering, namely a rigid and light sandwich-structured composite made of expanded polystyrene and fiberglass. Not only does this material have an improved section modulus, but it is also inexpensive, light, easy to manipulate, and commercially available in various sizes. Using a computer program based on the finite element method, we calculated the hogging and sagging stresses and strains acting on a prismatic boat model composed of this material, and determined the minimum sizes and maximum permissible stresses to avoid deformation. Finally, we calculated the structural weight of the resulting vessel for comparison with another structure of comparable dimensions constructed from the commonly used core material Divinycell.

  10. The composition analysis of coal-derived light oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Zhen-nan; LIU Li-lin; ZHU Xiao-man; LI Wen-bo

    2008-01-01

    The composition of coal-derived light oil (IBP-220 ℃) was separated into 5 fractions by atmospheric distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography/mass spec-trometry (GC/MS). The light oil was made at 0.1 t/d coal direct liquefaction bench scale unit (BSU) at China Coal Research Institute (CCRI). Six groups of organics, including acyclic hydrocarbon, alicyclic hydrocarbon, aromatics, phenols, polynuclear aromatics and heterocyclics, were found and 80 compounds were tentatively identified in total. Alicyclic hydrocarbon is the main component of the light oil compared to other groups whether in relative mass percentage or the number of compounds in group. The predominant oxy-gen-contained compound is phenols, and the nitrogen-containing compound is pyridine.No sulfur-containing compound is detected.

  11. Analysis of a new composite material for watercraft manufacturing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahrhaftig, Alexandre; Ribeiro, Henrique; Nascimento, Ademar; Filho, Milton

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, we investigate the properties of an alternative material for use in marine engineering, namely a rigid and light sandwich-structured composite made of expanded polystyrene and fiberglass. Not only does this material have an improved section modulus, but it is also inexpensive, light, easy to manipulate, and commercially available in various sizes. Using a computer program based on the finite element method, we calculated the hogging and sagging stresses and strains acting on a prismatic boat model composed of this material, and determined the minimum sizes and maximum permissible stresses to avoid deformation. Finally, we calculated the structural weight of the resulting vessel for comparison with another structure of comparable dimensions constructed from the commonly used core material Divinycell.

  12. Computational analysis of frp composite under different temperature gradient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekar, P.; Manigandan, S.

    2017-05-01

    Composite material strength depends on the stiffness of fiber and the resin which is used for reinforcement. The strength of the laminate can be increased by applying good manufacturing practices. The strength is directly depending on the property of resin. The property of the any compound subjected to changed when they exposed to the temperature. This paper investigates the strength of laminate when they subjected to different temperature gradient of resin while manufacturing. The resin is preheated before adding hardener with them. These types of laminate reinforced with resin at different levels of temperature 20c, 40c, and 60c. These different temperature resin are used for reinforcement and the specimen tested. The comparative results are made to find how the stiffness of laminate changes with respect to the thermal property of resin. The results are helpful to obtain high strength laminate.

  13. Preparation of AlB sub 4 C composites for image analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, A.M.; Reiswig, R.D.; Hill, M.A.; Blumenthal, W.R.

    1990-01-01

    Composites made by infiltrating B{sub 4}C networks with aluminium, or its alloys are of interest for lightweight armor applications. Image analysis plays an important part in correlating the microstructures of such composites with their mechanical properties. Accurate image analysis requires a high degree of perfection in the metallographic preparation, which is particularly difficult where the phases present have such disparate hardness and reactivities. Two preparation procedures have been developed that produce adequate contrast and definition for analysis of key microstructural features. 8 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  14. FEA Based Analysis of Composite Torque Link for a Passenger Aircraft Landing Gear

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Arravind

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In the implementation of a composite landing gear technology program was started, a composite torque link for transport airplane landing gear applications was developed. The torque link was designed by finite element analysis and analysis for maximum stress condition. The torque link was fabricated by Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM for which a tooling concept was developed. Static tests demonstrated the load carrying capabilities in undamaged and damaged condition of the torque link since all specimens failed beyond their Design Ultimate Load level for that case we are hereby carryout the analysis process in order to find the ultimate load and yield stress for the torque link.

  15. Qualitative Analysis of Primers, Tracers, Igniters, Incendiaries, Boosters, and Delay Compositions on a Micro Scale by Use of Infrared Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ingredients of primers, tracers, igniters, incendiaries, boosters, and delay compositions are given over the range 2.5 to 50 microns. The qualitative analysis of seven typical compositions is demonstrated.

  16. Coronary plaque composition as assessed by greyscale intravascular ultrasound and radiofrequency spectral data analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Gonzalo (Nieves); H.M. Garcia-Garcia (Hector); J.M.R. Ligthart (Jürgen); G.A. Rodriguez-Granillo (Gaston); E. Meliga (Emanuele); Y. Onuma (Yoshinobu); J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); N. Bruining (Nico); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick)

    2008-01-01

    textabstractObjectives: (i) To explore the relation between greyscale intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) plaque qualitative classification and IVUS radiofrequency data (RFD) analysis tissue types; (ii) to evaluate if plaque composition as assessed by RFD analysis can be predicted by visual assessment o

  17. Stiffness Analysis of the Sarafix External Fixator based on Stainless Steel and Composite Material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nedim Pervan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a structural analysis of the CAD model three versions fixators Sarafix which is to explore the possibility of introducing composite materials in the construction of the connecting rod fixators comparing values of displacement and stiffness at characteristic structure points. Namely, we have investigated the constructional performance of fixators Sarafix with a connecting rod formed from three different composite materials, the same matrix (epoxy resin with three different types of fibers (E glass, kevlar 49 and carbonM55J. The results of the structural analysis fixators Sarafix with a connecting rod made of composite materials are compared with the results of tubular connecting rod fixators made of stainless steel. After comparing the results, from the aspect of stiffness, we gave the final considerations about composite material which provides an adequate substitution for the existing material.

  18. Layerwise mechanics and finite element for the dynamic analysis of piezoelectric composite plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saravanos, Dimitris A.; Heyliger, Paul R.; Hopkins, Dale A.

    1996-01-01

    Laminate and structural mechanics for the analysis of laminated composite plate structures with piezoelectric actuators and sensors are presented. The theories implement layerwise representations of displacements and electric potential, and can model both the global and local electromechanical response of smart composite laminates. Finite-element formulations are developed for the quasi-static and dynamic analysis of smart composite structures containing piezoelectric layers. Comparisons with an exact solution illustrate the accuracy, robustness and capability of the developed mechanics to capture the global and local response of thin and/or thick laminated piezoelectric plates. Additional correlations and numerical applications demonstrate the unique capabilities of the mechanics in analyzing the static and free-vibration response of composite plates with distributed piezoelectric actuators and sensors.

  19. Fingerprint analysis of polysaccharides from different Ganoderma by HPLC combined with chemometrics methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaomei; Wang, Haohao; Han, Xiaofeng; Chen, Shangwei; Zhu, Song; Dai, Jun

    2014-12-19

    A fingerprint analysis method has been developed for characterization and discrimination of polysaccharides from different Ganoderma by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with chemometrics means. The polysaccharides were extracted under ultrasonic-assisted condition, and then partly hydrolyzed with trifluoroacetic acid. Monosaccharides and oligosaccharides in the hydrolyzates were subjected to pre-column derivatization with 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone and HPLC analysis, which will generate unique fingerprint information related to chemical composition and structure of polysaccharides. The peak data were imported to professional software in order to obtain standard fingerprint profiles and evaluate similarity of different samples. Meanwhile, the data were further processed by hierarchical cluster analysis and principal component analysis. Polysaccharides from different parts or species of Ganoderma or polysaccharides from the same parts of Ganoderma but from different geographical regions or different strains could be differentiated clearly. This fingerprint analysis method can be applied to identification and quality control of different Ganoderma and their products.

  20. Micromechanics Fatigue Damage Analysis Modeling for Fabric Reinforced Ceramic Matrix Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Min, J. B.; Xue, D.; Shi, Y.

    2013-01-01

    A micromechanics analysis modeling method was developed to analyze the damage progression and fatigue failure of fabric reinforced composite structures, especially for the brittle ceramic matrix material composites. A repeating unit cell concept of fabric reinforced composites was used to represent the global composite structure. The thermal and mechanical properties of the repeating unit cell were considered as the same as those of the global composite structure. The three-phase micromechanics, the shear-lag, and the continuum fracture mechanics models were integrated with a statistical model in the repeating unit cell to predict the progressive damages and fatigue life of the composite structures. The global structure failure was defined as the loss of loading capability of the repeating unit cell, which depends on the stiffness reduction due to material slice failures and nonlinear material properties in the repeating unit cell. The present methodology is demonstrated with the analysis results evaluated through the experimental test performed with carbon fiber reinforced silicon carbide matrix plain weave composite specimens.

  1. Finite element analysis of WC-Al2O3 composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Satyanarayan; Vaish, Rahul

    2014-02-01

    Object oriented finite element analysis (OOF2) is used to estimate the thermal and mechanical properties of WC-Al2O3 composites. In the present work, five compositions of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40% and 50% Al2O3 (by volume) are studied. Young's modulus, thermal conductivity and thermal expansion coefficient are estimated using OOF2 and compared with other known analytical methods. Stress and strain contours are plotted to study the thermal and mechanical behavior of composites. It is found that the stresses are largely concentrated at the interfaces of the WC-Al2O3 phases.

  2. FEM Analysis of Glass/Epoxy Composite Based Industrial Safety Helmet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ram, Khushi; Bajpai, Pramendra Kumar

    2017-08-01

    Recently, the use of fiber reinforced polymer in every field of engineering (automobile, industry and aerospace) and medical has increased due to its distinctive mechanical properties. The fiber based polymer composites are more popular because these have high strength, light in weight, low cost and easily available. In the present work, the finite element analysis (FEA) of glass/epoxy composite based industrial safety helmet has been performed using solid-works simulation software. The modeling results show that glass fiber reinforced epoxy composite can be used as a material for fabrication of industrial safety helmet which has good mechanical properties than the existing helmet material.

  3. Analysis of a shielded TE011 mode composite dielectric resonator for stable frequency reference

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N D Kataria; K S Daya; V G Das

    2002-05-01

    Analysis of a TE011 mode composite sapphire–rutile dielectric resonator has been carried out to study the temperature variation of resonance frequency, close to the Cs atomic clock hyperfine frequency of 9.192 GHz. The complementary behavior of dielectric permittivity with temperature of the composite has been exploited to obtain the desired turning point in the resonant frequency. The frequency of the composite structure is found to be independent of the shield diameter beyond four times the puck diameter.

  4. Free Vibration Analysis of Laminated Composite Beams Using Differential Quadrature Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽娟; 钟宏志; 郝照平; 吴德隆

    2002-01-01

    A higher-order theory for laminated composite beams is used to study the free vibration of laminated composite beams, and the differential quadrature method is employed to obtain the numerical solution of the governing differential equations. Free vibration analysis of beams with rectangular cross-section for various combinations of end conditions is studied. The results show that the differential quadrature method is reliable and accurate compared with other available results.

  5. Thermal Stress Analysis of Laminated Composite Plates using Shear Flexible Element

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ganapathi

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Using degree Centigrade shear flexible QUAD-9 plate element, stresses and deflections in composite laminated plates due to thermal loads analysed. A formulation based on first order shear deformation theory has been employed for the analysis. The effects of various parameters, such as ply-angle, number of layers, thickness and aspect ratios on stresses and deflections are brought out. The present formulation is being extended for studying composite shell structures.

  6. DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LEAF SPRING FOR LIGHT WEIGHT VEHICLE

    OpenAIRE

    Darshan Kapadia*, Palak H. Desai, Ajay Sonani

    2016-01-01

    In today’s scenario, the main weightage of investigation is to reduce the weight of product while upholding its strength. To solve that problem, this work is carried out for the design and analysis of mono composite materials leaf spring and entire new design criteria of mounting. The automobile vehicles have number of parts which can be able to replace by composite material. The foremost component of the suspension system of vehicle is leaf spring. It has substantial amount of weight, ...

  7. Hydration dynamics of collagen/PVA composites: Thermoporometric and impedance analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanungo, Ivy; Fathima, N. Nishad; Rao, J. Raghava, E-mail: clrichem@mailcity.com; Nair, Balachandran Unni

    2013-06-15

    Porous scaffolds like collagen/PVA (polyvinyl alcohol) composites have potential applications in the field of biomedical engineering. The pore properties and electrical behavior of collagen/PVA composite system were investigated by thermoporometry technique and electrochemical impedance analysis. The porous composites were crosslinked by less cytotoxic genipin due to the versatility in the crosslinking reactivity between the amino groups. Different physicochemical properties like rheological behavior, thermal stability of the protein and morphological changes of the composites were investigated as a function of PVA concentration by viscosity profile, temperature dependant circular dichroic spectroscopic studies, scanning electron microscopy. Bound water constrained within the pores of collagen/PVA composites seems to provide signatures for changes induced by amount of additives on the pore diameter and distribution in composite molecules. Impedance measurements of the composites in the frequency range of 10{sup −2} to 10{sup 5} Hz reveal that concentration of the additive and crosslinking significantly influence the permittivity of the composites. The tunable physicochemical properties help to gain insight for regulating cellular events for tissue and organ regeneration. - Highlights: • Additive and crosslinker influence pore size distribution of biocomposite. • Pore sizes are shifted to the lower nanometer range with increasing PVA concentration. • Additives influence reorientation of water near the peptide group of collagen. • Increase of tan δ values with the decrease of frequency indicates that the resistive component of biocomposites dominates.

  8. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) Predictions for a Floor-Equipped Composite Cylinder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosveld, Ferdinand W.; Schiller, Noah H.; Cabell, Randolph H.

    2011-01-01

    Comet Enflow is a commercially available, high frequency vibroacoustic analysis software founded on Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) and Energy Boundary Element Analysis (EBEA). Energy Finite Element Analysis (EFEA) was validated on a floor-equipped composite cylinder by comparing EFEA vibroacoustic response predictions with Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) and experimental results. Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) predictions were made using the commercial software program VA One 2009 from ESI Group. The frequency region of interest for this study covers the one-third octave bands with center frequencies from 100 Hz to 4000 Hz.

  9. Analysis of Compositions Written by a Chinese Child in Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Spence

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This discourse analysis focuses on the Chinese and Japanese writing of a young student living in Japan who is ethnically Chinese and multilingual. A method for analyzing linguistically diverse student writing was used to explore the literary elements and heteroglossic voices in this student’s writing. Such analysis has been shown to be beneficial to teachers for understanding linguistically diverse student writers. The findings were triangulated with observational data from the student’s home and school, an interview with the student’s teacher and interviews with the mother, who is the co-author of this study. The analysis revealed evidence of writing strengths in two languages, including flexible bilingualism and agency. Implications for school curriculum that develops student languages as a resource for learning are explored.

  10. Coffee aroma--statistical analysis of compositional data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonová, M; Hron, K; Klimcíková, D; Müller, L; Bednár, P; Barták, P

    2009-12-15

    Solid-phase microextraction in headspace mode coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was applied to the determination of volatile compounds in 30 commercially available coffee samples. In order to differentiate and characterize Arabica and Robusta coffee, six major volatile compounds (acetic acid, 2-methylpyrazine, furfural, 2-furfuryl alcohol, 2,6-dimethylpyrazine, 5-methylfurfural) were chosen as the most relevant markers. Cluster analysis and principal component analysis (PCA) were applied to the raw chromatographic data and data processed by centred logratio transformation.

  11. ISEE-1 data reduction and analysis plasma composition experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, W.; Sharp, R. D.

    1985-01-01

    The plasma composition experiment covers energies from OeV to 17 keV/e and has a mass-per-charge range from less than 1 to about 150 amu. Measurements were made from the inner ring current region to the plasma sheet, magnetotail lobes, and the magnetopause boundary layers and beyond. Possibly the most significant results from the experiment are those related to energetic (0+) ions of terrestrial origin. These ions are found in every region of the magnetosphere reached by the spacecraft and can have energy and pitch-angle distributions that are similar to those traditionally associated with protons of solar wind origin. The (0+) ions are commonly the most numerous ions in the 0.1 - 17 keV/e energy range and are often a substantial part of the ion population at large distances as well, especially during geomagnetically disturbed conditions. An overview of results obtained for the (0+) and other ions with energies in the 0.1 - 17 keV/e range in the magnetosphere is given.

  12. ISEE-1 data reduction and analysis plasma composition experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennartsson, W.; Sharp, R. D.

    1985-03-01

    The plasma composition experiment covers energies from OeV to 17 keV/e and has a mass-per-charge range from less than 1 to about 150 amu. Measurements were made from the inner ring current region to the plasma sheet, magnetotail lobes, and the magnetopause boundary layers and beyond. Possibly the most significant results from the experiment are those related to energetic (0+) ions of terrestrial origin. These ions are found in every region of the magnetosphere reached by the spacecraft and can have energy and pitch-angle distributions that are similar to those traditionally associated with protons of solar wind origin. The (0+) ions are commonly the most numerous ions in the 0.1 - 17 keV/e energy range and are often a substantial part of the ion population at large distances as well, especially during geomagnetically disturbed conditions. An overview of results obtained for the (0+) and other ions with energies in the 0.1 - 17 keV/e range in the magnetosphere is given.

  13. Interface and Composition Analysis on Perovskite Solar Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matteocci, Fabio; Busby, Yan; Pireaux, Jean-Jacques; Divitini, Giorgio; Cacovich, Stefania; Ducati, Caterina; Di Carlo, Aldo

    2015-12-02

    Organometal halide (hybrid) perovskite solar cells have been fabricated following four different deposition procedures and investigated in order to find correlations between the solar cell characteristics/performance and their structure and composition as determined by combining depth-resolved imaging with time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and analytical scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). The interface quality is found to be strongly affected by the perovskite deposition procedure, and in particular from the environment where the conversion of the starting precursors into the final perovskite is performed (air, nitrogen, or vacuum). The conversion efficiency of the precursors into the hybrid perovskite layer is compared between the different solar cells by looking at the ToF-SIMS intensities of the characteristic molecular fragments from the perovskite and the precursor materials. Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy in the STEM confirms the macroscopic ToF-SIMS findings and allows elemental mapping with nanometer resolution. Clear evidence for iodine diffusion has been observed and related to the fabrication procedure.

  14. Experimental impact testing and analysis of composite fan cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vander Klok, Andrew Joe

    ) diameter single stage gas gun was developed. A thermodynamic based relationship between the required gas pressure and targeted velocity was proposed. The predicted velocity was within +/-7%. Quantitative measurements of force and displacement were attempted. The transmitted impact force was measured with load cells. The out-of-plane deformation was measured with a projection grating profilometry method. The composite panels and fan cases used in this work were made of S2-glass plain weave fabrics with API SC-15 toughened epoxy resin using the vacuum assisted resin transfer molding (VARTM) method. Using the gas gun, the impact behavior of the composite was investigated at velocities ranging from 984ft/s to 1502ft/s (300m/s to 458m/s) following a draft ASTM testing standard. To compare the ballistic protection capability of different materials, a new parameter EBL, the projectile kinetic energy at the target ballistic limit normalized by the contact area of the projectile, was proposed. S2-glass/epoxy composite is ranked very high in EBL per areal weight. Finally, a testing method for replicating spin pit testing with a gas gun test was developed. Major differences between the two tests are the initial conditions of the blade upon contact with the target. In spin testing, the released blade has two velocity components, rotational and translational whereas in gas gun testing, the projectile has only the translational velocity. To account for the influence of the rotational velocity, three projectile designs were experimentally investigated. The results show that to generate similar damage modes in gas gun testing, it is critical to ensure the deformation of the projectile before testing is similar to that of a released blade. With the pre-bent blade, the gas gun experiment was able to replicate the damage modes of the fan case in FBO test on flat composite panels.

  15. Reliability-analysis on damage of unidirectional composites matrix polymers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khiat M. A.

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an analytical model to predict the strength of the unidirectional carbon epoxy composite using micromechanical techniques. This model supposes that a group of broken fibres surrounded by a number of intact fibres with hexagonal arrangement. The mathematical developments used are presented to justify the distribution form of the stresses around broken fibre and adjacent intact fibres. To follow the evolution of the damage in regions of debonding and local plasticity; we proceeded to a progressive increase in the fiber volume fraction and tensile external load. This, procedure enable us to evaluate the extension of the region locally plasticized, the ineffective region, the stress concentration and the longitudinal displacement of broken and intact fibres, in function of broken fibres number and specimen length. As fiber breaks are intrinsically random, the variability of input data allows us to describe the probabilistic model by using the Monte-Carlo method. The sensitivities of the mechanical response are evaluated regarding the uncertainties in design variables such as Young’s modulus of fibers and matrix, fiber reference strength, shear yield stress, fiber volume fraction and shear parameter defining the shear stress in the inelastic region.

  16. Performance Assessment in Water Polo Using Compositional Data Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ordóñez Enrique García

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to identify groups of offensive performance indicators which best discriminated between a match score (favourable, balanced or unfavourable in water polo. The sample comprised 88 regular season games (2011-2014 from the Spanish Professional Water Polo League. The offensive performance indicators were clustered in five groups: Attacks in relation to the different playing situations; Shots in relation to the different playing situations; Attacks outcome; Origin of shots; Technical execution of shots. The variables of each group had a constant sum which equalled 100%. The data were compositional data, therefore the variables were changed by means of the additive log-ratio (alr transformation. Multivariate discriminant analyses to compare the match scores were calculated using the transformed variables. With regard to the percentage of right classification, the results showed the group that discriminated the most between the match scores was “Attacks outcome” (60.4% for the original sample and 52.2% for cross-validation. The performance indicators that discriminated the most between the match scores in games with penalties were goals (structure coefficient (SC = .761, counterattack shots (SC = .541 and counterattacks (SC = .481. In matches without penalties, goals were the primary discriminating factor (SC = .576. This approach provides a new tool to compare the importance of the offensive performance groups and their effect on the match score discrimination.

  17. Compositional Analysis Procedures for Selected Elastomers Used in Sonar Transducers

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-03-16

    in ASTM D297 , Method 54.* Permitted deviations from this procedure include the use of boric acid solution as the trapping medium with subsequent...ratio, 3,788. * D297 -81, Standard Methods for Rubber Products—Chemical Analysis," Annual Book of ASTM Standards. Part 37. **D3533-76, "Standard

  18. A generic and compositional framework for multicore response time analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Altmeyer, S.; Davis, R.I.; Indrusiak, L.; Maiza, C.; Nelis, V.; Reineke, J.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we introduce a Multicore Response Time Analysis (MRTA) framework. This framework is extensible to different multicore architectures, with various types and arrangements of local memory, and different arbitration policies for the common interconnects. We instantiate the framework for s

  19. Coherent Forecasts of Mortality with Compositional Data Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergeron Boucher, Marie-Pier; Canudas-Romo, Vladimir; Oeppen, James

    2017-01-01

    Data Analysis (CoDa) of the life table distribution of deaths. We adapt existing coherent and non–coherent forecasting models to CoDa and compare their results. Results We apply our coherent method to the female mortality of 15 Western European countries and show that our proposed strategy would have...

  20. New approach to primary mass composition analysis with simultaneous use of ground and fluorescence detectors data

    CERN Document Server

    Yushkov, A; Aramo, C; Guarino, F; D'Urso, D; Valore, L

    2009-01-01

    We study the possibility to reconstruct primary mass composition with the use of combinations of basic shower characteristics, measured in hybrid experiments, such as depth of shower maximum from fluorescence side and signal in water Cherenkov tanks or in plastic scintillators from the ground side. To optimize discrimination performance of shower observables combinations we apply Fisher's discriminant analysis and give statistical estimates of separation of the obtained distributions on Fisher variables for proton and iron primaries. At the final stage we apply Multiparametric Topological Analysis to these distributions to extract composition from prepared mixtures with known fractions of showers from different primary particles. It is shown, that due to high sensitivity of water tanks to muons, combination of signal in them with $\\xmax$ looks especially promising for mass composition analysis, provided the energy is determined from longitudinal shower profile.

  1. Stress analysis of advanced attack helicopter composite main rotor blade root end lug

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, D. J.

    1982-01-01

    Stress analysis of the Advanced Attack Helicopter (AAH) composite main rotor blade root end lug is described. The stress concentration factor determined from a finite element analysis is compared to an empirical value used in the lug design. The analysis and test data indicate that the stress concentration is primarily a function of configuration and independent of the range of material properties typical of Kevlar-49/epoxy and glass epoxy.

  2. Transparent composite model for DCT coefficients: design and analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, En-Hui; Yu, Xiang; Meng, Jin; Sun, Chang

    2014-03-01

    The distributions of discrete cosine transform (DCT) coefficients of images are revisited on a per image base. To better handle, the heavy tail phenomenon commonly seen in the DCT coefficients, a new model dubbed a transparent composite model (TCM) is proposed and justified for both modeling accuracy and an additional data reduction capability. Given a sequence of the DCT coefficients, a TCM first separates the tail from the main body of the sequence. Then, a uniform distribution is used to model the DCT coefficients in the heavy tail, whereas a different parametric distribution is used to model data in the main body. The separate boundary and other parameters of the TCM can be estimated via maximum likelihood estimation. Efficient online algorithms are proposed for parameter estimation and their convergence is also proved. Experimental results based on Kullback-Leibler divergence and χ(2) test show that for real-valued continuous ac coefficients, the TCM based on truncated Laplacian offers the best tradeoff between modeling accuracy and complexity. For discrete or integer DCT coefficients, the discrete TCM based on truncated geometric distributions (GMTCM) models the ac coefficients more accurately than pure Laplacian models and generalized Gaussian models in majority cases while having simplicity and practicality similar to those of pure Laplacian models. In addition, it is demonstrated that the GMTCM also exhibits a good capability of data reduction or feature extraction-the DCT coefficients in the heavy tail identified by the GMTCM are truly outliers, and these outliers represent an outlier image revealing some unique global features of the image. Overall, the modeling performance and the data reduction feature of the GMTCM make it a desirable choice for modeling discrete or integer DCT coefficients in the real-world image or video applications, as summarized in a few of our further studies on quantization design, entropy coding design, and image understanding

  3. Analysis of protein composition using multidimensional chromatography and mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Link, Andrew J; Washburn, Michael P

    2014-11-03

    Multidimensional liquid chromatography of peptides produced by protease digestion of complex protein mixtures followed by tandem mass spectrometry can be coupled with automated database searching to identify large numbers of proteins in complex samples. These methods avoid the limitations of gel electrophoresis and in-gel digestions by directly identifying protein mixtures in solution. One method used extensively is named Multidimensional Protein Identification Technology (MudPIT), where reversed-phase chromatography and strong cation-exchange chromatography are coupled directly in a microcapillary column. This column is then placed in line between an HPLC and a mass spectrometer for complex mixture analysis. MudPIT remains a powerful approach for analyzing complex mixtures like whole proteomes and protein complexes. MudPIT is used for quantitative proteomic analysis of complex mixtures to generate novel biological insights.

  4. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Das, Josh Warren, Devin West, Susan M. Schexnayder

    2016-05-01

    This analysis identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where resources and investments can help advance the clean energy economy. The report focuses on four application areas — wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels — that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components.

  5. Reconstruction and analysis of hybrid composite shells using meshless methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, G. M. S.; Loja, M. A. R.

    2017-02-01

    The importance of focusing on the research of viable models to predict the behaviour of structures which may possess in some cases complex geometries is an issue that is growing in different scientific areas, ranging from the civil and mechanical engineering to the architecture or biomedical devices fields. In these cases, the research effort to find an efficient approach to fit laser scanning point clouds, to the desired surface, has been increasing, leading to the possibility of modelling as-built/as-is structures and components' features. However, combining the task of surface reconstruction and the implementation of a structural analysis model is not a trivial task. Although there are works focusing those different phases in separate, there is still an effective need to find approaches able to interconnect them in an efficient way. Therefore, achieving a representative geometric model able to be subsequently submitted to a structural analysis in a similar based platform is a fundamental step to establish an effective expeditious processing workflow. With the present work, one presents an integrated methodology based on the use of meshless approaches, to reconstruct shells described by points' clouds, and to subsequently predict their static behaviour. These methods are highly appropriate on dealing with unstructured points clouds, as they do not need to have any specific spatial or geometric requirement when implemented, depending only on the distance between the points. Details on the formulation, and a set of illustrative examples focusing the reconstruction of cylindrical and double-curvature shells, and its further analysis, are presented.

  6. Reconstruction and analysis of hybrid composite shells using meshless methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernardo, G. M. S.; Loja, M. A. R.

    2017-06-01

    The importance of focusing on the research of viable models to predict the behaviour of structures which may possess in some cases complex geometries is an issue that is growing in different scientific areas, ranging from the civil and mechanical engineering to the architecture or biomedical devices fields. In these cases, the research effort to find an efficient approach to fit laser scanning point clouds, to the desired surface, has been increasing, leading to the possibility of modelling as-built/as-is structures and components' features. However, combining the task of surface reconstruction and the implementation of a structural analysis model is not a trivial task. Although there are works focusing those different phases in separate, there is still an effective need to find approaches able to interconnect them in an efficient way. Therefore, achieving a representative geometric model able to be subsequently submitted to a structural analysis in a similar based platform is a fundamental step to establish an effective expeditious processing workflow. With the present work, one presents an integrated methodology based on the use of meshless approaches, to reconstruct shells described by points' clouds, and to subsequently predict their static behaviour. These methods are highly appropriate on dealing with unstructured points clouds, as they do not need to have any specific spatial or geometric requirement when implemented, depending only on the distance between the points. Details on the formulation, and a set of illustrative examples focusing the reconstruction of cylindrical and double-curvature shells, and its further analysis, are presented.

  7. DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF NUMERICAL METHOD FOR STRENGTH ANALYSIS OF LATTICE COMPOSITE FUSELAGE STRUCTURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Lattice composite fuselage structures are developed as an alternative to conventional composite structures based on laminated skin and stiffeners. Structure layout of lattice structures allows to realize advantages of current composite materials to a maximal extent, at the same time minimizing their main shortcomings, that allows to provide higher weight efficiency for these structures in comparison with conventional analogues.Development and creation of lattice composite structures requires development of novel methods of strength anal- ysis, as conventional methods, as a rule, are aiming to strength analysis of thin-walled elements and do not allow to get confident estimation of local strength of high-loaded unidirectional composite ribs.In the present work the method of operative strength analysis of lattice composite structure is presented, based onspecialized FE-models of unidirectional composite ribs and their intersections. In the frames of the method, every rib is modeled by a caisson structure, consisting of arbitrary number of flanges and webs, modeled by membrane finite elements. Parameters of flanges and webs are calculated automatically from the condition of stiffness characteristics equality of real rib and the model. This method allows to perform local strength analysis of high-loaded ribs of lattice structure without use of here-dimensional finite elements, that allows to shorten time of calculations and sufficiently simplify the procedure of analysis of results of calculations.For validation of the suggested method, the results of experimental investigations of full-scale prototype of shell of lattice composite fuselage section have been used. The prototype of the lattice section was manufactured in CRISM and tested in TsAGI within the frames of a number of Russian and International scientific projects. The results of validation have shown that the suggested method allows to provide high operability of strength analysis, keeping

  8. Numerical and experimental analysis on tensile properties of banana and glass fibers reinforced epoxy composites

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A SHADRACH JEYASEKARAN; K PALANI KUMAR; S RAJARAJAN

    2016-11-01

    In present day scenario, moving towards an environment friendly material is a key issue for manufacturing industries in order to provide suitable alternatives for the existing conventional materials. Natural fibers have higher economic impact and miniature in density when compared to glass fibers while making composites. Though the strength of natural fibers is not as high as glass fibers, their specific properties are comparable. In this paper a study has been carried out to find the tensile characteristics of hybrid composite made by intruding unidirectional banana and glass fibers into epoxy resin mixture. The hand lay-up method of fabrication was employed in preparing the composites of unidirectional glass fiber (UGF) and unidirectional banana/glass fiber (U B/G F). Tensile properties of the composites are verified using ANSYS. It is observed from the findings that the numerical analysis is found to be higher than experimental analysis. Hybridization of banana fiber shows better tensile properties. It is evident from the result that, comparatively equal displacement is obtained for the varying load for both the composites. The surface morphology of the tested composites is analyzed through scanning electron microscope (SEM).

  9. Analysis of changes in the chemical composition of the blast furnace coke at high temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Konstanciak

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The main purpose of this paper was to analyze the behavior of coke in the blast furnace. The analysis of changes in chemical composition of coke due to impact of inert gas and air at different temperatures was made. The impact of the application of the thermoabrasion coefficient on the porosity of coke was also analyzed.Design/methodology/approach: By applying the Computer Thermochemical Database of the TERMO system (REAKTOR1 and REAKTOR3 three groups of substances can be distinguished. The chemical composition of blast furnace coke and the results of calculations of changes of chemical composition of coke heat treated under certain conditions were compared. The structural studies of these materials were presented.Findings: The results of the analysis of ash produced from one of Polish cokes was taken for consideration. This is not the average composition of Polish coke ashes, nevertheless it is representative of most commonly occurring chemical compositions.Practical implications: Thanks to the thermochemical calculations it is possible to predict ash composition after the treatment in a blast furnace. Those information was crucial and had an actual impact on determining the coke quality.Originality/value: Presentation of the analytical methods which, according to author, can be very useful to evaluate and identify the heat treatment for blast furnaces cokes. The research pursued represents part of a larger project carried out within the framework of Department Extraction and Recycling of Metals, Czestochowa University of Technology.

  10. Statistical analysis of solid waste composition data: Arithmetic mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edjabou, Maklawe Essonanawe; Martín-Fernández, Josep Antoni; Scheutz, Charlotte; Astrup, Thomas Fruergaard

    2017-09-04

    Data for fractional solid waste composition provide relative magnitudes of individual waste fractions, the percentages of which always sum to 100, thereby connecting them intrinsically. Due to this sum constraint, waste composition data represent closed data, and their interpretation and analysis require statistical methods, other than classical statistics that are suitable only for non-constrained data such as absolute values. However, the closed characteristics of waste composition data are often ignored when analysed. The results of this study showed, for example, that unavoidable animal-derived food waste amounted to 2.21±3.12% with a confidence interval of (-4.03; 8.45), which highlights the problem of the biased negative proportions. A Pearson's correlation test, applied to waste fraction generation (kg mass), indicated a positive correlation between avoidable vegetable food waste and plastic packaging. However, correlation tests applied to waste fraction compositions (percentage values) showed a negative association in this regard, thus demonstrating that statistical analyses applied to compositional waste fraction data, without addressing the closed characteristics of these data, have the potential to generate spurious or misleading results. Therefore, ¨compositional data should be transformed adequately prior to any statistical analysis, such as computing mean, standard deviation and correlation coefficients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coordinating sentence composition with error correction: A multilevel analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Waes, L.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Error analysis involves detecting and correcting discrepancies between the 'text produced so far' (TPSF and the writer's mental representation of what the text should be. While many factors determine the choice of strategy, cognitive effort is a major contributor to this choice. This research shows how cognitive effort during error analysis affects strategy choice and success as measured by a series of online text production measures. We hypothesize that error correction with speech recognition software differs from error correction with keyboard for two reasons. Speech produces auditory commands and, consequently, different error types. The study reported on here measured the effects of (1 mode of presentation (auditory or visual-tactile, (2 error span, whether the error spans more or less than two characters, and (3 lexicality, whether the text error comprises an existing word. A multilevel analysis was conducted to take into account the hierarchical nature of these data. For each variable (interference reaction time, preparation time, production time, immediacy of error correction, and accuracy of error correction, multilevel regression models are presented. As such, we take into account possible disturbing person characteristics while testing the effect of the different conditions and error types at the sentence level.The results show that writers delay error correction more often when the TPSF is read out aloud first. The auditory property of speech seems to free resources for the primary task of writing, i.e. text production. Moreover, the results show that large errors in the TPSF require more cognitive effort, and are solved with a higher accuracy than small errors. The latter also holds for the correction of small errors that result in non-existing words.

  12. Validation of bioelectrical-impedance analysis as a measurement of change in body composition in obesity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kushner, R.F.; Kunigk, A.; Alspaugh, M.; Andronis, P.T.; Leitch, C.A.; Schoeller, D.A. (Univ. of Chicago, IL (USA))

    1990-08-01

    The bioelectrical-impedance-analysis (BIA) method accurately measures body composition in weight-stable subjects. This study validates the use of BIA to measure change in body composition. Twelve obese females underwent weight loss at a mean rate of 1.16 kg/wk. Body composition was measured by deuterium oxide dilution (D2O), BIA, and skinfold anthropometry (SFA) at baseline and at 5% decrements in weight. Highly significant correlations were obtained between D2O and BIA (r = 0.971) and between D2O and SFA (r = 0.932). Overall, BIA predicted change in fat-free mass with greater accuracy (to 0.4 kg) and precision (+/- 1.28 kg) than did anthropometry (to 0.8 kg and +/- 2.58 kg, respectively). We conclude that BIA is a useful clinical method for measuring change in body composition.

  13. DAMAGE MECHANISM ANALYSIS OF 2D 1 × 1 BRAIDED COMPOSITES UNDER UNIDIRECTIONAL TENSION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张超; 许希武; 陈康

    2013-01-01

    Coupling with the periodical displacement boundary condition ,a representative volume element (RVE) model is established to simulate the progressive damage behavior of 2D 1 × 1 braided composites under unidirection-al tension by using the nonlinear finite element method .Tsai-Wu failure criterion with various damage modes and Mises criterion are considered for predicting damage initiation and progression of yarns and matrix .The anisotropic damage model for yarns and the isotropic damage model for matrix are used to simulate the microscopic damage propagation of 2D 1 × 1 braided composites .Murakami′s damage tensor is adopted to characterize each damage mode .In the simulation process ,the damage mechanisms are revealed and the tensile strength of 2D 1 × 1 braided composites is predicted from the calculated average stress-average strain curve . Numerical results show good agreement with experimental data ,thus the proposed simulation method is verified for damage mechanism analysis of 2D braided composites .

  14. Structural analysis of composite wind turbine blades nonlinear mechanics and finite element models with material damping

    CERN Document Server

    Chortis, Dimitris I

    2013-01-01

    This book concerns the development of novel finite elements for the structural analysis of composite beams and blades. The introduction of material damping is also an important aspect of composite structures and it is presented here in terms of their static and dynamic behavior. The book thoroughly presents a new shear beam finite element, which entails new blade section mechanics, capable of predicting structural blade coupling due to composite coupling and/or internal section geometry. Theoretical background is further expanded towards the inclusion of nonlinear structural blade models and damping mechanics for composite structures. The models effectively include geometrically nonlinear terms due to large displacements and rotations, improve the modeling accuracy of very large flexible blades, and enable the modeling of rotational stiffening and buckling, as well as, nonlinear structural coupling. Validation simulations on specimen level study the geometric nonlinearities effect on the modal frequencies and...

  15. Composite analysis with Monte Carlo methods: an example with cosmic rays and clouds

    CERN Document Server

    Laken, Benjamin A

    2013-01-01

    The composite (superposed epoch) analysis technique has been frequently employed to examine a hypothesized link between solar activity and the Earth's atmosphere, often through an investigation of Forbush decrease (Fd) events (sudden high-magnitude decreases in the flux cosmic rays impinging on the upper-atmosphere lasting up to several days). This technique is useful for isolating low-amplitude signals within data where background variability would otherwise obscure detection. The application of composite analyses to investigate the possible impacts of Fd events involves a statistical examination of time-dependent atmospheric responses to Fds often from aerosol and/or cloud datasets. Despite the publication of numerous results within this field, clear conclusions have yet to be drawn and much ambiguity and disagreement still remain. In this paper, we argue that the conflicting findings of composite studies within this field relate to methodological differences in the manner in which the composites have been ...

  16. Simultaneous separation and quantitative determination of monosaccharides, uronic acids, and aldonic acids by high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection in corn stover prehydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xing Wang

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A method for simultaneous separation and quantitative determination of arabinose, galactose, glucose, xylose, xylonic acid, gluconic acid, galacturonic acid, and glucuronic acid was developed by using high performance anion-exchange chromatography coupled with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD. The separation was performed on a CarboPacTM PA-10 column (250 mm × 2 mm with a various gradient elution of NaOH-NaOAc solution as the mobile phase. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2 ≥ 0.9993 for the monosaccharides, uronic acids, and aldonic acids in the range of 0.1 to 12.5 mg/L. The detection limits (LODs and the quantification limits (LOQs were 4.91 to 18.75 μg/L and 16.36 to 62.50 μg/L, respectively. Relative standard deviations (RSDs of the retention times and peak areas for the seven consecutive determinations of an unknown amount of mixture were 0.15% to 0.44% and 0.22% to 2.31%, respectively. The established method was used to separate and determine four monosaccharides, two uronic acids, and two aldonic acids in the prehydrolysate from dilute acid steam-exploded corn stover within 21 min. The spiked recoveries of monosaccharides, uronic acids, and aldonic acids ranged from 91.25% to 108.81%, with RSDs (n=3 of 0.04% ~ 6.07%. This method was applied to evaluate the quantitative variation of sugar and sugar acid content in biomass prehydrolysates.

  17. The effect of irradiation on the intracellular transportation of the parotid gland acinar cells in the mouse. Localization of monosaccharides studied by electron microscopic autoradiography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsunaga, Hajime (Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan))

    1994-06-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of radiation on the ability to ingest monosaccharides and intracellular transportation in the parotid gland in mice. The submandibular regions, including the parotid gland, was exposed to 10 Gy of X-rays. Three days after irradiation, the localization of reducing silver grains in organelles was determined, using electron microscopic autoradiography with H-3 labeled galactosamine, glucosamine, fucose, and mannose. In the non-irradiated group, the proportion of reducing silver grains in the acinar cells began to increase 15 min after administration of monosaccharides, reached a peak at 180 min, and thereafter decreased. Similar findings were observed in the irradiated group, although the values were lower than the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the endoplasmic reticulum reached a peak at 15 min in both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups, and gradually decreased until 120 min. Thereafter, it became almost constant and low, but the proportion in the irradiated group was slightly higher than in the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the Golgi apparatus was maximum at 60 min in the non-irradiated group, and gradually decreased until 360 min. A similar tendency was seen in the irradiated group, although its variation was not so marked as in the non-irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in the condensing vacuoles was maximum at 120 min, and thereafter, it decreased; the decrease was only slight in the irradiated group. The proportion of reducing silver grains in secretory granules increased with time in both the non-irradiated and irradiated groups, although this was only slight in the irradiated group, and reached a peak at 360 min. Transportation of monosaccharides in an acinar cell was found to be delayed by irradiation. (N.K.).

  18. 单糖的生物代谢及细胞归趋%Biologi cal metabolism of monosaccharides and ultimate destinationof the cell

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王安娜; 郝东东; 雷瑞盈; 李永峰

    2015-01-01

    Sugar is one of the main source of human energy.In addition, it also plays an essential role in plants and microorganisms.Monosaccharide metabolic process has been highly valued, which mainly introducts on mon-osaccharide sources, including intracellular and extracellular sources of sugar , sugar nucleotides`transporter and categories, which includes effect of sugar nucleotide s`transporter on the cell, and it occurs glycosylation reaction in endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi, which makes a difference in different transporters operating glycosylation re -actions.The problem about metabolites`final destination of monosaccharide nucleotide still exists potential re -search value.%糖是人体能量的主要来源之一。除此之外,它在植物和微生物中也起到必不可少的作用。单糖的代谢过程也一直倍受重视。主要介绍单糖的来源,包括细胞内糖的来源及细胞外糖源,糖核苷酸的转运与类别,包括糖核苷酸转运子作用于细胞使其在内质网和高尔基体发生糖基化反应以及不同转运子的运作产生糖基化反应的差异,单糖核苷酸代谢产物的最终去向。

  19. Dynamic Analysis of Composite Structural System for Looms Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jigar K. Sevalia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available All the structures subjected to any kind of loads or displacement tends to behave dynamically. Thus the structures are always under continuous loading. The industrial buildings have to support the machineries in motion which are under high degree of vibrations. And so the design of base and the foundations of such structures under vibrations are very important and need to be stable. Problems of dynamics of bases and foundations are to be studied carefully, so as to understand the response characteristics of the power loom industry structure. This is very important from the economic point of view as well as to secure the stability and safety of the structure; dynamic analysis was carried out for Ground + One storey industry load bearing structure using STAAD.Pro software. In this paper, an attempt has been made to study the dynamic analysis of the structure under vibrations caused by reciprocating type machines. This paper makes attempt to study the effects of various structural parameters like Beam Size, Column Size and Storey Height and Wall Thickness variation on Frequency and Displacement of the industrial building which in future will serve as guidelines to the structural engineers and the industry people.

  20. A Framework for Performing Multiscale Stochastic Progressive Failure Analysis of Composite Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2007-01-01

    A framework is presented that enables coupled multiscale analysis of composite structures. The recently developed, free, Finite Element Analysis-Micromechanics Analysis Code (FEAMAC) software couples the Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells (MAC/GMC) with ABAQUS to perform micromechanics based FEA such that the nonlinear composite material response at each integration point is modeled at each increment by MAC/GMC. As a result, the stochastic nature of fiber breakage in composites can be simulated through incorporation of an appropriate damage and failure model that operates within MAC/GMC on the level of the fiber. Results are presented for the progressive failure analysis of a titanium matrix composite tensile specimen that illustrate the power and utility of the framework and address the techniques needed to model the statistical nature of the problem properly. In particular, it is shown that incorporating fiber strength randomness on multiple scales improves the quality of the simulation by enabling failure at locations other than those associated with structural level stress risers.

  1. Preparative chromatography for specific δ13C isotopic analysis of individual carbohydrates in environmental samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nouara, Amel; Panagiotopoulos, Christos; Balesdent, Jérôme; Sempéré, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Carbohydrates are among the most abundant organic molecules on the Earth and are present in all geochemical systems. Despite their high abundance in the environment, very few studies assessed their origin using molecular carbohydrate isotopic analyses. In contrast with bulk stable isotope analysis (BSIA), which gives the isotopic signature of the entire sample without any specification about its chemical composition, compound specific 13C isotopic analysis of individual sugars (CSIA) offers valuable information about the origin of single molecules. Previous investigations used gas or liquid chromatography coupled with isotope ratio mass spectroscopy (GC-IRMS; HPLC-IRMS) for CSIA of sugars however the former requires δ13C corrections due to the carbon added to the sugar (derivatization) while the later does not provide always adequate separations among monosaccharides. Here we used cation preparative chromatography (Ca2+, Pb2+ and Na+) with refractive index detection in order to produce pure monosaccharide targets for subsequent EA-IRMS analyses. Milli-Q water was used as eluant at a flow rate 0.6 ml min-1. In general, three successive purifications (Ca2+, Pb2+, Ca2+) were sufficient to produce pure compounds. Pure monosaccharides were compared with authentic monosaccharide standards using 1H NMR and/or mass spectroscopy. The detection limit of our technique was about 1µM/sugar with a precision of 10% (n=6). Blanks run with Milli-Q water after three successive purifications resulted in carbon content of 0.13 to 2.77 µgC per collected sugar. These values are much lower than the minimum required amount (5 µgC) of the EA-IRSMS system with a precision of ± 0.35 ‰. Application of our method to environmental samples resulted in δ13C values of glucose, fructose, and levoglucosan in the range of -24 to -26 ‰ (PM10 atmospheric particles), and -15‰ to -22 ‰ for arabinose, glucose, and xylose (marine high molecular dissolved organic matter). These results fall in

  2. Compositional, spectroscopic and rheological analyses of mucilage isolated from taro (Colocasia esculenta L. Schott) corms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Njintang, Nicolas Yanou; Boudjeko, Thaddee; Tatsadjieu, Leopold Ngoune; Nguema-Ona, Eric; Scher, Joel; Mbofung, Carl M F

    2014-05-01

    Tropical roots and tubers generally contain mucilage. These mucilages exhibit unique rheological properties with considerable potential as a food thickener and stabilizer. A one-step extraction procedure was used to isolate starch free mucilage and associated proteins from a number of taro (Colocasia esculenta) varieties. The monosaccharide and amino acid composition, the structural and flow properties were investigated. The results showed that yield of mucilage fraction varied from 30 to 190 g.kg(-1). A negative correlation (r = -0.87; p < 0.05) was observed between the crude protein level and the yield. The monosaccharide profiles revealed that galactose, mannose and arabinose were the main monosaccharides in the hydrolysate of the mucilage. From the 17 amino acids analyzed, aspartic acid/asparagine (14.4-17.2%) and glutamic acid/glutamine (10.3-13.6%) were prominent in the mucilage as well as the flour. No significant differences were observed in the FT-IR spectra and in the viscosity behavior of the mucilage dispersions. The greatest difference in the mucilage is based on its monosaccharide profile while the protein composition, which reflects that of the flour, is relatively stable.

  3. GC/MS Analysis of the Aromatic Composition of Gasoline

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostecka, Keith S.; Rabah, Ashraf; Palmer, Charles F., Jr.

    1995-09-01

    The gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) analysis of three brands of regular unleaded gasoline was conducted as part of the independent project of an undergraduate journalism major. In his work, samples of each gasoline were diluted down to part per million (ppm) levels with dichloromethane and then one microliter injections were made onto a Hewlett-Packard GC (5890 Series II unit). Mass spectra were also obtained on each sample through use of a 5971A mass selective detector (MSD). Subsequent characterization was consequently effected through utilization of the standard mass spectra available in a 49,000 compound National Bureau of Standards reference library. Comparison of the obtained and standard spectra revealed that the same aromatic hydrocarbons (including, in part: benzene, the xylenes, naphthalene, and methylated naphthalenes) were present in all three samples. Percentage values for these and other aromatic hydrocarbons were then generated and tabulated.

  4. Global Carbon Fiber Composites Supply Chain Competitiveness Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, Sujit [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Warren, Josh [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); West, Devin [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Schexnayder, Susan M. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2016-05-01

    This study identifies key opportunities in the carbon fiber supply chain where the United States Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy resources and investments can help the United States achieve or maintain a competitive advantage. The report focuses on four application areas--wind energy, aerospace, automotive, and pressure vessels--that top the list of industries using carbon fiber and carbon fiber reinforced polymers and are also particularly relevant to EERE's mission. For each of the four application areas, the report addresses the supply and demand trends within that sector, supply chain, and costs of carbon fiber and components, all contributing to a competitiveness assessment that addresses the United States' role in future industry growth. This report was prepared by researchers at Oak Ridge National Laboratory and the University of Tennessee for the Clean Energy Manufacturing Analysis Center.

  5. Modification of exopolysaccharide composition and production by three cyanobacterial isolates under salt stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozturk, Sahlan; Aslim, Belma

    2010-03-01

    Polysaccharides are renewable resources representing an important class of polymeric materials of biotechnological interest, offering a wide variety of potentially useful products to mankind. Exopolysaccharides (EPSs) of microbial origin with a novel functionality, reproducible physico-chemical properties, stable cost and supply, became a better alternative to polysaccharides of algal origin. EPSs are believed to protect bacterial cells from desiccation, heavy metals or other environmental stresses, including hostimmune responses, and to produce biofilms, thus enhancing the cells chances of colonising special ecological niches. One of the most important stress factor is salt stress for microorganisms. The present investigation is aimed to determine correlation between salt resistance and EPS production by three cyanobacterial isolates (Synechocystis sp. BASO444, Synechocystis sp. BASO507 and Synechocystis sp. BASO511). It is also aimed to investigate the effect of salt concentrations on EPS production by cyanobacteria and effect of salt on monosaccharide composition of EPS. Cyanobacterial isolates were identified by 16 S rRNA analysis. Its salt (NaCl) tolerance and association with exopolysaccharides (EPSs) production in three cyanobacterial isolates were investigated. Also, EPS was analysed by HPLC for monomer characterization. Increased EPS production was associated with NaCl tolerance. The most tolerant isolate, Synechocystis sp. BASO444, secreted the most EPS (500 mg/L). EPS production by Synechocystis sp. BASO444, Synechocystis sp. BASO507 and Synechocystis sp. BASO511 was investigated following exposure to 0.2 and 0.4 M NaCl. Also, flasks containing medium without NaCl were inoculated in the same manner to serve as controls. The monosaccharide compositions of EPS produced by the three isolates following exposure to 0.2 M NaCl were analysed by HPLC. Control EPS of BASO444 was composed of glucose (97%) and galacturonic acid (3%). The composition of BASO511

  6. Extraction and Composition Analysis of the Polysaccharide in Rabdosia rubescens%冬凌草多糖的提取、分离及理化性质研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯飞; 刘克为; 梁惠; 高华

    2011-01-01

    为研究冬凌草多糖的理化性质和质量,对冬凌草采用热水、稀碱提取,乙醇沉淀,等电点法脱蛋白后得到冬凌草粗多糖,经Q Sepharose 4 Fast Flow离子交换层析柱和Sephacryl S-100凝胶柱进一步纯化后得到4个纯度较高的组分STPS-Ⅰ、STPS-Ⅱ、JTPS-Ⅰ、JTPS-Ⅱ.对各组分的总糖含量、糖醛酸含量、硫酸根含量以及蛋白含量进行了测定,利用高效液相色谱法测定了单糖组成和分子量.结果 显示冬凌草多糖不同组分的分子量相近,化学组成及单糖组成明显不同.%To study the physical and chemical properties and quality of polysaccharides in Rabdosia rubescens. Crude polysaccharides of Rabdosia rubescens were obtained by extraction in hot water and dilute alkali successively, precipitation with ethanol and removal of protein by method of isoelectric point. STPS- Ⅰ, STPS- Ⅱ,JTPS- Ⅰ, JTPS-Ⅱ were isolated by a combination of ion exchange chromatography on Q Sepharose 4 Fast Flow and gel permeation over Sephacryl S-100 and with high purity. Their chemical characteristics including the content of total sugar, uronic acid, sulfate and protein as well as monosaccharide composition and molecular weight were investigated. The results showed that the molecular weight of different components of polysaccharides in Rabdosia rubescens was similar, while chemical composition and monosaccharide composition obvious different.

  7. Stochiometry, Microbial community composition and decomposition, a modelling analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berninger, Frank; Zhou, Xuan; Aaltonen, Heidi; Köster, Kajar; Heinonsalo, Jussi; Pumpanen, Jukka

    2017-04-01

    Enzyme activity based litter decomposition models describe the decomposition of soil organic matter as a function of microbial biomass and its activity. In these models, decomposition depends largely on microbial and litter stoïchiometry. We, used the model of Schimel and Weintraub (Soil Biology & Biochemistry 35 (2003) 549-563 largely relying on the modification of Waring B et al. Ecology Letters, (2013) 16: 887-894) and we modified the model to include bacteria, fungi and mycorrizal fungi as decomposer groups assuming different stochiometries. The model was tested against previously published data from a fire chronosequence from northern Finland. The model reconstructed well the development of soil organic matter, microbial biomasses, enzyme actitivies with time after fire. In a theoretical model analysis we tried to understand how the exchange of carbon and nitrogen between mycorrhiza and the plant as different litter stoïchiometries interact. The results indicate that if a high percentage of fungal N uptake is transferred to the plant mycorrhizal biomass will decrease drastically and does decrease, due to low mycorrhizal biomasses, the N uptake of plants. If a lower proportion of the fungal N uptake is transferred to the plant the N uptake of the plants is reasonable stable while the proportion of mycorrhiza of the total fungal biomass varies. The model is also able to simulate priming of soil organic matter decomposition.

  8. Mechanical Buckling Analysis of Composite Panels with/without Cutouts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Oana Zenaida PASCAN; ZHANG Wei-hong; Jean Philippe PONTHOT

    2012-01-01

    A simplified analytical solution suitable for simple stacking sequences was developed using the Euler buck- ling theory, the structure's equations of equilibrium and laminate panel mathematical formulation. Comparing these results with numerical results reveals the accuracy of the method and even more, allows us to validate the nu- merical analysis. Therefore, two important results are obtained: a simplified analytical solution for the buckling problem and validation of the numerical results. Another important and novel finding is related to the influence of the angle ply orientation and of the cutouts, on the buckling load. Under symmetrical boundary conditions and loading case, rectangular panels with elliptical cutouts, give better results for 90~ oriented plies than for 0 oriented ones. With a compression load applied in the X direction, and with material properties 10 times better in X direction than in Y direction, the best results are obtained when the load is aligned with the Y direction associated to the ma- terial reference frame. Moreover, panels with cutouts seem to behave better than panels without cutouts under cer- tainply orientation angles.

  9. Vibration Analysis of Large Composite Blade Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuqiao Zheng

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a recently developed the finite model method for analysis of horizontal axis wind turbine blades.Free vibration equation is proposed based on theory of  the classical lamination and  Lagrange method.. A 40 m rotor blade was chosen as a example study to validate the static and dynamic behaviour predicted by shell model built in ANSYS,Given uncertainty of material properties involved,An accurate agreement was found for static deformation curves, as well as a good prediction of the lowest frequency modes in terms of resonance frequencies, the highest (eighth frequency modes show only a fair agreement as expected for an FE model,Flap-wise, edge-wise and  torsional  natural  frequencies of  a  variable  length  blade  have been investigated,The results show that the approach used in this study is very efficient and produces improved designs as compared with a reference or baseline design.

  10. Mesoscale Fracture Analysis of Multiphase Cementitious Composites Using Peridynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin Yaghoobi

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Concrete is a complex heterogeneous material, and thus, it is important to develop numerical modeling methods to enhance the prediction accuracy of the fracture mechanism. In this study, a two-dimensional mesoscale model is developed using a non-ordinary state-based peridynamic (NOSBPD method. Fracture in a concrete cube specimen subjected to pure tension is studied. The presence of heterogeneous materials consisting of coarse aggregates, interfacial transition zones, air voids and cementitious matrix is characterized as particle points in a two-dimensional mesoscale model. Coarse aggregates and voids are generated using uniform probability distributions, while a statistical study is provided to comprise the effect of random distributions of constituent materials. In obtaining the steady-state response, an incremental and iterativesolverisadopted for the dynamic relaxation method. Load-displacement curves and damage patterns are compared with available experimental and finite element analysis (FEA results.Although the proposed model uses much simpler material damage models and discretization schemes, the load-displacementcurvesshownodifferencefromtheFEAresults. Furthermore,nomeshrefinement is necessary, as fracture is inherently characterized by bond breakages. Finally, a sensitivity study is conducted to understand the effect of aggregate volume fraction and porosity on the load capacity of the proposed mesoscale model

  11. Application of solid phase microextraction on dental composite resin analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ven-Shing; Chang, Ta-Yuan; Lai, Chien-Chen; Chen, San-Yue; Huang, Long-Chen; Chao, Keh-Ping

    2012-08-15

    A direct immersion solid phase microextraction (DI-SPME) method was developed for the analysis of dentin monomers in saliva. Dentine monomers, such as triethylene glycol dimethacrylate (TEGDMA), urethane dimethacrylate (UDMA) and 2,2-bis-[4-(2-hydroxy-3-methacryloyloxypropoxy) phenyl]-propane (Bis-GMA), have a high molecular weight and a low vapor pressure. The polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fiber with a medium polarity was employed for DI-SPME, and 215 nm of detection wavelength was found to be optimum in the chromatogram of HPLC measurement. The calibration range for DI-SPME was 0.30-300 μg/mL with correlation coefficients (r) greater than 0.998 for each analyte. The DI-SPME method achieved good accuracy (recovery 96.1-101.2%) and precision (2.30-8.15% CV) for both intra- and inter-day assays of quality control samples for three target compounds. Method validation was performed on standards dissolved in blank saliva, and there was no significant difference (p>0.2) between the DI-SPME method and the liquid injection method. However, the detection limit of DI-SPME was as low as 0.03, 0.27 and 0.06 μg/mL for TEGDMA, UDMA and Bis-GMA, respectively. Real sample analyses were performed on commercial dentin products after curing for the leaching measurement. In summary, DI-SPME is a more sensitive method that requires less sample pretreatment procedures to measure the resin materials leached in saliva.

  12. Analysis of the mineral composition of hypomineralized first permanent molars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinović Brankica

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Hypomineralization of molars and incisors (molar-incisor hypomineralization - MIH is defined as enamel hypomineralization of systemic origin of one or more of the four first permanent molars, which may be associated with changes in the maxillary, and less frequently in the permanent mandibular incisors. The aim of this study was to investigate the mineral content in hypomineralized teeth as a contribution to under-standing the origin of these changes, which will be important for effective restorative approach. Methods. A total of 10 extracted first permanent molars diagnosed with MIH were used in the study as the experimental group, and intact first premolars extracted for orthodontic reasons were used as the control group. A certain surface of hypomineralized аnd healthy enamel and dentin was analyzed using a scanning electron microscope equipped with an energydispersive spectrometer (SEM/EDS. Results. By conducting quantitative chemical analysis of the distribution of the basic chemical elements, it was found that the concentration of calcium (Ca and phosphorus (P was significantly higher in healthy enamel (Ca = 28.80 wt%, and P = 15.05 wt% compared to hypomineralized enamel (Ca = 27.60 wt% and P = 14.32 wt%. Carbon (C concentration was statistically significantly higher in hypomineralized enamel (C = 11.70 wt% compared to healthy enamel (C = 10.94 wt%. Hypomineralized and healthy enamel did not differ significantly regarding the ratio of calcium and phosphorus concentrations whereas the ratio of calcium and carbon concentrations was statistically significantly higher in healthy enamel compared to hypomineralized enamel. Conclusion. Concentration of the main chemical elements, primarily calcium and phosphorus, is significantly reduced in hypomineralized enamel whereas carbon concentration is increased compared to healthy enamel.

  13. A Linguistic Analysis of Errors in the Compositions of Arba Minch University Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tizazu, Yoseph

    2014-01-01

    This study reports the dominant linguistic errors that occur in the written productions of Arba Minch University (hereafter AMU) students. A sample of paragraphs was collected for two years from students ranging from freshmen to graduating level. The sampled compositions were then coded, described, and explained using error analysis method. Both…

  14. The use of bioelectrical impedance analysis for body composition in epidemiological studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böhm, A; Heitmann, B L

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is a relatively simple, inexpensive and non-invasive technique to measure body composition and is therefore suitable in field studies and larger surveys. SUBJECTS/METHODS: We performed an overview of BIA-derived body fat percentages (BF...

  15. On the composition analysis of nc-TiC/a-C : H nanocomposite coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chechenin, N.G.; Chernykh, P.N.; Kulikauskas, V.S.; Pei, Y.T.; Vainshtein, D.; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2008-01-01

    Using a set of ion beam analysis (IBA) techniques the compositions of hydrogenated diamond-like carbon (DLC) nanocomposite coatings are scrutinized, including the hydrogen content. The coatings are composed of two constituents: amorphous hydrocarbon matrix (a-C : H) and nanocrystalline titanium carb

  16. Body composition analysis by DEXA by using dynamically changing samarium filtration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, Arne; Baeksgaard, L; Hilsted, J

    1997-01-01

    Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis but is influenced by beam hardening and other error sources in the extremes of measurement. To compensate for beam hardening, the Norland XR-36 introduces a dynamically changing samarium filtration system, w...... filtration) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis. It has a potential for gaining status as a reference method in the future and may presently be used as a supplement to the traditional methods for body composition analysis.......Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) has a high accuracy for body composition analysis but is influenced by beam hardening and other error sources in the extremes of measurement. To compensate for beam hardening, the Norland XR-36 introduces a dynamically changing samarium filtration system......). Scans of six healthy volunteers covered with combinations of beef and lard (approximately 5-15 kg) showed a good agreement (r = 0.99) between reference and DEXA values of added soft tissue mass and fat percentage. We conclude that the DEXA method (and, in particular, the Norland XR-36 using dynamic...

  17. Following the compositional changes of fresh grape skin cell walls during the fermentation process in the presence and absence of maceration enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zietsman, Anscha J J; Moore, John P; Fangel, Jonatan U; Willats, William G T; Trygg, Johan; Vivier, Melané A

    2015-03-18

    Cell wall profiling technologies were used to follow compositional changes that occurred in the skins of grape berries (from two different ripeness levels) during fermentation and enzyme maceration. Multivariate data analysis showed that the fermentation process yielded cell walls enriched in hemicellulose components because pectin was solubilized (and removed) with a reduction as well as exposure of cell wall proteins usually embedded within the cell wall structure. The addition of enzymes caused even more depectination, and the enzymes unravelled the cell walls enabling better access to, and extraction of, all cell wall polymers. Overripe grapes had cell walls that were extensively hydrolyzed and depolymerized, probably by natural grape-tissue-ripening enzymes, and this enhanced the impact that the maceration enzymes had on the cell wall monosaccharide profile. The combination of the techniques that were used is an effective direct measurement of the hydrolysis actions of maceration enzymes on the cell walls of grape berry skin.

  18. Neutronic and thermal analysis of composite fuel for potential deployment in fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abou Jaoude, Abdalla; Thomas, Colin; Erickson, Anna, E-mail: erickson@gatech.edu

    2016-07-15

    Highlights: • Neutronic and heat transfer performance of composite fuels on the macro-scale. • Methodology to guide flexible fuel design using high fidelity simulation tools. • Viability of composite fuels for ultra-high burnup fast reactor deployment. - Abstract: Composite fuels are promising candidates for high-burnup fast reactors because of their accommodation of swelling, limited fuel-cladding interactions and flexibility in design. While a proof-of-concept fuel consisting of granules of U-alloys and PuO{sub 2} dispersed within a porous zirconium matrix was successfully manufactured and irradiated, its neutronic and thermal performance remains to be optimized as compared to currently utilized fuels. MCNP6, COMSOL and a sphere packing algorithm were employed to perform the analysis. We found that both the theoretical maximum burnup reached and the temperature profiles are comparable to that of the currently considered alternative fuel. The results are promising and do not indicate any substantial limitation to the deployment of composite fuel. The fuel type merits further research, including full-core simulations. The methodology followed herein also provides a basis for screening different material compositions and guiding materials selection in composite fuels.

  19. Epoxy matrix composites filled with micro-sized LD sludge: wear characterization and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purohit, Abhilash; Satapathy, Alok

    2016-02-01

    Owing to the very high cost of conventional filler materials in polymer composites, exploring the possibility of using low cost minerals and industrial wastes for this purpose has become the need of the hour. In view of this, the present work includes the development and the wear performance evaluation of a new class of composites consisting of epoxy and microsized LD sludge. LD sludge or the Linz-Donawitz Sludge (LDS) are the fine solid particles recovered after wet cleaning of the gas emerging from LD convertors during steel making. Epoxy composites filled with different proportions (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 wt %) of LDS are fabricated by conventional hand lay-up technique. Dry sliding wear trials are performed on the composite specimens under different test conditions as per ASTM G 99 following a design of experiment approach based on Taguchi's orthogonal arrays. The Taguchi approach leads to the recognition of most powerful variables that predominantly control the wear rate. This parametric analysis reveals that LDS content and sliding velocity affects the specific wear rate more significantly than normal load and sliding distance. Furthermore with increase in LDS content specific wear rate of the composite decreases for a constant sliding velocity. The sliding wear behavior of these composites under an extended range of test conditions is predicted by a model based on the artificial neural network (ANN).

  20. Vibration and Damping Analysis of Composite Fiber Reinforced Wind Blade with Viscoelastic Damping Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tai-Hong Cheng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composite materials are increasingly used in wind blade because of their superior mechanical properties such as high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio. This paper presents vibration and damping analysis of fiberreinforced composite wind turbine blade with viscoelastic damping treatment. The finite element method based on full layerwise displacement theory was employed to analyze the damping, natural frequency, and modal loss factor of composite shell structure. The lamination angle was considered in mathematical modeling. The curved geometry, transverse shear, and normal strains were exactly considered in present layerwise shell model, which can depict the zig-zag in-plane and out-of-plane displacements. The frequency response functions of curved composite shell structure and wind blade were calculated. The results show that the damping ratio of viscoelastic layer is found to be very sensitive to determination of magnitude of composite structures. The frequency response functions with variety of thickness of damping layer were investigated. Moreover, the natural frequency, modal loss factor, and mode shapes of composite fiber reinforced wind blade with viscoelastic damping control were calculated.

  1. On the analysis of composite measures of quality in medical research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moineddin, Rahim; Meaney, Christopher; Grunfeld, Eva

    2017-04-01

    Composite endpoints are commonplace in biomedical research. The complex nature of many health conditions and medical interventions demand that composite endpoints be employed. Different approaches exist for the analysis of composite endpoints. A Monte Carlo simulation study was employed to assess the statistical properties of various regression methods for analyzing binary composite endpoints. We also applied these methods to data from the BETTER trial which employed a binary composite endpoint. We demonstrated that type 1 error rates are poor for the Negative Binomial regression model and the logistic generalized linear mixed model (GLMM). Bias was minimal and power was highest in the binomial logistic regression model, the linear regression model, the Poisson (corrected for over-dispersion) regression model and the common effect logistic generalized estimating equation (GEE) model. Convergence was poor in the distinct effect GEE models, the logistic GLMM and some of the zero-one inflated beta regression models. Considering the BETTER trial data, the distinct effect GEE model struggled with convergence and the collapsed composite method estimated an effect, which was greatly attenuated compared to other models. All remaining models suggested an intervention effect of similar magnitude. In our simulation study, the binomial logistic regression model (corrected for possible over/under-dispersion), the linear regression model, the Poisson regression model (corrected for over-dispersion) and the common effect logistic GEE model appeared to be unbiased, with good type 1 error rates, power and convergence properties.

  2. Structural and in vitro adhesion analysis of a novel covalently coupled bioactive composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Abdul S; Hassan, Khawaja R; Bukhari, Syeda F; Wong, Ferranti S L; Rehman, Ihtesham U

    2012-01-01

    The interfacial adhesion between a restorative composite and tooth is one of the major factors that determine the ultimate performance of composite restoration. A novel polyurethane (PU) composite material was prepared by chemically binding the nano-hydroxyapatite (nHA) to the diisocyanate component in the PU backbone by utilizing solvent polymerization. The procedure involved stepwise addition of monomeric units of the PU and optimizing the reagent concentrations. The resultant materials were characterized structurally (Raman Spectroscopy) and in vitro bioactive analysis was conducted in modified-simulated body fluid for periodical time intervals. The in vitro study evaluated the push-out bond strength of existing obturating material and novel covalently linked PU/nHA composites to dentin after long-term storage in deionized water and artificial saliva. Human extracted molar roots were filled with experimental samples and analyzed at predetermined time intervals. The shear bond strength of samples was measured and surface morphologies were evaluated. Covalent bond formation was achieved between PU and nHA without intermediate coupling agent. With the increase in concentration of nHA, the composite showed more bioactivity and adhesion toward tooth structure. Bond strength of this new composite were in accordance with obutrating material, therefore, the material can be used as an obturating material because of its direct adhesion with tooth structure.

  3. Mechanical properties and microstructural analysis of Al–Si–Mg/carbonized maize stalk waste particulate composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.E. Oghenevweta

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The mechanical properties and morphological analysis of Al–Si–Mg/carbonized maize stalk particulate composites was investigated. The compositions of the composite include a matrix of Al–Si–Mg and the carbonized maize stalk particulates as reinforcement ranging from 2% to 10% at an interval of 2%. Properties such as mechanical behaviour of the composites were examined and these include tensile strength, tensile modulus, hardness value, impact energy, percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area. Besides, the microstructures of the developed Al–Si–Mg/carbonized maize stalk particulate composites were investigated. The results of the microstructures of the composite show a uniform dispersion of the reinforcement along the grain boundaries of the alloy. The tensile strength and hardness values increase to 85.60 N/mm2 and 24HRB at 8 and 10 wt% of carbonized maize stalk respectively, but there is a slight decrease in the impact energy values, values of percentage elongation and percentage reduction in area as the reinforcement increases. From these results of investigation, we concluded that the carbonized reinforcing maize particulates can be used to enhance the properties of Al–Si–Mg alloy for engineering applications.

  4. Rate Dependent Multicontinuum Progressive Failure Analysis of Woven Fabric Composite Structures under Dynamic Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Lua

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Marine composite materials typically exhibit significant rate dependent response characteristics when subjected to extreme dynamic loading conditions. In this work, a strain-rate dependent continuum damage model is incorporated with multicontinuum technology (MCT to predict damage and failure progression for composite material structures. MCT treats the constituents of a woven fabric composite as separate but linked continua, thereby allowing a designer to extract constituent stress/strain information in a structural analysis. The MCT algorithm and material damage model are numerically implemented with the explicit finite element code LS-DYNA3D via a user-defined material model (umat. The effects of the strain-rate hardening model are demonstrated through both simple single element analyses for woven fabric composites and also structural level impact simulations of a composite panel subjected to various impact conditions. Progressive damage at the constituent level is monitored throughout the loading. The results qualitatively illustrate the value of rate dependent material models for marine composite materials under extreme dynamic loading conditions.

  5. Circular Functions Based Comprehensive Analysis of Plastic Creep Deformations in the Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfared, Vahid

    2016-06-01

    Analytically based model is presented for behavioral analysis of the plastic deformations in the reinforced materials using the circular (trigonometric) functions. The analytical method is proposed to predict creep behavior of the fibrous composites based on basic and constitutive equations under a tensile axial stress. New insight of the work is to predict some important behaviors of the creeping matrix. In the present model, the prediction of the behaviors is simpler than the available methods. Principal creep strain rate behaviors are very noteworthy for designing the fibrous composites in the creeping composites. Analysis of the mentioned parameter behavior in the reinforced materials is necessary to analyze failure, fracture, and fatigue studies in the creep of the short fiber composites. Shuttles, spaceships, turbine blades and discs, and nozzle guide vanes are commonly subjected to the creep effects. Also, predicting the creep behavior is significant to design the optoelectronic and photonic advanced composites with optical fibers. As a result, the uniform behavior with constant gradient is seen in the principal creep strain rate behavior, and also creep rupture may happen at the fiber end. Finally, good agreements are found through comparing the obtained analytical and FEM results.

  6. Circular Functions Based Comprehensive Analysis of Plastic Creep Deformations in the Fiber Reinforced Composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monfared, Vahid

    2016-12-01

    Analytically based model is presented for behavioral analysis of the plastic deformations in the reinforced materials using the circular (trigonometric) functions. The analytical method is proposed to predict creep behavior of the fibrous composites based on basic and constitutive equations under a tensile axial stress. New insight of the work is to predict some important behaviors of the creeping matrix. In the present model, the prediction of the behaviors is simpler than the available methods. Principal creep strain rate behaviors are very noteworthy for designing the fibrous composites in the creeping composites. Analysis of the mentioned parameter behavior in the reinforced materials is necessary to analyze failure, fracture, and fatigue studies in the creep of the short fiber composites. Shuttles, spaceships, turbine blades and discs, and nozzle guide vanes are commonly subjected to the creep effects. Also, predicting the creep behavior is significant to design the optoelectronic and photonic advanced composites with optical fibers. As a result, the uniform behavior with constant gradient is seen in the principal creep strain rate behavior, and also creep rupture may happen at the fiber end. Finally, good agreements are found through comparing the obtained analytical and FEM results.

  7. Domain Superposition Technique for Free Vibration Analysis of Textile Composite Structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. G. Jiang

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Textile composites consist of interlaced tows, which are impregnated with a matrix material and then cured. The interlacing of the tows offers the potential for increased through-thickness strength compared to conventional laminated composites. However, one disadvantage of textile composites is the difficulty in predicting their performance due to the complex geometry of their internal architectures. Finite element analysis (FEA has become an effective means to predict the response of complex textile composite structures. When an attempt is made to perform a conventional FEA, one of the tough issues faced is how to deal with the topologically complex internal geometries. To overcome this difficult issue, a domain superposition technique (DST has been proposed to implement free vibration analysis of woven composite structures. The significant advantage of the DST over traditional FEA is that it does not need to directly deal with the likely degenerated resin-rich region, thus the DST model is much easier to establish. Numerical results show that DST predictions correlate excellently with traditional FEAs.

  8. Fast classification and compositional analysis of cornstover fractions using Fourier transform near-infrared techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philip Ye, X; Liu, Lu; Hayes, Douglas; Womac, Alvin; Hong, Kunlun; Sokhansanj, Shahab

    2008-10-01

    The objectives of this research were to determine the variation of chemical composition across botanical fractions of cornstover, and to probe the potential of Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) techniques in qualitatively classifying separated cornstover fractions and in quantitatively analyzing chemical compositions of cornstover by developing calibration models to predict chemical compositions of cornstover based on FT-NIR spectra. Large variations of cornstover chemical composition for wide calibration ranges, which is required by a reliable calibration model, were achieved by manually separating the cornstover samples into six botanical fractions, and their chemical compositions were determined by conventional wet chemical analyses, which proved that chemical composition varies significantly among different botanical fractions of cornstover. Different botanic fractions, having total saccharide content in descending order, are husk, sheath, pith, rind, leaf, and node. Based on FT-NIR spectra acquired on the biomass, classification by Soft Independent Modeling of Class Analogy (SIMCA) was employed to conduct qualitative classification of cornstover fractions, and partial least square (PLS) regression was used for quantitative chemical composition analysis. SIMCA was successfully demonstrated in classifying botanical fractions of cornstover. The developed PLS model yielded root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP %w/w) of 0.92, 1.03, 0.17, 0.27, 0.21, 1.12, and 0.57 for glucan, xylan, galactan, arabinan, mannan, lignin, and ash, respectively. The results showed the potential of FT-NIR techniques in combination with multivariate analysis to be utilized by biomass feedstock suppliers, bioethanol manufacturers, and bio-power producers in order to better manage bioenergy feedstocks and enhance bioconversion.

  9. Combining Analysis of Coupled Electrical-Thermal and BLOW-OFF Impulse Effects on Composite laminate Induced by Lightning Strike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. Q.; Yue, Z. F.; Wang, F. S.; Ji, Y. Y.

    2015-04-01

    A comprehensive simulation procedure combining electrical-thermal analysis and BLOW-OFF impulse (BOI) analysis was conducted to investigate lightning direct effects on damage behavior of composite. The nonlinear material model was elaborated combining the damage mechanism of composite laminate subjected to lightning strike. Results of electrical-thermal analysis indicated that temperature distribution of composite laminate is mainly affected by the electrical anisotropy because of Joule heating. By comparing results of BOI analysis with lightning test, it can be found that strain fields of analysis meet well with the damage pattern of lightning specimen. It could be concluded that the analysis procedure is suitable for modeling damage of composite due to lighting strike, and results of logarithmic strain field can be used to help estimate the zone which need to be repaired for composite.

  10. Engineered yeast whole-cell biocatalyst for direct degradation of alginate from macroalgae and production of non-commercialized useful monosaccharide from alginate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takagi, Toshiyuki; Yokoi, Takahiro; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Morisaka, Hironobu; Kuroda, Kouichi; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2016-02-01

    Alginate is a major component of brown macroalgae. In macroalgae, an endolytic alginate lyase first degrades alginate into oligosaccharides. These oligosaccharides are further broken down into monosaccharides by an exolytic alginate lyase. In this study, genes encoding various alginate lyases derived from alginate-assimilating marine bacterium Saccharophagus degradans were isolated, and their enzymes were displayed using the yeast cell surface display system. Alg7A-, Alg7D-, and Alg18J-displaying yeasts showed endolytic alginate lyase activity. On the other hand, Alg7K-displaying yeast showed exolytic alginate lyase activity. Alg7A, Alg7D, Alg7K, and Alg18J, when displayed on yeast cell surface, demonstrated both polyguluronate lyase and polymannuronate lyase activities. Additionally, polyguluronic acid could be much easily degraded by Alg7A, Alg7K, and Alg7D than polymannuronic acid. In contrast, polymannuronic acid could be much easily degraded by Alg18J than polyguluronic acid. We further constructed yeasts co-displaying endolytic and exolytic alginate lyases. Degradation efficiency by the co-displaying yeasts were significantly higher than single alginate lyase-displaying yeasts. Alg7A/Alg7K co-displaying yeast had maximum alginate degrading activity, with production of 1.98 g/L of reducing sugars in a 60-min reaction. This system developed, along with our findings, will contribute to the efficient utilization and production of useful and non-commercialized monosaccharides from alginate by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

  11. Effects of hydration and dehydration on body composition analysis: a comparative study of bioelectric impedance analysis and hydrodensitometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, D L; Thompson, W R; Prestridge, T J; Bailey, J G; Bean, M H; Brown, S P; McDaniel, J B

    1991-12-01

    Since 1983, bioelectric impedance has been researched with respect to its validity and reliability in the determination of body composition. It continues to be compared to hydrostatic weighing, the anthropometric "gold standard". This study was designed to investigate the relationship between bioelectric impedance analysis (BIA) and hydrodensitometry (HW) under three conditions: control, hydration and dehydration. Caucasian males (aged 18-44 years) served as subjects (n = 10). Body composition was determined by BIA and HW before intervention, 30 minutes post-hydration, and following a combination of exercise and sitting in a steam room to decrease body weight by two to four percent (mean = 2.81%). Statistical treatment by two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures revealed that although there were no significant differences between the two techniques of body composition determination under any of the three conditions, there was a statistically significant decrease in percent body fat determined in the dehydrated state as compared to the control and hydrated conditions. Recommendations include the determination of hydration state prior to engaging in body composition analysis by either method.

  12. Failure analysis of energy storage spring in automobile composite brake chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Zai; Wei, Qing; Hu, Xiaofeng

    2015-02-01

    This paper set energy storage spring of parking brake cavity, part of automobile composite brake chamber, as the research object. And constructed the fault tree model of energy storage spring which caused parking brake failure based on the fault tree analysis method. Next, the parking brake failure model of energy storage spring was established by analyzing the working principle of composite brake chamber. Finally, the data of working load and the push rod stroke measured by comprehensive test-bed valve was used to validate the failure model above. The experimental result shows that the failure model can distinguish whether the energy storage spring is faulted.

  13. Online compositional analysis in coal gasification environment using laser-induced plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Kung-Li; Wu, Juntao; Wang, Zhe; Lee, Boon; Guida, Renato

    2006-08-01

    Integrated Gasification Combined Cycle (IGCC) power plants have great potential for future clean-coal power generation. Today, the quality of coal is measured by sampling coal using various offline methods, and the syn-gas composition is determined by taking samples downstream of the gasifier and measured by gas chromatograph (GC). Laser induced plasma technology has demonstrated high sensitivity for elementary detection. The capability of free space transmission and focusing of laser beam makes laser induced plasma a unique technology for online compositional analysis in coal gasification environment and optimization control.

  14. Final Report: Interphase Analysis and Control in Fiber Reinforced Thermoplastic Composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jon J. Kellar; William M. Cross; Lidvin Kjerengtroen

    2009-03-14

    This research program builds upon a multi-disciplinary effort in interphase analysis and control in thermoplastic matrix polymer matrix composites (PMC). The research investigates model systems deemed of interest by members of the Automotive Composites Consortium (ACC) as well as samples at the forefront of PMC process development (DRIFT and P4 technologies). Finally, the research investigates, based upon the fundamental understanding of the interphases created during the fabrication of thermoplastic PMCs, the role the interphase play in key bulk properties of interest to the automotive industry.

  15. Thermal analysis of polypropylene modified by gamma irradiation composites under outdoor conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Komatsu, Luiz G.H.; Oliani, Washington L.; Lugao, Ademar B.; Parra, Duclerc F., E-mail: dfparra@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    This work reports the influence of the clay in the degradation process of the HMSPP.The polypropylene (PP) was irradiated under acetylene atmosphere in gamma irradiation source ({sup 60}Co) to obtain the HMSPP (high melt strength polypropylene). Composites of HMSPP were processed in twin-screw extruder with clay Cloisite 20A and Maleic Anhydride (PP-g-MA) as coupling agent. The obtained composites were exposed under outdoor conditions for 6 months. The ageing effects were characterized by Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetry Analysis (TGA). Chemical oxidation was evaluated by Carbonyl Index (IC) through infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). The results showed correlation between carbonyl index and ageing time. (author)

  16. Analysis of machining characteristics in drilling of GFRP composite with application of fuzzy logic approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.C. Routar

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper discusses the application of the Taguchi method to optimize the machining parameters for machining of GFRP composite in drilling for individual responses such as thrust force and delamination factor. Moreover, a multi-response performance characteristic is used for optimization of process parameters with application of grey relational analysis. An orthogonal array (L9, grey relational generation, grey relational coefficient and grey – fuzzy grade obtained from the grey relational analysis applied as performance index to solve the optimization problem of drilling parameters for GFRP composite. Taguchi orthogonal array, the signal-to-noise ratio, and the analysis of variance are used to investigate the optimal levels of cutting parameters. The confirmation tests are conducted to verify the results and it is observed that grey-fuzzy approach is efficient in determining the optimal cutting parameters.

  17. Asymptotic Sampling for Reliability Analysis of Adhesive Bonded Stepped Lap Composite Joints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimiaeifar, Amin; Lund, Erik; Thomsen, Ole Thybo

    2013-01-01

    Reliability analysis coupled with finite element analysis (FEA) of composite structures is computationally very demanding and requires a large number of simulations to achieve an accurate prediction of the probability of failure with a small standard error. In this paper Asymptotic Sampling, which....... Three dimensional (3D) FEA is used for the structural analysis together with a design equation that is associated with a deterministic code-based design equation where reliability is secured by partial safety factors. The Tsai-Wu and the maximum principal stress failure criteria are used to predict...... failure in the composite and adhesive layers, respectively, and the results are compared with the target reliability level implicitly used in the wind turbine standard IEC 61400-1. The accuracy and efficiency of Asymptotic Sampling is investigated by comparing the results with predictions obtained using...

  18. INMS-derived composition of Titan's upper atmosphere: Analysis methods and model comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magee, Brian A.; Waite, J. Hunter; Mandt, Kathleen E.; Westlake, Joseph; Bell, Jared; Gell, David A.

    2009-12-01

    The Cassini Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) has recorded full altitude profile data from 20 low-altitude Titan encounters during the nominal mission (July 2004-2008). These encounters were TA, T5, T16, T18, T19, T21, T23, T25, T26, T28, T29, T30, T32, T36, T37, T39, T40, T41, T42, and T43. In this work we present an analysis of the data observed by INMS during these encounters to derive the neutral composition of Titan's upper atmosphere between 1000 and 1100 km. Analysis methods are described for the determination and correction of instrument effects as well as the composition derivation processes. Results are compared to independent INMS analysis efforts and a selected survey of photochemical models of Titan's upper atmosphere.

  19. VirusSeeker, a computational pipeline for virus discovery and virome composition analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Guoyan; Wu, Guang; Lim, Efrem S; Droit, Lindsay; Krishnamurthy, Siddharth; Barouch, Dan H; Virgin, Herbert W; Wang, David

    2017-03-01

    The advent of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has vastly increased our ability to discover novel viruses and to systematically define the spectrum of viruses present in a given specimen. Such studies have led to the discovery of novel viral pathogens as well as broader associations of the virome with diverse diseases including inflammatory bowel disease, severe acute malnutrition and HIV/AIDS. Critical to the success of these efforts are robust bioinformatic pipelines for rapid classification of microbial sequences. Existing computational tools are typically focused on either eukaryotic virus discovery or virome composition analysis but not both. Here we present VirusSeeker, a BLAST-based NGS data analysis pipeline designed for both purposes. VirusSeeker has been successfully applied in several previously published virome studies. Here we demonstrate the functionality of VirusSeeker in both novel virus discovery and virome composition analysis.

  20. Influence of light-polymerization modes on the degree of conversion and mechanical properties of resin composites: a comparative analysis between a hybrid and a nanofilled composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Eduardo Moreira; Poskus, Laiza Tatiana; Guimarães, José Guilherme Antunes

    2008-01-01

    This study analyzed the influence of the light polymerization mode on the degree of conversion (DC) and mechanical properties of two resin composites: a hybrid (Filtek P60) and a nanofilled composite (Filtek Supreme). The composites were light activated by three light polymerization modes (Standard-S: 650 mW/cm2 for 30 seconds; High intensity-H: 1000 mW/cm2 for 20 seconds and Gradual-G: 100 up to 1000 mW/cm2 for 10 seconds + 1000 mW/cm2 for 10 seconds). The DC (%) was measured by FT-Raman spectroscopy. Flexural strength and flexural modulus were obtained from bar-shaped specimens (1 x 2 x 10 mm) submitted to the three-point bending test. Microhardness was evaluated by Knoop indentation (KHN). Data were analyzed by ANOVA and Student-Newman-Keuls multiple range test and linear regression analysis. The results showed the following DC: H > S > G (p hybrid > nanofilled (p S = G (p hybrid composite presented higher flexural strength and flexural modulus than the nanofilled composite (p composites (p = 0.1605). The results suggest that nanofilled composites may present a lower degree of conversion and reduced mechanical properties compared to hybrid composites.

  1. Exploring Variability of Gaseous Composition of the Troposphere Using Giovanni Online Visualization and Analysis Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leptoukh, G.

    2006-05-01

    We present remote sensing observations of various gases in the atmospheric measured by several instruments aboard EOS NASA satellites. The emphasis is on providing options for quick exploration of these data using Giovanni, the NASA GES DISC developed online visualization and analysis tool. We describe the Atmospheric Composition Data and Information Services Center (http://acdisc.gsfc.nasa.gov), a one-stop shopping center for atmospheric composition. We provide a comprehensive list of geophysical parameters measured by TOMS, OMI, AIRS, MODIS, MLS, and other instruments, including description of data preparation for utilization in Giovanni. We describe various Giovanni functionalities, including time-series, area maps, vertical profiles, vertical cross- sections, zonal averages, etc., that allow Atmospheric Composition researches quickly and conveniently assess variability and intercompare behavior of various gases without even downloading data - everything is done online. We also discuss potential inclusion of ground station measurements of pollution into Giovanni, and utilization of this system in air-quality studies.

  2. Micromechanics-Based Progressive Failure Analysis of Composite Laminates Using Different Constituent Failure Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Albert M.; Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Bednarcyk, Brett A.; Arnold, Steven M.

    2008-01-01

    Predicting failure in a composite can be done with ply level mechanisms and/or micro level mechanisms. This paper uses the Generalized Method of Cells and High-Fidelity Generalized Method of Cells micromechanics theories, coupled with classical lamination theory, as implemented within NASA's Micromechanics Analysis Code with Generalized Method of Cells. The code is able to implement different failure theories on the level of both the fiber and the matrix constituents within a laminate. A comparison is made among maximum stress, maximum strain, Tsai-Hill, and Tsai-Wu failure theories. To verify the failure theories the Worldwide Failure Exercise (WWFE) experiments have been used. The WWFE is a comprehensive study that covers a wide range of polymer matrix composite laminates. The numerical results indicate good correlation with the experimental results for most of the composite layups, but also point to the need for more accurate resin damage progression models.

  3. Compositional analysis of multi-element magnetic nanoparticles with a combined NMR and TEM approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gellesch, Markus; Hammerath, Franziska; Süß, Vicky; Haft, Marcel; Hampel, Silke; Wurmehl, Sabine; Büchner, Bernd

    2017-09-01

    The increasing interest in nanoscale materials goes hand in hand with the challenge to reliably characterize the chemical compositions and structural features of nanosized objects in order to relate those to their physical properties. Despite efforts, the analysis of the chemical composition of individual multi-element nanoparticles remains challenging—from the technical point of view as well as from the point of view of measurement statistics. Here, we demonstrate that zero-field solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) complements local, single particle transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies with information on a large assembly of chemically complex nanoparticles. The combination of both experimental techniques gives information on the local composition and structure and provides an excellent measurement statistic through the corresponding NMR ensemble measurement. This analytical approach is applicable to many kinds of magnetic materials and therefore may prove very versatile in the future research of particulate magnetic nanomaterials.

  4. Finite-Element Analysis of Jute- and Coir-Fiber-Reinforced Hybrid Composite Multipanel Plates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirbhay, M.; Misra, R. K.; Dixit, A.

    2015-09-01

    Natural-fiber-reinforced polymer composite materials are rapidly gaining interest worldwide both in terms of research and industrial applications. The present work includes the characterization and modeling of jute- and coir-fiber-reinforced hybrid composite materials. The mechanical behavior of a two-panel plate and a sixpanel box structure is analyzed under various loading regimes by using the finite-element software ABAQUS®. Exhaustive parametric studies are also performed to obtain a clear insight into the relationships between various parameters and deflections of the panels and stress distributions in them. Deflections of both the structures are compared and found to be in good agreement with published results. To determine the mechanical behavior of natural-fiber-reinforced composite panels, a finite-element analysis is performed.

  5. Micromechanical Analysis of FRP Composite with Orthotropic Fibers Subjected To Longitudinal and Transverse Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gowtha Muneswara Rao

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The present research work deals with the micromechanical analysis of fiber reinforced composites with orthotropic fibers under fiber directional tensile loading and transverse directional tensile loading using three-dimensional finite element method. The problem is modeled in ANSYS software and the FE model is validated with bench mark results. Longitudinal Young's modulus and transverse Young's modulus corresponding Poisson's ratios are predicted. Fiber reinforced composite materials are now an important class of an engineering materials. They offer outstanding mechanical properties, unique flexibility in design capabilities, and ease of fabrication. Additional advantages include light weight and corrosion resistance, impact resistance, and excellent fatigue strength. Today fiber composites are routinely used in such diverse applications as automobiles, aircraft, space vehicles, offshore structures, containers and piping, sporting goods, electronics, and appliances.

  6. New effective method for analysis of the component composition of enzyme complexes from Trichoderma reesei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markov, A V; Gusakov, A V; Kondratyeva, E G; Okunev, O N; Bekkarevich, A O; Sinitsyn, A P

    2005-06-01

    A method for analysis of the component composition of multienzyme complexes secreted by the filamentous fungus Trichoderma reesei was developed. The method is based on chromatofocusing followed by further identification of protein fractions according to their substrate specificity and molecular characteristics of the proteins. The method allows identifying practically all known cellulases and hemicellulases of T. reesei: endoglucanase I (EG I), EG II, EG III, cellobiohydrolase I (CBH I), CBH II, xylanase I (XYL I), XYL II, beta-xylosidase, alpha-L-arabinofuranosidase, acetyl xylan esterase, mannanase, alpha-galactosidase, xyloglucanase, polygalacturonase, and exo-beta-1,3-glucosidase. The component composition of several laboratory and commercial T. reesei preparations was studied and the content of the individual enzymes in these preparations was quantified. The influence of fermentation conditions on the component composition of secreted enzyme complexes was revealed. The characteristic features of enzyme preparations obtained in "cellulase" and "xylanase" fermentation conditions are shown.

  7. Statistical Analysis of the Progressive Failure Behavior for Fiber-Reinforced Polymer Composites under Tensile Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An analytical approach with the help of numerical simulations based on the equivalent constraint model (ECM was proposed to investigate the progressive failure behavior of symmetric fiber-reinforced composite laminates damaged by transverse ply cracking. A fracture criterion was developed to describe the initiation and propagation of the transverse ply cracking. This work was also concerned with a statistical distributions of the critical fracture toughness values with due consideration given to the scale size effect. The Monte Carlo simulation technique coupled with statistical analysis was applied to study the progressive cracking behaviors of composite structures, by considering the effects of lamina properties and lay-up configurations. The results deduced from the numerical procedure were in good agreement with the experimental results obtained for laminated composites formed by unidirectional fiber reinforced laminae with different orientations.

  8. [Comparative analysis of sea-ice diatom species composition in the seas of Russian Arctic].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Il'iash, L V; Zhitina, L S

    2009-01-01

    Comparative analysis of species composition of ice diatom algae (IDA) of the White, Barents, Kara, Laptev, East Siberian, Chukchi Seas and the Basin of the Arctic Ocean was conducted on the basis of both original and published data. Species composition of IDA counts 567 taxa including 122 centric and 446 pennate diatoms. The freshwater algae composed about 18% of the total species number. In the White Sea, IDA were the most numerous (272 taxa), in the Kara Sea they are the least numerous (57 taxa). The species compositions in different seas differ significantly from each other. Similarity of IDA was consistent with the Arctic Ocean circulation and ice drift. IDA of Chukchi, East Siberian and Laptev Seas are the most similar, as are IDA of White and Kara Seas. Similarity of IDA of Chukchi Sea to those of other seas decrease in the west direction. IDA species differences between regions within one sea could be greater than those between different seas.

  9. Analysis of Carbohydrate Composition in Dried Persimmon Icing by GC%中药柿霜中糖组分的气相色谱法分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王灏然; 钟晓红; 陆英; 张双; 张喻; 何艳君; 周敏

    2012-01-01

    The carbohydrate composition in traditional Chinese medicine dried persimmon icing, which was from two different origins (Shandong Caozhou and Hubei Tuanfeng), were determined by gas chromatography (GC). The glycosyl-nitrile-acetate derivatives were chosen to pre-treat the samples. The results indicated that the main carbohydrate composition of two kinds of dried persimmon icing all mainly was glucose, but there is a little different in content, the dried persimmon icing from Caozhou and Tuanfeng contains glucose of 27.65% and 23.67%, respectively, but the two samples have close content of ribose. The compositions of the other monosaccharide in dried persimmon icing from different origins also have relatively big differences, of which the sample from Caozhou contains ribose, arabinose and a little rhamnose, while the sample from Tuanfeng contains ribose and a little fucose.%采用气相色谱法测定山东曹州和湖北团风两个不同产地的中药柿霜的糖组分,样品的前处理选用糖腈衍生化的方法.结果表明:中药柿霜中糖组分主要以葡萄糖为主,但含量有一定的差异.曹州和团风两种柿霜分别含27.65%和23.67%的葡萄糖,核糖含量也比较接近.不同产地的中药柿霜中其他的单糖组成也存在着较大的差异,其中曹州样品含有核糖、阿拉伯糖及少量的鼠李糖,团风样品含有核糖及少量的岩藻糖.

  10. Hybrid Finite Element Analysis of Free Edge Effect in Symmetric Composite Laminates

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-06-01

    ANALYSIS OF FREE EDGE EFFECT IN L AUTHOR(S 61102F S.W. Lee237B J.J. Rhiu S.C. Won,, I ~ 7. PENOAMnG ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADORES4 S) L. PERFORMING...ANALYSIS OF FREE EDGE EFFECT IN SYMMETRIC COMPOSITE LAMINATES S. W. Lee I 3. Phi S. C. Wong Department of Aerospace Engineering University of Maryland...collocation method. In this report, we present an efficient hybrid finite element method for analysis of interlaminar stress or free edge effect in

  11. Strain analysis of a bonded, dissimilar, composite material T-joint using moiré interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gascoigne, H. E.; Abdallah, M. G.

    High-sensitivity moiré interferometry and finite-element analysis are used to analyze the state of deformation and stress in the region of contact between a plane orthotropic rectangular punch bonded to a foundation with dissimilar elastic properties which models a highly loaded region of a composite material rocket motor casing. Stress distributions are presented for the contact region and an estimate of the maximum shear stress in the foundation is given. The displacement components show good qualitative agreement between analysis and experiment. The lack of quantitative agreement between the experimental and the finite-element analysis is attributed to uncertainty of the material properties.

  12. Performance analysis of cutting graphite-epoxy composite using a 90,000psi abrasive waterjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choppali, Aiswarya

    Graphite-epoxy composites are being widely used in many aerospace and structural applications because of their properties: which include lighter weight, higher strength to weight ratio and a greater flexibility in design. However, the inherent anisotropy of these composites makes it difficult to machine them using conventional methods. To overcome the major issues that develop with conventional machining such as fiber pull out, delamination, heat generation and high tooling costs, an effort is herein made to study abrasive waterjet machining of composites. An abrasive waterjet is used to cut 1" thick graphite epoxy composites based on baseline data obtained from the cutting of ¼" thick material. The objective of this project is to study the surface roughness of the cut surface with a focus on demonstrating the benefits of using higher pressures for cutting composites. The effects of major cutting parameters: jet pressure, traverse speed, abrasive feed rate and cutting head size are studied at different levels. Statistical analysis of the experimental data provides an understanding of the effect of the process parameters on surface roughness. Additionally, the effect of these parameters on the taper angle of the cut is studied. The data is analyzed to obtain a set of process parameters that optimize the cutting of 1" thick graphite-epoxy composite. The statistical analysis is used to validate the experimental data. Costs involved in the cutting process are investigated in term of abrasive consumed to better understand and illustrate the practical benefits of using higher pressures. It is demonstrated that, as pressure increased, ultra-high pressure waterjets produced a better surface quality at a faster traverse rate with lower costs.

  13. Analysis of abrasive wear behavior of PTFE composite using Taguchi’s technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Şahin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Polymeric composites are widely used for structural, aerospace, and automobile sectors due to their good combination of high specific strength and specific modulus. These two main characteristics make these materials attractive, compared to conventional materials like metal or alloy ones. Some of their typical benefits include easy processing, corrosion resistance, low friction, and damping of noise and vibrations. Wear behavior of Polytetrafluoroethylenes (PTFE and its composites including glass-filled composites and carbon-filled composites are investigated using a pin-on-disc configuration. A plan of experiments in terms of Taguchi technique is carried out to acquire data in controlled way. An orthogonal array (L9 and the analysis of variance are employed to investigate the influence of process parameters on the wear of these composites. Volume loss increased with abrasive size, load, and distance. Furthermore, specific wear rate decreased with increasing grit size, load, sliding distance, whereas, slightly with compressive strength. Optimal process parameters, which minimize the volume loss, were the factor combinations of L1, G3, D1, and C3. Confirmation experiments were conducted to verify the optimal testing parameters. It was found that in terms of volume loss, there was a good agreement between the estimated and the experimental value of S/N ratio with an error of 1.604%. Moreover, abrasive size, load, and sliding distance exerted a great effect on the specific wear rate, at 51.14, 27.77, and 14.70%, respectively.

  14. Stress Concentration Study of Laminated Composite with Multiple Holes by Finite Element Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand.A

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available A “Composite” is considered as one material when two or more different materials combined together to create superior material. A composite laminate is a composite with combination of layers. They have great applications in many engineering domains like civil, marine, aerospace, biomedical etc. because of their excellent properties like low weight, better mechanical properties and ease of handling and low cost of production. The practical applications of composites enables that the composite structures usually consist cutouts in it in order to get the required design. Thus it is essential to study the behaviour of composites with multiple holes with respect to different applications in order to provide structural stability and to attain better design and mechanical Properties. This work presents Analytical and Finite Element Analysis of rectangular plate with and without multiple circular cut-outs of various sizes. The work is checked for deformation and stress obtained for various loads .The material considered was Glass/Epoxy laminate. The deformation and stress distribution for various loads is analysed by Ansys software. The specimens used are plate without hole, plate with 3 holes of 5mm each, plate with 6mm holes, plate with 8mm holes and plate with 10mm holes. The analytical and numerical results are compared in Stress - Strain curves and Load - Deformation curves and found that both are in good agreement

  15. Optimization and Static Stress Analysis of Hybrid Fiber Reinforced Composite Leaf Spring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luay Muhammed Ali Ismaeel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A monofiber reinforced composite leaf spring is proposed as an alternative to the typical steel one as it is characterized by high strength-to-weight ratio. Different reinforcing schemes are suggested to fabricate the leaf spring. The composite and the typical steel leaf springs are subjected to the same working conditions. A weight saving of about more than 60% can be achieved while maintaining the strength for the structures under consideration. The objective of the present study was to replace material for leaf spring. This study suggests various materials of hybrid fiber reinforced plastics (HFRP. Also the effects of shear moduli of the fibers, matrices, and the composites on the composites performance and responses are discussed. The results and behaviors of each are compared with each other and verified by comparison with analytical solution; a good convergence is found between them. The elastic properties of the hybrid composites are calculated using rules of mixtures and Halpin-Tsi equation through the software of MATLAB v-7. The problem is also analyzed by the technique of finite element analysis (FEA through the software of ANSYS v-14. An element modeling was done for every leaf with eight-node 3D brick element (SOLID185 3D 8-Node Structural Solid.

  16. Three-dimensional hybrid-stress finite element analysis of composite laminates with cracks and cutouts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, S. S.

    1985-01-01

    A three-dimensional hybrid-stress finite element analysis of composite laminates containing cutouts and cracks is presented. Fully three-dimensional, hexahedral isoparametric elements of the hybrid-stress model are formulated on the basis of the Hellinger-Reissner variational principle. Traction-free edges, cutouts, and crack surfaces are modeled by imposition of exact traction boundary conditions along element surfaces. Special boundary and surface elements are constructed by introducing proper constraints on assumed stress functions. The Lagrangian multiplier technique is used to enforce ply-interface continuity conditions in hybrid bimaterial composite elements for modeling the interface region in a composite laminate. Two examples are given to illustrate the capability of the present method of approach: (1) the well-known delamination problem in an angle-ply laminate, and (2) the important problem of a composite laminate containing a circular hole. Results are presented in detail for each case. Implications of interlaminar and intralaminar crack initiation, growth and fracture in composites containing cracks and cutouts are discussed.

  17. Modelling of polypropylene fibre-matrix composites using finite element analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Polypropylene (PP fibre-matrix composites previously prepared and studied experimentally were modelled using finite element analysis (FEA in this work. FEA confirmed that fibre content and composition controlled stress distribution in all-PP composites. The stress concentration at the fibre-matrix interface became greater with less fibre content. Variations in fibre composition were more significant in higher stress regions of the composites. When fibre modulus increased, the stress concentration at the fibres decreased and the shear stress at the fibre-matrix interface became more intense. The ratio between matrix modulus and fibre modulus was important, as was the interfacial stress in reducing premature interfacial failure and increasing mechanical properties. The model demonstrated that with low fibre concentration, there were insufficient fibres to distribute the applied stress. Under these conditions the matrix yielded when the applied stress reached the matrix yield stress, resulting in increased fibre axial stress. When the fibre content was high, there was matrix depletion and stress transfer was inefficient. The predictions of the FEA model were consistent with experimental and published data.

  18. DNAskew: Statistical Analysis of Base Compositional Asymmetry and Prediction of Replication Boundaries in the Genome Sequences

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiang-RuMA; Shao-BoXIAO; Ai-ZhenGUO; Jian-QiangLUE; Huan-ChunCHEN

    2004-01-01

    Sueoka and Lobry declared respectively that, in the absence of bias between the two DNA strands for mutation and selection, the base composition within each strand should be A=T and C=G (this state is called Parity Rule type 2, PR2). However, the genome sequences of many bacteria, vertebrates and viruses showed asymmetries in base composition and gene direction. To determine the relationship of base composition skews with replication orientation, gene function, codon usage biases and phylogenetic evolution,in this paper a program called DNAskew was developed for the statistical analysis of strand asymmetry and codon composition bias in the DNA sequence. In addition, the program can also be used to predict the replication boundaries of genome sequences. The method builds on the fact that there are compositional asymmetries between the leading and the lagging strand for replication. DNAskew was written in Perl script language and implemented on the LINUX operating system. It works quickly with annotated or unannotated sequences in GBFF (GenBank flatfile) or fasta format. The source code is freely available for academic use at http://www.epizooty.com/pub/stat/DNAskew.

  19. Analysis of alumina-based titanium carbide composites by laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Kaleem; Tawfik, Walid; Farooq, Wazirzada A.; Singh, Jagdish P.

    2014-06-01

    In this work, alumina (Al2O3) containing different volume % of titanium carbide (TiC) ranging from 0 to 30 were consolidated by the novel spark plasma sintering. The spectroscopic analysis of the plasma generated by irradiation of laser Nd:YAG (λ = 1,064 nm) on different concentrations of the composites in air atmospheric pressure was performed. The qualitative examination of the composites confirms the presence of aluminum, titanium, and carbon as major elements, while magnesium and sodium have been found as minor trace elements. Plasma parameters were estimated by assuming the LTE conditions for optically thin plasma. The electron density and temperature were evaluated by using the Stark broadening and intensity of selected aluminum emission lines, respectively. The addition of TiC to Al2O3 shows a linear behavior with plasma temperature corroborated by the calibration curve of Ti in the composites. The results suggest that calibration curve between plasma temperature and the composites can be used to estimate different concentrations of TiC in Al2O3 without analyzing the whole elements in the composites and thus opens up new applications of LIBS in ceramic industry.

  20. Composite analysis with Monte Carlo methods: an example with cosmic rays and clouds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laken B.A.

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The composite (superposed epoch analysis technique has been frequently employed to examine a hypothesized link between solar activity and the Earth’s atmosphere, often through an investigation of Forbush decrease (Fd events (sudden high-magnitude decreases in the flux cosmic rays impinging on the upper-atmosphere lasting up to several days. This technique is useful for isolating low-amplitude signals within data where background variability would otherwise obscure detection. The application of composite analyses to investigate the possible impacts of Fd events involves a statistical examination of time-dependent atmospheric responses to Fds often from aerosol and/or cloud datasets. Despite the publication of numerous results within this field, clear conclusions have yet to be drawn and much ambiguity and disagreement still remain. In this paper, we argue that the conflicting findings of composite studies within this field relate to methodological differences in the manner in which the composites have been constructed and analyzed. Working from an example, we show how a composite may be objectively constructed to maximize signal detection, robustly identify statistical significance, and quantify the lower-limit uncertainty related to hypothesis testing. Additionally, we also demonstrate how a seemingly significant false positive may be obtained from non-significant data by minor alterations to methodological approaches.

  1. Analysis and Testing of a Composite Fuselage Shield for Open Rotor Engine Blade-Out Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, J. Michael; Emmerling, William; Seng, Silvia; Frankenberger, Charles; Ruggeri, Charles R.; Revilock, Duane M.; Carney, Kelly S.

    2016-01-01

    The Federal Aviation Administration is working with the European Aviation Safety Agency to determine the certification base for proposed new engines that would not have a containment structure on large commercial aircraft. Equivalent safety to the current fleet is desired by the regulators, which means that loss of a single fan blade will not cause hazard to the Aircraft. The NASA Glenn Research Center and The Naval Air Warfare Center (NAWC), China Lake, collaborated with the FAA Aircraft Catastrophic Failure Prevention Program to design and test lightweight composite shields for protection of the aircraft passengers and critical systems from a released blade that could impact the fuselage. LS-DYNA® was used to predict the thickness of the composite shield required to prevent blade penetration. In the test, two composite blades were pyrotechnically released from a running engine, each impacting a composite shield with a different thickness. The thinner shield was penetrated by the blade and the thicker shield prevented penetration. This was consistent with pre-test LS-DYNA predictions. This paper documents the analysis conducted to predict the required thickness of a composite shield, the live fire test from the full scale rig at NAWC China Lake and describes the damage to the shields as well as instrumentation results.

  2. Finite Element Analysis of Composite Hardened Walls Subjected to Blast Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Girum S. Urgessa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: There is currently no standard design guideline to determine the number of composites needed to retrofit masonry walls in order to withstand a given explosion. Past design approaches were mainly based on simplified single-degree-of-freedom analysis. A finite element analysis was conducted for concrete masonry walls hardened with composites and subjected to short duration blast loads. Approach: The analysis focused on displacement time history responses which form the basis for retrofit design guidelines against blast loadings. The blast was determined from 0.5 kg equivalent TNT explosive at 1.83 m stand-off distance to simulate small mailroom bombs. Two and four layered retrofitted walls were investigated. Uncertainties in the finite model analysis of walls such as pressure distributions, effect of mid height explosive bursts versus near the ground explosive bursts and variations in modulus of elasticity of the wall were presented. Results: Uniformly distributed blast loads over the retrofitted wall height produced a small difference in peak displacement results when compared to the non-uniform pressure distribution. Ground explosive burst was shown to produce a 62.7% increase in energy and a higher peak displacement response when compared to mid-height explosive burst. Conclusion: The parametric study on the variation of modulus of elasticity of concrete masonry showed no significant effect on peak displacement affirming the use of the resistance deflection contribution of the composite in retrofit designs.

  3. The prediction of elemental composition of biomass based on proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen Jianfeng [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Zhu Shuguang, E-mail: zhushuguang@tsinghua.org.c [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China); Liu Xinzhi; Zhang Houlei; Tan Junjie [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Elemental composition is one of the most important properties for biomass utilization. The experimental determination of ultimate analysis data require special instrumentation, while proximate analysis data can be obtained easily by using common equipments. This paper presents new correlations for calculating the elemental composition based on proximate analysis of biomass. The correlations with the effect of ash content taken into account are derived by using 66 data points, and validated by using 20 data points selected from different categories of biomass than that for correlations derivation. The correlations are given as: C = 0.635FC + 0.460VM - 0.095ASH, H = 0.059FC + 0.060VM + 0.010ASH, O = 0.340FC + 0.469VM - 0.023ASH, where 9.2% <= FC <= 32.79%, 57.2% <= VM <= 90.6%, 0.1% <= ASH <= 24.6%, 36.2% <= C <= 53.1%, 4.7% <= H <= 6.61%, and 31.37% <= O <= 48.0% in wt.% on dry basis. The average absolute errors of these correlations are 3.17%, 4.47% and 3.16%, and the average bias errors are 0.19%, -0.34% and 0.19% compared with measured values of C, H and O, respectively. The new developed correlations can be used to compute elemental composition of biomass accurately, especially for those biomass whose ash content are high, based on simple proximate analysis.

  4. The prediction of elemental composition of biomass based on proximate analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jianfeng Shen; Shuguang Zhu; Xinzhi Liu; Houlei Zhang; Junjie Tan [School of Power Engineering, Nanjing University of Science and Technology, Xiaolingwei 200, Nanjing 210094 (China)

    2010-05-15

    Elemental composition is one of the most important properties for biomass utilization. The experimental determination of ultimate analysis data require special instrumentation, while proximate analysis data can be obtained easily by using common equipments. This paper presents new correlations for calculating the elemental composition based on proximate analysis of biomass. The correlations with the effect of ash content taken into account are derived by using 66 data points, and validated by using 20 data points selected from different categories of biomass than that for correlations derivation. The correlations are given as: C = 0.635FC + 0.460VM - 0.095ASH, H = 0.059FC + 0.060VM + 0.010ASH, O = 0.340FC + 0.469VM - 0.023ASH, where 9.2% {<=} FC {<=} 32.79%, 57.2% {<=} VM {<=} 90.6%, 0.1% {<=} ASH {<=} 24.6%, 36.2% {<=} C {<=} 53.1%, 4.7% {<=} H {<=} 6.61%, and 31.37% {<=} O {<=} 48.0% in wt.% on dry basis. The average absolute errors of these correlations are 3.17%, 4.47% and 3.16%, and the average bias errors are 0.19%, -0.34% and 0.19% compared with measured values of C, H and O, respectively. The new developed correlations can be used to compute elemental composition of biomass accurately, especially for those biomass whose ash content are high, based on simple proximate analysis. (author)

  5. Dynamic Analysis of Heavy Vehicle Medium Duty Drive Shaft Using Conventional and Composite Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Ashwani; Jain, Rajat; Patil, Pravin P.

    2016-09-01

    The main highlight of this study is structural and modal analysis of single piece drive shaft for selection of material. Drive shaft is used for torque carrying from vehicle transmission to rear wheel differential system. Heavy vehicle medium duty transmission drive shaft was selected as research object. Conventional materials (Steel SM45 C, Stainless Steel) and composite materials (HS carbon epoxy, E Glass Polyester Resin Composite) were selected for the analysis. Single piece composite material drive shaft has advantage over conventional two-piece steel drive shaft. It has higher specific strength, longer life, less weight, high critical speed and higher torque carrying capacity. The main criteria for drive shaft failure are strength and weight. Maximum modal frequency obtained is 919 Hz. Various harmful vibration modes (lateral vibration and torsional vibration) were identified and maximum deflection region was specified. For single-piece drive shaft the natural bending frequency should be higher because it is subjected to torsion and shear stress. Single piece drive shaft was modelled using Solid Edge and Pro-E. Finite Element Analysis was used for structural and modal analysis with actual running boundary condition like frictional support, torque and moment. FEA simulation results were validated with experimental literature results.

  6. Mapping Proxy Sensitivity: A New Technique for Compositional Analysis of Cultured Biominerals and Inorganically Precipitated Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon, A. C.; DePaolo, D. J.; DeYoreo, J.; Spero, H. J.; Russell, A. D.

    2011-12-01

    Mineral composition is controlled by a host of environmental factors during precipitation. To build accurate paleo-reconstructions we need to separate the impact of each parameter on proxy behavior and use these data to build a chemical-scale understanding of mineral growth. Biomineral culture and inorganic precipitation experiments, where growth parameters can be manipulated independently, are uniquely suited to calibrate proxies and probe mechanism. Culture and precipitation experiments often involve overgrowth of an initial material. For example, seed crystals are used to control mineralogy and avoid nucleation during inorganic precipitation, while culture experiments in marine organisms typically start with wild specimens. New growth corresponding to the experimental conditions must be resolved from the initial material. Separation is typically achieved using microanalysis, skeletal dissection, or estimates of the initial mass and composition. Each approach imposes limits on the accuracy, precision or types of materials that can be analyzed. Slow growth rates and complicated geometries can make these techniques especially challenging when applied to biominerals. We present a method of compositional analysis for use in biological culture and inorganic growth experiments that overcomes many of these challenges. This method relies on growth in a mixed element stable isotope spike, requires neither the initial mass nor the initial composition to be known, harnesses the precision and sensitivity of bulk analysis, and applies even when it is impossible to physically identify newly grown material. Error analysis suggests this method can significantly improve the precision of metal/calcium measurements in experimentally grown material compared to current methods. Furthermore, the method can isolate different events through time, separating, for example, the impact of day and night cycles on biomineral composition. We will present metal/calcium ratios measured using the

  7. Advanced surface chemical analysis of continuously manufactured drug loaded composite pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Akter; Nandi, Uttom; Fule, Ritesh; Nokhodchi, Ali; Maniruzzaman, Mohammed

    2017-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to develop and characterise polymeric composite pellets by means of continuous melt extrusion techniques. Powder blends of a steroid hormone (SH) as a model drug and either ethyl cellulose (EC N10 and EC P7 grades) or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC AS grade) as polymeric carrier were extruded using a Pharma 11mm twin screw extruder in a continuous mode of operation to manufacture extruded composite pellets of 1mm length. Molecular modelling study using commercial Gaussian 09 software outlined a possible drug-polymer interaction in the molecular level to develop solid dispersions of the drug in the pellets. Solid-state analysis conducted via a differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), hot stage microscopy (HSM) and X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses revealed the amorphous state of the drug in the polymer matrices. Surface analysis using SEM/energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) of the produced pellets arguably showed a homogenous distribution of the C and O atoms in the pellet matrices. Moreover, advanced chemical surface analysis conducted via atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed a homogenous phase system having the drug molecule dispersed onto the amorphous matrices while Raman mapping confirmed the homogenous single-phase drug distribution in the manufactured composite pellets. Such composite pellets are expected to deliver multidisciplinary applications in drug delivery and medical sciences by e.g. modifying drug solubility/dissolutions or stabilizing the unstable drug (e.g. hormone, protein) in the composite network. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Improved compositional analysis of block copolymers using diffusion ordered NMR spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viel, Stéphane; Mazarin, Michaël; Giordanengo, Rémi; Phan, Trang N T; Charles, Laurence; Caldarelli, Stefano; Bertin, Denis

    2009-11-03

    Block copolymers constitute a fascinating class of polymeric materials that are used in a broad range of applications. The performance of these materials is highly coupled to the physical and chemical properties of the constituting block copolymers. Traditionally, the composition of block copolymers is obtained by 1H NMR spectroscopy on purified copolymer fractions. Specifically, the integrals of a properly selected set of 1H resonances are compared and used to infer the number average molecular weight (M(n)) of one of the block from the (typically known) M(n) value of the other. As a corollary, compositional determinations achieved on imperfectly purified samples lead to serious errors, especially when isolation of the block copolymer from the initial macro initiator is tedious. This investigation shows that Diffusion Ordered NMR Spectroscopy (DOSY) can be used to provide a way to assess the advancement degree of the copolymerization purification/reaction, in order to optimize it and hence contribute to an improved compositional analysis of the resulting copolymer. To this purpose, a series of amphiphilic polystyrene-b-poly(ethylene oxide) block copolymers, obtained by controlled free-radical nitroxide mediated polymerization, were analyzed and it is shown that, under proper experimental conditions, DOSY allows for an improved compositional analysis of these block copolymers.

  9. Estimating body composition from skinfold thicknesses and bioelectrical impedance analysis in cystic fibrosis patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alicandro, Gianfranco; Battezzati, Alberto; Bianchi, Maria Luisa; Loi, Silvana; Speziali, Chiara; Bisogno, Arianna; Colombo, Carla

    2015-11-01

    The accuracy of body composition estimates based on skinfold thickness measurements and bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) is not yet adequately explored in cystic fibrosis (CF). Using DXA as reference method we verified the accuracy of these techniques and identified predictors of body composition specific for CF. One hundred forty-two CF patients (age range: 8-31 years) underwent a DXA scan. Body fat percentage (BF%) was estimated from skinfolds, while fat free mass (FFM) from single-frequency 50 kHz BIA. Bland-Altman analysis showed poor intra-individual agreement between body composition data provided by DXA and BF% estimated from skinfolds or FFM estimated from BIA. The skinfolds of the upper arm were better predictors of BF% than BMI, while compared to other BIA measurements the best predictor of FFM was the R-index (Height(2)/Resistance). Due to poor accuracy at individual level, the estimates of body composition obtained from these techniques cannot be part of the standard nutritional assessment of CF patients until reliable CF-specific equations will become available. BMI has limited value in predicting body fatness in CF patients and should be used in combination with other predictors. Skinfolds of the upper arm and R-index are strongly related to BF% and FFM and should be tested in a large CF population to develop specific predictive equations. Copyright © 2015 European Cystic Fibrosis Society. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Household waste compositional analysis variation from insular communities in the framework of waste prevention strategy plans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zorpas, Antonis A., E-mail: antonis.zorpas@ouc.ac.cy [Cyprus Open University, Faculty of Pure and Applied Science, Environmental Conservation and Management, P.O. Box 12794, 2252 Latsia, Nicosia (Cyprus); Lasaridi, Katia, E-mail: klasaridi@hua.gr [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece); Voukkali, Irene [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Loizia, Pantelitsa, E-mail: irenevoukkali@envitech.org [Institute of Environmental Technology and Sustainable Development, ENVITECH LTD, Department of Research and Development, P.O. Box 34073, 5309 (Cyprus); Chroni, Christina [Harokopio University, Department of Geography, 70 El. Venizelou, 176 71 Athens, Kallithea (Greece)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Waste framework directive has set clear waste prevention procedures. • Household Compositional analysis. • Waste management plans. • Zero waste approach. • Waste generation. - Abstract: Waste management planning requires reliable data regarding waste generation, affecting factors on waste generation and forecasts of waste quantities based on facts. In order to decrease the environmental impacts of waste management the choice of prevention plan as well as the treatment method must be based on the features of the waste that are produced in a specific area. Factors such as culture, economic development, climate, and energy sources have an impact on waste composition; composition influences the need of collecting waste more or less frequently of waste collection and disposition. The research question was to discover the main barriers concerning the compositional analysis in Insular Communities under warm climate conditions and the findings from this study enabled the main contents of a waste management plan to be established. These included advice to residents on waste minimisation, liaison with stakeholders and the expansion of kerbside recycling schemes.

  11. ANALYSIS OF WIND TURBINE BLADES FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC COMPOSITES SUBJECTED TO STATIC BENDING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan CURTU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of numerical analysis of stress and strain states which develop in wind turbine blades, modeled from various lignocellulosic composites. A blade structure type NACA 44XX with length 1.5m, power of 2.5kW and a rotational speed of 636 rpm, based on numerical calculations and the aerodynamic theory was designed in Catia program. The model was imported in finite element analysis program - HyperMesh, which were successively awarded four types of elastic properties corresponding to solid wood - oak, lignocellulose composites based on mixture of polyurethane resin and wood particle, glass fiber composite and carbon fibers. Four types of external loads were placed successively in different areas of the longitudinal axis of the blade, simulating wind force. The variation of stress and strain states expressing the advantages and disadvantages of the proposed materials, noting that risk areas of the blade structure can be reduced through various technological ways - through the addition of material thicknesses, changes to the reinforcement of composite layers by introducing layers with higher elastic properties, the introduction of local or global reinforcing elements.

  12. METAL MATRIX COMPOSITE BRAKE ROTORS: HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT AND PRODUCT LIFE CYCLE ANALYSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.M. Rahman

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Metal matrix composites (MMCs have become attractive for engineering structural applications due to their excellent specific strength and are increasingly seen as an alternative to conventional materials, particularly in the automotive industry. In this study, a historical background on the development and application of metal matrix composites for automotive brake rotors is presented. The discussion also includes an analysis of the product life cycle with stir casting as a case study. The historical review analysis revealed that gradual development of material and processing techniques have led to lighter weight, lower cost and higher performance brake rotors as a result of a better understanding of the mechanics of metal matrix composites. It emerged from the study that the stir casting technique provides ease of operation, sustainability and, most significantly, very competitive costs without sacrificing quality relative to other techniques; as such, it is the most attractive manufacturing process in the industry. These findings can be used for future design and manufacture of an efficient and effective aluminium matrix composite brake rotor for automotive and other applications.

  13. Analysis of the body composition of Paralympic athletes: Comparison of two methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos, Valdir De Aquino; Alves, Eduardo Da Silva; Schwingel, Paulo Adriano; Rosa, João Paulo Pereira; Silva, Andressa Da; Winckler, Ciro; Vital, Roberto; De Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Tufik, Sergio; De Mello, Marco Túlio

    2016-11-01

    Body composition is a physiological variable associated with physical activity and, in some cases, is related to athletic performance. Our objectives were to describe the body composition of participants in three distinct Paralympic sports and to compare the values of body density and estimated body fat obtained from the Paralympic athletes on the National Team by air-displacement plethysmography (ADP) and by the anthropometric method (skinfolds (SFs)). The sample consisted of 70 volunteers of both genders. The body composition of the volunteers was evaluated using the ADP in a Bod Pod(®) and seven SFs. There were no significant differences between the values obtained by ADP and SF for body fat percentage (p = .58) and body density (p = .49). Analysis by Bland-Altman plots showed mean differences of 0.56 ± 4.94 (-9.12-10.23) and -0.0017 ± 0.0113 (-0.024-0.020) for body fat percentage and body density, respectively. In conclusion, body composition analyses of Paralympic athletes by the ADP and SF methods show similar results, and ADP should be used as the first option when available. When the use of ADP is not possible, estimating body density and fat percentage by SF is a viable alternative for Paralympic athletes when future comparisons will use the same analysis method.

  14. Fractographic Analysis of High Performance Fabric Reinforced Composites after Ballistic Impact

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Hua-peng; SHI Mei-wu; ZHANG Jian-chun; WANG Shan-yuan

    2002-01-01

    To improve the ballistic resistance of the ballistic resistant composites, this paper deals with the microscopically fractographic analysis of their failure caused by Fragments Simulated Projectiles (FSP) and bullet with the objective to clarify the failure modes of the compoosites, and to further improve the ballistic resistance of the ballistic systems by hybridizing based on the currently market available materials.After the analysis, it has been found that the penetration of the FSP into the panels causes shear failure in the impact side of the target but extensive tension failure in the distal side of the composite target. The failure modes also include matrix fragmentation, and delamination, and with resin content as high as 30%,more filaments are broken by cutting in the composite.Compared with the failure caused by bullet, there are more cutting or shearing for the failure caused by FSP,but more compressive failure caused by bullet. This paper also discusses the effects of hybridizing different types of fabrics on the ballistic resistance of the composite based on the observations and numerical simulation.

  15. Evaluation of Staining-Dependent Colour Changes in Resin Composites Using Principal Component Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, D; Lenhardt, L; Milićević, B; Antonov, M; Miletic, V; Dramićanin, M D

    2015-10-09

    Colour changes in Gradia Direct™ composite after immersion in tea, coffee, red wine, Coca-Cola, Colgate mouthwash, and distilled water were evaluated using principal component analysis (PCA) and the CIELAB colour coordinates. The reflection spectra of the composites were used as input data for the PCA. The output data (scores and loadings) provided information about the magnitude and origin of the surface reflection changes after exposure to the staining solutions. The reflection spectra of the stained samples generally exhibited lower reflection in the blue spectral range, which was manifested in the lower content of the blue shade for the samples. Both analyses demonstrated the high staining abilities of tea, coffee, and red wine, which produced total colour changes of 4.31, 6.61, and 6.22, respectively, according to the CIELAB analysis. PCA revealed subtle changes in the reflection spectra of composites immersed in Coca-Cola, demonstrating Coca-Cola's ability to stain the composite to a small degree.

  16. Structural Analysis and Optimization of a Composite Fan Blade for Future Aircraft Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coroneos, Rula M.; Gorla, Rama Subba Reddy

    2012-09-01

    This paper addresses the structural analysis and optimization of a composite sandwich ply lay-up of a NASA baseline solid metallic fan blade comparable to a future Boeing 737 MAX aircraft engine. Sandwich construction with a polymer matrix composite face sheet and honeycomb aluminum core replaces the original baseline solid metallic fan model made of Titanium. The focus of this work is to design the sandwich composite blade with the optimum number of plies for the face sheet that will withstand the combined pressure and centrifugal loads while the constraints are satisfied and the baseline aerodynamic and geometric parameters are maintained. To satisfy the requirements a sandwich construction for the blade is proposed with composite face sheets and a weak core made of honeycomb aluminum material. For aerodynamic considerations, the thickness of the core is optimized where as the overall blade thickness is held fixed in order not to alter the original airfoil geometry. Weight reduction is taken as the objective function by varying the core thickness of the blade within specified upper and lower bounds. Constraints are imposed on radial displacement limitations and ply failure strength. From the optimum design, the minimum number of plies, which will not fail, is back-calculated. The ply lay-up of the blade is adjusted from the calculated number of plies and final structural analysis is performed. Analyses were carried out by utilizing the OpenMDAO Framework, developed at NASA Glenn Research Center combining optimization with structural assessment.

  17. BILAM: a composite laminate failure-analysis code using bilinear stress-strain approximations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLaughlin, P.V. Jr.; Dasgupta, A.; Chun, Y.W.

    1980-10-01

    The BILAM code which uses constant strain laminate analysis to generate in-plane load/deformation or stress/strain history of composite laminates to the point of laminate failure is described. The program uses bilinear stress-strain curves to model layer stress-strain behavior. Composite laminates are used for flywheels. The use of this computer code will help to develop data on the behavior of fiber composite materials which can be used by flywheel designers. In this program the stress-strain curves are modelled by assuming linear response in axial tension while using bilinear approximations (2 linear segments) for stress-strain response to axial compressive, transverse tensile, transverse compressive and axial shear loadings. It should be noted that the program attempts to empirically simulate the effects of the phenomena which cause nonlinear stress-strain behavior, instead of mathematically modelling the micromechanics involved. This code, therefore, performs a bilinear laminate analysis, and, in conjunction with several user-defined failure interaction criteria, is designed to provide sequential information on all layer failures up to and including the first fiber failure. The modus operandi is described. Code BILAM can be used to: predict the load-deformation/stress-strain behavior of a composite laminate subjected to a given combination of in-plane loads, and make analytical predictions of laminate strength.

  18. Dynamic-mechanical analysis and SEM morphology of wood flour/polypropylene composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Chui-gen; SONG Yong-ming; WANG Qing-wen; SHEN Chang-sheng

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the effects of compatibilizers, including Maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MA-PP) and maleic anhydride grafted ethylene-propylene-diene copolymer (MA-EPDM), on wood-flour/polypropylene (WF/PP) composites. WF/PP composites were prepared by direct extrusion profiles using a twin-screw/single-screw extruder system. DMA analysis showed that the loss factor of composites decreased and the storage modulus improved in the presence of MA-PP, which indicated much better interfacial adhesion between the PP matrix and wood flour filler than in the absence of compatibilizer. Morphological feature based on SEM observation showed that MA-PP and MA-EPDM improved the dispersion of the wood particles in the plastic matrix. MA-EPDM is a soft segment, although it improved the interfacial adhesion, storage modulus decreases with adding of MA-EPDM. As compatibilizer of wood-flour/polypropylene composites, both DMA analysis and SEM feature proved that MA-PP was superior to MA-EPDM.

  19. Studies on thermal analysis and optical parameters of Cu doped poly(vinyl acetate)/polyindole composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat, D. J.; Dhokane, G. R.

    2015-05-01

    This article reports investigation on optical parameters and thermal analysis of Cu doped poly(vinyl acetate)/polyindole composites using cupric chloride as an oxidant. The study's complex optical parameters were determined through ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy. Thermal analysis was done through thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The optical band gap values were found in the range 3.4381-4.8646 eV that reflects that synthesized composites have the potential to have application in optical devices and solar cells. The optical conductivity of composites is calculated to be 1.608 × 107 S-1.

  20. Constitutive models of ferroelectric composites with a viscoelastic and dielectric relaxation matrix (Ⅱ)——Experiment, calculation and analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江冰; 方岱宁; 黄克智

    2000-01-01

    Experimental analysis of ferroelectric composites with a viscoelastic and dieiectric relax-ation matrix is carried out, and the electromechanical coupling behavior of the ferroelectric composites is calculated by means of the constitutive model proposed in this paper. Comparisons between the ex-perimental results and the calculations show that the constitutive model can reflect the electromechanical coupling behavior of the ferroelectric composites. The analysis indicates that the effect of viscoelas-ticity and dieiectric relaxation of the matrix on the electromechanical coupling behavior of ferroelectric composites cannot be neglected.