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Sample records for monopterus albus zuiew

  1. 黄鳝脑部松果腺复合体的结构研究%STUDIES ON THE STRUCTURE OF PINE AL COMPLEX IN THE RICEFIELD EEL MONOPTERUS ALBUS ZUIEW

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    应用松果腺细胞改良染色法(Achucarro-Hortegastaining),证实了黄鳝脑部存在松果腺复合体.光镜(HE染色)及电镜切片的研究结果表明,黄鳝松果腺复合体由终囊、松果体柄和背囊三部分组成;每部分均包含有类光感细胞、支持细胞及神经节细胞等细胞类型.类光感细胞包括外节、内节、胞体和基突4个组成部分,其形态结构与脊椎动物眼中的光感细胞极其相似.由于类光感细胞中分布有大量的分泌样颗粒,故而推测黄鳝脑部松果腺复合体具有感光与分泌的双重功能.%With a special morphohistological study(Achucarro-Hortega staining),the evidence for a pineal complex in the brain of the ricefield eel(Monopterus albus Zuiew)is presented.The results of routine histological and electron microscopic studies demonstrate that the pineal complex is composed of an end-vesicle,a pineal stalk and a dorsal sac each part of the complex consists of photoreceptor-like cells,supportive cells and ganglion cells.The photoreceptor-like cells,resembling the retinal photoreceptors of the vertebrate lateral eyes,display a distinct structural and functional compartmentalization characterized by the existence of four basic cellular regions,i.e.,outer segment,inner segment,cell body and basal process .Since there are secretory-like granules in the photoreceptor-like cells,it is reasonable to infer that the pineal complex of the ricefield eel may have both a photosensory and a secretory function.The poorly developed outer segment in the photoreceptor-like cells,however,implies that monitoring of ambient light levels is an unimportant function of the pineal complex in the ricefield eel,aburrowing fish.

  2. Gene Cloning and mRNA Expression of Glutamate Dehydrogenase in the Liver, Brain, and Intestine of the Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus (Zuiew), Exposed to Freshwater, Terrestrial Conditions, Environmental Ammonia, or Salinity Stress

    OpenAIRE

    Tok, Chia Y.; Shit F Chew; Yuen K Ip

    2011-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can undergo long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and can survive in brackish water. We obtained a cDNA sequence of glutamate dehydrogenase (gdh), which consisted of a 133-bp 5′ UTR, a complete coding sequence region spanning 1629 bp and a 3′ UTR of approximately 717 bp, from the liver, intestine, and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence had 542 residues, ...

  3. [Effects of starvation on digestive enzyme activities of Monopterus albus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dai-qin; Chen, Fang; Ruan, Guo-liang; Hu, Cheng-wen; Cao, Sheng-huan

    2007-05-01

    Starvation is a major environmental stress, which has a broad effect on the physiology and ecology of aquatic animals. In this study, Monopterus albus was starved for 30 days at (20 +/- 0.5) degrees C, and the activities of protease, trypsin, amylase and lipase in its digestive organs were measured on the 0, 3rd, 5th, 10th, 15th, 20th, and 30th day of starvation. The results showed that starvation had definite effects on the activities of all test enzymes. With the prolongation of starvation, the activities of test enzymes decreased, which was most significant when the fish was starved for 5-10 days. After 10 days of starvation, the decreasing trend of the enzyme activities became less obvious.

  4. PENGARUH PADAT PENEBARAN TERHADAP PERTAMBAHAN BERAT DAN PANJANG BADAN BELUT SAWAH (MONOPTERUS ALBUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I GUSTI KETUT ALIT

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment performed to find out the effect of stocking density on body weight and body length of freshwater eel (Monopterus albus. In this experiment 160 individual freshwater eels that planted in 20 clay pots. Completely Randomized Design (CRD with five treatments and four replicates applied in this experiment. The treatments of different stocking densities were 4 eels/pot, 6 eels/pot, 8 eels/pot, 10 eels/pot, 12 eels/pot. Significant gains were recorded on body weight (P0,05 for different stocking densities.

  5. Autonomic control of the heart in the Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Nina Kerting; Huong, Do Thi Thanh; Bayley, Mark

    2011-01-01

    The Asian swamp eel (Monopterus albus) is an air-breathing teleost with very reduced gills that uses the buccal cavity for air-breathing. Here we characterise the cardiovascular changes associated with the intermittent breathing pattern in M. albus and we study the autonomic control of the heart...... during water- and air-breathing. The shift from water- to air-breathing was associated with a rise in heart rate from 27.7 ± 1.6 to 41.4 ± 2.6 min− 1 and an increase in cardiac output from 23.1 ± 3.0 to 58.7 ± 6.5 mL min− 1 kg− 1, while mean systemic blood pressure did not change (39.0 ± 3.5 and 46.4 ± 1.......3 cm H2O). The autonomic control of the heart during water- and air-breathing was revealed by infusion of the β-adrenergic antagonist propranolol and muscarinic antagonist atropine (3 mg kg− 1) in eels instrumented with an arterial catheter. Inhibition of the sympathetic and parasympathetic...

  6. Isolation of heat-tolerant myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chotichayapong, Chatrachatchaya; Wiengsamut, Kittipong; Chanthai, Saksit; Sattayasai, Nison; Tamiya, Toru; Kanzawa, Nobuyuki; Tsuchiya, Takahide

    2012-10-01

    Myoglobin from Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus was purified from fish muscle using salt fractionation followed by column chromatography and molecular filtration. The purified Mb of 0.68 mg/g wet weight of muscle was determined for its molecular mass by MALDI-TOF-MS to be 15,525.18 Da. Using isoelectric focusing technique, the purified Mb showed two derivatives with pI of 6.40 and 7.12. Six peptide fragments of this protein identified by LC-MS/MS were homologous to Mbs of sea raven Hemitripterus americanus, yellowfin tuna Thunnus albacores, blue marlin Makaira nigicans, common carp Cyprinus carpio, and goldfish Carassius auratus. According to the Mb denaturation, the swamp eel Mb had thermal stability higher than walking catfish Clarias batrachus Mb and striped catfish Pangasius hypophthalmus Mb, between 30 and 60 (°)C. For the thermal stability of Mb, the swamp eel Mb showed a biphasic behavior due to the O(2) dissociation and the heme orientation disorder, with the lowest increase in both Kd(f) and Kd(s). The thermal sensitivity of swamp eel Mb was lower than those of the other Mbs for both of fast and slow reaction stages. These results suggest that the swamp eel Mb globin structure is thermally stable, which is consistent with heat-tolerant behavior of the swamp eel particularly in drought habitat.

  7. INDUKSI MATURASI BELUT SAWAH (Monopterus albus DENGAN HORMON HUMAN CHORIONIC GONADOTROPIN DAN ANTIDOPAMIN

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    Wiwin Kusuma Atmaja Putra

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Penelitian maturasi belut sawah (Monopterus albus dengan Hormone human Chorionic Gonadotropin dan antidopamin dilakukan di Kolam Percobaan Babakan, Institut Pertanian Bogor. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mengetahui pengaruh hormon hCG dan kombinasinya terhadap maturasi belut sawah. Penelitian ini dilakukan dengan metode ekperimental secara Rancangan Acak Lengkap (RAL dengan perlakuan kontrol (NaCl, hCG (dosis 20 IU/kg, antidopamin (AD (dosis 0,01 mg/kg, dan hCG+AD (dosis 20 IU+0,01 mg/kg dengan tujuh ulangan individu. Data dianalisis secara deskriptif dan ANOVA. Parameter uji pada penelitian ini di antaranya adalah konsentrasi estradiol-17β, gonado somatik index (GSI, hepatosomatik index (HSI, histologi gonad, tingkat kematangan gonad, diameter telur, tingkat kebuntingan, dan kualitas air (oksigen terlarut (DO, pH, amoniak, dan suhu. Hasil terbaik pada akhir penelitian ini adalah perlakuan hCG+AD dengan nilai konsentrasi estradiol-17β (13,63-95,49 pg/mL, GSI (1,25%, HSI (1,53%, TKG (IV, diameter telur (0,88 mm, dan tingkat kebuntingan (85,71%. Perlakuan kontrol dan antidopamin tidak berpengaruh dan hanya mampu mencapai tingkat kematangan gonad I. Hasil analisis parameter kualitas air adalah berkisar DO (5,32-5,58 mg/L, amoniak (0,558-0,978 mg/L, pH (6,06-6,36, dan suhu (27,80oC-27,94oC. Hasil ini menunjukkan bahwa hCG dapat menginduksi pematangan gonad belut sawah.

  8. Construction and analysis of gonad suppression subtractive hybridization libraries for the rice field eel, Monopterus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xiancheng; Jiang, Jiaoyun; Shang, Xiaoli; Cheng, Cui; Feng, Long; Liu, Qigen

    2014-04-25

    The objective of this study was to investigate gene transcription profiles of the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus) in an attempt to uncover genes involved in sex reversal and gonad development. Suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH) libraries were constructed using mRNA from the stage IV ovary and the ovotestis. In total 100 positive clones from the libraries were selected at random and sequenced, and then expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were used to search against sequences in the GenBank database using the BLASTn and BLASTx search algorithms. High quality SSH cDNA libraries and 90 ESTs were obtained. Of these ESTs, 43 showed high homology with genes of known function and these are associated with energy metabolism, signal transduction, transcription regulation and so on. The remaining 47 ESTs shared no homology with any genes in GenBank and are thus considered to be hypothetical genes. Furthermore, the four genes F11, F63, R11, and R47 from the forward and reverse libraries were analyzed in gonad, brain, heart, spleen, liver, kidney and muscle tissues. The results showed that the transcription of the F11 and F63 genes was significantly increased while the expression of the R11 and R47 genes was significantly decreased from IV or V ovary. In addition, the results also indicated that the four genes' expression was not gonad-tissue specific. This results strongly suggested that they may be involved in the rice field eel gonad development and/or sex reversal.

  9. Heavy Metals Uptake by Asian Swamp Eel, Monopterus albus from Paddy Fields of Kelantan, Peninsular Malaysia: Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sow Ai; Ismail, Ahmad; Zulkifli, Syaizwan Zahmir

    2012-12-01

    Swamp eel, Monopterus albus is one of the common fish in paddy fields, thus it is suitable to be a bio-monitor for heavy metals pollution studies in paddy fields. This study was conducted to assess heavy metals levels in swamp eels collected from paddy fields in Kelantan, Malaysia. The results showed zinc [Zn (86.40 μg/g dry weight)] was the highest accumulated metal in the kidney, liver, bone, gill, muscle and skin. Among the selected organs, gill had the highest concentrations of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and nickel (Ni) whereas muscle showed the lowest total metal accumulation of Zn, Pb, copper (Cu), Cd and Ni. Based on the Malaysian Food Regulation, the levels of Zn and Cu in edible parts (muscle and skin) were within the safety limits. However, Cd, Pb and Ni exceeded the permissible limits. By comparing with the maximum level intake (MLI), Pb, Ni and Cd in edible parts can still be consumed. This investigation indicated that M. albus from paddy fields of Kelantan are safe for human consumption with little precaution.

  10. THE EFFECTS OF DIFFERENT LEVELS OF EPA AND DHA ON LIPIDS METABOLISM, GROWTH AND REPRODUCTIVE PERFORMANCE OF RICE FIELD EEL(MONOPTERUS ALBUS)%饲料中不同EPA和DHA含量对黄鳝脂类代谢、生长及繁殖性能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱长生; 江波; 周秋白

    2013-01-01

    为研究 EPA 和 DHA 对黄鳝脂类代谢、生长及繁殖性能的影响,用添加有 EPA 和 DHA 比例相同(EPA/DHA=0.35)但水平不同(EPA和DHA总量分别为0.00%、0.35%、0.70%)的3种等氮等脂肪饲料,在常温(22-30℃)下,分别喂养平均体重为(21.71±0.54) g的黄鳝7周,分析黄鳝脂类代谢和生长性能,然后每组取15尾继续养殖至性腺发育成熟用于繁殖性能分析。结果表明:在饲料中添加0.70%的EPA和DHA 能促进黄鳝生长,显著提高黄鳝的特定生长率(SGR)及肌肉粗蛋白含量,降低肝体指数(HSI)及肌肉、肝脏中的粗脂肪含量(P<0.05),显著提高亲鳝的性体指数(GSI)、产卵量、孵化率、幼苗的存活指数(SAI)(P<0.05)。添加0.35%的EPA和DHA能显著降低肝脏中粗脂肪含量(P<0.05)。综合分析表明: EPA和DHA能促进黄鳝的脂类代谢,显著提高其生长及繁殖性能;饲料中添加0.70%的EPA和DHA较为适宜。%A feeding experiment was conducted to investigate the influences of EPA and DHA of dietary lipids on lipids metabolism, growth and reproductive performance of rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew). Fishes of which the av-erage weight was (21.71±0.54) g were fed with three isonitrogenous and isolipidic experimental diets with the same EPA/DHA ratios (EPA∶DHA=0.35) but different amount of EPA and DHA (0.00%, 0.35%and 0.70%, respectively) for seven weeks at room temperature ranging from 22℃ to 30℃, then the lipid metabolism and growth performance were analyzed. After that fifteen fishes from each group were took to keep until gonadal maturation for reproductive performance analysis. Results showed that the diet containing 0.70%of EPA and DHA could promote the growth of rice field eels and significantly increased the specific growth rate (SGR) and the protein content of muscle, but decreased the hepatoso-matic index (HSI) and the fat content of liver and muscle (P<0.05). Significant increments of spawning

  11. Properties and expression of Na+/K+-ATPase α-subunit isoforms in the brain of the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, which has unusually high brain ammonia tolerance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu L Chen

    Full Text Available The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, can survive in high concentrations of ammonia (>75 mmol l(-1 and accumulate ammonia to high concentrations in its brain (4.5 µmol g(-1. Na(+/K(+-ATPase (Nka is an essential transporter in brain cells, and since NH4(+ can substitute for K(+ to activate Nka, we hypothesized that the brain of M. albus expressed multiple forms of Nka α-subunits, some of which might have high K(+ specificity. Thus, this study aimed to clone and sequence the nka α-subunits from the brain of M. albus, and to determine the effects of ammonia exposure on their mRNA expression and overall protein abundance. The effectiveness of NH4(+ to activate brain Nka from M. albus and Mus musculus was also examined by comparing their Na(+/K(+-ATPase and Na(+/NH4(+-ATPase activities over a range of K(+/NH4(+ concentrations. The full length cDNA coding sequences of three nkaα (nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b were identified in the brain of M. albus, but nkaα2 expression was undetectable. Exposure to 50 mmol l(-1 NH4Cl for 1 day or 6 days resulted in significant decreases in the mRNA expression of nkaα1, nkaα3a and nkaα3b. The overall Nka protein abundance also decreased significantly after 6 days of ammonia exposure. For M. albus, brain Na(+/NH4(+-ATPase activities were significantly lower than the Na(+/K(+-ATPase activities assayed at various NH4(+/K(+ concentrations. Furthermore, the effectiveness of NH4(+ to activate Nka from the brain of M. albus was significantly lower than that from the brain of M. musculus, which is ammonia-sensitive. Hence, the (1 lack of nkaα2 expression, (2 high K(+ specificity of K(+ binding sites of Nkaα1, Nkaα3a and Nkaα3b, and (3 down-regulation of mRNA expression of all three nkaα isoforms and the overall Nka protein abundance in response to ammonia exposure might be some of the contributing factors to the high brain ammonia tolerance in M. albus.

  12. Investigation on Helminth Infections in Monopterus albus in Sichuan Province%四川省黄鳝体内寄生蠕虫感染状况调查

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭彬; 陈晓利; 杨光友; 占爱思; 何智; 付彦; 古小彬

    2014-01-01

    In order to understand the helminth infection status in Monopterus albus ,435 M.albus were col-lected in Sichuan province,China,including Meishan,Leshan,Mianyang,Deyang,Ziyang,Neijiang,Guang′an,Nanchong,Suining,Yibin,Xichang,Qionglai and Mingshan.Three species of helminth parasites were found in M.albus.The prevalence,intensity and mean abundance of Eustrongylides sp.(larva)from 435 M.albus,were 19.08%,3.89 and 0.74,respectively.The prevalence,intensity and mean abundance of Pallisentis (Neosentis)celatus from 435 M.albus,were 18.85%,11.4 and 2.15,respectively.The preva-lence,intensity and mean abundance of Phylldistomum serripatula of 435 M.albus,were 4.83%,2.86 and 0.14,respectively.According to the data in this study,for the health of aquaculture for M.albus,the three species of parasites should be paid more attention to prevent and control.%为了解四川地区黄鳝(Monopterus albus )体内寄生蠕虫的感染情况,采用常规寄生虫调查方法对四川眉山、乐山、绵阳、德阳、资阳、内江、广安、南充、遂宁、宜宾、西昌、邛崃、名山共计13个地区所采集的435条不同规格的黄鳝的寄生虫感染情况进行了初步调查。结果显示,四川黄鳝体内的寄生蠕虫是隐藏新棘虫(Pallisentis (Neosentis)celatus)、胃瘤线虫(Eustrongylides sp.)幼虫和锯缘叶形吸虫(Phylldisto-mum serripatula );其中,胃瘤线虫幼虫的感染率为19.08%,感染强度为3.89,感染丰度为0.74;隐藏新棘虫感染率为18.85%,感染强度为11.40,感染丰度为2.15;锯缘叶形吸虫的感染率为4.83%,感染强度为2.86,感染丰度为0.14。胃瘤线虫幼虫、隐藏新棘虫和锯缘叶形吸虫是四川地区黄鳝人工养殖应重点防治的几种寄生虫。

  13. Gene cloning and mRNA expression of glutamate dehydrogenase in the liver, brain and intestine of the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, exposed to freshwater, terrestrial conditions, environmental ammonia or salinity stress

    OpenAIRE

    C Y Toh; S F Chew; Ip, Alex Y.K.

    2011-01-01

    The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can survive long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and acclimate from fresh to brackish water. This study was undertaken to clone and sequence gdh expressed in the liver, intestine and brain of M. albus, to verify whether more than one form of gdh were expressed, and to examine the gdh mRNA expressions in these three organs in fish exposed to various adverse conditions using qu...

  14. Genome-wide analysis of brain and gonad transcripts reveals changes of key sex reversal-related genes expression and signaling pathways in three stages of Monopterus albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Qing; Guo, Wei; Li, Dapeng

    2017-01-01

    Background The natural sex reversal severely affects the sex ratio and thus decreases the productivity of the rice field eel (Monopterus albus). How to understand and manipulate this process is one of the major issues for the rice field eel stocking. So far the genomics and transcriptomics data available for this species are still scarce. Here we provide a comprehensive study of transcriptomes of brain and gonad tissue in three sex stages (female, intersex and male) from the rice field eel to investigate changes in transcriptional level during the sex reversal process. Results Approximately 195 thousand unigenes were generated and over 44.4 thousand were functionally annotated. Comparative study between stages provided multiple differentially expressed genes in brain and gonad tissue. Overall 4668 genes were found to be of unequal abundance between gonad tissues, far more than that of the brain tissues (59 genes). These genes were enriched in several different signaling pathways. A number of 231 genes were found with different levels in gonad in each stage, with several reproduction-related genes included. A total of 19 candidate genes that could be most related to sex reversal were screened out, part of these genes’ expression patterns were validated by RT-qPCR. The expression of spef2, maats1, spag6 and dmc1 were abundant in testis, but was barely detected in females, while the 17β-hsd12, zpsbp3, gal3 and foxn5 were only expressed in ovary. Conclusion This study investigated the complexity of brain and gonad transcriptomes in three sex stages of the rice field eel. Integrated analysis of different gene expression and changes in signaling pathways, such as PI3K-Akt pathway, provided crucial data for further study of sex transformation mechanisms. PMID:28319194

  15. 入境黄鳝颚口线虫检疫及虫种鉴定%Detection and Identification for Gnathostoma sp.in Imported Monopterus albus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李树清; 李雯雯; 陈志飞; 李健; 陈韶红; 张永年; 黄维义; 王巧全

    2011-01-01

    identified as G. spinigerum.%目的 检查进口黄鳝(Monopterus albus)体内的颚口线虫Ⅲ期幼虫,并鉴定虫种.方法 对2010年1月至2011年3月间从上海口岸入境的10批黄鳝进行颚口线虫寄生情况检疫.采样52尾,3~~10尾/批,分别来自菲律宾(25尾)、印度尼西亚(24尾)和孟加拉国(3尾),分尾解剖、切碎、蛋白酶消化后,悬液用10目铜筛过滤,取滤液沉淀.体视镜下挑出完整虫体,进行形态学鉴定,并计算感染率和感染度.提取颚口线虫基因组DNA,PCR扩增核糖体DNA第二内转录间隔区(internal transcribed spacer region 2,ITS2)和线粒体细胞色素C氧化酶亚基Ⅰ(cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1,cox1)基因,对产物进行电泳和测序.测序结果与GenBank相应序列进行多重序列比对.结果 从菲律宾和印度尼西亚进口的黄鳝中均检出有颚口线虫Ⅲ期幼虫寄生,阳性率分别为36.0% (9/25)和50.0%(12/24),平均感染度分别为7.8 (70/9)和2.8 (34/12).孟加拉国进口的黄鳝采样中未检出虫体.镜下显示,检获的虫体有头球,头球上有4环小钩,体表有横纹和小棘,体前部棘明显大而密,体后部棘渐小而疏.有1对颈乳突和4个颈囊.形态学特征与棘颚口线虫(Gnathostoma spinigerum)Ⅲ期幼虫相似.PCR结果显示,ITS-2和coxl扩增产物的长度分别为647 bp和441 bp,与预期大小一致.经测序后比对分析结果显示,2个扩增产物分别与棘颚口线虫ITS-2(GenBank登录号为AB181155和Z97175)和cox1(GenBank登录号为AY501388、AB180099和AB551552)基因片段序列一致性为99%~100%.结论 从菲律宾和印度尼西亚进口黄鳝中检出的颚口线虫均为棘颚口线虫.

  16. 三种植物蛋白源对黄鳝生长和肌肉营养成分的影响%Effects of Three Plant Protein Sources on Growth and Muscle Nutrition of Monopterus albus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田罡; 龚世园; 潘望城

    2013-01-01

    在添加等量鱼粉的基础上,分别以豆粕、棉粕、菜粕为原料配制成三组等氮等能的饲料(蛋白质含量约为38%)饲喂黄鳝(Monopterus albus).结果表明,豆粕组、棉粕组、菜粕组三个试验组之间末均重、增重率、特定生长率差异显著(P<0.05),豆粕组黄鳝的生长性能和饲料利用率最好,棉粕组次之,菜粕组最差;三个试验组之间肥满度、脏体比和肝体比无显著差异,但豆粕组的脏体比和肝体比大于棉粕组和菜粕组;三种植物蛋白源对黄鳝肌肉营养成分有一定影响,豆粕组与菜粕组、棉粕组相比,粗蛋白含量较高,而粗脂肪含量较低,表明豆粕组黄鳝的营养价值较高.%On the same addition level of fish meal,soybean meal,cotton seed meal and rapeseed meal were used to make three iso-nitrogenous diets (38% crude protein level),and feed the Monopterus albus.The results showed that between soybean meal group,cotton meal group and rapeseed meal group,there was a significant difference on growth and feed utilization rate of M.albus(P<0.05).The growth performance and feed utilization rate of soybean meal were significantly higher than the cotton meal group and rapeseed meal group,and the rapeseed meal group was the worst.There was no significant difference of condition factor、VSI and HIS among three experimental groups,and the VSI and HIS of soybean meal group was highter than cotton meal group and rapeseed meal group.There was some effect on muscle nutrition of M.albus for the three plant protein sources.The crude protein content of soybean meal group was higher than cotton seed meal and rapeseed meal,but the crude fat content was lower than the cotton seed meal and rapeseed meal,indicated the soybean meal had higher nutrition value.

  17. Gene cloning and mRNA expression of glutamate dehydrogenase in the liver, brain and intestine of the swamp eel, Monopterus albus, exposed to freshwater, terrestrial conditions, environmental ammonia or salinity stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Y Toh

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The swamp eel, Monopterus albus, is an obligatory air-breathing teleost which can survive long period of emersion, has high environmental and tissue ammonia tolerance, and acclimate from fresh to brackish water. This study was undertaken to clone and sequence gdh expressed in the liver, intestine and brain of M. albus, to verify whether more than one form of gdh were expressed, and to examine the gdh mRNA expressions in these three organs in fish exposed to various adverse conditions using quantitative real-time PCR. Only one gdh gene sequence, consisted of a 133 bp 5’ UTR, a CDS region spanning 1629 bp and a 3’ UTR of approximately 717 bp, was obtained from the liver, intestine and brain of M. albus. The translated Gdh amino acid sequence from the liver of M. albus had 542 residues and was confirmed to be Gdh1a. It had sequence identity of >90% with Oncorhynchus mykiss Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1, Bostrychus sinensis Gdh1a and Tribolodon hakonensis Gdh1a, and formed a monophyletic clade with B. sinensis Gdh1a, Tetraodon nigroviridis Gdh1a, Chaenocephalus aceratus Gdh1a, Salmo salar Gdh1a1 and Gdh1a2 and O. mykiss Gdh1a. An increase in mRNA expression of gdh1a could be essential for increased glutamate production in support of increases in glutamine synthesis under certain environmental condition. Indeed, exposure of M. albus to 1 day of terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l-1 NH4Cl, but not brackish water, resulted in a significant increase in gdh1a mRNA expression in the liver. However, exposure to brackish water, but not terrestrial conditions or 75 mmol l-1 NH4Cl, lead to a significant increase in the intestinal mRNA expression of gdh1a. By contrast, all the three experimental conditions had no significant effects on the mRNA expression of gdh1a in the brain of M. albus. Our results indicate for the first time that gdh mRNA expression was differentially up-regulated in the liver and intestine of M. albus, in responses to ammonia toxicity and

  18. 黄鳝骨硫酸软骨素多糖降血脂功能研究%Study on lipid-decreasing effect of Chondroitin Sulfate Polysaccharides from monopterus albus bone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姚晓燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察黄鳝骨硫酸软骨素多糖(Chondroitin Sulfate Polysaccharides,CHS)对高脂小鼠的降血脂功能.方法:将经预处理后的黄鳝骨经碱提、酶解、过柱(大孔吸附树脂)、脱盐得到CHS,灌胃给高脂小鼠,研究其降血脂功能.结果:多糖低、中剂量组(9、27 mg/kg)与高脂模型组比较,能显著降低高脂小鼠血清总胆固醇(TC)和低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL-C)水平(P<0.01),对血清三酰甘油(TG)水平升高也有一定的抑制作用,但差异不显著;而高剂量组(81 mg/kg)仅能显著降低血清TC水平(P<0.05);各组对小鼠体重和腹部脂肪均影响不大.结论:27 mg/kg的CHS能显著降低高脂小鼠TC和LDL-C水平,并在一定程度上抑制小鼠TG水平的升高,具有一定降血脂功能.%Objective: To study the lipid-decreasing effect of Chondroitin Sulfate Polysaccharides (CHS), which was extract ed from monopterus albus bone on hyperlipidermia mice. Methods: CHS was extracted from pretreated monopterus albus bones by alkali-liquor extraction, enzyme decomposition, column separation and desalination. Then it was used on hyperlipidermia mice to observe the function of lipid-decreasing. Results: The total serum cholesterol (TC) and low-density lipopro-tein (LDL-C) were very significantly decreased (P<0.01) in the low and middle-dosage groups (9, 27 mg/kg) compared with hyperlipidermia model group, and the rising of triglyceride (TG) was also be inhibited a little, but without distinct diversity; the TC level of the high-dosage group (81 mg/kg) could be obviously decreased (P<0.05); there had no effects on the weight and belly fat of mice of each groups. Conclusion: CHS (27 mg/kg) can decrease the TC and LDL-C level of hiperlipemia mice, inhibite the raisen of TG in a certain degree, and show some colesterol-lowering function.

  19. Construction and analysis of gonad suppression subtractive hybridization library of rice field eel(Monopterus albus)%黄鳝性腺抑制差减文库的构建和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲宪成; 尚晓莉; 程翠; 曲学伟; 张勇; 张开岳; 蒋骄云

    2011-01-01

    By using suppression subtractive hybridization (SSH), subtracted cDNA libraries were constructed from rice field eel (Monopterus albus) gonad at Ⅳ ovary and ovotestis stage. Two-directional (forward and backward) SSH was performed under cDNAs of rice field eel gonad at Ⅳ ovary and ovotestis stage. The cDNA fragments were inserted into plasmid vectors, and then transformed into Escherichia coli DHSα. Finally, forward and backward subtracted cDNA libraries (461 and 674 clones, respectively) were obtained. By PCR detection, length of the subtractive cDNA fragments cloned into the vector ranged from 200 bp to 2 000 bp. One hundred positive clones were selected and sequenced randomly from the forward and the backward libraries, and ninety gene fragment sequences were obtained. EST analysis of these sequences was performed with Blastx and Blaxtn by comparing sequences with GenBank database. Two sequenced genes were further analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR method. The results showed that the library can enrich differentially expressed genes in the two phases gonad.%应用抑制性差减杂交技术构建了黄鳝(Monopterus albus)Ⅳ期卵巢和间期性腺的差减cDNA文库.正向差减杂交以间期性腺为试验方,Ⅳ期卵巢为驱动方;反向差减杂交以Ⅳ期卵巢为试验方,间期性腺为驱动方.将获得的差减cDNA片段连接质粒载体,然后转化大肠杆菌DH5α,最后获得的正、反向差减文库分别含461、678个重组子.经PCR扩增鉴定插入片段范嗣为200~2000 bp.随机选取正、反文库共100个阳性克隆测序分析,得到90个有效基因片段,与GenBank进行BLASTx和BLASTn同源比对.进一步从文库中选取2个基因用于半定量RT-PCR,对文库质量进行验证.结果表明,所建文库能够达到富集这两期性腺差异表达基因的目的.黄鳝性腺差减文库的构建,为进一步分离、鉴定黄鳝性腺发育和性逆转的相关基因奠定了基础.

  20. Effects of Hg2+ and Cr6+ on the Head-kidney Histological Structure of Monopterus albus%汞、铬离子对黄鳝头肾组织结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗朝晖; 袁建军; 黄周英; 谢嘉华; 廖雅芳; 林秋霞; 林雪平; 张世伟

    2008-01-01

    采用毒性实验方法,用不同浓度的汞离子(Hg2+)、铬离子(cr6+)分别处理黄鳝(Monopterus albus),经1、2、4、8 d后光镜观察黄鳝头肾组织结构及免疫细胞数量的变化.结果表明,对照组黄鳝头肾实质内未见肾单位结构,主要由淋巴组织、造血组织和血窦构成.淋巴组织主要由淋巴细胞密集排列成淋巴索或聚集成团状;造血组织主要由红血细胞密集排列成细胞索或聚集成团状.淋巴组织和造血组织在头肾实质中各占据一定的区域或相间分布,且分别被血窦所分隔.黑色素巨噬细胞分散于淋巴细胞之间,数量较少,排列较松散,尚未集结成明显的球状体.经两种重金属离子分别染毒后的黄鳝头肾与对照组相比,组织结构表现出相似的变化,即随着重金属离子浓度的增加和染毒时间的延长,头肾组织中的黑色素巨噬细胞聚集形成黑色素巨噬细胞中心,并逐渐增大、增多,最后减少;淋巴组织逐渐松散,排列稀疏混乱,淋巴细胞界限逐渐不清晰,呈退化趋势,数量减少.红血细胞大量破坏,血窦扩张.与Cr6+相比,Hg2+对头肾组织结构的毒性影响更大,病变现象更为明显.

  1. Polymorphism of the Mitochondrial cox1 Gene of Eustrongylides Spp. from Monopterus Albus%黄鳝胃瘤线虫线粒体 cox1基因的多态性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄汉成; 王芝英; 林洁; 马光旭; 朱宏宏; 周荣琼

    2016-01-01

    The study was carried out to examine the genetic variations of the mitochondrial Cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1 ) among Eustrongylides spp. isolates of Monopterus albus in Western Chongqing area ,and to investigate the phylogenetic relationship among other nematodes as well .Molecular cloning was performed to obtain the partial cox1 sequence of each E. spp. sample ,and the homology anal‐ysis of these sequences were conducted .The results showed the same length of cox1 sequences (441 bp. ) of 6 E. spp. isolates with similarity of 97.5% - 100% .Phylogenetic analysis of these sequences showed that all E. spp. isolates were grouped into a single clade .There was significant discrepancy between inter‐specific sequence and intra‐specific sequence in terms of cox1 sequence ,suggesting cox1 gene could be used as genetic marker for the specific identification .The result of this study provides scientific basis and theo‐retical reference on the molecular level and epidemiology survey of parasitic Eustrongylides .%为了解渝西地区黄鳝胃瘤线虫分离株线粒体细胞色素 C 氧化酶第 I 亚基(cox1)的遗传变异情况及与其他科线虫的种群遗传关系,本研究对该地区黄鳝胃瘤线虫 cox1部分序列进行了克隆测序和进化分析.结果表明渝西地区6株胃瘤线虫分离株的 cox1序列长度一致,均为441 bp ;各分离株之间的相似性为97.5%~100%.种系发育树表明,6个胃瘤线虫分离株均位于同一分枝.由于胃瘤线虫 cox1序列种内相对保守,种间差异较大,故可作为种间遗传变异研究的标记.本研究结果为胃瘤线虫的分类鉴定以及进一步的分子流行病学调查和群体遗传研究奠定了基础.

  2. Cloning and Molecular Characterization of the Ghrelin Gene in the Rice-field Eel, Monopterus albus%黄鳝 ghrelin基因的克隆及分子特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阮国良; 廖凯; 杨代勤; 邴旭文

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is an important signaling molecule for reproductive behavior and metabolism.The rice-field eel is a fresh water fish with natural sexual reversal from female to male via intersex, and is now widely used as a model animal in research of vertebrate sex determination and development.The ghrelin gene of Monopterus albus was cloned and the structure and function of the ghrelin gene were analyzed.The sequence of the ghrelin gene was de-termined at DNA and cDNA levels using rapid amplification of cDNA.The full-length of the ghrelin cDNA se-quence was 552 bp ( GenBank accession no.JX122807) , consisting of a 115 bp 5′-untranslated region, a 324 bp open frame and a 113 bp 3′-untranslated region.The full-length of the ghrelin DNA sequence was 1 323 bp, con-sisting of three introns and four exons, and the exon/intron junctions were found to conform to the GT/AG rule. The sequences of the three introns were 594 bp, 84 bp and 93 bp and the sequences of the four exons were 229 bp, 78 bp, 112 bp and 133 bp.Amino acid sequence analysis shows that the deduced propreghrelin sequence of M al-bus contains a 26 aa signal peptide ( SP) , a 19 aa mature peptide ( MP) and a C-terminal amino acid residue.A-mong them, the third amino acid ( Ser3 ) of MP is the site for N-acylation and N-deacetylation, and the C-terminal amino acid residue likely includes an obestatin peptide, a physiological antagonist of the mature Ghrelin peptide. Homological and phylogenic analyses of amino acid sequences suggest that the propreghrelin of the rice-field eel has high similarity to those of Perciformes and, phylogenetically, the rice-field eel clusters with Perciformes and Pleu-ronectiformes.The highly conservative gene structure of ghrelin indicates that it has important physiological func-tions.%Ghrelin是联系生殖和能量代谢的重要桥梁信号分子,通过克隆黄鳝( Monopterus albus)的ghrelin基因并对其基因结构和功能进行了初步分析;运用cDNA末端快

  3. 不同植物蛋白源饲料对黄鳝生长及肉质的影响%Effect of different plant protein sources on growth performance and muscle nutrition in Monopterus albus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘望城; 龚世园; 田罡

    2013-01-01

    以豆粕、菜粕、棉粕为主要植物蛋白源,配制3种蛋白含量为46%的配合饲料,分别饲养人工繁殖的黄鳝苗(体质量12.56±1.17 g)60 d,探讨不同植物蛋白源饲料对黄鳝生长性能与肉质的影响.试验结果表明:棉粕组黄鳝增重率、特定生长率、蛋白质效率和饲料系数分别为145.01%、1.47%、88.2%和2.46,在3组中生长性能表现最佳,与其他2组差异显著,豆粕组次之,菜粕组表现最差;3组黄鳝在肝体指数、内脏指数、肥满度方面均没有显著性差异;豆粕组黄鳝肌肉粗蛋白含量3组中最高,显著高于其他2组;菜粕组黄鳝肌肉粗脂肪含量最高,显著高于豆粕组与棉粕组;豆粕组与菜粕组黄鳝在肌肉粗灰分方面并没有显著差异,棉粕组显著最低.%A 2-month feeding experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of different plant protein sources on growth performance in rice field eel,Monopterus albus.Soybean meal,rapeseed meal,cottonseed meal and white fish meal,fermented soybean meal were used as the main protein source.Three diets with 46 % total protein from different plant resources were formulated to fed the fish with an average weight of 12.56±1.17 g.The results showed that eel had the best performance in weight gain,specific growth rate,protein efficiency ratio and feed conversion ratio in the cottonseed meal group (CMP).In the soybean meal group(SMP),the crude protein content of eel muscle was significantly higher than the CMP group and rapeseed meal group(RMP).In the RMP group,the crude fat content of eel muscle was significantly higher than the other two groups.There were no significant differences of viscerasomatic index,hepatosomatic index,condition factor among different treatments.

  4. 黄鳝组织脂肪含量变动规律研究%A Study on the Dynamics of the Lipid Content in Tissues of Rice Field Eel, Monopterus albus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周秋白; 谢熙清; 李有根

    2011-01-01

    Using the method of chloroform methanol ( V chloroform: V methanol =2∶1) to extract total lip id of muscle, liver and gonads of rice field eel (Monopterus albus), the results showed that the annual changes of lipid in rice field eel muscle, liver and ovary were in the range 1.12% -1.61% , 2.76% -4.16% and 1.94% -6.57% , respectively. Eel muscle lipid content was low in spring and summer and high in autumn and win ter; liver lipid content in summer and autumn was high, there was almost no consumption during the period from winter to spring; ovarian lipid content was significantly higher in summer than in other seasons. In the same season, the larger the body size, the higher the lipid content in both muscle and ovarian tissue, it was more obvious for the former in autumn and winter, and for the latter in spring and summer, but this case did not happen in liver. Muscle was the main fat storage tissue of rice field eel. Lipid in muscle was consumed in winter significantly, while during the stages of gonad development the lipid in muscle was probably transferred to ovary, for its content in muscle was negatively correlated with that in ovarian. Liver was not the main fat storage tissue of rice field eel. The level of liver lipid content was closely related with the intensity of physical activity. Lipid content was higher in liver in summer and autumn than in spring and winter and was hardly consumed in winter. During the period from spring to summer, the intake nutrition of the female rice field eel was mainly for ovarian development, while during the period from summer to autumn, mainly for growth and storage in muscle tissue of rice field eel. The quantity of lipid in tissue of rice field eel was closely related to its growth, reproduction performance and living through the winter.%采用氧仿甲醇法(V氯仿:V甲醇 =2:1)提取黄鳝肌肉、肝脏和性腺总脂,研究结果显示黄鳝肌肉、肝脏和卵巢组织脂肪周年变动范围分别为1.12% ~1

  5. The initial ovarian development and the expression of some related genes in ricefield eel,Monopterus albus%黄鳝卵巢初次发育成熟及相关基因表达分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何智; 李依雪; 张碧鱼; 张为民; 张利红

    2013-01-01

    为探讨黄鳝卵巢发育规律,观察了实验室养殖条件下黄鳝卵巢初次性成熟过程,采用定量PCR分析了gdf9(growth differentiation factor 9)、cyp19a1a(P-450 aromatase)、amh(antiMüllerian hormone)和amhrⅡ(anti-Müllerian hormone type Ⅱ receptor)基因表达水平.结果显示,4至9月龄黄鳝卵巢中卵母细胞处于初级生长期,胞质中嗜碱性巴尔比尼小体数量先增后减,形状由点变为大团块状,后又缩小.10月龄时,黄鳝卵巢青春期启动,进入次级生长期;部分卵母细胞出现皮质小泡,巴尔比尼小体消失或残存为点状.1龄时,卵巢中卵母细胞生发泡偏位或消失,达到成熟状态.卵巢中gdf9表达水平在4至12月龄都较高,变化不明显;cyp19a1a、amh和amhrⅡ表达变化趋势类似:从4月至7月龄上升,8月龄下降,10月龄又上升.研究表明,实验室养殖条件下,黄鳝卵巢10月龄左右启动青春期,1龄左右可达性成熟;cyp19a1a、amh和amhrⅡ表达可能与卵巢青春期启动相关.%The initial ovarian development of ricefield eel Monopterus albus raised under laboratory conditions was investigated with histological analysis, and the expression of gdf 9 ( growth differentiation factor 9 ) ,cyp 19ala( P-450 aromatase) ,amh( anti-Miillerian hormone) and amhr\\\\( anti-Miillerian hormone type II receptor) was analyzed with Real-time PCR assay. From the age of 4 months to 9 months, the oocytes in the ovary of juvenile ricefield eel remained in the primary growth stage, and the basophilic Balbiani' s vitelline bodies( Bb) increased in number at the beginning,then decreased,and Bb' s shape changed from dot at first to large cluster,then to small cluster. At the age of 10 months,the oocytes in the ovary of the juvenile ricefield eel entered the secondary growth stage,with the appearance of cortical alveoli in the cytoplasm and the differentiation of the somatic cells around the oocyte into granulosa and theca cells, and Bb either

  6. Differences in serum thyroid hormones, sex steroids and cortisol level among different gonad development stages in Monopterus albus%黄鳝不同性腺发育期间血清甲状腺素、性激素和皮质醇水平的差异

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭威; 胡青; 高宇; 汤蓉; 迟巍; 李大鹏

    2014-01-01

    以购自武汉市白沙洲水产品批发市场的360尾黄鳝( Monopterus albus)为样本,测定了雌性、间性及雄性个体血清中睾酮(T)、雌二醇(E2)、甲状腺素(T4)、三碘甲腺原氨酸(T3)、皮质醇以及血糖水平,并对其变化规律进行了阐述。结果显示:血清T3在不同性别的黄鳝中维持在同一水平, T4与T3的变化趋势一致;黄鳝从雌性过渡到间性时血清T显著下降,从间性过渡到雄性时则显著上升,而E2仅在黄鳝由间性过渡到雄性时才出现显著下降;雌性与间性黄鳝血清皮质醇处于同一水平,均显著高于雄性( P<0.05);血糖在不同性别的黄鳝中也维持在同一水平。结果表明:血清E2与T水平分别与黄鳝卵巢及精巢的发育保持一致;而甲状腺激素及皮质醇则可能通过调节能量代谢或其他途径间接影响黄鳝性腺的发育,且在性腺发育的不同时期这两种激素表现出不同的促进或抑制作用。%In order to study the differences of main sex -related hormones level among different gonad development stages of ricefield eel Monopterus albus, we sampled M.albus from Wuhan Baishazhou Fishery Product Market , and then meas-ured the hormones concentration in serum in different genders including testosterone ( T ) , estradiol ( E2 ) , thyroxine ( T4 ) , triiodothyronine ( T3 ) , cortisol and also blood glucose.The results showed that serum T level firstly significantly dropped when ricefield eel developed from female to intersex , and then significantly increased from intersex to male.While serum E2 level only significantly decreased from intersex to male.Moreover , serum T3 remained the same level among dif-ferent genders , and T4 showed the same change trend as T 3.Serum cortisol level was significantly higher in female and in-tersex than that in male.Blood glucose also showed the same level among different genders.The results indicated that E 2 and T

  7. PERIPHERY OLFACTORY SYSTEM IN RICE FIELD EEL, MONOPTERUS ALBUS (PISCES: SYNBRANCHIDAE), A NEW MODEL IN ANATOMY IN VERTEBRATE%脊椎动物中的一种解剖学新模型——黄鳝外周嗅觉系统

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾嶒; 谢从新; 陈学敏; 符浩; 李琦; 林琛; 刘晓霞

    2012-01-01

    除单鼻型的圆口类外,脊椎动物的左、右两侧嗅觉器官和嗅神经皆互为独立地分布于头前端,而且它们的前鼻孔(外鼻孔)、嗅腔、嗅觉副囊腔(部分鱼具嗅觉副囊)与后鼻孔(或内鼻孔)也都互为相通,且多呈开放状态.它们还通常具有一个体积相对较大且较稳定的嗅腔,而嗅上皮则多位于嗅腔的一侧.此外,鱼类的嗅囊与鼻窝之间通常也无明显间隙.然而,运用常规的解剖学方法发现,黄鳝(Monopterus albus)外周嗅觉系统(嗅觉器官和嗅神经)在解剖结构上已发生如下重大变化:(1)虽然具有前、后鼻孔,但两者互不相通,而嗅腔仅靠前鼻孔通至外界;(2)两侧嗅囊的末端及两侧嗅神经的前段均分别发生了合并.此外,在该鱼上还发现:(1)嗅囊为一柔软而扁塌的长管囊结构,其唯一的开口(即位于前鼻孔球上的前鼻孔)却常呈关闭状,故此时该嗅腔实际上是一个体积被压扁到最小且暂时被封闭的空间;(2)嗅囊纵向地贴附于长鼻窝的内侧壁上,它仅占鼻窝的一小部分空间,故鼻窝显得相对很宽敞;(3)嗅觉副囊不与嗅腔相通,而与鼻窝共同经后鼻孔通至外界;(4)两侧嗅囊的末端相向地穿越鼻窝内侧壁,进入筛骨与额骨之间的“筛-额横管”,在那里发生嗅囊合并;(5)嗅囊壁周缘几乎都内衬着嗅上皮,且具数个褶窝(说明该嗅囊有扩张的可能).因此,黄鳝的这套解剖学特征不同于包括鱼类在内的所有脊椎动物的外周嗅觉系统.研究所发现的黄鳝这套形态学特征不仅为脊椎动物外周嗅觉系统的研究提供了一个独特的解剖学新模型,同时也为动物进化研究提供了一个有关前、后鼻孔互不相通的进化特例.此外,研究还依据上述发现提出嗅囊扩张-压缩假说以解释气味媒质进出于黄鳝这种特殊嗅腔的动力学机制.%Generally, olfactory organs and olfactory nerves of the left and right side

  8. Expression and ontogeny of growth hormone (Gh) in the protogynous hermaphroditic ricefield eel (Monopterus albus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dong; Liu, Jiang; Chen, Wanping; Shi, Shuxia; Zhang, Weimin; Zhang, Lihong

    2015-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) is a single-chain polypeptide hormone mainly secreted by somatotropes of the anterior pituitary gland and is an important regulator of somatic growth in vertebrates including teleosts. In this study, a polyclonal antiserum against ricefield eel Gh was generated and the expression of Gh at the mRNA and protein levels was analyzed. Both RT-PCR and western blot analysis showed that Gh was predominantly expressed in the pituitary glands of ricefield eels. The immunoreactive Gh signals were localized to the multicellular layers of the adenohypophysis adjacent to the neurohypophysis in ricefield eels. Ontogenetic analysis showed that immunoreactive Gh signals could be detected in the pituitary glands of ricefield eel embryos as early as 3 days post-fertilization. During the sex change from female to male, the levels of the immunoreactive Gh signals in the pituitary glands of the ricefield eels peaked at the intersexual stage. These results suggest that Gh in the pituitary glands may be associated with embryonic development before hatching, as well as with the sex change in the adult ricefield eels, possibly via the classical endocrine manner.

  9. Pengaruh penggorengan belut sawah (Monopterus albus terhadap komposisi asam amino, asam lemak, kolesterol dan mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ika Astiana

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. The nutrition contains on eel flash aremainly amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol, and mineral. The chemical content of foods are change during frying process. The aim of this research was to studythe rendemen, proximate composition (moisture, ashes, protein, and fat content, and analyzing the influence of deep fryingon amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol, and mineralof eel. The research  measures were eel morfometric which includes length, diameter, circumference, total weight, yield, proximat,  amino acids, fatty acids, cholesterol, and mineral analysis on fresh eel and  after frying in 180 oC temperature for 5 minutes.Rendemen of fried eel reducedabout 26%. The increasing of  proximate levels were found on ashes by 2.56% and  fat by 14.47% while water, protein, and carbohydrate were decreased about 55.43%, 2.84%, and 14.19% respectively. All of the eel amino acids were decrease after deep frying. The highest non essensial amino acid on fresh and fried eel were glutamic acids by 12,89 g/100g and 9,06 g/100g respectively, and essensial amino acid were lisin by 7,13 g/100g and 4,91 g/100g respectively. Limit amino acid on fresh and fried eel were histidine by 1,54 g/100g and 1,18 g/100g respectively.Deep frying could increase palmitic acid by 17.37%, oleic acid by 24.31%,and EPA by 1.42%. Cholesterol content average of fresh eel was 30.15 mg /100 grams and fried eel was 170.44 mg /100 grams. Calcium, natrium, kalium, magnesium, iron, and zinc are decrease and the copper wereincrease. Keywords : composition; eel; heating; nutrition; processing Abstrak. Kandungan gizi dalam daging belut sawah diantaranya adalah asam amino, asam lemak, kolesterol, dan mineral. Proses penggorengan dapat mempengaruhi kandungan kimia suatu bahan pangan. Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari rendemen, komposisi proksimat (air, abu, protein, dan lemak serta menganalisis pengaruh penggorengan terhadap kandungan asam amino, asam lemak, kolesterol, dan mineral belut sawah. Penelitian mencakup pengukuran morfometrik belut sawah segar yang meliputi panjang, diameter, lingkar badan, dan berat total, pengukuran rendemen, analisis proksimat, analisis asam amino, asam lemak, kolesterol, dan analisis mineral pada belut sawah segar dan setelah penggorengan dengan suhu 180 oC selama 5 menit.Rendemen belut goreng mengalami susut sebesar 26%. Perubahan kadar proksimat adalah peningkatan kadar abu sebesar 2,56% dan peningkatan kadar lemak sebesar 14,47%. Penurunan terjadi pada kadar air yaitu sebesar 55,43%, protein sebesar 2,84%, dan karbohidrat sebesar 14,19%. Keseluruhan kandungan asam amino belut mengalami penurunan setelah penggorengan. Asam amino non esensial tertinggi pada belut sawah segar dan goreng adalah asam glutamat yaitu 12,89 g/100g dan 9,06 g/100g, sedangkan asam amino esensial yang tertinggi adalah lisin yaitu 7,13 g/100g dan 4,91 g/100g. Asam amino pembatas pada belut sawah segar dan goreng adalah histidin yaitu 1,54 g/100g dan 1,18 g/100g. Proses penggorengan dapat meningkatkan kandungan asam palmitat sebesar 17,37%, asam oleat sebesar 24,31%, dan EPA sebesar 1,42%. Kandungan kolesterol rata-rata belut segar adalah 30,15 mg/100 gram dan belut goreng adalah 170,44 mg/100 gram.Mineral  kalsium, natrium, kalium, magnesium, besi, dan seng juga mengalami penurunan sedangkan tembaga mengalami kenaikan. Kata kunci :belut sawah; komposisi; gizi; pemanasan; pengolahan

  10. Penetapan Kadar Protein Dan Non Protein Nitrogen Pada Belut (Monopterus Albus) Beserta Hasil Olahannya

    OpenAIRE

    Simbolon, Romauli Fransiska

    2015-01-01

    Food processing will influence the protein content of the foods, because protein can be conferted into Non Protein Nitrogen (NPN). This research aimed to study the content of protein in fresh eel and the effect of process frying and boiling to the its protein content. The sample of eel obtained from traditional market of Kampung Lalang. Determination of protein content and NPN on the sample of eel was conducted before and after frying and boiling. The applied method was Kjeldahl method before...

  11. Imported Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus) in North American live food markets: Potential vectors of non-native parasites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nico, Leo G.; Sharp, Paul; Collins, Timothy M.

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1990s, possibly earlier, large numbers of Asian swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.), some wild-caught, have been imported live from various countries in Asia and sold in ethnic food markets in cities throughout the USA and parts of Canada. Such markets are the likely introduction pathway of some, perhaps most, of the five known wild populations of Asian swamp eels present in the continental United States. This paper presents results of a pilot study intended to gather baseline data on the occurrence and abundance of internal macroparasites infecting swamp eels imported from Asia to North American retail food markets. These data are important in assessing the potential role that imported swamp eels may play as possible vectors of non-native parasites. Examination of the gastrointestinal tracts and associated tissues of 19 adult-sized swamp eels—identified as M. albus "Clade C"—imported from Vietnam and present in a U.S. retail food market revealed that 18 (95%) contained macroparasites. The 394 individual parasites recovered included a mix of nematodes, acanthocephalans, cestodes, digeneans, and pentastomes. The findings raise concern because of the likelihood that some parasites infecting market swamp eels imported from Asia are themselves Asian taxa, some possibly new to North America. The ecological risk is exacerbated because swamp eels sold in food markets are occasionally retained live by customers and a few reportedly released into the wild. For comparative purposes, M. albus "Clade C" swamp eels from a non-native population in Florida (USA) were also examined and most (84%) were found to be infected with internal macroparasites. The current level of analysis does not allow us to confirm whether these are non-native parasites.

  12. Gnathostoma spinigerum in live Asian swamp eels (Monopterus spp.) from food markets and wild populations, United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cole, Rebecca A.; Choudhury, Anindo; Nico, Leo G.; Griffin, Kathryn M.

    2014-01-01

    In Southeast Asia, swamp eels (Synbranchidae: Monopterus spp.) are a common source of human gnathostomiasis, a foodborne zoonosis caused by advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spp. nematodes. Live Asian swamp eels are imported to US ethnic food markets, and wild populations exist in several states. To determine whether these eels are infected, we examined 47 eels from markets and 67 wild-caught specimens. Nematodes were identified by morphologic features and ribosomal intergenic transcribed spacer–2 gene sequencing. Thirteen (27.7%) M. cuchia eels from markets were infected with 36 live G. spinigerum AL3: 21 (58.3%) in liver; 7 (19.4%) in muscle; 5 (13.8%) in gastrointestinal tract, and 3 (8.3%) in kidneys. Three (4.5%) wild-caught M. albus eels were infected with 5 G. turgidum AL3 in muscle, and 1 G. lamothei AL3 was found in a kidney (both North American spp.). Imported live eels are a potential source of human gnathostomiasis in the United States.

  13. Hirudo nipponia disease control of Monopterus albus%黄鳝水蛭病害的防治

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴曰杰

    2000-01-01

    @@ 蛭类是环节动物门蛭纲的俗称,有2000多种,体形一般扁平而狭长,寄生于淡水鱼的蛭类属吻蛭目,俗称水蛭,多寄生于鲤、鲫、鳃盖下和河蚌外套膜内,也寄生于黄鳝的鳃孔及体侧吸取其血液,是养鳝业的一大害.大量寄生时会引起鳝体贫血和继发性水霉病,严重时病鳝不摄食和失血过多,造成大量死亡.病原体在长江流域各地都有,湖北的汉川、随州、京山、天门等地,江西省鄱阳湖周围的进贤、南昌等县市来函反映,都有危害黄鳝的许多例子,对黄鳝人工养殖造成严重威胁,是黄鳝养殖成败的关键问题之一.为此,笔者在各位专家研究的基础上,又反复做了防治探讨,现报告如下:

  14. Ecology of invasive Melilotus albus on Alaskan glacial river floodplains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conn, Jeff S.; Werdin-Pfisterer, Nancy R.; Beattie, Katherine L.; Densmore, Roseann V.

    2011-01-01

    Melilotus albus (white sweetclover) has invaded Alaskan glacial river floodplains. We measured cover and density of plant species and environmental variables along transects perpendicular to the Nenana, Matanuska, and Stikine Rivers to study interactions between M. albus and other plant species and to characterize the environment where it establishes. Melilotus albus was a pioneer species on recently disturbed sites and did not persist into closed canopy forests. The relationships between M. albus cover and density and other species were site-specific.Melilotus albus was negatively correlated with native species Elaeagnus commutata at the Nenana River, but not at the Matanuska River. Melilotus albus was positively correlated with the exotic species Crepis tectorumand Taraxacum officinale at the Matanuska River and T. officinale on the upper Stikine River. However, the high density of M. albus at a lower Stikine River site was negatively correlated with T. officinale and several native species including Lathyrus japonicus var. maritimus and Salix alaxensis. Glacial river floodplains in Alaska are highly disturbed and are corridors for exotic plant species movement. Melilotus albus at moderate to low densities may facilitate establishment of exotic species, but at high densities can reduce the cover and density of both exotic and native species.

  15. A study of the fatty acid profile in the muscle of Monopterus chuchia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mita Dutta

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional capacity of the fish Monopterus chuchia in terms of its fatty acid content was investigated to get an insight of their fatty acid composition in their most consumed part i.e. their muscle tissue. Our investigation shows the presence of SFA’s like caproic acid, caprylic acid, palmitic acid, pentadecanoic acid, heptadecanoic acid, behenic acid, MUFA’s like myristoleic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid and nutritionally important PUFA’s like Eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid in major amount. Erucic acid, which is reported to be an anti-nutritional factor, is present in extremely low concentration. Thus the fish which is generally consumed by very few can be farmed as a cheap nutritional source for the masses.

  16. Testicular Dnmt3 expression and global DNA methylation are down-regulated by gonadotropin releasing hormones in the ricefield eel Monopterus albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yize; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Lihong; Zhang, Weimin

    2017-01-01

    In vertebrates, DNA methyltransferase 3 (Dnmt3) homologues are responsible for de novo DNA methylation and play important roles in germ cell development. In the present study, four dnmt3 genes, dnmt3aa, dnmt3ab, dnmt3ba and dnmt3bb.1, were identified in ricefield eels. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis showed that all four dnmt3 mRNAs were detected broadly in tissues examined, with testicular expression at relatively high levels. In the testis, immunostaining for all four Dnmt3 forms was mainly localized to spermatocytes, which also contained highly methylated DNA. All three forms of Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (Gnrh) in the ricefield eel were shown to decrease the expression of dnmt3 genes in the in vitro incubated testicular fragments through cAMP and IP3/Ca2+ pathways. Moreover, in vivo treatment of male fish with three forms of Gnrh decreased significantly the testicular Dnmt3 expression at both mRNA and protein levels, and the global DNA methylation levels. These results suggest that the expression of Dnmt3 and global DNA methylation in the testis of ricefield eels are potentially down-regulated by Gnrh, and reveal a novel regulatory mechanism of testicular Dnmt3 expression in vertebrates. PMID:28225069

  17. Advanced three-dimensional imaging reveals the arterial vasculature in the head region of the air-breathing swamp eel, Monopterus albus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik; Pedersen, Michael; Huong, Do T

    Air-breathing fish exhibit many anatomical modifications that allow for oxygen uptake directly from air. This is certainly the case for the tropical swamp eels, Synbranchidae, where various structural adaptations of the vasculature within the buccopharyngeal region mediate an amphibious lifestyle...

  18. Cloning of xylanase genes from Ruminococcus albus and chromosome mapping of Fibrobacter succinogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nagamine, T.; Aminov, Rustam; Ogata, K.

    1997-01-01

    The characterization of the xylanase genes of Ruminococcus albus and the genomic organization of Fibrobacter succinogenes are described.......The characterization of the xylanase genes of Ruminococcus albus and the genomic organization of Fibrobacter succinogenes are described....

  19. Eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by Streptomyces albus antigen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruhiko Ogawa

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available A 52-year-old woman is reported with atopic cough, in whom bronchoprovocation with Streptomyces albus antigen induced cough and bronchoscopic biopsy revealed eosinophilic tracheobronchitis. She was admitted for the diagnosis and treatment of severe non-productive cough. Although her induced sputum contained 8% eosinophils of nucleated cells and bronchoscopic biopsy specimens revealed eosinophil infiltration in both tracheal and bronchial wall, she did not have bronchial hyperresponsiveness to methacholine or heightened bronchomotor tone. Bronchodilator therapy was not effective for her coughing. Her symptoms worsened on returning home, suggesting the existence of some etiologic agents in her house. Streptomyces albus was isolated from her house. A high titer of anti-S. albus antibody was detected in her serum and the bronchoprovocation test with S. albus antigen was positive: development of coughing 15 min later and decrease in cough threshold to inhaled capsaicin 24 h later (3.9 μmol/L from 31.3 μmol/L prechallenge. This is the first report on eosinophilic tracheobronchitis with cough hypersensitivity caused by allergic reaction to S. albus antigen.

  20. Organic Weed Control in White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Legumes such as white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) provide a valuable nitrogen source in organic agriculture. With organic farming becoming an increasing sector of US agriculture and white lupin interest increasing in the southeastern USA because winter hardy cultivars are available, non-chemical weed c...

  1. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis and proposals to emend the description of Streptomyces albus and describe Streptomyces pathocidini sp. nov

    Science.gov (United States)

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T forms a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these oth...

  2. Strain-level diversity of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces albus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan F Seipke

    Full Text Available Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty.

  3. Strain-level diversity of secondary metabolism in Streptomyces albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seipke, Ryan F

    2015-01-01

    Streptomyces spp. are robust producers of medicinally-, industrially- and agriculturally-important small molecules. Increased resistance to antibacterial agents and the lack of new antibiotics in the pipeline have led to a renaissance in natural product discovery. This endeavor has benefited from inexpensive high quality DNA sequencing technology, which has generated more than 140 genome sequences for taxonomic type strains and environmental Streptomyces spp. isolates. Many of the sequenced streptomycetes belong to the same species. For instance, Streptomyces albus has been isolated from diverse environmental niches and seven strains have been sequenced, consequently this species has been sequenced more than any other streptomycete, allowing valuable analyses of strain-level diversity in secondary metabolism. Bioinformatics analyses identified a total of 48 unique biosynthetic gene clusters harboured by Streptomyces albus strains. Eighteen of these gene clusters specify the core secondary metabolome of the species. Fourteen of the gene clusters are contained by one or more strain and are considered auxiliary, while 16 of the gene clusters encode the production of putative strain-specific secondary metabolites. Analysis of Streptomyces albus strains suggests that each strain of a Streptomyces species likely harbours at least one strain-specific biosynthetic gene cluster. Importantly, this implies that deep sequencing of a species will not exhaust gene cluster diversity and will continue to yield novelty.

  4. Taxonomic evaluation of Streptomyces albus and related species using multilocus sequence analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    In phylogenetic analyses of the genus Streptomyces using 16S rRNA gene sequences, Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-1811T formed a cluster with 5 other species having identical or nearly identical 16S rRNA gene sequences. Moreover, the morphological and physiological characteristics of these ot...

  5. Restriction of a bacteriophage of Streptomyces albus G involving endonuclease SalI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chater, K F; Wilde, L C

    1976-11-01

    The bacteriophage Pa16, isolated from soil on Streptomyces albus G, was restricted when transferred from an alternative host back to S. albus G. Extracted unmodified Pa16 deoxyribonucleic acid was cleaved at a single site by a cell-free extract of S. albus G. Fractions cleaving Pal6 deoxyribonucleic acid contained the endonuclease SalI first described by J. Arrand, P. Myers, and R. J. Roberts (unpublished data). A mutant of S. albus G was isolated which was defective in both restriction and modification of Pal6. This mutant lacked SalI activity. It is concluded that SalI is the agent of restriction of Pal6 by S. albus G.

  6. The Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.

    2016-08-05

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was designed to assess how Missouri River management has affected—and may affect—the endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population. The EA emerged from the recognition that the direction and focus of the Missouri River Recovery Program would benefit from an updated, thorough evaluation of what is known, what is not known, and what needs to be known for effective actions. This fact sheet documents the steps in the EA process and the four core reports, culminating in the 2016 integrative report.

  7. Draft Genome Sequence of Agarivorans albus Strain MKT 106T, an Agarolytic Marine Bacterium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuike, Motoshige; Nakamura, Yoji; Kai, Wataru; Fujiwara, Atushi; Fukui, Youhei; Satomi, Masataka; Sano, Motohiko

    2013-07-18

    Agarivorans albus is a Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, and agar-hydrolyzing marine bacterium. We present the draft genome sequence of the A. albus strain MKT 106(T), which is composed of 67 contigs (>500 bp) totaling 4,734,285 bp and containing 4,397 coding DNA sequences (CDSs), four rRNAs, and 64 tRNA sequences.

  8. Development of specific chromosomal DNA pool for rice field eel and their application to gene mapping

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The chromosomes 1, 3, 5, 6, 7, 10 and 12 of rice field eel (Monopterus albus Zuiew) have been microdissected successfully from meiosis I diakinesis spreads by using glass microneedle under an inverted microscope. And the DOP-PCR products of the single chromosome dotted on the nylon membrane as "specific chromosomal DNA pool", have been hybridized with 6 probes to map these genes. The mapping results show that Zfa has been mapped to chromosome 1, rDNA to chromosomes 3 and 7, both Gh and Pdeg to chromosome 10, Hsl to chromosome 5 and Hox genes have been detected on chromosomes 1, 3, 6 and 10 meantime. It has initiatively been suggested that chromosome 10 of rice field eel might possess the commom conserved synteny to that on chromosome 17 of human, chromosome 11 of mouse,chromosome 12 of pig and chromosome 19 of bovine. And so chromosome 3 of rice field eel might also contain the commom conserved synteny to that on chromosome 2 of zebrafish. Our study is an attempt to establish a new and feasible method to advance the study of gene mapping and chromosome evolution in fish, and also to provide a new idea to distinguish each chromosome on the base of molecular markers for fish.

  9. The Effect of Lupinus albus on Growth Performance, Body Composition and Satiety Hormones of Male Pigs Immunized against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen; Mullan, Bruce; Kim, Jae Cheol; Dunshea, Frank

    2017-01-01

    Simple Summary Pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates; IC males) have an increased feed intake, growth rate, back fat and fat deposition compared to entire males. A previous experiment found that Lupinus albus L. (albus lupins) has the potential to reduce feed intake and fat deposition in IC males. The current experiment aimed to develop a dietary management strategy using albus lupins for either 14 or 28 days pre-slaughter to reduce the increase in feed intake and subsequent increase in carcass fatness in IC males. Abstract Two hundred and ninety four pigs were used with the aim to develop a dietary management strategy using Lupinus albus L. (albus lupins) to reduce the increase in feed intake and subsequent increase in carcass fatness in pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates; IC males) and entire male pigs in the late finishing stage. From day (d) 0 to 28, IC males fed the control diet grew faster (p = 0.009) than entire males fed the control diet but there was no difference in growth rate between sexes for pigs fed albus lupins for 14 days pre-slaughter (Albus 14) or pigs fed albus lupins for 28 days pre-slaughter (Albus 28). From d 15 to 28, IC males receiving the Albus 14 diet grew more slowly (p < 0.001) than entire males receiving the Albus 14 diet. From d 15 to 28 (p < 0.001), IC males fed the control diet ate more feed than entire males fed the control diet, although there was no difference between sexes in feed intake of the Albus 14 and Albus 28 diet. Immunocastrates had a lower backfat when fed either Albus 14 or Albus 28 compared to the control diet, although there was no difference between diets for entire males. There was also a trend for pigs on the Albus 14 and Albus 28 diets to have a higher lean deposition (p = 0.055) and a lower fat deposition (p = 0.056) compared to the pigs on the control diet. Pigs fed the Albus 28 diet had a lower plasma ghrelin concentration compared to pigs

  10. 泥鳅和黄鳝18S rRNA基因的克隆与序列分析%Cloning and Sequence Analysis of 18S rRNA Gene Fragment of Misgurnus anguillicaudatus and Monopterus albus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张际峰; 蒋磊; 牛坤; 汪承润; 程滨

    2009-01-01

    通过自行设计引物, 扩增且测定了泥鳅和黄鳝18S rRNA基因部分序列, 并讨论了后生动物18S rRNA基因的碱基含量变化情况. 结果表明, 泥鳅和黄鳝的18S rRNA基因部分序列长度均为1 204 bp, 泥鳅该基因序列GC含量为53.74%, 黄鳝该基因序列GC skew为0.082, 两条序列同源性为99.67%. 将它们和大西洋鲑3个物种的18S rRNA基因与其线粒体12S rRNA,16S rRNA,Cyt b和D-loop区4基因进行序列比较, 发现核18S rRNA最保守, 而线粒体D-loop区基因进化速率最快. 从GenBank中选择已测定的4种鱼纲动物和11种脊索动物的同源序列, 分别运用NJ法、 MP和ML法, 构建6种鱼纲动物和13种脊索动物的分子系统树, 结果均显示, 在鱼纲动物系统树中, 6种鱼纲动物被分为软骨鱼类和硬骨鱼类两大支;在脊索动物的系统树中, 鱼纲与脊椎动物的四足类形成姐妹群, 表明它们在系统发育过程中具有同等重要地位.

  11. Study on the main processing parameters of convenient food made from Monopterus albus' spines%龙骨休闲食品主要工艺参数的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高翔

    2009-01-01

    黄鳝绝大部分以鳝丝形式出售,而大量富含钙、磷和蛋白质等多种营养成分鳝鱼骨头被作为废弃物丢弃,不仅造成了资源浪费,而且成为污染环境的生活垃圾.以鳝鱼骨为原料可加工成营养丰富、色泽金黄、味道酥香的龙骨休闲食品,具有良好的市场前景.实验结果表明,龙骨休闲食品加工的最佳工艺参数为软化100 ℃、20 min,干燥80℃、3 h,油炸150℃、2min.

  12. Hubungan Pemakaian Panty Liner dengan Kejadian Fluor Albus pada Siswi SMA di Kota Padang Berdasarkan Wawancara Terpimpin (Kuisioner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anisa Persia

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakPenyebab tersering fluor albus (keputihan patologis adalah infeksi. Proses infeksi dapat dipicu oleh banyak hal, salah satunya adalah karena pemakaian panty liner. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menentukan hubungan antara pemakaian panty liner dengan kejadian fluor albus pada siswi SMA. Penelitian dilakukan pada siswi di enam SMA di kota Padang. Penelitian ini menggunakan desain cross sectional study dengan responden sebanyak 289 orang. Pengumpulan data responden dilakukan dengan wawancara terpimpin (pengisian kuisioner. Analisis statistik yang digunakan adalah uji chi-square. Hasil penelitian didapatkan bahwa lebih dari separuh responden yang memakai panty liner mengalami fluor albus (69,2% dan 80% diantaranya mengganti panty liner <2 kali perhari. Uji statistik chi- square menunjukkan ada hubungan yang bermakna antara pemakaian panty liner dengan kejadian fluor albus (p<0,05 dan frekuensi penggantian panty liner perhari dengan kejadian fluor albus (p<0,05. Terdapat hubungan bermakna antara pemakaian panty liner dengan fluor albus pada siswi SMA di Kota Padang.Kata kunci: fluor albus, panty liner, siswi SMA AbstractThe most common of pathology fluor albus is infection. Infection can be cocked by panty liner uses. The objective of this study was to determine relationship between panty liner uses and the incidence of fluor albus in female student of Senior High School. The research was executed to female student of senior high school in Padang. There are six schoosl was chosen as sample. This research used cross sectional study design to 289 respondent. Data was collected by guided interview. Statistic analysis use chi-square test. The result of research found more than half respondent who use panty liner experience of fluor albus (69.2% and 80% of them just replace panty liner<2 times a day. Chi-square test showed that there is significant relationship between panty liner uses with fluor albus experience (p<0.05 and frequency of panty

  13. Hydrogen production from sugars and sweet sorghum biomass using Ruminococcus albus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntaikou, I.; Gavala, H.N.; Lyberatos, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Karatheodori 1 st., 26500 Patras (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, 26504 Patras (Greece); Kornaros, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Karatheodori 1 st., 26500 Patras (Greece)

    2008-02-15

    In the present work the production of hydrogen from sorghum biomass by pure cultures of the bacterium Ruminococcus albus was investigated. R. albus, an important fibrolytic bacterium of the rumen, can ferment hexoses and pentoses as well as cellulose and hemicelluloses. Therefore, R. albus seems to be very promising for the production of hydrogen from energy crops such as sweet sorghum, with the potential of utilizing not only the free sugars but also the cellulosic/hemicellulosic biomass as well. Batch and continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) experiments were carried out using glucose as carbon source in order to investigate the metabolism and calculate the growth kinetics of R. albus. Besides hydrogen, the main metabolic products detected were acetic and formic acids and ethanol. Hydrogen yield ranged from 0.47 to 2.52 mol of hydrogen per mole of glucose in continuous and batch experiments, respectively. Moreover, sorghum water extract containing soluble sugars and the lignocellulosic sorghum biomass before and after water extraction were also tested as potential substrates for hydrogen production using R. albus. The hydrogen productivity of sorghum extract plus that of sorghum residues equaled the hydrogen productivity obtained from the sorghum stalks suggesting that the process could be designed as a single-step process, thus avoiding the separate fermentation of soluble and insoluble carbohydrates as well as the extraction process. Hydrogen productivity has been estimated to be approximately 60 l of hydrogen per kg of wet sorghum biomass, thus suggesting that R. albus is suitable for efficient hydrogen production from sweet sorghum biomass. (author)

  14. Nevus blanco esponjoso familiar Family nevus spongiosus albus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Andrade Lotufo

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available El nevus blanco esponjoso (NBE es una rara condición autosómica dominante, caracterizada por placas blancas bilaterales en la mucosa, de aspecto esponjoso, blandas a la palpación y que pueden escamarse. Los tratamientos son paliativos; y el uso de antibióticos, en especial la tetraciclina, ha demostrando buenos resultados en su control. Este trabajo presenta tres casos clínicos de una familia afectada por NBE, donde se discuten los posibles diagnósticos diferenciales y conductas terapéuticas indicadas. Un paciente masculino de 52 años de edad acudió a la clínica aquejado de lesiones blancas bilaterales. El paciente notó las lesiones 30 años antes, sin lograr un diagnóstico final de las mismas. Después de la anamnesis y del examen clínico fue realizada una biopsia incisional. La reunión de los datos clínicos e histopatológicos llevó al diagnóstico de NBE. Se le solicitó al paciente que indagase entre sus familiares con respecto a lesiones semejantes. Se detectó que el hijo de 19 años y la hija de 25 eran portadores de placas blancas en la mucosa yugal. Como no había afectación estética, se optó por no intervenir en las lesiones. El nevus blanco esponjoso es una lesión genética que debe ser diferenciada de otras patologías localizadas y sistémicas importantes, que tienen repercusiones serias para el individuo. Como no hay un tratamiento curativo para el NBE, el papel del cirujano dentista es diagnosticar esta lesión, aclarar al paciente sobre la naturaleza benigna y autolimitante del NBE y si fuera necesario desde el punto de vista estético, aplicar diferentes modalidades terapéuticas.The aim of present paper is to introduce three clinical cases from a family affected from nevus spongiosus albus (NSA and also to discuss the possible differential diagnoses as well as the therapeutical behaviors to be adopted. Clinical case: A man aged 52 seen in our clinic due to bilateral white lesions noted 30 years ago without

  15. Haloactinomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., isolated from Dead Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Hangxian; Jiang, Yingying; Chen, Xiu; Li, Qinyuan; Jiang, Chenglin; Jiang, Yi; Wei, Xiaomin

    2017-01-10

    A novel halophilic, filamentous actinomycete strain, designated AFM 10258T, was isolated from a sediment sample collected from Dead Sea of Israel. The isolate grew with 10-35% NaCl and did not grow without NaCl. The isolate formed white aerial mycelium and long spore chains, and two spores were separated by sterile mycelium. The spores were non-motile, spherical and rugose-surfaced. The isolate contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid and galactose and arabinose as the major whole-cell sugars. The polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylmethylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol and three unknown phospholipids. Major fatty acids were anteiso-C17:0, iso-C16:0 and iso-C15:0. MK-9(H4) was the predominant menaquinone and the DNA G+C content was 62.8 mol%. 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis indicated that strain AFM 10258T shared low sequence similarity with the closely related representatives of the families Pseudonocardiaceae (below 94.47%) and Actinopolysporaceae (below 93.76%). Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain AFM 10258T formed a robust clade with members of the family Actinopolysporaceae. On the basis of analysis of phenotypic, chemical and molecular characteristics, strain AFM 10258T is considered to represent a novel species of a new genus , for which the name Haloactinomyces albus gen. nov., sp. nov., is proposed. The type strain is AFM 10258T (=DSM 45977T = CGMCC 4.7115T).

  16. Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov., isolated from nodules of Lupinus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carro, Lorena; Flores-Félix, José David; Ramírez-Bahena, Martha-Helena; García-Fraile, Paula; Martínez-Hidalgo, Pilar; Igual, José M; Tejedor, Carmen; Peix, Alvaro; Velázquez, Encarna

    2014-09-01

    A bacterial strain designated RLAHU15(T) was isolated from root nodules of Lupinus albus in Spain. Phylogenetic analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequences placed the isolate in the genus Paenibacillus, with its closest relatives being Paenibacillus catalpae D75(T), Paenibacillus glycanilyticus DS-1(T), Paenibacillus endophyticus PECAE04(T) and Paenibacillus xinjiangensis B538(T) with 98.8 %, 98.9 %, 97.4 % and 97.4 % similarity, respectively. DNA-DNA hybridization studies showed values lower than 45 % between the strain RLAHU15(T) and any of these species. The isolate was a Gram-stain positive, motile and sporulating rod. Catalase activity was weak and oxidase activity was positive. Casein and starch were hydrolysed but gelatin was not. Growth was supported by many carbohydrates and organic acids as carbon sources. MK-7 was the only menaquinone detected and anteiso-C15 : 0 and iso-C16 : 0 were the major fatty acids. The major polar lipids were diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylglycerol, three unidentified phospholipids and an unidentified lipid. meso-Diaminopimelic acid was detected in the peptidoglycan. The DNA G+C content was 54.4 mol%. Phylogenetic, chemotaxonomic and phenotypic analyses showed that strain RLAHU15(T) represents a novel species of the genus Paenibacillus, for which the name Paenibacillus lupini sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is RLAHU15(T) ( = LMG 27296(T) = CECT 8235(T)).

  17. Effect of biofumigation with volatiles from Muscodor albus on the viability of Tilletia spp. teliospores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goates, Blair J; Mercier, Julien

    2009-02-01

    Volatile organic compounds produced by the fungus Muscodor albus inhibit or kill numerous fungi. The effect of these volatiles was tested on dormant and physiologically active teliospores of the smut fungi Tilletia horrida, Tilletia indica, and Tilletia tritici, which cause kernel smut of rice, Karnal bunt of wheat, and common bunt of wheat, respectively. Reactivated rye grain culture of M. albus was used to fumigate dormant teliospores in dry Petri dishes and physiologically active teliospores on water agar for up to 5 days at 22 degrees C. Teliospores of all 3 species were incapable of germination when fumigated on agar for 5 days. When T. tritici on agar was fumigated only during the initial 48 h of incubation, viability was reduced by 73%-99%. Fumigation of dry loose teliospores of T. tritici caused a 69%-97% loss in viability, whereas teliospores within intact sori were not affected. Dormant teliospores of T. horrida and T. indica were not affected by M. albus volatiles. It appears that M. albus has potential as a seed or soil treatment for controlling seedling-infecting smuts where infection is initiated by germinating teliospores prior to seedling emergence. The volatiles were not effective for postharvest control of teliospores under conditions used in these experiments.

  18. Lupins (L. luteus, L. albus, L. angustifolius) as a protein source for young pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gdala, J.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Leeuwen, P. van; Huisman, J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1996-01-01

    The nitrogen balance and growth performance of piglets (12-14 kg initial body weight) were measured to evaluate the nutritive value of meal from Lupinus luteus cultivars 'Amulet' and 'Cybis', Lupinus albus cultivar 'Hetman," Lupinus angustifolius cultivar 'Saturn' and a commercial batch of lupin see

  19. Lupins (L. luteus, L. albus, L. angustifolius) as a protein source for young pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gdala, J.; Jansman, A.J.M.; Leeuwen, P. van; Huisman, J.; Verstegen, M.W.A.

    1996-01-01

    The nitrogen balance and growth performance of piglets (12-14 kg initial body weight) were measured to evaluate the nutritive value of meal from Lupinus luteus cultivars 'Amulet' and 'Cybis', Lupinus albus cultivar 'Hetman," Lupinus angustifolius cultivar 'Saturn' and a commercial batch of lupin

  20. Muscodor albus Volatiles Control Toxigenic Fungi under Controlled Atmosphere (CA Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gordon Braun

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Muscodor albus, a biofumigant fungus, has the potential to control post-harvest pathogens in storage. It has been shown to produce over 20 volatile compounds with fungicidal, bactericidal and insecticidal properties. However, M. albus is a warm climate endophyte, and its biofumigant activity is significantly inhibited at temperatures below 5 °C. Conidia of seven mycotoxin producing fungi, Aspergillus carbonarius, A. flavus, A. niger, A. ochraceus, Penicillium verrucosum, Fusarium culmorum and F. graminearum, were killed or prevented from germinating by exposure to volatiles from 2 g M. albus-colonized rye grain per L of headspace in sealed glass jars for 24 h at 20 °C. Two major volatiles of M. albus, isobutyric acid (IBA and 2-methyl-1-butanol (2MB at 50 µL/L and 100 µL/L, respectively, gave differential control of the seven fungi when applied individually at 20 °C. When the fungi were exposed to both IBA and 2MB together, an average of 94% of the conidia were killed or suppressed. In a factorial experiment with controlled atmosphere storage (CA at 3 °C and 72 h exposure to four concentrations of IBA and 2MB combinations, 50 µL/L IBA plus 100 µL/L 2MB killed or suppressed germination of the conidia of all seven fungi. Controlled atmosphere had no significant effect on conidial viability or volatile efficacy. Major volatiles of M. albus may have significant potential to control plant pathogens in either ambient air or CA storage at temperatures below 5 °C. However, combinations of volatiles may be required to provide a broader spectrum of control than individual volatiles.

  1. Muscodor albus MOW12 an Endophyte of Piper nigrum L. (Piperaceae) Collected from North East India Produces Volatile Antimicrobials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debdulal; Pandey, Akhil; Jana, Maloy; Strobel, Gary

    2014-03-01

    Muscodor albus MOW12, an endophytic fungus isolated from Piper nigrum in Mawlong, Meghalaya, India, resembles some cultural and hyphal characteristics of previous isolates of Muscodor sp. In addition, it possesses about 99 % similarity in its ITS rDNA with other M. albus isolates and thus is nicely centered within the genetic tree to other Muscodor spp. This xylariaceae fungus effectively inhibits and kills certain plant pathogenic fungi by virtue of a mixture of volatile compounds that it produces. The majority of these compounds were identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry as small molecular weight esters, alcohols, and acids. The main ester components of this isolate of M. albus in its volatile mixture are acetic acid, ethyl ester; propanoic acid, 2-methyl-, methyl ester and acetic acid, 2-methylpropyl ester. This appears to be the first report of any M. albus strain from India.

  2. Cell wall glycopolymers of Streptomyces albus, Streptomyces albidoflavus and Streptomyces pathocidini.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shashkov, Alexander S; Streshinskaya, Galina M; Tul'skaya, Elena M; Senchenkova, Sophia N; Baryshnikova, Lidia M; Dmitrenok, Andrey S; Ostash, Bohdan E; Fedorenko, Victor A

    2016-07-01

    The cell wall glycopolymers of three strains of Streptomyces albus and the type strain of Streptomyces pathocidini were investigated. The structures of the glycopolymers were established using a combination of chemical and NMR spectroscopic methods. The cell wall of S. albus subsp. albus VKM Ac-35(T) was found to be comprised of three glycopolymers, viz. unsubstituted 1,5-poly(ribitol phosphate), 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) substituted with β-D-glucopyranose, and the major polymer, a 3-deoxy-D-glycero-D-galacto-non-2-ulosonic acid (Kdn)-teichulosonic acid: β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-α-Kdnp-(2[(→6)-β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-α-Kdnp-(2 →] n 6)-β-D-Glcp-(1 → 8)-β-Kdnp-(2-OH, where n ≥ 3. The cell walls of 'S. albus' J1074 and 'S. albus' R1-100 were found to contain three glycopolymers of identical structures, viz. unsubstituted 1,3- and 2,3-poly(glycerol phosphates), and the major polymer, a Kdn-teichulosonic acid with an unusual structure that has not been previously described: β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-α-Kdnp-(2[(→3)-β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-α-Kdnp-(2 →] n 3)-β-D-Galp-(1 → 9)-β-Kdnp-(2-OH, where n ~ 7-8. The cell wall of S. pathocidini (formerly S. albus subsp. pathocidicus) VKM Ac-598(T) was found to contain two glycopolymers, viz. 1,3-poly(glycerol phosphate) partially O-glycosylated with 2-acetamido-2-deoxy-α-D-glucopyranose and/or O-acylated with L-lysine, and a poly(diglycosyl 1-phosphate) of hitherto unknown structure: -6)-α-D-Glcp-(1 → 6)-α-D-GlcpNAc-(1-P-.

  3. First evidence of bioflocculant from Shinella albus with flocculation activity on harvesting of Chlorella vulgaris biomass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Xu, Yanting; Liu, Lei; Jiang, Xiaobing; Zhang, Kun; Zheng, Tianling; Wang, Hailei

    2016-10-01

    Bioflocculant from Shinella albus xn-1 could be used to harvest energy-producing microalga Chlorella vulgaris biomass for the first time. In this study, we investigated the flocculation activity and mode of strain xn-1, the characteristics of bioflocculant, the effect of flocculation conditions and optimized the flocculation efficiency. The results indicated that strain xn-1 exhibited flocculation activity through secreting bioflocculant; the bioflocculant with high thermal stability, pH stability and low molecular weight was proved to be not protein and polysaccharide, and flocculation active component was confirmed to contain triple bond and cumulated double bonds; algal pH, temperature and metal ions showed great impacts on the flocculation efficiency of bioflocculant; the maximum flocculation activity of bioflocculant reached 85.65% after the response surface optimization. According to the results, the bioflocculant from S. albus xn-1 could be a good potential in applications for high-efficiency harvesting of microalgae.

  4. [Possibilities of Lupinus mutabolis and Lupinus albus in the Andean countries].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; von Baer, E

    1977-12-01

    Lupinus albus and Lupinus mutabilis may achieve importance among the andean countries in which soy bean can not grow due to ecological reasons. Both lupin varieties are outstanding because of their high protein and oil content. Its alkaloid content limits the lupins usage; however the bitter substances can be eliminated by means of genetic selection or technological processing. Beside the intoxication caused by alkaloids exists the lupinosis, which is caused by a micotoxin. This disease can be observed when animals pasture forages which suffered under a secundary attack of fungus. According to the results obtained up to date other antimetabolic substances present in the legums have no significant importance. The lupin seed flour is adequate for animal consumption, being used for this effect in different countries. Starting next year there exist the prospects of employing Lupinus mutabilis as an oil source in Peru and Lupinus albus as proteic flour in Chile.

  5. In vitro androgenetic cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L., H. albus L. and alkaloid content assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Wesołwska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In vitro cultures of Hyoscyamus niger L. and H. albus L. anthers were initiated which resulted in obtaining androgenectic plants and callus cultures. The leaves of these pants and the callus cultures were subjected to analysis (TLC, GC for the presence of alkaloids, derivatives of tropane. In the studied material, alkaloids of different qualitative and quantitative composition from that of ground-grown plants were found.

  6. [Sinorhizobium meliloti strains screening for efficient bactarization of Melilotus albus Medik].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patyka, V P; Ovsiienko, O L; Kalinichenko, A V

    2014-01-01

    The data presents about analytical selection of root nodule bacteria of Melilotus to obtain bacterial fertilizer under sweet clover, presowing inoculation of it seeds and form a legume-rhizobial effective symbiosis. From natural melilot population a number of new strains had been allocated, inoculation of them was contributed to an increase of height. biomass Melilotus albus Medik., and nitrogenase activity in comparison to the influence of the existing production strains. The identification of most effective strains Sinorhizobium meliloti had been determined.

  7. Identifikasi Spesies Candida pada Flour Albus Pengguna Alat Kontrasepsi Dalam Rahim

    OpenAIRE

    Sihotang, Ayu Sri Astuti

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida sp. are normal flora in the mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, urethra, skin, and nails. Candida sp. infection of the vulva or vagina is called vaginal candidiasis. The clinical symptoms of vaginal candidiasis is flour albus, dyspareunia, dysuria, vulva and vaginal redness and edema. Intrauterin device (IUD) is one of the predisposing factors that can trigger Candida which is initially asymptomatic becomes active proliferate and cause vagin...

  8. Tracking nickel-adaptive biomarkers in Pisolithus albus from New Caledonia using a transcriptomic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majorel, Clarisse; Hannibal, Laure; Soupe, Marie-Estelle; Carriconde, Fabian; Ducousso, Marc; Lebrun, Michel; Jourand, Philippe

    2012-05-01

    The fungus Pisolithus albus forms ectomycorrhizal (ECM) associations with plants growing on extreme ultramafic soils, which are naturally rich in heavy metals such as nickel. Both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive isolates of P. albus are found in ultramafic soils in New Caledonia, a biodiversity hotspot in the Southwest Pacific. The aim of this work was to monitor the expression of genes involved in the specific molecular response to nickel in a nickel-tolerant P. albus isolate. We used pyrosequencing and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) approaches to investigate and compare the transcriptomes of the nickel-tolerant isolate MD06-337 in the presence and absence of nickel. A total of 1,071,375 sequencing reads were assembled to infer expression patterns of 19,518 putative genes. Comparison of expression levels revealed that 30% of the identified genes were modulated by nickel treatment. The genes, for which expression was induced most markedly by nickel, encoded products that were putatively involved in a variety of biological functions, such as the modification of cellular components (53%), regulation of biological processes (27%) and molecular functions (20%). The 10 genes that pyrosequencing analysis indicated were induced the most by nickel were characterized further by qPCR analysis of both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive P. albus isolates. Five of these genes were expressed exclusively in nickel-tolerant isolates as well as in ECM samples in situ, which identified them as potential biomarkers for nickel tolerance in this species. These results clearly suggest a positive transcriptomic response of the fungus to nickel-rich environments. The presence of both nickel-tolerant and nickel-sensitive fungal phenotypes in ultramafic soils might reflect environment-dependent phenotypic responses to variations in the effective concentrations of nickel in heterogeneous ultramafic habitats. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  9. SlnR is a positive pathway-specific regulator for salinomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhenhong; Li, Han; Yu, Pin; Guo, Yuanyang; Luo, Shuai; Chen, Zhongbin; Mao, Xuming; Guan, Wenjun; Li, Yongquan

    2017-02-01

    Salinomycin, a polyether antibiotic produced by Streptomyces albus, is widely used in animal husbandry as an anticoccidial drug and growth promoter. Situated within the salinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster, slnR encodes a LAL-family transcriptional regulator. The role of slnR in salinomycin production in S. albus was investigated by gene deletion, complementation, and overexpression. Gene replacement of slnR from S. albus chromosome results in almost loss of salinomycin production. Complementation of slnR restored salinomycin production, suggesting that SlnR is a positive regulator of salinomycin biosynthesis. Overexpression of slnR in S. albus led to about 25 % increase in salinomycin production compared to wild type. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis revealed that the expression of most sal structural genes was downregulated in the ΔslnR mutant but upregulated in the slnR overexpression strain. Electrophoretic mobility gel shift assays (EMSAs) also revealed that SlnR(DBD) binds directly to the three intergenic regions of slnQ-slnA1, slnF-slnT1, and slnC-slnB3. The SlnR binding sites within the three intergenic regions were determined by footprinting analysis and identified a consensus-directed repeat sequence 5'-ACCCCT-3'. These results indicated that SlnR modulated salinomycin biosynthesis as an enhancer via interaction with the promoters of slnA1, slnQ, slnF, slnT1, slnC, and slnB3 and activates the transcription of most of the genes belonging to the salinomycin gene cluster but not its own transcription.

  10. Cloning and Characterization of the Polyether Salinomycin Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Streptomyces albus XM211

    OpenAIRE

    Jiang, Chunyan; Wang, Hougen; Kang, Qianjin; Jing LIU; Bai, Linquan

    2012-01-01

    Salinomycin is widely used in animal husbandry as a food additive due to its antibacterial and anticoccidial activities. However, its biosynthesis had only been studied by feeding experiments with isotope-labeled precursors. A strategy with degenerate primers based on the polyether-specific epoxidase sequences was successfully developed to clone the salinomycin gene cluster. Using this strategy, a putative epoxidase gene, slnC, was cloned from the salinomycin producer Streptomyces albus XM211...

  11. Identifikasi Spesies Candida pada Flour Albus Pengguna Alat Kontrasepsi Dalam Rahim

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Background: Candida sp. are normal flora in the mucous membranes, gastrointestinal tract, vagina, urethra, skin, and nails. Candida sp. infection of the vulva or vagina is called vaginal candidiasis. The clinical symptoms of vaginal candidiasis is flour albus, dyspareunia, dysuria, vulva and vaginal redness and edema. Intrauterin device (IUD) is one of the predisposing factors that can trigger Candida which is initially asymptomatic becomes active proliferate and cause vagin...

  12. [Genetic divergence of mitochondrial DNA in white char Salvelinus albus and northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oleĭnik, A G; Skurikhina, L A; Brykov, Vl A

    2010-03-01

    Comparative analysis of mitochondrial DNA variation was performed in white char Salvelinus albus and in its putative ancestor species, northern Dolly Varden char Salvelinus malma malma. Highly statistically significant differentiation of S. albus and S. m. malma in the areas of sympatric (Kamchatka River basin) and allopatric (Kronotskoe Lake and Kronotskaya River) residence was demonstrated. The mtDNA divergence between S. albus and S. m. malma did not exceed the range ofintraspecific variation in the populations of northern Dolly Varden char. At the same time, clusterization pattern of the Salvelinus chars provides hypothesis on the common origin of two allopatric populations of white char. Genealogical analysis of haplotypes indicates that S. albus and S. m. malma currently demonstrate incomplete radiation of mitochondrial lineages. The low nucleotide divergence estimates between S. albus and S. m. malma reflect the short time period since the beginning of the radiation of ancestral lineages. These estimates are determined by ancestral polymorphism and haplotype exchange between the diverged phylogenetic groups as a result of introgressive hybridization.

  13. Comparative characteristics of Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus luteus L. under allelopathic effect of Sorghum halepense L. (Pers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Georgieva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Allelopathic effects of aqueous extracts of Sorghum halepense L. (Pers. on seed germination and primary seedling growth and development of two lupine species was studied. Lupinus albus and Lupinus luteus showed different levels of susceptibility to the allelopathic effect of weed extracts. Increasing concentrations (1.25, 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00% of extracts from aboveground and belowground biomass suppressed seed germination of L. luteus from 53.2 to 74.7%. The germination of L. albus seeds was unaffected, except by the highest concentration of 10.00%. Fresh biomass accumulation in the initial germ of L. luteus was inhibited by 3.8-40.3% under the effect of concentrations of 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00%, which made the species susceptible to S. halepense extracts. L. albus was tolerant as it was not found to sustain a significant allelopathic effect of the extracts.

  14. [Genetic Connectivity Between Sympatric Populations of Closely Related Char Species, Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma and White Char Salvelinus albus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmenkova, E A

    2016-01-01

    The closely related chars Salvelinus malma and Salvelinus albus, which sympatrically inhabit the Kamchatka River basin and Kronotsky Lake (Kamchatka), attract the attention of the researchers because of their debated origin and taxonomic status. Previous studies of sympatric populations of these chars revealed small but statistically significant genetic differences between these species at a number of molecular markers, suggesting the presence of the genetic exchange and hybridization. In this study, based on genotypic characterization of nine microsatellite loci, a considerable level of historical and contemporary genetic migration between sympatric populations of these chars was demonstrated. At the individual level a high degree of hybridization was observed, mainly among the Dolly Varden individuals from the studied populations. The obtained evidence on the genetic connectivity between sympatric S. malma and S. albus do not support the separate species status of S. albus.

  15. ISOLATION OF TRYPANOSOMA MONOPTERI USING PERCOLL REAGENT AND DEAE-CELLULOSE%用Percoll试剂和DEAE-纤维素层析柱分离纯化鳝锥虫

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾泽茂; 汪建国; 章晋勇; 龚小宁

    2006-01-01

    用51%的Percoll分离液和DEAE-纤维素层析柱,从自然感染的黄鳝(Monopterus albus Zuiew)中分离鳝锥虫(Trypanosoma monopteri Chen et Hsieh,1964).对含虫血液样品分别以2.1×103 r/min、2.5×103 r/min、2.9×103 r/min、3.3×103 r/min、3.6×103r/min离心5、10、15、20min,观察红细胞的去除和鳝锥虫存留百分数,结果表明:2.9×103r/min离心15min分离效果最佳.离心分离的混悬液含有锥虫、白细胞、血栓细胞和极少的红细胞,悬混液再经DEAE-纤维素过柱,得到纯净的鳝锥虫.过柱后光学显微镜观察,锥虫形态正常,运动活泼,无血细胞.本方法具有耗时短、回收率高的特点,是把梯度分离和离子交换结合在一起的一种快速有效方法,为鳝锥虫的进一步研究奠定了基础.另外,此方法还可以作为快速、准确检测自然状态下黄鳝是否感染锥虫的手段,为鳝锥虫的流行病学研究提供可靠的数据.

  16. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL-1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL-1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin-1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL-1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL-1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)-1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius, the total

  17. Functional insights into the testis transcriptome of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Espitia, Juan Diego; Sánchez, Roland; Bruning, Paulina; Cárdenas, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    The edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782) is a keystone species in the littoral benthic systems of the Pacific coast of South America. The international demand for high-quality gonads of this echinoderm has led to an extensive exploitation and decline of its natural populations. Consequently, a more thorough understanding of L. albus gonad development and gametogenesis could provide valuable resources for aquaculture applications, management, conservation and studies about the evolution of functional and structural pathways that underlie the reproductive toolkit of marine invertebrates. Using a high-throughput sequencing technology, we explored the male gonad transcriptome of this highly fecund sea urchin. Through a de novo assembly approach we obtained 42,530 transcripts of which 15,544 (36.6%) had significant alignments to known proteins in public databases. From these transcripts, approximately 73% were functionally annotated allowing the identification of several candidate genes that are likely to play a central role in developmental processes, nutrient reservoir activity, sexual reproduction, gamete generation, meiosis, sex differentiation, sperm motility, male courtship behavior and fertilization. Additionally, comparisons with the male gonad transcriptomes of other echinoderms revealed several conserved orthologous genes, suggesting that similar functional and structural pathways underlie the reproductive development in this group and other marine invertebrates. PMID:27805042

  18. Lupinus albus plants acquire mercury tolerance when inoculated with an Hg-resistant Bradyrhizobium strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quiñones, Miguel A; Ruiz-Díez, Beatriz; Fajardo, Susana; López-Berdonces, Miguel A; Higueras, Pablo L; Fernández-Pascual, Mercedes

    2013-12-01

    One strain of Bradyrhizobium canariense (L-7AH) was selected for its metal-resistance and ability to nodulate white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) plants, from a collection of rhizobial strains previously created from soils of the Almadén mining district (Spain) with varying levels of Hg contamination. Plants were inoculated with either strain L-7AH (Hg-tolerant) or L-3 (Hg-sensitive, used as control), and watered with nutrient solutions supplemented with various concentrations (0-200 μM) of HgCl2 in a growth chamber. L. albus inoculated with L-7AH were able to nodulate even at the highest concentration of Hg while those inoculated with L-3 had virtually no nodules at Hg concentrations above 25 μM. Plants inoculated with L-7AH, but not those with the control strain, were able to accumulate large amounts of Hg in their roots and nodules. Nodulation with L-7AH allowed plants to maintain constant levels of both chlorophylls and carotenoids in their leaves and a high photosynthetic efficiency, whereas in those inoculated with L-3 both pigment content and photosynthetic efficiency decreased significantly as Hg concentration increased. Nitrogenase activity of plants nodulated with L-7AH remained fairly constant at all concentrations of Hg used. Results suggest that this symbiotic pair may be used for rhizoremediation of Hg-contaminated soils. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  19. Enhanced salinomycin production by adjusting the supply of polyketide extender units in Streptomyces albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Chenyang; Zhang, Xiaojie; Jiang, Ming; Bai, Linquan

    2016-05-01

    The anticoccidial salinomycin is a polyketide produced by Streptomyces albus and requires malonyl-CoAs, methylmalonyl-CoAs, and ethylmalonyl-CoAs for the backbone assembly. Genome sequencing of S. albus DSM 41398 revealed a high percentage of genes involved in lipid metabolism, supporting the high salinomycin yield in oil-rich media. Seven PKS/PKS-NRPS gene clusters in the genome were found to be actively transcribed and had been individually deleted, which resulted in significantly improved salinomycin production. However, a combined deletion of PKS-NRPS-2 and PKS-6 showed no further improvement. Whereas the concentrations of malonyl-CoA and methylmalonyl-CoA were increased, the concentration of ethylmalonyl-CoA remained low in the mutants. An endogenous crotonyl-CoA reductase gene (ccr) was overexpressed in the ΔPKS-NRPS-2/ΔPKS-6 mutant, resulting in improved production. Combination of cluster deletions and over-expression of ccr gene led to an overall titer improvement of salinomycin from 0.60 to 6.60g/L. This engineering strategy can be implemented for various natural polyketides production.

  20. Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Sikap Remaja Putri tentang Flour Albus di SMP Negeri 2 Trucuk Kabupaten Klaten

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susiana Sariyati

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Flour albus is a discharge excessive that causes an adolescent girls often replace the underwear or using a bandage. Less of knowledge about flour albus may impact on adolescent girls negative attitude or less attention about flour albus. The purpose of this study was to find the factors that affected adolescent girls attitude about flour albus in Trucuk 2 Junior High School District Klaten. Study design used in this study was cross sectional. The population of 9th grade adolescent girls were 120 female students. The samples of this study were 92 adolescent girls that already menstruation. Samples were selected by simple random sampling technique. The results showed that most of adolescent girls had a good knowledge. The factors that most affected adolescent girls attitude was knowledge supported by information and experience. In conclusion, there was a significant relationship between knowledge and attitude, there was a significant relationship between experience and attitude, there was a significant relationship between source of information and attitude.

  1. Science information to support Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-26

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis (EA) was commissioned by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers to develop a foundation of understanding of how pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population dynamics are linked to management actions in the Missouri River. The EA consists of several steps: (1) development of comprehensive, conceptual ecological models illustrating pallid sturgeon population dynamics and links to management actions and other drivers; (2) compilation and assessment of available scientific literature, databases, and models; (3) development of predictive, quantitative models to explore the system dynamics and population responses to management actions; and (4) analysis and assessment of effects of system operations and actions on species’ habitats and populations. This report addresses the second objective, compilation and assessment of relevant information.

  2. Seasonal and annual variations in the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisogni, A; Rossi, M; Sgolastra, F; Bortolotti, L; Bogo, G; de Manincor, N; Quaranta, M; Galloni, M

    2016-05-01

    The interplay between insect and plant traits outlines the patterns of pollen transfer and the subsequent plant reproductive fitness. We studied the factors that affect the pollination efficiency of a pollinator community of Dictamnus albus L. by evaluating insect behaviour and morphological characteristics in relation to flowering phenology. In order to extrapolate the pollinator importance of single taxa and of the whole pollinator guild, we calculated an index distinguishing between potential (PPI) and realized (RPI) pollinator importance. Although the pollinator species spectrum appeared rather constant, we found high intra- and inter-annual variability of pollinator frequency and importance within the insect community. Flower visitation rate strictly depended on insect abundance and on the overlap between their flying period and flower blooming. All the pollinators visited flowers from the bottom to the top of the racemes, excluding intra-plant geitonogamous pollination, and most of them showed high pollen fidelity. Only medium large-sized bees could contact the upward bending stiles while feeding on nectar, highlighting a specialisation of the plant towards bigger pollinators. Moreover, we found evidence of functional specialisation, since all pollinators were restricted to a single taxonomic group (order: Hymenoptera; superfamily: Apoidea). Both the PPI and RPI indices indicate Habropoda tarsata as the most important pollinator of D. albus. Following hand cross-pollination experiments we revealed the presence of pollination limitation in 1 of the 3 years of field study. We discuss this result in relation to flowering abundance and to possible mismatches of phenological periods between plants and insects. © 2015 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  3. PARTIAL PURIFICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF LECTIN-LIKE ACTIVITIES FROM Lupinus albus SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. B. Falcón

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available En un trabajo anterior los autores estudiaron la actividad hemaglutinante presente en semillas de tres espe- cies de Lupinus; a partir de esos resultados se decidió purifi- car las actividades lectínicas presentes en semillas de Lupinus albus, tomando en cuenta las mayores especificidades encon- tradas previamente en los extractos. En este trabajo se prepa- raron tres columnas apropiadas de afinidad, con el fin de puri- ficar la actividad hemaglutinante de L. albus. El pellet colecta- do por centrifugación a partir del extracto previamente satura- do con 80 % de sulfato de amonio, fue aplicado respectivamante en tres columnas de afinidad: Mucina-Sepharosa, Fetuina- Sepharosa y Galactosa-Agarosa. Aunque fue purificada, a través de las columnas de Fetuina y Mucina, una actividad lectínica equivalente al 5 % aproximado del total de proteína encontra- do en el extracto, la actividad hemaglutinante pasó a través de la columna sin aparentemente interactuar con las proteínas fijadas en cada una de las columnas probadas. Las proteínas colectadas en los picos de elusión de las corridas cromatográficas fueron parcialmente caracterizadas mediante electroforesis en poliacrilamida y filtración en gel a través de una columna de Superosa 12, con el fin de conocer acerca de su composición monomérica y oligomérica y sus pesos moleculares. Se analizó, además, la posible estructura secundaria de la proteína a partir de un espectro de dicroismo circular realizado a la muestra.

  4. Triportheus albus Cope, 1872 in the Blackwater, Clearwater, and Whitewater of the Amazon: A Case of Phenotypic Plasticity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José D. A. Araújo

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available The Amazon basin includes 1000s of bodies of water, that are sorted according to their color in three types: blackwater, clearwater, and whitewater, which significantly differ in terms of their physicochemical parameters. More than 3,000 species of fish live in the rivers of the Amazon, among them, the sardine, Triportheus albus, which is one of the few species that inhabit all three types of water. The purpose of our study was to analyze if the gene expression of T. albus is determined by the different types of water, that is, if the species presents phenotypic plasticity to live in blackwater, clearwater, and whitewater. Gills of T. albus were collected at well-characterized sites for each type of water. Nine cDNA libraries were constructed, three biological replicates of each condition and the RNA was sequenced (RNA-Seq on the MiSeq® Platform (Illumina®. A total of 51.6 million of paired-end reads, and 285,456 transcripts were assembled. Considering the FDR ≤ 0.05 and fold change ≥ 2, 13,754 differentially expressed genes were detected in the three water types. Two mechanisms related to homeostasis were detected in T. albus that live in blackwater, when compared to the ones in clearwater and whitewater. The acidic blackwater is a challenging environment for many types of aquatic organisms. The first mechanism is related to the decrease in cellular permeability, highlighting the genes coding for claudin proteins, actn4, itgb3b, DSP, Gap junction protein, and Ca2+-ATPase. The second with ionic and acid-base regulation [rhcg1, slc9a6a (NHE, ATP6V0A2, Na+/K+-ATPase, slc26a4 (pedrin and slc4a4b]. We suggest T. albus is a good species of fish for future studies involving the ionic and acid-base regulation of Amazonian species. We also concluded that, T. albus, shows well defined phenotypic plasticity for each water type in the Amazon basin.

  5. Production and characterization of vaginal suppositories with propolis wax as active agent to prevent and treat Fluor albus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farida, Siti; Azizah, Nurul; Hermansyah, Heri; Sahlan, Muhamad

    2017-02-01

    Based on the content contained in propolis wax especially antimicrobial function, it can be analyzed that propolis wax had superiority for Fluor albus. This research was conducted on two formulation of vaginal suppositories with base, supplementary and active agent as a fixed variable: 2% propolis wax (% w/w). Evaluation of this research were weight variation, melting time, consistency, irritation effect test and physical and chemical stability test (organoleptic, pH and polyphenol content).

  6. Comparison of the response to phosphorus deficiency in two lupin species, Lupinus albus and L. angustifolius, with contrasting root morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funayama-Noguchi, Sachiko; Noguchi, Ko; Terashima, Ichiro

    2015-03-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus) produces cluster roots, an adaptation to low soil phosphorus (P). Cluster roots exude large levels of P-solubilizing compounds such as citrate and malate. In contrast, narrow leaf lupin (L. angustifolius) is closely related to L. albus, but does not produce cluster roots. To examine the different strategies for P acquisition, we compared the growth, biomass allocation, respiratory properties and construction cost between L. albus and L. angustifolius under P-deficient conditions. Both Lupinus species were grown in hydroponic culture with 1 or 100 μM P. Under the P-deficient regime, L. albus produced cluster roots with little change in biomass allocation, while L. angustifolius significantly increased biomass allocation to roots. The rate of cyanide-resistant SHAM (salicylhydroxamic acid)-sensitive respiration was high in cluster roots and very low in roots of L. angustifolius. These results suggest a low alternative oxidase (AOX) activity in L. angustifolius roots, and thus, ATP would be produced efficiently in L. angustifolius roots. The construction cost was highest in cluster roots and lowest in L. angustifolius roots. This study shows that under P deficiency, L. albus produces high-cost cluster roots to increase the P availability, while L. angustifolius produces large quantities of low-cost roots to enhance P uptake. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Hormonal interactions during cluster-root development in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengrui; Rahman, A B M Moshiur; Wang, Guoying; Ludewig, Uwe; Shen, Jianbo; Neumann, Günter

    2015-04-01

    This study addresses hormonal interactions involved in cluster-root (CR) development of phosphate (Pi)-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus), which represents the most efficient plant strategy for root-induced mobilisation of sparingly soluble soil phosphorus (P) sources. Shoot-to-root translocation of auxin was unaffected by P-limitation, while strong stimulatory effects of external sucrose on CR formation, even in P-sufficient plants, suggest sucrose, rather than auxins, acts as a shoot-borne signal, triggering the induction of CR primordia. Ethylene may act as mediator of the sucrose signal, as indicated by moderately increased expression of genes involved in ethylene biosynthesis in pre-emergent clusters and by strong inhibitory effects of the ethylene antagonist CoCl2 on CR formation induced by sucrose amendments or P-limitation. As reported in other plants, moderately increased production of brassinosteroids (BRs) and cytokinin, in pre-emergent clusters, may be required for the formation of auxin gradients necessary for induction of CR primordia via interference with auxin biosynthesis and transport. The well-documented inhibition of root elongation by high doses of ethylene may be involved in the growth inhibition of lateral rootlets during CR maturation, indicated by a massive increased expression of gene involved in ethylene production, associated with a declined expression of transcripts with stimulatory effects (BR and auxin-related genes). Copyright © 2014 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  8. Iron plaque formed under aerobic conditions efficiently immobilizes arsenic in Lupinus albus L roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresno, Teresa; Peñalosa, Jesús M; Santner, Jakob; Puschenreiter, Markus; Prohaska, Thomas; Moreno-Jiménez, Eduardo

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic is a non-threshold carcinogenic metalloid. Thus, human exposure should be minimised, e.g. by chemically stabilizing As in soil. Since iron is a potential As immobiliser, it was investigated whether root iron plaque, formed under aerobic conditions, affects As uptake, metabolism and distribution in Lupinus albus plants. White lupin plants were cultivated in a continuously aerated hydroponic culture containing Fe/EDDHA or FeSO4 and exposed to arsenate (5 or 20 μM). Only FeSO4 induced surficial iron plaque in roots. LA-ICP-MS analysis accomplished on root sections corroborated the association of As to this surficial Fe. Additionally, As(V) was the predominant species in FeSO4-treated roots, suggesting less efficient As uptake in the presence of iron plaque. Fe/EDDHA-exposed roots neither showed such surficial FeAs co-localisation nor As(V) accumulation; in contrast As(III) was the predominant species in root tissue. Furthermore, FeSO4-treated plants showed reduced shoot-to-root As ratios, which were >10-fold lower compared to Fe/EDDHA treatment. Our results highlight the role of an iron plaque formed in roots of white lupin under aerobic conditions on As immobilisation. These findings, to our knowledge, have not been addressed before for this plant and have potential implications on soil remediation (phytostabilisation) and food security (minimising As in crops).

  9. Cloning and characterization of the polyether salinomycin biosynthesis gene cluster of Streptomyces albus XM211.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Chunyan; Wang, Hougen; Kang, Qianjin; Liu, Jing; Bai, Linquan

    2012-02-01

    Salinomycin is widely used in animal husbandry as a food additive due to its antibacterial and anticoccidial activities. However, its biosynthesis had only been studied by feeding experiments with isotope-labeled precursors. A strategy with degenerate primers based on the polyether-specific epoxidase sequences was successfully developed to clone the salinomycin gene cluster. Using this strategy, a putative epoxidase gene, slnC, was cloned from the salinomycin producer Streptomyces albus XM211. The targeted replacement of slnC and subsequent trans-complementation proved its involvement in salinomycin biosynthesis. A 127-kb DNA region containing slnC was sequenced, including genes for polyketide assembly and release, oxidative cyclization, modification, export, and regulation. In order to gain insight into the salinomycin biosynthesis mechanism, 13 gene replacements and deletions were conducted. Including slnC, 7 genes were identified as essential for salinomycin biosynthesis and putatively responsible for polyketide chain release, oxidative cyclization, modification, and regulation. Moreover, 6 genes were found to be relevant to salinomycin biosynthesis and possibly involved in precursor supply, removal of aberrant extender units, and regulation. Sequence analysis and a series of gene replacements suggest a proposed pathway for the biosynthesis of salinomycin. The information presented here expands the understanding of polyether biosynthesis mechanisms and paves the way for targeted engineering of salinomycin activity and productivity.

  10. Transcript and proteomic analysis of developing white lupin (Lupinus albus L. roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson Bonnie

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background White lupin (Lupinus albus L. roots efficiently take up and accumulate (heavy metals, adapt to phosphate deficiency by forming cluster roots, and secrete antimicrobial prenylated isoflavones during development. Genomic and proteomic approaches were applied to identify candidate genes and proteins involved in antimicrobial defense and (heavy metal uptake and translocation. Results A cDNA library was constructed from roots of white lupin seedlings. Eight thousand clones were randomly sequenced and assembled into 2,455 unigenes, which were annotated based on homologous matches in the NCBInr protein database. A reference map of developing white lupin root proteins was established through 2-D gel electrophoresis and peptide mass fingerprinting. High quality peptide mass spectra were obtained for 170 proteins. Microsomal membrane proteins were separated by 1-D gel electrophoresis and identified by LC-MS/MS. A total of 74 proteins were putatively identified by the peptide mass fingerprinting and the LC-MS/MS methods. Genomic and proteomic analyses identified candidate genes and proteins encoding metal binding and/or transport proteins, transcription factors, ABC transporters and phenylpropanoid biosynthetic enzymes. Conclusion The combined EST and protein datasets will facilitate the understanding of white lupin's response to biotic and abiotic stresses and its utility for phytoremediation. The root ESTs provided 82 perfect simple sequence repeat (SSR markers with potential utility in breeding white lupin for enhanced agronomic traits.

  11. Screening of cytoplasmic DNA diversity between and within Lupinus mutabilis Sweet and Lupinus albus sensu lato by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olczak, T; Rurek, M; Jańska, H; Augustyniak, H; Sawicka-Sienkiewicz, E J

    2001-01-01

    Seven populations and five mutant lines of the Andean lupin and four species from the section Albus were screened for their mitochondrial and chloroplast polymorphisms. For this purpose the RFLP method with EcoRI as a restriction enzyme was used. Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus and Phaseolus vulgaris organellar clones as well as amplified fragments were used as probes. We found that mitochondrial probes were more suitable than chloroplast probes for identification of inter- and intra-specific variations within the examined material. Most mitochondrial probes differentiate the two species investigated. A high level of mitochondrial polymorphism was observed among the populations of L. mutabilis in contrast to monomorphism among the species in the section Albus. A limited polymorphism was detected between the mutant lines of L. mutabilis. We conclude from this study that the mitochondrial RFLP analysis is a valuable tool for identification of variability among Andean lupin populations.

  12. The Effect of Lupinus albus and Calcium Chloride on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Plasma Biochemistry and Meat Quality of Male Pigs Immunized Against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Karen; Mullan, Bruce; Kim, Jae Cheol; Dunshea, Frank

    2016-12-01

    Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins) or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts)) on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates) and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05), backfat (p > 0.05) or fat deposition (p > 0.05). Pigs fed albus lupins had a reduced feed intake (p experiment (p < 0.001), however, feeding albus lupins to immunocastrated males reduced backfat thickness to similar to entire males fed the control diet (p = 0.01). With the exception of the increased muscle pH at 45 minutes post-exsanguination in mineral salts and albus lupins compared with the control diet (p = 0.03) there was no effect of diet on objective pork quality. Pork from IC males had a higher ultimate pH (p < 0.001), was lighter (L*; p = 0.003), more yellow (p = 0.008) and had a higher drip loss (p < 0.001) compared to entire males. Albus lupins show potential in reducing the increase in feed intake and backfat associated with immunocastration. Mineral salts may be useful in situations where a reduction in feed intake and an improvement in feed conversion is desired and reducing fat deposition is not the objective.

  13. Interaction entre différentes souches de Rhizobium lupini et les espèces ou cultivars de lupin (Lupinus albus, Lupinus luteus et Lupinus mutabilis)

    OpenAIRE

    LAGACHERIE, Bernard; Bours, Michele; Giraud, J Jacques; SOMMER, Georges

    1983-01-01

    L’efficacité fixatrice de souches de Rhizobium lupini a été mesurée en serre sur Lupinus albus, luteus et mutabilis. De fortes interactions se manifestent : 86 p. 100 des souches testées ont une bonne efficacité sur L. albus, 52 p. 100 sur L. mutabilis et 40 p. 100 sur L. luteus ; 22 p. 100 des souches ont une bonne efficacité fixatrice sur les trois espèces. Les interactions observées en serre se conservent au champ où les souches fixatrices augmentent le rendement en grain et la teneur ...

  14. Melilotus albus and Dorycnium herbaceum extracts as source of phenolic compounds and their antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antioxidant potentials

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    Olgica D. Stefanović

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Melilotus albus Medic. and Dorycnium herbaceum Vill. (Fabaceae acetone, ethyl acetate, and ethanol extracts were investigated for their in vitro antimicrobial, antibiofilm, and antioxidant activity with quantification of phenolic compound contents. In general, D. herbaceum extracts showed better antibacterial and antioxidant activity than M. albus extracts. Bacteria Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Proteus mirabilis were the most susceptible with the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs, determined by microdilution method, between 1.25–10 mg/mL. Antifungal activity was lower with the detectable MICs at 10 mg/mL and 20 mg/mL. The plant extracts, using the crystal violet assay, inhibit P. aeruginosa biofilm formation in concentration range from 5 mg/mL to 20 mg/mL whereas the effect on mature bacterial biofilm was lower. The antioxidant activity was evaluated using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH radicals scavenging and reducing power model systems. The intensity of DPPH radicals scavenging activity, expressed as half maximal effective concentration (EC50 values, was from 84.33 μg/mL to >1000 μg/mL. The extracts demonstrated reduced power in a concentration-dependent manner, with ethanol extract as the most active. The total phenols, flavonoids, and proanthocyanidins were determined spectrophotometrically while total extractable tannins were obtained by precipitation method. The phenolic compounds showed differences in their total contents depending on solvents polarities and plant species. Although the plants M. albus and D. herbaceum have not yet been fully explored, these results contribute better understanding of their biotic properties and potential application as antimicrobial and antioxidant agents.

  15. Do rhizospheric processes linked to P nutrition participate in U absorption by Lupinus albus grown in hydroponics?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tailliez, Antoine; Pierrisnard, Sylvie; Camilleri, Virginie; Keller, Catherine; Henner, Pascale

    2013-10-01

    Phosphate (P) is an essential element for plant development but is generally present in limiting amount in the soil solution. Plant species have developed different mechanisms promoting the solubilization of this element in soils to ensure a sufficient supply for their growth. One of these mechanisms is based on the ability of certain species such as L. albus to exude large amounts of citrate through specific tertiary roots called cluster-roots. Uranium (U) is an ubiquitous contaminant known firstly for its chemical toxicity and secondly for its high affinity for P with which it forms low-soluble complexes in soils. We highlight the effects of P-U interaction on the physiology of L. albus and particularly on citrate exudation, and the impact of this root process on the phytoavailability of U and its accumulation in plants in a hydroponic study. Different levels of P (1 and 100 μM) and U (0 and 20 μM) have been tested. Our results show no toxicity of U on the development of L. albus with an adequate P supply, whereas the effects of P starvation are amplified by the presence of U in the growth medium, except for the production of cluster-roots. Citrate exudation is totally inhibited by U in a low-P environment whereas it increases in the presence of U when its toxicity is lowered by the addition of P. The differences observed in terms of toxicity and accumulation are partly explained by the microphotographs obtained by electron microscopy (TEM-EDX): in the absence of P, U penetrates deep into the roots and causes lethal damages, whereas in presence of P, we observe the formation of U-P complexes which limit the internalization of the pollutant and so its toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. [Lupine, a contribution to the human food supply. 3. Nutritional physiological study with lupine (Lupinus albus) flour].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; Morales, E; Gross, U; von Baer, E

    1976-12-01

    Lupinus albus flour doses of 58.9 +/- 9.6 g have been given to 20 persons. This sweet lupine flour has been digestible without complications in all cases. There have been no significant changes of hemoglobine, hematocrite, total protein, urea, bilirubine, and SGOT in the blood. So the lupine may be used for improvement of protein supply in men under the criteria that (1) the alkaloid content of the seed does not exceed 0.02%, (2) the seed itself contains no secondary fungi which may cause a lupinosis.

  17. Influence of protein isolate from lupin seeds (Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus) on processing and quality characteristics of frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alamanou, S; Bloukas, J G; Paneras, E D; Doxastakis, G

    1996-01-01

    Lupin protein isolate (92% protein) from seeds of Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus (LSPI) was used as powder ingredient for the manufacture of frankfurters at levels 0, 1, 2 and 3% of the formulation weight. Additional 1% water was added during batter formulation to each 1% protein used. LSPI increased (P LSPI level resulted in higher (P LSPI. Frankfurters with 3% LSPI were judged as unacceptable. Incorporation of LSPI at 1% level either in hydrated form or as stabilizer in pre-emulsified fat improved the processing characteristics and overall acceptability of frankfurters made with LSPI as powder ingredient and did not affect the color and texture.

  18. EDTA and hydrochloric acid effects on mercury accumulation by Lupinus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luis; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto; Villaseñor, José; Rodríguez-Castellanos, Laura

    2016-12-01

    The efficiency of white lupine (Lupinus albus) to uptake and accumulate mercury from a soil polluted by mining activities was assessed in a pot experiment with chemically assisted phytoextraction. The mobilizing agents tested were ethylenediaminetetracetic acid (EDTA) and hydrochloric acid (HCl). Two doses of each amendment were used (0.5 and 1.0 g of amendment per kg of soil), and unamended pots were used as a control. Addition of HCl to the soil did not negatively affect plant biomass, while the use of EDTA led to a significant decrease in plant growth when compared to that found for non-treated pots, with plants visually showing symptoms of toxicity. The addition of hydrochloric acid increased root, shoot and total plant Hg uptake of white lupine by 3.7 times, 3.1 times and 3.5 times, respectively, in relation to non-amended plants. The greatest efficiency was obtained for the highest HCl dose. EDTA led to higher concentrations of total plant Hg than that found with the control, but, due to the aforementioned decrease in plant biomass, the Hg phytoextraction yield was not significantly increased. These results were attributed to the capability of both amendments to form stable Hg complexes. The concentration of Hg in the water of the soil pores after the phytoextraction experiment was very low for all treatments, showing that risks derived from metal leaching could be partially avoided by using doses and chemicals suitable to the concentration of metal in the soil and plant performance.

  19. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.

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    Mann Anthea J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

  20. Rhizobium albus sp. nov., Isolated from Lake Water in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yi; Lei, Xueqian; Xu, Yanting; Zhu, Hong; Xu, Meiying; Fu, Lijun; Zheng, Wei; Zhang, Jinli; Zheng, Tianling

    2017-01-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, aerobic bacterial strain, designated Y21(T), was isolated from surface lake water in Xiamen, Fujian Province of China. Growth was observed at temperatures from 4 to 37 °C, at salinities from 0 to 7.0 % and at pH from 6.0 to 10.0. Optimum growth was observed at 28 °C, at pH 7.0 and with 1.5-2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. The highest similarity of 16S rRNA gene sequence between strain Y21(T) and the other strains was 96.9 %. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the strain was a member of the genus Rhizobium, forming a distinct lineage with R. subbaraonis KCTC 23614(T). The dominant fatty acids were summed feature 8 (comprising C18:1 ω7c and/or C18:1 ω6c), C18:1 ω7c 11-methyl, which accounted for 78.1 %. The G+C content of the chromosomal DNA was 60.9 mol%. The predominant respiratory quinone was ubiquinone-10. The polar lipids of strain Y21(T) were found to consist of five unidentified phospholipids and three unidentified aminolipids. According to its morphology, physiology, fatty acid composition and 16S rRNA sequence data, strain Y21(T) should be regarded as a new species of the genus Rhizobium, for which Rhizobium albus sp. nov. is proposed (type strain Y21(T) = MCCC 1F01210(T) = KCTC 42252(T)).

  1. Possibilities of chemical weed control in Lupinus albus and Lupinus luteus-screening of herbicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewitte, K; Latré, J; Haesaert, G

    2006-01-01

    Weed control in sweet lupins is still a problem. Especially the phytotoxicity of herbicides in sweet lupins is not enough studied. Therefore a screening with 16 selected herbicides and 4 lupin varieties has been set up. During the growing season 2005, 10 of the tested herbicides were applied in pre-emergence, 6 in post-emergence. Pre-emergence: Most of the active matters tested in pre-emergence were not phytotoxic for lupins. Pendimethalin (1000 g/ha), linuron (500 g/ha), chlorotoluron (1500 g/ha), prosulfocarb (2400 g/ha), clomazone (72 g/ha), isoxaben (100 g/ha), metamitron (1050 g/ha) and dimethenamid-P (720 g/ha) were applied without causing any significant phytotoxic symptoms. Only the lupins treated with aclonifen (1200 g/ha) showed a significant growth inhibition, 3 weeks after treatment. Significantly more chlorosis was noticed when the lupins were treated with aclonifen or with diflufenican, in preemergence. Post-emergence: In post-emergence, diflufenican (50 g/ha) did not cause any crop damage. Florasulam (5 g/ha) caused almost 100% necrosis in L. albus as well as in L. luteus. Bentazon (652 g/ha), thifensulfuron-methyl (15 g/ha) and metribuzin (175 g/ha) caused obvious necrosis and growth inhibition of the crop. The growth inhibition was significantly more severe for lupins treated with bentazon than if they were treated with thifensulfuron-methyl or metribuzin. Three weeks after treatment, clomazone (90 g/ha) and diflufenican (50 g/ha), did not cause any crop injury at all. The results indicated an interesting range of active matters which can be applied in pre-emergence, but weed control in post-emergence stays difficult.

  2. Feeding and nutritional ecology of the edible sea urchin Loxechinus albus in the northern Chilean coast Ecología nutricional y alimenticia del erizo comestible Loxechinus albus en el norte de Chile

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    SOLANGE J GONZÁLEZ

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The red sea urchin Loxechinus albus, an economically important species oceurring along the Chilean littoral benthic systems, has been heavily exploited by artisanal fisheries in recent decades. However, basic knowledge of its trophic biology is still scarce. Studies of this kind are critical to the successful development of farming techniques as an alternative to the harvest of natural populations. The aims of this study were to quantify the composition of L. albus' natural diet, to determine the assimilation efficieney of the most important dietary components, and to experimentally examine the species' trophic selectivity. Adult and juvenile specimens were sampled in spring 1993 and summer, fall and winter 1994 from the shallow subtidal zone of Iquique, northern Chile. Neither juveniles ñor adults showed significant seasonal differences in dietary composition. The main Ítems in the diet were the green alga Ulva sp. for juveniles and the kelp Lessonia sp. for adults. In adults, assimilation efficieney (as percentage of the total organic matter ingested was not significantly different among individuals that consumed Lessonia sp. (48.7 %, Ulva sp. (44.6 % and Macrocystis (38.1 %, whereas in juveniles assimilation efficieney was significantly higher for individuals fed on the chlorophyte Ulva sp. (55.4 %, followed by Lessonia sp. (35.0 % and Macrocystis (25.5 %. These results suggest that L. albus undergoes an ontogenetic shift in the diet, consisting of a differential foraging strategy between juveniles and adults.El erizo Loxechinus albus (Molina, 1782 es un recurso de gran importancia económica en los sistemas bentónicos costeros, y que se encuentra bajo una fuerte presión de explotación. Sin embargo, los antecedentes sobre diversos aspectos básicos de su biología trófica son aún escasos. Estudios de esta naturaleza son importantes en razón a que constituyen la base para el desarrollo de técnicas de cultivo exitosas, alternativa a la

  3. Impact of biochar and root-induced changes on metal dynamics in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris and Lupinus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, David; Sonnet, Philippe

    2015-11-01

    Rhizosphere interactions are deemed to play a key role in the success of phytoremediation technologies. Here, the effects of biochar and root-induced changes in the rhizosphere of Agrostis capillaris L. and Lupinus albus L. on metal (Cd, Pb and Zn) dynamics were investigated using a biotest on a 2mm soil layer and a sequential extraction procedure (Tessier's scheme). In the bulk soil, the application of 5% biochar significantly reduced the exchangeable pool of metals primarily due to a liming effect which subsequently promoted the metal shift into the carbonate-bound pool. However, metals were re-mobilized in the rhizosphere of both A. capillaris and L. albus due to root-induced acidification which counteracted the liming effect of biochar. As a result, the concentrations of metals in roots and shoots of both plants were not significantly reduced by the application of biochar. Although the study should be considered a worst-case scenario because experimental conditions induced the intensification of rhizosphere processes, the results highlight that changes in rhizosphere pH can impact the effectiveness of biochar to immobilize metals in soil. Biochar has thus a potential as amendment for reducing metal uptake by plants, provided the acidification of the rhizosphere is minimized.

  4. Ultrastructure and mineral distribution in the tergal cuticle of the terrestrial isopod Titanethes albus. Adaptations to a karst cave biotope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hild, Sabine; Neues, Frank; Znidarsic, Nada; Strus, Jasna; Epple, Matthias; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2009-12-01

    Composition and spatial distribution of organic and inorganic materials within the cuticle of isopods vary between species. These variations are related to the behaviour and habitat of the animal. The troglobiotic isopod Titanethes albus lives in the complete darkness of caves in the Slovenian Karst. This habitat provides constant temperature and saturated humidity throughout the year and inconsistent food supply. These conditions should have lead to functional adaptations of arthropod cuticles. However, studies on structure and composition of cave arthropod cuticles are rare and lacking for terrestrial isopods. We therefore analysed the tergite cuticle of T. albus using transmission and field-emission electron microscopy, confocal micro-Raman spectroscopic imaging, quantitative X-ray diffractometry, thermogravimetric analysis and atomic absorption spectroscopy. The ultrastructure of the epicuticle suggests a poor resistance against water loss. A weak interconnection between the organic and mineral phase within the endo- and exocuticle, a comparatively thin apical calcite layer, and almost lack of magnesium within the calcite crystal lattice suggest that the mechanical strength of the cuticle is low in the cave isopod. This may possibly be of advantage in maintaining high cuticle flexibility and reducing metabolic expenditures.

  5. The Effect of Lupinus albus and Calcium Chloride on Growth Performance, Body Composition, Plasma Biochemistry and Meat Quality of Male Pigs Immunized Against Gonadotrophin Releasing Factor

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    Karen Moore

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Two hundred and ninety-four pigs were used to assess the effect of two ingredients (Lupinus albus (albus lupins or a combination of calcium chloride and sodium tri-polyphosphate (mineral salts on growth performance, body composition and objective meat quality of pigs immunized against gonadotrophin releasing factor (immunocastrates and entire male pigs in the late finishing phase. Pigs fed mineral salts ate less feed than those fed the control diet with no effect on growth rate (p > 0.05, backfat (p > 0.05 or fat deposition (p > 0.05. Pigs fed albus lupins had a reduced feed intake (p < 0.001 for all time periods, lower growth rate (p < 0.001 for all time periods, lower backfat (p < 0.005 and decreased fat deposition (p < 0.001 for all time periods compared to those fed the control diet or mineral salts. From day (d 0–28 pigs fed mineral salts had a better feed conversion ratio (p = 0.001 than those fed albus lupins who in turn had an improved feed conversion compared to the control diet. Immunocastrates had thicker backfat than entire males at the end of the experiment (p < 0.001, however, feeding albus lupins to immunocastrated males reduced backfat thickness to similar to entire males fed the control diet (p = 0.01. With the exception of the increased muscle pH at 45 minutes post-exsanguination in mineral salts and albus lupins compared with the control diet (p = 0.03 there was no effect of diet on objective pork quality. Pork from IC males had a higher ultimate pH (p < 0.001, was lighter (L*; p = 0.003, more yellow (p = 0.008 and had a higher drip loss (p < 0.001 compared to entire males. Albus lupins show potential in reducing the increase in feed intake and backfat associated with immunocastration. Mineral salts may be useful in situations where a reduction in feed intake and an improvement in feed conversion is desired and reducing fat deposition is not the objective.

  6. Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) effects analysis—Integrative report 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; James, Daniel A.; Welker, Timothy L.; Parsley, Michael J.

    2016-07-15

    The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis was designed to carry out three components of an assessment of how Missouri River management has affected, and will affect, population dynamics of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon): (1) collection of reliable scientific information, (2) critical assessment and synthesis of available data and analyses, and (3) analysis of the effects of actions on listed species and their habitats. This report is a synthesis of the three components emphasizing development of lines of evidence relating potential future management actions to pallid sturgeon population dynamics. We address 21 working management hypotheses that emerged from an expert opinion-based filtering process.The ability to quantify linkages from abiotic changes to pallid sturgeon population dynamics is compromised by fundamental information gaps. Although a substantial foundation of pallid sturgeon science has been developed during the past 20 years, our efforts attempt to push beyond that understanding to provide predictions of how future management actions may affect pallid sturgeon responses. For some of the 21 hypotheses, lines of evidence are limited to theoretical deduction, inference from sparse empirical datasets, or expert opinion. Useful simulation models have been developed to predict the effects of management actions on survival of drifting pallid sturgeon free embryos in the Yellowstone and Upper Missouri River complex (hereafter referred to as the “upper river”), and to assess the effects of flow and channel reconfigurations on habitat availability in the Lower Missouri River, tributaries, and Mississippi River downstream of Gavins Point Dam (hereafter referred to as the “lower river”). A population model also has been developed that can be used to assess sensitivity of the population to survival of specific life stages, assess some hypotheses related to stocking decisions, and explore a limited number of management

  7. M aritrema corai n. sp. (Digenea: Microphallidae) from the white ibis Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus) (Aves: Threskiornithidae) in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Orts, Jesús S; Pinacho-Pinacho, Carlos D; García-Varela, Martín; Kostadinova, Aneta

    2016-02-01

    M aritrema corai n. sp. is described based on material from the intestine of the white ibis Eudocimus albus (L.) (Threskiornithidae) in Mexico. The new species can be distinguished morphologically from all congeners by the unique combination of the following morphological features: a very long cirrus sac attenuated distally [cirrus sac to body length ratio 1:0.90-1.29 (mean 1:1.07)]; a large, elongate-oval seminal receptacle, located dorsally between the cirrus sac and ovary; and long, filiform, unarmed, evaginable cirrus. Phylogenetic analyses of 28S ribosomal DNA (rDNA) sequences for the new species and for Maritrema spp. and Microphallus spp. depicted strong support for the two genera (excluding Microphallus fusiformis) and revealed close relationships between Ma. corai n. sp. and the clade formed by Maritrema novaezealandense Martorelli, Fredensborg, Mouritsen & Poulin, 2004, Maritrema heardi (Kinsella & Deblock, 1994) and Maritrema cf. eroliae.

  8. Characterization and effect of year of harvest on the nutritional properties of three varieties of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calabrò, Serena; Cutrignelli, Monica I; Lo Presti, Vittorio; Tudisco, Raffaella; Chiofalo, Vincenzo; Grossi, Micaela; Infascelli, Federico; Chiofalo, Biagina

    2015-12-01

    Three cultivars of Lupinus albus L. (Lutteur, Lublanca and Multitalia) were assessed for proximate composition, fatty acids, alkaloids and in vitro fermentation characteristics over three harvest years. The chemical composition varied greatly during the three harvest years. Crude protein content ranged from 353 to 456 g kg(-1) dry matter (DM), neutral detergent fiber content from 209 to 321 g kg(-1) DM and lignin content from 3.0 to 63.9 g kg(-1) DM. Lublanc showed the highest crude protein (417 g kg(-1) DM) and lignin (35 g kg(-1) DM) contents. High levels of lipids (89.9 g kg(-1) DM) and starch (93.3 g kg(-1) DM) were found in all samples. Alkaloid content ranged from 3.63 to 165 mg per 100 g. Lutteur and Lublanc showed more favorable n-3/n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid ratios (from 0.44 to 0.73) and lower values of the anti-quality factor 'erucic acid' (from 5.8 to 20.9 g kg(-1) ) than Multitalia. Lutteur showed higher degradability (897 g kg(-1) ), gas production (330 mL g(-1) organic matter (OM)) and volatile fatty acid production (117 mmol g(-1) OM) than the other varieties. The present data suggest L. albus L. cv. Lutteur to be a promising crop as food thanks to its high nutritive traits and most constant yield over time. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Root Cluster Formation and Citrate Exudation of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as Related to Phosphorus Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Jian LI; Rui-Xia LIANG

    2005-01-01

    A split-root system was used to investigate whether the external or internal P concentration controls root cluster formation and citrate exudation in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown under controlled conditions. In spite of low P concentrations in the shoots and roots of the -P plant, its dry weight was not reduced compared with the +P plant. Supplying external P (0.25 mmol/L) to one root halfresulted in an increase in P concentration not only in the shoot, but also in the P-deprived root half, indicating P cycling within the plants. Omitting P from both split-root pots stimulated root cluster formation in both root halves,whereas P supply to one root halfstimulated root cluster formation at the beginning of the treatment. Neither P supply to just one root half continuously nor resupply of P to one root half after 19 d of P starvation inhibited root cluster formation on the P-deprived side, although the concentration of P in this root half and shoot increased markedly. The results indicate that root cluster formation in L. albus is controlled by both shoot and root P concentrations. The rates of citrate exudation by both root halves with P deficiency were higher than those of the one root half supplied with P only. In the treatment with one root half supplied with P, the rates of citrate exudation by either the P-supplied or -deprived root halves were almost the same,regardless of P concentration in the roots. The results suggest that internal P concentration controls root cluster formation and citrate exudation in white lupin, but these processes may be regulated by different mechanisms.

  10. Metabolic analysis revealed altered amino acid profiles in Lupinus albus organs as a result of boron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves, Marta; Chicau, Paula; Matias, Helena; Passarinho, José; Pinheiro, Carla; Ricardo, Cândido Pinto

    2011-07-01

    We analysed the changes in the metabolites of Lupinus albus organs (leaf-blades, petioles, apexes, hypocotyls and roots) as a consequence of B deficiency. The deficiency did not affect malate concentration and induced only minor changes in the sugar content, suggesting that the carbohydrate metabolism is little affected by the deficiency. Contrarily, marked changes in the content of free amino acids were observed, with some specific variations associated with the different organs. These changes indicate that various aspects of metabolism implicated in the amino acid accumulation were affected by B deficiency. Most of the detected changes appear to have implications with some stress responses or signalling processes. Asparagine and proline that increase in many stresses also accumulated in petioles, apexes and hypocotyls. Accumulation of γ-aminobutyric acid shunt amino acids, indicative of production of reactive oxygen species, occurs in the same three organs and also the roots. The increase in the branched-chain amino acids, observed in all organs, suggests the involvement of B with the cytoskeleton, whereas glycine decrease in leaf-blades and active growing organs (apexes and roots) could be associated with the proposed role of this amino acids in plant signalling in processes that might be associated with the decreased growth rates observed in B deficiency. Despite the admitted importance of free amino acids in plant metabolism, the available information on this matter is scarce. So our results bring new information concerning the effects of B deficiency in the metabolism of the several L. albus organs. Copyright © Physiologia Plantarum 2011.

  11. Application of a modified Anaerobic Digestion Model 1 version for fermentative hydrogen production from sweet sorghum extract by Ruminococcus albus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ntaikou, I.; Lyberatos, G. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Karatheodori 1 St., 26500 Patras (Greece); Institute of Chemical Engineering and High Temperature Chemical Processes, 26504 Patras (Greece); Gavala, H.N. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Patras, Karatheodori 1 St., 26500 Patras (Greece); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2010-04-15

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a developed, ADM1-based kinetic model for the hydrogen production process in batch and continuous cultures of the bacterium Ruminococcus albus grown on sweet sorghum extract as the sole carbon source. Although sorghum extract is known to contain at least two different sugars, i.e. sucrose and glucose, no biphasic growth was observed in batch cultures as such growth is reported to occur in cultures of R. albus with mixed substrates. Thus, taking into account that the main sugar of sweet sorghum extract is sucrose, batch experiments with different initial concentrations of sucrose were performed in order to estimate the growth kinetics of the bacterium on this substrate. The kinetic parameters used, concerning the endogenous metabolism of the bacterium as well as those concerning the effect of pH and hydrogen partial pressure (P{sub H2}), were the same as those estimated in a previous study with glucose as carbon source. Subsequently, the experimental data of batch and continuous experiments with sweet sorghum extract were simulated based on the already developed, modified ADM1 model accounting for the use of sugar-based substrate. It was shown that the model which was developed on synthetic substrates was successful in adequately describing the behavior of the microorganism on a real substrate such as sweet sorghum extract and predicting the experimental results quite well with a deviation of the model predictions from the experimental results being between 5-18% for the hydrogen yield. (author)

  12. Effect of water activity on the production of volatile organic compounds by Muscodor albus and their effect on three pathogens in stored potato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcuff, Ronan; Mercier, Julien; Tweddell, Russell; Arul, Joseph

    2011-03-01

    Muscodor albus (Xylariaceae, Ascomycetes) isolate CZ-620 produces antimicrobial volatile organic compounds (VOC), which appear to have potential for the control of various postharvest diseases. The effect of water activity (Aw) on the production of VOC by M. albus culture, and their inhibitory effects on the growth of three pathogens of potato tuber (Fusarium sambucinum, Helminthosporium solani, and Pectobacterium atrosepticum) and the development of diseases caused by the three pathogens (dry rot, silver scurf, and bacterial soft rot, respectively) were investigated. Rye grain culture of the fungus produced six alcohols, three aldehydes, five acids or esters, and two terpenoids. The most abundant VOC were: isobutyric acid; bulnesene, a sesquiterpene; an unidentified terpene; 2 and 3-methyl-1-butanol; and ethanol. However, the level of each of those VOC varied with Aw of the culture. Emission activity occurred mainly at Aw above 0.75 and high emission of most VOC occurred only at Aw above 0.90. The aldehydes (2-methyl-propanal and 3-methyl-butanal) were the only VOC produced in quantities below an Aw of 0.90. An Aw value of 0.96 favored maximum emission of acids, esters, and terpenoids. There was a higher production of alcohols and a decrease in aldehydes with increase in Aw. Isobutyric acid, which has been the main M. albus VOC monitored in previous studies as an indicator of antifungal activity, had a rather narrow optimum, peaking at Aw of 0.96 and declining sharply above 0.98. Results showed that substrate Aw affects the production dynamics of each group of VOC by the fungus, and suggest that VOC production can be prolonged by maintaining M. albus culture at a constant optimum Aw. The VOC was inhibitory to F. sambucinum, H. solani, and P. atrosepticum; and biofumigation with M. albus significantly reduced dry rot and soft rot development, and completely controlled silver scurf in inoculated tubers incubated at both 8°C and 22°C. The results show that Aw

  13. Intercropping with white lupin (Lupinus albus L.); a promising tool for phytoremediation and phytomining research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balazs; Moschner, Christin; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2015-04-01

    In recent studies root-soil interactions of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) have drawn special attention to researchers due to its particularly high potential to increase bioavailability of phosphorous (P) and trace nutrients in soils. In mixed cultures, white lupine has the ability to mobilize P and trace nutrients in soil in excess of its own need and make this excess available for other intercropped companion species. While improved acquisition of P and improved yield parameters have mostly been documented in cereal-lupine intercrops, compared to sole crops, only a few recent studies have evidenced similar effects for trace elements e.g. Fe, Zn and Mn. In this preliminary study we tried to obtain more information about the mobilization of trace elements due to intercropping under field conditions. We hypothesize, that processes that lead to a better acquisition of trace nutrients might also affect other trace elements what could be useful for phytoremediation and phytomining research. Here we report the results of a semi-field experiment were we investigated the effects of an intercropping of white lupine with oat (Avena sativa L.) on the concentrations of trace metals in shoots of oat. We investigated the effects on 12 trace elements, including 4 elements with relevance for plant nutrition (P, Fe, Mn, Zn) and 8 trace elements, belonging to the group of metalloids, lanthanides and actinides with high relevance in phytoremediation (Cd, Pb Th, U) and phytomining research (Sc, La, Nd, Ge). The experiment was carried out on a semi-field lysimer at the off-site soil recycling and remediation center in Hirschfeld (Saxony, Germany). To test the intercropping-dependent mobilization of trace metals in soil and enhanced uptake of elements by oat, white lupine and oat were cultivated on 20 plots (4 m² each) in monocultures and mixed cultures and two different white lupin /oat-ratios (11% and 33%, respectively) applying various treatments. The geometrical arrangement of

  14. Changes to the generic names of extinct east European species described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratnikov, V. Yu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The generic assignment of three fossil forms described as Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993 and Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993 is discussed. The author justifies why their original generic names should not be changed to Pseudepidalea, as recently proposed, but should be maintained until more convincing evidence is discovered.Se discute la atribución genérica de tres formas fósiles descritas como Bufo belogoricus Ratnikov, 1993, Bufo planus Ratnikov, 1993, y Bufo albus Ratnikov, 1993. El autor justifica las razones por las cuales las adscripciones genéricas originales no deberían cambiarse a Pseudepidalea, como recientemente se ha propuesto, sino mantenerse hasta que se descubra nueva evidencia más convincente.

  15. Identification of putative methanol dehydrogenase (moxF) structural genes in methylotrophs and cloning of moxF genes from Methylococcus capsulatus bath and Methylomonas albus BG8

    OpenAIRE

    Stephens, R. L.; Haygood, M G; Lidstrom, M. E.

    1988-01-01

    An open-reading-frame fragment of a Methylobacterium sp. strain AM1 gene (moxF) encoding a portion of the methanol dehydrogenase structural protein has been used as a hybridization probe to detect similar sequences in a variety of methylotrophic bacteria. This hybridization was used to isolate clones containing putative moxF genes from two obligate methanotrophic bacteria, Methylococcus capsulatus Bath and Methylomonas albus BG8. The identity of these genes was confirmed in two ways. A T7 exp...

  16. In vitro fermentation of lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) and broad beans (Vicia faba): dynamic modulation of the intestinal microbiota and metabolomic output

    OpenAIRE

    Gullón, P.; Tavaria, Freni; Vasconcelos, Marta; Gomes, Ana M. P.

    2015-01-01

    Broad beans (Vicia faba) and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus) are legumes rich in a wide range of compounds, which may represent a useful dietary approach for modulating the human gut microbiome. In this work, after in vitro digestion, legume samples were used as carbon sources in anaerobic batch cultures to evaluate their impact on the intestinal microbiota composition and on their metabolic products. The fermentations were monitored by a decrease in pH, generation of short chain fatt...

  17. 网箱养殖条件下黄鳝性腺发育的研究%Study on Gonad Development of Monasteries albus Cultured in Cage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚世园; 王松; 何绪刚; 储张杰; 郭灿灿; 田罡; 潘望城

    2013-01-01

    对网箱养殖条件下黄鳝(Monasteries albus)性腺发育进行研究.结果表明,在网箱养殖条件下,黄鳝性腺发育过程可分为雌性、间性、雄性3个阶段.卵巢发育分为Ⅰ~Ⅵ期;间性性腺发育分为间性Ⅰ期和间性Ⅱ期;精巢发育分为Ⅰ~Ⅵ期.各期性腺主要包含对应时相的生殖细胞,也有其他时相生殖细胞存在,生殖细胞的发育速度并不一致.%Gonad development of Monasteries albus cultured in cage was studied.In cage culture condition,gonad development of M.albus was divided into three stages female,intersex and male.Female stage included Ⅰ to Ⅵ,intersex stage included Ⅰ and Ⅱ,male stage included Ⅰ to Ⅵ.In different development stages,gonad mainly contained the corresponding reproductive cells,and other phases of reproductive cells,the development speed of reproductive cells was not consistent.

  18. Activation and silencing of secondary metabolites in Streptomyces albus and Streptomyces lividans after transformation with cosmids containing the thienamycin gene cluster from Streptomyces cattleya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braña, Alfredo F; Rodríguez, Miriam; Pahari, Pallab; Rohr, Jurgen; García, Luis A; Blanco, Gloria

    2014-05-01

    Activation and silencing of antibiotic production was achieved in Streptomyces albus J1074 and Streptomyces lividans TK21 after introduction of genes within the thienamycin cluster from S. cattleya. Dramatic phenotypic and metabolic changes, involving activation of multiple silent secondary metabolites and silencing of others normally produced, were found in recombinant strains harbouring the thienamycin cluster in comparison to the parental strains. In S. albus, ultra-performance liquid chromatography purification and NMR structural elucidation revealed the identity of four structurally related activated compounds: the antibiotics paulomycins A, B and the paulomenols A and B. Four volatile compounds whose biosynthesis was switched off were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses and databases comparison as pyrazines; including tetramethylpyrazine, a compound with important clinical applications to our knowledge never reported to be produced by Streptomyces. In addition, this work revealed the potential of S. albus to produce many others secondary metabolites normally obtained from plants, including compounds of medical relevance as dihydro-β-agarofuran and of interest in perfume industry as β-patchoulene, suggesting that it might be an alternative model for their industrial production. In S. lividans, actinorhodins production was strongly activated in the recombinant strains whereas undecylprodigiosins were significantly reduced. Activation of cryptic metabolites in Streptomyces species might represent an alternative approach for pharmaceutical drug discovery.

  19. Genomics of sponge-associated Streptomyces spp. closely related to Streptomyces albus J1074: insights into marine adaptation and secondary metabolite biosynthesis potential.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Ian

    Full Text Available A total of 74 actinomycete isolates were cultivated from two marine sponges, Geodia barretti and Phakellia ventilabrum collected at the same spot at the bottom of the Trondheim fjord (Norway. Phylogenetic analyses of sponge-associated actinomycetes based on the 16S rRNA gene sequences demonstrated the presence of species belonging to the genera Streptomyces, Nocardiopsis, Rhodococcus, Pseudonocardia and Micromonospora. Most isolates required sea water for growth, suggesting them being adapted to the marine environment. Phylogenetic analysis of Streptomyces spp. revealed two isolates that originated from different sponges and had 99.7% identity in their 16S rRNA gene sequences, indicating that they represent very closely related strains. Sequencing, annotation, and analyses of the genomes of these Streptomyces isolates demonstrated that they are sister organisms closely related to terrestrial Streptomyces albus J1074. Unlike S. albus J1074, the two sponge streptomycetes grew and differentiated faster on the medium containing sea water. Comparative genomics revealed several genes presumably responsible for partial marine adaptation of these isolates. Genome mining targeted to secondary metabolite biosynthesis gene clusters identified several of those, which were not present in S. albus J1074, and likely to have been retained from a common ancestor, or acquired from other actinomycetes. Certain genes and gene clusters were shown to be differentially acquired or lost, supporting the hypothesis of divergent evolution of the two Streptomyces species in different sponge hosts.

  20. Kinetics of Inactivation of Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger Spores and Staphylococcus albus on Paper by Chlorine Dioxide Gas in an Enclosed Space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Wu, Jinhui; Qi, Jiancheng; Hao, Limei; Yi, Ying; Zhang, Zongxing

    2016-05-15

    Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger spore and Staphylococcus albus are typical biological indicators for the inactivation of airborne pathogens. The present study characterized and compared the behaviors of B. subtilis subsp. niger spores and S. albus in regard to inactivation by chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas under different gas concentrations and relative humidity (RH) conditions. The inactivation kinetics under different ClO2 gas concentrations (1 to 5 mg/liter) were determined by first-order and Weibull models. A new model (the Weibull-H model) was established to reveal the inactivation tendency and kinetics for ClO2 gas under different RH conditions (30 to 90%). The results showed that both the gas concentration and RH were significantly (P 70%). Compared with the first-order model, the Weibull and Weibull-H models demonstrated a better fit for the experimental data, indicating nonlinear inactivation behaviors of the vegetative bacteria and spores following exposure to ClO2 gas. The times to achieve a six-log reduction of B. subtilis subsp. niger spore and S. albus were calculated based on the established models. Clarifying the kinetics of inactivation of B. subtilis subsp. niger spores and S. albus by ClO2 gas will allow the development of ClO2 gas treatments that provide an effective disinfection method. Chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas is a novel and effective fumigation agent with strong oxidization ability and a broad biocidal spectrum. The antimicrobial efficacy of ClO2 gas has been evaluated in many previous studies. However, there are presently no published models that can be used to describe the kinetics of inactivation of airborne pathogens by ClO2 gas under different gas concentrations and RH conditions. The first-order and Weibull (Weibull-H) models established in this study can characterize and compare the behaviors of Bacillus subtilis subsp. niger spores and Staphylococcus albus in regard to inactivation by ClO2 gas, determine the kinetics of inactivation of

  1. Nickel-tolerant ectomycorrhizal Pisolithus albus ultramafic ecotype isolated from nickel mines in New Caledonia strongly enhance growth of the host plant Eucalyptus globulus at toxic nickel concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jourand, Philippe; Ducousso, Marc; Reid, Robert; Majorel, Clarisse; Richert, Clément; Riss, Jennifer; Lebrun, Michel

    2010-10-01

    Ectomycorrhizal (ECM) Pisolithus albus (Cooke & Massee), belonging to the ultramafic ecotype isolated in nickel-rich serpentine soils from New Caledonia (a tropical hotspot of biodiversity) and showing in vitro adaptive nickel tolerance, were inoculated to Eucalyptus globulus Labill used as a Myrtaceae plant-host model to study ectomycorrhizal symbiosis. Plants were then exposed to a nickel (Ni) dose-response experiment with increased Ni treatments up to 60 mg kg( - )(1) soil as extractable Ni content in serpentine soils. Results showed that plants inoculated with ultramafic ECM P. albus were able to tolerate high and toxic concentrations of Ni (up to 60 μg g( - )(1)) while uninoculated controls were not. At the highest Ni concentration tested, root growth was more than 20-fold higher and shoot growth more than 30-fold higher in ECM plants compared with control plants. The improved growth in ECM plants was associated with a 2.4-fold reduction in root Ni concentration but a massive 60-fold reduction in transfer of Ni from root to shoots. In vitro, P. albus strains could withstand high Ni concentrations but accumulated very little Ni in its tissue. The lower Ni uptake by mycorrhizal plants could not be explained by increased release of metal-complexing chelates since these were 5- to 12-fold lower in mycorrhizal plants at high Ni concentrations. It is proposed that the fungal sheath covering the plant roots acts as an effective barrier to limit transfer of Ni from soil into the root tissue. The degree of tolerance conferred by the ultramafic P. albus isolates to growth of the host tree species is considerably greater than previously reported for other ECM. The primary mechanisms underlying this improved growth were identified as reduced Ni uptake into the roots and markedly reduced transfer from root to shoot in mycorrhizal plants. The fact that these positive responses were observed at Ni concentrations commonly observed in serpentinic soils suggests that

  2. Iron deficiency induces changes in riboflavin secretion and the mitochondrial electron transport chain in hairy roots of Hyoscyamus albus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Ataru; Mori, Yuko; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2010-07-15

    Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots secrete riboflavin under Fe-deficient conditions. To determine whether this secretion was linked to an enhancement of respiration, both riboflavin secretion and the reduction of 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC), as a measure of respiration activity, were determined in hairy roots cultured under Fe-deficient and Fe-replete conditions, with or without aeration. Appreciable TTC-reducing activity was detected at the root tips, at the bases of lateral roots and in internal tissues, notably the vascular system. TTC-reducing activity increased under Fe deficiency and this increase occurred in concert with riboflavin secretion and was more apparent under aeration. Riboflavin secretion was not apparent under Fe-replete conditions. In order to examine which elements of the mitochondrial electron transport chain might be involved, the effects of the respiratory inhibitors, barbiturate, dicoumarol, malonic acid, antimycin, KCN and salicylhydroxamic acid (SHAM) were investigated. Under Fe-deficient conditions, malonic acid affected neither root growth, TTC-reducing activity nor riboflavin secretion, whereas barbiturate and SHAM inhibited only root growth and TTC-reducing activity, respectively, and the other compounds variously inhibited growth and TTC-reducing activity. Riboflavin secretion was decreased, in concert with TTC-reducing activity, by dicoumarol, antimycin and KCN, but not by SHAM. In Fe-replete roots, all inhibitors which reduced riboflavin secretion in Fe-deficient roots showed somewhat different effects: notably, antimycin and KCN did not significantly inhibit TTC-reducing activity and the inhibition by dicoumarol was much weaker in Fe-replete roots. Combined treatment with KCN and SHAM also revealed that Fe-deficient and Fe-replete roots reduced TTC in different ways. A decrease in the Fe content of mitochondria in Fe-deficient roots was confirmed. Overall, the results suggest that, under conditions of Fe deficiency in H

  3. Sensory prediction or motor control? Application of marr-albus type models of cerebellar function to classical conditioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepora, Nathan F; Porrill, John; Yeo, Christopher H; Dean, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Marr-Albus adaptive filter models of the cerebellum have been applied successfully to a range of sensory and motor control problems. Here we analyze their properties when applied to classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in rabbits. We consider a system-level model of eyeblink conditioning based on the anatomy of the eyeblink circuitry, comprising an adaptive filter model of the cerebellum, a comparator model of the inferior olive and a linear dynamic model of the nictitating membrane plant. To our knowledge, this is the first model that explicitly includes all these principal components, in particular the motor plant that is vital for shaping and timing the behavioral response. Model assumptions and parameters were systematically investigated to disambiguate basic computational capacities of the model from features requiring tuning of properties and parameter values. Without such tuning, the model robustly reproduced a range of behaviors related to sensory prediction, by displaying appropriate trial-level associative learning effects for both single and multiple stimuli, including blocking and conditioned inhibition. In contrast, successful reproduction of the real-time motor behavior depended on appropriate specification of the plant, cerebellum and comparator models. Although some of these properties appear consistent with the system biology, fundamental questions remain about how the biological parameters are chosen if the cerebellar microcircuit applies a common computation to many distinct behavioral tasks. It is possible that the response profiles in classical conditioning of the eyeblink depend upon operant contingencies that have previously prevailed, for example in naturally occurring avoidance movements.

  4. Increasing capture efficiency of pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus (Forbes and Richardson, 1905) and the reliability of catch rate estimates

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVries, R. J.; Hann, D. A.; Schramm, H.L.

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of environmental parameters on the probability of capturing endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) using trotlines in the lower Mississippi River. Pallid sturgeon were sampled by trotlines year round from 2008 to 2011. A logistic regression model indicated water temperature (T; P probability (Y = −1.75 − 0.06T + 0.10D). Habitat type, surface current velocity, river stage, stage change and non-sturgeon bycatch were not significant predictors (P = 0.26–0.63). Although pallid sturgeon were caught throughout the year, the model predicted that sampling should focus on times when the water temperature is less than 12°C and in deeper water to maximize capture probability; these water temperature conditions commonly occur during November to March in the lower Mississippi River. Further, the significant effect of water temperature which varies widely over time, as well as water depth indicate that any efforts to use the catch rate to infer population trends will require the consideration of temperature and depth in standardized sampling efforts or adjustment of estimates.

  5. Patagifer lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae from the white ibis Eudocimus albus (Threskiornithidae from Texas, USA Patagifer lamothei n. sp. (Digenea: Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae del ibis blanco Eudocimus albus (Threkiornithidae de Texas, EUA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norman O. Dronen

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available During a study of the endohelminths of wading birds from the Texas Gulf coast, 12 specimens of an undescribed species of Patagifer Dietz, 1909 (Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae were collected from 2 of 8 white ibis, Eudocimus albus (Linnaeus (Threskiornithidae, from the Galveston and Brazos County areas of Texas, USA. Patagifer lamothei n. sp. can be distinguished from P. bilobus (Rudolphi, 1819, P. brygooi Richard, 1964, P. consimilis Dietz, 1909, and P. fraternus Johnston, 1917, where the testes are close together (contiguous to nearly contiguous, the ovary is close to the anterior testis (a distance that is less than the length of the ovary, and the posttesticular space is less extensive, by having the testes separated from each other by a distance approximately equal to or greater than the length of the ovary, the ovary positioned about the length or longer of the ovary from the anterior testis, and by having a more extensive posttesticular space. In addition, the ovary of the new species is located just ahead of midbody rather than being at midbody, as is seen in P. bilobus, P. fraternus, and P. vioscai Lumsden, 1962, or below midbody, as is the case in P. brygooi and P. consimilis. The new species is most like P. simarai Nigam, 1944 in the similar distance between testes, position of the ovary, and the posttesticular space (30-36% of the body length. The new species differs from P. simarai by having a smaller body size, a smaller oral sucker and pharynx, a smaller acetabulum, ovary, testes, cirrus sac, and smaller spines on the margin of the collar, but larger corner spines, and the ovary of the new species is located immediately anterior to the midbody, while in P. simarai it is located well ahead of the midbody.En un estudio de endohelmintos de aves de los humedales de la costa de Texas, se recolectaron 12 ejemplares de una especie no descrita de Patagifer Dietz, 1909 (Echinostomatidae: Nephrostominae en 2 ibis blancos de 8 examinados

  6. Aislamiento, Purificación y Caracterización de los Alérgenos presentes en la Semilla de Lupinus albus (Altramuz).

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    El problema principal que nos encontramos al estudiar la alergia alimentaria al Lupinus albus, es que los alérgenos mayores no están identificados y son desconocidos, esto ocasiona que no hayan las herramientas correctas para poder abordar e intentar solucionar la sintomatología del paciente. En nuestro caso concreto, la alergia al altramuz es frecuente en la población ya que está siendo utilizada su harina en la elaboración de productos de pastele...

  7. Sensory prediction or motor control? Application of Marr-Albus type models of cerebellar function to classical conditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathan F Lepora

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Marr-Albus adaptive filter models of the cerebellum have been applied successfully to a range of sensory and motor control problems. Here we analyze their properties when applied to classical conditioning of the nictitating membrane response in rabbits. We consider a system-level model of eyeblink conditioning based on the anatomy of the eyeblink circuitry, comprising an adaptive filter model of the cerebellum, a comparator model of the inferior olive and a linear dynamic model of the nictitating membrane plant. To our knowledge, this is the first model that explicitly includes all these principal components, in particular the motor plant that is vital for shaping and timing the behavioral response. Model assumptions and parameters were systematically investigated to disambiguate basic computational capacities of the model from features requiring tuning of properties and parameter values. Without such tuning, the model robustly reproduced a range of behaviors related to sensory prediction, by displaying appropriate trial-level associative learning effects for both single and multiple stimuli, including blocking and conditioned inhibition. In contrast, successful reproduction of the real-time motor behavior depended on appropriate specification of the plant, cerebellum and comparator models. Although some of these properties appear consistent with the system biology, fundamental questions remain about how the biological parameters are chosen if the cerebellar microcircuit applies a common computation to many distinct behavioral tasks. It is possible that the response profiles in classical conditioning of the eyeblink depend upon operant contingencies that have previously prevailed, for example in naturally occurring avoidance movements.

  8. Virgibacillus albus sp. nov., a novel moderately halophilic bacterium isolated from Lop Nur salt lake in Xinjiang province, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yun-Jiao; Zhou, Yu; Ja, Man; Shi, Rong; Chun-Yu, Wei-Xun; Yang, Ling-Ling; Tang, Shu-Kun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2012-11-01

    A Gram-positive, moderately halophilic, strictly aerobic bacterium, designated YIM 93624(T), was isolated from a salt lake in Xinjiang province of China and subjected to a polyphasic taxonomic study. Strain YIM 93624(T) grew at 15-45 °C (optimum 25-30 °C), 1-17% (w/v) NaCl (optimum 5-10 %, w/v) and pH 4.0-9.0 (optimum pH 7.0). The predominant menaquinone was found to be MK-7. The major fatty acids were anteiso-C(15:0) and C(16:0). The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylinositol, a glycolipid and two unidentified phospholipids. The cell-wall peptidoglycan contained meso-diaminopimelic acid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 37.9 mol%. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain YIM 93624(T) was a member of the genus Virgibacillus and exhibited the highest similarity of 97.0 % to Virgibacillus koreensis KCTC 3823(T). However, the level of DNA-DNA relatedness between strain YIM 93624(T) and V. koreensis KCTC 3823(T) was 32.5 %. On the basis of phylogenetic, physiological and chemotaxonomic analysis data, the isolate is concluded to represent a novel species of the genus Virgibacillus, for which the name Virgibacillus albus sp. nov., is proposed, with type strain of YIM 93624(T) (=DSM 23711(T) = JCM 17364(T)).

  9. Sperm-cell ultrastructure of North American sturgeons. IV. The pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus Forbes and Richardson, 1905)

    Science.gov (United States)

    DiLauro, M.N.; Walsh, R.A.; Peiffer, M.; Bennett, R.M.

    2001-01-01

    Sperm-cell morphology and ultrastructure in the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) were examined using transmission and scanning electron microscopy. Metrics and structure were compared with similar metrics obtained from other published descriptions of sturgeon sperm cells. General morphology was found to be similar to that of sperm cells of the white (Acipenser transmontanus), lake (A. fulvescens), stellate (A. stellatus), Chinese (A. sinensis), Russian (A. gueldenstaedti colchicus), and shortnose (A. brevirostrum) sturgeons, which all shared a gradual tapering of the nuclear diameter from posterior to anterior, unlike that of the Atlantic sturgeon (A. oxyrhynchus). The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon was similar in size to that of the Atlantic sturgeon, being only slightly larger. The sperm cell of the pallid sturgeon differed from those of other sturgeons chiefly in the acrosomal region, where the posterolateral projections (PLP) have the shape of an acute triangle and are arranged in a spiral about the longitudinal axis of the cell. The PLP were longer than those of other sturgeons, being twice the length of those of the Atlantic sturgeon and 58% longer than those of the lake sturgeon. Also, in cross section the acrosome had the shape of a hollow cone rather than the cap of an oak tree acorn, as was found in ultrastructural studies of other sturgeons. In addition, we were able to confirm that the structural arrangement of the distal centriole of the midpiece is identical with that of the proximal centriole: nine sets of microtubular triplets around the periphery of the centriole. This information is of potential use to fishery biologists, forensic biologists, zoologists, reproductive physiologists, taxonomists, evolutionary biologists, and aquaculturists.

  10. Development of working hypotheses linking management of the Missouri River to population dynamics of Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2016-01-20

    This report documents a process of filtering of hypotheses that relate Missouri River Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) population dynamics to management actions including flow alterations, channel reconfigurations, and pallid sturgeon population augmentation. The filtering process was a partnership among U.S. Geological Survey, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, and U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to contribute to the Missouri River Recovery Management Plan process. The objective of the filtering process was to produce a set of hypotheses with high relevance to pallid sturgeon population dynamics and decision making on the Missouri River. The Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis team filtered hundreds of potential hypotheses implicit in conceptual ecological models to develop a set of 40 candidate dominant hypotheses that were identified by experts as being important in pallid sturgeon population dynamics. Using a modified Delphi process and additional expert opinion, the team reduced this set of hypotheses to 23 working dominant hypotheses. We then matched the 23 hypotheses with management actions that could influence the biotic outcomes, resulting in as many as 176 potential effects between management actions and pallid sturgeon in the Missouri River. This number was consolidated to a candidate set of 53 working management hypotheses because some management actions applied to multiple life stages of the pallid sturgeon. We used an additional round of expert surveys to identify a set of 30 working management hypotheses. Finally, the set of working management hypotheses was filtered by the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers, Missouri River Recovery Program for actions that were within the agency’s authority and jurisdiction. This round resulted in a set of 21 hypotheses for initial modeling of linkages from management to pallid sturgeon population responses.

  11. Migrations and swimming capabilities of endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) to guide passage designs in the fragmented Yellowstone River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braaten, P. J.; Elliott, Caroline M.; Rhoten, Jason C.; Fuller, D. B.; McElroy, Brandon J.

    2015-01-01

    Fragmentation of the Yellowstone River is hypothesized to preclude recruitment of endangered Scaphirhynchus albus (pallid sturgeon) by impeding upstream spawning migrations and access to upstream spawning areas, thereby limiting the length of free-flowing river required for survival of early life stages. Building on this hypothesis, the reach of the Yellowstone River affected by Intake Diversion Dam (IDD) is targeted for modification. Structures including a rock ramp and by-pass channel have been proposed as restoration alternatives to facilitate passage. Limited information on migrations and swimming capabilities of pallid sturgeon is available to guide engineering design specifications for the proposed structures. Migration behavior, pathways (channel routes used during migrations), and swimming capabilities of free-ranging wild adult pallid sturgeon were examined using radiotelemetry, and complemented with hydraulic data obtained along the migration pathways. Migrations of 12–26% of the telemetered pallid sturgeon population persisted to IDD, but upstream passage over the dam was not detected. Observed migration pathways occurred primarily through main channel habitats; however, migrations through side channels up to 3.9 km in length were documented. The majority of pallid sturgeon used depths of 2.2–3.4 m and mean water velocities of 0.89–1.83 m/s while migrating. Results provide inferences on depths, velocities, and habitat heterogeneity of reaches successfully negotiated by pallid sturgeon that may be used to guide designs for structures facilitating passage at IDD. Passage will provide connectivity to potential upstream spawning areas on the Yellowstone River, thereby increasing the likelihood of recruitment for this endangered species.

  12. Proposal to designate strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) as the neotype strain of Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LYONS, A J; PRIDHAM, T G

    1962-02-01

    Lyons, A. J., Jr. (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.) and T. G. Pridham. Proposal to designate strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) as the neotype strain of Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici. J. Bacteriol. 83:370-380. 1962.-It is proposed that strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) be designated henceforth as the neotype strain of Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici and as the type strain of the genus Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici. The proposal is based not only on the fact that the holotype strain [Streptotrix (sic) alba] of Rossi-Doria is no longer extant, but also on the fact that a study of the literature and a taxonomic study of 55 strains of the organism indicate the species should exhibit these characteristics: catenulate ovoidal spores, white aerial mycelium, coiled sporophores, proteolytic activity, and nonchromogenicity (inability to form brown, deep brown, or black diffusible pigments). Strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) exhibits these characteristics, as do 16 other acquisitions. Study of the 16 additional strains that conform with the general definition of the species shows differences in some physiological characteristics. It is suggested that these differences are of subspecific significance.

  13. PROPOSAL TO DESIGNATE STRAIN ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) AS THE NEOTYPE STRAIN OF STREPTOMYCES ALBUS (ROSSI-DORIA) WAKSMAN AND HENRICI1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, A. J.; Pridham, T. G.

    1962-01-01

    Lyons, A. J., Jr. (Northern Regional Research Laboratory, Peoria, Ill.) and T. G. Pridham. Proposal to designate strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) as the neotype strain of Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici. J. Bacteriol. 83:370–380. 1962.—It is proposed that strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) be designated henceforth as the neotype strain of Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici and as the type strain of the genus Streptomyces Waksman and Henrici. The proposal is based not only on the fact that the holotype strain [Streptotrix (sic) alba] of Rossi-Doria is no longer extant, but also on the fact that a study of the literature and a taxonomic study of 55 strains of the organism indicate the species should exhibit these characteristics: catenulate ovoidal spores, white aerial mycelium, coiled sporophores, proteolytic activity, and nonchromogenicity (inability to form brown, deep brown, or black diffusible pigments). Strain ATCC 3004 (IMRU 3004) exhibits these characteristics, as do 16 other acquisitions. Study of the 16 additional strains that conform with the general definition of the species shows differences in some physiological characteristics. It is suggested that these differences are of subspecific significance. Images PMID:14467640

  14. Direct cloning and heterologous expression of the salinomycin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces albus DSM41398 in Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jia; Hoffmann, Michael; Bian, Xiaoying; Tu, Qiang; Yan, Fu; Xia, Liqiu; Ding, Xuezhi; Stewart, A Francis; Müller, Rolf; Fu, Jun; Zhang, Youming

    2015-10-13

    Linear plus linear homologous recombination-mediated recombineering (LLHR) is ideal for obtaining natural product biosynthetic gene clusters from pre-digested bacterial genomic DNA in one or two steps of recombineering. The natural product salinomycin has a potent and selective activity against cancer stem cells and is therefore a potential anti-cancer drug. Herein, we separately isolated three fragments of the salinomycin gene cluster (salO-orf18) from Streptomyces albus (S. albus) DSM41398 using LLHR and assembled them into intact gene cluster (106 kb) by Red/ET and expressed it in the heterologous host Streptomyces coelicolor (S. coelicolor) A3(2). We are the first to report a large genomic region from a Gram-positive strain has been cloned using LLHR. The successful reconstitution and heterologous expression of the salinomycin gene cluster offer an attractive system for studying the function of the individual genes and identifying novel and potential analogues of complex natural products in the recipient strain.

  15. Nitrogen fractions and mineral content in different lupin species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, and Lupinus luteus). Changes induced by the alpha-galactoside extraction process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porres, Jesus M; Aranda, Pilar; López-Jurado, María; Urbano, Gloria

    2007-09-05

    The protein and mineral composition of different varieties of three different lupin species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, and Lupinus luteus) and the effect of alpha-galactoside removal by means of a hydroalcoholic extraction process on such composition were studied in relationship to nutrient distribution among the different anatomical parts of the seed (embryo, cotyledon, and seed coat). The extent of processing-derived protein insolubilization was assessed by both chemical and electrophoretic techniques and related to the amount of nitrogen soluble in H(2)O, NaCl, ethanol, NaOH, and sodium dodecyl sulfate/beta-mercaptoethanol (SDS/BME). The alpha-galactoside extraction process caused a significant increase in the amount of total and insoluble nitrogen and decreased the amount of soluble protein nitrogen, without affecting the content of soluble nonprotein nitrogen. alpha-Galactoside extraction was not effective at decreasing the levels of Mn present in lupins, and processing caused an increase in the content of this mineral in all of the species studied with the exception of L. albus var. multolupa. In general, the effect of processing on mineral content varied with the different lupin species, and mineral losses were lower in L. luteus.

  16. Urbanized White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) as Carriers of Salmonella enterica of Significance to Public Health and Wildlife

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia M.; Welch, Catharine N.; Peters, Valerie E.; Lipp, Erin K.; Curry, Shannon; Yabsley, Michael J.; Sanchez, Susan; Presotto, Andrea; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Hise, Kelley B.; Hammond, Elizabeth; Kistler, Whitney M.; Madden, Marguerite; Conway, April L.; Kwan, Tiffany; Maurer, John J.

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, Salmonella spp. is a significant cause of disease for both humans and wildlife, with wild birds adapted to urban environments having different opportunities for pathogen exposure, infection, and transmission compared to their natural conspecifics. Food provisioning by people may influence these factors, especially when high-density mixed species flocks aggregate. White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), an iconic Everglades species in decline in Florida, are becoming increasingly common in urbanized areas of south Florida where most are hand-fed. We examined the prevalence of Salmonella shedding by ibises to determine the role of landscape characteristics where ibis forage and their behavior, on shedding rates. We also compared Salmonella isolated from ibises to human isolates to better understand non-foodborne human salmonellosis. From 2010–2013, 13% (n = 261) adult/subadult ibises and 35% (n = 72) nestlings sampled were shedding Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella shedding by ibises significantly decreased as the percent of Palustrine emergent wetlands and herbaceous grasslands increased, and increased as the proportion of open-developed land types (e.g. parks, lawns, golf courses) increased, suggesting that natural ecosystem land cover types supported birds with a lower prevalence of infection. A high diversity of Salmonella serotypes (n = 24) and strain types (43 PFGE types) were shed by ibises, of which 33% of the serotypes ranked in the top 20 of high significance for people in the years of the study. Importantly, 44% of the Salmonella Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis patterns for ibis isolates (n = 43) matched profiles in the CDC PulseNet USA database. Of these, 20% came from Florida in the same three years we sampled ibis. Importantly, there was a negative relationship between the amount of Palustrine emergent wetland and the number of Salmonella isolates from ibises that matched human cases in the PulseNet database (p = 0.056). Together, our

  17. Urbanized White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) as Carriers of Salmonella enterica of Significance to Public Health and Wildlife.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernandez, Sonia M; Welch, Catharine N; Peters, Valerie E; Lipp, Erin K; Curry, Shannon; Yabsley, Michael J; Sanchez, Susan; Presotto, Andrea; Gerner-Smidt, Peter; Hise, Kelley B; Hammond, Elizabeth; Kistler, Whitney M; Madden, Marguerite; Conway, April L; Kwan, Tiffany; Maurer, John J

    2016-01-01

    Worldwide, Salmonella spp. is a significant cause of disease for both humans and wildlife, with wild birds adapted to urban environments having different opportunities for pathogen exposure, infection, and transmission compared to their natural conspecifics. Food provisioning by people may influence these factors, especially when high-density mixed species flocks aggregate. White Ibises (Eudocimus albus), an iconic Everglades species in decline in Florida, are becoming increasingly common in urbanized areas of south Florida where most are hand-fed. We examined the prevalence of Salmonella shedding by ibises to determine the role of landscape characteristics where ibis forage and their behavior, on shedding rates. We also compared Salmonella isolated from ibises to human isolates to better understand non-foodborne human salmonellosis. From 2010-2013, 13% (n = 261) adult/subadult ibises and 35% (n = 72) nestlings sampled were shedding Salmonella. The prevalence of Salmonella shedding by ibises significantly decreased as the percent of Palustrine emergent wetlands and herbaceous grasslands increased, and increased as the proportion of open-developed land types (e.g. parks, lawns, golf courses) increased, suggesting that natural ecosystem land cover types supported birds with a lower prevalence of infection. A high diversity of Salmonella serotypes (n = 24) and strain types (43 PFGE types) were shed by ibises, of which 33% of the serotypes ranked in the top 20 of high significance for people in the years of the study. Importantly, 44% of the Salmonella Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis patterns for ibis isolates (n = 43) matched profiles in the CDC PulseNet USA database. Of these, 20% came from Florida in the same three years we sampled ibis. Importantly, there was a negative relationship between the amount of Palustrine emergent wetland and the number of Salmonella isolates from ibises that matched human cases in the PulseNet database (p = 0.056). Together, our results

  18. EFEITO DO TRATAMENTO TÉRMICO NA DIGESTIBILIDADE, SOLUBILIDADE E ÍNDICE DE ATIVIDADE DE UREASE EM TREMOÇO (LUPINUS ALBUS E LUPINUS ANGUSTIFOLIUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Regina Pereira MONTEIRO

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available

    Entre as diversas leguminosas estudadas, o tremoço é uma fonte de proteína vegetal de grande potencial para uso na alimentação humana. As espécies dessa leguminosa são originárias do Mediterrâneo e da America do Sul e as mais cultivadas são o Lupinus albus (tremoço branco e o Lupinus angustifolius (tremoço azul. Entretanto, existem fatores antinutricionais presentes nessa leguminosa que precisam ser inativados. Essas substâncias interferem negativamente na digestibilidade proteica e um grande conteúdo delas pode implicar em menor biodisponibilidade da proteína. Este trabalho baseia-se na premissa de que o tratamento térmico adequado dado aos grãos de tremoço promove a inativação dos fatores antinutricionais presentes nessa leguminosa, melhorando, assim, sua digestibilidade. Foram aplicados dois tratamentos térmicos de 100oC por 60 minutos e 150oC por 30 minutos nos grãos do tremoço. Os tratamentos térmicos foram efi cazes para inativação da atividade de urease. A solubilidade não apresentou diferença signifi cativa após tratamento térmico, passando de 79% a 75%. A média da digestibilidade verdadeira encontrada para o Lupinus albus foi de 90,89%, enquanto o Lupinus angustifolius foi de 89,3%. Ao comparar as duas digestibilidades, observou-se que a digestibilidade in vivo se mostrou signifi cativamente maior (p<0,05 que a digestibilidade in vitro após aplicação de tratamento térmico par o Lupinus albus. Pode-se concluir que o tratamento térmico foi efi ciente para inibir a atividade da enzima uréase e que o binômio tempo-temperatura utilizado não foi excessivo a ponto de diminuir a solubilidade.

  19. A re-assessment of sucrose signaling involved in cluster-root formation and function in phosphate-deficient white lupin (Lupinus albus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengrui; Shen, Jianbo; Ludewig, Uwe; Neumann, Günter

    2015-07-01

    Apart from substrate functions, a signaling role of sucrose in root growth regulation is well established. This raised the question whether sucrose signals might also be involved in formation of cluster-roots (CRs) under phosphate (Pi) limitation, mediating exudation of phosphorus (P)-mobilizing root exudates, e.g. in Lupinus albus and members of the Proteaceae. Earlier studies demonstrated that CR formation in L. albus was mimicked to some extent by external application of high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) in the presence of extremely high P supply (1-10 mM), usually suppressing CR formation. In this study, we re-addressed this question using an axenic hydroponic culture system with normal P supply (0.1 mM) and a range of sucrose applications (0.25-25 mM). The 2.5 mM sucrose concentration was comparable with internal sucrose levels in the zone of CR initiation in first-order laterals of P-deficient plants (3.4 mM) and induced the same CR morphology. Similar to earlier studies, high sucrose concentrations (25 mM) resulted in root thickening and inhibition of root elongation, associated with a 10-fold increase of the internal sucrose level. The sucrose analog palatinose and a combination of glucose/fructose failed to stimulate CR formation under P-sufficient conditions, demonstrating a signal function of sucrose and excluding osmotic or carbon source effects. In contrast to earlier findings, sucrose was able to induce CR formation but had no effect on CR functioning with respect to citrate exudation, in vitro activity and expression of genes encoding phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase, secretory acid phosphatase and MATE transporters, mediating P-mobilizing functions of CRs. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  20. Molecular Modeling and MM-PBSA Free Energy Analysis of Endo-1,4-β-Xylanase from Ruminococcus albus 8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongling Zhan

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Endo-1,4-β-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8 is the enzyme from Ruminococcus albus 8 (R. albus 8 (Xyn10A, and catalyzes the degradation of arabinoxylan, which is a major cell wall non-starch polysaccharide of cereals. The crystallographic structure of Xyn10A is still unknown. For this reason, we report a computer-assisted homology study conducted to build its three-dimensional structure based on the known sequence of amino acids of this enzyme. In this study, the best similarity was found with the Clostridium thermocellum (C. thermocellum N-terminal endo-1,4-β-d-xylanase 10 b. Following the 100 ns molecular dynamics (MD simulation, a reliable model was obtained for further studies. Molecular Mechanics/Poisson-Boltzmann Surface Area (MM-PBSA methods were used for the substrate xylotetraose having the reactive sugar, which was bound in the −1 subsite of Xyn10A in the 4C1 (chair and 2SO (skew boat ground state conformations. According to the simulations and free energy analysis, Xyn10A binds the substrate with the −1 sugar in the 2SO conformation 39.27 kcal·mol−1 tighter than the substrate with the sugar in the 4C1 conformation. According to the Xyn10A-2SO Xylotetraose (X4(sb interaction energies, the most important subsite for the substrate binding is subsite −1. The results of this study indicate that the substrate is bound in a skew boat conformation with Xyn10A and the −1 sugar subsite proceeds from the 4C1 conformation through 2SO to the transition state. MM-PBSA free energy analysis indicates that Asn187 and Trp344 in subsite −1 may an important residue for substrate binding. Our findings provide fundamental knowledge that may contribute to further enhancement of enzyme performance through molecular engineering.

  1. Reproductive cycle of Loxechinus albus (Echinodermata: Echinoidea in two areas of the Magellan Region (53ºS, 70-72ºW, Chile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sylvia T. Oyarzún

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The reproductive cycle of the Chilean edible sea urchin, Loxechinus albus, was studied in two areas of the Magellan region, the Cockburn Channel (53°43´S, 70°42´W and Dawson Island (53°43´S, 72°00´W. Eleven monthly samplings were carried out from April 1996 to May 1997 in each area and samples of between 88 and 100 organisms were collected. Test diameter, total wet weight, and wet gonad weight was measured for each organism. Sex, gonad index, maturity index and gametogenic condition were estimated for each organism through histological analyses. The results indicate that L. albus in the Magellan region has an annual reproductive cycle in which the temporal sequence of different gametogenic processes can not be distinguished accurately due to the rapid and continuous gonadal recovery and gamete production after the spawning period. Although mature organisms were present most of the year, simultaneous spawning of males and females occurred from August to September in Dawson Island and from July to September in the Cockburn Channel. Gametes of those organisms that became mature after the spawning period were resorbed by nutritive phagocytes. Results from this study suggest that small-scale variability of spawning period in the Magellan region may be explained by the differences in food type and availability among areas. Our results also suggest that the Magellan region is an exception to the latitudinal pattern of spawning period reported for most of the Chilean coast. This large-scale variability may be explained by the simultaneous occurrence of low temperatures and short days during late winter and early spring.

  2. Lupinus albus L

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    uovspc

    2013-08-28

    Aug 28, 2013 ... active ethyl acetate extract was fractionated further by means of adsorption column ..... fitted to an Erlenmeyer flask connected to a suction pump. The ... and water fractions (6) were concentrated by means of vacuum dis-.

  3. Water depth selection during foraging and efficiency in prey capture by the egrets Casmerodius albus and Egretta thula (Aves, Ardeidae in an urban lagoon in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Seleção de profundidade da água durante o forrageamento e eficiência na captura de presas por Casmerodius albus e Egretta thula (Aves, Ardeidae em uma lagoa urbana no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline B. Moreno

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the water depth selection during foraging, the efficiency in prey capture, and the food items captured by Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus, 1758 and Egretta thula (Molina, 1782. The work was conducted at an urban lagoon, Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas, Rio de Janeiro. Four transects were made each month (two in the morning and two in the afternoon for six months. When the birds were detected foraging, the water depth and the types of prey captured were recorded. There was no significant relationship between the foraging efficiencies of the two species. However, they differed in relation to the water depth when foraging, and also in the food items captured. Casmerodius albus captured mainly fishes while Egretta thula captured mainly invertebrates. The results suggest that the differences in water depth when foraging and the food items captured allow a differential use of the food resources available by C. albus and E. thula at Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas.Este estudo teve o objetivo de avaliar a seleção de profundidade durante o forrageamento, a eficiência na captura de presas e os itens alimentares capturados por Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus, 1758 e Egretta thula (Molina, 1782. O trabalho foi realizado em uma lagoa urbana, Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas. Durante seis meses foram realizadas quatro transecções (duas de manhã e duas à tarde. Quando as aves foram avistadas forrageando, foram registradas a profundidade da água e o tipo de presa capturada. Não foi encontrada relação estatisticamente significativa entre a eficiência de forrageamento para as duas espécies de aves. Entretanto, as espécies diferiram significativamente em relação à profundidade da água durante o forrageamento e também em relação aos itens alimentares capturados. Casmerodius albus capturou principalmente peixes, enquanto E. thula capturou principalmente invertebrados. Os resultados sugerem que diferenças na profundidade da água durante o

  4. WILD PINEAPPLE (ANANAS BRACTEATUS (LINDL.), VAR. ALBUS) HARVESTED IN FOREST PATCHES IN RURAL AREA OF VIÇOSA, MINAS GERIAS, BRAZIL: EXCELLENT SOURCE OF MINERALS AND GOOD SOURCE OF PROTEINS AND VITAMIN C

    OpenAIRE

    GALDINO XAVIER DE PAULA FILHO; TIBÉRIO FONTENELLE BARREIRA; GILBERTO BERNARDO DE FREITAS; HÉRCIA STAMPINI DUARTE MARTINO; HELENA MARIA PINHEIRO SANT’ANA

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In the rural region of the municipality of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, forest patches are encountered and they present a great diversity of wild and edible fruit, where wild pineapple (Ananas bracteatus (Lindl.), var. albus) is one of those of greatest occurrence. Given that, little is known about the nutritional characteristics of this fruit, the present study aimed to investigate the physical and physic-chemical characteristics, chemical composition (titratable acidity, total soluble so...

  5. Water depth selection during foraging and efficiency in prey capture by the egrets Casmerodius albus and Egretta thula (Aves, Ardeidae) in an urban lagoon in Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil Seleção de profundidade da água durante o forrageamento e eficiência na captura de presas por Casmerodius albus e Egretta thula (Aves, Ardeidae) em uma lagoa urbana no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Moreno,Aline B.; Adriano R. Lagos; MARIA ALICE S. ALVES

    2005-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the water depth selection during foraging, the efficiency in prey capture, and the food items captured by Casmerodius albus (Linnaeus, 1758) and Egretta thula (Molina, 1782). The work was conducted at an urban lagoon, Lagoa Rodrigo de Freitas, Rio de Janeiro. Four transects were made each month (two in the morning and two in the afternoon) for six months. When the birds were detected foraging, the water depth and the types of prey captured were recorded. There was...

  6. Nitrogen transfer from Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. and Vicia sativa L. contribute differently to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. nitrogen nutrition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaïs Génard

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Nitrogen (N transfer is well documented in legume-cereal intercropping but this is less often reported for legume-Brassica intercrops even though Brassica crops require higher levels of N fertilizers. The present study was carried out to quantify N transfer from legumes (Lupinus albus L., Trifolium incarnatum L. or Vicia sativa L. to rapeseed (Brassica napus L. using the split-root 15N-labelling method. After three months we observed that legumes did not alter the growth of rapeseed. Vetch showed the lowest growth and demonstrated low 15N shoot to root translocation and no significant N transfer to rapeseed. In contrast, significant 15N enrichment was found in lupine and clover and 15N was transferred to the associated rapeseed plants (around 6 and 4 mg N plant−1, respectively, which contributed 2 to 3% of the rapeseed total N. Additionally, the data revealed that N2 fixation dominated the N nutrition in lupine despite the high N level provided in the donor compartment, suggesting a greater niche segregation between companion plants. Based on the results of this study we suggest that intercropping can be a relevant contributor to rapeseed N nutrition. Among the three legumes tested, clover and lupine seemed to be the best intercropping candidates.

  7. New Deferoxamine Glycoconjugates Produced upon Overexpression of Pathway-Specific Regulatory Gene in the Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces albus PVA94-07.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekurova, Olga N; Pérez-Victoria, Ignacio; Martín, Jesús; Degnes, Kristin F; Sletta, Håvard; Reyes, Fernando; Zotchev, Sergey B

    2016-08-27

    Activation of silent biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces bacteria via overexpression of cluster-specific regulatory genes is a promising strategy for the discovery of novel bioactive secondary metabolites. This approach was used in an attempt to activate a cryptic gene cluster in a marine sponge-derived Streptomyces albus PVA94-07 presumably governing the biosynthesis of peptide-based secondary metabolites. While no new peptide-based metabolites were detected in the recombinant strain, it was shown to produce at least four new analogues of deferoxamine with additional acyl and sugar moieties, for which chemical structures were fully elucidated. Biological activity tests of two of the new deferoxamine analogues revealed weak activity against Escherichia coli. The gene knockout experiment in the gene cluster targeted for activation, as well as overexpression of certain genes from this cluster did not have an effect on the production of these compounds by the strain overexpressing the regulator. It seems plausible that the production of such compounds is a response to stress imposed by the production of an as-yet unidentified metabolite specified by the cryptic cluster.

  8. New Deferoxamine Glycoconjugates Produced upon Overexpression of Pathway-Specific Regulatory Gene in the Marine Sponge-Derived Streptomyces albus PVA94-07

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga N. Sekurova

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Activation of silent biosynthetic gene clusters in Streptomyces bacteria via overexpression of cluster-specific regulatory genes is a promising strategy for the discovery of novel bioactive secondary metabolites. This approach was used in an attempt to activate a cryptic gene cluster in a marine sponge-derived Streptomyces albus PVA94-07 presumably governing the biosynthesis of peptide-based secondary metabolites. While no new peptide-based metabolites were detected in the recombinant strain, it was shown to produce at least four new analogues of deferoxamine with additional acyl and sugar moieties, for which chemical structures were fully elucidated. Biological activity tests of two of the new deferoxamine analogues revealed weak activity against Escherichia coli. The gene knockout experiment in the gene cluster targeted for activation, as well as overexpression of certain genes from this cluster did not have an effect on the production of these compounds by the strain overexpressing the regulator. It seems plausible that the production of such compounds is a response to stress imposed by the production of an as-yet unidentified metabolite specified by the cryptic cluster.

  9. Optimization of ruminococcus albus endoglucanase cel5-cbm6 production in plants by incorporating an elp tag and targeting to different subcellular compartments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pereira, E.O.; Menassa, R. [Western Ontario Univ., London, ON (Canada). Dept. of Biology; Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON (Canada); Kolotilin, I. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, London, ON (Canada)

    2009-07-01

    The production of biomass-based biofuel such as ethanol depends on the deconstruction of a cellulosic matrix and requires a variety of enzymes that hydrolyze glycosidic bonds to release fermentable sugars. Endoglucanases are one of most important groups of natural cellulosic hydrolytic enzymes that act on cellulose. In order to decrease ethanol production costs, the cost of producing cellulases must also be reduced. Genetically engineered transgenic plants are among the most economical systems for large scale production of recombinant proteins because of the large amount of enzymes that can be produced with minimal input. Cellulases present different levels of expression in different subcellular compartments. Cel5-CBM6 is a fused protein containing an endocellulase from Ruminococus albus (Cel5) and a cellulose binding domain (CBD) of Clostridium stercorarium. It accumulates in both the chloroplast and cytoplasm, but severe growth defects occur when expressed in the cytoplasm. Therefore, other subcellular compartments such as endoplasmic reticulum (ER) and vacuole must be evaluated and compared to determine the best co partment for production and activity of cellulases. Since elastin-like polypeptide (ELP) has also been shown to increase recombinant protein accumulation in plants, this study evaluated the effects of incorporating an ELP tag and a retrieval signal peptide on the expression levels of Cel5-CBM6.

  10. The First Genetic and Comparative Map of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.): Identification of QTLs for Anthracnose Resistance and Flowering Time, and a Locus for Alkaloid Content

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phan, Huyen T. T.; Ellwood, Simon R.; Adhikari, Kedar; Nelson, Matthew N.; Oliver, Richard P.

    2007-01-01

    Abstract We report the first genetic linkage map of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.). An F8 recombinant inbred line population developed from Kiev mutant × P27174 was mapped with 220 amplified fragment length polymorphism and 105 gene-based markers. The genetic map consists of 28 main linkage groups (LGs) that varied in length from 22.7 cM to 246.5 cM and spanned a total length of 2951 cM. There were seven additional pairs and 15 unlinked markers, and 12.8% of markers showed segregation distortion at P anthracnose resistance, flowering time, and alkaloid content allowed loci governing these traits to be defined. Two quantitative trait loci (QTLs) with significant effects were identified for anthracnose resistance on LG4 and LG17, and two QTLs were detected for flowering time on the top of LG1 and LG3. Alkaloid content was mapped as a Mendelian trait to LG11. PMID:17526914

  11. Isotherms and kinetic study of dihydrogen and hydrogen phosphate ions (H{2}PO{4}- and HPO{4}2-) adsorption onto crushed plant matter of the semi-arid zones of Morocco: Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus and Senecio anthophorbium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiban, M.; Benhima, H.; Saadi, B.; Nounah, A.; Sinan, F.

    2005-03-01

    In the present work H{2}PO4- and HPO42- ions adsorption onto organic matter (OM) obtained from ground dried three plants growing in arid zones of Morocco has been studied. The adsorption process is affected by various parameters such as contact time, particle size and initial concentration of phosphate solution (Ci ≤ 30 mg/l). The uptake of both ions is increased by increasing the concentration of them selves. The retention of phosphate ions by Asphodelus microcarpus, Asparagus albus are well defined by several isotherms such as the Langmuir, Temkin and Freundlich.

  12. 低能离子注入诱变选育盐霉素高产菌株%Breeding of High-Yield Salinomycin-Producing Streptomyces albus Strain by Low Energy N + Ion Beam Irradiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    武利勤; 苗凤香; 顾海科; 尚宏忠

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究N+离子注入对白色链霉菌的诱变效应,同时筛选高产盐霉素的变异菌株.[方法]利用不同剂量的氮离子对白色链霉菌S-11-04菌株进行诱变处理,研究低能氮离子注入对其存活率、菌落形状及产盐霉素能力的影响.[结果]低能氮离子注入对白色链霉菌的诱变效应显著,试验得到了13株盐霉素产量较高的突变菌株,其中N3-6菌株经连续传代4次,遗传稳定性较好,其摇瓶发酵水平较对照提高了41%,发酵生产后平均发酵水平提高了20.5%.[结论]离子注入诱变是获得高产盐霉素突变菌株的有效方法.%[ Objective] This study aimed to explore the mutagenesis effects of N+ ion beam irradiation on Streptomyces albus and obtain high-yield salinomycin-producing strain. [Method] Streptomyces albus strain S-ll-04 was mutated with different doses of N+ implantation. The effects of low energy N+ implantation on the survival rate, colony shape and salinomycin-producing ability were investigated. [ Result] The results showed that low energy N+ implantation can efficiently improve the positive mutation rate of Streptomyces albus; 13 mutant strains with high yield of salinomycin were isolated; mutant strain N3-6 has good inheritance and fermentation stability with four continuous generations, and the litres of salinomycin were increased by 41% in the shake-flask cukure and 20. 5% in mass production compared with the control. [Conclusion] N+ ion beam irradiation is an effective method to obtain high-yield salinomycin-producing Streptomyces albus strain.

  13. Nitrate levels and stages of growth in hypernodulating mutants of Lupinus albus. II. Enzymatic activity and transport of N in the xylem sap Diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágio de crescimento em mutantes hipernodulantes de Lupinus albus II. Atividade enzimática e transporte de N na seiva do xilema

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    Hélio Almeida Burity

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available The enzymatic study and transport of N in the xylem sap was carried out with a view to observing the influence of different nitrate levels and growth stages of the plant in chemically treated mutants of Lupinus albus. Several stresses induce a reduction in plant growth, resulting in the accumulation of free amino acids, amides or ureides, not only in the shoot, but also in the roots and nodules. Although enzyme activity is decisive in avoiding products that inhibit nitrogenase by ammonium, little is known about the mechanism by which the xylem carries these products. However, this process may be the key to the function of avoiding the accumulation of amino acids in the cells of infected nodules. The behaviour of the enzymes nitrate reductase (NR, phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC, glutamine synthetase (GS and nitrogen compounds derived from fixation, such as N-a-amino, N-ureides and N-amide in mutant genotypes were observed. The NR enzyme activity was highly influenced by the application of nitrate showing much higher values than those in the non-application of nitrate, independently of genotype, being that the NR, the best evaluation period was in the tenth week. The L-62 genotype characterized with nitrate- resistance, clearly showed that the enzyme PEPC is inhibited by presence of nitrate. The L-135 genotype (nod- fix- showed GS activity extremely low, thus demonstrating that GS is an enzyme highly correlated with fixation. With regard to the best growth stage for GS, Lupinus albus should be evaluated in the seventh week.O estudo enzimático e o transporte de N na seiva do xilema foi realizado visando observar a influência de diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágios de crescimento da planta em mutantes tratadas quimicamente. Vários estresses induzem a redução no crescimento da planta da qual resulta na acumulação de aminoácidos livres, amidas ou ureídos, tanto na parte aérea como nas raízes e nódulos. A atividade de enzimas

  14. Lipid and protein accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species: Lupinus luteus L., Lupinus albus L., and Lupinus mutabilis Sweet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Slawomir; Pukacka, Stanisława; Michalski, Krzysztof; Ratajczak, Lech

    2009-01-01

    A comparative study was carried out on the dynamics of lipid accumulation in developing seeds of three lupine species. Lupine seeds differ in lipid content; yellow lupine (Lupinus luteus L.) seeds contain about 6%, white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) 7-14%, and Andean lupine (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet) about 20% of lipids by dry mass. Cotyledons from developing seeds were isolated and cultured in vitro for 96 h on Heller medium with 60 mM sucrose (+S) or without sucrose (-S). Each medium was additionally enriched with 35 mM asparagine or 35 mM NaNO3. Asparagine caused an increase in protein accumulation and simultaneously decreased the lipid content, but nitrate increased accumulation of both protein and lipid. Experiments with [1-14C]acetate and [2-14C]acetate showed that the decrease in lipid accumulation in developing lupine seeds resulted from exhaustion of lipid precursors rather than from degradation or modification of the enzymatic apparatus. The carbon atom from the C-1 position of acetate was liberated mainly as CO2, whereas the carbon atom from the C-2 position was preferentially used in anabolic pathways. The dominant phospholipid in the investigated lupine seed storage organs was phosphatidylcholine. The main fatty acid in yellow lupine cotyledons was linoleic acid, in white lupine it was oleic acid, and in Andean lupine it was both linoleic and oleic acids. The relationship between stimulation of lipid and protein accumulation by nitrate in developing lupine cotyledons and enhanced carbon flux through glycolysis caused by the inorganic nitrogen form is discussed.

  15. Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Staphylococcaceae isolated from marine sediment of the Indian Ocean.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Zhao; Yuan, Chang-Guo; Xiao, Min; Tian, Xin-Peng; Khan, Inam-Ullah; Kim, Chang-Jin; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Li, Wen-Jun

    2016-08-01

    A Gram-stain positive, aerobic, non-motile, asporogenous, coccoid shaped bacterium, designated YIM M12140(T), was isolated from a marine sediment sample collected from the Indian Ocean. Phylogenetic analysis showed that strain YIM M12140(T) forms a separate clade within the family Staphylococcaceae. Strain YIM M12140(T) shares high 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity with Macrococcus brunensis DSM 19358(T) (92.9 %). The isolate was found to grow at 0-10 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 2-3 %), pH 6.0-10.0 (optimum, pH 8.0) and temperature 5-40 °C (optimum, 28 °C). The polar lipids were identified as diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminophospholipid and two unidentified polar lipids. The major cellular fatty acids of the strain were identified as anteiso-C15:0, -C17:0, iso-C16:0, anteiso-C19:0 and C20:0. The respiratory menaquinones were found to be MK-6 (94 %) and MK-7 (6 %). The cell wall amino acids were found to contain Lys, Ala, Glu, Gly, Asp, Ser and Thr. Whole cell sugars were identified as mannose, ribose, rhamnose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The G+C content of the genomic DNA of strain YIM M12140(T) was determined to be 42.4 mol %. Based on phenotypic, chemotaxonomic data and phylogenetic analysis, it is proposed that strain YIM M12140(T) represents a novel species of a new genus in the family Staphylococcaceae, for which the name Abyssicoccus albus gen. nov., sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is YIM M12140(T) (= DSM 29158(T) = CCTCC AB 2014213(T)).

  16. Increased de novo riboflavin synthesis and hydrolysis of FMN are involved in riboflavin secretion from Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under iron deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higa, Ataru; Khandakar, Jebunnahar; Mori, Yuko; Kitamura, Yoshie

    2012-09-01

    Riboflavin secretion by Hyoscyamus albus hairy roots under Fe deficiency was examined to determine where riboflavin is produced and whether production occurs via an enhancement of riboflavin biosynthesis or a stimulation of flavin mononucleotide (FMN) hydrolysis. Confocal fluorescent microscopy showed that riboflavin was mainly localized in the epidermis and cortex of the root tip and, at the cellular level, in the apoplast. The expressions of three genes involved in the de novo biosynthesis of riboflavin (GTP cyclohydrolase II/3,4-dihydroxy-2-butanone 4-phosphate synthase; 6,7-dimethyl-8-ribityllumazine synthase; riboflavin synthase) were compared between Fe-starved and Fe-replete roots over a time-course of 7 days, using RT-PCR. All three genes were found to be highly expressed over the period 1-7 days in the roots cultured under Fe deficiency. Since riboflavin secretion began to be detected only from 3 days, there was a lag phase observed between the increased transcript accumulations and riboflavin secretion. To determine whether FMN hydrolysis might contribute to the riboflavin secretion in Fe-deficient root cultures, FMN hydrolase activity was determined and was found to be substantially increased after 3 days, when riboflavin secretion became detectable. These results suggested that not only de novo riboflavin synthesis but also the hydrolysis of FMN contributes to riboflavin secretion under conditions of Fe deficiency. Respiration activity was assayed during the time-course, and was also found to be enhanced after 3 days under Fe deficiency, suggesting a possible link with riboflavin secretion. On the other hand, several respiratory inhibitors were found not to affect riboflavin synthase transcript accumulation.

  17. Application of non-lethal stable isotope analysis to assess feeding patterns of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus: a comparison of tissue types and sample preservation methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andvik, R.T.; VanDeHey, J.A.; Fincel, M.J.; French, William E.; Bertrand, K.N.; Chipps, Steven R.; Klumb, Robert A.; Graeb, B.D.S.

    2010-01-01

    Traditional techniques for stable isotope analysis (SIA) generally require sacrificing animals to collect tissue samples; this can be problematic when studying diets of endangered species such as the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus. Our objectives were to (i) determine if pectoral fin tissue (non-lethal) could be a substitute for muscle tissue (lethal) in SIA of juvenile pallid sturgeon, and (ii) evaluate the influence of preservation techniques on stable isotope values. In the laboratory, individual juvenile pallid sturgeon were held for up to 186 day and fed chironomids, fish, or a commercially available pellet diet. Significant, positive relationships (r² ≥ 0.8) were observed between fin and muscle tissues for both δ15N and δ13C; in all samples isotopes were enriched in fins compared to muscle tissue. Chironomid and fish based diets of juvenile pallid sturgeon were distinguishable for fast growing fish (0.3 mm day−1) using stable δ15N and δ13C isotopes. Frozen and preserved fin tissue δ15N isotopes were strongly related (r2 = 0.89) but δ13C isotopes were weakly related (r2 = 0.16). Therefore, freezing is recommended for preservation of fin clips to avoid the confounding effect of enrichment by ethanol. This study demonstrates the utility of a non-lethal technique to assess time integrated food habits of juvenile pallid sturgeon and should be applicable to other threatened or endangered species.

  18. EXTRAÇÃO, ISOLAMENTO E FRACIONAMENTO DA PROTEÍNA DE TREMOÇO (LUPINUS ALBUS VAR. MULTOLUPA

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    VALDIR AUGUSTO NEVES

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as características de solubilidade da proteína de tremoço (Lupinus albus, var. Multolupa. Extração protéica de 84,6% foi obtida com o aumento da relação massa de farinha/ volume de extrator. A solubilidade protéica com o pH mostrou uma curva típica de globulinas com um mínimo entre os pHs 4 e 6. O efeito do aumento da concentração de NaCI até 1,0 M elevou a solubilidade na faixa do pH, no entanto reduziu na faixa de pHs ácidos. O tipo e a concentração de sais e pHs da solução afetaram a solubilidade protéica. O fracionamento com diferentes solventes solubilizou até 87,82% do nitrogênio da farinha de tremoço, e o nitrogênio solúvel em sal correspondeu a até 69% do total. A fração globulina representou 43,42% do total de proteínas, enquanto albumínas, prolaminas, glutelinas e resíduo insolúvel corresponderam a 10,77%, 0,49%, 16,29% e 8,59%, respectivamente. A cromatografia em Sepharose CL-6B mostrou a presença de um pico majoritário e dois componentes menores para a globulina total; e na cromatografia em Sephacryl S-300 HR, três componentes foram observados. A eletroforese em gel de poliacrilamida, da fração do tubo pico do componente majoritário eluído na coluna de Sephacryl, mostrou uma única banda de proteína. O conteúdo de açúcares das proteínas foi distinto para fração albumina e globulma

  19. Raw Pea (Pisum sativum, raw Faba bean (Vicia faba var. minor and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as alternative protein sources in broiler diets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The ban of the meat and bone meal for entering animal diets and the concern of transgenic feeds poses a challenge toanimal nutritionists in Europe. The challenge is to find homegrown protein-rich feedstuffs, making sure no antinutritionalfactors are present which could interfere in the animals’ performance. The raw Pea (Pisum sativum (RP, raw Fababean (Vicia faba, variety minor (RFb and raw Lupin (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (RL were evaluated as alternativeprotein sources into broiler diets. Six hundred thirty 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomlyassigned to seven dietary treatments (5 pens per treatment/18 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fedisocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the basediet (control diet was corn (48.7%, 56.6% and 57%, solvent-extracted soybean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, cornoil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The RP, RFb and RL entered diets in substitution of the soybeanand corn according to the cost optimization (P100, Fb100 and L100, respectively for RP, RFb and RL and at half of theoptimized quantity (RP50, RFb50 and RL50, respectively for RP, RFb and RL. The amount used as fed basis for the higherlevel of inclusion were: P100: 350 g/kg for all diets; Fb100: 480 g/kg (1-10d-old and 500 g/kg (11-42d-old; L100:360 g/kg (1-10d-old and 300 g/kg (11-42d-old. The average daily gain (ADG were lower (P compared to the control group. Over the whole period of growth, the RFb group had similar ADG compared to the controlgroup and for both levels of inclusion, whereas reduced (P (P growth. Birds performance was improved (P and breast and leg quarter cuts. The RFb and RL could represent valuable protein feeds in broilers diet formulation.

  20. 盐霉素自身抗性高产突变菌株筛选%Screening of high- salinomycin- yield mutants ofStreptomyces albus by self-resistance methodology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘朋; 杭海峰; 储消和; 郭美锦; 储炬; 庄英萍; 张嗣良

    2012-01-01

    目的 筛选出具有自身次级代谢产物盐霉素(salinomycin)抗性并且遗传稳定性好的菌株,提高摇瓶效价.方法 采用常规化学试剂甲基磺酸乙酯诱变处理盐霉素生产菌株Streptomyces albusS-13孢子,通过系列salinomycin浓度梯度平板进行筛选.结果 获得了比生产对照菌株高38%的突变株S-E-6.传代实验表明:S-E-6具有较好的遗传稳定性.同时,通过对盐霉素梯度筛选突变株的单菌落直径与效价进行了统计分析,结果表明突变株菌落直径与盐霉素效价具有正相关特性,线性相关系数(R2)为0.95.%Objective To obtain high-yield and genetic stable mutants of Streptomyces albus using a self-resisitance secreening method. Methods Spores of a Streptomyces albus strain S-13 for industrial production of salinomycin were treated by a chemical mutagen of ethylmethane sulfonate(EMS) and then secreen mutants grown on the salinomycin gradient plates. Results A mutant, designated S-E-6, was successfully selected using a salinomycin gradient plate method. The mean salinomycin titer of S-E-6 was 38% higher than that of the parent strain in flask culture. Also, the production level of the mutant S-E-6 was stable after successive 3-generation subcultures, indicating that the selected mutant has a good genetic stability for salinomycin biosynthesis. Besides, the correlation between the radius of colonies grown on salinomycin gradient plates and their corresponding titers was analyzed, the results show that there is a linear relationship with a correlation coefficient (R2) of 0.9546.

  1. Estudio enzimático y anatomopatológico de ponedoras alimentadas con semilla de Lupinus albus (dulce y amarga durante 22 semanas Enzymatic and anatomopathological study of laying hens feeding on Lupinus albus seeds (sweet and bitter for 22 weeks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.C. LOPEZ

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Se estudió el efecto de la incorporación de semilla de Lupinus albus var. Multolupa en la ración de gallinas ponedoras. Un total de 160 gallinas White Leghorn (línea Shaver Starcross 288, de 34 semanas de edad, divididas al azar en 4 grupos, fueron alimentadas en forma controlada durante 22 semanas con una dieta basal más un 10% de semilla de lupino con diferentes porcentajes de alcaloides. Las aves fueron divididas en 4 grupos de 40 aves cada uno, a las que se les administró 0.0105, 0.0421, 0.106 y 0.148 g% de alcaloide, respectivamente. El estudio enzimático consideró las enzimas as-partato-aminotransferasa, alanino-aminotrans-ferasa y fosfatasa alcalina. Se recolectaron muestras de hígado, cerebro y riñón para estudio macro y microscópico, y se llevó un registro de mortalidad. No se encontraron valores enzimáticos que indiquen alteraciones a nivel hepático atribuibles al lupino. Las principales alteraciones morfoló-gicas encontradas fueron trastornos degenerativos y necróticos en cerebro, en igual proporción en los 4 grupos. A nivel renal, en los túbulos se observaron trastornos degenerativos de carácter vacuolar. Las lesiones encontradas en hígado no mostraron un claro compromiso de este órgano. Se concluye que la semilla de lupino amargo con 2.63% de alcaloides, incorporada hasta en un 10% de la ración de ponedoras durante su primera fase de postura, no produce efectos nocivos en la salud de las aves.The effect produced by the incorporation of Lupinus albus var. Multolupa seeds in the rations of laying hens was studied. One hundred and sixty (34 week old White Leghorn hens (Shaver Starcross 288 were divided into 4 groups. These hens were fed with a basal diet plus 10% lupine seeds, with different percentages of alkaloids, for 22 weeks. The hens were kept in individual coops. They were fed daily with 112.5 g/fowl and water was given ad-libitum. The enzymatic study was carried out by measuring the activity of aspartate

  2. Effects of extracts of lupine seed on blood glucose levels in glucose resistant mice: antihyperglycemic effects of Lupinus albus (white lupine, Egypt) and Lupinus caudatus (tailcup lupine, Mesa Verde National Park).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knecht, Kathryn T; Nguyen, Hoa; Auker, Adrienne D; Kinder, David H

    2006-01-01

    Lupine is a medicinal food plant with potential value in the management of diabetes. In white mice, extracts of seeds of the white lupine [Lupinus albus (L. termis L.)] were associated with increased tolerance to an oral glucose bolus. Antihyperglycemic activity was present in extracts of the whole seed but not extracts of the seed coat, and was not detected when glucose was administered intraperitoneally rather than orally. However, in contrast to results seen with the prescription drug, acarbose, lupine extract did not appear to increase the bulk or carbohydrate content of the feces. Antihyperglycemic activity was also seen in extracts of the tailcup lupine (L. caudatus) found in the Four Corners Region of the United States.

  3. The Generative Development of Traditional and Self-Completing (Restricted Branching Cultivars of White Lupin (Lupinus Albus L., Yellow Lupin (L.Luteus L. and Narrow-Lafed Lupin (L. Angustifolius L. Grown under Different Phytotron Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frankowski Kamil

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Increasing the number of flowers and pods set, as well as reducing the intensity of their abortion, is of crucial importance for the yielding of leguminous plants. This study examined the effects of the type of soil used and mineral fertilization applied on the generative development of the traditional and self-completing (restricted branching cultivars of white lupin (Lupinus albus L., yellow lupin (L. luteus L. and narrow-lafed lupin (L. angustifolius L. cultivated under controlled phytotron conditions. Experiments carried out under such conditions allow for the elimination of variable environmental factors affecting the course of plant ontogenesis in field cultivation, and enable unambiguous interpretation of the biochemical and molecular influence of a selected factor on the physiological process studied. For the first time, the influence of different cultivation factors on generative development of traditional and selfcompleting (restricted branching cultivars of lupins under phytotrone was examined.

  4. Pea seeds (Pisum sativum, faba beans (Vicia fabavar. minor and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus var. multitalia as protein sources in broiler diets: effect of extrusion on growth performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianfranco Piva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion of pea seeds (Pisum sativum (PS, faba bean (Vicia faba, variety minor (FB and lupin seeds (Lupinus albus, variety multitalia (LS on broiler performance were evaluated. Four hundred sixty two 1d-old Ross male chicks, Marek vaccinated, were randomly assigned to seven dietary treatments (3 pens per treatment/22 birds per pen. Chicks were floor housed, ad libitum fed isocaloric and isonitrogenous diets and had free access to water. Artificial light was provided 10 h/d. The bulk of the base diet (control diet was corn (48.8%, 53.7% and 57%, solvent-extracted soy- bean meal (42.8%, 37.3% and 33.4%, corn oil (4.4%, 5.2% and 6.3%, plus synthetic amino acids, minerals, trace minerals and vitamins, respectively for the 1-10d-old, 11-28d-old and 29 to 42d-old growing periods. The amounts of PS, FB and LS used on an as fed basis were: PS and extruded PS (EPS: 353 (1-10d-old, 356 (11-28d-old and 350 (29- 42d-old g/kg; FB and extruded FB (EFB: 479 (1-10d-old, 497 (11-28d-old and 500 (29-42d old g/kg; LS and extrud- ed LS (ELS: 360 (1-10d-old and 300 (11-42d-old g/kg. High levels of pea (350 g/kg and faba bean (500 g/kg did not show negative effects on body weight gain (BWG and bird feed intake compared to control. Lupin at the 300 g/kg level reduced (P< 0.05 the BWG during the finishing period (22 to 42 d, however the effect disappeared over the whole experimental period (1-42 d compared to the control group. The ELS group had a lower (P< 0.01 feed intake com- pared to the control group and to the LS group. The feed conversion rate (FCR was similar among groups for the whole experimental period; however during the grower period the FCR was higher (P< 0.05 for the PS, FB and EFB groups com- pared to the control group. Birds consuming the PS diet had a reduced (P< 0.05 eviscerated carcass yield compared to the control group. The breast meat percent yield was higher (P< 0.01 for birds consuming the FB and EFB diets compared to the control

  5. Nitrate levels and stages of growth in hypernodulating mutants of Lupinus albus. I. N2 fixation potential Influência dos diferentes níveis de nitrato e estágio de crescimento em mutantes hipernodulantes de Lupinus albus I. potencial de fixação de N2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélio Almeida Burity

    1999-04-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed to evaluate physiological parameters, nodulation response and N2 fixation rate in mutants of Lupinus albus in comparison with the standard Multolupa cultivar. Two nitrate levels (0 and 5mM and two evaluation periods (7 and 10 weeks were used. Significant differences were observed among genotypes, in relation to fresh nodule weight, nitrate levels and growth stages. The overall average for nitrate level differed between them where 5mM severely inhibited the number of nodules, reaching a 49.5% reduction in relation to treatment without nitrate. There were no behaviour differences among genotypes, nor among evaluation periods. Although the level of nitrate did not influence the production of shoot dry matter in relation to the average among levels applied, the L-135 genotype, being an inefficient mutant, reached very low values. There were no significant differences in electron allocation coefficient (EAC among nitrate levels, nor among genotypes studied. However, the evaluation periods revealed differences, where the EAC for the seventh week had a higher value than that for the tenth week, when a 5mM aplication was evaluated. The N2 fixation rate (N2 FIX showed the existence of the nitrate interference in fixation, given that the application of 5mM severely reduced. However, there were no differences among the genotypes and it was noted that the fixation rate was much higher in those that received nitrate. The L-88 and L-62 genotypes were the ones that have shown best adaptability in this experiment, thus being able to be recommended for new studies with higher nitrate levels and different evaluation periods. The nitrate (5mM interferes in the nitrogen fixation rate, given that all the genotypes were affected by the level applied.Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar parâmetros fisiológicos, resposta da nodulação e a taxa de fixação de N2 em mutantes de Lupinus albus comparando com a cultivar padrão Multolupa. Foram

  6. Effect of glucose feeding strategy on the salinomycin biosynthesis in Streptomyces albus%流加葡萄糖策略对盐霉素生物合成调控影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高圣君; 杭海峰; 陈中兵; 郭美锦; 储炬; 庄英萍; 张嗣良

    2013-01-01

    运用具有多参数检测的生物反应器以及借助BIOSTAR数据处理软件包,在盐霉素原发酵工艺多参数相关性分析的基础上,研究不同阶段流加葡萄糖对盐霉素发酵的影响.结果发现:盐霉素发酵可分为分批发酵期、糖油代谢转化期和糖油转换后期三个阶段,并在糖油代谢转换期中,pH会逐步升高形成一个波峰,而OUR大幅度下降形成一个波谷,这是盐霉素发酵过程中的重要特征;在盐霉素糖油转化阶段流加葡萄糖,菌体代谢出现混沌现象,不利于盐霉素的生物合成;而在糖油转化后并当OUR处于稳定期时流加葡萄糖,此时有利于盐霉素的生物合成,比原发酵工艺效价提高了13.2%.%A 50L bioreactor with multi-parameter monitoring and BIOSTAR data processing software package were employed to analyze the metabolic characteristics of salinomycin in Streptomyces albus.On the basis of analyzing the original fermentation process of salinomycin,the effects of glucose feeding strategy at different fermentation phases on the salinomycin biosynthesis were investigated in the present work.The result showed that the fermentation process of salinomycin could be divided into three phases which were batch fermentation phase,transition phase from sugar to oil and the phase after transition.In the transition phase,the curve of pH and OUR formed crest and trough separately,which was the important characteristic of salinomycin fermentation.Addition of glucose at transition phase from sugar to oil led to the secondary metabolism disorder of S.albus,which was detrimental to the biosynthesis of salinomycin.On the other hand,it benefited the salinomycin production when feeding glucose at the stable phase of OUR after transition phase and its titer was 13.2% higher than that of original fermentation process.

  7. Effects of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on digestive value of white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal for rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saez, Patricio; Borquez, Aliro; Dantagnan, Patricio; Hernández, Adrián

    2015-01-01

    A digestibility trial was conducted to assess the effect of dehulling, steam-cooking and microwave-irradiation on the apparent digestibility of nutrients in white lupin (Lupinus albus) seed meal when fed to rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Six ingredients, whole lupin seed meal (LSM), dehulled LSM, dehulled LSM steam-cooked for 15 or 45 min (SC15 and SC45, respectively) and LSM microwave-irradiated at 375 or 750 W (MW375 and MW750, respectively), were evaluated for digestibility of dry matter, crude protein (CP), lipids, nitrogen-free extractives (NFE) and gross energy (GE). The diet-substitution approach was used (70% reference diet + 30% test ingredient). Faeces from each tank were collected using a settlement column. Dehulled LSM showed higher levels of proximate components (except for NFE and crude fibre), GE and phosphorus in comparison to whole LSM. Furthermore, SC15, SC45, MW375 and MW750 showed slight variations of chemical composition in comparison to dehulled LSM. Results from the digestibility trial indicated that dehulled LSM, SC15, SC45 and MW375 are suitable processing methods for the improvement of nutrients' apparent digestibility coefficient (ADC) in whole LSM. MW750 showed a lower ADC of nutrients (except for CP and lipids for rainbow trout) in comparison with MW350 for rainbow trout and Atlantic salmon, suggesting a heat damage of the ingredient when microwave-irradiation exceeded 350 W.

  8. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,30,4,40,5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S.; McKee, Michael J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Tillitt, Donald E.; Galat, David L.

    2015-01-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,3′,4,4′,5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/g egg (188–203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122–199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11–15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10–14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  9. WILD PINEAPPLE (ANANAS BRACTEATUS (LINDL., VAR. ALBUS HARVESTED IN FOREST PATCHES IN RURAL AREA OF VIÇOSA, MINAS GERIAS, BRAZIL: EXCELLENT SOURCE OF MINERALS AND GOOD SOURCE OF PROTEINS AND VITAMIN C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GALDINO XAVIER DE PAULA FILHO

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In the rural region of the municipality of Viçosa, Minas Gerais, forest patches are encountered and they present a great diversity of wild and edible fruit, where wild pineapple (Ananas bracteatus (Lindl., var. albus is one of those of greatest occurrence. Given that, little is known about the nutritional characteristics of this fruit, the present study aimed to investigate the physical and physic-chemical characteristics, chemical composition (titratable acidity, total soluble solids, pH, moisture content, ash, protein, lipids and dietary fiber, carotenoids (a-carotene, ß-carotene, ß-cryptoxanthin and lycopene, vitamin C (AA and DHA by HPLC-DAD, vitamin E (a-, ß-, ?-, d-, tocopherols and tocotrienols by HPLC-fluorescence, and minerals (P, K, Ca, Mg, Cu, Fe, Zn, Mn, Na, Cr, Se and Mo by ICP-AES. Fruits showed a moisture content average of 78.5 g 100g-1, 16.3 ° Brix of soluble solids, titratable acidity equal to 1.71 g 100g-1 of citric acid, 1.66 g 100g-1 of dietary fiber, 1.41 g 100 g-1 of lipids and caloric density of 83.15 kcal 100g-1. We considered it a source of carbohydrates (12.82 g 100g-1, proteins (4.79 g 100g-1 and Zn (0.98 mg 100g-1; a good source of vitamin C (18.70 mg 100g-1; and an excellent source of Cu (0.48 mg 100g-1, Fe (2.05 mg 100g-1, Mn (8.87 mg 100g-1 and Mo (0.15 mg 100g-1.

  10. Sensitivity of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid sturgeon (S. albus) early life stages to 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-P-dioxin exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckler, Justin; Candrl, James S; McKee, Michael J; Papoulias, Diana M; Tillitt, Donald E; Galat, David L

    2015-06-01

    Concern exists that polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) may be contributing to the current decline of shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and the US federally endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Waterborne exposures with newly fertilized eggs were used to assess developmental and morphological effects of 2 of the most potent aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) agonists, 3,3',4,4',5-pentachlorobiphenyl (PCB-126) and 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), on early life stage shovelnose and pallid sturgeon. No dose-related effects of PCB-126 were observed on percent development or hatch in either species at concentrations as high as 1711 ng/g egg. Effects of TCDD on percent development were not assessed in shovelnose sturgeon. However, percent development was not affected by TCDD in pallid sturgeon, and percent hatch was unaffected by TCDD doses as high as 60 ng/g egg to 81 ng/g egg in either species. Morphological pathologies such as yolk sac edema and craniofacial deformities were typical of AhR agonist exposure and were similar in both species. Calculated PCB-126 50% lethal dose (LD50, 95% fiducial limits) values were 196 ng/g egg (188-203 ng/g) for shovelnose and 159 ng/g egg (122-199 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. Likewise, calculated TCDD LD50 values were 13 ng/g egg (11-15 ng/g) for shovelnose and 12 ng/g egg (10-14 ng/g) for pallid sturgeon. These LD50 values are among the highest recorded in early life stage fish, suggesting that early life stage Scaphirhynchus sturgeon may be comparatively insensitive to AhR agonists.

  11. Genomic characterization and taxonomic position of a rhabdovirus from a hybrid snakehead.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Weiwei; Wang, Qing; Wang, Yingying; Liu, Cun; Liang, Hongru; Fang, Xiang; Wu, Shuqin

    2014-09-01

    A new rhabdovirus, tentatively designated as hybrid snakehead rhabdovirus C1207 (HSHRV-C1207), was first isolated from a moribund hybrid snakehead (Channa maculata×Channa argus) in China. We present the complete genome sequence of HSHRV-C1207 and a comprehensive sequence comparison between HSHRV-C1207 and other rhabdoviruses. Sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis revealed that HSHRV-C1207 shared the highest degree of homology with Monopterus albus rhabdovirus and Siniperca chuatsi rhabdovirus. All three viruses clustered into a single group that was distinct from the recognized genera in the family Rhabdoviridae. Our analysis suggests that HSHRV-C1207, as well as MARV and SCRV, should be assigned to a new rhabdovirus genus.

  12. A new species of Dentiphilometra (Nematoda: Philometridae) from the musculature of the gray snapper Lutjanus griseus (osteichthyes) off the Caribbean coast of Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Solís, David; Moravec, Frantisek; Paredes, Vielka M Tuz

    2007-10-01

    A new nematode, Dentiphilometra lutjani n. sp. (Philometridae), is described from gravid females (the male is unknown) collected from the body musculature of the marine perciform fish gray snapper, Lutjanus griseus (Lutjanidae), from the Bay of Chetumal and southern coast of Quintana Roo, off the Caribbean coast of Mexico. The new species differs from the only other congener, Dentiphilometra monopteri, from the swamp eel Monopterus albus in China, mainly in the body length of gravid female (15.40-53.21 mm), the shape of the posterior body end (not markedly narrowed, with low caudal projections), the esophageal gland (maximum width near its posterior end), and the length (344-483 microm) of larvae from the uterus; both species also differ in their host types (marine perciform fish vs. freshwater swamp eel) and geographical distribution (Mexico vs. China).

  13. Molecular phylogeny and host specificity of the larval Eustrongylides (Nematoda: Dioctophmidae) from freshwater fish in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Fan; Li, Wen X; Wu, Shan G; Zou, Hong; Wang, Gui T

    2013-02-01

    The nematodes Eustrongylides spp. collected from different fish species in China were examined for their intra- and interspecific evolutionary variations using the molecular markers mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase c subunit 1 (COI) gene and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rDNA regions. The phylogenetic analysis indicated that Eustrongylides species are divided into 3 well-supported clades. The ITS divergence between the clades suggested that clades 2 and 3 might represent the same species, whereas clade 1 represent another cryptic species. The host specificity of these nematodes was analyzed according to prevalence data, host range, and phylogenetic information. Clade 1 was found in 4 fish species, i.e., Odontobutis obscurus, Silurus asotus, Culter mongolicus, and Acanthogobius flavimanus, but was predominant in the 2 perciform species, O. obscurus and A. flavimanus. Clade 2 was found in 3 fish species, Monopterus albus, Channa argus, and Channa asiatica, but was predominant in M. albus, reported to feed primarily on oligochaetes, the first intermediate host of Eustrongylides sp. Clade 3 was found in 9 species, but its low prevalence suggests accidental infection in all species. Although the larval nematode presented low host specificity, it exhibited some host preference.

  14. Phenotypic Variability of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L. Germplasm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Anastasova GEORGIEVA

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Collecting, exploring and using a suitable, genetically diverse source material with different ecological-geographical origin is a determining prerequisite for the breeding success. The present study was conducted during the 2014-2016 period at theInstituteofForage Crops(Pleven,Bulgaria with 23 cultivars of white lupine originatingPoland,RussiaandUkraine. It was found a significant genetic diversity among the studied cultivars, which was a good prerequisite for starting a breeding program within the crop. The most favorable combination of a high seed productivity and crude protein content had cultivars ‘Tel Keram’, ‘Pflugs Ultra’, ‘WAT’, ‘Solnechnii’ and ‘Pink Mutant’, whose plants were also characterized by a mass of 1,000 seeds between 15 and 21 g. Genetically, the most distant from each other were ‘Bezimenii 1’ and ‘Pflugs Ultra’ compared to ‘Termis Mestnii’ and ‘Solnechnii’ as well as to ‘Tel Keram’. These cultivars are suitable as genitors for the development of high-yielding white lupine cultivars. Studied traits of pod length, number of seeds in a pod and seeds per plant showed a high positive phenotypic and genotypic correlation with the seed productivity in white lupine. Regarding productivity, it can be rely upon the mass of 1,000 seeds, plant height and number of seeds per plant due to their high total effect on the seed weight per plant.

  15. Rotational and nematicidal effect of lupine (Lupinus albus L ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-10

    Oct 10, 2011 ... rotational effect as non-host plant of root-lesion nema- tode, P. thornei, and the effect .... invertebrate community. Nematropica, 39: 235-245. ... living soil nematode and micro-arthropod communities under a canola-wheat-lupin ...

  16. Sporocarps of Pisolithus albus as an ecological niche for fluorescent pseudomonads involved in Acacia mangium Wild - Pisolithus albus ectomycorrhizal symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duponnois, Robin; Lesueur, Didier

    2004-09-01

    Fresh sporocarps and root and soil samples were collected under a monospecific forest plantation of Acacia mangium in Dagana in Northern Senegal and checked for the presence of fluorescent pseudomonads. No bacteria were detected except from sporocarps collected with adhering soil and hyphal strands. Pisolithus sporocarps were dried at 30 degrees C for 2 weeks, ground, passed through a 2-mm sieve and mixed together. This dry sporocarp powder (DSP) was used to inoculate and form mycorrhizas on A. mangium seedlings in a glasshouse experiment. After 3 months culture, plant growth was increased in the DSP treatment but no ectomycorrhizas were present on the A. mangium root systems; however fluorescent pseudomonads were recorded in the cultural soil. The stimulatory effects on the plant growth were maintained for 6 months. However, fluorescent pseudomonads were no longer detected and 35% of the short roots were ectomycorrhizal. Some of the fluorescent pseudomonad isolates detected after 3 months stimulated the radial fungal growth in axenic conditions. These observations suggest that these bacteria are closely associated with the Pisolithus fructifications and could interact with the ectomycorrhizal symbiosis establishment.

  17. PENGARUH KONSENTRASI LARUTAN ASAP CAIR TERHADAP MUTU BELUT ASAP YANG DIHASILKAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bagus Sediadi Bandol Utomo

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Telah dilakukan riset tentang pengaruh konsentrasi larutan asap cair terhadap mutu belut asap yang dihasilkan. Belut yang digunakan adalah jenis Monopterus albus dan asap cair yang dipakai diperoleh dari CV Pusat Pengolahan Kelapa Terpadu,Yogyakarta. Riset pendahuluan dilakukan untuk mengetahui waktu pengeringan yang terbaik, dengan melakukan pengeringan dalam oven pada suhu 90ºC selama 2, 4, 6, dan 8 jam diikuti pengujian kadar air terhadap produk yang dihasilkan. Riset utama dilakukan unluk mengetahui pengaruh konsentrasi asap cair terhadap mutu belut asap yang dihasilkan dengan variasi konsentrasi larutan asap cair 0, 10, 20, dan 30%. Penilaian mutu dilakukan berdasarkan analisis komponen asap, komposisi proksimat, den mutu organoleptik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa konsentrasi larutan asap cair terbaik untuk pembuatan belut asap adalah 30% dengan waktu pengeringan 8 jam yang menghasilkan rendamen 28,04%. Secara umum produk ini disukai oleh panelis dengan nilai orgenoleptik 7,36 dengan karakteristik kadar air 10,38%, lemak 2,74%, protein 68,96%, dan abu 15,81%. Asap cair den belut asap hasil pengolahan menggunakan asap cair tidak mengandung senyawa Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAH, sebaliknya belut asap komersial mengandung senyawa PAH.

  18. 肉骨粉、豆粕替代鱼粉水平对黄鳝生长的影响%Effect on Rice Field Eel's Performance of the Level of Diet Substitute Fish Meal with Soybean Meal,Meat Bone Powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹志华; 罗静波; 文华; 付斌

    2007-01-01

    分别用肉骨粉和豆粕为蛋白源等氮替代0%、7.5%、15.0%、22.5%、30.0%、37.5%的鱼粉,对平均体重8.05 g的黄鳝(Monopterus albus),进行生长试验,结果表明: 随着肉骨粉和豆粕在饲料中含量的增加,黄鳝增重率下降,饵料系数增加,蛋白质利用率下降;在肉骨粉替代试验中,增重率在对照组和试验组中存在显著差异,在豆粕替代试验中,对照组与7.5%的替代组之间增重率无显著差异.考虑到增重率、饵料系数和蛋白质的利用率及经济因素,在黄鳝配合饲料中肉骨粉替代在22.5%以内,豆粕替代在15.0%以内对黄鳝的生长不会造成明显的影响,且黄鳝配合饲料中鱼粉含量不应低于30%.

  19. 78 FR 17600 - Banda de Lupinus albus doce (BLAD); Exemption From the Requirement of a Tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-22

    ... Volger of Ceres International LLC submitted a petition to EPA under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...), BLAD has the following properties and characteristics: i. BLAD is used in human and animal nutrition as.... indicate that BLAD has negligible toxicity. In addition, BLAD is used in human and animal nutrition as...

  20. White Sweetclover (Melilotus albus) and Narrowleaf Hawksbeard (Crepis tectorum) Seed Germination after Passing Through Moose

    Science.gov (United States)

    White sweetclover and narrowleaf hawksbeard are non-indigenous invasive plant species in Alaska that are rapidly spreading, including into areas that are otherwise free of non-indigenous plants. There has been concern that native moose could be dispersing viable seed from these plants after ingestio...

  1. [Genetic control of protein synthesis of white lupine (Lupinus albus L.) seeds].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Netsvetaev, V P; Knyazeva, I P; Ogulya, A P; Sorokopudova, O A

    2013-06-01

    Using polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis in the glycine-acetic acid system (pH 3.2), variants of proteins of white-lupine seeds were revealed. The study of conglutin polymorphism in the culture of the autogamous population F(--> infinity) (var. Dega) revealed two loci, Con A and Con B, which control protein synthesis. The loci were situated in the same linkage group within a distance of 11.48 +/- 3.4% of recombination. Natural selection in favor ofgenotypes that contain Con A1 Con B2 alleles is proposed. It is established that conglutins A and B (CON A and CON B) contain cysteine residues, which form intermolecular disulfide bonds between peptides.

  2. Lupin seed (Lupinus albus and Lupinus luteus) as a protein source for fermentation use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jul, L.B.; Flengmark, Poul Kristiansen; Gylling, M.

    2003-01-01

    Nine varieties of yellow lupins and five varieties of white lupins have been tested in field trials over a period of 4 years. The lupins were evaluated with regard to seed protein yields besides being analysed for contents of fat, cellulose, ash, amino acids, mono-, di- and oligosaccharides...... and substances known to inhibit or activate fermentation processes. For three chosen varieties (Juno, Borsaja (yellow lupins) and Amiga (white lupin)) fermentation tests were performed each year in laboratory fermentors. Three different fermentation models were applied: production of amylase by Aspergillus...... oryzae and by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens, and production of protease by B. amyloliquefaciens. In all cases the fermentation yields were compared with the yields of similar fermentations carried out with soybean meal as the source of protein. The use of lupins as a protein source in fermentation trials...

  3. EFEK PEMBERIAN RAMUAN EKSTRAK DELIMA PUTIH, KUNYIT DAN BELUNTAS UNTUK PENGOBATAN 'FLOUR ALBUS'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suharmiati Suharmiati

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A clinical trial have been conducted during April 1997 to March 1998 in Surabaya. This study tested the effectiveness of tradisional medicine for treating vaginal discharge problem (Papaniculoan test among woman. The traditional medicine consist of three medical plants (Piucheae indicae folium, Curcumae domesticae rhizoma and Granati fructus contex which were k nown as anti macro organism 35 married women using oral pill have been evaluated to see the respond of the treatment. The result of the study showed that the traditional medicine was not effective for treating purulent inframation caused by bacteria. It was also not effective to kill trichomonas and fungi. The patient of non spesific inflamation (Pap test have been cured by traditional medicine. This treatment did not damage the liver and kidney function seen by blood examination (SGOT, SGPT, BUN, Creatinin. This study concluded that the traditional medicine was not effective to cure vaginal diagnosed as purulent inflamation, trichomonas and fungi (Pap test, but it supposed to be suggested to use in the first step of treatment by the women themselves before they seek the medical treatment. It was safe for liver and kidney in the shorterm usage.

  4. Hymenolepiosis in a group of albino rats (Rattus albus): a study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreedevi, C; Ravi Kumar, P; Jyothisree, Ch

    2015-06-01

    A study was carried out on adult albino Wistar laboratory rats to know the incidence of hymenolepiosis, a zoonotic disease which were brought for experiment purpose. Faecal samples of 95 rats examined for parasitic infection by simple floatation technique in which 32 were positive (33.68 %) for hymenolepiosis. Identification of species of Hymenolepis was done based on morphology of egg. The highest prevalence of Hymenolepis diminuta (23.15 %) was recorded followed by Hymenolepis nana (10.52 %). Heavy infection with Hymenolepis in rats draws attention in view of public health importance in contact persons.

  5. Assessment of Bioavailable Concentrations of Germanium and Rare Earth Elements in the Rhizosphere of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Fischer, Ronny; Moschner, Christin; Székely, Balázs

    2015-04-01

    Concentrations of Germanium (Ge) and Rare Earth Elements in soils are estimated at 1.5 mg kg -1 (Ge), 25 mg kg -1 (La) and 20 mg kg -1 (Nd), which are only roughly smaller than concentrations of Pb and Zn. Germanium and rare earth elements are thus not rare but widely dispersed in soils and therefore up to date, only a few minable deposits are available. An environmental friendly and cost-effective way for Ge and rare earth element production could be phytomining. However, the most challenging part of a phytomining of these elements is to increase bioavailable concentrations of the elements in soils. Recent studies show, that mixed cultures with white lupine or other species with a high potential to mobilize trace metals in their rhizosphere due to an acidification of the soil and release of organic acids in the root zone could be a promising tool for phytomining. Complexation of Ge and rare earth elements by organic acids might play a key role in controlling bioavailability to plants as re-adsorption on soil particles and precipitation is prevented and thus, concentrations in the root zone of white lupine increase. This may also allow the complexes to diffuse along a concentration gradient to the roots of mixed culture growing species leading to enhanced plant uptake. However, to optimize mixed cultures it would be interesting to know to which extend mobilization of trace metals is dependent from chemical speciation of elements in soil due to the interspecific interaction of roots. A method for the identification of complexes of germanium and rare earth elements with organic acids, predominantly citric acid in the rhizosphere of white lupine was developed and successfully tested. The method is based on coupling of liquid chromatography with ICP-MS using a zic-philic column (SeQuant). As a preliminary result, we were able to show that complexes of germanium with citric acid exist in the rhizosphere of white lupin, what may contribute to the bioavailability of this element. These studies have been carried out in the framework of the PhytoGerm project, financed by the Federal Ministry of Education and Research, Germany. The authors are grateful to students and laboratory assistants contributing in the field work and sample preparation.

  6. Water-quality requirements, tolerances, and preferences of pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blevins, Dale W.

    2011-01-01

    Although numerous studies have been completed on pallid sturgeon populations and behavior, few have addressed the potential for water-quality characteristics to limit recruitment and population success of pallid sturgeon. Literature on sturgeon and water-quality data indicates recruitment of pallid sturgeon may be limited by several water-quality characteristics of the lower Missouri River including: High summer water temperatures in excess of 30 degrees Celsius, which likely are stressful to pallid sturgeon,

  7. Effect of different debittering processes on mineral and phytic acid content of lupin (Lupinus albus L.) seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ertaş, Nilgün; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2014-11-01

    Lupin is a valuable ancient legume which contains high amount of protein, dietary fiber, oil, minerals and different functional components. Bitter lupin seeds cannot be consumed directly since its high toxic alkaloid content. Cooking and soaking are effective processes for removing these toxic substances and antinutrients as phytic acid, trypsin inhibitors and oligosaccharides. In this study, debittering process containing cooking and soaking up to 144 h was applied to lupin seeds. Raw lupin seeds had 3.3 % ash and 41.3 % protein content. Ash and protein content of debittered seeds changed between 2.1 and 2.5 %, 39.5 and 40.9 % respectively. After debittering process, significant (p Phytic acid was removed from raw lupin seeds up to 71.4 % ratio by debittering processes, and soaking in distilled water at 55 °C and long soaking time (144 h) was found the most effective methods on phytic acid loss. While more lighter (L*) seeds were obtained with soaking in distilled water at 25 °C, soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution gave more yellowish (b*) seed properties compared to other soaking methods. Soaking in 0.5 % NaHCO3 solution at 144 h gave the most liked products in terms of sensorial evaluation.

  8. Pupal Mortality and Adult Emergence of Western Cherry Fruit Fly (Diptera: Tephritidae) Exposed to the Fungus Muscodor albus (Xylariales: Xylariaceae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Western cherry fruit fly, Rhagoletis indifferens Curran, is a major pest of sweet cherry, Prunus avium (L.) L., that is conventionally controlled using insecticides. One alternative to the use of insecticides for fly control could be fumigation of the fly’s overwintering habitat using the fungus Mus...

  9. Enrichment of gluten-free cakes with lupin (Lupinus albus L.) or buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum M.) flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levent, Hacer; Bilgiçli, Nermin

    2011-11-01

    In the present study, the effect of debittered lupin flour (LF) and whole buckwheat flour (BF) on the nutritional and sensory quality of gluten-free cake was studied. LF (10, 20, 30 and 40%) and BF (5, 10, 15 and 20%) were partially replaced with corn starch and rice flour mixture (1:1 w/w) in the gluten-free cake recipe. LF increased the protein, calcium, iron, manganese, phosphorus and zinc contents of the cakes, while BF caused a significant increase (P < 0.05) especially in potassium and magnesium contents of the gluten-free cakes. According to the overall acceptability rating, it was concluded that gluten-free cake could be produced with satisfactory results by the addition of LF and BF up to 30% and 10%, respectively.

  10. Sequence and Expression Analysis of Interferon Regulatory Factor 10 (IRF10 in Three Diverse Teleost Fish Reveals Its Role in Antiviral Defense.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaoqing Xu

    Full Text Available Interferon regulatory factor (IRF 10 was first found in birds and is present in the genome of other tetrapods (but not humans and mice, as well as in teleost fish. The functional role of IRF10 in vertebrate immunity is relatively unknown compared to IRF1-9. The target of this research was to clone and characterize the IRF10 genes in three economically important fish species that will facilitate future evaluation of this molecule in fish innate and adaptive immunity.In the present study, a single IRF10 gene was cloned in grass carp Ctenopharyngodon idella and Asian swamp eel Monopterus albus, and two, named IRF10a and IRF10b, in rainbow trout Oncorhynchus mykiss. The fish IRF10 molecules share highest identities to other vertebrate IRF10s, and have a well conserved DNA binding domain, IRF-associated domain, and an 8 exon/7 intron structure with conserved intron phase. The presence of an upstream ATG or open reading frame (ORF in the 5'-untranslated region of different fish IRF10 cDNA sequences suggests potential regulation at the translational level, and this has been verified by in vitro transcription/translation experiments of the trout IRF10a cDNA, but would still need to be validated in fish cells.Both trout IRF10 paralogues are highly expressed in thymus, blood and spleen but are relatively low in head kidney and caudal kidney. Trout IRF10b expression is significantly higher than IRF10a in integumentary tissues i.e. gills, scales, skin, intestine, adipose fin and tail fins, suggesting that IRF10b may be more important in mucosal immunity. The expression of both trout IRF10 paralogues is up-regulated by recombinant IFN-γ. The expression of the IRF10 genes is highly induced by Poly I:C in vitro and in vivo, and by viral infection, but is less responsive to peptidoglycan and bacterial infection, suggesting an important role of fish IRF10 in antiviral defense.

  11. Iron Stress and Pyoverdin Production by a Fluorescent Pseudomonad in the Rhizosphere of White Lupine (Lupinus albus L.) and Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marschner, P.; Crowley, D. E.

    1997-01-01

    Induction of high-affinity iron transport during root colonization by Pseudomonas fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) was examined in lupine and barley growing in microcosms. P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) contains a plasmid carrying pvd-inaZ; thus, in this strain, ice nucleation activity is regulated by pyoverdin production. Lupine or barley plants were grown for 18 or 8 days, respectively, in soil amended with 2% calcium carbonate and inoculated with P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) at a density of 4 x 10(sup8) CFU g (dry weight) of soil(sup-1). A filter paper blotting technique was used to sample cells from the rhizosphere in different root zones, and then the cells were resuspended for enumeration and measurement of ice nucleation activity. The population density of P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere decreased by one order of magnitude in both lupine and barley over time. The ice nucleation activity ranged from -3.4 to -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for lupine and -3.0 to -2.8 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) for barley, was similar in all root zones, and did not change over time. An in vitro experiment was conducted to determine the relationship between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production in P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ). An ice nucleation activity of approximately -3.0 log ice nuclei CFU(sup-1) was measured in the in vitro experiment at 25 to 50 (mu)M FeCl(inf3). By using the regression between ice nucleation activity and pyoverdin production determined in vitro and assuming a P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) population density of 10(sup8) CFU g of root(sup-1), the maximum possible pyoverdin accumulation by P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ) in the rhizosphere was estimated to be 0.5 and 0.8 nmol g of root(sup-1) for lupine and barley, respectively. The low ice nucleation activity measured in the rhizosphere suggests that nutritional competition for iron in the rhizosphere may not be a major factor influencing root colonization by P. fluorescens Pf-5 (pvd-inaZ). PMID:16535491

  12. Comparison of MRI techniques and modelling with R-SWMS for determining solute distribution patterns and root water uptake of a white lupine plant (Lupinus Albus L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koch, Axelle; Schröder, Natalie; Pohlmeier, Andreas; Garré, Sarah; Vanderborght, Jan; Javaux, Mathieu

    2017-04-01

    Measuring water extraction by plant would allow us to better understand root water uptake processes and how soil and plant properties affect them. Yet, direct measurement of root water uptake is still challenging and determining its distribution requires coupling experimentation and modelling. In this study, we investigated how the 3D monitoring of a tracer movement in a sand container with a lupine plant could inform us about root water uptake process. A sand column (10 cm height, 5 cm inner diameter) planted with an 18-day-old white lupine was subject to a tracer experiment with a chemically inert tracer (1 mmol/L Gd-DTPA2-) applied for 6 days. Then the tracer and water fluxes were stopped. The plume was monitored in 3-D for 7 days by Magnetic Resonance Imaging (Haber-Pohlmeier et al, unp). In addition the breakthrough curve at the outlet was also measured. We used a biophysical 3-D soil-plant model: R-SWMS (Javaux et al, 2008) to extract information from this experiment. First, we ran a virtual experiment to check the assumption that Gd concentration increase around roots is proportional to the extracted soil water during the same period. We also investigated whether this type of experiment helps discriminate different root hydraulic properties with a sensitivity analysis. Then, we compared the experimental and simulated Gd concentration patterns. A preliminary (qualitative) assessment showed that measured Gd distribution patterns were better represented by the model at day 7, where the main driver of the concentration distribution was root and not soil heterogeneity (which is not taken into account in the model). The main spatial and temporal features of the transport where adequately reproduced by the model in particular during the last day. The distribution of the tracer was shown to be sensitive to the root hydraulic properties. To conclude, information about root water uptake distributions and so about root hydraulic properties could be deduced from Gd concentration maps. Keywords: R-SWMS; Modelling; MRI; Root Water Uptake; Gadolinium

  13. Dosage rapide des différents alcaloïdes de Lupinus albus L. et de Lupinus mutabilis Sweet pour la sélection

    OpenAIRE

    Pothier, J.; LENOBLE, M.; Pousset, J.L.

    1983-01-01

    La méthode de dosage des alcaloïdes décrite ici répond aux impératifs de la sélection : faible quantité de matériel, rapidité, précision suffisante. L’analyse est faite sur 1 g de poudre de graines dont les alcaloïdes ont été extraits par l’éther. Les extraits sont déposés sur plaque de gel de silice, élués avec un mélange séparant bien la lupanine et la spartéine des autres alcaloïdes, puis révélés au Dragendorff modifié. Le dosage est effectué avec un photomètre enregistreur en comparai...

  14. A health risk evaluation for pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Lower Platte River using shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) as a Surrogate

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Most sturgeon species worldwide have been in a steep declince since the 1900s. This research evaluated shovelnose sturgeon health, reproduction, and exposure to...

  15. [Karyological differences of the Northern Dolly Varden Salvelinus malma malma and the white char Salvelinus albus from the Kamchatka River basin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frolov, S V

    2001-03-01

    The karyotypes of northern Dolly Varden and white char, sympathrically inhabiting the Kamchatka River basin, were studied. The karyotype of Dolly Varden was stable: 2n = 78 and NF = 98 + 2, while in white char, polymorphism and mosaicism for the chromosome number were revealed: 2n = 76-79, NF = 98 + 2. Using a routine chromosome staining technique, the karyotype of white char (2n = 78) was shown to be identical to that of Dolly Varden. In both karyotypes, similar sets of marker chromosomes were present: two pairs of submetacentric (SM), one pair of submeta-subtelocentric (SM-ST), one pair of large acrocentric (A), and one pair of large sub-telocentric (ST) chromosomes. However, the karyotypes of Dolly Varden and white char differed in the number and location of nucleolus organizer regions (NORs). In Dolly Varden, single NORs located in the telomeric regions of the marker SM-ST chromosomes were observed. In white char, NORs were multiple and located both in the telomeric regions of the marker SM-ST chromosomes and on the short and long arms of large ST chromosomes. The identical marker chromosomes indicate considerable phylogenetic relatedness between Dolly Varden and white char from the Kamchatka River basin. Variation in NORs provides evidence for the reproductive isolation of these chars and their species status.

  16. Evidence of phloem boron transport in response to interrupted boron supply in white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Kiev Mutant) at the reproductive stage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Longbin; Bell, Richard W; Dell, Bernard

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigates whether previously acquired boron (B) in mature leaves in white lupin can be retranslocated into the rapidly growing young reproductive organs, in response to short-term (3 d) interrupted B supply. In a preliminary experiment with white lupin in soil culture, B concentrations in phloem exudates remained at 300-500 microM, which were substantially higher than those in the xylem sap (10-30 microM). The high ratios of B concentrations in phloem exudates to those in the xylem sap were close to values published for potassium in lupin plants. To differentiate 'old' B in the shoot from 'new' B in the root, an experiment was carried out in which the plants were first supplied with 20 microM (11)B (99.34% by weight) in nutrient solution for 48 d after germination (DAG) until early flowering and then transferred into either 0.2 microM or 20 microM (10)B (99.47% by weight) for 3 d. Regardless of the (10)B treatments, significant levels of (11)B were found in the phloem exudates (200-300 microM in 20 microM (10)B and 430 microM in 0.2 microM (10)B treatment) and xylem sap over the three days even without (11)B supply to the root. In response to the 0.2 microM (10)B treatment, the translocation of previously acquired (11)B in the young (the uppermost three leaves), matured, and old leaves was enhanced, coinciding with the rise of (11)B in the xylem sap (to >15 microM) and phloem exudates (430 microM). The evidence supports the hypothesis that previously acquired B in the shoot was recirculated to the root via the phloem, transferred into the xylem in the root, and transported in the xylem to the shoot. In addition, some previously acquired (11)B in the leaves may have been translocated into the rapidly growing inflorescence. Phloem B transport resulted in the continued net increment of (11)B in the flowers over 3 d without (11)B supply. However, it is still uncertain whether the amount of B available for recirculation is adequate to support reproductive growth until seed maturation.

  17. The proteome of exudates from germinating Lupinus albus seeds is secreted through a selective dual-step process and contains proteins involved in plant defence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scarafoni, Alessio; Ronchi, Alessandro; Prinsi, Bhakti; Espen, Luca; Assante, Gemma; Venturini, Giovanni; Duranti, Marcello

    2013-03-01

    The general knowledge of defence activity during the first steps of seed germination is still largely incomplete. The present study focused on the proteins released in the exudates of germinating white lupin seeds. During the first 24 h, a release of proteins was observed. Initially (i.e. during the first 12 h), the proteins found in exudates reflected the composition of the seed, indicating a passive extrusion of pre-formed proteins. Subsequently, when the rate of protein release was at its highest, the composition of the released proteome changed drastically. This transition occurred in a short time, indicating that more selective and regulated events, such as secretory processes, took place soon after the onset of germination. The present study considered: (a) the characterization of the proteome accumulated in the germinating medium collected after the appearance of the post-extrusion events; (b) the biosynthetic origin and the modalities that are the basis of protein release outside the seeds; and (c) an assessment of antifungal activity of these exudates. The most represented protein in the exudate was chitinase, which was synthesized de novo. The other proteins are involved in the cellular mechanisms responding to stress events, including biotic ones. This exudate was effectively able to inhibit fungal growth. The results of the present study indicate that seed exudation is a dual-step process that leads to the secretion of selected proteins and thus is not a result of passive leakage. The released proteome is involved in protecting the spermosphere environment and thus may act as first defence against pathogens.

  18. Isolamento da globulina majoritária, digestibilidade in vivo e in vitro das proteínas do tremoço-doce (Lupinus albus L., var. Multolupa Isolation of major globulin, in vivo and in vitro digestibility of proteins from sweet lupin (Lupinus albus L. var. Multolupa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdir Augusto Neves

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos do trabalho foram isolar, purificar e estudar algumas propriedades da fração globulina majoritária de tremoço-doce, var. Multolupa; assim como avaliar as características de digestibilidade da farinha e frações isoladas. As frações protéicas foram separadas por fracionamento diferencial com uso de diferentes solventes. A globulina majoritária de tremoço-doce foi isolada, purificada por cromatografia em Q-Sepharose, revelando um único pico de proteína. Apresentou um peso molecular de 162,5 ± 10,0 kDa, determinado por cromatografia em Sephacryl S-300, e subunidades entre 20-70 kDa em PAGE-SDS. A solubilidade em função do pH e concentrações de NaCl revelaram curva típica dessa fração. A digestibilidade da proteína da farinha e das frações albumina, globulina e glutelina foi avaliada por experimentos in vitro e in vivo e se revelou alta para a fração globulina, seguida pela glutelina, albumina e farinha. A digestibilidade in vivo da fração globulina, tanto aparente quanto verdadeira, não diferiu significativamente daquela determinada para a caseína. Apesar da alta digestibilidade da fração majoritária e frações protéicas, a utilização como única fonte de proteína nas dietas revelou valores baixos de RPLR (razão protéica líquida relativa, indicando ser insuficiente para sustentar o crescimento dos animais, comparativamente à caseína.The aim of the present work was to isolate, purify and study some properties of the major globulin fraction from sweet lupin, var. Multolupa; as well as to evaluate the digestibility features of flour and isolated fractions. The protein fractions were separated by differential fractionation with different solvents. The lupin major globulin was isolated, purified by Q-Sepharose chromatography when it showed only one protein peak. The major protein presented a molecular weight of 162.5 ± 10.0 kDa, determined on Sephacryl S-300 chromatography; and subunits between 20 to 70 kDa on SDS-PAGE. The protein solubility in relation to pH and NaCl concentrations showed a typical S-like curve for globulins. The flour and the isolated protein fractions, albumins, globulins and glutelins were evaluated by in vitro and in vivo experiments. The in vitro and in vivo digestibility assays revealed a high digestibility for the globulin, followed by glutelin, albumin and the flour. The globulin in vivo digestibility did not differ significantly from that obtained to casein. Despite the high digestibility encountered for the major protein fraction and protein fractions, the use as the only protein source in the diets revealed low values for RNPR (relative net protein ratio, showing it to be insufficient in terms of sustaining the growth of animals, comparatively to casein.

  19. 利用抗药性选育盐霉素高产菌株%The Breeding of High Yield Salinomycin Strains of Streptomyces albus Through Antibiotic-resistant Strains Screening

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴健; 戴桂馥; 李宗伟; 张晓红; 霍裕平

    2005-01-01

    采用紫外线诱变和紫外线复合氯化锂处理盐霉素生产菌株,利用含棕榈油的筛选平板,结合选育脂肪酶活力高的菌株,成功获得产量提高并适应棕榈油发酵的高产菌株Ae-4.棕榈油完全替代豆油摇瓶113 h发酵的产量是豆油发酵的88.7%(出发株为69.6%).进一步通过选育抗药性突变株获得了抗链霉素的高产突变株E4Lt-1(摇瓶发酵产量提高57.4%)和抗利福霉素的高产突变株Rift-1-2(摇瓶发酵产量提高44.9%).

  20. Infecção por Salmonella typhimurium de origem hídrica em garça gigante (Casmerodius albus egretta, em sua vida livre no Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Amparo Queiroz de Freitas

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available De uma mortandade de garças de vida livre, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Brasil, foi isolada Salmonella typhimurium por hemocultura de material proveniente de uma ave que se mostrava enferma e que à necrópsia não apresentavam lesões a na tomopa tológicas. A Salmonella typhimurium foi também isolada de água de um lago existente no Jardim Zoológico do Rio de Janeiro, onde as aves tinham acesso permanente. Durante a mortandade das aves foi observada uma hepatite necrótica na qual havia colônias bacterianas, tesões atribuídas a esta salmonelose.

  1. 78 FR 59051 - Endangered and Threatened Wildlife and Plants; Recovery Permit Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-25

    ... (Cyprinodon macularius), green sea turtle (Chelonia mydas), and white sturgeon (Acipenser transmontanus) for... requests a permit to take (harass by survey) pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), white...

  2. Avaliação de algumas propriedades funcionais das farinhas de tremoço doce (Lupinus albus e feijão guandu (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp e sua utilização na produção de fiambre Evaluation of some functional properties of lupin sweet flour (Lupinus albus and faba bean flour (Cajanus cajan (L Millsp and their utilization in cooked ham production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Castilho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O aumento na demanda de alimentos no mundo tem motivado pesquisadores a buscarem fontes alternativas a fim de enriquecer nutricionalmente alimentos industrializados e torná-los viáveis economicamente às populações menos favorecidas. O tremoço doce e o feijão guandu são leguminosas com elevado conteúdo proteico e grande potencial de utilização no enriquecimento nutricional de alimentos industrializados, além de desempenharem funcionalidades. Os resultados obtidos neste trabalho permitiram observar que a farinha de tremoço doce é capaz de absorver de 172 a 186% do seu peso em água e de ~62% em óleo, enquanto que a farinha de feijão guandu absorve cerca de 100% de seu peso em água e 50% em óleo. Boa atividade e estabilidade foram observadas para as emulsões obtidas com estas farinhas, indicando potencial de aplicação na produção de embutidos. Objetivou-se neste trabalho, avaliar algumas propriedades funcionais das farinhas de tremoço doce e feijão guandu e sua utilização na fabricação de fiambres. Os fiambres foram elaborados no Laboratório de Controle de Qualidade de Alimentos da Faculdade de Ciências Farmacêuticas da Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP, na cidade de Araraquara, com o intuito de oferecer um alimento enriquecido nutricionalmente. Quando comparados ao fiambre elaborado com a adição de concentrado proteico de soja, estes fiambres não apresentaram diferenças significativas nos atributos sensoriais aparência, cor, aroma, textura e impressão global, embora tivessem pouca aceitabilidade sensorial.The increase in food demand worldwide has motivated researchers to seek alternative food crops to nutritionally enrich industrialized foods and make them economically viable to poorer populations. Sweet lupin and faba bean are high protein content legumes of great potential for nutritional enrichment of industrialized foods, besides performing a functional purpose. The results obtained in this work enabled to identify that sweet lupin flour is able to absorb 172 to 186% of its weight in water, and ~62% in oil, while faba bean flour absorbs ~100% of its weight in water, and ~50% in oil. The emulsions obtained with both flours showed good activity and stability, suggesting a good application potential in the production of sausages. In the present work, some functional properties of the sweet lupin and faba bean flours were analyzed, including use in the production of cooked ham. The cooked ham was elaborated in the Quality Control Laboratory of foods in the Pharmaceutical Sciences Faculty in the University of São Paulo State (UNESP in Araraquara (SP, Brazil, offering an enriched food nutritionally. When compared to cooked hams prepared with the addition of soy protein, the experimental hams presented no significant sensorial differences, such as appearance, color, flavor, texture and overall impression, however they had had little sensorial acceptability.

  3. A Service Oriented Architecture for Robotic Platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-01

    RCS2 is an architecture developed by James Albus at NIST [Albus, 2002] for specifying the control of robotic vehicle systems. It incorporates elements of...Multiconference on Systemics, Cybernetics, and Informatics, XI:1623, May 2000. R. Volpe, I. A. D. Nesnas, T. Estlin, D. Mutz, R. Petras , and H. Das

  4. Final Environmental Assessment for Wide Area Coverage Construct Land Mobile Network Communications Infrastructure Malmstrom Air Force Base, Montana

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    to his vegetation type include common snowberry (Symphoricarpos albus), needle-and thread, phlox, lupine (Lupinus sp.), and buckwheat (Montana...Common species include common snowberry, Oregon grape (Berberis aquifolium), bluegrass, western wheatgrass, lupine , yarrow (Achillea millefolium

  5. 21 CFR 522.1662b - Oxytetracycline hydrochloride with lidocaine injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Hemolytic staphylococcus, Streptococcus spp., Bacterial pulmonary infections caused by Brucella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus pyogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, secondary bacterial infections caused by Micrococcus pyogenes var. albus, Brucella bronchiseptica, Streptococcus spp. (2) The drug is...

  6. Browse Title Index

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Items 4451 - 4500 of 11090 ... ... lipase producing thermophilic marine actinomycetes (Streptomyces albus ... Vol 11, No 12 (2012), Endophytic bacteria with potential for bioremediation of petroleum hydrocarbons and derivatives, Abstract PDF.

  7. Pallid Sturgeon Population Assessment and Associated Fish Community Monitoring for the Missouri River: Segment 14

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Pallid Sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) have declined throughout the Missouri River since dam construction and inception of the Bank Stabilization and Navigation...

  8. Biological activity of some Patagonian plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuadra, Pedro; Furrianca, María; Oyarzún, Alejandra; Yáñez, Erwin; Gallardo, Amalia; Fajardo, Víctor

    2005-12-01

    Citotoxicity (inhibition of cell division in fertilized eggs of Loxechinus albus) and general toxicity (using embryos of Artemia salina) of plants belonging to the genera Senecio, Deschampsia, Alstroemeria, Anarthrophyllum, Chloraea and Geranium were investigated.

  9. Exudación de citrato y actividad de la enzima fosfoenolpiruvato carboxilasa en raíces de lupino blanco, en respuesta a variaciones en la disponibilidad de fósforo

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Carvajal B., Nelson; Corcuera, Luis; Martínez O., José; Peñaloza, Enrique

    2000-01-01

    ...) de raíces de lupino blanco (Lupinus albus) consiste en proveer del carbono requerido para soportar la significativa cantidad de citrato que es exudado por plantas sometidas a deficiencias de P...

  10. Two new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from India (Araneae: Salticidae: Aelurillina).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Dhruv A; Murthappa, Prashanthakumara S; Sankaran, Pradeep M; Sebastian, Pothalil A

    2016-09-28

    Stenaelurillus digitus sp. nov. and Stenaelurillus gabrieli sp. nov. are described from India. New distributional records for Stenaelurillus albus Sebastian et al., 2015 and Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and maps for these species are given.

  11. Vom work Book Journal, 2011 1st Edition PDF

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    ailments, skin disorders and diarrhoea (Duke,. 1983). Acacia ... Proteus vulgaris, Shigella dysentery, E. coli, Streptococcus pyogenes, Pseudomonas aerogenosa, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus albus ... Nigerian Veterinary Journal. Vol. 32(1): ...

  12. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina Larval parasitism of Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae in north-eastern Buenos Aires province (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo Liljesthröm

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m² que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.In host-parasitoid interactions, parasitoid efficiency may be increased by different quantity and quality of plant signals. Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham is a pest on soybean, with larvae feeding endophitically on various herbaceous leguminosae. In this study we analyzed larval parasitism of C. aporema on Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L and Glycine max Merrill in the north-east of the Buenos Aires province. Larval density was higher on L. albus (109,2 larvae/m², than on the other

  13. Medical Entomology Studies - VII. The Subgenus Stegomyia of Aedes in Southeast Asia. II - The Edwardsi Group of Species. III - The W-Albus Group of Species. (Diptera: Culicidae). VIII: Notes on the Taxonomic Status of Aedes Vittatus (Deptera: Culicidae) (Contributions of the American Entomological Institute. Volume 14, Number 1)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1977-01-01

    notwithstanding any other provision of law , no person shall be subject to a penalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does...l?, l$ terminalia; (1914, Ludlow), 2?. REMARKS. 1926: 475). I have not seen specimens of gay &&i from Soemba (Brug, TAXONOMIC DISCUSSION. Aedes...Thailand. The Malaysian larvae were obtained from eggs laid by wild caught females in the laboratory. The speci- mens from India were found in plain and

  14. Parasitismo larval de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae en el noreste de la provincia de Buenos Aires (Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo LILJESTHRÖM

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available En la interacción huésped-parasitoide las plantas suelen emitir señales capaces de aumentar la eficiencia de los parasitoides. Las larvas de Crocidosema (=Epinotia aporema (Walsingham se alimentan endofíticamente de leguminosas herbáceas y constituyen una plaga de la soja (Glycine max Merrill. En este estudio analizamos el parasitismo larval de C. aporema en Melilotus albus Medikus, Galega officinalis L, Lupinus albus L y G. max, en el noreste de Buenos Aires. La densidad larval fue mayor en L. albus (109,2 larvas/m2 que en las restantes leguminosas: 3,7; 6,9 y 11,3 en M. albus, G. officinalis y G. max, respectivamente. Sin embargo, el parasitismo y número de especies parasitoides fueron menores en L. albus (9,5% por el ectoparasitoide generalista Bracon sp. que en M. albus (32,6%, Bracon sp. y los endoparasitoides Trathala sp.y Bassus sp.; G. officinalis y G. max (26,4% y 50,6% respectivamente, con Trathala sp. y Bracon sp. en ambas. Lupinus albus fue la única especie vegetal que reaccionó a la alimentación de C. aporema con producción de exudados pegajosos y olorosos que podrían haber repelido los endoparasitoides, actuando como un refugio parcial para C. aporema. Además, al ser positivamente seleccionada por C. aporema, esta leguminosa podría utilizarse como franja trampa para su control en cultivos de soja, de manera compatible con tácticas de control biológico por conservación de enemigos naturales.

  15. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS. n The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon

  16. Dicty_cDB: VFO537 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 971 |pid:none) Mytilus californianus cytosolic ma... 97 5e-21 DQ149969_1( DQ149969 |pid:none) Mytilus trossu...9646 |pid:none) Lupinus albus malate dehydrogenase... 103 5e-22 DQ149971_1( DQ149

  17. RNA-Seq atlas of white lupin: a guide to the phosphorus deficiency response pathway in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) is one of the most limiting macronutrients in soils for plant growth and development. White lupin (Lupinus albus) has evolved unique adaptation systems for growth in P-deficient conditions (-P) in soils including: 1) development of densely clustered determinant lateral roots called pr...

  18. Binding of quinolizidine alkaloids to nicotinic and muscarinic acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmeller, T; Sauerwein, M; Sporer, F; Wink, M; Müller, W E

    1994-09-01

    Fourteen quinolizidine alkaloids, isolated from Lupinus albus, L. mutabilis, and Anagyris foetida, were analyzed for their affinity for nicotinic and/or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors. Of the compounds tested, the alpha-pyridones, N-methylcytisine and cytisine, showed the highest affinities at the nicotinic receptor, while several quinolizidine alkaloid types were especially active at the muscarinic receptor.

  19. Lupin nad9 and nad6 genes and their expression: 5' termini of the nad9 gene transcripts differentiate lupin species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurek, Michał; Nuc, Katarzyna; Raczyńska, Katarzyna Dorota; Augustyniak, Halina

    2003-10-02

    The mitochondrial nad9 and nad6 genes were analyzed in four lupin species: Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus and Lupinus mutabilis. The nucleotide sequence of these genes confirmed their high conservation, however, higher number of nucleotide substitution was observed in the L. albus genes. Southern hybridizations confirmed the presence of single copy number of these genes in L. luteus, L. albus and L. angustifolius. The expression of nad9 and nad6 genes was analyzed by Northern in different tissue types of analyzed lupin species. Transcription analyses of the two nad genes displayed single predominant mRNA species of about 0.6 kb in L. luteus and L. angustifolius. The L. albus transcripts were larger in size. The nad9 and nad6 transcripts were modified by RNA editing at 8 and 11 positions, in L. luteus and L. angustifolius, respectively. The gene order, rps3-rpl16-nad9, found in Arabidopsis thaliana is also conserved in L. luteus and L. angustifolius mitochondria. L. luteus and L. angustifolius showed some variability in the sequence of the nad9 promoter region. The last feature along with the differences observed in nad9 mRNA 5' termini of two lupins differentiate L. luteus and L. angustifolius species.

  20. Nomenclatural problems relating to Atractus trilineatus Wagler, 1828

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, M.S.

    1982-01-01

    INTRODUCTION The Rijksmuseum van Natuurlijke Historie material of Brachyorrhos albus (L., 1758), which had been on loan to Dr. S. B. McDowell, New York, was returned to us with the remark that reg.no. RMNH 48 from Java certainly did not belong to that species. Dr. McDowell suggested it might be an A

  1. Five Lessons of a Dumbledore Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Music, Rusmir; Agans, Lyndsay J.

    2007-01-01

    Hogwarts School of Witchcraft and Wizardry and the world of Harry Potter may help educators re-imagine their daily work and provide good reminders that intentional formal and informal mentoring, informed by educational theory, play an essential role in student learning and development. Mentoring principles at Hogwarts flow from Albus Dumbledore,…

  2. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by

  3. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-01-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS. n The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon germinat

  4. A REVISION OF THE GENUS SPATHOLOBUS (LEGUMINOSAE- PAPILIONOIDEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeannette Jeannette

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the S. E. Asiatic genus Spatholobus 28 species are recognized, 6 of which are never described before: S. albus^ S. auricomus, S. auritus, S. hirsutus, S. multiflorus and S. viridis. One variety (S. ferrugineus var. acutus is also newly described. A key and full descriptions with plates and maps to illustrate the distribution are given.

  5. Utilization of individual cellodextrins by three predominant ruminal cellulolytic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Shi, Y; Weimer, P J

    1996-01-01

    Growth of the ruminal bacteria Fibrobacter succinogenes S85, Ruminococcus flavefaciens FD-1, and R. albus 7 followed Monod kinetics with respect to concentrations of individual pure cellodextrins (cellobiose, cellotriose, cellotetraose, cellopentaose, and cellohexaose). Under the conditions tested, R. flavefaciens FD-1 possesses the greatest capacity to compete for low concentrations of these cellodextrins.

  6. Fish and chips? Implanted transmitters help map the endangered pallid sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojnacki, Kimberly; DeLonay, Aaron

    2011-01-01

    With a flattened snout, long slender tail and rows of bony plates lining its body, the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) has a unique, almost pre-historic, appearance. This endangered fish is native to the muddy, free-flowing waters of the Missouri River.

  7. Chemical composition, true metabolisable energy content and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aneldavh

    narrow leaf lupins (Lupinus angustifolius; n = 8), faba beans (Vicia faba; ... characteristics (thousand seed and hectolitre mass), chemical composition ... therefore, that the nutritional potential of alternative plant protein feeds, such as ... (L. luteus, L. albus and L. angustifolius), faba beans and narbon beans for ..... Food Agric.

  8. A cerebellar learning model of vestibulo-ocular reflex adaptation in wild-type and mutant mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clopath, Claudia; Badura, Aleksandra; De Zeeuw, Chris I; Brunel, Nicolas

    2014-01-01

    Mechanisms of cerebellar motor learning are still poorly understood. The standard Marr-Albus-Ito theory posits that learning involves plasticity at the parallel fiber to Purkinje cell synapses under control of the climbing fiber input, which provides an error signal as in classical supervised learni

  9. [Topography of the metabolic cycle of 4-aminobutyrate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Ruiz, A

    1982-01-01

    This work describes, with some detail the intervention of 4-aminobutyrate as protagonist of a derivation of tricarboxylic cycle. Its vicarial mission is emphasized in connection with its existence in microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas fluorescens), plants (Helianthus tuberosus. Lupinus albus and Agave americana), neoplasic cells (ascitic tumor of Ehrlich and HeLa cells) and animal tissues (adrenal medulla and brain.

  10. Germinated and Ungerminated Seeds Extract from Two Lupinus Species: Biological Compounds Characterization and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andor, Bogdan; Alexa, Ersilia; Hogea, Elena; Coricovac, Dorina; Pătrașcu, Jenel Marian; Mioc, Marius; Cristina, Romeo Teodor; Soica, Codruta; Dehelean, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    In recent years, nutraceuticals attracted a great amount of attention in the biomedical research due to their significant contribution as natural agents for prevention of various health issues. Ethanolic extracts from the ungerminated and germinated seeds of Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. were analyzed for the content in isoflavones (genistein) and cinnamic acid derivatives. Additionally, the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties, using in vitro and in vivo tests. Germination proved to be a method of choice in increasing the amount of genistein and cinnamic acid derivatives in both Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. seeds. Biological evaluation of all vegetal extracts revealed a weak therapeutic potential for both ungerminated and germinated seeds. PMID:28090213

  11. Germinated and Ungerminated Seeds Extract from Two Lupinus Species: Biological Compounds Characterization and In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bogdan Andor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, nutraceuticals attracted a great amount of attention in the biomedical research due to their significant contribution as natural agents for prevention of various health issues. Ethanolic extracts from the ungerminated and germinated seeds of Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. were analyzed for the content in isoflavones (genistein and cinnamic acid derivatives. Additionally, the extracts were evaluated for antimicrobial, antiproliferative, and anti-inflammatory properties, using in vitro and in vivo tests. Germination proved to be a method of choice in increasing the amount of genistein and cinnamic acid derivatives in both Lupinus albus L. and Lupinus angustifolius L. seeds. Biological evaluation of all vegetal extracts revealed a weak therapeutic potential for both ungerminated and germinated seeds.

  12. Kootenai Canyon Archaeology. The 1979 LAURD (Libby Additional Units and Reregulating Dam) Project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    Cyperaceae ) represents primarily t-rrestr.il sedg.ie procuction. At McKillop Creek Pond however ce percentage o \\,peraceae pollen is generally much lower...Amaranthaceae are unlikely in this flora, including in the Holocene). The aquatic pollen record contains only Nuphar and sedge . Initial pollen...parviflora, Shepherdia canadensis and Symphoricarpos albus. Both study sites are currently fens supporting an extensive cover of sedges (Carex

  13. Description of new species of Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886 from the Western Ghats of India with the redescription of Stenaelurillus lesserti Reimoser, 1934 and notes on mating plug in the genus (Arachnida, Araneae, Salticidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pothalil A. Sebastian

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the jumping spider genus Stenaelurillus Simon, 1886, S. albus sp. n., is described from the Western Ghats of India, one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world. Detailed morphological descriptions, diagnostic features and illustrations of copulatory organs of both sexes are given. Detailed redescription, diagnosis and illustration of S. lesserti Reimoser, 1934 are provided. The occurrence of a mating plug in the genus is reported.

  14. Conservation of the structure and organization of lupin mitochondrial nad3 and rps12 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rurek, M; Oczkowski, M; Augustyniak, H

    1998-01-01

    A high level of the nucleotide sequence conservation of mitochondrial nad3 and rps12 genes was found in four lupin species. The only differences concern three nucleotides in the Lupinus albus rps12 gene and three nucleotides insertion in the L. mutabilis spacer. Northern blot analysis as well as RT-PCR confirmed cotranscription of the L. luteus genes because the transcripts detected were long enough.

  15. The total alkaloid and anagyrine contents of some bitter and sweet selections of lupin species used as food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keeler, R F; Gross, R

    1980-01-01

    The total alkaloid and anagyrine contents of bitter and sweet Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus albus, Lupinus mutabilis, Lupinus polyphyllus, and Lupinus perennis were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and mass spectrometry. No anagyrine was detected in any of the samples. The GC peak in some of the samples which corresponded to anagyrine in retention of time seems to be identical to 17-oxolupanine. The alkaloid content of samples ranged from 3.17 to 0.003 percent.

  16. Influence of Xenobiotic Substances on Actinomycete Comunities in Soil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Sulfonylurea herbicides are frequently used in agricultural crops even if they determine quantitative and qualitativechanges in soil microbial communities. In this study it was used increasing doses of two sulfonylurea herbicides,tribenuron-methyl and nicosulfuron, in order to establish their effect on actinomyces communities from soil underlaboratory conditions. Using nutritive gelose with soil extract and Gause medium the main species of actinomyceswere identified: Streptomyces albus, Strep...

  17. Salmonellosis in a captive heron colony

    Science.gov (United States)

    Locke, L.N.; Ohlendorf, H.M.; Shillinger, R.B.; Jareed, T.

    1974-01-01

    Salmonellosis caused by Salmonella typhimurium was one of several factors responsible for losses among young herons being held at the Patuxent Wildlife Research Center. The infection was demonstrated in five black-crowned night herons (Nycticorax nycticorax), three common egrets (Casmerodius albus), two little blue herons (Florida caerulea), one cattle egret (Bubulcus ibis), one snowy egret (Leucophoyx thula) and one Louisiana heron (Hydranassa tricolor). The disease was characterized by emaciation, focal liver necrosis, and frequently by a caseo-necrotic enteritis.

  18. Parnassiana nova : XVI. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 11)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1957-01-01

    Parnassius apollo L. subsp. albus Reb. & Rog. Giebau, f. zirpsi Bryk 1 ♀ Holotype. Zugänge: Domeschau 2 ♂ 1 ♀ ; Grosswasser 3 ♂ 1 ♀ ex c. Hirschke; Würbental 1 ♂ 1 ♀ ex c. Wagner ; Olmütz 2 ♂ 2 ♀ ; Altvater-Gebirge 3 ♂ 1 ♀ ex c. Kammel. Den Fundort Würbental bezeichnet Rebel — auch ihm lagen Exempla

  19. Clinicobacteriological Significance in Congenital Dacryocystitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhavna Raina, Sudhir Bhagotra

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, 37 eyes of 30 congenital dacryocystitis patients (7 bilateral were studied, out ofwhich 60% of patients were male and 40% female. Gram positive cocci constituted the major bacterialisolate (56.7% with Streptococcus pneumoniae (27.9% predominating. Most effective antibiotics againstthe commonest organism Streptococcus pneumoniae were Tobramycin and Gentamycin showing 100%effectivity. Staphylococcus albus 17.4% was the most common normal conjunctival commensal isolated.

  20. Parnassiana nova : XVI. Kritische Revision der Gattung Parnassius (Fortsetzung 11)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eisner, C.

    1957-01-01

    Parnassius apollo L. subsp. albus Reb. & Rog. Giebau, f. zirpsi Bryk 1 ♀ Holotype. Zugänge: Domeschau 2 ♂ 1 ♀ ; Grosswasser 3 ♂ 1 ♀ ex c. Hirschke; Würbental 1 ♂ 1 ♀ ex c. Wagner ; Olmütz 2 ♂ 2 ♀ ; Altvater-Gebirge 3 ♂ 1 ♀ ex c. Kammel. Den Fundort Würbental bezeichnet Rebel — auch ihm lagen

  1. Reproductive Strategies in Mediterranean Legumes: Trade-Offs between Phenology, Seed Size and Vigor within and between Wild and Domesticated Lupinus Species Collected along Aridity Gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jens D.; Shrestha, Damber; Ludwig, Christiane

    2017-01-01

    To investigate wild and domesticated Mediterranean annual reproductive strategies, common garden comparisons of Old World lupins collected along aridity gradients were initiated. These are excellent candidates for ecophysiology, being widely distributed across contrasting environments, having distinct domestication histories, from ancient Lupinus albus to recently domesticated Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus luteus, facilitating the study of both natural and human selection. Strong trade-offs between seed size, early vigor and phenology were observed: vigor increasing, and flowering becoming earlier with increasing seed size. Despite large specific differences in all these traits, natural and human selection have operated in very similar ways in all 3 species. In wild material, as collection environments became drier and hotter, phenology became earlier, while seed size, early vigor and reproductive investment increased. Wild and domesticated germplasm separated along similar lines. Within similar habitats, domesticated material was consistently earlier, with larger seeds, greater early vigor and higher reproductive investment than wild, suggesting selection for both early establishment and timely maturity/drought escape in both domesticated and wild low rainfall ecotypes. Species differences reflected their distribution. Small and soft-seeded, low vigor L. luteus had a late, rainfall-responsive phenology specifically adapted to long season environments, and a narrow coastal distribution. L. angustifolius was much more conservative; more hard-seeded, flowering and maturing much earlier, with a wide Mediterranean distribution. L. albus flowered earlier but matured much later, with longer reproductive phases supporting much larger seed sizes and early vigor than either L. luteus or L. angustifolius. This ruderal/competitive combination appears to give L. albus a broad adaptive capacity, reflected in its relatively wider Mediterranean/North African distribution

  2. Major Crop Species Show Differential Balance between Root Morphological and Physiological Responses to Variable Phosphorus Supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyu, Yang; Tang, Hongliang; Li, Haigang; Zhang, Fusuo; Rengel, Zed; Whalley, William R.; Shen, Jianbo

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between root morphological and physiological responses to variable P supply in different plant species is poorly understood. We compared root morphological and physiological responses to P supply in seven crop species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus, Lupinus albus, Glycine max, Vicia faba, Cicer arietinum) treated with or without 100 mg P kg-1 in two soils (acidic and calcareous). Phosphorus deficiency decreased root length more in fibrous root species (Zea mays, Triticum aestivum, Brassica napus) than legumes. Zea mays and Triticum aestivum had higher root/shoot biomass ratio and Brassica napus had higher specific root length compared to legumes, whereas legumes (except soybean) had higher carboxylate exudation than fibrous root species. Lupinus albus exhibited the highest P-acquisition efficiency due to high exudation of carboxylates and acid phosphatases. Lupinus albus and Cicer arietinum depended mostly on root exudation (i.e., physiological response) to enhance P acquisition, whereas Zea mays, Triticum aestivum and Brassica napus had higher root morphology dependence, with Glycine max and Vicia faba in between. Principal component analysis using six morphological and six physiological responses identified root size and diameter as the most important morphological traits, whereas important physiological responses included carboxylate exudation, and P-acquisition and P-utilization efficiency followed by rhizosphere soil pH and acid phosphatase activity. In conclusion, plant species can be grouped on the basis of their response to soil P being primarily via root architectural or exudation plasticity, suggesting a potential benefit of crop-specific root-trait-based management to cope with variable soil P supply in sustainable grain production. PMID:28066491

  3. ADUBOS VERDES NA FITORREMEDIAÇÃO DE SOLOS CONTAMINADOS COM O HERBICIDA TEBUTHIURON

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Ribeiro Pires

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The tebuthiuron residue, used in the sugar-cane culture, can be found in soil until two or more years after its application. Recent researches are being done using the phytoremediation in the attempt of removing it from the soil. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effectiveness of the green manure use in the phyitoremediation of the tebuthiuron herbicide. The evaluated species were: Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Dolichos lablab, Pennisetum glaucum, Estizolobium deeringianum, Estizolobium aterrimum and Lupinus albus. These were sown and cultivated in pots containing soil treated with different doses of tebuthiuron (0.0; 0.5; 1.0; and 1.5 kg.ha-1. A control treatment without green manure, submitted to the same dosages, was kept. Sixty days after planting, green manure aerial part of all plants were harvested and soybean was sowed in the same pot, to bioassay accomplishment. Sixty days after sowing, the soybean plants were harvested, being the following evaluations carried out: height of plants, phytotoxicity symptoms and plants above ground dry biomass and leaf area. Until 0.5 kg.ha-1 tebuthiuron dosage, the species that better phytoremediated this herbicide was L. albus. When the soil was treated with tebuthiuron at 1.0 kg.ha-1, the C. ensiformis, followed by L. albus and S. aterrimum, they were the treatments that better phytoremediated tebuthiuron because results in highest plant height, above ground dry biomass and lesser phytotoxicity symptoms and still the biggest foliar area of the soybean plants. When the tebuthiuron was applied at 1.5 kg ha-1 dosage, it was impossible to evaluate the phyitoremediation, as the tested plants were eliminated.

  4. INVESTIGATION ON THE HAEMAGLUTINATING ACTIVITY OCCURRING IN THREE SPECIES OF LUPINS

    OpenAIRE

    A. Falcón; Sonja Beeckmans; Van Driessche, E

    2000-01-01

    El lupino es una leguminosa de gran uso como alimento animal y humano en todo el mundo, que posee ven- tajas agronómicas en relación con otros representantes de la familia. En este trabajo se estudió la presencia de actividad hemaglutinante en semillas de tres especies de lupino: dos mediterráneas ( L. albus y L.angustifolius ) y una sudamerica- na ( L. mutabilis ). Se encontró una importante actividad hemaglutinante en extracto de semillas maduras contra eritrocitos de conejo, especialmente ...

  5. Amazoniana: Limnologia et Oecologia Regionalis Systematis Fluminis Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    ARAUJO, C.S. DE & V.E. THATCHER: Anphira junki n.sp. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) a gill chamber parasite of Triportheus albus and T. flavus (Pisces) in the Brazilian Amazon 283-290 DRAGO, E.C., DRAGO, I.E. DE, OLIVEROS, O.B. & A.R. PAIRA: Aquatic habitats, fish and invertebrate assemblages of the Middle Paraná River 291-341 GOLOVATCH, S.I., HOFFMANN, R.L., MÁRMOL, A. & J. ADIS: A new, apparently arboricolous species of the millipede genus Mestosoma SILVESTRI, 1897 from near...

  6. Amazoniana: Limnologia et Oecologia Regionalis Systematis Fluminis Amazonas

    OpenAIRE

    2003-01-01

    ARAUJO, C.S. DE & V.E. THATCHER: Anphira junki n.sp. (Isopoda, Cymothoidae) a gill chamber parasite of Triportheus albus and T. flavus (Pisces) in the Brazilian Amazon 283-290 DRAGO, E.C., DRAGO, I.E. DE, OLIVEROS, O.B. & A.R. PAIRA: Aquatic habitats, fish and invertebrate assemblages of the Middle Paraná River 291-341 GOLOVATCH, S.I., HOFFMANN, R.L., MÁRMOL, A. & J. ADIS: A new, apparently arboricolous species of the millipede genus Mestosoma SILVESTRI, 1897 from near Iquitos, Peruvian Amazo...

  7. Rumen degradability of some feed legume seeds

    OpenAIRE

    González, Javier; Andrés, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    International audience; The aim of this work was to determine the effective degradability (ED) of CP for different feed legume seeds and the possible relationship with their physical and chemical characteristics. The ED was measured using nylon bags and rumen outflow rate techniques on three rumen cannulated wethers fed at 40 g DM$\\cdot$kg$^{-0.75}$, with a 2:1 (on DM basis) hay to concentrate diet. Nine seed samples of the following legume species were tested: lupin (Lupinus albus L., cultiv...

  8. New ester alkaloids from lupins (genus lupinus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlbauer, P; Witte, L; Wink, M

    1988-06-01

    Esters of 13-hydroxylupanine and 4-hydroxylupanine with acetic, propionic, butyric, isobutyric, valeric, isovaleric, tiglic, benzoic, and TRANS-cinnamic acid have been synthesized and characterized by capillary gas-liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (EI-MS, CI-MS). In LUPINUS POLYPHYLLUS, L. ALBUS, L. ANGUSTIFOLIUS, and L. MUTABILIS we could identify new ester alkaloids (e.g. 13-propyloxylupanine, 13-butyryloxylupanine, 13-isobutyryloxylupanine, and 4-tigloyloxylupanine) besides the known esters, i.e. 13-acetoxylupanine, 13-isovaleroyloxylupanine, 13-angeloyloxylupanine, 13-tigloyloxylupanine, 13-benzoyloxylupanine, 13- CIS-cinnamoyloxylupanine nine, and 13- TRANS-cinnamoyloxylupanine.

  9. Isolation of the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Al-Mufti

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The study was performed to identify the bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs. Twelve clinical cases of dogs (5 males and 7 females of different ages and breeds were observed. Tonsils swabs were taken from all the dogs, then cultured on different agars and bacterial smears prepared from all cultures and Gram stains were done. The study confirmed that the most bacterial causes of tonsillitis in dogs were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus intermedius, Staphylococcus albus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Klebsiella spp. and Pasteurella spp.

  10. Identification of life cycle stages of the nematode Echinocephalus overstreeti by allozyme electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrews, R H; Beveridge, I; Adams, M; Baverstock, P R

    1988-06-01

    Data presented in this study highlight the potential of allozyme electrophoresis in providing unequivocal genetic evidence for the identification of life cycle stages, particularly where species have complex life cycles. Adults of the nematode Echinocephalus overstreeti parasitize the elasmobranch Heterodontus portusjacksoni. The putative larval form which is morphologically dissimilar is found in two species of marine molluscs, Chlamys bifrons and Pecten albus. Electrophoretic analysis indicated that the adult and larval forms shared alleles at all of the 34 enzyme loci established. Furthermore, there were no fixed allelic differences between larval forms from different mollusc species.

  11. Direct detection of radicals in intact soybean nodules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathieu, C; Moreau, S; Frendo, P

    1998-01-01

    Electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy has been employed to examine the nature of the metal ions and radicals present in intact root nodules of soybean plants grown in the absence of nitrate. The spectra obtained from nodules of different ages using this non-invasive technique show dramatic...... of the soybean plants, in a manner analogous to that recently described for Lupinus albus. This Lb-NO complex is present at lower concentrations in older nodules, and is almost completely absent from senescent nodules. Exposure of young and mature nodules to oxidant stress, in the form of hydrogen peroxide...

  12. Ocena tolerancji wybranych gatunków traw i roślin motylkowatych na zasolenie środowiska [Salt tolerance of grasses and leguminous plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Zawadzka

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available 11 species of grasses and 10 species of leguminous plants were tested for salt tolerance. The biotest of germination viability and capacity in soline water was performed. The results proved usefulness of using seeds as bioin-dicators and allowed to show the significant interspecific differences. The following species – Lolium perenne, L. multiflorum, Festuca pratensis, Arrhenetherum elatius, Trifolium resupinatum, T. incarnatum and Melilotus albus show high level of tolerance. The less tolerant species were: Festuca ovina, Agrostis alba, Trifolium repens, Lotus corniculatus, Medicago lupulina and Medicago sativa.

  13. PRESERVACION DE GONADAS DE ERIZO MEDIANTE LA TECNICA DE LIOFILIZACION

    OpenAIRE

    PACHECO SANCHEZ, ELISA GLORIA

    2011-01-01

    Las gónadas de erizo (Loxechinus albus), son un importante producto marino que exporta nuestro país. En este sentido Chile, se ha posicionado como el principal exportador mundial de este recurso. La mayor parte de las exportaciones están dirigidas a Japón, país en el cual el 60% del consumo de gónadas de erizo proviene de Chile. Sin embargo, debido a la fragilidad mecánica y labilidad bioquímica de las gónadas una vez extraídas desde el erizo fresco, este recurso debe ser sometido a con...

  14. CBR Operations in Cold Weather: A Bibliography. Volume 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-11-01

    DOD/DROLS B042605L SERRATIA DOD/DROLS 294093 SHELTERS DOD/DROLS 272856 DOD/DROLS 345779L DOD/DROLS A166321 DOD/DROLS B099962L SHOCK WAVES DOD/DROLS...B114740 THREAT3 DOD/DROLS A173203 DOD/DROLS B099962L TIME DEPENDENCE DOD/DROLS C953524L TOXIC AGENTS DOD/DROLS B009895 TOXIC HAZARDS DOD/DROLS C953524L...INDICA, MICROCCOCUS PYOGENES VAR. AUREUS AND MICROCCOCUS PYOGENES VAR. ALBUS. IT IS CONCLUDED THaT THE EXPERIMENTAL BACTERIAL PARTICLES STUDIED ARE

  15. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by roots could increase the bioavailability of Zn and P in calcareous soils. Methods White lupin was grown in nutrient solution and in two calcareous soils in a rhizobox. Rhizosphere soil solution wa...

  16. [Practicability study on a group of vigilant chemical compounds including chlorheridine diacetate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Xiao-Min; Jin, Ai-Hua; Zou, Jian; Li, Qian-Li

    2002-01-01

    To test in vitro the spermatozocidine drug which can also prevent sex transmitting diseases (STD) pathogens. Chlorheridine diacetate and other three chemical compounds were applied in vitro spermatozocidine and sperm inhibitting tests. The lowest concentrations of chlorheridine diacetate and p-nitrophenol which can inhibit human sperm in 20 seconds were 1.25 mg/ml. The minimal inhibitory concentration and minimal bactericidal concentration of chlorheridine diacetate and p-nitrophenol on Streptococcus albus Stemberg were 0.125 to 0.50 mg/ml and 0.25 to 1.00 mg/ml. Chlorheridine diacetate and p-uitrophenol have strong spermatozocidine and antibacteria effects.

  17. 潮汕地区产3种广东省新记录植物%Three newly recorded plants of Guangdong province,collected from Chaoshan district

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾宪锋; 文志强

    2013-01-01

    报道了产自潮汕地区的3种广东省新记录植物——毛枝连蕊茶Camellia trichoclada (Rehd.)Chien.、白花草木犀Melilotus albus Medikus以及灵枝草Justicia nasutaL..灵枝草属为广东省野生植物新记录属,标本存放于华南农业大学林学院植物标本室(CANT).

  18. An influence of the copy number of biosynthetic gene clusters on the production level of antibiotics in a heterologous host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manderscheid, Niko; Bilyk, Bohdan; Busche, Tobias; Kalinowski, Jörn; Paululat, Thomas; Bechthold, Andreas; Petzke, Lutz; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2016-08-20

    Streptomyces albus J1074 is a well-known host for heterologous expression of secondary metabolites. To further increase its potential and to study the influence of cluster multiplication, additional φC31-attachment site was integrated into its genome using a system for transposon mutagenesis. Four secondary metabolite clusters were expressed in strains with different numbers of attachment sites, ranging from one to three copies of the site. Secondary metabolite production was examined and a new compound could be detected, purified and its structure was elucidated.

  19. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    P. Cerezal Mezquita; V. Urtuvia Gatica; V. Ramírez Quintanilla; N. Romero Palacios; R. Arcos Zavala

    2011-01-01

    La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) y lupino (Lupinus albus L), para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L.) y arroz (Oryza sativa L.), originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificació...

  20. Aislamiento, purificación y caracterización de un inhibidor de aspártico proteasa vegetal específico contra las aspártico proteasas de la broca del café / Isolation, purification and characterization of a plant aspartic protease inhibitor specific against aspartic proteases from coffee berry borer

    OpenAIRE

    Molina Vinasco, Diana María

    2010-01-01

    La broca del café Hypothenemus hampei es la más grave plaga de café (Coffea arabica). La digestión en el intestino medio del insecto es facilitada por aspártico proteasas. Esta es el primer registro de la caracterización de siete inhibidores de las aspártico proteasas aislados de Lupinus bogotensis (IAPLb). La secuencia amino-terminal de IAPLb1, IAPLb2, IAPLb3 IAPLb4 y IAPLb5 mostró identidad con vicilinas y δ-conglutinas de Lupinus albus, esto sugiere que estas proteínas podrían ser codifica...

  1. Compositional variations for alpha-galactosides in different species of leguminosae, brassicaceae, and barley: a chemotaxonomic study based on chemometrics and high-performance capillary electrophoresis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Keld Ejdrup; Bjergegaard, Charlotte; Møller, Peter; Sørensen, Jens Christian; Sørensen, Hilmer

    2005-07-13

    The contents of raffinose family oligosaccharides (RFO) and sucrose in Brassica, Lupinus, Pisum, and Hordeum species were investigated by chemometric principal component analysis (PCA). Hordeum samples contained sucrose and raffinose, and Brassica samples all contained sucrose, raffinose, and stachyose. In addition to these, the Pisum samples contained verbascose and the Lupinus samples also contained ajugose. High stachyose and low ajugose contents were found in Lupinus albus in contrast to Lupinus angustifolius, having low stachyose and high ajugose contents. Lupinus luteus had average stachyose and ajugose contents, whereas large amounts of verbascose were accumulated in these seeds. Lupinus mutabilis had high stachyose and low ajugose contents, similar to the composition in L. albus but showing higher raffinose content. The Brassica samples also showed compositional RFO variations within the species, and subgroup formations were discovered within the investigated Brassica napus varieties. PCA results indicated compositional variations between the investigated genera and within the various species of value as chemotaxonomic defined parameters and as tools in evaluations of authenticity/falsifications when RFO-containing plants are used as, for example, feed and food additives.

  2. In vivo random mutagenesis of streptomycetes using mariner-based transposon Himar1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilyk, Bohdan; Weber, Stephen; Myronovskyi, Maksym; Bilyk, Oksana; Petzke, Lutz; Luzhetskyy, Andriy

    2013-01-01

    We report here the in vivo expression of the synthetic transposase gene himar1(a) in Streptomyces coelicolor M145 and Streptomyces albus. Using the synthetic himar1(a) gene adapted for Streptomyces codon usage, we showed random insertion of the transposon into the streptomycetes genome. The insertion frequency for the Himar1-derived minitransposons is nearly 100 % of transformed Streptomyces cells, and insertions are stably inherited in the absence of an antibiotic selection. The minitransposons contain different antibiotic resistance selection markers (apramycin, hygromycin, and spectinomycin), site-specific recombinase target sites (rox and/or loxP), I-SceI meganuclease target sites, and an R6Kγ origin of replication for transposon rescue. We identified transposon insertion loci by random sequencing of more than 100 rescue plasmids. The majority of insertions were mapped to putative open-reading frames on the S. coelicolor M145 and S. albus chromosomes. These insertions included several new regulatory genes affecting S. coelicolor M145 growth and actinorhodin biosynthesis.

  3. Changes in Rumen Microbial Community Composition during Adaption to an In Vitro System and the Impact of Different Forages.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melanie B Lengowski

    Full Text Available This study examined ruminal microbial community composition alterations during initial adaption to and following incubation in a rumen simulation system (Rusitec using grass or corn silage as substrates. Samples were collected from fermenter liquids at 0, 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 h and from feed residues at 0, 24, and 48 h after initiation of incubation (period 1 and on day 13 (period 2. Microbial DNA was extracted and real-time qPCR was used to quantify differences in the abundance of protozoa, methanogens, total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Prevotella bryantii, Selenomonas ruminantium, and Clostridium aminophilum. We found that forage source and sampling time significantly influenced the ruminal microbial community. The gene copy numbers of most microbial species (except C. aminophilum decreased in period 1; however, adaption continued through period 2 for several species. The addition of fresh substrate in period 2 led to increasing copy numbers of all microbial species during the first 2-4 h in the fermenter liquid except protozoa, which showed a postprandial decrease. Corn silage enhanced the growth of R. amylophilus and F. succinogenes, and grass silage enhanced R. albus, P. bryantii, and C. aminophilum. No effect of forage source was detected on total bacteria, protozoa, S. ruminantium, or methanogens or on total gas production, although grass silage enhanced methane production. This study showed that the Rusitec provides a stable system after an adaption phase that should last longer than 48 h, and that the forage source influenced several microbial species.

  4. Co-electrospinning of bacteria and viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salalha, Wael; Kuhn, Jonathan; Chervinsky, Shmuel; Zussman, Eyal

    2006-03-01

    Co-electrospinning provides a novel and highly versatile approach towards composite fibers with diameters ranging from a few hundred nm down to 30 nm with embedded elements. In the present work, co-electrospinning of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and viruses (T7, T4, λ) or bacteria (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus) was carried out. These preparations should have applications for tissue engineering, gene therapy, phage therapy and biosensing. The average diameter of the co-spun nanofibers was about 300 nm. We found that the encapsulated viruses and bacteria manage to survive the electrospinning process, its pressure buildup in the core of the fiber and the electrostatic field in the co-electrospinning process. Approximately 10% of the Escherichia coli and 20% of Staphylococcus albus cells are viable after spinning. Approximately 5% of the bacterial viruses were also viable after the electrospinning. It should be noted that the encapsulated cells and viruses remain stable for two months without a further decrease in number. These results demonstrate the potential of the co-electrospinning process for the encapsulation and immobilization of bio-objects and the possibility of adapting them to technical applications (e.g., bio-chips).

  5. Effect of lupin seed proteins on quality characteristics of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papavergou, E J; Bloukas, J G; Doxastakis, G

    1999-08-01

    Lupin seed flours (LSF) and lupin seed protein isolates (LSPI) from a sweet (S) variety of Lupinus albus and a bitter (B) variety of Lupinus albus ssp. Graecus were used in the manufacture of fermented sausages at 2% level, based on the weight of meat and pork back fat, and hydrated to a protein/water ratio 1/4, to replace beef and pork meat on a protein to protein basis. LSF and LSPI had no effect (p>0.05) on the microbial counts, the pH, the moisture content and weight losses, the instrumentally measured colour numbers (L*, a*, b*), the firmness, the appearance and the sensory evaluated colour of fermented sausages. Fermented sausages produced with LSPI from the bitter variety had similar (p>0.05) sensory attributes to the control and lower (pLSPI from the sweet variety had acceptable sensory attributes but TBA values higher than 1 mg of malonaldehyde/kg. LSF from both varieties had a high pro-oxidant effect and affected negatively the odour and taste of fermented sausages.

  6. Studies on some characteristics of hydrogen production by cell-free extracts of rumen anaerobic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joyner, A E; Winter, W T; Godbout, D M

    1977-03-01

    Hydrogen production was studied in the following rumen anaerobes: Bacteroides clostridiiformis, Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Enbacterium limosum, Fusobacterium necrophorum, Megasphaera elsdenii, Ruminococcus albus, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens. Clostridium pasteurianum and Escherichia coli were included for comparative purposes. Hydrogen production from dithionite, dithionite-reduced methyl viologen, pyruvate, and formate was determined. All species tested produced hydrogen from dithionite-reduce methyl viologen, but only C. pasteurianum, B. clostridiiformis, E. limosum, and M. elsdenii produced hydrogen from dithionite. All species except E. coli produced hydrogen from pyruvate, but activity was low or absent in extracts of E. limosum, F. necrophorum, R. albus, and R. flavefaciens unless methyl viologen was added. Hydrogen was produced from formate only by E. coli, B. clostridiiformis, E. limosum, F. necrophorum, and R. flavefaciens. Extracts were subjected to ultracentrifugation in an effort to determine the solubility of hydrogenase. The hydrogenase of all species except E. coli appeared to be soluble, although variable amounts of hydrogenase activity were detected in the pellet. Treatment of extracts of the rumen microbial species with DEAE-cellulose resulted in loss ofhydrogen production from pyruvate. Activity was restored by the addition of methyl viologen. It is concluded that hydrogen production in these rumen microorganisms is similar to that in the saccharolytic clostridia.

  7. Actinomycetal complex of light sierozem on the Kopet-Dag piedmont plain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zenova, G. M.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Manucharova, N. A.; Stepanova, O. A.; Chernov, I. Yu.

    2016-10-01

    The population density of actinomycetes in the samples of light sierozem from the Kopet Dag piedmont plain (75 km from Ashkhabad, Turkmenistan) reaches hundreds of thousand CFU/g soil. The actinomycetal complex is represented by two genera: Streptomyces and Micromonospora. Representatives of the Streptomyces genus predominate and comprise 73 to 87% of the actinomycetal complex. In one sample, representatives of the Micromonospora genus predominated in the complex (75%). The Streptomyces genus in the studied soil samples is represented by the species from several sections and series: the species of section Helvolo-Flavus series Helvolus represent the dominant component of the streptomycetal complex; their portion is up to 77% of all isolated actinomycetes. The species of other sections and series are much less abundant. Thus, the percentage of the Cinereus Achromogenes section in the actinomycetal complex does not exceed 28%; representatives of the Albus section Albus series, Roseus section Lavendulae-Roseus series, and Imperfectus section belong to rare species; they have been isolated not from all the studied samples of light sierozem, and their portion does not exceed 10% of the actinomycetal complex.

  8. Positivity and Intensity of Gnathostoma spinigerum Infective Larvae in Farmed and Wild-Caught Swamp Eels in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai

    2012-01-01

    From July 2008 to June 2009, livers of the swamp eels (Monopterus alba) were investigated for advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum. Results revealed that 10.2% (106/1,037) and 20.4% (78/383) of farmed eels from Aranyaprathet District, Sa Kaeo Province and those of wild-caught eels obtained from a market in Min Buri District of Bangkok, Thailand were infected, respectively. The prevalence was high during the rainy and winter seasons. The infection rate abruptly decreased in the beginning of summer. The highest infection rate (13.7%) was observed in September and absence of infection (0%) in March-April in the farmed eels. Whereas, in the wild-caught eels, the highest rate (30.7%) was observed in November, and the rate decreased to the lowest at 6.3% in March. The average no. (mean±SE) of AL3 per investigated liver in farmed eels (1.1±0.2) was significantly lower (P=0.040) than those in the caught eels (0.2±0.03). In addition, the intensity of AL3 recovered from each infected liver varied from 1 to 18 (2.3±0.3) in the farmed eels and from 1 to 47 (6.3±1.2) in the caught eels, respectively. The AL3 intensity showed significant difference (P=0.011) between these 2 different sources of eels. This is the first observation that farmed eels showed positive findings of G. spinigerum infective larvae. This may affect the standard farming of the culture farm and also present a risk of consuming undercooked eels from the wild-caught and farmed eels. PMID:22711921

  9. Positivity and intensity of Gnathostoma spinigerum infective larvae in farmed and wild-caught swamp eels in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saksirisampant, Wilai; Thanomsub, Benjamas Wongsatayanon

    2012-06-01

    From July 2008 to June 2009, livers of the swamp eels (Monopterus alba) were investigated for advanced third-stage larvae (AL3) of Gnathostoma spinigerum. Results revealed that 10.2% (106/1,037) and 20.4% (78/383) of farmed eels from Aranyaprathet District, Sa Kaeo Province and those of wild-caught eels obtained from a market in Min Buri District of Bangkok, Thailand were infected, respectively. The prevalence was high during the rainy and winter seasons. The infection rate abruptly decreased in the beginning of summer. The highest infection rate (13.7%) was observed in September and absence of infection (0%) in March-April in the farmed eels. Whereas, in the wild-caught eels, the highest rate (30.7%) was observed in November, and the rate decreased to the lowest at 6.3% in March. The average no. (mean±SE) of AL3 per investigated liver in farmed eels (1.1±0.2) was significantly lower (P=0.040) than those in the caught eels (0.2±0.03). In addition, the intensity of AL3 recovered from each infected liver varied from 1 to 18 (2.3±0.3) in the farmed eels and from 1 to 47 (6.3±1.2) in the caught eels, respectively. The AL3 intensity showed significant difference (P=0.011) between these 2 different sources of eels. This is the first observation that farmed eels showed positive findings of G. spinigerum infective larvae. This may affect the standard farming of the culture farm and also present a risk of consuming undercooked eels from the wild-caught and farmed eels.

  10. Research on Antimicrobial Activity by Periplaneta american Cockroach Skimmed Cream and Active Carbon Material in vitro%美洲大蠊脱脂膏及其活性炭脱色物体外抗菌活性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洪文; 耿玲; 刘光明; 李冬梅

    2012-01-01

    Objective; To investigate antibacterial activity by Periplaneta americana skimmed cream and active carbon material, and compare the effect of intensity between P. americana skimmed cream and active carbon material. Method; The P. americana skimmed cream was decolored with active carbon and solid bleaching material was obtained after freeze-drying. The antibacterial activity of them against Slaphylococcus aureus ( 5. aureas) , Slaphylococcus albus ( 5. albus ) , Escherichia coli ( E. coli) , Shigella dysenteriae ( S. dysenteriae ) , Salmonella Paratyphi ( 5. paratyphi A) , S. paratyphi B, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ( P. aeruginosa) , Bacillus bacteria (B. subtilis) , Proteus {P. vulgaris) , Candida albicans (C. albicans) , S. aureus ( ATCC 25923) , E. coli ( ATCC 25922) in vitro was observed, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined. Result; In all experimental strains, only skimmed cream had some antibacterial effect, S. albus. MIC values of 31. 25 g ?L , on the other multiple strains of bacteria had no antibacterial activity, active carbon material and antibacterial against S. aureus 25923, C. albicans, no antibacterial activity against many other strains of bacteria had antibacterial activity, in which the S. albus and P. aeruginosa antimicrobial was better, the MIC was 15. 63, 62. 5g ?L-1, respectively. Conclusion: P. americana contains antimicrobial active ingredients, compared with active carbon material and skimmed cream, antibiotic effect of active carbon material is better than that of skimmed cream.%目的:探讨美洲大蠊脱脂膏及其活性炭脱色物的体外抗菌作用.对比了美洲大蠊脱脂膏及其活性炭脱色物的抗菌谱和抗菌强弱.方法:美洲大蠊脱脂膏用活性炭脱色后进行冷冻干燥得到固体脱色物,然后用脱脂膏和脱色物对金黄色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureas)、白色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus albus)、大肠杆菌(Escherichia coli)、痢疾志贺菌(Shigella dysenteriae)、

  11. Chemical Components and Antibacterial Activity of Essential Oil from Basil Flower Grown in Heilongjiang%黑龙江栽培白花罗勒花精油成分及其抗菌活性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆占国; 李伟; 孟大威; 林宝祥; 任惠峰

    2012-01-01

    Essential oil was extracted from white basil(Ocimum basilicum L.) flower grown in Heilongjiang Province by Clevenger method with an average yield of 0.527%.The chemical composition of the essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS.A total of 25 compounds were identified.The most abundant compound was linalool with a relative content of 64.421%.The antibacterial activity of the essential oil against Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus albus and Bacillus subtilis was tested by filter paper method and compared with that of penicillin sodium.The essential oil had similar anti-Escherichia coli activity as penicillin sodium at 3 mg/mL,and similar anti-Staphylococcus albus as penicillin sodium 0.75 mg/mL,but lower anti-Bacillus subtilis activity than penicillin sodium at 0.1875 mg/mL.Its inhibitory effects on three strains declined in the following order: Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus albus and Bacillus subtilis.%利用Clevenger法提取黑龙江栽培白花罗勒,从花中以0.527%平均产率获得精油。用GC-MS联机对精油进行成分分析,检测和解析鉴定出25个成分,β-芳樟醇为主要成分,占总精油相对含量的64.421%。以青霉素钠为对照,用滤纸片法测定白花罗勒花精油对大肠杆菌、白色葡萄球菌和枯草芽孢杆菌的抗菌活性。结果显示:白花罗勒花精油对大肠杆菌抗菌效果与3mg/mL的青霉素钠效果相近;对白色葡萄球菌抗菌效果与0.75mg/mL的青霉素钠效果相近;对枯草芽孢杆菌的抗菌效果低于0.1875mg/mL青霉素钠。白花罗勒花精油抗菌效果大小顺序为:大肠杆菌〉白色葡萄球菌〉枯草芽孢杆菌。

  12. Titer improvement of iso-migrastatin in selected heterologous Streptomyces hosts and related analysis of mRNA expression by quantitative RT–PCR

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Dong; Zhu, Xiangcheng; Wu, Xueyun; Feng, Zhiyang; Huang, Lei; Shen, Ben; Xu, Zhinan

    2011-01-01

    iso-Migrastatin (iso-MGS) has been actively pursued recently as an outstanding candidate of antimetastasis agents. Having characterized the iso-MGS biosynthetic gene cluster from its native producer Streptomyces platensis NRRL 18993, we have recently succeeded in producing iso-MGS in five selected heterologous Streptomyces hosts, albeit the low titers failed to meet expectations and cast doubt on the utility of this novel technique for large-scale production. To further explore and capitalize on the production capacity of these hosts, a thorough investigation of these five engineered strains with three fermentation media for iso-MGS production was undertaken. Streptomyces albus J1074 and Streptomyces lividans K4-114 were found to be preferred heterologous hosts, and subsequent analysis of carbon and nitrogen sources revealed that sucrose and yeast extract were ideal for iso-MGS production. After the initial optimization, the titers of iso-MGS in all five hosts were considerably improved by 3–18-fold in the optimized R2YE medium. Furthermore, the iso-MGS titer of S. albus J1074 (pBS11001) was significantly improved to 186.7 mg/L by a hybrid medium strategy. Addition of NaHCO3 to the latter finally afforded an optimized iso-MGS titer of 213.8 mg/L, about 5-fold higher than the originally reported system. With S. albus J1074 (pBS11001) as a model host, the expression of iso-MGS gene cluster in four different media was systematically studied via the quantitative RT–PCR technology. The resultant comparison revealed the correlation of gene expression and iso-MGS production for the first time; synchronous expression of the whole gene cluster was crucial for optimal iso-MGS production. These results reveal new insights into the iso-MGS biosynthetic machinery in heterologous hosts and provide the primary data to realize large-scale production of iso-MGS for further preclinical studies. PMID:21132287

  13. 银杏黄酮抑菌作用的研究%Inhibitory Properties of Flavoniods from Ginkgo biloba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡筱; 白光; 李聪聪; 毛建

    2014-01-01

    本文采用液相色谱法对银杏仁提取物主成分进行了定性测定,并对其抑菌作用进行了研究。结果表明:银杏仁乙醇提取物的主要成分为黄酮类化合物。在抑菌圈试验中,黄酮类化合物对细菌和真菌都有一定的抑制作用,且对细菌的抑制作用略好于真菌。在食物抑菌试验中,20mg/mL提取液对培养72h牛肉中的大肠杆菌、白葡萄球菌和毛霉都有很好地抑制作用;对豆腐中的毛霉抑菌作用明显,对大肠杆菌和白葡萄球菌没有抑制作用,反而呈现促进作用,食品的特性决定了黄酮类物质对菌类的抑制效果。%Main components of Ginkgo biloba extractive were made qualitative analysis by HPLC and antibacterial effects. Results showed that flavonoids were main components in extractive. In bacteriostatic ring experiment, flavonoids had inhibited effect to bacteria (Escherichia coli. and Staphylococcus albus) and fungus (Mucor and Tricheodrma spp.). And there were better inhibition effect to bacteria than to fungus. In antibacterial of food experiment , 20mg/mL Ginkgo biloba extractive had inhibited effect to Escherichia coli., Staphylococcus albus and Mucor which cultured for 72h in beef. 20mg/mL Ginkgo biloba extractive had obvious inhibitory effect to Mucor, but had certain promoter action to Escherichia coli. and Staphylococcus albus which cultured for 72h in beancurd. Characteristics of food determined effects of flavonoids antibacterial.

  14. [Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Acosta Barrientos, E; Rojas Valdivia, G; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2012-01-01

    This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol.) Stunz) and lupine (Lupinus albus L.), native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05) maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  15. Novel polyclonal-monoclonal-based ELISA utilized to examine lupine (Lupinus species) content in food products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holden, Lise; Moen, Lena Haugland; Sletten, Gaynour B G; Dooper, Maaike M B W

    2007-04-04

    Sweet lupines are increasingly used in food production. Cause for concern has been expressed due to the increase in reported lupine-induced allergic incidents and the association between lupine and peanut allergies. In the current study, a polyclonal-monoclonal antibody-based sandwich ELISA for the detection of lupine proteins in foods was developed. The assay was sensitive to both native and processed proteins from Lupinus angustifolius and Lupinus albus and had a detection limit of 1 mug/g. Intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were lupine declaration, was evaluated for their content of lupine. The data showed that the majority were in agreement with the respective labeling. However, some inconsistency was seen, typically in bread/rolls and soy flours.

  16. The role of acid anion on the inhibition of the acidic corrosion of steel by lupine extract

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdel-Gaber, A.M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)], E-mail: ashrafmoustafa@yahoo.com; Abd-El-Nabey, B.A.; Saadawy, M. [Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Alexandria University, Ibrahimia, P.O. Box 426, Alexandria 21321 (Egypt)

    2009-05-15

    The inhibitive effect of lupine (Lupinous albus L.) extract on the corrosion of steel in aqueous solution of 1 M sulphuric and 2 M hydrochloric acids was investigated by potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) techniques. Potentiodynamic polarization curves indicated that the lupine extract acts as a mixed-type inhibitor. EIS measurements showed that the dissolution process is under activation control. The inhibition efficiency of the extract obtained from impedance and polarization measurements was in a good agreement and was found to increase with increasing concentration of the extract. The obtained results showed that, the lupine extract could serve as an effective inhibitor for the corrosion of steel in acid media and the extract was more effective in case of hydrochloric acid. Theoretical fitting of the corrosion data to the kinetic-thermodynamic model was tested to show the nature of adsorption.

  17. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots.To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify...... the rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation...... in pH optimum of the enzymeand post-translational modification of an H ++-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein.Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton...

  18. Site of lupanine and sparteine biosynthesis in intact plants and in vitro organ cultures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wink, M.

    (/sup 14/C)Cadaverine was applied to leaves of Lupinus polyphyllus, L. albus, L. angustifolius, L. perennis, L. mutabilis, L. pubescens, and L. hartwegii and it was preferentially incorporated into lupanine. In Lupinus arboreus sparteine was the main labelled alkaloid, in L. hispanicus it was lupanine. A pulse chase experiment with L. angustifolius and L. arboreus showed that the incorporation of cadaverine into lupanine and sparteine was transient with a maximum between 8 and 20 h. Only leaflets and chlorophyllous petioles showed active alkaloid biosynthesis, whereas no incorporation of cadaverine into lupanine was observed in roots. Using in vitro organ cultures of Lupinus polyphyllus, L. succulentus, L. subcarnosus, Cytisus scoparius and Laburnum anagyroides the inactivity of roots was confirmed. Therefore, the green aerial parts are the major site of alkaloid biosynthesis in lupins and in other legumes.

  19. Ozone susceptibility of selected woody shrubs and vines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, D.D.; Coppolino, J.B.

    1976-10-01

    Thirteen species of woody shrubs and vines were exposed to 0.25 ppm ozone for 8 hours at biweekly intervals throughout the 1975 growing season. A different set of plants was utilized in each biweekly exposure. The most susceptible species was staghorn sumac (Rhus typhina), followed in descending order of susceptibility by Virginia creeper (Parthenocissus quinquefolia), Indian currant (coral berry) (Symphoricarpus orbiculatus), American elder (Sambucus canadensis), dwarf ninebark (Physocarpus opulifolius), multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora), smooth sumac (Rhus glabra), redosier dogwood (Cornus stolonifera), silky dogwood (Cornus amomum), autumn olive (Elaeagnus angustifolia), white snowberry (Symphoricarpus albus), bittersweet (Celastrus scandens), and Morrow honeysuckle (Lonicera morrowi). The latter three species were very resistant. The most common symptom induced by ozone was a dark pigmented stipple on the upper leaf surface. The foliage of all species became increasingly resistant toward the end of the growing season.

  20. Synchronizing legume residue nutrient release with Kale (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) uptake in a Nitrosol of Kabete, Kenya

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Onwonga, Richard N.; Chepkoech, Caroline; Wahome, R.G.

    fertility improvement for crop production e.g. kales (Brassica oleracea var. acephala) under organic farming systems. Chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) are leguminous crops commonly intercropped with kales (Genga, 2014) and their influence on crop yield and soil nutrient status...... has been widely studied (Nduku 2014, Genga 2014; Onwonga et al., 2015). There is however a dearth of information with respect to synchronization of nutrient released by legume residues with pattern of nutrient uptake by kales to match their demand. The objective of the current study was therefore...... to assess decomposition and nutrient release rates of chickpea and lupin residues and kale nutrient uptake patterns for better synchrony of nutrient supply and demand....

  1. Detection of fiber-digesting bacteria in the forestomach contents of llamas (Lama glama by PCR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María E Cerón Cucchi

    Full Text Available The high fibrolytic activity and large biomass of strictly-anaerobic bacteria that inhabit the rumen makes them primarily responsible for the degradation of the forage consumed by ruminants. Llamas feed mainly on low quality fibrous roughages that are digested by an active and diverse microflora. The products of this fermentation are volatile fatty acids and microbial biomass, which will be used by the animals. The aim of this study was to detect the three major fiber-digesting anaerobic bacteria in the forestomach contents of llamas by PCR. In this study, we detected Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes in the forestomach contents of eight native llamas from Argentina.

  2. SYNTHESIS, CHARACTERIZATION AND ANTI MICROBIAL STUDIES OF AgNP’S USING PROBIOTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D Sarvamangala

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Recent researches speak about the utilization of biological systems especially enterobacteria to synthesize nanoparticles is a novel approach. The present study demonstrates an eco-friendly and low cost protocol for synthesis of silver nano particles using the cell free filtrate of Lactobacillus bulgaricus when supplied with aqueous silver ions. Characterization of silver nanoparticles was done by UV-Visible absorption spectroscopy shows maximum absorption at 420 nm, Transmission electron microscope (TEM revealed the formation of spherical nanoparticles with size ranging between 40 – 50nm, X-Ray diffraction (XRD pattern shows spectrum, which reveals the FCC structure of silver nanoparticles. Energy dispersive spectroscope (EDS analysis was done using SEM instrument equipped with thermo EDS attachment shows the optical absorption peak at 3kev. Microbial nanoparticles showed very strong inhibitory action against Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, & Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

  3. [Relationship of resistance to diseases and water-soluble amino acids in Konjac leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yongbo; Jiang, Qiaolong

    2008-05-01

    Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography was used to analyze water-soluble amino acids in the normal Amorphophallus Konjac, Amorphophallus albus, Amorphophallus bulbifer, and the soft rot Amorphophallus Konjac, to determine the relationship of the different soft-rot resistant Konjac varieties and the proportion and content of the multiple water-soluble amino acids. The results showed that there are remarkable differences in the content and proportion of water-soluble amino acids in different resistant varieties and the same variety of normal and diseased leaves of Amorphophallus. In this study, the bank of fingerprint 15 chromatogram was established and can be used to analyze the related characteristic peaks and the resistance of Amorphophallus.

  4. Polyethylene glycol and polyvinylpirrolidone effect on bacterial rRNA extraction and hybridization from cells exposed to tannins Efeito de polietilenoglicol e polivinilpirrolidona na extração e hibridização de rRNA bacteriano de células expostas a taninos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Braga Arcuri

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to detect fluctuations in ruminal microbial populations due to forage tannins using 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA probes, recovery of intact rRNA is required. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG and polyvinylpirrolidone (PVP on extraction of bacterial rRNA, in the presence of tannins from tropical legume forages and other sources, that hybridize with oligonucleotide probes. Ruminococcus albus 8 cells were exposed to 8 g/L tannic acid or 1 g/L condensed tannins extracted from Acacia angustissima, banana (Musa sp. skin, Desmodium ovalifolium, red grape (Vitis vinifera skin and Inga edulis, or no tannins. Cells were rinsed with Tris buffer pH 7 containing either 8% PEG or 6% PVP prior to cell lysis. Total RNA samples rinsed with either PEG or PVP migrated through denaturing agarose gels. The 16S rRNA bands successfully hybridized with a R. albus species-specific oligonucleotide probe, regardless of tannin source. The effect of rinsing buffers on the density of 16S rRNA bands, as well as on the hybridization signals was compared. There were significant effects (PA recuperação de RNA ribossômico (rRNA intacto é necessária para a detecção de flutuações na população microbiana ruminal decorrentes dos taninos de forrageiras, utilizando-se sondas para 16S rRNA. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito de polietilenoglicol (PEG e polivinilpirrolidona (PVP na extração de rRNA bacteriano, em presença de taninos de leguminosas forrageiras tropicais e de outras fontes, que possa ser hibridizado com sondas de oligonucleotídeos. Culturas de Ruminococcus albus 8 foram expostas ou não a 8 g/L de ácido tânico ou a 1 g/L de taninos condensados, extraídos de Acacia angustissima, casca de banana (Musa sp., Desmodium ovalifolium, cascas de uvas vermelhas (Vitis vinifera e Inga edulis. As culturas foram lavadas com tampão Tris pH 7 contendo 8% PEG ou 6% PVP antes do rompimento das c

  5. Ethnobotanical and ethnomedicinal uses of plants in the district of Acquapendente (Latium, Central Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria; Forti, Gianluca; Marignoli, Silvia

    2005-01-15

    In the years 2002-2003 research was carried out concerning ethnomedicine in the Acquapendente district (Viterbo, Latium, central Italy), an area so far less frequently studied from the perspective of plant folk traditions. The district, from the ethnobotanical point of view, shows traces of the influences of the neighbouring regions. In this study 96 plant entities are described, belonging to 45 families, of which 64 are employed in human medicine, 15 in veterinary medicine, 22 in the feeding of domestic animals, 5 as antiparasitics and 5 for other uses. Some medicinal uses are linked to beliefs or residual forms of magic prescriptions (11 plants). Amongst the more notable uses the most interesting are those of: Verbena officinalis (rheumatic pains, wounds), Juglans regia (antiparasitic use for cheeses), Santolina etrusca (antimoth use), Stellaria media and Lupinus albus (birdseed for poultry and fodder for lambs), and Thymus longicaulis subsp. longicaulis (used to curdle milk).

  6. Antibacterial activity of human cervical mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zuckerman, H; Kahana, A; Carmel, S

    1975-01-01

    The antimicrobial property of human uterine cervical mucus was tested in three groups of women. Healthy women, using no contraception, women using an intrauterine device and women receiving hormonal treatment for contraception. Cervical mucus was taken on the 10th, 14th, 18th and 22nd day of the menstrual cycle. Cervical mucus had a strong inhibitory effect on the growth of Micrococcus lysodeicticus in all three groups. The strength of the inhibitory effect on the other microorganisms were in the following order: Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, Proteus mirabilis, Escherichia coli, Candida albicans, Streptococcus haemolyticus, Streptococcus faecalis. Use of an intrauterine device did not affect the antimicrobial effect of cervical mucus. The use of hormonal contraceptive canceled the antimicrobial effect on the series of microorganisms, with the exception of M. lysodeicticus. The maximum inhibitory effect occurred on the 14th day and declined toward the end of the menstrual cycle.

  7. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF METHANOLIC EXTRACT FRACTIONS OF DELONIX ELATA BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabbithi Sathya Chethan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out with an objective to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal potential of bark of Delonix elata. Antibacterial activity of various fractions obtained from methanolic extract (PE, DM , EA, MR of bark were carried out against three Gram positive bacteria – Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus, Enterococus faceialis and three Gram negative bacteria Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebesiela. The antifungal activity of the fractions was evaluated on two common pathogenic fungi Candida albicans and Cryptcocus neoframens. The testing was done by the disc diffusion method. Zones of inhibition of fractions were compared with that of standard Amikacin for antibacterial activity and Ketoconazole for antifungal activity. The EA and MR fractions showed significant antibacterial activity but did not exhibit anti-fungal activities comparable with that of standard against the organisms tested.

  8. IDENTIFICATION AND OCCURRENCE OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ON SEEDS OF COMMON WETCH, WHITE LUPINE AND SOME WILD LEGUMES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tihomir Miličević

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The presence and occurrence of Fusarium species was examined on the seeds of cultivated legumes – common vetch (Vicia sativa, white lupine (Lupinus albus, and wild legumes: bird’s-foot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus, wild alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black locust (Robinia pseudoacacia, honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos, sweet clover (Melilotus officinalis, bird vetch (Vicia cracca and meadow vetchling (Lathyrus pratensis. Thirteen Fusarium species were identified - F. verticillioides, F. acuminatum, F. avenaceum, F. tricinctum F. oxysporum, F. scirpi, F. semitectum, F. culmorum, F. proliferatum, F. pseudograminearum, F. sporotrichioides, F. sambucinum and F. heterosporum. Species F. verticillioides and F. proliferatum were determined on seeds of the cultivated legumes (common vetch and white lupine. Other 11 Fusarium species were determined on seeds of wild legumes (bird’s-foot trefoil, wild alfalfa, sweet clover and bird vetch among which the most prevalent were species F. avenaceum and F. acuminatum.

  9. Fitorremediação de solos contaminados com tebuthiuron utilizando-se espécies cultivadas para adubação verde Phytoremediation of tebuthiuron-contaminated soils using species cultivated for green manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.R. Pires

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O emprego da fitorremediação na despoluição de solos contaminados com compostos orgânicos, inclusive herbicidas, vem sendo pesquisado ultimamente. Como o tebuthiuron pode causar sério impacto ambiental, por ser muito utilizado, apresentar longo efeito residual no solo e possibilidade de contaminação do lençol de água subterrâneo, desenvolveu-se este trabalho com o objetivo de avaliar a capacidade de sete espécies vegetais na despoluição de solos contaminados com esse herbicida. As espécies avaliadas neste experimento foram: Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformes, Dolichos lablab, Pannisetum glaucum, Estizolobium deeringianum, Estizolobium aterrimum e Lupinus albus. Elas foram semeadas e cultivadas, por 60 dias, em vasos cujo solo recebeu quatro doses do tebuthiuron (0,0; 0,5; 1,0; e 1,5 kg ha-1. As testemunhas foram constituídas por vasos sem planta, aos quais foram aplicadas as mesmas doses de herbicidas. Aos 60 dias após a semeadura, colheu-se a parte aérea de todas as plantas, sendo semeada, nos mesmos vasos, Avena strigosa, utilizada como planta indicadora, para realização do bioensaio. Depois de 60 dias da semeadura da espécie bioindicadora, esta foi colhida, sendo avaliadas as seguintes características: altura de plantas, sintomas de toxicidade e biomassa seca da parte aérea das plantas. Até a dose de 0,5 kg ha-1 de tebuthiuron, a espécie que melhor fitorremediou esse herbicida no solo foi L. albus. Quando o solo foi tratado com 1,0 kg ha-1 de tebuthiuron, C. ensiformes foi a espécie que melhor fitorremediou o herbicida. Isso foi concluído com base na maior altura de plantas, biomassa seca da parte aérea e menor toxicidade de A. strigosa, quando foi cultivada em sucessão a essas plantas remediadoras. Nenhuma das espécies avaliadas cresceu em solo que recebeu a maior dose de tebuthiuron (1,5 kg ha-1.Phytoremediation of soil contaminated by organic compounds, including herbicides, is being widely investigated. The

  10. 盐霉素发酵补油工艺研究%Study on the fermentation and the oil feeding strategy for production of salinomycin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石永芝; 王海; 林建强; 曲音波

    2005-01-01

    盐霉素是由白色链霉菌(Streptomysis albus)产生的聚醚类动物专用抗生素.以豆油作为主要碳源进行盐霉素发酵,发酵过程中微生物产生的脂肪酶将豆油分解成甘油和脂肪酸,通过测定发酵液中的脂肪酸和豆油浓度,可以计算出脂肪酶活力,用于优化盐霉素发酵的补油工艺,使发酵水平由20 000 u·mL-1左右提高到25 000 u·mL-1左右.

  11. Encapsulation of bacteria and viruses in electrospun nanofibres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salalha, W.; Kuhn, J.; Dror, Y.; Zussman, E.

    2006-09-01

    Bacteria and viruses were encapsulated in electrospun polymer nanofibres. The bacteria and viruses were suspended in a solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in water and subjected to an electrostatic field of the order of 1 kV cm-1. Encapsulated bacteria in this work, (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus) and bacterial viruses (T7, T4, λ) managed to survive the electrospinning process while maintaining their viability at fairly high levels. Subsequently the bacteria and viruses remain viable during three months at -20 and -55 °C without a further decrease in number. The present results demonstrate the potential of the electrospinning process for the encapsulation and immobilization of living biological material.

  12. Encapsulation of bacteria and viruses in electrospun nanofibres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salalha, W [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Kuhn, J [Faculty of Biology, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Dror, Y [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel); Zussman, E [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technion, Israel Institute of Technology, Haifa 32000 (Israel)

    2006-09-28

    Bacteria and viruses were encapsulated in electrospun polymer nanofibres. The bacteria and viruses were suspended in a solution of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) in water and subjected to an electrostatic field of the order of 1 kV cm{sup -1}. Encapsulated bacteria in this work (Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus albus) and bacterial viruses (T7, T4, {lambda}) managed to survive the electrospinning process while maintaining their viability at fairly high levels. Subsequently the bacteria and viruses remain viable during three months at -20 and -55 deg. C without a further decrease in number. The present results demonstrate the potential of the electrospinning process for the encapsulation and immobilization of living biological material.

  13. Capillary electrophoresis for the analysis of tropane alkaloids: pharmaceutical and phytochemical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mateus, L; Cherkaoui, S; Christen, P; Veuthey, J L

    1998-12-01

    Three capillary electrophoresis methods, using UV detection, were developed for the simultaneous determination of several tropane alkaloids, including atropine, scopolamine and synthetic derivatives. After optimization, the validated capillary zone electrophoresis methods were applied to the determination of these compounds in various pharmaceutical forms, such as ophthalmic and injection solutions, tablets, suppositories and aerosols. Capillary electrophoresis in the micellar mode was found to be more appropriate for the analysis of hyoscyamine and scopolamine in plant material. These two compounds are generally found together with other tropane alkaloids which present similar structures and charge to mass ratio. Furthermore, the separation of positional isomers, such as hyoscyamine and littorine generally encountered in plant extracts, was also considered. The developed method was applied to the analysis of hairy root extracts of Datura candida x Datura aurea, Datura quercifolia and Hyoscyamus albus.

  14. Identification and analysis of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster and titer improvement of the paulomycins in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jine Li

    Full Text Available The paulomycins are a group of glycosylated compounds featuring a unique paulic acid moiety. To locate their biosynthetic gene clusters, the genomes of two paulomycin producers, Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115 and Streptomyces sp. YN86, were sequenced. The paulomycin biosynthetic gene clusters were defined by comparative analyses of the two genomes together with the genome of the third paulomycin producer Streptomyces albus J1074. Subsequently, the identity of the paulomycin biosynthetic gene cluster was confirmed by inactivation of two genes involved in biosynthesis of the paulomycose branched chain (pau11 and the ring A moiety (pau18 in Streptomyces paulus NRRL 8115. After determining the gene cluster boundaries, a convergent biosynthetic model was proposed for paulomycin based on the deduced functions of the pau genes. Finally, a paulomycin high-producing strain was constructed by expressing an activator-encoding gene (pau13 in S. paulus, setting the stage for future investigations.

  15. Experimental infection of Contracaecum multipapillatum (Nematoda: Anisakinae) from Mexico in the domestic cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal-Martínez, V M; Osorio-Sarabia, D; Overstreet, R M

    1994-08-01

    Juveniles of Contracaecum multipapillatum infected the Mayan cichlid (Cichlasoma urophthalmus) and adults infected the olivaceous cormorant (Phalacrocorax olivaceus) and the great egret (Casmerodius albus) in the coastal lagoon at Celestun, State of Yucatan, Mexico. All are new host records, and, even though the geographic locality record of Mexico for the species has not been published, unidentified but presumably conspecific specimens have been reported from there. When juveniles of C. multipapillatum were fed to a kitten, but not rats, ducks, or chickens, they developed into adults. Measurements and morphological data are provided on the specimens from the kitten. Development of an avian ascaridoid in the intestine of a mammal increases the potential of this widespread species to infect other mammals, including humans.

  16. Detectability of lupine seeds by ELISA and PCR may be strongly influenced by potential differences between cultivars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Martin; Kleiner, Kornelia; Sachs, Andrea; Keil, Nicole; Holzhauser, Thomas

    2013-06-26

    Accurate methods for allergen detection are needed for the verification of allergen labeling and the avoidance of hidden allergens. But systematic data on the influence of different cultivars of allergenic crop species on their detectability in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) are lacking. As one example, seeds of 14 different cultivars of lupine (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus) were investigated for total protein according to a Kjeldahl method, and for their relative quantitative detectability in three commercial lupine-specific ELISA tests and four lupine-specific PCR methods. Total Kjeldahl nitrogen allowed an accurate quantification of total protein. Relative differences in quantitative response between cultivars of 390-5050% and 480-13,600% were observed between ELISA kits and PCR methods, respectively. Hence, quantitative results of selected ELISA and PCR methods may be strongly influenced by the examined lupine cultivar.

  17. Compositional changes in (iso)flavonoids and estrogenic activity of three edible Lupinus species by germination and Rhizopus-elicitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aisyah, Siti; Vincken, Jean-Paul; Andini, Silvia; Mardiah, Zahara; Gruppen, Harry

    2016-02-01

    The effects of germination and elicitation on (iso)flavonoid composition of extracts from three edible lupine species (Lupinus luteus, Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius) were determined by RP-UHPLC-MS(n). The total (iso)flavonoid content of lupine increased over 10-fold upon germination, with the total content and composition of isoflavonoids more affected than those of flavonoids. Glycosylated isoflavones were the most predominant compounds found in lupine seedlings. Lesser amounts of isoflavone aglycones, including prenylated ones, were also accumulated. Elicitation with Rhizopus oryzae, in addition to germination, raised the content of isoflavonoids further: the total content of 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives was increased considerably, without increasing that of genistein derivatives. Elicitation by fungus triggered prenylation of isoflavonoids, especially of the 2'-hydroxygenistein derivatives. The preferred positions of prenylation differed among the three lupine species. The change in isoflavone composition increased the agonistic activity of the extracts towards the human estrogen receptors, whereas no antagonistic activity was observed.

  18. Composition and abundance of fishes in the interface between open water and macrophyte banks, and the dynamics of this interface during morning and evening twilight, in lake Catalão, Amazonas, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor David da Costa

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the composition and abundance of the fishes that move between macrophyte banks and open water during the morning twilight (CM and afternoon twilight (CV. The collections were made using gillnets, along banks of Paspalum repens, at Catalão lake, in Amazonas, Brazil. A total of 222 individuals and 37 species were collected. Of these, 130 individuals were collected during the CM and 92 during the CV; 80 individuals were leaving during the CM and 40 individuals were leaving during the CV. Auchenipterus nuchalis, Pellona castelnaeana, Triportheus angulatus and T. albus were the most common and concentrated species collected in the CM and Pimelodus blochii was the most common species collected in the CV.

  19. Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerenquima Estaquillas leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Estudio del Esclerénquima

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    González Elena

    1986-12-01

    Full Text Available An anatomy study was made of following wood easy-to-root species: Aucuba japonica Thunb., Buddleja  japonica Hemsley,  Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium.  L., Citrus limon (L. Burm. fil.,  Cvdonia oblonga Miller,  Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L., Populus nigra L.,  Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix  viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. and Symphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake.  It was observed the presence or absence of a discontinous sclerenchyma ring so the species studied had not a mechanical barrier to the emergence of adventitious roots. Se realizó un estudio histológico de las siguientes especies leñosas de fácil enraizamiento: Aucuba japonica Thumb, Buddleja japonica Hemsley, Buxus sempervirens L., Citrus aurantium L., Citrus limon (L. Burm, fil., Cydonia oblonga Miller, Erica arborea L., Escallonia rubra (Ruiz & Pavón Pers., Euonymus japonicus L. fil., Forsythia viridissima Lindl., Hydrangea macrophylla Ser., Morus alba L. Populus nigra L., Rhododendron ponticum L., Salix atrocinerea Brot., Salix viminalis L., Sambucus nigra L. y Syrnphoricarpos albus (L. S. F. Blake. Se observó la presencia o ausencia de un anillo discontinuo de esclerénquima, por lo tanto dichas especies no poseen ningún impedimento mecánico para la emergencia de las raíces adventicias.

  20. The use of quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction to quantify some rumen bacterial strains in an in vitro rumen system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucy Onime

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to quantify four rumen bacterial strains (Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminococcus albus, Streptococcus bovis, Megasphaera elsdenii in an in vitro batch rumen fermentative system by quantitative real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR. The experiment was a 2×2 factorial arrangement with two types of liquid rumen, collected from dairy cows (DC and fattening bulls (FB and two types of fermentation substrate (forage:concentrate ratios, 75:25 and 25:75 and was replicated in two fermentation runs. Fermentation fluids from FB compared to those from DC had lower pH, higher total VFA concentrations (averages of 0 and 24 h samplings, 6.70 vs 7.04 and 72.6 vs 42.7 mmol/l P<0.001 and contained less acetic (P=0.014 and more propionic (P<0.01 and butyric (P=0.029 acids. The two types of substrates incubated produced very small differences in the end fermentation products. B. fibrosolvens concentrations were higher (P<0.001 in the DC fermentation fluids compared to that from bulls (averages of 0 and 24 h sampling times, 3.47 vs 1.38 x109 copies /mL, while M. elsdenii was detected only in FB fermentation fluids. R. albus and S. bovis concentrations were not different between the two types of rumen liquid. With the only exception for B. fibrosolvens, bacteria strains considered in this study increased their concentrations in the fermentation fluid during the 24 h of in vitro incubation.

  1. Epigenomic diversification within the genus Lupinus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewick, Adam J.; Hasterok, Robert; Schmitz, Robert J.; Naganowska, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    Deciphering the various chemical modifications of both DNA and the histone compound of chromatin not only leads to a better understanding of the genome-wide organisation of epigenetic landmarks and their impact on gene expression but may also provide some insights into the evolutionary processes. Although both histone modifications and DNA methylation have been widely investigated in various plant genomes, here we present the first study for the genus Lupinus. Lupins, which are members of grain legumes (pulses), are beneficial for food security, nutrition, health and the environment. In order to gain a better understanding of the epigenetic organisation of genomes in lupins we applied the immunostaining of methylated histone H3 and DNA methylation as well as whole-genome bisulfite sequencing. We revealed variations in the patterns of chromatin modifications at the chromosomal level among three crop lupins, i.e. L. angustifolius (2n = 40), L. albus (2n = 50) and L. luteus (2n = 52), and the legume model plant Medicago truncatula (2n = 16). Different chromosomal patterns were found depending on the specific modification, e.g. H3K4me2 was localised in the terminal parts of L. angustifolius and M. truncatula chromosomes, which is in agreement with the results that have been obtained for other species. Interestingly, in L. albus and L. luteus this modification was limited to one arm in the case of all of the chromosomes in the complement. Additionally, H3K9me2 was detected in all of the analysed species except L. luteus. DNA methylation sequencing (CG, CHG and CHH contexts) of aforementioned crop but also wild lupins such as L. cosentinii (2n = 32), L. digitatus (2n = 36), L. micranthus (2n = 52) and L. pilosus (2n = 42) supported the range of interspecific diversity. The examples of epigenetic modifications illustrate the diversity of lupin genomes and could be helpful for elucidating further epigenetic changes in the evolution of the lupin genome. PMID:28640886

  2. Chemical and plant tests to assess the viability of amendments to reduce metal availability in mine soils and tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Luis; Gómez, Rocío; Sánchez, Virtudes; Alonso-Azcárate, Jacinto

    2016-04-01

    The goal of this research was to assess the potential of several industrial wastes to immobilise metals in two polluted soils deriving from an old Pb/Zn mine. Two different approaches were used to assess the performance of different amendments: a chemical one, using extraction by ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA), and a biological one, using Lupinus albus as a bio-indicator. Four amendments were used: inorganic sugar production waste (named 'sugar foam', SF), sludge from a drinking water treatment sludge (DWS), organic waste from olive mill waste (OMW) and paper mill sludge (PMS). Amendment to soil ratios ranged from 0.1 to 0.3 (w/w). All the amendments were capable of significantly decreasing (p soils used, with decreases in ranges 21-100, 25-100 and 2-100 % for Pb, Zn and Cu, respectively. The amendments tested were also effective in reducing the bioavailability of Pb and Zn for L. albus, which gave rise to a decrease in shoot metal accumulation by the lupine plants compared to that found in the control soil. That decrease reached up to 5.6 and 2.8 times for Pb and Zn, respectively, being statistically significant in most cases. Moreover, application of the OMW, DWS and SF amendments led to higher average values of plant biomass (up to 71%) than those obtained in the control soil. The results obtained showed the technology put forward to be a viable means of remediating mine soils as it led to a decrease in the availability and toxicity of metals and, thus, facilitated the growth of a vegetation layer.

  3. Stereochemistry and Mechanism of Undecylprodigiosin Oxidative Carbocyclization to Streptorubin B by the Rieske Oxygenase RedG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Withall, David M; Haynes, Stuart W; Challis, Gregory L

    2015-06-24

    The prodiginines are a group of specialized metabolites that share a 4-methoxypyrrolyldipyrromethene core structure. Streptorubin B is a structurally remarkable member of the prodiginine group produced by Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) and other actinobacteria. It is biosynthesized from undecylprodigiosin by an oxidative carbocyclization catalyzed by the Rieske oxygenase-like enzyme RedG. Undecylprodigiosin derives from the RedH-catalyzed condensation of 2-undecylpyrrole and 4-methoxy-2, 2'-bipyrrole-5-carboxaldehyde (MBC). To probe the mechanism of the RedG-catalyzed reaction, we synthesized 2-(5-pentoxypentyl)-pyrrole, an analogue of 2-undecylpyrrole with an oxygen atom next to the site of C-C bond formation, and fed it, along with synthetic MBC, to Streptomyces albus expressing redH and redG. This resulted in the production of the 6'-oxa analogue of undecylprodigiosin. In addition, a small amount of a derivative of this analogue lacking the n-pentyl group was produced, consistent with a RedG catalytic mechanism involving hydrogen abstraction from the alkyl chain of undecylprodigiosin prior to pyrrole functionalization. To investigate the stereochemistry of the RedG-catalyzed oxidative carbocyclization, [7'-(2)H](7'R)-2-undecylpyrrole and [7'-(2)H](7'S)-2-undecylpyrrole were synthesized and fed separately, along with MBC, to S. albus expressing redH and redG. Analysis of the extent of deuterium incorporation into the streptorubin B produced in these experiments showed that the pro-R hydrogen atom is abstracted from C-7' of undecylprodigiosin and that the reaction proceeds with inversion of configuration at C-7'. This contrasts sharply with oxidative heterocyclization reactions catalyzed by other nonheme iron-dependent oxygenase-like enzymes, such as isopenicillin N synthase and clavaminate synthase, which proceed with retention of configuration at the carbon center undergoing functionalization.

  4. Influence of forage phenolics on ruminal fibrolytic bacteria and in vitro fiber degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varel, V H; Jung, H J

    1986-08-01

    In vitro cultures of ruminal microorganisms were used to determine the effect of cinnamic acid and vanillin on the digestibility of cellulose and xylan. Cinnamic acid and vanillin depressed in vitro dry matter disappearance of cellulose 14 and 49%, respectively, when rumen fluid was the inoculum. The number of viable Bacteroides succinogenes cells, the predominant cellulolytic organism, was threefold higher for fermentations which contained vanillin than for control fermentations. When xylan replaced cellulose as the substrate, a 14% decrease in the digestibility of xylan was observed with vanillin added; however, the number of viable xylanolytic bacteria cultured from the batch fermentation was 10-fold greater than that of control fermentations. The doubling time of B. succinogenes was increased from 2.32 to 2.58 h when vanillin was added to cellobiose medium, and absorbance was one-half that of controls after 18 h. The growth rate of Ruminococcus albus and Ruminococcus flavefaciens was inhibited more by p-coumaric acid than by vanillin, although no reduction of final absorbance was observed in their growth cycles. Vanillin, and to a lesser extent cinnamic acid, appeared to prevent the attachment of B. succinogenes cells to cellulose particles, but did not affect dissociation of cells from the particles. B. succinogenes, R. albus, R. flavefaciens, and Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens all modified the parent monomers cinnamic acid, p-coumaric acid, ferulic acid, and vanillin, with B. fibrisolvens causing the most extensive modification. These results suggest that phenolic monomers can inhibit digestibility of cellulose and xylan, possibly by influencing attachment of the fibrolytic microorganisms to fiber particles. The reduced bacterial attachment to structural carbohydrates in the presence of vanillin may generate more free-floating fibrolytic organisms, thus giving a deceptively higher viable count.

  5. [Phylogeography of mitochondrial DNA in South Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus curilus Pallas, 1814 (Salmoniformes, Salmonidae): mediated gene introgression?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shed'ko, S V; Ginatulina, L K; Miroshnichenko, I L; Nemkova, G A

    2007-02-01

    In 41 individuals of South Asian Dolly Varden char Salvelinus curilus, nucleotide sequences of tRNA-Pro gene fragment (27 bp) and mtDNA control region (483-484 bp) were analyzed. The fish were collected in 20 localities covering virtually the whole range of the species: Kuril Islands, Sakhalin Island. and Primorye. In addition, six individuals of three other char species (S. albus, S. malma, and S. leucomaenis), which are closely related to S. curilus and inhabit the Russian Far East, were examined. In all, we detected 12 different variants of mtDNA haplotypes that formed three distinct groups differing in 14--20 nucleotide positions. The first group consisted of six haplotypes found in S. curilus in Kuril Islands, Sakhalin, and Primorye (mtDNA phylogroup OKHOTSKIA). The second group comprised four haplotypes representing the mtDNA phylogroup BERING, which had been described earlier (Brunner et al, 2001); they were found in S. curilus in Kuril Islands and Sakhalin, as well as in S. albus and S. malma in Kamchatka and northern Kurils. The third group included two haplotypes detected in S. leucomaenis. The existence of two mtDNA lineages (OKHOTSKIA and BERING) in S. curilus from Kurils and Sakhalin was explained by hybridization and DNA transfer from S. malma to S. curilus. The absence of the BERING haplotypes in S. curilus from Primorye water reservoirs is related to the physical isolation of the Sea of Okhotsk and Sea of Japan basins in past epochs. On the basis of comparing phylogenetic trees, constructed from the data on allozyme and mtDNA variation, we suggest that in this case, an indirect transfer of mtDNA in Alpinoid chars--> S. malma-->S. curilus chain could occur.

  6. Effects of Neutral Detergent Soluble Fiber and Sucrose Supplementation on Ruminal Fermentation, Microbial Synthesis, and Populations of Ruminal Cellulolytic Bacteria Using the Rumen Simulation Technique (RUSITEC)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Xiang-hui; LIU Chan-juan; LI Chao-yun; YAO Jun-hu

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of neutral detergent soluble fiber (NDSF) and sucrose supplementation on ruminal fermentation, microbial synthesis, and populations of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria using the rumen simulation technique (RUSITEC). The experiment had a 2×2 factorial design with two dosages of sucrose, low (ca. 0.26 g d-1, low-sucrose) and high (ca. 1.01 g d-1, high-sucrose), and two dosages of supplied NDSF, low (1.95 g d-1, low-NDSF) and high (2.70 g d-1, high-NDSF). Interactions between NDSF and sucrose were detected for xylanase activity from solid fraction and apparent disappearance of neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and hemicellulose, with the lowest values observed for high-NDSF and high-sucrose treatment. Supplemental NDSF appeared to increase the molar proportion of acetate and reduce that of butyrate;however, the effects of supplemental sucrose on VFA profiles depended upon NDSF amount. There was a NDSF×sucrose interaction for the production of methane. High-NDSF fermenters had lower ammonia-N production, greater daily N flow of solid-associated microbial pellets and total microorganisms, and greater microbial synthesis efficiency compared with low-NDSF fermenters. Supplementation with NDSF resulted in an increase in 16S rDNA copies of Ruminococcus flavefaciens and a reduction in copies of Ruminococcus albus. Supplementation with sucrose tended to increase the 16S rDNA copies of R. albus from liquid fraction, but did not affect daily total microbial N flow and cellulolytic bacterium populations from solid fraction. These data indicate that the effects of the interaction between NDSF and sugars on ruminal fermentation and fiber digestion should be taken into account in diet formulation. Ruminal fermentation and metabolism of sugars warrant further investigation.

  7. Populations of Select Cultured and Uncultured Bacteria in the Rumen of Sheep and the Effect of Diets and Ruminal Fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jill Stiverson

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to assess the importance of select cultured and uncultured bacteria in the rumen by quantifying their populations and the effect of diets and ruminal fractions. Full-length 16S rRNA gene (rrs sequences were recovered from rumen samples using specific primers designed from partial sequences recovered previously. Five uncultured bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs were quantified using specific quantitative PCR (qPCR in fractionated ruminal samples from sheep fed either hay alone or hay plus corn. Species Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, R. flavefaciens, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Selenomonas ruminantium, and Mitsuokella multacida and genera Butyrivibrio and Prevotella were also quantified as comparison. The full-length rrs sequence improved taxonomic assignments of partial rrs sequences. Genus Prevotella had the greatest abundance. Of the three major cultured cellulolytic species, R. flavefaciens was most abundant, followed by R. albus and F. succinogenes. The five uncultured bacterial OTUs, classified to genus Acetivibrio, genus Allobaculum, family Ruminococcaceae, order Clostridiales, or class Clostridia, had abundance comparable to that of the above species of genera except Prevotella. Corn supplementation and fractions affected distribution of the rumen bacteria, but to a limited extent. When compared to the qPCR data, sequence frequencies in the rrs clone libraries tended to overestimate the abundance of the bacteria represented. This study showed that abundance and population dynamics of uncultured bacteria can be quantified by specific qPCR, which complements the results of rrs clone libraries. This study also revealed that some uncultured bacteria might be as important as some of the well-characterized bacteria in the rumen. The approach used should be applicable to assess the abundance and potential importance of uncultured bacteria in other environments.

  8. The Effect of Thiosulphate on Arsenic Bioavailability in a Multi Contaminated Soil. A Novel Contribution to Phytoextraction

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    Gianniantonio Petruzzelli

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study it was evaluated on a laboratory scale (microcosm, the possibility of using ammonium thiosulphate in assisted phytoextraction for the simultaneous removal of mercury and arsenic from multi-contaminated industrial soil. The species selected were Brassica juncea and Lupinus albus the addition of thiosulfate to the soil greatly promoted the uptake and translocation of both contaminants in the aerial parts of the plants. Mercury concentration in the aerial parts reached in B. juncea 120 mg/kg approximately 40 times the value of the control. The concentration of arsenic also increased significantly in the shoots of B. juncea (14.3 mg/kg, where the value in the control was negligible. Similar trends were obtained for L. albus The results confirmed the known positive effects of thiosulphate in increasing mercury bioavailability for plants, moreover they showed the ability of thiosulphate to mobilize arsenic and significantly to promote its uptake by plants. The increase of arsenic bioavailability, promoted by thiosulfate addition, could be attributed to the competition between arsenate and sulphate ions for the same active sites in the soil surfaces, with the release of arsenic in the soil solution. The use of thiosulfate appears to have great potential since it is a common fertilizer used to promote plant growth and is able to increase the uptake by plants of mercury and arsenic. The simultaneous increase of both contaminants uptake by plants, using a single additive, will provide new insights into the phytoextraction technology in terms of cost and time reduction.

  9. 原生质体紫外诱变高通量选育盐霉素高产菌%High-throughput Screening of High Salinomycin-producing Strains with UV Treatment on Protoplasts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾永峰; 梁剑光; 王永红; 郝玉有; 储炬

    2013-01-01

    以白色链霉菌(Streptomyces albus) S-610为出发菌株,利用溶菌酶水解菌丝体细胞壁获得原生质体,然后进行紫外诱变,并通过高通量筛选再生突变株.结果显示,当UV照射原生质体20 s时,细胞正突变率最大为24.5%,此时致死率为86.4%.经高通量筛选和摇瓶验证,最终筛得3株遗传稳定的高产菌S-612、S-620和S-622,产盐霉素能力较出发菌株S-610分别提高了57.6%、45.5%和69.7%.%The protoplasts of Streptomyces albus S-610 were prepared by losozyme hydrolyzation and then were treated by UV.Regenerative mutants were screened by high-throughput screening procedure.Positive mutation rate of cells reached 24.5% of maximum value and lethality rate was 86.4% when the protoplasts were treated by UV for 20 s.Finally,3 high producers with genetic stability,designated S-612,S-620 and S-22,respectively,were successfully obtained after high-throughput screening and validation in shake flasks.Compared with the original strain S-610,their salinomycin productions were increased by 57.6 %,45.5 % and 69.7 %,respectively.

  10. Roseovarius scapharcae sp. nov., isolated from ark shell Scapharca broughtonii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Ok; Park, Sooyeon; Nam, Bo-Hye; Park, Ji-Min; Kim, Dong-Gyun; Yoon, Jung-Hoon

    2015-12-01

    A Gram-stain-negative, non-motile, aerobic and ovoid or rod-shaped bacterium, designated MA4-5T, was isolated from ark shell (Scapharca broughtonii) collected from the South Sea, South Korea. The novel strain grew optimally at 25 °C, at pH 7.0-8.0 and in the presence of 2.0 % (w/v) NaCl. Neighbour-joining and maximum-likelihood phylogenetic trees based on 16S rRNA gene sequences showed that strain MA4-5T forms a coherent cluster with the type strains of Roseovarius albus, Roseovarius aestuarii and Roseovarius nubinhibens, sharing 97.0-99.2 % sequence similarity. It exhibited 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 93.1-96.1 % to the type strains of other Roseovarius species. Strain MA4-5T contained Q-10 as the predominant ubiquinone and C18 : 1ω7c as the major fatty acid. The major polar lipids of strain MA4-5T were phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylglycerol, one unidentified aminolipid and one unidentified lipid. The DNA G+C content of strain MA4-5T was 53.8 mol% and its mean DNA-DNA relatedness values with the type strains of R. albus, R. aestuarii and R. nubinhibens were 11-26 %. Differential phenotypic properties, together with phylogenetic and genetic distinctiveness, indicated that strain MA4-5T is separate from recognized species of the genus Roseovarius. On the basis of the data presented, strain MA4-5T is considered to represent a novel species of the genus Roseovarius, for which the name Roseovarius scapharcae sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is MA4-5T ( = KCTC 42703T = NBRC 111226T).

  11. Cerebellar motor learning: when is cortical plasticity not enough?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Porrill

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Classical Marr-Albus theories of cerebellar learning employ only cortical sites of plasticity. However, tests of these theories using adaptive calibration of the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR have indicated plasticity in both cerebellar cortex and the brainstem. To resolve this long-standing conflict, we attempted to identify the computational role of the brainstem site, by using an adaptive filter version of the cerebellar microcircuit to model VOR calibration for changes in the oculomotor plant. With only cortical plasticity, introducing a realistic delay in the retinal-slip error signal of 100 ms prevented learning at frequencies higher than 2.5 Hz, although the VOR itself is accurate up to at least 25 Hz. However, the introduction of an additional brainstem site of plasticity, driven by the correlation between cerebellar and vestibular inputs, overcame the 2.5 Hz limitation and allowed learning of accurate high-frequency gains. This "cortex-first" learning mechanism is consistent with a wide variety of evidence concerning the role of the flocculus in VOR calibration, and complements rather than replaces the previously proposed "brainstem-first" mechanism that operates when ocular tracking mechanisms are effective. These results (i describe a process whereby information originally learnt in one area of the brain (cerebellar cortex can be transferred and expressed in another (brainstem, and (ii indicate for the first time why a brainstem site of plasticity is actually required by Marr-Albus type models when high-frequency gains must be learned in the presence of error delay.

  12. Streptomyces bohaiensis sp. nov., a novel actinomycete isolated from Scomberomorus niphonius in the Bohai Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Hua-Qi; Cheng, Juan; Zhang, Dao-Feng; Yu, Su-Ya; Khieu, Thi-Nhan; Son, Chu Ky; Jiang, Zhao; Hu, Jiang-Chun; Li, Wen-Jun

    2015-04-01

    A novel actinomycete strain, designated 11A07(T), was isolated from young Scomberomorus niphonius in the Bohai Sea. Basic local alignment search tool analyses showed that this isolate had the highest 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity of 97.41% with Streptomyces rimosus subsp. paromomycinus DSM 41429(T). Phylogenetic tree revealed that strain 11A07(T) formed a distinct lineage clustered with Streptomyces panacagri Gsoil 519(T), Streptomyces sodiiphilus YIM 80305(T) and Streptomyces albus subsp. albus NRRL B-2365(T) having similarities of 97.30%, 97.10% and 96.83%, respectively. Multilocus sequence analysis further demonstrated that the new isolate was different from the selected representatives of Streptomyces as a separate phylogenetic line. Strain 11A07(T) produced straight or rectiflexibile spore chains with smooth surface, white aerial mycelia and brown diffusible pigments on international streptomyces project 2 medium. Maximum tolerated NaCl concentration for growth was 11.0%. Whole-cell sugars were mannose, ribose, glucose, galactose and xylose. The predominant menaquinones were MK-9(H2), MK-9(H4) and MK-9 (H6). The fatty-acid profile contained iso-C16:0, C18:0 10-methyl (tuberculostearic acid) and anteiso-C17:0 as the major compositions. The polar lipids consisted of diphosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylinositol mannoside and an unknown phospholipid. The G+C content of the genomic DNA was 71.4 mol%. These morphological, phenotypic and chemotaxonomic properties showed that strain 11A07(T) could be readily distinguished from the most closely related members of the genus Streptomyces. Thus, based on the polyphasic taxonomic data, strain 11A07(T) (=JCM 19630(T)=CCTCC AA 2013020(T)=KCTC 29263(T)) represents a novel species within the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces bohaiensis sp. nov. is proposed.

  13. Morphometric variation among spawning cisco aggregations in the Laurentian Great Lakes: are historic forms still present?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, Daniel L.; Moore, Seth A.; Ebener, Mark P.; Claramunt, Randall M.; Pratt, Thomas C.; Salawater, Lorrie L.; Connerton, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Cisco (Coregonus artedi Leseur, formerly lake herring Leucichthys artedi Leseur) populations in each of the Laurentian Great Lakes collapsed between the late 1920s and early 1960s following a multitude of stressors, and never recovered in Lakes Michigan, Erie and Ontario. Prior to their collapse, Koelz (1929) studied Leucichthys spp. in the Great Lakes basin and provided a description of their diversity. Three cisco morphotypes were described; a ‘slim terete’morphotype (L. artedi artedi), a ‘deep compressed’ morphotype (L. artedi albus), and a deep-bodied form resembling tullibee in western Canadian lakes (L. artedi manitoulinus). Based on body measurements of 159 individuals (Koelz 1929), we used discriminant function analysis (DFA) to discriminate historic morphotypes. Shapes of historic morphotypes were found to vary significantly (Pillai’s trace = 1.16, P cisco. Important discriminating measurements included body depth, eye diameter, and dorsal fin base and height. Between October-November of 2007-2011, we sampled cisco from 16 Great Lakes sites collecting digital photographs of over 1, 700 individuals. We applied the DFA model to their body measurements and classified each individual to a morphotype. Contemporary cisco from Lakes Superior, Ontario and Michigan were predominantly classified as artedi, while the most common classifications from northern Lake Huron were albus and manitoulinus. Finding historic morphotypes is encouraging because it suggests that the morphological variation present prior to their collapse still exists. We conclude that contemporary cisco having shapes matching the missing historic morphotypes in the lower lakes warrant special consideration as potential donor populations in reestablishment efforts.

  14. 气相色谱质谱联用法测定鱼组织中5种苯甲酰脲类杀虫剂残留%Simultaneous Analysis of Five Benzoylurea Insecticide Residues in Fish by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓琳; 丁双阳; 宋幸辉; 裴亚玲

    2016-01-01

    [目的]建立鳗鱼、泥鳅、黄鳝和鲶鱼组织中5种苯甲酰脲类杀虫剂的气相色谱质谱联用(GC-MS)检测方法.[方法]样品组织经提取、净化等步骤,七氟丁酸酐(HFBA)衍生化,GC-MS分析.对衍生化条件进行了细致的探索.[结果]经验证,方法线性良好,检测限0.3~1.5 μg/kg,定量限1.0~5.0 μg/kg.在3个添加水平下,5种目标化合物在4种组织中的变异系数均小于10.3%,平均回收率81.5%~98.7%.并在实测样品中成功检测出目标化合物.[结论]该方法可用于鱼组织中目标化合物的检测.%[Aims] A method for detection of 5 benzoylurea insecticide residues in eel,catfish,loach and monopterus tissues by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was established.[Methods] The residues of target compounds were extracted,cleaned up,derivatized with heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA) and detected by GC-MS.Optimal conditions for the derivatization were investigated.[Results] The linearity of the analytical method was excellent.The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.3-1.5 μg/kg,and the limit of quantification (LOQ) was 1.0-5.0 μg/kg.At three fortification levels,the average recoveries for this four kinds of samples ranged from 81.5 to 98.7%,and the relative standard deviation (RSD) were all below 10.3%.This method was successively applied to the determination of the five compounds in real samples from markets.[Conclusions] The method is suitable for the simultaneous determination of five benzoylurea insecticide residues in fish tissues.

  15. System Assessment of a High Power 3-U CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaw, Katie

    2016-01-01

    The Advanced eLectrical Bus (ALBus) CubeSat project is a technology demonstration mission of a 3-UCubeSat with an advanced, digitally controlled electrical power system capability and novel use of Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) technology for reliable deployable solar array mechanisms. The objective of the project is to, through an on orbit demonstration, advance the state of power management and distribution (PMAD) capabilities to enable future missions requiring higher power, flexible and reliable power systems. The goals of the mission include demonstration of: 100 Watt distribution to a target electrical load, efficient battery charging in the orbital environment, flexible power system distribution interfaces, adaptation of power system control on orbit, and reliable deployment of solar arrays and antennas utilizing re-settable SMA mechanisms. The power distribution function of the ALBus PMAD system is unique in the total power to target load capability of 100 W, the flexibility to support centralized or point-to-load regulation and ability to respond to fast transient power requirements. Power will be distributed from batteries at 14.8 V, 6.5 A to provide 100 W of power directly to a load. The deployable solar arrays utilize NASA Glenn Research Center superelastic and activated Nitinol(Nickel-Titanium alloy) Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) technology for hinges and a retention and release mechanism. The deployable solar array hinge design features utilization of the SMA material properties for dual purpose. The hinge uses the shape memory properties of the SMA to provide the spring force to deploy the arrays. The electrical conductivity properties of the SMA also enables the design to provide clean conduits for power transfer from the deployable arrays to the power management system. This eliminates the need for electrical harnesses between the arrays and the PMAD system in the ALBus system design. The uniqueness of the SMA retention and release mechanism design is the

  16. Competition for ammonia influences the structure of chemotrophic communities in geothermal springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Trinity L; Koonce, Evangeline; Howells, Alta; Havig, Jeff R; Jewell, Talia; de la Torre, José R; Peters, John W; Boyd, Eric S

    2014-01-01

    Source waters sampled from Perpetual Spouter hot spring (pH 7.03, 86.4°C), Yellowstone National Park, WY, have low concentrations of total ammonia, nitrite, and nitrate, suggesting nitrogen (N) limitation and/or tight coupling of N cycling processes. Dominant small-subunit rRNA sequences in Perpetual Spouter source sediments are closely affiliated with the ammonia-oxidizing archaeon "Candidatus Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii" and the putatively nitrogen-fixing (diazotrophic) bacterium Thermocrinis albus, respectively, suggesting that these populations may interact at the level of the bioavailable N pool, specifically, ammonia. This hypothesis was evaluated by using a combination of geochemical, physiological, and transcriptomic analyses of sediment microcosms. Amendment of microcosms with allylthiourea, an inhibitor of ammonia oxidation, decreased rates of acetylene reduction (a proxy for N2 fixation) and nitrite production (a proxy for ammonia oxidation) and decreased transcript levels of structural genes involved in both nitrogen fixation (nifH) and ammonia oxidation (amoA). In contrast, amendment of microcosms with ammonia stimulated nitrite production and increased amoA transcript levels while it suppressed rates of acetylene reduction and decreased nifH transcript levels. Sequencing of amplified nifH and amoA transcripts from native sediments, as well as microcosms, at 2 and 4 h postamendment, indicates that the dominant and responsive populations involved in ammonia oxidation and N2 fixation are closely affiliated with Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii and T. albus, respectively. Collectively, these results suggest that ammonia-oxidizing archaea, such as Ca. Nitrosocaldus yellowstonii, have an apparent affinity for ammonia that is higher than that of the diazotrophs present in this ecosystem. Depletion of the bioavailable N pool through the activity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea likely represents a strong selective pressure for the inclusion of organisms capable of

  17. An approach to mitigating soil CO2 emission by biochemically inhibiting cellulolytic microbial populations through mediation via the medicinal herb Isatis indigotica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Sheng; Chen, Su-Yun; Li, Ji; Liu, Dong-Yang; Zhou, Ji; Xu, Ya; Shang, Xiao-Xia; Wei, Dong-yang; Yu, Lu-ji; Fang, Xiao-hang; Li, Shun-yi; Wang, Ke-ke

    2017-06-01

    Greenhouse gases (GHGs, particularly carbon dioxide (CO2)) emissions from soil under wheat production are a significant source of agricultural carbon emissions that have not been mitigated effectively. A field experiment and a static incubation study in a lab were conducted to stimulate wheat growth and investigate its potential to reduce CO2 emissions from soil through intercropping with a traditional Chinese medicinal herb called Isatis indigotica. This work was conducted by adding I. indigotica root exudates based on the quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis of the DNA copy number of the rhizosphere or bulk soil microbial populations. This addition was performed in relation to the CO2 formation by cellulolytic microorganisms (Penicillium oxalicum, fungi and Ruminococcus albus) to elucidate the microbial ecological basis for the molecular mechanism that decreases CO2 emissions from wheat fields using I. indigotica. The results showed that the panicle weight and full grains per panicle measured through intercropping with I. indigotica (NPKWR) increased by 39% and 28.6%, respectively, compared to that of the CK (NPKW). Intercropping with I. indigotica significantly decreased the CO2 emissions from soil under wheat cultivation. Compared with CK, the total CO2 emission flux during the wheat growth period in the I. indigotica (NPKWR) intercropping treatment decreased by 29.26%. The intensity of CO2 emissions per kg of harvested wheat grain declined from 7.53 kg CO2/kg grain in the NPKW (CK) treatment to 5.55 kg CO2/kg grain in the NPKWR treatment. The qPCR analysis showed that the DNA copy number of the microbial populations of cellulolytic microorganisms (P. oxalicum, fungi and R. albus) in the field rhizosphere around I. indigotica or in the bulk soil under laboratory incubation was significantly lower than that of CK. This finding indicated that root exudates from I. indigotica inhibited the activity and number of cellulolytic microbial populations, which led

  18. Perbandingan Daya Hambat Larutan Antiseptik Povidone iodine dengan Ekstrak Daun Sirih terhadap Candida albicans secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Septriana Putri

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Candida albicansb (C. albicans adalah salah satu mikroorganisme penyebab masalah kesehatan reproduksi wanita, yaitu keputihan (fluor albus. Penggunaan larutan povidone iodine dan bahan alam seperti ekstrak daun sirih menjadi pilihan masyarakat sebagai pembersih alat kewanitaan. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk membandingkandaya hambat larutan antiseptik povidone iodine dan ekstrak daun sirih terhadap jamur C. albicans secara in vitro. Penelitian dilakukan terhadap lima isolat jamur C. albicans dengan larutan kontrol akuades.Perlakuan terdiri dari povidone iodine, ekstrak daun sirih dengan konsentrasi 5%, 10%, dan 20%.Hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa povidone iodine memiliki daya hambat terhadap C. albicans. Ekstrak daun sirih dengan konsentrasi 5% dan 10% tidak memiliki daya hambat terhadap C. albicans, namun ekstrak daun sirih konsentrasi 20% memiliki daya hambat terhadap C. albicans. Analisis statistik dengan uji ANOVA yang dilanjutkan dengan uji Post-hoc menunjukkan perbedaan bermakna antara daya hambat larutan povidone iodine dan ekstrak daun sirih 20% terhadap kontrol(p < 0.05.Larutan povidone iodine memiliki daya hambat dua kali lebih besar terhadap pertumbuhan C. albicans dibandingkan ekstrak daun sirih 20%. Dari penelitian ini dapat disimpulkan bahwa larutan povidone iodine dan ekstrak daun sirih 20% dapat menghambat pertumbuhan jamur C. albicans secara in vitro. Kata kunci: povidone iodine, ekstrak daun sirih, Candida albicansAbstract Candida albicans (C. albicans is one of the frequent causes of  reproductive health problems in women, namely vaginal discharge (fluor albus. The antiseptic solution, povidone iodine, is still an option to overcome vaginal discharge. The use of natural materials such as betel (Piper betle L. leaves extract also become a popular choice as adouche for women. The objective of this study was to compare the inhibitory activity of povidone iodine solution and betel leaf extract against the growth of

  19. Understanding rhizosphere processes to enhance phytoextraction of germanium and rare earth elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver

    2017-04-01

    Germanium (Ge) and rare earth elements (REEs) are economically valuable raw materials that are not actually rare in terms of concentrations in soils but they are hardly available for plant uptake due to interactions with organic matter (SOM), secondary soil constituents such as Fe/Mn oxides and P bearing soil fractions. Processes in the rhizosphere might influence availability of Ge and REEs in the soil-plant system, since lowering of the pH and presence of carboxylates and siderophores (small molecules that strongly chelate Fe and other elements) strongly influences the chemical speciation of Ge and REEs in soil and consequently this comprehensive knowledge helps us to improve phytomining. In a series of field and greenhouse experiments 16 plant species from the functional groups of grasses, herbs and legumes were tested with regard to their accumulation efficiency of Ge and REEs in shoots. Subsequently, we conducted mixed culture experiments in which inefficient species (e.g. cereals like Avena sativa, Hordeum vulgare, Panicum miliaceum) were cultivated in mixed cultures with efficient species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius). Based on the plant concentrations a principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to identify significant factors that explain the accumulation behavior of different plant species with regard to Ge, REEs, Si, Fe and Mn. In this analysis Mn was used to identify plant species with efficient mechanisms to access sparingly available P-resources in soils. Particularly in nonmycorrhizal species concentrations of Mn in leaves often indicate a carboxylate based P-mobilising strategy. Herbaceous plant species accumulated significantly higher amounts of REEs while grasses accumulated significantly higher amounts of Ge. Concentrations of Ge in shoots of grasses correlated significantly positive with Si, but negatively with concentrations of Mn. Indeed, the results of the PCA clearly show that plants with high Mn concentrations tend to have

  20. Effect of fiber digestibility and conservation method on feed intake and the ruminal ecosystem of growing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, D O; Mesquita, B S; Diniz-Magalhães, J; Bueno, I C S; Mesquita, L G; Silva, L F P

    2014-12-01

    Fiber digestibility is an important factor regulating DMI in ruminants. Additionally, the ensiling process can also affect digestibility and chemical composition of the forage. The objective of this study was to investigate effects of sugarcane NDF digestibility (NDFD) and conservation method on intake, rumen kinetics, and the ruminal ecosystem of steers. Eight ruminally cannulated Nellore steers (275±22 kg BW) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with a 2×2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Two sugarcane genotypes divergent for stalk NDFD were used: IAC86-2480 with high NDFD and SP91-1049 with low NDFD. Experimental diets were formulated with 40% sugarcane, either freshly cut or as silage, and 60% concentrate on a DM basis. Each experimental period lasted for 14 d, with the last 4 d used for determination of intake, ruminal evacuation, and ruminal fluid collection. The effect of fiber digestibility on DM and NDF intake was dependent on the forage conservation method (P=0.01). High NDFD increased (P<0.01) DMI only when sugarcane was offered as silage, having no effect (P=0.41) on DMI when offered as freshly cut. Conservation method had no effect on total ruminal mass, with only a tendency (P<0.10) for greater NDF and indigestible NDF ruminal mass in steers fed the low-NDFD genotype. The NDF turnover and passage rates were greater (P<0.05) for the genotype with high NDFD but only when offered as silage. Liquid turnover rate in the rumen was greater (P=0.02) for diets containing silage, with no effect of genotype (P=0.87). There was no effect of NDFD genotype on ruminal pH (P=0.77); however, diets containing sugarcane as silage increased (P<0.01) ruminal pH. Total concentration of short chain fatty acids (P=0.05) and proportions of propionate (P=0.01) were greater for diets containing fresh sugarcane. Diets with fresh sugarcane increased the ruminal population of Streptococcus bovis (P<0.01) and Ruminococcus albus (P=0.03). The relative population

  1. Desarrollo de una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de algarrobo, lupino y quinoa para la dieta de preescolares Development of a high content protein beverage from Chilean mesquite, lupine and quinoa for the diet of pre-schoolers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available En la presente investigación se desarrolló una bebida de alto contenido proteico a partir de la mezcla de los extractos líquidos de un pseudocereal, quinua (Chenopodium quinoa Willd y de dos plantas leguminosas: algarrobo (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz y lupino (Lupinus albus L., provenientes del altiplano andino de la macrozona norte de Chile, saborizándose con pulpa de frambuesa, para contribuir en la alimentación de niños entre 2 y 5 años de estrato socio-económico bajo con deficiencias nutricionales. La formulación se definió por Programación Lineal, se determinó su composición por análisis proximal y se realizaron pruebas físicas, microbiológicas y de aceptación sensorial. Al concluir los 90 días de almacenamiento la bebida obtuvo un contenido de proteínas de 1,36%, siendo el triptófano el aminoácido limitante; por su parte, las coordenadas de cromaticidad del espacio de color CIEL*a*b* no presentaron diferencias significativas (p This research was aimed at developing a high content protein beverage from the mixture of liquid extracts of a pseudocereal, quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd and two legumes: mesquite (Prosopis chilensis (Mol. Stunz and lupine (Lupinus albus L., native from the Andean highlands of the Chilean northern macro-zone, flavored with raspberry pulp, to help in the feeding of children between 2 and 5 years of lower socioeconomic status with nutritional deficiencies. The formulation was defined by linear programming, its composition was determined by proximate analysis and physical, microbiological and sensory acceptance tests were performed. After 90 days of storage time, the beverage got a protein content of 1.36%, being tryptophan the limiting amino acid; for its part, the chromaticity coordinates of CIEL*a*b* color space showed no statistical significant differences (p < 0.05 maintaining the "dark pink" tonality, the viscosity and the sensory evaluation were acceptable for drinking.

  2. Fitomassa de adubos verdes e cobertura do solo na região do Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais = Biomass of green manure and soil cover in the region of Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais-Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evander Alves Ferreira

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A adubação verde constitui prática cultural de relevante impacto positivo em sistemas de produção agrícola que visam o uso sustentável da terra. Objetivou-se com esse trabalho avaliar o desempenho de seis leguminosas utilizadas para adubação verde, quanto à produtividade de fitomassa, cobertura do solo e uso da radiação fotossinteticamente ativa na região conhecida como Alto Vale do Jequitinhonha em Minas Gerais. O experimento foi conduzido entre os meses de março a outubro de 2010, em delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os adubos verdes utilizados foram: crotalária (Crotalariaspectabilis, feijão-de-porco (Canavalia ensiformis, feijão-guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan, lab-lab (Lablab purpureus, mucuna-anã (Mucuna deenringiana e tremoço-branco (Lupinus albus L.. Os adubos verdes apresentaram elevadas produções de fitomassa, mas com diferentes picos de cobertura do solo e interceptação da radiação. Os maiores acúmulos de matéria seca e fresca foram observados pela crotalária seguido pelo feijão-guandu-anão. Entre as espécies estudadas, o feijão-de-porco é aque apresentou maior período vegetativo, representando elevado potencial para recobrimento do solo, destacando-se também na interceptação de radiação fotossinteticamente ativa.Green manuring is a positive practice that reduces the impact on agricultural production systems aimed at sustainable land use. The objective of this study was to evaluate the performance of six legumes used for green manure, the productivity of biomass, land cover and use of photosynthetic active radiation in the region of the Vale do Jequitinhonha, Minas Gerais, Brazil. The experiment was conducted during March to October, 2010 in randomized block design with four replications. Green manures were used: Crotalaria spectabilis, Canavalia ensiformis, Cajanus cajan, Lablab purpureus, Mucuna deenringiana and Lupinus albus. Green manures had high yields of biomass

  3. 四川冬菜中细菌群落组成及多样性%Bacterial biodiversity in Dongcai, a traditional pickled mustard product in Sichuan Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董玲; 蒲彪; 敖晓琳; 张小平; 郑有坤; 李小林

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] To investigate the bacteria community and biodiversity of four-years pickled Yanshan Dongcai. [Methods] We studied the bacterial communities of Dongcai by 16S rDNA diversity analysis and the cultured species isolated from Dongcai sample by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism ( RFLP) and 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. [ Results] The 16S rDNA diversity showed that the bacteria belonged to the phyla Proteobacteria (87. 9% ) and Firmicutes (7. 1% ) , including many moderately halophilic bacteria such as Virgibacillus kekensis, Marinococcus albus, Salinicoccus sp. , Lactobacillus halophilus and Halomonas. Only 5% of clone sequences belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria. Thirty-five strains were isolated from Dongcai sample, and 16S rDNA-RFLP analysis indicated that 34 isolates affiliated with the phylum Firmicutes, including Virgibacillus, Bacillus megaterium and Gracilibacillus saliphilus which were moderately halophilic bacteria, but only one isolate belonged to the phylum Actinobacteria. [ Conclusion ] The bacterial diversity is low in Dongcai, dominated by moderately halophilic bacteria.%[目的]了解腌制4年的四川南充冬菜中细菌群落组成及多样性.[方法]通过16S rDNA多样性分析样品细菌落组成;采用16S rDNA-RFLP方法分析从样品中分离出的纯培养细菌.[结果]16S rDNA多样性分析结果表明,样品中细菌主要属于变形杆菌门( Proteobacteria)和厚壁菌门(Firmicutes),分别占克隆文库的87.9%、7.1%,其中包括Virgibacillus kekensis,Marinococcus albus,Salinicoccus sp.,Lactobacillus halophilus和Halomonas等中度嗜盐菌,仅有5%属于放线菌门(Actinobacteria).通过纯培养方法从冬菜中分离到35株菌,16S rDNA-RFLP分析结果表明,34株属于厚壁菌门(Firmicutes),包括Virgibacillus,Bacillus megaterium和Gracilibacillus saliphilus等中度嗜盐菌,1株属于放线菌门(Actinobacteria).[结论]冬菜中细菌群落多样性较低,以中度嗜盐菌为主.

  4. 石油降解菌株的分离鉴定及降油特性%Isolation and Identification of Petroleum-Degradable Bacterial Strain and Its Oil-Degradation Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雒晓芳; 杨琴; 陈丽华; 周立辉; 徐红伟

    2012-01-01

    从甘肃华庆油田污染严重的土壤中采样,通过富集培养、多次筛选分离得到1株优势菌F1.依据生理生化特征和16S rDNA序列将菌株F1鉴定为白色类诺卡氏菌(Nocardioides albus).GS-MC结果表明,等量原油经F1菌株降解前、后,表现出先降解高碳数正构烷烃为低碳数正构烷烃;高碳数正构烷烃中奇数碳向偶数碳正构烷烃演化规律;平均降油率为64%,F1菌株能较好地促使五环三萜类化合物立体构型中不稳定构型向稳定性构型转化.F1菌株在含油浓度0.3%、0.5%、1.0%土样中降解石油烃的半衰期分别为17.2、18.2、23.7 d,42 d后均达到78%以上.%An oil-degradation bacterial dominant strain F, was screened and isolated from seriously oil-contaminated soil sampled at Huaqing Oilfield in Gansu Province through enrichement cultivation and multiple screening. Based on physio-biochemical characters and 16S rDNA sequencing indicate that the strain F1 was identified preliminarily as Ao-cardioides albus. The general law is that after treated with strain F1 , the higher molecular weight n-alkanes were deg-radated into lower molecular weight n-alkanes, and the n-alkanes in odd-numbered carbon were degradaled into n-al-kanes in even-numbered carbon, as revealed by GS-MC. The average oil-degradation rate was 64% , and the strain F, could promote the transition from less stable configuration in pentacyclic triterpenes to stable one. In addition, it was shown that the TPH degradation rate of the strain F1 was higher than 78% after 42 days, the degradation half-life of petroleum were about 17. 2、18.2、23.7 days under different petroleum-contaminated soils respectively.

  5. Accumulation of germanium and rare earth elements in functional groups of selected energy crops cultivated on two different soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs

    2016-04-01

    A field experiment was conducted to investigate the uptake of Ge and selected REEs in functional groups of selected crop species. Five species belonging to the functional group of grasses (Hordeum vulgare, Zea mays, Avena sativa, Panicum miliaceum and Phalaris arundinacea) and four species from the group of herbs (Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Fagopyrum esculentum and Brassica napus) were cultivated in parallel on two soils with slightly alkaline (soil A: pH = 7.8) and slightly acidic (soil B: pH = 6.8) conditions. After harvest, concentrations of Ge, La, Nd, Gd, Er, P, Fe, Mn and Si in shoot tissues were determined with ICP-MS. Concentrations of Ge were significantly higher in grasses than in herbs. Conversely, concentrations of La and Nd were significantly higher in herbs, than in grasses. Highest concentrations were measured in Brassica napus (REEs) and Zea mays (Ge). Concentrations of Ge significantly correlated with that of Si in the shoots showing low concentrations in herbs and high concentrations in grasses, indicating a common mechanism during the uptake in grasses. Concentrations of REEs correlated significantly with that of Fe, indicating increasing concentrations of REEs with increasing concentrations of Fe. Cultivation of species on the slightly acidic soil significantly increased the uptake Ge in Lupinus albus and Phalaris arundinacea and the uptake of La and Nd in all species except of Phalaris arundinacea. This study demonstrated that commonly used field crops could be regarded as suitable candidates for a phytomining of Ge and REEs, since these species develop high yields of shoots, high concentrations of elements and are widely used in agricultural practice. Under soil conditions where bioavailability of Ge and REEs is expected to be low (soil A) accumulation can be estimated at 1.8 g/ha Ge in Z. mays and 3.7 g/ha REEs (1.5 g/ha La, 1.4 g/ha Nd, 0.6 g/ha Gd, 0.3 g/ha Er), respectively, in B. napus, assuming a constant high efficiency of

  6. EVALUACIÓN DE LA TOLERANCIA A SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON ACEITE DIESEL EN ESPECIES VEGETALES CON POTENCIAL BIORREMEDIADO Evaluation of Tolerance to Soils Contaminated with Diesel Oil in Plant Species with Bioremediation Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA CRISTINA PETENELLO

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos contaminados con petróleo o sus derivados pueden ser remediados a través de diversos métodos, dentro de los cuales se encuentran aquellos que emplean organismos vivos tales como plantas, que poseen la capacidad de mineralizar estos compuestos transformándolos en otros más simples, asimilables a compuestos naturales. Al encarar proyectos de fitorremediación es importante emplear plantas nativas porque están adaptadas a las condiciones ecológicas particulares de la región. En el presente trabajo como primera etapa se evaluó la respuesta de Spartina argentinensis, Paspalum atratum, Paspalum guenoarum y Melilotus albus a la presencia de aceite diesel, considerando la germinación de sus semillas, la emergencia de plántulas y la biomasa alcanzada en suelos que contenían 1 y 2 % de aceite diesel, en condiciones experimentales. Todos estos parámetros se vieron afectados con las concentraciones de contaminante empleadas, sin embargo, las plantas pudieron prosperar demostrando en consecuencia que podrían ser empleadas en proyectos de fitorremediación.Soils contaminated with hydrocarbons or their derivates can be remediated by different methods. Many of them use live organisms such as plants that are able to mineralize these compounds, turning them into more simple molecules, similar to natural molecules. When the use of plants is decided, it is important to employ native plants because they are already adapted to the particular ecological conditions of the site. The response of Spartina argentinensis, Paspalum atratum, Paspalum guenoarun and Melilotus albus to the presence of diesel oil was evaluated considering seed germination, plant emergence and biomass production of plants growing on soils experimentally contaminated with different concentrations of diesel oil (1 and 2 %. Although all the parameters evaluated showed the negative impact of the presence of diesel-oil, the plants continued growing; therefore they can be

  7. Occurrence of H2-Uptake Hydrogenases in Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) and Their Expression in Nodules of Lupinus spp. and Ornithopus compressus1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, Jesús; Villa, Ana; Chamber, Manuel; Ruiz-Argüeso, Tomás

    1989-01-01

    Fifty-four strains of Bradyrhizobium sp. (Lupinus) from worldwide collections were screened by a colony hybridization method for the presence of DNA sequences homologous to the structural genes of the Bradyrhizobium japonicum hydrogenase. Twelve strains exhibited strong colony hybridization signals, and subsequent Southern blot hybridization experiments showed that they fell into two different groups on the basis of the pattern of EcoRI fragments containing the homology to the hup probe. All strains in the first group (UPM860, UPM861, and 750) expressed uptake hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with Lupinus albus, Lupinus angustifolius, Lupinus luteus, and Ornithopus compressus, but both the rate of H2 uptake by bacteroids and the relative efficiency of N2 fixation (RE = 1 - [H2 evolved in air/acetylene reduced]) by nodules were markedly affected by the legume host. L. angustifolius was the less permissive host for hydrogenase expression in symbiosis with the three strains (average RE = 0.76), and O. compressus was the more permissive (average RE = 1.0). None of the strains in the second group expressed hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules, and only one exhibited low H2-uptake activity in symbiosis with O. compressus. The inability of these putative Hup+ strains to induce hydrogenase activity in lupine nodules is discussed on the basis of the legume host effect. Among the 42 strains showing no homology to the B. japonicum hup-specific probe in the colony hybridization assay, 10 were examined in symbiosis with L. angustifolius. The average RE for these strains was 0.51. However, one strain, IM43B, exhibited high RE values (higher than 0.80) and high levels of hydrogenase activity in symbiosis with L. angustifolius, L. albus, and L. luteus. In Southern blot hybridization experiments, no homology was detected between the B. japonicum hup-specific DNA probe and total DNA from vegetative cells or bacteroids from strain IM43B even under low stringency hybridization

  8. Streptomyces sahachiroi ATCC 33158中启动子 PaziU1的克隆及表达%Cloning and expression of a strong promoter PaziU 1 from Streptomyces sahachiroi ATCC 33158

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周俊; 何璟

    2014-01-01

    To identify and analyze the promoter region of the gene aziU1 (PaziU 1 )in Streptomyces sahachiroi ATCC33158,the 183 bp DNA fragment upstream of aziU1 and the strong constitutive pro-moter PermE * (as the positive control)were cloned into the promoter-probe vector pIJ8660.The enhanced green fluorescent protein gene (egfp )was used as a qualitative and quantitative reporter of gene expres-sion driven by the cloned promoters,PaziU 1 and PermE * ,with fluorescent intensity assay of mycelia.PaziU 1 exhibited high level of promoter activities in three streptomycetes,Streptomyces sahachiroi ,Streptomy-ces lividans ZX1 and Streptomyces albus .In the early growth phase (up to 36 h),the activities of PaziU 1 were a little bit lower than those of PermE * .However,by 48 h,the activities of PaziU 1 equaled and even ex-ceeded those of PermE * .Therefore,that PaziU 1 cloned from S .sahachiroi was identified as a strong consti-tutive promoter the same as PermE * .%为鉴定和分析 aziU1基因的启动子 PaziU 1,将该基因上游183 bp 的 DNA 片段和组成型强启动子PermE *(作为阳性对照)分别克隆到启动子探针载体 pIJ8660中,以增强型的绿色荧光蛋白基因(egfp )作为报告基因,通过检测菌丝体中绿色荧光的强弱,对 PaziU 1的启动子活性进行了定性和定量分析。PaziU 1在3种不同的链霉菌 Streptomyces sahachiroi 、Streptomyces lividans ZX1和 Streptomyces albus 中均表现出启动子活性。PaziU 1的启动子活性在初始培养的36 h 略低于 PermE *,在培养48 h 后,PaziU 1的表达活性高于 PermE *。结果表明,Pazi U 1与 PermE *一样,是一个可以在链霉菌中组成型表达的强启动子。

  9. Effects of Plant Extracts on Microbial Population, Methane Emission and Ruminal Fermentation Characteristics in

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    E. T. Kim

    2012-06-01

    community in added wormwood, garlic, mandarin orange and honeysuckle extracts increased more than that of the others. The addition of onion extract increased R. albus diversity, while other extracts did not influence the R. albus community. The R. flavefaciens population in added wormwood and garlic extracts decreased, while other extracts increased its abundance compared to the control. In conclusion, the results indicated that the plant extracts used in the experiment could be promising feed additives to decrease methane gas emission from ruminant animals while improving ruminal fermentation.

  10. Fitorremediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium Phytoremediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron sodium

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    J.B. Santos

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de espécies vegetais na fitorremediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium em solos, utilizando o milho como planta indicadora. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação de espécies (Calopogonium muconoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Helianthus annus, Dolichus lablab, Pennisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus e Lupinus albus, semeadas anteriormente à cultura do milho, mais um tratamento controle (sem cultivo prévio e três doses do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium (0,00; 3,75; e 15,00 g ha-1. O delineamento experimental usado foi o de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial, sendo utilizadas três repetições. A semeadura das espécies vegetais nos vasos foi feita no dia seguinte à aplicação do trifloxysulfuron sodium. Após 80 dias da semeadura, as espécies vegetais foram cortadas na altura do coleto, descartando-se a sua parte aérea. A seguir, foi realizada a semeadura do milho (cultivar AG-122. Aos 45 dias após a emergência das plantas de milho foram avaliadas a altura de plantas e a sua biomassa seca da parte aérea. Verificou-se que as espécies M. aterrima e C. ensiformis foram eficientes na descontaminação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron sodium em solo.This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of plant species in the phytoremediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron sodium in soils, by using corn crop as a bioindicator. The treatments were composed by the combination of the species (Calopogonium muconoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Helianthus annus, Dolichus lablab, Pennisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus and Lupinus albus sowed before the corn, without previous cultivation (control

  11. Potencial de espécies vegetais para a remediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron-sodium Potential of plant species for remediation of trifloxysulfuron-sodium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O. Procópio

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a eficiência de espécies vegetais na remediação do herbicida trifloxysulfuron-sodium em solos, utilizando o feijão (Phaseolus vulgaris como planta indicadora. Os tratamentos foram compostos pela combinação entre as espécies Calopogonium mucunoides, Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Medicago sativa, Dolichus lab lab, Penisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus e Lupinus albus. Todas as espécies foram semeadas em vasos no dia seguinte à aplicação do trifloxysulfuron-sodium em três doses (0,00; 3,75; e 15,00 g ha-1. Após 80 dias da semeadura, as espécies vegetais foram cortadas na altura do coleto e a parte aérea destas descartada. A seguir, foi realizada a semeadura do feijão (cultivar Pérola. Aos 45 dias após a emergência das plantas de feijão avaliaram-se a altura e a massa seca da parte aérea das plantas. Melhor eficiência na descontaminação do trifloxysulfuron-sodium em solo foi obtida pelas espécies M. aterrima e C. ensiformis.This work aimed to evaluate the efficiency of vegetable species in the remediation of the herbicide trifloxysulfuron-sodium in soils using the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris as a bio indicator. The treatments were composed by the combination of the species Calopogonium mucunoides,Crotalaria juncea, Crotalaria spectabilis, Vicia sativa, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Medicago sativa, Dolichus lab lab, Penisetum glaucum, Stylosantes guianensis, Mucuna deeringiana, Mucuna cinereum, Mucuna aterrima, Raphanus sativus and Lupinus albus, sown in vases the day following application of the herbicide at three doses (0.00; 3.75; and 15.00 g ha-1. Eighty days after sowing, the plants were cut and the shoot discarded, followed by bean ("Perola" cultivar sowing. At 45 days post emergence, bean height and shoot dry matter were

  12. Bioaccumulation of Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Aquatic Species from the Typical E-Waste Burning Site%典型电子废物焚烧区水生生物多溴联苯醚累积特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨延梅; 陶义; 唐阵武; 何洁; 黄启飞

    2013-01-01

    对广东清远某电子废物焚烧区封闭水体中水生生物体PBDEs(多溴联苯醚)的累积特征进行了研究.结果表明,草虾、田螺、河蚌、鲫鱼、鲤鱼、黄鳝和乌鳢等水生生物体内w(Σ21PBDEs)(以脂肪质量计)为0.248 7 ~24.50 μg/g.该电子废物焚烧区水生生物PBDEs污染较严重,较我国其他地区开放性水体的水生生物体w(PBDEs)高出1~3个数量级.其中,底栖动物河蚌和田螺体内PBDEs累积最高,w(Σ21PBDEs)分别为11.38和4.968 μg/g.不同同系物在水生生物体内累积差异较大,BDE209是水生生物体PBDEs累积的主要组分,占49.83% ~91.48%,八溴代和九溴代BDE也发生了高累积.营养级是电子废物焚烧区水生生物PBDEs累积的最主要控制因素,但捕食和生活习性对生物体尤其是软体动物PBDEs累积也产生了较大影响.%Bioaccumulation of polybrominated diphenyl ethers was investigated using aquatic species collected from a pond in an e-waste burning site in South China. The levels of PBDEs ranged from 0. 2487 to 24. 50 μg/g (lipid weight) in the bodies of aquatic organisms including shrimp, river snail, mussel, crucian, carp, monopterus and snakehead. In this study, the highest levels of PBDEs were investigated in mussel (Anodonta) and river snail ( Cipangopaludina cathayensis) , which were 11.38 and 4.968 μg/g, respectively. Compared with previous studies, the results showed that the PBDE levels of aquatic species were 1 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than that reported in other regions of China. This indicated that heavy PBDE pollution occurred in this area. BDE209 was the most dominant congener (49. 83% -91. 48% ) of PBDEs in these investigated aquatic organisms. In addition, relatively higher levels of octa-BDE and nona-BDE were also detected in the aquatic species. Based on the results, trophic level is the main controlling factors for PBDE bioaccumulation. Meanwhile, the feeding and living habits also play important

  13. 白洋淀鱼类体内多氯联苯积累特征及其毒性评价%Bioaccumulation and Toxicity Assessment of Polychlorinated Biphenyls in Freshwater Fish from Baiyangdian Lake, North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡国成; 李雪梅; 彭晓武; 郭庶; 刘芸; 许木启; 戴家银; 麦碧娴; 许振成

    2012-01-01

    Aquatic species easily accumulate persistent organic pollutants ( POPs ). Bioaccumulation is important to transfer behaviors of POPs in tissues of aquatic species. Polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) are typical POPs. The concentrations of PCBs in muscle of eight freshwater fish species from Baiyangdian Lake were determined by gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometer(GC/MS). The compositional patterns of PCB congeners were observed, and the toxic equivalent values(TEQs ) were calculated for these freshwater fishes. The concentrations of PCBs in various fish species were in the range of 55.85-1 485.74 ng-g'1 lipid weight (lw). The order of PCBs concentrations was as follow:yellow catfish(Pelteobagrus.fufotdraco)>ricefield eel(Monopterus ablus )>northern snakehead(Channa argus )>loach(Misgur-nus anguillicaudatus )>common carp( Cypnnus carpio )>bighead carp(A ristichthys nobilis )>crucian carp( Carassius auratus )>oriental sheat-fish (Parasllums asotus ). PCB profiles were dominated by congeners of Tetra-CB and Penta-CB, which relative abundance accounted for 52.0%~84.3% of the total congener concentration. The compositional patterns indicated that regions around Baiyangdian Lake have been contaminated by PCBs commercial products used previously. The TEQs ranged from 0.10 to 1 412.90 pg TEQ·g-1 lipid weight. The highest and the lowest TEQs were observed for bighead carp(Aristichthys nobilis) and loach(Misgurnus anguillicaudatus), respectively. The results suggested that part of freshwater fish from Baiyangdian Lake were contaminated by PCBs to some extent. The residents and government should be pay attention to contamination of PCBs in this region.%针对持久性有机污染物在水生生物体内易于积累的特性,利用气相色谱与质谱联用技术(GC-MS),检测了白洋淀8种鱼类体内多氯联苯(PCBs)含量,并分析了同系物组成特征.根据白洋淀鱼类检测到同系物情况,计算毒性当量(TEQ)并进行评价.白洋淀8种鱼

  14. The occurrence of dauciform roots amongst Western Australian reeds, rushes and sedges, and the impact of phosphorus supply on dauciform-root development in Schoenus unispiculatus (Cyperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shane, Michael W; Dixon, Kingsley W; Lambers, Hans

    2005-03-01

    * The incidence of species that develop specialised 'dauciform' lateral roots, which are hypothesised to be important for phosphorus (P) acquisition, is uncertain. We investigated their occurrence in Australian reed, rush and sedge species, grown at low P concentration in nutrient solution, and studied the response of Schoenus unispiculatus (Cyperaceae) to a range of P concentrations. * We assessed the fraction of root biomass invested in dauciform roots, their respiration and net P-uptake rate, and the P status of roots and leaves. * Dauciform-root development occurred only in particular genera of Cyperaceae when grown at low P supply. Increased P supply was associated with increased growth of S. unispiculatus and increased leaf [P]. Dauciform-root growth was reduced by increased P supply, and reduced P uptake co-occurred with the complete suppression of dauciform roots. * The P-induced suppression of dauciform roots in Cyperaceae is similar to that observed for proteoid roots in members of Proteaceae and Lupinus albus. The response of dauciform roots to altered P supply and their absence from root systems of some sedge species are discussed in terms of managed and natural systems.

  15. An epidemic of viral acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Delhi in 1994.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Satpathy, G; Mohanty, S; Nayak, N

    1996-03-01

    An epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis affecting persons of all ages and both sexes occurred in Delhi and surrounding areas during the monsoon season of 1994. The symptoms lasted on an average for 4-5 days. In some of the patients corneal involvement was observed. Conjunctival swabs from the affected patients were processed for viral antigen detection, virus isolation and bacterial culture and sensitivity. Viral antigen was detected in 62% (31/50) of the smears tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In 22 (44%) of the specimens Coxackie A 24 (Cox A 24) virus antigen and in 9 (18%) of the specimens Entero Virus 70 (EV 70) antigen were detected. In confluent monolayers of Hep 2 cells cytopathic virus was isolated in 10 (30.30%) of the 33 specimens processed. The isolated viruses were identified as either Cox A 24 (7 isolates) or EV 70 (3 isolates) using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Super added bacterial infection was observed in 33% (89/270) of the cases, Staphylococcus albus being the predominant bacteria isolated.

  16. An epidemic of viral acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis in Delhi in 1994

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satpathy Gita

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available An epidemic of acute haemorrhagic conjunctivitis affecting persons of all ages and both sexes occurred in Delhi and surrounding areas during the monsoon season of 1994. The symptoms lasted on an average for 4-5 days. In some of the patients corneal involvement was observed. Conjunctival swabs from the affected patients were processed for viral antigen detection, virus isolation and bacterial culture and sensitivity. Viral antigen was detected in 62% (31/50 of the smears tested by indirect immunofluorescence assay. In 22 (44% of the specimens Coxackie A 24 (Cox A 24 virus antigen and in 9 (18% of the specimens Entero Virus 70 (EV 70 antigen were detected. In confluent monolayers of Hep 2 cells cytopathic virus was isolated in 10 (30.30% of the 33 specimens processed. The isolated viruses were identified as either Cox A 24 (7 isolates or EV 70 (3 isolates using indirect immunofluorescence assay. Super added bacterial infection was observed in 33% (89/270 of the cases, Staphylococcus albus being the predominant bacteria isolated.

  17. Update of alien fauna and new records from Tunisian marine waters

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    K. OUNIFI- BEN AMOR

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of alien marine fauna in coastal and offshore Tunisian waters is presented. Records were compiled from scientific and ‘grey’ publications, presentations at scientific meetings, theses presented in fulfillment of requirements towards MSc and PhD degrees, websites and personal observations. 136 alien species were recorded in Tunisian waters, 60 records in northern coasts, West Mediterranean and 76 in central and southern coasts, Central Mediterranean. Nearly half of the first sightings in Tunisian waters took place in the Gulf of Gabès. The dominant taxa are Crustancean (24%, Molluscs (23%, Fishes (19% and Annelida (13%. Twenty one species previously reported as aliens, were upon consideration, reclassified as range-expanding Atlantic species. Amathia verticillata, previously considered native to the Mediterranean, is reclassified as pseudoindigenous. Twenty one alien species are newly recorded from Tunisia, including 5 fish species, 5 polychaetes, 4 crustaceans, 4 molluscs, and one each schyphozoan, bryozoan and tunicate. The findings of Gibberulus gibberulus albus, Morula aspera and Calcinus latens, three species new to the Mediterranean, and of Actaedoes tomentosus, reported for the second time in the basin, are described. Species were classified according to their establishment status and their origins. This contribution highlights the dual origin of biological invasion in Tunisian waters (Red Sea and Atlantic, with slightly more species of Red Sea and Indo-Pacific origin (61,76%.  The impact of the alien species in Tunisian waters was discussed.

  18. Effects of Exposure to the Sound from Seismic Airguns on Pallid Sturgeon and Paddlefish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popper, Arthur N; Gross, Jackson A; Carlson, Thomas J; Skalski, John; Young, John V; Hawkins, Anthony D; Zeddies, David

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the effects of exposure to a single acoustic pulse from a seismic airgun array on caged endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and on paddlefish (Polyodon spathula) in Lake Sakakawea (North Dakota, USA). The experiment was designed to detect the onset of physiological responses including minor to mortal injuries. Experimental fish were held in cages as close as 1 to 3 m from the guns where peak negative sound pressure levels (Peak- SPL) reached 231 dB re 1 μPa (205 dB re 1 μPa2·s sound exposure level [SEL]). Additional cages were placed at greater distances in an attempt to develop a dose-response relationship. Treatment and control fish were then monitored for seven days, euthanized, and necropsied to determine injuries. Necropsy results indicated that the probability of delayed mortality associated with pulse pressure following the seven day monitoring period was the same for exposed and control fish of both species. Exposure to a single pulse from a small air gun array (10,160 cm3) was not lethal for pallid sturgeon and paddlefish. However, the risks from exposure to multiple sounds and to sound exposure levels that exceed those reported here remain to be examined.

  19. Hydrophobic cluster analysis: procedures to derive structural and functional information from 2-D-representation of protein sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemesle-Varloot, L; Henrissat, B; Gaboriaud, C; Bissery, V; Morgat, A; Mornon, J P

    1990-08-01

    Hydrophobic cluster analysis (HCA) [15] is a very efficient method to analyse and compare protein sequences. Despite its effectiveness, this method is not widely used because it relies in part on the experience and training of the user. In this article, detailed guidelines as to the use of HCA are presented and include discussions on: the definition of the hydrophobic clusters and their relationships with secondary and tertiary structures; the length of the clusters; the amino acid classification used for HCA; the HCA plot programs; and the working strategies. Various procedures for the analysis of a single sequence are presented: structural segmentation, structural domains and secondary structure evaluation. Like most sequence analysis methods, HCA is more efficient when several homologous sequences are compared. Procedures for the detection and alignment of distantly related proteins by HCA are described through several published examples along with 2 previously unreported cases: the beta-glucosidase from Ruminococcus albus is clearly related to the beta-glucosidases from Clostridum thermocellum and Hansenula anomala although they display a reverse organization of their constitutive domains; the alignment of the sequence of human GTPase activating protein with that of the Crk oncogene is presented. Finally, the pertinence of HCA in the identification of important residues for structure/function as well as in the preparation of homology modelling is discussed.

  20. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth Herring

    Full Text Available The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba and white ibises (Eudocimus albus to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate, and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70 in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  1. Are Vicilins Another Major Class of Legume Lectins?

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    Ana C. Ribeiro

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Legume lectins comprise a structurally related, Ca/Mn-dependent, widespread, abundant and well characterized lectin family when compared to the large number of lectins from other sources described in the literature. Strangely enough, no specific function has been assigned to them aside from a possible role in storage and/or defense. Using a recent and fine-tuned methodology capable of specific lectin identification, β-conglutin, Vicia faba vicilin and β-lathyrin, the vicilin storage globulins from Lupinus albus, V. faba and Lathyrus sativus, respectively, were shown to be capable of affinity binding to thoroughly washed erythrocyte membranes and of specific elution with appropriate sugars. Based on this evidence and on sparse data published in the literature, a second family of legume lectins is proposed: the 7S family of storage proteins from leguminous seeds, or family II of legume lectins. These lectins are also structurally related, widespread and well characterized. In addition, they self-aggregate in a Ca/Mg, electrostatic dependent manner and are even more abundant than the family I of legume lectins. Using the same evidence, reserve and defense roles may be attributed to family II of legume lectins.

  2. Linking dynamic habitat selection with wading bird foraging distributions across resource gradients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, James M.; Noonberg, Erik G.; Gawlik, Dale E.

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) link species occurrence with a suite of environmental predictors and provide an estimate of habitat quality when the variable set captures the biological requirements of the species. SDMs are inherently more complex when they include components of a species' ecology such as conspecific attraction and behavioral flexibility to exploit resources that vary across time and space. Wading birds are highly mobile, demonstrate flexible habitat selection, and respond quickly to changes in habitat quality; thus serving as important indicator species for wetland systems. We developed a spatio-temporal, multi-SDM framework using Great Egret (Ardea alba), White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), and Wood Stork (Mycteria Americana) distributions over a decadal gradient of environmental conditions to predict species-specific abundance across space and locations used on the landscape over time. In models of temporal dynamics, species demonstrated conditional preferences for resources based on resource levels linked to differing temporal scales. Wading bird abundance was highest when prey production from optimal periods of inundation was concentrated in shallow depths. Similar responses were observed in models predicting locations used over time, accounting for spatial autocorrelation. Species clustered in response to differing habitat conditions, indicating that social attraction can co-vary with foraging strategy, water-level changes, and habitat quality. This modeling framework can be applied to evaluate the multi-annual resource pulses occurring in real-time, climate change scenarios, or restorative hydrological regimes by tracking changing seasonal and annual distribution and abundance of high quality foraging patches.

  3. Linking Dynamic Habitat Selection with Wading Bird Foraging Distributions across Resource Gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, James M; Noonburg, Erik G; Gawlik, Dale E

    2015-01-01

    Species distribution models (SDM) link species occurrence with a suite of environmental predictors and provide an estimate of habitat quality when the variable set captures the biological requirements of the species. SDMs are inherently more complex when they include components of a species' ecology such as conspecific attraction and behavioral flexibility to exploit resources that vary across time and space. Wading birds are highly mobile, demonstrate flexible habitat selection, and respond quickly to changes in habitat quality; thus serving as important indicator species for wetland systems. We developed a spatio-temporal, multi-SDM framework using Great Egret (Ardea alba), White Ibis (Eudocimus albus), and Wood Stork (Mycteria Americana) distributions over a decadal gradient of environmental conditions to predict species-specific abundance across space and locations used on the landscape over time. In models of temporal dynamics, species demonstrated conditional preferences for resources based on resource levels linked to differing temporal scales. Wading bird abundance was highest when prey production from optimal periods of inundation was concentrated in shallow depths. Similar responses were observed in models predicting locations used over time, accounting for spatial autocorrelation. Species clustered in response to differing habitat conditions, indicating that social attraction can co-vary with foraging strategy, water-level changes, and habitat quality. This modeling framework can be applied to evaluate the multi-annual resource pulses occurring in real-time, climate change scenarios, or restorative hydrological regimes by tracking changing seasonal and annual distribution and abundance of high quality foraging patches.

  4. Phytoremediation of pharmaceuticals--preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotyza, Jan; Soudek, Petr; Kafka, Zdenĕk; Vanĕk, Toás

    2010-03-01

    Phytoremediation of selected pharmaceuticals (diclofenac, ibuprofen, and acetaminophen) using Armoracia rusticana and Linum usitatissimum cell cultures and by hydroponically cultivated Lupinus albus, Hordeum vulgaris, and Phragmites australis plants in laboratory conditions is described. During in vitro experiments, the best results for acetaminophen were achieved using Armoracia rusticana hairy root cultures, where 100% of the starting amount was removed from the media during eight days. Total removal of ibuprofen and diclofenac was achieved using a Linum usitatissimum suspension culture after one and six days, respectively. In the hydroponic arrangement, the best results were achieved for Lupinus, where acetaminophen was totally removed from media during two or four days in concentrations of 0.1 or 0.2 mM, respectively. The best effectiveness of ibuprofen removal (50% of starting amount) was found in case of Phragmites. Effectiveness of all tested plants for diclofenac removal was low. The best removal was achieved using Phragmites in the case of 0.2 mM concentration-67% of the starting amount and Hordeum for 0.1 mM starting concentration, 56%.

  5. Hierarchical stochastic modeling of large river ecosystems and fish growth across spatio-temporal scales and climate models: the Missouri River endangered pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Wikle, Christopher K.; Moran, Edward H.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Franz, Kristie J.; Dey, Rima

    2017-01-01

    We present a hierarchical series of spatially decreasing and temporally increasing models to evaluate the uncertainty in the atmosphere – ocean global climate model (AOGCM) and the regional climate model (RCM) relative to the uncertainty in the somatic growth of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). For effects on fish populations of riverine ecosystems, cli- mate output simulated by coarse-resolution AOGCMs and RCMs must be downscaled to basins to river hydrology to population response. One needs to transfer the information from these climate simulations down to the individual scale in a way that minimizes extrapolation and can account for spatio-temporal variability in the intervening stages. The goal is a framework to determine whether, given uncertainties in the climate models and the biological response, meaningful inference can still be made. The non-linear downscaling of climate information to the river scale requires that one realistically account for spatial and temporal variability across scale. Our down- scaling procedure includes the use of fixed/calibrated hydrological flow and temperature models coupled with a stochastically parameterized sturgeon bioenergetics model. We show that, although there is a large amount of uncertainty associated with both the climate model output and the fish growth process, one can establish significant differences in fish growth distributions between models, and between future and current climates for a given model.

  6. Effect of isolate of ruminal fibrolytic bacterial culture supplementation on fibrolytic bacterial population and survivability of inoculated bacterial strain in lactating Murrah buffaloes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brishketu Kumar

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of bacterial culture supplementation on ruminal fibrolytic bacterial population as well as on survivability of inoculated bacterial strain in lactating Murrah buffaloes kept on high fibre diet. Materials and Methods: Fibrolytic bacterial strains were isolated from rumen liquor of fistulated Murrah buffaloes and live bacterial culture were supplemented orally in treatment group of lactating Murrah buffaloes fed on high fibre diet to see it's effect on ruminal fibrolytic bacterial population as well as to see the effect of survivability of the inoculated bacterial strain at three different time interval in comparison to control group. Results: It has been shown by real time quantification study that supplementation of bacterial culture orally increases the population of major fibre degrading bacteria i.e. Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus as well as Fibrobacter succinogenes whereas there was decrease in secondary fibre degrading bacterial population i.e. Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens over the different time periods. However, the inoculated strain of Ruminococcus flavefaciens survived significantly over the period of time, which was shown in stability of increased inoculated bacterial population. Conclusion: The isolates of fibrolytic bacterial strains are found to be useful in increasing the number of major ruminal fibre degrading bacteria in lactating buffaloes and may act as probiotic in large ruminants on fibre-based diets. [Vet World 2013; 6(1.000: 14-17

  7. Efficacy of different disinfectant systems on alginate and addition silicone impression materials of Indian and international origin: a comparative evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samra, R K; Bhide, S V

    2010-09-01

    Study was planned to evaluate the efficacy of commonly used disinfectants and to study qualitatively and quantitatively the persistence of microflora on the untreated (control group) and the disinfected impression surface after 24 h. Disinfectant systems used were immersion systems like glutaraldehyde, sodium hypochlorite and the ultraviolet chamber. The effect of disinfectant on most commonly used Indian impression materials was carried out in this study and results compared with the most commonly used foreign brands for irreversible hydrocolloid and addition silicone. Impressions were made of 25 healthy volunteers. These were disinfected and incubated in an incubator for 24 h at 37°C for aerobic organisms. The inoculation in nutrient media was done to test the viability of microorganisms that can persist after rinsing and disinfection of the impression surface. The colony forming units were counted and compared with that of control group. Control group of all the impression material samples showed growth of Streptococcus viridans, Diphtheroids, Streptococcus pneumoniae to a greater extent. The growth of Candida albicans, Pseudomonas aerugenosa and Staphyloccus albus was present in all the groups but to a lesser extent. The persistence of the microflora on the impression surface of both the studied brands was similar but the concentration of organisms in the alginate control group was two folds as compared to addition silicone group. Use of ultraviolet chamber gave better results compared to the studied immersion systems. All the disinfection systems were effective in reducing the microbial load with ultraviolet chamber as the most effective.

  8. Forage potential of winter cereal/legume intercrops in organic farming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mariotti

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This research was performed to assess the potential of cereal/legume intercropping to enhance forage yield and quality when compared with cereal sole crops under the constrains imposed by UE organic farming regulations. Sole crops (SC and intercrops (IC of two winter cereals, barley (Hordeum vulgare L. and durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf., and two legumes, white lupin (Lupinus albus L. and common vetch (Vicia sativa L., were evaluated at two harvest times for dry matter yield (DMY, crude protein concentration (CPC, and nitrogen yield (NY. Yield values and dry matter concentration (DMC were generally higher when cereals were at the hard dough compared to the late milk stage. On average, intercropping increased forage yield by 72%, NY by 190%, and CPC by 40 g kg-1, compared to cereal sole crops, but the choice of legume species affected the yield advantage and the composition of forage. Land equivalent ratio (LER of intercrops was always higher than 1, ranging from 1.39 to 1.61. Intercropping also enhanced weed suppression, compared to sole crop.

  9. Development of conceptual ecological models linking management of the Missouri River to pallid sturgeon population dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Robert B.; Parsley, Michael J.; Annis, Mandy L.; Colvin, Michael E.; Welker, Timothy L.; James, Daniel A.

    2015-01-01

    This report documents the process of developing and refining conceptual ecological models (CEMs) for linking river management to pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) population dynamics in the Missouri River. The refined CEMs are being used in the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis to organize, document, and formalize an understanding of pallid sturgeon population responses to past and future management alternatives. The general form of the CEMs, represented by a population-level model and component life-stage models, was determined in workshops held in the summer of 2013. Subsequently, the Missouri River Pallid Sturgeon Effects Analysis team designed a general hierarchical structure for the component models, refined the graphical structure, and reconciled variation among the components and between models developed for the upper river (Upper Missouri & Yellowstone Rivers) and the lower river (Missouri River downstream from Gavins Point Dam). Importance scores attributed to the relations between primary biotic characteristics and survival were used to define a candidate set of working dominant hypotheses about pallid sturgeon population dynamics. These CEMs are intended to guide research and adaptive-management actions to benefit pallid sturgeon populations in the Missouri River.

  10. Er:YAG and alexandrite laser radiation propagation in the root canal and its effect on bacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jelinkova, Helena; Dostalova, Tatjana; Duskova, Jana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shoji, Shigeru; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal

    1999-05-01

    The goal of the study was to verify differences between the alexandrite and Er:YAG laser energy distribution in the root canal and in the surrounding dentin and bone tissues. For the experiment, two lasers were prepared: the Er:YAG laser (λ=2.94 μm) with a delivery system fluorocarbon polymer-coated silver hollow glass waveguide ended by a special sapphire tip and the alexandrite laser (λ=0.75 μm) with a silicon fiber. The Er:YAG laser was operated in a free-running mode, the length of the generated pulses was 250 μsec and the output energy ranged from 100 to 350 mJ. The pulse length of the free- running alexandrite laser was 70 μsec and the output energy was ranged from 80 up to 200 mJ. For the experiment prepared root canals of molars were used. It was ascertained that the radiation of the alexandrite laser passes through the root canal and hits the surrounding tissue. Nocardia asteroids, Filaments, Micrococcus albus, Lactobacillus sp and Streptococcus sanguis colonies were treated by the Er:YAG or alexandrite laser radiation. The surface was checked by scanning electron microscopy. From the result it follows that the Er:YAG laser destroyed microbial colonies but the differences is in the depth of the affected area.

  11. Prick by Prick Induced Anaphylaxis in a Patient with Peanuts and Lupine Allergy: Awareness of Risks and Role of Component Resolved Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciccarelli, Anna; Calabrò, Claudia; Imperatore, Clara; Scala, Guglielmo

    2014-01-01

    A case of anaphylaxis is reported in the course of a prick by prick with Lupinus albus and roasted peanut in a 20-year-old woman. We focused on some main topics. First of all it seems important to underscore the potential risks connected to the practice of the prick-by-prick with fresh foods in allergic patients, especially when testing cross-reactive substances, such as White Lupine, peanuts, or soy. It is important that clinicians who perform prick tests be aware of the risk related with in vivo tests in allergic patients. Second, we discuss the problem of the hidden allergens, such as White Lupine flour, or soy flour which are utilized to improve wheat flour because of their lower cost. Patients with a demonstrated allergy to peanuts should be assessed for lupine allergy and informed about the “hidden allergens” issue. Finally, we believe that component resolved diagnosis, the serum specific IgE against molecular components, that is normally considered a second-level diagnostic step has an important role even as a first line approach at least in some selected cases. PMID:25477973

  12. Recovering Root System Traits Using Image Analysis Exemplified by Two-Dimensional Neutron Radiography Images of Lupine1[C][W][OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models. PMID:24218493

  13. Modification by Ethylene of the Cell Growth Pattern in Different Tissues of Etiolated Lupine Hypocotyls 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Bravo, José; Ortuño, Ana M.; Pérez-Gilabert, Manuela; Acosta, Manuel; Sabater, Francisco

    1992-01-01

    The influence of ethylene on growth in etiolated lupine (Lupinus albus L.) hypocotyls was studied in ethephon-treated plants. Ethephon reduced the length and increased the diameter of hypocotyls. At the end of the hypocotyl growth period (14 days), the fresh weight was reduced by 53%, and the dry weight was reduced by 16%. Thus, ethylene reduced water uptake in the tissues to a greater extent than the incorporation of new materials. Light microscopic measurements showed that the thickness of tissues was stimulated by ethylene, the vascular cylinder and cortex exhibiting greater increases (55 and 45%, respectively) than pith (26%) or epidermis (12%). Ethephon modified the cell growth pattern, stimulating lateral cell expansion and cell wall thickness, while reducing cell elongation. The response to ethylene varied in the different tissues and was higher in cortex and pith cells than in the epidermis cells. The ethylene-induced cell expansion in the cortex varied according to the localization of cells in the tissue: the central and subepidermal layers showed little change, whereas the innermost layers exhibited the greatest increase. Electron microscopy revealed that ethylene increased both the rough endoplasmic reticulum and dictyosomes, suggesting that ethylene stimulated the secretion of cell wall materials. In untreated seedlings, the pattern of cell growth was similar in cells from the epidermis, cortex, and pith. The final cell size varied along the hypocotyl, the cells becoming shorter and broader the closer to the basal zones of the organ. ImagesFigure 1Figure 5 PMID:16668735

  14. The Forms and Sources of Cytokinins in Developing White Lupine Seeds and Fruits1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, R.J. Neil; Ma, Qifu; Atkins, Craig A.

    2000-01-01

    A comprehensive range of cytokinins (CK) was identified and quantified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in tissues of and in xylem and phloem serving developing white lupine (Lupinus albus) fruits. Analyses were initiated at anthesis and included stages of podset, embryogenesis, and seed filling up to physiological maturation 77 d post anthesis (DPA). In the first 10 DPA, fertilized ovaries destined to set pods accumulated CK. The proportion of cis-CK:trans-CK isomers was initially 10:1 but declined to less than 1:1. In ovaries destined to abort, the ratio of cis-isomers to trans-isomers remained high. During early podset, accumulation of CK (30–40 pmol ovary−1) was accounted for by xylem and phloem translocation, both containing more than 90% cis-isomers. During embryogenesis and early seed filling (40–46 DPA), translocation accounted for 1% to 14% of the increases of CK in endosperm (20 nmol fruit−1) and seed coat (15 nmol fruit−1), indicating synthesis in situ. High CK concentrations in seeds (0.6 μmol g−1 fresh weight) were transient, declining rapidly to less than 1% of maximum levels by physiological maturity. These data pose new questions about the localization and timing of CK synthesis, the significance of translocation, and the role(s) of CK forms in reproductive development. PMID:10938375

  15. Recovering root system traits using image analysis exemplified by two-dimensional neutron radiography images of lupine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitner, Daniel; Felderer, Bernd; Vontobel, Peter; Schnepf, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Root system traits are important in view of current challenges such as sustainable crop production with reduced fertilizer input or in resource-limited environments. We present a novel approach for recovering root architectural parameters based on image-analysis techniques. It is based on a graph representation of the segmented and skeletonized image of the root system, where individual roots are tracked in a fully automated way. Using a dynamic root architecture model for deciding whether a specific path in the graph is likely to represent a root helps to distinguish root overlaps from branches and favors the analysis of root development over a sequence of images. After the root tracking step, global traits such as topological characteristics as well as root architectural parameters are computed. Analysis of neutron radiographic root system images of lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in mesocosms filled with sandy soil results in a set of root architectural parameters. They are used to simulate the dynamic development of the root system and to compute the corresponding root length densities in the mesocosm. The graph representation of the root system provides global information about connectivity inside the graph. The underlying root growth model helps to determine which path inside the graph is most likely for a given root. This facilitates the systematic investigation of root architectural traits, in particular with respect to the parameterization of dynamic root architecture models.

  16. Assessing the influence of the Lupinus genus in the biological reclamation of sites degraded by whole-area dozer soil treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oldřich Mauer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with possibilities of using the blue lupine (Lupinus angustifolius L., white lupine (Lupinus albus L. and garden lupine (Lupinus polyphyllus Lindl in the biological reclamation of sites degraded by whole-area dozer soil treatment.The lupines were sown into strips or broadcast. The effect of lupines onto the growth and health condition of the young plantations of Norway spruce, European beech and Scots pine was studied together with their influence on the site soil characteristics. The experiment showed that the sowing of lupine favourably affected biometrical characteristics of newly planted trees. Even though the soil humus content did not increase in the experimental period of 5 years, the nitrogen nutrition as well as the nutrition with other biogenic elements improved and the symptoms of chlorosis were eliminated. In the conditions of the Krušné hory Mts., the lupines can produce up to 3.6 tons of biomass dry matter and favourably affect the nutrition of planted trees.

  17. Influence of green manure in physical and biological properties of soil and productivity in the culture of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Alves Cardoso

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Green manuring is the practice of using plant species in rotation, succession or intercropped with other crops, aiming improvement, maintenance and recovery of physical, chemical and biological soil properties. The objective was to evaluate the influence of different green manures on soil characteristics and productivity of soybean. The experiment was conducted in Maringá (PR in a randomized block design with six treatments and four replications: T1: oat (Avena Sativa, T2: black oat (Avena strigosa, T3: dwarf pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, T4: radish (Raphanus sativus L., T5: white lupine (Lupinus albus and T6: control (fallow. At the end of the experiment, relations were established between the green manure used for soybean production, the production of biomass, the development of microorganisms and soil bulk density. The data were analyzed with statistical software and means were compared by Tukey test at 5% probability. The coverages provided higher content of dry matter were lupine, black oat and faba bean. Treatments that most influenced the increase of soil microorganisms were lupine, radish and pigeonpea. Regarding productivity, higher values were obtained in treatments with pigeon pea, lupine and oat. The apparent density of the soil, treatment with turnip showed better results.

  18. Salinomycin as a Drug for Targeting Human Cancer Stem Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cord Naujokat

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Cancer stem cells (CSCs represent a subpopulation of tumor cells that possess self-renewal and tumor initiation capacity and the ability to give rise to the heterogenous lineages of malignant cells that comprise a tumor. CSCs possess multiple intrinsic mechanisms of resistance to chemotherapeutic drugs, novel tumor-targeted drugs, and radiation therapy, allowing them to survive standard cancer therapies and to initiate tumor recurrence and metastasis. Various molecular complexes and pathways that confer resistance and survival of CSCs, including expression of ATP-binding cassette (ABC drug transporters, activation of the Wnt/β-catenin, Hedgehog, Notch and PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling pathways, and acquisition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT, have been identified recently. Salinomycin, a polyether ionophore antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces albus, has been shown to kill CSCs in different types of human cancers, most likely by interfering with ABC drug transporters, the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, and other CSC pathways. Promising results from preclinical trials in human xenograft mice and a few clinical pilote studies reveal that salinomycin is able to effectively eliminate CSCs and to induce partial clinical regression of heavily pretreated and therapy-resistant cancers. The ability of salinomycin to kill both CSCs and therapy-resistant cancer cells may define the compound as a novel and an effective anticancer drug.

  19. Study on Salting out-Steam Distillation Extraction Technology and Antibacterial Activities of Essential Oil from Cumin Seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hong Zhang

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effects of different factors on the yield of essential oil from were discussed, and the extraction conditions of essential oil from cumin seeds by salting out-steam distillation technology based on single-factor test and orthogonal experiment, as well as its antibacterial activities on several common food spoilage bacteria were studied in this paper. The results showed that, the impact order of the influence factors was liquid/solid ratio > distilling time > NaCl concentration, and optimized extraction conditions were as follows, liquid to material ratio 15:1, soaking time 1 h, 4% NaCl, steam distilling time 3 h. The yield of essential oil was up to 4.48% under these conditions. The results of antibacterial activity assays showed that the essential oil from cumin seeds exhibited the different antibacterial activities against some food borne pathogens, especially it presented the best inhibitory effect against Bacillus subtilis with the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC values of 6.25 and 12.5 mg/mL respectively, followed by Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus, the lowest for Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae

  20. Nutritive evaluation of legume seeds for ruminant feeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos-Morales, E; Sanz-Sampelayo, M R; Molina-Alcaide, E

    2010-02-01

    Chemical composition, rumen degradability and the effect of particle losses, and intestinal digestibility of protein by using in situ-in vitro and in vitro techniques were stated for beans (Vicia faba), lupin (Lupinus albus), vetch (Vicia sativa) and bitter vetch (Vicia ervilia) and four diets including those legume seeds. In addition, the apparent digestibility of experimental diets was determined in goats. The legume seeds showed high protein content (206-319 g/kg dry matter). Effective degradability of protein for legumes and diets varied from 0.80 to 0.87 and 0.76 to 0.82, respectively, decreasing to 0.53-0.76 and 0.61-0.67, respectively, when particle loss was taken into account. Different intestinal digestibility values were obtained with both methodologies without significant relationship between them (y = 1.058-0.463x; R(2)=0.068; RSD = 0.140; p = 0.53). There were no differences in the apparent nutrients and energy digestibility among diets (p > 0.05). These legumes can supply rapidly degradable protein for microbial protein synthesis and contribute to the pool of amino acids available for the synthesis of milk protein and for retention in the body.

  1. Wading birds as bioindicators of mercury contamination in Florida, USA: annual and geographic variation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frederick, P.C.; Spalding, M.G.; Dusek, R.

    2002-01-01

    Mercury contamination in wetland biota is often dynamic, difficult to predict, and costly to track. In this paper, we present results from a six-year study of growing feathers of piscivorous birds as monitors of wetland Hg exposure in Florida, USA, wetlands. Between 1994 and 2000, we collected feathers of growing great egret (Ardea alba) nestlings from colonies in the freshwater Everglades of southern Florida, and during 1998, feathers were collected from chicks of both great egrets and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) at a variety of colonies throughout peninsular Florida. Coastal colonies showed significantly lower feather Hg concentrations than did inland sites. Within the Everglades, we found significant effects of both geographic location and year on age-adjusted mean total Hg concentrations in feathers. Over the course of our study, Everglades colonies maintained their Hg concentration rankings relative to one another, but all showed strongly declining Hg concentrations (mean of 73% averaged across colonies, between 1994 and 2000). Using a previously established predictive relationship between Hg consumption in food and feather Hg for great egrets, we estimated that Hg concentrations in the aggregate diet of egrets have been reduced by an average of 67%. We conclude that the Everglades has undergone a biologically significant decline in Hg availability in the wetland food web, possibly because of decreased local inputs.

  2. In situ and laboratory toxicity of coalbed natural gas produced waters with elevated sodium bicarbonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farag, Aida M.; Harper, David D.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Some tributaries in the Powder River Structural Basin, USA, were historically ephemeral, but now contain water year round as a result of discharge of coalbed natural gas (CBNG)-produced waters. This presented the opportunity to study field sites with 100% effluent water with elevated concentrations of sodium bicarbonate. In situ experiments, static renewal experiments performed simultaneously with in situ experiments, and static renewal experiments performed with site water in the laboratory demonstrated that CBNG-produced water reduces survival of fathead minnow (Pimephales promelas) and pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus). Age affected survival of fathead minnow, where fish 2 d posthatch (dph) were more sensitive than 6 dph fish, but pallid sturgeon survival was adversely affected at both 4 and 6 dph. This may have implications for acute assays that allow for the use of fish up to 14 dph. The survival of early lifestage fish is reduced significantly in the field when concentrations of NaHCO3 rise to more than 1500 mg/L (also expressed as >1245 mg HCO3 (-) /L). Treatment with the Higgin's Loop technology and dilution of untreated water increased survival in the laboratory. The mixing zones of the 3 outfalls studied ranged from approximately 800 m to 1200 m below the confluence. These experiments addressed the acute toxicity of effluent waters but did not address issues related to the volumes of water that may be added to the watershed.

  3. Marine protected areas facilitate parasite populations among four fished host species of central Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Chelsea L; Micheli, Fiorenza; Fernández, Miriam; Gelcich, Stefan; Castilla, Juan Carlos; Carvajal, Juan

    2013-11-01

    1. Parasites comprise a substantial proportion of global biodiversity and exert important ecological influences on hosts, communities and ecosystems, but our knowledge of how parasite populations respond to human impacts is in its infancy. 2. Here, we present the results of a natural experiment in which we used a system of highly successful marine protected areas and matched open-access areas in central Chile to assess the influence of fishing-driven biodiversity loss on parasites of exploited fish and invertebrate hosts. We measured the burden of gill parasites for two reef fishes (Cheilodactylus variegatus and Aplodactylus punctatus), trematode parasites for a keyhole limpet (Fissurella latimarginata), and pinnotherid pea crab parasites for a sea urchin (Loxechinus albus). We also measured host density for all four hosts. 3. We found that nearly all parasite species exhibited substantially greater density (# parasites m(-2)) in protected than in open-access areas, but only one parasite species (a gill monogenean of C. variegatus) was more abundant within hosts collected from protected relative to open-access areas. 4. These data indicate that fishing can drive declines in parasite abundance at the parasite population level by reducing the availability of habitat and resources for parasites, but less commonly affects the abundance of parasites at the infrapopulation level (within individual hosts). 5. Considering the substantial ecological role that many parasites play in marine communities, fishing and other human impacts could exert cryptic but important effects on marine community structure and ecosystem functioning via reductions in parasite abundance.

  4. Philinidae, Laonidae and Philinorbidae (Gastropoda: Cephalaspidea: Philinoidea) from the northeastern Pacific Ocean and the Beaufort Sea (Arctic Ocean).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valdés, Ángel; Cadien, Donald B; Gosliner, Terrence M

    2016-08-08

    Based on morphological data a total of nine native species of Philinidae are recognized from the northeastern Pacific including the Bering Sea and the adjacent Arctic Ocean (Beaufort Sea). Four of them have been previously described: Philine ornatissima Yokoyama, 1927, Philine bakeri Dall, 1919, Philine polystrigma (Dall, 1908), and Philine hemphilli Dall, 1919. Five of them are new and described herein: Philine mcleani sp. nov., Philine baxteri sp. nov., Philine malaquiasi sp. nov., Philine wareni sp. nov., and Philine harrisae sp. nov. These species display a substantial degree of variation in internal and external morphological traits (i.e., presence/absence of gizzard plates, different radular structure and tooth morphology, various reproductive anatomical features) and it is likely that they belong to different clades (genera). However, in the absence of a comprehensive phylogeny for Philine, they are here provisionally regarded as Philine sensu lato. In addition to the nine native species, two introduced species: Philine orientalis A. Adams, 1854 and Philine auriformis Suter, 1909 are here illustrated and compared to the native species to facilitate identification. Finally, two species previously considered members of Philinidae are examined anatomically and confirmed as members of Laonidae, Laona californica (Willett, 1944) and Philinorbidae, Philinorbis albus (Mattox, 1958), based on morphological data.

  5. Epidemiology, histopathology, and muscle distribution of Trichinella T9 in feral raccoons (Procyon lotor) and wildlife of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tomoko; Kanai, Yuta; Ono, Yoko; Matoba, Yohei; Suzuki, Kazuo; Okamoto, Minoru; Taniyama, Hiroyuki; Yagi, Kinpei; Oku, Yuzaburo; Katakura, Ken; Asakawa, Mitsuhiko

    2007-05-01

    The prevalences of Trichinella T9 in trapped raccoons (Procyon lotor) and several other potential mammalian reservoirs in Hokkaido, Wakayama, and Nagasaki Prefectures were investigated. Muscle samples were collected from 2003 to 2006 from 1,080 raccoons, 113 raccoon dogs including 2 species (Nyctereutes procyonoides albus and N. p. viverrinus), 41 wild boars (Sus scrofa leucomystax), 14 martens (Martes melampus), 10 badgers (Meles meles), 5 Siberian weasels (Martes sibirica coreana), 7 mink (Mustela vison), and 1 red fox (Vulpes vulpes japonica). The samples were digested, and the prevalence and mean intensity of infection with the Trichinella muscle larvae were determined. The prevalence and intensity of the muscle larvae were 0.9% and 93.3 larvae/g (range 0.4-201.8) in raccoons, and 1.6% and 61.6 larvae/g in raccoon dogs, respectively. The infected animals were captured in different areas in Hokkaido Prefecture. These results confirmed that raccoons, which have been introduced from North America since the 1970s, are involved in the sylvatic cycle of Trichinella in Japan. In raccoons, the muscle density of Trichinella T9 larvae was highest in the tongue, and larvae were not found in the heart muscle or diaphragm. This is the first report of Trichinella T9 infection of feral raccoons in Japan.

  6. Larvicidal potency of marine actinobacteria isolated from mangrove environment against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, S; Santhanam, P; Srinivasan, M

    2017-06-01

    The marine soil samples were collected from different locations of Parangipettai mangrove ecosystem, Vellar estuary, southeast coast of India. Totally 30 different marine actinobacteria were isolated by serial dilution plate technique on starch casein agar medium. The isolated actinobacteria were investigated for their larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti and Anopheles stephensi mosquitoes. Streptomyces fungicidicus, S. griseus, S. albus, S. alboflavus and S. rochei were identified as potential biocide producers. Based on the antimicrobial activity, five strains were chosen for larvicidal and pupicidal activity. Among the crude extracts tested, the S. alboflavus extract showed significant activity against Ae. aegypti (LC50 1.48 ± 0.09 and LC90 3.33 ± 0.22) and An. stephensi (LC50 1.30 ± 0.09 and LC90 3.13 ± 0.21). Five isolates have shown a most significant mortality rate of the Ae. aegypti and An. stephensi mosquito larvae. This is an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of Japanese encephalitis vectors, Ae. aegypti and malarial vector An. stephensi.

  7. [Phenotypic and technological influences of the Lupinus mutabilis (Tarwi) seed on its methionine availability and sulfur content].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveros, M; Schoeneberger, H; Gross, R; Reynoso, Z

    1983-09-01

    The present study was carried out to determine the content of available methionine and sulphur in seed cultivars of Lupinus mutabilis from different Andean regions, and to study the influence of processing on methionine and sulphur contents. An additional objective was to evaluate interrelationships among these chemical characteristics and protein quality, as measured by the protein efficiency ratio (PER) method. Results revealed a high variability in the content of available methionine and sulphur between the different ecotypes and varieties of Lupinus mutabilis. Fertilization with CaSO4 (200 kg/ha) did alter the content of available methionine and sulphur in Lupinus albus seeds. Traditional water-debittering of lupines did not affect the methionine content of the seeds, whereas oil-extraction and alcohol-debittering led to a decrease in available methionine (14 and 23% reduction, respectively). Production of a protein isolate further reduced the methionine content (54%). Regression analysis revealed a high correlation between available methionine and sulphur (r = 0.83), between sulphur and PER (r = 0.98) in the processed lupine samples, and lupine mixtures with other protein sources.

  8. Factors affecting the reproduction, recruitment, habitat, and population dynamics of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korschgen, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  9. Project overview: Chapter A in Factors affecting the reproduction, recruitment, habitat, and population dynamics of pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon in the Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeLonay, Aaron J.; Papoulias, Diana M.; Jacobson, Robert B.; Wildhaber, Mark L.; Simpkins, Darin G.; Korschgen, Carl E.

    2007-01-01

    For more than a hundred years, human activities have modified the natural forces that control the Missouri River and its native fish fauna. While the ecological effects of regulation and channel engineering are understood in general, the current understanding is not sufficient to guide river restoration and management. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is in the third year of a multiagency research effort to determine the ecological requirements for reproduction and survival of the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorhynchus) in the Missouri River. The multidisciplinary research strategy includes components of behavior, physiology, habitat use, habitat availability, and population modeling of all life stages. Shovelnose sturgeon are used to design the strategy because they are closely related to the pallid sturgeon and are often used as a surrogate species to develop new research tools or to examine the effects of management actions or environmental variables on sturgeon biology and habitat use. During fiscal years 2005 and 2006, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) provided funds to USGS for tasks associated with the Comprehensive Sturgeon Research Program (CSRP) and for tasks associated with evaluation of the Sturgeon Response to Flow Modifications (SRFM). Because work activities of CSRP and SRFM are so integrated, we are providing information on activities that have been consolidated at the task level. These task activities represent chapters in this report.

  10. Foraging decisions, patch use, and seasonality in egrets (Aves: ciconiiformes)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Feeding snowy (Egretta thula) and great (Casmerodius albus) egrets were observed during 2 breeding seasons in coastal New Jersey and 2 brief winter periods in northeast Florida (USA). A number of tests based on assumptions of foraging models, predictions from foraging theory, and earlier empirical tests concerning time allocation and movement in foraging patches was made. Few of the expectations based on foraging theory and/or assumptions were supported by the empirical evidence. Snowy egrets fed with greater intensity and efficiency during the breeding season (when young were being fed) than during winter. They also showed some tendency to leave patches when their capture rate declined, and they spent more time foraging in patches when other birds were present nearby. Great egrets showed few of these tendencies, although they did leave patches when their intercapture intervals increased. Satiation differences had some influence on feeding rates in snowy egrets, but only at the end of feeding bouts. Some individuals of both species revisited areas in patches that had recently been exploited, and success rates were usually higher after the 2nd visit. Apparently, for predators of active prey, short-term changes in resource availability ('resource depression') may be more important than resource depletion, a common assumption in most optimal foraging theory models.

  11. Label-Free 3D Ag Nanoflower-Based Electrochemical Immunosensor for the Detection of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Pathogens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He; Liu, Minghuan; Wang, Xiangsheng; Zhang, Wenjie; Yang, Da-Peng; Cui, Lianhua; Wang, Xiansong

    2016-11-01

    It is highly desirable to develop a rapid and simple method to detect pathogens. Combining nanomaterials with electrochemical techniques is an efficient way for pathogen detection. Herein, a novel 3D Ag nanoflower was prepared via a biomineralization method by using bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a template. It was adopted as a sensing interface to construct an electrochemical bacteria immunosensor for the rapid detection of foodborne pathogens Escherichia coli ( E. coli) O157:H7. Bacterial antibody was immobilized onto the surface of Ag nanoflowers through covalent conjugation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) was used to detect and validate the resistance changes, where [Fe(CN)6]3-/4- acted as the redox probe. A linear relation between R et and E. coli concentration was obtained in the E. coli concentration range of 3.0 × 102-3.0 × 108 cfu mL-1. The as-prepared biosensor gave rise to an obvious response to E. coli but had no distinct response to Cronobacter sakazakii, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Staphylococcus albus, Lactobacillus easei, and Shigella flexneri, revealing a high selectivity for the detection of the pathogens down to 100 cfu mL-1 in a short time. We believe that this BSA-conjugated 3D Ag nanoflowers could be used as a powerful interface material with good conductivity and biocompatibility for improving pathogen detection and treatment in the field of medicine, environment, and food safety.

  12. Restriction of bacteriophage plaque formation in Streptomyces spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, K L; Baltz, R H

    1984-08-01

    Several Streptomyces species that produce restriction endonucleases were characterized for their ability to propagate 10 different broad host range bacteriophages. Each species displayed a different pattern of plaque formation. A restrictionless mutant of S. albus G allowed plaque formation by all 10 phages, whereas the wild-type strain showed plaques with only 2 phages. DNA isolated from three of the phages was analyzed for the presence of restriction sites for Streptomyces species-encoded enzymes, and a very strong correlation was established between the failure to form plaques on Streptomyces species that produced particular restriction enzymes and the presence of the corresponding restriction sites in the phage DNA. Also, the phages that lacked restriction sites in their DNA generally formed plaques on the corresponding restriction endonuclease-producing hosts at high efficiency. The DNAs from the three phages analyzed also generally contained either many or no restriction sites for the Streptomyces species-produced enzymes, suggesting a strong evolutionary trend to either eliminate all or tolerate many restriction sites. The data indicate that restriction plays a major role in host range determination for Streptomyces phages. Analysis of bacteriophage host ranges of many other uncharacterized Streptomyces hosts has identified four relatively nonrestricting hosts, at least two of which may be suitable hosts for gene cloning. The data also suggest that several restriction systems remain to be identified in the genus Streptomyces.

  13. Optimization of extraction conditions for secondary biomolecules from various plant species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šibul Filip S.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Extraction of plant secondary metabolites is an essential step in isolation of natural products. Non-optimized extraction conditions can lead to losses, degradation and modification of the biomolecules. In this paper, the influence of different solvent mixtures, solvent amounts, temperature, extraction time, and procedures for defatting on yield and profile of various classes of secondary metabolites was investigated. Rumex alpinus was used for the extraction of anthraquinones, Glycine max for isoflavonoids, Chaerophyllum bulbosum for flavonoids and phenolic acids, Anthriscus sylvestris for lignans and coumarins, alkaloids were extracted from Lupinus albus and sesquiterpene lactones from Artemisia absinthium. Extraction efficiency was evaluated by use of LC-DAD-ESI-MS/MS. The compromise extraction solvent for all of the examined compounds is 80 % methanol, mixed in ratio 13 : 1 with plant material. Maceration should last for six hours, repeated four times with fresh solvent. Defatting of the extracts does not lead to significant losses of the compounds of interest. It is acceptable to use extraction and evaporation temperature of 60ºC, while the extracts should be stored in the dark, on -20ºC. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 172058

  14. Bioactive Phenylalanine Derivatives and Cytochalasins from the Soft Coral-Derived Fungus, Aspergillus elegans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xue-Ping Sun

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available One new phenylalanine derivative 4′-OMe-asperphenamate (1, along with one known phenylalanine derivative (2 and two new cytochalasins, aspochalasin A1 (3 and cytochalasin Z24 (4, as well as eight known cytochalasin analogues (5–12 were isolated from the fermentation broth of Aspergillus elegans ZJ-2008010, a fungus obtained from a soft coral Sarcophyton sp. collected from the South China Sea. Their structures and the relative configurations were elucidated using comprehensive spectroscopic methods. The absolute configuration of 1 was determined by chemical synthesis and Marfey’s method. All isolated metabolites (1–12 were evaluated for their antifouling and antibacterial activities. Cytochalasins 5, 6, 8 and 9 showed strong antifouling activity against the larval settlement of the barnacle Balanus amphitrite, with the EC50 values ranging from 6.2 to 37 μM. This is the first report of antifouling activity for this class of metabolites. Additionally, 8 exhibited a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity, especially against four pathogenic bacteria Staphylococcus albus, S. aureus, Escherichia coli and Bacillus cereus.

  15. Streptomyces alkalithermotolerans sp. nov., a novel alkaliphilic and thermotolerant actinomycete isolated from a soda lake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultanpuram, Vishnuvardhan Reddy; Mothe, Thirumala; Mohammed, Farooq

    2015-02-01

    An alkaliphilic actinomycete, strain AC3(T), was isolated from Lonar soda lake, in India. Based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis it was identified that the strain belongs to the class Actinobacteria and was most closely related to Streptomyces sodiiphilus JCM 13581(T) (96.4 % sequence similarity), Streptomyces leeuwenhoekii DSM 42122(T) (96.1 %), Streptomyces albus NRRL B-2365(T) (96.1 %), Streptomyces panacagri Gsoil 519(T) (96.0 %), Streptomyces fimbriatus NBRC 15411(T) (95.9 %) and other members of the genus Streptomyces (cream substrate and white aerial mycelia on most tested media. The optimum pH for growth was determined to be 9.5-10.0 with no growth at pH 7.0. The DNA G+C content of strain AC3(T) was determined to be 71.2 mol %. The results of the polyphasic analysis allowed a clear differentiation of strain AC3(T) from all other members of the genus Streptomyces. Strain AC3(T) is thus considered to represent a novel member of the genus Streptomyces, for which the name Streptomyces alkalithermotolerans sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is AC3(T) (=KCTC 29497(T) = JCM 30167(T)).

  16. A stochastic bioenergetics model based approach to translating large river flow and temperature in to fish population responses: the pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Dey, Rima; Wikle, Christopher K.; Moran, Edward H.; Anderson, Christopher J.; Franz, Kristie J.

    2015-01-01

    In managing fish populations, especially at-risk species, realistic mathematical models are needed to help predict population response to potential management actions in the context of environmental conditions and changing climate while effectively incorporating the stochastic nature of real world conditions. We provide a key component of such a model for the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the form of an individual-based bioenergetics model influenced not only by temperature but also by flow. This component is based on modification of a known individual-based bioenergetics model through incorporation of: the observed ontogenetic shift in pallid sturgeon diet from marcroinvertebrates to fish; the energetic costs of swimming under flowing-water conditions; and stochasticity. We provide an assessment of how differences in environmental conditions could potentially alter pallid sturgeon growth estimates, using observed temperature and velocity from channelized portions of the Lower Missouri River mainstem. We do this using separate relationships between the proportion of maximum consumption and fork length and swimming cost standard error estimates for fish captured above and below the Kansas River in the Lower Missouri River. Critical to our matching observed growth in the field with predicted growth based on observed environmental conditions was a two-step shift in diet from macroinvertebrates to fish.

  17. A fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model for population viability analysis of fish: Lower Missouri River endangered pallid sturgeon example

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wildhaber, Mark L.; Albers, Janice; Green, Nicholas; Moran, Edward H.

    2017-01-01

    We develop a fully-stochasticized, age-structured population model suitable for population viability analysis (PVA) of fish and demonstrate its use with the endangered pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) of the Lower Missouri River as an example. The model incorporates three levels of variance: parameter variance (uncertainty about the value of a parameter itself) applied at the iteration level, temporal variance (uncertainty caused by random environmental fluctuations over time) applied at the time-step level, and implicit individual variance (uncertainty caused by differences between individuals) applied within the time-step level. We found that population dynamics were most sensitive to survival rates, particularly age-2+ survival, and to fecundity-at-length. The inclusion of variance (unpartitioned or partitioned), stocking, or both generally decreased the influence of individual parameters on population growth rate. The partitioning of variance into parameter and temporal components had a strong influence on the importance of individual parameters, uncertainty of model predictions, and quasiextinction risk (i.e., pallid sturgeon population size falling below 50 age-1+ individuals). Our findings show that appropriately applying variance in PVA is important when evaluating the relative importance of parameters, and reinforce the need for better and more precise estimates of crucial life-history parameters for pallid sturgeon.

  18. Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Agriculturally Impaired Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virginija Pliuraite

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE This work presents research into the taxonomic composition of macroinvertebrate communities in streams that are under the influence of agricultural pollution A total of 67 macroinvertebrate taxa (including 61 identified species belonging to 40 families have been identified in the explored streams. The greatest species richness is recorded for the Trichoptera (18 species/1 taxa and Mollusca (12 species. The molluscs Gyraulus albus, amphipods Gammarus pulex, caddisflies Hydropsyche pellucidula and oligochaetes are detected in all examined streams. There, the number of total benthic macroinvertebrate taxa is highly variable, ranging from 16 to 40. Results show that the examined streams depending on the benthic macroinvertebrate taxonomic composition and predominance of seperate macroinvertebrate groups undergo different pollution. Intolerant to pollution taxa such as Plecoptera, which are the most sensitive to pollution insects, have been found only in 5 of 12 examined streams and in low abundances. The richness and diversity of macrozoobenthos in some streams appear to respond to the water quality deterioration. The present study has found out that in the stream where the total macroinvertebrate taxa, EPT taxa richness are the lowest and a relative abundance of gatherers is the highest, the values of NH4-N, NO3-N, total N, PO4-P and total P in the stream water are the highest, too.

  19. Asparagine slows down the breakdown of storage lipid and degradation of autophagic bodies in sugar-starved embryo axes of germinating lupin seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borek, Sławomir; Paluch-Lubawa, Ewelina; Pukacka, Stanisława; Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Ratajczak, Lech

    2017-02-01

    The research was conducted on embryo axes of yellow lupin (Lupinus luteus L.), white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) and Andean lupin (Lupinus mutabilis Sweet), which were isolated from imbibed seeds and cultured for 96h in vitro under different conditions of carbon and nitrogen nutrition. Isolated embryo axes were fed with 60mM sucrose or were sugar-starved. The effect of 35mM asparagine (a central amino acid in the metabolism of germinating lupin seeds) and 35mM nitrate (used as an inorganic kind of nitrogen) on growth, storage lipid breakdown and autophagy was investigated. The sugar-starved isolated embryo axes contained more total lipid than axes fed with sucrose, and the content of this storage compound was even higher in sugar-starved isolated embryo axes fed with asparagine. Ultrastructural observations showed that asparagine significantly slowed down decomposition of autophagic bodies, and this allowed detailed analysis of their content. We found peroxisomes inside autophagic bodies in cells of sugar-starved Andean lupin embryo axes fed with asparagine, which led us to conclude that peroxisomes may be degraded during autophagy in sugar-starved isolated lupin embryo axes. One reason for the slower degradation of autophagic bodies was the markedly lower lipolytic activity in axes fed with asparagine. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  20. 历山自然保护区外来入侵植物研究%Study on Invasive Alien Plants in Lishan Nature Reserve, Shanxi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马世军; 王建军

    2011-01-01

    The invasive alien plants in Lishan Nature Reserve, Shanxi, totally 11 species, were studied,including Chenopodium hybridum ,Amaranthus retroflexus ,Vaccaria segetalis ,Melilotus albus , Hibisicus trio-num , Ipomoea purpurea ,Datura stramonium ,Conyza Canadensis ,Erigeron annuus ,Sonchus oleraceus and Avena fatua. The diffusing mechanism, invasion route, distribution, habitat, ecological damage and utilization value for those invasive alien plants were analyzed,respectively. Moreover,the management strategies for those invasive alien species were also discussed, including mechanical, chemical and biological controls and strengthening research of diffusing mechanism.%历山自然保护区的外来入侵植物有11种,分别是杂配藜、反枝苋、王不留行、白香草木樨、野西瓜苗、圆叶牵牛、曼陀罗、小蓬草、一年蓬、苦苣菜、野燕麦等.本文论述了它们的入侵途径、分布、生境、危害及利用价值,提出了对外来入侵植物的管理对策,包括人工措施、化学措施、生物措施、加强扩散机制研究等.

  1. Use of perlite in cadmium plant studies: an approach to polluted soil conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Saúl; Carpena-Ruiz, Ramón

    2005-12-01

    Two different types of hydroponic cultures, "water culture" and "perlite system", were compared using white lupin plants (Lupinus albus L., cv. Marta) under different Cd treatments: 0, 0.2, 0.6, 2, 4, 6, 13, 20, 40 and 60 microM (water culture) and 0.2, 2, 20, 60 and 150 microM (moistened perlite). Fresh weight, shoot and root length, and total Cd concentration in the plants were measured. Moreover, a batch experiment was carried out to study the ability of perlite to adsorb and desorb Cd from nutrient solution. Lupin plants under Cd treatments in "water culture" showed a higher growth inhibition than those grown on perlite. A high positive correlation between Cd concentration in the plant and Cd supply was obtained regardless of the substrate used. Moreover, a high positive correlation between Cd doses with the "perlite system" and their equivalent Cd doses estimated for the "water culture" system was observed. Thus, the "water culture-equivalent" Cd doses were 14 times lower than the Cd doses in the perlite system. On the other hand, desorbed Cd concentrations were calculated giving values 12 times lower than the tested Cd doses.

  2. Lovastatin-Enriched Rice Straw Enhances Biomass Quality and Suppresses Ruminal Methanogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Faseleh Jahromi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The primary objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that solid state fermentation (SSF of agro-biomass (using rice straw as model; besides, breaking down its lignocellulose content to improve its nutritive values also produces lovastatin which could be used to suppress methanogenesis in the rumen ecosystem. Fermented rice straw (FRS containing lovastatin after fermentation with Aspergillus terreus was used as substrate for growth study of rumen microorganisms using in vitro gas production method. In the first experiment, the extract from the FRS (FRSE which contained lovastatin was evaluated for its efficacy for reduction in methane (CH4 production, microbial population, and activity in the rumen fluid. FRSE reduced total gas and CH4 productions (P<0.01. It also reduced (P<0.01 total methanogens population and increased the cellulolytic bacteria including Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes (P<0.01, and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (P<0.05. Similarly, FRS reduced total gas and CH4 productions, methanogens population, but increased in vitro dry mater digestibility compared to the non-fermented rice straw. Lovastatin in the FRSE and the FRS significantly increased the expression of HMG-CoA reductase gene that produces HMG-CoA reductase, a key enzyme for cell membrane production in methanogenic Archaea.

  3. Antifungal performance of extracellular chitinases and culture supernatants of Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 against Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Benjamín Moreno; Dunn, Michael F; Navarro, Karina Guillén; Meléndez, Francisco Holguín; Ortiz, Magdalena Hernández; Guevara, Sergio Encarnación; Palacios, Graciela Huerta

    2016-03-01

    The tropical and mycoparasite strain Streptomyces galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 was evaluated as an antagonist of Mycosphaerella fijiensis Morelet, causal agent of the Black Sigatoka Disease (BSD) of banana. On zymograms of CFFSUR-B12 culture supernatants, we detected four chitinases of approximately 32 kDa (Chi32), 20 kDa (Chi20), and two with masses well over 170 kDa (ChiU) that showed little migration during denaturing electrophoresis at different concentrations of polyacrylamide. The thymol-sulphuric acid assay showed that the ChiU were glycosylated chitinases. Moreover, matrix assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight MS analysis revealed that the ChiU are the same protein and identical to a family 18 chitinase from Streptomyces sp. S4 (gi|498328075). Chi32 was similar to an extracellular protein from Streptomyces albus J1074 (gi|478687481) and Chi20 was non-significantly similar to chitinases from five different strains of Streptomyces (P > 0.05). Subsequently, Chi32 and Chi20 were partially purified by anion exchange and hydrophobic interaction chromatography and tested against M. fijiensis. Chitinases failed to inhibit ascospore germination, but inhibited up to 35 and 62% of germ tube elongation and mycelial growth, respectively. We found that crude culture supernatant and living cells of S. galilaeus CFFSUR-B12 were the most effective in inhibiting M. fijiensis and are potential biocontrol agents of BSD.

  4. Mining of Microbial Genomes for the Novel Sources of Nitrilases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikhil Sharma

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Next-generation DNA sequencing (NGS has made it feasible to sequence large number of microbial genomes and advancements in computational biology have opened enormous opportunities to mine genome sequence data for novel genes and enzymes or their sources. In the present communication in silico mining of microbial genomes has been carried out to find novel sources of nitrilases. The sequences selected were analyzed for homology and considered for designing motifs. The manually designed motifs based on amino acid sequences of nitrilases were used to screen 2000 microbial genomes (translated to proteomes. This resulted in identification of one hundred thirty-eight putative/hypothetical sequences which could potentially code for nitrilase activity. In vitro validation of nine predicted sources of nitrilases was done for nitrile/cyanide hydrolyzing activity. Out of nine predicted nitrilases, Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus, Sphingopyxis alaskensis, Saccharomonospora viridis, and Shimwellia blattae were specific for aliphatic nitriles, whereas nitrilases from Geodermatophilus obscurus, Nocardiopsis dassonvillei, Runella slithyformis, and Streptomyces albus possessed activity for aromatic nitriles. Flavobacterium indicum was specific towards potassium cyanide (KCN which revealed the presence of nitrilase homolog, that is, cyanide dihydratase with no activity for either aliphatic, aromatic, or aryl nitriles. The present study reports the novel sources of nitrilases and cyanide dihydratase which were not reported hitherto by in silico or in vitro studies.

  5. Study of microbial contamination of broilers in modern abattoirs in Khartoum state

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Mohamed-Noor

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to investigate the contaminating microorganisms that can be found on the breast, legs and backs of broilers during processing. A total of 81 swab samples from 27 carcasses were collected randomly from chicken carcasses slaughtered at modern poultry abattoir in Khartoum State, the Sudan. The samples were taken from 9 Critical Control Points (CCPs, namely; after bleeding with feathers, after scalding, after defeathering, after evisceration, after spray wash, after chilling and packing, workers’ hand, knives and Scalding water. Total Viable Count (TVC was carried for each sample besides isolation and identification of contaminating bacteria. The study revealed a statistically significant difference at P-value (p≤0.05 in the 9 CCPs between the legs, backs and breast respectively. The isolated bacteria were Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus albus and Salmonella species. Sudanese abattoirs may reflect the hygienic status of chicken meat production in the developing countries and the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP in poultry industry is extremely important, because it involves the constant monitoring of all steps of the process.

  6. Новые данные по числам хромосом некоторых сосудистых растений из Израиля и России

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Lomonosova

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Приведены числа хромосом для 10 видов из семейств Amaranthaceae s. str., Asteraceae, Caryophyllaceae, Chenopodiaceae и Frankeniaceae. Для Atriplex intracontinentalis Sukhor. (2n = 18, Corispermum filifolium C.A. Meyer ex Becker (2n = 18 и Frankenia tuvinica Lomon. (2n = 20 числа хромосом не были известны ранее. Впервые на материале из Израиля указаны числа хромосом для Amaranthus albus L. (2n = 32, Dyssodia tenuiloba (DC R.B. Rob. (2n = 24, Lactuca viminea (L. J. et C. Presl (2n = 18, Tragopogon coelesyriacus Boiss. (2n = 12, Chenopodium opulifolium Schrad. ex W.D.J. Koch et Ziz (2n = 54 и Chenopodium missouriense Aellen (2n = 54.

  7. Revegetation of fossil-fuel power plant spoil banks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maly, V.

    1981-10-01

    This paper evaluates land reclamation of spoil banks used for disposal of fly ash from the Hodonin and Opatovice coal power plants. The evaluation concentrates on assessment of plant growth over a 5 year period. Types of fertilizers, quantity ratio per ha and fertilizer composition are given. During the first year 54 kg nitrogen, 60 kg phosphorous pentoxide and 120 kg potassium oxide were used for one ha of spoil bank. In the second year 150 kg/ha of calcium nitrate were used. During the third year 150 kg ammonium sulfates and 300 kg superphosphate were used for one ha. During the fifth year 150 kg/ha calcium nitrate were used for the second time. Growth intensity of plants is evaluated in two tables. The following plants were used: Onobrychis sativa, Melilotus albus, Trifolium hybrydum, Lotus corniculatus, Festuca rubra, Lovium multiflorum. In the Hodonin spoil bank growth of Onobrychis sativa was most intensive. In the Opatovice spoil bank growth of Lolium multiflorum was satisfactory. (8 refs.) (In Czech)

  8. Legumbres funcionales y nutracéuticas comercializadas en el Área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, Argentina.

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    Julio A. Hurrell

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se analizan datos de relevamientos etnobotánicos de especies de legumbres (Leguminosae funcionales y nutracéuticas comercializadas en el área Metropolitana de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El estudio fue realizado en comercios del circuito general y de los circuitos restringidos de inmigrantes bolivianos y chinos. Se registraron las especies, productos, usos terapéuticos locales y datos disponibles sobre actividad biológica y efectos estudiados. Se registraron 19 especies de legumbres: Arachis hypogaea var. hypogaea, Cicer arietinum, Glycine max, Lablab purpureus, Lens culinaris, Lupinus albus, L. mutabilis, Medicago sativa, Phaseolus lunatus, P. vulgaris, Pisum sativum, Prosopis alba, Tamarindus indica, Trifolium repens, Trigonella foenum-graecum, Vicia faba, Vigna angularis, V. radiata y V. uniguiculata var. unguiculata. La mayoría de las especies (15 se hallaron en el circuito comercial general y unas pocas (4 en los circuitos restringidos de los inmigrantes, entre estas L. mutabilis, que merece mayor difusión. En la mayoría de los casos, los usos locales asignados a las especies relevadas tienen correlato con los datos disponibles en la literatura sobre su actividad biológica y efectos evaluados. La información brindada en esta contribución aporta tanto a los estudios etnobotánicos como a la difusión de la relevancia terapéutica de las legumbres en el área de estudio.

  9. Streptacidiphilus gen. nov., acidophilic actinomycetes with wall chemotype I and emendation of the family Streptomycetaceae (Waksman and Henrici (1943)AL) emend. Rainey et al. 1997.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Bum; Lonsdale, John; Seong, Chi-Nam; Goodfellow, Michael

    2003-01-01

    The taxonomic position of acidophilic actinomycetes selectively isolated from acidic soils and litter was examined using a polyphasic approach. The distinct 16S rDNA phyletic branch formed by representative strains was equated with related monophyletic clades that corresponded to the genera Kitasatospora and Streptomyces. The acidophilic isolates also exhibited a distinctive pH profile, a unique 16S rDNA signature, and contained major amounts of LL-diaminopimelic acid, galactose and rhamnose in whole-organism hydrolysates. It is proposed that these acidophilic actinomycetes be assigned to a new genus, Streptacidiphilus gen. nov., on the basis of genotypic and phenotypic differences. Three species were defined on the basis of DNA:DNA pairing and phenotypic data, namely, Streptacidiphilus albus sp. nov., the type species, Streptacidiphilus neutrinimicus sp. nov. and Streptacidiphilus carbonis sp. nov. Members of the genera Kitasatospora, Streptacidiphilus and Streptomyces share a number of key characteristics and form a stable monophyletic branch in the 16S rDNA tree. It is, therefore, proposed that the description of the family Streptomycetaceae be emended to account for properties shown by Kitasatospora and Streptacidiphilus species.

  10. Actinomycetales from corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, A J; Pridham, T G; Rogers, R F

    1975-02-01

    Mesophilic Actinomycetales were isolated from whole corn, brewers grits, and break flour received from three different mills. In addition, strains were isolated from high-moisture (27 per cent) field corn; high-moisture, silo-stored corn (untreated); and high-moisture corn treated with ammonia, ammonium isobutyrate, or propionic-acetic acid. According to standard techniques, 139 strains were extensively characterized and 207 additional strains were partially characterized. On the basis of these characterizations, the streptomycete strains were identified by both the systems of Pridham et al. and Hütter because these systems are rapid and accurate. In general, only Streptomyces griseus (Krainsky) Waksman and Henrici was isolated from high-moisture whole corn (treated or untreated) except from grain exposed to ammonium isobutyrate. Strains isolated from high-moisture corn subjected to that treatment represented both S. griseus and S. albus (Rossi Doria) Waksman and Henrici. The strains isolated from corn and corn products from the three mills were identified with a number of streptomycete species. Of all Actinomycetales isolated, only three were not streptomycetes--two from brewer's grits and one from break flour.

  11. Isolation, characterization, and insecticidal activity of an endophyte of drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, YingWu; Zhang, Xuebing; Lou, Kai

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Endophytic microorganisms reside within plant tissues and have often been found to promote plant growth. In this study, endophytic microorganisms were isolated from the roots, stems, leaves, and seeds of healthy drunken horse grass, Achnatherum inebrians (Hance) Keng (Poales: Poaceae), through the use of a grinding separation method and identified by a dual approach of morphological and physiological observation and 16S rRNA gene-based (for bacteria) and internal transcribed sequence-based (for fungi) molecular identification. The endophytes were then inoculated into liquid media for fermentation, and their crude extracts were employed for insecticidal activity tests using slide disc immersion and nebulization methods. A total of 89 bacteria species, which were classified into eight genera, Bacillus, Pseudomonas, Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Paenibacillus, and Phyllobacterium, and two fungi, Claviceps and Chaetomium, were isolated. Of these species, isolates Streptomyces albus (Rossi-Doria) Waksman and Henrici (Actinomycetales: Streptomycetaceae) (GA) and Claviceps purpurea (Fr.) Tul. (Hypocreales: Clavicipitaceae) (PF-2) were shown to produce mortality rates of more than 90% in the cotton aphid, Aphis gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae), after first and second screenings. The isolates PF-2 and GA associated with A. inebrians had significant insecticidal activities towards A. gossypii Glover (Hemiptera: Aphididae) and may provide a new biological resource for exploring a new microbial insecticide.

  12. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A; Gawlik, Dale E; Beerens, James M; Ackerman, Joshua T

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  13. Physiological condition of juvenile wading birds in relation to multiple landscape stressors in the Florida Everglades: effects of hydrology, prey availability, and mercury bioaccumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, Garth; Eagles-Smith, Collin A.; Gawlik, Dale E.; Beerens, James M.; Ackerman, Joshua T.

    2014-01-01

    The physiological condition of juvenile birds can be influenced by multiple ecological stressors, and few studies have concurrently considered the effects of environmental contaminants in combination with ecological attributes that can influence foraging conditions and prey availability. Using three temporally distinct indices of physiological condition, we compared the physiological response of nestling great egrets (Ardea alba) and white ibises (Eudocimus albus) to changing prey availability, hydrology (water depth, recession rate), and mercury exposure in the Florida Everglades. We found that the physiological response of chicks varied between species and among environmental variables. Chick body condition (short-term index) and fecal corticosterone levels (medium-term) were influenced by wetland water depth, prey availability, region, and age, but not by mercury contamination. However, mercury exposure did influence heat shock protein 70 (HSP70) in egret chicks, indicating a longer-term physiological response to contamination. Our results indicate that the physiological condition of egret and ibis chicks were influenced by several environmental stressors, and the time frame of the effect may depend on the specialized foraging behavior of the adults provisioning the chicks.

  14. Pasta supplemented with isolated lupin protein fractions reduces body weight gain and food intake of rats and decreases plasma glucose concentration upon glucose overload trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capraro, Jessica; Magni, Chiara; Scarafoni, Alessio; Caramanico, Rosita; Rossi, Filippo; Morlacchini, Mauro; Duranti, Marcello

    2014-02-01

    The supplementation of foods with biologically active compounds can be a powerful approach for improving diet and well being. In this study we separately included in pasta matrices a concentrate of γ-conglutin, a glucose-lowering protein from Lupinus albus seeds, an isolate of the other main lupin storage proteins and ovalbumin, at a ratio corresponding to 125 mg of pure protein in 100 g of pasta. With these products we fed rats made hyperglycaemic, for 3 weeks. Among the most relevant changes measured in body and blood parameters were: (i) a significant reduction in food intake of rats fed γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta and a significant limitation in the body weight increase in rats fed α, β and δ-conglutin isolate supplemented pasta, while the food conversion indices were unchanged; (ii) a reduction in glycaemia upon glucose overload trial, especially in the γ-conglutin concentrate supplemented pasta fed animals, at a dose of 45 mg per kg body weight. The correlations among the measured parameters are discussed. Overall, the results evidence the potentiality of supplementing traditional foods with exogenous nutraceutical seed proteins to control body weight gain and glycaemia.

  15. EVALUACIÓN DE LA TOLERANCIA A SUELOS CONTAMINADOS CON ACEITE DIESEL EN ESPECIES VEGETALES CON POTENCIAL BIORREMEDIADOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MARÍA CRISTINA PETENELLO

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Los suelos contaminados con petróleo o sus derivados pueden ser remediados a través de diversos métodos, dentro de los cuales se encuentran aquellos que emplean organismos vivos tales como plantas, que poseen la capacidad de mineralizar estos compuestos transformándolos en otros más simples, asimilables a compuestos naturales. Al encarar proyectos de fitorremediación es importante emplear plantas nativas porque están adaptadas a las condiciones ecológicas particulares de la región. En el presente trabajo como primera etapa se evaluó la respuesta de Spartina argentinensis, Paspalum atratum, Paspalum guenoarum y Melilotus albus a la presencia de aceite diesel, considerando la germinación de sus semillas, la emergencia de plántulas y la biomasa alcanzada en suelos que contenían 1 y 2 % de aceite diesel, en condiciones experimentales. Todos estos parámetros se vieron afectados con las concentraciones de contaminante empleadas, sin embargo, las plantas pudieron prosperar demostrando en consecuencia que podrían ser empleadas en proyectos de fitorremediación.

  16. Nonequilibrium free diffusion in seed leachate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz G., Luis; Riquelme P., Pablo; Guzmán, R.

    2013-11-01

    In this work, we use a Schlieren-like Near Field Scattering (SNFS) setup to study nonequilibrium free diffusion behavior of a colloidal solution obtained from seeds leachate. The main objective is to compare the temporal behavior of the diffusion coefficient of seed leachate with an electric conductivity based vigor test. SNFS sizing measurements, based on Mie theory, were carried out to ensure its reliability and sensitivity. Then, we performed a typical nonequilibrium free diffusion experiment of a glycerol-water mixture. In this way, we confirmed that SNFS setup is sensitive to giant concentration fluctuations of nanocolloidal solutions. The results obtained in this stage reproduce properly the data reported elsewhere in literature. Moreover, seed leachate diffuse, in water, in a similar way that glycerol does. In both cases we used the same method (dynamic structure factor) to determine thermo-physical properties. We show that time evolution of diffusion coefficient of Lupinus Albus leachate exhibits three defined regimes as electric conductivity measurements. The results also exhibit a correspondence between the behavior of the diffusion coefficient and electric conductivity values of the two regions in the temporal range studied. Finally, we discuss biological processes involved in germination that could modulate this dependence, and the role played by the electrolytic nature of solutes.

  17. Anatomy and early development of the pectoral girdle, fin, and fin spine of sturgeons (Actinopterygii: Acipenseridae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillman, Casey B; Hilton, Eric J

    2015-03-01

    Acipenseriformes hold an important place in the evolutionary history of bony fishes. Given their phylogenetic position as extant basal Actinopterygii, it is generally held that a thorough understanding of their morphology will greatly contribute to the knowledge of the evolutionary history and the origin of diversity for the major osteichthyan clades. To this end, we examined comparative developmental series from the pectoral girdle in Acipenser fulvescens, A. medirostris, A. transmontanus, and Scaphirhynchus albus to document, describe, and compare ontogenetic and allometric differences in the pectoral girdle. We find, not surprisingly, broad congruence between taxa in the basic pattern of development of the dermal and chondral elements of the pectoral girdle. However, we also find clear differences in the details of structure and development among the species examined in the dermal elements, including the clavicle, cleithrum, supracleithrum, posttemporal, and pectoral-fin spine. We also find differences in the internal fin elements such as the distal radials as well as in the number of fin rays and their association with the propterygium. Further, there are clear ontogenetic differences during development of the dermal and chondral elements in these species and allometric variation in the pectoral-fin spine. The characters highlighted provide a suite of elements for further examination in studies of the phylogeny of sturgeons. Determining the distribution of these characters in other sturgeons may aid in further resolution of phylogenetic relationships, and these data highlight the role that ontogenetic and comparative developmental studies provide in systematics.

  18. Levels of control and closure in complex semiotic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joslyn

    2000-01-01

    It is natural to advance closures as atomic processes of universal evolution, and to analyze this concept specifically. Real complex systems like organisms and complex mechanisms cannot exist at either extreme of complete closure or lack of closure, nevertheless we should consider the properties of closures in general, the introduction of boundaries, a corresponding stability, the establishment of system autonomy and identity, and thereby the introduction of emergent new system of potentially new types. Our focus should move from simple physical closure of common objects and classical self-organizing systems to semiotically closed systems that maintain cyclic relations of perception, interpretation, decision, and action with their environments. Thus, issues arise concerning the use and interpretation of symbols, representations, and/or internal models (whether explicit or implicit) by the system; and the syntactic, semantic, and pragmatic relations among the sign tokens, their interpretations, and their use or function for the systems in question. Primitive semiotic closures are hypothesized as equivalent to simple control systems, and in turn equivalent to simple organisms. This leads us directly to the grand hierarchical control theories of Turchin, Powers, and Albus, which provide an explicit mechanism for the formation of new levels within complex semiotically closed systems.

  19. Variability in plant-microbe interaction between Lupinus lines and Bradyrhizobium strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson; Beyene; van Berkum P; Knight-Mason; Bhardwaj

    2000-11-06

    Even though lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is known to potentially fix 150-200 kg/ha nitrogen for the use of a succeeding crop, precise information about lupinxBradyrhizobium strain interaction under the climatic conditions prevalent in the mid-Atlantic region of the United States is unknown. We conducted two greenhouse experiments with the objective of characterizing this symbiotic relationship and to evaluate potential interaction between Bradyrhizobium strains and lupin lines. In the first experiment, performance of 60 bradyrhizobial strains was evaluated by inoculating three lupin cultivars and using combined score, which consisted of an arithmetic total of plant vigor, nodulation scores from crown root, nodulation scores from fibrous roots, shoot dry weight, and root dry weight. In the second experiment, performance of 80 lupin lines was evaluated by inoculating with three selected Bradyrhizobial strains and using the combined score, which consisted of an arithmetic total of plant vigor, acetylene reduction activity, nodule number per plant, nodule weight per plant, and dry shoot weight. Significant variation existed for all traits in both experiments except for nodule number in the second experiment. Significant Bradyrhizobial strain by lupin line interaction existed for nodulation score, shoot and root dry weights, and the combined scores. Comparison of relative ranks indicated that nodulation effectiveness was dependent on specific strain and lupin line combinations. It was concluded that specific Bradyrhizobial strain and lupin line combinations would need to be identified for successful utilization of lupin's capability to fix atmospheric nitrogen for use in low-input and sustainable agriculture.

  20. Salinomycin Exerts Anticancer Effects on PC-3 Cells and PC-3-Derived Cancer Stem Cells In Vitro and In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yunsheng Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Salinomycin is an antibiotic isolated from Streptomyces albus that selectively kills cancer stem cells (CSCs. However, the antitumor mechanism of salinomycin is unclear. This study investigated the chemotherapeutic efficacy of salinomycin in human prostate cancer PC-3 cells. We found that cytotoxicity of salinomycin to PC-3 cells was stronger than to nonmalignant prostate cell RWPE-1, and exposure to salinomycin induced G2/M phage arrest and apoptosis of PC-3 cells. A mechanistic study found salinomycin suppressed Wnt/β-catenin pathway to induce apoptosis of PC-3 cells. An in vivo experiment confirmed that salinomycin suppressed tumorigenesis in a NOD/SCID mice xenograft model generated from implanted PC-3 cells by inhibiting the Wnt/β-catenin pathway, since the total β-catenin protein level was reduced and the downstream target c-Myc level was significantly downregulated. We also showed that salinomycin, but not paclitaxel, triggered more apoptosis in aldehyde dehydrogenase- (ALDH- positive PC-3 cells, which were considered as the prostate cancer stem cells, suggesting that salinomycin may be a promising chemotherapeutic to target CSCs. In conclusion, this study suggests that salinomycin reduces resistance and relapse of prostate tumor by killing cancer cells as well as CSCs.

  1. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Romero Palacios, N; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupin (Lupinus albus L.), to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, and also impacts in the product's diversification strategy. In the present work, the percentage composition of each flour in the mixture was determined by means of Linear Programming by means of the Solver form from the Excel spreadsheet. Prolamines were determined in the quinua and lupin flours by the ELISA test and the HPLC technique was used in both products obtained called "sweet mix" and "dessert mix", to define the quantity of amino acids with the purpose of providing around the 15% of the proteins required in the day. The flour mixtures selected as optimum, sweet mix, suitable for the preparation of sweet pancakes, as well as for the dessert mix, that by addition of water or milk produce a semi solid dessert, were evaluated after three months of storage, being acceptable their microbiological, bromatological and sensorial requirements, corroborating the results with the good acceptance of the products, prepared from the formulated mixtures, by the children of two Day Care centers of the City of Antofagasta-Chile.

  2. [Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezal Mezquita, P; Urtuvia Gatica, V; Ramírez Quintanilla, V; Arcos Zavala, R

    2011-01-01

    The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd) and lupino (Lupinus albus L), with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.), entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured with banana, that can be prepared with water or milk, constituted a good alternative as food supplement for the nutrition of children aged 6-24 months who suffer from celiac disease, since they contribute to the quality improvement of the protein, by essential amino acids compensation, they are of low cost and allow an increase in availability of products for gluten-intolerant children. Some physical, chemical, rheological, mechanical and fluidity properties, as well as the color of these mixtures for a period of conservation of 90 days were evaluated. At the end of the storage, the sweet mixture turned out to be of "little flow" and the dessert mixture changed from "little flow" to "easy flow". Viscosity for the dessert mixture, with its two types of dilutions, water and milk, presented a behavior of pseudoplastic fluid. It was possible to guess that the time of shelf life of the mixtures would be of 9 months before achieving the rancidity limit (10 mEq of oxigen/kg of fat, which would disqualify the product for consumption). The CIEL*a*b* color coordinates did not show significant differences keeping the colour in "a beige" tonality.

  3. Growth, food consumption, and energy status of juvenile pallid sturgeon fed natural or artificial diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Hilary A.; Chipps, Steven R.; Graeb, Brian D. S.; Klumb, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Stocking of hatchery-raised fish is an important part of the pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus recovery program. In the wild, juvenile pallid sturgeon consume primarily aquatic insects, although little is known about specific dietary needs. In hatchery settings, pallid sturgeon are fed commercial diets that are formulated for salmonids. To compare food consumption, growth, and energy status of pallid sturgeon fed artificial or natural diets, we conducted a laboratory study using 24 juvenile pallid sturgeon (initial fork length 153–236 mm). Pallid sturgeon were fed a daily ration of either commercial pellets (1 mm, slow sinking; 45% protein, 19% fat) or chironomid larvae for 5 wk. Natural-fed pallid sturgeon exhibited a greater specific growth rate (2.12% d−1) than pellet-fed fish (0.06% d−1). Similarly, relative condition was greater for natural-fed sturgeon (Kn = 1.11) than that observed for pellet-fed fish (Kn = 0.87). In contrast, the hepatosomatic index was significantly higher in pellet-fed fish (2.5%), indicating a high lipid diet compared with natural-fed sturgeon (1.4%). Given the importance of natural diets to fish digestion and growth, it is suggested that a more holistic approach be applied in the development of a practical diet for pallid sturgeon that incorporates attributes of natural prey.

  4. Plasma membrane H-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca; Weisskopf, Laure; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Palmgren, Michael Gjedde; Neumann, Günter; Varanini, Zeno; Pinton, Roberto; Martinoia, Enrico; Cesco, Stefano

    2009-05-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is able to grow on soils with sparingly available phosphate (P) by producing specialized structures called cluster roots. To mobilize sparingly soluble P forms in soils, cluster roots release substantial amounts of carboxylates and concomitantly acidify the rhizosphere. The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work, we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation increased transiently and reached a maximum after 5 h. This effect was accompanied by a strong acidification of the external medium and alkalinization of the cytosol, as evidenced by in vivo nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis. Fusicoccin, an activator of the plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of the LHA1 PM H+-ATPase gene, an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift in pH optimum of the enzyme and post-translational modification of an H+-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein. Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton efflux.

  5. Age-0 Shovelnose Sturgeon prey consumption in the Lower Missouri River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Miller, M.L.; Gemeinhardt, T.R; Starks, T. A.; Civiello, A.P.; Long, James M.; Bonneau, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    A lack of nutritious food during the first year of life is a hypothesized factor that may limit survival of endangered pallid sturgeonScaphirhynchus albus in the lower Missouri River (LMOR). Unfortunately, information for age-0 pallid sturgeon diets remains limited, but diet analyses for age-0 Scaphirhynchus spp. (sturgeon hereafter) have occurred. Little information, however, exists on age-0 sturgeon diets in the LMOR; thus, our primary objective was to document age-0 sturgeon diets in this system. We examined guts contents from 30 individuals, which were genetically identified as shovelnose sturgeon Scaphirhynchus platorynchus, and three stomachs were empty. The remaining age-0 shovelnose sturgeon consumed chironomid larvae almost exclusively (>98% of prey items consumed). Our results were similar to studies conducted in other systems, and it appears unlikely that a lack of nutritious food was a major factor affecting the individuals captured during this study. This effort provides important information to help guide ongoing adaptive management efforts in the LMOR.

  6. Rumen adaptation of swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) by high level of urea supplementation when fed on rice straw-based diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wanapat, Metha; Phesatcha, Kampanat; Kang, Sungchhang

    2016-08-01

    Four rumen-fistulated swamp buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis) were randomly allocated to investigate rumen adaptation of urea on feed intake, nutrient digestibility, fermentation efficiency, and microbial protein synthesis. Buffaloes were fed with rice straw ad libitum for a period of 2 weeks and then were shifted to a step-up diet regimen by supplementation of concentrate containing 20 and 40 g/kg urea at 5 g/kg BW for a period of 2 and 4 weeks, respectively. The results revealed that feed intake and nutrient digestibility were increased by urea supplementation (P urea nor adaptation period (P > 0.05) while bacterial and fungal zoospores were increased especially at 40 g/kg urea. Data from real-time PCR further showed that total bacteria and the three predominant cellulolytic bacteria (Ruminococcus albus, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens) were increased by urea supplementation both at 2 and 4 weeks of urea feeding. Furthermore, methane production was similar among treatments while microbial protein synthesis was enhanced when buffaloes were fed with urea after a period of 2 weeks especially at 40 g/kg urea (P urea supplementation could increase feed intake, nutrient digestibility, microbial protein synthesis, and fermentation efficiency of swamp buffaloes fed on rice straw. It is suggested that buffaloes could adapt well and utilize urea as a N source effectively within a period of 2 weeks uptake without adverse effect.

  7. Rhizosphere priming effect on soil organic carbon decomposition under plant species differing in soil acidification and root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tang, Caixian; Severi, Julia; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A

    2016-08-01

    Effects of rhizosphere properties on the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) are unknown. This study aimed to link species variation in RPE with plant traits and rhizosphere properties. Four C3 species (chickpea, Cicer arietinum; field pea, Pisum sativum; wheat, Triticum aestivum; and white lupin, Lupinus albus) differing in soil acidification and root exudation, were grown in a C4 soil. The CO2 released from soil was trapped using a newly developed NaOH-trapping system. White lupin and wheat showed greater positive RPEs, in contrast to the negative RPE produced by chickpea. The greatest RPE of white lupin was in line with its capacity to release root exudates, whereas the negative RPE of chickpea was attributed to its great ability to acidify rhizosphere soil. The enhanced RPE of field pea at maturity might result from high nitrogen deposition and release of structural root carbon components following root senescence. Root biomass and length played a minor role in the species variation in RPE. Rhizosphere acidification was shown to be an important factor affecting the magnitude and direction of RPE. Future studies on RPE modelling and mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate RPE should consider the effect of rhizosphere pH.

  8. Three-dimensional visualization and quantification of water content in the rhizosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moradi, Ahmad B; Carminati, Andrea; Vetterlein, Doris; Vontobel, Peter; Lehmann, Eberhard; Weller, Ulrich; Hopmans, Jan W; Vogel, Hans-Jörg; Oswald, Sascha E

    2011-11-01

    • Despite the importance of rhizosphere properties for water flow from soil to roots, there is limited quantitative information on the distribution of water in the rhizosphere of plants. • Here, we used neutron tomography to quantify and visualize the water content in the rhizosphere of the plant species chickpea (Cicer arietinum), white lupin (Lupinus albus), and maize (Zea mays) 12 d after planting. • We clearly observed increasing soil water contents (θ) towards the root surface for all three plant species, as opposed to the usual assumption of decreasing water content. This was true for tap roots and lateral roots of both upper and lower parts of the root system. Furthermore, water gradients around the lower part of the roots were smaller and extended further into bulk soil compared with the upper part, where the gradients in water content were steeper. • Incorporating the hydraulic conductivity and water retention parameters of the rhizosphere into our model, we could simulate the gradual changes of θ towards the root surface, in agreement with the observations. The modelling result suggests that roots in their rhizosphere may modify the hydraulic properties of soil in a way that improves uptake under dry conditions.

  9. The contributions of the cerebellum in sensorimotor control: what are the prevailing opinions which will guide forthcoming studies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manto, Mario; Oulad Ben Taib, Nordeyn

    2013-06-01

    Although considerable progress has been made in developing models of cerebellar function in sensorimotor control, the exact nature of the basic operations performed by the cerebellum remain elusive. Several major theories have emerged these last decades. According to the hypothesis of Marr and Albus, the climbing fiber input carries an error signal weakening the strength of a subset of parallel fibers/Purkinje neurons synapses in the cerebellar cortex. Cerebellar circuits would gain the control of movement through trial and error. The hypothesis of internal models emulating movements is currently highly cited. There is a general agreement that (1) the central nervous system has to cope with an intrinsic time delay of sensory feedback related to motor activities and (2) estimations of future motor states are essential to perform fast and accurate movements. According to this second theory, cerebellar dysmetria, one of the cardinal cerebellar deficits, would result from a distorted predictive control. A third popular theory relates to the inverse models that would be stored in the cerebellum. Acquisition of a motor act would require forward models, and the acquisition process itself would generate an inverse model to allow an unconscious coordinated movement. Recently, an international panel of experts from various disciplines discussed the prevailing opinions in a consensus statement and tried to extract their clinical relevance in terms of pathogenesis of the clinical symptoms. Although a consensus is still not reached, the prevailing opinions provide a sound framework to conduct novel studies and try to discover the secrets of cerebellar circuits.

  10. Responses in digestion, rumen fermentation and microbial populations to inhibition of methane formation by a halogenated methane analogue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitsumori, Makoto; Shinkai, Takumi; Takenaka, Akio; Enishi, Osamu; Higuchi, Koji; Kobayashi, Yosuke; Nonaka, Itoko; Asanuma, Narito; Denman, Stuart E; McSweeney, Christopher S

    2012-08-01

    The effects of the anti-methanogenic compound, bromochloromethane (BCM), on rumen microbial fermentation and ecology were examined in vivo. Japanese goats were fed a diet of 50 % Timothy grass and 50 % concentrate and then sequentially adapted to low, mid and high doses of BCM. The goats were placed into the respiration chambers for analysis of rumen microbial function and methane and H2 production. The levels of methane production were reduced by 5, 71 and 91 %, and H2 production was estimated at 545, 2941 and 3496 mmol/head per d, in response to low, mid and high doses of BCM, respectively, with no effect on maintenance feed intake and digestibility. Real-time PCR quantification of microbial groups showed a significant decrease relative to controls in abundance of methanogens and rumen fungi, whereas there were increases in Prevotella spp. and Fibrobacter succinogenes, a decrease in Ruminococcus albus and R. flavefaciens was unchanged. The numbers of protozoa were also unaffected. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis and quantitative PCR analysis revealed that several Prevotella spp. were the bacteria that increased most in response to BCM treatment. It is concluded that the methane-inhibited rumen adapts to high hydrogen levels by shifting fermentation to propionate via Prevotella spp., but the majority of metabolic hydrogen is expelled as H2 gas.

  11. Traditional phytotherapy in Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, Paolo Maria

    2005-01-01

    In this study, the more significant results of extensive ethnopharmacobotanical research carried out by the author in the years 1977-2000 in 175 localities of three regions of Central Italy (Marche, Abruzzo, and Latium) have been reported and compared. The usages of 80 species belonging to 36 families are described, of which 71 were used in human therapy and 29 in veterinary medicine. Uses are suited with the number of localities in which they have been mentioned. Among the wild plant mainly still used, Malva sylvestris, Urtica dioica, and Sambucus nigra are particularly highly considered, while major uses of plants concern these plants in addition to Allium sativum, Rubus ulmifolius, Parietaria diffusa, Cynodon dactylon, and Ficus carica. Unusual phytotherapic uses concern Brassica oleracea, Taraxacum officinale (warts), Ruscus aculeatus, S. nigra (chilblains), Allium cepa (chilblains; to remove thorns and splinters), Juglans regia, R. ulmifolius (burns), and Euphorbia paralias (bites of weevers). Among new uses with only one quotation, we remember Cirsium arvense (intestinal disturbances), Centaurea bracteata (cough), Lupinus albus (calluses), Melittis melissophyllum (eye inflammations, antispasmodic), and Artemisia absinthium (tendon inflammations), while among plants employed in various regions with interesting less-known properties, there are C. arvense (emergency haemostatic), P. diffusa (insect bites), and Scrophularia canina (antiseptic and cicatrizing agent for wounds in bovines and sheep).

  12. New records, distribution and status of six seabird species in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Antunes Dias

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Distribution records of poorly-known species are currently the most explored theme in the Brazilian seabird literature. If properly evaluated, this kind of information can improve our knowledge on distribution, migration and status of occurrence of these species. In this note we present new records for six species of poorly-known seabirds in the Brazilian coast, reviewing distribution records and defining their status of occurrence in the country. We consider Chionis albus (Gmelin, 1789 a pseudo-vagrant in Brazil and define its status as a scarce seasonal visitor from southern South America. We present the first records of Leucophaeus atricilla (Linnaeus, 1758 for Trindade Island, and of Leucophaeus pipixcan (Wagler, 1831 for the state of Rio Grande do Sul, and determined that the former is a vagrant in eastern Brazil and the latter a vagrant across the country. Anous stolidus (Linnaeus, 1758 is a vagrant in southernmost Brazil. We were unable to determine if records of Chlidonias niger (Linnaeus, 1758 for Brazil and southern South America refer to vagrancy or pseudo-vagrancy. Additionally, we verified the occurrence of breeding individuals of Anous minutus Boie, 1844 on Martin Vaz Island and confirmed that there is no evidence of breeding on neighboring Trindade Island.

  13. Comparative analysis of the contribution of phytochelatins to cadmium and arsenic tolerance in soybean and white lupin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Saúl; Goldsbrough, Peter; Carpena, Ramón O

    2009-01-01

    The biosynthesis of phytochelatins (PCs) plays a crucial role in the detoxification and homeostasis of heavy metals and metalloids in plants. However, in an increasing number of plant species metal(loid) tolerance is not well correlated with the accumulation of PCs: tolerant ecotypes frequently contain lower levels of PCs than non-tolerant ecotypes. In this study we have compared the responses of soybean (Glycine max L. cv. Resnik) and white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cv. Marta) to cadmium and arsenate in order to assess the role of homophytochelatins (hPCs) in the tolerance of soybean to these toxic elements. Soybean plants treated with Cd and As showed a high contribution of homo-glutathione (hGSH) to the pool of thiols in shoots in comparison to white lupin. Higher levels of hPCs in Cd-treated soybeans compared to PCs in lupins did not prevent growth inhibition. In contrast, the role of hPCs in the detoxification mechanism to arsenate in soybean seems to be clearer, showing higher thiol concentrations and lower growth reductions than those present in lupin plants.

  14. Therapeutic Potential of Temperate Forage Legumes: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornara, Laura; Xiao, Jianbo; Burlando, Bruno

    2016-07-29

    The discovery of bioactive molecules from botanical sources is an expanding field, preferentially oriented to plants having a tradition of use in medicine and providing high yields and availability. Temperate forage legumes are Fabaceae species that include worldwide-important crops. These plants possess therapeutic virtues that have not only been used in veterinary and folk medicine, but have also attracted the interest of official medicine. We have examined here Medicago sativa (alfalfa), Trifolium pratense and T. repens (clovers), Melilotus albus and M. officinalis (sweet clovers), Lotus corniculatus (birdsfoot trefoil), Onobrychis viciifolia (sainfoin), Lespedeza capitata (roundhead lespedeza), and Galega officinalis (goat's rue). The phytochemical complexes of these species contain secondary metabolites whose pharmacological potentials deserve investigation. Major classes of compounds include alkaloids and amines, cyanogenic glycosides, flavonoids, coumarins, condensed tannins, and saponins. Some of these phytochemicals have been related to antihypercholesterolemia, antidiabetic, antimenopause, anti-inflammatory, antiedema, anthelmintic, and kidney protective effects. Two widely prescribed drugs have been developed starting from temperate forage legumes, namely, the antithrombotic warfarin, inspired from sweet clover's coumarin, and the antidiabetic metformin, a derivative of sainfoin's guanidine. Available evidence suggests that temperate forage legumes are a potentially important resource for the extraction of active principles to be used as nutraceuticals and pharmaceuticals.

  15. Optimum swimming pathways of fish spawning migrations in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Brandon; DeLonay, Aaron; Jacobson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Fishes that swim upstream in rivers to spawn must navigate complex fluvial velocity fields to arrive at their ultimate locations. One hypothesis with substantial implications is that fish traverse pathways that minimize their energy expenditure during migration. Here we present the methodological and theoretical developments necessary to test this and similar hypotheses. First, a cost function is derived for upstream migration that relates work done by a fish to swimming drag. The energetic cost scales with the cube of a fish's relative velocity integrated along its path. By normalizing to the energy requirements of holding a position in the slowest waters at the path's origin, a cost function is derived that depends only on the physical environment and not on specifics of individual fish. Then, as an example, we demonstrate the analysis of a migration pathway of a telemetrically tracked pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River (USA). The actual pathway cost is lower than 105 random paths through the surveyed reach and is consistent with the optimization hypothesis. The implication—subject to more extensive validation—is that reproductive success in managed rivers could be increased through manipulation of reservoir releases or channel morphology to increase abundance of lower-cost migration pathways.

  16. Effect of steroidal saponin from Yucca schidigera extract on ruminal microbes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y; McAllister, T A; Yanke, L J; Cheeke, P R

    2000-05-01

    The effects of steroidal saponins (SAP) isolated from Yucca schidigera extract on ruminal bacteria and fungi were investigated in pure culture studies. Prevotella bryantii, Ruminobacter amylophilus, Selenomonas ruminantium and Streptococcus bovis were cultured through ten 24-h transfers in ruminal fluid medium containing 0 or 25 microg SAP ml-1 (measured as smilagenin equivalents). The four strains, each non-exposed or pre-exposed to SAP, were then inoculated into medium containing 0 or 250 microgram smilagenin equivalents ml-1 and 24-h growth curves were determined. The cellulolytic ruminal bacteria Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Fibrobacter succinogenes and Rc. albus were cultured for 72 h on Whatman no. 1 filter paper in medium containing 0, 9, 90 or 180 microgram SAP ml-1 for the determination of filter paper digestion and endoglucanase activity. The ruminal bacteria differed in their responses to SAP. Steroidal saponins in the medium reduced the growth of Strep. bovis (P 0.05) between pre-exposed and non-exposed cultures and the concentrations of total SAP and soluble (deglycosylated) SAP in the liquid fraction were unchanged (P > 0.05) over time. Steroidal saponins inhibited the digestion of filter paper by all three cellulolytic bacteria, but F. succinogenes was less (P schidigera inhibit cellulolytic ruminal bacteria and fungi, but their effects on amylolytic bacteria are species dependent and similar to the effects of ionophores. As such, SAP may be useful in nutritional applications targeting starch-digesting ruminal micro-organisms.

  17. 盐霉素产量提高及其活性优化%Enhancement of salinomycin production and its activity optimization-A review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭超; 谭华荣; 张集慧

    2016-01-01

    盐霉素(salinomycin)是由白色链霉菌(Streptomyces albus)产生的一元羧酸聚醚类抗生素,具有较强的抗革兰氏阳性菌和杀灭球虫的作用,而且对环境污染也较低;此外,还能特异性地抑制多种肿瘤细胞及肿瘤干细胞的生长,具有多重作用靶点,有望成为抗肿瘤的特效药.为提高盐霉素的产量,人们采用传统诱变技术和现代分子遗传学手段,对盐霉素产生菌进行了改造,获得了高产菌株;同时,通过对盐霉素化学结构进行修饰或者通过药物载体和联合用药等,增强了其活性和靶向性、减少了毒副作用.本文对盐霉素产生菌的改造策略、药物靶向性提高和活性优化等研究进展进行综述,并对今后的研究热点进行展望.

  18. Linking development and determinacy with organic acid efflux from proteoid roots of white lupin grown with low phosphorus and ambient or elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watt, M.; Evans, J.R.

    1999-07-01

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) was grown in hydroponic culture with 1 {micro}M phosphorus to enable the development of proteoid roots to be observed in conjunction with organic acid exudation. Discrete regions of closely spaced, determinate secondary laterals emerged in near synchrony on the same plant. One day after reaching their final length, citrate exudation occurred over a 3-d pulse. The rate of exudation varied diurnally, with maximal rates during the photoperiod. At the onset of citrate efflux, rootlets had exhausted their apical meristems and had differentiated root hairs and vascular tissues along their lengths. Neither in vitro phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase nor citrate synthase activity was correlated with the rate of citrate exudation. The authors suggest that an unidentified transport process, presumably at the plasma membrane, regulates citrate efflux. Growth with elevated atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] promoted earlier onset of rootlet determinacy by 1 d, resulting in shorter rootlets and citrate export beginning 1 d earlier as a 2-d diurnal pulse. Citrate was the dominant organic acid exported, and neither the rate of exudation per unit length of root nor the composition of exudate was altered by atmospheric [CO{sub 2}].

  19. Healthy and pathological cerebellar Spiking Neural Networks in Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antonietti, Alberto; Casellato, Claudia; Geminiani, Alice; D'Angelo, Egidio; Pedrocchi, Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Since the Marr-Albus model, computational neuroscientists have been developing a variety of models of the cerebellum, with different approaches and features. In this work, we developed and tested realistic artificial Spiking Neural Networks inspired to this brain region. We tested in computational simulations of the Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex protocol three different models: a network equipped with a single plasticity site, at the cortical level; a network equipped with a distributed plasticity, at both cortical and nuclear levels; a network with a pathological plasticity mechanism at the cortical level. We analyzed the learning performance of the three different models, highlighting the behavioral differences among them. We proved that the model with a distributed plasticity produces a faster and more accurate cerebellar response, especially during a second session of acquisition, compared with the single plasticity model. Furthermore, the pathological model shows an impaired learning capability in Vestibulo-Ocular Reflex acquisition, as found in neurophysiological studies. The effect of the different plasticity conditions, which change fast and slow dynamics, memory consolidation and, in general, learning capabilities of the cerebellar network, explains differences in the behavioral outcome.

  20. An in-depth review on the medicinal flora Rosmarinus officinalis (Lamiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begum, Asia; Sandhya, Subarda; Shaffath Ali, Syed; Vinod, Kombath Ravindran; Reddy, Swapna; Banji, David

    2013-01-01

    Rosmarinus officinalis (Rosemary) is a common household plant which belongs to the family Lamiaceae and is grown in many parts of the world. It is a woody, perennial herb with fragrant, evergreen, needle-like leaves and white, pink, purple or blue flowers. The two most commonly grown hardy Rosemaries are Rosmarinus officinalis 'Arp' and R. officinalis 'Madelene Hill' (syn. 'Hill Hardy'). The other cultivars of the plant are R. officinalis 'Albus', R. officinalis 'Bendenen Blue', R. officinalis 'Goodwin Creek', R. officinalis 'Herb Cottage', R. officinalis 'Logee's Light Blue', R. officinalis 'Miss Jessup's Upright', R. officinalis 'Russian River', R. officinalis 'Salem'. The chemical constituents include bitter principle, resin, tannic acid, volatile oils and fl avonoids. The volatile oil consists of borneol, bornyl acetate, camphene, cineol, pinene and camphor. It is used for problems involved in central nervous system, cardio vascular system, genito urinary conditions, liver treatments, reproductive system and respiratory system. The volatile oil of the plant is used in oils and lotions for the treatment of various ailments like arthritis, gout, muscular pain, neuralgia, wound and rubbed into hair for stimulating the hair bulbs to renewed activity, to prevent premature baldness.

  1. SEROSURVEILLANCE OF AVIAN INFLUENZA VIRUS SUBTYPE H5N1 WITH HAEMAGGLUTINATION-INHIBITION ON WILD AQUATIC BIRDS IN PULAU DUA SERANG NATURAL RESERVES, BANTEN PROVINCE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Murtini

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Further detailed research is required to obtain deeper information on the role of wild birds on the distribution of Avianinfluenza in Asia. A research has been carried out on February–June 2007 focused on blood sampling (serosurveillanceof wild birds in Pulau Dua Nature Reserves (CAPD, Serang, Banten. The research is aimed to investigate the infectionof AI virus sub-tye H5N1 on the studied wild birds. The blood samples were taken from studied aquatic birds, followedby HI (haemagglutination-inhibition test. A total of 183 samples represent 7 water bird species were taken i.e Cattleegret Bubulcus ibis, Javan pond-heron Ardeola speciosa, Little egret Egretta garzetta, Intermediate egret Egrettaintermedia, Black-crowned night heron Nycticorax nycticorax, Great egret Casmerodius albus and Grey heron Ardeacinerea. The result revealed that 41 (23.27% samples showed the present of AIV antibodies serotype H5N1 which isidentified as positive. Data showed 5 positive-test species, including B. ibis (29.27%, E. garzetta (29.27%, E.intermedia (4.88%, Ardeola speciosa (7.32%, and N. nycticorax (29.27%. A total of 41.46% were infected adultindividual, whereas 58.54% were juveniles.

  2. Heterologous expression of Streptomyces clavuligerus ATCC 27064 cephamycin C gene cluster.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Burgo, Y; Álvarez-Álvarez, R; Pérez-Redondo, R; Liras, P

    2014-09-30

    The Streptomyces clavuligerus cephamycin C gene cluster has been subcloned in a SuperCos-derived cosmid and introduced in Streptomyces flavogriseus ATCC 33331, Streptomyces coelicolor M1146 and Streptomyces albus J1074. The exconjugant strains were supplemented with an additional copy of the S. clavuligerus cephamycin regulatory activator gene, ccaRC, expressed from the constitutive Pfur promoter. Only S. flavogriseus-derived exconjugants produced a compound active against Escherichia coli ESS22-31 that was characterized by HPLC-MS as cephamycin C. The presence of an additional ccaR copy resulted in about 40-fold increase in cephamycin C production. Optimal heterologous cephamycin C production was in the order of 9% in relation to that of S. clavuligerus ATCC 27064. RT-qPCR studies indicated that ccaRC expression in S. flavogriseus::[SCos-CF] was 7% of that in S. clavuligerus and increased to 47% when supplemented with a copy of Pfur-ccaR. The effect on cephamycin biosynthesis gene expression was thus improved but not in an uniform manner for every gene. In heterologous strains, integration of the cephamycin cluster results in a ccaR-independent increased resistance to penicillin, cephalosporin and cefoxitin, what corresponds well to the strong expression of the pcbR and pbpA genes in S. flavogriseus-derived strains.

  3. Optimum swimming pathways of fish spawning migrations in rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElroy, Brandon; DeLonay, Aaron; Jacobson, Robert

    2012-01-01

    Fishes that swim upstream in rivers to spawn must navigate complex fluvial velocity fields to arrive at their ultimate locations. One hypothesis with substantial implications is that fish traverse pathways that minimize their energy expenditure during migration. Here we present the methodological and theoretical developments necessary to test this and similar hypotheses. First, a cost function is derived for upstream migration that relates work done by a fish to swimming drag. The energetic cost scales with the cube of a fish's relative velocity integrated along its path. By normalizing to the energy requirements of holding a position in the slowest waters at the path's origin, a cost function is derived that depends only on the physical environment and not on specifics of individual fish. Then, as an example, we demonstrate the analysis of a migration pathway of a telemetrically tracked pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus) in the Missouri River (USA). The actual pathway cost is lower than 105 random paths through the surveyed reach and is consistent with the optimization hypothesis. The implication—subject to more extensive validation—is that reproductive success in managed rivers could be increased through manipulation of reservoir releases or channel morphology to increase abundance of lower-cost migration pathways.

  4. Population viability analysis of Lower Missouri River shovelnose sturgeon with initial application to the pallid sturgeon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, P.G.; Wildhaber, M.L.

    2007-01-01

    Demographic models for the shovelnose (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus) and pallid (S. albus) sturgeons in the Lower Missouri River were developed to conduct sensitivity analyses for both populations. Potential effects of increased fishing mortality on the shovelnose sturgeon were also evaluated. Populations of shovelnose and pallid sturgeon were most sensitive to age-0 mortality rates as well as mortality rates of juveniles and young adults. Overall, fecundity was a less sensitive parameter. However, increased fecundity effectively balanced higher mortality among sensitive age classes in both populations. Management that increases population-level fecundity and improves survival of age-0, juveniles, and young adults should most effectively benefit both populations. Evaluation of reproductive values indicated that populations of pallid sturgeon dominated by ages ≥35 could rapidly lose their potential for growth, particularly if recruitment remains low. Under the initial parameter values portraying current conditions the population of shovelnose sturgeon was predicted to decline by 1.65% annually, causing the commercial yield to also decline. Modeling indicated that the commercial yield could increase substantially if exploitation of females in ages ≤12 was highly restricted.

  5. Specialized dermatological care for marginalized populations and education at the primary care level: is community dermatology a feasible proposal?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrada, Roberto; Chavez-Lopez, Guadalupe; Estrada-Chavez, Guadalupe; Paredes-Solis, Sergio

    2012-11-01

    Skin diseases have a very high frequency either in developed as well as in undeveloped countries. Guerrero, Chiapas, and Oaxaca are the most impoverished states in Mexico, where 24% of the population lacks basic health care, and only 15% are estimated to have access to specialists. Community Dermatology program was founded in 1991 with the intention of improving the dermatological health of remote, marginalized inhabitants of the state of Guerrero. The program consists of a two-day visit to a pre-selected community; the first day includes a basic dermatology training course for local providers, and day 2 is a "Jornada",which means a day of free medical consultation and treatment. Pityriasis albus Cloasma, vitiligo, and acne continue to be the most frequent diagnosed primary disorders, as in rural areas occupational obligations include prolonged sun exposure. The experience and success of Community Dermatology over the last 20 years has demonstrated that this model of healthcare delivery and instruction is economically feasible, provides practical and quantifiable benefits for the communities served, and could be emulated by other disciplines within medicine.

  6. Update of alien fauna and new records from Tunisian marine waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. OUNIFI- BEN AMOR

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An updated inventory of alien marine fauna in coastal and offshore Tunisian waters is presented. Records were compiled from scientific and ‘grey’ publications, presentations at scientific meetings, theses presented in fulfillment of requirements towards MSc and PhD degrees, websites and personal observations. 136 alien species were recorded in Tunisian waters, 60 records in northern coasts, West Mediterranean and 76 in central and southern coasts, Central Mediterranean. Nearly half of the first sightings in Tunisian waters took place in the Gulf of Gabès. The dominant taxa are Crustancean (24%, Molluscs (23%, Fishes (19% and Annelida (13%. Twenty one species previously reported as aliens, were upon consideration, reclassified as range-expanding Atlantic species. Amathia verticillata, previously considered native to the Mediterranean, is reclassified as pseudoindigenous. Twenty one alien species are newly recorded from Tunisia, including 5 fish species, 5 polychaetes, 4 crustaceans, 4 molluscs, and one each schyphozoan, bryozoan and tunicate. The findings of Gibberulus gibberulus albus, Morula aspera and Calcinus latens, three species new to the Mediterranean, and of Actaedoes tomentosus, reported for the second time in the basin, are described. Species were classified according to their establishment status and their origins. This contribution highlights the dual origin of biological invasion in Tunisian waters (Red Sea and Atlantic, with slightly more species of Red Sea and Indo-Pacific origin (61,76%.  The impact of the alien species in Tunisian waters was discussed.

  7. Microbial population in the rumen of swamp buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) as influenced by coconut oil and mangosteen peel supplementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilajun, R; Wanapat, M

    2013-06-01

    Four, rumen fistulated swamp buffalo bulls were used to study microbial populations in the rumen when supplemented with coconut oil and mangosteen peel. Animals were randomly assigned to a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four treatments were un-supplemented (Control), supplementation with coconut oil at 50 g/kg (CO5), supplementation with mangosteen peel at 30 g/kg (MP3) and supplementation with CO5 and MP3 (COM), of total DM intake. Animals received concentrate at 10 g/kg of BW, and rice straw was given ad libitum. Abundance of total bacteria was increased by CO5 supplementation, whereas populations of protozoa and Fibrobacter succinogenes were reduced by CO5 and COM supplementation. Dietary supplementation did not affect methanogen, Ruminococcus flavefaciens or Ruminococcus albus abundances. Dietary treatments changed denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) band patterns of methanogens and protozoa when compared with the control group, especially when supplemented with MP3. Supplementation of COM resulted in the greatest difference in pattern of DGGE bands for total bacteria compared with the control. Coconut oil and mangosteen peel supplementation resulted in changing of rumen microbial abundances and communities; however, combination of them could be more benefit to improve rumen fermentation of swamp buffalo fed on rice straw.

  8. Taxonomic revision of Leucascus Dendy, 1892 (Porifera: Calcarea) with revalidation of Ascoleucetta Dendy & Frederick, 1924 and description of three new species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavalcanti, Fernanda F; Rapp, Hans Tore; Klautau, Michelle

    2013-01-01

    Sponges of the genus Leucascus are frequently recognised as possessing anastomosed tubes with choanocytes, and cortical and atrial membranes with pinacocytes. In the last years, five species of other genera were transferred to Leucascus, and several other species were suggested but not formally included in this genus. In the present work, all these species accepted or suggested as Leucascus were revised. According to our results, Leucascus is now composed of nine species: L. clavatus, L. leptoraphis comb. nov., L. lobatus, L. neocaledonicus, L. protogenes comb. nov., L. roseus, L. simplex (type species), L. albus sp. nov., and L.flavus sp. nov. The presence of spines in the apical actine of the tetractines had never been observed in Leucascus, but it was found in all species with tetractines in their skeletons. Some species were transferred from Leucascus to the genus Ascoleucetta, which is revalidated here based on important differences in the cortex. Modifications are also proposed in the definition of both genera. Based on our results, the family Leucascidae is now composed of Ascaltis, Leucascus and Ascoleucetta.

  9. Visualization of root water uptake: quantification of deuterated water transport in roots using neutron radiography and numerical modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kroener, Eva; Kaestner, Anders; Carminati, Andrea

    2014-10-01

    Our understanding of soil and plant water relations is limited by the lack of experimental methods to measure water fluxes in soil and plants. Here, we describe a new method to noninvasively quantify water fluxes in roots. To this end, neutron radiography was used to trace the transport of deuterated water (D2O) into roots. The results showed that (1) the radial transport of D2O from soil to the roots depended similarly on diffusive and convective transport and (2) the axial transport of D2O along the root xylem was largely dominated by convection. To quantify the convective fluxes from the radiographs, we introduced a convection-diffusion model to simulate the D2O transport in roots. The model takes into account different pathways of water across the root tissue, the endodermis as a layer with distinct transport properties, and the axial transport of D2O in the xylem. The diffusion coefficients of the root tissues were inversely estimated by simulating the experiments at night under the assumption that the convective fluxes were negligible. Inverse modeling of the experiment at day gave the profile of water fluxes into the roots. For a 24-d-old lupine (Lupinus albus) grown in a soil with uniform water content, root water uptake was higher in the proximal parts of lateral roots and decreased toward the distal parts. The method allows the quantification of the root properties and the regions of root water uptake along the root systems.

  10. Vodní měkkýši přehradní nádrže Slapy (Česká republika

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luboš Beran

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper brings a review of a malacological survey of the Slapy Reservoir (Central Bohemia, Czech Republic. This dam water reservoir was built in 1957 on the Vltava River with area 1392 ha, length 44 km, max. deepness 58 m and altitude 270.6 m. Aquatic molluscs at 22 sites were studied from 2005 to 2006. Altogether, 30 species of aquatic molluscs (21 gastropods, 9 bivalves which represent nearly 40% of the total Czech aquatic mollusc fauna were found despite the absence of littoral vegetation. Bithynia tentaculata, Radix auricularia, R. cf. ampla, Gyraulus albus, Hippeutis complanatus, Sphaerium corneum, Anodonta anatina and surprisingly also vulnerable Anodonta cygnea belong to most frequent molluscs found during this research. Record of near threatened gastropod Viviparus viviparus fill in long gap among its occurrence in the Vltava River downstream of the Slapy Reservoir (last of the dam water reservoirs on the Vltava River and in tributaries of the Vltava River in Southern Bohemia (Lužnice, Nežárka. Occurrence of four non-native species (Potamopyrgus antipodarum, Physella acuta, Menetus dilatatus, Ferrissia fragilis were documented.

  11. Comparative study on the microbiological features of angular cheilitis in HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative patients from South India

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    P Anitha Krishnan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study was designed to compare the microbiological features of angular cheilitis (AC in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV seropositive and HIV seronegative individuals, in a group of south Indians. Materials and Methods: Swabs from oral commissures of 46 patients were obtained and inoculated on to Sabouraud′s dextrose agar (SDA supplemented with chloramphenicol, blood agar (BA and MacConkey′s agar (MCA plates and cultured. α-hemolytic Streptococci, Staphylococcus albus, Staphylococcus aureus, Candida species, Klebsiella species and Pseudomonas species were cultured. Candidal colonies were further speciated by the conventional biotyping technique. Results: In AC of HIV seropositive patients Candida albicans and Staphylococcus aureus were more prevalent than that in HIV seronegative patients. Incidentally in patients with CD4 cell count less than 200 there was an increase in the incidence of Candidal and Staphylococcus aureus colonization when compared to patients with CD4 cell count higher than 200. Conclusion: The present study suggests a definite difference in the microbial flora of AC in HIV seropositive patients than that of HIV seronegative population.

  12. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

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    Abdelrahim Abubakr

    Full Text Available Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO, decanter cake (DC or palm kernel cake (PKC on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD, decanter cake diet (DCD, palm kernel cake diet (PKCD and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0 and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05 DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05 in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  13. Effect of feeding palm oil by-products based diets on total bacteria, cellulolytic bacteria and methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abubakr, Abdelrahim; Alimon, Abdul Razak; Yaakub, Halimatun; Abdullah, Norhani; Ivan, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Rumen microorganisms are responsible for digestion and utilization of dietary feeds by host ruminants. Unconventional feed resources could be used as alternatives in tropical areas where feed resources are insufficient in terms of quality and quantity. The objective of the present experiment was to evaluate the effect of diets based on palm oil (PO), decanter cake (DC) or palm kernel cake (PKC) on rumen total bacteria, selected cellulolytic bacteria, and methanogenic archaea. Four diets: control diet (CD), decanter cake diet (DCD), palm kernel cake diet (PKCD) and CD plus 5% PO diet (CPOD) were fed to rumen cannulated goats and rumen samples were collected at the start of the experimental diets (day 0) and on days 4, 6, 8, 12, 18, 24 and 30 post dietary treatments. Feeding DCD and PKCD resulted in significantly higher (P<0.05) DNA copy number of total bacteria, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefeciens, and Ruminococcus albus. Rumen methanogenic archaea was significantly lower (P<0.05) in goats fed PKCD and CPOD and the trend showed a severe reduction on days 4 and 6 post experimental diets. In conclusion, results indicated that feeding DCD and PKC increased the populations of cellulolytic bacteria and decreased the density of methanogenic archaea in the rumen of goats.

  14. Effect of Phenotypic Residual Feed Intake and Dietary Forage Content on the Rumen Microbial Community of Beef Cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carberry, Ciara A.; Kenny, David A.; Han, Sukkyan; McCabe, Matthew S.

    2012-01-01

    Feed-efficient animals have lower production costs and reduced environmental impact. Given that rumen microbial fermentation plays a pivotal role in host nutrition, the premise that rumen microbiota may contribute to host feed efficiency is gaining momentum. Since diet is a major factor in determining rumen community structure and fermentation patterns, we investigated the effect of divergence in phenotypic residual feed intake (RFI) on ruminal community structure of beef cattle across two contrasting diets. PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and quantitative PCR (qPCR) were performed to profile the rumen bacterial population and to quantify the ruminal populations of Entodinium spp., protozoa, Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, Ruminococcus albus, Prevotella brevis, the genus Prevotella, and fungi in 14 low (efficient)- and 14 high (inefficient)-RFI animals offered a low-energy, high-forage diet, followed by a high-energy, low-forage diet. Canonical correspondence and Spearman correlation analyses were used to investigate associations between physiological variables and rumen microbial structure and specific microbial populations, respectively. The effect of RFI on bacterial profiles was influenced by diet, with the association between RFI group and PCR-DGGE profiles stronger for the higher forage diet. qPCR showed that Prevotella abundance was higher (P feed efficiency, although this effect may also be modulated by the diet offered. PMID:22562991

  15. [Nutritive value of shellfish consumed in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pak, N; Vera, G; Araya, H

    1985-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the protein quality and digestibility of shellfish commonly consumed in Chile, and to estimate its contribution to the protein needs of the Chilean population. The shellfish studied were chorito (Mytilus edulis chilensis), macha (Mesodesma donacium), loco (Concholepas concholepas), cholga (Aulacomya ater), erizo (Loxechinus albus) and almeja (no specific variety). The NPU method was used to determine protein quality. The percentage of protein adequacy for adult rations was calculated according to FAO/WHO 1973. The contribution of shellfish to the protein availability according to the family income of the Santiago population, was also calculated. Most of the shellfish presented NPU values of about 70; the lowest values were found for loco (54.9) and macha (63.3). The apparent and true digestibility gave an average of 83.6 and 90.4, respectively. The percentage of protein adequacy of habitual rations ranged between 27% (erizo) and 58% (loco). The availability of shellfish protein in relation to total protein increased from 0.4 to 2.5% when income increased. It is concluded therefore, that shellfish protein is, in general, of good quality. Nevertheless, it might be considered of poor influence insofar as fulfilling the protein needs of the population studied, whatever its socioeconomic level.

  16. Effect of fermentation and extrusion on the release of selected minerals from lupine grain preparations

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    Rafał W. Wójciak

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Antinutritional factors in legumes lower the nutritional value of foods by lowering the digestibility or bioavailability of nutrients. Technological processes applied in food production (e.g. extrusion, fermentation, germination may influence the leguminous seeds matrix composition which in consequence may affect (improve or decrease mineral bioaccessibility and uptake in animals and humans. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of fermentation and extrusion processing, as well as their combination, on the potential availability of Fe, Cu, and Zn from lupine grain preparations. Materials and methods. The content and the release of Fe, Cu and Zn from three different lupine species (Lupinus albus, Lupinus luteus, Lupinus angustifolius was determined. The samples were subjected to enzymatic digestion under in vitro conditions. The content of minerals in lupine grains before and after enzymatic digestion was determined by the flame atomic absorption spectrometry. Results. The degree of release of Fe, Cu, and Zn from dehulled lupine grains was higher than from whole grains. Fermentation processing increased the degree of Fe release, extrusion decreased the degree of Cu release, while the extrusion after fermentation processing increased the degree of Fe release from lupine grain preparations. Conclusions. The degree of mineral release from lupine grains depends on the hull content, technological processing applied and the lupine variety.

  17. Fitomassa e relação C/N em consórcios de sorgo e milho com espécies de cobertura Biomass and C/N ratio in intercrops of sorghum and maize with cover crops

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    Paulo Claudeir Gomes da Silva

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi quantificar a produtividade de fitomassa, o teor e acúmulo de nitrogênio (N, e a relação carbono/nitrogênio (C/N de monocultivos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor e milho (Zea mays e de seus consórcios com guandu-anão (Cajanus cajan, crotalária (Crotalaria juncea, tremoço branco (Lupinus albus, girassol (Helianthus annuus e nabo-forrageiro (Raphanus sativus, manejados em diferentes estádios. O experimento foi conduzido de março a julho de 2008, em Argissolo Vermelho distroférrico de textura média, no sistema plantio direto. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos completos ao acaso, com quatro repetições, e parcelas subdivididas, constituído pelos tratamentos: monocultivos de sorgo e milho e seus respectivos consórcios com guandu-anão, crotalária, girassol, nabo-forrageiro e tremoço branco, nas parcelas; e épocas de corte, aos 60, 90 e 120 dias após a semeadura nas subparcelas. Consórcios de sorgo e milho com outras espécies superaram expressivamente a produtividade de fitomassa de seus monocultivos que ainda acumularam menos N e apresentaram maiores relações C/N na fitomassa. Para aumentar a produtividade de fitomassa, a melhor época de corte é aos 120 dias após a semeadura das culturas de cobertura. O corte aos 90 dias após a semeadura propicia o maior acúmulo de N e as menores relações C/N.The objective of this work was to quantify the biomass production, the content and accumulation of nitrogen (N and the carbon/nitrogen (C/N relation in monocultures of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor and corn (Zea mays, and intercrops with pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan, sun hemp (Crotalaria juncea, white lupine (Lupinus albus, sunflower (Helianthus annuus and turnip forage (Raphanus sativus, managed in different stages. The experiment was carried out from March to July 2008, in a Haplic Acrisol, medium texture, under no-tillage. A randomized complete block design, with four replicates and split plots with the

  18. Influência da cobertura vegetal do solo na qualidade dos frutos de videira 'Niagara Rosada' Influence of soil cover with grass and leguminous plants on fruit characteristics of table grape variety Niagara Rosada

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    Elaine Bahia Wutke

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Devido ao aumento no custo de produção com a utilização de cobertura morta com capim nas ruas da videira 'Niagara Rosada' e à dificuldade para sua aquisição, objetivou-se a possibilidade de substituí-la por plantas de cobertura intercalares. Em experimentos realizados em Indaiatuba e Jundiaí-SP, de 1999-2000 a 2003-2004, instalaram-se seis tratamentos nas entrelinhas, em blocos ao acaso e quatro repetições, constando de área no limpo; vegetação espontânea roçada; cobertura com capim seco de Brachiaria decumbens; cobertura verde de aveia preta (Avena strigosa; cobertura verde de chícharo (Lathyrus sativus; cobertura verde de tremoço (Lupinus albus, de março a outubro, seguidas de cobertura verde de mucuna anã (Mucuna deeringiana de outubro a março. Determinaram-se massa, comprimento e largura do cacho, engaço e bagas, número total de bagas por cacho e diâmetro do pedicelo de bagas, comparando-se os valores médios pelo teste de Duncan ao nível de 5%. Na média dos anos, os resultados com a cobertura verde foram similares ou mais favoráveis que os da cobertura com braquiária seca, podendo-se substituí-la por coberturas vegetais intercalares com gramínea e leguminosas, o ano todo, sem interferência negativa na qualidade comercial dos frutos.Grape vineyard in Southern Brazil utilize a large amount of mulch during autumn-winter season demanding extra efforts and costs, being its acquisition very difficult nowadays. In order to evaluate the possibility of replacing the tradicionally mulch by green cover species in the inter-row strip, two experiments were carried out in Indaiatuba and Jundiaí, SP, Brazil, from 1999/00 to 2003/04, with the table variety Niagara Rosada. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replications and six treatments: 1 no weeded area; 2 cut spontaneous local vegetation; 3 mulch of Brachiaria decumbens; 4 green cover of Avena strigosa from March to October followed by green cover of

  19. 酪蛋白水解物对雷帕霉素产生菌Streptomyces hygroscopicus ATCC29253接合转移效率的影响%Effect of casamino acid on intergeneric conjugation in rapamycin-producing Streptomyces hygroscopicus ATCC29253

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张万壵; 鲁慧囡; 何璟

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] Streptomyces kygroscopicus ATCC29253 has attracted much interests due to its capacity of producing various secondary metabolites with strong bioactivities, including immunosuppressant rapamycin, nigericin, hexaenes, elaiophylin and hygroeins. [Objective] To investigate biosynthetic pathway of these metabolites and construct high-yield strains by genetic engineering, establishment of a highly efficient genetic manipulation system is critically required in this strain. [Methods] We tested the effects of conjugation media and donor strains on conjugal transfer from Esckerichia coli to 5. Hygroscopicus ATCC29253 and other Streptomycetes. [Results] We found that both casamino acid and MgCl2 supplemented in conjugation media improved conjugation frequency in S. Kygroscopicus ATCC29253. A random experiment led to the disclosure of an optimal combination of casamino acid and MgCl2 by which the conjugation frequency in 5. Kygroscopicus reached 1.5 × 10" . Meanwhile, we also found significant changes in conjugation frequencies of S. Lividans, S. Albus and S. Avermitilis when casamino acid was supplemented in conjugation media. [ Conclusion ] Casamino acid has significant influence on conjugation frequency in not only S. Hygroscopicus ATCC29253 but also other Streptomyces such as S. Lividans, S. Albus and S. Avermitilis.%吸水链霉菌(Streptomyces hygroscopicus)ATCC29253能够产生非常丰富的次级代谢产物,除了雷帕霉素外,还可以分泌尼日利亚菌素、洋橄榄叶素、六烯类抗生素等多种具有生物活性的物质,具有重要的研究价值和应用前景.[目的]而建立高效的遗传操作系统是研究该链霉菌相关代谢产物合成机理和构建基因工程菌株的基础.[方法]我们测试了不同培养基及供体菌对吸水链霉菌及其它链霉菌接合转移效率的影响.[结果]我们发现酪蛋白水解物和镁离子能显著提高S.hygroscopicus ATCC29253接合转移效率.通过随机组合

  20. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; II: Propiedades de las mezclas Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children aged 6-24 months; II: properties of the mixtures

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    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Las formulaciones alimenticias de alto contenido proteico, aportado por una mezcla de harinas a partir de dos cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd y lupino (Lupi-nus albus L, con dos cereales tradicionales maíz (Zea mays L. y arroz (Oryza sativa L., conllevaron a la preparación de una 'mezcla dulce' para la elaboración de queques y otra "mezcla postre" saborizada con plátano, que puede ser preparada con agua o con leche, constituyeron una buena alternativa como suplemento alimenticio para la nutrición de niños entre 6 y 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que contribuyen al mejoramiento de la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, son de bajo costo y permite un aumento en la disponibilidad de productos para los niños intolerantes al gluten. Se realizó la evaluación de algunas propiedades físicas, químicas, reológicas, mecánicas y de fluidez, así como el color de estas mezclas para un período de conservación de 90 días. Al finalizar el almacenamiento, la mezcla dulce resultó ser de "poco flujo" y la mezcla postre pasó de "poco flujo" a "flujo fácil". La viscosidad para la mezcla postre, con sus dos tipos de diluyentes, agua y leche, presentó un comportamiento de fluido pseudoplástico. Se pudo estimar que el tiempo de vida útil de las mezclas sería de 9 meses antes de llegar al límite de rancidez (10 mEq de oxígeno/kg de grasa, que inhabilitaría el producto para el consumo. Las coordenadas de color CIEL*a*b* no presentaron diferencias significativas manteniéndose el color en una tonalidad "beige".The nutritional formulations of high protein content, provided by a flour mixture from two Andean cultures, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd and lupino (Lupinus albus L, with two traditional cereals, maize (Zea mays L. and rice (Oryza sativa L., entailed to the preparation of a "sweet mixture" for the elaboration of "queques" and another "dessert mixture" flavoured

  1. Desarrollo de producto sobre la base de harinas de cereales y leguminosa para niños celíacos entre 6 y 24 meses; I: Formulación y aceptabilidad Product development on the basis of cereal and leguminous flours to coeliac disease in children between 6-24 months; I: formulation and acceptability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Cerezal Mezquita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available La revalorización de los cultivos andinos, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd y lupino (Lupinus albus L, para ser utilizados en mezclas alimenticias, con cereales tradicionales como maíz (Zea mays L. y arroz (Oryza sativa L., originan mezclas sin gluten que constituyen una buena alternativa para la alimentación de niños menores de 24 meses que sufren la enfermedad celíaca, ya que mejoran la calidad de la proteína, por compensación de los aminoácidos esenciales, e incide en la diversificación de productos. En el presente trabajo se determinó la composición de los porcentajes de cada harina en la mezcla mediante Programación Lineal empleando la planilla Solver de la hoja de cálculo Excel. Se determinaron las prolaminas en las harinas de quinua y lupino por el método ELISA y se empleó la técnica del HPLC en los dos productos obtenidos, denominados "mezcla dulce" y "mezcla postre", para definir la cantidad de aminoácidos con la finalidad de suplementar alrededor del 15% de las proteínas requeridas en el día. Las mezclas de harina seleccionadas como óptimas, mezcla dulce, apropiada para la preparación de queques, así como para la mezcla postre, que por adición de agua o leche, da origen a un postre, se evaluaron después de tres meses de almacenamiento, siendo aceptables sus requisitos microbiológicos, bromatológicos y sensoriales, corroborándose los resultados, con la buena aceptación de los productos preparados a partir de las mezclas formuladas, por parte de los menores de 2 Jardines Infantiles de la Ciudad de Antofagasta-Chile.The revaluation of the Andean cultivations, quinua (Chenopodium quinua Willd and lupin (Lupinus albus L., to be used in nutritional mixtures, with traditional cereals like corn (Zea mays L. and rice (Oryza sativa L., originate mixtures without gluten which constitute a good alternative for the nutrition of children under 24 months that suffer from celiac disease, since they improve the quality of

  2. 三种植物精油抑菌效果的研究%Study on Antimicrobial Activity of the Three Plant Essential Oils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米热古丽·伊马木; 余雄; 阿依古丽; 龙宣杞; 王恬

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The antibacterial activities of lavender, rose and grape seed plant essential oils with different concentrations are studied in this paper. [ Method] Essential oils antibacterial activities were investigated by disc diffusion assay method . [ Result] Any concentration of lavender oil and rose oil could inhibit all bacterial species tested in our study, 3 % of lavender oil and rose oil showed the highest antibacterial activity, and activities of grape seed oil were relatively less than those of the others. The antibacterial activity on bacterial species tested in our study of 3% lavender essential oil were Staphylococcus aureus > Bacillus subtilis > Staphylicoccus albus > Lactobacillus plantarum > Escherichia coli > Enterococcus faecalis > Pediococcus pentosaceus, and 3% of rose oil essential oil were Enterococcus faecalis > Pediococcus pertosaceus > Staphylococcus aureus > Staphylicoccus albus > Lnctobacillus plantarum > Escherichia coli > Bacillus subtilis. [Conclusion]The study proved that 3% lavender oil and rose oils had strong antibacterial activities to the bacteria mentioned above and they can be used as natural antibacterial agents.%[目的]研究不同浓度的新疆薰衣草、玫瑰和葡萄籽精油对7种供试菌种的抑菌效果.[方法]采用滤纸片扩散法.[结果]不同浓度的薰衣草、玫瑰和葡萄籽精油对7种供试菌种具有一定的抑菌活性.3%的薰衣草和玫瑰精油对供试菌抑菌效果最好,其中3%薰衣草精油对7种供试菌种抑菌5种菌的活性强度为:金黄色葡萄球菌>枯草芽孢杆菌>白色葡萄球菌>植物乳杆菌>大肠杆菌>粪肠球菌>戊糖片球菌,3%玫瑰精油为:粪肠球菌>戊糖片球菌>金黄色葡萄球菌>白色葡萄球菌>植物乳杆菌>大肠杆菌>枯草芽孢杆菌.葡萄籽精油的抑菌效果相对其它两种精油较弱.[结论]薰衣草和玫瑰精油对上述细菌具有较强的抑菌效果,可作为天然抑菌剂.

  3. 赤水河流域土壤放线菌及其拮抗活性研究%Studies on Antimicrobial Activity of Actinomycetes Isolated from Soils of Chishui River Basin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋培勇; 郑亚强; 李斌; 肖仲久

    2013-01-01

    Soil samples were collected from Maotai town and periphery areas in Chishui river basin. A total of 32 actinomycetes were isolated from 6 soil samples with Gaos No. 1 synthetic medium. Molecular identification and phylogenetic analysis were carried out on 15 isolates selected by morphology and biochemistry characteristics. The results of 16S rDNA sequencing and comparison with the reported data in GenBank revealed that strain MA06 is Nocardioides albus,MA24 is genus of Promicromonospora,and the other 13 isolates are genera of Streptomyces, among which MA03 is Streptomyces fulvissimus,MA14 is Streptomyces europaeiscabiei and MA07 is Streptomyces sp. . Phylogenetic analysis indicated that MA06 and MA24 clustered in 2 branches individually,and the other 13 isolates clustered together,forming the third branch. These facts proved that the distance between these 3 genera of Nocardioides,Promicromonospora and Streptomyces is far off. The antimicrobial efficacy of strains M07,M25,M30 and M32 is powerful by bacteria and fungi test. The results indicated the potential of these isolates may serve as bio-control or antibiotics producing microbes.%  从贵州赤水河流域茅台镇及周边地区采集土样,用高氏1号培养基从6份土样中共分离到放线菌32株,根据形态学和生理生化特征,从中筛选15株进行分子鉴定和系统发育树分析,16S rDNA测序比对结果表明:MA06为白色类诺卡氏菌(Nocardioides albus),MA24为原小单孢菌(Promicromonospora),其余13株为链霉菌(Streptomyces),其中MA03为极暗黄链霉菌(Streptomyces fulvissimus),MA14为Streptomyces europaeiscabiei, MA07属Streptomyces sp..通过构建系统发育树发现:15株放线菌分离株聚为三支,MA06和MA24各单列一支,其余的聚为第三大支,进一步表明了链霉菌属、类诺卡氏菌属和原小单孢菌属相互之间亲缘关系较远.抗菌活性检测发现M07、M25、M30和M32抗菌作用强,预示其作为生防资源菌和抗生素产生菌的潜在价值.

  4. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L. (DL and rapeseed (Brassica napus L. meal (RM. Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L. meal (SBM was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extruded at 120 ºC with 20% moisture. Ruminal degradability was evaluated in situ by incubating feed samples for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h of fermentation in the rumen using three rumen-fistulated dairy cows. Values of CP soluble fraction (“a” in SBM, DL, extruded dehulled lupin (EDL, RM, and extruded rapeseed meal (ERM was lower in the extruded feeds (P El flujo de proteína no degradable en el rumen (RUP hacia el intestino delgado puede ser incrementado si se reduce la degradación ruminal de la proteína dietaria. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la extrusión sobre la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca (DM y proteína cruda (CP de lupino (Lupinus albus L. descascarado (DL y torta de raps (Brassica napus L. (RM. Se utilizó afrecho de soya (Glicine max L. sin extruir (SBM como control. El DL fue extruido a 130 ºC con 20% de humedad y la RM fue extruida a 120 ºC con 20% de humedad. La degradabilidad ruminal se evaluó in situ incubando las muestras de alimentos a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h de fermentación en tres vacas lecheras con fístula ruminal. Los valores de la fracción soluble de la CP (“a” en SBM, en DL, lupino descascarado extruido (EDL, RM y torta de raps extruida (ERM fue menor en los extruidos (P < 0.05. La fracción lentamente degradable (“b” de SBM, DL, EDL, RM y de ERM fue 858; 593; 622 y 451 y 457 g kg-1, respectivamente, y se incrementó por extrusión (P < 0.05. La extrusión redujo la degradabilidad efectiva

  5. Seleção de espécies de adubos verdes visando à fitorremediação de diclosulam Selection of green manure species aiming at diclosulam phytoremediation

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    P.A Monquero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Espécies de adubos verdes tolerantes ao herbicida diclosulam podem ser utilizadas em rotação de culturas para diminuir o efeito fitotóxico subsequente desse herbicida em plantas sensíveis, como o girassol ou milho. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a tolerância de adubos verdes ao diclosulam e a capacidade dessas plantas em diminuir o efeito fitotóxico do herbicida no bioindicador Helianthus annuus. Foram avaliadas, em casa de vegetação, três doses do herbicida diclosulam (0, 0,035 e 0,070 kg i.a. ha-1 em pré-emergência dos adubos verdes Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Canavalia ensiformis, Crotalaria juncea, C. breviflora, C. spectabilis, Mucuna deeringiana, M. cinerea, M. aterrima, Lupinus albus, Helianthus annuus, Pennisetum glaucum, Avena strigosa, Raphanus sativus e Calopogonium muconoides. Entre estas espécies, C. cajan, C. ensiformis, M. cinerea e M. aterrima foram selecionadas como as mais tolerantes, sendo avaliadas no campo com o herbicida diclosulam nas doses de 0, 0,035 e 0,070 kg i.a. ha¹, em esquema fatorial 4 x 3 e quatro repetições. A parte aérea dessas plantas foi coletada após 60 dias da emergência, sendo semeado H. annuus como bioindicador do herbicida diclosulam. Os resultados evidenciaram C. cajan como a espécie mais promissora em diminuir o efeito fitotóxico do diclosulam em culturas agrícolas sensíveis.The tolerance of green manure species to diclosulam can be used in crop rotation schemes aiming to reduce the subsequent phytotoxic effect of this herbicide on sensitive plants, such as sunflower or corn plants. This study evaluated the tolerance of green manure to diclosulan and the capacity of these plants in reducing the phytotoxic effect of this herbicide on Helianthus annuus (sunflower. Three rates of diclosulam (0; 0.035, and 0.070 kg a.i. ha-1 were evaluated under greenhouse conditions in pre-emergence of the following green manures: Dolichos lablab, Cajanus cajan, Canavalis ensiformis

  6. Caracterización proteica de las semillas de once especies de amaranto

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    Vioque, J.

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The protein profile and the amino acid composition of eleven amaranth species have been studied. The following species were taken into account: A. viridis, A. powellii, A.muricatus, A. deflexus, A. graecizans, A. blitoides, A. retroflexus, A. blitum, A. albus, A. cruentus and A. hypochondriacus. Seed samples were obtained from wild populations located in the southwest of Spain. The protein profile was studied by gel filtration chromatography and denaturing electrophoresis. Profiles were similar in all taxa, with small variations in the molecular weights and amounts of the main seed proteins. Thus, after gel filtration chromatography six main fractions of around 300 kDa, 180 kDa, 120 kDa, between 40 and 50 kDa, 20 and 30 kDa and below 10 kDa were observed. On the other hand, the electrophoretic analysis showed peptides grouped into three main fractions, between 50 and 64 kDa, 33 and 37 kDa and 18 and 25 kda. The most balanced amino acid compositions were observed in the wild taxa A. muricatus, A. blitum and A. powellii showed the most equilibrated amino acid composition. A. hypochondriacus and A. graecizans showed the most deficient amino acid composition with limitations in five essential amino acids. These results show the potential of wild amaranthus taxa for their introduction as crops or their use in the improvement by hybridization mechanisms of other crops such as A. hypochondriacus.El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar la composición aminoacídica y el perfil proteico de las semillas de once especies de amaranto. Las especies estudiadas fueron A. viridis, A. powellii, A. muricatus, A. deflexus, A. graecizans, A. blitoides, A. retroflexus, A. blitum, A. albus, A. cruentus y A. hypochondriacus. Se estudiaron poblaciones silvestres de estos taxones localizadas en el suroeste de España. El perfil proteico se estudió mediante cromatografía de filtración en gel y electroforesis desnaturalizante. Este perfil fue similar en todas las

  7. STUDY ON DISINFECTION PERFORMANCE OF A KIND OF CHLORINE FUMIGATION DISINECTANT%一种含氯烟雾消毒剂消毒相关性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贵秋; 庄世锋; 李世康; 高琼; 宋江南; 朱应凯; 马征

    2011-01-01

    Objective To study disinfection performance of a kind of chlorine fumigation disinfectant. Methods The physical and chemical analysis, carrier quantitative germicidal test and animal test were used to carry out laboratory and field observation of this disinfectant. Results In a fog room of 20 m3 lighting this fumigation disinfectant as 3 grains/10 m3, the average killing logarithm value of Escherichia coli which hanging on the gore exposed for 15 min was >3.00; those of Staphylococcus albus and Staphylococcus aureus hanging on the gore exposed for 30 min were > 3.00; the killing rate of Staphylococcus albus artificially contaminated in air exposed for 15 min was >99.90%. Fumigation of normal room with the same concentration and dosage for 30 min could averagely kill 90.00% of the indoor air natural bacteria. The mouse acute oral toxicity LC50 of this disinfectant was > 10 000 mg/m3, and the mouse bone marrow polychromatic erythrocyte micronucleus test was negative. Conclusion This chlorine fumigation disinfectant has good germicidal effect, stable performance and has no toxicity actually.%目的 研究一种含氯烟雾消毒剂消毒相关性能.方法 采用理化分析、载体定量杀菌试验和动物试验方法,对该烟雾消毒剂理化性能、杀菌效果、毒性等进行了试验观察.结果 在20 m3的气雾室内按3粒/10 m3用量点燃该烟雾消毒剂作用15 min,对悬挂在气雾室内布片上的大肠杆菌杀灭对数值均大于3.00;作用30 min对布片上的白色葡萄球菌和金黄色葡萄球菌杀灭对数值均大于3.00;作用15 min对空气中人工染白色葡萄球菌的杀灭率均大于99.90%.按相同用量烟熏作用30 min,对现场普通房间空气中自然菌的消亡率均大于90.00%.该烟雾消毒剂急性吸入毒性LC50值>10 000 mg/m3,小鼠骨髓嗜多染红细胞微核试验结果为阴性.结论 该含氯烟雾消毒剂具有较好的杀菌效果,性能较为稳定,急性吸入毒性试验属实际无毒级.

  8. Coberturas mortas de inverno e controle químico sobre plantas daninhas na cultura do milho

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    Dagoberto Martins

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available RESUMO A escolha correta das culturas para cobertura do solo melhora a sustentabilidade do sistema de cultivo, pois pode potencializar o uso dos herbicidas, reduzir a infestação de plantas daninhas e melhorar o desempenho das culturas. Com o objetivo de estudar o efeito de coberturas mortas de inverno e do uso de herbicidas sobre comunidade de plantas daninhas na cultura do milho, foi realizado um estudo no delineamento inteiramente casualizado com os tratamentos dispostos em parcelas subdivididas, com quatro repetições. As parcelas, em número de seis, foram compostas pelas seguintes culturas de inverno: Lupinus albus, Lathyrus sativos, Triticum aestivum, Avena strigosa, Raphanus sativus, mais uma testemunha mantida em pousio. As subparcelas em número de três, foram compostas por: 1 - pulverização apenas de herbicida de manejo antes da semeadura do milho; 2 - herbicida de manejo após a semeadura do milho + herbicida residual, e 3 - testemunha sem aplicação de herbicidas. As coberturas mortas de aveia-preta e nabo-forrageiro proporcionam as menores densidades de plantas daninhas e acúmulos de massa seca da comunidade infestante, independente da aplicação ou não de herbicidas. Houve uma maior germinação de B. pilosa nas parcelas mantidas com a cobertura de tremoço, com exceção das subparcelas onde se aplicou herbicida em pré-emergência, o que evidencia um efeito estimulante da cobertura morta. O emprego de algumas espécies na formação da cobertura morta para o plantio direto pode dispensar ou reduzir a quantidade de herbicidas necessária para o controle das plantas daninhas.

  9. Molecular analysis of SCARECROW genes expressed in white lupin cluster roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sbabou, Laila; Bucciarelli, Bruna; Miller, Susan; Liu, Junqi; Berhada, Fatiha; Filali-Maltouf, Abdelkarim; Allan, Deborah; Vance, Carroll

    2010-03-01

    The Scarecrow (SCR) transcription factor plays a crucial role in root cell radial patterning and is required for maintenance of the quiescent centre and differentiation of the endodermis. In response to phosphorus (P) deficiency, white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) root surface area increases some 50-fold to 70-fold due to the development of cluster (proteoid) roots. Previously it was reported that SCR-like expressed sequence tags (ESTs) were expressed during early cluster root development. Here the cloning of two white lupin SCR genes, LaSCR1 and LaSCR2, is reported. The predicted amino acid sequences of both LaSCR gene products are highly similar to AtSCR and contain C-terminal conserved GRAS family domains. LaSCR1 and LaSCR2 transcript accumulation localized to the endodermis of both normal and cluster roots as shown by in situ hybridization and gene promoter::reporter staining. Transcript analysis as evaluated by quantitative real-time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and RNA gel hybridization indicated that the two LaSCR genes are expressed predominantly in roots. Expression of LaSCR genes was not directly responsive to the P status of the plant but was a function of cluster root development. Suppression of LaSCR1 in transformed roots of lupin and Medicago via RNAi (RNA interference) delivered through Agrobacterium rhizogenes resulted in decreased root numbers, reflecting the potential role of LaSCR1 in maintaining root growth in these species. The results suggest that the functional orthologues of AtSCR have been characterized.

  10. Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Lupins and Prospects for Grain Quality Improvement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karen M.; Kamphuis, Lars G.; Siddique, Kadambot H. M.; Singh, Karam B.; Foley, Rhonda C.

    2017-01-01

    Quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) are toxic secondary metabolites found within the genus Lupinus, some species of which are commercially important grain legume crops including Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, NLL), L. luteus (yellow lupin), L. albus (white lupin), and L. mutabilis (pearl lupin), with NLL grain being the most largely produced of the four species in Australia and worldwide. While QAs offer the plants protection against insect pests, the accumulation of QAs in lupin grain complicates its use for food purposes as QA levels must remain below the industry threshold (0.02%), which is often exceeded. It is not well understood what factors cause grain QA levels to exceed this threshold. Much of the early work on QA biosynthesis began in the 1970–1980s, with many QA chemical structures well-characterized and lupin cell cultures and enzyme assays employed to identify some biosynthetic enzymes and pathway intermediates. More recently, two genes associated with these enzymes have been characterized, however, the QA biosynthetic pathway remains only partially elucidated. Here, we review the research accomplished thus far concerning QAs in lupin and consider some possibilities for further elucidation and manipulation of the QA pathway in lupin crops, drawing on examples from model alkaloid species. One breeding strategy for lupin is to produce plants with high QAs in vegetative tissues while low in the grain in order to confer insect resistance to plants while keeping grain QA levels within industry regulations. With the knowledge achieved on alkaloid biosynthesis in other plant species in recent years, and the recent development of genomic and transcriptomic resources for NLL, there is considerable scope to facilitate advances in our knowledge of QAs, leading to the production of improved lupin crops. PMID:28197163

  11. Lupine-induced anaphylaxis in a child without known food allergy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wassenberg, Jacqueline; Hofer, Michael

    2007-06-01

    Lupine allergy is caused by ingestion of the flour of a plant called Lupinus albus, a member of the Leguminosae family. Lupine allergy has been described in adult patients previously known to have peanut allergy (cross-reactivity). To describe the first case of an anaphylactic reaction caused by ingestion of lupine flour in a pediatric patient without a known peanut allergy. Symptom assessment, nutritional history, and skin and blood tests. An otherwise healthy 8-year-old boy had nose and eye discharge followed by facial edema and difficulty breathing 30 minutes after eating an industrially prepared waffle containing eggs, sugar, and lupine flour. He had no history of food allergy and was eating a normal diet, including peanuts and other legumes. Results of skin prick tests using commercial extracts were positive to peanuts and negative to eggs, soy, and nuts; results of a prick-to-prick test using lupine flour were strongly positive (+ + + +). His total IgE level was 1,237 UI/mL. Specific IgE antibodies were positive to lupine seeds (20.8 kU/L) and peanuts (> 100 kU/L). To our knowledge, we describe the first case of an anaphylactic reaction after ingestion of lupine flour in a child without known allergy. In the case of peanut allergy or any anaphylactic reaction without evident cause, especially after industrially prepared food ingestion, lupine should be considered in the list of allergens tested. Lupine is increasingly used in industrially prepared food but is not regularly declared in the composition, leading to difficulties in allergen avoidance.

  12. Yield and nitrogen fixation potential from white lupine grown in rainfed Mediterranean environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Sulas

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT There is renewed interest in white lupine (Lupinus albus L., which is appreciated for its high protein content, full range of essential amino acids and as N source to rainfed cropping systems. Unfortunately, information on its N2 fixation ability is limited. This study aimed to: (i quantify the N2 fixation ability of white lupine crop at the plot field scale in three different environments of Sardinia (Italy under Mediterranean climate; (ii determine the allocation of the plant-fixed N into different organs; and (iii establish the relationship between fixed N and DM within plant organs. In a 2-year experiment, N2 fixation was estimated using the 15N isotopic dilution method. The productive performances and ability of white lupine to fix N2 widely differed in the three environments; peak values exceeded 300 kg ha−1 of fixed N. There were significant differences in the quantity of fixed N found in each plant organ at physiological maturity with 5, 20, 19 and 57 % of fixed N partitioned to roots, shoots, pod valves and grain, respectively. After grain harvesting, the net N balance ranged from negative values to 160 kg N ha−1. The relationship between fixed N and DM yield indicated 60, 34, 8 and 6 kg of fixed N per t of grain, pod valves, shoots and root, respectively, showing that fixed N preferentially accumulated in seeds at physiological maturity. Due to its high potential for N2 fixation and N benefit, white lupine represents a valuable crop option under rainfed Mediterranean conditions.

  13. Sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for the detection of lupine residues in foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaw, C H; Hefle, S L; Taylor, S L

    2008-10-01

    Lupine has been increasingly used in food applications due to its high nutritional value and excellent functional properties. However, lupine provokes allergic reactions in susceptible individuals. The presence of undeclared lupine residues in foods can pose a serious health risk to lupine-allergic individuals. Therefore, the objective of this research was to develop a sandwich-type ELISA for the detection of lupine residues in foods. Lupine flour derived from Lupinus albus was used to immunize 3 rabbits and a sheep. Pooled lupine-specific antibodies were partially purified from the sera by ammonium sulfate precipitation. A sandwich lupine ELISA with a limit of quantification (LOQ) of 1 ppm was developed by utilizing the rabbit antisera as the capture reagent and the sheep antiserum as the detector reagent. The binding of the antigen-antibody complex was visualized by the addition of commercial rabbit antisheep IgG antibody labeled with alkaline phosphatase with subsequent addition of p-nitrophenyl phosphate substrate to produce a colored product for quantification. Minor cross-reactivity was observed with soy (Glycine max) and black bean (Castanospermum australe). The performance of the lupine ELISA was evaluated in reference food standards (beef frankfurter and apple cinnamon muffin) and laboratory-prepared cooked frankfurters and corn muffins. The mean percent recovery for lupine spiked-frankfurters and corn muffins were 108.4%+/- 8.8% and 103.1%+/- 11.5%, respectively. The sandwich-type lupine ELISA developed in this study provides food manufacturers and regulatory agencies with an effective analytical tool to detect and quantify lupine residues in processed foods.

  14. Nutrientes minerais na biomassa da parte aérea em culturas de cobertura de solo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borkert Clóvis Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar as quantidades de nutrientes reciclados por cinco espécies vegetais utilizadas como culturas de cobertura do solo e que podem retornar ao solo pela mineralização da biomassa. Foram coletadas de vários experimentos amostras da matéria verde de aveia-preta (Avena strigosa Schreb, mucu-napreta (Stizolobium aterrimum Piper & Tracy, guandu (Cajanus cajan (L. Millsp, tremoço (Lupinus albus L. e L. angustifolius L. e ervilhaca (Vicia sativa L.. Foi estimado o rendimento de matéria seca e determinados os teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Mn, Zn, Cu, e, a partir dessas concentrações, foram calculadas a média observada, a média estimada e o intervalo de confiança a 95% para cada nutriente dentro de cada classe de rendimento de matéria seca, em cada espécie vegetal. Os dados foram tabulados dentro de intervalos de classe de rendimento de matéria seca e apresentadas as quantidades estimadas de nutrientes minerais. Foram ajustadas equações para estimar as quantidades desses nutrientes. A aveia-preta e a ervilhaca reciclam grande quantidade de K, e a ervilhaca, a mucu-napreta, o tremoço e o guandu reciclam grande quantidade de N. Todas as espécies reciclam quantidades apreciáveis de Ca, Mg e micronutrientes, porém baixas quantidades de P. A rotação de culturas é um meio de implementar com sucesso o aumento das áreas de lavoura em semeadura direta.

  15. Acute toxicity of sodium bicarbonate, a major component of coal bed natural gas produced waters, to 13 aquatic species as defined in the laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, David D.; Farag, Aida M.; Skaar, Don

    2014-01-01

    Water produced during coal bed natural gas (CBNG) extraction in the Powder River Structural Basin of Wyoming and Montana (USA) may contain concentrations of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) of more than 3000 mg/L. The authors evaluated the acute toxicity of NaHCO3, also expressed as bicarbonate (HCO3−), to 13 aquatic organisms. Of the 13 species tested, 7 had a median lethal concentration (LC50) less than 2000 mg/L NaHCO3, or 1300 mg/L HCO3−. The most sensitive species were Ceriodaphnia dubia, freshwater mussels (Lampsilis siliquoidea), pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), and shovelnose sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus platorynchus). The respective LC50s were 989 mg/L, 1120 mg/L, 1249 mg/L, and 1430 mg/L NaHCO3, or 699 mg/L, 844 mg/L, 831 mg/L, and 1038 mg/L HCO3−. Age affected the sensitivity of fathead minnows, even within life stage. Two days posthatch, fathead minnows were more sensitive to NaHCO3 and HCO3− compared with 4-d-old fish, even though fish up to 14 d old are commonly used for toxicity evaluations. The authors recommend that ion toxicity exposures be conducted with organisms less than 24 h posthatch to ensure that experiments document the most sensitive stage of development. The results of the present study, along with historical and current research regarding the toxicity of bicarbonate, may be useful to establish regulatory standards for HCO3−.

  16. Contribution of heavy metals and As-loaded lupin root mineralization to the availability of the pollutants in multi-contaminated soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vazquez, S. [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra Colmenar Km 15, 28049 Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: saul.vazquez@uam.es; Carpena, R.O. [Department of Agricultural Chemistry, Facultad de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Madrid, Ctra Colmenar Km 15, 28049 Madrid (Spain); Bernal, M.P. [Department of Soil and Water Conservation and Organic Waste Management, Centro de Edafologia y Biologia Aplicada del Segura, CSIC, Apartado 164, 30100 Espinardo, Murcia (Spain)

    2008-03-15

    White lupin (Lupinus albus L.) is an annual crop that has been used for phytostabilization of acidified multi-contaminated soils. Once the culture cycle is over, after shoot harvesting, a progressive transference of contaminants from roots to soil may take place as decomposition of roots occurs. An incubation experiment with Cu, Zn, Cd, and As-loaded roots of white lupin and soils with different pH values and concentrations of these contaminants from the area affected by a mine spill at Aznalcollar (near Seville, Spain) was performed in order to assess the effect of the decomposition of the roots to the pH and (NH{sub 4}){sub 2}SO{sub 4}-extractable levels of these pollutants in the soils. Pollutants loaded-roots were mineralized (56 d) at a ratio similar to animal manures (15.8-19.4% of total organic carbon) in soil. The estimated root inputs of contaminants in comparison to their extractable concentrations in soil were high, especially in the control, non-contaminated and neutral contaminated soils. However, the extractable concentrations of the toxic elements in the soil were mainly governed by soil pH. Hence, the correction and maintenance of the soil pH within the range 5-6 after lupin culture is essential for long-time phytostabilization of acidified multi-contaminated soils. - Maintaining soil pH close to/around 5.5 after lupin culture will be essential for long-time phytostabilization of soils contaminated with heavy metals and arsenic.

  17. Dynamic habitat selection by two wading bird species with divergent foraging strategies in a seasonally fluctuating wetland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beerens, J.M.; Gawlik, D.E.; Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.

    2011-01-01

    Seasonal and annual variation in food availability during the breeding season plays an influential role in the population dynamics of many avian species. In highly dynamic ecosystems like wetlands, finding and exploiting food resources requires a flexible behavioral response that may produce different population trends that vary with a species' foraging strategy. We quantified dynamic foraging-habitat selection by breeding and radiotagged White Ibises (Eudocimus albus) and Great Egrets (Ardea alba) in the Florida Everglades, where fluctuation in food resources is pronounced because of seasonal drying and flooding. The White Ibis is a tactile "searcher" species in population decline that specializes on highly concentrated prey, whereas the Great Egret, in a growing population, is a visual "exploiter" species that requires lower prey concentrations. In a year with high food availability, resource-selection functions for both species included variables that changed over multiannual time scales and were associated with increased prey production. In a year with low food availability, resource-selection functions included short-term variables that concentrated prey (e.g., water recession rates and reversals in drying pattern), which suggests an adaptive response to poor foraging conditions. In both years, the White Ibis was more restricted in its use of habitats than the Great Egret. Real-time species-habitat suitability models were developed to monitor and assess the daily availability and quality of spatially explicit habitat resources for both species. The models, evaluated through hindcasting using independent observations, demonstrated that habitat use of the more specialized White Ibis was more accurately predicted than that of the more generalist Great Egret. ?? The American Ornithologists' Union, 2011.

  18. Defining and Identifying Functional Habitat to Inform Species Recovery on a Large Regulated River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, S.; Jacobson, R. B.; Elliott, C. M.; Gemeinhardt, T.; Welker, T.; DeLonay, A. J.; Chojnacki, K.

    2014-12-01

    Goals and objectives for the restoration of aquatic ecosystems often focus on species recovery, but often the primary tools available to managers involve the manipulation of flow regime and physical habitat. Management decisions thus rely on hypotheses about the links between management actions, the response of physical habitat, and the assumed response of a target organism. Ongoing efforts to inform management of the Missouri River as part of Missouri River Restoration Project are focused on the recovery of three endangered species, including the pallid sturgeon (Scaphirhynchus albus), which is endemic to the Mississippi River basin. Recovery of the pallid sturgeon is hampered by uncertainties surrounding the definition and dynamics of ecologically significant habitats for the fish across a range of life stages. Of special interest are constructed side-channel chutes. Construction of these features has emerged as one of the primary restoration techniques used on the Lower Missouri River, yet much remains to be learned about the effectiveness of these chutes in the effort to recover pallid sturgeon. It remains unclear whether these constructed features provide habitat that may be beneficial to the species and for which life stages. Biologists hypothesize that these areas may be critical for larval retention, refugia, food production, foraging, or spawning. We present the integration of a suite of data - high-resolution hydroacoustic data, hydrodynamic modeling, biotic inventories, and laboratory experiments - designed to refine our understanding of habitat dynamics critical during the early life stages of the pallid sturgeon. We present our findings in the context of ongoing restoration activities in the basin and describe how fundamental science exploring habitat dynamics may be incorporated within the existing adaptive management framework.

  19. A comparison of avian communities and habitat characteristics in floodplain forests associated with valley plugs and unchannelized streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pierce, A.R.; King, Sammy L.

    2011-01-01

    Channelization of streams associated with floodplain forested wetlands has occurred extensively throughout the world and specifically in the southeastern United States. Channelization of fluvial systems alters the hydrologic and sedimentation processes that sustain these systems. In western Tennessee, channelization and past land-use practices have caused drastic geomorphic and hydrologic changes, resulting in altered habitat conditions that may affect avian communities. The objective of this study was to determine if there were differences in avian communities utilizing floodplain forests along unchannelized streams compared to channelized streams with valley plugs, areas where sediment has completely filled the channel. During point count surveys, 58 bird species were observed at unchannelized sites and 60 species were observed at valley plug sites. Species associated with baldcypress-tupelo (Taxodium-Nyssa) swamps (e.g. Great Egret (Ardea albus) and Black-crowned Night Heron (Nycticorax nycticorax)) and mature hardwood forests with open midstories (e.g. Eastern Wood-Pewee (Contopus virens), Yellow-throated Vireo (Vireo flavifrons), Cerulean Warbler (Dendroica cerulea) and Scarlet Tanager (Piranga olivacea)) were either only found at unchannelized sites or were more abundant at unchannelized sites. Conversely, species associated with open and early successional habitats (e.g. Tree Swallow (Tachycineta bicolor), Northern Mockingbird (Mimus polyglottos) and Blue Grosbeak (Passerina caerulea)) were either only found at valley plug sites or were more abundant at valley plug sites. Results of habitat modelling suggest that the habitat characteristics of floodplain forests at unchannelized sites are more suitable for Neotropical migrant bird species of conservation concern in the region than at valley plug sites. This study, in combination with previous research, demonstrates the ecological impacts of valley plugs span across abiotic and biotic processes and tropic

  20. Quinolizidine Alkaloid Biosynthesis in Lupins and Prospects for Grain Quality Improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frick, Karen M; Kamphuis, Lars G; Siddique, Kadambot H M; Singh, Karam B; Foley, Rhonda C

    2017-01-01

    Quinolizidine alkaloids (QAs) are toxic secondary metabolites found within the genus Lupinus, some species of which are commercially important grain legume crops including Lupinus angustifolius (narrow-leafed lupin, NLL), L. luteus (yellow lupin), L. albus (white lupin), and L. mutabilis (pearl lupin), with NLL grain being the most largely produced of the four species in Australia and worldwide. While QAs offer the plants protection against insect pests, the accumulation of QAs in lupin grain complicates its use for food purposes as QA levels must remain below the industry threshold (0.02%), which is often exceeded. It is not well understood what factors cause grain QA levels to exceed this threshold. Much of the early work on QA biosynthesis began in the 1970-1980s, with many QA chemical structures well-characterized and lupin cell cultures and enzyme assays employed to identify some biosynthetic enzymes and pathway intermediates. More recently, two genes associated with these enzymes have been characterized, however, the QA biosynthetic pathway remains only partially elucidated. Here, we review the research accomplished thus far concerning QAs in lupin and consider some possibilities for further elucidation and manipulation of the QA pathway in lupin crops, drawing on examples from model alkaloid species. One breeding strategy for lupin is to produce plants with high QAs in vegetative tissues while low in the grain in order to confer insect resistance to plants while keeping grain QA levels within industry regulations. With the knowledge achieved on alkaloid biosynthesis in other plant species in recent years, and the recent development of genomic and transcriptomic resources for NLL, there is considerable scope to facilitate advances in our knowledge of QAs, leading to the production of improved lupin crops.

  1. Concentrations of lead, cadmium, mercury and other elements in seeds of Lupinus mutabilis and of other legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, R; Auslitz, J; Schramel, P; Payer, H D

    1987-01-01

    Several species of legumes and varieties of lupins were examined for their heavy metal content in the seeds. Atomic absorption spectrometry was the main analytical tool. Validity and reproducibility of the results was checked by analyzing the same materials at two different laboratories performing the same technique. Additionally, inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy was applied. In grains of Lupinus mutabilis which constitute a traditional food in Andean populations, the following contents of heavy metals were determined: 0.10-0.25 microgram/g Cd; 0.5-1.6 microgram/g Pb; 0.10-0.15 microgram/g Hg. Seeds of other legumes contained 0.05-0.35 microgram/g Cd; 0.1-0.2 microgram/g Pb; 0.01-0.04 microgram/g Hg. The high lead content of lupins is easily reduced to one tenth by traditional extraction with boiling water. The mercury content, too, is decreased by this technique. The high manganese content of 1 300-1,400 micrograms/g of Lupinus albus compared to other legumes (25-37 micrograms/g) seems to be characteristic for this species and may be of nutritional significance. The comparison of the heavy metal contents of legume seeds of different origin and variety indicates a complex pattern of environmental and genetic factors that contribute to the specific metal contents of individual harvests. On the level of varieties the environmental factors (climate, soil, geology, agricultural techniques) seem to exhibit more important influences on the specific accumulation of heavy metals than genetic factors. In contrast, on the level of species or genera, the accumulation of heavy metals seems to be dominated by genetic factors rather than by environmental influences.

  2. Effects of dietary supplementation of rumen-protected folic acid on rumen fermentation, degradability and excretion of urinary purine derivatives in growing steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Cong; Liu, Qiang; Guo, Gang; Huo, WenJie; Ma, Le; Zhang, YanLi; Pei, CaiXia; Zhang, ShuanLin; Wang, Hao

    2016-12-01

    The present experiment was undertaken to determine the effects of dietary addition of rumen-protected folic acid (RPFA) on ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, enzyme activity and the relative quantity of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in growing beef steers. Eight rumen-cannulated Jinnan beef steers averaging 2.5 years of age and 419 ± 1.9 kg body weight were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design. The four treatments comprised supplementation levels of 0 (Control), 70, 140 and 210 mg RPFA/kg dietary dry matter (DM). On DM basis, the ration consisted of 50% corn silage, 47% concentrate and 3% soybean oil. The DM intake (averaged 8.5 kg/d) was restricted to 95% of ad libitum intake. The intake of DM, crude protein (CP) and net energy for growth was not affected by treatments. In contrast, increasing RPFA supplementation increased average daily gain and the concentration of total volatile fatty acid and reduced ruminal pH linearly. Furthermore, increasing RPFA supplementation enhanced the acetate to propionate ratio and reduced the ruminal ammonia N content linearly. The ruminal effective degradability of neutral detergent fibre from corn silage and CP from concentrate improved linearly and was highest for the highest supplementation levels. The activities of cellobiase, xylanase, pectinase and α-amylase linearly increased, but carboxymethyl-cellulase and protease were not affected by the addition of RPFA. The relative quantities of Butyrivibrio fibrisolvens, Ruminococcus albus, Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes increased linearly. With increasing RPFA supplementation levels, the excretion of urinary purine derivatives was also increased linearly. The present results indicated that the supplementation of RPFA improved ruminal fermentation, nutrient degradability, activities of microbial enzymes and the relative quantity of the ruminal cellulolytic bacteria in a dose-dependent manner. According to the conditions of this

  3. A descriptive study on prevalence of bacterial pathogens in diabetic ulcer and Interventional component for the prevention of foot ulcers

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    Jerlin Priya, Rajamanickam Rajkumar, Bakthasingh

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes is considered to have reached epidemic proportions worldwide. The most distressing complication of diabetes is foot ulcer and is the major cause of lower limb amputation. Hence, they require a prolonged hospital stay to combat more serious complications like gangrene and lower limb amputation. Early detection and prompt treatment help in alleviating the ulceration. Methods: The present study was conducted among 50 diabetes patients. Study subjects were selected using non probability purposive sampling technique. Pus samples were collected by using sterile swabs in a sterile manner from the ulcerated area. The wounds are washed vigorously with normal saline solution before collection of specimen. The specimens were transported immediately to the laboratory for culture. The clinical specimens were first screened microscopically by Gram’s stain, and then cultured on blood agar (aerobically and an aerobically, MacConkey agar and Robertson cooked meat broth for 48 hours at 37°C in 5-10 percent CO2 and bacteria’s were isolated. Results: The socio demographic profile of the present study reveals that males were predominant among the study population. Type II diabetes was more common, majority of study subjects are suffering from diabetes for more than 5 years and are treated with oral hypoglycemic drugs. The wound size was ≤ 2cms in majority of study subjects. The bacteriological profile of diabetic ulcer reveals that a majority of 23 (46% had growth of Staphylococcus aureus and 19 (38% had growth of klebsiella and a minimum of 6 (12% and 2 (4% had grown of Pseudomonas and Staphylococcus albus. Conclusion: Early detection of these bacterial pathogens helps to minimize the disease progress.

  4. Rumen microbial abundance and fermentation profile during severe subacute ruminal acidosis and its modulation by plant derived alkaloids in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mickdam, Elsayed; Khiaosa-Ard, Ratchaneewan; Metzler-Zebeli, Barbara U; Klevenhusen, Fenja; Chizzola, Remigius; Zebeli, Qendrim

    2016-06-01

    Rumen microbiota have important metabolic functions for the host animal. This study aimed at characterizing changes in rumen microbial abundances and fermentation profiles using a severe subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) in vitro model, and to evaluate a potential modulatory role of plant derived alkaloids (PDA), containing quaternary benzophenanthridine and protopine alkaloids, of which sanguinarine and chelerythrine were the major bioactive compounds. Induction of severe SARA strongly affected the rumen microbial composition and fermentation variables without suppressing the abundance of total bacteria. Protozoa and fungi were more sensitive to the low ruminal pH condition than bacteria. Induction of severe SARA clearly depressed degradation of fiber (P < 0.001), which came along with a decreased relative abundance of fibrolytic Ruminococcus albus and Fibrobacter succinogenes (P < 0.001). Under severe SARA conditions, the genus Prevotella, Lactobacillus group, Megasphaera elsdenii, and Entodinium spp. (P < 0.001) were more abundant, whereas Ruminobacter amylophilus was less abundant. SARA largely suppressed methane formation (-70%, P < 0.001), although total methanogenic 16S rRNA gene abundance was not affected. According to principal component analysis, Methanobrevibacter spp. correlated to methane concentration. Addition of PDA modulated ruminal fermentation under normal conditions such as enhanced (P < 0.05) concentration of total SCFA, propionate and valerate, and increased (P < 0.05) degradation of crude protein compared with the unsupplemented control diet. Our results indicate strong shifts in the microbial community during severe SARA compared to normal conditions. Supplementation of PDA positively modulates ruminal fermentation under normal ruminal pH conditions.

  5. Blad-Containing Oligomer Fungicidal Activity on Human Pathogenic Yeasts. From the Outside to the Inside of the Target Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinheiro, Ana M.; Carreira, Alexandra; Rollo, Filipe; Fernandes, Rui; Ferreira, Ricardo B.; Monteiro, Sara A.

    2016-01-01

    Blad polypeptide comprises residues 109–281 of Lupinus albus β-conglutin precursor. It occurs naturally as a major subunit of an edible, 210 kDa oligomer which accumulates to high levels, exclusively in the cotyledons of Lupinus seedlings between the 4th and 14th day after the onset of germination. Blad-containing oligomer (BCO) exhibits a potent and broad spectrum fungicide activity toward plant pathogens and is now on sale in the US under the tradename FractureTM. In this work we demonstrate its antifungal activity toward human pathogens and provide some insights on its mode of action. BCO bioactivity was evaluated in eight yeast species and compared to that of amphotericin B (AMB). BCO behaved similarly to AMB in what concerns both cellular inhibition and cellular death. As a lectin, BCO binds strongly to chitin. In addition, BCO is known to possess ‘exochitinase’ and ‘endochitosanase’ activities. However, no clear disruption was visualized at the cell wall after exposure to a lethal BCO concentration, except in cell buds. Immunofluorescent and immunogold labeling clearly indicate that BCO enters the cell, and membrane destabilization was also demonstrated. The absence of haemolytic activity, its biological origin, and its extraordinary antifungal activity are the major outcomes of this work, and provide a solid background for a future application as a new antifungal therapeutic drug. Furthermore, its predictable multisite mode of action suggests a low risk of inducing resistance mechanisms, which are now a major problem with other currently available antifungal drugs. PMID:27933037

  6. Wild food plants used in traditional vegetable mixtures in Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V

    2016-06-05

    Mixtures of wild food plants, part of the Mediterranean diet, have potential benefits for their content in bioactive compounds, minerals and fibers. In Italy, wild plants are still consumed in various ways, for their taste, effects on health and nutritional value. In this paper, we provide a list of wild plants used in vegetable mixtures, indicating their phytochemical and nutritional profile, highlighting those not yet studied. We provide a first complete review of traditional uses of wild food plants used as vegetables and their preparations (e.g., salads, soups, rustic pies). We also highlight their phytochemical constituents. We carried out an extensive literature review of ethnobotanical publications from 1894 to date for finding plants used in traditional vegetable mixtures. We also performed an online search for scientific papers providing the phytochemical profile of plants that were cited at least twice in recipes found in the literature. We list a total of 276 wild taxa used in traditional vegetable mixtures, belonging to 40 families. Among these, the most represented are Asteraceae (88), Brassicaceae (33), Apiaceae (21), Amaranthaceae (12). Many plants are cited in many recipes across several Italian regions. Among the most cited plant we note: Reichardia picroides (L.) Roth, Sanguisorba minor Scop., Taraxacum campylodes G. E. Haglund, Urtica dioica L. Tuscany is the region with the highest number of food recipes that incorporate wild plants used as vegetables. We also list the phytochemical constituents and some pharmacological activities of the plants cited at least twice. Finally, we discuss topics such as the taste of plants used in the recipes. Nineteen edible wild plants, such as Asparagus albus L., Campanula trachelium L., Hypochaeris laevigata (L.) Benth. & Hook f., Phyteuma spicatum L., Scolymus grandiflorus Desf., are not yet studied as regards their phytochemical and nutritional profile. Some plants should be avoided due to the presence of

  7. Effect of yeast with bacteriocin from rumen bacteria on laying performance, blood biochemistry, faecal microbiota and egg quality of laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H T; Shih, W Y; Chen, S W; Wang, S Y

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of yeast with bacteriocin from Ruminococcus albus 7 (albusin B) on physiological state and production performance of laying hens. One hundred and twenty 26-week-old Single Comb White Leghorn (Hyline) laying hens were assigned into five groups including: (i) control group, (ii) yeast control (YC), (iii) 0.125% yeast with bacteriocin (0.125B), (iv) 0.25% yeast with bacteriocin (0.25B) and (v) 0.5% yeast with bacteriocin (0.5B). All supplements were added to the experimental diets of the hens from 26 to 46 weeks of age. Samples were collected every 4 weeks. Blood samples were collected from the wing vein for blood biochemical parameters assay, and faecal samples were collected by swab for the microbiota test. The egg production performance was recorded daily, and fresh eggs were collected for quality test. The blood biochemical assay results indicated that the addition of yeast with bacteriocin decreased the AST (aspartate aminotransferase) activity and it also affects the lactate concentration in laying hen blood. The result of egg quality indicated that yeast with bacteriocin supplementation had no effect on the mass of yolk and the strength of eggshell, but it had positive effect on the laying performance under hot environment. Low concentration bacteriocin (0.125B) supplementation could decrease total yolk cholesterol. The faecal microbiota result indicated that the supplementation of bacteriocin increased the lactobacilli counts. The yeast with bacteriocin supplementation significantly decreased the clostridia counts under hot environment condition, especially in hens receiving 0.25B. Combining the data from clinic chemistry, faecal microbiota, egg production and egg quality, the 0.25B supplementation may result in the best physiological parameter and egg production performance of laying hen.

  8. Perceived health properties of wild and cultivated food plants in local and popular traditions of Italy: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarrera, P M; Savo, V

    2013-04-19

    Many wild and cultivated plants are rich in mineral elements and bioactive compounds and are consumed for health purposes. Studies have demonstrated the curative properties of many of these food plants. In this paper, we discuss the properties of several plants with potential health benefits that have previously received little attention. This review provides an overview and critical discussion of food plants perceived by informants (emic view) as healthy or used as 'food medicine' in Italy. Pharmacological activity of these plants is explored, based upon published scientific research (etic view). Preparation methods, taste perception, toxicity and various potentialities of some food plants are also discussed. The present review includes literature available from 1877 to 2012. The information was collected from books, scientific papers, and abstracts that reported any plants used as food medicine in Italy. The perceived health properties were analyzed in the framework of recent international phytochemical and phytopharmacological literature. A total of 67 edible wild plants and 18 cultivated vegetables, distributed into 20 families, were reported by informants (in literature). Several plants were highly cited (e.g., Taraxacum officinale Webb., Crepis vesicaria L., Allium cepa L., Allium sativum L.). The most frequent health properties attributed to edible plants by the informants were: laxative (22 species), diuretic (15), digestive (11), galactagogue (8), antitussive (cough) (8), hypotensive (7), tonic (7), sedative (7), hypoglycemic (6). Some edible plants are promising for their potential health properties, such as Crepis vesicaria L., Sanguisorba minor Scop. and Sonchus oleraceus L. Several wild species were perceived by informants to maintain health but have never been studied from a phytochemical or pharmacological point of view: e.g., Asparagus albus L., Crepis leontodontoides All., Hyoseris radiata L. subsp. radiata, Phyteuma spicatum L. Copyright © 2013

  9. Screening currency notes for microbial pathogens and antibiotic resistance genes using a shotgun metagenomic approach.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saakshi Jalali

    Full Text Available Fomites are a well-known source of microbial infections and previous studies have provided insights into the sojourning microbiome of fomites from various sources. Paper currency notes are one of the most commonly exchanged objects and its potential to transmit pathogenic organisms has been well recognized. Approaches to identify the microbiome associated with paper currency notes have been largely limited to culture dependent approaches. Subsequent studies portrayed the use of 16S ribosomal RNA based approaches which provided insights into the taxonomical distribution of the microbiome. However, recent techniques including shotgun sequencing provides resolution at gene level and enable estimation of their copy numbers in the metagenome. We investigated the microbiome of Indian paper currency notes using a shotgun metagenome sequencing approach. Metagenomic DNA isolated from samples of frequently circulated denominations of Indian currency notes were sequenced using Illumina Hiseq sequencer. Analysis of the data revealed presence of species belonging to both eukaryotic and prokaryotic genera. The taxonomic distribution at kingdom level revealed contigs mapping to eukaryota (70%, bacteria (9%, viruses and archae (~1%. We identified 78 pathogens including Staphylococcus aureus, Corynebacterium glutamicum, Enterococcus faecalis, and 75 cellulose degrading organisms including Acidothermus cellulolyticus, Cellulomonas flavigena and Ruminococcus albus. Additionally, 78 antibiotic resistance genes were identified and 18 of these were found in all the samples. Furthermore, six out of 78 pathogens harbored at least one of the 18 common antibiotic resistance genes. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of shotgun metagenome sequence dataset of paper currency notes, which can be useful for future applications including as bio-surveillance of exchangeable fomites for infectious agents.

  10. An intensive search for promising fungal biological control agents of ticks, particularly Rhipicephalus microplus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Everton K K; Angelo, Isabele C; Rangel, Drauzio E N; Bahiense, Thiago C; Moraes, Aurea M L; Roberts, Donald W; Bittencourt, Vânia R E P

    2011-12-15

    Entomopathogenic fungi have been investigated worldwide as promising biological control agents of the cattle tick Rhipicephalus microplus. The current study evaluates the virulence of several fungal isolates to R. microplus larva in the laboratory as part of an effort to identify isolates with promise for effective biocontrol of R. microplus in the field. Sixty fungal isolates, encompassing 5 Beauveria spp. and 1 Engyodontium albus (=Beauveria alba), were included in this study. In addition to bioassays, the isolates were characterized morphologically and investigated as to their potential for conidial mass production. These findings were correlated with previous reports on the same fungal isolates of their natural UV-B tolerance (Fernandes et al., 2007), thermotolerance and cold activity (Fernandes et al., 2008), and genotypes (Fernandes et al., 2009). R. microplus larvae obtained from artificially infested calves were less susceptible to Beauveria bassiana infection than ticks acquired from naturally infested cattle from a different location. Isolates CG 464, CG 500 and CG 206 were among the most virulent Beauveria isolates tested in this study. All fungal isolates presented morphological features consistent with their species descriptions. Of the 53 B. bassiana isolates, five (CG 481, CG 484, CG 206, CG 235 and CG 487) had characteristics that qualified them as promising candidates for biological control agents of R. microplus, viz., mean LC(50) between 10(7) and 10(8)conidiaml(-1); produced 5000 conidia or more on 60mm(2) surface area of PDAY medium; and, in comparison to untreated (control) conidia, had the best conidial tolerances to UV-B (7.04 kJ m(-2)) and heat (45°C, 2h) of 50% or higher, and conidial cold (5°C, 15d) activity (mycelial growth) higher than 60%. The current study of 60 Beauveria spp. isolates, therefore, singles out a few (five) with high potential for controlling ticks under field conditions.

  11. Effects of Immunization of Goatpox Oral Vaccines on Goat Rumen Bacteria Content%山羊痘口服疫苗免疫后对其瘤胃中主要细菌含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙冲冲; 陈俊; 江楠; 李翡; 周碧君; 文明

    2012-01-01

    In order to clarify the safety for goats after immunized goatpox oral vaccine, the content of main bacteria of rumen was determined by Real-time PCR. The results showed that the first 30 days after immunization, oral vaccine group performed a certain degree of change in three cellulolytic bacteria of Ruminococcus albus , Ruminococcus flavefaciens and Fibrobacter succinogenes, but 30 days later, the contents of the three kinds of rumen cellulolytic bacteria showed no significant difference with the control group, indicating that the oral vaccine did not cause the disorder of rumen microflora and it was safe.%为弄清山羊痘口服疫苗免疫后对山羊的安全性,采用实时定量PCR方法,对山羊免疫后瘤胃中主要细菌的含量进行了测定.结果表明:口服疫苗组山羊瘤胃中白色瘤胃球菌、产琥珀酸丝状杆菌和黄化瘤胃球菌3种纤维分解菌在30 d前会产生一定程度的变化,但30 d后,瘤胃中的3种纤维分解菌的含量变化与空白对照组差异不显著,口服疫苗未造成瘤胃微生态紊乱,具有较好的安全性.

  12. Effect of cover crop extracts on cotton and radish radicle elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randy L. Raper

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Research has shown that some cover crops are allelopathic and can inhibit weed germination and growth. Additionally, negative allelopathic effects have been documented in cash crops planted into cover crop residue. However, little literature exists comparing relative the allelopathic potential of cover crops producers utilize in conservation-agriculture systems. This study assessed the effects of twelve cover crop extracts on radish (Raphanus sativus L. and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. radicle elongation, in three trials, using an extract-agar bioassay. In Trial 1 the cover crops were black oat (Avena strigosa Schreb cv. SoilSaver, crimson clover (Trifolium incarnatum L. cv. AU Robin, white lupin (Lupinus albus L. cvs. AU Homer and AU Alpha, rye (Secale cereale L. cv. Elbon, wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Vigoro Grazer, and triticale (X Triticosecale Wittmack cv. Trical 2700. In Trial 2 the cover crops were forage rape (Brassica napus L. var. napus cv. Licapo, sunn hemp (Crotalaria juncea L., Austrian winter field pea (Pisum sativum spp. arvense L. Poir, black medic (Medicago lupilina L., hairy vetch (Vicia villosa Roth, black oat cv. SoilSaver, and crimson clover cv. AU Robin. Cotton was evaluated using the same bioassay and all of the cover crops mentioned above in a single trial (Trial 3. All cover crop extracts inhibited radicle elongation compared to water. Allelopathic potential was highly variable among cultivars within a cover crop species, and within a cultivar. Allelopathic differences among cover crops give an additional weed control tool in conservation systems. However, winter cover selection may impact on cash crop performance if producers plant their crop into green residue.

  13. Electron transport, Photosystem-2 reaction centers and chlorophyll-protein complexes of thylakoids of drought resistant and sensitive Lupin piants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, S; de Kouchkovsky, Y

    1993-07-01

    Two genotypes ofLupinus albus L., resistant and susceptible to drought, were subjected to water deficiency for up to two weeks. Such treatment progressively lowered the leaf water content from about 85% to about 60% (water potential from -0.8 to -4.3 MPa). Light-saturation curves of the uncoupled electron transport were analyzed according to a simple kinetic model of separated or connected reversible photoreactions. It gives an extrapolated maximum rate (Vmax) and the efficiency for capturing light (Im, which is the light intensity at Vmax/2). For Photosystem 2, Vmax and, less markedly, Im, declined with increasing severity of drought treatment; the artificial donor, diphenylcarbazide, could not restore the activity. One cause of this Photosystem 2 inhibition could be the loss of active Photosystem 2 centers. Indeed, their concentration relative to chlorophyll, estimated by flash-induced reduction of dimethylquinone, was halved by a medium stress. To the extent that it was still not restored by diphenylcarbazide, the site of Photosystem 2 inactivation must have been close to the photochemical trap, after water oxidation and before or at plastoquinone pool. By relating electron transport rate to active centers instead of chlorophyll, no inhibition by drought was detected. Therefore, water stress inactivates specifically Photosystem 2, without impairing a downhill thermal step of electron transport. On the other hand, the decrease of Im suggests that antennae connected to inactive centers may transfer their excitation energy to active neighbors, which implies that antenna network remains essentially intact. Gel electrophoresis confirmed that the apoproteins of the pigment complexes were well conserved. In conclusion, the inactivation of Photosystem 2 may not be a physical loss of its centers and core antennae but probably reflects protein alterations or conformational changes. These may result from the massive decrease of lipids induced by drought (Meyer et al. 1992

  14. ETIOLOGI INFEKSI SALURAN PERNAFASAN AKUT (ISPA DAN FAKTOR LINGKUNGAN

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    Imran Lubis

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An etiological and environmental studies on Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI had been done, in collaboration with the Sub. Division of Pulmonology, Department of Pediatric, Ciptomangunkusumo Hospital from November 1989 to February 1990. A total of 28 severe ARI were studied, male and female ratio were 1.0 : 1.1 and the Case Fatality Rate from the first 21 series were 14.2%, one boy and two girls. Specimens were collected from throat svab, bronchus aspirates and blood for viral and bacterial identifications. There were no mixed infection found, 57.1% of ARI were not caused by virus and 37.1% among these were bacterial and the rest was still unknown which might be caused by antibiotic treatment prior to admission. The bacterial were identified as Staph, albus 10,7%, Strept. alpha 10,7%, Candida 7,1% Staph aureus 3,6%, and Pseudo diptheri 3,6%. Viral isolation and serological test revealed Measles 14,5%, Myxovirus 7,1%; and Influenza A 0.04%. This study shows that by using selected medium and sera typing would give the same bacterial result with isolation from bronchus aspirate. For field study this method should be tried in order to know the etiology of ARI in the community. Compared with Myxo­virus and Influenza A, Measles was the highest viral isolate on ARI episodes. This might be due to seasonal variation also. Field study had identified that the increase of smoking habit and air pollution from the kitchen smoke will increase the frequency of ARI episode per year. Therefore, restrain from smoking and/or good ventilation will reduce ARI.

  15. Synchrotron-Based Techniques Shed Light on Mechanisms of Plant Sensitivity and Tolerance to High Manganese in the Root Environment1[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blamey, F. Pax C.; Hernandez-Soriano, Maria C.; Cheng, Miaomiao; Tang, Caixian; Paterson, David J.; Lombi, Enzo; Wang, Wei Hong; Scheckel, Kirk G.; Kopittke, Peter M.

    2015-01-01

    Plant species differ in response to high available manganese (Mn), but the mechanisms of sensitivity and tolerance are poorly understood. In solution culture, greater than or equal to 30 µm Mn decreased the growth of soybean (Glycine max), but white lupin (Lupinus albus), narrow-leafed lupin (Lupin angustifolius), and sunflower (Helianthus annuus) grew well at 100 µm Mn. Differences in species’ tolerance to high Mn could not be explained simply by differences in root, stem, or leaf Mn status, being 8.6, 17.1, 6.8, and 9.5 mmol kg–1 leaf fresh mass at 100 µm Mn. Furthermore, x-ray absorption near edge structure analyses identified the predominance of Mn(II), bound mostly to malate or citrate, in roots and stems of all four species. Rather, differences in tolerance were due to variations in Mn distribution and speciation within leaves. In Mn-sensitive soybean, in situ analysis of fresh leaves using x-ray fluorescence microscopy combined with x-ray absorption near edge structure showed high Mn in the veins, and manganite [Mn(III)] accumulated in necrotic lesions apparently through low Mn sequestration in vacuoles or other vesicles. In the two lupin species, most Mn accumulated in vacuoles as either soluble Mn(II) malate or citrate. In sunflower, Mn was sequestered as manganite at the base of nonglandular trichomes. Hence, tolerance to high Mn was ascribed to effective sinks for Mn in leaves, as Mn(II) within vacuoles or through oxidation of Mn(II) to Mn(III) in trichomes. These two mechanisms prevented Mn accumulation in the cytoplasm and apoplast, thereby ensuring tolerance to high Mn in the root environment. PMID:26395840

  16. Effects of Acclimation on Poststocking Dispersal and Physiological Condition of Age-1 Pallid Sturgeon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oldenburg, Eric W.; Guy, Christopher S.; Cureton, Eli S.; Webb, Molly H.; Gardner, William M.

    2011-03-28

    A propagation program for pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus in the upper Missouri River was implemented by the U. S. Fish and Wildlife Service in 1997. Preliminary research indicated that many hatchery-reared pallid sturgeon were experiencing significant downstream poststocking dispersal, negatively affecting their recruitment. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of acclimation to flow and site-specific physicochemical water conditions on poststocking dispersal and physiological condition of age-1 pallid sturgeon. Fish from three acclimation treatments were radio-tagged, released at two locations (Missouri River and Marias River), and monitored using passive telemetry stations. Marias treatment was acclimated to flow and site-specific physicochemical conditions, Bozeman treatment was acclimated to flow only, and traditional treatment had no acclimation (reared under traditional protocol). During both years fish released in the Missouri River dispersed less than fish released in the Marias River. In 2005, Marias treatment dispersed less and nearly twice as many fish remained in the Missouri River reach than traditional treatment. In 2006, pallid sturgeon dispersed similarly among treatments and fish remaining in the Missouri River reach were similar among all treatments. Differences in poststocking dispersal between years may be related to fin curl. Fin curl was present in all fish in 2005 and 27% of the fish in 2006. Pallid sturgeon from all treatments in both years had a greater affinity for the lower reaches of the Missouri River than the upper reaches. Thus, habitat at release site influenced poststocking dispersal more than acclimation treatment. No difference was observed in relative growth rate among treatments in 2006. However, acclimation to flow (i.e., exercise conditioning) may reduce liver fat content. Acclimation conditions used in this study may not benefit pallid sturgeon unless physiological maladies are present

  17. Identification of an unusual type II thioesterase in the dithiolopyrrolone antibiotics biosynthetic pathway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhai, Ying; Bai, Silei; Liu, Jingjing; Yang, Liyuan [National Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China); Han, Li; Huang, Xueshi [Institute of Microbial Pharmaceuticals, College of Life and Health Sciences, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); He, Jing, E-mail: hejingjj@mail.hzau.edu.cn [National Key Laboratory of Agricultural Microbiology, College of Life Science and Technology, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070 (China)

    2016-04-22

    Dithiolopyrrolone group antibiotics characterized by an electronically unique dithiolopyrrolone heterobicyclic core are known for their antibacterial, antifungal, insecticidal and antitumor activities. Recently the biosynthetic gene clusters for two dithiolopyrrolone compounds, holomycin and thiomarinol, have been identified respectively in different bacterial species. Here, we report a novel dithiolopyrrolone biosynthetic gene cluster (aut) isolated from Streptomyces thioluteus DSM 40027 which produces two pyrrothine derivatives, aureothricin and thiolutin. By comparison with other characterized dithiolopyrrolone clusters, eight genes in the aut cluster were verified to be responsible for the assembly of dithiolopyrrolone core. The aut cluster was further confirmed by heterologous expression and in-frame gene deletion experiments. Intriguingly, we found that the heterogenetic thioesterase HlmK derived from the holomycin (hlm) gene cluster in Streptomyces clavuligerus significantly improved heterologous biosynthesis of dithiolopyrrolones in Streptomyces albus through coexpression with the aut cluster. In the previous studies, HlmK was considered invalid because it has a Ser to Gly point mutation within the canonical Ser-His-Asp catalytic triad of thioesterases. However, gene inactivation and complementation experiments in our study unequivocally demonstrated that HlmK is an active distinctive type II thioesterase that plays a beneficial role in dithiolopyrrolone biosynthesis. - Highlights: • Cloning of the aureothricin biosynthetic gene cluster from Streptomyces thioluteus DSM 40027. • Identification of the aureothricin gene cluster by heterologous expression and in-frame gene deletion. • The heterogenetic thioesterase HlmK significantly improved dithiolopyrrolones production of the aureothricin gene cluster. • Identification of HlmK as an unusual type II thioesterase.

  18. Structure of the Bacteriophage [phi]KZ Lytic Transglycosylase gp144

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fokine, Andrei; Miroshnikov, Konstantin A.; Shneider, Mikhail M.; Mesyanzhinov, Vadim V.; Rossmann, Michael G. (SOIBC); (Purdue)

    2008-04-02

    Lytic transglycosylases are enzymes that act on the peptidoglycan of bacterial cell walls. They cleave the glycosidic linkage between N-acetylmuramoyl and N-acetylglucosaminyl residues with the concomitant formation of a 1,6-anhydromuramoyl product. The x-ray structure of the lytic transglycosylase gp144 from the Pseudomonas bacteriophage {phi}KZ has been determined to 2.5-{angstrom} resolution. This protein is probably employed by the bacteriophage in the late stage of the virus reproduction cycle to destroy the bacterial cell wall to release the phage progeny. {phi}KZ gp144 is a 260-residue {alpha}-helical protein composed of a 70-residue N-terminal cell wall-binding domain and a C-terminal catalytic domain. The fold of the N-terminal domain is similar to the peptidoglycan-binding domain from Streptomyces albus G d-Ala-d-Ala carboxypeptidase and to the N-terminal prodomain of human metalloproteinases that act on extracellular matrices. The C-terminal catalytic domain of gp144 has a structural similarity to the catalytic domain of the transglycosylase Slt70 from Escherichia coli and to lysozymes. The gp144 catalytic domain has an elongated groove that can bind at least five sugar residues at sites A-E. As in other lysozymes, the peptidoglycan cleavage (catalyzed by Glu{sup 115} in gp144) occurs between sugar-binding subsites D and E. The x-ray structure of the {phi}KZ transglycosylase complexed with the chitotetraose (N-acetylglucosamine){sub 4} has been determined to 2.6-{angstrom} resolution. The N-acetylglucosamine residues of the chitotetraose bind in sites A-D.

  19. Regulation of antimycin biosynthesis by the orphan ECF RNA polymerase sigma factor σAntA

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    Ryan F. Seipke

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Antimycins are an extended family of depsipeptides that are made by filamentous actinomycete bacteria and were first isolated more than 60 years ago. Recently, antimycins have attracted renewed interest because of their activities against the anti-apoptotic machineries inside human cells which could make them promising anti-cancer compounds. The biosynthetic pathway for antimycins was recently characterised but very little is known about the organisation and regulation of the antimycin (ant gene cluster. Here we report that the ant gene cluster in Streptomyces albus is organized into four transcriptional units; the antBA, antCDE, antGF and antHIJKLMNO operons. Unusually for secondary metabolite clusters, the antG and antH promoters are regulated by an extracytoplasmic function (ECF RNA polymerase sigma factor named σAntA which represents a new sub-family of ECF σ factors that is only found in antimycin producing strains. We show that σAntA controls production of the unusual precursor 3-aminosalicylate which is absolutely required for the production of antimycins. σAntA is highly conserved in antimycin producing strains and the −10 and −35 elements at the σAntA regulated antG and antH promoters are also highly conserved suggesting a common mechanism of regulation. We also demonstrate that altering the C-terminal Ala-Ala residues found in all σAntA proteins to Asp-Asp increases expression of the antFG and antGHIJKLMNO operons and we speculate that this Ala-Ala motif may be a signal for the protease ClpXP.

  20. Effects of coconut and fish oils on ruminal methanogenesis, fermentation, and abundance and diversity of microbial populations in vitro.

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    Patra, A K; Yu, Z

    2013-03-01

    Coconut (CO) and fish (FO) oils were previously shown to inhibit rumen methanogenesis and biohydrogenation, which mitigates methane emission and helps improve beneficial fatty acids in meat and milk. This study aimed at investigating the comparative effects of CO and FO on the methanogenesis, fermentation, and microbial abundances and diversity in vitro rumen cultures containing different doses (0, 3.1, and 6.2 mL/L) of each oil and 400mg feed substrate using rumen fluid from lactating dairy cows as inocula. Increasing doses of CO and FO quadratically decreased concentrations of methane, but hydrogen concentrations were only increased quadratically by CO. Both oils linearly decreased dry matter and neutral detergent fiber digestibility of feeds but did not affect the concentration of total volatile fatty acids. However, CO reduced acetate percentage and acetate to propionate ratio and increased the percentages of propionate and butyrate to a greater extent than FO. Ammonia concentration was greater for CO than FO. As determined by quantitative real-time PCR, FO had greater inhibition to methanogens than CO, but the opposite was true for protozoal, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, and Fibrobacter succinogenes. Ruminococcus albus was not affected by either oil. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles revealed that bacterial and archaeal community composition were changed differently by oil type. Based on Pareto-Lorenz evenness curve analysis of the DGGE profiles, CO noticeably changed the functional organization of archaea compared with FO. In conclusion, although both CO and FO decreased methane concentrations to a similar extent, the mode of reduction and the effect on abundances and diversity of archaeal and bacterial populations differed between the oils. Thus, the use of combination of CO and FO at a low dose may additively lower methanogenesis in the rumen while having little adverse effect on rumen fermentation.

  1. Effects of degradable protein and non-fibre carbohydrates on microbial growth and fermentation in the rumen simulating fermenter (Rusitec

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    Xiang H. Zhao

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A rumen simulation technique (Rusitec apparatus with eight 800 ml fermentation vessels was used to investigate the effects of rumen degradable protein (RDP level and non-fibre carbohydrate (NFC type on ruminal fermentation, microbial growth, and populations of ruminal cellulolytic bacteria. Treatments consisted of two NFC types (starch and pectin supplemented with 0 g/d (low RDP or 1.56 g/d (high RDP sodium caseinate. Apparent disappearance of dry matter and organic matter was greater for pectin than for starch treatment (P<0.01 with low or high RDP. A NFC × RDP interaction was observed for neutral detergent fibre disappearance (P=0.01, which was lower for pectin than for starch only under low RDP conditions. Compared with starch, pectin treatment increased the copy numbers of Ruminococcus albus (P≤0.01 and Ruminococcus flavefaciens (P≤0.09, the molar proportion of acetate (P<0.01, the acetate:propionate ratio (P<0.01, and methane production (P<0.01, but reduced the propionate proportion (P<0.01. Increasing dietary RDP increased the production of total VFA (P=0.01, methane (P<0.01, ammonia N (P<0.01, and microbial N (P<0.01. Significant NFC × RDP interaction and interaction tendency were observed for ammonia N production (P=0.01 and daily N flow of total microorganisms (P=0.07, which did not differ under low RDP conditions, but pectin produced greater microbial N and less ammonia N than starch with increased RDP. Results showed NFC type, RDP level, and their interaction affected ruminal fermentation and microbial growth, and under sufficient ruminal degradable N pectin had greater advantage in microbial N synthesis than starch in vitro.

  2. Fermentation of Ammonia Fiber Expansion Treated and Untreated Barley Straw in a Rumen Simulation Technique Using Rumen Inoculum from Cattle with Slow versus Fast Rate of Fiber Disappearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, Candace L; Ribeiro, Gabriel O; Oba, Masahito; McAllister, Tim A; Beauchemin, Karen A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of rumen inoculum from heifers with fast vs. slow rate of in situ fiber digestion on the fermentation of complex versus easily digested fiber sources in the forms of untreated and Ammonia Fiber Expansion (AFEX) treated barley straw, respectively, using an artificial rumen simulation technique (Rusitec). In situ fiber digestion was measured in a previous study by incubating untreated barley straw in the rumen of 16 heifers fed a diet consisting of 700 g/kg barley straw and 300 g/kg concentrate. The two heifers with fastest rate of digestion (Fast ≥ 4.18% h(-1)) and the two heifers with the slowest rate of digestion (Slow ≤ 3.17% h(-1)) were chosen as inoculum donors for this study. Two Rusitec apparatuses each equipped with eight fermenters were used in a completely randomized block design with two blocks (apparatus) and four treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (Fast or Slow rumen inoculum and untreated or AFEX treated straw). Fast rumen inoculum and AFEX straw both increased (P 0.05) methane production per gram of digested material for both untreated and AFEX straw, and reduced (interaction, P straw. Greater relative populations of Ruminococcus albus (P straw in Fast inoculum had greater total bacterial populations than Slow, but for untreated straw this result was reversed (interaction, P = 0.013). These findings indicate that differences in microbial populations in rumen fluid contribute to differences in the capacity of rumen inoculum to digest fiber.

  3. Effects of chestnut tannins and coconut oil on growth performance, methane emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, H; Vaddella, V; Zhou, D

    2011-12-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of chestnut tannins (CT) and coconut oil (CO) on growth performance, methane (CH₄) emission, ruminal fermentation, and microbial populations in sheep. A total of 48 Rideau Arcott sheep (average body weight 31.5±1.97 kg, 16 wk old) were randomly assigned into 6 treatment groups in a 3 × 2 factorial design, with CT and CO as the main effects (8 sheep per group). The treatments were control diet (CTR), 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet (CT10 and CT30), 25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CO25), and 10 or 30 g of CT/kg of diet+25 g of CO/kg of concentrate (CT10CO25 and CT30CO25). After the feeding trial (60 d), all sheep were moved to respiratory chambers to measure CH₄ emission. After CH₄ emission measurements, all sheep were slaughtered to obtain rumen fluid samples. Results showed that the addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO had no significant effects on growth performance of sheep but reduced CH₄ emission. Addition of CT reduced the NH₃-N concentration in rumen fluid in CT30. Addition of CO decreased the concentration of total volatile fatty acids in rumen fluid. No significant differences were observed in pH and molar proportion of volatile fatty acids among treatments. Addition of CT, CO, and CT+CO significantly decreased methanogen and protozoa populations. Moreover, CO decreased counts of Fibrobacter succinogenes. No significant differences were observed in populations of fungi, Ruminococcus flavefaciens, or Ruminococcus albus among treatments. In conclusion, supplementation of CT and CO seemed to be a feasible means of decreasing emissions of CH₄ from sheep by reduction of methanogen and protozoa populations with no negative effect on growth performance.

  4. Cloning, Expression, and Biochemical Characterization of a Novel Acidic GH16 β-Agarase, AgaJ11, from Gayadomonas joobiniege G7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Subin; Jeong, Byeong-Chul; Hong, Soon-Kwang; Lee, Chang-Ro

    2017-03-01

    A novel β-agarase AgaJ11 belonging to the glycoside hydrolase (GH) 16 family was identified from an agar-degrading bacterium Gayadomonas joobiniege G7. AgaJ11 was composed of 317 amino acids (35 kDa), including a 26-amino acid signal peptide, and had the highest similarity (44 % identity) to a putative β-agarase from an agarolytic marine bacterium Agarivorans albus MKT 106. The agarase activity of purified AgaJ11 was confirmed by zymogram analysis. The optimum pH and temperature for AgaJ11 activity were determined to be 4.5 and 40 °C, respectively. Notably, AgaJ11 is an acidic β-agarase that was active only at a narrow pH range from 4 to 5, and less than 30 % of its enzymatic activity was retained at other pH conditions. The K m and V max of AgaJ11 for agarose were 21.42 mg/ml and 25 U/mg, respectively. AgaJ11 did not require metal ions for its activity, but severe inhibition by several metal ions was observed. Thin layer chromatography and agarose-liquefying analyses revealed that AgaJ11 is an endo-type β-agarase that hydrolyzes agarose into neoagarohexaose, neoagarotetraose, and neoagarobiose. Therefore, this study shows that AgaJ11 from G. joobiniege G7 is a novel GH16 β-agarase with an acidic enzymatic feature that may be useful for industrial applications.

  5. Food availability is expressed through physiological stress indicators in nestling white ibis: A food supplementation experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herring, G.; Cook, Mark I.; Gawlik, D.E.; Call, Erynn M.

    2011-01-01

    Physiological responses to environmental stress such as adrenocortical hormones and cellular stress proteins have recently emerged as potentially powerful tools for investigating physiological effects of avian food limitation. However, little is known about the physiological stress responses of free-living nestling birds to environmental variation in food availability. We experimentally tested how hydrologically mediated changes in food availability affect the physiological stress responses of juvenile white ibises Eudocimus albus in a fluctuating wetland. We provided supplementary food to free-living nestlings during 2years with contrasting hydrologic and food availability conditions, and used plasma (PCORT) and faecal (FCORT) corticosterone and heat shock proteins (HSP60 and HSP70) from first-hatched (A-nestlings) and second-hatched (B-nestlings) to detect relatively short- to long-term responses to food limitation. Nestling physiological stress responses were relatively low in all treatments during the year with optimal food availability, but PCORT, FCORT and HSP60 levels increased during the poor food year. FCORT and HSP60 responses were clearly due to nutritional condition as elevated concentrations were evident primarily in control nestlings. Significant year by hatch order interactions for both FCORT and HSP60 revealed that these increases were largely incurred by B-nestlings. FCORT and HSP60 responses were also well developed early in neonatal development and remained elevated for the duration of the experiment suggesting a chronic stress response. PCORT and HSP70 were less informative stress responses. The nutritionally mediated increases in FCORT and HSP60 provide compelling evidence that white ibis nestlings can be physiologically affected by environmental food levels. FCORT and HSP60 are effective indicators of nutritional mediated stress for nestling white ibises and potentially for other species prone to capture or handling stress. ?? 2010 The Authors

  6. Estimation of base temperatures for nine weed species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmaus, S J; Prather, T S; Holt, J S

    2000-02-01

    Experiments were conducted to test several methods for estimating low temperature thresholds for seed germination. Temperature responses of nine weeds common in annual agroecosystems were assessed in temperature gradient experiments. Species included summer annuals (Amaranthus albus, A. palmeri, Digitaria sanguinalis, Echinochloa crus-galli, Portulaca oleracea, and Setaria glauca), winter annuals (Hirschfeldia incana and Sonchus oleraceus), and Conyza canadensis, which is classified as a summer or winter annual. The temperature below which development ceases (Tbase) was estimated as the x-intercept of four conventional germination rate indices regressed on temperature, by repeated probit analysis, and by a mathematical approach. An overall Tbase estimate for each species was the average across indices weighted by the reciprocal of the variance associated with the estimate. Germination rates increased linearly with temperature between 15 degrees C and 30 degrees C for all species. Consistent estimates of Tbase were obtained for most species using several indices. The most statistically robust and biologically relevant method was the reciprocal time to median germination, which can also be used to estimate other biologically meaningful parameters. The mean Tbase for summer annuals (13.8 degrees C) was higher than that for winter annuals (8.3 degrees C). The two germination response characteristics, Tbase and slope (rate), influence a species' germination behaviour in the field since the germination inhibiting effects of a high Tbase may be offset by the germination promoting effects of a rapid germination response to temperature. Estimates of Tbase may be incorporated into predictive thermal time models to assist weed control practitioners in making management decisions.

  7. Iridovirus infections among Missouri River sturgeon: initial characterization, transmission, and evidence for establishment of a carrier state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurobe, T; MacConnell, E; Hudson, C; McDowell, T S; Mardones, F O; Hedrick, R P

    2011-03-01

    Iridovirus infections of the integument were associated with disease and mortality among hatchery-reared populations of juvenile pallid sturgeon Scaphirhynchus albus and shovelnose sturgeon S. platorynchus from the Missouri River. Virus-infected cells in the integument of fins and body were greatly enlarged, possessed pleomorphic and eccentric nuclei, and exhibited an amphophilic to eosinophilic staining of the cytoplasm in hematoxylin-and-eosin-stained sections. Virus particles found in the host cell cytoplasm were composed of an outer hexagonal capsid measuring 254 nm in diameter and surrounding a dense nucleoid. Despite numerous attempts, the virus could not be propagated on routine cell lines used in fish viral diagnostics or from established cell lines from white sturgeon Acipenser transmontanus, pallid sturgeon, or shovelnose sturgeon. Bath exposures of healthy juvenile pallid sturgeon to a crude extract or a 0.45-microm-filtered extract from the fins of infected fish resulted in transmission of the virus and mortality. At water temperatures of 15 degrees C, the first deaths occurred at approximately 1 month; mortality peaked between 50 and 60 d postexposure, after which surviving fish recovered. Presence of the virus was confirmed among dead and moribund pallid sturgeon by both histology and detection of viral DNA by polymerase chain reaction methods. Feeding of infected tissues and cohabitation with virus-infected shovelnose sturgeon also resulted in successful virus transmission to juvenile pallid sturgeon. Virus infections among experimentally exposed pallid sturgeon that recovered from clinical episodes persisted for at least 8.5 months, and these apparently healthy fish transmitted the virus and disease to juvenile pallid sturgeon by cohabitation. The newly described Missouri River sturgeon iridovirus (MRSIV) as found in pallid sturgeon and shovelnose sturgeon shares many properties with a group of iridoviruses associated with serious skin and gill

  8. Proteção do solo por plantas de cobertura de ciclo hibernal na região Sul do Brasil

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