WorldWideScience

Sample records for monopole resonance gmr

  1. Excitation of giant monopole and quadrupole resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogata, H. [Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics; Yamagata, T.; Tanaka, M. [and others; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.; Osaka Univ., Suita (Japan). Research Center for Nuclear Physics

    1980-01-01

    Recent studies on the giant monopole resonance (GMR) and the giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) in /sup 144/Sm and /sup 208/Pb using the ..cap alpha..-scattering performed at RCNP are summarized. The observed angular range covered 1.6/sup 0/ -- 7/sup 0/ with a coupled system of a dipole and a triplet quadrupole magnet. The incident energy was changed from 84 to 119 MeV. The resonance shapes and energy-weighted sum-rule strengths of the GMR and the GQR were reliably deduced as a function of incident energy. The quadrupole strength of --20% was found in the GMR region. The observed excitation function of the GMR was compared with the DWBA calculation, in which the Satchler's Version I was used as a form factor representing the compressional motion of the nucleus. It was found that the experimental excitation function of the GMR shows steeper decrease as lowering the incident energy than the DWBA prediction whereas that of the GQR is successfully described by the DWBA. This suggests that examination of the model describing the GMR is necessary.

  2. Decay of the giant monopole resonance in heavy nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandenburg, S.

    1985-01-01

    In this thesis an experimental study of the properties of the giant monopole resonance (GMR) in nuclei is described. The main subject is the study of the neutron decay of the GMR in 208 Pb, and the fission decay of the GMR in 238 U. Furthermore the strength distribution and decay properties of the monopole strength in 24 Mg and 40 Ca were studied. The strength distribution of the isoscalar monopole (and also of the isoscalar dipole) strength as obtained from the angular distribution of the excited strength at small scattering angles are discussed. For the excitation of the GMR inelastic scattering at very small scattering angles, including 0 0 , of 120 MeV α-particles was employed. The experimental technique for performing this type of measurements at the KVI was developed in the course of this study and is the subject of a separate chapter. (Auth.)

  3. Direct neutron decay from the giant monopole resonance in 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracco, A.; Beene, J.R.; Van Giai, N.; Bortignon, P.F.; Zardi, F.; Broglia, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental values of partial direct escape widths for the giant monopole resonance (GMR) in 208 Pb are presented and compared with predictions from various RPA models. It is found that different model Hamiltonians that reproduce equally well the energy and strength of the GMR in 208 Pb lead to direct escape width which may differ by a large factor. 1 tab

  4. Structure and direct decay of Giant Monopole Resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avez, B.; Simenel, C.

    2013-01-01

    We study structure and direct decay of the Giant Monopole Resonance (GMR) at the Random Phase Approximation (RPA) level using the time-dependent energy density functional method in the linear response regime in a few doubly magic nuclei. A proper treatment of the continuum, through the use of large coordinate space, allows for a separation between the nucleus and its emitted nucleons. The microscopic structure of the GMR is investigated with the decomposition of the strength function into individual single-particle quantum numbers. A similar microscopic decomposition of the spectra of emitted nucleons by direct decay of the GMR is performed. In this harmonic picture of giant resonance, shifting every contribution by the initial single-particle energy allows to reconstruct the GMR strength function. The RPA residual interaction couples bound 1-particle 1-hole states to unbound ones, allowing for the total decay of the GMR. In this article, we then intend to get an understanding of the direct decay mechanism from coherent one-particle-one-hole superpositions, while neglecting more complex configurations. Time-dependent beyond mean-field approaches should be used, in the future, to extend this method. (orig.)

  5. Decay of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance in 208Pb and 238U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woude, A. van der

    1985-01-01

    In this paper, the neutron decay of the giant monopole resonance (GMR) of 208 Pb and the alpha decay of the GMR of 238 U is studied. The GMR is excited by inelastic alpha-scattering at small angles (0-3deg) using 120 MeV alpha particles. The interference of other processes like the knock-out process with the particle decay of these resonances is considered. Coincidence neutron and alpha spectra are presented, as well as E2/E0 strength distributions. (Auth.)

  6. Isotopic Dependence of the Giant Monopole Resonance in the Even-A 112-124Sn Isotopes and the Asymmetry Term in Nuclear Incompressibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, T.; Garg, U.; Liu, Y.; Marks, R.; Nayak, B. K.; Rao, P. V. Madhusudhana; Fujiwara, M.; Hashimoto, H.; Kawase, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Okumura, S.; Yosoi, M.; Itoh, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Matsuo, R.; Terazono, T.; Uchida, M.; Kawabata, T.; Akimune, H.; Iwao, Y.

    2007-01-01

    The strength distributions of the giant monopole resonance (GMR) have been measured in the even-A Sn isotopes (A=112-124) with inelastic scattering of 400-MeV α particles in the angular range 0 deg. - 8.5 deg. We find that the experimentally observed GMR energies of the Sn isotopes are lower than the values predicted by theoretical calculations that reproduce the GMR energies in 208 Pb and 90 Zr very well. From the GMR data, a value of K τ =-550±100 MeV is obtained for the asymmetry term in the nuclear incompressibility

  7. Isotopic Dependence of the Giant Monopole Resonance in the Even-A Sn112 124 Isotopes and the Asymmetry Term in Nuclear Incompressibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T.; Garg, U.; Liu, Y.; Marks, R.; Nayak, B. K.; Rao, P. V. Madhusudhana; Fujiwara, M.; Hashimoto, H.; Kawase, K.; Nakanishi, K.; Okumura, S.; Yosoi, M.; Itoh, M.; Ichikawa, M.; Matsuo, R.; Terazono, T.; Uchida, M.; Kawabata, T.; Akimune, H.; Iwao, Y.; Murakami, T.; Sakaguchi, H.; Terashima, S.; Yasuda, Y.; Zenihiro, J.; Harakeh, M. N.

    2007-10-01

    The strength distributions of the giant monopole resonance (GMR) have been measured in the even-A Sn isotopes (A=112 124) with inelastic scattering of 400-MeV α particles in the angular range 0° 8.5°. We find that the experimentally observed GMR energies of the Sn isotopes are lower than the values predicted by theoretical calculations that reproduce the GMR energies in Pb208 and Zr90 very well. From the GMR data, a value of Kτ=-550±100MeV is obtained for the asymmetry term in the nuclear incompressibility.

  8. The sympletic model for giant monopole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, M.M.B.M.

    1985-01-01

    Following recently published articles, it's investigated how to apply the sympletic model to the study of giant monopole resonances in spherical nuclei. The results obtained agree with those already published for monopole mode energies, wave functions, radii and nuclear incompressibility of 16 O and 40 Ca nuclei. An analyse of how the spurious center-of-mass motion influence resonance energies is made. The sum rules of the monopole operator, m-bar e , o ≤ e ≤ 3, are calculated, demonstrating at first that they are conserved in the sympletic model. Then it's studied, for those sum rules, the importance of n-boson correlations in the fundamental state, which is an extension of those sum rules, of the analysis for the nuclear incompressibility, performed in above mentioned articles. (Author) [pt

  9. Monopole Giant Resonances and TDHF boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, P.D.; Almehed, D.; Reinhard, P.-G.; Maruhn, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Using time-dependent Hartree-Fock, we induce isoscalar and isovector monopole vibrations and follow the subsequent vibrations of both the same and opposite isospin nature in the N Z nucleus 132 Sn. By suitable scaling of the proton and neutron parts of the excitation operators, the coupling between the modes is studied, and the approximate normal modes found. Chaotic dynamics are then analysed in the isoscalar giant monopole resonance by using reflecting boundaries in a large space to build up a large number of 0 + states whose spacings are then analysed. A Wigner-like distribution is found

  10. Evidence for deformation effect on the giant monopole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; de Saintignon, P.; Perrin, C.

    1980-01-01

    The giant monopole resonance in the region of deformed nuclei has been investigated by inelastic scattering of 108.5 MeV 3 He at very small scattering angles. Evidence is reported for coupling between the giant monopole and giant quadrupole vibrations, based both on energy shift and transition strength

  11. Isovector giant monopole resonances: A sum-rule approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goeke, K.; Bonn Univ.; Castel, B.

    1980-01-01

    Several useful sum rules associated with isovector giant monopole resonances are calculated for doubly closed shell nuclei. The calculation is based on techniques known from constrained and adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fock theories and assume various Skyrme interactions. The results obtained form, together with the compiled literature, the basis for a quantitative description of the RPA strength distribution in terms of energy-weighted moments. These, together with strength distribution properties, are determined by a hierarchy of determinantal relations between moments. The isovector giant monopole resonance turns out to be a rather broad resonance centered at E = 46 Asup(-1/10) MeV with an extended width of more than 16 MeV. The consequences regarding isospin impurities in the nuclear ground state are discussed. (orig.)

  12. Giant monopole resonance in transitional and deformed nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garg, U.; Bogucki, P.; Bronson, J.D.; Lui, Y.; Youngblood, D.H.

    1984-01-01

    Small-angle inelastic α-scattering measurements have been made at E/sub α/ = 129 MeV on /sup 144,148/Sm and /sup 142,146,150/Nd to investigate the giant monopole resonance in transitional and deformed nuclei. The experimental data reveal a mixing of L = 0 and L = 2 modes in 148 Sm resulting in almost identical angular distributions for the two components of the giant resonance peaks in the angular range 2 0 --6 0 . A ''splitting'' of the giant monopole resonance is observed in 150 Nd; the extent of this splitting is smaller than that reported for 154 Sm. Comparison is made with the predictions of various theoretical models

  13. Statistical decay of giant monopole resonance in 208Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, H.; Wolynec, E.

    1984-01-01

    The neutron spectrum from the decay of the monopole giant resonance in 208 Pb is calculated using the known energy levels of 207 Pb. The particle vibrator model is used to assign spins parities to the measured 207 Pb levels, where these were not avaliable from experiments. The results of the Hauser-Feshbach calculation is in excellent agreement with the experimental spectrum, showing that the observed fast neutrons can be completely explained assuming a statistical decay. (Author) [pt

  14. Measurement of the GMR in the Unstable 56Ni Nucleus using the Active Target Maya

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monrozeau, C.; Khan, E.; Blumenfeld, Y.; Mittig, W.; Beaumel, D.; Caamano, M.; Cortina-Gil, D.; Demonchy, C.E.; Frascaria, N.; Garg, U.; Gelin, M.; Gillibert, A.; Gupta, D.; Marechal, F.; Obertelli, A.; Roussel-Chomaz, P.; Scarpaci, J.-A.

    2007-01-01

    The measurement of the Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance(GMR) in unstable nuclei remains a major experimental challenge due to low radioactive beam intensities and unfavourable conditions in reverse kinematics. At GANIL, we have tested a new experimental method based on the unique capabilities of the active target Maya to probe the GMR by the inelastic scattering reaction 56 Ni(d,d') at 50 AMeV. The preliminary excitation energy spectrum of 56 Ni presents a bump between 12 and 25 MeV where isoscalar resonances are expected

  15. Strength function for the giant isovector monopole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacDonald, W.M.; Birse, M.C.

    1984-01-01

    The theory of the strength function for giant resonances is extended to exhibit the explicit energy dependence of the width and shift functions for the giant isovector monopole. An integral sum rule on the width GAMMA/sub M/(E) relates its normalization to the second moment M 2 of the strength function and leads to a relation GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)GAMMA/sub s//4 = M 2 between M 2 and the width at the maximum, which involves the width GAMMA/sub s/ of the distribution in energy of the spreading matrix elements. An estimate of GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)approx. =8 MeV based on the absorptive part of the optical potential together with random-phase approximation calculations of M 2 leads to the result GAMMA/sub s//2approx. =2hω, supporting the intermediate coupling model of Lane, Thomas, and Wigner. Using the sum rule expressions of Lane and Mekjian to evaluate the Coulomb matrix element M/sub A/M between an isobaric analog state and its corresponding isovector monopole, we test this strength function for the isovector monopole by calculating the spreading widths for the ground state analogs of nuclei from 38 Cl to 208 Pb. The good agreement with the systematic dependence upon mass number and isospin resolves the long-standing discrepancy between the estimate GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub M/)approx.8--10 MeV and the value GAMMA/sub M/(E/sub A/)< or =2 MeV needed to account for the spreading widths of the isobaric analog state

  16. (p,n) and (n,p) reactions as probes of isovector giant monopole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.; Bowman, J.D.; Franey, M.A.; Love, W.G.

    1983-01-01

    Nucleon charge exchange reactions are explored as prospective probes of isovector giant monopole resonances. Using charge exchange transition densities based on random-phase approximation sum rules, distorted wave impulse approximation calculations are made for the (p,n) and (n,p) reactions exciting the isovector giant monopole resonances in several nuclei at bombarding energies of 120 and 800 MeV. Based on our calculations, the charge exchange reactions at 800 MeV appear more promising

  17. On the nature of some monopole resonances of p-shell nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, G.F.; Vasilevsky, V.S.; Nesterov, A.V.

    1982-01-01

    The resonance structure of states of a continuous spectrum of light nuclei is studied. Using 7 Li and 8 Be as an example it is shown that in these nuclei there exist a near-threshold resonance the share of which is about 50-70 % of isoscalar monopole sum rule. The experimental method of finding the near-threshold resonances is described

  18. Collisional damping of giant monopole and quadrupole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yildirim, S.; Gokalp, A.; Yilmaz, O.; Ayik, S.

    2001-01-01

    Collisional damping widths of giant monopole and quadrupole excitations for 120 Sn and 208 Pb at zero and finite temperatures are calculated within Thomas-Fermi approximation by employing the microscopic in-medium cross-sections of Li and Machleidt and the phenomenological Skyrme and Gogny forces, and are compared with each other. The results for the collisional widths of giant monopole and quadrupole vibrations at zero temperature as a function of the mass number show that the collisional damping of giant monopole vibrations accounts for about 30 - 40% of the observed widths at zero temperature, while for giant quadrupole vibrations it accounts for only 20 - 30% of the observed widths at zero temperature. (orig.)

  19. Particle-hole calculation of the isobaric analog and isovector monopole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Auerbach, N.; Nguyen Van Giai

    1977-06-01

    The correlated proton particle-neutron hole spectrum is calculated for N>Z nuclei using a Skyrme type interaction and the response function method. The basis of the calculation is a complete one particle-one hole space with the continuum included. As a result the distribution of the isovector monopole strength in the analog nucleus is obtained. This distribution has a narrow peak which corresponds to the isobaric analog resonance and at higher energies a broad peak which is the isovector monopole resonance. The coupling between these two states is inherent in the calculation

  20. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sujkowski, Z.

    1994-01-01

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs

  1. Monopole transitions in hot nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujkowski, Z. [Soltan Inst. for Nuclear Studies, Otwock-Swierk (Poland)

    1994-12-31

    Monopole transitions can be a signature of shape changing in a hot, pulsating nucleus (the low energy E0 mode) and/or a measure of the compressibility of finite nuclei (GMR, the breathing mode). Experimental information pertaining to GMR is reviewed. Recipes for deducing the incompressibility modules for infinite nuclear matter from data on GMR are discussed. Astrophysical implications are outlined. The first attempts at locating the GMR strength in moderately hot nuclei are described. Prospects for improving the experimental techniques to make an observation of this strength in selected nuclei unambiguous are discussed. (author). 46 refs, 8 figs.

  2. Comment on '(p,n) and (n,p) reactions as probes of isovector giant monopole resonances'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bauhoff, W.

    1984-01-01

    The importance of medium corrections in the excitation of the isovector giant monopole resonance by nucleons is investigated. A large reduction of the cross-section, compared to calculations with free t-matrices, is found at projectile energies around 100 MeV. This will make observation of the isovector monopole at these energies even more difficult than estimated by Auerbach et al

  3. Deformation-induced splitting of the monopole giant resonance in 24Mg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kvasil J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The strong deformation splitting of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR, recently observed in (α, α′ reaction in prolate 24Mg, is analyzed in the framework of the Skyrme quasiparticle randomphase-approximation (QRPA approach with the Skyrme forces SkM*, SVbas and SkPδ. The calculations with these forces give close results and confirm that the low-energy E0-peak is caused by the deformation-induced coupling of ISGMR with the K = 0 branch of the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance.

  4. Time-dependent Hartree-Fock calculation of the escape width of the giant monopole resonance in 16O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacheco, J.M.; Maglione, E.; Broglia, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    The damping of the giant monopole resonance in 16 O is calculated within the framework of the time-dependent Hartree-Fock approximation. The strength function contains two peaks, centered at around 25 and 33 MeV, with escape widths of ∼11 and ∼2 MeV, associated with the 1p(0p) -1 and 1s(0s) -1 configurations, respectively

  5. On the role of anti-bound states in the RPA description of the giant monopole resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vertse, T.; Bang, J.

    1989-01-01

    The limit of the applicability of the resonant Random Phase Approximation (RPA) method is tested by calculating escape widths in the giant monopole resonance of 16 O and comparing them to the results of a time dependent Hartree-Fock calculation. Though the widths of the narrow s-wave component agree reasonably well, the broad p-wave component shows large disagreement, which cannot be cured by complementing the basis with anti-bound states in the RPA calculation. (author) 18 refs.; 3 tabs

  6. Excitation of giant monopole resonance in {sup 208}Pb and {sup 116}Sn using inelastic deuteron scattering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, D.; Garg, U. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Itoh, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Akimune, H. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Berg, G.P.A. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Fujiwara, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, 14076 Caen (France); Iwamoto, C. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Kawabata, T. [Division of Physics and Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Kawase, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Matta, J.T. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Murakami, T. [Division of Physics and Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Okamoto, A. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Sako, T. [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Kyoto 619-0215 (Japan); Schlax, K.W. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Takahashi, F. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); White, M. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Yosoi, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2014-07-30

    The excitation of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) in {sup 208}Pb and {sup 116}Sn has been investigated using small-angle (including 0°) inelastic scattering of 100 MeV/u deuteron and multipole-decomposition analysis (MDA). The extracted strength distributions agree well with those from inelastic scattering of 100 MeV/u α particles. These measurements establish deuteron inelastic scattering at E{sub d}∼100 MeV/u as a suitable probe for extraction of the ISGMR strength with MDA, making feasible the investigation of this resonance in radioactive isotopes in inverse kinematics.

  7. Magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fryberger, D.

    1984-12-01

    In this talk on magnetic monopoles, first the author briefly reviews some historical background; then, the author describes what several different types of monopoles might look like; and finally the author discusses the experimental situation. 81 references

  8. Resonant Excitation of a Truncated Metamaterial Cylindrical Shell by a Thin Wire Monopole

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Erentok, Aycan; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    A truncated metamaterial cylindrical shell excited by a thin wire monopole is investigated using the integral equation technique as well as the finite element method. Simulations reveal a strong field singularity at the edge of the truncated cylindrical shell, which critically affects the matching...

  9. Isoscalar giant resonances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Youngblood, D. H. [Texas A and M Univ., College Station (USA). Cyclotron Inst.; Ikegami, H.; Muraoka, M. [eds.

    1980-01-01

    The current status of the knowledges of giant quadrupole resonance (GQR), low energy octupole resonance (LEOR), and giant monopole resonance (GMR), is described. In the lowest order of multipole resonance, both isoscalar and isovector modes can occur. The characteristics of the GQR in light nuclei are apparent in the experimental result for Mg-24. All of the isoscalar E2 strength are known in Mg-24. The Goldhaber-Teller model is preferred over the Steinwedel-Jensen model for the giant dipole resonance (GDR) transition density. A few interesting and puzzling features have been seen in Pb-208. There is some conflict between inelastic alpha and electron scatterings. About LEOR, the RPA calculation of Liu and Brown was compared to the data for 3/sup -/ strength in Ca-40, Zr-90 and Pb-208. The calculation was employed the residual interaction of the Skyrme type. The agreement in Zr-90 was excellent. The effect of quadrupole deformation on the LEOR in Sm isotopes was large. The inelastic alpha scattering data on Al-27, Ca-40, Ti-48, Ni-58, Zn-64 and 66, Zr-90, Sn-116, 118, 120 and 124, Sm-144, 148 and 154, and Pb-208 were utilized in order to identify the GMR, and the GMR parameters were obtained. The GMR exhausting a large fraction of the sum rule was apparent in the nuclei with mass larger than 90. The splitting of the GDR and the broadening of the GQR in permanently deformed nuclei were established. The splitting of GMR was seen in Sm-154. The studies with heavy ions are also described.

  10. Magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shnir, Ya.M.

    2005-01-01

    This monograph addresses the field theoretical aspects of magnetic monopoles. Written for graduate students as well as researchers, the author demonstrates the interplay between mathematics and physics. He delves into details as necessary and develops many techniques that find applications in modern theoretical physics. This introduction to the basic ideas used for the description and construction of monopoles is also the first coherent presentation of the concept of magnetic monopoles. It arises in many different contexts in modern theoretical physics, from classical mechanics and electrodynamics to multidimensional branes. The book summarizes the present status of the theory and gives an extensive but carefully selected bibliography on the subject. The first part deals with the Dirac monopole, followed in part two by the monopole in non-abelian gauge theories. The third part is devoted to monopoles in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. (orig.)

  11. Magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preskill, J

    1984-01-01

    This article offers a review of the physics of the magnetic monopole, which, although as yet unseen, offers sound theoretical reasons to believe that it must exist. Several theories are presented and equations are given. The idea that magnetic monopoles, stable particles carrying magnetic charges, ought to exist has, according to the authors, proved to be very durable. One theory presented demonstrates the consistency of magnetic monopoles with quantum electrodynamics. Another theory demonstrates the necessity of monopoles in grand unified gauge theories. The authors believe it is reasonable to expect the monopole to be an extremely heavy stable elementary particle. The stability of the classical monopole solution given is ensured by a topological principle explained

  12. Monopole heat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1983-01-01

    Upper bounds on the flux of monopoles incident on the Earth with velocity -5 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ) and on the flux of monopoles incident on Jupiter with velocity -3 c(10 16 GeV m -1 ), are derived. Monopoles moving this slowly lose sufficient energy to be stopped, and then catalyse nucleon decay, releasing heat. The limits are obtained by requiring the rate of energy release from nucleon decay to be less than the measured amount of heat flowing out from the surface of the planet. (U.K.)

  13. Monopole Workshop

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1983-01-01

    Some 90 physicists from 13 countries gathered in October to examine new evidence and theories concerning the magnetic monopole. The venue was Wingspread, the last, but by no means least, of architect Frank Lloyd Wright's marvellous prairie houses, located in Racine, Wisconsin. While many physicists remain sceptical about magnetic monopoles, a growing number are speculating that they may have been made in the first blaze of creation. If found, monopoles would provide a profound clue as to the origin and nature of the universe

  14. Testing the mutually enhanced magicity effect in nuclear incompressibility via the giant monopole resonance in the {sup 204,206,208}Pb isotopes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, D. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Garg, U., E-mail: garg@nd.edu [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Fujiwara, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Adachi, T. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Akimune, H. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Berg, G.P.A. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); GANIL, CEA/DSM-CNRS/IN2P3, 14076 Cean (France); Itoh, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Iwamoto, C. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Long, A.; Matta, J.T. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Murakami, T. [Division of Physics and Astronomy, Kyoto University, Kyoto 606-8502 (Japan); Okamoto, A. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Sault, K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Talwar, R. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Joint Institute for Nuclear Astrophysics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Uchida, M. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8850 (Japan); and others

    2013-10-07

    Using inelastic α-scattering at extremely forward angles, including 0°, the strength distributions of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) have been measured in the {sup 204,206,208}Pb isotopes in order to examine the proposed mutually enhanced magicity (MEM) effect on the nuclear incompressibility. The MEM effect had been suggested as a likely explanation of the “softness” of nuclear incompressibility observed in the ISGMR measurements in the Sn and Cd isotopes. Our experimental results rule out any manifestation of the MEM effect in nuclear incompressibility and leave the question of the softness of the open-shell nuclei unresolved still.

  15. Fission decay properties of nuclear giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, H.; Arruda Neto, J.D.T.; Hussein, M.S.; Carlson, B.V.

    1986-05-01

    The statistical fission decay properties of the giant dipole, quadrupole and monopole resonances in 236 U are investigated with the aid of the Hauser-Feshbach model. It is found, contrary to several recent claims, that the GQR fission decay probability is as large as that of the GDR, at energies higher than the fission barrier. At energies close to the f.b., the GQR fission probability is found to be appreciably larger than that of the GDR. The GMR fission probability follows closely that of the GQR. (Author) [pt

  16. Giant monopole resonance in even-A Cd isotopes, the asymmetry term in nuclear incompressibility, and the 'softness' of Sn and Cd nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, D. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Garg, U., E-mail: garg@nd.edu [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Fujiwara, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Akimune, H. [Department of Physics, Konan University, Kobe 568-8501 (Japan); Berg, G.P.A. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Harakeh, M.N. [Kernfysisch Versneller Instituut, University of Groningen, 9747 AA Groningen (Netherlands); Itoh, M. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Kawabata, T. [Center for Nuclear Studies, University of Tokyo, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Kawase, K. [Institute of Scientific and Industrial Research, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Nayak, B.K. [Department of Physics, University of Notre Dame, Notre Dame, IN 46556 (United States); Ohta, T. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Ouchi, H. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Piekarewicz, J. [Department of Physics, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL 32306 (United States); Uchida, M. [Department of Physics, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8850 (Japan); Yoshida, H.P. [Cyclotron and Radioisotope Center, Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8578 (Japan); Yosoi, M. [Research Center for Nuclear Physics, Osaka University, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan)

    2012-12-05

    The isoscalar giant monopole resonance (ISGMR) in even-A Cd isotopes has been studied by inelastic {alpha}-scattering at 100 MeV/u and at extremely forward angles, including 0 Degree-Sign . The asymmetry term in the nuclear incompressibility extracted from the ISGMR in Cd isotopes is found to be K{sub {tau}}=-555{+-}75 MeV, confirming the value previously obtained from the Sn isotopes. ISGMR strength has been computed in relativistic RPA using NL3 and FSUGold effective interactions. Both models significantly overestimate the centroids of the ISGMR strength in the Cd isotopes. Combined with other recent theoretical effort, the question of the 'softness' of the open-shell nuclei in the tin region remains open still.

  17. Dirac monopole without strings: monopole harmonics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, T.T.; Yang, C.N.

    1983-01-01

    Using the ideas developed in a previous paper which are borrowed from the mathematics of fiber bundles, it is shown that the wave function psi of a particle of charge Ze around a Dirac monopole of strength g should be regarded as a section. The section is without discontinuities. Thus the monopole does not possess strings of singularities in the field around it. The eigensections of the angular momentum operators are monopole harmonics which are explicitly exhibited. 7 references, 2 figures, 1 table

  18. Excitation of giant resonances through inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kailas, S.

    1981-01-01

    In the last few years, exciting developments have taken place in the study of giant resonances (GR). In addition to the already well known gjant dipole resonance (GDR), the presence of at least two more new GRs viz. giant quadrupole resonance (GQR) and giant monopole resonance (GMR) has been experimentally established. The systematics covering these GRs is found to be consistent with the theoretical expectation. Though the existence of higher multipoles has been predjcted by theory, so far only some of these have been found to be excited experimentally. Various probe particles - electrons, protons (polarized and unpolarized), light and heavy ions and pions - at different bombarding energies have been used to excite the GR region, primarily through the inelastic scattering process. Detailed experiments, looking at the decay modes of GR region, have also been performed. These studies have contributed significantly to a better understanding of the phenomenon of nuclear collective excitation. In this report, the current status of 'GR' research is reviewed. (author)

  19. Integration of GMR Sensors with Different Technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cubells-Beltrán, María-Dolores; Reig, Càndid; Madrenas, Jordi; De Marcellis, Andrea; Santos, Joana; Cardoso, Susana; Freitas, Paulo P

    2016-06-22

    Less than thirty years after the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect was described, GMR sensors are the preferred choice in many applications demanding the measurement of low magnetic fields in small volumes. This rapid deployment from theoretical basis to market and state-of-the-art applications can be explained by the combination of excellent inherent properties with the feasibility of fabrication, allowing the real integration with many other standard technologies. In this paper, we present a review focusing on how this capability of integration has allowed the improvement of the inherent capabilities and, therefore, the range of application of GMR sensors. After briefly describing the phenomenological basis, we deal on the benefits of low temperature deposition techniques regarding the integration of GMR sensors with flexible (plastic) substrates and pre-processed CMOS chips. In this way, the limit of detection can be improved by means of bettering the sensitivity or reducing the noise. We also report on novel fields of application of GMR sensors by the recapitulation of a number of cases of success of their integration with different heterogeneous complementary elements. We finally describe three fully functional systems, two of them in the bio-technology world, as the proof of how the integrability has been instrumental in the meteoric development of GMR sensors and their applications.

  20. Integration of GMR Sensors with Different Technologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María-Dolores Cubells-Beltrán

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Less than thirty years after the giant magnetoresistance (GMR effect was described, GMR sensors are the preferred choice in many applications demanding the measurement of low magnetic fields in small volumes. This rapid deployment from theoretical basis to market and state-of-the-art applications can be explained by the combination of excellent inherent properties with the feasibility of fabrication, allowing the real integration with many other standard technologies. In this paper, we present a review focusing on how this capability of integration has allowed the improvement of the inherent capabilities and, therefore, the range of application of GMR sensors. After briefly describing the phenomenological basis, we deal on the benefits of low temperature deposition techniques regarding the integration of GMR sensors with flexible (plastic substrates and pre-processed CMOS chips. In this way, the limit of detection can be improved by means of bettering the sensitivity or reducing the noise. We also report on novel fields of application of GMR sensors by the recapitulation of a number of cases of success of their integration with different heterogeneous complementary elements. We finally describe three fully functional systems, two of them in the bio-technology world, as the proof of how the integrability has been instrumental in the meteoric development of GMR sensors and their applications.

  1. Monopole searches at ISABELLE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giacomelli, G.; Thorndike, A.

    1975-01-01

    A discussion is given which supports the continuance of the search for magnetic monopoles at ISABELLE, based on the following assumptions: (1) by 1982 monopoles have not been found; (2) this indicates that, if they exist, they are very massive; (3) other monopole properties are as they are usually assumed to be. An experiment to search for dense tracks is described, an outline is given of a monopole collector for induced current detection, and some discussion is given of the multigamma approach

  2. Gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.M., E-mail: ymcho7@konkuk.ac.kr [Administration Building 310-4, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of); School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Kimm, Kyoungtae [Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Department of Physics, College of Natural Sciences, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-10

    We present a family of gravitationally coupled electroweak monopole solutions in Einstein–Weinberg–Salam theory. Our result confirms the existence of globally regular gravitating electroweak monopole which changes to the magnetically charged black hole as the Higgs vacuum value approaches to the Planck scale. Moreover, our solutions could provide a more accurate description of the monopole stars and magnetically charged black holes.

  3. Magnetic monopole search experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, J.L.

    1986-01-01

    Experimental searches for the elusive magnetic monopole have extended over 50 years -- ever since Dirac showed that the existence of isolated magnetic charges could account for the observation of quantized electric charge. Early searches for Dirac's monopole were hampered since there was no indication of the expected monopole mass, velocity, or origin in the theory. Consequently, numerous experiments searched more or less blindly for relativistic low mass monopoles in the cosmic rays and in particle collisions at high energy accelerators. In this paper, the author reviews briefly the monopole properties which are relevant for their detection and summarize current experimental efforts using induction, ionization/excitation, and catalysis techniques

  4. Geometry of hyperbolic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nash, C.

    1986-01-01

    The hyperbolic monopoles of Atiyah [M. F. Atiyah, Commun. Math. Phys. 93, 471 (1984); ''Magnetic monopoles in hyperbolic space,'' in Proceedings of the International Colloquium on Vector Bundles (Tata Institute, Bombay, 1984)] and Chakrabarti [A. Chakrabarti, J. Math. Phys. 27, 340 (1986)] are introduced and their geometric properties and relations to instantons and ordinary monopoles clarified. A key tool is the use of the ball model of hyperbolic space to construct and examine solutions

  5. Monopole Black Hole Skyrmions

    OpenAIRE

    Moss, Ian G; Shiiki, N; Winstanley, E

    2000-01-01

    Charged black hole solutions with pion hair are discussed. These can be\\ud used to study monopole black hole catalysis of proton decay.\\ud There also exist\\ud multi-black hole skyrmion solutions with BPS monopole behaviour.

  6. Monopole catalysis: an overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dawson, S.

    1983-11-01

    A summary of the talks presented in the topological workshop on monopole catalysis at this conference is given. We place special emphasis on the conservation laws which determine the allowed monopole-fermion interactions and on catalysis as a probe of the structure of a grand unified theory. 11 references

  7. Gauge theories and monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabibbo, N.

    1983-01-01

    This chapter attempts to present some of the fundamental geometrical ideas at the basis of gauge theories. Describes Dirac Monopoles and discusses those ideas that are not usually found in more ''utilitarian'' presentations which concentrate on QCD or on the Glashow-Salam-Weinberg model. This topic was chosen because of the announcement of the possible detection of a Dirac monopole. The existence of monopoles depends on topological features of gauge theories (i.e., on global properties of field configurations which are unique to gauge theories). Discusses global symmetry-local symmetry; the connection; path dependence and the gauge fields; topology and monopoles; the case of SU(3) x U(1); and the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole

  8. Duality and supersymmetric monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gauntlett, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    Exact duality in supersymmetric gauge theories leads to highly non-trivial predictions about the moduli spaces of BPS monopole solutions. These notes attempt to be a pedagogical review of the current status of these investigations. (orig.)

  9. Discovery of the monopole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galitskii, V [Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Atomnoj Ehnergii

    1978-04-01

    An experiment is described conducted in Berkeley in which the magnetic monopole was first detected. The objections are reported of prof. Fowler (U.K.) and prof. Alvarez (U.S.A.) permitting a different interpretation of experimental data.

  10. 44 CFR 334.5 - GMR system description.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... problems. (b) Stage 2, Crisis Management. During the crisis management stage, GMR plans are reviewed and... developed). For example, a Federal department or agency might divide “Crisis Management” into two, three, or... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false GMR system description. 334.5...

  11. Massive magnetic monopoles in cosmology and astrophysics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kolb, E.W.

    1984-01-01

    The astrophysical and cosmological consequences of magnetic monopoles are discussed. The production of monopoles during phase transition in the early universe is addressed, and proposals which have been made to alleviate the monopole problem are summarized. Astrophysical limits on galactic magnetic monopoles are discussed along with experimental efforts to detect monopoles. Finally, monopole-induced proton decay is addressed. 48 references

  12. Monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, J.H.

    1980-01-01

    From chapter III to chapter V properties of U(1) monopole are discussed by calculating radiative capture of an electron by a monopole, the scattering cross section of an electron by a dyon, and the bound state properties of the electron-dyon system. The Lipkin-Weisberger-Peshkin difficulty is overcome by an introduction of a small magnetic moment of the electron. In chapter VI, the linear deformation of the Prasad-Sommerfield solution of the t'Hooft Polyakov monopole is discussed, where we found all the deformed solutions analytically. In chapter VII and VIII, the question of a deformed bag and properties of an excited bag are discussed. The excited D-state is mixed with S-state to give the correct value of g/sub A/. Initially, in chapter II, energy ratios for trimuons produced through a heavy-lepton cascade decay are calculated

  13. Scattering on magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Petry, H.R.

    1980-01-01

    The time-dependent scattering theory of charged particles on magnetic monopoles is investigated within a mathematical frame-work, which duely pays attention to the fact that the wavefunctions of the scattered particles are sections in a non-trivial complex line-bundle. It is found that Moeller operators have to be defined in a way which takes into account the peculiar long-range behaviour of the monopole field. Formulas for the scattering matrix and the differential cross-section are derived, and, as a by-product, a momentum space picture for particles, which are described by sections in the underlying complex line-bundle, is presented. (orig.)

  14. Monopoles, vortices, and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Pietarinen, E.

    1981-10-01

    An exact relation is established between an SO(3) lattice gauge theory model without monopoles, and a corresponding SU(2) model. Elimination of the monopoles (and their strings) leads to a substantial lowering of the entropy of thin vortices and a corresponding decrease of the string tension for low γ. This is revealed by approximate calculations of the vortex free energy and is confirmed by Monte Carlo data. The value of the physical transition temperature to 'hot gluon soup' is also lowered considerably. (orig.)

  15. Tri-band small monopole antenna based on SRR units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gehan Shehata

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a novel design for a tri-band monopole antenna coupled with metamaterial units is introduced. The proposed antenna was designed to cover WiMAX (2.5, 3.5 and WLAN (5.2 bands. In our proposal, a coplanar waveguide (CPW fed circular-disk monopole antenna is coupled with three split ring resonator (SRR units which exist on its back side. In our design a monopole antenna and SRR units are designed first to resonate at 5.2 GHz and 2.5 GHz respectively. In addition, antenna is loaded with post to force resonance at 3.5 GHz. SRR units are used for 2.5 GHz resonance to miniaturize antenna size, and our proposed antenna considered an electrically small antenna (ESA at its first resonance frequency. Simulated and measured results exhibit a good agreement that validate our design.

  16. Search for Magnetic Monopoles

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is proposed to investigate the possible production of magnetic monopoles at the ISR. Very different values are in principle possible for the magnetic charge of such objects, and the present experiment intends to cover a range of magnetic charges from g, to 12 g, where g is the classical minimum charge of the Dirac theory, .ce g = 1/2e The detector consists of three double layers of solid track detector, which are only sensitive to highly ionizing particles, such as monopoles should be. The detector is placed directly in the vacuum chamber, to avoid the large energy losses that a monopole would suffer in a solid wall. A solenoidal magnet is placed between the intersection region and the detector and around the detector itself, in order to accelerate monopoles to an energy such that they are able to traverse the successive sensitive layers of the detector. The thickness of the sensitive layers is chosen to avoid confusion with possible background arising from highly ionizing ions. The experiment...

  17. Discovery of the monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Galitskij, V.

    1978-01-01

    An experiment is described conducted in Berkeley in which the magnetic monopole was first detected. The objections are reported of prof. Fowler (U.K.) and prof. Alvarez (U.S.A.) permitting a different interpretation of experimental data. (Z.J.)

  18. Nonlinear superposition of monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forgacs, P.; Horvath, Z.; Palla, L.

    1981-04-01

    With the aid of Baecklund transformations the authors construct exact multimonopole solutions of the axially and mirror-symmetric Bogomolny equations. The explicit form of the length of the Higgs field is given and is studied both analytically and numerically. The energy density for monopoles with charges 2,3,4,5 is also calculated. (author)

  19. Compact, Frequency Reconfigurable, Printed Monopole Antenna

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Gonçalves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a possible implementation of a compact printed monopole antenna, useful to operate in UMTS and WLAN bands. In order to accomplish that, a miniaturization technique based on the application of chip inductors is used in conjunction with frequency reconfiguration capability. The chip inductors change the impedance response of the monopole, allowing to reduce the resonant frequency. In order to be able to operate the antenna in these two different frequencies, an antenna reconfiguration technique based on PIN diodes is applied. This procedure allows the change of the active form of the antenna leading to a shift in the resonant frequency. The prototype measurements show good agreement with the simulation results.

  20. Experimental searches for magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ross, R.R.

    1976-01-01

    Analysis of the sensitivity of previous negative searches for magnetic monopoles shows that they constitute prior evidence against the monopole interpretation of the event reported as ''evidence for detection of a moving magnetic monopole''. The strength of the evidence varies with the unknown mass of the monopole. For M less than or equal to 10 5 GeV, odds are greater than 10 6 : 1 against. For larger masses, the limits depend strongly on assumptions about the range of monopoles and the threshold for detection of monopole tracks in obsidian. In no case are the odds, less than 8 : 1 and they may be no less than 8000 : 1 against. Since the reported event may also be due to an electrically charged heavy particle, it is probably not due to a monopole

  1. Holographic images reconstructed from GMR-based fringe pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kikuchi Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We have developed a magneto-optical spatial light modulator (MOSLM using giant magneto-resistance (GMR structures for realizing a holographic three-dimensional (3D display. For practical applications, reconstructed image of hologram consisting of GMR structures should be investigated in order to study the feasibility of the MOSLM. In this study, we fabricated a hologram with GMR based fringe-pattern and demonstrated a reconstructed image. A fringe-pattern convolving a crossshaped image was calculated by a conventional binary computer generated hologram (CGH technique. The CGH-pattern has 2,048 × 2,048 with 5 μm pixel pitch. The GMR stack consists of a Tb-Fe-Co/CoFe pinned layer, a Ag spacer, a Gd-Fe free layer for light modulation, and a Ru capping layer, was deposited by dc-magnetron sputtering. The GMR hologram was formed using photo-lithography and Krion milling processes, followed by the deposition of a Tb-Fe-Co reference layer with large coercivity and the same Kerr-rotation angle compared to the free layer, and a lift-off process. The reconstructed image of the ON-state was clearly observed and successfully distinguished from the OFF-state by switching the magnetization direction of the free-layer with an external magnetic field. These results indicate the possibility of realizing a holographic 3D display by the MOSLM using the GMR structures.

  2. On superintegrable monopole systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazlul Hoque, Md; Marquette, Ian; Zhang, Yao-Zhong

    2018-02-01

    Superintegrable systems with monopole interactions in flat and curved spaces have attracted much attention. For example, models in spaces with a Taub-NUT metric are well-known to admit the Kepler-type symmetries and provide non-trivial generalizations of the usual Kepler problems. In this paper, we overview new families of superintegrable Kepler, MIC-harmonic oscillator and deformed Kepler systems interacting with Yang-Coulomb monopoles in the flat and curved Taub-NUT spaces. We present their higher-order, algebraically independent integrals of motion via the direct and constructive approaches which prove the superintegrability of the models. The integrals form symmetry polynomial algebras of the systems with structure constants involving Casimir operators of certain Lie algebras. Such algebraic approaches provide a deeper understanding to the degeneracies of the energy spectra and connection between wave functions and differential equations and geometry.

  3. Monopole and dyon supermultiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minakata, H.

    1985-01-01

    The structure of monopole and dyon supermultiplets is elucidated in some supersymmetric gauge theories which admit classical monopole solutions. Our particular emphasis is on the phenomenon of fermion fractionization in supersymmetric theories. It is shown that in the N = 1 and N = 2 supersymmetric Georgi-Glashow models the occurrence of the fermion fractionization is the necessity; the ignorance of it results in the inconsistency in the perturbative calculation of the mass splittings among the members of the supermultiplets. The notable feature of our result is that the degeneracy due to the Jackiw-Rebbi zero mode is not independent of the one required by the supersymmetry, suggesting a nontrivial structure in embedding the topology of Higgs fields into supersymmetric gauge theories

  4. Colour and magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, E.; Olive, D.

    1976-01-01

    If the exact gauge symmetry of nature consists of the U(1)sub(EM) generated by the electric charge operator Q and the colour group K, with Q a colour singlet, then, if g is a possible magnetic charge, exp(4πigQ) must equal an element of the colour group. For colour singlet particles this reduces to Dirac's condition eg = n/2. In general, possible monopoles correspond to points of intersection of the colour and electromagnetic groups. If the colour group is semi-simple and compact, there can at most be a finite number p of such points (p = N if K = SU(N)). The existence of non-trivial (not equal to unity) solutions to our condition means that there must be fractionally charged (with p the fraction) coloured particles and magnetic monopoles emanating colour magnetic flux as well as electromagnetic flux. (Auth.)

  5. Voltage control of magnetic monopoles in artificial spin ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavez, Andres C.; Barra, Anthony; Carman, Gregory P.

    2018-06-01

    Current research on artificial spin ice (ASI) systems has revealed unique hysteretic memory effects and mobile quasi-particle monopoles controlled by externally applied magnetic fields. Here, we numerically demonstrate a strain-mediated multiferroic approach to locally control the ASI monopoles. The magnetization of individual lattice elements is controlled by applying voltage pulses to the piezoelectric layer resulting in strain-induced magnetic precession timed for 180° reorientation. The model demonstrates localized voltage control to move the magnetic monopoles across lattice sites, in CoFeB, Ni, and FeGa based ASI’s. The switching is achieved at frequencies near ferromagnetic resonance and requires energies below 620 aJ. The results demonstrate that ASI monopoles can be efficiently and locally controlled with a strain-mediated multiferroic approach.

  6. Solitons, monopoles and bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajasekaran, G.

    1978-01-01

    Recent developments in the theory of solitons and related objects in the fields of high energy physics and nuclear physics are reviewed. The aim is to concentrate on the physical aspects and explain why these objects have awakened the interest of physicists. The physics of solitons is discussed with the help of a simple one-dimensional soliton. Then the physically more interesting monopole-soliton is considered and its connection with the original Dirac monopole is pointed out. The ''revolutionary'' possibility of making fermions as composites of bosons is indicated. Both the one-dimensional solitons and the monopole-soliton are examples of ''topological solitons'' and the role of topology in the physics of solitons is explained. The possible importance of topological quantum numbers in providing a fundamental understanding of the basic conservation laws of physics is pointed out. Two examples of non-topological solitons namely, the nucleon as a bag of almost-massless quarks and the abnormal nucleons as a bag of almost massless nucleons is discussed. (auth.)

  7. Magnetic monopoles and strange matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sanudo, J.; Segui, A.

    1985-07-01

    We show that, if the density of grand unified monopoles at T approx. = 200 MeV is of the order of or greater than 4.4 * 10 21 cm -3 , they annihilate all of the strange matter produced in the quagmahadron phase transition which the Universe undergoes at this temperature. We also study gravitational capture of monopoles by lumps of strange matter. This yields upper limits on the density of monopoles for different sizes of strange ball. (author)

  8. Global EiBI-monopole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JIN Xinghua

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A global EiBI-monopole problem is studied under EiBI gravitational theory.The equations of global EiBI-monopole are derived in the curved spacetime and the relation between the spacetime metric and auxiliary metric is found.In the case of a very small parameter,an asymptotic form of equations is given.The series solutions of global EiBI-monopole at infinity are found.

  9. Magnetic Half-Monopole Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Rosy; Lim, Kok-Geng; Koh, Pin-Wai

    2009-01-01

    We present exact SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs monopole solutions of one half topological charge. These non-Abelian solutions possess gauge potentials which are singular along either the positive or the negative z-axis and common magnetic fields that are singular only at the origin where the half-monopole is located. These half-monopoles are actually a half Wu-Yang monopole and they can possess a finite point electric charge and become half-dyons. They do not necessarily satisfy the first order Bogomol'nyi equations and they possess infinite energy density at r = 0.

  10. Magnetic monopoles: a status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carrigan, R.A. Jr.; Trower, W.P.

    1983-03-01

    A solitary, uncorroborated Stanford candidate event is the only evidence that magnetic monpoles derives from Dirac's assertion that monopoles could explain charge quantization and the 't Hooft-Polyakov demonstration that monopoles are an inevitable consequence of many gauge theories currently being used to unify the electroweak (photon-lepton) and nuclear (quark) interactions. The monopole abundance implied by the Stanford event is in clear contradiction to bounds on their number from astronomical data. Fortunately, the already considerable and expanding arsenal of detection techniques are being fashioned to experimentally test the many open questions surrounding monopoles

  11. Determination of giant resonance strengths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Serr, F.E.

    1983-01-01

    Using theoretical strength functions to describe the different giant resonances expected at excitation energies of the order of (60-85)/Asup(1/3) MeV, we calculate the double differential cross sections d 2 sigma/dΩ dE associated with the reactions 208 Pb(α, α') and 90 Zr(α, α') (Esub(α) = 152 MeV). The angular distributions for the giant quadrupole and giant monopole resonances obtained from fits to these spectra, making simple, commonly used assumptions for the peak shapes and background, are compared to the original angular distributions. The differences between them are an indication of some of the uncertainties affecting the giant resonance strengths extracted from hadron inelastic scattering data. Fits to limited angular regions lead to errors of up to 50% in the value of the energy-weighted sum rule, depending on the angles examined. While it seems possible to extract the correct EWSR for the GMR by carrying out the analyses at 0 0 , no single privileged angle seems to exist in the case of the GQR. (orig.)

  12. Observation of monopole strength in the 12C(e,e'p0)11B reaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calarco, J.R.; Arruda-Neto, J.; Griffioen, K.A.; Hanna, S.S.; Hoffmann, D.H.H.; Neyer, B.; Rand, R.E.; Wienhard, K.; Yearian, M.R.

    1984-01-01

    The location of the giant monopole resonance and, therefore, the compressibility is unknown in light nuclei. The forward-backward (e, e'p) angular correlation asymmetry from 12 C has been measured and found to be very sensitive to monopole strength in the giant dipole resonance region. Similar reactions will, thus, provide a sensitive tool in the search for monopole strength in light nuclei. (orig.)

  13. Magnetic ghosts and monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vandewalle, N; Dorbolo, S

    2014-01-01

    While the physics of equilibrium systems composed of many particles is well known, the interplay between small-scale physics and global properties is still a mystery for athermal systems. Non-trivial patterns and metastable states are often reached in those systems. We explored the various arrangements adopted by magnetic beads along chains and rings. Here, we show that it is possible to create mechanically stable defects in dipole arrangements keeping the memory of dipole frustration. Such defects, nicknamed ‘ghost junctions’, seem to act as macroscopic magnetic monopoles, in a way reminiscent of spin ice systems. (paper)

  14. Positive/negative magnetostrictive GMR trilayer systems as strain gauges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dokupil, S.; Bootsmann, M.-T.; Stein, S.; Loehndorf, M.; Quandt, E.

    2005-01-01

    Recently, highly sensitive strain gauges were developed, which are based on tunnel magnetoresistance (TMR) or giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effects combined with the inverse magnetostriction. GMR and TMR structures generally possess a symmetrical characteristic, which reflects the switching fields of the soft and hard layers, respectively. This characteristic can be changed by a stress field if the soft layer is replaced by a suitable magnetostrictive layer leading to a stress-induced rotation of the magnetostrictive layer with respect to the reference layer. Alternatively, both magnetic layers can be soft magnetic, one being positive and the other negative magnetostrictive. In this case, a stress applied on the stack leads to a reverse rotation of both layers due to the different sign in magnetostriction. This new approach is especially attractive since no reference layer is required which allows multilayering for GMR effect enhancement. This paper presents the stress biased characteristics of (FeCo/Cu/Ni) GMR trilayers in which the positive magnetostrictive FeCo and the negative magnetostrictive Ni replace the sensing and reference layer of a conventional GMR stack. The results can be interpreted by a simple model taking into account the magnetization direction of the individual layers and their response to mechanical strain in the range of 0.1-1%o

  15. Magnetic monopoles and baryon decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pak, N.; Panagiotakopoulos, C.; Shafi, Q.

    1982-08-01

    The scattering of a non-relativistic quark from a GUT monopole is affected by the anomalous magnetic moment of the quark. In order that monopole catalysis of baryon decay can occur, it must be assumed that the anomalous magnetic moment decreases sufficiently rapidly below the QCD scale. (author)

  16. Is there a monopole problem?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dvali, G.; Senjanovic, G.

    1995-07-01

    We show that there exists a range of parameters in SU(5) theory for which the GUT symmetry remains broken at high temperature, thus avoiding the phase transition that gives rise to the overproduction of monopoles. The thermal production of monopoles can be naturally suppressed, keeping their number density below the cosmological limits. (author). 11 refs

  17. Production of magnetic monopole pairs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maher, R.L.

    1980-01-01

    Using a covariant photon propagator (developed by W.B. Campbell) to represent a photon exchange between a magnetic monopole and an electric charge, the first order production amplitudes in a Feynman-Dyson perturbation expansion and the resulting differential cross-sections are calculated for monopole pair creation from: (i) electron positron annihilation, (ii) photon scattering in the presence of a nucleus, and (iii) electron scattering in the presence of a nucleus. This theory does not specify the spin character of magnetic monopoles, so all processes are calculated twice: for spin zero monopoles and for spin one-half monopoles. In the first and last processes the differential cross-sections have sufficiently different dependences on the production angles (associated with the monopoles momenta), so that near threshold experiments could distinguish between whether monopoles are either spin one-half or spin zero entities. For the t'Hooft monopole mass estimate (5-8 x 10 3 GeV) very high energy particle and photon beam sources would be required to achieve threshold for these production processes

  18. Monopole scattering with a twist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, C.J.; Sutcliffe, P.M.

    1996-01-01

    By imposing certain combined inversion and rotation symmetries on the rational maps for SU(2) BPS monopoles we construct geodesics in the monopole moduli space. In the moduli space approximation these geodesics describe a novel kind of monopole scattering. During these scattering processes axial symmetry is instantaneously attained and, in some, monopoles with the symmetries of the regular solids are formed. The simplest example corresponds to a charge three monopole invariant under a combined inversion and 90 circle rotation symmetry. In this example three well-separated collinear unit charge monopoles coalesce to form first a tetrahedron, then a torus, then the dual tetrahedron and finally separate again along the same axis of motion. We explicitly construct the spectral curves in this case and use a numerical ADHMN construction to compute the energy density at various times during the motion. We find that the dynamics of the zeros of the Higgs field is extremely rich and we discover a new phenomenon; there exist charge k SU(2) BPS monopoles with more than k zeros of the Higgs field. (orig.)

  19. Dirac's Conception of the Magnetic Monopole, and its Modern Avatars

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 10; Issue 12. Dirac's Conception of the Magnetic Monopole, and its Modern Avatars. Sunil Mukhi. Volume 10 Issue 12 December 2005 pp 193-202. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Instantons and monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tyurin, N A

    2002-01-01

    In this survey we present the main notions and constructions of gauge theories, namely, the Donaldson theory, the Seiberg-Witten theory, and the theory of B-monopoles, which connects the previous two theories. In the framework of differential geometry these theories give new invariants of smooth structures in dimension 4. The introduction of these new gauge invariants has helped to solve many problems of modern geometry. The apparatus developed in the framework of these theories leads to new modern methods of investigation both in smooth geometry and in applied problems of mathematical physics. Without striving for the greatest possible generality, the survey aims to present the topic in maximal breadth and accessibility

  1. High yield Cu-Co CPP GMR multilayer sensors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spallas, J., Mao, M., Law, B., Grabner, F., Cerjan, C., O'Kane, O.

    1997-01-01

    We have fabricated and tested GMR magnetic flux sensors that operate in the CPP mode. This work is a continuation of the ultra-high density magnetic sensor research introduced at INTERMAG 96. We have made two significant modifications to the process sequence. First, contact to the sensor is made through a metal conduit deposited in situ with the multilayers. This deposition replaces electroplating. This configuration ensures a good electrical interface between the top of multilayer stack and the top contact, and a continuous, conductive current path to the sensor. The consequences of this modification are an increase in yield of operational devices to ≥90% per wafer and a significant reduction of the device resistance to ≤560 milliohms and of the uniformity of the device resistance to ≤3%. Second, the as-deposited multilayer structure has been changed from [Cu 30 angstrom/Co 20 angstrom] 18 (third peak) to [Cu 20.5 angstrom/Co 12 angstrom] 30 (second peak) to increase the CPP and CIP responses. The sheet film second peak CIP GMR response is 18% and the sensitivity is 0.08 %/Oe. The sheet film third peak CIP GMR response is 8% and the sensitivity is 0. 05 %/Oe. The second peak CPP GMR response averaged over twenty devices on a four inch silicon substrate is 28% ± 6%. The response decreases radially from the substrate center. The average response at the center of the substrate is 33% ± 4%. The average second peak CPP sensitivity is 0.09 %/Oe ± 0.02 %/Oe. The best second peak CPP response from a single device is 39%. The sensitivity of that device is 0.13 %/Oe. The third peak CPP GMR response is approximately 14 %. The third peak CPP response sensitivity is 0.07 %/Oe. 6 refs., 3 figs

  2. Ultra-sensitive bio-sensor based on GMR in self-suspended-membrane-type germanium grating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Jianyong; Zhang, Dawei

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, an ultra-sensitive bio-sensor based on the GMR effect in self-suspended-membrane-type gratings (SSGs) is proposed using multilayer plane waveguide theory. It is demonstrated from our calculations that the sensitivity of our bio-sensor is near the theoretical limit compared with a conventional GMR sensor. Based on the normalized eigenfunction of a single-layer homogeneous grating, the resonance curves with respect to different refractive indices of surrounding media are calculated, which confirm the estimated sensitivity. In addition, we design a highly sensitive bio-sensor in the near- and mid-IR wavelength region for liquid and gas detection respectively, the sensor can deliver a resolution over 1 × 10 −5 in the near-IR region in a large refractive index (1.3–1.7) range and provide better than 1 × 10 −6 in the mid-IR region, which is enough for various bio-material detections. Therefore, the bio-sensor we proposed is one or two orders more sensitive than conventional GMR sensors. (paper)

  3. Illustrated cosmic monopole

    CERN Document Server

    Seagrave, Wyken

    2015-01-01

    Truly bizarre, utterly unique I've never read a novel quite like this before. The author takes you on an exciting adventure full of unforgettable and vivid imagery. Solidly written with each character's personality shining through. If you find physics fascinating you will not be disappointed by the author's keen intellect and clear understanding of this most challenging (for me anyway) scientific subject. This is not a novel I will forget anytime soon, I would highly recommend it. Andrewly Very imaginative tale Anybody interested in a very imaginative and engrossing sci fi story needs to check this one out. I have been reading sci fi for decades and this story has elements that surprise me which is very unusual considering the number of novels and stories I have over the years. ric freeman Summary of the story The cosmic monopole has been wandering the Universe since it was created in the Big Bang. Its existence is fundamental to the way the Universe works. It is finally trapped by the powerful magnetic f...

  4. Monopole current dynamics and color confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichie, H.; Suganuma, H.; Tanaka, A.

    1998-01-01

    Color confinement can be understood by the dual Higgs theory, where monopole condensation leads to the exclusion of the electric flux from the QCD vacuum. We study the role of the monopole for color confinement by investigating the monopole current system. When the self-energy of the monopole current is small enough, long and complicated monopole world-lines appear, which is a signal of monopole condensation. In the dense monopole system, the Wilson loop obeys the area-law, and the string tension and the monopole density have similar behavior as the function of the self-energy, which seems that monopole condensation leads to color confinement. On the long-distance physics, the monopole current system almost reproduces essential features of confinement properties in lattice QCD. In the short-distance physics, however, the monopole-current theory would become nonlocal and complicated due to the monopole size effect. This monopole size would provide a critical scale of QCD in terms of the dual Higgs mechanism. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic monopoles in Kaluza Klein theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sundaresan, M.K.; Tanaka, K.

    1985-01-01

    We start with an introduction to magnetic monopoles and then discuss the magnetic monopoles in 5-dimensions, the stability of solution with respect to small changes in the metric, and finally end with remarks

  6. Magnetic monopoles in particle physics and cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preskill, J.

    1986-01-01

    Hardly any topic better illustrates the connection between particle physics and cosmology than the topic of magnetic monopoles. While there is no persuasive evidence that a monopole has ever been detected, the existence of monopoles is implied by deeply cherished beliefs about the structure of matter at extremely short distances. And the fact that monopoles are so rare as to have escaped detection has profound implications concerning the very early history of the universe. This article gives a brief overview of the theory of magnetic monopoles and its relevance to cosmology. In Section II, the author explains the connection between monopoles and the unification of the fundamental interactions. In Section III, he describes how monopoles might have been produced in the very early universe. Theoretical limits on the abundance of monopoles derived from astrophysical considerations are the subject of Section IV. Section V contains conclusions

  7. Primordial inflation and the monopole problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, K.A.; Seckel, D.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter discusses the cosmological abundance of magnetic monopoles in locally supersymmetry grand unified theories (GUTs) and primordial inflation. It is shown how the magnetic monopole problem can be solved in variants of broken N=1 supergravity primordial inflation. The monopole problem and its solution in inflationary models is reviewed. It is demonstrated that the monopole problem can be solved by coupling primordial inflation to supersymmetric SU(5) breaking

  8. Benefits of GMR sensors for high spatial resolution NDT applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelkner, M.; Stegemann, R.; Sonntag, N.; Pohl, R.; Kreutzbruck, M.

    2018-04-01

    Magneto resistance sensors like GMR (giant magneto resistance) or TMR (tunnel magneto resistance) are widely used in industrial applications; examples are position measurement and read heads of hard disk drives. However, in case of non-destructive testing (NDT) applications these sensors, although their properties are outstanding like high spatial resolution, high field sensitivity, low cost and low energy consumption, never reached a technical transfer to an application beyond scientific scope. This paper deals with benefits of GMR/TMR sensors in terms of high spatial resolution testing for different NDT applications. The first example demonstrates the preeminent advantages of MR-elements compared with conventional coils used in eddy current testing (ET). The probe comprises one-wire excitation with an array of MR elements. This led to a better spatial resolution in terms of neighboring defects. The second section concentrates on MFL-testing (magnetic flux leakage) with active field excitation during and before testing. The latter illustrated the capability of highly resolved crack detection of a crossed notch. This example is best suited to show the ability of tiny magnetic field sensors for magnetic material characterization of a sample surface. Another example is based on characterization of samples after tensile test. Here, no external field is applied. The magnetization is only changed due to external load and magnetostriction leading to a field signature which GMR sensors can resolve. This gives access to internal changes of the magnetization state of the sample under test.

  9. On charge-3 cyclic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braden, H W; D'Avanzo, Antonella; Enolski, V Z

    2011-01-01

    We determine the spectral curve of charge-3 BPS su(2) monopoles with C 3 cyclic symmetry. The symmetry means that the genus 4 spectral curve covers a (Toda) spectral curve of genus 2. A well adapted homology basis is presented enabling the theta functions and monopole data of the genus 4 curve to be given in terms of genus 2 data. The Richelot correspondence, a generalization of the arithmetic mean, is used to solve for this genus 2 curve. Results of other approaches are compared

  10. Proton capture by magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olaussen, K.; Olsen, H.A.; Oeverboe, I.; Osland, P.

    1983-09-01

    In the Kazama-Yang approximation, the lowest monopole-proton bound states have binding energies of 938 MeV, 263 keV, 105 eV, and 0.04 eV. The cross section for radiative capture to these states is for velocities β = 10 -5 - 10 -3 found to be of the order of 10 -28 - 10 -26 cm 2 . For the state that has a binding energy of 263 keV, the capture length in water is 171 x (β/10 -4 )sup(0.48) m. Observation of photons from the capture process would indicate the presence of monopoles. (orig.)

  11. Extended monopoles in gauge field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Z.; Palla, L.

    1977-04-01

    The paper gives a review of the 't Hooft monopole and briefly discusses the general topological considerations connected with monopoles. A method is presented for constructing explicit monopole solutions in any gauge theory. Some stability questions and time-dependent problems are also considered

  12. Cosmological production of Kaluza-Klein monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, J.A.; Kolb, E.W.; Perry, M.J.

    1984-09-01

    The cosmological production of Kaluza-Klein monopoles is discussed. The present monopole to entropy ratio is calculated in some simple models with the conclusion that this ratio is unacceptably large unless additional mechanisms for entropy production or monopole annihilation are present

  13. Monopole track characteristics in plastic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, S. P.

    1975-01-01

    Total and restricted energy loss rates were calculated for magnetic monopoles of charge g = 137 e in Lexan polycarbonate. Range-energy curves are also presented. The restricted energy loss model is used to estimate the appearance of a monopole track in plastic detectors. These results should be useful for the design and analysis of monopole experiments.

  14. Monopole-track characteristics in plastic detectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahlen, S. P.

    1976-01-01

    Total and restricted energy loss rates are calculated for magnetic monopoles of charge g = 137 e in Lexan polycarbonate. Range-energy curves are also presented. The restricted-energy-loss model is used to estimate the appearance of a monopole track in plastic detectors. The results are applied to the event observed by Price et al. and identified by them as a monopole. It is found that the observed etch rate is consistent with what one would expect for a slow magnetic monopole. These results should also be of use to other investigators for both the design and analysis of monopole experiments.

  15. Monopole-antimonopole interaction potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saurabh, Ayush; Vachaspati, Tanmay

    2017-11-01

    We numerically study the interactions of twisted monopole-antimonopole pairs in the 't Hooft-Polyakov model for a range of values of the scalar to vector mass ratio. We also recover the sphaleron solution at maximum twist discovered by Taubes [Commun. Math. Phys. 86, 257 (1982), 10.1007/BF01206014] and map out its energy and size as functions of parameters.

  16. Giant monopole transition densities within the local scale ATDHF approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dimitrova, S.S.; Petkov, I.Zh.; Stoitsov, M.V.

    1986-01-01

    Transition densities for 12 C, 16 O, 28 Si, 32 S, 40 Ca, 48 Ca, 56 Ni, 90 Zr, 208 Pb even-even nuclei corresponding to nuclear glant monopole resonances obtained within a local-scale adiabatic time-dependent Hartree-Fook approach in terms of effective Skyrme-type forces SkM and S3. The approach, the particular form and all necessary coefficients of these transition densities are reported. They are of a simple analytical form and may be directly used for example in analyses of particle inelastic scattering on nuclei by distorted wave method and a such a way allowing a test of the theoretical interpretation of giant monopole resonances

  17. The monopole and quadrupole vibrations of a hot nucleus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okolowicz, J.; Drozdz, S.; Ploszajczak, M.; Caurier, E.

    1989-03-01

    An extended time-dependent Hartree-Fock approach has been applied to a description of the isoscalar giant monopole and quadrupole vibration modes in the excited nuclear system at finite temperature. The temperature dependence of the resonance characteristics is established for both modes. In anticipation of some anharmonic effects the principle of regularity and single-valuedness has been used to extract the energies of the collective modes. (orig.)

  18. Investigation of the energy-averaged double transition density of isoscalar monopole excitations in medium-heavy mass spherical nuclei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelik, M.L.; Shlomo, S. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Cyclotron Institute, Texas A& M University, College Station, TX 77843 (United States); Tulupov, B.A. [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation); Institute for Nuclear Research, RAS, Moscow 117312 (Russian Federation); Urin, M.H., E-mail: urin@theor.mephi.ru [National Research Nuclear University “MEPhI”, Moscow 115409 (Russian Federation)

    2016-11-15

    The particle–hole dispersive optical model, developed recently, is applied to study properties of high-energy isoscalar monopole excitations in medium-heavy mass spherical nuclei. The energy-averaged strength functions of the isoscalar giant monopole resonance and its overtone in {sup 208}Pb are analyzed. In particular, we analyze the energy-averaged isoscalar monopole double transition density, the key quantity in the description of the hadron–nucleus inelastic scattering, and studied the validity of the factorization approximation using semi classical and microscopic one body transition densities, respectively, in calculating the cross sections for the excitation of isoscalar giant resonances by inelastic alpha scattering.

  19. Sensors based on GMR'S for detection of subsurface defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cordon, J.; Ribes, B.; Vazquez, J.

    2010-01-01

    The use of magneto resistive sensors, GMR, as receptors in eddy current probe has certain advantages over the use of conventional inductive sensors, which puts an alternative for the detection of subsurface defects in metal components with thick materials. It has carried out a study of the most important characteristics of these sensors, which has enabled the manufacture of several probes based on OMR. In this paper we analyze different configurations and present the results of the analysis on several blocks with different defects in materials.

  20. Rational maps, monopoles and skyrmions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Houghton, C.J.; Manton, N.S.

    1998-01-01

    We discuss the similarities between BPS monopoles and skyrmions, and point to an underlying connection in terms of rational maps between Riemann spheres. This involves the introduction of a new ansatz for Skyrme fields. We use this to construct good approximations to several known skyrmions, including all the minimal energy configurations up to baryon number nine, and some new solutions such as a baryon number seventeen Skyrme field with the truncated icosahedron structure of a buckyball. The new approach is also used to understand the low-lying vibrational modes of skyrmions, which are required for quantization. Along the way we discover an interesting Morse function on the space of rational maps which may be of use in understanding the Sen forms on the monopole moduli spaces. (orig.)

  1. The search for magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barish, B.C.

    1983-01-01

    In this review, I discuss the status and prospects for experimental studies aimed at the detection of Grand Unified Monopoles. The only positive evidence, at this time, remains the one observed candidate of Cabrera. The relations of this observation to the expected abundance in cosmic rays and to limits from other detection techniques are discussed. Lastly, prospects for future studies with sensitivity to much smaller fluxes are also presented

  2. Effect of material selection and background impurity on interface property and resulted CIP-GMR performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xilin; Morrone, Augusto; Nikolaev, Konstantin; Kief, Mark; Ostrowski, Mark

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we investigated the effect of background base pressure, wafer-transferring time between process modules, and stack layer material selection on the current-in-plane giant magneto-resistive (CIP-GMR) interface properties and the resulted CIP-GMR performance. Experimental results showed that seed layer/AFM interface, AFM/pinned layer (PL) interface, pinned layer/Ru interface, and reference layer (RL)/Cu spacer interface are among the most critical ones for a CIP-GMR device. By reducing the background impurity level (water moisture and oxygen), optimizing the wafer process flow sequence, and careful stack-layer material selection, such critical interfaces in a CIP-GMR device can be preserved. Consequently, a much robust GMR performance control can be achieved.

  3. A Direct Search for Dirac Magnetic Monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mulhearn, Michael James [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2004-10-01

    Magnetic monopoles are highly ionizing and curve in the direction of the magnetic field. A new dedicated magnetic monopole trigger at CDF, which requires large light pulses in the scintillators of the time-of-flight system, remains highly efficient to monopoles while consuming a tiny fraction of the available trigger bandwidth. A specialized offline reconstruction checks the central drift chamber for large dE/dx tracks which do not curve in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. We observed zero monopole candidate events in 35.7 pb-1 of proton-antiproton collisions at √s = 1.96 TeV. This implies a monopole production cross section limit σ < 0.2 pb for monopoles with mass between 100 and 700 GeV, and, for a Drell-Yan like pair production mechanism, a mass limit m > 360 GeV.

  4. Electroweak monopoles and the electroweak phase transition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arunasalam, Suntharan; Kobakhidze, Archil [The University of Sydney, ARC Centre of Excellence for Particle Physics at the Terascale, School of Physics, Sydney, NSW (Australia)

    2017-07-15

    We consider an isolated electroweak monopole solution within the Standard Model with a nonlinear Born-Infeld extension of the hypercharge gauge field. Monopole (and dyon) solutions in such an extension are regular and their masses are predicted to be proportional to the Born-Infeld mass parameter. We argue that cosmological production of electroweak monopoles may delay the electroweak phase transition and make it more strongly first order for monopole masses M >or similar 9.3 . 10{sup 3} TeV, while the nucleosynthesis constraints on the abundance of relic monopoles impose the bound M monopoles with a mass in this shallow range may be responsible for the dynamical generation of the matter-antimatter asymmetry during the electroweak phase transition. (orig.)

  5. Magnetic monopoles in field theory and cosmology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajantie, Arttu

    2012-12-28

    The existence of magnetic monopoles is predicted by many theories of particle physics beyond the standard model. However, in spite of extensive searches, there is no experimental or observational sign of them. I review the role of magnetic monopoles in quantum field theory and discuss their implications for particle physics and cosmology. I also highlight their differences and similarities with monopoles found in frustrated magnetic systems.

  6. Correlations between Abelian monopoles and center vortices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hosseini Nejad, Seyed Mohsen, E-mail: smhosseininejad@ut.ac.ir; Deldar, Sedigheh, E-mail: sdeldar@ut.ac.ir

    2017-04-15

    We study the correlations between center vortices and Abelian monopoles for SU(3) gauge group. Combining fractional fluxes of monopoles, center vortex fluxes are constructed in the thick center vortex model. Calculating the potentials induced by fractional fluxes constructing the center vortex flux in a thick center vortex-like model and comparing with the potential induced by center vortices, we observe an attraction between fractional fluxes of monopoles constructing the center vortex flux. We conclude that the center vortex flux is stable, as expected. In addition, we show that adding a contribution of the monopole-antimonopole pairs in the potentials induced by center vortices ruins the Casimir scaling at intermediate regime.

  7. Global monopoles can change Universe's topology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marunović, Anja; Prokopec, Tomislav

    2016-01-01

    If the Universe undergoes a phase transition, at which global monopoles are created or destroyed, topology of its spatial sections can change. More specifically, by making use of Myers' theorem, we show that, after a transition in which global monopoles form, spatial sections of a spatially flat, infinite Universe becomes finite and closed. This implies that global monopoles can change the topology of Universe's spatial sections (from infinite and open to finite and closed). Global monopoles cannot alter the topology of the space-time manifold.

  8. Monopoles and quark confinement: Introduction and overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yee, Ken.

    1994-01-01

    We (try to) pedagogically explain how monopoles arise in QCD, why maximal Abelian (MA) gauge is ''special'' for monopole study, the Abelian projection in MA gauge, its resultant degrees of freedom (photons, monopoles and charged matter fields), and the QCD-equivalent action in terms of these degrees of freedom. Then we turn to more recent developments in the subject: Abelian dominance, large N behavior of Abelian projected QCD, mass of the charged matter fields, notion of an effective photon-monopole action obtained by integrating out the charged matter fields, and problems encountered in evaluating this effective action using the microcanonical demon method on the lattice

  9. The Axially Symmetric One-Monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, K.-M.; Teh, Rosy

    2009-01-01

    We present new classical generalized one-monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that this solution with θ-winding number m = 1 and φ-winding number n = 1 is an axially symmetric generalization of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole. We construct this axially symmetric one-monopole solution by generalizing the large distance asymptotic solutions of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole to the Jacobi elliptic functions and solving the second order equations of motion numerically when the Higgs potential is vanishing. This solution is a non-BPS solution.

  10. Finite temperature effects on monopole and dipole excitations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niu, Y F; Paar, N; Vretenar, D; Meng, J

    2011-01-01

    The relativistic random phase approximation based on effective Lagrangian with density dependent meson-nucleon couplings has been extended to finite temperature and employed in studies of multipole excitations within the temperature range T = 1 - 2 MeV. The model calculations showed that isoscalar giant monopole and isovector giant dipole resonances are only slightly modified with temperature, but additional transition strength appears at low energies because of thermal unblocking of single-particle orbitals close to the Fermi level. The analysis of low-lying states shows that isoscalar monopole response in 132 Sn results from single particle transitions, while the isovector dipole strength for 60 Ni, located around 10 MeV, is composed of several single particle transitions, accumulating a small degree of collectivity.

  11. Collective doorways and statistical doorways: The decay properties of giant multipole resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, H.; Hussein, M.S.; Adhikari, S.K.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical framework for the description of the decay of giant multipole resonances is developed. It is shown that the statistical decay of the GMR is not necessarily described by the Hauser-Feschbach theory owing to the existence of a mixing parameter. The contribution of pre-equilibrium emission to the GMR decay is also discussed. (Author) [pt

  12. Ultra-Wideband Coplanar-Fed Monopoles: A Comparative Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jilkova

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The paper provides an experimental comparison of four types of ultra-wideband coplanar-fed planar monopole antennas. Parameters of the open stub completed by an L-shaped monopole and the cross monopole were adopted from the literature. The forked monopole and the coplanar monopole were fabricated and measured. Monopoles were compared from the viewpoint of the impedance bandwidth, gain, directivity patterns and dimensions.

  13. Design and Fabrication of Full Wheatstone-Bridge-Based Angular GMR Sensors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Yan

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistive (GMR effect, GMR sensors have gained much attention in last decades due to their high sensitivity, small size, and low cost. The full Wheatstone-bridge-based GMR sensor is most useful in terms of the application point of view. However, its manufacturing process is usually complex. In this paper, we present an efficient and concise approach to fabricate a full Wheatstone-bridge-based angular GMR sensor by depositing one GMR film stack, utilizing simple patterned processes, and a concise post-annealing procedure based on a special layout. The angular GMR sensor is of good linear performance and achieves a sensitivity of 0.112 mV/V/Oe at the annealing temperature of 260 °C in the magnetic field range from −50 to +50 Oe. This work provides a design and method for GMR-sensor manufacturing that is easy for implementation and suitable for mass production.

  14. Search for magnetic monopoles with Frejus detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benadjal, Y.

    1989-10-01

    Magnetic monopoles are predicted by every Grand Unification Theory. Their experimental search constitutes, together with proton decay, the only direct test of these theories. The Frejus experiment, using a large calorimetric detector, has looked for cosmic ray monopoles in the speed (v/c) range from 0.0001 to 0.1. No candidate was recorded. The flux limits obtained represent an original contribution at the low end of the speed range. After a first chapter covering various theoretical aspects of the monopole problem, we describe, in the following chapter, the main methods which can be applied to try to detect monopoles, and we review a certain number of experiments. The third chapter describes the Frejus magnetic monopole experiment. The detection method and the Geiger tube efficiency for slow monopoles are examined. Particular attention is given to the trigger system for slow monopoles. It was possible to add a specially designed electronic system to the detector making the monopole search possible. This system is described here. Four million events were recorded. The final chapter is devoted to their analysis. It includes, in particular, the description of the method which made it possible to reduce this mass of data to roughly 1000 events which were then scanned one by one in order to identify possible candidates. Our results in terms of flux limits are compared with those obtained by the better competing experiments [fr

  15. Monopole correlations in holographically flavored liquids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iqbal, N.

    2015-01-01

    Many-body systems with a conserved U(1) current in (2+1) dimensions may be probed by weakly gauging this current and studying correlation functions of magnetic monopole operators in the resulting dynamical gauge theory. We study such monopole correlations in holographic liquids with fundamental

  16. Search for Magnetic Monopoles with the NO$\

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zukai [Univ. of Virginia, Charlottesville, VA (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The magnetic monopole is a hypothetical particle, which is an important field configuration in many Grand Unified Theories, and whose mass may vary from 104 to 1018 GeV. The quantization of magnetic charge derived by Dirac in 1931 suggests the heavy ionization nature of magnetic monopoles. The NO$\

  17. Instantons, monopoles and chiral symmetry breaking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurstein, M.; Markum, H.; Thurner, S.

    1996-01-01

    We analyze the interplay of topological objects in four dimensional QCD. The distributions of color magnetic monopoles obtained in the maximum abelian gauge are computed around instantons in both pure and full QCD. We find an enhanced probability of encountering monopoles inside the core of an instanton. We show this by means of local correlation functions of the topological variables. For specific gauge field configurations we visualize the situation graphically. Motivated by the fact that a fermion in the field of a static monopole has an energy zero mode we investigate how monopole loops and instantons are locally correlated with the chiral condensate. The observed correlations suggest that monopoles are involved in the mechanism of breaking of chiral symmetry. (orig.)

  18. Dynamics of a magnetic monopole in matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fayolle, David

    1999-07-01

    We study the dynamics of a slow (v/c ∼ 10 -4 ) Dirac magnetic monopole in matter. First, we show at macroscopic scale that the force exerted on a monopole is F vector = g(H vector - v vector x D vector), as if the monopole was not allowed to cross neither microscopic current loops nor microscopic electric dipoles. We interpret this result in terms of adiabatic monopole-atom interactions. Secondly, we generalized the macroscopic Maxwell's equations in 'dual symmetric' matter which contains monopoles and dyons, from which we deduce several properties such as the velocity of light, the behaviour under C, P and T transformation, and we generalize the energy-momentum tensor. These equations also apply when nucleons or electrons possess an electric dipole moment and we propose two experimental methods for detecting this electric dipole moment via its macroscopic polarization effects. (author)

  19. Electromagnetically induced transparency in planar metamaterials based on guided mode resonance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yaru; Chen, Hang; Li, Xiangjun; Hong, Zhi

    2017-06-01

    We present and numerically demonstrate a novel, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in planar metamaterials (MMs) based on guided mode resonance (GMR). The unit cell of the MM consists of two metallic ring resonators. The GMR with high quality factor (Q) is achieved by changing the distance between the two rings of the MM. Narrow EIT-like spectral response is realized by coupling between a high Q GMR and a low Q dipolar resonance of the MM. Our work could provide another efficient way towards the realization of EIT with large group index using very simple structures.

  20. Giant resonances: reaction theory approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toledo Piza, A.F.R. de; Foglia, G.A.

    1989-09-01

    The study of giant resonances through the use of reaction theory approach is presented and discussed. Measurements of cross-sections to the many available decay channels following excitation of giant multipole resonances (GMR) led one to view these phenomena as complicated dynamical syndromes so that theoretical requirements for their study must be extended beyond the traditional bounds of nuclear structure models. The spectra of decay products following GMR excitation in heavy nuclei are well described by statistical model (Hauser-Feshback, HF) predictions indicated that spreading of the collective modes plays a major role in shaping exclusive cross-sections. (A.C.A.S.) [pt

  1. Design and Performance of GMR Sensors for the Detection of Magnetic Microbeads in Biosensors

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rife, J. C; Miller, M. M; Sheehan, P. E; Tamanaha, C. R; Tondra, M; Whitman, L. J

    2003-01-01

    We are developing a biosensor system, the Bead ARray Counter (BARC), based on the capture and detection of micron-sized, paramagnetic beads on a chip containing an array of giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensors...

  2. Giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors from basis to state-of-the-art applications

    CERN Document Server

    Reig, Candid; Mukhopadhyay, Subhas Chandra

    2013-01-01

    Since the discovery of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect in 1988, spintronics has been presented as a new technology paradigm, awarded by the Nobel Prize in Physics in 2007. Initially used in read heads of hard disk drives, and while disputing a piece of the market to the flash memories, GMR devices have broadened their range of usage by growing towards magnetic field sensing applications in a huge range of scenarios. Potential applications at the time of the discovery have become real in the last two decades. Definitively, GMR was born to stand. In this sense, selected successful approaches of GMR based sensors in different applications: space, automotive, microelectronics, biotechnology … are collected in the present book. While keeping a practical orientation, the fundamentals as well as the current trends and challenges of this technology are also analyzed. In this sense, state of the art contributions from academy and industry can be found through the contents. This book can be used by starting ...

  3. A model of the response of GMR of metallic multilayers to external magnetic field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uba J.I.

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available It has not been possible to transform resistivity models in terms of magnetic field in order to account for variation of giant magnetoresistance (GMR with external magnetic field, which would have led to determination of material properties. This problem is approached mathematically via variation calculus to arrive at an exponential function that fits observed GMR values. Using this model in free electron approximation, the mean Fermi vector, susceptibility and total density of states of a number of metallic multilayers are determined from their reported GMR values. Susceptibility is found to depend on interface roughness and antiferromagnetic (AF coupling; thus, it gives qualitative measure of interface quality and AF coupling. Comparison of susceptibilities and GMRs of electrodeposited and ion beam sputtered Co/Cu structures shows that a rough interface suppresses GMR in the former but enhances it in the latter.

  4. Magnetic monopoles in a model of a composite photon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwazaki, Aiichi.

    1984-10-01

    We show that there are monopole solutions in a composite model where the photon is regarded as a composite of elementary constituents. These monopoles have magnetic charges of the Dirac unit but are essencially different from 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles since they are boundstates of the constituents. The stability of the monopoles is guaranteed by the conservation of the magnetic charges. (author)

  5. Monopole-antimonopole and vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2005-01-01

    The SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory supports the existence of monopoles, antimonopoles, and vortex rings. In this paper, we would like to present new exact static antimonopole-monopole-antimonopole (A-M-A) configurations. The net magnetic charge of these configurations is always -1, while the net magnetic charge at the origin is always +1 for all positive integer values of the solution's parameter m. However, when m increases beyond 1, vortex rings appear coexisting with these AMA configurations. The number of vortex rings increases proportionally with the value of m. They are located in space where the Higgs field vanishes along rings. We also show that a single-point singularity in the Higgs field does not necessarily correspond to a structureless 1-monopole at the origin but to a zero-size monopole-antimonopole-monopole (MAM) structure when the solution's parameter m is odd. This monopole is the Wu-Yang-type monopole and it possesses the Dirac string potential in the Abelian gauge. These exact solutions are a different kind of Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield (BPS) solutions as they satisfy the first-order Bogomol'nyi equation but possess infinite energy due to a point singularity at the origin of the coordinate axes. They are all axially symmetrical about the z-axis

  6. Monopole gas in three dimensional SU(2) gluodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernodub, M.N.; Ishiguro, Katsuya; Suzuki, Tsuneo

    2004-01-01

    We study properties of the Abelian monopoles in the Maximal Abelian projection of the three dimensional pure SU(2) gauge model. We match the lattice monopole dynamics with the continuum Coulomb gas model using a method of blocking from continuum. We obtain the Debye screening length and the monopole density in continuum using numerical results for the density to the (squared) monopole charges and for the monopole action. The monopoles treated within our blocking method provide about 75% contribution to the non-Abelian Debye screening length. We also find that monopoles form a Coulomb plasma which is not dilute. (author)

  7. Magnetic monopoles and dipoles in quantum mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.; Peshkin, M.

    1986-01-01

    The force on and the energy of a ''di-monopole'', which is the limiting case of a dipole made from two monopoles at zero separation and finite magnetic moment, interacting with an externally fixed magnetic field resulting from an electric current, is considered. A model involving only a monopole is used to illustrate the physical principles involved when magnetic sources move in a solenoidal field whose source is an electric current. The problems encountered in Hamiltonian theory are discussed. 5 refs., 3 figs

  8. Monopole charges in unified gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Chan Hong Mo

    1981-01-01

    Monopole charges, being global quantities, depend on the gauge group of a theory, which in turn is determined by the representations of all its fields. For example, chromodynamics in its present form when combined with electrodynamics has as its gauge group not SU(3)*U(1) but a 'smaller' group U(3). The specification of monopole charges for a theory can thus be quite intricate. The authors report the result of an investigation in several current gauge theories. Of particular interest is the possible existence in some theories of monopoles carrying multiplicative charges. As a by-product, some earlier assertions seem to be incorrect, are clarified. (16 refs).

  9. Magnetic Monopole Search at the SPS

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    A target made of fine grains of tungsten-iron powder will be exposed to the 400 GeV proton beam in front of the narrow-band neutrino beam dump. Magnetic monopoles if produced by the proton interactions will be trapped in the target. After exposure, the target will be placed in the centre of a pulse magnetic coil with nuclear emulsions acting as monopole detectors. .sp \\\\ \\\\ A monopole mass sensitivity up to 18 GeV is expected in this experiment.

  10. Evaluation of dynamic response for monopole and hybrid wind mill tower

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Hemal J.; Desai, Atul K.

    2017-07-01

    The wind mill towers are constructed using monopoles or lattice type tower. As the height of tower increases it gives more power but it becomes uneconomical, so in the present research work innovative wind mill tower such as combination of monopole and lattice tower is analyzed using FEM software. When the tall structures are constructed on soft soil it becomes dynamically sensitive so 3 types of soil such as hard, medium and soft soil is also modeled and the innovative tower is studied for different operating frequencies of wind turbine. From study it is concluded that the innovative tower will reduce resonance condition considering soil structure interaction.

  11. GMR sensors and magnetic nanoparticles for immuno-chromatographic assays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marquina, C.; Teresa, J.M. de; Serrate, D.; Marzo, J.; Cardoso, F.A.; Saurel, D.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P.P.

    2012-01-01

    Conventional tests based on immunorecognition and on the use of coloured colloidal particles have still some drawbacks that limit their use: they do not provide a quantitative determination of the analyte, and their sensitivity is limited. Our strategy to overcome these disadvantages consists in the use of superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles to tag the analyte. The use of these magnetic labels allows us to quantify the amount of analyte present in our sample with a very high sensitivity, detecting their magnetic response by means of the suitable magnetic sensor. Our method is based on measuring the magnetoresistive response of a spin-valve giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor placed in proximity to the magnetic nanoparticles present in the lateral flow strip. Here, a brief description of our prototype and of the measurement procedure will be presented, as well as preliminary assays using our biosensor to detect the hCG pregnancy hormone in a solution. A crucial aspect to take into account in order to increase the sensitivity is the proper functionalisation of the nanoparticle shell, in order to achieve an oriented immobilisation of the antibodies to be used in the immunorecognition process. Several strategies to further increase the sensor sensitivity are suggested.

  12. GMR sensors and magnetic nanoparticles for immuno-chromatographic assays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marquina, C., E-mail: clara@unizar.es [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon ICMA, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Teresa, J.M. de [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon ICMA, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Serrate, D. [Departamento de Fisica de la Materia Condensada, Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Marzo, J. [Instituto de Ciencia de Materiales de Aragon ICMA, CSIC-Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Pedro Cerbuna 12, 50009 Zaragoza (Spain); Cardoso, F.A. [INESC-MN-Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores-Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Rua Alves Redol 9, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); Saurel, D. [Instituto de Nanociencia de Aragon (INA), Universidad de Zaragoza, C/Mariano Esquillor s/n, 50018 Zaragoza (Spain); Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P.P. [INESC-MN-Instituto de Engenharia de Sistemas e Computadores-Microsistemas e Nanotecnologias and IN-Institute of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology, Rua Alves Redol 9, 1000-029 Lisbon (Portugal); and others

    2012-10-15

    Conventional tests based on immunorecognition and on the use of coloured colloidal particles have still some drawbacks that limit their use: they do not provide a quantitative determination of the analyte, and their sensitivity is limited. Our strategy to overcome these disadvantages consists in the use of superparamagnetic core-shell nanoparticles to tag the analyte. The use of these magnetic labels allows us to quantify the amount of analyte present in our sample with a very high sensitivity, detecting their magnetic response by means of the suitable magnetic sensor. Our method is based on measuring the magnetoresistive response of a spin-valve giant magnetoresistive (GMR) sensor placed in proximity to the magnetic nanoparticles present in the lateral flow strip. Here, a brief description of our prototype and of the measurement procedure will be presented, as well as preliminary assays using our biosensor to detect the hCG pregnancy hormone in a solution. A crucial aspect to take into account in order to increase the sensitivity is the proper functionalisation of the nanoparticle shell, in order to achieve an oriented immobilisation of the antibodies to be used in the immunorecognition process. Several strategies to further increase the sensor sensitivity are suggested.

  13. Superheavy magnetic monopoles and the standard cosmology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Turner, M.S.

    1984-10-01

    The superheavy magnetic monopoles predicted to exist in grand unified theories (GUTs) are very interesting obsects, both from the point of view of particle physics, as well as from astrophysics and cosmology. Astrophysical and cosmological considerations have proved to be invaluable in studying the properties of GUT monopoles. Because of the glut of monopoles predicted in the standard cosmology for the simplest GUTs (so many that the Universe should have reached a temperature of 3 0 K at the tender age of approx. = 10,000 yrs), the simplest GUTs and the standard cosmology are not compatible. This is a very important piece of information about physics at unification energies (E greater than or equal to 10 14 GeV) and about the earliest moments (t less than or equal to 10 -34 s) of the Universe. In this talk the author reviews the cosmological consequences of GUT monopoles within the context of the standard hot big bang model. 46 references

  14. Multi-monopoles and magnetic bags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolognesi, Stefano

    2006-01-01

    By analogy with the multi-vortices, we show that also multi-monopoles become magnetic bags in the large n limit. This simplification allows us to compute the spectrum and the profile functions by requiring the minimization of the energy of the bag. We consider in detail the case of the magnetic bag in the limit of vanishing potential and we find that it saturates the Bogomol'nyi bound and there is an infinite set of different shapes of allowed bags. This is consistent with the existence of a moduli space of solutions for the BPS multi-monopoles. We discuss the string theory interpretation of our result and also the relation between the 't Hooft large n limit of certain supersymmetric gauge theories and the large n limit of multi-monopoles. We then consider multi-monopoles in the cosmological context and provide a mechanism that could lead to their production

  15. SU(5) monopoles, magnetic symmetry and confinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daniel, M.; Lazarides, G.; Shafi, Q.

    1980-01-01

    The monopoles of the unified SU(5) gauge theory broken down to Hsub(E) = SU(3)sub(c) x U(1)sub(EM) [or to Ksub(E) = SU(3)sub(c) x SU(2) x U(1)sub(γ)], are classified. They belong to representations of a magnetic group Hsub(M)(Ksub(M)), which is found to be isomorphic to Hsub(E)(Ksub(E)). For SU(5) broken down to Hsub(E), there exists a regular and stable monopole which is a colour magnetic triplet, and carries a non-zero abelian magnetic charge. It is suggested that composite operators made out of this monopole and its antiparticle fields develop a non-zero vacuum expectation value, and so lead to a squeezing of the colour electric flux. Finally, we comment on the cosmological production of SU(5) monopoles. (orig.)

  16. Type A Jacobi Elliptic One-Monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2010-01-01

    We present new classical generalized one-monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that this generalized solution with Θ-winding number m = 1 and φ-winding number n = 1 is an axially symmetric Jacobi elliptic generalization of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole. We construct this axially symmetric one-monopole solution by generalizing the large distance asymptotic solution of the 't Hooft-Polyakov one-monopole to the Jacobi elliptic functions and solving the second order equations of motion numerically when the Higgs potential is vanishing. This solution is a regular non-BPS finite energy solution.

  17. Magnetic monopole catalysis of proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marciano, W.J.; Salvino, D.

    1986-09-01

    Catalysis of proton decay by GUT magnetic monopoles (the Rubakov-Callan effect) is discussed. Combining a short-distance cross section calculation by Bernreuther and Craigie with the long-distance velocity dependent distortion factors of Arafune and Fukugita, catalysis rate predictions which can be compared with experiment are obtained. At present, hydrogen rich detectors such as water (H 2 O) and methane (CH 4 ) appear to be particularly well suited for observing catalysis by very slow monopoles. 17 refs., 1 fig

  18. Annihilation and gravitational clumping of monopoles in the early universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, Mizuo; Sato, Katsuhiko.

    1983-01-01

    In order to avoid the overproduction of magnetic monopoles in the early Universe, we investigate how monopoles evolve in the Big Bang Universe for arbitrary mass of monopoles and the arbitrary initial abundance. First, we calculate pair annihilation of monopoles by taking into account the entropy production due to the annihilations. Second, we investigate the formation of monopole stars and black holes due to gravitational clumping of monopoles. In particular, we take into account the entropy and baryon number generation by black hole evaporation. It is shown, however, that the burning of monopole stars or the evaporation of black holes cannot dilute the monopole abundance sufficiently without conflicts with present baryon/entropy ratio and primordial nucleosynthesis regardless of monopole mass. (author)

  19. Routes for GMR-Sensor Design in Non-Destructive Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Schütze

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available GMR sensors are widely used in many industrial segments such as information technology, automotive, automation and production, and safety applications. Each area requires an adaption of the sensor arrangement in terms of size adaption and alignment with respect to the field source involved. This paper deals with an analysis of geometric sensor parameters and the arrangement of GMR sensors providing a design roadmap for non-destructive testing (NDT applications. For this purpose we use an analytical model simulating the magnetic flux leakage (MFL distribution of surface breaking defects and investigate the flux leakage signal as a function of various sensor parameters. Our calculations show both the influence of sensor length and height and that when detecting the magnetic flux leakage of µm sized defects a gradiometer base line of 250 µm leads to a signal strength loss of less than 10% in comparison with a magnetometer response. To validate the simulation results we finally performed measurements with a GMR magnetometer sensor on a test plate with artificial µm-range cracks. The differences between simulation and measurement are below 6%. We report on the routes for a GMR gradiometer design as a basis for the fabrication of NDT-adapted sensor arrays. The results are also helpful for the use of GMR in other application when it comes to measure positions, lengths, angles or electrical currents.

  20. One-step sol-gel imprint lithography for guided-mode resonance structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yin; Liu, Longju; Johnson, Michael; C Hillier, Andrew; Lu, Meng

    2016-03-04

    Guided-mode resonance (GMR) structures consisting of sub-wavelength periodic gratings are capable of producing narrow-linewidth optical resonances. This paper describes a sol-gel-based imprint lithography method for the fabrication of submicron 1D and 2D GMR structures. This method utilizes a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold to fabricate the grating coupler and waveguide for a GMR device using a sol-gel thin film in a single step. An organic-inorganic hybrid sol-gel film was selected as the imprint material because of its relatively high refractive index. The optical responses of several sol-gel GMR devices were characterized, and the experimental results were in good agreement with the results of electromagnetic simulations. The influence of processing parameters was investigated in order to determine how finely the spectral response and resonant wavelength of the GMR devices could be tuned. As an example potential application, refractometric sensing experiments were performed using a 1D sol-gel device. The results demonstrated a refractive index sensitivity of 50 nm/refractive index unit. This one-step fabrication process offers a simple, rapid, and low-cost means of fabricating GMR structures. We anticipate that this method can be valuable in the development of various GMR-based devices as it can readily enable the fabrication of complex shapes and allow the doping of optically active materials into sol-gel thin film.

  1. One-step sol–gel imprint lithography for guided-mode resonance structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Yin; Liu, Longju; Lu, Meng; Johnson, Michael; C Hillier, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Guided-mode resonance (GMR) structures consisting of sub-wavelength periodic gratings are capable of producing narrow-linewidth optical resonances. This paper describes a sol–gel-based imprint lithography method for the fabrication of submicron 1D and 2D GMR structures. This method utilizes a patterned polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) mold to fabricate the grating coupler and waveguide for a GMR device using a sol–gel thin film in a single step. An organic–inorganic hybrid sol–gel film was selected as the imprint material because of its relatively high refractive index. The optical responses of several sol–gel GMR devices were characterized, and the experimental results were in good agreement with the results of electromagnetic simulations. The influence of processing parameters was investigated in order to determine how finely the spectral response and resonant wavelength of the GMR devices could be tuned. As an example potential application, refractometric sensing experiments were performed using a 1D sol–gel device. The results demonstrated a refractive index sensitivity of 50 nm/refractive index unit. This one-step fabrication process offers a simple, rapid, and low-cost means of fabricating GMR structures. We anticipate that this method can be valuable in the development of various GMR-based devices as it can readily enable the fabrication of complex shapes and allow the doping of optically active materials into sol–gel thin film. (paper)

  2. Extended Monopole antenna Array with individual Shield (EMAS) coil: An improved monopole antenna design for brain imaging at 7 tesla MRI.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Myung-Kyun; Hong, Suk-Min; Lee, Jongho; Kang, Chang-Ki; Park, Sung-Yeon; Son, Young-Don; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2016-06-01

    To propose a new Extended Monopole antenna Array with individual Shields (EMAS) coil that improves the B1 field coverage and uniformity along the z-direction. To increase the spatial coverage of Monopole antenna Array (MA) coil, each monopole antenna was shielded and extended in length. Performance of this new coil, which is referred to as EMAS coil, was compared with the original MA coil and an Extended Monopole antenna Array coil with no shield (EMA). For comparison, flip angle, signal-to-noise ratio (SNR), and receive sensitivity maps were measured at multiple regions of interest (ROIs) in the brain. The EMAS coil demonstrated substantially larger flip angle and receive sensitivity than the MA and EMA coils in the inferior aspect of the brain. In the brainstem ROI, for example, the flip angle in the EMAS coil was increased by 45.5% (or 60.0%) and the receive sensitivity was increased by 26.9% (or 14.9%), resulting in an SNR gain of 84.8% (or 76.3%) when compared with the MA coil (or EMA). The EMAS coil provided 25.7% (or 24.4%) more uniform B1+ field distribution compared with the MA (or EMA) coil in sagittal. The EMAS coil successfully extended the imaging volume in lower part of the brain. Magn Reson Med 75:2566-2572, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Actual problems of giant resonance physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhalov, M.B.; Sliv, L.A.

    1982-01-01

    The raper deals with the discussion of theoretical problems associated with investigation into nuclear giant multipole resoonances (GMR). Analysis of test data on inelastic scattering of particles on nuclei is carried out to obtain the main GMR characteristics from the present experimental data. Giant isoscalar resonances and their structures in the random phase approximatmion (RPA) with Skyrm forces described by the microscopic theory are discussed. Cross section of 40 Ca excitation in reaction of α-particle inelastic scattering calculated in RPA with exact accountancy of one-nucleon continuum is graphically displayed as an example. Modified RPA used for calculation of GMR width is suggested. Conducted is comparison of energies of 40 Ca, 58 Ni, 90 Zr, 208 Pb nuclei isoscalar resonances calculated in RPA and their contributions to energy weighted sum rule the results of which are tabulated. Integral strength of resonance excitation in RPA by inelastic-scattered α particles and protons on 40 Ca and 208 Pb nuclei is considered. Channels of GMR disintegration are discussed. The most significant theoretical and experimental problems the solution of which is necessary for complete investigation of GMR are pointed out

  4. Econometric Methodology of Monopolization Process Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitrijs Skoruks

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The research “Econometric Methodology of Monopolization Process Evaluation” gives a perspective description of monopolization process’ nature, occurrence source, development procedure and internal conjuncture specifics, as well as providing an example of modern econometrical method application within a unified framework of market competition analysis for the purpose of conducting a quantitative competition evaluation on an industry level for practical use in both private and public sectors. The main question of the aforementioned research is the definition and quantitative analysis of monopolization effects in modern day globalized markets, while con- structing an empirical model of the econometric analysis, based on the use of in- ternational historical experience of monopoly formations standings, with the goal of introducing a further development scheme for the use of both econometrical and statistical instruments in line with the forecasting and business research need of enterprises and regulatory functions of the public sector. The current research uses a vast variety of monopolization evaluation ratios and their econometrical updates on companies that are involved in the study procedure in order to detect and scallar measure their market monopolizing potential, based on the implemented acquired market positions, turnover shares and competition policies.

  5. Magnetic Field Sensors Based on Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR Technology: Applications in Electrical Current Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Càndid Reig

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics can be understood as a global recognition to the rapid development of the Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR, from both the physics and engineering points of view. Behind the utilization of GMR structures as read heads for massive storage magnetic hard disks, important applications as solid state magnetic sensors have emerged. Low cost, compatibility with standard CMOS technologies and high sensitivity are common advantages of these sensors. This way, they have been successfully applied in a lot different environments. In this work, we are trying to collect the Spanish contributions to the progress of the research related to the GMR based sensors covering, among other subjects, the applications, the sensor design, the modelling and the electronic interfaces, focusing on electrical current sensing applications.

  6. Temperature dependence of GMR and effect of annealing on electrodeposited Co-Ag granular films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia-Torres, Jose; Valles, Elisa; Gomez, Elvira

    2010-01-01

    The magnetoresistance of Co-Ag granular films composed of superparamagnetic and ferromagnetic particles was studied at different temperatures. The increase in the GMR values while decreasing temperature down to 20 K was quantified. The non-saturating behaviour of the MR(H) curves was retained even at the lowest measurement temperature, which was mainly attributed to the dipolar interaction among the superparamagnetic particles. The influence of the annealing conditions on the magnetoresistance was also studied. In all conditions, a decrease in the GMR values was measured being attributed to an increase in the particle size.

  7. The Price of an Electroweak Monopole

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, John; You, Tevong

    2016-01-01

    In a recent paper, Cho, Kim and Yoon (CKY) have proposed a version of the SU(2) $\\times$ U(1) Standard Model with finite-energy monopole and dyon solutions. The CKY model postulates that the effective U(1) gauge coupling $\\to \\infty$ very rapidly as the Englert-Brout-Higgs vacuum expectation value $\\to 0$, but in a way that is incompatible with LHC measurements of the Higgs boson $H \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ decay rate. We construct generalizations of the CKY model that are compatible with the $H \\to \\gamma \\gamma$ constraint, and calculate the corresponding values of the monopole and dyon masses. We find that the monopole mass could be $< 5.5$ TeV, so that it could be pair-produced at the LHC and accessible to the MoEDAL experiment.

  8. Some remarkable spin physics with monopoles and fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.

    1984-01-01

    This review will cover the following topics, which follow the historical evolution of the subject: the Dirac monopole; the Kazama-Yang Goldhaber problem in electron-monopole scattering; the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole and spin from isospin; the Rubakov analysis; monopole catalysis of proton decay the Rubakov-Callan effect; the role of exactly solvable 2-dimensional QFT's and finally observable consequences. 15 references

  9. Some remarkable spin physics with monopoles and fermions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craigie, N.S.

    1984-09-01

    This review will cover the following topics, which follow the historical evolution of the subject: the Dirac monopole, the Kazama-Yang Goldhaber problem in electron-monopole scattering; the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole and spin from isospin; the Rubakov analysis; monopole catalysis of proton decay- ''the Rubakov-Callan effect''; the role of exactly solvable 2-dimensional QFT's and finally observable consequences. (author)

  10. Stable SU(5) monopoles with higher magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miyamoto, S.; Sato, H.; Tomohiro, S.

    1985-01-01

    Taking into account the electroweak breaking effects, some multiply charged monopoles were shown to be stable by Gardner and Harvey. We give the explicit Ansa$uml: tze for finite-energy, nonsingular solutions of these stable higher-strength monopoles with eg = 1,(3/2),3. We also give the general stability conditions and the detailed behavior of the interaction potentials between two monopoles which produce the stable higher-strength monopoles

  11. Vacuum anti-shielding of monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goebel, D.J.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter examines the difficulties in calculating the vacuum polarization, or magnetization, induced in the vacuum by a monopole. The usual Lagrangian formalism and consequent Feynman rules do not apply. Another problem is that the interaction strength between the monopole and a charge is not small (unless it vanishes exactly) because it is quantized to half integer values. Perturbation theory is therefore not applicable. The discussed problems are solved by using the old fashioned method of calculating a vacuum expectation value as a sum over single particle modes

  12. Monopole Solutions in Topologically Massive Gauge Theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming; Koh, Pin-Wai

    2010-01-01

    Monopoles in topologically massive SU(2) Yang-Mils-Higgs gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions with a Chern-Simon mass term have been studied by Pisarski some years ago. He argued that there is a monopole solution that is regular everywhere, but found that it does not possess finite action. There were no exact or numerical solutions being presented by him. Hence it is our purpose to further investigate this solution in more detail. We obtained numerical regular solutions that smoothly interpolates between the behavior at small and large distances for different values of Chern-Simon term strength and for several fixed values of Higgs field strength.

  13. Recent results on the giant magnetoresistance in magnetic multilayers (anisotropy, thermal variation and CCP-GMR)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieny, B.; Granovsky, A.; Vedyaev, A.; Ryzhanova, N.; Cowache, C.; Pereira, L. G.

    1995-12-01

    We present some recent results obtained on the electrical transport properties in magnetic multilayers. Three points are addressed. The first one is an experimental demonstration of the existence of an intrinsic anisotropy of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR). The experiments have been carried out on spin-valve samples for which there is no contribution of the usual anisotropic magnetoresistance to the observed magnetoresistance. The GMR amplitude is found to be larger (lower) in the direction perpendicular (parallel) to the sensing current. The second point concerns a quantitative analysis of the thermal variation of the CIP (current-in-plane) GMR in magnetic multilayers. This analysis is based on a semi-classical theory including the spin-intermixing due to spin-flip scattering by magnons. This approach allows quantitatively evaluation of the respective weights of the various contributions to the thermal decrease in GMR: (i) scattering by magnons in the bulk of the ferromagnetic layers; (ii) phonon scattering in the non-magnetic spacer layer; and (iii) interfacial scattering by paramagnetic interfacial layers which may form as the temperature is increased. The third point is a theoretical investigation of the CPP (current perpendicular to the plane) electrical transport through an interface between two semi-infinite metallic materials. It is shown that when a potential step U exists at such an interface, this step gives rise to an interfacial resistance proportional to U2. It also leads to the existence of large oscillations in the electric fields on both sides of the interface.

  14. The commonly used eye-specific sev-GAL4 and GMR-GAL4 drivers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    GAL4 and GMR-GAL4 drivers are most widely used since they are believed to be expressed exclusively in the developing eye cells. However, several reports have noted lethality following expression of certain transgenes under these GAL4 ...

  15. Denaturation strategies for detection of double stranded PCR products on GMR magnetic biosensor array

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rizzi, Giovanni; Lee, Jung-Rok; Guldberg, Per

    2017-01-01

    Microarrays and other surface-based nucleic acid detection schemes rely on the hybridization of the target to surface-bound detection probes. We present the first comparison of two strategies to detect DNA using a giant magnetoresistive (GMR) biosensor platform starting from an initially double...

  16. The commonly used eye-specific sev-GAL4 and GMR-GAL4 drivers ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Further, two different GMR-GAL4 lines also show some specific differences in their expression domains outside the eye .... cells in the brain and ventral ganglia (central nervous system, ... GFP; + female and w1118; Ddc-GAL4; + male flies. The.

  17. High Resolution Eddy-Current Wire Testing Based on a Gmr Sensor-Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreutzbruck, Marc; Allweins, Kai; Strackbein, Chris; Bernau, Hendrick

    2009-03-01

    Increasing demands in materials quality and cost effectiveness have led to advanced standards in manufacturing technology. Especially when dealing with high quality standards in conjunction with high throughput quantitative NDE techniques are vital to provide reliable and fast quality control systems. In this work we illuminate a modern electromagnetic NDE approach using a small GMR sensor array for testing superconducting wires. Four GMR sensors are positioned around the wire. Each GMR sensor provides a field sensitivity of 200 pT/√Hz and a spatial resolution of about 100 μm. This enables us to detect under surface defects of 100 μm in size in a depth of 200 μm with a signal-to-noise ratio of better than 400. Surface defects could be detected with a SNR of up to 10,000. Besides this remarkably SNR the small extent of GMR sensors results in a spatial resolution which offers new visualisation techniques for defect localisation, defect characterization and tomography-like mapping techniques. We also report on inverse algorithms based on either a Finite Element Method or an analytical approach. These allow for accurate defect localization on the urn scale and an estimation of the defect size.

  18. Analysis of a reported magnetic monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alvarez, L.W.

    1975-01-01

    It is shown that there are several substantive errors in a previous work on a cosmic ray event which is consistent with the hypothesis that it was caused by a magnetic monopole. It is shown that the data points fit to the hypothesis that the responsible particle is a platinum nucleus fragmenting to osmium and then to tantalum

  19. Magnetic monopoles, Galilean invariance, and Maxwell's equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1992-01-01

    Maxwell's equations have space reserved for magnetic monopoles. Whether or not they exist in our part of the universe, monopoles provide a useful didactic tool to help us recognize relations among Maxwell's equations less easily apparent in the approach followed by many introductory textbooks, wherein Coulomb's law, Biot and Savart's law, Ampere's law, Faraday's law, Maxwell's displacement current, etc., are introduced independently, ''as demanded by experiment.'' Instead a conceptual path that deduces all of Maxwell's equations from the near-minimal set of assumptions: (a) Inertial frames exist, in which Newton's laws hold, to a first approximation; (b) the laws of electrodynamics are Galilean invariant---i.e., they have the same form in every inertial frame, to a first approximation; (c) magnetic poles (as well as the usual electric charges) exist; (d) the complete Lorentz force on an electric charge is known; (e) the force on a monopole at rest is known; (f) the Coulomb-like field produced by a resting electric charge and by a resting monopole are known. Everything else is deduced. History is followed in the assumption that Newtonian mechanics have been discovered, but not special relativity. (Only particle velocities v much-lt c are considered.) This ends up with Maxwell's equations (Maxwell did not need special relativity, so why should we,) but facing Einstein's paradox, the solution of which is encapsulated in the Einstein velocity-addition formula

  20. Conservation of basic monopoles in decay processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barricelli, N.A.

    1983-01-01

    The conversation law of basic monpoles and other rules followed by these monopoles in the formation and decay processes of elementary particles are presented and discussed. A new interpretation of the distinction between rapid decay process (commonly ascribed to weak interactions) is proposed. (Auth.)

  1. Charged particles as Kaluza-Klein monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.-M.; Tsou, S.T.

    1984-05-01

    The authors describe some explorations into the possibility of treating charged particles as monopoles in a Kaluza-Klein world. Such considerations may be useful in the future for constructing model theories in which both matter and gauge structure emerge as consequences of space-time geometry. (author)

  2. Monopole star products are non-alternative

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bojowald, Martin [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University,104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Brahma, Suddhasattwa [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University,104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Center for Field Theory and Particle Physics, Fudan University,200433 Shanghai (China); Büyükçam, Umut [Institute for Gravitation and the Cosmos, The Pennsylvania State University,104 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Strobl, Thomas [Institut Camille Jordan, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1,43 boulevard du 11 novembre 1918, 69622 Villeurbanne cedex (France)

    2017-04-05

    Non-associative algebras appear in some quantum-mechanical systems, for instance if a charged particle in a distribution of magnetic monopoles is considered. Using methods of deformation quantization it is shown here, that algebras for such systems cannot be alternative, i.e. their associator cannot be completely anti-symmetric.

  3. On the supersymmetric solitons and monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hruby, J.

    1978-01-01

    The basic results in a new trend in supersymmetry and soliton theory are presented. It is shown that the soliton expectation value of the energy operator is mass of the soliton without the quantum corrections. A new supersymmetric monopole model in three dimensions is constructed by generalization of the supersymmetric sine-Gordon model in one space dimension

  4. f(R) global monopole revisited

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carames, Thiago R.P.; Fabris, Julio C.; Belich, H. [Universidade Federal do Espirito Santo (UFES), Vitoria, ES (Brazil); Bezerra de Mello, E.R. [Universidade Federal da Paraiba, Departamento de Fisica, Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil)

    2017-07-15

    In this paper the f(R) global monopole is reexamined. We provide an exact solution for the modified field equations in the presence of a global monopole for regions outside its core, generalizing previous results. Additionally, we discuss some particular cases obtained from this solution. We consider a setup consisting of a possible Schwarzschild black hole that absorbs the topological defect, giving rise to a static black hole endowed with a monopole's charge. Besides, we demonstrate how the asymptotic behavior of the Higgs field far from the monopole's core is shaped by a class of spacetime metrics which includes the ones analyzed here. In order to assess the gravitational properties of this system, we analyze the geodesic motion of both massive and massless test particles moving in the vicinity of such configuration. For the material particles we set the requirements they have to obey in order to experience stable orbits. On the other hand, for the photons we investigate how their trajectories are affected by the gravitational field of this black hole. (orig.)

  5. Predation, Exclusion, and Complement Market Monopolization

    OpenAIRE

    Timothy Brennan

    2009-01-01

    The handling of cases under the rubrics “monopolization,†“single-firm conduct,†or “abuse of dominance†continues to be debated by the competition policy community.

  6. Magnetic monopoles, duality and cosmological phase transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Escobar, C.O.; Natale, A.A.; Marques, G.C.

    1981-06-01

    Is is shown that duality for magnetic monopoles, as proposed by Montonen and Olive, does not hold in quatum field theory at finite temperatures. Furthermore, the evolution picture of the Universe looks different when analyzed in the original 'electric' theory or in its dual 'magnetic' counterpart. (Author) [pt

  7. Cosmological grand unification monopoles: astrophysical constraints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fry, J.N.

    1982-01-01

    I review the general arguments which suggest that relic GU magnetic monopoles should emerge from the early universe, and I discuss several astrophysical settings in which their effects could be, but are not, observed. This places limits on their possible flux, and their abundance bound to more ordinary material

  8. Multi-band Monopole Antennas Loaded with Metamaterial TL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Zhi-jie; Liang, Jian-gang

    2015-05-01

    A novel metamaterial transmission line (TL) by loading complementary single Archimedean spiral resonator pair (CSASRP) is investigated and used to design a set of multi-frequency monopole antennas. The particularity is that the CSASRP which features dual-shunt branches in the equivalent circuit model is directly etched in the signal strip. By smartly controlling the element parameters, three antennas are designed and one of them covering UMTS and Bluetooth bands is fabricated and measured. The antenna exhibits impedance matching better than -10 dB and normal monopolar radiation patterns at working bands of 1.9-2.22 and 2.38-2.5 GHz. Moreover, the loaded element also contributes to the radiation, which is the major advantage of this prescription over previous lumped-element loadings. The proposed antenna is also more compact over previous designs.

  9. The discovery, development and future of GMR: The Nobel Prize 2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, Sarah M

    2008-01-01

    One hundred and one years after J J Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the electron, the 2007 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Professors Peter Gruenberg and Albert Fert for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in which the spin as well as the charge of the electron is manipulated and exploited in nanoscale magnetic materials. The journey to GMR started with Lord Kelvin who 150 years ago in 1857 made the first observations of anisotropic magnetoresistance and includes Sir Neville Mott who in 1936 realized that electric current in metals could be considered as two independent spin channels. Modern technology also has a significant role to play in the award of this Nobel Prize: GMR is only manifest in nanoscale materials, and the development of nanotechnology growth techniques was a necessary pre-requisite; further, the considerable demands of the magnetic data storage industry to drive up the data density stored on a hard disk fuelled an enormous international research effort following the initial discovery with the result that more than 5 billion GMR read heads have been manufactured since 1997, ubiquitous in hard disks today. This technology drive continues to inspire exploration of the spin current in the field now known as spintronics, generating new ideas and applications. This review explores the science underpinning GMR and spintronics, the different routes to its discovery taken by Professors Gruenberg and Fert, the new science, materials and applications that the discovery has triggered and the considerable potential for the future. (topical review)

  10. The discovery, development and future of GMR: The Nobel Prize 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, Sarah M [Department of Physics, University of York, York, YO10 5DD (United Kingdom)

    2008-05-07

    One hundred and one years after J J Thomson was awarded the Nobel Prize for the discovery of the electron, the 2007 Nobel Prize for Physics was awarded to Professors Peter Gruenberg and Albert Fert for the discovery of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) in which the spin as well as the charge of the electron is manipulated and exploited in nanoscale magnetic materials. The journey to GMR started with Lord Kelvin who 150 years ago in 1857 made the first observations of anisotropic magnetoresistance and includes Sir Neville Mott who in 1936 realized that electric current in metals could be considered as two independent spin channels. Modern technology also has a significant role to play in the award of this Nobel Prize: GMR is only manifest in nanoscale materials, and the development of nanotechnology growth techniques was a necessary pre-requisite; further, the considerable demands of the magnetic data storage industry to drive up the data density stored on a hard disk fuelled an enormous international research effort following the initial discovery with the result that more than 5 billion GMR read heads have been manufactured since 1997, ubiquitous in hard disks today. This technology drive continues to inspire exploration of the spin current in the field now known as spintronics, generating new ideas and applications. This review explores the science underpinning GMR and spintronics, the different routes to its discovery taken by Professors Gruenberg and Fert, the new science, materials and applications that the discovery has triggered and the considerable potential for the future. (topical review)

  11. Thermal stability of Py/Cu and Co/Cu giant magnetoresistance (GMR) multilayer systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vovk, Vitaliy

    2007-07-01

    NiFe/Cu and Co/Cu multilayer systems have been studied regarding the mechanisms of thermal degradation of the giant magnetoresistance effect (GMR). The different thermodynamics of the studied systems results in different mechanisms of the GMR degradation as shown by highest resolution nanoanalysis using the three dimensional wide angle tomographic atom probe. According to the TAP analysis, GMR deterioration in Py/Cu system occurs due to the broadening of the layer interfaces observed at 250 C. In contrast, due to the strong demixing tendency, Co/Cu multilayers remain stable up to 450 C. At higher temperatures ferromagnetic bridging of the neighboring Co layers takes place leading to the GMR breakdown. In both Py/Cu and Co/Cu systems recrystallization is induced at 350-450 C, which is accompanied by a change in the crystallographic orientation from <111> to <100> wire texture. The reaction may be utilized to produce GMR sensor layers of remarkable thermal stability. Although the systems of interest are equivalent in respect of the observed phenomenon, the Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x}/Cu system is chosen for a detailed analysis because it allows a precise control of the lattice constant by varying the Fe content in the Ni{sub x}Fe{sub 1-x} layer. It is shown that the crystallographic reorientation is triggered by the minimization of lattice mismatch elastic energy. Moreover, the counteraction between the elastic and interfacial energy minimizations exerts a critical influence on the recrystallization probability. (orig.)

  12. Thermal stability and microstructure of GMR-systems consisting of thin metallic films; Thermische Stabilitaet und Mikrostruktur von GMR-Systemen aus duennen metallischen Filmen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, Joerg

    2007-08-31

    In this work the short-term and long-term stability of the nanoscale metallic multilayers at elevated temperatures is studied. Reasons and mechanisms for breakdown of the GMR-effect have been analyzed by different physical methods. The multilayered samples investigated in this work exhibit a GMR effect of GMR (alloy)=20.7 % which is significantly smaller than the effect of the standard system with pure Cu interlayers (GMR(Cu)=25.2 %). For protection against oxidation during the use a passivation coating consisting of SiO{sub 2} and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} has been deposited by the means of plasma CVD. Typical parameters for this process are times of t{sub short-term}=1 h in the temperature range of 200 C

  13. Algebraic properties of the monopole formula

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanany, Amihay [Theoretical Physics Group, Imperial College London,Prince Consort Road, London, SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Sperling, Marcus [Fakultät für Physik, Universität Wien,Boltzmanngasse 5, 1200 Wien (Austria)

    2017-02-06

    The monopole formula provides the Hilbert series of the Coulomb branch for a 3-dimensional N=4 gauge theory. Employing the concept of a fan defined by the matter content, and summing over the corresponding collection of monoids, allows the following: firstly, we provide explicit expressions for the Hilbert series for any gauge group. Secondly, we prove that the order of the pole at t=1 and t→∞ equals the complex or quaternionic dimension of the moduli space, respectively. Thirdly, we determine all bare and dressed BPS monopole operators that are sufficient to generate the entire chiral ring. As an application, we demonstrate the implementation of our approach to computer algebra programs and the applicability to higher rank gauge theories.

  14. One Monopole-Antimonopole Pair Solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Rosy; Wong, K.-M.

    2009-01-01

    We present new classical generalized one monopole-antimonopole pair solutions of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory with the Higgs field in the adjoint representation. We show that in general the one monopole-antimonopole solution need not be solved by imposing mθ-winding number to be integer greater than one. We also show that this solution can be solved when m = 1 by transforming the large distance asymptotic solutions to general solutions that depend on a parameter p. Secondly we show that these large distance asymptotic solutions can be further generalized to the Jacobi elliptic functions. We focus our numerical calculation on the Jacobi elliptic functions solution when the nφ-winding number is one and show that this generalized Jacobi elliptic 1-MAP solution possesses lower energy. All these solutions are numerical finite energy non-BPS solutions of the Yang-Mills-Higgs field theory.

  15. Detector for magnetic monopoles at OPAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinfold, J.L.; Kinoshita, K.; Lorazo, B.; Regimbald, M.

    1991-01-01

    We describe two indepent methods, employed in the OPAL experiment at LEP, for detection of magnetic monopoles and other highly ionizing particles. The first employs passive track-recording plastic detectors incorporated into the apparatus. The second utilizes thed dE/dX measurement capability of the OPAL JET chamber in association with a dedicated trigger. In addition, energetic particles carrying magnetic charge can be identified by the trajectory in the OPAL magnetic field. (orig.)

  16. Magnetic monopole dynamics in spin ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaubert, L D C; Holdsworth, P C W

    2011-04-27

    One of the most remarkable examples of emergent quasi-particles is that of the 'fractionalization' of magnetic dipoles in the low energy configurations of materials known as 'spin ice' into free and unconfined magnetic monopoles interacting via Coulomb's 1/r law (Castelnovo et al 2008 Nature 451 42-5). Recent experiments have shown that a Coulomb gas of magnetic charges really does exist at low temperature in these materials and this discovery provides a new perspective on otherwise largely inaccessible phenomenology. In this paper, after a review of the different spin ice models, we present detailed results describing the diffusive dynamics of monopole particles starting both from the dipolar spin ice model and directly from a Coulomb gas within the grand canonical ensemble. The diffusive quasi-particle dynamics of real spin ice materials within the 'quantum tunnelling' regime is modelled with Metropolis dynamics, with the particles constrained to move along an underlying network of oriented paths, which are classical analogues of the Dirac strings connecting pairs of Dirac monopoles.

  17. Compactness and gluing theory for monopoles

    CERN Document Server

    Frøyshov, Kim A

    2008-01-01

    This book is devoted to the study of moduli spaces of Seiberg-Witten monopoles over spinc Riemannian 4–manifolds with long necks and/or tubular ends. The original purpose of this work was to provide analytical foundations for a certain construction of Floer homology of rational homology 3–spheres; this is carried out in [Monopole Floer homology for rational homology 3–spheres arXiv:08094842]. However, along the way the project grew, and, except for some of the transversality results, most of the theory is developed more generally than is needed for that construction. Floer homology itself is hardly touched upon in this book, and, to compensate for that, I have included another application of the analytical machinery, namely a proof of a "generalized blow-up formula" which is an important tool for computing Seiberg–Witten invariants. The book is divided into three parts. Part 1 is almost identical to my paper [Monopoles over 4–manifolds containing long necks I, Geom. Topol. 9 (2005) 1–93]. The oth...

  18. Determination of crack depth in aluminum using eddy currents and GMR sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes Ribeiro, A.; Pasadas, D.; Ramos, H. G.; Rocha, T.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we use eddy currents to determine the depth of linear cracks in aluminum plates. A constant field probe is used to generate the spatially uniform excitation field and a single axis giant magneto-resistor (GMR) sensor is used to measure the eddy currents magnetic field. Different depths were machined in one aluminum plate with 4 mm of thickness. By scanning those cracks the magnetic field components parallel and perpendicular to the crack's line were measured when the eddy currents were launched perpendicularly to the crack's line. To characterize one crack in a plate of a given thickness and material, the experimental procedure was defined. The plate surface is scanned to detect and locate one crack. The acquired data enables the determination of the crack's length and orientation. A second scanning is performed with the excitation current perpendicular to the crack and the GMR sensing axis perpendicular and parallel to the crack's line.

  19. Fabrication and testing of a CoNiCu/Cu CPP-GMR nanowire-based microfluidic biosensor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellamkonda, Ramya; John, Tom; Mathew, Bobby; DeCoster, Mark; Hegab, Hisham; Davis, Despina

    2010-01-01

    Giant magneto resistance (GMR)-based microfluidic biosensors are used in applications involving the detection, analysis, enumeration and characterization of magnetic nano-particles attached to biological mediums such as antibodies and DNA. Here we introduce a novel multilayered CoNiCu/Cu nanowire GMR-based microfluidic biosensor. The current perpendicular to the plane of multilayers (CPP)-nanowires GMR was used as the core sensing material in the biosensor which responds to magnetic fields depending on the concentration and the flow velocity of bio-nano-magnetic fluids. The device was tested with different control solutions such as DI-water, mineral oil, phosphate buffered saline (PBS), ferrofluid, polystyrene superparamagnetic beads (PSB) and Dynabeads sheep anti-rabbit IgG. The nanowire array resistance decreased with an increase in the ferrofluid concentration, and a maximum 15.8% relative GMR was observed for the undiluted ferrofluid. The sensor was also responding differently to various ferrofluid flow rates. The GMR device showed variation in the output signal when the PSB and Dynabeads of different dilutions were pumped through it. When the tests were performed with pulsing potentials (150 mV and 200 mV), an increased GMR response was identified at higher voltages for PSB and Dynabeads sheep anti-rabbit IgG.

  20. Excitation of simple atoms by slow magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroll, N.M.; Parke, S.J.; Ganapathi, V.; Drell, S.D.

    1984-01-01

    We present a theory of excitation of simple atoms by slow moving massive monopoles. Previously presented results for a monopole of Dirac strength on hydrogen and helium are reviewed. The hydrogen theory is extended to include arbitrary integral multiples of the Dirac pole strength. The excitation of helium by double strength poles and by dyons is also discussed. It is concluded that a helium proportional counter is a reliable and effective detector for monopoles of arbitrary strength, and for negatively charged dyons

  1. Monopole excitations of the 12C nucleus in the cluster model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhelashvili, T.Ya.; Shirokov, A.M.; Smirnov, Yu.F.

    1990-01-01

    The monopole excitations of the 12 C nucleus are studied in the 3α-cluster model. The 3α-continuum is taken into account by means of scattering theory in the harmonic oscillator representation. Only the 'true' three-body scattering is considered. The role of the continuum is essential. Particularly, at excitation energies between 12-25 MeV, instead of a number of sharp resonances, a single smooth resonance on a broad pedestal arises. The pedestal may be easily misinterpreted as a 'background' in experimental studies. (author)

  2. Wide wavelength range tunable one-dimensional silicon nitride nano-grating guided mode resonance filter based on azimuthal rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryoji Yukino

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe wavelength tuning in a one dimensional (1D silicon nitride nano-grating guided mode resonance (GMR structure under conical mounting configuration of the device. When the GMR structure is rotated about the axis perpendicular to the surface of the device (azimuthal rotation for light incident at oblique angles, the conditions for resonance are different than for conventional GMR structures under classical mounting. These resonance conditions enable tuning of the GMR peak position over a wide range of wavelengths. We experimental demonstrate tuning over a range of 375 nm between 500 nm˜875 nm. We present a theoretical model to explain the resonance conditions observed in our experiments and predict the peak positions with show excellent agreement with experiments. Our method for tuning wavelengths is simpler and more efficient than conventional procedures that employ variations in the design parameters of structures or conical mounting of two-dimensional (2D GMR structures and enables a single 1D GMR device to function as a high efficiency wavelength filter over a wide range of wavelengths. We expect tunable filters based on this technique to be applicable in a wide range of fields including astronomy and biomedical imaging.

  3. Searching for magnetic monopoles using large area ionization detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepko, M.J.; Webb, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    Predictions of current Grand Unified Theories (GUT's) require the existence of massive (10 16 GeV/c 2 ) magnetic monopoles at some level. Stringent limits on the flux of these particles may be obtained from various cosmological and astrophysical arguments. Theoretical predictions limiting monopole abundance based on survival of the galactic magnetic field place an upper bound of xi approx. = 10 -15 cm -2 sr -1 s -1 on the allowed monopole flux. Similarly, magnetic monopoles are expected to be accelerated along galactic field lines to velocities on the order of β approx. = 10 -4

  4. Status of the Texas A and M GUT monopole search

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Webb, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes the use of a large area (approx. 53 m 2 ) scintillation counter telescope to detect the passage of a slow moving, superheavy, magnetic monopole. The detector is described and the expected signature for a passing magnetic monopole is presented. The detector utilizes acrylic based scintillation material as the detector medium. The electronics for the monopole search were selected and designed to be sensitive to the properties of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) monopoles. The described experiment is located underground at a depth of 1500' in a nearby salt mine

  5. Searches for magnetic monopoles with IceCube

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pollmann Anna

    2018-01-01

    IceCube is a high energy neutrino detector using the clear ice at the South Pole as a detection medium. As monopoles pass through this ice they produce optical light by a variety of mechanisms. With increasing velocity, they produce light by catalysis of baryon decay, luminescence in the ice associated with electronic excitations, indirect and direct Cherenkov light from the monopole track, and Cherenkov light from cascades induced by pair creation and photonuclear reactions. By searching for this light, current best limits for the monopole flux over a broad range of velocities was achieved using the IceCube detector. A review of these magnetic monopole searches is presented.

  6. Electromagnetic interference-induced instability in CPP-GMR read heads

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khunkitti, P.; Siritaratiwat, A.; Kaewrawang, A.; Mewes, T.; Mewes, C.K.A.; Kruesubthaworn, A.

    2016-01-01

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) has been a significant issue for the current perpendicular-to-the-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) read heads because it can cause magnetic failure. Furthermore, the magnetic noise induced by the spin transfer torque (STT) effect has played an important role in the CPP read heads because it can affect the stability of the heads. Accordingly, this work proposed an investigation of the magnetic instabilities induced by EMI through the STT effect in a CPP-GMR read head via micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization fluctuation caused by EMI was examined, and then, magnetic noise was evaluated by using power spectral density analysis. It was found that the magnetization orientation can be fluctuated by EMI in close proximity to the head. The results also showed a multimode spectral density. The main contributions of the spectral density were found to originate at the edges of the stripe height sides due to the characteristics of the demagnetization field inside the free layer. Hence, the magnetic instabilities produced by EMI become a significant factor that essentially impacts the reliability of the CPP-GMR read heads. - Highlights: • The instability induced by electromagnetic interference in read head is examined. • The magnetization orientation can be fluctuated by electromagnetic interference. • The electromagnetic interference can induce additional noise spectra to the system. • The noise is mainly located at stripe height of the read head. • The noise induced by electromagnetic interference is a crucial factor for the head.

  7. Electromagnetic interference-induced instability in CPP-GMR read heads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khunkitti, P.; Siritaratiwat, A.; Kaewrawang, A. [KKU-Seagate Cooperation Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand); Mewes, T.; Mewes, C.K.A. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, MINT Center, University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL 35487 (United States); Kruesubthaworn, A., E-mail: anankr@kku.ac.th [KKU-Seagate Cooperation Research Laboratory, Department of Electrical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Khon Kaen University, Khon Kaen 40002 (Thailand)

    2016-08-15

    Electromagnetic interference (EMI) has been a significant issue for the current perpendicular-to-the-plane giant magnetoresistance (CPP-GMR) read heads because it can cause magnetic failure. Furthermore, the magnetic noise induced by the spin transfer torque (STT) effect has played an important role in the CPP read heads because it can affect the stability of the heads. Accordingly, this work proposed an investigation of the magnetic instabilities induced by EMI through the STT effect in a CPP-GMR read head via micromagnetic simulations. The magnetization fluctuation caused by EMI was examined, and then, magnetic noise was evaluated by using power spectral density analysis. It was found that the magnetization orientation can be fluctuated by EMI in close proximity to the head. The results also showed a multimode spectral density. The main contributions of the spectral density were found to originate at the edges of the stripe height sides due to the characteristics of the demagnetization field inside the free layer. Hence, the magnetic instabilities produced by EMI become a significant factor that essentially impacts the reliability of the CPP-GMR read heads. - Highlights: • The instability induced by electromagnetic interference in read head is examined. • The magnetization orientation can be fluctuated by electromagnetic interference. • The electromagnetic interference can induce additional noise spectra to the system. • The noise is mainly located at stripe height of the read head. • The noise induced by electromagnetic interference is a crucial factor for the head.

  8. Development of micronic GMR-magnetoresistive sensors for non-destructive sensing applications (Presentation Recording)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaffrès, Henri; LeMaitre, Yves; Collin, Sophie; Nguyen Vandau, Frédéric; Sergeeva-Chollet, Natalia; Decitre, Jean-Marc

    2015-09-01

    We will present our last development of GMR-based magnetic sensors devoted to sensing application for non-destructive control application. In these first realizations, we have chosen a so-called shape anisotropy - exchange biased strategy to fulfill the field-sensing criteria in the μT range in devices made of micronic single elements. Our devices realized by optical lithography, and whose typical sizes range from 150 μm x 150 μm to 500 μm x 500 μm elements, are made of trilayers GMR-based technology and consist of several circuitries of GMR elements of different lengths, widths and gaps. To obtain a full sensing linearity and reversibility requiring a perpendicular magnetic arrangement between both sensitive and hard layer, the magnetization of the latter have been hardened by pinning it with an antiferromagnetic material. The specific geometry of the design have been engineered in order to optimize the magnetic response of the soft layer via the different magnetic torques exerted on it essentially played by the dipolar fields or shape anisotropy, and the external magnetic field to detect. The smaller dimensions in width and in gap are then respectively of 2 μm and 3 μm to benefit of the full shape anisotropy formatting the magnetic response.

  9. Grassmann's fields and generalized magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia Junior, A.; Rodrigues Junior, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    We present a theory of dual charges with the introduction of a generalized potential and a generalized field are locally respectively elements of the odd and even parts of the Grassmann algebra of space-time, with values in the Lie algebra of a gauge group G. Defining a generalized Dirac operator and its dual, we get the field equations of the theory. When G = U(1) we obtain a theory of electrodynamics with magnetic monopoles without string. We show that the generalized field is invariant under harmonic gauge transformations and we obtain Dirac's quantization condition for the dual charges. (author) [pt

  10. Magnetic monopoles and dyons interacting with matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bracci, L.

    1985-01-01

    After a brief, critical review of the Drell et al. method, we propose an alternative approach suitable for the study of dyon and dyon-negative-electron (Dy-e) system interactions with hydrogen and helium. This method, called the impact parameter method (IPM), has been used already in atomic collisions and allows the calculation of energy losses in H and He. We report these quantities and comment on their behaviour versus the relative velocities between Dy or Dy-e and atoms; we compare them to the monopole results. Conclusions in relation to planned experiments are outlined. (orig.)

  11. Gauge-fixing ambiguity and monopole number

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hioki, S.; Miyamura, O.

    1991-01-01

    Gauge-fixing ambiguities of lattice SU(2) QCD are studied in the maximally abelian and unitary gauges. In the former, we find local maxima of a gauge-fixing function which may correspond to Gribov copies. There is a definite anti-correlation between the number of monopoles and the value of the function. Errors of measured quantities coming from the ambiguity are found to be less than inherent dispersion in the ensemble average. No ambiguity is found in the unitary gauges. (orig.)

  12. Non-minimal Wu-Yang monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balakin, A.B.; Zayats, A.E.

    2007-01-01

    We discuss new exact spherically symmetric static solutions to non-minimally extended Einstein-Yang-Mills equations. The obtained solution to the Yang-Mills subsystem is interpreted as a non-minimal Wu-Yang monopole solution. We focus on the analysis of two classes of the exact solutions to the gravitational field equations. Solutions of the first class belong to the Reissner-Nordstroem type, i.e., they are characterized by horizons and by the singularity at the point of origin. The solutions of the second class are regular ones. The horizons and singularities of a new type, the non-minimal ones, are indicated

  13. Guided mode resonance in planar metamaterials consisting of two ring resonators with different sizes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Zhen; Che Hang; Liu Jianjun; Jing Xufeng; Li Xiangjun; Hong Zhi

    2017-01-01

    We proposed and experimentally investigated a two-ring-resonator composed planar hybrid metamaterial (MM), in which the spectra of guided mode resonance (GMR) and Fano resonance or EIT-like response induced by coherent interaction between MM resonance and GMR can be easily controlled by the size of the two rings in the terahertz regime. Furthermore, a four-ring-resonator composed MM for polarization-insensitive GMRs was demonstrated, where GMRs of both TE and TM modes are physically attributed to the diffraction coupling by two ±45° tilting gratings. Such kind of device has great potential in ultra-sensitive label-free sensors, filters, or slow light based devices. (paper)

  14. Searches for magnetic monopoles with IceCube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollmann, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Particles that carry a magnetic monopole charge are proposed by various theories which go beyond the Standard Model of particle physics. The expected mass of magnetic monopoles varies depending on the theory describing its origin, generally the monopole mass far exceeds those which can be created at accelerators. Magnetic monopoles gain kinetic energy in large scale galactic magnetic fields and, depending on their mass, can obtain relativistic velocities. IceCube is a high energy neutrino detector using the clear ice at the South Pole as a detection medium. As monopoles pass through this ice they produce optical light by a variety of mechanisms. With increasing velocity, they produce light by catalysis of baryon decay, luminescence in the ice associated with electronic excitations, indirect and direct Cherenkov light from the monopole track, and Cherenkov light from cascades induced by pair creation and photonuclear reactions. By searching for this light, current best limits for the monopole flux over a broad range of velocities was achieved using the IceCube detector. A review of these magnetic monopole searches is presented.

  15. Microflown based monopole sound sources for reciprocal measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bree, H.E. de; Basten, T.G.H.

    2008-01-01

    Monopole sound sources (i.e. omni directional sound sources with a known volume velocity) are essential for reciprocal measurements used in vehicle interior panel noise contribution analysis. Until recently, these monopole sound sources use a sound pressure transducer sensor as a reference sensor. A

  16. Informational economy: specific features and challenges of monopolization

    OpenAIRE

    Kotsofana, T.

    2013-01-01

    The article discusses the features of the informational economy, as well as some issues with which this economy is facing today. In particular, contemporary forms of monopoly, its causes and consequences, changing trends towards monopolization and monopolization of markets due to the high degree of automation and information of the socio-economic life were analyzed.

  17. Isotopic effect giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buenerd, M.; Lebrun, D.; Martin, P.; Perrin, G.; Saintignon, P. de; Chauvin, J.; Duhamel, G.

    1981-10-01

    The systematics of the excitation energy of the giant dipole, monopole, and quadrupole resonances are shown to exhibit an isotopic effect. For a given element, the excitation energy of the transition decreases faster with the increasing neutron number than the empirical laws fitting the overall data. This effect is discussed in terms of the available models

  18. Relations between grand unified and monopole theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Olive, D.I.

    1983-01-01

    Two kinds of interrelationships between GUTs and monopole theories are discussed: how the duality conjectures could have a bearing on understanding GUTs, and how some of the mathematical technology used in monopole studies can yield simple (Dynkin) diagrammatic rules for some of the common GUT group theory calculations. A compact notation for semisimple Lie algebras is supplied by Dynkin diagrams. Minimal fundamental weights are seen to define minimal representations into which matter may be placed, and also define a special direction for the adjoint Higgs field. Minimal weights play a special role, therefore, both in defining matter multiplets and in symmetry breaking. After considering gauge groups G broken down to U(1) X K/Z (with K semisimple) by an adjoint representation (AR) Higgs, it is asked how the representations of G will look when decomposed into irreducible representations of U(1) X K, by proving two theorems as given. The point is pedagogical: using concepts like the Weyl group, practical calculations can be performed with simple Dynkin diagrams

  19. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evitts L. J.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p’ reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0, were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77−34+23 × 10−3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0 value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0 values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0 value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  20. Electric Monopole Transition Strengths in 62Ni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evitts, L. J.; Garnsworthy, A. B.; Kibédi, T.; Moukaddam, M.; Alshahrani, B.; Eriksen, T. K.; Holt, J. D.; Hota, S. S.; Lane, G. J.; Lee, B. Q.; McCormick, B. P.; Palalani, N.; Reed, M. W.; Stroberg, S. R.; Stuchbery, A. E.

    2016-09-01

    Excited states in 62Ni were populated with a (p, p') reaction using the 14UD Pelletron accelerator at the Australian National University. Electric monopole transition strengths, ρ2(E0), were measured through simultaneous detection of the internal conversion electrons and γ rays emitted from the de-excitation of populated states, using the Super-e spectrometer coupled with a germanium detector. The strength of the 02+ to 01+ transition has been measured to be 77-34+23 × 10-3 and agrees with previously reported values. Upper limits have been placed on the 03+ to 01+ and 03+ to 02+ transitions. The measured ρ2(E0) value of the 22+ to 21+ transition in 62Ni has been measured for the first time and found to be one of the largest ρ2(E0) values measured to date in nuclei heavier than Ca. The low-lying states of 62Ni have previously been classified as one- and two-phonon vibrational states based on level energies. The measured electric quadrupole transition strengths are consistent with this interpretation. However as electric monopole transitions are forbidden between states which differ by one phonon number, the simple harmonic quadrupole vibrational picture is not suffcient to explain the large ρ2(E0) value for the 22+ to 21+ transition.

  1. A half-ring GMR sensor for detection of magnetic beads immobilized on a circular micro-trap

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan

    2011-11-01

    Utilizing magnetic principles in biological immunoassays is an attractive option given its ability to remotely and non-invasively manipulate and detect cells tagged with micro/nano size superparamagnetic type beads and due to the fact that even the most complex biological immunoassays will have very little magnetic effect. The presence of magnetic beads can be detected by a magnetic sensor which quantifies the amount of target cells present in the immunoassay. In order to increase the detection rate a circular conducting micro-trap is employed to attract, trap and transport the magnetic beads to the sensing area. In this research we propose a half-ring spin valve type giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor for the measurement of stray fields produced by 2 μm magnetic beads which are around the circular micro-trap. A couple of half-ring GMR sensors can be used to cover the entire circular border width, in order to detect the majority of the immobilized magnetic beads. Analytical and numerical analysis leading towards the fabrication of the half-ring GMR sensor are presented. DC characterization of the fabricated sensor showed a magnetoresistance of 5.9 %. Experimental results showed that the half-ring GMR sensor detected the presence of 2 μm magnetic beads. Hence, half-ring GMR sensors integrated with a circular micro-trap have great potential to be used as an effective disease diagnostic device. © 2011 IEEE.

  2. A half-ring GMR sensor for detection of magnetic beads immobilized on a circular micro-trap

    KAUST Repository

    Gooneratne, Chinthaka Pasan; Liang, Cai; Useinov, Arthur; Kosel, Jü rgen; Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2011-01-01

    Utilizing magnetic principles in biological immunoassays is an attractive option given its ability to remotely and non-invasively manipulate and detect cells tagged with micro/nano size superparamagnetic type beads and due to the fact that even the most complex biological immunoassays will have very little magnetic effect. The presence of magnetic beads can be detected by a magnetic sensor which quantifies the amount of target cells present in the immunoassay. In order to increase the detection rate a circular conducting micro-trap is employed to attract, trap and transport the magnetic beads to the sensing area. In this research we propose a half-ring spin valve type giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor for the measurement of stray fields produced by 2 μm magnetic beads which are around the circular micro-trap. A couple of half-ring GMR sensors can be used to cover the entire circular border width, in order to detect the majority of the immobilized magnetic beads. Analytical and numerical analysis leading towards the fabrication of the half-ring GMR sensor are presented. DC characterization of the fabricated sensor showed a magnetoresistance of 5.9 %. Experimental results showed that the half-ring GMR sensor detected the presence of 2 μm magnetic beads. Hence, half-ring GMR sensors integrated with a circular micro-trap have great potential to be used as an effective disease diagnostic device. © 2011 IEEE.

  3. GMR-based eddy current probe for weld seam inspection and its non-scanning detection study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Peng; Wang, Chao; Li, Yang; Wang, Libin; Cong, Zheng; Zhi, Ya

    2017-04-01

    Eddy current testing is one of the most important non-destructive testing methods for welding defects detection. This paper presents the use of a probe consisting of 4 giant magneto-resistive (GMR) sensors to detect weld defects. Information from four measuring points above and on both sides of the weld seam is collected at the same time. By setting the GMR sensors' sensing axes perpendicular to the direction of the excitation magnetic field, the information collected mainly reflects the change in the eddy current which is caused by defects. Digital demodulation technology is applied to extract the real part and imaginary part of the GMR sensors' output signals. The variables containing directional information of the magnetic field are introduced. Based on the data from the four GMR (4-GMR) sensors' output signals, four values, Ran, Mean, Var and k are selected as the feature quantities for defect recognition. Experiments are carried out on weld seams with and without defects, and the detection outputs are given in this paper. The 4-GMR probe is also employed to investigate non-scanning weld defect detection and the four feature quantities (Ran, Mean, Var and k) are studied to evaluate weld quality. The non-scanning weld defect detection is presented. A support vector machine is used to classify and discriminate welds with and without defects. Experiments carried out show that through the method in this paper, the recognition rate is 92% for welds without defects and 90% for welds with defects, with an overall recognition rate of 90.9%, indicating that this method could effectively detect weld defects.

  4. Resonance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Nils Holger

    2014-01-01

    A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice.......A chapter in a book about terminology within the field of medievalism: the chapter discusses the resonance of medieval music and ritual in modern (classical) music culture and liturgical practice....

  5. On a Painleve test for the complete integrability of Bogomolny's monopole equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roy Chowdhury, A.; Chanda, P.K.

    1984-09-01

    We have made an analysis of the monopole equation of Bogomolny from the stand point of Painleve test. The idea that any non-linear partial differential equation admitting a Lax representation should conform to the criterion of the Painleve analysis seems to hold well in case of Bogomolny equation. We have determined the position for resonances and have proved that at each of these the coefficients in the Forbenius type expansion of the gauge potentials do become arbitrary signalling the complete integrability of the system. (author)

  6. A compact planar multi-broad band monopole antenna for mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xiaoqing; Yao, Bin; Zheng, Qinhong; Yang, Jikong; Cao, Xiangqi

    2015-10-01

    A Multiple-frequency broadband planar monopole antenna is proposed in this Paper. The antenna is stimulated and numerically optimized by HFSS13.0 (High Frequency Structure Simulator). The size of it is 39mm×22mm×1.7mm. The antenna resonates at many frequencies. The parameter S112G(DCS1800 and PCS1900), 3G(UMTS), 4G(LTE2300 and LTE2500), ISM, WLAN. It is quiet appropriate for the present ultra-thin smart phones

  7. A steady state tokamak operation by use of magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Narihara, K.

    1991-12-01

    A steady state tokamak operation based on a magnetic monopole circuit is considered. Circulation of a chain of iron cubes which trap magnetic monopoles generates the needed loop voltage. The monopole circuit is enclosed by a series of solenoid coils in which magnetic field is feedback controlled so that the force on the circuit balance against the mechanical friction. The driving power is supplied through the current sources of poloidal, ohmic and solenoid coils. The current drive efficiency is same as that of the ohmic current drive. (author)

  8. Parker limit for monopoles with large magnetic charge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hodges, H.M.; Kolb, E.W.; Turner, M.S.

    1986-01-01

    The survival of galactic magnetic fields places a limit on the flux of magnetic monopoles, the so-called ''Parker limit.'' Previous discussions of the Parker limit have assumed that the charge of the monopole is the Dirac value, g/sub Dirac/ = 2π/e. However, if the grand unified group is broken by Wilson lines, as is assumed in some superstring models, the minimum value of the magnetic charge is not the Dirac quantum, but an integer multiple of it. In this brief report we investigate the dependence of the Parker limit on the charge of the magnetic monopole. 10 refs., 1 fig

  9. Electric fields and monopole currents in compact QED

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zach, M.; Faber, M.; Kainz, W.; Skala, P.

    1995-01-01

    The confinement in compact QED is known to be related to magnetic monopoles. Magnetic currents form a solenoid around electric flux lines between a pair of electric charges. This behaviour can be described by the dual version of Maxwell-London equations including a fluctuating string. We use a definition of magnetic monopole currents adjusted to the definition of the electric field strength on a lattice and get good agreement for field and current distributions between compact QED and the predictions of dual Maxwell-London equations. Further we show that the monopole fluctuations in the vacuum are suppressed by the flux tube. ((orig.))

  10. Scheme for Building a 't Hooft-Polyakov Monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sonner, Julian; Tong, David

    2009-01-01

    We study a simple quantum mechanical model of a spinning particle moving on a sphere in the presence of a magnetic field. The system has two ground states. As the magnetic field is varied, the ground states mix through a non-Abelian Berry phase. We show that this Berry phase is the path ordered exponential of the smooth SU(2)'t Hooft-Polyakov monopole. We further show that, by adjusting a potential on the sphere, the monopole becomes a Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield monopole and obeys the Bogomol'nyi equations.

  11. Stable monopole-antimonopole string background in SU(2) QCD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Y.M.; Pak, D.G.

    2006-01-01

    Motivated by the instability of the Savvidy-Nielsen-Olesen (SNO) vacuum we make a systematic search for a stable magnetic background in pure SU(2) QCD. It is shown that a pair of axially symmetric monopole and antimonopole strings is stable, provided that the distance between the two strings is less than a critical value. The existence of a stable monopole-antimonopole string background strongly supports that a magnetic condensation of monopole-antimonopole pairs can generate a dynamical symmetry breaking, and thus the magnetic confinement of color in QCD

  12. A search for magnetic monopoles with the Soudan 2 detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allison, W.W.M.; Barr, G.D.; Brooks, C.B.; Cobb, J.H.; Kirby-Gallagher, L.M.; Giles, R.H.; Giller, G.L.; Perkins, D.H.; Shield, P.D.; Thomson, M.A.; West, N.; Alner, G.J.; Cockerill, D.J.A.; Edwards, V.W.; Garcia-Garcia, C.; Litchfield, P.J.; Pearce, G.F.; Woods, C.A.; Ambats, I.; Ayres, D.S.; Balka, L.; Barrett, W.L.; Dawson, J.; Fields, T.; Goodman, M.C.; Heilig, S.J.; Hill, N.; Jankowski, D.J.; Lopez, F.; May, E.N.; Price, L.E.; Schlereth, J.; Thron, J.L.; Border, P.; Courant, H.; Dahlin, B.; Demuth, D.; Gray, R.; Heppelmann, S.; Johns, K.; Joyce, T.; Kasahara, S.; Longley, N.; Lowe, M.; Marshak, M.L.; Miller, W.H.; Minor, C.; Peterson, E.A.; Roback, D.; Rosen, D.; Ruddick, K.; Schmid, D.; Shupe, M.; Villaume, G.; Weems, L.; Werkema, S.J.

    1991-08-01

    A search for GUT magnetic monopoles has been conducted using the Soudan 2 nucleon decay detector. This detector is a fine-grained tracking calorimeter. Monopole candidates were selected on the basis of significantly higher ionization than throughgoing cosmic ray muons. Preliminary results, using data taken over approximately one year with no monopoles observed, correspond to a flux limit of 2.4 10 -14 cm -2 sr -1 s -1 over a velocity range of 10 -3 < β < 0.95. 8 refs

  13. Suppressing the QCD axion abundance by hidden monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawasaki, Masahiro

    2015-11-01

    We study the Witten effect of hidden monopoles on the QCD axion dynamics, and show that its abundance as well as isocurvature perturbations can be significantly suppressed if there is a sufficient amount of hidden monopoles. When the hidden monopoles make up a significant fraction of dark matter, the Witten effect suppresses the abundance of axion with the decay constant smaller than 10 12 GeV. The cosmological domain wall problem of the QCD axion can also be avoided, relaxing the upper bound on the decay constant when the Peccei-Quinn symmetry is spontaneously broken after inflation.

  14. Vacuum-polarization effects in global monopole space-times

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mazzitelli, F.D.; Lousto, C.O.

    1991-01-01

    The gravitational effect produced by a global monopole may be approximated by a solid deficit angle. As a consequence, the energy-momentum tensor of a quantum field will have a nonzero vacuum expectation value. Here we study this ''vacuum-polarization effect'' around the monopole. We find explicit expressions for both left-angle φ 2 right-angle ren and left-angle T μν right-angle ren for a massless scalar field. The back reaction of the quantum field on the monopole metric is also investigated

  15. The global monopole spacetime and its topological charge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Hongwei; Yang, Jinbo; Zhang, Jingyi; He, Tangmei

    2018-03-01

    We show that the global monopole spacetime is one of the exact solutions of the Einstein equations by treating the matter field as a non-linear sigma model, without the weak field approximation applied in the original derivation by Barriola and Vilenkin. Furthermore, we find the physical origin of the topological charge in the global monopole spacetime. Finally, we generalize the proposal which generates spacetime from thermodynamical laws to the case of spacetime with global monopole charge. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 11273009 and 11303006).

  16. Lagrangian Curves on Spectral Curves of Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guilfoyle, Brendan; Khalid, Madeeha; Ramon Mari, Jose J.

    2010-01-01

    We study Lagrangian points on smooth holomorphic curves in TP 1 equipped with a natural neutral Kaehler structure, and prove that they must form real curves. By virtue of the identification of TP 1 with the space LE 3 of oriented affine lines in Euclidean 3-space, these Lagrangian curves give rise to ruled surfaces in E 3 , which we prove have zero Gauss curvature. Each ruled surface is shown to be the tangent lines to a curve in E 3 , called the edge of regression of the ruled surface. We give an alternative characterization of these curves as the points in E 3 where the number of oriented lines in the complex curve Σ that pass through the point is less than the degree of Σ. We then apply these results to the spectral curves of certain monopoles and construct the ruled surfaces and edges of regression generated by the Lagrangian curves.

  17. Magnetic monopoles near the black hole threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, A.; Weinberg, E.J.

    1999-01-01

    We present new analytic and numerical results for self-gravitating SU(2)-Higgs magnetic monopoles approaching the black hole threshold. Our investigation extends to large Higgs self-coupling, λ, a regime heretofore unexplored. When λ is small, the critical solution where a horizon first appears is extremal Reissner-Nordstroem outside the horizon but has a nonsingular interior. When λ is large, the critical solution is an extremal black hole with non-Abelian hair and a mass less than the extremal Reissner-Nordstroem value. The transition between these two regimes is reminiscent of a first-order phase transition. We analyze in detail the approach to these critical solutions as the Higgs expectation value is varied, and compare this analysis with the numerical results. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  18. Magnetostrictive GMR spin valves with composite FeGa/FeCo free layers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Luping [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices & Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China); Zhan, Qingfeng, E-mail: zhanqf@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: runweili@nimte.ac.cn; Yang, Huali; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Shuanglan; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei, E-mail: zhanqf@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: runweili@nimte.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Devices & Zhejiang Province Key Laboratory of Magnetic Materials and Application Technology, Ningbo Institute of Materials Technology and Engineering, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Ningbo 315201 (China); Tan, Xiaohua [Institute of Materials Science, School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shanghai University, Shanghai 200072 (China)

    2016-03-15

    We have fabricated strain-sensitive spin valves on flexible substrates by utilizing the large magnetostrictive FeGa alloy to promote the strain sensitivity and the composite free layer of FeGa/FeCo to avoid the drastic reduction of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio. This kind of spin valve (SV-FeGa/FeCo) displays a MR ratio about 5.9%, which is comparable to that of the conventional spin valve (SV-FeCo) with a single FeCo free layer. Different from the previously reported works on magnetostrictive spin valves, the SV-FeGa/FeCo displays an asymmetric strain dependent GMR behavior. Upon increasing the lateral strain, the MR ratio for the ascending branch decreases more quickly than that for the descending branch, which is ascribed to the formation of a spiraling spin structure around the FeGa/FeCo interface under the combined influences of both magnetic field and mechanical strain. A strain sensitivity of GF = 7.2 was achieved at a magnetic bias field of -30 Oe in flexible SV-FeGa/FeCo, which is significantly larger than that of SV-FeCo.

  19. Magnetostrictive GMR spin valves with composite FeGa/FeCo free layers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Luping; Zhan, Qingfeng; Yang, Huali; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Shuanglan; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Li, Run-Wei; Tan, Xiaohua

    2016-01-01

    We have fabricated strain-sensitive spin valves on flexible substrates by utilizing the large magnetostrictive FeGa alloy to promote the strain sensitivity and the composite free layer of FeGa/FeCo to avoid the drastic reduction of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio. This kind of spin valve (SV-FeGa/FeCo) displays a MR ratio about 5.9%, which is comparable to that of the conventional spin valve (SV-FeCo) with a single FeCo free layer. Different from the previously reported works on magnetostrictive spin valves, the SV-FeGa/FeCo displays an asymmetric strain dependent GMR behavior. Upon increasing the lateral strain, the MR ratio for the ascending branch decreases more quickly than that for the descending branch, which is ascribed to the formation of a spiraling spin structure around the FeGa/FeCo interface under the combined influences of both magnetic field and mechanical strain. A strain sensitivity of GF = 7.2 was achieved at a magnetic bias field of -30 Oe in flexible SV-FeGa/FeCo, which is significantly larger than that of SV-FeCo.

  20. Magnetostrictive GMR spin valves with composite FeGa/FeCo free layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Luping; Zhan, Qingfeng; Yang, Huali; Li, Huihui; Zhang, Shuanglan; Liu, Yiwei; Wang, Baomin; Tan, Xiaohua; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-03-01

    We have fabricated strain-sensitive spin valves on flexible substrates by utilizing the large magnetostrictive FeGa alloy to promote the strain sensitivity and the composite free layer of FeGa/FeCo to avoid the drastic reduction of giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio. This kind of spin valve (SV-FeGa/FeCo) displays a MR ratio about 5.9%, which is comparable to that of the conventional spin valve (SV-FeCo) with a single FeCo free layer. Different from the previously reported works on magnetostrictive spin valves, the SV-FeGa/FeCo displays an asymmetric strain dependent GMR behavior. Upon increasing the lateral strain, the MR ratio for the ascending branch decreases more quickly than that for the descending branch, which is ascribed to the formation of a spiraling spin structure around the FeGa/FeCo interface under the combined influences of both magnetic field and mechanical strain. A strain sensitivity of GF = 7.2 was achieved at a magnetic bias field of -30 Oe in flexible SV-FeGa/FeCo, which is significantly larger than that of SV-FeCo.

  1. A non-Abelian SO(8) monopole as generalization of Dirac-Yang monopoles for a 9-dimensional space

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Thanh-Son

    2011-01-01

    We establish an explicit form of a non-Abelian SO(8) monopole in a 9-dimensional space and show that it is indeed a direct generalization of Dirac and Yang monopoles. Using the generalized Hurwitz transformation, we have found a connection between a 16-dimensional harmonic oscillator and a 9-dimensional hydrogenlike atom in the field of the SO(8) monopole (MICZ-Kepler problem). Using the built connection the group of dynamical symmetry of the 9-dimensional MICZ-Kepler problem is found as SO(10, 2).

  2. Magnetic monopoles without strings by Kaehler-Clifford algebra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia, A. Jr.; Recami, E.; Rodrigues, W.A. Jr.; Rosa, M.A.F.

    1990-01-01

    In place of Dirac monopoles with string, this paper presents monopoles without string on the basis of a generalized potential, the sum of a vector A and a pseudovector γB potential. By having recourse to the (graded) Clifford algebra which allows adding together tensors of different ranks (e.g., scalars + pseudoscalars + vectors + pseudovectors + . . .), in a previous paper we succeeded in constructing a Lagrangian and Hamiltonian formalism for interacting monopoles that can be regarded as satisfactory from various points of view. In the present note, after having completed that formalism, the authors put forth a purely geometrical interpretation of it within the Kahler algebra on differential forms, essential ingredients being the natural introduction of a generalized curvature and the Hodge decomposition. The authors thus pave the way for the extension of monopoles without string to non-abelian gauge groups. The analogies of this approach with supersymmetric theories are apparent

  3. New approaches for searching for the Dirac magnetic monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kukhtin, V.V.; Krivokhizhin, V.G.; Stetsenko, S.G.; Cheplakov, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Three new approaches, not applied earlier, are proposed to search for the Dirac monopole - an object whose existence was proposed by P.Dirac more than 80 years ago to explain the electrical charge quantization. The first approach assumes that the monopole must be accelerated by a magnetic field, and such acceleration is constant in the magnetic field which is homogeneous and constant. The conclusion about the object movement nature can be drawn by measuring the time marks for equidistant registering planes. The second approach is supposed to reconstruct the movement trajectory in the homogeneous and permanent electrical field, which is the circle or its part for the magnetic monopole. The third approach is based on the constancy of energy losses by Dirac monopole due to medium ionization in the multilayer passive dielectric tracking detectors placed in the homogeneous and permanent electrical field

  4. Evaluation of substitution monopole models for tire noise sound synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berckmans, D.; Kindt, P.; Sas, P.; Desmet, W.

    2010-01-01

    Due to the considerable efforts in engine noise reduction, tire noise has become one of the major sources of passenger car noise nowadays and the demand for accurate prediction models is high. A rolling tire is therefore experimentally characterized by means of the substitution monopole technique, suiting a general sound synthesis approach with a focus on perceived sound quality. The running tire is substituted by a monopole distribution covering the static tire. All monopoles have mutual phase relationships and a well-defined volume velocity distribution which is derived by means of the airborne source quantification technique; i.e. by combining static transfer function measurements with operating indicator pressure measurements close to the rolling tire. Models with varying numbers/locations of monopoles are discussed and the application of different regularization techniques is evaluated.

  5. Dirac's Dream - the Search for the Magnetic Monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinfold, James L.

    2010-01-01

    I first quickly summarize the history of the Magnetic Monopole leading to the quantum theory of magnetic charge that started with a 1931 paper by Paul Dirac who showed that the existence of magnetic monopoles was consistent with Maxwell's equations only if electric charges are quantized. Next I will briefly review the status of monopole searches. Last, but not least I discuss in more detail the MoEDAL experiment--the latest accelerator experiment designed to search for direct production of magnetic monopoles or dyons (particles with electric and magnetic charge) and other highly ionizing particles - such as heavy (pseudo-) stable particles with conventional electric charge - at the LHC. The MoEDAL experiment employs nuclear track-etch detectors deployed in the VELO vertex region of the LHCb experiment.

  6. Magnetic Monopoles, Center Vortices and Topology of Gauge Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, H.; Engelhardt, M.; Langfeld, K.; Quandt, M.; Schafke, A.

    1999-01-01

    The topological properties of magnetic monopoles and center vortices arising, respectively, in Abelian and center gauges are studied in continuum Yang-Mills Theory. For this purpose the continuum analog of the maximum center gauge is constructed.

  7. Magnetic monopoles, center vortices and topology of gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, H.; Engelhardt, M.; Langfeld, K.; Quandt, M.; Schaefke, A.

    2000-01-01

    The topological properties of magnetic monopoles and center vortices arising, respectively, in Abelian and center gauges are studied in continuum Yang-Mills Theory. For this purpose the continuum analog of the maximum center gauge is constructed

  8. On the primordial monopole problem in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salomonson, P.; Stern, A.; Skagerstam, B.S.

    1984-11-01

    It is shown that spontaneously broken gauge symmetries are not necessarily restored at very high temperatures in which case an unacceptably large production of magnetic monopoles may be prohibited. (orig.)

  9. Physico mathematical approach to generalized monopoles without a string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues, W.A.; Faria Rosa, M.A.; Maia, A.

    1988-01-01

    A theory of the generalized magnetic monopole without string, which is distinct from Dirac's original theory and also distinct from the topological theory of the monopole is presented. This theory is first formulated in the Clifford bundle formalism; and in the particular case of electrodynamics it is deduced from Maxwell equations the generalized Lorentz force and the equations of motion of charges and monopoles. The conservation laws and the problem of Lagrangian formalism are discussed. Dirac quantization condition in two different ways are obtained. Finally a principal fiber formulation of the theory using the spliced bundle concept with gauge group GxG, where G is the gauge group of the theory without monopoles, is presented

  10. Mathematical physics of the generalized monopole without string

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Rosa, M.A.F.; Maia Junior, A.; Recami, E.

    1988-01-01

    In this paper we present a theory of the generalized magnetic monopole without string, which is distinct from Dirac's original theory and distinct from the topological theory of the monopole. Our theory is first formulated in the Clifford bundle formalism; and in the particular case of electrodynamics we deduce from Maxwell equations the generalized Lorentz force and the equations of motion of charges and monopoles. We discuss the conservation laws and the problem of the Lagrangian formalism. We obtain Dirac quantization condition in two different ways. Finally, we present a principal fiber bundle formulation of our theory using the spliced-bundle concept with gauge group GxG, where G is the gauge group of the theory without monopoles. (author) [pt

  11. Magnetic monopole and finite photon mass: are they compatible?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatiev, A.Y.; Joshi, G.C.

    1994-01-01

    The role played by the gauge invariance for the existence of Dirac monopole is analysed. It is shown that the derivation of the Dirac quantization condition based on the angular momentum algebra cannot be generalized to the case of massive electrodynamics. The work revealed a new and important relation between the two fundamental facts: the masslessness (massiveness?) of the photons and the non-existence (existence?) of the magnetic monopole. Possible implications of this result are briefly discussed. 12 refs

  12. 8D oscillator as a hidden SU(2)-monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardoyan, L.G.; Sisakyan, A.N.; Ter-Antonyan, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    In the framework of an analytical approach and with the help of the generalized version of the Hurwitz transformation the five-dimensional SU(2)-monopole model is constructed from the eight-dimensional quantum oscillator. The Clebsch-Gordan expansion stimulated by the space-gauge coupling, the hyperangle and the radial parts of the total wave function, the energy spectrum of the charge-monopole bound system and the corresponding degeneracy are calculated

  13. Properties of global monopoles with an event horizon

    OpenAIRE

    Tamaki, T; Sakai, N

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the properties of global monopoles with an event horizon. We find that there is an unstable circular orbit even if a particle does not have an angular momentum when the core mass is negative. We also obtain the asymptotic form of solutions when the event horizon is much larger than the core radius of the monopole, and discuss if they could be a model of galactic halos.

  14. Magnetic monopole solution in non-Abelian gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hietarinta, J.; Takasugi, E.; Tanaka, K.

    1976-01-01

    An approximate analytic solution of the equations of motion of the 't Hooft magnetic monopole model is proposed. Virial type global tests are carried out for the solution. Then, the monopole mass, energies of the vector field A/sub mu/sup a/, Higgs field phi/sup a/ and interaction are computed in closed form. The form factors of A/sub i/sup a/ and phi/sup a/ in a quantized version are also calculated

  15. Monopole-fermion systems in the complex isotropic tetrad formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gal'tsov, D.V.; Ershov, A.A.

    1988-01-01

    The interaction of fermions of arbitrary isospin with regular magnetic monopoles and dyons of the group SU(2) and also with point gravitating monopoles and dyons of the Wu-Yang type described by the Reissner-Nordstrom metric are studied using the Newman-Penrose complex isotropic tetrad formalism. Formulas for the bound-state spectrum and explicit expressions for the zero modes are obtained and the Rubakov-Callan effect for black holes is discussed

  16. Searches for relativistic magnetic monopoles in IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Wallace, A.; Whelan, B.J. [University of Adelaide, Department of Physics, Adelaide (Australia); Abraham, K.; Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Gross, A.; Holzapfel, K.; Huber, M.; Jurkovic, M.; Krings, K.; Resconi, E.; Turcati, A.; Veenkamp, J. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bretz, H.P.; Cruz Silva, A.H.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Gora, D.; Jacobi, E.; Karg, T.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Schoenwald, A.; Spiering, C.; Stasik, A.; Stoessl, A.; Strotjohann, N.L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; Santen, J. van; Yanez, J.P. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A.; Ansseau, I.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O' Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Raab, C. [Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels (Belgium); Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; Beiser, E.; Braun, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Fahey, S.; Feintzeig, J.; Ghorbani, K.; Gladstone, L.; Griffith, Z.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hoshina, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Morse, R.; Richter, S.; Sabbatini, L.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wandkowsky, N.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wille, L.; Xu, D.L. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, Madison, WI (United States); Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J.P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Altmann, D.; Classen, L.; Kappes, A.; Tselengidou, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Anderson, T.; Arlen, T.C.; Dunkman, M.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J.L.; Pankova, D.V.; Quinnan, M.; Tesic, G. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Boeser, S.; Del Pino Rosendo, E.; Di Lorenzo, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Foesig, C.C.; Koepke, L.; Kroll, G.; Krueckl, G.; Sander, H.G.; Sandroos, J.; Schatto, K.; Steuer, A.; Wiebe, K. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Blumenthal, J.; Gier, D.; Glagla, M.; Haack, C.; Hansmann, B.; Kemp, J.; Konietz, R.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Paul, L.; Puetz, J.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schimp, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schumacher, L.; Stahlberg, M.; Vehring, M.; Wallraff, M.; Wiebusch, C.H. [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Physics Department, Rapid City, SD (United States); Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States); Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Beatty, J.J. [Ohio State University, Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Columbus, OH (United States); Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, Columbus, OH (United States); Tjus, J.B.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Kroll, M.; Mandelartz, M.; Schoeneberg, S. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Klaes, J.; Kopper, S.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Omairat, A.; Posselt, J.; Soldin, D. [University of Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Wuppertal (Germany); Benabderrahmane, M.L. [New York University Abu Dhabi, Abu Dhabi (United Arab Emirates); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Felde, J.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Schmidt, T.; Song, M.; Sullivan, G.W.; Wissing, H. [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Besson, D.Z. [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Ha, C.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S.; Tatar, J. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boersma, D.J.; Botner, O.; Euler, S.; Hallgren, A.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Stroem, R.; Taavola, H.; Unger, E. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); and others

    2016-03-15

    Various extensions of the Standard Model motivate the existence of stable magnetic monopoles that could have been created during an early high-energy epoch of the Universe. These primordial magnetic monopoles would be gradually accelerated by cosmic magnetic fields and could reach high velocities that make them visible in Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube. Equivalently to electrically charged particles, magnetic monopoles produce direct and indirect Cherenkov light while traversing through matter at relativistic velocities. This paper describes searches for relativistic (v ≥ 0.76 c) and mildly relativistic (v ≥ 0.51 c) monopoles, each using one year of data taken in 2008/2009 and 2011/2012, respectively. No monopole candidate was detected. For a velocity above 0.51 c the monopole flux is constrained down to a level of 1.55 x 10{sup -18} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1}. This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous limits. (orig.)

  17. Searches for relativistic magnetic monopoles in IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Wallace, A.; Whelan, B.J.; Abraham, K.; Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Gross, A.; Holzapfel, K.; Huber, M.; Jurkovic, M.; Krings, K.; Resconi, E.; Turcati, A.; Veenkamp, J.; Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bretz, H.P.; Cruz Silva, A.H.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Gora, D.; Jacobi, E.; Karg, T.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Schoenwald, A.; Spiering, C.; Stasik, A.; Stoessl, A.; Strotjohann, N.L.; Terliuk, A.; Usner, M.; Santen, J. van; Yanez, J.P.; Adams, J.; Aguilar, J.A.; Ansseau, I.; Heereman, D.; Meagher, K.; Meures, T.; O'Murchadha, A.; Pinat, E.; Raab, C.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; Beiser, E.; Braun, J.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Fahey, S.; Feintzeig, J.; Ghorbani, K.; Gladstone, L.; Griffith, Z.; Halzen, F.; Hanson, K.; Hoshina, K.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; McNally, F.; Merino, G.; Morse, R.; Richter, S.; Sabbatini, L.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Wandkowsky, N.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Wille, L.; Xu, D.L.; Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Dumm, J.P.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M.; Altmann, D.; Classen, L.; Kappes, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Anderson, T.; Arlen, T.C.; Dunkman, M.; Huang, F.; Keivani, A.; Lanfranchi, J.L.; Pankova, D.V.; Quinnan, M.; Tesic, G.; Archinger, M.; Baum, V.; Boeser, S.; Del Pino Rosendo, E.; Di Lorenzo, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Ehrhardt, T.; Foesig, C.C.; Koepke, L.; Kroll, G.; Krueckl, G.; Sander, H.G.; Sandroos, J.; Schatto, K.; Steuer, A.; Wiebe, K.; Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Blumenthal, J.; Gier, D.; Glagla, M.; Haack, C.; Hansmann, B.; Kemp, J.; Konietz, R.; Leuermann, M.; Leuner, J.; Paul, L.; Puetz, J.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schimp, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schumacher, L.; Stahlberg, M.; Vehring, M.; Wallraff, M.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Bai, X.; Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G.; Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K.; Beatty, J.J.; Tjus, J.B.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Kroll, M.; Mandelartz, M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Helbing, K.; Hickford, S.; Hoffmann, R.; Klaes, J.; Kopper, S.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke Pollmann, A.; Omairat, A.; Posselt, J.; Soldin, D.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Cheung, E.; Felde, J.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Maunu, R.; Olivas, A.; Schmidt, T.; Song, M.; Sullivan, G.W.; Wissing, H.; Besson, D.Z.; Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Ha, C.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S.; Tatar, J.; Boersma, D.J.; Botner, O.; Euler, S.; Hallgren, A.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Stroem, R.; Taavola, H.; Unger, E.

    2016-01-01

    Various extensions of the Standard Model motivate the existence of stable magnetic monopoles that could have been created during an early high-energy epoch of the Universe. These primordial magnetic monopoles would be gradually accelerated by cosmic magnetic fields and could reach high velocities that make them visible in Cherenkov detectors such as IceCube. Equivalently to electrically charged particles, magnetic monopoles produce direct and indirect Cherenkov light while traversing through matter at relativistic velocities. This paper describes searches for relativistic (v ≥ 0.76 c) and mildly relativistic (v ≥ 0.51 c) monopoles, each using one year of data taken in 2008/2009 and 2011/2012, respectively. No monopole candidate was detected. For a velocity above 0.51 c the monopole flux is constrained down to a level of 1.55 x 10 -18 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 . This is an improvement of almost two orders of magnitude over previous limits. (orig.)

  18. A robust multi-frequency mixing algorithm for suppression of rivet signal in GMR inspection of riveted structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safdernejad, Morteza S.; Karpenko, Oleksii; Ye, Chaofeng; Udpa, Lalita; Udpa, Satish

    2016-02-01

    The advent of Giant Magneto-Resistive (GMR) technology permits development of novel highly sensitive array probes for Eddy Current (EC) inspection of multi-layer riveted structures. Multi-frequency GMR measurements with different EC pene-tration depths show promise for detection of bottom layer notches at fastener sites. However, the distortion of the induced magnetic field due to flaws is dominated by the strong fastener signal, which makes defect detection and classification a challenging prob-lem. This issue is more pronounced for ferromagnetic fasteners that concentrate most of the magnetic flux. In the present work, a novel multi-frequency mixing algorithm is proposed to suppress rivet signal response and enhance defect detection capability of the GMR array probe. The algorithm is baseline-free and does not require any assumptions about the sample geometry being inspected. Fastener signal suppression is based upon the random sample consensus (RANSAC) method, which iteratively estimates parameters of a mathematical model from a set of observed data with outliers. Bottom layer defects at fastener site are simulated as EDM notches of different length. Performance of the proposed multi-frequency mixing approach is evaluated on finite element data and experimental GMR measurements obtained with unidirectional planar current excitation. Initial results are promising demonstrating the feasibility of the approach.

  19. Resonances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    an impetus or drive to that account: change, innovation, rupture, or discontinuity. Resonances: Historical Essays on Continuity and Change explores the historiographical question of the modes of interrelation between these motifs in historical narratives. The essays in the collection attempt to realize...

  20. Testing GUTs: where do monopoles fit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.

    1982-10-01

    The report shows why the inadequacies of the standard model of elementary particles impel some theorists toward embedding the strong, weak and electromagnetic interactions in a simple GUT group, and explains why the grand unification scale and hence the GUM (Grand Unified Monopoles) mass are expected to be so large (greater than or equal to 10 14 GeV). It goes on to describe some model GUTs, notably minimal SU(5) and supersymmetric (susy) GUTs. The grand unified analogues of generalized Cabibbo mixing angles are introduced relevant to the prediction of baryon decay modes in different theories as well as to the Decay modes catalyzed by GUMs. Phenomenologies of conventional and susy GUTs are contrasted including the potential increase in the grand unification scale as well as possible different baryon decay modes in susy GUTs. The phenomenology of GUMs is discussed, principally their ability to catalyze baryon decays. Some of the astrophysical and cosmological constraints on GUMs, GUMs, which make it difficult to imagine ever seeing a GUM and may impose serious restrictions on GUT model-building via their behavior in the very early universe are introduced. Finally, the reasons why GUMs are crucial aspects and tests of GUTs are summarized

  1. Miniaturised self-resonant split-ring resonator antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Oleksiy S.; Breinbjerg, Olav

    2009-01-01

    at the resonance is governed by the arc length of the monopole. Numerical and experimental results are presented for an antenna configuration of 1/23.4 wavelength in diameter (ka~0.134). The antenna is tuned to 50 ohms without any matching network, and its efficiency is measured to be 17.5%....

  2. Slow magnetic monopoles search in NOvA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antoshkin, Alexander; Frank, Martin

    2018-04-01

    The NOvA far detector is well suited for finding exotic particles due to its technical features (see [1]). One type of those exotic particles is a "slow" magnetic monopole. It is assumed that the energy deposition of such monopoles should be enough to be registered (see [2]). Measurement of the expected signals was performed on the NOvA test bench at JINR (see [3]). Result of this measurement allows us to perform slow monopole's research using NOvA software and hardware with high efficiency. As a whole, the research can lead to a discovery, or it can limit the existence of monopoles in a wide range of parameters, previously unreachable in other experiments (MACRO, SLIM, RICE, IceCube). Several special software tools have been developed. Slow Monopole Trigger has been created and implemented in the NOvA Data-Driven-Trigger system. Also, an online reconstruction algorithm has been developed and tested on 5% of the data. A technical description of these tools and current results of the analysis are presented in this work.

  3. Z2 monopoles in the standard SU(2) lattice gauge theory model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mack, G.; Petkova, V.B.

    1979-04-01

    The standard SU(2) lattice gauge theory model without fermions may be considered as a Z 2 model with monopoles and fluctuating coupling constants. At low temperatures β -1 (= small bare coupling constant) the monopoles are confined. (orig.) [de

  4. Circumvention of Parker's bound on galactic magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, V.L.; Maryland Univ., College Park

    1983-01-01

    There is a possibility that a magnetic monopole has been observed. The monopole density implied by the observation appears to violate bounds on the density of such particles derived from the total mass density of the Universe and from the existence of galactic magnetic fields. It is shown that the observation is not inconsistent with these bounds if the monopoles and antimonopoles are bound into positronium like states with principal quantum n high enough so that the Earth's magnetic field will break them apart, but small enough so that the weaker galactic magnetic field will not. A range of values for n are determined and show that lifetimes for such bound states are longer than the current age of the Universe. (author)

  5. Detecting Magnetic Monopoles in Spin Ice with NV-magnetometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flicker, Felix; Kirschner, Franziska; Yao, Norman; Blundell, Stephen

    2017-04-01

    Magnetic monopoles, isolated north and south poles, appear not to exist as fundamental particles in our universe. Nevertheless, it has been proposed that they may emerge as quasiparticles in certain materials: the geometrically-frustrated `spin ice' pyrochlores dysprosium and holmium titanate. Despite a great deal of experimental and theoretical work, the smoking gun signature of magnetic monopoles in spin ice remains to be discovered. A promising candidate for the detection of individual magnetic monopoles comes in the form of Nitrogen-Vacancy (NV) defects in diamond, which act as very sensitive probes of vector magnetic fields on the nanometre scale. We present the result of Monte Carlo modeling for the precise signals one would expect to see with nanometre-scale probes such as NV-magnetometers or muon spin rotation.

  6. Monopole Effect on Isotopes in Sn and Pb Regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. KHITER

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. When going toward in description of neutron-rich nuclei, the monopole field plays a determining role in the properties of the quasiparticle states and their interactions. Detailed theoretical in shell model calculations of the characteristics of the neutron-rich isotopes in 132Sn and 208Pb regions are performed using the monopole hamiltonien effect. Some modification mentioned in literatures of effectives interactions are introduced for evaluated the effective single-particle energies. Their effect show a successful and consistent description of excitation energies spectra of these nuclei.Keywords:Nuclear Structure, Monopole Hamiltonian, Odd-Odd Nuclei,Three body Effects, Similarity, 21.60.Cs; 27.60. +j; 21.30.Fe

  7. Spinor monopole harmonics and the Pauli spin equation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, J.G.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1982-01-01

    In the framework of Wu and Yang theory of U(1) magnetic monopoles, two problems are revisited: (i) the binding of spin-0 monopole to a spin-1/2 particle possessing an arbitrary magnetic dipole moment, and (ii) the energy levels and properties of the electron-dyon system. In both problems, the spin-1/2 particle is assumed to obey the Pauli spin equation. Spin-orbit and other higher order terms are treated as a perturbation, in connection with the second mentioned problem. Wu and Yang's spinor monopole harmonics allow an elegant and simplified treatment of those problems. The results obtained are in good agreement with those obtained in older papers. (Author) [pt

  8. Large, real time detectors for solar neutrinos and magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.

    1990-01-01

    We discuss the present status of superheated superconducting granules (SSG) development for the real time detection of magnetic monopoles of any speed and of low energy solar neutrinos down to the pp region (indium project). Basic properties of SSG and progress made in the recent years are briefly reviewed. Possible ways for further improvement are discussed. The performances reached in ultrasonic grain production at ∼ 100 μm size, as well as in conventional read-out electronics, look particularly promising for a large scale monopole experiment. Alternative approaches are briefly dealt with: induction loops for magnetic monopoles; scintillators, semiconductors or superconducting tunnel junctions for a solar neutrino detector based on an indium target

  9. Low-SAR metamaterial-inspired printed monopole antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, M. I.; Faruque, M. R. I.; Islam, M. T.; Ali, M. T.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, a low-SAR metamaterial-embedded planar monopole antenna is introduced for a wireless communication system. A printed monopole antenna is designed for modern mobile, which operates in GSM, UMTS, LTE, WLAN, and Bluetooth frequency bands. A metamaterial structure is designed to use in the mobile handset with a multi-band printed monopole antenna. The finite integration technique of the CST microwave studio is used in this study. The measurement of antenna performances is taken in an anechoic chamber, and the SAR values are measured using COMOSAR system. The results indicate that metamaterial structure leads to reduce SAR without affecting antenna performance significantly. According to the measured results, the metamaterial attachment leads to reduce 87.7% peak SAR, 68.2% 1-g SAR, and 46.78% 10-g SAR compared to antenna without metamaterial.

  10. On the fate of superheavy magnetic monopoles in a neutron star

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuzmin, V.A.; Rubakov, V.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)

    1983-02-01

    We propose two possible scenarios of the behaviour of superheavy magnetic monopoles in a neutron star, in which the monopole-antimonopole annihilation rate is sufficiently large to prevent the enormous heating of a neutron star due to the monopole induced neutron decays. We find that the galactic monopole flux of order 10 -16 cm -2 s -1 ster -1 can be compatible with the observational limit on the X-ray luminosity of neutron stars. (author)

  11. Bohr quantum theory of the magnetic monopoles and classical electron electromagnetic mass problem

    OpenAIRE

    Pankovic, Vladan

    2010-01-01

    In the first part of this work we apply Bohr (old or naive quantum atomic) theory for analysis of the remarkable electro-dynamical problem of magnetic monopoles. We reproduce formally exactly some basic elements of the Dirac magnetic monopoles theory, especially Dirac electric/magnetic charge quantization condition. It follows after application of Bohr theory at the system, simply called magnetic monopole "atom", consisting of the practically standing, massive magnetic monopole as the "nucleu...

  12. Possibility of experimental detection of the Dirac-Schwinger heavy mass monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ginzburg, I F [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Matematiki; Panfil, S L [AN SSSR, Novosibirsk. Inst. Avtomatiki i Ehlektrometrii

    1982-12-01

    A possibility of the Dirac-Schwinger point heavy-mass monopoles detection in scattering or production of photons at large angles via the monopole loop, is discussed. The monopoles with masses M < or approximately from 50 to 100 GeV may be found in experiments at PETRA and PEP, and monopoles with masses M < or approximately from 2 to 3 TeV may be discovered in future experiments in colliding photon beams of 50-300 GeV energies.

  13. Algebraic reduction of the 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole to the Dirac monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Landi, G.; Marmo, G.

    1988-01-01

    In the context of the algebraic description of gauge fields by means of extensions of Lie algebras considered in previous articles by the authors, we define the notion of reduction of an extension of Lie algebras. Given a connection we define the holonomy algebra and the holonomy sequence of the connection and we prove that it is always possible to reduce the extension we start with to the holonomy sequence of the connection. As an example we construct a 't Hooft-Polyakov-like extension of algebras and reduce it to the extension which describes the Dirac monopole as discussed in a previous paper by the authors. The supersymmetric version of all results is obtained by replacing ordinary Lie algebras with Lie superalgebras. (orig.)

  14. Gravitational magnetic monopoles and Majumdar-Papapetrou stars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemos, Jose P.S.; Zanchin, Vilson T.

    2006-01-01

    During the 1990s a large amount of work was dedicated to studying general relativity coupled to non-Abelian Yang-Mills type theories. Several remarkable results were accomplished. In particular, it was shown that the magnetic monopole, a solution of the Yang-Mills-Higgs equations can indeed be coupled to gravitation. For a low Higgs mass it was found that there are regular monopole solutions, and that for a sufficiently massive monopole the system develops an extremal magnetic Reissner-Nordstroem quasihorizon with all the matter fields laying inside the horizon. These latter solutions, called quasi-black holes, although nonsingular, are arbitrarily close to having a horizon, and for an external observer it becomes increasingly difficult to distinguish these from a true black hole as a critical solution is approached. However, at precisely the critical value the quasi-black hole turns into a degenerate space-time. On the other hand, for a high Higgs mass, a sufficiently massive monopole develops also a quasi-black hole, but at a critical value it turns into an extremal true horizon, now with matter fields showing up outside. One can also put a small Schwarzschild black hole inside the magnetic monopole, the configuration being an example of a non-Abelian black hole. Surprisingly, Majumdar-Papapetrou systems, Abelian systems constructed from extremal dust (pressureless matter with equal charge and energy densities), also show a resembling behavior. Previously, we have reported that one can find Majumdar-Papapetrou solutions which are everywhere nonsingular, but can be arbitrarily close of being a black hole, displaying the same quasi-black-hole behavior found in the gravitational magnetic monopole solutions. With the aim of better understanding the similarities between gravitational magnetic monopoles and Majumdar-Papapetrou systems, here we study a particular system, namely a system composed of two extremal electrically charged spherical shells (or stars

  15. Universal monopole scaling near transitions from the Coulomb phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Stephen

    2012-08-10

    Certain frustrated systems, including spin ice and dimer models, exhibit a Coulomb phase at low temperatures, with power-law correlations and fractionalized monopole excitations. Transitions out of this phase, at which the effective gauge theory becomes confining, provide examples of unconventional criticality. This Letter studies the behavior at nonzero monopole density near such transitions, using scaling theory to arrive at universal expressions for the crossover phenomena. For a particular transition in spin ice, quantitative predictions are made by mapping to the XY model and confirmed using Monte Carlo simulations.

  16. Performance and application of a fourfold monopole mass spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Richards, J.A.; Huey, R.M.

    1978-01-01

    Some preliminary tests with an experimental fourfold monopole mass spectrometer described, illustrating that the device performs acceptably (at the low resolutions used) despite the fact that the field-forming surfaces of the driven electrodes are only one quadrant of a cylinder. Coupling between adjacent channels is shown not to be a problem so that applications requiring simultaneous measurements using two or more of the monopole channels can be entertained. Owing to its parellel structure the instrument is suggested as being suited particularly to isotope ratio measurements with precisions which could be significantly better than would be possible with a quadrupole device. (Auth.)

  17. Hamiltonian reduction and supersymmetric mechanics with Dirac monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellucci, Stefano; Nersessian, Armen; Yeranyan, Armen

    2006-01-01

    We apply the technique of Hamiltonian reduction for the construction of three-dimensional N=4 supersymmetric mechanics specified by the presence of a Dirac monopole. For this purpose we take the conventional N=4 supersymmetric mechanics on the four-dimensional conformally-flat spaces and perform its Hamiltonian reduction to three-dimensional system. We formulate the final system in the canonical coordinates, and present, in these terms, the explicit expressions of the Hamiltonian and supercharges. We show that, besides a magnetic monopole field, the resulting system is specified by the presence of a spin-orbit coupling term. A comparision with previous work is also carried out

  18. Topology without cooling: instantons and monopoles near to deconfinement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feurstein, M.; Markum, H.; Thurner, S.

    1998-01-01

    In an attempt to describe the change of topological structure of pure SU(2) gauge theory near deconfinement a renormalization group inspired method is tested. Instead of cooling, blocking and subsequent inverse blocking is applied to Monte Carlo configurations to capture topological features at a well-defined scale. We check that this procedure largely conserves long range physics like string tension. UV fluctuations and lattice artefacts are removed which otherwise spoil topological charge density and Abelian monopole currents. We report the behaviour of topological susceptibility and monopole current densities across the deconfinement transition and relate the two faces of topology to each other. First results of a cluster analysis are described. (orig.)

  19. Monopoles and rational maps: A note on a theorem of Donaldson

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtubise, J.

    1985-01-01

    In a recent paper, Donaldson gave a description of the moduli space of SU(2) monopoles in terms of rational maps; this was done indirectly, via the associated solution of Nahm's equations. We give here an interpretation of these rational maps in terms of the monopole's spectral curve, and then as ''scattering data'' for the monopole itself. (orig.)

  20. Rancang Bangun Prototype Counter Mobil Menggunakan Sensor Giant Magnetic Resistance (Gmr Berbasis Mikrokontroler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adnan Ardiansyah

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Kapadatan lalu lintas salah satunya diakibatkan pertambahan jumlah mobil yang tidak seimbang dengan pertambahan panjang jalan. Data kepadatan lalu lintas dapat menjadi informasi yang berguna untuk statistik pengembangan jalan dan pengguna jalan. Data tersebut didapatkan dengan cara menghitung manual ataupun dengan detektor yang ditanam pada jalan atau kamera CCTV. Namun, cara tersebut tidak efisien karena data yang didapat membutuhkan sumber daya manusia dan sumber dana yang besar. Pada penelitian ini, telah dirancang sistem sederhana yang dapat mendeteksi frekuensi atau jumlah kepadatan mobil tiap satuan waktu. Data diperoleh dengan mikrokontroler berbasis arduino yang menggunakan sensor magnet GMR sebagai input. Ketika kendaraan diatas telah melewati sistem, mikrokontroler memproses sinyal yang diterima dari sensor untuk mendapatkan data jumlah kendaraan. Serta LCD karakter 2x16 sebagai penampil data. Data yang diperoleh kemudian dapat digunakan untuk otomatisasi penggukur kemacetan dan sistem kontrol lalu lintas lainnya, menggantikan sistem detektor yang ditanam pada jalan raya dan video kamera dimalam hari dan untuk menutupi daerah yang tidak terjangkau. Hasil penelitian menujukan bahwa sensor mempunyai tingkat akurasi pengukuran 94,66%, serta mempunyai tingkat presisi yang cukup baik. Traffic data frequency can be beneficial for statistic extended road method and road user. Data may be found from manual counter or using detector implanted to the road or CCTV camera. However, that method not efficient because need operator in order to obtained the data and expensive cost. In this research, already planned a simple systemtraffic vehicle counter or vehicle quantity by the time. Data obtained by microcontroller Arduino UNO with magnetic sensor (GMR attached as input. When a vehicle passes above the circuit system, a microcontroller processes signal of sensor to obtain data quantity of vehicle. And also character LCD 2x16 as display data

  1. New numerical modelling of the mechanical long-term behaviour of the GMR gallery in ANDRA's Underground Research Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Martin, L.; Hadj-Hassen, F.; Tijani, M.; Armand, G.

    2011-01-01

    This paper deals with a new macroscopic numerical modelling of the mechanical long-term behaviour of ANDRA's Underground Research Laboratory. The study focuses on the GMR gallery, oriented along the minor horizontal principal stress and located at the main level 490 m deep. The simulations are made using the finite element method (FEM).Convergence measurements in this gallery exhibit an important dis-symmetry between the vertical and horizontal directions, as well as a significant time effect in the vertical trend. In attempts to both understand the phenomena that lie beneath such dis-symmetry and reproduce the experimental data, a modification to Lemaitre's creep law has been proposed. The new viscoplastic law takes into account the following aspects: rock transverse isotropy, creep behaviour and rock expansion. The excavation history of the GMR gallery has also been considered in the numerical modelling. The numerical results are very satisfactory for the GMR drift. However, the mechanisms of anisotropic shear and expansion on which the new law is based do not lead to an accurate reproduction of the data measured in the galleries oriented in the perpendicular direction. Therefore, a thorough insight into the mechanical behaviour of the rock mass and into the proposed new law is needed before the latter can be applied to the Callovo-Oxfordian layer. (authors)

  2. Controlled trapping and detection of magnetic particles by a magnetic microactuator and a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor

    KAUST Repository

    Giouroudi, Ioanna

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the design and testing of an integrated micro-chip for the controlled trapping and detection of magnetic particles (MPs). A unique magnetic micro-actuator consisting of square-shaped conductors is used to manipulate the MPs towards a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensing element which rapidly detects the majority of MPs trapped around the square-shaped conductors. The ability to precisely transport a small number of MPs in a controlled manner over long distances by magnetic forces enables the rapid concentration of a majority of MPs to the sensing zone for detection. This is especially important in low concentration samples. The conductors are designed in such a manner so as to increase the capture efficiency as well as the precision and speed of transportation. By switching current to different conductors, MPs can be manipulated and immobilized on the innermost conductor where the GMR sensor is located. This technique rapidly guides the MPs towards the sensing zone. Secondly, for optimum measurement capability with high spatial resolution the GMR sensor is fabricated directly underneath and all along the innermost conductor to detect the stray fields originating from the MPs. Finally, a microfluidic channel is fabricated on top of this micro-chip. Experiments inside the microchannel were carried out and the MPs were successfully trapped at the sensing area. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications.

  3. Portable GMR Handheld Platform for the Detection of Influenza A Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Kai; Klein, Todd; Krishna, Venkatramana D; Su, Diqing; Perez, Andres M; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2017-11-22

    Influenza A virus (IAV) is a common respiratory pathogen infecting many hosts including humans, pigs (swine influenza virus or SIV), and birds (avian influenza virus or AIV). Monitoring swine and avian influenza viruses in the wild, farms, and live poultry markets is of great significance for human and veterinary public health. A portable, sensitive, and quantitative immunoassay device will be of high demand especially in the rural and resource-limited areas. We report herein our Z-Lab point-of-care (POC) device for sensitive and specific detection of swine influenza viruses with minimum sample handling and laboratory skill requirements. In the present study, a portable and quantitative immunoassay platform based on giant magnetoresistive (GMR) technology is used for the detection of IAV nucleoprotein (NP) and purified H3N2v. Z-Lab displays quantitative results in less than 10 min with sensitivities down to 15 ng/mL and 125 TCID 50 /mL for IAV nucleoprotein and purified H3N2v, respectively. This platform allows lab-testing to be performed outdoors and opens up the applications of immunoassays in nonclinical settings.

  4. Supersymmetry violation in elementary particle-monopole scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casher, A.; Shamir, Y.

    1991-10-01

    We show that the scattering of elementary particles on solitons (monopoles, fluxons, etc.) in supersymmetric gauge theories violates the relations dictated by supersymmetry at tree level. The violation arises because of the discrepancy between the spectra of bosonic and fermionic fluctuations and because of the fermionic nature of the supersymmetry generators. (author). 14 refs

  5. Comments on GUT monopole energy loss and ionization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hagstrom, R.

    1982-01-01

    A few comments about the likely behavior of the electromagnetic energy loss and ionization rates of super-slowly moving magnetic monopoles are presented. The questions of energy loss rates and ionization rates for super-low monopoles passing through matter are considered, concentrating on aspects of these issues which affect practical detection techniques. It is worthwhile here to emphasize that there is a potentially great distinction between energy loss rates and ionization rates and that the magnitude of this distinction is really the great issue which must be settled in order to understand the significance of experimental results from present and proposed investigations of the slow monopole question. Energy loss here means the total dE/dX of the projectile due to interactions with the electrons of the slowing medium. To the extent that nuclear collisions can be neglected, this so-called electronic energy loss is the relevant quantity in questions about whether monopoles stop within the earth's crust, whether they are slowed by interstellar plasmas, or the signal in a truly calorimetric measurement (measuring temperature rises along the trajectory), etc. Most of our successful detection techniques depend upon the promotion of ground state electrons into states which lie above some energy gap in the material of the detector: electrons must be knocked completely free from the gas atoms in a proportional chamber gas, electrons must be promoted to a higher band in solid scintillator plastics. These processes are generically identified as ionization

  6. Comments on the charge-monopole canonical formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Comay, C.

    1988-01-01

    A recently published canonical formalism of a charge-monopole system written by means of Clifford algebras is discussed. It is shown that the introduction of the Lorentz force must be accompanied by the removal of the pseudo-scalar terms from the lagrangian. Several conclusions follow. (orig.)

  7. Half-monopoles in the Yang–Mills theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    . A non-zero winding number in two or three dimensions must be associated with a point of double or triple degeneracy respectively, as we will see in our examples. Consider, for example, the 't Hooft–Polyakov monopole [5,6]. In this case,.

  8. Higher dimensional global monopole in Brans–Dicke theory

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Keywords. Global monopole; Brans–Dicke theory; higher dimension. PACS Nos 04.20.Jb; 98.80.Bp; 04.50.+h. 1. Introduction. The idea of higher dimensional theory was originated in super string and super gravity the- ories to unify gravity with other fundamental forces in nature. Solutions of Einstein field equations in higher ...

  9. Search for magnetic monopoles at the Chacaltaya cosmic ray laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecchini, S.; Giacomelli, G.; Giorgini, M.; Mandrioli, G.; Manzoor, S.; Margiotta, A.; Patrizii, L.; Popa, V.; Serra, P.; Spurio, M.; Togo, V.; Zanini, A.; Saavedra, O.; Zanini, A.; McDonald, J.; Pinfold, J.; Manzoor, S.; Rana, M. A.; Qureshi, I. E.; Shahzad, M. I.; Popa, V.; Ticona, R.; Velarde, A.; Cechini, S.

    2001-01-01

    The new large area (400 m 2 ) experiment - SLIM - to search for magnetic monopoles and other exotic massive particles is presented. It uses of nuclear track detectors and is being deployed at the Chacaltaya cosmic ray laboratory for at least 4 years. The detection capability of the experiment is discussed

  10. A new derivation of Dirac's magnetic monopole strength

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panat, P V

    2003-01-01

    A new derivation of the strength of Dirac's magnetic monopole is presented which does not require an explicit form of the magnetic induction in terms of g, the magnetic pole strength. The derivation essentially uses a modification of Faraday's law of induction and quantization of angular momentum

  11. On the quantum field theory of charges and monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calucci, G.; Jengo, R.; Vallon, M.T.

    1981-11-01

    A treatment of the interaction between charges and monopoles is presented, in terms of functional integration over closed paths. The Lorentz covariance is preserved in all the steps of the procedure and the symmetry between electric charges and magnetic poles in the interaction is clearly displayed. Some instances of application are discussed. (author)

  12. Monopoles and instantons on partially compactified D-branes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K.; Yi, P.

    1997-01-01

    Motivated by the recent D-brane constructions of world-volume monopoles and instantons, we study the supersymmetric SU(N) Yang-Mills theory on S 1 xR 3+1 , spontaneously broken by a Wilson loop. In addition to the usual N-1 fundamental monopoles, the Nth Bogomol close-quote nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield monopole appears from the Kaluza-Klein sector. When all N monopoles are present, net magnetic charge vanishes and the solution can be reinterpreted as a Wilson-loop instanton of unit Pontryagin number. The instanton-multimonopole moduli space is explicitly constructed, and seen to be identical to a Coulomb phase moduli space of a U(1) N gauge theory in 2+1 dimensions related to Kronheimer close-quote s gauge theory of SU(N)-type. This extends the results by Intriligator and Seiberg to the finite couplings that, in the infrared limit of Kronheimer close-quote s theory, the Coulomb phase parametrizes a centered SU(N) instanton. We also elaborate on the case of restored SU(N) symmetry. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  13. Magnetic monopole interactions: shell structure of meson and baryon states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akers, D.

    1986-01-01

    It is suggested that a low-mass magnetic monopole of Dirac charge g = (137/2)e may be interacting with a c-quark's magnetic dipole moment to produce Zeeman splitting of meson states. The mass M 0 = 2397 MeV of the monopole is in contrast to the 10 16 -GeV monopoles of grand unification theories (GUT). It is shown that shell structure of energy E/sub n/ = M 0 + 1/4nM 0 ... exists for meson states. The presence of symmetric meson states leads to the identification of the shell structure. The possible existence of the 2397-MeV magnetic monopole is shown to quantize quark masses in agreement with calculations of quantum chromodynamics (QCD). From the shell structure of meson states, the existence of two new mesons is predicted: eta(1814 +/- 50 MeV) with I/sup G/(J/sup PC/) = 0 + (0 -+ ) and eta/sub c/ (3907 +/- 100 MeV) with J/sup PC/ = 0 -+ . The presence of shell structure for baryon states is shown

  14. Capacitance and effective area of flush monopole probes.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Johnson, William Arthur; Morris, Marvin E.; Basilio, Lorena I.; Lehr, Jane Marie; Higgins, Matthew B.

    2004-08-01

    Approximate formulas are constructed and numerical simulations are carried out for electric field derivative probes that have the form of flush mounted monopoles. Effects such as rounded edges are included. A method is introduced to make results from two-dimensional conformal mapping analyses accurately apply to the three-dimensional axisymmetric probe geometry

  15. Three-Dimensional Gauge Theories and ADE Monopoles

    OpenAIRE

    Tong, David

    1998-01-01

    We study three-dimensional N=4 gauge theories with product gauge groups constructed from ADE Dynkin diagrams. One-loop corrections to the metric on the Coulomb branch are shown to coincide with the metric on the moduli space of well-seperated ADE monopoles. We propose that this correspondence is exact.

  16. Search for Magnetic Monopoles in Polar Volcanic Rocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtz, K.; Milstead, D.; Hächler, H. -P.

    2013-01-01

    following the passage of igneous rock samples through a SQUID-based magnetometer. A total of 24.6 kg of rocks from various selected sites, among which 23.4 kg are mantle-derived rocks from the Arctic and Antarctic areas, was analyzed. No monopoles were found, and a 90% confidence level upper limit of 9.8 x...

  17. Thermodynamic fluctuations and the monopole density of the early Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diosi, L.; Lukacs, B.

    1984-10-01

    The probability of thermodynamic fluctuations is calculated by explicitly using the Riemannian structure of the thermodynamic state space. By means of this probability distribution, a correlation volume can be defined. Identifying this volume with one domain in the GUT continuum at the symmetry breaking phase transition in the early Universe, a prediction can be obtained for the primordial monopole density. (author)

  18. Search for magnetic monopoles with the neutrino telescope ANTARES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Picot-Clemente, N.

    2010-01-01

    The ANTARES neutrino telescope is located at a 2500 meters depth, and is composed of an array of 900 photomultipliers installed for the detection of Cherenkov light emitted by neutrino-induced muons, after having interacted with matter, and in order to reconstruct their directions. However, besides of being capable of detecting high energy neutrinos, neutrino telescopes could measure the incoming flux of magnetic monopoles in the detector. In this work, were first presented the different methods used in order to calibrate the photomultipliers, which are the heart of a neutrino telescope. The possibility of detecting magnetic monopoles with ANTARES was then discussed, and a first analysis optimised for the search for high velocity magnetic monopoles showed the great sensitivity offered by the telescope. Finally, a track reconstruction algorithm was modified, and a new analysis this time sensitive over a wider range of velocities was performed. After the application of the last analysis on the data taken in 2008 with the ANTARES telescope, new upper limits on the upward going magnetic monopole flux, of masses lower than 10 14 GeV were obtained, and are the best experimental constraints on their flux for the velocity region β ∼ [0.65, 0.995]. (author)

  19. Does the SU(5) monopole catalyze proton decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, F.; Pak, N.K.

    1983-08-01

    The role of Higgs induced mass for the fermions in the SU(5) monopole catalysis of the baryon decay problem is investigated. We find that the inclusion of such a mass does not rule out the Rubakov effect but it does suppress the catalysis cross-section

  20. Behavioral and Biological Effects of Resonant Electromagnetic Absorption in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-11-01

    for 23-550 MHz, biological phantom materials to simulate tissue properties, monopole -above-ground radiation chamber, design of a waveguide slot array...Resonant Electromagnetic Power Absorption in Rats" L T OF FTCTIF S A,’L i .LIS SFigure Pa 1 A photograiph of the monopole -above-gruund radiation...and mice without ground effects (L/2b = 3.25 where 21Tb is the "average" circumference of the animals) ........ .................... ... 20 8

  1. Giant nuclear resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Snover, K.A.

    1989-01-01

    Giant nuclear resonances are elementary mods of oscillation of the whole nucleus, closely related to the normal modes of oscillation of coupled mechanical systems. They occur systematically in most if not all nuclei, with oscillation energies typically in the range 10-30 MeV. One of the best - known examples is the giant electric dipole (El) resonance, in which all the protons and all the neutrons oscillate with opposite phase, producing a large time - varying electric dipole moment which acts as an effective antenna for radiating gamma ray. This paper discusses this mode as well as quadrupole and monopole modes

  2. Interacting sp-boson model with isospin: an unified description of giant multipole resonances and other collective motions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, C.H.-T.

    1980-10-01

    A unified description of the following classes of nuclear collective states in terms of an interacting sp-boson model is proposed: (i) Low-lying collective states in the light nuclei, both odd-odd and even-even; (ii) Giant multipole resonances (GMR), and (iii) pairing collective motions. (Author) [pt

  3. Dielectric Analysis for Torque of a Solute Ion Coulomb Force Monopole Motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fresco, Anthony N.

    ASME Technical Paper ES2010-90396 "Solute Ion Coulomb Force Monopole Motor and Solute Ion Linear Alignment Propulsion" by the author describes a motor that is based on an arrangement of solute ion electric field monopoles.[1] That is, through a process called capacitive deionization, sodium and chlorine ions in salt water are captured and confined by an electrically conductive material to form electric field monopoles. At least four of the like charged monopoles (all negative or all positive) can be arranged on a disc. At least one stationary monopole of the same charge is placed adjacent to the disc and positioned so that a repulsive electric field is formed between the stationary monopole and at least one of the monopoles positioned on the disc so that the disc is then forced to rotate a shaft at the center of the disc. This paper analyzes the behavior of the dielectric materials forming part of the monopoles to show that the net torque on the motor is greater than zero and also illustrates a novel effect of polarization of a dielectric material positioned between two like-charged monopoles as occurs in the configuration of the monopole motor and a deficiency in the conventional closed path analysis for work performed during movement of electric charges that emit electrostatic fields by failing to consider the effects of dielectric materials in shielding the electrostatic fields. The monopole motor connected to an to electrical generator can provide continuous on-board electrical power to electrical loads for local and deep space applications including power to electrode assemblies designed for linear alignment of like-charged solute ions as a means of propulsion and particle acceleration as described in the ES2010-90396 paper. Details of the monopole motor and the propulsion are available in WO 2008/024927 A2 (and US2010/0199632 A1) "Solute Ion Coulomb Force Acceleration and Electric Field Monopole Passive Voltage Source" by the author Ref.[2].

  4. Surface stabilized GMR nanorods of silver coated CrO2 synthesized via a polymer complex at ambient pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biswas, S.; Singh, G.P.; Ram, S.; Fecht, H.-J.

    2013-01-01

    Stable anisotropic nanorods of surface modified CrO 2 (∼18 nm diameter) with a correlated diamagnetic layer (2–3 nm thickness) of silver efficiently tailors useful magnetic and magnetoresistance (MR) properties. Essentially, it involves a core-shell structure that is developed by displacing part of Cr 4+ ions by Ag atoms on the CrO 2 surface (topotactic surface layer) via an etching reaction of a CrO 2 -polymer complex with Ag + ions in hot water followed by heating the dried sample at 300–400 °C in air. The stable Ag-layer so obtained in the form of a shell protects CrO 2 such that it no longer converts to Cr 2 O 3 in ambient pressure during the processing. X-ray diffractogram of the Rutile type tetragonal CrO 2 structure (lattice parameters a=0.4429 nm and c=0.2950 nm) includes weak peaks of a minority phase of an fcc-Ag (a=0.4086 nm). The silver surface layer, which manifests itself in a doublet of the 3d 5/2 and 3d 3/2 X-ray photoelectron bands of binding energies 368.46 eV and 374.48 eV, respectively, suppresses almost all Cr bands to appear in a measurable intensity. The sample exhibits a distinctly enhanced MR-value, e.g., (−) 7.6% at 77 K, than reported values in compacted CrO 2 powders or composites. Such a large MR-value in the Coulomb blockade regime ( 2 nanorods. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structural studies of a novel GMR material of Ag coated CrO 2 . • Tailoring useful GMR property in CrO 2 nanorods of controlled shape and anisotropy. • Enhanced GMR is explained in correlation to the surface structure of CrO 2 nanorods

  5. Binary black hole in a double magnetic monopole field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodriguez, Maria J. [Utah State University, Department of Physics, Logan, UT (United States); Max Planck Institute for Gravitational Physics, Potsdam (Germany)

    2018-01-15

    Ambient magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role in black hole jet formation. Furthermore, dual electromagnetic signals could be produced during the inspiral and merger of binary black hole systems. In this paper, we derive the exact solution for the electromagnetic field occurring when a static, axisymmetric binary black hole system is placed in the field of two magnetic or electric monopoles. As a by-product of this derivation, we also find the exact solution of the binary black hole configuration in a magnetic or electric dipole field. The presence of conical singularities in the static black hole binaries represent the gravitational attraction between the black holes that also drag the external two monopole field. We show that these off-balance configurations generate no energy outflows. (orig.)

  6. Cosmological monopoles and non-Abelian black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brihaye, Yves; Hartmann, Betti; Radu, Eugen; Stelea, Cristian

    2007-01-01

    We discuss magnetic monopole solutions of the Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations with a positive cosmological constant. These configurations approach asymptotically the de Sitter spacetime background and exist only for a nonzero Higgs potential. We find that the total mass of the solutions within the cosmological horizon is finite. However, their mass evaluated by using the surface counterterm method outside the cosmological horizon at early/late time infinity generically diverges. Magnetic monopole solutions with finite mass and non-integer charge exist however in a truncation of the theory with a vanishing Higgs field. Both solutions with a regular origin and cosmological black holes are studied, special attention being paid to the computation of the global charges

  7. Binary black hole in a double magnetic monopole field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Maria J.

    2018-01-01

    Ambient magnetic fields are thought to play a critical role in black hole jet formation. Furthermore, dual electromagnetic signals could be produced during the inspiral and merger of binary black hole systems. In this paper, we derive the exact solution for the electromagnetic field occurring when a static, axisymmetric binary black hole system is placed in the field of two magnetic or electric monopoles. As a by-product of this derivation, we also find the exact solution of the binary black hole configuration in a magnetic or electric dipole field. The presence of conical singularities in the static black hole binaries represent the gravitational attraction between the black holes that also drag the external two monopole field. We show that these off-balance configurations generate no energy outflows.

  8. A Statistical Model of Current Loops and Magnetic Monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ayyer, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    We formulate a natural model of loops and isolated vertices for arbitrary planar graphs, which we call the monopole-dimer model. We show that the partition function of this model can be expressed as a determinant. We then extend the method of Kasteleyn and Temperley-Fisher to calculate the partition function exactly in the case of rectangular grids. This partition function turns out to be a square of a polynomial with positive integer coefficients when the grid lengths are even. Finally, we analyse this formula in the infinite volume limit and show that the local monopole density, free energy and entropy can be expressed in terms of well-known elliptic functions. Our technique is a novel determinantal formula for the partition function of a model of isolated vertices and loops for arbitrary graphs

  9. Gsm 1900Umts Printed Monopole Antenna For Mobile Base Station

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nyi Nyi Lwin

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper printed rectangular monopole antenna which is basically printed microstrip patch antenna with partial ground plane is designed for mobile base station. The substrate FR4 with a relative permittivity of 4.4 and thickness 1.8 is used in design. In addition the printed monopole antenna is of low profile in appearance and suitable for most application. The proposed antenna can cover GSM1900 1850-1990 MHz and UMTS 1920-2170 MHz bands. Design and simulation processes are carried out with the aid of FEKO software which is used for the analysis of electromagnetic problems. Simulation results of the return loss gain and radiation patterns are presented.

  10. Fractal Based Triple Band High Gain Monopole Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Shashi Kant; Pandey, Ganga Prasad; Sarun, P. M.

    2017-10-01

    A novel triple-band microstrip fed planar monopole antenna is proposed and investigated. A fractal antenna is created by iterating a narrow pulse (NP) generator model at upper side of modified ground plane, which has a rhombic patch, for enhancing the bandwidth and gain. Three iterations are carried out to study the effects of fractal geometry on the antenna performance. The proposed antenna can operate over three frequency ranges viz, 3.34-4.8 GHz, 5.5-10.6 GHz and 13-14.96 GHz suitable for WLAN 5.2/5.8 GHz, WiMAX 3.5/5.5 GHz and X band applications respectively. Simulated and measured results are in good agreements with each others. Results show that antenna provides wide/ultra wide bandwidths, monopole like radiation patterns and very high antenna gains over the operating frequency bands.

  11. Possible circumvention of Parker's bound on galactic magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dicus, D.A.; Teplitz, V.L.

    1983-04-01

    There is a possibility that a magnetic monople has observed. The monopole density implied by the observation appears to violate bounds on the density of such particles derived from the total mass density of the universe and from the existence of galactic magnetic fields. We show that the observation is not inconsistent with these bounds if the monopoles and antimonopoles are bound into positronium - like states with principal quantum n high enough so that the earth's magnetic field will break them apart, but small enough so that the weaker galactic mangetic field will not. We determine a range of values for n and show that lifetimes for such bound states are longer than the current age of the universe

  12. Detection of extremely high bit density signals with a narrow track width GMR head in double layered perpendicular recording media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiya, T.; Honda, N.; Ariake, J.; Ouchi, K.; Iwasaki, S.

    2001-01-01

    Recording resolution, medium noise and thermal stability have been investigated for double layered perpendicular magnetic recording media. The recording performance was improved by introducing a stacked intermediate layer between a soft magnetic backlayer and a storage layer due to increased crystal orientation with a small magnetic domain size and suppressed initial growing layer of the storage layer. The reproduced output at an extremely high linear density of 950 kFRPI was detected by using a contact-type CF-SPT head for write and a GMR head with a narrow read track width of 0.4 μm

  13. Quantum Entropy of Black Hole with Internal Global Monopole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Yi-Wen; YANG Shu-Zheng; LIU Wen-Biao

    2005-01-01

    Using the generalized uncertainty relation, the new equation of state density is obtained, and then the entropy of black hole with an internal global monopole is discussed. The divergence that appears in black hole entropy calculation through original brick-wall model is overcome. The result of the direct proportion between black hole entropy and its event horizon area is drawn and given. The result shows that the black hole entropy must be the entropy of quantum state near the event horizon.

  14. Model Bisnis Pada Monopole Coffee Lab Menggunakan Business Model Canvas

    OpenAIRE

    Sutandyo, Eduardo Christian

    2017-01-01

    Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui Business Model Canvas (BMC) saat ini dan membuat BMC yang lebih baik pada Monopole Coffee Lab yang bergerak di bisnis coffee shop. Analisis yang dilakukan pada 9 elemen BMC yang terdiri dari Customer Segment, Value Proposition, Channels, Customer Relationship, Revenue Streams, Key Resources, Key Activities, Key Partnership, dan Cost Structure. Metode penelitian yang digunakan adalah kualitatif deskriptif. Pengumpulan data yang dilakukan dengan menggun...

  15. Magnetic monopoles, center vortices, confinement and topology of gauge fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reinhardt, H.; Engelhardt, M.; Langfeld, K.; Quandt, M.; Schaefke, A.

    2000-01-01

    The vortex picture of confinement is studied. The deconfinement phase transition is explained as a transition from a phase in which vortices percolate to a phase of small vortices. Lattice results are presented in support of this scenario. Furthermore the topological properties of magnetic monopoles and center vortices arising, respectively, in Abelian and center gauges are studied in continuum Yang-Mills-theory. For this purpose the continuum analog of the maximum center gauge is constructed

  16. Magnetic Monopoles, Center Vortices, Confinement and Topology of Gauge Fields

    OpenAIRE

    Reinhardt, H.; Engelhardt, M.; Langfeld, K.; Quandt, M.; Sch"afke, A.

    1999-01-01

    The vortex picture of confinement is studied. The deconfinement phase transition is explained as a transition from a phase in which vortices percolate to a phase of small vortices. Lattice results are presented in support of this scenario. Furthermore the topological properties of magnetic monopoles and center vortices arising, respectively, in Abelian and center gauges are studied in continuum Yang-Mills-theory. For this purpose the continuum analog of the maximum center gauge is constructed.

  17. Quantum gravitational optics in the field of a gravitomagnetic monopole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmadi, N [Department of Physics, North Karegar Avenue, University of Tehran, P O Box 14395-547, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Khoeini-Moghaddam, S [Department of Physics, Sharif University of Technology, P O Box 19365-9161, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Nouri-Zonoz, M [Department of Physics, North Karegar Avenue, University of Tehran, P O Box 14395-547, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    Vacuum polarization in QED in a background gravitational field induces interactions which effectively modify the classical picture of light rays as the null geodesies of spacetime. After a short introduction on the main aspects of the quantum gravitational optics, as a nontrivial example, we study this effect in the background of NUT space characterizing the spacetime of a spherical mass endowed with a gravitomagnetic monopole charge, the so called NUT factor.

  18. Relationship between quantum-mechanical systems with and without monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mardoyan, Levon; Nersessian, Armen; Yeranyan, Armen

    2007-01-01

    It is shown that the inclusion of the monopole field in the three- and five-dimensional spherically symmetric quantum-mechanical systems, with the addition of the special centrifugal term, leads to the lift of the range of the total and azimuth quantum numbers only. Meanwhile the functional dependence of the energy spectra on quantum numbers does not undergo any changes. We also present a new integrable model of the spherical oscillator

  19. Analytical Models Development of Compact Monopole Vortex Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlo V. Lukianov

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions. The article contains series of the latest analytical models that describe both laminar and turbulent dynamics of monopole vortex flows which have not been reflected in traditional publications up to the present. The further research must be directed to search of analytical models for the coherent vortical structures in flows of viscous fluids, particularly near curved surfaces, where known in hydromechanics “wall law” is disturbed and heat and mass transfer anomalies take place.

  20. Monopolization by "Raising Rivals' Costs": The Standard Oil Case.

    OpenAIRE

    Granitz, Elizabeth; Klein, Benjamin

    1996-01-01

    Standard monopolized the petroleum industry during the 1870s by cartelizing the stage of production where entry was difficult--petroleum transportation. Standard enforced the transportation cartel by shifting its refinery shipments among railroads to stabilize individual railroad market shares at collusively agreed-on levels. This method of cartel policing was effective because Standard possessed a dominant share of refining, a dominance made possible with the assistance of the railroads. The...

  1. Second Hopf map and supersymmetric mechanics with Yang monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzales, M.; Toppan, F.; Kuznetsova, Z.; Nersessian, F.; Yeghikyan, V.

    2009-01-01

    We propose to use the second Hopf map for the reduction (via SU(2) group action) of the eight-dimensional supersymmetric mechanics to five-dimensional supersymmetric systems specified by the presence of an SU(2) Yang monopole. For our purpose we develop the relevant Lagrangian reduction procedure. The reduced system is characterized by its invariance under the N = 5 or N = 4 supersymmetry generators (with or without an additional conserved BRST charge operator) which commute with the su(2) generators. (author)

  2. Construction of instanton and monopole solutions and reciprocity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Corrigan, E.; Goddard, P.

    1984-01-01

    An elementary argument demonstrating the completeness of the Atiyah-Drinfeld-Hitchin-Manin construction of self-dual instanton solutions to Eiclidean gauge theories is presented. The adaptation of this discussion to Nahm's construction for SU(2) monopoles is outlines. These constructions are shown to establish a reciprocity or duality between self-dual theories in zero and four dimensions and in one and three dimensions, respectively

  3. R-charge and a solution to the monopole problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bajc, B.; Riotto, A.; Senjanovi, G.

    1998-03-01

    Large charge density, unlike high temperature, may lead to the nonrestoration of global and gauge symmetries. Supersymmetric GUTs with the appealing scenario of unification scale being generated dynamically naturally contain global continuous R symmetries. We point out that the presence of a large R charge in the early Universe can lead to GUT symmetry nonrestoration. This provides a simple way out of the monopole problem. (author)

  4. Electrically charged one-and-a-half monopole solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming [Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Physics, USM Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-05-15

    Recently, we have discussed the coexistence of a finite energy one-half monopole and a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole of opposite magnetic charges. In this paper, we would like to introduce electric charge into this new monopoles configuration, thus creating a one-and-a-half dyon. This new dyon possesses finite energy, magnetic dipole moment, and angular momentum and is able to precess in the presence of an external magnetic field. Similar to the other dyon solutions, when the Higgs self-coupling constant, λ, is nonvanishing, this new dyon solution possesses critical electric charge, total energy, magnetic dipolemoment, and dipole separation as the electric charge parameter, η, approaches 1. The electric charge and total energy increase with η to maximum critical values as η → 1 for all nonvanishing λ. However, the magnetic dipole moment decreases with η when λ ≥ 0.1 and the dipole separation decreases with η when λ ≥ 1 to minimum critical values as η → 1. (orig.)

  5. Coupler induced monopole component and its minimization in deflecting cavities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Ambattu

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Deflecting cavities are used in particle accelerators for the manipulation of charged particles by deflecting or crabbing (rotating them. For short deflectors, the effect of the power coupler on the deflecting field can become significant. The particular power coupler type can introduce multipole rf field components and coupler-specific wakefields. Coupler types that would normally be considered like standard on-cell coupler, waveguide coupler, or mode-launcher coupler could have one or two rf feeds. The major advantage of a dual-feed coupler is the absence of monopole and quadrupole rf field components in the deflecting structure. However, a dual-feed coupler is mechanically more complex than a typical single-feed coupler and needs a splitter. For most applications, deflecting structures are placed in regions where there is small space hence reducing the size of the structure is very desirable. This paper investigates the multipole field components of the deflecting mode in single-feed couplers and ways to overcome the effect of the monopole component on the beam. Significant advances in performance have been demonstrated. Additionally, a novel coupler design is introduced which has no monopole field component to the deflecting mode and is more compact than the conventional dual-feed coupler.

  6. Gravitating monopole-antimonopole chains and vortex rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleihaus, Burkhard; Kunz, Jutta; Shnir, Yasha

    2005-01-01

    We construct monopole-antimonopole chain and vortex solutions in Yang-Mills-Higgs theory coupled to Einstein gravity. The solutions are static, axially symmetric, and asymptotically flat. They are characterized by two integers (m,n) where m is related to the polar angle and n to the azimuthal angle. Solutions with n=1 and n=2 correspond to chains of m monopoles and antimonopoles. Here the Higgs field vanishes at m isolated points along the symmetry axis. Larger values of n give rise to vortex solutions, where the Higgs field vanishes on one or more rings, centered around the symmetry axis. When gravity is coupled to the flat space solutions, a branch of gravitating monopole-antimonopole chain or vortex solutions arises and merges at a maximal value of the coupling constant with a second branch of solutions. This upper branch has no flat space limit. Instead in the limit of vanishing coupling constant it either connects to a Bartnik-McKinnon or generalized Bartnik-McKinnon solution, or, for m>4, n>4, it connects to a new Einstein-Yang-Mills solution. In this latter case further branches of solutions appear. For small values of the coupling constant on the upper branches, the solutions correspond to composite systems, consisting of a scaled inner Einstein-Yang-Mills solution and an outer Yang-Mills-Higgs solution

  7. Electrically charged one-and-a-half monopole solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teh, Rosy; Ng, Ban-Loong; Wong, Khai-Ming

    2014-01-01

    Recently, we have discussed the coexistence of a finite energy one-half monopole and a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole of opposite magnetic charges. In this paper, we would like to introduce electric charge into this new monopoles configuration, thus creating a one-and-a-half dyon. This new dyon possesses finite energy, magnetic dipole moment, and angular momentum and is able to precess in the presence of an external magnetic field. Similar to the other dyon solutions, when the Higgs self-coupling constant, λ, is nonvanishing, this new dyon solution possesses critical electric charge, total energy, magnetic dipolemoment, and dipole separation as the electric charge parameter, η, approaches 1. The electric charge and total energy increase with η to maximum critical values as η → 1 for all nonvanishing λ. However, the magnetic dipole moment decreases with η when λ ≥ 0.1 and the dipole separation decreases with η when λ ≥ 1 to minimum critical values as η → 1. (orig.)

  8. A Low Profile Ultrawide Band Monopole Antenna for Wearable Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Doddipalli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A low profile pentagonal shaped monopole antenna is designed and presented for wearable applications. The main objective of this paper is to design a miniaturized ultrawide band monopole planar antenna which can work efficiently in free space but also on the surface of the human body. The impact of human tissues on antenna performance is explained using the proposed pentagonal monopole antenna. The antenna is designed with a pentagonal radiator and a matched feed line of 50 ohm and square slots are integrated on defected ground of FR4 substrate with a size of 15 mm × 25 mm to achieve ultrawide band (UWB performance in free space and human proximity. This overall design will enhance the antenna performance with wide bandwidth ranging from 2.9 GHz to 11 GHz. Specific absorption rate (SAR of the proposed antenna on dispersive phantom model is also measured to observe the exposure of electromagnetic energy on human tissues. The simulated and measured results of the proposed antenna exhibit wide bandwidth and radiation characteristics in both free space and human proximity.

  9. Static electromagnetic properties of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koo, W.K.

    1986-03-01

    Static electric monopole and quadrupole matrix elements, which are related to the mean square radius and quadrupole moment respectively, are derived for giant resonances of arbitrary multipolarity. The results furnish information on the size and shape of the nucleus in the excited giant states. (author)

  10. Magnetic monopole searches with the MoEDAL experiment at the LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Pinfold, J; Lacarrère, D; Mermod, P; Katre, A

    2014-01-01

    The magnetic monopole appears in theories of spontaneous ga uge symmetry breaking and its existence would explain the quantisation of electric charg e. MoEDAL is the latest approved LHC experiment, designed to search directly for monopoles. It h as now taken data for the first time. The MoEDAL detectors are based on two complementary techniq ues: nuclear-track detectors are sensitive to the high-ionisation signature expected fr om a monopole, and the new magnetic monopole trapper (MMT) relies on the stopping and trapping o f monopoles inside an aluminium array which is then analysed with a superconducting magneto meter. Preliminary results obtained with a subset of the MoEDAL MMT test array deployed in 2012 are presented, where monopoles with charge above the fundamental unit magnetic charge or ma ss above 1.5 TeV are probed for the first time at the LHC

  11. Search for GUT magnetic monopoles and nuclearites with the MACRO experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Chiarusi, T; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; Cozzi, M; De Cataldo, G; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; De Vincenzi, M; Dekhissi, H; Derkaoui, J; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Hanson, K; Heinz, R; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kumar, A; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Larocci, E; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maarou, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Matteuzzi, D; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Pistilli, P; Popa, V; Rainó, A; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R; 10.1016/S1350-4487(03)00140-9

    2003-01-01

    We present the final results obtained by the MACRO experiment in the search for GUT magnetic monopoles and nuclearites. Several searches were performed with different subdetectors, i.e. scintillation counters, limited streamer tubes and nuclear track detectors. No magnetic monopole or nuclearite candidates were found. The MACRO upper limit to the local flux of GUT magnetic monopoles is at the level of 1.4*10/sup -16/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/sr/sup -1/.

  12. Magnetic Monopoles and Topology of Yang-Mills Theory in Polyakov Gauge

    OpenAIRE

    Quandt, M.; Reinhardt, H.; Schafke, A.

    1998-01-01

    We express the Pontryagin index in Polyakov gauge completely in terms of magnetically charged gauge fixing defects, namely magnetic monopoles, lines, and domain walls. Open lines and domain walls are topologically equivalent to monopoles, which are the genuine defects. The emergence of non-genuine magnetically charged closed domain walls can be avoided by choosing the temporal gauge field smoothly. The Pontryagin index is then exclusively determined by the magnetic monopoles.

  13. Search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with the AMANDA-II detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wissing, Henrike

    2009-01-01

    Cherenkov emissions of magnetically charged particles passing through a transparent medium will exceed those of electrically charged particles by several orders of magnitude. The Antarctic Muon And Neutrino Detector Array (AMANDA), a neutrino telescope utilizing the glacial ice at the geographic South Pole as Cherenkov medium, is capable of efficiently detecting relativistic magnetic monopoles that may pass through its sensitive volume. This thesis presents the search for Cherenkov signatures from relativistic magnetic monopoles in data taken with AMANDA during the 2000. No such signal is observed in the data, and the analysis allows to place upper limits on the flux of relativistic magnetic monopoles. The limit obtained for monopoles reaching the detector from below the horizon, i.e., those monopoles that are capable of crossing the Earth, is the most stringent experimental constraint on the flux of magnetic monopoles to date: Dependent on the monopole speed, the flux limit (at 90% confidence level) varies between 3.8 x 10 -17 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 (for monopoles moving at the vacuum speed of light) and 8.8 x 10 -16 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 (for monopoles moving at a speed just above the Cherenkov threshold). The limit obtained for monopoles reaching the detector from above the horizon is less stringent by roughly an order of magnitude, owing to the much larger background from down-going atmospheric muons. This looser limit is valid for a larger class of magnetic monopoles, since the monopole's capability to pass through the Earth is not a requirement. (orig.)

  14. A Direct Search for Stable Magnetic Monopoles Produced in Positron-Proton Collisions at HERA

    CERN Document Server

    Aktas, A.; Anthonis, T.; Aplin, S.; Asmone, A.; Babaev, A.; Backovic, S.; Bahr, J.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Baranov, P.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Baudrand, S.; Baumgartner, S.; Becker, J.; Beckingham, M.; Behnke, O.; Behrendt, O.; Belousov, A.; Berger, Ch.; Berger, N.; Bizot, J.C.; Boenig, M.-O.; Boudry, V.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brisson, V.; Brown, D.P.; Bruncko, D.; Busser, F.W.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Caron, S.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Chekelian, V.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cox, B.E.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Dau, W.D.; Daum, K.; Delcourt, B.; Demirchyan, R.; De Roeck, A.; Desch, K.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, Guenter; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eichler, R.; Eisele, F.; Ellerbrock, M.; Elsen, E.; Erdmann, W.; Essenov, S.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Ferencei, J.; Finke, L.; Fleischer, M.; Fleischmann, P.; Fleming, Y.H.; Flucke, G.; Fomenko, A.; Foresti, I.; Formanek, J.; Franke, G.; Frising, G.; Frisson, T.; Gabathuler, E.; Garutti, E.; Gayler, J.; Gerhards, R.; Gerlich, C.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Ginzburgskaya, S.; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Goettlich, M.; Gogitidze, N.; Gorbounov, S.; Goyon, C.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Gregori, M.; Grindhammer, Guenter; Gwilliam, C.; Haidt, D.; Hajduk, L.; Haller, J.; Hansson, M.; Heinzelmann, G.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Henschel, H.; Henshaw, O.; Herrera, G.; Herynek, I.; Heuer, R.-D.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hovhannisyan, A.; Ibbotson, M.; Ismail, M.; Jacquet, M.; Janauschek, L.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Johnson, D.P.; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Karlsson, M.; Katzy, J.; Keller, N.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, Christian M.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Klimkovich, T.; Kluge, T.; Knies, G.; Knutsson, A.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Koutouev, R.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kuckens, J.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka, T.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leiner, B.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Lindfeld, L.; Lipka, K.; List, B.; Lobodzinska, E.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lucaci-Timoce, A.-I.; Lueders, H.; Luke, D.; Lux, T.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malden, N.; Malinovski, E.; Mangano, S.; Marage, P.; Marshall, R.; Martisikova, M.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxeld, S.J.; Meer, D.; Mehta, A.; Meier, K.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Milstead, D.; Mohamed, A.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Nankov, K.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, J.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, Paul R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nikitin, D.; Nowak, G.; Nozicka, M.; Oganezov, R.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Peez, M.; Perez, E.; Perez-Astudillo, D.; Perieanu, A.; Petrukhin, A.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Poschl, R.; Portheault, B.; Povh, B.; Prideaux, P.; Raicevic, N.; Reimer, P.; Rimmer, A.; Risler, C.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salvaire, F.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauvan, E.; Schatzel, S.; Scheins, J.; Schilling, F.-P.; Schmidt, S.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, V.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Schwanenberger, C.; Sedlak, K.; Sefkow, F.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Sirois, Y.; Sloan, T.; Smirnov, P.; Soloviev, Y.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Stella, B.; Stiewe, J.; Strauch, I.; Straumann, U.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, Graham; Thompson, P.D.; Tomasz, F.; Traynor, D.; Truoel, Peter; Tsakov, I.; Tsipolitis, G.; Tsurin, I.; Turnau, J.; Tzamariudaki, E.; Urban, Marcel; Usik, A.; Utkin, D.; Valkar, S.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Van Remortel, N.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Veelken, C.; Vest, A.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; Vujicic, B.; Wacker, K.; Wagner, J.; Weber, G.; Weber, R.; Wegener, D.; Werner, C.; Werner, N.; Wessels, M.; Wessling, B.; Wigmore, C.; Winter, G.-G.; Wissing, Ch.; Wolf, R.; Wunsch, E.; Xella, S.; Yan, W.; Yeganov, V.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhelezov, A.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, J.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.

    2005-01-01

    A direct search has been made for magnetic monopoles produced in e^+ p collisions at a centre of mass energy of 300 GeV at HERA. The beam pipe surrounding the interaction region in 1995-1997 was investigated using a SQUID magnetometer to look for stopped magnetic monopoles. During this time an integrated luminosity of 62 pb^{-1} was delivered. No magnetic monopoles were observed and charge and mass dependent upper limits on the e^+ p production cross section are set.

  15. Dirac particles in the field of magnetic monopoles and of strong electric charges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schafer, A.; Muller, B.; Greiner, W.

    1985-01-01

    The field of a magnetic pointlike monopole acts in a similar way on a charged Dirac particle as the field of a very strong electric point charge. To explore this parallel it is constructed a field solution for an extended magnetic-charge distribution. In contrast to what is found for extended electric charges, the Hamiltonian remains nonself-adjoint for an extended magnetic monopole. This suggests that there exist a fundamental difference between the two cases. In particular, the appearance of undefined states for point monopoles is not a consequence of the mere strength of the magnetic-monopole charge, which has a minimum value fixed by Dirac's quantization condition

  16. The influence of bias magnetization of nanoparticles on GMR sensor signal and sensitivity for the ultra-low concentration detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yang; Xu, Jie; Cao, Derang; Li, Qiang; Zhao, Guoxia; Sun, Nian X.; Li, Shandong

    2018-05-01

    In the broad research of the GMR bio-sensing technology, it is vital to explore appropriate magnetic labels and its influences on the detection signal. In this work, four kinds of ferrite particles of γ-Fe2O3, CoFe2O4, NiFe2O4 and NiZnFe2O4 were prepared through calcining the Dimethyl Formamide (DMF) solution of the transition metal nitrates [Fe(NO3)3 and X(NO3)2, X = Co, Ni, Zn] to study the effect of magnetic properties on detection signals using a DC in-plane measuring method. It was revealed that for four particles, the output voltage differences |ΔV| between with and without magnetic particles exhibit log-linear functions of the particles concentrations x in the range from 0.1 to 10 ng/mL. A very low limitation of detection (LOD) of 0.1 ng/mL for all the samples was obtained, which is two orders smaller than that in the previous work. Moreover, the change of output voltage difference at the LOD (|ΔVlim|) is proportional to the magnetization at bias field (bias magnetization, Mbias), which indicates that larger Mbias leads to a lower LOD. This work provides a useful guidance in selecting or preparing magnetic labels to enhance the sensitivity of GMR biosensors.

  17. An Automated Sensing System for Steel Bridge Inspection Using GMR Sensor Array and Magnetic Wheels of Climbing Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui Wang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Corrosion is one of the main causes of deterioration of steel bridges. It may cause metal loss and fatigue cracks in the steel components, which would lead to the collapse of steel bridges. This paper presents an automated sensing system to detect corrosion, crack, and other kinds of defects using a GMR (Giant Magnetoresistance sensor array. Defects will change the relative permeability and electrical conductivity of the material. As a result, magnetic field density generated by ferromagnetic material and the magnetic wheels will be changed. The defects are able to be detected by using GMR sensor array to measure the changes of magnetic flux density. In this study, magnetic wheels are used not only as the adhesion device of the robot, but also as an excitation source to provide the exciting magnetic field for the sensing system. Furthermore, compared to the eddy current method and the MFL (magnetic flux leakage method, this sensing system suppresses the noise from lift-off value fluctuation by measuring the vertical component of induced magnetic field that is perpendicular to the surface of the specimen in the corrosion inspection. Simulations and experimental results validated the feasibility of the system for the automated defect inspection.

  18. Statistical decay of giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, H.; Teruya, N.; Wolynec, E.

    1986-02-01

    Statistical calculations to predict the neutron spectrum resulting from the decay of Giant Resonances are discussed. The dependence of the results on the optical potential parametrization and on the level density of the residual nucleus is assessed. A Hauser-Feshbach calculation is performed for the decay of the monopole giant resonance in 208 Pb using the experimental levels of 207 Pb from a recent compilation. The calculated statistical decay is in excellent agreement with recent experimental data, showing that decay of this resonance is dominantly statistical, as predicted by continuum RPA calculations. (Author) [pt

  19. Giant multipole resonances: an experimental review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, F.E.

    1979-01-01

    During the past several years experimental evidence has been published for the existance of nondipole giant resonances. These giant multipole resonances, the so-called new giant resonances were first observed through inelastic hadron and electron scattering and such measurements have continued to provide most of the information in this field. A summary is provided of the experimental evidence for these new resonances. The discussion deals only with results from inelastic scattering and only with the electric multipoles. Emphasis is placed on the recent observations of the giant monopole resonance. Results from recent heavy-ion and pion inelastic scattering are discussed. 38 references

  20. COMPACT DUAL-BAND INVERTED L SHAPED MONOPOLE ANTENNA FOR WLAN APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Sumathi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A highly compact and an optimized design of an Inverted L shaped printed monopole antenna with a simple compact ground plane is proposed. To make the designed antenna suitable for implantation it is embedded in FR-4 substrate and is presented. The antenna is designed for dual-band operation at 2.4GHz and 5.2GHz. It is suitable for Wireless Local Area Network (WLAN applications with return loss (S11 < -10dB. The antenna has two different resonant current paths that support two resonances at 2.44GHz and 5.18GHz (forming an F-shaped structure. The size of the antenna is 32.5mm × 19.6mm × 1.6mm. The antenna design is simulated using the tool Advanced Design System (ADS 2014. This antenna design has good return loss and radiation characteristics in both the required frequency bands. The radiation pattern obtained from the proposed antenna is an Omni directional radiation pattern in the E and H plane over the frequency ranges 2.4GHz and 5.2GHz.

  1. Guided-mode resonant solar cells and flat-top reflectors: Analysis, design, fabrication and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khaleque, Tanzina

    This dissertation addresses the guided-mode resonance (GMR) effect and its applications. In particular, this study presents theoretical analysis and corresponding experiments on two important GMR devices that can be broadly described as GMR-enabled thin-film solar cells and flat-top reflectors. The GMR-induced enhanced absorption of input light is observed and quantified in a fabricated nano-patterned amorphous silicon (a-Si) thin-film. Compared to a reference homogeneous thin-film of a-Si, approximately 50% integrated absorbance enhancement is achieved in the patterned structure. This result motivates the application of these resonance effects in thin-film solar cells where enhanced solar absorbance is a crucial requirement. Light trapping in thin-film solar cells through the GMR effect is theoretically explained and experimentally demonstrated. Nano-patterned solar cells with 300-nm periods in one-dimensional gratings are designed, fabricated, and characterized. Compared to a planar reference solar cell, around 35% integrated absorption enhancement is observed over the 450--750-nm wavelength range. This light-management method results in enhanced short-circuit current density of 14.8 mA/cm 2, which is a ˜40% improvement over planar solar cells. The experimental demonstration proves the potential of simple and well-designed guided-mode resonant features in thin-film solar cells. In order to complement the research on GMR thin-film solar cells, a single-step, low-cost fabrication method for generating resonant nano-grating patterns on poly-methyl-methacrylate (PMMA; plexiglas) substrates using thermal nano-imprint lithography is reported. The imprinted structures of both one and two dimensional nano-grating patterns with 300 nm period are fabricated. Thin films of indium-tin-oxide and silicon are deposited over patterned substrates and the absorbance of the films is measured. Around 25% and 45% integrated optical absorbance enhancement is observed over the 450-nm

  2. Magnetic monopole and vector field of the spin 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pantyushin, A.A.

    2001-01-01

    The motion of electrically charged particles in uniform magnetic field by time is considered. It is found out that additional force acting on eclectically charged particle from the spin 0 vector field side is proportional to the magnetic field. Proportion coefficient is equal to eg/4π (g - unknown parameter, determining of the rate and character of source non-preservation) - the analogue of constant thin structure α=e 2 /4π. Obtained results give evidence to suppose that for explanation of indicated experiments the monopole introduction is not essential

  3. Abandoning the idea of 'monopolized supply area'. Abkehr vom Gebietsschutz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magerl, H [Technische Werke der Stadt Stuttgart AG (TWS) (Germany, F.R.)

    1989-08-14

    The author demonstrates the necessity of demarcated supply areas by pointing to the requirements of safe supply, profitability and fair prices for all power consumers. The absence of supply area demarcation contracts and licence agreements would result in more competition for big power consumers only. The ensuing cost undercoverage would have to be compensated by all the other consumers, thus violating the principle of fair prices. Power supply by other vendors to monopolized areas is neither competition nor deregulation; on the contrary, it means that only few customers will enjoy economic benefits to the detriment of medium-sized industries, trades, crafts and private households. Hence, demarcated supply areas are indispensable. (orig.).

  4. Monopole, astrophysics and cosmic ray observatory at Gran Sasso

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Demarzo, C.; Enriquez, O.; Giglietto, N.

    1985-01-01

    A new large area detector, MACRO was approved for installation at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. The detector will be dedicated to the study of naturally penetrating radiation deep underground. It is designed with the general philosophy of covering the largest possible area with a detector having both sufficient built-in redundancy and use of complementary techniques to study very rare phenomena. The detector capabilities will include monopole investigations significantly below the Parker bound; astrophysics studies of very high energy gamma ray and neutrino point sources; cosmic ray measurements of single and multimuons; and the general observation of rare new forms of matter in the cosmic rays

  5. Monopole, astrophysics and cosmic ray observatory at Gran Sasso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demarzo, C.; Enriquez, O.; Giglietto, N.; Posa, F.; Attolini, M.; Baldetti, F.; Giacomelli, G.; Grianti, F.; Margiotta, A.; Serra, P.

    1985-01-01

    A new large area detector, MACRO was approved for installation at the Gran Sasso Laboratory in Italy. The detector will be dedicated to the study of naturally penetrating radiation deep underground. It is designed with the general philosophy of covering the largest possible area with a detector having both sufficient built-in redundancy and use of complementary techniques to study very rare phenomena. The detector capabilities will include monopole investigations significantly below the Parker bound; astrophysics studies of very high energy gamma ray and neutrino point sources; cosmic ray measurements of single and multimuons; and the general observation of rare new forms of matter in the cosmic rays.

  6. Monopole search with the Frejus tunnel nucleon lifetime experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eschstruth, P.

    1984-01-01

    This chapter describes the detection of Grand Unified Theory (GUT) monopoles using a 1000 ton instrument consisting of a fine-grain flash-tube calorimeter and a trigger system using Geiger tubes. The orientation of the flash tubes is alternately horizontal and vertical by pairs, while that of the Geiger tubes changes from one module to the next. The trigger electronics for the nucleon lifetime experiment sums clipped signals from groups of adjacent Geiger planes requiring the coincidence of a given number of tubes within the group

  7. Monopole strength as a probe of nuclear shape mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, R.A.

    1987-01-01

    The monopole strength, MS, within a single set of nuclear shape excitations is compared with the MS between different shapes. After misconceptions are pointed out concerning the spin dependence of B(E2) values, MS properties are juxtaposed with gamma-ray and beta-decay properties of 70 Se, 96 Zr, 102 Pd, and the N = 60 isotones to illustrate the utility of combined investigations and evidence is given for the observation of a two-phonon octupole multiplet. Finally, consideration is given to the dominance of the 3 S 1 force in producing deformation in the N > 50 1g nuclei. 23 refs., 4 figs

  8. The gravitational field of a charged global monopole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min-Qiang Lu [East China Univ. of Science and Tecnology, Shangai (China). School of Fundamental Education]|[East China Inst. for Theoretical Physics, Shangai (China)

    1998-10-01

    A charged global monopole formed as a consequence of the spontaneous breakdown of a global symmetry should have a mass that grows linearly with the distance off its core where the gravitational effect of this configuration is equivalent to that of the deficit solid angle in the metric and the relatively tiny mass at the origin. In this paper it is shown that this small effective mass depends on the charge in that there exists a negative mass when the charge number Q is less than a critical value Q{sub c}r and that there appears a positive one when Q>Q{sub c}r.

  9. Surface stabilized GMR nanorods of silver coated CrO{sub 2} synthesized via a polymer complex at ambient pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S., E-mail: drsomnathbiswas@gmail.com [The LNM Institute of Information Technology, Jaipur-302031 (India); Singh, G.P. [Centre for Nanotechnology, Central University of Jharkhand, Ranchi-835205 (India); Ram, S. [Materials Science Centre, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur-721302 (India); Fecht, H.-J. [Insitut für Micro-und Nanomaterialien, Universität Ulm, Albert Einstein Allee-47, Ulm, D-89081, and Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Institute of Nanotechnology, Karlsruhe, D-76021 (Germany)

    2013-08-15

    Stable anisotropic nanorods of surface modified CrO{sub 2} (∼18 nm diameter) with a correlated diamagnetic layer (2–3 nm thickness) of silver efficiently tailors useful magnetic and magnetoresistance (MR) properties. Essentially, it involves a core-shell structure that is developed by displacing part of Cr{sup 4+} ions by Ag atoms on the CrO{sub 2} surface (topotactic surface layer) via an etching reaction of a CrO{sub 2}-polymer complex with Ag{sup +} ions in hot water followed by heating the dried sample at 300–400 °C in air. The stable Ag-layer so obtained in the form of a shell protects CrO{sub 2} such that it no longer converts to Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} in ambient pressure during the processing. X-ray diffractogram of the Rutile type tetragonal CrO{sub 2} structure (lattice parameters a=0.4429 nm and c=0.2950 nm) includes weak peaks of a minority phase of an fcc-Ag (a=0.4086 nm). The silver surface layer, which manifests itself in a doublet of the 3d{sub 5/2} and 3d{sub 3/2} X-ray photoelectron bands of binding energies 368.46 eV and 374.48 eV, respectively, suppresses almost all Cr bands to appear in a measurable intensity. The sample exhibits a distinctly enhanced MR-value, e.g., (−) 7.6% at 77 K, than reported values in compacted CrO{sub 2} powders or composites. Such a large MR-value in the Coulomb blockade regime (<100 K) arises not only due to the suppressed spin flipping at low temperature but also from a spin dependent co-tunneling through an interlinked structure of silver and silver coated CrO{sub 2} nanorods. - Highlights: • Synthesis and structural studies of a novel GMR material of Ag coated CrO{sub 2}. • Tailoring useful GMR property in CrO{sub 2} nanorods of controlled shape and anisotropy. • Enhanced GMR is explained in correlation to the surface structure of CrO{sub 2} nanorods.

  10. Bound on the flux of magnetic monopoles from catalysis of nucleon decay in white dwarfs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Freese, K.; Krasteva, E.

    1999-01-01

    Catalysis of nucleon decay in white dwarfs is used to constrain the abundance of magnetic monopoles arising from grand unified theories. Recent discoveries of the dimmest white dwarf ever observed, WD 1136-286 with L=10 -4.94 L circle-dot , place limits on the monopole flux that are two orders of magnitude stronger than previous bounds from white dwarfs. An abundance of monopoles greater than the new bound would heat this star to a luminosity higher than what is observed. The new bound is (F/cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ) (συ/10 -28 cm 2 ) -20 (υ M /10 -3 c) 2 , where υ M is the monopole velocity in the Galaxy. The limit is improved by including the monopoles captured by the main-sequence progenitor of the white dwarf: (F/cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ) (συ/10 -28 cm 2 ) -21 for 10 17 (10 16 ) GeV monopoles. We also note that the dependence on monopole mass of flux bounds due to catalysis in neutron stars with main sequence accretion has previously been calculated incorrectly [previously the bound has been stated as F(συ/10 -28 cm 2 ) -28 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 ]. We show that the correct bounds are somewhat weaker for monopole mass other than 10 17 GeV. copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  11. Search for relativistic magnetic monopoles with five years of the ANTARES detector data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Albert, A.; André, M.; Anghinolfi, M.; Anton, G.; Ardid, M.; Aubert, J.-J.; Avgitas, T.; Baret, B.; Barrios-Martí, J.; Basa, S.; Bertin, V.; Biagi, S.; Bormuth, R.; Bourret, S.; Bouwhuis, M.C.; Bruijn, R.; Brunner, J.; Busto, J.; Capone, A.; Caramete, L.; Carr, J.; Celli, S.; Chiarusi, T.; Circella, M.; Coelho, J.A.; Coleiro, A.; Coniglione, R.; Costantini, H.; Coyle, P.; Creusot, A.; Deschamps, A.; De Bonis, G.; Distefano, C.; Di Palma, I.; Domi, A.; Donzaud, C.; Dornic, D.; Drouhin, D.; Eberl, T.; El Bojaddaini, I.; Elsässer, D.; Enzenhöfer, A.; Felis, I.; Fusco, L.A.; Galatà, S.; Gay, P.; Giordano, V.; Glotin, H.; Grégoire, T.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Graf, K.; Hallmann, S.; van Haren, H.; Heijboer, A.J.; Hello, Y.; Hernandez-Rey, J.J.; Hößl, J.; Hofestädt, J.; Hugon, C.; Illuminati, G.; James, C.W.; de Jong, M.; Jongen, M.; Kadler, M.; Kalekin, O.; Katz, U.; Kießling, D.; Kouchner, A.; Kreter, M.; Kreykenbohm, I.; Kulikovskiy, V.; Lachaud, C.; Lahmann, R.; Lefevre, D.; Leonora, E.; Lotze, M.; Loucatos, S.; Marcelin, M.; Margiotta, A.; Marinelli, A.; Martinez-Mora, J.A.; Mele, R.; Melis, K.; Michael, T.; Migliozzi, P.; Moussa, A.; Navas, S.; Nezri, E.; Organokov, M.; Pavalas, G.E.; Pellegrino, C.; Perrina, C.; Piattelli, P.; Popa, V.; Pradier, T.; Quinn, L.; Racca, C.; Riccobene, G.; Sánchez-Losa, A.; Saldaña, M.; Salvadori, I.; Samtleben, D.F.E.; Sanguineti, M.; Sapienza, P.; Schüssler, F.; Sieger, C.; Spurio, M.; Stolarczyk, Th.; Taiuti, M.; Tayalati, Y.; Trovato, A.; Turpin, D.; Tönnis, C.; Vallage, B.; Van Elewyck, V.; Versari, F.; Vivolo, D.; Vizzoca, A.; Wilms, J.; Zornoza, J.D.; Zúñiga, J.

    2017-01-01

    A search for magnetic monopoles using five years of data recorded with the ANTARES neutrino telescope from January 2008 to December 2012 with a total live time of 1121 days is presented. The analysis is carried out in the range β > 0.6 of magnetic monopole velocities using a strategy based on

  12. Damping of monopole vibrations in time dependent Hartree-Fock theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautherin, D.; Stringari, S.

    1979-01-01

    Monopole vibrations in oxygen-16 and calcium-40 have been investigated in time-dependent Hartree-Fock theory. The characteristic damping time obtained is tau approximately 1.5x10 -22 sec. This value is in good agreement with the width of the monopole mode calculated in the random phase approximation

  13. Theory and detection of magnetic monopoles in gauge theories a collected set of lecture notes

    CERN Document Server

    Giacomelli, G; Nahm, Werner; Shafi, Qaisar

    1986-01-01

    These lecture notes discusses the developments both in the theoretical understanding of the physics and mathematics of magnetic monopoles as well as the ways in which they can be detected experimentally.The subject has now become highly interdisciplinary and recent monopole meetings have attracted participants from low temperature physics at one extreme to cosmology at the other.

  14. Group monopolization & collaborative work: the making of a science video project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayme, B.; Roth, W.-M.; Reis, G.; Eijck, van M.W.

    2007-01-01

    ABSTRACT: In the present ethnographic case study, we investigate how monopolization emerges and is maintained during collaborative working situations in elementary science classroom tasks. Our analysis suggests that monopolization is achieved in part by the position of the students around the

  15. Body-Worn Spiral Monopole Antenna for Body-Centric Communications (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2016-01-01

    A novel body-worn spiral monopole antenna is presented. The antenna consists of a ground plane and a spiral monopole. The antenna is designed for Ear-to-Ear (E2E) communication between In-the-Ear (ITE) Hearing Instruments (HIs) at 2.45 GHz and has been simulated, prototyped and measured. The ante...

  16. A Search for Fast Moving Magnetic Monopoles with the MACRO Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rongzhi

    1995-01-01

    From Dirac monopole theory to modern GUT's (Grand Unified Theories), magnetic monopoles have attracted much attention from physicists. While Dirac had demonstrated the consistency of magnetic monopoles with quantum eletrodynamics, 't Hooft and Polyakov demonstrated the necessity of monopoles in GUT's. Furthermore, the GUT's supply more clues about magnetic monopoles, including their exceptionally heavy masses ~ 10^{16 } GeV. Both current theories and previous monopole experiments have suggested that the flux of magnetic monopoles is likely to be very small, so it is necessary to have a large area detector to search for them. This thesis presents a search for fast moving magnetic monopoles with the MACRO detector. The MACRO detector is a large underground detector located at Gran Sasso, Italy. Its primary goal is to search for magnetic monopoles at a flux level beyond the Parker bound. It is underground at 3,000 meters water equivalent depth, with a nominal acceptance of 10,000 m^2 sr. It employs liquid scintillator counters, streamer tubes and track-etch detectors which can supply both independent and cross checks for fast monopole candidate events. This search is mainly based on the liquid scintillator counters with primary event selection and energy reconstruction from the ERP system. The 6.2 mus trigger time is based on the time of flight of a fast moving monopole diagonally through one supermodule with a velocity ~ 10^{-2}c. The search uses the "six-month-run" data which were taken from December of 1992 to July of 1993 with the operation of the lower part of the detector. With energy reconstruction ability up to 8 GeV with 22% error, we apply a double-face high energy requirement to reject most muon events from the data sample. We then apply the WFD, streamer tube and strip information to reject non-monopole events. The live time for this analysis is 5,300 hours, with acceptance of 4050 m^2 sr. With no fast monopole candidate event found, we establish an upper

  17. Calculated shape dependence of electromagnetic field in tip-enhanced Raman scattering by using a monopole antenna model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitahama, Yasutaka; Itoh, Tamitake; Suzuki, Toshiaki

    2018-05-01

    To evaluate the shape of an Ag tip with regard to tip-enhanced Raman scattering (TERS) signal, the enhanced electromagnetic (EM) field and scattering spectrum, arising from surface plasmon resonance at the apex of the tip, were calculated using a finite-difference time domain (FDTD) method. In the calculated forward scattering spectra from the smooth Ag tip, the band appeared within the visible region, similar to the experimental results and calculation for a corrugated Ag cone. In the FDTD calculation of TERS, the Ag tip acting as a monopole antenna was adopted by insertion of a perfect electric conductor between the root of the tip and a top boundary surface of the calculation space. As a result, the EM field was only enhanced at the apex. The shape dependence i.e. the EM field calculated at the apex with various curvatures on the different tapered tips, obtained using the monopole antenna model, was different from that simulated using a conventional dipole antenna model.

  18. 4He(γ,n)3He photodisintegration and the properties of O+-resonance of 4He by the resonating group method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filippov, G.F.; Vasilevsky, V.S.; Kovalenko, T.P.

    1984-01-01

    The reaction of 4 He electrodisintegration at small momenta transfered to the nucleus by electrons is considered on the basis of an algebraic version of the resonating group method. The calculated matrix element of the monopole transition from the ground state of 4 He into the O + -resonance state and the calculated monopole energy weighted sum rules confirm the assumption on the cluster nature of O + -resonance. In the dipole approximation the photonuclear reaction of 4 He(γ, n)He 3 at small energies of γ-quanta is studied. The obtained values of the electric dipole transition probabilities and the effective cross sections reveal a good agreement with experimental data

  19. Estimation of Low Concentration Magnetic Fluid Weight Density and Detection inside an Artificial Medium Using a Novel GMR Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chinthaka GOONERATNE

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Hyperthermia treatment has been gaining momentum in the past few years as a possible method to manage cancer. Cancer cells are different to normal cells in many ways including how they react to heat. Due to this difference it is possible for hyperthermia treatment to destroy cancer cells without harming the healthy normal cells surrounding the tumor. Magnetic particles injected into the body generate heat by hysteresis loss and temperature is increased when a time varying external magnetic field is applied. Successful treatment depends on how efficiently the heat is controlled. Thus, it is very important to estimate the magnetic fluid density in the body. Experimental apparatus designed for testing, numerical analysis, and results obtained by experimentation using a simple yet novel and minimally invasive needle type spin-valve giant magnetoresistance (SV-GMR sensor, to estimate low concentration magnetic fluid weight density and detection of magnetic fluid in a reference medium is reported.

  20. Insulated Wire Fed Floating Monopole Antenna for Coastal Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. M. Loni

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available A thin, flexible, insulated wire submerged in seawater forms a coaxial cable which has attenuation at ultra-high frequency (UHF dependent on the operating frequency, the diameter of the insulating material and the diameter of the inner conductor. An extension of the insulated wire above the surface through a spherical float forms a monopole antenna. Attenuation through the wire depends on the conductivity and temperature of seawater. This paper reports the effect of electromagnetic (EM wave propagation at 433 MHz through insulated wires with different radii of the insulating material and inner conductor. The attenuation was calculated and measured in the range of 32-47 dB/m. The propagation from the monopole antenna to a fixed shore based receiver was measured to be approximately equal to 1 dB/m. The propagation measurements were compared with a shielded coaxial cable. Results show that the propagation range depends on the ratio of the insulation radius to conductor radius for insulated wire, however, a shielded coaxial cable showed no significant attenuation. The technique has applications in coastal wireless sensor networks where the water depth changes continually due to tide and wave motion.

  1. Gravitational properties of monopole spacetimes near the black hole threshold

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, Arthur; Weinberg, Erick J.

    2000-01-01

    Although nonsingular spacetimes and those containing black holes are qualitatively quite different, there are continuous families of configurations that connect the two. In this paper we use self-gravitating monopole solutions as tools for investigating the transition between these two types of spacetimes. We show how causally distinct regions emerge as the black hole limit is achieved, even though the measurements made by an external observer vary continuously. We find that near-critical solutions have a naturally defined entropy, despite the absence of a true horizon, and that this has a clear connection with the Hawking-Bekenstein entropy. We find that certain classes of near-critical solutions display naked black hole behavior, although they are not truly black holes at all. Finally, we present a numerical simulation illustrating how an incident pulse of matter can induce the dynamical collapse of a monopole into an extremal black hole. We discuss the implications of this process for the third law of black hole thermodynamics. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society

  2. Non-unique monopole oscillations of harmonically confined Yukawa systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ducatman, Samuel; Henning, Christian; Kaehlert, Hanno; Bonitz, Michael

    2008-11-01

    Recently it was shown that the Breathing Mode (BM), the mode of uniform radial expansion and contraction, which is well known from harmonically confined Coulomb systems [1], does not exist in general for other systems [2]. As a consequence the monopole oscillation (MO), the radial collective excitation, is not unique, but there are several MO with different frequencies. Within this work we show simulation results of those monopole oscillations of 2-dimensional harmonically confined Yukawa systems, which are known from, e.g., dusty plasma crystals [3,4]. We present the corresponding spectrum of the particle motion, including analysis of the frequencies found, and compare with theoretical investigations.[1] D.H.E. Dubin and J.P. Schiffer, Phys. Rev. E 53, 5249 (1996)[2] C. Henning at al., accepted for publication in Phys. Rev. Lett. (2008)[3] A. Melzer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 87, 115002 (2001)[4] M. Bonitz et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 96, 075001 (2006)

  3. Cosmic microwave background constraints for global strings and global monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lopez-Eiguren, Asier; Lizarraga, Joanes; Urrestilla, Jon; Hindmarsh, Mark

    2017-01-01

    We present the first cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra from numerical simulations of the global O( N ) linear σ-model, with N =2,3, which have global strings and monopoles as topological defects. In order to compute the CMB power spectra we compute the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the energy-momentum tensor, showing that they fall off at high wave number faster than naive estimates based on the geometry of the defects, indicating non-trivial (anti-)correlations between the defects and the surrounding Goldstone boson field. We obtain source functions for Einstein-Boltzmann solvers from the UETCs, using a recently developed method that improves the modelling at the radiation-matter transition. We show that the interpolation function that mimics the transition is similar to other defect models, but not identical, confirming the non-universality of the interpolation function. The CMB power spectra for global strings and global monopoles have the same overall shape as those obtained using the non-linear σ-model approximation, which is well captured by a large- N calculation. However, the amplitudes are larger than the large- N calculation would naively predict, and in the case of global strings much larger: a factor of 20 at the peak. Finally we compare the CMB power spectra with the latest CMB data in other to put limits on the allowed contribution to the temperature power spectrum at multipole l = 10 of 1.7% for global strings and 2.4% for global monopoles. These limits correspond to symmetry-breaking scales of 2.9× 10 15 GeV (6.3× 10 14 GeV with the expected logarithmic scaling of the effective string tension between the simulation time and decoupling) and 6.4× 10 15 GeV respectively. The bound on global strings is a significant one for the ultra-light axion scenario with axion masses m a ∼< 10 −28 eV . These upper limits indicate that gravitational waves from global topological defects will not be observable at the gravitational wave

  4. Cosmic microwave background constraints for global strings and global monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopez-Eiguren, Asier; Lizarraga, Joanes; Urrestilla, Jon [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080 Bilbao (Spain); Hindmarsh, Mark, E-mail: asier.lopez@ehu.eus, E-mail: joanes.lizarraga@ehu.eus, E-mail: m.b.hindmarsh@sussex.ac.uk, E-mail: jon.urrestilla@ehu.eus [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Sussex, Brighton, BN1 9QH (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-01

    We present the first cosmic microwave background (CMB) power spectra from numerical simulations of the global O( N ) linear σ-model, with N =2,3, which have global strings and monopoles as topological defects. In order to compute the CMB power spectra we compute the unequal time correlators (UETCs) of the energy-momentum tensor, showing that they fall off at high wave number faster than naive estimates based on the geometry of the defects, indicating non-trivial (anti-)correlations between the defects and the surrounding Goldstone boson field. We obtain source functions for Einstein-Boltzmann solvers from the UETCs, using a recently developed method that improves the modelling at the radiation-matter transition. We show that the interpolation function that mimics the transition is similar to other defect models, but not identical, confirming the non-universality of the interpolation function. The CMB power spectra for global strings and global monopoles have the same overall shape as those obtained using the non-linear σ-model approximation, which is well captured by a large- N calculation. However, the amplitudes are larger than the large- N calculation would naively predict, and in the case of global strings much larger: a factor of 20 at the peak. Finally we compare the CMB power spectra with the latest CMB data in other to put limits on the allowed contribution to the temperature power spectrum at multipole l = 10 of 1.7% for global strings and 2.4% for global monopoles. These limits correspond to symmetry-breaking scales of 2.9× 10{sup 15} GeV (6.3× 10{sup 14} GeV with the expected logarithmic scaling of the effective string tension between the simulation time and decoupling) and 6.4× 10{sup 15} GeV respectively. The bound on global strings is a significant one for the ultra-light axion scenario with axion masses m {sub a} ∼< 10{sup −28} eV . These upper limits indicate that gravitational waves from global topological defects will not be observable at

  5. Magnetic monopole plasma oscillations and the survival of Galactic magnetic fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parker, E.N.

    1987-01-01

    This paper explores the general nature of magnetic-monopole plasma oscillations as a theoretical possibility for the observed Galactic magnetic field in the presence of a high abundance of magnetic monopoles. The modification of the hydromagnetic induction equation by the monopole oscillations produces the half-velocity effect, in which the magnetic field is transported bodily with a velocity midway between the motion of the conducting fluid and the monopole plasma. Observational studies of the magnetic field in the Galaxy, and in other galaxies, exclude the half-velocity effect, indicating that the magnetic fields is not associated with monopole oscillations. In any case the phase mixing would destroy the oscillations in less than 100 Myr. The conclusion is that magnetic monopole oscillations do not play a significant role in the galactic magnetic fields. Hence the existence of galactic magnetic fields places a low limit on the monopole flux, so that their detection - if they exist at all - requires a collecting area at least as large as a football field. 47 references

  6. Monopole search below the Parker limit with the MACRO detector at Gran Sasso

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarle, G.

    1985-01-01

    The MACRO detector approved for the Gran Sasso Underground Laboratory in Italy will be the first capable of performing a definitive search for super-massive grand unified theory (GUT) monopoles at a level significantly below the Parker flux limit of 10 to the minus 15th power square centimeters Sr(-1) 5(-1). GUT monopoles will move at very low velocities (V approx. 0.001 c) relative to the Earth and a multifaceted detection technique is required to assume their unambiguous identification. Calculations of scintillator response to slow monopoles and measurements of scintillation efficiency for low energy protons have shown that bare monopoles and electrically charged monopoles moving at velocities as low as 5 x .0001 c will produce detectable scintillation signals. The time-of-flight between two thick (25 cm) liquid scintillation layers separated by 4.3m will be used in conjunction with waveform digitization of signals of extended duration in each thick scintillator to provide a redundant signature for slow penetrating particles. Limited streamer tubes filled with He and n-pentane will detect bare monopoles with velocities as low as 1 x 0.0001 c by exploiting monopole induced level mixing and the Penning effect.

  7. Future IBM-BNL large-area superconducting inductive monopole detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bermon, S.; Chi, C.C.; Tsuei, C.C.; Chaudhari, P.; Ketchen, M.; Tesche, C.D.; Prodell, A.

    1986-01-01

    The observation of massive moving magnetic monopoles would have extremely important implications for grand unification theories and cosmological models for the creation of the universe. Among detection methods, the superconducting induction technique is unique in that it directly and unambiguously measures the sole property of the monopole of which the authors are certain--its magnetic charge--the detector response being independent of all other characteristics such as the monopole mass, its velocity, the presence of a companion electric charge, or the detailed nature of its interaction with matter. Described herein are plans for constructing an induction detector sufficiently large to reach the Parker bound in several years of operation

  8. Acceptance analysis for a large area monopole experiment using nuclear track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hasegan, Monica; Popa, V.

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the acceptance of a horizontal plane of 1000 m 2 nuclear track detector for an anisotropic flux of GUT magnetic monopoles (MM) with m MM ∼ 10 16 GeV and g = g D , 2g D , 3g D , considering the monopole energy loss in Earth. It is estimated that a large area experiment for the search of GUT monopoles that uses such detectors and would operate a reasonable number of years could reach a sensitivity of the order of few 10 -17 cm -2 s -1 sr -1 . (authors)

  9. Electric monopole transitions from low energy excitations in nuclei

    CERN Document Server

    Wood, J L; De Coster, C; Heyde, Kris L G

    1999-01-01

    Electric monopole (E0) properties are studied across the entire nuclear mass surface. Besides an introductory discussion of various model results (shell model, geometric vibrational and rotational models, algebraic models), we point out that many of the largest E0 transition strengths, $\\rho^2$(E0), are associated with shape mixing. We discuss in detail the manifestation of E0 transitions and present extensive data for~: single-closed shell nuclei, vibrational nuclei, well-deformed nuclei, nuclei that exhibit sudden ground-state changes, and nuclei that exhibit shape coexistence and intruder states. We also give attention to light nuclei, odd-A nuclei, and illustrate a suggested relation between $\\rho^2$(E0) and isotopic shifts.

  10. In-the-Ear Spiral Monopole Antenna for Hearing Instruments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2014-01-01

    A novel in-the-ear (ITE) antenna solution for hearing instruments that operates at 2.45 GHz is presented. The antenna consists of a quarter wave monopole and a ground plane that are placed in the ear. The simulated path gain | S 21 |is − 86 dB and the measured path gain is − 80 dB. Simulations an...... and measurements show that the antenna covers the entire 2.40 – 2.48 GHz industrial, scientific and medical (ISM) band. It is the first ever ITE-antenna solution that demonstrates the possibility of establishing an ear-to-ear link by using a standard Bluetooth chip...

  11. The electric monopole transition: Nuclear structure, and nuclear spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zganiar, E.F.

    1992-01-01

    The electric monopole (E0) transition process provides unique information on the structure of nuclei. For example, δI=0 transitions between nuclear configurations of different shape have enhanced EO components. The authors have observed I π→Iπ (I=0) transitions in 185 Pt and 184 Pt which are pure E0. This is unprecedented. Further, they have initiated searches for the location of the superdeformed band in 192 Hg utilizing internal conversion spectroscopy and, for the first time, internal pair spectroscopy. Additionally, the lifetime of the 0 + 2 level in 188 Hg was measured with a newly developed picosecond lifetime system which utilized the 0 + 2 →0 + 1 E0 internal conversion transition as an energy gate and its associated atomic X-ray as a fast trigger. The role of the E0 internal conversion process in the study of nuclear structure and as a tool in nuclear spectroscopy are discussed

  12. Two-dimensional grating guided-mode resonance tunable filter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Wen-Kai; Hsu, Che-Jung

    2017-11-27

    A two-dimensional (2D) grating guided-mode resonance (GMR) tunable filter is experimentally demonstrated using a low-cost two-step nanoimprinting technology with a one-dimensional (1D) grating polydimethylsiloxane mold. For the first nanoimprinting, we precisely control the UV LED irradiation dosage and demold the device when the UV glue is partially cured and the 1D grating mold is then rotated by three different angles, 30°, 60°, and 90°, for the second nanoimprinting to obtain 2D grating structures with different crossing angles. A high-refractive-index film ZnO is then coated on the surface of the grating structure to form the GMR filter devices. The simulation and experimental results demonstrate that the passband central wavelength of the filter can be tuned by rotating the device to change azimuth angle of the incident light. We compare these three 2D GMR filters with differential crossing angles and find that the filter device with a crossing angle of 60° exhibits the best performance. The tunable range of its central wavelength is 668-742 nm when the azimuth angle varies from 30° to 90°.

  13. Monopole antenna in quantitative near-field microwave microscopy of planar structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reznik, Alexander N.; Korolyov, Sergey A.

    2016-01-01

    We have developed an analytical model of a near-field microwave microscope based on a coaxial resonator with a sharpened tip probe. The probe interacts with a layered sample that features an arbitrary depth distribution of permittivity. The microscopic tip end with the accumulated charge is regarded as a monopole antenna radiating an electric field in near zone. The impedance of such an antenna is determined within a quasi-static approximation. The proposed model is used for calculating the sample-sensitive parameters of the microscope, specifically, resonance frequency f_0 and quality factor Q_0, as a function of probe-sample distance h. The theory has been verified experimentally in studies of semiconductor structures, both bulk and thin films. For measurements, we built a ∼2.1 GHz microscope with an effective tip radius of about 100 μm. The theoretical and experimental dependences f_0(h) and Q_0(h) were found to be in a good agreement. The developed theory underlies the method for determining sheet resistance R_s_h of a semiconductor film on a dielectric substrate proposed in this article. Studies were performed on doped n-GaN films on an Al_2O_3 substrate. The effective radius and height of the probe determined from calibration measurements of etalon samples were used as the model fitting parameters. For etalon samples, we employed homogeneous sapphire and doped silicon plates. We also performed four-probe dc measurements of R_s_h. The corresponding values for samples with R_s_h > 1 kΩ were found to be 50% to 100% higher than the microwave results, which are attributed to the presence of microdefects in semiconductor films.

  14. Resonance – Journal of Science Education | Indian Academy of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 8; Issue 8. Dirac's Conception of the Magnetic Monopole, and its Modern Avatars. Sunil Mukhi. General Article Volume 8 Issue 8 August 2003 pp 17-26. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Surface and temperature effects in isovector giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipparini, E.; Stringari, S.

    1988-01-01

    Using the liquid droplet model (LDM) we investigate three different sum rules for the isovector dipole and monopole excitations. Analytical formulae are derived for the excitation energies of these resonances and the predictions are compared with experiments. The role of the surface and the effects of temperature are explicitly discussed. (orig.)

  16. A sum rule description of giant resonances at finite temperature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meyer, J.; Quentin, P.; Brack, M.

    1983-01-01

    A generalization of the sum rule approach to collective motion at finite temperature is presented. The m 1 and msub(-1) sum rules for the isovector dipole and the isoscalar monopole electric modes have been evaluated with the modified SkM force for the 208 Pb nucleus. The variation of the resulting giant resonance energies with temperature is discussed. (orig.)

  17. Wheatstone bridge-giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors based on Co/Cu multilayers for bio-detection applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antarnusa, G.; Elda Swastika, P.; Suharyadi, E.

    2018-04-01

    A Wheatstone bridge-giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor was successfully developed for a potential biomaterial detection. In order to achieve this, a giant magnetoresistive [Co(1.5nm/Cu(1.0nm)]20 multilayer structures have been fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering method, showing a magnetoresistance (MR) of 2.7%. The X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that Co/Cu film multilayer has a high degree of crystallinity with a single peak corresponding to face-centered cubic (111) structure at 2θ = 44.1°. Co/Cu multilayers exhibit a soft magnetic behavior with the saturation magnetization (Ms) of 1489 emu/cc and the coercivity (Hc) of 11.2 Oe. The magnetite Fe3O4 nanoparticles used as a bimolecular labels (nanotags) were synthesized via co-precipitation method, exhibiting a soft magnetic behavior with Ms of 77.16 emu/g and Hc of 49 Oe. XRD patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that Fe3O4 was well crystallized and it grew in their inverse spinel structure with an average size of around 10 nm. The GMR sensor design was used to detect a biomolecules of streptavidin magnetic particles with concentration 10, 20, 30, and 40 μl/ml and α-amylase enzyme with consentration 10, 20, 30, and 40 μl/ml captured using polyethylene glycol (PEG)/Fe3O4 nanoparticles. Various applied magnetic fields of 0-650 Gauss have been performed using electromagnetic with the various currents of 0-5 A. Here, the final value of the output voltage signals for the streptavidin magnetic particles concentration is 1.2 mV (10 μl/ml). The output voltage changes with the increase of concentration. It was reported that the output voltage signal of the Wheatstone bridge exhibits log-linear function in real time measurement of the concentration of streptavidin magnetic particles and α-amylase enzyme respectively, making the sensor suitable for use as a biomolecule concentration detector. Thus, the combination of Co/Cu multilayer, Wheatstone bridge, magnetite and PEG polymer

  18. Yang Monopoles and Emergent Three-Dimensional Topological Defects in Interacting Bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Yangqian; Zhou, Qi

    2018-06-01

    The Yang monopole as a zero-dimensional topological defect has been well established in multiple fields in physics. However, it remains an intriguing question to understand the interaction effects on Yang monopoles. Here, we show that the collective motion of many interacting bosons gives rise to exotic topological defects that are distinct from Yang monopoles seen by a single particle. Whereas interactions may distribute Yang monopoles in the parameter space or glue them to a single giant one of multiple charges, three-dimensional topological defects also arise from continuous manifolds of degenerate many-body eigenstates. Their projections in lower dimensions lead to knotted nodal lines and nodal rings. Our results suggest that ultracold bosonic atoms can be used to create emergent topological defects and directly measure topological invariants that are not easy to access in solids.

  19. The Yang monopole in IIA superstring: multi-charge disease and enhançon cure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belhaj, Adil; Diaz, Pablo; Segui, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    A brane picture in type IIA superstring for the Yang monopole is reconsidered. It makes use of D2 and D4-branes wrapped on cycles in the K3 surface. When the model was first presented, some problems concerning the charges of the monopoles arose. In this paper, they are shown to be cured by the model itself. Surprisingly, the incompatibility between the multi-charge configuration and the spherical symmetry of the Yang monopole is seen in the brane description as the emergence of the enhançon shell and the fuzzy geometry. This consistency is deep and surprising, and is the point that triggered this work. It nontrivially relates a purely geometrical problem in ordinary spacetime with the emergence of noncommutative geometries. Besides, this paper includes an extended model for SO(4)-monopoles and a T-dual model in type IIB superstring. (paper)

  20. Magnetic monopoles without string in the Kaehler-Clifford algebra: a geometrical interpretation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maia Junior, A.; Recami, E.; Rodrigues Junior, W.A.; Rosa, M.A.F.

    1989-01-01

    In substitution for Dirac monopoles with string (and for topological monopoles) we have recently introduced monopoles without string on the basis of a generalized potential, the sum of a vector A and a pseudo-vector sub(γ5)B potential. By making recourse to the Clifford bundle C (τ M,g) [ T sub(x) M,g) = IR sup(1,3); C (T sub(x) M,g) = IR sub(1,3)], which just allows adding together for each x ε M tensors of different ranks, in a previous paper we succeeded in constructing a lagrangian and hamiltonian formalism for interacting monopoles and charges that can be regarded as satisfactory from various points of view. In the present note, after having completed our formalism, we put forth a purely geometrical interpretation of it within the Kaehler-Clifford bundle K (τ sup(*) M

  1. Dirac strings and magnetic monopoles in the spin ice Dy2Ti2O7.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D J P; Tennant, D A; Grigera, S A; Klemke, B; Castelnovo, C; Moessner, R; Czternasty, C; Meissner, M; Rule, K C; Hoffmann, J-U; Kiefer, K; Gerischer, S; Slobinsky, D; Perry, R S

    2009-10-16

    Sources of magnetic fields-magnetic monopoles-have so far proven elusive as elementary particles. Condensed-matter physicists have recently proposed several scenarios of emergent quasiparticles resembling monopoles. A particularly simple proposition pertains to spin ice on the highly frustrated pyrochlore lattice. The spin-ice state is argued to be well described by networks of aligned dipoles resembling solenoidal tubes-classical, and observable, versions of a Dirac string. Where these tubes end, the resulting defects look like magnetic monopoles. We demonstrated, by diffuse neutron scattering, the presence of such strings in the spin ice dysprosium titanate (Dy2Ti2O7). This is achieved by applying a symmetry-breaking magnetic field with which we can manipulate the density and orientation of the strings. In turn, heat capacity is described by a gas of magnetic monopoles interacting via a magnetic Coulomb interaction.

  2. Integrality of the monopole number in SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theory on R3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groisser, D.

    1984-01-01

    We prove that in classical SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs theories on R 3 with a Higgs field in the adjoint representation, an integer-valued monopole number (magnetic charge) is canonically defined for any finite-action L 2 sub(1,loc) configuration. In particular the result is true for smooth configurations. The monopole number is shown to decompose the configuration space into path components. (orig.)

  3. SU(2) gauge theory in the maximally Abelian gauge without monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shmakov, S.Yu.; Zadorozhnyj, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    We present an algorithm for simulation of SU(2) lattice gauge theory under the maximally Abelian (MA) gauge and first numerical results for the theory without Abelian monopoles. The results support the idea that nonperturbative interaction arises between monopoles and residual Abelian field and the other interactions are perturbative. It is shown that the Gribov region for the theory with the MA gauge fixed is non-connected. 12 refs., 1 tab

  4. Charge exchange scattering of charged gauge bosons by 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cvetic, G.; Yan, T.M.

    1988-01-01

    We have studied the scattering of a low energy charged gauge boson by a 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole in a spontaneously broken (SU(2) gauge theory. It is found that a charge exchange scattering occurs in the sector of zero total angular momentum. The charge exchange scattering has a nonvanishing finite amplitude when the size of the monopole becomes very small. Implications of our results are discussed. (orig.)

  5. Stiefel-Skyrem-Higgs models, their classical static solutions and Yang-Mills-Higgs monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dobrev, V.K.

    1981-07-01

    A new series of models is introduced by adding Higgs fields to the earlier proposed euclidean four-dimensional Skyrme-like models with Yang-Mills composite fields constructed from Stiefel manifold-valued fields. The classical static versions of these models are discussed. The connection with the monopole solutions of the Yang-Mills-Higgs models in the Prasad-Sommerfield limit is pointed out and the BPS monopole is reobtained as an example. (author)

  6. Fractionally charged particles and one Dirac charge magnetic monopoles: Are they compatible?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.A. Rubakov

    1983-01-01

    Full Text Available The simultaneous existence of fractional electric charges and one Dirac charge magnetic monopoles implies the existence of a long-ranged force different from electromagnetism. This may be either unconfined colour or/and some new gauge interaction. In the latter case, ordinary matter could (and, if colour is unbroken, should carry new charge. This charge, however small the coupling constant be, could be experimentally observed in interactions of monopoles with matter. An experiment for checking this possibility is suggested.

  7. Isovector resonances in pion charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowman, J.D.

    1985-01-01

    The (π ± , π 0 ) reactions as probes of isovector resonances are discussed. Experimental observation of the isovector monopole resonance is reported. Experimental results are presented for L=0, 1, and 2 isovector resonances and are compared to random-phase approximation calculations. In the experiments 40 Ca, 60 Ni, 90 Zr, 120 Sn, 140 Ce, and 208 Pb, targets were bombarded with 165 MeV π ± beams. Neutral pions were detected and double differential cross sections were determined for angles between 0 and 33deg and for π 0 energies between 90, 180, and 230 MeV. (Auth.)

  8. Simulations of centriole of polarized centrosome as a monopole antenna in immune and viral synapses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dvorak, Josef; Melichar, Bohuslav; Filipova, Alzbeta; Grimova, Jana; Grimova, Nela; Rozsypalova, Aneta; Buka, David; Voboril, Rene; Zapletal, Radek; Buchler, Tomas; Richter, Igor; Buka, David

    2018-01-01

    The immune synapse (IS) is a temporary interface between an antigen-presenting cell and an effector lymphocyte. Viral synapse is a molecularly organized cellular junction that is structurally similar to the IS. Primary cilium is considered as a functional homologue of the IS due to the morphological and functional similarities in architecture between both micotubule structures. It has been hypothesized that endogenous electromagnetic field in the cell is generated by a unique cooperating system between mitochondria and microtubules. We are extending this prior hypothesis of the endogenous electromagnetic field in the cell postulating that polarized centriole in immune and viral synapse could serve as a monopole antenna. This is an addition to our hypothesis that primary cilium could serve as a monopole antenna. We simulated the distribution of electric field of centriole of polarized centrosome as a monopole antenna in immune and viral synapse. Very weak electromagnetic field of polarized centriole of CD8+ T lymphocyte in IS can contribute to the transport of cytolytic granules into the attacked (cancer) cell. Analogically, very weak electromagnetic field of polarized centriole in viral synapse of infected CD4 cells can aid the transport of viruses (human immunodeficiency virus) to non-infected CD4 cells. We hypothesized that healthy organisms need these monopole antennas. If, during the neoplastic transformation, healthy cells lose monopole antennas in form of primary cilia, the IS aims to replace them by monopole antennas of polarized centrioles in IS to restore homeostasis.

  9. Magnetic monopole plasma phase in (2+1)d compact quantum electrodynamics with fermionic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Armour, Wesley; Hands, Simon; Lucini, Biagio; Kogut, John B.; Strouthos, Costas; Vranas, Pavlos

    2011-01-01

    We present the first evidence from lattice simulations that the magnetic monopoles in three-dimensional compact quantum electrodynamics (cQED 3 ) with N f =2 and N f =4 four-component fermion flavors are in a plasma phase. The evidence is based mainly on the divergence of the monopole susceptibility (polarizability) with the lattice size at weak gauge couplings. A weak four-Fermi term added to the cQED 3 action enabled simulations with massless fermions. The exact chiral symmetry of the interaction terms forbids symmetry breaking lattice discretization counterterms to appear in the theory's effective action. It is also shown that the scenario of a monopole plasma does not depend on the strength of the four-Fermi coupling. Other observables such as the densities of isolated dipoles and monopoles and the so-called specific heat show that a crossover from a dense monopole plasma to a dilute monopole gas occurs at strong couplings. The implications of our results on the stability of U(1) spin liquids in two spatial dimensions are also discussed.

  10. Search in 8 TeV proton-proton collisions with the MoEDAL monopole-trapping test array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinfold, J.; Soluk, R.; Lacarrère, D.; Katre, A.; Mermod, P.; Bendtz, K.; Milstead, D.

    2014-06-01

    The magnetic monopole appears in theories of spontaneous gauge symmetry breaking and its existence would explain the quantisation of electric charge. MoEDAL is the latest approved LHC experiment, designed to search directly for monopoles produced in high-energy collisions. It has now taken data for the first time. The MoEDAL detectors are based on two complementary techniques: nuclear-track detectors are sensitive to the high-ionisation signature expected from a monopole, and the magnetic monopole trapper (MMT) relies on the stopping and trapping of monopoles inside an aluminium array which is then analysed with a superconducting magnetometer. The first results obtained with the MoEDAL MMT test array deployed in 2012 are presented. This experiment probes monopoles carrying a multiple of the fundamental unit magnetic charge for the first time at the LHC.

  11. Search for Dirac Magnetic Monopoles in $e^{+}e^{-}$ Collisions with the OPAL Detector at LEP2

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Anagnostou, G.; Anderson, K.J.; Asai, S.; Axen, D.; Bailey, I.; Barberio, E.; Barillari, T.; Barlow, R.J.; Batley, R.J.; Bechtle, P.; Behnke, T.; Bell, K.W.; Bell, P.J.; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Benelli, G.; Bethke, S.; Biebel, O.; Boeriu, O.; Bock, P.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Brown, R.M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Campana, S.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, D.G.; Ciocca, C.; Cozzi, M.; Csilling, A.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.M.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fleck, I.; Ford, M.; Frey, A.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Giunta, M.; Goldberg, J.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Gupta, A.; Hajdu, C.; Hamann, M.; Hanson, G.G.; Harel, A.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hill, J.C.; Horvath, D.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Ishii, K.; Jeremie, H.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanzaki, J.; Karlen, D.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kluth, S.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kramer, T.; Krasznahorkay Jr., A.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Lillich, J.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, A.; Ludwig, J.; Mader, W.; Marcellini, S.; Martin, A.J.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, P.; McKenna, J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Menges, W.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, N.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Mori, T.; Mutter, A.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Nanjo, H.; Neal, H.A.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oh, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pahl, C.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, D.E.; Pooth, O.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rabbertz, K.; Rembser, C.; Renkel, P.; Roney, J.M.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sarkisyan, E.K.G.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schorner-Sadenius, T.; Schroder, M.; Schumacher, M.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Sherwood, P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spano, F.; Stahl, A.; Strom, D.; Strohmer, R.; Tarem, S.; Tasevsky, M.; Teuscher, R.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Toya, D.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Ujvari, B.; Vollmer, C.F.; Vannerem, P.; Vertesi, R.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Vossebeld, J.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wolf, G.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zer-Zion, D.; Zivkovic, Lidija

    2008-01-01

    This letter describes a direct search for pair produced magnetic monopoles in e+e- collisions. The analysis is based on 62.7 pb^-1 of data collected with the OPAL detector at an average centre-of-mass energy of sqrt(s)= 206.3GeV. The monopole signal was assumed to be characterized by two back-to-back particles with an anomalously high ionization energy loss de/dx in the tracking chambers. No evidence for production of monopoles was observed. Upper limits were obtained on the magnetic monopole pair-production cross-section (sigma) in the mass range 45 GeV/c^2monopole mass. The cross-section limit is derived at the 95% confidence level and is valid for spin-1/2 magnetic monopoles.

  12. Magneto-optical effects induced in a magnetic-fluid layer by thermally released supermassive magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sofonea, V.; Vekas, L.; Hegedues, E.

    1993-01-01

    The number of photons in the optical pulse induced via magneto-optical effects by a thermally released (e.g., from old iron ores) supermassive magnetic monopole traversing a thin magnetic-fluid layer is evaluated on the basis of phenomenological models. In certain monopole search experiments, these effects could give a detectable signal of the order of tens of photons and thus it may serve as a basis for a new magnetic-monopole detection method. (orig.)

  13. Monopole conversion hidden by penetration effect in magnetic dipole transitions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bikit, I.; Anichin, I.; Marinkov, L.

    1977-01-01

    The 191 keV 197 Au nad 340 keV 233 U transitions are investigated and the effect of penetration into the M1-component is accounted for. Theoretical internal conversion coefficients (ICC) and electron parameters to account for the penetration effect have been obtained by interpolating the data of the Hager and Zeltzer tables. The ICC values and ratios are analyzed under the assumption that the 191 keV 197 Au transition has multipolarities M1 + E2 and E 0 +M1. A common overlapping occurs when the nuclear penetration parameter lambda for magnetic dipole transition is lambda = 34.2+-2.2. For the 340 keV 233 U transition the ICC has been found to equal αk=0.69+-0.07, and the relative conversion-line intensities have been determined. It is concluded that the 191 keV 197 Au nad 340 keV 233 U transitions involve an electric monopole component concealed by the penetration effect in the M1-conversion. The matrix elements of the E0-transition have been evaluated

  14. Cho decomposition of electrically charged one-half monopole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ng, Ban-Loong; Teh, Rosy; Wong, Khai-Ming [School of Physics, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 USM Penang (Malaysia)

    2014-03-05

    Recently we have carried out some work on the Cho decomposition of the electrically neutral, finite energy one-half monopole solution of the SU(2) Yang-Mills-Higgs field theory. In this paper, we performed the decomposition of the electrically charged solution using the same numerical procedure. The gauge potential of the one-half dyon solution is decomposed into Abelian and non-Abelian components. The semi-infinite string singularity in the gauge potential is a contribution of the Higgs field and hence topological in nature. The string singularity cannot be cancelled by the non-Abelian components of the gauge potential. However, the string singularity is integrable and the energy of the solution is finite. By decomposing the magnetic fields and covariant derivatives of the Higgs field into three isospin space directions, we are able to provide conclusive evidence that the constructed one-half dyon is certainly a non-BPS solution even in the limit of vanishing Higgs self-coupling constant and electric charge. Furthermore, we found that the time component of gauge function is parallel to the Higgs field in isospace only at large distances, elsewhere they are non-parallel.

  15. Phase Transition Couplings in the Higgsed Monopole Model

    CERN Document Server

    Laperashvili, L V

    1999-01-01

    Using a one-loop approximation for the effective potential in the Higgs model of electrodynamics for a charged scalar field, we argue for the existence of a triple point for the renormalized (running) values of the selfinteraction beta-function as a typical quantity we estimate that the one-loop approximation is valid with accuracy of deviations not more than 30% in the region of the parameters: $0.2 \\stackrel{<}{\\sim}{\\large \\alpha, \\tilde{\\alpha}} corresponds to the above-mentioned region of $\\alpha, \\tilde \\alpha$. Under the point of view that the Higgs particle is a monopole with a magnetic charge g, the obtained electric fine structure constant turns out to be to the $\\alpha_{crit}^{lat}\\approx{0.20}$ which in a U(1) lattice gauge theory corresponds to the phase transition between the "Coulomb" and confinement phases. Such a result is very encouraging for the idea of an approximate "universality" (regularization independence) of gauge couplings at the phase transition point. This idea was suggested by...

  16. Study of Electric Monopole Transitions in $^{76,78}$Kr

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    In the run at ISOLDE performed last August we completed the study of the decay properties of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $ ^{76, 78, 80}$Kr by measuring the lifetime of the $ 0 ^{+} _{2} $ level in $^{76}$Kr. This was done by applying the $\\beta \\gamma\\gamma$ (t) fast timing method to the $\\beta^{+} $-decay of $^{76}$Rb. For the first time the method was applied to proton-rich nuclei at ISOLDE. This required some special modifications of the experimental set-up previously used for the case of $\\beta^{-}$-decay due to the presence of intense annihilation radiation. The experiment has been successful and enough data have been collected for the determination of the lifetime. The analysis is in progress. From a very preliminary estimate it would appear that the lifetime value falls in the range 20-60 ps. Combining this value with the previously measured ratio \\[\\frac{B(E0; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 0^{+}_{1})}{B(E2; 0^{+}_{2} \\rightarrow 2^{+}_{1})}\\] It is possible to extract an estimate of the monopole transition...

  17. Dirac’s magnetic monopole and the Kontsevich star product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloviev, M. A.

    2018-03-01

    We examine relationships between various quantization schemes for an electrically charged particle in the field of a magnetic monopole. Quantization maps are defined in invariant geometrical terms, appropriate to the case of nontrivial topology, and are constructed for two operator representations. In the first setting, the quantum operators act on the Hilbert space of sections of a nontrivial complex line bundle associated with the Hopf bundle, whereas the second approach uses instead a quaternionic Hilbert module of sections of a trivial quaternionic line bundle. We show that these two quantizations are naturally related by a bundle morphism and, as a consequence, induce the same phase-space star product. We obtain explicit expressions for the integral kernels of star-products corresponding to various operator orderings and calculate their asymptotic expansions up to the third order in the Planck constant \\hbar . We also show that the differential form of the magnetic Weyl product corresponding to the symmetric ordering agrees completely with the Kontsevich formula for deformation quantization of Poisson structures and can be represented by Kontsevich’s graphs.

  18. Studying Room Acoustics using a Monopole-Dipole Microphone Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begault, Durand R.; Abel, Jonathan S.; Gills, Stephen R. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The use of a soundfield microphone for examining the directional nature of a room impulse response was reported recently. By cross-correlating monopole and co-located dipole microphone signals aligned with left-right, up-down, and front-back axes, a sense of signal direction of arrival is revealed. The current study is concerned with the array's ability to detect individual reflections and directions of arrival, as a function of the cross-correlation window duration. If is window is too long, weak reflections are overlooked; if too short, spurious detections result. Guidelines are presented for setting the window width according to perceptual criteria. Formulas are presented describing the accuracy with which direction of arrival can be estimated as a function of room specifics and measurement noise. The direction of arrival of early reflections is more accurately determined than that of later reflections which are quieter and more numerous. The transition from a fairly directional sound field at the beginning of the room impulse response to a uni-directional diffuse field is examined. Finally, it is shown that measurements from additional dipole orientations can significantly improve the ability to detect reflections and estimate their directions of arrival.

  19. Magnetic monopoles in 4D: a perturbative calculation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khvedelidze, Arsen [Department of Theoretical Physics, A.M.Razmadze Mathematical Institute, Tbilisi, GE-0193 (Georgia); McMullan, David [School of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth PL4 8AA (United Kingdom); Kovner, Alex [Physics Department, University of Connecticut, 2152 Hillside Road, Storrs, CT 06269-3046 (United States)

    2006-01-15

    We address the question of defining the second quantised monopole creation operator in the 3+1 dimensional Georgi-Glashow model, and calculating its expectation value in the confining phase. Our calculation is performed directly in the continuum theory within the framework of perturbation theory. We find that, although it is possible to define the 'coherent state' operator M(x) that creates the Coulomb magnetic field, the dependence of this operator on the Dirac string does not disappear even in the nonabelian theory. This is due to the presence of the charged fields (W{sup {+-}}). We also set up the calculation of the expectation value of this operator in the confining phase and show that it is not singular along the Dirac string. We find that in the leading order of the perturbation theory the VEV vanishes as a power of the volume of the system. This is in accordance with our naive expectation. We expect that nonperturbative effects will introduce an effective infrared cutoff on the calculation making the VEV finite.

  20. Optimization of Planar Monopole Wideband Antenna for Wireless Communication System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakib, Mohammed Nazmus; Moghavvemi, Mahmoud; Mahadi, Wan Nor Liza

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new compact wideband monopole antenna is presented for wireless communication applications. This antenna comprises of a new radiating patch, a new arc-shaped strip, microstrip feed line, and a notched ground plane. The proposed radiating patch is combined with a rectangular and semi-circular patch and is integrated with a partial ground plane to provide a wide impedance bandwidth. The new arc-shaped strip between the radiating patch and microstrip feed line creates an extra surface on the patch, which helps further widen the bandwidth. Inserting one step notch on the ground plane further enhances the bandwidth. The antenna has a compact size of 16×20×1.6mm3. The measured result indicated that the antenna achieves a 127% bandwidth at VSWR≤2, ranging from 4.9GHz to 22.1GHz. Stable radiation patterns with acceptable gain are achieved. Also, a measured bandwidth of 107.7% at VSWR≤1.5 (5.1-17GHz) is obtained, which is suitable for UWB outdoor propagation. This antenna is compatible with a good number of wireless standards, including UWB band, Wimax 5.4 GHz band, MVDDS (12.2-12.7GHz), and close range radar and satellite communication in the X-band (8-12GHz), and Ku band (12-18GHz).

  1. Magnetic monopoles in 4D: a perturbative calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khvedelidze, Arsen; McMullan, David; Kovner, Alex

    2006-01-01

    We address the question of defining the second quantised monopole creation operator in the 3+1 dimensional Georgi-Glashow model, and calculating its expectation value in the confining phase. Our calculation is performed directly in the continuum theory within the framework of perturbation theory. We find that, although it is possible to define the 'coherent state' operator M(x) that creates the Coulomb magnetic field, the dependence of this operator on the Dirac string does not disappear even in the nonabelian theory. This is due to the presence of the charged fields (W ± ). We also set up the calculation of the expectation value of this operator in the confining phase and show that it is not singular along the Dirac string. We find that in the leading order of the perturbation theory the VEV vanishes as a power of the volume of the system. This is in accordance with our naive expectation. We expect that nonperturbative effects will introduce an effective infrared cutoff on the calculation making the VEV finite

  2. Biomolecule detection using wheatstone bridge giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensors based on CoFeB spin-valve thin film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elda Swastika, P.; Antarnusa, G.; Suharyadi, E.; Kato, T.; Iwata, S.

    2018-04-01

    A potential wheatstone bridge giant magnetoresistance (GMR) biosensor have been successfully developed for biomolecule detection. [IrMn(10 nm)/CoFe(3 nm)/Cu(2.2 nm)/CoFeB(10 nm)] spin-valve structure has been chosen as the magnetic sensing surface, showing a magnetoresistance (MR) of 6% fabricated by DC magnetron sputtering method. The Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles used as biomolecular labels (nanotags) was synthesized by co-precipitation method, exhibiting soft magnetic behavior with saturation magnetization (Ms), remanent magnetization (Mr) and coercivity (Hc) is 77.2 emu/g, 7.8 emu/g and 51 Oe, respectively. The X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images showed that Fe3O4 was well crystallized and grew in their inverse spinel structure, highly uniform morphology with an average grain size was about 20 nm. Fe3O4 was coated with polyethylene-glycol (PEG)-4000 for surface functionalization. Detection of biomolecule such as formalin, gelatin from bovine-skin and porcine-skin were dispersed in ethanol at room temperature. Induction would cause a shift in output voltage with a minimum delta output voltage (ΔV) 4.937 mV (10%) for formalin detection, 2.268 mV (7%) for bovine-skin gelatin and 2.943 mV (7%) for porcine-skin gelatin detection. The ΔV of the wheatstone bridge in real-time measurement decrease by increase in biomolecules concentration. The change of ΔV with various concentration of biomolecule indicates that the spin-valve thin film with wheatstone-bridge circuit is potential as a biosensor.

  3. Ultra-wide detectable concentration range of GMR biosensors using Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jie [College of Physics, Key Laboratory of Photonics Materials and Technology in Universities of Shandong, and Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); School of Chemical Science and Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Li, Qiang [College of Physics, Key Laboratory of Photonics Materials and Technology in Universities of Shandong, and Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zong, Weihua [Shandong Provincial Key Laboratory of Industrial Control Technology, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, Yongcheng [College of Physics, Key Laboratory of Photonics Materials and Technology in Universities of Shandong, and Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Li, Shandong, E-mail: lishd@qdu.edu.cn [College of Physics, Key Laboratory of Photonics Materials and Technology in Universities of Shandong, and Laboratory of Fiber Materials and Modern Textile, the Growing Base for State Key Laboratory, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); National Laboratory of Solid State Microstructures, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2016-11-01

    Exchange-biased GMR sensors were employed for biodetection using a DC in-plane measuring method and a magnetic label of Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} microspheres. It was revealed that an ultra-wide concentration span covering five orders from 10 ng/mL to 1000 μg/mL was achieved in a home-made biodetection device. The concentration x dependence of output voltage difference |ΔV| between with and without magnetic labels, exhibits nonlinear futures, which undergoes two functions depending on the concentration region. For the low concentration region from 10 ng/mL to 10 μg/mL, a logarithmic relation of |ΔV|=26.3lgx+91.4 fits well, while for the high concentration region, a negative exponential function of |ΔV|=3113(1−e{sup −x/250}) describes the |ΔV|~x relation better. For the former, the “coffee ring” effect, formed during the solvent evaporation, was considered as the main reason for the nonlinear relation. While for the latter with high concentration, the overlap among the particles and the enhanced interaction of the magnetic dipole were responsible for the nonlinear |ΔV|~x relationship. Moreover, the calculated detectable concentration limit is agreed well with the experimental data. - Highlights: • Ultra-wide concentration span covering five orders from 0.01 to 1000 μg/mL. • A logarithmic function well describes the relation of |ΔV|~x at low concentration. • An exponential function well describes the relation of |ΔV|~x at high concentration.

  4. Eddy Current Testing with Giant Magnetoresistance (GMR) Sensors and a Pipe-Encircling Excitation for Evaluation of Corrosion under Insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, Joseph; Long, Nicholas; Hunze, Arvid

    2017-09-28

    This work investigates an eddy current-based non-destructive testing (NDT) method to characterize corrosion of pipes under thermal insulation, one of the leading failure mechanisms for insulated pipe infrastructure. Artificial defects were machined into the pipe surface to simulate the effect of corrosion wall loss. We show that by using a giant magnetoresistance (GMR) sensor array and a high current (300 A), single sinusoidal low frequency (5-200 Hz) pipe-encircling excitation scheme it is possible to quantify wall loss defects without removing the insulation or weather shield. An analysis of the magnetic field distribution and induced currents was undertaken using the finite element method (FEM) and analytical calculations. Simple algorithms to remove spurious measured field variations not associated with defects were developed and applied. The influence of an aluminium weather shield with discontinuities and dents was ascertained and found to be small for excitation frequency values below 40 Hz. The signal dependence on the defect dimensions was analysed in detail. The excitation frequency at which the maximum field amplitude change occurred increased linearly with the depth of the defect by about 3 Hz/mm defect depth. The change in magnetic field amplitude due to defects for sensors aligned in the azimuthal and radial directions were measured and found to be linearly dependent on the defect volume between 4400-30,800 mm³ with 1.2 × 10 -3 -1.6 × 10 -3 µT/mm³. The results show that our approach is well suited for measuring wall loss defects similar to the defects from corrosion under insulation.

  5. Plasma constraints on the cosmological abundance of magnetic monopoles and the origin of cosmic magnetic fields

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medvedev, Mikhail V.; Loeb, Abraham, E-mail: mmedvedev@cfa.harvard.edu, E-mail: aloeb@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Astronomy, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2017-06-01

    Existing theoretical and observational constraints on the abundance of magnetic monopoles are limited. Here we demonstrate that an ensemble of monopoles forms a plasma whose properties are well determined and whose collective effects place new tight constraints on the cosmological abundance of monopoles. In particular, the existence of micro-Gauss magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and radio relics implies that the scales of these structures are below the Debye screening length, thus setting an upper limit on the cosmological density parameter of monopoles, Ω {sub M} {sub ∼<} {sub 3} {sub ×} {sub 10}{sup −4}, which precludes them from being the dark matter. Future detection of Gpc-scale coherent magnetic fields could improve this limit by a few orders of magnitude. In addition, we predict the existence of magnetic Langmuir waves and turbulence which may appear on the sky as ''zebra patterns'' of an alternating magnetic field with k·B ≠ 0. We also show that magnetic monopole Langmuir turbulence excited near the accretion shock of galaxy clusters may be an efficient mechanism for generating the observed intracluster magnetic fields.

  6. Monopole abundance in the Solar System and the intrinsic heat in the Jovian planets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arafune, J.; Fukugita, M.; Yanagita, S.

    1985-01-01

    The intrinsic-heat generation has long been known in the Jovian planets. The current view ascribes its origin to the gradual release of primordial heat produced at the birth of these planets. This scenario, however, fails to explain coherently the magnitude of the excess heat in each planet, other than Jupiter, and must invoke some additional sources. We point out the possibility that this heat, or at least a part of it, could be attributed to proton decay which is catalyzed by grand-unified magnetic monopoles (Rubakov effect) captured in the planets. The monopole flux required for this is of order approx.1 x 10 -23 cm -2 sr -1 sec -1 , which is smaller than the limit on the cosmic monopole flux so far obtained. We also show that if the monopole flux is of this order the monopole captured in the Sun gives rise to the neutrino flux ( approx. =35 MeV) which should be detectable in the underground experiment searching for nucleon decays currently in progress

  7. Gauge invariance of color confinement due to the dual Meissner effect caused by Abelian monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Tsuneo; Hasegawa, Masayasu; Ishiguro, Katsuya; Koma, Yoshiaki; Sekido, Toru

    2009-01-01

    The mechanism of non-Abelian color confinement is studied in SU(2) lattice gauge theory in terms of the Abelian fields and monopoles extracted from non-Abelian link variables without adopting gauge fixing. First, the static quark-antiquark potential and force are computed with the Abelian and monopole Polyakov loop correlators, and the resulting string tensions are found to be identical to the non-Abelian string tension. These potentials also show the scaling behavior with respect to the change of lattice spacing. Second, the profile of the color-electric field between a quark and an antiquark is investigated with the Abelian and monopole Wilson loops. The color-electric field is squeezed into a flux tube due to monopole supercurrent with the same Abelian color direction. The parameters corresponding to the penetration and coherence lengths show the scaling behavior, and the ratio of these lengths, i.e., the Ginzburg-Landau parameter, indicates that the vacuum type is near the border of the type 1 and type 2 (dual) superconductors. These results are summarized in which the Abelian fundamental charge defined in an arbitrary color direction is confined inside a hadronic state by the dual Meissner effect. As the color-neutral state in any Abelian color direction corresponds to the physical color-singlet state, this effect explains non-Abelian color confinement and supports the existence of a gauge-invariant mechanism of color confinement due to the dual Meissner effect caused by Abelian monopoles.

  8. Plasma Constraints on the Cosmological Abundance of Magnetic Monopoles and the Origin of Cosmic Magnetic Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvedev, Mikhail; Loeb, Abraham

    2017-10-01

    Existing theoretical and observational constraints on the abundance of magnetic monopoles are limited. Here we demonstrate that an ensemble of monopoles forms a plasma whose properties are well determined and whose collective effects place new tight constraints on the cosmological abundance of monopoles. In particular, the existence of micro-Gauss magnetic fields in galaxy clusters and radio relics implies that the scales of these structures are below the Debye screening length, thus setting an upper limit on the cosmological density parameter of monopoles, ΩM <= 3 ×10-4 , which precludes them from being the dark matter. Future detection of Gpc-scale coherent magnetic fields could improve this limit by a few orders of magnitude. In addition, we predict the existence of magnetic Langmuir waves and turbulence which may appear on the sky as ``zebra patterns'' of an alternating magnetic field with k . B ≠ 0 . We also show that magnetic monopole Langmuir turbulence excited near the accretion shock of galaxy clusters may be an efficient mechanism for generating the observed intracluster magnetic fields. The authors acknowledge DOE partial support via Grant DE-SC0016368.

  9. Evidence for the Confinement of Magnetic Monopoles in Quantum Spin Ice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarte, Paul Maximo; Aczel, Adam; Ehlers, Georg; Stock, Christopher; Gaulin, Bruce D; Mauws, Cole; Stone, Matthew B; Calder, Stuart; Nagler, Stephen; Hollett, Joshua; Zhou, Haidong; Gardner, Jason S; Attfield, J Paul; Wiebe, Christopher R

    2017-09-25

    Magnetic monopoles are hypothesised elementary particles connected by Dirac strings that behave like infinitely thin solenoids [Dirac 1931 Proc. Roy. Soc. A 133 60]. Despite decades of searches, free magnetic monopoles and their Dirac strings have eluded experimental detection, although there is substantial evidence for deconfined magnetic monopole quasiparticles in spin ice materials [Castelnovo, Moessner & Sondhi 2008 Nature 326 411]. Here we report the detection of a hierarchy of unequally-spaced magnetic excitations via high resolution inelastic neutron spectroscopic measurements on the quantum spin ice candidate Pr2Sn2O7. These excitations are well-described by a simple model of monopole pairs bound by a linear potential [Coldea et al. Science 327 177] with an effective tension of 0.7(1) K/Angstrom. The success of the linear potential model suggests that these low energy magnetic excitations are direct spectroscopic evidence for the confinement of magnetic monopole quasiparticles in the quantum spin ice candidate Pr2Sn2O7. © 2017 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  10. Strong guided mode resonant local field enhanced visible harmonic generation in an azo-polymer resonant waveguide grating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Jian Hung; Tseng, Chun-Yen; Lee, Ching-Ting; Young, Jeff F; Kan, Hung-Chih; Hsu, Chia Chen

    2014-02-10

    Guided mode resonance (GMR) enhanced second- and third-harmonic generation (SHG and THG) is demonstrated in an azo-polymer resonant waveguide grating (RWG), comprised of a poled azo-polymer layer on top of a textured SU8 substrate with a thin intervening layer of TiO2. Strong SHG and THG outputs are observed by matching either in-coming fundamental- or out-going harmonic-wavelength to the GMR wavelengths of the azo-polymer RWG. Without the azo-polymer coating, pure TiO2 RWGs, do not generate any detectable SHG using a fundamental beam peak intensity of 2 MW/cm(2). Without the textured TiO2 layer, a planar poled azo-polymer layer results in 3650 times less SHG than the full nonlinear RWG structure under identical excitation conditions. Rigorous coupled-wave analysis calculations confirm that this enhancement of the nonlinear conversion is due to strong local electric fields that are generated at the interfaces of the TiO2 and azo-polymer layers when the RWG is excited at resonant wavelengths associated with both SHG and THG conversion processes.

  11. A combined analysis technique for the search for fast magnetic monopoles with the MACRO detector

    CERN Document Server

    Ambrosio, M; Auriemma, G; Bakari, D; Baldini, A; Barbarino, G C; Barish, B C; Battistoni, G; Becherini, Y; Bellotti, R; Bemporad, C; Bernardini, P; Bilokon, H; Bloise, C; Bower, C; Brigida, M; Bussino, S; Cafagna, F; Calicchio, M; Campana, D; Carboni, M; Caruso, R; Cecchini, S; Cei, F; Chiarella, V; Choudhary, B C; Coutu, S; De Cataldo, G; Dekhissi, H; De Marzo, C; De Mitri, I; Derkaoui, J E; De Vincenzi, M; Di Credico, A; Erriquez, O; Favuzzi, C; Forti, C; Fusco, P; Giacomelli, G; Giannini, G; Giglietto, N; Giorgini, M; Grassi, M; Grillo, A; Guarino, F; Gustavino, C; Habig, A; Heinz, R; Iarocci, E; Katsavounidis, E; Katsavounidis, I; Kearns, E; Kim, H; Kyriazopoulou, S; Lamanna, E; Lane, C; Levin, D S; Lipari, P; Longley, N P; Longo, M J; Loparco, F; Maaroufi, F; Mancarella, G; Mandrioli, G; Manzoor, S; Margiotta, A; Marini, A; Martello, D; Marzari-Chiesa, A; Mazziotta, M N; Michael, D G; Monacelli, P; Montaruli, T; Monteno, M; Mufson, S L; Musser, J; Nicolò, D; Nolty, R; Orth, C; Osteria, G; Palamara, O; Patera, V; Patrizii, L; Pazzi, R; Peck, C W; Perrone, L; Petrera, S; Popa, V; Reynoldson, J; Ronga, F; Rrhioua, A; Satriano, C; Scapparone, E; Scholberg, K; Sciubba, A; Serra, P; Sioli, M; Sirri, G; Sitta, M; Spinelli, P; Spinetti, M; Spurio, M; Steinberg, R; Stone, J L; Sulak, L R; Surdo, A; Tarle, G; Togo, V; Vakili, M; Walter, C W; Webb, R

    2002-01-01

    We describe a search method for fast moving ( beta = v/c > 5 * 10/sup -3/) magnetic monopoles using simultaneously the scintillator, streamer tube and track-etch subdetectors of the MACRO apparatus. The first two subdetectors are used primarily for the identification of candidates while the track-etch one is used as the final tool for their rejection or confirmation. Using this technique, a first sample of more than two years of data has been analyzed without any evidence of a magnetic monopole. We set a 90% CL upper limit to the local monopole flux of 1.5 * 10/sup -15/ cm/sup -2/s/sup -1/sr/sup -1/ in the velocity range 5 * 10/sup -3/

  12. Monopoles, vortices, domain walls and D-branes: The rules of interaction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sakai, Norisuke; Tong, David

    2005-01-01

    Non-abelian gauge theories in the Higgs phase admit a startling variety of BPS solitons. These include domain walls, vortex strings, confined monopoles threaded on vortex strings, vortex strings ending on domain walls, monopoles threaded on strings ending on domain walls, and more. After presenting a self-contained review of these objects, including several new results on the dynamics of domain walls, we go on to examine the possible interactions of solitons of various types. We point out the existence of a classical binding energy when the string ends on the domain wall which can be thought of as a BPS boojum with negative mass. We present an index theorem for domain walls in non-abelian gauge theories. We also answer questions such as: Which strings can end on which walls? What happens when monopoles pass through domain walls? What happens when domain walls pass through each other? (author)

  13. Magnetic monopole search with the MoEDAL test trapping detector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katre Akshay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available IMoEDAL is designed to search for monopoles produced in high-energy Large Hadron Collider (LHC collisions, based on two complementary techniques: nucleartrack detectors for high-ionisation signatures and other highly ionising avatars of new physics, and trapping volumes for direct magnetic charge measurements with a superconducting magnetometer. The MoEDAL test trapping detector array deployed in 2012, consisting of over 600 aluminium samples, was analysed and found to be consistent with zero trapped magnetic charge. Stopping acceptances are obtained from a simulation of monopole propagation in matter for a range of charges and masses, allowing to set modelindependent and model-dependent limits on monopole production cross sections. Multiples of the fundamental Dirac magnetic charge are probed for the first time at the LHC.

  14. Magnetic monopole search with the MoEDAL test trapping detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katre, Akshay

    2016-11-01

    IMoEDAL is designed to search for monopoles produced in high-energy Large Hadron Collider (LHC) collisions, based on two complementary techniques: nucleartrack detectors for high-ionisation signatures and other highly ionising avatars of new physics, and trapping volumes for direct magnetic charge measurements with a superconducting magnetometer. The MoEDAL test trapping detector array deployed in 2012, consisting of over 600 aluminium samples, was analysed and found to be consistent with zero trapped magnetic charge. Stopping acceptances are obtained from a simulation of monopole propagation in matter for a range of charges and masses, allowing to set modelindependent and model-dependent limits on monopole production cross sections. Multiples of the fundamental Dirac magnetic charge are probed for the first time at the LHC.

  15. New topological structures of Skyrme theory: baryon number and monopole number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Y.M. [Chinese Academy of Science, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China); Konkuk University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Seoul National University, School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kimm, Kyoungtae [Seoul National University, Faculty of Liberal Education, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, J.H. [Konkuk University, Department of Physics, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Pengming [Chinese Academy of Science, Institute of Modern Physics, Lanzhou (China)

    2017-02-15

    Based on the observation that the skyrmion in Skyrme theory can be viewed as a dressed monopole, we show that the skyrmions have two independent topology, the baryon topology π{sub 3}(S{sup 3}) and the monopole topology π{sub 2}(S{sup 2}). With this we propose to classify the skyrmions by two topological numbers (m, n), the monopole number m and the shell (radial) number n. In this scheme the popular (non spherically symmetric) skyrmions are classified as the (m, 1) skyrmions but the spherically symmetric skyrmions are classified as the (1, n) skyrmions, and the baryon number B is given by B = mn. Moreover, we show that the vacuum of the Skyrme theory has the structure of the vacuum of the Sine-Gordon theory and QCD combined together, which can also be classified by two topological numbers (p, q). This puts the Skyrme theory in a totally new perspective. (orig.)

  16. Confinement of monopole field lines in a superconductor at T ≠ 0

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso, Marco; Bicudo, Pedro; Sacramento, Pedro D.

    2008-01-01

    We apply the Bogoliubov-de Gennes equations to the confinement of a monopole-antimonopole pair in a superconductor. This is related to the problem of a quark-antiquark pair bound by a confining string, consisting of a colour-electric flux tube, dual to the magnetic vortex of type-II superconductors. We study the confinement of the field lines due to the superconducting state and calculate the effective potential between the two monopoles. The monopoles can be simulated in a real experiment inserting two long and thin magnetic rods. At short distances the potential is Coulombic and at large distances the potential is linear, as previously determined solving the Ginzburg-Landau equations. The magnetic field lines and the string tension are also studied as a function of the temperature T. Because we take into account the explicit fermionic degrees of freedom, this work may open new perspectives to the breaking of chiral symmetry or to colour superconductivity

  17. The deflection angle of a gravitational source with a global monopole in the strong field limit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng Hongbo; Man Jingyun

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the gravitational lensing effect in the strong field background around the Schwarzschild black hole with extremely small mass and solid deficit angle subject to the global monopole by means of the strong field limit issue. We obtain the angular position and magnification of the relativistic images and show that they relate to the global monopole parameter η. We discuss that with the increase of the parameter η, the minimum impact parameter u m and angular separation s increase and the relative magnification r decreases. We also find that s grows extremely as the increasing parameter η becomes large enough. The deflection angle will become larger when the parameter η grows. The effect from the solid deficit angle is the dependence of angular position, angular separation, relative magnification and deflection angle on the parameter η, which may offer a way to characterize some possible distinct signatures of the Schwarzschild black hole with a solid deficit angle associated with the global monopole.

  18. Search for super-heavy GUT magnetic monopoles in cosmic rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shepko, M.J.

    1986-05-01

    A search for superheavy grand unified (GUT) magnetic monopoles has been performed utilizing a large (260m 2 sr) array of scintillation counters, sited underground at a depth of 1200 m.w.e. This apparatus measures both the time of flight and specific ionization of particles passing through it and has a trigger which is sensitive to prompt as well as very slowly developing pulses from the detector. No monopole events have been observed during 280 days of live time operation of this detector. An upper limit on the flux of monopoles of 4.6 x 10 -14 cm -2 sr -1 s -1 is obtained in the velocity range 8.5 x 10 -4 c to 0.012c at a 90% confidence level. 50 refs., 47 figs., 16 tabs

  19. The fragmentation instability of a black hole with f( R) global monopole under GUP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lingshen; Cheng, Hongbo

    2018-03-01

    Having studied the fragmentation of the black holes containing f( R) global monopole under the generalized uncertainty principle (GUP), we show the influences from this kind of monopole, f( R) theory, and GUP on the evolution of black holes. We focus on the possibility that the black hole breaks into two parts by means of the second law of thermodynamics. We derive the entropies of the initial black hole and the broken parts while the generalization of Heisenberg's uncertainty principle is introduced. We find that the f( R) global monopole black hole keeps stable instead of splitting without the generalization because the entropy difference is negative. The fragmentation of the black hole will happen if the black hole entropies are limited by the GUP and the considerable deviation from the general relativity leads to the case that the mass of one fragmented black hole is smaller and the other one's mass is larger.

  20. Direct search for Dirac magnetic monopoles in pp collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abulencia, A; Acosta, D; Adelman, J; Affolder, T; Akimoto, T; Albrow, M G; Ambrose, D; Amerio, S; Amidei, D; Anastassov, A; Anikeev, K; Annovi, A; Antos, J; Aoki, M; Apollinari, G; Arguin, J-F; Arisawa, T; Artikov, A; Ashmanskas, W; Attal, A; Azfar, F; Azzi-Bacchetta, P; Azzurri, P; Bacchetta, N; Bachacou, H; Badgett, W; Barbaro-Galtieri, A; Barnes, V E; Barnett, B A; Baroiant, S; Bartsch, V; Bauer, G; Bedeschi, F; Behari, S; Belforte, S; Bellettini, G; Bellinger, J; Belloni, A; Ben-Haim, E; Benjamin, D; Beretvas, A; Beringer, J; Berry, T; Bhatti, A; Binkley, M; Bisello, D; Bishai, M; Blair, R E; Blocker, C; Bloom, K; Blumenfeld, B; Bocci, A; Bodek, A; Boisvert, V; Bolla, G; Bolshov, A; Bortoletto, D; Boudreau, J; Bourov, S; Boveia, A; Brau, B; Bromberg, C; Brubaker, E; Budagov, J; Budd, H S; Budd, S; Burkett, K; Busetto, G; Bussey, P; Byrum, K L; Cabrera, S; Campanelli, M; Campbell, M; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Carlsmith, D; Carosi, R; Carron, S; Carter, A; Casarsa, M; Castro, A; Catastini, P; Cauz, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Chang, S H; Chapman, J; Chen, Y C; Chertok, M; Chiarelli, G; Chlachidze, G; Chlebana, F; Cho, I; Cho, K; Chokheli, D; Chou, J P; Chu, P H; Chuang, S H; Chung, K; Chung, W H; Chung, Y S; Ciljak, M; Ciobanu, C I; Ciocci, M A; Clark, A; Clark, D; Coca, M; Connolly, A; Convery, M E; Conway, J; Cooper, B; Copic, K; Cordelli, M; Cortiana, G; Cruz, A; Cuevas, J; Culbertson, R; Cyr, D; DaRonco, S; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; Dagenhart, D; de Barbaro, P; De Cecco, S; Deisher, A; De Lentdecker, G; Dell'Orso, M; Demers, S; Demortier, L; Deng, J; Deninno, M; De Pedis, D; Derwent, P F; Dionisi, C; Dittmann, J; DiTuro, P; Dörr, C; Dominguez, A; Donati, S; Donega, M; Dong, P; Donini, J; Dorigo, T; Dube, S; Ebina, K; Efron, J; Ehlers, J; Erbacher, R; Errede, D; Errede, S; Eusebi, R; Fang, H C; Farrington, S; Fedorko, I; Fedorko, W T; Feild, R G; Feindt, M; Fernandez, J P; Field, R; Flanagan, G; Flores-Castillo, L R; Foland, A; Forrester, S; Foster, G W; Franklin, M; Freeman, J C; Fujii, Y; Furic, I; Gajjar, A; Gallinaro, M; Galyardt, J; Garcia, J E; Garcia Sciverez, M; Garfinkel, A F; Gay, C; Gerberich, H; Gerchtein, E; Gerdes, D; Giagu, S; Giannetti, P; Gibson, A; Gibson, K; Ginsburg, C; Giolo, K; Giordani, M; Giunta, M; Giurgiu, G; Glagolev, V; Glenzinski, D; Gold, M; Goldschmidt, N; Goldstein, J; Gomez, G; Gomez-Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; González, O; Gorelov, I; Goshaw, A T; Gotra, Y; Goulianos, K; Gresele, A; Griffiths, M; Grinstein, S; Grosso-Pilcher, C; Grundler, U; da Costa, J Guimaraes; Haber, C; Hahn, S R; Hahn, K; Halkiadakis, E; Hamilton, A; Han, B-Y; Handler, R; Happacher, F; Hara, K; Hare, M; Harper, S; Harr, R F; Harris, R M; Hatakeyama, K; Hauser, J; Hays, C; Hayward, H; Heijboer, A; Heinemann, B; Heinrich, J; Hennecke, M; Herndon, M; Heuser, J; Hidas, D; Hill, C S; Hirschbuehl, D; Hocker, A; Holloway, A; Hou, S; Houlden, M; Hsu, S-C; Huffman, B T; Hughes, R E; Huston, J; Ikado, K; Incandela, J; Introzzi, G; Iori, M; Ishizawa, Y; Ivanov, A; Iyutin, B; James, E; Jang, D; Jayatilaka, B; Jeans, D; Jensen, H; Jeon, E J; Jones, M; Joo, K K; Jun, S Y; Junk, T R; Kamon, T; Kang, J; Karagoz-Unel, M; Karchin, P E; Kato, Y; Kemp, Y; Kephart, R; Kerzel, U; Khotilovich, V; Kilminster, B; Kim, D H; Kim, H S; Kim, J E; Kim, M J; Kim, M S; Kim, S B; Kim, S H; Kim, Y K; Kirby, M; Kirsch, L; Klimenko, S; Klute, M; Knuteson, B; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, H; Kondo, K; Kong, D J; Konigsberg, J; Kordas, K; Korytov, A; Kotwal, A V; Kovalev, A; Kraus, J; Kravchenko, I; Kreps, M; Kreymer, A; Kroll, J; Krumnack, N; Kruse, M; Krutelyov, V; Kuhlmann, S E; Kusakabe, Y; Kwang, S; Laasanen, A T; Lai, S; Lami, S; Lammel, S; Lancaster, M; Lander, R L; Lannon, K; Lath, A; Latino, G; Lazzizzera, I; Lecci, C; LeCompte, T; Lee, J; Lee, J; Lee, S W; Lefèvre, R; Leonardo, N; Leone, S; Levy, S; Lewis, J D; Li, K; Lin, C; Lin, C S; Lindgren, M; Lipeles, E; Liss, T M; Lister, A; Litvintsev, D O; Liu, T; Liu, Y; Lockyer, N S; Loginov, A; Loreti, M; Loverre, P; Lu, R-S; Lucchesi, D; Lujan, P; Lukens, P; Lungu, G; Lyons, L; Lys, J; Lysak, R; Lytken, E; Mack, P; MacQueen, D; Madrak, R; Maeshima, K; Maksimovic, P; Manca, G; Margaroli, F; Marginean, R; Marino, C; Martin, A; Martin, M; Martin, V; Martínez, M; Maruyama, T; Matsunaga, H; Mattson, M E; Mazini, R; Mazzanti, P; McFarland, K S; McGivern, D; McIntyre, P; McNamara, P; McNulty, R; Mehta, A; Menzemer, S; Menzione, A; Merkel, P; Mesropian, C; Messina, A; von der Mey, M; Miao, T; Miladinovic, N; Miles, J; Miller, R; Miller, J S; Mills, C; Milnik, M; Miquel, R; Miscetti, S; Mitselmakher, G; Miyamoto, A; Moggi, N; Mohr, B; Moore, R; Morello, M; Fernandez, P Movilla; Mülmenstädt, J; Mukherjee, A; Mulhearn, M; Muller, Th; Mumford, R; Murat, P; Nachtman, J; Nahn, S; Nakano, I; Napier, A; Naumov, D; Necula, V; Neu, C; Neubauer, M S; Nielsen, J; Nigmanov, T; Nodulman, L; Norniella, O; Ogawa, T; Oh, S H; Oh, Y D; Okusawa, T; Oldeman, R; Orava, R; Osterberg, K; Pagliarone, C; Palencia, E; Paoletti, R; Papadimitriou, V; Papikonomou, A; Paramonov, A A; Parks, B; Pashapour, S; Patrick, J; Pauletta, G; Paulini, M; Paus, C; Pellett, D E; Penzo, A; Phillips, T J; Piacentino, G; Piedra, J; Pitts, K; Plager, C; Pondrom, L; Pope, G; Portell, X; Poukhov, O; Pounder, N; Prakoshyn, F; Pronko, A; Proudfoot, J; Ptohos, F; Punzi, G; Pursley, J; Rademacker, J; Rahaman, A; Rakitin, A; Rappoccio, S; Ratnikov, F; Reisert, B; Rekovic, V; van Remortel, N; Renton, P; Rescigno, M; Richter, S; Rimondi, F; Rinnert, K; Ristori, L; Robertson, W J; Robson, A; Rodrigo, T; Rogers, E; Rolli, S; Roser, R; Rossi, M; Rossin, R; Rott, C; Ruiz, A; Russ, J; Rusu, V; Ryan, D; Saarikko, H; Sabik, S; Safonov, A; Sakumoto, W K; Salamanna, G; Salto, O; Saltzberg, D; Sanchez, C; Santi, L; Sarkar, S; Sato, K; Savard, P; Savoy-Navarro, A; Scheidle, T; Schieferdecker, P; Schlabach, P; Schmidt, E E; Schmidt, M P; Schmitt, M; Schwarz, T; Scodellaro, L; Scott, A L; Scribano, A; Scuri, F; Sedov, A; Seidel, S; Seiya, Y; Semenov, A; Semeria, F; Sexton-Kennedy, L; Sfiligoi, I; Shapiro, M D; Shears, T; Shepard, P F; Sherman, D; Shimojima, M; Shochet, M; Shon, Y; Shreyber, I; Sidoti, A; Sill, A; Sinervo, P; Sisakyan, A; Sjolin, J; Skiba, A; Slaughter, A J; Sliwa, K; Smirnov, D; Smith, J R; Snider, F D; Snihur, R; Soderberg, M; Soha, A; Somalwar, S; Sorin, V; Spalding, J; Spinella, F; Squillacioti, P; Stanitzki, M; Staveris-Polykalas, A; St Dennis, R; Stelzer, B; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stentz, D; Strologas, J; Stuart, D; Suh, J S; Sukhanov, A; Sumorok, K; Sun, H; Suzuki, T; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Takashima, R; Takeuchi, Y; Takikawa, K; Tanaka, M; Tanaka, R; Tecchio, M; Teng, P K; Terashi, K; Tether, S; Thom, J; Thompson, A S; Thomson, E; Tipton, P; Tiwari, V; Tkaczyk, S; Toback, D; Tollefson, K; Tomura, T; Tonelli, D; Tönnesmann, M; Torre, S; Torretta, D; Tourneur, S; Trischuk, W; Tsuchiya, R; Tsuno, S; Turini, N; Ukegawa, F; Unverhau, T; Uozumi, S; Usynin, D; Vacavant, L; Vaiciulis, A; Vallecorsa, S; Varganov, A; Vataga, E; Velev, G; Veramendi, G; Veszpremi, V; Vickey, T; Vidal, R; Vila, I; Vilar, R; Vollrath, I; Volobouev, I; Würthwein, F; Wagner, P; Wagner, R G; Wagner, R L; Wagner, W; Wallny, R; Walter, T; Wan, Z; Wang, M J; Wang, S M; Warburton, A; Ward, B; Waschke, S; Waters, D; Watts, T; Weber, M; Wester, W C; Whitehouse, B; Whiteson, D; Wicklund, A B; Wicklund, E; Williams, H H; Wilson, P; Winer, B L; Wittich, P; Wolbers, S; Wolfe, C; Worm, S; Wright, T; Wu, X; Wynne, S M; Yagil, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamaoka, J; Yamashita, Y; Yang, C; Yang, U K; Yao, W M; Yeh, G P; Yoh, J; Yorita, K; Yoshida, T; Yu, I; Yu, S S; Yun, J C; Zanello, L; Zanetti, A; Zaw, I; Zetti, F; Zhang, X; Zhou, J; Zucchelli, S

    2006-05-26

    We search for pair-produced Dirac magnetic monopoles in 35.7 pb(-1) of proton-antiproton collisions at square root s = 1.96 TeV with the Collider Detector at Fermilab (CDF). We find no monopole candidates corresponding to a 95% confidence-level cross-section limit sigma 360 GeV/c2.

  1. Search for non-relativistic magnetic monopoles with IceCube

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Whelan, B.J. [University of Adelaide, School of Chemistry and Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Abbasi, R.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; Baker, M.; BenZvi, S.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Eisch, J.; Fadiran, O.; Feintzeig, J.; Gladstone, L.; Halzen, F.; Hoshina, K.; Jacobsen, J.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kopper, C.; Krasberg, M.; Kurahashi, N.; Landsman, H.; Maruyama, R.; McNally, F.; Merck, M.; Morse, R.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J.P.; Santander, M.; Tobin, M.N.; Toscano, S.; Van Santen, J.; Weaver, C.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics and Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, Madison, WI (United States); Ackermann, M.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Berghaus, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bretz, H.P.; Cruz Silva, A.H.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Jacobi, E.; Kaminsky, B.; Karg, T.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Schoenwald, A.; Shanidze, R.; Spiering, C.; Stoessl, A.; Yanez, J.P. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J.; Brown, A.M.; Hickford, S.; Macias, O. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Private Bag 4800, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Vallecorsa, S. [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique nucleaire et corpusculaire, Geneva (Switzerland); Altmann, D.; Classen, L.; Gora, D.; Kappes, A.; Tselengidou, M. [Friedrich-Alexander-Universitaet Erlangen-Nuernberg, Erlangen Centre for Astroparticle Physics, Erlangen (Germany); Arlen, T.C.; De Andre, J.P.A.M.; DeYoung, T.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Groh, J.C.; Huang, F.; Quinnan, M.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stanisha, N.A.; Tesic, G. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Blumenthal, J.; Gretskov, P.; Haack, C.; Hallen, P.; Heinen, D.; Jagielski, K.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Leuermann, M.; Paul, L.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Schoenen, S.; Schukraft, A.; Vehring, M.; Wallraff, M.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Zierke, S. [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen (Germany); Bai, X.; Evenson, P.A.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gonzalez, J.G.; Hussain, S.; Kuwabara, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Tamburro, A.; Tilav, S. [University of Delaware, Bartol Research Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, Newark, DE (United States); Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States); Baum, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Koepke, L.; Kroll, G.; Luenemann, J.; Sander, H.G.; Schatto, K.; Wiebe, K. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Beatty, J.J. [Ohio State University, Department of Physics and Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Columbus, OH (United States); Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, Columbus, OH (United States); Becker Tjus, J.; Eichmann, B.; Fedynitch, A.; Saba, S.M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Unger, E. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik and Astronomie, Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Helbing, K.; Hoffmann, R.; Klaes, J.; Kopper, S.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke, A.; Omairat, A.; Posselt, J.; Soldin, D.; Tepe, A. [University of Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Wuppertal (Germany); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Christy, B.; Goodman, J.A.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Meagher, K.; Olivas, A.; Redl, P.; Richman, M.; Schmidt, T.; Sullivan, G.W.; Wissing, H. [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Gross, A.; Leute, J.; Resconi, E.; Schulz, O.; Sestayo, Y. [T.U. Munich, Garching (Germany); Besson, D.Z. [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Ha, C.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boersma, D.J.; Botner, O.; Euler, S.; Hallgren, A.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Stroem, R.; Taavola, H. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Box 516, Uppsala (Sweden); Bohm, C.; Danninger, M.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M. [Stockholm University, Oskar Klein Centre and Department of Physics, Stockholm (Sweden); Bose, D.; Rott, C. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Physics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2014-07-15

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a large Cherenkov detector instrumenting 1 km{sup 3} of Antarctic ice. The detector can be used to search for signatures of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we describe the search for non-relativistic, magnetic monopoles as remnants of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) era shortly after the Big Bang. Depending on the underlying gauge group these monopoles may catalyze the decay of nucleons via the Rubakov-Callan effect with a cross section suggested to be in the range of 10{sup -27} to 10{sup -21} cm{sup 2}. In IceCube, the Cherenkov light from nucleon decays along the monopole trajectory would produce a characteristic hit pattern. This paper presents the results of an analysis of first data taken from May 2011 until May 2012 with a dedicated slow particle trigger for DeepCore, a subdetector of IceCube. A second analysis provides better sensitivity for the brightest non-relativistic monopoles using data taken from May 2009 until May 2010. In both analyses no monopole signal was observed. For catalysis cross sections of 10{sup -22} (10{sup -24}) cm{sup 2} the flux of non-relativistic GUT monopoles is constrained up to a level of Φ{sub 90} ≤ 10{sup -18} (10{sup -17}) cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} sr{sup -1} at a 90 % confidence level, which is three orders of magnitude below the Parker bound. The limits assume a dominant decay of the proton into a positron and a neutral pion. These results improve the current best experimental limits by one to two orders of magnitude, for a wide range of assumed speeds and catalysis cross sections. (orig.)

  2. Search for non-relativistic magnetic monopoles with IceCube

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Whelan, B.J.; Abbasi, R.; Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; Baker, M.; BenZvi, S.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Eisch, J.; Fadiran, O.; Feintzeig, J.; Gladstone, L.; Halzen, F.; Hoshina, K.; Jacobsen, J.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kopper, C.; Krasberg, M.; Kurahashi, N.; Landsman, H.; Maruyama, R.; McNally, F.; Merck, M.; Morse, R.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J.P.; Santander, M.; Tobin, M.N.; Toscano, S.; Van Santen, J.; Weaver, C.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N.; Ackermann, M.; Benabderrahmane, M.L.; Berghaus, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bretz, H.P.; Cruz Silva, A.H.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Jacobi, E.; Kaminsky, B.; Karg, T.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Schoenwald, A.; Shanidze, R.; Spiering, C.; Stoessl, A.; Yanez, J.P.; Adams, J.; Brown, A.M.; Hickford, S.; Macias, O.; Aguilar, J.A.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Vallecorsa, S.; Altmann, D.; Classen, L.; Gora, D.; Kappes, A.; Tselengidou, M.; Arlen, T.C.; De Andre, J.P.A.M.; DeYoung, T.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Groh, J.C.; Huang, F.; Quinnan, M.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stanisha, N.A.; Tesic, G.; Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Blumenthal, J.; Gretskov, P.; Haack, C.; Hallen, P.; Heinen, D.; Jagielski, K.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Leuermann, M.; Paul, L.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Schoenen, S.; Schukraft, A.; Vehring, M.; Wallraff, M.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Zierke, S.; Bai, X.; Evenson, P.A.; Gaisser, T.K.; Gonzalez, J.G.; Hussain, S.; Kuwabara, T.; Ruzybayev, B.; Seckel, D.; Stanev, T.; Tamburro, A.; Tilav, S.; Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G.; Baum, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Koepke, L.; Kroll, G.; Luenemann, J.; Sander, H.G.; Schatto, K.; Wiebe, K.; Bay, R.; Filimonov, K.; Price, P.B.; Woschnagg, K.; Beatty, J.J.; Becker Tjus, J.; Eichmann, B.; Fedynitch, A.; Saba, S.M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Unger, E.; Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Helbing, K.; Hoffmann, R.; Klaes, J.; Kopper, S.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke, A.; Omairat, A.; Posselt, J.; Soldin, D.; Tepe, A.; Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Christy, B.; Goodman, J.A.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Meagher, K.; Olivas, A.; Redl, P.; Richman, M.; Schmidt, T.; Sullivan, G.W.; Wissing, H.; Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Gross, A.; Leute, J.; Resconi, E.; Schulz, O.; Sestayo, Y.; Besson, D.Z.; Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Ha, C.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S.; Boersma, D.J.; Botner, O.; Euler, S.; Hallgren, A.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Stroem, R.; Taavola, H.; Bohm, C.; Danninger, M.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M.; Bose, D.; Rott, C.

    2014-01-01

    The IceCube Neutrino Observatory is a large Cherenkov detector instrumenting 1 km 3 of Antarctic ice. The detector can be used to search for signatures of particle physics beyond the Standard Model. Here, we describe the search for non-relativistic, magnetic monopoles as remnants of the Grand Unified Theory (GUT) era shortly after the Big Bang. Depending on the underlying gauge group these monopoles may catalyze the decay of nucleons via the Rubakov-Callan effect with a cross section suggested to be in the range of 10 -27 to 10 -21 cm 2 . In IceCube, the Cherenkov light from nucleon decays along the monopole trajectory would produce a characteristic hit pattern. This paper presents the results of an analysis of first data taken from May 2011 until May 2012 with a dedicated slow particle trigger for DeepCore, a subdetector of IceCube. A second analysis provides better sensitivity for the brightest non-relativistic monopoles using data taken from May 2009 until May 2010. In both analyses no monopole signal was observed. For catalysis cross sections of 10 -22 (10 -24 ) cm 2 the flux of non-relativistic GUT monopoles is constrained up to a level of Φ 90 ≤ 10 -18 (10 -17 ) cm -2 s -1 sr -1 at a 90 % confidence level, which is three orders of magnitude below the Parker bound. The limits assume a dominant decay of the proton into a positron and a neutral pion. These results improve the current best experimental limits by one to two orders of magnitude, for a wide range of assumed speeds and catalysis cross sections. (orig.)

  3. Monopoles and chiral symmetry breaking in compact and noncompact QED3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fiebig, H.R.

    1990-11-01

    A comparison of the compact and the noncompact lattice action for 2+1 dimensional QED is made. In particular, the chiral order parameter and the monopole density ρ m are computed as functions of β for N f = 0.2 fermion flavours. The results reveal a strong correlation between and ρ m . Moreover, this correlation is identical for the compact and noncompact theories. This is interpreted as evidence that monopole condensation drives chiral symmetry breaking in lattice QED 3 . (Author) (6 refs., 5 figs.)

  4. On the structure of generalized monopole solutions in gauge-theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horvath, Z.; Palla, L.

    1976-01-01

    A method is presented for constructing generalized 't Hooft monopole solutions in a gauge theory with an arbitrary gauge group. Restrictions arising from the condition of finite energy are derived. The radial oscillation of the solution is discussed. Using this method all the SU(3) solutions known in the literature are reproduced. Finite energy monopoles possessing magnetic charge in the range g 0 0 0 are found in SU(N) gauge theories. Different charge quantization conditions are analyzed to understand the structure of the solutions. (Auth.)

  5. Body-Worn Spiral Monopole Antenna for On-Body Communications (Invited Paper)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel body-worn spiral monopole antenna is presented. The antenna consists of a ground plane and a spiral monopole. The antenna was designed for Ear-to-Ear (E2E) communication between In-the-Ear (ITE) hearing instruments at 2.45 GHz and has been simulated, prototyped, and measured. The antenna ...... yielded a measured and simulated E2E path gain at 2.45 GHz of –82.1 dB and –85.9 dB, respectively. The radiation pattern of the antenna when mounted in the ear is presented and discussed....

  6. Avoiding the secondary magnetic monopole problem in the inflation theories: The 75 of SU(5)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, C.W.; Kim, J.E.; Kim, J.S.

    1985-01-01

    A class of inflation models suffer from the secondary monopole problem which cannot be diluted by inflation. Using the Coleman-Weinberg potential for the 75-dimensional representation of SU(5), we suggest a group theoretical way to avoid the problem. It is shown that the vacuum, when released from the origin, starts to evolve and roll down along the Sp(4) . U(1) direction. It is noticed that the 75 provides an option for the vacuum to roll down to the SU(3) . SU(2) . U(1) vacuum without causing the secondary cosmological monopole problem. (orig.)

  7. Phase structure, magnetic monopoles and vortices in the lattice Abelian Higgs model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranft, J.; Kripfganz, J.; Ranft, G.

    1982-04-01

    We present Monte Carlo calculations of lattice Abelian Higgs models in 4 dimensions and with charges of the Higgs particles equal to q = 1, 2 and 6. The phase transitions are studied in the plane of the two coupling constants considering separately average plaquette and average link expectation values. The density of topological excitations is studied. In the confinement phase we find finite densities of magnetic monopole currents, electric currents and vortex currents. The magnetic monopole currents vanish exponentially in the Coulomb phase. The density of electric currents and vortex currents is finite in the Coulomb phase and vanishes exponentially in the Higgs phase. (author)

  8. MONOPONUCLEOSIS: the wonderful things that monopoles can do to nuclei if they are there

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1983-12-01

    In this talk we consider the wonderful things that monopoles can do to nuclei by examining nuclear physics in strong magnetic fields. We have seen that monopoles can bind nuclei. We shall investigate the following other possible processes: (1) mixing of singlet and triplet states of deuteron-like positornium; (2) production of a new kind of nuclear matter with nucleon moments oriented in the field; (3) catalysis of nuclear fission; (4) catalysis of nuclear fusion (with implications for solar neutrinos); and (5) enhancement of forbidden decays like triplet positronium, e.g., fission products

  9. On the motion of a charged particle in the field of a magnetic monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bollini, C.G.; Ferreira, P.L.

    1977-01-01

    A quantum mechanical treatment of the motion of a charged particle in the field of fixed magnetic monopole is given based on a representation of the corresponding vector potential. The results are closely similar to those obtained in the work of T.S. Wu and C.N. Yang which stems from ideas borrowed from the mathematical fiber bundle theory. Although the present paper deals with the non-relativistic problems, it is clear that the extension to the case of a Pauli or Dirac particle can be easily done using the spinor monopole harmonics [pt

  10. Non-Abelian monopole in the parameter space of point-like interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohya, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We study non-Abelian geometric phase in N=2 supersymmetric quantum mechanics for a free particle on a circle with two point-like interactions at antipodal points. We show that non-Abelian Berry’s connection is that of SU(2) magnetic monopole discovered by Moody, Shapere and Wilczek in the context of adiabatic decoupling limit of diatomic molecule. - Highlights: • Supersymmetric quantum mechanics is an ideal playground for studying geometric phase. • We determine the parameter space of supersymmetric point-like interactions. • Berry’s connection is given by a Wu–Yang-like magnetic monopole in SU(2) Yang–Mills

  11. Iron filled carbon nanotubes as novel monopole-like sensors for quantitative magnetic force microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolny, F; Muehl, T; Weissker, U; Lipert, K; Schumann, J; Leonhardt, A; Buechner, B, E-mail: f.wolny@ifw-dresden.de, E-mail: t.muehl@ifw-dresden.de [Leibniz Institute for Solid State and Materials Research (IFW) Dresden, Helmholtzstrasse 20, 01069 Dresden (Germany)

    2010-10-29

    We present a novel ultrahigh stability sensor for quantitative magnetic force microscopy (MFM) based on an iron filled carbon nanotube. In contrast to the complex magnetic structure of conventional MFM probes, this sensor constitutes a nanomagnet with defined properties. The long iron nanowire can be regarded as an extended dipole of which only the monopole close to the sample surface is involved in the imaging process. We demonstrate its potential for high resolution imaging. Moreover, we present an easy routine to determine its monopole moment and prove that this calibration, unlike other approaches, is universally applicable. For the first time this enables straightforward quantitative MFM measurements.

  12. Monopole and topological electron dynamics in adiabatic spintronic and graphene systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tan, S.G.; Jalil, M.B.A.; Fujita, T.

    2010-01-01

    A unified theoretical treatment is presented to describe the physics of electron dynamics in semiconductor and graphene systems. Electron spin's fast alignment with the Zeeman magnetic field (physical or effective) is treated as a form of adiabatic spin evolution which necessarily generates a monopole in magnetic space. One could transform this monopole into the physical and intuitive topological magnetic fields in the useful momentum (K) or real spaces (R). The physics of electron dynamics related to spin Hall, torque, oscillations and other technologically useful spinor effects can be inferred from the topological magnetic fields in spintronic, graphene and other SU(2) systems.

  13. Converting a Monopole Emission into a Dipole Using a Subwavelength Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xu-Dong; Zhu, Yi-Fan; Liang, Bin; Cheng, Jian-chun; Zhang, Likun

    2018-03-01

    High-efficiency emission of multipoles is unachievable by a source much smaller than the wavelength, preventing compact acoustic devices for generating directional sound beams. Here, we present a primary scheme towards solving this problem by numerically and experimentally enclosing a monopole sound source in a structure with a dimension of around 1 /10 sound wavelength to emit a dipolar field. The radiated sound power is found to be more than twice that of a bare dipole. Our study of efficient emission of directional low-frequency sound from a monopole source in a subwavelength space may have applications such as focused ultrasound for imaging, directional underwater sound beams, miniaturized sonar, etc.

  14. Classical Monopoles: Newton, NUT-space, gravomagnetic lensing and atomic spectra

    OpenAIRE

    Lynden-Bell, Donald; Nouri-Zonoz, Mohammad

    1996-01-01

    Stimulated by a scholium in Newton's Principia we find some beautiful results in classical mechanics which can be interpreted in terms of the orbits in the field of a mass endowed with a gravomagnetic monopole. All the orbits lie on cones! When the cones are slit open and flattened the orbits are exactly the ellipses and hyperbolae that one would have obtained without the gravomagnetic monopole. The beauty and simplicity of these results has led us to explore the similar problems in Atomic Ph...

  15. Monoponucleosis: the wonderful things that monopoles can do to nuclei if they are there

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipkin, H.J.

    1983-01-01

    In this talk we consider the wonderful things that monopoles can do to nuclei by examining nuclear physics in strong magnetic fields. We have seen that monopoles can bind nuclei. We shall investigate the following other possible processes: (1) mixing of singlet and triplet states of deuteron-like positronium; (2) production of a new kind of nuclear matter with nucleon moments oriented in the field; (3) catalysis of nuclear fission; (4) catalysis of nuclear fusion (with implications for solar neutrinos); and (5) enhancement of forbidden decays like triplet positronium, e.g. fission products

  16. The 't Hooft-Polyakov monopole in the presence of a 't Hooft operator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cherkis, Sergey A.; Durcan, Brian

    2009-01-01

    We present explicit BPS field configurations representing one non-Abelian monopole with one minimal weight 't Hooft operator insertion. We explore the SO(3) and SU(2) gauge groups. In the case of SU(2) gauge group the minimal 't Hooft operator can be completely screened by the monopole. If the gauge group is SO(3), however, such screening is impossible. In the latter case we observe a different effect of the gauge symmetry enhancement in the vicinity of the 't Hooft operator

  17. DIFFUSIVE-Magnetoresistance(DMR) Proton(PMR)/Hydrogen-ion WATER: PRE-``Fert''/``Grunberg'' GMR[and CMR]: Quo-Vadis ``Honesty''???: PLAGIARISM!!!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fart, Albart; Gruntbug, Peter; Siegel, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Proton/Hydrogen-ion Diffusive-Magnetoresistance(DMR) of Siegel[APS March-Mtgs.(70s)] based upon Siegel[Int'l. Conf. Mag.-Alloys and Oxides("ICMAO"), The Technion(77); J. Mag. Mag. Mtls. 7, 312(78)] FIRST experimental-discovery of GMR and FIRST theoretical prediction of CMR[ibid. 7, 338 (78)], facilitates NEW water production in global-warming exacerbated dry arid/semi-arid regions: Only HYDROGEN is/can be "FLYING-WATER"!!! (aka "chemical-rain-in-pipelines"). EMET/TRUTH-in-the-``SEANCES'', would-be "Sciences": C. Perelman-Corredoira [Against the Tide(07)] featuring Martin-Bradshaw ["Healing the SHAME That BINDS You"(80s)] systemic sociological-dysfunctionality(S-D), and Grigory Perelman's HEROIC ETHICS (refusal of both pure-maths Poincare-conjecture proof 2007 Fields-medal and 2010 Clay-Institute so-called/media-hyped/P.Red/spin-doctored millennium-prize million-dollar would-be award, militates as well in the current "SEANCE" of physics/maths politics/media-hype/P.R /spin-doctoring VS. Siegel FIRST experimental GMR a never-acknowledged full decade PRE-"Fert"(88) /"Grunberg(89)" ``Phales-GroPE''/Thompson-CSF/ KFZ-JEWlich 2007 physics Wolf/Japan/Nobel-prizes!!!

  18. Semi-analytical approach for guided mode resonance in high-index-contrast photonic crystal slab: TE polarization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yi; Peng, Chao; Li, Zhengbin

    2013-09-09

    In high-contrast (HC) photonic crystals (PC) slabs, the high-order coupling is so intense that it is indispensable for analyzing the guided mode resonance (GMR) effect. In this paper, a semi-analytical approach is proposed for analyzing GMR in HC PC slabs with TE-like polarization. The intense high-order coupling is included by using a convergent recursive procedure. The reflection of radiative waves at high-index-contrast interfaces is also considered by adopting a strict Green's function for multi-layer structures. Modal properties of interest like band structure, radiation constant, field profile are calculated, agreeing well with numerical finite-difference time-domain simulations. This analysis is promising for the design and optimization of various HC PC devices.

  19. Evaluation of characteristics of some giant multipole resonances within a many-particle approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steshenko, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Within a microscopic approach including the many-particle basis of longitudinal-vibration functions (Sp 2 (2,R))-basis) the widths and energies of some gigantic isoscalar monopole and quadrupole resonances in light magic and near-magic nuclei have been calculated. The theoretical results are in agreement with the available experimental data

  20. Killing-Yano tensors and generalized supersymmetries in black hole and monopole geometries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.W. van.

    1994-01-01

    New kinds of supersymmetry arise in supersymmetric σ-models describing the motion of spinning point-particles in classical backgrounds, for example black-holes, or the dynamics of monopoles. Their geometric origin is the existence of Killing-Yano tensors. The relation between these concepts is explained and examples are given. (orig.)

  1. Five-dimensional Monopole Equation with Hedge-Hog Ansatz and Abel's Differential Equation

    OpenAIRE

    Kihara, Hironobu

    2008-01-01

    We review the generalized monopole in the five-dimensional Euclidean space. A numerical solution with the Hedge-Hog ansatz is studied. The Bogomol'nyi equation becomes a second order autonomous non-linear differential equation. The equation can be translated into the Abel's differential equation of the second kind and is an algebraic differential equation.

  2. Infinity subtraction in a quantum field theory of charges and monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panagiotakopoulos, C.

    1982-03-01

    Subtraction of ultraviolet infinities in Zwanziger's local quantum field theory of charges and monopoles is described. It involves an infinite number of graphs. The whole programme rests on the assumption that the infinite summations involved do not give rise to pathological situations and the Ward identities are satisfied even after the string cancellations. The resulting finite theory is Lorentz invariant. (author)

  3. Monopolization Through Acquisitions in Multimarket Oligopolies (Replaced by CentER DP 2011-112)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that, under Cournot competition, monopolization through acquisitions is more likely to occur in industries where firms serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. Under segmented markets, within a

  4. Monopolization Through Acquisitions in Multimarket Oligopolies (Replaced by TILEC DP 2011-047)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ray Chaudhuri, A.

    2010-01-01

    This paper shows that, under Cournot competition, monopolization through acquisitions is more likely to occur in industries where firms serve multiple segmented markets rather than a single integrated market, given that cost functions are strictly convex. Under segmented markets, within a

  5. Mixing angle theta and magnetic monopole in Weinberg's unified gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hsu, J.P.

    1975-01-01

    Gauge symmetry admits a local unit isovector and leads to the magnetic monopoles in Weinberg's unified theory. One predicts sin 2 theta = 1 / 2 for the mixing angle theta on the basis of Dirac's condition for charge quantization. This interesting result should be tested experimentally

  6. Trapped surfaces in monopole-like Cauchy data of Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Malec, E.; Koc, P.

    1989-08-01

    We choose the nonabelian monopole solution of Bogomolny, Prasad and Sommerfield as a part of Cauchy data for the evolution of Einstein-Yang-Mills-Higgs equations. Momentarily static spherically symmetric data for gravitational fields are obtained numerically via the Lichnerowicz equation. In the case of generic scaling of fields we have found initial data with trapped surfaces. (author). 13 refs

  7. Complex magnetic monopoles, geometric phases and quantum evolution in the vicinity of diabolic and exceptional points

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nesterov, Alexander I; Aceves de la Cruz, F

    2008-01-01

    We consider the geometric phase and quantum tunneling in the vicinity of diabolic and exceptional points. We show that the geometric phase associated with the degeneracy points is defined by the flux of complex magnetic monopoles. In the limit of weak coupling, the leading contribution to the real part of the geometric phase is given by the flux of the Dirac monopole plus a quadrupole term, and the expansion of the imaginary part starts with a dipole-like field. For a two-level system governed by a generic non-Hermitian Hamiltonian, we derive a formula to compute the non-adiabatic, complex, geometric phase by integrating over the complex Bloch sphere. We apply our results to study a dissipative two-level system driven by a periodic electromagnetic field and show that, in the vicinity of the exceptional point, the complex geometric phase behaves like a step-function. Studying the tunneling process near and at the exceptional point, we find two different regimes: coherent and incoherent. The coherent regime is characterized by Rabi oscillations, with a one-sheeted hyperbolic monopole emerging in this region of the parameters. The two-sheeted hyperbolic monopole is associated with the incoherent regime. We show that the dissipation results in a series of pulses in the complex geometric phase which disappear when the dissipation dies out. Such a strong coupling effect of the environment is beyond the conventional adiabatic treatment of the Berry phase

  8. A direct search for stable magnetic monopoles produced in positron proton collisions at HERA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Aktas, A.; Andreev, V.; Anthonis, T.; Cvach, Jaroslav; Herynek, Ivan; Reimer, Petr; Sedlák, Kamil; Zálešák, Jaroslav

    2005-01-01

    Roč. 41, - (2005), s. 133-144 ISSN 1434-6044 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : HI experiment * ep scattering * magnetic monopoles Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics Impact factor: 3.209, year: 2005

  9. Lie symmetries for the electric charge-magnetic monopole interaction problem

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moreira, I.C.; Ritter, O.M.; Santos, F.C.

    1985-01-01

    The symmetries of the equation of motion for an electric charge interacting with a magnetic monopole are analyzed. Two methods, starting from the knowledge of the Lie symmetries, are discussed and employed in this case. This procedure is also compared with the hamiltonians methods. (ltonians methods. (Author) [pt

  10. Search for non-relativistic Magnetic Monopoles with IceCube

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Abbasi, R.; Ackermann, M.

    2014-01-01

    Theory (GUT) era shortly after the Big Bang. Depending on the underlying gauge group these monopoles may catalyze the decay of nucleons via the Rubakov–Callan effect with a cross section suggested to be in the range of 10^−27 to 10^−21cm2 . In IceCube, the Cherenkov light from nucleon decays along...

  11. Anatomy of isolated monopole in Abelian projection od SU(2) lattice gauge theory

    CERN Document Server

    Belavin, V A; Veselov, A I

    2001-01-01

    The structure of the isolated static monopolies in the maximum Abelian projection of the SU(2) gluodynamics on the lattice studied. The standard parametrization of the coupling matrix was used by determining the maximum Abelian projection of the R functional maximization relative to all scale transformations. The monopole radius R approx = 0.06 fm is evaluated

  12. Mathematical models and illustrative results for the RINGBEARER II monopole/dipole beam-propagation code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, F.W.; Masamitsu, J.A.; Lee, E.P.

    1982-01-01

    RINGBEARER II is a linearized monopole/dipole particle simulation code for studying intense relativistic electron beam propagation in gas. In this report the mathematical models utilized for beam particle dynamics and pinch field computation are delineated. Difficulties encountered in code operations and some remedies are discussed. Sample output is presented detailing the diagnostics and the methods of display and analysis utilized

  13. First-order signals in compact QED with monopole suppressed boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lippert, T.; Schilling, K.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH

    1995-01-01

    Pure gauge compact QED on hypercubic lattices is considered with periodically closed monopole currents suppressed. We compute observables on sublattices which are nested around the centre of the lattice in order to locate regions where translation symmetry is approximately recovered. Our Monte Carlo simulations on 24 4 -lattices give indications for a first-order nature of the U(1) phase transition. ((orig.))

  14. Once more on the interrelation between Abelian monopoles and P-vortices in SU(2) LGT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyko, P.Yu.; Bornyakov, V.G.; Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Kovalenko, A.V.; Martemyanov, B.V.; Mueller-Preussker, M.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Veselov, A.I.

    2006-01-01

    We study the properties of configurations from which P-vortices on one hand or Abelian monopoles on the other hand have been removed. We confirm the loss of confinement in both cases and investigate in what respect the modified ensembles differ from the confining ones from the point of view of the complementary confinement scenario

  15. Zk string fluxes and monopole confinement in non-Abelian theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneipp, Marco A.C.; Centro Brasileiro de Pesquisas Fisicas

    2002-11-01

    Recently we considered N = 2 Super Yang-Mills with a mass breaking term and showed the existence of BPS Z k -string solutions for arbitrary simple gauge groups which are spontaneously broken to non-Abelian residual gauge groups. We also calculated their string tensions exactly. In doing so, we have considered in particular the hyper multiplet in the representation of a diquark condensate. In the present work we shall analyze some of the different phases of the theory and find that the magnetic fluxes of the monopoles and Z k strings of the theory are proportional to one another, allowing for monopole confinement in one of the phase transitions of the theory. Then we will calculate the threshold length for a string to break in a new pair of monopole-anti monopole. We will further show that some of the resulting confining theories can obtained by adding a deformation term to N 2 or N = 4 superconformal theories and, as such, may satisfy a gauge/string correspondence. (author)

  16. Time-dependent Thomas-Fermi approach to nuclear monopole oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pi, M.; Barranco, M.; Nemeth, J.; Ngo, C.; Tomasi, E.

    1985-10-01

    A Time-dependent Thomas-Fermi (TDTF) method has been used to study nuclear monopole oscillations and in particular, the semiclassical strength function S(E). An analysis of the S(E) moments, obtained by suitable integrations, shows that these results are in good agreement with data previously obtained from static Thomas-Fermi calculations

  17. Induced self-energy on a static scalar charged particle in the spacetime of a global monopole with finite core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Denis; Freitas, Umbelino; Mello, Eugenio Bezerra de [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da Paraiba (IFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil); Universidade Federal da Paraiba (IFPB), PB (Brazil)

    2011-07-01

    Full text: Global monopoles are heavy spherically symmetric topological objects which may have been formed by the vacuum phase transition in the early universe after Planck time. Although the global monopole was first introduced by Sokolov and Starobinsky, its gravitational effects have been analyzed by Barriola and Vilenkin. We analyze the induced self-energy and self-force on a scalar point-like charged test particle placed at rest in the spacetime of a global monopole admitting a general spherically symmetric inner structure to it. In order to develop this analysis we calculate the three-dimensional Green function associated with this physical system. We explicitly show that for points outside the monopoles core the scalar self-energy presents two distinct contributions. The first one is induced by the non-trivial topology of the global monopole considered as a point-like defect and the second is a correction induced by the non-vanishing inner structure attributed to it. For points inside the monopole, the self-energy also present a similar structure, where now the first contribution depends on the geometry of the spacetime inside. As illustrations of the general procedure adopted, two specific models, namely flower-pot and the ball-point pen, are considered for the region inside. For these two different situations, we were able to obtain exact expressions for the self-energies and self-forces in the regions outside and inside the global monopole. (author)

  18. Induced self-energy on a static scalar charged particle in the spacetime of a global monopole with finite core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Denis; Freitas, Umbelino; Mello, Eugenio Bezerra de

    2011-01-01

    Full text: Global monopoles are heavy spherically symmetric topological objects which may have been formed by the vacuum phase transition in the early universe after Planck time. Although the global monopole was first introduced by Sokolov and Starobinsky, its gravitational effects have been analyzed by Barriola and Vilenkin. We analyze the induced self-energy and self-force on a scalar point-like charged test particle placed at rest in the spacetime of a global monopole admitting a general spherically symmetric inner structure to it. In order to develop this analysis we calculate the three-dimensional Green function associated with this physical system. We explicitly show that for points outside the monopoles core the scalar self-energy presents two distinct contributions. The first one is induced by the non-trivial topology of the global monopole considered as a point-like defect and the second is a correction induced by the non-vanishing inner structure attributed to it. For points inside the monopole, the self-energy also present a similar structure, where now the first contribution depends on the geometry of the spacetime inside. As illustrations of the general procedure adopted, two specific models, namely flower-pot and the ball-point pen, are considered for the region inside. For these two different situations, we were able to obtain exact expressions for the self-energies and self-forces in the regions outside and inside the global monopole. (author)

  19. Excitation of the Roper resonance and study of higher baryon resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morsch, H.P.; Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH

    1992-01-01

    The region of the P 11 resonance N(1440) is investigated in inelastic α-scattering on hydrogen using alpha-particles from Saturne with a beam momentum of 7 GeV/c. In the missing mass spectra of the scattered α-particles two effects are observed, excitation of the projectile, preferentially excited to the Δ-resonance, and excitation of the Roper resonance. The large differential cross sections indicate a structure of a compression mode. From this the compressibility of the nucleon K N may be extracted. The Roper resonance excitation corresponds to a surface mode which may be related to an oscillation of the meson cloud. The other monopole mode which corresponds to a vibration of the valence quarks should lie at about 800 MeV of excitation or above. This is the region of the P 11 (1710 MeV) resonance. Therefore experiments are important to measure the monopole strength in this energy region. Another interesting aspect is the scalar polarizability which can be extracted from inelastic dipole excitations (squeezing modes) as excitation energies above 500 MeV

  20. DFT calculations of strain and interface effects on electronic structures and magnetic properties of L10-FePt/Ag heterojunction of GMR applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramchu, Sittichain; Jaroenjittichai, Atchara Punya; Laosiritaworn, Yongyut

    2018-03-01

    In this work, density functional theory (DFT) was employed to investigate the effect of strain and interface on electronic structures and magnetic properties of L10-FePt/Ag heterojunction. Two possible interface structures of L10-FePt(001)/Ag(001), that is, interface between Fe and Ag layers (Fe/Ag) and between Pt and Ag layers (Pt/Ag), were inspected. It was found that Pt/Ag interface is more stable than Fe/Ag interface due to its lower formation energy. Further, under the lattice mismatch induced tensile strain, the enhancement of magnetism for both Fe/Ag and Pt/Ag interface structures has been found to have progressed, though the magnetic moments of "interfacial" Fe and Pt atoms have been found to have decreased. To explain this further, the local density of states (LDOS) analysis suggests that interaction between Fe (Pt) and Ag near Fe/Ag (Pt/Ag) interface leads to spin symmetry breaking of the Ag atom and hence induces magnetism magnitude. In contrast, the magnetic moments of interfacial Fe and Pt atoms reduce because of the increase in the electronic states near the Fermi level of the minority-spin electrons. In addition, the significant enhancements of the LDOS near the Fermi levels of the minority-spin electrons signify the boosting of the transport properties of the minority-spin electrons and hence the spin-dependent electron transport at this ferromagnet/metal interface. From this work, it is expected that this clarification of the interfacial magnetism may inspire new innovation on how to improve spin-dependent electron transport for enhancing the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) ratio of potential GMR-based spintronic devices.

  1. DFT calculations of strain and interface effects on electronic structures and magnetic properties of L10-FePt/Ag heterojunction of GMR applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sittichain Pramchu

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available In this work, density functional theory (DFT was employed to investigate the effect of strain and interface on electronic structures and magnetic properties of L10-FePt/Ag heterojunction. Two possible interface structures of L10-FePt(001/Ag(001, that is, interface between Fe and Ag layers (Fe/Ag and between Pt and Ag layers (Pt/Ag, were inspected. It was found that Pt/Ag interface is more stable than Fe/Ag interface due to its lower formation energy. Further, under the lattice mismatch induced tensile strain, the enhancement of magnetism for both Fe/Ag and Pt/Ag interface structures has been found to have progressed, though the magnetic moments of “interfacial” Fe and Pt atoms have been found to have decreased. To explain this further, the local density of states (LDOS analysis suggests that interaction between Fe (Pt and Ag near Fe/Ag (Pt/Ag interface leads to spin symmetry breaking of the Ag atom and hence induces magnetism magnitude. In contrast, the magnetic moments of interfacial Fe and Pt atoms reduce because of the increase in the electronic states near the Fermi level of the minority-spin electrons. In addition, the significant enhancements of the LDOS near the Fermi levels of the minority-spin electrons signify the boosting of the transport properties of the minority-spin electrons and hence the spin-dependent electron transport at this ferromagnet/metal interface. From this work, it is expected that this clarification of the interfacial magnetism may inspire new innovation on how to improve spin-dependent electron transport for enhancing the giant magnetoresistance (GMR ratio of potential GMR-based spintronic devices.

  2. On the possibility of magnetic monopoles lighter than 1/α Msub(x) in grand unified theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.M.

    1980-04-01

    It is argued that in special cases monopoles may have masses significantly less than 1/αMsub(x) where Msub(x) is the mass of the heaviest vector boson in the grand unified theory under consideration. (author)

  3. The Search for Highly Ionizing Particles in e$^{+}$e$^{-}$ Collisions at LEP using (MODAL) (MOnopole Detector At Lep)

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    The experiment is designed to search for highly ionizing particles such as the monopole and the dyon. On the assumption that monopole-antimonopole pairs are produced via a virtual photon intermediate state, and have a mass in the range 0-100~GeV, a direct search for Dirac monopoles using e$^+$e$^-$ annihilation carries a distinct cross-sectional advantage over a search using hadron colliders.\\\\ \\\\ The MODAL detector is formed from Lexan/CR-39 dielectric track detector modules arranged in a polyhedral configuration outside of the vacuum pipe and around the intersection region, as shown on the opposite page. Etchable track detectors are more sensitive to particles at normal incidence, the shape of the detector was chosen with this fact in mind to allow for maximum acceptance of monopoles which leave the beam pipe. These dielectric track detectors will enable us to detect particles with magnetic charge: 20e$<$g$ _{d}

  4. Statistical contribution in the giant multipolar resonance decay in hevay nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teruya, N.

    1986-01-01

    Statistical calculations are made for the decay in the electric monopole giant resonance in 208 Pb and electric dipole giant resonance in 209 Bi, using the Hauser-Feshbach formalism. Calculations are done using the experimental energy levels of the corresponding residual nuclei. The particle-vibrator model is used for those experimental levels without spin and parity determination. The influence of different parametrizations of the optical potential in the statistical calculation result is also studied. (L.C.) [pt

  5. Search for magnetic monopoles in √s=7 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aad, G.; Ahles, F.; Barber, T.; Bernhard, R.; Bitenc, U.; Boehler, M.; Bruneliere, R.; Christov, A.; Consorti, V.; Fehling-Kaschek, M.; Flechl, M.; Glatzer, J.; Hartert, J.; Herten, G.; Horner, S.; Jakobs, K.; Janus, M.; Kollefrath, M.; Kononov, A.I.; Kuehn, S.; Lai, S.; Landgraf, U.; Lohwasser, K.; Ludwig, I.; Ludwig, J.; Lumb, D.; Mahboubi, K.; Mohr, W.; Nilsen, H.; Parzefall, U.; Rammensee, M.; Rave, T.C.; Rurikova, Z.; Schmidt, E.; Schumacher, M.; Siegert, F.; Stoerig, K.; Sundermann, J.E.; Temming, K.K.; Thoma, S.; Tsiskaridze, V.; Venturi, M.; Vivarelli, I.; Radziewski, H. von; Vu Anh, T.; Warsinsky, M.; Weiser, C.; Werner, M.; Wiik-Fuchs, L.A.M.; Winkelmann, S.; Xie, S.; Zimmermann, S.; Abreu, H.; Bachacou, H.; Bauer, F.; Besson, N.; Blanchard, J.B.; Bolnet, N.M.; Boonekamp, M.; Chevalier, L.; Ernwein, J.; Etienvre, A.I.; Formica, A.; Gauthier, L.; Giraud, P.F.; Guyot, C.; Hassani, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lancon, E.; Laporte, J.F.; Legendre, M.; Maiani, C.; Mal, P.; Manjarres Ramos, J.A.; Mansoulie, B.; Meyer, J.P.; Mijovic, L.; Morange, N.; Nguyen Thi Hong, V.; Nicolaidou, R.; Ouraou, A.; Resende, B.; Royon, C.R.; Schune, Ph.; Schwindling, J.; Simard, O.; Vranjes, N.; Xiao, M.; Abdel Khalek, S.; Andari, N.; Arnault, C.; Auge, E.; Barrillon, P.; Benoit, M.; Binet, S.; Bourdaios, C.; De La Taille, C.; De Vivie De Regie, J.B.; Duflot, L.; Escalier, M.; Fayard, L.; Fournier, D.; Grivaz, J.F.; Henrot-Versille, S.; Hrivnac, J.; Iconomidou-Fayard, L.; Idarraga, J.; Kado, M.; Lorenzo Martinez, N.; Lounis, A; Makovec, N.; Matricon, P.; Niedercorn, F.; Poggioli, L.; Puzo, P.; Renaud, A.; Rousseau, D.; Rybkin, G.; Sauvan, J.B.; Schaarschmidt, J.; Schaffer, A.C.; Serin, L.; Simion, S.; Tanaka, R.; Teinturier, M.; Veillet, J.J.; Wicek, F; Zerwas, D.; Zhang, Z.; Abajyan, T.; Arutinov, D.; Backhaus, M.; Barbero, M.; Bechtle, P.; Brock, I.; Cristinziani, M.; Davey, W.; Desch, K.; Dingfelder, J.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, Ch.; Gonella, L.; Haefner, P.; Havranek, M.; Hellmich, D.; Hillert, S.; Huegging, F.; Ince, T.; Karagounis, M.; Khoriauli, G.; Koevesarki, P.; Kostyukhin, V.V.; Kraus, J.K.; Kroseberg, J.; Kruger, H.; Lapoire, C.; Lehmacher, M.; Leyko, A.M.; Limbach, C.; Loddenkoetter, T.; Mazur, M.; Moser, N.; Mueller, K.; Nanava, G.; Nattermann, T.; Nuncio-Quiroz, A.E.; Psoroulas, S.; Schaepe, S.; Schmieden, K.; Schmitz, M.; Schultens, M.J.; Schwindt, T.; Stillings, J.A.; Therhaag, J.; Tsung, J.W.; Uchida, K.; Uhlenbrock, M.; Vogel, A.; Toerne, E. von; Wang, T.; Wermes, N.; Wienemann, P.; Zendler, C.; Zimmermann, R.; Zimmermann, S.; Abbott, B.; Gutierrez, P.; Jana, D.K.; Marzin, A.; Meera-Lebbai, R.; Norberg, S.; Saleem, M.; Severini, H.; Skubic, P.; Snow, J.; Strauss, M.

    2012-01-01

    This Letter presents a search for magnetic monopoles with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider using an integrated luminosity of 2.0 fb -1 of pp collisions recorded at a center-of-mass energy of √s=7 TeV. No event is found in the signal region, leading to an upper limit on the production cross section at 95% confidence level of 1.6 /ε fb for Dirac magnetic monopoles with the minimum unit magnetic charge and with mass between 200 GeV and 1500 GeV, where is the monopole reconstruction efficiency. The efficiency is high and uniform in the fiducial region given by pseudorapidity |η| ≤ 1.37 and transverse kinetic energy 600-700≤E kin sinθ≤1400 GeV. The minimum value of 700 GeV is for monopoles of mass 200 GeV, whereas the minimum value of 600 GeV is applicable for higher mass monopoles. Therefore, the upper limit on the production cross section at 95% confidence level is 2 fb in this fiducial region. Assuming the kinematic distributions from Drell-Yan pair production of spin-1/2 Dirac magnetic monopoles, the efficiency is in the range 1%-10%, leading to an upper limit on the cross section at 95% confidence level that varies from 145 fb to 16 fb for monopoles with mass between 200 GeV and 1200 GeV. This limit is weaker than the fiducial limit because most of these monopoles lie outside the fiducial region. (authors)

  6. Band mixing and electric monopole contribution in 2sub(. gamma. ). -->. 2sub(g) transition in /sup 168/Er

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sahota, H S; Hasiza, M L; Mittal, R [Punjabi Univ., Patiala (India). Dept. of Physics

    1976-06-01

    The 2sub(..gamma..)..-->..2sub(g) transition in /sup 168/Er has been examined for the presence of electric monopole contribution. The experimental E0/E2 reduced transition probabilities and monopole matrix element have been found to be somewhat larger than the theoretical predictions of the Bohr-Mottelson model but the ratio rhosup(2)/X has been found to agree well with the theoretical value. The band mixing parameters have also been evaluated and found to be sizeable.

  7. Search for magnetic monopoles in sqrt[s]=7  TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aad, G; Abajyan, T; Abbott, B; Abdallah, J; Abdel Khalek, S; Abdelalim, A A; Abdinov, O; Aben, R; Abi, B; Abolins, M; AbouZeid, O S; Abramowicz, H; Abreu, H; Acerbi, E; Acharya, B S; Adamczyk, L; Adams, D L; Addy, T N; Adelman, J; Adomeit, S; Adragna, P; Adye, T; Aefsky, S; Aguilar-Saavedra, J A; Agustoni, M; Aharrouche, M; Ahlen, S P; Ahles, F; Ahmad, A; Ahsan, M; Aielli, G; Akdogan, T; Åkesson, T P A; Akimoto, G; Akimov, A V; Alam, M S; Alam, M A; Albert, J; Albrand, S; Aleksa, M; Aleksandrov, I N; Alessandria, F; Alexa, C; Alexander, G; Alexandre, G; Alexopoulos, T; Alhroob, M; Aliev, M; Alimonti, G; Alison, J; Allbrooke, B M M; Allport, P P; Allwood-Spiers, S E; Almond, J; Aloisio, A; Alon, R; Alonso, A; Alonso, F; Alvarez Gonzalez, B; Alviggi, M G; Amako, K; Amelung, C; Ammosov, V V; Amorim, A; Amram, N; Anastopoulos, C; Ancu, L S; Andari, N; Andeen, T; Anders, C F; Anders, G; Anderson, K J; Andreazza, A; Andrei, V; Anduaga, X S; Anger, P; Angerami, A; Anghinolfi, F; Anisenkov, A; Anjos, N; Annovi, A; Antonaki, A; Antonelli, M; Antonov, A; Antos, J; Anulli, F; Aoki, M; Aoun, S; Aperio Bella, L; Apolle, R; Arabidze, G; Aracena, I; Arai, Y; Arce, A T H; Arfaoui, S; Arguin, J-F; Arik, E; Arik, M; Armbruster, A J; Arnaez, O; Arnal, V; Arnault, C; Artamonov, A; Artoni, G; Arutinov, D; Asai, S; Asfandiyarov, R; Ask, S; Åsman, B; Asquith, L; Assamagan, K; Astbury, A; Atkinson, M; Aubert, B; Auge, E; Augsten, K; Aurousseau, M; Avolio, G; Avramidou, R; Axen, D; Azuelos, G; Azuma, Y; Baak, M A; Baccaglioni, G; Bacci, C; Bach, A M; Bachacou, H; Bachas, K; Backes, M; Backhaus, M; Badescu, E; Bagnaia, P; Bahinipati, S; Bai, Y; Bailey, D C; Bain, T; Baines, J T; Baker, O K; Baker, M D; Baker, S; Banas, E; Banerjee, P; Banerjee, Sw; Banfi, D; Bangert, A; Bansal, V; Bansil, H S; Barak, L; Baranov, S P; Barbaro Galtieri, A; Barber, T; Barberio, E L; Barberis, D; Barbero, M; Bardin, D Y; Barillari, T; Barisonzi, M; Barklow, T; Barlow, N; Barnett, B M; Barnett, R M; Baroncelli, A; Barone, G; Barr, A J; Barreiro, F; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, J; Barrillon, P; Bartoldus, R; Barton, A E; Bartsch, V; Bates, R L; Batkova, L; Batley, J R; Battaglia, A; Battistin, M; Bauer, F; Bawa, H S; Beale, S; Beau, T; Beauchemin, P H; Beccherle, R; Bechtle, P; Beck, H P; Becker, A K; Becker, S; Beckingham, M; Becks, K H; Beddall, A J; Beddall, A; Bedikian, S; Bednyakov, V A; Bee, C P; Beemster, L J; Begel, M; Behar Harpaz, S; Beimforde, M; Belanger-Champagne, C; Bell, P J; Bell, W H; Bella, G; Bellagamba, L; Bellina, F; Bellomo, M; Belloni, A; Beloborodova, O; Belotskiy, K; Beltramello, O; Benary, O; Benchekroun, D; Bendtz, K; Benekos, N; Benhammou, Y; Benhar Noccioli, E; Benitez Garcia, J A; Benjamin, D P; Benoit, M; Bensinger, J R; Benslama, K; Bentvelsen, S; Berge, D; Bergeaas Kuutmann, E; Berger, N; Berghaus, F; Berglund, E; Beringer, J; Bernat, P; Bernhard, R; Bernius, C; Berry, T; Bertella, C; Bertin, A; Bertolucci, F; Besana, M I; Besjes, G J; Besson, N; Bethke, S; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, R M; Bianco, M; Biebel, O; Bieniek, S P; Bierwagen, K; Biesiada, J; Biglietti, M; Bilokon, H; Bindi, M; Binet, S; Bingul, A; Bini, C; Biscarat, C; Bitenc, U; Black, K M; Blair, R E; Blanchard, J-B; Blanchot, G; Blazek, T; Blocker, C; Blocki, J; Blondel, A; Blum, W; Blumenschein, U; Bobbink, G J; Bobrovnikov, V B; Bocchetta, S S; Bocci, A; Boddy, C R; Boehler, M; Boek, J; Boelaert, N; Bogaerts, J A; Bogdanchikov, A; Bogouch, A; Bohm, C; Bohm, J; Boisvert, V; Bold, T; Boldea, V; Bolnet, N M; Bomben, M; Bona, M; Boonekamp, M; Booth, C N; Bordoni, S; Borer, C; Borisov, A; Borissov, G; Borjanovic, I; Borri, M; Borroni, S; Bortolotto, V; Bos, K; Boscherini, D; Bosman, M; Boterenbrood, H; Bouchami, J; Boudreau, J; Bouhova-Thacker, E V; Boumediene, D; Bourdarios, C; Bousson, N; Boveia, A; Boyd, J; Boyko, I R; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I; Bracinik, J; Branchini, P; Brandt, A; Brandt, G; Brandt, O; Bratzler, U; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Braun, H M; Brazzale, S F; Brelier, B; Bremer, J; Brendlinger, K; Brenner, R; Bressler, S; Britton, D; Brochu, F M; Brock, I; Brock, R; Broggi, F; Bromberg, C; Bronner, J; Brooijmans, G; Brooks, T; Brooks, W K; Brown, G; Brown, H; Bruckman de Renstrom, P A; Bruncko, D; Bruneliere, R; Brunet, S; Bruni, A; Bruni, G; Bruschi, M; Buanes, T; Buat, Q; Bucci, F; Buchanan, J; Buchholz, P; Buckingham, R M; Buckley, A G; Buda, S I; Budagov, I A; Budick, B; Büscher, V; Bugge, L; Bulekov, O; Bundock, A C; Bunse, M; Buran, T; Burckhart, H; Burdin, S; Burgess, T; Burke, S; Busato, E; Bussey, P; Buszello, C P; Butler, B; Butler, J M; Buttar, C M; Butterworth, J M; Buttinger, W; Byszewski, M; Cabrera Urbán, S; Caforio, D; Cakir, O; Calafiura, P; Calderini, G; Calfayan, P; Calkins, R; Caloba, L P; Caloi, R; Calvet, D; Calvet, S; Camacho Toro, R; Camarri, P; Cameron, D; Caminada, L M; Campana, S; Campanelli, M; Canale, V; Canelli, F; Canepa, A; Cantero, J; Cantrill, R; Capasso, L; Capeans Garrido, M D M; Caprini, I; Caprini, M; Capriotti, D; Capua, M; Caputo, R; Cardarelli, R; Carli, T; Carlino, G; Carminati, L; Caron, B; Caron, S; Carquin, E; Carrillo Montoya, G D; Carter, A A; Carter, J R; Carvalho, J; Casadei, D; Casado, M P; Cascella, M; Caso, C; Castaneda Hernandez, A M; Castaneda-Miranda, E; Castillo Gimenez, V; Castro, N F; Cataldi, G; Catastini, P; Catinaccio, A; Catmore, J R; Cattai, A; Cattani, G; Caughron, S; Cavaliere, V; Cavalleri, P; Cavalli, D; Cavalli-Sforza, M; Cavasinni, V; Ceradini, F; Cerqueira, A S; Cerri, A; Cerrito, L; Cerutti, F; Cetin, S A; Chafaq, A; Chakraborty, D; Chalupkova, I; Chan, K; Chapleau, B; Chapman, J D; Chapman, J W; Chareyre, E; Charlton, D G; Chavda, V; Chavez Barajas, C A; Cheatham, S; Chekanov, S; Chekulaev, S V; Chelkov, G A; Chelstowska, M A; Chen, C; Chen, H; Chen, S; Chen, X; Chen, Y; Cheplakov, A; Cherkaoui El Moursli, R; Chernyatin, V; Cheu, E; Cheung, S L; Chevalier, L; Chiefari, G; Chikovani, L; Childers, J T; Chilingarov, A; Chiodini, G; Chisholm, A S; Chislett, R T; Chitan, A; Chizhov, M V; Choudalakis, G; Chouridou, S; Christidi, I A; Christov, A; Chromek-Burckhart, D; Chu, M L; Chudoba, J; Ciapetti, G; Ciftci, A K; Ciftci, R; Cinca, D; Cindro, V; Ciocca, C; Ciocio, A; Cirilli, M; Cirkovic, P; Citterio, M; Ciubancan, M; Clark, A; Clark, P J; Clarke, R N; Cleland, W; Clemens, J C; Clement, B; Clement, C; Coadou, Y; Cobal, M; Coccaro, A; Cochran, J; Cogan, J G; Coggeshall, J; Cogneras, E; Colas, J; Cole, S; Colijn, A P; Collins, N J; Collins-Tooth, C; Collot, J; Colombo, T; Colon, G; Conde Muiño, P; Coniavitis, E; Conidi, M C; Consonni, S M; Consorti, V; Constantinescu, S; Conta, C; Conti, G; Conventi, F; Cooke, M; Cooper, B D; Cooper-Sarkar, A M; Copic, K; Cornelissen, T; Corradi, M; Corriveau, F; Cortes-Gonzalez, A; Cortiana, G; Costa, G; Costa, M J; Costanzo, D; Costin, T; Côté, D; Courneyea, L; Cowan, G; Cowden, C; Cox, B E; Cranmer, K; Crescioli, F; Cristinziani, M; Crosetti, G; Crépé-Renaudin, S; Cuciuc, C-M; Cuenca Almenar, C; Cuhadar Donszelmann, T; Curatolo, M; Curtis, C J; Cuthbert, C; Cwetanski, P; Czirr, H; Czodrowski, P; Czyczula, Z; D'Auria, S; D'Onofrio, M; D'Orazio, A; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, M J; Da Via, C; Dabrowski, W; Dafinca, A; Dai, T; Dallapiccola, C; Dam, M; Dameri, M; Damiani, D S; Danielsson, H O; Dao, V; Darbo, G; Darlea, G L; Dassoulas, J A; Davey, W; Davidek, T; Davidson, N; Davidson, R; Davies, E; Davies, M; Davignon, O; Davison, A R; Davygora, Y; Dawe, E; Dawson, I; Daya-Ishmukhametova, R K; De, K; de Asmundis, R; De Castro, S; De Cecco, S; de Graat, J; De Groot, N; de Jong, P; De La Taille, C; De la Torre, H; De Lorenzi, F; de Mora, L; De Nooij, L; De Pedis, D; De Salvo, A; De Sanctis, U; De Santo, A; De Vivie De Regie, J B; De Zorzi, G; Dearnaley, W J; Debbe, R; Debenedetti, C; Dechenaux, B; Dedovich, D V; Degenhardt, J; Del Papa, C; Del Peso, J; Del Prete, T; Delemontex, T; Deliyergiyev, M; Dell'Acqua, A; Dell'Asta, L; Della Pietra, M; della Volpe, D; Delmastro, M; Delsart, P A; Deluca, C; Demers, S; Demichev, M; Demirkoz, B; Deng, J; Denisov, S P; Derendarz, D; Derkaoui, J E; Derue, F; Dervan, P; Desch, K; Devetak, E; Deviveiros, P O; Dewhurst, A; DeWilde, B; Dhaliwal, S; Dhullipudi, R; Di Ciaccio, A; Di Ciaccio, L; Di Girolamo, A; Di Girolamo, B; Di Luise, S; Di Mattia, A; Di Micco, B; Di Nardo, R; Di Simone, A; Di Sipio, R; Diaz, M A; Diehl, E B; Dietrich, J; Dietzsch, T A; Diglio, S; Dindar Yagci, K; Dingfelder, J; Dinut, F; Dionisi, C; Dita, P; Dita, S; Dittus, F; Djama, F; Djobava, T; do Vale, M A B; Do Valle Wemans, A; Doan, T K O; Dobbs, M; Dobinson, R; Dobos, D; Dobson, E; Dodd, J; Doglioni, C; Doherty, T; Doi, Y; Dolejsi, J; Dolenc, I; Dolezal, Z; Dolgoshein, B A; Dohmae, T; Donadelli, M; Donini, J; Dopke, J; Doria, A; Dos Anjos, A; Dotti, A; Dova, M T; Doxiadis, A D; Doyle, A T; Dris, M; Dubbert, J; Dube, S; Duchovni, E; Duckeck, G; Dudarev, A; Dudziak, F; Dührssen, M; Duerdoth, I P; Duflot, L; Dufour, M-A; Duguid, L; Dunford, M; Duran Yildiz, H; Duxfield, R; Dwuznik, M; Dydak, F; Düren, M; Ebke, J; Eckweiler, S; Edmonds, K; Edson, W; Edwards, C A; Edwards, N C; Ehrenfeld, W; Eifert, T; Eigen, G; Einsweiler, K; Eisenhandler, E; Ekelof, T; El Kacimi, M; Ellert, M; Elles, S; Ellinghaus, F; Ellis, K; Ellis, N; Elmsheuser, J; Elsing, M; Emeliyanov, D; Engelmann, R; Engl, A; Epp, B; Erdmann, J; Ereditato, A; Eriksson, D; Ernst, J; Ernst, M; Ernwein, J; Errede, D; Errede, S; Ertel, E; Escalier, M; Esch, H; Escobar, C; Espinal Curull, X; Esposito, B; Etienne, F; Etienvre, A I; Etzion, E; Evangelakou, D; Evans, H; Fabbri, L; Fabre, C; Fakhrutdinov, R M; Falciano, S; Fang, Y; Fanti, M; Farbin, A; Farilla, A; Farley, J; Farooque, T; Farrell, S; Farrington, S M; Farthouat, P; Fassnacht, P; Fassouliotis, D; Fatholahzadeh, B; Favareto, A; Fayard, L; Fazio, S; Febbraro, R; Federic, P; Fedin, O L; Fedorko, W; Fehling-Kaschek, M; Feligioni, L; Fellmann, D; Feng, C; Feng, E J; Fenyuk, A B; Ferencei, J; Fernando, W; Ferrag, S; Ferrando, J; Ferrara, V; Ferrari, A; Ferrari, P; Ferrari, R; Ferreira de Lima, D E; Ferrer, A; Ferrere, D; Ferretti, C; Ferretto Parodi, A; Fiascaris, M; Fiedler, F; Filipčič, A; Filthaut, F; Fincke-Keeler, M; Fiolhais, M C N; Fiorini, L; Firan, A; Fischer, G; Fisher, M J; Flechl, M; Fleck, I; Fleckner, J; Fleischmann, P; Fleischmann, S; Flick, T; Floderus, A; Flores Castillo, L R; Flowerdew, M J; Fonseca Martin, T; Formica, A; Forti, A; Fortin, D; Fournier, D; Fox, H; Francavilla, P; Franchini, M; Franchino, S; Francis, D; Frank, T; Franz, S; Fraternali, M; Fratina, S; French, S T; Friedrich, C; Friedrich, F; Froeschl, R; Froidevaux, D; Frost, J A; Fukunaga, C; Fullana Torregrosa, E; Fulsom, B G; Fuster, J; Gabaldon, C; Gabizon, O; Gadfort, T; Gadomski, S; Gagliardi, G; Gagnon, P; Galea, C; Gallas, E J; Gallo, V; Gallop, B J; Gallus, P; Gan, K K; Gao, Y S; Gaponenko, A; Garberson, F; Garcia-Sciveres, M; García, C; García Navarro, J E; Gardner, R W; Garelli, N; Garitaonandia, H; Garonne, V; Gatti, C; Gaudio, G; Gaur, B; Gauthier, L; Gauzzi, P; Gavrilenko, I L; Gay, C; Gaycken, G; Gazis, E N; Ge, P; Gecse, Z; Gee, C N P; Geerts, D A A; Geich-Gimbel, Ch; Gellerstedt, K; Gemme, C; Gemmell, A; Genest, M H; Gentile, S; George, M; George, S; Gerlach, P; Gershon, A; Geweniger, C; Ghazlane, H; Ghodbane, N; Giacobbe, B; Giagu, S; Giakoumopoulou, V; Giangiobbe, V; Gianotti, F; Gibbard, B; Gibson, A; Gibson, S M; Gillberg, D; Gillman, A R; Gingrich, D M; Ginzburg, J; Giokaris, N; Giordani, M P; Giordano, R; Giorgi, F M; Giovannini, P; Giraud, P F; Giugni, D; Giunta, M; Giusti, P; Gjelsten, B K; Gladilin, L K; Glasman, C; Glatzer, J; Glazov, A; Glitza, K W; Glonti, G L; Goddard, J R; Godfrey, J; Godlewski, J; Goebel, M; Göpfert, T; Goeringer, C; Gössling, C; Goldfarb, S; Golling, T; Gomes, A; Gomez Fajardo, L S; Gonçalo, R; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, J; Gonella, L; Gonzalez, S; González de la Hoz, S; Gonzalez Parra, G; Gonzalez Silva, M L; Gonzalez-Sevilla, S; Goodson, J J; Goossens, L; Gorbounov, P A; Gordon, H A; Gorelov, I; Gorfine, G; Gorini, B; Gorini, E; Gorišek, A; Gornicki, E; Gosdzik, B; Goshaw, A T; Gosselink, M; Gostkin, M I; Gough Eschrich, I; Gouighri, M; Goujdami, D; Goulette, M P; Goussiou, A G; Goy, C; Gozpinar, S; Grabowska-Bold, I; Grafström, P; Grahn, K-J; Grancagnolo, F; Grancagnolo, S; Grassi, V; Gratchev, V; Grau, N; Gray, H M; Gray, J A; Graziani, E; Grebenyuk, O G; Greenshaw, T; Greenwood, Z D; Gregersen, K; Gregor, I M; Grenier, P; Griffiths, J; Grigalashvili, N; Grillo, A A; Grinstein, S; Grishkevich, Y V; Grivaz, J-F; Gross, E; Grosse-Knetter, J; Groth-Jensen, J; Grybel, K; Guest, D; Guicheney, C; Guindon, S; Gul, U; Guler, H; Gunther, J; Guo, B; Guo, J; Gutierrez, P; Guttman, N; Gutzwiller, O; Guyot, C; Gwenlan, C; Gwilliam, C B; Haas, A; Haas, S; Haber, C; Hadavand, H K; Hadley, D R; Haefner, P; Hahn, F; Haider, S; Hajduk, Z; Hakobyan, H; Hall, D; Haller, J; Hamacher, K; Hamal, P; Hamer, M; Hamilton, A; Hamilton, S; Han, L; Hanagaki, K; Hanawa, K; Hance, M; Handel, C; Hanke, P; Hansen, J R; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, P H; Hansson, P; Hara, K; Hare, G A; Harenberg, T; Harkusha, S; Harper, D; Harrington, R D; Harris, O M; Hartert, J; Hartjes, F; Haruyama, T; Harvey, A; Hasegawa, S; Hasegawa, Y; Hassani, S; Haug, S; Hauschild, M; Hauser, R; Havranek, M; Hawkes, C M; Hawkings, R J; Hawkins, A D; Hawkins, D; Hayakawa, T; Hayashi, T; Hayden, D; Hays, C P; Hayward, H S; Haywood, S J; He, M; Head, S J; Hedberg, V; Heelan, L; Heim, S; Heinemann, B; Heisterkamp, S; Helary, L; Heller, C; Heller, M; Hellman, S; Hellmich, D; Helsens, C; Henderson, R C W; Henke, M; Henrichs, A; Henriques Correia, A M; Henrot-Versille, S; Hensel, C; Henß, T; Hernandez, C M; Hernández Jiménez, Y; Herrberg, R; Herten, G; Hertenberger, R; Hervas, L; Hesketh, G G; Hessey, N P; Higón-Rodriguez, E; Hill, J C; Hiller, K H; Hillert, S; Hillier, S J; Hinchliffe, I; Hines, E; Hirose, M; Hirsch, F; Hirschbuehl, D; Hobbs, J; Hod, N; Hodgkinson, M C; Hodgson, P; Hoecker, A; Hoeferkamp, M R; Hoffman, J; Hoffmann, D; Hohlfeld, M; Holder, M; Holmgren, S O; Holy, T; Holzbauer, J L; Hong, T M; Hooft van Huysduynen, L; Horn, C; Horner, S; Hostachy, J-Y; Hou, S; Hoummada, A; Howard, J; Howarth, J; Hristova, I; Hrivnac, J; Hryn'ova, T; Hsu, P J; Hsu, S-C; Hubacek, Z; Hubaut, F; Huegging, F; Huettmann, A; Huffman, T B; Hughes, E W; Hughes, G; Huhtinen, M; Hurwitz, M; Husemann, U; Huseynov, N; Huston, J; Huth, J; Iacobucci, G; Iakovidis, G; Ibbotson, M; Ibragimov, I; Iconomidou-Fayard, L; Idarraga, J; Iengo, P; Igonkina, O; Ikegami, Y; Ikeno, M; Iliadis, D; Ilic, N; Ince, T; Inigo-Golfin, J; Ioannou, P; Iodice, M; Iordanidou, K; Ippolito, V; Irles Quiles, A; Isaksson, C; Ishino, M; Ishitsuka, M; Ishmukhametov, R; Issever, C; Istin, S; Ivashin, A V; Iwanski, W; Iwasaki, H; Izen, J M; Izzo, V; Jackson, B; Jackson, J N; Jackson, P; Jaekel, M R; Jain, V; Jakobs, K; Jakobsen, S; Jakoubek, T; Jakubek, J; Jana, D K; Jansen, E; Jansen, H; Jantsch, A; Janus, M; Jarlskog, G; Jeanty, L; Jen-La Plante, I; Jennens, D; Jenni, P; Jež, P; Jézéquel, S; Jha, M K; Ji, H; Ji, W; Jia, J; Jiang, Y; Jimenez Belenguer, M; Jin, S; Jinnouchi, O; Joergensen, M D; Joffe, D; Johansen, M; Johansson, K E; Johansson, P; Johnert, S; Johns, K A; Jon-And, K; Jones, G; Jones, R W L; Jones, T J; Joram, C; Jorge, P M; Joshi, K D; Jovicevic, J; Jovin, T; Ju, X; Jung, C A; Jungst, R M; Juranek, V; Jussel, P; Juste Rozas, A; Kabana, S; Kaci, M; Kaczmarska, A; Kadlecik, P; Kado, M; Kagan, H; Kagan, M; Kajomovitz, E; Kalinin, S; Kalinovskaya, L V; Kama, S; Kanaya, N; Kaneda, M; Kaneti, S; Kanno, T; Kantserov, V A; Kanzaki, J; Kaplan, B; Kapliy, A; Kaplon, J; Kar, D; Karagounis, M; Karakostas, K; Karnevskiy, M; Kartvelishvili, V; Karyukhin, A N; Kashif, L; Kasieczka, G; Kass, R D; Kastanas, A; Kataoka, M; Kataoka, Y; Katsoufis, E; Katzy, J; Kaushik, V; Kawagoe, K; Kawamoto, T; Kawamura, G; Kayl, M S; Kazama, S; Kazanin, V A; Kazarinov, M Y; Keeler, R; Kehoe, R; Keil, M; Kekelidze, G D; Keller, J S; Kenyon, M; Kepka, O; Kerschen, N; Kerševan, B P; Kersten, S; Kessoku, K; Keung, J; Khalil-Zada, F; Khandanyan, H; Khanov, A; Kharchenko, D; Khodinov, A; Khomich, A; Khoo, T J; Khoriauli, G; Khoroshilov, A; Khovanskiy, V; Khramov, E; Khubua, J; Kim, H; Kim, S H; Kimura, N; Kind, O; King, B T; King, M; King, R S B; Kirk, J; Kiryunin, A E; Kishimoto, T; Kisielewska, D; Kitamura, T; Kittelmann, T; Kladiva, E; Klein, M; Klein, U; Kleinknecht, K; Klemetti, M; Klier, A; Klimek, P; Klimentov, A; Klingenberg, R; Klinger, J A; Klinkby, E B; Klioutchnikova, T; Klok, P F; Klous, S; Kluge, E-E; Kluge, T; Kluit, P; Kluth, S; Knecht, N S; Kneringer, E; Knoops, E B F G; Knue, A; Ko, B R; Kobayashi, T; Kobel, M; Kocian, M; Kodys, P; Köneke, K; König, A C; Koenig, S; Köpke, L; Koetsveld, F; Koevesarki, P; Koffas, T; Koffeman, E; Kogan, L A; Kohlmann, S; Kohn, F; Kohout, Z; Kohriki, T; Koi, T; Kolachev, G M; Kolanoski, H; Kolesnikov, V; Koletsou, I; Koll, J; Kollefrath, M; Komar, A A; Komori, Y; Kondo, T; Kono, T; Kononov, A I; Konoplich, R; Konstantinidis, N; Koperny, S; Korcyl, K; Kordas, K; Korn, A; Korol, A; Korolkov, I; Korolkova, E V; Korotkov, V A; Kortner, O; Kortner, S; Kostyukhin, V V; Kotov, S; Kotov, V M; Kotwal, A; Kourkoumelis, C; Kouskoura, V; Koutsman, A; Kowalewski, R; Kowalski, T Z; Kozanecki, W; Kozhin, A S; Kral, V; Kramarenko, V A; Kramberger, G; Krasny, M W; Krasznahorkay, A; Kraus, J K; Kreiss, S; Krejci, F; Kretzschmar, J; Krieger, N; Krieger, P; Kroeninger, K; Kroha, H; Kroll, J; Kroseberg, J; Krstic, J; Kruchonak, U; Krüger, H; Kruker, T; Krumnack, N; Krumshteyn, Z V; Kubota, T; Kuday, S; Kuehn, S; Kugel, A; Kuhl, T; Kuhn, D; Kukhtin, V; Kulchitsky, Y; Kuleshov, S; Kummer, C; Kuna, M; Kunkle, J; Kupco, A; Kurashige, H; Kurata, M; Kurochkin, Y A; Kus, V; Kuwertz, E S; Kuze, M; Kvita, J; Kwee, R; La Rosa, A; La Rotonda, L; Labarga, L; Labbe, J; Lablak, S; Lacasta, C; Lacava, F; Lacker, H; Lacour, D; Lacuesta, V R; Ladygin, E; Lafaye, R; Laforge, B; Lagouri, T; Lai, S; Laisne, E; Lamanna, M; Lambourne, L; Lampen, C L; Lampl, W; Lancon, E; Landgraf, U; Landon, M P J; Lane, J L; Lang, V S; Lange, C; Lankford, A J; Lanni, F; Lantzsch, K; Laplace, S; Lapoire, C; Laporte, J F; Lari, T; Larner, A; Lassnig, M; Laurelli, P; Lavorini, V; Lavrijsen, W; Laycock, P; Le Dortz, O; Le Guirriec, E; Le Maner, C; Le Menedeu, E; LeCompte, T; Ledroit-Guillon, F; Lee, H; Lee, J S H; Lee, S C; Lee, L; Lefebvre, M; Legendre, M; Legger, F; Leggett, C; Lehmacher, M; Lehmann Miotto, G; Lei, X; Leite, M A L; Leitner, R; Lellouch, D; Lemmer, B; Lendermann, V; Leney, K J C; Lenz, T; Lenzen, G; Lenzi, B; Leonhardt, K; Leontsinis, S; Lepold, F; Leroy, C; Lessard, J-R; Lester, C G; Lester, C M; Levêque, J; Levin, D; Levinson, L J; Lewis, A; Lewis, G H; Leyko, A M; Leyton, M; Li, B; Li, H; Li, S; Li, X; Liang, Z; Liao, H; Liberti, B; Lichard, P; Lichtnecker, M; Lie, K; Liebig, W; Limbach, C; Limosani, A; Limper, M; Lin, S C; Linde, F; Linnemann, J T; Lipeles, E; Lipniacka, A; Liss, T M; Lissauer, D; Lister, A; Litke, A M; Liu, C; Liu, D; Liu, H; Liu, J B; Liu, L; Liu, M; Liu, Y; Livan, M; Livermore, S S A; Lleres, A; Llorente Merino, J; Lloyd, S L; Lobodzinska, E; Loch, P; Lockman, W S; Loddenkoetter, T; Loebinger, F K; Loginov, A; Loh, C W; Lohse, T; Lohwasser, K; Lokajicek, M; Lombardo, V P; Long, R E; Lopes, L; Lopez Mateos, D; Lorenz, J; Lorenzo Martinez, N; Losada, M; Loscutoff, P; Lo Sterzo, F; Losty, M J; Lou, X; Lounis, A; Loureiro, K F; Love, J; Love, P A; Lowe, A J; Lu, F; Lubatti, H J; Luci, C; Lucotte, A; Ludwig, A; Ludwig, D; Ludwig, I; Ludwig, J; Luehring, F; Luijckx, G; Lukas, W; Lumb, D; Luminari, L; Lund, E; Lund-Jensen, B; Lundberg, B; Lundberg, J; Lundberg, O; Lundquist, J; Lungwitz, M; Lynn, D; Lytken, E; Ma, H; Ma, L L; Maccarrone, G; Macchiolo, A; Maček, B; Machado Miguens, J; Mackeprang, R; Madaras, R J; Maddocks, H J; Mader, W F; Maenner, R; Maeno, T; Mättig, P; Mättig, S; Magnoni, L; Magradze, E; Mahboubi, K; Mahmoud, S; Mahout, G; Maiani, C; Maidantchik, C; Maio, A; Majewski, S; Makida, Y; Makovec, N; Mal, P; Malaescu, B; Malecki, Pa; Malecki, P; Maleev, V P; Malek, F; Mallik, U; Malon, D; Malone, C; Maltezos, S; Malyshev, V; Malyukov, S; Mameghani, R; Mamuzic, J; Manabe, A; Mandelli, L; Mandić, I; Mandrysch, R; Maneira, J; Mangeard, P S; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, L; Manjarres Ramos, J A; Mann, A; Manning, P M; Manousakis-Katsikakis, A; Mansoulie, B; Mapelli, A; Mapelli, L; March, L; Marchand, J F; Marchese, F; Marchiori, G; Marcisovsky, M; Marino, C P; Marroquim, F; Marshall, Z; Martens, F K; Marti, L F; Marti-Garcia, S; Martin, B; Martin, B; Martin, J P; Martin, T A; Martin, V J; Martin dit Latour, B; Martin-Haugh, S; Martinez, M; Martinez Outschoorn, V; Martyniuk, A C; Marx, M; Marzano, F; Marzin, A; Masetti, L; Mashimo, T; Mashinistov, R; Masik, J; Maslennikov, A L; Massa, I; Massaro, G; Massol, N; Mastrandrea, P; Mastroberardino, A; Masubuchi, T; Matricon, P; Matsunaga, H; Matsushita, T; Mattravers, C; Maurer, J; Maxfield, S J; Mayne, A; Mazini, R; Mazur, M; Mazzaferro, L; Mazzanti, M; Mc Kee, S P; McCarn, A; McCarthy, R L; McCarthy, T G; McCubbin, N A; McFarlane, K W; Mcfayden, J A; Mchedlidze, G; Mclaughlan, T; McMahon, S J; McPherson, R A; Meade, A; Mechnich, J; Mechtel, M; Medinnis, M; Meera-Lebbai, R; Meguro, T; Mehdiyev, R; Mehlhase, S; Mehta, A; Meier, K; Meirose, B; Melachrinos, C; Mellado Garcia, B R; Meloni, F; Mendoza Navas, L; Meng, Z; Mengarelli, A; Menke, S; Meoni, E; Mercurio, K M; Mermod, P; Merola, L; Meroni, C; Merritt, F S; Merritt, H; Messina, A; Metcalfe, J; Mete, A S; Meyer, C; Meyer, C; Meyer, J-P; Meyer, J; Meyer, J; Meyer, T C; Miao, J; Michal, S; Micu, L; Middleton, R P; Migas, S; Mijović, L; Mikenberg, G; Mikestikova, M; Mikuž, M; Miller, D W; Miller, R J; Mills, W J; Mills, C; Milov, A; Milstead, D A; Milstein, D; Minaenko, A A; Miñano Moya, M; Minashvili, I A; Mincer, A I; Mindur, B; Mineev, M; Ming, Y; Mir, L M; Mirabelli, G; Mitrevski, J; Mitsou, V A; Mitsui, S; Miyagawa, P S; Mjörnmark, J U; Moa, T; Moeller, V; Mönig, K; Möser, N; Mohapatra, S; Mohr, W; Moles-Valls, R; Monk, J; Monnier, E; Montejo Berlingen, J; Monticelli, F; Monzani, S; Moore, R W; Moorhead, G F; Mora Herrera, C; Moraes, A; Morange, N; Morel, J; Morello, G; Moreno, D; Moreno Llácer, M; Morettini, P; Morgenstern, M; Morii, M; Morley, A K; Mornacchi, G; Morris, J D; Morvaj, L; Moser, H G; Mosidze, M; Moss, J; Mount, R; Mountricha, E; Mouraviev, S V; Moyse, E J W; Mueller, F; Mueller, J; Mueller, K; Müller, T A; Mueller, T; Muenstermann, D; Munwes, Y; Murray, W J; Mussche, I; Musto, E; Myagkov, A G; Myska, M; Nadal, J; Nagai, K; Nagai, R; Nagano, K; Nagarkar, A; Nagasaka, Y; Nagel, M; Nairz, A M; Nakahama, Y; Nakamura, K; Nakamura, T; Nakano, I; Nanava, G; Napier, A; Narayan, R; Nash, M; Nattermann, T; Naumann, T; Navarro, G; Neal, H A; Nechaeva, P Yu; Neep, T J; Negri, A; Negri, G; Negrini, M; Nektarijevic, S; Nelson, A; Nelson, T K; Nemecek, S; Nemethy, P; Nepomuceno, A A; Nessi, M; Neubauer, M S; Neumann, M; Neusiedl, A; Neves, R M; Nevski, P; Newman, P R; Nguyen Thi Hong, V; Nickerson, R B; Nicolaidou, R; Nicquevert, B; Niedercorn, F; Nielsen, J; Nikiforou, N; Nikiforov, A; Nikolaenko, V; Nikolic-Audit, I; Nikolics, K; Nikolopoulos, K; Nilsen, H; Nilsson, P; Ninomiya, Y; Nisati, A; Nisius, R; Nobe, T; Nodulman, L; Nomachi, M; Nomidis, I; Norberg, S; Nordberg, M; Norton, P R; Novakova, J; Nozaki, M; Nozka, L; Nugent, I M; Nuncio-Quiroz, A-E; Nunes Hanninger, G; Nunnemann, T; Nurse, E; O'Brien, B J; O'Neale, S W; O'Neil, D C; O'Shea, V; Oakes, L B; Oakham, F G; Oberlack, H; Ocariz, J; Ochi, A; Oda, S; Odaka, S; Odier, J; Ogren, H; Oh, A; Oh, S H; Ohm, C C; Ohshima, T; Okawa, H; Okumura, Y; Okuyama, T; Olariu, A; Olchevski, A G; Olivares Pino, S A; Oliveira, M; Oliveira Damazio, D; Oliver Garcia, E; Olivito, D; Olszewski, A; Olszowska, J; Onofre, A; Onyisi, P U E; Oram, C J; Oreglia, M J; Oren, Y; Orestano, D; Orlando, N; Orlov, I; Oropeza Barrera, C; Orr, R S; Osculati, B; Ospanov, R; Osuna, C; Otero y Garzon, G; Ottersbach, J P; Ouchrif, M; Ouellette, E A; Ould-Saada, F; Ouraou, A; Ouyang, Q; Ovcharova, A; Owen, M; Owen, S; Ozcan, V E; Ozturk, N; Pacheco Pages, A; Padilla Aranda, C; Pagan Griso, S; Paganis, E; Pahl, C; Paige, F; Pais, P; Pajchel, K; Palacino, G; Paleari, C P; Palestini, S; Pallin, D; Palma, A; Palmer, J D; Pan, Y B; Panagiotopoulou, E; Pani, P; Panikashvili, N; Panitkin, S; Pantea, D; Papadelis, A; Papadopoulou, Th D; Paramonov, A; Paredes Hernandez, D; Park, W; Parker, M A; Parodi, F; Parsons, J A; Parzefall, U; Pashapour, S; Pasqualucci, E; Passaggio, S; Passeri, A; Pastore, F; Pastore, Fr; Pásztor, G; Pataraia, S; Patel, N; Pater, J R; Patricelli, S; Pauly, T; Pecsy, M; Pedraza Lopez, S; Pedraza Morales, M I; Peleganchuk, S V; Pelikan, D; Peng, H; Penning, B; Penson, A; Penwell, J; Perantoni, M; Perez, K; Perez Cavalcanti, T; Perez Codina, E; Pérez García-Estañ, M T; Perez Reale, V; Perini, L; Pernegger, H; Perrino, R; Perrodo, P; Peshekhonov, V D; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petersen, J; Petersen, T C; Petit, E; Petridis, A; Petridou, C; Petrolo, E; Petrucci, F; Petschull, D; Petteni, M; Pezoa, R; Phan, A; Phillips, P W; Piacquadio, G; Picazio, A; Piccaro, E; Piccinini, M; Piec, S M; Piegaia, R; Pignotti, D T; Pilcher, J E; Pilkington, A D; Pina, J; Pinamonti, M; Pinder, A; Pinfold, J L; Pinto, B; Pizio, C; Plamondon, M; Pleier, M-A; Plotnikova, E; Poblaguev, A; Poddar, S; Podlyski, F; Poggioli, L; Pohl, M; Polesello, G; Policicchio, A; Polini, A; Poll, J; Polychronakos, V; Pomeroy, D; Pommès, K; Pontecorvo, L; Pope, B G; Popeneciu, G A; Popovic, D S; Poppleton, A; Portell Bueso, X; Pospelov, G E; Pospisil, S; Potrap, I N; Potter, C J; Potter, C T; Poulard, G; Poveda, J; Pozdnyakov, V; Prabhu, R; Pralavorio, P; Pranko, A; Prasad, S; Pravahan, R; Prell, S; Pretzl, K; Price, D; Price, J; Price, L E; Prieur, D; Primavera, M; Prokofiev, K; Prokoshin, F; Protopopescu, S; Proudfoot, J; Prudent, X; Przybycien, M; Przysiezniak, H; Psoroulas, S; Ptacek, E; Pueschel, E; Purdham, J; Purohit, M; Puzo, P; Pylypchenko, Y; Qian, J; Quadt, A; Quarrie, D R; Quayle, W B; Quinonez, F; Raas, M; Radescu, V; Radloff, P; Rador, T; Ragusa, F; Rahal, G; Rahimi, A M; Rahm, D; Rajagopalan, S; Rammensee, M; Rammes, M; Randle-Conde, A S; Randrianarivony, K; Rauscher, F; Rave, T C; Raymond, M; Read, A L; Rebuzzi, D M; Redelbach, A; Redlinger, G; Reece, R; Reeves, K; Reinherz-Aronis, E; Reinsch, A; Reisinger, I; Rembser, C; Ren, Z L; Renaud, A; Rescigno, M; Resconi, S; Resende, B; Reznicek, P; Rezvani, R; Richter, R; Richter-Was, E; Ridel, M; Rijpstra, M; Rijssenbeek, M; Rimoldi, A; Rinaldi, L; Rios, R R; Riu, I; Rivoltella, G; Rizatdinova, F; Rizvi, E; Robertson, S H; Robichaud-Veronneau, A; Robinson, D; Robinson, J E M; Robson, A; Rocha de Lima, J G; Roda, C; Roda Dos Santos, D; Roe, A; Roe, S; Røhne, O; Rolli, S; Romaniouk, A; Romano, M; Romeo, G; Romero Adam, E; Roos, L; Ros, E; Rosati, S; Rosbach, K; Rose, A; Rose, M; Rosenbaum, G A; Rosenberg, E I; Rosendahl, P L; Rosenthal, O; Rosselet, L; Rossetti, V; Rossi, E; Rossi, L P; Rotaru, M; Roth, I; Rothberg, J; Rousseau, D; Royon, C R; Rozanov, A; Rozen, Y; Ruan, X; Rubbo, F; Rubinskiy, I; Ruckert, B; Ruckstuhl, N; Rud, V I; Rudolph, C; Rudolph, G; Rühr, F; Ruiz-Martinez, A; Rumyantsev, L; Rurikova, Z; Rusakovich, N A; Rutherfoord, J P; Ruwiedel, C; Ruzicka, P; Ryabov, Y F; Rybar, M; Rybkin, G; Ryder, N C; Saavedra, A F; Sadeh, I; Sadrozinski, H F-W; Sadykov, R; Safai Tehrani, F; Sakamoto, H; Salamanna, G; Salamon, A; Saleem, M; Salek, D; Salihagic, D; Salnikov, A; Salt, J; Salvachua Ferrando, B M; Salvatore, D; Salvatore, F; Salvucci, A; Salzburger, A; Sampsonidis, D; Samset, B H; Sanchez, A; Sanchez Martinez, V; Sandaker, H; Sander, H G; Sanders, M P; Sandhoff, M; Sandoval, T; Sandoval, C; Sandstroem, R; Sankey, D P C; Sansoni, A; Santamarina Rios, C; Santoni, C; Santonico, R; Santos, H; Saraiva, J G; Sarangi, T; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, E; Sarri, F; Sartisohn, G; Sasaki, O; Sasaki, Y; Sasao, N; Satsounkevitch, I; Sauvage, G; Sauvan, E; Sauvan, J B; Savard, P; Savinov, V; Savu, D O; Sawyer, L; Saxon, D H; Saxon, J; Sbarra, C; Sbrizzi, A; Scannicchio, D A; Scarcella, M; Schaarschmidt, J; Schacht, P; Schaefer, D; Schäfer, U; Schaepe, S; Schaetzel, S; Schaffer, A C; Schaile, D; Schamberger, R D; Schamov, A G; Scharf, V; Schegelsky, V A; Scheirich, D; Schernau, M; Scherzer, M I; Schiavi, C; Schieck, J; Schioppa, M; Schlenker, S; Schmidt, E; Schmieden, K; Schmitt, C; Schmitt, S; Schmitz, M; Schneider, B; Schnoor, U; Schoening, A; Schorlemmer, A L S; Schott, M; Schouten, D; Schovancova, J; Schram, M; Schroeder, C; Schroer, N; Schultens, M J; Schultes, J; Schultz-Coulon, H-C; Schulz, H; Schumacher, M; Schumm, B A; Schune, Ph; Schwanenberger, C; Schwartzman, A; Schwemling, Ph; Schwienhorst, R; Schwierz, R; Schwindling, J; Schwindt, T; Schwoerer, M; Sciolla, G; Scott, W G; Searcy, J; Sedov, G; Sedykh, E; Seidel, S C; Seiden, A; Seifert, F; Seixas, J M; Sekhniaidze, G; Sekula, S J; Selbach, K E; Seliverstov, D M; Sellden, B; Sellers, G; Seman, M; Semprini-Cesari, N; Serfon, C; Serin, L; Serkin, L; Seuster, R; Severini, H; Sfyrla, A; Shabalina, E; Shamim, M; Shan, L Y; Shank, J T; Shao, Q T; Shapiro, M; Shatalov, P B; Shaw, K; Sherman, D; Sherwood, P; Shibata, A; Shimizu, S; Shimojima, M; Shin, T; Shiyakova, M; Shmeleva, A; Shochet, M J; Short, D; Shrestha, S; Shulga, E; Shupe, M A; Sicho, P; Sidoti, A; Siegert, F; Sijacki, Dj; Silbert, O; Silva, J; Silver, Y; Silverstein, D; Silverstein, S B; Simak, V; Simard, O; Simic, Lj; Simion, S; Simioni, E; Simmons, B; Simoniello, R; Simonyan, M; Sinervo, P; Sinev, N B; Sipica, V; Siragusa, G; Sircar, A; Sisakyan, A N; Sivoklokov, S Yu; Sjölin, J; Sjursen, T B; Skinnari, L A; Skottowe, H P; Skovpen, K; Skubic, P; Slater, M; Slavicek, T; Sliwa, K; Smakhtin, V; Smart, B H; Smirnov, S Yu; Smirnov, Y; Smirnova, L N; Smirnova, O; Smith, B C; Smith, D; Smith, K M; Smizanska, M; Smolek, K; Snesarev, A A; Snow, S W; Snow, J; Snyder, S; Sobie, R; Sodomka, J; Soffer, A; Solans, C A; Solar, M; Solc, J; Soldatov, E Yu; Soldevila, U; Solfaroli Camillocci, E; Solodkov, A A; Solovyanov, O V; Solovyev, V; Soni, N; Sopko, V; Sopko, B; Sosebee, M; Soualah, R; Soukharev, A; Spagnolo, S; Spanò, F; Spighi, R; Spigo, G; Spiwoks, R; Spousta, M; Spreitzer, T; Spurlock, B; St Denis, R D; Stahlman, J; Stamen, R; Stanecka, E; Stanek, R W; Stanescu, C; Stanescu-Bellu, M; Stapnes, S; Starchenko, E A; Stark, J; Staroba, P; Starovoitov, P; Staszewski, R; Staude, A; Stavina, P; Steele, G; Steinbach, P; Steinberg, P; Stekl, I; Stelzer, B; Stelzer, H J; Stelzer-Chilton, O; Stenzel, H; Stern, S; Stewart, G A; Stillings, J A; Stockton, M C; Stoerig, K; Stoicea, G; Stonjek, S; Strachota, P; Stradling, A R; Straessner, A; Strandberg, J; Strandberg, S; Strandlie, A; Strang, M; Strauss, E; Strauss, M; Strizenec, P; Ströhmer, R; Strom, D M; Strong, J A; Stroynowski, R; Strube, J; Stugu, B; Stumer, I; Stupak, J; Sturm, P; Styles, N A; Soh, D A; Su, D; Subramania, Hs; Succurro, A; Sugaya, Y; Suhr, C; Suk, M; Sulin, V V; Sultansoy, S; Sumida, T; Sun, X; Sundermann, J E; Suruliz, K; Susinno, G; Sutton, M R; Suzuki, Y; Suzuki, Y; Svatos, M; Swedish, S; Sykora, I; Sykora, T; Sánchez, J; Ta, D; Tackmann, K; Taffard, A; Tafirout, R; Taiblum, N; Takahashi, Y; Takai, H; Takashima, R; Takeda, H; Takeshita, T; Takubo, Y; Talby, M; Talyshev, A; Tamsett, M C; Tanaka, J; Tanaka, R; Tanaka, S; Tanaka, S; Tanasijczuk, A J; Tani, K; Tannoury, N; Tapprogge, S; Tardif, D; Tarem, S; Tarrade, F; Tartarelli, G F; Tas, P; Tasevsky, M; Tassi, E; Tatarkhanov, M; Tayalati, Y; Taylor, C; Taylor, F E; Taylor, G N; Taylor, W; Teinturier, M; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, M; Teixeira-Dias, P; Temming, K K; Ten Kate, H; Teng, P K; Terada, S; Terashi, K; Terron, J; Testa, M; Teuscher, R J; Therhaag, J; Theveneaux-Pelzer, T; Thoma, S; Thomas, J P; Thompson, E N; Thompson, P D; Thompson, P D; Thompson, A S; Thomsen, L A; Thomson, E; Thomson, M; Thong, W M; Thun, R P; Tian, F; Tibbetts, M J; Tic, T; Tikhomirov, V O; Tikhonov, Y A; Timoshenko, S; Tipton, P; Tisserant, S; Todorov, T; Todorova-Nova, S; Toggerson, B; Tojo, J; Tokár, S; Tokushuku, K; Tollefson, K; Tomoto, M; Tompkins, L; Toms, K; Tonoyan, A; Topfel, C; Topilin, N D; Torchiani, I; Torrence, E; Torres, H; Torró Pastor, E; Toth, J; Touchard, F; Tovey, D R; Trefzger, T; Tremblet, L; Tricoli, A; Trigger, I M; Trincaz-Duvoid, S; Tripiana, M F; Triplett, N; Trischuk, W; Trocmé, B; Troncon, C; Trottier-McDonald, M; Trzebinski, M; Trzupek, A; Tsarouchas, C; Tseng, J C-L; Tsiakiris, M; Tsiareshka, P V; Tsionou, D; Tsipolitis, G; Tsiskaridze, S; Tsiskaridze, V; Tskhadadze, E G; Tsukerman, I I; Tsulaia, V; Tsung, J-W; Tsuno, S; Tsybychev, D; Tua, A; Tudorache, A; Tudorache, V; Tuggle, J M; Turala, M; Turecek, D; Turk Cakir, I; Turlay, E; Turra, R; Tuts, P M; Tykhonov, A; Tylmad, M; Tyndel, M; Tzanakos, G; Uchida, K; Ueda, I; Ueno, R; Ugland, M; Uhlenbrock, M; Uhrmacher, M; Ukegawa, F; Unal, G; Undrus, A; Unel, G; Unno, Y; Urbaniec, D; Usai, G; Uslenghi, M; Vacavant, L; Vacek, V; Vachon, B; Vahsen, S; Valenta, J; Valentinetti, S; Valero, A; Valkar, S; Valladolid Gallego, E; Vallecorsa, S; Valls Ferrer, J A; Van Der Deijl, P C; van der Geer, R; van der Graaf, H; Van Der Leeuw, R; van der Poel, E; van der Ster, D; van Eldik, N; van Gemmeren, P; van Vulpen, I; Vanadia, M; Vandelli, W; Vaniachine, A; Vankov, P; Vannucci, F; Vari, R; Varol, T; Varouchas, D; Vartapetian, A; Varvell, K E; Vassilakopoulos, V I; Vazeille, F; Vazquez Schroeder, T; Vegni, G; Veillet, J J; Veloso, F; Veness, R; Veneziano, S; Ventura, A; Ventura, D; Venturi, M; Venturi, N; Vercesi, V; Verducci, M; Verkerke, W; Vermeulen, J C; Vest, A; Vetterli, M C; Vichou, I; Vickey, T; Vickey Boeriu, O E; Viehhauser, G H A; Viel, S; Villa, M; Villaplana Perez, M; Vilucchi, E; Vincter, M G; Vinek, E; Vinogradov, V B; Virchaux, M; Virzi, J; Vitells, O; Viti, M; Vivarelli, I; Vives Vaque, F; Vlachos, S; Vladoiu, D; Vlasak, M; Vogel, A; Vokac, P; Volpi, G; Volpi, M; Volpini, G; von der Schmitt, H; von Radziewski, H; von Toerne, E; Vorobel, V; Vorwerk, V; Vos, M; Voss, R; Voss, T T; Vossebeld, J H; Vranjes, N; Vranjes Milosavljevic, M; Vrba, V; Vreeswijk, M; Vu Anh, T; Vuillermet, R; Vukotic, I; Wagner, W; Wagner, P; Wahlen, H; Wahrmund, S; Wakabayashi, J; Walch, S; Walder, J; Walker, R; Walkowiak, W; Wall, R; Waller, P; Walsh, B; Wang, C; Wang, H; Wang, H; Wang, J; Wang, J; Wang, R; Wang, S M; Wang, T; Warburton, A; Ward, C P; Warsinsky, M; Washbrook, A; Wasicki, C; Watanabe, I; Watkins, P M; Watson, A T; Watson, I J; Watson, M F; Watts, G; Watts, S; Waugh, A T; Waugh, B M; Weber, M S; Weber, P; Weidberg, A R; Weigell, P; Weingarten, J; Weiser, C; Wellenstein, H; Wells, P S; Wenaus, T; Wendland, D; Weng, Z; Wengler, T; Wenig, S; Wermes, N; Werner, M; Werner, P; Werth, M; Wessels, M; Wetter, J; Weydert, C; Whalen, K; Wheeler-Ellis, S J; White, A; White, M J; White, S; Whitehead, S R; Whiteson, D; Whittington, D; Wicek, F; Wicke, D; Wickens, F J; Wiedenmann, W; Wielers, M; Wienemann, P; Wiglesworth, C; Wiik-Fuchs, L A M; Wijeratne, P A; Wildauer, A; Wildt, M A; Wilhelm, I; Wilkens, H G; Will, J Z; Williams, E; Williams, H H; Willis, W; Willocq, S; Wilson, J A; Wilson, M G; Wilson, A; Wingerter-Seez, I; Winkelmann, S; Winklmeier, F; Wittgen, M; Wollstadt, S J; Wolter, M W; Wolters, H; Wong, W C; Wooden, G; Wosiek, B K; Wotschack, J; Woudstra, M J; Wozniak, K W; Wraight, K; Wright, M; Wrona, B; Wu, S L; Wu, X; Wu, Y; Wulf, E; Wynne, B M; Xella, S; Xiao, M; Xie, S; Xu, C; Xu, D; Yabsley, B; Yacoob, S; Yamada, M; Yamaguchi, H; Yamamoto, A; Yamamoto, K; Yamamoto, S; Yamamura, T; Yamanaka, T; Yamaoka, J; Yamazaki, T; Yamazaki, Y; Yan, Z; Yang, H; Yang, U K; Yang, Y; Yang, Z; Yanush, S; Yao, L; Yao, Y; Yasu, Y; Ybeles Smit, G V; Ye, J; Ye, S; Yilmaz, M; Yoosoofmiya, R; Yorita, K; Yoshida, R; Young, C; Young, C J; Youssef, S; Yu, D; Yu, J; Yu, J; Yuan, L; Yurkewicz, A; Zabinski, B; Zaidan, R; Zaitsev, A M; Zajacova, Z; Zanello, L; Zaytsev, A; Zeitnitz, C; Zeman, M; Zemla, A; Zendler, C; Zenin, O; Ženiš, T; Zinonos, Z; Zenz, S; Zerwas, D; Zevi della Porta, G; Zhan, Z; Zhang, D; Zhang, H; Zhang, J; Zhang, X; Zhang, Z; Zhao, L; Zhao, T; Zhao, Z; Zhemchugov, A; Zhong, J; Zhou, B; Zhou, N; Zhou, Y; Zhu, C G; Zhu, H; Zhu, J; Zhu, Y; Zhuang, X; Zhuravlov, V; Zieminska, D; Zimin, N I; Zimmermann, R; Zimmermann, S; Zimmermann, S; Ziolkowski, M; Zitoun, R; Živković, L; Zmouchko, V V; Zobernig, G; Zoccoli, A; zur Nedden, M; Zutshi, V; Zwalinski, L

    2012-12-28

    This Letter presents a search for magnetic monopoles with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider using an integrated luminosity of 2.0  fb(-1) of pp collisions recorded at a center-of-mass energy of sqrt[s]=7  TeV. No event is found in the signal region, leading to an upper limit on the production cross section at 95% confidence level of 1.6/ϵ  fb for Dirac magnetic monopoles with the minimum unit magnetic charge and with mass between 200 GeV and 1500 GeV, where ϵ is the monopole reconstruction efficiency. The efficiency ϵ is high and uniform in the fiducial region given by pseudorapidity |η|<1.37 and transverse kinetic energy 600-700monopoles of mass 200 GeV, whereas the minimum value of 600 GeV is applicable for higher mass monopoles. Therefore, the upper limit on the production cross section at 95% confidence level is 2 fb in this fiducial region. Assuming the kinematic distributions from Drell-Yan pair production of spin-1/2 Dirac magnetic monopoles, the efficiency is in the range 1%-10%, leading to an upper limit on the cross section at 95% confidence level that varies from 145 fb to 16 fb for monopoles with mass between 200 GeV and 1200 GeV. This limit is weaker than the fiducial limit because most of these monopoles lie outside the fiducial region.

  8. Electric spark discharges in water. Low-energy nuclear transmutations and light leptonic magnetic monopoles in an extended standard model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stumpf, Harald [Tuebingen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Theoretical Physics

    2017-11-01

    Light leptonic magnetic monopoles were predicted by Lochak [G. Lochak, Intern. J. Theor. Phys. 24, 1019 (1985).]. Experimental indications based on nuclear transmutations were announced by Urutskoiev et al. [L. I. Urutskoiev, V. I. Liksonov, V. G. Tsinoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 27, Nr.4, 791 (2002).] and Urutskoev [L. J. Urutskoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 29, 1149 (2004).]. A theoretical interpretation of these transmutations is proposed under the assumption that light leptonic magnetic monopoles are created during spark discharges in water. The latter should be excited neutrinos according to Lochak. This hypothesis enforces the introduction of an extended Standard Model described in previous papers. The most important results of this study are (i) that multiple proton captures are responsible for the variety of transmutations and that leptonic magnetic monopoles are involved in these processes (ii) that electromagnetic duality can be established for bound states of leptonic monopoles although massive monopoles are in general unstable (iii) that criteria for the emission of leptonic magnetic monopoles and for their catalytic effect on weak decays are set up and elaborated. The study can be considered as a contribution to the efforts of Urutskoiev and Lochak to understand the reasons for accidents in power plants.

  9. Dipolar Spin Ice States with a Fast Monopole Hopping Rate in CdEr2X4 (X =Se , S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shang; Zaharko, O.; Tsurkan, V.; Prodan, L.; Riordan, E.; Lago, J.; Fâk, B.; Wildes, A. R.; Koza, M. M.; Ritter, C.; Fouquet, P.; Keller, L.; Canévet, E.; Medarde, M.; Blomgren, J.; Johansson, C.; Giblin, S. R.; Vrtnik, S.; Luzar, J.; Loidl, A.; Rüegg, Ch.; Fennell, T.

    2018-03-01

    Excitations in a spin ice behave as magnetic monopoles, and their population and mobility control the dynamics of a spin ice at low temperature. CdEr2 Se4 is reported to have the Pauling entropy characteristic of a spin ice, but its dynamics are three orders of magnitude faster than the canonical spin ice Dy2 Ti2 O7 . In this Letter we use diffuse neutron scattering to show that both CdEr2 Se4 and CdEr2 S4 support a dipolar spin ice state—the host phase for a Coulomb gas of emergent magnetic monopoles. These Coulomb gases have similar parameters to those in Dy2 Ti2 O7 , i.e., dilute and uncorrelated, and so cannot provide three orders faster dynamics through a larger monopole population alone. We investigate the monopole dynamics using ac susceptometry and neutron spin echo spectroscopy, and verify the crystal electric field Hamiltonian of the Er3 + ions using inelastic neutron scattering. A quantitative calculation of the monopole hopping rate using our Coulomb gas and crystal electric field parameters shows that the fast dynamics in CdEr2X4 (X =Se , S) are primarily due to much faster monopole hopping. Our work suggests that CdEr2X4 offer the possibility to study alternative spin ice ground states and dynamics, with equilibration possible at much lower temperatures than the rare earth pyrochlore examples.

  10. Electric Spark Discharges in Water. Low-energy Nuclear Transmutations and Light Leptonic Magnetic Monopoles in an Extended Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stumpf, Harald

    2017-08-01

    Light leptonic magnetic monopoles were predicted by Lochak [G. Lochak, Intern. J. Theor. Phys. 24, 1019 (1985).]. Experimental indications based on nuclear transmutations were announced by Urutskoiev et al. [L. I. Urutskoiev, V. I. Liksonov, V. G. Tsinoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 27, Nr.4, 791 (2002).] and Urutskoev [L. J. Urutskoev, Ann. Fond. L. de Broglie 29, 1149 (2004).]. A theoretical interpretation of these transmutations is proposed under the assumption that light leptonic magnetic monopoles are created during spark discharges in water. The latter should be excited neutrinos according to Lochak. This hypothesis enforces the introduction of an extended Standard Model described in previous papers. The most important results of this study are (i) that multiple proton captures are responsible for the variety of transmutations and that leptonic magnetic monopoles are involved in these processes (ii) that electromagnetic duality can be established for bound states of leptonic monopoles although massive monopoles are in general unstable (iii) that criteria for the emission of leptonic magnetic monopoles and for their catalytic effect on weak decays are set up and elaborated. The study can be considered as a contribution to the efforts of Urutskoiev and Lochak to understand the reasons for accidents in power plants.

  11. An extended diffusive model for calculating thermal diffusivity from single monopole tokamak heat pulse propagation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marinak, M.

    1990-02-01

    The problem of deducing χ e from measurements of the propagation of a monopole heatpulse is considered. An extended diffusive model, which takes into account perturbed sources and sinks is extended to the case of a monopole heat input. χ e is expressed as a function of two observables, the heat pulse velocity and the radial damping rate. Two simple expressions valid for two different ranges of the radius of the poloidal waist of the beam power profile are given. The expressions are valid in the heat pulse measurement region, extending radially 0.05a beyond the beam power waist to near 0.6a. The inferred χ e is a local value, not an average value of the radial χ e profile. 7 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab

  12. Constraints on long-range spin-gravity and monopole-dipole couplings of the proton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson Kimball, Derek F.; Dudley, Jordan; Li, Yan; Patel, Dilan; Valdez, Julian

    2017-10-01

    Results of a search for a long-range monopole-dipole coupling between the mass of the Earth and rubidium (Rb) nuclear spins are reported. The experiment simultaneously measures the spin precession frequencies of overlapping ensembles of 85Rb and 87Rb atoms contained within an evacuated, antirelaxation-coated vapor cell. The nuclear structure of the Rb isotopes makes the experiment particularly sensitive to spin-dependent interactions of the proton. The spin-dependent component of the gravitational energy of the proton in the Earth's field is found to be smaller than 3 ×10-18 eV , improving laboratory constraints on long-range monopole-dipole interactions by over 3 orders of magnitude.

  13. The magnetic monopole and the separation between fast and slow magnetic degrees of freedom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegrowe, J-E; Olive, E

    2016-01-01

    The Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times. (paper)

  14. The magnetic monopole and the separation between fast and slow magnetic degrees of freedom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegrowe, J-E; Olive, E

    2016-03-16

    The Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert (LLG) equation that describes the dynamics of a macroscopic magnetic moment finds its limit of validity at very short times. The reason for this limit is well understood in terms of separation of the characteristic time scales between slow degrees of freedom (the magnetization) and fast degrees of freedom. The fast degrees of freedom are introduced as the variation of the angular momentum responsible for the inertia. In order to study the effect of the fast degrees of freedom on the precession, we calculate the geometric phase of the magnetization (i.e. the Hannay angle) and the corresponding magnetic monopole. In the case of the pure precession (the slow manifold), a simple expression of the magnetic monopole is given as a function of the slowness parameter, i.e. as a function of the ratio of the slow over the fast characteristic times.

  15. Radiatively induced symmetry breaking and the conformally coupled magnetic monopole in AdS space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edery, Ariel; Graham, Noah

    2013-11-01

    We implement quantum corrections for a magnetic monopole in a classically conformally invariant theory containing gravity. This yields the trace (conformal) anomaly and introduces a length scale in a natural fashion via the process of renormalization. We evaluate the one-loop effective potential and extract the vacuum expectation value (VEV) from it; spontaneous symmetry breaking is radiatively induced. The VEV is set at the renormalization scale M and we exchange the dimensionless scalar coupling constant for the dimensionful VEV via dimensional transmutation. The asymptotic (background) spacetime is anti-de Sitter (AdS) and its Ricci scalar is determined entirely by the VEV. We obtain analytical asymptotic solutions to the coupled set of equations governing gravitational, gauge and scalar fields that yield the magnetic monopole in an AdS spacetime.

  16. Null Geodesics and Strong Field Gravitational Lensing of Black Hole with Global Monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iftikhar, Sehrish; Sharif, M.

    2015-01-01

    We study two interesting features of a black hole with an ordinary as well as phantom global monopole. Firstly, we investigate null geodesics which imply unstable orbital motion of particles for both cases. Secondly, we evaluate deflection angle in strong field regime. We then find Einstein rings, magnifications, and observables of the relativistic images for supermassive black hole at the center of galaxy NGC4486B. We also examine time delays for different galaxies and present our results numerically. It is found that the deflection angle for ordinary/phantom global monopole is greater/smaller than that of Schwarzschild black hole. In strong field limit, the remaining properties of these black holes are quite different from the Schwarzschild black hole

  17. Phases of five-dimensional theories, monopole walls, and melting crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherkis, Sergey A.

    2014-06-01

    Moduli spaces of doubly periodic monopoles, also called monopole walls or monowalls, are hyperkähler; thus, when four-dimensional, they are self-dual gravitational instantons. We find all monowalls with lowest number of moduli. Their moduli spaces can be identified, on the one hand, with Coulomb branches of five-dimensional supersymmetric quantum field theories on 3 × T 2 and, on the other hand, with moduli spaces of local Calabi-Yau metrics on the canonical bundle of a del Pezzo surface. We explore the asymptotic metric of these moduli spaces and compare our results with Seiberg's low energy description of the five-dimensional quantum theories. We also give a natural description of the phase structure of general monowall moduli spaces in terms of triangulations of Newton polygons, secondary polyhedra, and associahedral projections of secondary fans.

  18. KK-monopoles and G-structures in M-theory/type IIA reductions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danielsson, Ulf; Dibitetto, Giuseppe; Guarino, Adolfo

    2015-01-01

    We argue that M-theory/massive IIA backgrounds including KK-monopoles are suitably described in the language of G-structures and their intrinsic torsion. To this end, we study classes of minimal supergravity models that admit an interpretation as twisted reductions in which the twist parameters are not restricted to satisfy the Jacobi constraints ω ω=0 required by an ordinary Scherk-Schwarz reduction. We first derive the correspondence between four-dimensional data and torsion classes of the internal space and, then, check the one-to-one correspondence between higher-dimensional and four-dimensional equations of motion. Remarkably, the whole construction holds regardless of the Jacobi constraints, thus shedding light upon the string/M-theory interpretation of (smeared) KK-monopoles.

  19. Millimeter Wave Imaging System Using Monopole Antenna with Cylindrical Reflector and Silicon Lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizuno, Maya; Fukunaga, Kaori; Suzuki, Masaki; Saito, Shingo; Fujii, Katsumi; Hosako, Iwao; Yamanaka, Yukio

    2011-04-01

    We built a reflection imaging system that uses a monopole antenna with a cylindrical reflector and silicon semi-spherical lens for millimeter waves to identify detachments of alabaster from support material such as wood and stone, which can be subject to painting deterioration. Based on the electric field property near the monopole antenna in the system and the lens effect, the system was able to clearly image a test sample made of 2-mm width aluminium tape, which was placed within a range of approximately 10 mm from the lens. In practical imaging testing using a detachment model, which consists of alabaster and wood plating, the result also showed the possibility of observing slight detachment of the alabaster from the wood more easily than an imaging with large numerical aperture.

  20. Synthetic Landau Levels and Spinor Vortex Matter on a Haldane Spherical Surface with a Magnetic Monopole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Xiang-Fa; Wu, Congjun; Guo, Guang-Can; Wang, Ruquan; Pu, Han; Zhou, Zheng-Wei

    2018-03-30

    We present a flexible scheme to realize exact flat Landau levels on curved spherical geometry in a system of spinful cold atoms. This is achieved by applying the Floquet engineering of a magnetic quadrupole field to create a synthetic monopole field in real space. The system can be exactly mapped to the electron-monopole system on a sphere, thus realizing Haldane's spherical geometry for fractional quantum Hall physics. This method works for either bosons or fermions. We investigate the ground-state vortex pattern for an s-wave interacting atomic condensate by mapping this system to the classical Thompson's problem. The distortion and stability of the vortex pattern are further studied in the presence of dipolar interaction. Our scheme is compatible with the current experimental setup, and may serve as a promising route of investigating quantum Hall physics and exotic spinor vortex matter on curved space.

  1. Remarks on a five-dimensional Kaluza-Klein theory of the massive Dirac monopole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotaescu, Ion I.

    2005-01-01

    The Gross-Perry-Sorkin spacetime, formed by the Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino space with the time trivially added, is the appropriate background of the Dirac magnetic monopole without an explicit mass term. We show that there exists a very simple five-dimensional metric of spacetimes carrying massive magnetic monopoles that is an exact solution of the vacuum Einstein equations. Moreover, the same isometry properties as the original Euclidean Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino space are preserved. This leads to an Abelian Kaluza-Klein theory whose metric appears as a combination between the Gross-Perry-Sorkin and Schwarzschild ones. The asymptotic motion of the scalar charged test particles is discussed, now by accounting for the mixing between the gravitational and magnetic effects

  2. Gauge-invariant charged, monopole and dyon fields in gauge theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Froehlich, J.; Marchetti, P.A.

    1999-01-01

    We propose explicit recipes to construct the Euclidean Green functions of gauge-invariant charged, monopole and dyon fields in four-dimensional gauge theories whose phase diagram contains phases with deconfined electric and/or magnetic charges. In theories with only either abelian electric or magnetic charges, our construction is an Euclidean version of Dirac's original proposal, the magnetic dual of his proposal, respectively. Rigorous mathematical control is achieved for a class of abelian lattice theories. In theories where electric and magnetic charges coexist, our construction of Green functions of electrically or magnetically charged fields involves taking an average over Mandelstam strings or the dual magnetic flux tubes, in accordance with Dirac's flux quantization condition. We apply our construction to 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles and Julia-Zee dyons. Connections between our construction and the semiclassical approach are discussed

  3. Euclidean scalar Green function in a higher dimensional global monopole space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bezerra de Mello, E.R.

    2002-01-01

    We construct the explicit Euclidean scalar Green function associated with a massless field in a higher dimensional global monopole space-time, i.e., a (1+d)-space-time with d≥3 which presents a solid angle deficit. Our result is expressed in terms of an infinite sum of products of Legendre functions with Gegenbauer polynomials. Although this Green function cannot be expressed in a closed form, for the specific case where the solid angle deficit is very small, it is possible to develop the sum and obtain the Green function in a more workable expression. Having this expression it is possible to calculate the vacuum expectation value of some relevant operators. As an application of this formalism, we calculate the renormalized vacuum expectation value of the square of the scalar field, 2 (x)> Ren , and the energy-momentum tensor, μν (x)> Ren , for the global monopole space-time with spatial dimensions d=4 and d=5

  4. Recurrence approach and higher order polynomial algebras for superintegrable monopole systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoque, Md Fazlul; Marquette, Ian; Zhang, Yao-Zhong

    2018-05-01

    We revisit the MIC-harmonic oscillator in flat space with monopole interaction and derive the polynomial algebra satisfied by the integrals of motion and its energy spectrum using the ad hoc recurrence approach. We introduce a superintegrable monopole system in a generalized Taub-Newman-Unti-Tamburino (NUT) space. The Schrödinger equation of this model is solved in spherical coordinates in the framework of Stäckel transformation. It is shown that wave functions of the quantum system can be expressed in terms of the product of Laguerre and Jacobi polynomials. We construct ladder and shift operators based on the corresponding wave functions and obtain the recurrence formulas. By applying these recurrence relations, we construct higher order algebraically independent integrals of motion. We show that the integrals form a polynomial algebra. We construct the structure functions of the polynomial algebra and obtain the degenerate energy spectra of the model.

  5. Self-dual monopoles in a seven-dimensional gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Yisong

    1990-01-01

    The existence of self-dual or anti-self-dual monopoles of a seven-dimensional generalized Yang-Mills-Higgs theory is proved using the second-order equations of motion. The behavior of solutions can be used to recognize self- or anti-self-duality. Moreover, it is shwon that, in the class of the field configurations under discussion, the solutions are, in fact, unique. (orig.)

  6. Modification of selection rules as a P-noninvariant effect in the charge-monopole system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tolkachev, E.A.; Tomil'chik, L.M.; Shnir, Y.M.

    1983-01-01

    It is shown that P-noninvariance in the theory of magnetic charge, connected with the non-removability of the discontinuity of the phase of the wave function of charged particles in the field of a Dirac monopole, leads to a change in the selection rules for dipole radiation, which can in principle be used as a critical test for a model with magnetically charged quarks

  7. Monopole and dipole estimation for multi-frequency sky maps by linear regression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wehus, I. K.; Fuskeland, U.; Eriksen, H. K.; Banday, A. J.; Dickinson, C.; Ghosh, T.; Górski, K. M.; Lawrence, C. R.; Leahy, J. P.; Maino, D.; Reich, P.; Reich, W.

    2017-01-01

    We describe a simple but efficient method for deriving a consistent set of monopole and dipole corrections for multi-frequency sky map data sets, allowing robust parametric component separation with the same data set. The computational core of this method is linear regression between pairs of frequency maps, often called T-T plots. Individual contributions from monopole and dipole terms are determined by performing the regression locally in patches on the sky, while the degeneracy between different frequencies is lifted whenever the dominant foreground component exhibits a significant spatial spectral index variation. Based on this method, we present two different, but each internally consistent, sets of monopole and dipole coefficients for the nine-year WMAP, Planck 2013, SFD 100 μm, Haslam 408 MHz and Reich & Reich 1420 MHz maps. The two sets have been derived with different analysis assumptions and data selection, and provide an estimate of residual systematic uncertainties. In general, our values are in good agreement with previously published results. Among the most notable results are a relative dipole between the WMAP and Planck experiments of 10-15μK (depending on frequency), an estimate of the 408 MHz map monopole of 8.9 ± 1.3 K, and a non-zero dipole in the 1420 MHz map of 0.15 ± 0.03 K pointing towards Galactic coordinates (l,b) = (308°,-36°) ± 14°. These values represent the sum of any instrumental and data processing offsets, as well as any Galactic or extra-Galactic component that is spectrally uniform over the full sky.

  8. Magnetic Monopoles and the Dual London Equation in SU(3) Lattice Gauge Theory

    OpenAIRE

    Skala, Peter; Faber, Manfried; Zach, Martin

    1996-01-01

    We propose a method for the determination of magnetic monopole currents in non-Abelian gauge theories which does not need a projection to Abelian degrees of freedom. With this definition we are able to determine the distribution of magnetic currents and electric fields for the gluonic flux tube between a pair of static charges. Further we check the validity of the Gauss law and the dual London equation in a gauge invariant formulation.

  9. Low energy dynamics of monopoles in supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories with hypermultiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Chanju

    2006-01-01

    We derive the low energy dynamics of monopoles and dyons in N = 2 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories with hypermultiplets in arbitrary representations by utilizing a collective coordinate expansion. We consider the most general case that Higgs fields both in the vector multiplet and in the hypermultiplets have nonzero vacuum expectation values. The resulting theory is a supersymmetric quantum mechanics which has been obtained by a nontrivial dimensional reduction of two-dimensional (4,0) supersymmetric sigma models with potentials

  10. The Cauchy problem for space-time monopole equations in Sobolev spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huh, Hyungjin; Yim, Jihyun

    2018-04-01

    We consider the initial value problem of space-time monopole equations in one space dimension with initial data in Sobolev space Hs. Observing null structures of the system, we prove local well-posedness in almost critical space. Unconditional uniqueness and global existence are proved for s ≥ 0. Moreover, we show that the H1 Sobolev norm grows at a rate of at most c exp(ct2).

  11. Effective monopole potential for SU(2) lattice gluodynamics in spatial maximal Abelian gauge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chernodub, M.N.; Polikarpov, M.I.; Veselov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    We investigate the dual superconductor hypothesis in finite-temperature SU(2) lattice gluodynamics in the Spatial Maximal Abelian gauge. This gauge is more physical than the ordinary Maximal Abelian gauge due to absence of non-localities in temporal direction. We shown numerically that in the Spatial Maximal Abelian gauge the probability distribution of the abelian monopole field is consistent with the dual superconductor mechanism of confinement [ru

  12. On magnetic monopoles (without a string) and the Clifford bundle formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recami, E.; Rodrigues, W.A. Jr.

    1990-07-01

    By adopting the Clifford Bundle language, we recently put forth a satisfactory lagrangian formalism for electromagnetism with magnetic monopoles without a string. Here, by taking advantage of the welcome opportunity of some recent comments by E. Comay (and while answering them), we ''complete'' that formalism. In particular, we show how the Lorentz forces and the motion equations, for both electric and magnetic charges, can be derived from the generalized Maxwell equations: without any further recourse to a variational principle. (author). 18 refs

  13. Desain dan Optimasi Antena Pita Lebar Planar Monopole Bentuk Sembarang dengan Algoritma Genetika dan Metode Momen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joko Suryana

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new approach in designing an ultra wideband minimum dispersion antenna optimally to avoid the degradation of broadband communications system performance. Design and iterative optimization are applied to an arbitrary shape of planar monopole antenna using a genetic algorithm combined with the moment method, abbreviated as AGMM method, and implemented with Matlab. Two arbitrary shapes of planar monopole antennas have been implemented in compact physical size using AGMM optimization, each having 9.1 GHz and 7.4 GHz bandwidths, the lowest frequency of 1.9 GHz and 2.7 GHz and fidelity 0.6 and 0.64 for any arbitrary discrete antenna and edge profile antenna. This method can be applied to design any arbitrary shapes of an ultra-wideband antenna with each has wide bandwidth more than 7 GHz, the lowest frequency below 3 GHz and a minimum fidelity of 0,55 that is suitable for high- speed communication, such as 5G system. Makalah ini memaparkan pendekatan baru dalam perancangan optimal antena pita lebar dispersi minimum untuk menghindari penurunan kinerja sistem komunikasi kecepatan tinggi. Desain dan optimasi iteratif diterapkan pada antena planar monopole bentuk sembarang menggunakan algoritma genetika yang digabungkan dengan metode momen yang disingkat sebagai metode AGMM. Metode ini diimplementasikan dengan Matlab. Dua buah tipe antena planar monopole pita lebar bentuk sembarang dan ukuran fisik kompak berhasil dirancang dengan AGMM yang masing-masing memiliki lebar pita 9,1 GHz dan 7,4 GHz, frekuensi terendah 1,9 GHz dan 2,7 GHz serta memiliki fidelity 0,6 dan 0,64 untuk antena diskrit sembarang dan antena profil tepi sembarang. Metode ini dapat diterapkan untuk merancang antena pita lebar bentuk sembarang dengan lebar pita lebih dari 7 GHz, frekuensi terendah < 3 GHz dan memiliki fidelity di atas 0,55 yang cocok untuk komunikasi berkecepatan tinggi, misalnya sistem 5G.

  14. Monopole dynamics of yang-mills theory without gauge-fixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia Duojie; Li Xiguo

    2003-01-01

    A new off-shell decomposition of SU(2) gauge field without any gauge fixing is proposed. This decomposition yields, for an appropriate gauge-fixing, a Skyme-Faddeev-like Wilsonian action and confirms the presence of high-order derivatives of a color-unit-vector at the classical level. The 't Hooft's conjecture that 'monopole' dynamics of infrared Yang-Mills theory is projection independent is also independently demonstrated

  15. Resource defense and monopolization in a marked population of ruby-throated hummingbirds (Archilochus colubris).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rousseu, François; Charette, Yanick; Bélisle, Marc

    2014-03-01

    Resource defense behavior is often explained by the spatial and temporal distribution of resources. However, factors such as competition, habitat complexity, and individual space use may also affect the capacity of individuals to defend and monopolize resources. Yet, studies frequently focus on one or two factors, overlooking the complexity found in natural settings. Here, we addressed defense and monopolization of nectar feeders in a population of free-ranging ruby-throated hummingbirds marked with passive integrated transponder (PIT tags). Our study system consisted of a 44 ha systematic grid of 45 feeders equipped with PIT tag detectors recording every visit made at feeders. We modeled the number of visits by competitors (NVC) at feeders in response to space use by a focal individual potentially defending a feeder, number of competitors, nectar sucrose concentration, and habitat visibility. Individuals who were more concentrated at certain feeders on a given day and who were more stable in their use of the grid throughout the season gained higher exclusivity in the use of those feeders on that day, especially for males competing against males. The level of spatial concentration at feeders and its negative effect on NVC was, however, highly variable among individuals, suggesting a continuum in resource defense strategies. Although the apparent capacity to defend feeders was not affected by competition or nectar sucrose concentration, the level of monopolization decreased with increasing number of competitors and higher nectar quality. Defense was enhanced by visibility near feeders, but only in forested habitats. The reverse effect of visibility in open habitats was more difficult to interpret as it was probably confounded by perch availability, from which a bird can defend its feeder. Our study is among the first to quantify the joint use of food resource by overlapping individuals unconstrained in their use of space. Our results show the importance of

  16. Retraction RETRACTION of "Methylation of the RASSFIA promoter in breast cancer" by Y. Ji, H.H. Jin, M.D. Wang, W.X. Cao, J.L. Bao - Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15028261 (2016) - DOI: 10.4238/gmr.15028261.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Y; Jin, H H; Wang, M D; Cao, W X; Bao, J L

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Ji Y, Jin HH, Wang MD, Cao WX, et al. (2016). Methylation of the RASSFIA promoter in breast cancer. Genet. Mol. Res. 15: gmr.15028261. There are significant parts of this article (particularly, in the discussion section) that are copied from "Methylation of HIN-1, RASSF1A, RIL and CDH13 in breast cancer is associated with clinical characteristics, but only RASSF1A methylation is associated with outcome", by Jia Xu, Priya B Shetty, Weiwei Feng, Carol Chenault, Robert C Bast Jr, Jean-Pierre J Issa, Susan G Hilsenbeck and Yinhua Yu, published in BMC Cancer 2012; 12: 243. DOI: 10.1186/1471-2407-12-243. The first paragraphs of both discussions are identical. This is concerning. The abstract and introduction sections have much of their text plagiarized. Overall, there is high plagiarism detected. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, we have strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure and, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract the article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  17. Retraction RETRACTION of "Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene -308G>A polymorphism association with the risk of esophageal cancer in a Han Chinese population" by H. Zhao, H.W. Zhang, T. Zhang and X.M. Gu - Genet. Mol. Res. 15 (2): gmr.15025866 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.4238/gmr.15025866.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, H; Zhang, H W; Zhang, T; Gu, X M

    2016-10-07

    The retracted article is: Zhao H, Zhang HW, Zhang T and Gu XM (2016). Tumor necrosis factor alpha gene -308G>A polymorphism association with the risk of esophageal cancer in a Han Chinese population. Genet. Mol. Res. 15: gmr.15025866. Two major concerns were found in this article. Firstly, it was found to be substantially equal to the article "Tumor necrosis factor-alpha gene -308G > A polymorphism alters the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma in a Han Chinese population" published in the Diagnostic Pathology Diagnostic Pathology (2014) 9: 199, by Feng et al.; licensee BioMed Central. 2014 - DOI: 10.1186/s13000-014-0199-3. Secondly, the authors do not discuss limitations of their approaches in the discussion. The discussion is largely an elaboration of the literature in the introduction part. However, even in that context, the discussion does not appropriately review the literature and there are frequent references to conclusions that are not supported by the cited literature. The GMR editorial staff was alerted and after a thorough investigation, there is strong reason to believe that the peer review process was failure. Also, after review and contacting the authors, the editors of Genetics and Molecular Research decided to retract this article in accordance with the recommendations of the Committee on Publication Ethics (COPE). The authors and their institutions were advised of this serious breach of ethics.

  18. Isoscalar giant resonances in a relativistic model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    L'Huillier, M.; Nguyen Van Giai.

    1988-07-01

    Isoscalar giant resonances in finite nuclei are studied in a relativistic Random Phase Approximation (RRPA) approach. The model is self-consistent in the sense that one set of coupling constants generates the Dirac-Hartree single-particle spectrum and the residual particle-hole interaction. The RRPA is used to calculate response functions of multipolarity L = 0,2,3, and 4 in light and medium nuclei. It is found that monopole and quadrupole modes exhibit a collective character. The peak energies are overestimated, but not as much as one might think if the bulk properties (compression modulus, effective mass) were the only relevant quantities

  19. Missing monopole strength of the Hoyle state in the alpha inelastic scattering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawabata, T; Kadoya, T; Yokota, N; Adachi, S; Baba, T; Furuno, T; Ishii, Y; Murata, M; Tsumura, M; Watanabe, H; Fujimura, H; Fujiwara, M; Hatanaka, K; Ito, T; Matsuda, Y; Tamii, A; Itoh, M; Sato, T; Maeda, Y; Zenihiro, J

    2014-01-01

    Cross sections for the alpha inelastic scattering exciting the low-lying monopole states in 12 C, 16 O, 24 Mg, 28 Si, and 40 Ca were measured and compared with the distorted- wave Born-approximation (DWBA) calculation to examine the puzzle of the missing monopole strength of the Hoyle state. It was found the DWBA calculation using the density-dependent aN interaction systematically overestimates the cross sections for the 0 + transitions, and the puzzle is a universal problem in light nuclei but not special in the Hoyle state. Since the DWBA calculation using the density-independent interaction reasonably well reproduces the experiment, this puzzle might be related to the density dependence of the effective interaction. The coupled-channel effect for the alpha inelastic scattering is also examined. The coupled- channel effect reduces the calculated cross section, and solve the puzzle of the missing monopole strengths in part, but the improvement of the density dependence of the effective interaction is still necessary to solve the puzzle

  20. UWB Monopole Antenna with Band Notched Characteristics Mitigating Interference with WiMAX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Ibrahim

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Compact asymmetric coplanar strip (ACS - fed monopole antenna is presented in this paper for operation in ultra wide-band (UWB applications. The antenna is composed of a semi-elliptical monopole and lateral coplanar ground plane to operate in the UWB range. It occupies a very small size of 28 × 11.5 mm 2 and is mounted on low cost FR4 substrate of 1.6 mm thickness and dielectric constant of 4.4. Band notched structure is applied to the proposed antenna to assure the rejection of WiMAX frequency band centered at 3.5 GHz to minimize the interference of the communication system with this service. The radiation characteristics of the proposed ACS-fed monopole antenna is nearly omnidirectional with moderate gain over the entire UWB frequency range. The measurements of the fabricated model confirm the designed behavior. The compactness in size, cheap cost and simple feeding technique make it as a good candidate to be integrated within the portable devices for wireless communication.

  1. Dirac particle in a magnetic field: Symmetries and their breaking by monopole singularities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldhaber, A.S.

    1977-01-01

    Some rules governing motion of a charged particle obeying the Dirac equation are assembled, including exact helicity conservation for scattering on an arbitrary finite magnetic field configuration. The singularity at the location of a magnetic monopole invalidates the derivation of the rules mentioned, leaving the Dirac Hamiltonian H undefined for the lowest angular momentum state of the electron in the field of the pole. Specifying the behavior of H under the discrete P, T, and C symmetries determines it almost uniquely. One result is that H may possess a bound state of zero energy, contrary to assertions in early papers on the subject. Zero-energy bound states which violate the superselection rule for electric charge are also studied, including one which is the point limit of a solution for a fermion multiplet interacting with a finite-energy soliton monopole. Implications of such a bound state for second quantization have been considered previously by others and are further analyzed here. The suggestion that monopoles may possess half-integral fermion number is shown to be unwarranted by present evidence

  2. A Multiband Monopole Antenna with the Inverted-Trapezoidal CPW Feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quanqi Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A multi-band monopole antenna with the improved inverted-trapezoidal coplanar waveguide (CPW feeding is presented. The antenna has a simple planar structure, and occupies an area of 15 mm × 50 mm. The proposed antenna consists of an improved inverted-trapezoidal CPW-fed patch, and a series of monopole strips with different length. This monopole antenna utilizes the advantages of the CPW feeding to simplify the structure of the antenna into a single metallic level and achieve high antenna gain. The improved inverted-trapezoidal CPW-fed patch and a meander shorting strip lead to a better impedance matching result and multi-band operation. The experimental results of the proposed antenna are shown and discussed. The antenna generates two wide bands centered at about 900 and 2200 MHz to cover the GSM850/GSM900/DCS/PCS/UMTS/LTE2300/2500 bands and the 2.4 GHz WLAN operation. Meanwhile the antenna covers the 4 G bands of China Telecom (2370–2390 MHz/2635–2655 MHz, China Unicom (2300–2320 MHz/2555–2575 MHz and China Mobile (1880–1900 MHz/2320–2370 MHz/2575–2635 MHz, too.

  3. Test-particle motion in Einstein's unified field theory. III. Magnetic monopoles and charged particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1986-01-01

    In a previous paper (paper I), we developed a method for finding the exact equations of structure and motion of multipole test particles in Einstein's unified field theory: the theory of the nonsymmetric field. In that paper we also applied the method and found in Einstein's unified field theory the equations of structure and motion of neutral pole-dipole test particles possessing no electromagnetic multipole moments. In a second paper (paper II), we applied the method and found in Einstein's unified field theory the exact equations of structure and motion of charged test particles possessing no magnetic monopole moments. In the present paper (paper III), we apply the method and find in Einstein's unified field theory the exact equations of structure and motion of charged test particles possessing magnetic monopole moments. It follows from the form of these equations of structure and motion that in general in Einstein's unified field theory a test particle possessing a magnetic monopole moment in a background electromagnetic field must also possess spin

  4. Hybrid model for the decay of nuclear giant resonances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussein, M.S.

    1986-12-01

    The decay properties of nuclear giant multipole resonances are discussed within a hybrid model that incorporates, in a unitary consistent way, both the coherent and statistical features. It is suggested that the 'direct' decay of the GR is described with continuum first RPA and the statistical decay calculated with a modified Hauser-Feshbach model. Application is made to the decay of the giant monopole resonance in 208 Pb. Suggestions are made concerning the calculation of the mixing parameter using the statistical properties of the shell model eigenstates at high excitation energies. (Author) [pt

  5. On the Use of Monopole Antennas for Determining the Effect of the Enclosure of a Power Transformer Tank in Partial Discharges Electromagnetic Propagation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarracín, Ricardo; Ardila-Rey, Jorge Alfredo; Mas'ud, Abdullahi Abubakar

    2016-01-25

    A well-defined condition-monitoring for power transformers is key to implementing a correct condition-based maintenance (CBM). In this regard, partial discharges (PD) measurement and its analysis allows to carry out on-line maintenance following the standards IEC-60270 and IEC-60076. However, new PD measurements techniques, such as acoustics or electromagnetic (EM) acquisitions using ultra-high-frequency (UHF) sensors are being taken into account, IEC-62478. PD measurements with antennas and the effect of their EM propagation in power transformer tanks is an open research topic that is considered in this paper. In this sense, an empty tank model is studied as a rectangular cavity and their resonances are calculated and compared with their measurement with a network analyser. Besides, two low cost improved monopole antennas deployed inside and outside of the tank model capture background noise and PD pulses in three different test objects (Nomex, twisted pair and insulator). The average spectrum of them are compared and can be found that mainly, the antenna frequency response, the frequency content distribution depending on the PD source and the enclosure resonances modes are the main factors to be considered in PD acquisitions with these sensors. Finally, with this set-up, it is possible to measure PD activity inside the tank from outside.

  6. Induced self-energy on a static scalar charged particle in the spacetime of a global monopole with finite core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, D; De Freitas, U; De Mello, E R Bezerra

    2011-01-01

    We analyze the induced self-energy and self-force on a scalar point-like charged test particle placed at rest in the spacetime of a global monopole admitting a general spherically symmetric inner structure to it. In order to develop this analysis we calculate the three-dimensional Green's function associated with this physical system. We explicitly show that for points outside the monopole's core the scalar self-energy presents two distinct contributions. The first one is induced by the non-trivial topology of the global monopole considered as a point-like defect and the second is a correction induced by the non-vanishing inner structure attributed to it. For points inside the monopole, the self-energy also present a similar structure, where now the first contribution depends on the geometry of the spacetime inside. As illustrations of the general procedure adopted, two specific models, namely flower-pot and the ballpoint-pen, are considered for the region inside. For these two different situations, we were able to obtain exact expressions for the self-energies and self-forces in the regions outside and inside the global monopole.

  7. Induced self-energy on a static scalar charged particle in the spacetime of a global monopole with finite core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, D; De Freitas, U; De Mello, E R Bezerra, E-mail: denis.barros@ifpb.edu.br, E-mail: umbelino@fisica.ufpb.br, E-mail: emello@fisica.ufpb.br [Instituto Federal de Educacao, Ciencia e Tecnologia da ParaIba, 58.800-970, Sousa, PB (Brazil)

    2011-03-21

    We analyze the induced self-energy and self-force on a scalar point-like charged test particle placed at rest in the spacetime of a global monopole admitting a general spherically symmetric inner structure to it. In order to develop this analysis we calculate the three-dimensional Green's function associated with this physical system. We explicitly show that for points outside the monopole's core the scalar self-energy presents two distinct contributions. The first one is induced by the non-trivial topology of the global monopole considered as a point-like defect and the second is a correction induced by the non-vanishing inner structure attributed to it. For points inside the monopole, the self-energy also present a similar structure, where now the first contribution depends on the geometry of the spacetime inside. As illustrations of the general procedure adopted, two specific models, namely flower-pot and the ballpoint-pen, are considered for the region inside. For these two different situations, we were able to obtain exact expressions for the self-energies and self-forces in the regions outside and inside the global monopole.

  8. Color superconductivity, ZN flux tubes and monopole confinement in deformed N=2* super Yang-Mills theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kneipp, Marco A.C.

    2003-11-01

    We study the ZN flux tubes and monopole confinement in deformed N=2* super Yang-Mills theories. In order to do that we consider an N=4 super Yang-Mills theory with an arbitrary gauge group G and add some N=2, N=1 and N=0 deformation terms. We analyze some possible vacuum solutions and phases of the theory, depending on the deformation terms which are added. In the Coulomb phase for the N=2* theory, G is broken to U(1)r and the theory has monopole solutions. Then, by adding some deformation terms, the theory passes to the Higgs or color superconducting phase, in which G is broken to its center CG. In this phase we construct the ZN flux tubes Ansatz and obtain the BPS string tension. We show that the monopole magnetic fluxes are linear integer combinations of the string fluxes and therefore the monopoles can become confined. Then, we obtain a bound for the threshold length of the string-breaking. We also show the possible formation of a confining system with 3 different monopoles for the SU(3) gauge group. Finally we show that the BPS string tensions of the theory satisfy the Casimir scaling law. (author)

  9. Search for magnetic monopoles in $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV pp collisions with the ATLAS detector

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abbott, Brad; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdel Khalek, Samah; Abdelalim, Ahmed Ali; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abi, Babak; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Acerbi, Emilio; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Addy, Tetteh; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adragna, Paolo; Adye, Tim; Aefsky, Scott; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Agustoni, Marco; Aharrouche, Mohamed; Ahlen, Steven; Ahles, Florian; Ahmad, Ashfaq; Ahsan, Mahsana; Aielli, Giulio; Akdogan, Taylan; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimoto, Ginga; Akimov, Andrei; Alam, Mohammad; Alam, Muhammad Aftab; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alessandria, Franco; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexandre, Gauthier; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Aliev, Malik; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alison, John; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Allwood-Spiers, Sarah; Almond, John; Aloisio, Alberto; Alon, Raz; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amako, Katsuya; Amelung, Christoph; Ammosov, Vladimir; Amorim, Antonio; Amram, Nir; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Anduaga, Xabier; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonaki, Ariadni; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aoun, Sahar; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Apolle, Rudi; Arabidze, Giorgi; Aracena, Ignacio; Arai, Yasuo; Arce, Ayana; Arfaoui, Samir; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Arik, Engin; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnault, Christian; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Arutinov, David; Asai, Shoji; Asfandiyarov, Ruslan; Ask, Stefan; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astbury, Alan; Atkinson, Markus; Aubert, Bernard; Auge, Etienne; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Avramidou, Rachel Maria; Axen, David; Azuelos, Georges; Azuma, Yuya; Baak, Max; Baccaglioni, Giuseppe; Bacci, Cesare; Bach, Andre; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Badescu, Elisabeta; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bahinipati, Seema; Bai, Yu; Bailey, David; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baker, Mark; Baker, Sarah; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Piyali; Banerjee, Swagato; Banfi, Danilo; Bangert, Andrea Michelle; Bansal, Vikas; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Baranov, Sergei; Barbaro Galtieri, Angela; Barber, Tom; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Bardin, Dmitri; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Barrillon, Pierre; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartsch, Valeria; Bates, Richard; Batkova, Lucia; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Andreas; Battistin, Michele; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beale, Steven; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becks, Karl-Heinz; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bedikian, Sourpouhi; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Begel, Michael; Behar Harpaz, Silvia; Beimforde, Michael; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, Paul; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellina, Francesco; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belloni, Alberto; Beloborodova, Olga; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Benoit, Mathieu; Bensinger, James; Benslama, Kamal; Bentvelsen, Stan; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Berglund, Elina; Beringer, Jürg; Bernat, Pauline; Bernhard, Ralf; Bernius, Catrin; Berry, Tracey; Bertella, Claudia; Bertin, Antonio; Bertolucci, Federico; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Besson, Nathalie; Bethke, Siegfried; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Bierwagen, Katharina; Biesiada, Jed; Biglietti, Michela; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biscarat, Catherine; Bitenc, Urban; Black, Kevin; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanchot, Georges; Blazek, Tomas; Blocker, Craig; Blocki, Jacek; Blondel, Alain; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Boddy, Christopher Richard; Boehler, Michael; Boek, Jennifer; Boelaert, Nele; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bogouch, Andrei; Bohm, Christian; Bohm, Jan; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Bolnet, Nayanka Myriam; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Booth, Chris; Bordoni, Stefania; Borer, Claudia; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borjanovic, Iris; Borri, Marcello; Borroni, Sara; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boterenbrood, Hendrik; Bouchami, Jihene; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, Ivanka; Bracinik, Juraj; Branchini, Paolo; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Brelier, Bertrand; Bremer, Johan; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Britton, Dave; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Broggi, Francesco; Bromberg, Carl; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brown, Gareth; Brown, Heather; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Brunet, Sylvie; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Bucci, Francesca; Buchanan, James; Buchholz, Peter; Buckingham, Ryan; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Budick, Burton; Büscher, Volker; Bugge, Lars; Bulekov, Oleg; Bundock, Aaron Colin; Bunse, Moritz; Buran, Torleiv; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgess, Thomas; Burke, Stephen; Busato, Emmanuel; Bussey, Peter; Buszello, Claus-Peter; Butler, Bart; Butler, John; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Buttinger, William; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cakir, Orhan; Calafiura, Paolo; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Calkins, Robert; Caloba, Luiz; Caloi, Rita; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminada, Lea Michaela; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Canale, Vincenzo; Canelli, Florencia; Canepa, Anadi; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Capasso, Luciano; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capriotti, Daniele; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Bryan; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo Montoya, German D; Carter, Antony; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Cascella, Michele; Caso, Carlo; Castaneda Hernandez, Alfredo Martin; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Cataldi, Gabriella; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Cattani, Giordano; Caughron, Seth; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalleri, Pietro; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chan, Kevin; Chapleau, Bertrand; Chapman, John Derek; Chapman, John Wehrley; Chareyre, Eve; Charlton, Dave; Chavda, Vikash; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Yujiao; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Cheung, Sing-Leung; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiefari, Giovanni; Chikovani, Leila; Childers, John Taylor; Chilingarov, Alexandre; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choudalakis, Georgios; Chouridou, Sofia; Christidi, Illectra-Athanasia; Christov, Asen; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chu, Ming-Lee; Chudoba, Jiri; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Ciftci, Rena; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Ciocca, Claudia; Ciocio, Alessandra; Cirilli, Manuela; Cirkovic, Predrag; Citterio, Mauro; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clemens, Jean-Claude; Clement, Benoit; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Coggeshall, James; Cogneras, Eric; Colas, Jacques; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collins, Neil; Collins-Tooth, Christopher; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Colon, German; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Conidi, Maria Chiara; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Copic, Katherine; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Costin, Tudor; Côté, David; Courneyea, Lorraine; Cowan, Glen; Cowden, Christopher; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Crescioli, Francesco; Cristinziani, Markus; Crosetti, Giovanni; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Cuciuc, Constantin-Mihai; Cuenca Almenar, Cristóbal; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Curatolo, Maria; Curtis, Chris; Cuthbert, Cameron; Cwetanski, Peter; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; Czyczula, Zofia; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; D'Orazio, Alessia; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dameri, Mauro; Damiani, Daniel; Danielsson, Hans Olof; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darlea, Georgiana Lavinia; Dassoulas, James; Davey, Will; Davidek, Tomas; Davidson, Nadia; Davidson, Ruth; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davignon, Olivier; Davison, Adam; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; de Graat, Julien; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De La Taille, Christophe; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; de Mora, Lee; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; De Zorzi, Guido; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dechenaux, Benjamin; Dedovich, Dmitri; Degenhardt, James; Del Papa, Carlo; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delemontex, Thomas; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demirkoz, Bilge; Deng, Jianrong; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Devetak, Erik; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; DeWilde, Burton; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Dhullipudi, Ramasudhakar; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Luise, Silvestro; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Dietzsch, Thorsten; Diglio, Sara; Dindar Yagci, Kamile; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dinut, Florin; Dionisi, Carlo; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Do Valle Wemans, André; Doan, Thi Kieu Oanh; Dobbs, Matt; Dobinson, Robert; Dobos, Daniel; Dobson, Ellie; Dodd, Jeremy; Doglioni, Caterina; Doherty, Tom; Doi, Yoshikuni; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolenc, Irena; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Dohmae, Takeshi; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dos Anjos, Andre; Dotti, Andrea; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doxiadis, Alexander; Doyle, Tony; Dris, Manolis; Dubbert, Jörg; Dube, Sourabh; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Dudarev, Alexey; Dudziak, Fanny; Dührssen, Michael; Duerdoth, Ian; Duflot, Laurent; Dufour, Marc-Andre; Duguid, Liam; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Duxfield, Robert; Dwuznik, Michal; Dydak, Friedrich; Düren, Michael; Ebke, Johannes; Eckweiler, Sebastian; Edmonds, Keith; Edson, William; Edwards, Clive; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Eisenhandler, Eric; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Ellis, Katherine; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Engelmann, Roderich; Engl, Albert; Epp, Brigitte; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Eriksson, Daniel; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Ernwein, Jean; Errede, Deborah; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Espinal Curull, Xavier; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienne, Francois; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evangelakou, Despoina; Evans, Hal; Fabbri, Laura; Fabre, Caroline; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farley, Jason; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Fatholahzadeh, Baharak; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Fazio, Salvatore; Febbraro, Renato; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Fehling-Kaschek, Mirjam; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Fellmann, Denis; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Fenyuk, Alexander; Ferencei, Jozef; Fernando, Waruna; Ferrag, Samir; Ferrando, James; Ferrara, Valentina; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Gordon; Fisher, Matthew; Flechl, Martin; Fleck, Ivor; Fleckner, Johanna; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Fonseca Martin, Teresa; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fortin, Dominique; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Franchino, Silvia; Francis, David; Frank, Tal; Franz, Sebastien; Fraternali, Marco; Fratina, Sasa; French, Sky; Friedrich, Conrad; Friedrich, Felix; Froeschl, Robert; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gadfort, Thomas; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallo, Valentina Santina; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Gan, KK; Gao, Yongsheng; Gaponenko, Andrei; Garberson, Ford; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garitaonandia, Hegoi; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Gellerstedt, Karl; Gemme, Claudia; Gemmell, Alistair; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerlach, Peter; Gershon, Avi; Geweniger, Christoph; Ghazlane, Hamid; Ghodbane, Nabil; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giakoumopoulou, Victoria; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Gianotti, Fabiola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Adam; Gibson, Stephen; Gillberg, Dag; Gillman, Tony; Gingrich, Douglas; Ginzburg, Jonatan; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giordano, Raffaele; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giovannini, Paola; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giugni, Danilo; Giunta, Michele; Giusti, Paolo; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glazov, Alexandre; Glitza, Karl-Walter; Glonti, George; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godfrey, Jennifer; Godlewski, Jan; Goebel, Martin; Göpfert, Thomas; Goeringer, Christian; Gössling, Claus; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Gomes, Agostinho; Gomez Fajardo, Luz Stella; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; Gonzalez, Saul; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez Silva, Laura; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goodson, Jeremiah Jet; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorfine, Grant; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Gosdzik, Bjoern; Goshaw, Alfred; Gosselink, Martijn; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Gough Eschrich, Ivo; Gouighri, Mohamed; Goujdami, Driss; Goulette, Marc Phillippe; Goussiou, Anna; Goy, Corinne; Gozpinar, Serdar; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Grancagnolo, Francesco; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Grassi, Valerio; Gratchev, Vadim; Grau, Nathan; Gray, Heather; Gray, Julia Ann; Graziani, Enrico; Grebenyuk, Oleg; Greenshaw, Timothy; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grigalashvili, Nugzar; Grillo, Alexander; Grinstein, Sebastian; Grishkevich, Yaroslav; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Groth-Jensen, Jacob; Grybel, Kai; Guest, Daniel; Guicheney, Christophe; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Guler, Hulya; Gunther, Jaroslav; Guo, Bin; Guo, Jun; Gutierrez, Phillip; Guttman, Nir; Gutzwiller, Olivier; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haas, Stefan; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Hadley, David; Haefner, Petra; Hahn, Ferdinand; Haider, Stefan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Hall, David; Haller, Johannes; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamer, Matthias; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamilton, Samuel; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Handel, Carsten; Hanke, Paul; Hansen, John Renner; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hansson, Per; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hare, Gabriel; Harenberg, Torsten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harper, Devin; Harrington, Robert; Harris, Orin; Hartert, Jochen; Hartjes, Fred; Haruyama, Tomiyoshi; Harvey, Alex; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauschild, Michael; Hauser, Reiner; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hawkins, Donovan; Hayakawa, Takashi; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; He, Mao; Head, Simon; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heinemann, Beate; Heisterkamp, Simon; Helary, Louis; Heller, Claudio; Heller, Matthieu; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, Robert; Henke, Michael; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Hensel, Carsten; Henß, Tobias; Medina Hernandez, Carlos; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillert, Sonja; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hirose, Minoru; Hirsch, Florian; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoffman, Julia; Hoffmann, Dirk; Hohlfeld, Marc; Holder, Martin; Holmgren, Sven-Olof; Holy, Tomas; Holzbauer, Jenny; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Horn, Claus; Horner, Stephan; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huettmann, Antje; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hurwitz, Martina; Husemann, Ulrich; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibbotson, Michael; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Idarraga, John; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikeno, Masahiro; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Inigo-Golfin, Joaquin; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Ivashin, Anton; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, John; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansen, Hendrik; Jantsch, Andreas; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Jeanty, Laura; Jen-La Plante, Imai; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jež, Pavel; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Jha, Manoj Kumar; Ji, Haoshuang; Ji, Weina; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jimenez Belenguer, Marcos; Jin, Shan; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Joffe, David; Johansen, Marianne; Johansson, Erik; Johansson, Per; Johnert, Sebastian; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Joram, Christian; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Jovin, Tatjana; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jungst, Ralph Markus; Juranek, Vojtech; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kabana, Sonja; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kadlecik, Peter; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalinin, Sergey; Kalinovskaya, Lidia; Kama, Sami; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneda, Michiru; Kaneti, Steven; Kanno, Takayuki; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kapliy, Anton; Kaplon, Jan; Kar, Deepak; Karagounis, Michael; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kasieczka, Gregor; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Mayuko; Kataoka, Yousuke; Katsoufis, Elias; Katzy, Judith; Kaushik, Venkatesh; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kayl, Manuel; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Kazarinov, Makhail; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keil, Markus; Kekelidze, George; Keller, John; Kenyon, Mike; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerschen, Nicolas; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Kessoku, Kohei; Keung, Justin; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharchenko, Dmitri; Khodinov, Alexander; Khomich, Andrei; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khoriauli, Gia; Khoroshilov, Andrey; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kim, Hyeon Jin; Kim, Shinhong; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Robert Steven Beaufoy; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kitamura, Takumi; Kittelmann, Thomas; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klemetti, Miika; Klier, Amit; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klinkby, Esben; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Klok, Peter; Klous, Sander; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluge, Thomas; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knecht, Neil; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Ko, Byeong Rok; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Koenig, Sebastian; Köpke, Lutz; Koetsveld, Folkert; Koevesarki, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohn, Fabian; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolachev, Guennady; Kolanoski, Hermann; Kolesnikov, Vladimir; Koletsou, Iro; Koll, James; Kollefrath, Michael; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kono, Takanori; Kononov, Anatoly; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Koperny, Stefan; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Korotkov, Vladislav; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Sergey; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kral, Vlastimil; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kreiss, Sven; Krejci, Frantisek; Kretzschmar, Jan; Krieger, Nina; Krieger, Peter; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Kruker, Tobias; Krumnack, Nils; Krumshteyn, Zinovii; Kubota, Takashi; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kuhn, Dietmar; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kummer, Christian; Kuna, Marine; Kunkle, Joshua; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurata, Masakazu; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwee, Regina; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rotonda, Laura; Labarga, Luis; Labbe, Julien; Lablak, Said; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Laisne, Emmanuel; Lamanna, Massimo; Lambourne, Luke; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lancon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lane, Jenna; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, Clemens; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Larner, Aimee; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavorini, Vincenzo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Laycock, Paul; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Maner, Christophe; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Hurng-Chun; Lee, Jason; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Michel; Legendre, Marie; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehmacher, Marc; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Lendermann, Victor; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatiana; Lenzen, Georg; Lenzi, Bruno; Leonhardt, Kathrin; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Lepold, Florian; Leroy, Claude; Lessard, Jean-Raphael; Lester, Christopher; Lester, Christopher Michael; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Lewis, Adrian; Lewis, George; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bo; Li, Haifeng; Li, Shu; Li, Xuefei; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Lichard, Peter; Lichtnecker, Markus; Lie, Ki; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Limper, Maaike; Lin, Simon; Linde, Frank; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Chuanlei; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Livermore, Sarah; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loddenkoetter, Thomas; Loebinger, Fred; Loginov, Andrey; Loh, Chang Wei; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Lombardo, Vincenzo Paolo; Long, Robin Eamonn; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Losty, Michael; Lou, Xinchou; Lounis, Abdenour; Loureiro, Karina; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lowe, Andrew; Lu, Feng; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Ludwig, Andreas; Ludwig, Dörthe; Ludwig, Inga; Ludwig, Jens; Luehring, Frederick; Luijckx, Guy; Lukas, Wolfgang; Lumb, Debra; Luminari, Lamberto; Lund, Esben; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lundberg, Björn; Lundberg, Johan; Lundberg, Olof; Lundquist, Johan; Lungwitz, Matthias; Lynn, David; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Mackeprang, Rasmus; Madaras, Ronald; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Maenner, Reinhard; Maeno, Tadashi; Mättig, Peter; Mättig, Stefan; Magnoni, Luca; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahmoud, Sara; Mahout, Gilles; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Mal, Prolay; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Malecki, Piotr; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mameghani, Raphael; Mamuzic, Judita; Manabe, Atsushi; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Mangeard, Pierre-Simon; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany Andreina; Mann, Alexander; Manning, Peter; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mapelli, Alessandro; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchand, Jean-Francois; Marchese, Fabrizio; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marroquim, Fernando; Marshall, Zach; Martens, Kalen; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Jean-Pierre; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martinez, Mario; Martinez Outschoorn, Verena; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massaro, Graziano; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Matricon, Pierre; Matsunaga, Hiroyuki; Matsushita, Takashi; Mattravers, Carly; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Mayne, Anna; Mazini, Rachid; Mazur, Michael; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mazzanti, Marcello; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; Mclaughlan, Tom; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Meade, Andrew; Mechnich, Joerg; Mechtel, Markus; Medinnis, Mike; Meera-Lebbai, Razzak; Meguro, Tatsuma; Mehdiyev, Rashid; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meirose, Bernhard; Melachrinos, Constantinos; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mendoza Navas, Luis; Meng, Zhaoxia; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Merritt, Hayes; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer, Joerg; Meyer, Thomas Christian; Miao, Jiayuan; Michal, Sebastien; Micu, Liliana; Middleton, Robin; Migas, Sylwia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Miller, David; Miller, Robert; Mills, Bill; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Milstein, Dmitry; Minaenko, Andrey; Miñano Moya, Mercedes; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mirabelli, Giovanni; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Mitsui, Shingo; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Moeller, Victoria; Mönig, Klaus; Möser, Nicolas; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Moles-Valls, Regina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Moorhead, Gareth; Mora Herrera, Clemencia; Moraes, Arthur; Morange, Nicolas; Morel, Julien; Morello, Gianfranco; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Morii, Masahiro; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Moser, Hans-Guenther; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Klemens; Müller, Thomas; Mueller, Timo; Muenstermann, Daniel; Munwes, Yonathan; Murray, Bill; Mussche, Ido; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagel, Martin; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Nanava, Gizo; Napier, Austin; Narayan, Rohin; Nash, Michael; Nattermann, Till; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Negri, Andrea; Negri, Guido; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nelson, Andrew; Nelson, Timothy Knight; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neusiedl, Andrea; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen Thi Hong, Van; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Niedercorn, Francois; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolics, Katalin; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Henrik; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nodulman, Lawrence; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Norton, Peter; Novakova, Jana; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Nugent, Ian Michael; Nuncio-Quiroz, Adriana-Elizabeth; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'Neale, Steve; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakes, Louise Beth; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Odier, Jerome; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohshima, Takayoshi; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olchevski, Alexander; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira, Miguel Alfonso; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olivito, Dominick; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Orlov, Iliya; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Osuna, Carlos; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Ottersbach, John; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Simon; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Pahl, Christoph; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Paleari, Chiara; Palestini, Sandro; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Palmer, Jody; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pani, Priscilla; Panikashvili, Natalia; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Papadelis, Aras; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Park, Woochun; Parker, Andy; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pashapour, Shabnaz; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Passeri, Antonio; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Patricelli, Sergio; Pauly, Thilo; Pecsy, Martin; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedraza Morales, Maria Isabel; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penson, Alexander; Penwell, John; Perantoni, Marcelo; Perez, Kerstin; Perez Cavalcanti, Tiago; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perez Reale, Valeria; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrino, Roberto; Perrodo, Pascal; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Jorgen; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Petschull, Dennis; Petteni, Michele; Pezoa, Raquel; Phan, Anna; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Piec, Sebastian Marcin; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinder, Alex; Pinfold, James; Pinto, Belmiro; Pizio, Caterina; Plamondon, Mathieu; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Plotnikova, Elena; Poblaguev, Andrei; Poddar, Sahill; Podlyski, Fabrice; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, Martin; Polesello, Giacomo; Policicchio, Antonio; Polini, Alessandro; Poll, James; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pomeroy, Daniel; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Portell Bueso, Xavier; Pospelov, Guennady; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Prabhu, Robindra; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Pravahan, Rishiraj; Prell, Soeren; Pretzl, Klaus Peter; Price, Darren; Price, Joe; Price, Lawrence; Prieur, Damien; Primavera, Margherita; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Prudent, Xavier; Przybycien, Mariusz; Przysiezniak, Helenka; Psoroulas, Serena; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Pueschel, Elisa; Purdham, John; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Pylypchenko, Yuriy; Qian, Jianming; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Quinonez, Fernando; Raas, Marcel; Radescu, Voica; Radloff, Peter; Rador, Tonguc; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rahimi, Amir; Rahm, David; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rammes, Marcus; Randle-Conde, Aidan Sean; Randrianarivony, Koloina; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Tobias Christian; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Reinherz-Aronis, Erez; Reinsch, Andreas; Reisinger, Ingo; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Zhongliang; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Resende, Bernardo; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ridel, Melissa; Rijpstra, Manouk; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Rios, Ryan Randy; Riu, Imma; Rivoltella, Giancesare; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Rocha de Lima, Jose Guilherme; Roda, Chiara; Roda Dos Santos, Denis; Roe, Adam; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romeo, Gaston; Romero Adam, Elena; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Anthony; Rose, Matthew; Rosenbaum, Gabriel; Rosenberg, Eli; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rosselet, Laurent; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexander; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Ruckert, Benjamin; Ruckstuhl, Nicole; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Gerald; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rumyantsev, Leonid; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Rutherfoord, John; Ruwiedel, Christoph; Ruzicka, Pavel; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sadeh, Iftach; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvachua Ferrando, Belén; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Samset, Björn Hallvard; Sanchez, Arturo; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Tanya; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sansoni, Andrea; Santamarina Rios, Cibran; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Saraiva, João; Sarangi, Tapas; Sarkisyan-Grinbaum, Edward; Sarri, Francesca; Sartisohn, Georg; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sasao, Noboru; Satsounkevitch, Igor; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Sauvan, Jean-Baptiste; Savard, Pierre; Savinov, Vladimir; Savu, Dan Octavian; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, David; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schäfer, Uli; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R. Dean; Schamov, Andrey; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Scherzer, Max; Schiavi, Carlo; Schieck, Jochen; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitz, Martin; Schneider, Basil; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoening, Andre; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schram, Malachi; Schroeder, Christian; Schroer, Nicolai; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultes, Joachim; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwierz, Rainer; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Schwoerer, Maud; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scott, Bill; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekula, Stephen; Selbach, Karoline Elfriede; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Sellden, Bjoern; Sellers, Graham; Seman, Michal; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shank, James; Shao, Qi Tao; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Sherman, Daniel; Sherwood, Peter; Shibata, Akira; Shimizu, Shima; Shimojima, Makoto; Shin, Taeksu; Shiyakova, Maria; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shochet, Mel; Short, Daniel; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Sicho, Petr; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silbert, Ohad; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Daniel; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simoniello, Rosa; Simonyan, Margar; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Sipica, Valentin; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sircar, Anirvan; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinnari, Louise Anastasia; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skovpen, Kirill; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Ben Campbell; Smith, Douglas; Smith, Kenway; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snow, Steve; Snow, Joel; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Sodomka, Jaromir; Soffer, Abner; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solfaroli Camillocci, Elena; Solodkov, Alexander; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Soni, Nitesh; Sopko, Vit; Sopko, Bruno; Sosebee, Mark; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spanò, Francesco; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiwoks, Ralf; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; Spurlock, Barry; St Denis, Richard Dante; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanek, Robert; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Staude, Arnold; Stavina, Pavel; Steele, Genevieve; Steinbach, Peter; Steinberg, Peter; Stekl, Ivan; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stern, Sebastian; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoerig, Kathrin; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stonjek, Stefan; Strachota, Pavel; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strang, Michael; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Strong, John; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strube, Jan; Stugu, Bjarne; Stumer, Iuliu; Stupak, John; Sturm, Philipp; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Soh, Dart-yin; Su, Dong; Subramania, Halasya Siva; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Yu; Suzuki, Yuta; Svatos, Michal; Swedish, Stephen; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Sánchez, Javier; Ta, Duc; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takahashi, Yuta; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tamsett, Matthew; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Satoshi; Tanaka, Shuji; Tanasijczuk, Andres Jorge; Tani, Kazutoshi; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tardif, Dominique; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tassi, Enrico; Tatarkhanov, Mous; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Christopher; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teinturier, Marthe; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Therhaag, Jan; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thoma, Sascha; Thomas, Juergen; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Peter; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thong, Wai Meng; Thun, Rudolf; Tian, Feng; Tibbetts, Mark James; Tic, Tomáš; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Toggerson, Brokk; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Tonoyan, Arshak; Topfel, Cyril; Topilin, Nikolai; Torchiani, Ingo; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alesandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Triplett, Nathan; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiakiris, Menelaos; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsung, Jieh-Wen; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tua, Alan; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuggle, Joseph; Turala, Michal; Turecek, Daniel; Turk Cakir, Ilkay; Turlay, Emmanuel; Turra, Ruggero; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Tzanakos, George; Uchida, Kirika; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ugland, Maren; Uhlenbrock, Mathias; Uhrmacher, Michael; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Unno, Yoshinobu; Urbaniec, Dustin; Usai, Giulio; Uslenghi, Massimiliano; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Vahsen, Sven; Valenta, Jan; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van der Poel, Egge; van der Ster, Daniel; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; van Vulpen, Ivo; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vankov, Peter; Vannucci, Francois; Vari, Riccardo; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vassilakopoulos, Vassilios; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Vegni, Guido; Veillet, Jean-Jacques; Veloso, Filipe; Veness, Raymond; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinek, Elisabeth; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Virchaux, Marc; Virzi, Joseph; Vitells, Ofer; Viti, Michele; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Adrian; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; Volpini, Giovanni; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorwerk, Volker; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Voss, Thorsten Tobias; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vu Anh, Tuan; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wagner, Peter; Wahlen, Helmut; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walch, Shannon; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wall, Richard; Waller, Peter; Walsh, Brian; Wang, Chiho; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Warsinsky, Markus; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watanabe, Ippei; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Anthony; Waugh, Ben; Weber, Michele; Weber, Pavel; Weidberg, Anthony; Weigell, Philipp; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Wellenstein, Hermann; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wendland, Dennis; Weng, Zhili; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Werth, Michael; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Weydert, Carole; Whalen, Kathleen; Wheeler-Ellis, Sarah Jane; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Sebastian; Whitehead, Samuel Robert; Whiteson, Daniel; Whittington, Denver; Wicek, Francois; Wicke, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wijeratne, Peter Alexander; Wildauer, Andreas; Wildt, Martin Andre; Wilhelm, Ivan; Wilkens, Henric George; Will, Jonas Zacharias; Williams, Eric; Williams, Hugh; Willis, William; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, John; Wilson, Michael Galante; Wilson, Alan; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winkelmann, Stefan; Winklmeier, Frank; Wittgen, Matthias; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wong, Wei-Cheng; Wooden, Gemma; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wraight, Kenneth; Wright, Michael; Wrona, Bozydar; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wulf, Evan; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xiao, Meng; Xie, Song; Xu, Chao; Xu, Da; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Hiroshi; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Kyoko; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamamura, Taiki; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamaoka, Jared; Yamazaki, Takayuki; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Un-Ki; Yang, Yi; Yang, Zhaoyu; Yanush, Serguei; Yao, Liwen; Yao, Yushu; Yasu, Yoshiji; Ybeles Smit, Gabriel Valentijn; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yilmaz, Metin; Yoosoofmiya, Reza; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Riktura; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, Dantong; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yurkewicz, Adam; Byszewski, Marcin; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zajacova, Zuzana; Zanello, Lucia; Zaytsev, Alexander; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zendler, Carolin; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zenz, Seth; Zerwas, Dirk; Zevi della Porta, Giovanni; Zhan, Zhichao; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Huaqiao; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Long; Zhao, Tianchi; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Ning; Zhou, Yue; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhuravlov, Vadym; Zieminska, Daria; Zimin, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Robert; Zimmermann, Simone; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Ziolkowski, Michael; Zitoun, Robert; Živković, Lidija; Zmouchko, Viatcheslav; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zutshi, Vishnu; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2012-01-01

    This Letter presents a search for magnetic monopoles with the ATLAS detector at the CERN Large Hadron Collider using an integrated luminosity of 2.0 fb$^{-1}$ of pp collisions recorded at a center-of-mass energy of $\\sqrt{s}$ = 7 TeV. No event is found in the signal region, leading to an upper limit on the production cross section at 95% confidence level of 2 fb for Dirac magnetic monopoles with the minimum unit magnetic charge and with mass between 200 GeV and 1500 GeV. No assumption about the production mechanism is made for this result, which is valid in the fiducial region given by pseudorapidity |$\\eta$| < 1.37 and transverse kinetic energy 600-700 < $E^{kin} sin\\theta$ < 1400 GeV. The minimum value of 700 GeV is for monopoles of mass 200 GeV, whereas the minimum value of 600 GeV is applicable for higher mass monopoles. Assuming the kinematic distributions from Drell-Yan pair production of spin-1/2 Dirac magnetic monopoles, the upper limit on the cross section at 95% confidence level varies from...

  10. Scalar self-energy for a charged particle in global monopole spacetime with a spherical boundary

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Mello, E R Bezerra; Saharian, A A

    2012-01-01

    We analyze combined effects of the geometry produced by a global monopole and a concentric spherical boundary on the self-energy of a point-like scalar charged test particle at rest. We assume that the boundary is outside the monopole's core with a general spherically symmetric inner structure. An important quantity to this analysis is the three-dimensional Green function associated with this system. For both Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions obeyed by the scalar field on the sphere, the Green function presents a structure that contains contributions due to the background geometry of the spacetime and the boundary. Consequently, the corresponding induced scalar self-energy also presents a similar structure. For points near the sphere, the boundary-induced part dominates and the self-force is repulsive/attractive with respect to the boundary for Dirichlet/Neumann boundary condition. In the region outside the sphere at large distances from it, the boundary-free part in the self-energy dominates and the corresponding self-force can be either attractive or repulsive with dependence of the curvature coupling parameter for scalar field. In particular, for the minimal coupling we show the presence of a stable equilibrium point for the Dirichlet boundary condition. In the region inside the sphere, the nature of the self-force depends on the specific model for the monopole's core. As illustrations of the general procedure adopted, we shall consider two distinct models, namely the flower-pot and the ballpoint-pen ones. (paper)

  11. Heterotic-type II string duality and the H-monopole problem

    CERN Document Server

    Girardello, L; Zaffaroni, A

    1996-01-01

    Since T-duality has been proved only perturbatively and most of the heterotic states map into solitonic, non-perturbative, type II states, the 6-dimensional string-string duality between the heterotic string and the type II string is not sufficient to prove the S-duality of the former, in terms of the known T-duality of the latter. We nevertheless show in detail that perturbative T-duality, together with the heterotic-type II duality, does imply the existence of heterotic H-monopoles, with the correct multiplicity and multiplet structure. This construction is valid at a generic point in the moduli space of heterotic toroidal compactifications.

  12. WIMT in Gullstraend-Painleve and Reissner-Nordstroem metrics: induced stable gravito-magnetic monopoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, Jesus Martin [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Mar del Plata (Argentina); Bellini, Mauricio [Universidad Nacional de Mar del Plata, Departamento de Fisica, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Mar del Plata (Argentina); Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET), Instituto de Investigaciones Fisicas de Mar del Plata (IFIMAR), Mar del Plata (Argentina)

    2015-05-15

    The aim of this work is to apply Weitzeboeck Induced Matter Theory (WIMT) to Gullstraend-Painleve and Reissner-Nordstroem metrics in the framework of WIMT. This is a newly developed method that extends Induced Matter Theory from a curved 5D manifold using the Weitzeboeck's geometry, using the fact that the Riemann-Weitzenboeck curvature tensor is always null. We obtain the presence of currents whose interpretation can lead to the presence of stable gravito-magnetic monopoles. (orig.)

  13. WIMT in Gullstraend-Painleve and Reissner-Nordstroem metrics: induced stable gravito-magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, Jesus Martin; Bellini, Mauricio

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work is to apply Weitzeboeck Induced Matter Theory (WIMT) to Gullstraend-Painleve and Reissner-Nordstroem metrics in the framework of WIMT. This is a newly developed method that extends Induced Matter Theory from a curved 5D manifold using the Weitzeboeck's geometry, using the fact that the Riemann-Weitzenboeck curvature tensor is always null. We obtain the presence of currents whose interpretation can lead to the presence of stable gravito-magnetic monopoles. (orig.)

  14. Magnetic monopoles and the dual London equation in SU(3) lattice gauge theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skala, P.; Faber, M.; Zach, M.

    1996-01-01

    The dual superconductor model of confinement in non-Abelian gauge theories is studied in a gauge invariant formulation. We propose a method for the determination of magnetic monopole currents in non-Abelian gauge theories which does not need a projection to Abelian degrees of freedom. With this definition we are able to determine the distribution of magnetic currents and electric fields for the gluonic flux tube between a pair of static charges. Further we check the validity of the dual London equation in a gauge invariant formulation. (orig.)

  15. Numerical Modeling of a Spherical Array of Monopoles Using FDTD Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franek, Ondrej; Pedersen, Gert Frølund; Andersen, Jørgen Bach

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, the spherical-coordinate finite-difference time-domain method is applied to numerical analysis of phased array of monopoles distributed over a sphere. Outer boundary of the given problem is modeled by accurate spherical-coordinate anisotropic perfectly matched layer. The problem...... of increased cell aspect ratio near the sphere poles causing degradation of results is solved by dispersion optimization through artificial anisotropy. The accuracy of the approach is verified by comparing a model case with an exact solution. Finally, radiation patterns obtained by frequency-domain near-to-far-field...

  16. New ideas on the detection of cold dark matter and magnetic monopoles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez-Mestres, L.; Perret-Gallix, D.

    1988-05-01

    Superheated superconducting granules (SSG) provide several interesting targets for cold dark matter detection, not only through coherent scattering off nuclei, but also for Majorana fermions through spin-spin interactions. The concept of 'localized micro-avalanche' should introduce crucial improvements in SSG devices and, eventually, make feasible a cold dark matter detector based on nucleus recoil. Recent results on the metastability of very large granules also suggest that a SSG large area monopole detector may be feasible, if the theoretically conjectured detection principle (destruction of the superheated state by two injected flux quanta) is checked experimentally. We also consider the use of special crystal scintillators to detect Majorana fermions through inelastic scattering

  17. Finite temperature LGT in a finite box with BPS monopole boundary conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ilgenfritz, E.-M.; Molodtsov, S.V.; Mueller-Preussker, M.; Veselov, A.I.

    1999-01-01

    Finite temperature SU(2) lattice gauge theory is investigated in a 3D cubic box with fixed boundary conditions (b.c.) provided by a discretized, static BPS monopole solution with varying core scale μ. For discrete μ-values we find stable classical solutions either of electro-magnetic ('dyon') or of purely magnetic type inside the box. Near the deconfinement transition we study the influence of the b.c. on the quantized fields inside the box. In contrast to the purely magnetic background field case, for the dyon case we observe confinement for temperatures above the usual critical one

  18. A hidden non-Abelian monopole in a 16-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Thanh-Son; Phan, Ngoc-Hung

    2009-01-01

    We suggest one variant of generalization of the Hurwitz transformation by adding seven extra variables that allow an inverse transformation to be obtained. Using this generalized transformation we establish the connection between the Schroedinger equation of a 16-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator and that of a nine-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in the field of a monopole described by a septet of potential vectors in a non-Abelian model of 28 operators. The explicit form of the potential vectors and all the commutation relations of the algebra are given./

  19. Monopole-fermion and dyon-fermion bound states. Pt. 5

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osland, P.; Harvard Univ., Cambridge, MA; Schultz, C.L.; Wu, T.T.

    1985-02-01

    We present explicit, approximate, remarkably precise results for the Kazama-Yang hamiltonian, which describes a Dirac monopole interacting with a spin-1/2 fermion that has an extra magnetic moment. The results are valid for bound states of angular momentum j >= Zvertical strokeegvertical stroke+1/2, where the radial wave functions are determined by four coupled differential equations. These equations have been solved analytically for M - E << M, which is a limit of considerable practical interest. Binding energies and wave functions are given. (orig.)

  20. A hidden non-Abelian monopole in a 16-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, Van-Hoang; Nguyen, Thanh-Son; Phan, Ngoc-Hung [Department of Physics, HCMC University of Pedagogy, 280 An Duong Vuong, Ward 10, Dist. 5, Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam)

    2009-05-01

    We suggest one variant of generalization of the Hurwitz transformation by adding seven extra variables that allow an inverse transformation to be obtained. Using this generalized transformation we establish the connection between the Schroedinger equation of a 16-dimensional isotropic harmonic oscillator and that of a nine-dimensional hydrogen-like atom in the field of a monopole described by a septet of potential vectors in a non-Abelian model of 28 operators. The explicit form of the potential vectors and all the commutation relations of the algebra are given./.