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Sample records for monopolar mode group

  1. Monopolar radiofrequency ablation using a dual-switching system and a separable clustered electrode: Evaluation of the in vivo efficiency

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    Yoon, Jeong Hee; Lee, Jeong Min; Hwang, Eui Jin; Hwang, In Pyung; Beak, Jee Hyun; Han, Joon Koo; Choi, Byung Ihn [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-04-15

    To determine the in vivo efficiency of monopolar radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using a dual-switching (DS) system and a separable clustered (SC) electrode to create coagulation in swine liver. Thirty-three ablation zones were created in nine pigs using a DS system and an SC electrode in the switching monopolar mode. The pigs were divided into two groups for two experiments: 1) preliminary experiments (n = 3) to identify the optimal inter-electrode distances (IEDs) for dual-switching monopolar (DSM)-RFA, and 2) main experiments (n = 6) to compare the in vivo efficiency of DSM-RFA with that of a single-switching monopolar (SSM)-RFA. RF energy was alternatively applied to one of the three electrodes (SSM-RFA) or concurrently applied to a pair of electrodes (DSM-RFA) for 12 minutes in in vivo porcine livers. The delivered RFA energy and the shapes and dimensions of the coagulation areas were compared between the two groups. No pig died during RFA. The ideal IEDs for creating round or oval coagulation area using the DSM-RFA were 2.0 and 2.5 cm. DSM-RFA allowed more efficient RF energy delivery than SSM-RFA at the given time (23.0 ± 4.0 kcal vs. 16.92 ± 2.0 kcal, respectively; p 0.0005). DSM-RFA created a significantly larger coagulation volume than SSM-RFA (40.4 ± 16.4 cm{sup 3} vs. 20.8 ± 10.7 cm{sup 3}; p < 0.001). Both groups showed similar circularity of the ablation zones (p = 0.29). Dual-switching monopolar-radiofrequency ablation using an SC electrode is feasible and can create larger ablation zones than SSM-RFA as it allows more RF energy delivery at a given time.

  2. Perceptual Interactions Between Electrodes Using Focused and Monopolar Cochlear Stimulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marozeau, Jeremy; McDermott, Hugh J.; Swanson, Brett A.;

    2015-01-01

    to implement an all-polar (AP) stimulation mode designed to create a focused electrical field. The goal of this experiment was to study the potential benefits of this all-polar mode for reducing uncontrolled electrode interactions compared with the monopolar mode. The five participants who took part......-matched sequential and simultaneous stimuli composed of 2 spatially separated pulse trains was measured as function of the electrode separation. Results indicated a strong current-summation interaction for simultaneous stimuli in the MP mode for separations up to at least 4.8 mm. No significant interaction was found...

  3. Day care monopolar transurethral resection of prostate: Is it feasible?

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    Altaf Khan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Benign prostatic hyperplasia is a common disease accounting for 30% of our OPD cases and about 25% of our surgery cases. Various treatment options are now available for more efficient care and early return to work. We wanted to determine the safety and feasibility of day care monopolar transurethral resection of prostate (m-TURP, by admitting the patients on the day of surgery and discharging the patient without catheter on the same day. We also compared the morbidity associated with conventional TURP where in the catheter is removed after 24-48 h of surgery and day care TURP where in the catheter is removed on the day of surgery. Materials and Methods: A total of 120 patients who fulfilled the criteria were included in the study which was conducted between November 2008 and December 2010. A total of 60 patients were assigned for day care and 60 for conventional monopolar TURP. There was no significant difference in age, prostatic volume or IPSS score. Day care patients were admitted on day of surgery and discharged the same day after the removal of catheter. Results: Both the groups were comparable in outcome. Stricture rate was less with day care TURP. Mean catheterization time was similar to laser TURP. Conclusion: Monopolar TURP is still the gold standard of care for BPH. If cases are selected properly and surgery performed diligently it remains the option of choice for small and medium sized glands and patients can be back to routine work early.

  4. Comparison between bipolar pulsed radiofrequency and monopolar pulsed radiofrequency in chronic lumbosacral radicular pain

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    Chang, Min Cheol; Cho, Yun Woo; Ahn, Sang Ho

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Chronic lumbosacral radicular pain is a challenging medical problem with respect to therapeutic management. Many patients with lumbosacral radicular pain complain of persistent leg pain after transforaminal epidural steroid injection. Nowadays, pulsed radiofrequency (PRF) stimulation on the dorsal root ganglion (DRG) is widely used for controlling lumbosacral radicular pain. Methods: We evaluated the effect of bipolar PRF on the DRG for the management of lumbosacral radicular pain. In addition, we compared the effect of bipolar PRF to monopolar PRF. Fifty patients with chronic lumbosacral radicular pain were included in the study and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups, the bipolar or monopolar PRF group (n = 25 per group). Pain intensity was evaluated using a numeric rating scale (NRS) at pretreatment, and 1, 2, and 3 months after treatment. Results: When compared to the pretreatment NRS scores, patients in both groups showed a significant decrease in NRS scores at 1, 2, and 3 months after treatment. Reductions in the NRS scores over time were significantly larger in the bipolar PRF group. Three months after treatment, 19 patients (76.0%) in the bipolar PRF group and 12 patients (48.0%) in the monopolar PRF group reported successful pain relief (pain relief of ≥50%). Conclusion: The use of bipolar PRF on the DRG can be an effective and safe interventional technique for chronic refractory lumbosacral radiculopathy, particularly in patients whose pain are refractory to epidural steroid injection or monopolar PRF stimulation. PMID:28248888

  5. Comparison of the Outcomes of Monopolar and Bipolar Radiofrequency Ablation in Surgical Treatment of Atrial Fibrillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-zhao Huang; Ying-meng Wu; Hong-yu Ye; Hai-ming Jiang

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the therapeutic effects and safety of monopolar and bipolar radiofrequency (RF) ablation used during cardiac surgery to treat atrial fibrillation. Methods We retrospectively studied a total of 81 patients with chronic atrial fibrillation who underwent open cardiac surgery with concomitant RF ablation between January 2007 and March 2011. Fifty-eight patients received bipolar RF ablation and 23 received monopolar RF ablation, respectively. The sinus rhythm restoration rate, the procedural duration, the frequency of severe perioperative complications, and mortality were compared between the two groups. Results The sinus rhythm restoration rate did not differ significantly between the two groups after follow-up of 15.1 ± 12.6 months (P=0.199). The frequencies of severe perioperative complications and mortality were also similar in the two groups. The total procedural time using bipolar RF ablation was significantly shorter than that using monopolar ablation (19.7±4.6 minutes vs. 28.1±8.5 minutes, P Conclusions Both monopolar and bipolar RF ablation are safe and effective in treating chronic atrial fibrillation patients during open cardiac surgery, but bipolar RF ablation is more convenient in practice.

  6. Monopolar diathermy used for correction of ankyloglossia

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    Tuli A

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Tongue tie, also known as ankyloglossia or ankyloglossia inferior, is a relatively common finding in pediatric surgical outpatient clinics. It occurs as a result of a short, tight, lingual frenum causing tethering of the tongue tip. It is a common oral finding in infants and children, which is often neglected. Although most cases resolve or are asymptomatic, some patients develop articulation problems and other concerns related to poor tongue-tip mobility. In this article, we report on a 5-year old girl with a tongue tie, who underwent frenectomy using monopolar diathermy under local anesthesia without any postoperative complication.

  7. MONOPOLAR ELECTROCAUTERY VS SURGICAL CLIPS IN CONTROL OF CYSTIC ARTERY IN LAPAROSCOPIC CHOLECYSTECTOMY: A COMPARATIVE STUDY

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    Ridipta Sekha

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Laparoscopic cholecystectomy has been extensively accepted since Mouret first successfully introduced the procedure in 1987. During this procedure the cystic artery can be controlled using surgical clips, harmonic scalpel and ligature or monopolar cautery. The extensive use of surgical clips in laparoscopic surgery has led to a variety of complications. Monopolar electrocoagulation can be used to control the cystic artery as it is cheap and universally available. Hence in this study, we compared monopolar electrocautery with clip application for securing haemostasis and to identify the safest and least complicated way for haemostasis of the cystic artery in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. METHODS A retrospective analysis of 201 patients were done who were planned for laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Among them 3 were converted to open cholecystectomy due to intraoperative bleeding. The rest 198 patients underwent successful laparoscopic cholecystectomy. In 42 patients the cystic artery was ligated using Ligaclip 300, while in 156 patients the artery was coagulated using monopolar cautery with hook. The patients were observed for any incidences of post-operative haemorrhage and bile leak, difference in length of hospital stay and post-operative complications. RESULTS The mean age was 40.26 years with M:F ratio 1:4. About 86% (135 and 88% (37 patients, respectively in electrocautery and Ligaclip group were discharged on the first post-operative day itself. Only 3 (1.5% patients, 2 in electrocautery and 1 in Ligaclip group developed post-operative port site infection. These differences were not statistically significant. CONCLUSION We conclude that monopolar electrocautery can be used as a safer alternative to surgical clips in control of cystic artery, especially in developing countries.

  8. Monopolar intracochlear pulse trains selectively activate the inferior colliculus.

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    Schoenecker, Matthew C; Bonham, Ben H; Stakhovskaya, Olga A; Snyder, Russell L; Leake, Patricia A

    2012-10-01

    Previous cochlear implant studies using isolated electrical stimulus pulses in animal models have reported that intracochlear monopolar stimulus configurations elicit broad extents of neuronal activation within the central auditory system-much broader than the activation patterns produced by bipolar electrode pairs or acoustic tones. However, psychophysical and speech reception studies that use sustained pulse trains do not show clear performance differences for monopolar versus bipolar configurations. To test whether monopolar intracochlear stimulation can produce selective activation of the inferior colliculus, we measured activation widths along the tonotopic axis of the inferior colliculus for acoustic tones and 1,000-pulse/s electrical pulse trains in guinea pigs and cats. Electrical pulse trains were presented using an array of 6-12 stimulating electrodes distributed longitudinally on a space-filling silicone carrier positioned in the scala tympani of the cochlea. We found that for monopolar, bipolar, and acoustic stimuli, activation widths were significantly narrower for sustained responses than for the transient response to the stimulus onset. Furthermore, monopolar and bipolar stimuli elicited similar activation widths when compared at stimulus levels that produced similar peak spike rates. Surprisingly, we found that in guinea pigs, monopolar and bipolar stimuli produced narrower sustained activation than 60 dB sound pressure level acoustic tones when compared at stimulus levels that produced similar peak spike rates. Therefore, we conclude that intracochlear electrical stimulation using monopolar pulse trains can produce activation patterns that are at least as selective as bipolar or acoustic stimulation.

  9. Modeling and characterization of a few-mode EDFA supporting four mode groups for mode division multiplexing.

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    Le Cocq, Guillaume; Bigot, Laurent; Le Rouge, Antoine; Bigot-Astruc, Marianne; Sillard, Pierre; Koebele, Clemens; Salsi, Massimilliano; Quiquempois, Yves

    2012-11-19

    Numerical and experimental study of a Few-Mode (FM) Erbium Doped Fiber Amplifier (EDFA) suitable for mode division multiplexing (MDM) is reported. Based on numerical simulations, a Few-Mode Erbium Doped Fiber (FM-EDF) has been designed to amplify four mode groups and to equally amplify LP11 and LP21 mode groups with gains greater than 20 dB and with a differential modal gain of less than 1 dB. Experimental results confirmed the simulations with a good concordance. This modal gain equalization is obtained by tailoring the erbium spatial distribution in the fiber core with a ring-shaped profile.

  10. [Bipolar versus monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate: a prospective randomized study].

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    Ghozzi, S; Ghorbel, J; Ben Ali, M; Dridi, M; Maarouf, J; Khiari, R; Ben Rais, N

    2014-02-01

    To compare bipolar with standard monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP). A prospectively randomized study was conducted between January 2010 and September 2011. Primary end points studied were efficacy (maximum flow rate [Qmax], International Prostate Symptom Score) and safety (adverse events, decline in postoperative serum sodium [Na+] and haemoglobin [Hb] levels). Secondary end points were operation time and duration of irrigation, catheterization, and hospitalization. Sixty consecutive patients were randomized and completed the study, with 29 patients in the monopolar TURP group and 31 in the TURIS group. At baseline, the two groups were comparable in age, prostate volume, mean prostate-specific antigen value, International Prostate Symptom Score, and they had at least 12 months of follow-up. Declines in the mean postoperative serum Na+ for bipolar and monopolar TURP groups were 1.2 and 8.7 mmol/L, respectively. However, there was no statistical difference in the decline in postoperative Hb between the two groups. The mean catheterization time was 26.6 and 52 hours in the bipolar and standard groups, respectively. This difference was statistically significant as was the difference in the time to hospital discharge. The IPSS and Qmax improvements were comparable between the two groups at 12 months of follow-up. No clinically relevant differences in short-term efficacy are existed between the two techniques, but bipolar TURP is preferable due to a more favorable safety profile and shorter catheterization duration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Mode group specific amplification length in an asymmetric LPG assisted few-mode EDFA

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    Rastogi, Vipul; Gaur, Ankita; Aschieri, Pierre; Dussardier, Bernard

    2017-01-01

    This article presents a scheme for few-mode EDFA, which allows to choose independent amplification lengths for different mode groups. The EDF is a dual concentric core fiber, where the central core is connected to the line FMF and the ring core is doped with erbium to provide amplification. The modes of FMF are launched into the central core of the EDF, are converted into ring modes using LPG for amplification and then converted back into central core modes using another LPG. The distance between the LPGs determines the amplification length. The amplification length, can thus, be chosen for a given mode group. We demonstrate the working of this concept by choosing LP11 and LP21 mode groups of the FMF and show that a suitable choice of amplification lengths for the two mode groups can tailor the differential modal gain (DMG) to any desired value. We demonstrate achieving zero DMG among all the mode of LP11 and LP21 mode groups using this concept while having gain in excess of 20 dB. The study should be useful for optical fiber communication system employing space-division multiplexing (SDM).

  12. Thermal and histological effects of bipolar and monopolar electrosurgical resection of the prostate in a canine model

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    Ko, Raymond; Chew, Ben H.; Tan, Andrew H. H.; Rowe, Elaine; Razvi, Hassan

    2007-02-01

    Bipolar transurethral resection (TUR) is an alternative to monopolar TUR in the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia and offers the major advantage of utilizing 0.9% sodium chloride for irrigation. Claims have been made that bipolar electrosurgery in clinical use causes less thermal damage to adjacent tissues. We sought to assess tissue thermometry and histopathologic thermal effects of a bipolar system in comparison to standard monopolar TUR in an animal model. Eight male beagles were studied. A lower midline incision was used to access the prostate. Fiber-optic thermosensors were placed within the prostate. A midline cystotomy was used to perform antegrade resection of the prostate using a bipolar TUR system (VISTA CTR) with normal saline or a monopolar device using glycine. Resection of a 1cm cavity was performed in each lateral lobe. Animals were sacrificed acutely and the prostates excised for histopathological assessment of thermal damage. In both groups, prostatic temperature rises were transient and fell with increasing distance from the resection site. The greatest temperature increase occurred in the monopolar group (24.2 +/- 3.9°C) compared to the bipolar group (6.8 +/- 1.8°C, p<0.0001). The depth of thermal damage was greatest in the monopolar group (0.59 +/- 0.27mm vs 0.15 +/-0.02mm in the bipolar arm, p<0.0001). Bipolar TUR generated significantly less heat and produced less histopathological thermal damage compared to monopolar prostatic resection in a canine model. The clinical benefits of these findings remain to be determined.

  13. No-touch radiofrequency ablation: A comparison of switching bipolar and switching monopolar ablation in Ex Vivo bovine liver

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    Chang, Won; Lee, Jeong Min; Lee, Sang Min; Hank, Joon Koo [Dept. of Radiology, Seoul National University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the feasibility, efficiency, and safety of no-touch switching bipolar (SB) and switching monopolar (SM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using ex vivo bovine livers. A pork loin cube was inserted as a tumor mimicker in the bovine liver block; RFA was performed using the no-touch technique in the SM (group A1; 10 minutes, n = 10, group A2; 15 minutes, n = 10) and SB (group B; 10 minutes, n = 10) modes. The groups were compared based on the creation of confluent necrosis with sufficient safety margins, the dimensions, and distance between the electrode and ablation zone margin (DEM). To evaluate safety, small bowel loops were placed above the liver surface and 30 additional ablations were performed in the same groups. Confluent necroses with sufficient safety margins were created in all specimens. SM RFA created significantly larger volumes of ablation compared to SB RFA (all p < 0.001). The DEM of group B was significantly lower than those of groups A1 and A2 (all p < 0.001). Although thermal injury to the small bowel was noted in 90%, 100%, and 30% of the cases in groups A1, A2, and B, respectively, full depth injury was noted only in 60% of group A2 cases. The no-touch RFA technique is feasible in both the SB and SM modes; however, SB RFA appears to be more advantageous compared to SM RFA in the creation of an ablation zone while avoiding the unnecessary creation of an adjacent parenchymal ablation zone or adjacent small bowel injuries.

  14. No-Touch Radiofrequency Ablation: A Comparison of Switching Bipolar and Switching Monopolar Ablation in Ex Vivo Bovine Liver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Won; Lee, Sang Min; Han, Joon Koo

    2017-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the feasibility, efficiency, and safety of no-touch switching bipolar (SB) and switching monopolar (SM) radiofrequency ablation (RFA) using ex vivo bovine livers. Materials and Methods A pork loin cube was inserted as a tumor mimicker in the bovine liver block; RFA was performed using the no-touch technique in the SM (group A1; 10 minutes, n = 10, group A2; 15 minutes, n = 10) and SB (group B; 10 minutes, n = 10) modes. The groups were compared based on the creation of confluent necrosis with sufficient safety margins, the dimensions, and distance between the electrode and ablation zone margin (DEM). To evaluate safety, small bowel loops were placed above the liver surface and 30 additional ablations were performed in the same groups. Results Confluent necroses with sufficient safety margins were created in all specimens. SM RFA created significantly larger volumes of ablation compared to SB RFA (all p < 0.001). The DEM of group B was significantly lower than those of groups A1 and A2 (all p < 0.001). Although thermal injury to the small bowel was noted in 90%, 100%, and 30% of the cases in groups A1, A2, and B, respectively, full depth injury was noted only in 60% of group A2 cases. Conclusion The no-touch RFA technique is feasible in both the SB and SM modes; however, SB RFA appears to be more advantageous compared to SM RFA in the creation of an ablation zone while avoiding the unnecessary creation of an adjacent parenchymal ablation zone or adjacent small bowel injuries.

  15. Ultrasonic energy device versus monopolar energy device in laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) inguinal hernia repair.

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    Otsuka, Shimpei; Kaneoka, Yuji; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Takayama, Yuichi; Fukami, Yasuyuki; Onoe, Shunsuke

    2017-03-01

    Laparoscopic transabdominal preperitoneal (TAPP) is gaining popularity as an approach to repairing of inguinal hernia. In many institutions, a disposable ultrasonic energy device is used in the TAPP repair procedure. However, the benefit and necessity of an ultrasonic device are unclear. We have switched to use of a reusable monopolar energy device, and we conducted a retrospective study comparing the surgical results obtained with each of the energy devices. Our study group comprised 241 adults who underwent TAPP repair for inguinal hernia between November 2012 and December 2014. We compared clinical characteristics, and surgical outcomes between patients in whom a disposable ultrasonic energy device was used (n = 116, U group) and those in whom a reusable monopolar energy device (n = 125, M group) was used. There was no statistically significant difference between the 2 groups in age, sex, body mass index, or hernia type. In cases of unilateral hernia, operation time was significantly longer in the U group than in the M group (71.4 vs. 59.4 min, respectively, p energy device lead us to conclude that the ultrasonic energy device is unnecessary for simple TAPP repair.

  16. Reducing Postoperative Pain from Tonsillectomy Using Monopolar Electrocautery by Cooling the Oropharynx

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    Vieira, Lucas; Nissen, Leonardo; Sela, Gustavo; Amara, Yara; Fonseca, Vinicius

    2014-01-01

    Objective Evaluate intraoperative cooling of the oropharynx to reduce postoperative pain in tonsillectomy using monopolar electrocautery. Methods Sixty-six patients, age 1 to 12 years, were selected for the study, 33 in the control group and 33 in the experimental group. After randomization, patients underwent subcapsular dissection and hemostasis with monopolar electrocautery. Patients in the experimental group had the oropharynx cooled after tonsil dissection and hemostasis for 10 minutes. The procedure was done through the oral cavity by irrigation with 500 mL of 0.9% saline, in temperatures between 5°C and 10°C, for 5 minutes. The evaluation of postoperative pain was made with the pain visual analog scale (VAS) for 10 days. As complementary data on the evaluation of pain, we recorded daily use of ketoprofen for pain relief. Results Pain after tonsillectomy assessed by VAS was significantly lower in the experimental group at days 0, 5, and 6 (p < 0.05). There were no differences in the use of ketoprofen between the groups. Conclusion Cooling of the oropharynx after tonsillectomy promotes clinically significant reduction in postoperative pain, without additional complications. PMID:25992083

  17. Reducing Postoperative Pain from Tonsillectomy Using Monopolar Electrocautery by Cooling the Oropharynx

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    Vieira, Lucas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective Evaluate intraoperative cooling of the oropharynx to reduce postoperative pain in tonsillectomy using monopolar electrocautery. Methods Sixty-six patients, age 1 to 12 years, were selected for the study, 33 in the control group and 33 in the experimental group. After randomization, patients underwent subcapsular dissection and hemostasis with monopolar electrocautery. Patients in the experimental group had the oropharynx cooled after tonsil dissection and hemostasis for 10 minutes. The procedure was done through the oral cavity by irrigation with 500 mL of 0.9% saline, in temperatures between 5°C and 10°C, for 5 minutes. The evaluation of postoperative pain was made with the pain visual analog scale (VAS for 10 days. As complementary data on the evaluation of pain, we recorded daily use of ketoprofen for pain relief. Results Pain after tonsillectomy assessed by VAS was significantly lower in the experimental group at days 0, 5, and 6 (p < 0.05. There were no differences in the use of ketoprofen between the groups. Conclusion Cooling of the oropharynx after tonsillectomy promotes clinically significant reduction in postoperative pain, without additional complications.

  18. Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Erik Nicolai; Koefoed, Jacob Gade; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk;

    2016-01-01

    -equalized gain. In this paper, we present an experimental characterization of the intermodal Raman intensity overlaps of a few-mode fiber using backward-pumped Raman amplification. By varying the input pump power and the degree of higher order mode-excitation for the pump and the signal in a 10km long two......-mode fiber, we are able to characterize all intermodal Raman intensity overlaps. Using these results, we perform a Raman amplification measurement and demonstrate a mode-differential gain of only 0.25dB per 10dB overall gain. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest mode differential gain achieved...

  19. Ultrasonically activated scalpel versus monopolar electrocautery shovel in laparoscopic total mesorectal excision for rectal cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bao-Jun Zhou; Wei-Qing Song; Qing-Hui Yan; Jian-Hui Cai; Feng-An Wang; Jin Liu; Guo-Jian Zhang; Guo-Qiang Duan; Zhan-Xue Zhang

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the feasibility and safety of monopolar electrocautery shovel (ES) in laparoscopic total mesorectal excision (TME) with anal sphincter preservation for rectal cancer in order to reduce the cost of the laparoscopic operation, and to compare ES with the ultrasonically activated scalpel (US).METHODS: Forty patients with rectal cancer, who underwent laparoscopic TME with anal sphincter preservation from June 2005 to June 2007, were randomly divided into ultrasonic scalpel group and monopolar ES group, prospectively. White blood cells (WBC) were measured before and after operation, operative time, blood loss, pelvic volume of drainage, time of anal exhaust, visual analogue scales (VAS) and surgery-related complications were recorded.RESULTS: All the operations were successful; no one was converted to open procedure. No significant differences were observed in terms of preoperative and postoperative d1 and d3 WBC counts (P=0.493, P=0.375, P=0.559), operation time (P=0.235), blood loss (P=0.296), anal exhaust time (P=0.431), pelvic drainage volume and VAS in postoperative d1 (P=0.431, P=0.426) and d3 (P=0.844, P=0.617) between ES group and US group. The occurrence of surgery-related complications such as anastomotic leakage and woundinfection was the same in the two groups.CONCLUSION: ES is a safe and feasible tool as same as US used in laparoscopic TME with anal sphincter preservation for rectal cancer on the basis of the skillful laparoscopic technique and the complete understanding of laparoscopic pelvic anatomy. Application of ES can not only reduce the operation costs but also benefit the popularization of laparoscopic operation for rectal cancer patients.

  20. Characterization of mode group transfer matrix in multimode couplers using spatial light modulation

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    Stepniak, G.; Bunge, C. A.

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, spatial light modulation is applied to investigate the selective mode properties of multimode fibers (MMF) and MMF couplers. Spatial light modulator is applied only on the MMF input to excite a selected linearly polarized eigenmode of the MMF. At the system output the impulse and frequency response is studied. By an additional time separation of mode groups achieved during propagation in the MMF, a mode group to mode group transfer matrix of the MMF coupler can be obtained.

  1. Method of destruction of the pathological excitation sources in the heart by original monopolar electrode

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    M. M. Sychyk

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This work is devoted to the study of destruction of the pathological excitation sources in the heart by the original monopolar electrode and the high-frequency electrosurgical generator Erbe VIO-100 S (Germany in the coagulation mode in order to optimize technology of their using in surgical practice for Maze surgery. Methodology. Experimental study of the effect of electric current on the myocardium were performed in the laboratory on the endocardial part of four remote pig hearts in the cold hibernation state. Temperature evaluation of myocardial contact with the electrode was carried out using mathematical modeling of temperature fields of radio frequency current interaction with the tissue in the program Comsol Multiphysics. Results. Safe and effective destruction size, nature of histological and temperature changes in the interaction region of myocardial tissue with a source of electrical current depending on the duration and power application to stop the spread of pathological excitation sources in the heart were defined. Originality. The recommendations on the choice of the optimal parameters for the application of the generator Erbe and the original monopolar electrode were developed and adapted to radiofrequency ablation of myocardial tissue in the open heart for the arrhythmias treatment in order to reduce the total duration of surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Practical value. The results have been introduced in surgical practice of the State Institution «M. M. Amosov National Institute of Cardiovascular Surgery Ukraine NAMS of Ukraine». The work has great practical importance, because the expanding of the functional range of generator Erbe VIO-100 S (Germany applications and reducing of the cost of radio frequency ablation procedure in comparison with the use of specialized disposable bipolar electrodes.

  2. Symplectic Group Representation of the Two-Mode Squeezing Operator in the Coherent State Basis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FAN Hong-Yi; CHEN Jun-Hua

    2003-01-01

    We find that the coherent state projection operator representation of the two-mode squeezing operator constitutes a loyal group representation of symplectic group, which is a remarkable property of the coherent state. As a consequence, the resultant effect of successively applying two-mode squeezing operators are equivalent to a single squeezing in the two-mode Fock space. Generalization of this property to the 2n-mode case is also discussed.

  3. Comparative randomized study on the efficaciousness of endoscopic bipolar prostate resection versus monopolar resection technique. 3 year follow-up

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    Roberto Giulianelli

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP is the current optimal thera- py for the relief of bladder outflow obstruction, with subjective and objective success rate of 85 to 90%. Aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of Plasmakinetic ener- gy (Gyrus electro surgical system, which produces vaporization of tissue immersed in isotonic saline against standard monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate. Methods: From January 2002 to April 2002, 160 consecutive patients, who had low urinary tract symptoms (LUTS of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH were enrolled in this study. Patients were randomised to undergo bipolar TURP (80 patients or monopolar TURP (80 patients. Preoperative work-up was assessed by administering IPSS, IIEF-5 and Qol questionnaires. All patients were submitted to uroflowmetry, transrectal ultrasound (TRUS, post-voidal residual urine measurement and PSA determination. In the two groups, IPSS, IIEF-5 and Qol, uroflowme- try, TRUS, post-voidal residual urine measurement, PSA determination and number of reopera- tions were evaluated at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18, 24, 30 and 36 months follow up, and then every year. Furthermore, in both groups operative time, resected tissue weight and perioperative complica- tions were analysed. Total postoperative catheter time, total post-operative hospital stay, haemo- globin loss were also recorded in the two groups. Results: Comparative data on IPSS symptom score, IIEF-5, Qol, PSA, peak urinary flow rate and post-void residual urine volume were similar in the two groups but showed a significant improve- ment respect to baseline values. The postoperative haemoglobin levels, postoperative catheteri- zation time, hospital stay and 3-year overall surgical re-treatment-free rate were significantly better in the bipolar group. Conclusions: Bipolar TURP has a comparable outcome to standard monopolar TURP at short and medium term regard to subjective and objective outcome

  4. Characterizing the differential mode group delay and modal dispersion of long few-mode fiber based on electrical spectral interferometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jianping; Zhou, Yanqing; Luo, Jiawei; Feng, Yuanhua; Li, Zhaohui

    2017-03-01

    We experimentally demonstrate a fast, simple, and accurate method based on the electrical spectral interferometry for measuring the differential mode group delay (DMGD) and chromatic dispersion (CD) between the higher order modes and the fundamental mode in a 5-km few-mode fiber (FMF). The interferogram information of multiple modes of the measured FMF is recorded and used to deduce the relative delay by applying the FFT processing with a simple mathematical algorithm. Based on the acquired relative delay of different fiber modes, the DMGD and CD can be obtained about (2.27 to 2.36) ps/m, (1.4 to 2.3) ps/nm.km for LP11 mode and (4.56 to 4.68) ps/m, (-1.1 to 1) ps/nm.km for LP21 mode, respectively, for this tested FMF. At the same time, a precision of ±0.0015 ps/m for DMGD measurement has been achieved. The experimental results show that the demonstrated method could be a good solution to the characterization of FMF used in large capacity SDM transmission systems.

  5. Comparative study of the safety and efficacy of liquid and dry monopolar electrocoagulation in experimental canine bleeding ulcers using computerized energy monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swain, C P; Mills, T N; Dark, J M; Lewin, M R; Bown, S G; Northfield, T C; O'Sullivan, J P; Salmon, P R

    1984-01-01

    The drawbacks of monopolar electrocoagulation in the control of gastrointestinal bleeding include tissue adherence, unpredictable energy deposition, and a high incidence of tissue damage. Introduction of a conductive interfacial film of liquid between the monopolar electrode and the bleeding point during electrocoagulation may overcome these drawbacks. A prospective, controlled study was undertaken to evaluate the efficacy and safety of a monopolar electrode in liquid and dry modes when used to coagulate experimental canine bleeding ulcers. All experiments were done in open fashion via a gastrotomy with hand-held electrodes. An analog computer, which could be connected between a standard electrosurgical generator and the electrode, was designed and built to monitor and control the energy delivered to the tissue. Both liquid and dry electrodes were highly effective in stopping bleeding. The liquid electrode was found to be superior to the dry electrode in that tissue adherence was eliminated and energy deposition was more predictable, varying less with angle of incidence. The liquid electrode caused less macroscopic serosal damage and less full-thickness histologic damage if the total energy or number of pulses was limited; however, both caused microscopic full-thickness damage in one-half of the experimental ulcers treated, although no perforations occurred.

  6. Membrane module and process development for monopolar and bipolar membrane electrodialysis

    OpenAIRE

    Balster, Jörg Henning

    2006-01-01

    This thesis aims to develop more efficient monopolar and bipolar membrane electrodialysis processes. Three main topics have been investigated: 1. Membrane selectivity 2. Concentration polarisation 3. Membrane scaling and fouling

  7. Failure mode and effects analysis A fuzzy group MCDM approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hadi-Vencheh

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a new fuzzy group decision making (FGDM model based on alpha-level sets, is proposed to generate, more accurate fuzzy using, risk priority numbers (RPNs and ensure to be robust against the uncertainty. This model allows decision makers (DMs to evaluate FMEA risk factors using linguistic terms rather than precise numerical values, allows them to express their opinions independently. A case study is investigated using the proposed model to illustrate its applications in RPN assessment.

  8. Stability and phase separation in mixed monopolar lipid/bolalipid layers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longo, Gabriel S; Thompson, David H; Szleifer, I

    2007-10-15

    The phase stability of a fluid lipid layer that is a mixture of conventional monopolar lipids and C20 bipolar bolalipids was studied using a mean field theory that explicitly includes molecular details and configurational properties of the lipid molecules. The effect of changing the fraction of bolalipids, as well as the length of the hydrocarbon chain of the monopolar lipids, was probed. A phase separation between two liquid lipid phases was found when a mismatch exists in the optimal hydrophobic thicknesses of the pure bolalipid and monopolar lipid layers. The lipid mixture phase separates into a thin bolalipid-rich layer and a thicker monopolar-rich layer. The thin membrane phase is mainly composed of transmembrane bolalipid molecules whose polar heads are positioned at opposite membrane-water interfaces. In the monopolar lipid-rich phase, bolalipids are the minor component and most of them assume a looping configuration where both headgroups are present at the same membrane-water interface. For mixed layers that form a single lipid phase across all bolalipid concentrations, the hairpin-transmembrane ratio strongly depends on the hydrocarbon chain length of the monopolar lipid and the bolalipid concentration. The C-D bond order parameters of the different species have been calculated. Our findings suggest that the concentration-dependent phase transition should be experimentally observable by measuring of the order parameters through quadrupolar splitting experiments. The driving force for the phase separation in the monopolar lipid/bolalipid mixture is the packing mismatch between hydrophobic regions of the monopolar lipid hydrocarbon chains and the membrane-spanning bolalipid chains. The results from the molecular theory may be useful in the design of stable lipid layers for integral membrane protein sensing.

  9. Postoperative Adhesion Formation in a Rabbit Model: Monopolar Electrosurgery Versus Ultrasonic Scalpel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazarou, George; Apostol, Radu; Khullar, Poonam; Okonkwo, Linda; Nezhat, Farr

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives: To determine if surgery using ultrasonic energy for dissection results in less adhesion formation than monopolar electrosurgical energy in the late (8 weeks) postoperative period. Methods: Injuries were induced in rabbits by using ultrasonic energy on one uterine horn and the adjacent pelvic sidewall and using monopolar energy on the opposite side. Eight weeks postoperatively, the rabbits underwent autopsy and clinical and pathologic scoring of adhesions was performed by blinded investigators. Results: There was no significant difference in clinical adhesion scores between the two modalities. The mean clinical score for monopolar cautery was 1.00 versus 0.88 for the Harmonic device (Ethicon Endo-Surgery, Cincinnati, Ohio) (P = .71). Furthermore, there was no significant difference found in the pathologic adhesion scores between the ultrasonic scalpel and monopolar energy. The mean pathologic score for monopolar electrosurgery was 4.35 versus 3.65 for the Harmonic scalpel (P = .30). Conclusion: Neither monopolar electrosurgery nor ultrasonic dissection is superior in the prevention of adhesion formation in the late postoperative period. PMID:26005316

  10. Minimizing differential modal gain in cladding-pumped EDFAs supporting four and six mode groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Qiongyue; Lim, Ee-Leong; Jung, Francesco Poletti Yongmin; Baskiotis, Catherine; Alam, Shaif-Ul; Richardson, David J

    2014-09-08

    We employ a Genetic Algorithm for the purpose of minimization of the maximum differential modal gain (DMG) over all the supported signal modes (at the same wavelength) of cladding-pumped four-mode and six-mode-group EDFAs. The optimal EDFA designs found through the algorithm provide less than 1 dB DMG across the C-band (1530-1565 nm) whilst achieving more than 20 dB gain per mode. We then analyze the sensitivity of the DMG to small variations from the optimal value of the erbium doping concentration and the structural parameters, and estimate the fabrication tolerance for reliable amplifier performance.

  11. DETERMINATION OF BRAKING OPTIMAL MODE OF CONTROLLED CUT OF DESIGN GROUP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Dorosh

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. The application of automation systems of breaking up process on the gravity hump is the efficiency improvement of their operation, absolute provision of trains breaking up safety demands, as well as improvement of hump staff working conditions. One of the main tasks of the indicated systems is the assurance of cuts reliable separation at all elements of their rolling route to the classification track. This task is a sophisticated optimization problem and has not received a final decision. Therefore, the task of determining the cuts braking mode is quite relevant. The purpose of this research is to find the optimal braking mode of control cut of design group. Methodology. In order to achieve the purpose is offered to use the direct search methods in the work, namely the Box complex method. This method does not require smoothness of the objective function, takes into account its limitations and does not require calculation of the function derivatives, and uses only its value. Findings. Using the Box method was developed iterative procedure for determining the control cut optimal braking mode of design group. The procedure maximizes the smallest controlled time interval in the group. To evaluate the effectiveness of designed procedure the series of simulation experiments of determining the control cut braking mode of design group was performed. The results confirmed the efficiency of the developed optimization procedure. Originality. The author formalized the task of optimizing control cut braking mode of design group, taking into account the cuts separation of design group at all elements (switches, retarders during cuts rolling to the classification track. The problem of determining the optimal control cut braking mode of design group was solved. The developed braking mode ensures cuts reliable separation of the group not only at the switches but at the retarders of brake position. Practical value. The developed procedure can be

  12. Treatment of facial skin laxity by a new monopolar radiofrequency device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwe Wollina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Acquired facial skin laxity seems to be a result of the combination of intrinsic and extrinsic processes. For treatment of facial ageing, non-invasive procedures have become popular. Aim : We wanted to investigate the effect of a new 2.2-MHz radiofrequency (RF device on acquired facial skin laxity. Setting : Outpatient clinic associated with an academic teaching hospital. Materials and Methods : We performed an open trial with the RF-ReFacing™ device (Meyer-Haake Medical Innovations, Wehrheim/ Germany in the monopolar mode with a power of 8-12 W, two passes per session and repetition three times after 2 weeks without treatment. Results : A total of 20 Caucasian female patients were included (age range, 34-73 years. The procedure was performed without any analgesia. We did not see any adverse effect. The procedure was scored as most convenient or convenient by all patients. Improvement in skin laxity and fine wrinkles was seen after the second treatment in 19 of the 20 patients and after the third treatment in 100% of the patients. On a scale from 0 to 3, improvement in the lower lid, Crow′s feet and jowl line was scored 2.6±0.7 by the patients; improvement in the overall appearance of the face was scored 2.3±0.5. Blinded assessment of the photographs rated the improvement as good or better in 15 of the 20 patients, moderate in 3 patients, no change in 1 patient. Conclusions : RF-ReFacing™ treatment was effective in improvement in skin laxity. Patients′ satisfaction was high. Although RF-ReFacing™ treatment cannot substitute surgical procedure, it might prolong the time to the first surgical facial lift. The number of patients treated was small, and no quantitative measurements or histopathology was performed. Hence further studies with greater number of patients are necessary.

  13. Technological advances in transurethral resection of the prostate: bipolar versus monopolar TURP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Muta M

    2008-08-01

    One of the most significant recent advancements in transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the incorporation of bipolar technology. Bipolar circuitry allows TURP to be performed in a normal saline environment, which addresses a fundamental concern of conventional monopolar TURP (i.e., the use of hypo-osmolar irrigation). As a result, the risks of dilutional hyponatremia and transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome are eliminated, allowing for longer and safer resection. This review discusses the principles and applications of electrosurgery in conventional monopolar as well as new bipolar saline-based TURP systems. This review also addresses the positive impact on patient safety and resident training.

  14. Study on vibrational modes by group theory and infrared spectra by D FT for calcite crystal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Danhua Lou; Fengjiu Sun; Lijuan Li

    2007-01-01

    The factor group symmetry analysis (FSA) method and position symmetry analysis (PSA) method are used to analyze the vibrational modes of calcite (CaCO3) crystal, respectively. With the activated results of infrared and Raman spectra presented, strong points of each method are concluded. The infrared spectra are studied by using dynamics calculations based on density-functional theory (DFT) with the supercell model of calcite crystal. The frequencies of 27 normal modes are achieved, which are consistent with that by the group symmetry analysis very well, and fit with the experimental results better than the lattice dynamical methods.

  15. A Lightweight RFID Grouping-Proof Protocol Based on Parallel Mode and DHCP Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhicai Shi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A Radio Frequency Identification (RFID grouping-proof protocol is to generate an evidence of the simultaneous existence of a group of tags and it has been applied to many different fields. For current grouping-proof protocols, there still exist some flaws such as low grouping-proof efficiency, being vulnerable to trace attack and information leakage. To improve the secure performance and efficiency, we propose a lightweight RFID grouping-proof protocol based on parallel mode and DHCP (Dynamic Host Configuration Protocol mechanism. Our protocol involves multiple readers and multiple tag groups. During the grouping-proof period, one reader and one tag group are chosen by the verifier by means of DHCP mechanism. When only a part of the tags of the chosen group exist, the protocol can also give the evidence of their co-existence. Our protocol utilizes parallel communication mode between reader and tags so as to ensure its grouping-proof efficiency. It only uses Hash function to complete the mutual authentication among verifier, readers and tags. It can preserve the privacy of the RFID system and resist the attacks such as eavesdropping, replay, trace and impersonation. Therefore the protocol is secure, flexible and efficient. It only uses some lightweight operations such as Hash function and a pseudorandom number generator. Therefore it is very suitable to some low-cost RFID systems.

  16. Angular momentum dynamics and the intrinsic drift of monopolar vortices on a rotating sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Toorn, R.; Zimmerman, J.T.F.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the angular momentum equation for a fluid shell on a rotating planet, we analyze the intrinsic drift of a monopolar vortex in the shell. Central is the development of a general angular momentum equation for Eulerian fluid mechanics based on coordinate-free, general tensorial

  17. Angular momentum dynamics and the intrinsic drift of monopolar vortices on a rotating sphere

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van der Toorn, R.; Zimmerman, J.T.F.

    2010-01-01

    On the basis of the angular momentum equation for a fluid shell on a rotating planet, we analyze the intrinsic drift of a monopolar vortex in the shell. Central is the development of a general angular momentum equation for Eulerian fluid mechanics based on coordinate-free, general tensorial represen

  18. Behavioral pattern of a monopolar passive direct methanol fuel cell stack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Jin; Bae, Byungchan; Scibioh, M. Aulice; Cho, EunAe; Ha, Heung Yong

    A passive, air-breathing, monopolar, liquid feed direct methanol fuel cell (DMFC) stack consisting of six unit cells with no external pump, fan or auxiliary devices to feed the reactants has been designed and fabricated for its possible employment as a portable power source. The configurations of the stack of monopolar passive feed DMFCs are different from those of bipolar active feed DMFCs and therefore its operational characteristics completely vary from the active ones. Our present investigation primarily focuses on understanding the unique behavioral patterns of monopolar stack under the influence of certain operating conditions, such as temperature, methanol concentration and reactants feeding methods. With passive reactants supply, the temperature of the stack and open circuit voltage (OCV) undergo changes over time due to a decrease in concentration of methanol in the reservoir as the reaction proceeds. Variations in performance and temperature of the stack are mainly influenced by the concentration of methanol. Continuous operation of the passive stack is influenced by the supply of methanol rather than air supply or water accumulation at the cathode. The monopolar stack made up of six unit cells exhibits a total power of 1000 mW (37 mW cm -2) with 4 M methanol under ambient conditions.

  19. Group approach to the paraxial propagation of Hermite-Gaussian modes in a parabolic medium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz y Cruz, S.; Gress, Z.

    2017-08-01

    A group-theoretical approach to the paraxial propagation of Hermite-Gaussian modes based on the factorization method is presented. It is shown that the su(1 , 1) and the su(2) algebras generate the spectrum of propagation constants at any fixed transversal plane. The complete set of HG modes is decomposed into hierarchies that are used to establish the representation spaces of SU(1 , 1) and SU(2) . The corresponding families of generalized coherent states are constructed and the variances of the quadratures and canonical variables are determined.

  20. Topics in mode conversion theory and the group theoretical foundations of path integrals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Andrew Stephen

    This dissertation reports research about the phase space perspective for solving wave problems, with particular emphasis on the phenomenon of mode conversion in multicomponent wave systems, and the mathematics which underlie the phase space perspective. Part I of this dissertation gives a review of the phase space theory of resonant mode conversion. We describe how the WKB approximation is related to geometrical structures in phase space, and how in particular ray-tracing algorithms can be used to construct the WKB solution. We further review how to analyze the phenomena of mode conversion from the phase space perspective. By making an expansion of the dispersion matrix about the mode conversion point in phase space, a local coupled wave equation is obtained. The solution of this local problem then provides a way to asymptotically match the WKB solutions on either side of the mode conversion region. We describe this theory in the context of a pedagogical example; that of a pair of coupled harmonic oscillators undergoing resonant conversion. Lastly, we present new higher order corrections to the local solution for the mode conversion problem which allow better asymptotic matching to the WKB solutions. The phase space tools used in Part I rely on the Weyl symbol calculus, which gives a way to relate operators to functions on phase space. In Part II of this dissertation, we explore the mathematical foundations of the theory of symbols. We first review the theory of representations of groups, and the concept of a group Fourier transform. The Fourier transform for commutative groups gives the ordinary transform, while the Fourier transform for non-commutative groups relates operators to functions on the group. We go on to present the group theoretical formulation of symbols, as developed recently by Zobin. This defines the symbol of an operator in terms of a double Fourier transform on a non-commutative group. We give examples of this new type of symbol, using the

  1. Local group modes and the dynamics of intramolecular energy transfer across a heavy atom

    OpenAIRE

    Lopez, Vicente; Fairen, Victor; Lederman, Steven M.; Marcus, R.A

    1986-01-01

    The dynamics of energy transfer is discussed for a model system in which two ligands are separated by a heavy atom. Numerical and analytical results are given for the case that each ligand is a CC. In the quasiperiodic regime, the dynamics are interpreted using perturbation theory. Local group modes involved in an intramolecular energy localization which can occur in this regime are identified. An approximate separation of the primarily ligand–ligand motions from the primarily ligand–metal–li...

  2. Functional renormalization group analysis of the soft mode at the QCD critical point

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, Takeru; Kunihiro, Teiji; Morita, Kenji

    2016-07-01

    We make an intensive investigation of the soft mode at the quantum chromodynamics (QCD) critical point on the basis of the functional renormalization group (FRG) method in the local potential approximation. We calculate the spectral functions ρ_{σ, π}(ω, p) in the scalar (σ) and pseudoscalar (π) channels beyond the random phase approximation in the quark-meson model. At finite baryon chemical potential μ with a finite quark mass, the baryon-number fluctuation is coupled to the scalar channel and the spectral function in the σ channel has a support not only in the time-like (ω > p) but also in the space-like (ω position of the latter becomes vanishingly small with the height being enhanced as the system approaches the QCD critical point, which is a manifestation of the fact that the phonon mode is the soft mode associated with the second-order transition at the QCD critical point, as has been suggested by some authors. Moreover, our extensive calculation of the spectral function in the (ω, p) plane enables us to see that the mesonic and phonon modes have the respective definite dispersion relations ω_{σ.ph}(p), and it turns out that ω_{σ}(p) crosses the light-cone line into the space-like region, and then eventually merges into the phonon mode as the system approaches the critical point more closely. This implies that the sigma-mesonic mode also becomes soft at the critical point. We also provide numerical stability conditions that are necessary for obtaining the accurate effective potential from the flow equation.

  3. Power of the muscular group's taekwondokas of the different qualification in steady-state mode.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saienko Vladimir Grigor'evich

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Data are given meaningful totals display of force the muscle groups in athletes in the static mode. Displaying characteristics of muscle groups, hands (7, legs (5, trunk (2.The experiment involved 110 athletes (1-5 years experience training, age - 14-25 years old. Quantitative indicators, which reflect the individual level of informative power trained athletes. The optimum parameters of power qualities of athletes. Recommended use in training of special methods of strength training (isometric, concentric, eccentric, plyometric, isokinetic. In training must take into account the resistance, speed, joint angles, number of repetitions of the same approach.

  4. Interaction of monopolar and dipolar vortices with a shear flow: a numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamp, Leon; Marques Rosas Fernandes, Vitor; van Heijst, Gert-Jan; Clercx, Herman

    2014-11-01

    Interaction of large-scale flows with vortices is of fundamental and widespread importance in geophysical fluid dynamics and also, more recently for the dynamics of fusion plasma. More specifically the interplay between two-dimensional turbulence constituted by a collection of unsteady eddies and so-called zonal flows has gained considerable interest because of the relevance for transport and associated barriers. We present numerical results on the interaction of individual monopolar and dipolar vortices with typical sheared channel flows (Couette and Poiseuille). Contrary to monopolar vortices, dipolar ones tend to retain their compactness while propagating through the shear flow along curved pathways without much distortion. Simulations on the interaction of a driven turbulent field with mentioned channel flows are used to explore the suppression of turbulence and turbulent transport and the pronounced role played by the boundaries on these.

  5. Tourism forecasting using modified empirical mode decomposition and group method of data handling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yahya, N. A.; Samsudin, R.; Shabri, A.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, a hybrid model using modified Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) and Group Method of Data Handling (GMDH) model is proposed for tourism forecasting. This approach reconstructs intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) produced by EMD using trial and error method. The new component and the remaining IMFs is then predicted respectively using GMDH model. Finally, the forecasted results for each component are aggregated to construct an ensemble forecast. The data used in this experiment are monthly time series data of tourist arrivals from China, Thailand and India to Malaysia from year 2000 to 2016. The performance of the model is evaluated using Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE) where conventional GMDH model and EMD-GMDH model are used as benchmark models. Empirical results proved that the proposed model performed better forecasts than the benchmarked models.

  6. Performance analysis of a concatenated erbium-doped fiber amplifier supporting four mode groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Zujun; Fan, Di; Zhang, Wentao; Xiong, Xianming

    2016-05-01

    An erbium-doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) supporting four mode groups has been theoretically designed by concatenating two sections of erbium-doped fibers (EDFs). Each EDF has a simple erbium doping profile for the purpose of reducing its fabrication complexity. We propose a modified genetic algorithm (GA) to provide detailed investigations on the concatenated amplifier. Both the optimal fiber length and erbium doping radius in each EDF have been found to minimize the gain difference between signal modes. Results show that the parameters of the central-doped EDF have a greater impact on the amplifier performance compared to those of the annular-doped one. We then investigate the influence of the small deviations of the erbium fiber length, doping radius and doping concentration of each EDF from their optimal values upon the amplifier performance, and discuss their design tolerances in obtaining a desirable amplification characteristics.

  7. Surgical complications specific to monopolar electrosurgical energy: engineering changes that have made electrosurgery safer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odell, Roger C

    2013-01-01

    Monopolar electrosurgical energy is the most commonly used energy source during laparotomic and laparoscopic surgery. The clinical application of monopolar energy is not without risk. Monopolar electrosurgical energy was introduced into surgical practice at the turn of the 20th century. Alternate site burns during laparotomic application were the most common complication for the first half century (i.e., ground point burns and dispersive electrode burns [1920-1970]). The aims of this article were to discuss historic design flaws associated with the most common alternate site burns, ground point burns, and dispersive electrode burns and the technological advancements introduced to mitigate these risks to the patient and to discuss current design flaws associated with stray energy burns during laparoscopy because of insulation failure and capacitive coupling and the technological advancements introduced to eliminate these risks to the patient. Today, insulation failure and capacitive coupling are the most common reasons for electrosurgical injury during laparocopic procedures. There is a need for advanced technology such as active electrode monitoring to address these invisible risks to the surgeon and their patients. In addition, the laparoscopic surgeon should be encouraged to study the basic biophysics involved in electrosurgery.

  8. Measurement of group-velocity dispersion of Bloch modes in photonic-crystal-fiber rocking filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, G K L; Zang, L; Kang, M S; Russell, P St J

    2010-12-01

    We use low-coherence interferometry to measure the group-velocity dispersion (GVD) of the fast and slow Bloch modes of structural rocking filters, produced by twisting a highly birefringent photonic crystal fiber to and fro while scanning a focused CO(2) laser beam along it. The GVD curves in the vicinity of the resonant wavelength differ dramatically from those of the unperturbed fiber, suggesting that rocking filters could be used in the optimization of, e.g., four-wave mixing and supercontinuum generation. Excellent agreement is obtained between theory and experiment.

  9. Functional renormalization group analysis of the soft mode at the QCD critical point

    CERN Document Server

    Yokota, Takeru; Morita, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We make an intensive investigation of the soft mode at the QCD critical point on the basis of the the functional renormalization group (FRG) method in the local potential approximation. We calculate the the spectral functions $\\rho_{\\sigma, \\pi}(\\omega, p)$ in the scalar ($\\sigma$) and pseudoscalar ($\\pi$) channels beyond the random phase approximation in the quark-meson model. At finite baryon chemical potential $\\mu$ with a finite quark mass, the baryon-number fluctuation is coupled to the scalar channel and the spectral function in the $\\sigma$ channel has a support not only in the time-like ($\\omega > p$) and but also in the space-like ($\\omega < p$) regions, which correspond to the mesonic and the particle-hole phonon excitations, respectively. We find that the energy of the peak position of the latter becomes vanishingly small with the height being enhanced as the system approaches the QCD critical point, which is a manifestation of the fact that the phonon mode is the soft mode associated with the s...

  10. Perception of the environmental impacts of current and alternative modes of pig production by stakeholder groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Jean; van der Werf, Hayo M G

    2003-08-01

    The current industrial pig production model is in crisis, due to its association with environmental pollution, doubtful product quality and lack of animal well-being. In Bretagne (France), a region of intensive pig production, a survey of seven stakeholder groups concerned with pig production was conducted, as part of a research programme dedicated to the assessment of the environmental impact of different modes of pig production. A very large majority of pig producers (93%) and their suppliers (100%) considers pig farms as an asset for the region, whereas a majority of scientists (58%), activists (78%) and consumers (54%) sees it as a handicap. Differences among stakeholder groups are minor with respect to the perceived importance of environmental and social issues. Stakeholders agree on the relative level of responsibility of pig farms with respect to specific problems. For all groups unpleasant odours and water quality come first with respect to responsibility, for most groups soil quality comes second, followed by product safety and air quality. For a future improved mode of pig production, 76% of pig producers and their suppliers prefer to adapt the current model, for all other groups the majority prefers an alternative model. While pig producers and their suppliers prefer a slurry-based housing system, all other groups prefer a straw-based system. Pig producers see the slurry-based system as technically superior and associate the straw-based system with poor working conditions, whereas consumers associate the slurry-based system in the first place with poor water quality and associate the straw-based system with less pollution. These results will be of use in the research programme on the environmental impact of modes of pig production, as they indicate the environmental impacts to be considered and their relative importance. The results will also help in deciding which options should be assessed. It is concluded that the poor image of the current pig

  11. Effects of monopolar electrocoagulation and bipolar electrocoagulation in laparoscopy for infertility on ovarian function%腹腔镜不孕症手术使用单、双极电凝对卵巢功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李建华

    2011-01-01

    目的:探讨腹腔镜不孕症手术中使用单、双极电凝对卵巢功能的影响.方法:选择100例因输卵管因素导致的不孕症患者,均行腹腔镜下输卵管的修复整形手术,使用不同的止血方法随机分为单极电凝组50例、双极电凝组50例.分别于术前、术后1、3个月抽血检测促卵泡激素(FSH)、黄体生成素(LH)、雌二醇(E2),月经第11天开始B超监测排卵情况,术后随访1年.结果:两组病例术后1、3个月较术前均出现不同程度的FSH、LH增高和E2下降,单极电凝组与术前比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),双极电凝组与术前比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论:腹腔镜下不孕症手术中使用单、双极电凝止血会引起对卵巢功能的损害,而使用单极电凝止血对卵巢功能的损害较使用双极电凝止血大.单极电凝组术后发生月经改变明显多于双极电凝组(P<0.05).双极电凝组术后妊娠率较单极电凝组高.%Objective: To explore the effects of monopolar electrocoagulation and bipolar electrocoagulation in laparoscopy for infertility on ovarian function. Methods: 100 infertile patients because of tubal factor were selected, and all the patients received fallopian tube surgery under laparoscope, then they were divided into monopolar electrocoagulation group ( 50 women) and bipolar electrocoagulation group (50 women) according to different hemostatic methods. Their blood samples were obtained to detect the levels of follicle - stimulating hormone ( FSH) , luteinizing hormone ( LH ) and estradiol before surgery, at one and three months after surgery, B ultrasound was used to monitor the ovulation situation from the eleventh day of menstrual cycle, all the patients were followed up for one year after surgery. Results: Compared with before surgery, the levels of FSH and LH at one and three months after surgery increased, the level of estradiol decreased, there was significant difference in monopolar

  12. Tratamiento quirúrgico curativo de la fibrilación atrial mediante técnica de ablación con radiofrecuencia monopolar irrigada: resultados a corto y mediano plazo Surgical treatment of atrial fibrillation through irrigated ablation with monopolar radiofrequency: results to short and midterm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Franco

    2007-02-01

    irrigated monopolar radiofrequency to short and midterm, through clinical follow-up, electrocardiogram and echocardiogram. Methods: 70 patients with diagnosis of atrial fibrillation and some other heart pathology that required surgery were evaluated between September 2003 and October 2005, in a prospective way. An ablation though monopolar radiofrequency (Cardioblate® Medtronic, Inc was performed. Results were analyzed with the SPSS version 11, 0 statistical package. Results: 70 patients, 52% females and 48% males with mean age 54 years and preoperatory ejection fraction of 47% had mitral insufficiency (49% and mitral stenosis (26% as their main cause for primary heart surgery. 87% patients were evaluated at 18 months (3 to 25 months. Sinus rhythm was achieved in 88%. Residual arrhythmias in this group were atrial fibrillation (6% and atrial flutter (6%. 80% of post-operatory arrhythmias were found in the first 15 days after surgery, being atrial fibrillation and atrial flutter the most common ones. Anticoagulation and anti-arrhythmic medication was suspended in 89% and 90% of the patients, respectively. The surgical technique had no inherent complications. Conclusions: this investigation demonstrated that the surgical ablation of atrial fibrillation with irrigated monopolar radiofrequency is easily reproducible, highly effective and safe for the patient.

  13. Dissection by Ultrasonic Energy Versus Monopolar Electrosurgical Energy in Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is the gold standard for management of symptomatic gallstones. Electrocautery remains the main energy form used during laparoscopic dissection. However, due to its risks, search is continuous for safer and more efficient forms of energy. This review assesses the effects of dissection using ultrasonic energy compared with monopolar electrocautery during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Methods: A literature search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) in the Cochrane Library, MEDLINE, and EMBASE was performed. Studies included were trials that prospectively randomized adult patients with symptomatic gallstone disease to either ultrasonic or monopolar electrocautery dissection during laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Data were collected regarding the characteristics and methodological quality of each trial. Outcome measures included operating time, gallbladder perforation rate, bleeding, bile leak, conversion rate, length of hospital stay and sick leave, postoperative pain and nausea scores, and influence on systemic immune and inflammatory responses. For metaanalysis, the statistical package RevMan version 4.2 was used. For continuous data, Weighted Mean Difference (WMD) was calculated with 95% confidence interval (CI) using the fixed effects model. For Categorical data, the Odds Ratio (OR) was calculated with 95% confidence interval using fixed effects model. Results: Seven trials were included in this review, with a total number of 695 patients randomized to 2 dissection methods: 340 in the electrocautery group and 355 in the ultrasonic group. No mortality was recorded in any of the trials. With ultrasonic dissection, operating time is significantly shorter in elective surgery (WMD −8.19, 95% CI −10.36 to −6.02, P>0.0001), acute cholecystitis (WMD −17, 95% CI −28.68 to −5.32, P=0.004), complicated cases (WMD −15, 95% CI −28.15 to −1.85, P=0.03), or if surgery was performed by trainee

  14. Laser beam shaping for enhanced Zero-Group Velocity Lamb modes generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, François; Laurent, Jérôme; Jehanno, Paul; Royer, Daniel; Prada, Claire

    2016-10-01

    Optimization of Lamb modes induced by laser can be achieved by adjusting the spatial source distribution to the mode wavelength ($\\lambda$). The excitability of Zero-Group Velocity (ZGV) resonances in isotropic plates is investigated both theoretically and experimentally for axially symmetric sources. Optimal parameters and amplitude gains are derived analytically for spot and annular sources of either Gaussian or rectangular energy profiles. For a Gaussian spot source, the optimal radius is found to be $\\lambda_{ZGV}/\\pi$. Annular sources increase the amplitude by at least a factor of 3 compared to the optimal Gaussian source. Rectangular energy profiles provide higher gain than Gaussian ones. These predictions are confirmed by semi-analytical simulation of the thermoelastic generation of Lamb waves, including the effect of material attenuation. Experimentally, Gaussian ring sources of controlled width and radius are produced with an axicon-lens system. Measured optimal geometric parameters obtained for Gaussian and annular beams are in good agreement with theoretical predictions. A ZGV resonance amplification factor of 2.1 is obtained with the Gaussian ring. Such source should facilitate the inspection of highly attenuating plates made of low ablation threshold materials like composites.

  15. EnviroAtlas - Commute Modes and Working from Home by Block Group for the Conterminous United States

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This EnviroAtlas dataset portrays the percent of workers who commute to work using various modes, and the percent who work from home within each Census Block Group...

  16. Non contact probing of interfacial stiffnesses between two plates by Zero-Group Velocity Lamb modes

    CERN Document Server

    Mezil, Sylvain; Royer, Daniel; Prada, Claire

    2014-01-01

    A non contact technique using Zero-Group Velocity (ZGV) Lamb modes is developed to probe the bonding between two solid plates coupled by a thin layer. The layer thickness is assumed to be negligible compared with the plate thickness and the acoustic wavelength. The coupling layer is modeled by a normal and a tangential spring to take into account the normal and shear interfacial stresses. Theoretical ZGV frequencies are determined for a symmetrical bi-layer structure and the effect of the interfacial stiffnesses on the cut-off and ZGV frequencies are evaluated. Experiments are conducted with two glass plates bonded by a drop of water, oil, or salol, leading to a few micrometer thick layer. An evaluation of normal and shear stiffnesses, is obtained using ZGV resonances locally excited and detected with laser ultrasonic techniques.

  17. Quasi-monopolar stimulation: a novel electrode design configuration for performance optimization of a retinal neuroprosthesis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gita Khalili Moghadam

    Full Text Available In retinal neuroprostheses, spatial interaction between electric fields from various electrodes - electric crosstalk - may occur in multielectrode arrays during simultaneous stimulation of the retina. Depending on the electrode design and placement, this crosstalk can either enhance or degrade the functional characteristics of a visual prosthesis. To optimize the device performance, a balance must be satisfied between the constructive interference of crosstalk on dynamic range and power consumption and its negative effect on artificial visual acuity. In the present computational modeling study, we have examined the trade-off in these positive and negative effects using a range of currently available electrode array configurations, compared to a recently proposed stimulation strategy - the quasi monopolar (QMP configuration - in which the return current is shared between local bipolar guards and a distant monopolar electrode. We evaluate the performance of the QMP configuration with respect to the implantation site and electrode geometry parameters. Our simulation results demonstrate that the beneficial effects of QMP are only significant at electrode-to-cell distances greater than the electrode dimensions. Possessing a relatively lower activation threshold, QMP was found to be superior to the bipolar configuration in terms of providing a relatively higher visual acuity. However, the threshold for QMP was more sensitive to the topological location of the electrode in the array, which may need to be considered when programming the manner in which electrode are simultaneously activated. This drawback can be offset with a wider dynamic range and lower power consumption of QMP. Furthermore, the ratio of monopolar return current to total return can be used to adjust the functional performance of QMP for a given implantation site and electrode parameters. We conclude that the QMP configuration can be used to improve visual information

  18. Assessing the predictability of anharmonic vibrational modes at the example of hydroxyl groups - ad hoc construction of localised modes and the influence of structural solute-solvent motifs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuler, Manuel J; Hofer, Thomas S; Huck, Christian W

    2017-05-17

    The performance of the grid-based Numerov procedure for the prediction of fundamental as well as the first vibrational overtone has been systematically probed for harmonic and anharmonic model systems. In addition to monitor the prediction with respect to the spacing of the potential grid the influence of higher order approximations to the second derivative (i.e. stencils) in Schrödingers equation is evaluated. The latter enable a significant increase of the grid-spacing to achieve results of similar accuracy obtained with smaller stencil sizes. Application to the hydroxyl vibrational mode of methanol, phenol and the natural product thymol in vacuum and carbon tetrachloride predicted wavenumbers within less than 1% of experiment. Due to the highly localised character of the OH-vibration the ad hoc construction of the associated normal mode yields results of similar accuracy than those obtained using the analytical normal modes, effectively eliminating the requirement of an analytical normal mode evaluation of the entire system. This property was shown to be of particular advantage when considering explicit solute-solvent contacts, which have been demonstrated to be superior compared to an implicit representation of solvent effects. The combination of the observed findings (i.e. enlarged grid-spacing due to the application of higher order stencils, construction of localised normal modes) is envisaged to be of particular benefit when investigating localised modes in large systems, such as OH or NH groups in large (bio)macromolecules or solid-state surfaces.

  19. Monopolar versus bipolar transurethral resection of prostate for benign prostatic hyperplasia: Operative outcomes and surgeon preferences, a real-world scenario

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madduri, Vijay Kumar Sarma; Bera, Malay Kumar; Pal, Dilip Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Context: Monopolar transurethral resection of prostate (M-TURP) is considered the gold standard for the management of bladder outlet obstruction due to benign prostatic hyperplasia. Its newly introduced modification, bipolar TURP (B-TURP), promises to overcome its most prominent shortcomings, namely bleeding and dilutional hyponatremia. Literature is conflicting regarding merits of B-TURP over M-TURP. Aims: To find a difference, if any, in perioperative outcomes between M-TURP and B-TURP in a real-wold setting. Settings and Design: Prospective nonrandomized study. Subjects and Methods: Operative outcomes of patients undergoing M-TURP and B-TURP from February 2014 to October 2015 were compared. Statistical Analysis Used: Categorical data were compared by Fischer exact test and numerical data were compared by independent samples Mann–Whitney U-test. P <0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean size of prostate operated by bipolar technology was significantly greater than those operated by monopolar technology (38.12 ± 9.59 cc vs. 66.49 ± 22.95 cc; P < 0.001). The mean fall in postoperative serum sodium concentration was 0.99 ± 0.76 mEq/L for the B-TURP group as compared to 3.60 ± 2.89 mEq/L for the M-TURP group (P < 0.001). The mean drop in postoperative hemoglobin concentration (P = 0.28) was statistically insignificant, even though larger glands were operated by B-TURP. There were three instances of the transurethral resection (TUR) syndrome in the M-TURP group whereas no TUR syndrome occurred in the B-TURP group. Conclusions: In spite of various contrary viewpoints in literature, surgeons prefer to operate on larger prostates using bipolar technology. B-TURP definitely reduces the incidence of bleeding and dilutional hyponatremia, making it a contender to replace M-TURP as the new gold standard. PMID:27453650

  20. Monopolin subunit Csm1 associates with MIND complex to establish monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores at meiosis I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarkar, Sourav; Shenoy, Rajesh T; Dalgaard, Jacob Z; Newnham, Louise; Hoffmann, Eva; Millar, Jonathan B A; Arumugam, Prakash

    2013-01-01

    Sexually reproducing organisms halve their cellular ploidy during gametogenesis by undergoing a specialized form of cell division known as meiosis. During meiosis, a single round of DNA replication is followed by two rounds of nuclear divisions (referred to as meiosis I and II). While sister kinetochores bind to microtubules emanating from opposite spindle poles during mitosis, they bind to microtubules originating from the same spindle pole during meiosis I. This phenomenon is referred to as mono-orientation and is essential for setting up the reductional mode of chromosome segregation during meiosis I. In budding yeast, mono-orientation depends on a four component protein complex referred to as monopolin which consists of two nucleolar proteins Csm1 and Lrs4, meiosis-specific protein Mam1 of unknown function and casein kinase Hrr25. Monopolin complex binds to kinetochores during meiosis I and prevents bipolar attachments. Although monopolin associates with kinetochores during meiosis I, its binding site(s) on the kinetochore is not known and its mechanism of action has not been established. By carrying out an imaging-based screen we have found that the MIND complex, a component of the central kinetochore, is required for monopolin association with kinetochores during meiosis. Furthermore, we demonstrate that interaction of monopolin subunit Csm1 with the N-terminal domain of MIND complex subunit Dsn1, is essential for both the association of monopolin with kinetochores and for monopolar attachment of sister kinetochores during meiosis I. As such this provides the first functional evidence for a monopolin-binding site at the kinetochore.

  1. Bipolar transurethral resection versus monopolar transurethral resection for benign prostatic hypertrophy: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yin; Li, Jinhong; Pu, Chuanxiao; Bai, YunJin; Yuan, HaiChao; Wei, Qiang; Han, Ping

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the efficacy and safety of monopolar (M-TURP) and bipolar (B-TURP) transurethral resection of the prostate in benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) patients. Eligible randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were identified from electronic databases without language restrictions. Database search, quality assessment, and data extraction were independently performed. The primary postoperative outcomes of topical M-TURP and B-TURP were maximum flow rate (Qmax) and/or International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS). Safety was estimated by TUR syndrome; need for transfusion; clot retention; bladder neck contracture (BNC); urethral stricture (US); and catheter removal time. Efficacy and safety were investigated using the Review Manager. Thirty-one trials met the inclusion criteria. Pooled analysis revealed significant difference in efficacy between the M-TURP and B-TURP groups. Safety analysis revealed significant improvement in the TUR syndrome with B-TURP than with M-TURP. Pooled analysis revealed that clot retention was significantly higher in M-TURP than in B-TURP. Moreover, pooled analysis revealed no significant difference between both groups in the blood transfusion frequency or late complications (urethral strictures) and bladder neck constriction. This systematic review indicates that B-TURP was significantly better in the result of Qmax and for decreasing the incidence of TUR syndrome and clot retention. No significant differences were observed in the nature of adverse events such as transfusions, retention after catheter removal, and urethral complications between both groups. Thus, B-TURP is the next generation "gold standard" for benign prostatic obstruction (BPO) because it is associated with a lower rate of clinically relevant complications such as TUR syndrome and clot retention.

  2. Bipolar plasma vaporization versus monopolar TUR and "cold-knife" TUI in secondary bladder neck sclerosis - an evidence based, retrospective critical comparison in a single center clinical setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldoveanu, C; Geavlete, B; Jecu, M; Stanescu, F; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

    2014-03-15

    A long term, retrospective study was performed aiming to outline a critical comparison concerning the efficacy, safety and durability of the bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV), standard monopolar transurethral resection (TUR) and "cold-knife" "star" transurethral incision (TUI) in secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS) cases. Of the 126 patients included in the trial based on maximum flow rate (Qmax) below 10 mL/s and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) over 19, classical resection was performed in 46 cases, "cold-knife" TUI in 37 cases and bipolar vaporization in 43 patients. The evaluation protocol comprised IPSS, QoL (quality of life) score, Qmax and PVR (post-voiding residual urinary volume) assessment performed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after the initial intervention. Significant intraoperative complications (capsular perforation - 8.7%; bleeding - 4.3%) occurred secondary to monopolar resection. "Star" TUI was the fastest technique, followed by plasma-button vaporization (7.2 and 11.4 versus 16.5 minutes). BPV and TUI patients benefitted from the shortest catheterization periods (0.75 and 1 versus 2.0 days) and hospital stays (1.0 and 1.25 versus 2.0 days). Immediate postoperative adverse events consisted of hematuria (6.5% of the TUR cases) and acute urinary retention (8.1% of the TUI group). Significantly higher long term BNS recurrence rates requiring re-treatment were established in the TUI (18.7%) and TUR (12.8%) series by comparison to BPV (5.4%). Among patients that completed the follow-up protocol, equivalent IPSS, QoL, Qmax and PVR features were determined in the 3 study arms. The plasma vaporization approach was confirmed as a successful match to conventional TUR and "cold-knife" TUI in terms of surgical safety profile, postoperative recovery, therapeutic durability and urodynamic and symptom score parameters.

  3. Determining the group velocity dispersion by field analysis for the LP0X, LP1X, and LP2X mode groups independently of the fiber length: applications to step-index fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2017-01-01

    By knowing the electric field distribution of a guided mode in an optical fiber, we are able to evaluate the group velocity dispersion in a weakly guiding step-index fiber for a pure mode in the LP0X, LP1X, and LP2X mode groups independently of the fiber length. We demonstrate the method...

  4. Foreign establishment mode: determinants in the case of Indian multinational Tata Group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Rienda García

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes the factors influencing the choice between different FDI modes: acquisitions or greenfield investments. From a sample of 117 outward foreign direct investment (FDI decisions made by the Indian multinational Tata in 43 countries, our findings show that industry technological intensity, host country risk, host market attractiveness, previous international experience and the volume of exports from India to the host country, are determining factors of this choice.

  5. Multi-objective scheduling mode utilization of cascaded reservoir group in upper Yellow River during ice jam flood prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shichun; Dong, Qianjin; Fu, Xiang; Ai, Ze

    2010-05-01

    The cascaded reservoir group in upper Yellow River has the integrated function of ice jam flood prevention and power generation. The main factors which affect the utilization of the ice jam flood prevention volume of Liujiaxia reservoir are analyzed during the period of ice jam flood prevention, based on the input of new power station in upper Yellow River, the method of cascaded compensating scheduling are applied and the relation curve between the ice jam flood prevention volume and the cascaded output power of Liujiaxia reservoir is calculated, and the scheduling multi-objective solution set for the reservoir is obtained. On this basis, the new scheduling mode solving the reservoir integrated scheduling problem in upper Yellow River during the period of ice jam flood prevention is discussed. Comparing with the regular scheduling results, the new scheduling mode based on multi-objective solution set has the outstanding advantage in solving the problem of multi-objective scheduling of cascaded reservoir group.

  6. Comparative randomized study on the efficaciousness of endoscopic bipolar prostate resection versus monopolar resection technique. 3 year follow-up

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Giulianelli; Luca Albanesi; Francesco Attisani; Barbara Cristina Gentile; Giorgio Vincenti; Francesco Pisanti; Teuta Shestani; Luca Mavilla; David Granata; Manlio Schettini

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Transurethral resection of the prostate (TURP) is the current optimal thera- py for the relief of bladder outflow obstruction, with subjective and objective success rate of 85 to 90%. Aim of this study was to evaluate efficacy and safety of Plasmakinetic ener- gy (Gyrus electro surgical system), which produces vaporization of tissue immersed in isotonic saline against standard monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate. Methods: From January 2002 to April 2002, 160 consecuti...

  7. Performance analysis of low-complexity adaptive frequency-domain equalization and MIMO signal processing for compensation of differential mode group delay in mode-division multiplexing communication systems using few-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Yi; He, Xuan; Pan, Zhongqi

    2016-02-01

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission systems utilizing few-mode fibers (FMF) have been intensively explored to sustain continuous traffic growth. The key challenges of MDM systems are inter-modal crosstalk due to random mode coupling (RMC), and largely-accumulated differential mode group delay (DMGD), whilst hinders mode-demultiplexer implementation. The adaptive multi-input multi-output (MIMO) frequency-domain equalization (FDE) can dynamically compensate DMGD using digital signal processing (DSP) algorithms. The frequency-domain least-mean squares (FD-LMS) algorithm has been universally adopted for high-speed MDM communications, mainly for its relatively low computational complexity. However, longer training sequence is appended for FD-LMS to achieve faster convergence, which incurs prohibitively higher system overhead and reduces overall throughput. In this paper, we propose a fast-convergent single-stage adaptive frequency-domain recursive least-squares (FD-RLS) algorithm with reduced complexity for DMGD compensation at MDM coherent receivers. The performance and complexity comparison of FD-RLS, with signal-PSD-dependent FD-LMS method and conventional FD-LMS approach, are performed in a 3000 km six-mode transmission system with 65 ps/km DMGD. We explore the convergence speed of three adaptive algorithms, including the normalized mean-square-error (NMSE) per fast Fourier transform (FFT) block at 14-30 dB OSNR. The fast convergence of FD-RLS is exploited at the expense of slightly-increased necessary tap numbers for MIMO equalizers, and it can partially save the overhead of training sequence. Furthermore, we demonstrate adaptive FD-RLS can also be used for chromatic dispersion (CD) compensation without increasing the filter tap length, thus prominently reducing the DSP implementation complexity for MDM systems.

  8. Spectral functions in functional renormalization group approach -- analysis of the collective soft modes at the QCD critical point --

    CERN Document Server

    Yokota, Takeru; Morita, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We first review the method to calculate the spectral functions in the functional renormalization group (FRG) approach, which has been recently developed. We also provide the numerical stability conditions given by the present authors for a generic nonlinear evolution equation that are necessary for obtaining the accurate effective potential from the flow equation in the FRG. As an interesting example, we report the recent calculation of the spectral functions of the mesonic and particle-hole excitations using a chiral effective model of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD); we extract the dispersion relations from them and try to reveal the nature of the soft modes at the QCD critical point (CP) where the phase transition is second order. Our result shows that a clear development and the softening of the phonon mode in the space-like region as the system approaches the CP; furthermore it turns out that the sigma mesonic mode once in the time-like region gets to merge with the phonon mode in the close vicinity of the ...

  9. Osteoid osteoma of the spine: CT-guided monopolar radiofrequency ablation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martel, Jose [Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagen, Fundacion Hospital Alcorcon, Alcorcon, Madrid (Spain)], E-mail: jmartel@fhalcorcon.es; Bueno, Angel [Departamento de Diagnostico por Imagen, Fundacion Hospital Alcorcon, Alcorcon, Madrid (Spain); Nieto-Morales, M Luisa [Servicio de Radiologia, Hospital Universitario de Tenerife (Spain); Ortiz, Eduardo J. [Departamento de Cirugia Ortopedica, Fundacion Hospital Alcorcon, Alcorcon, Madrid (Spain)

    2009-09-15

    CT-guided percutaneous radiofrequency ablation and laser photocoagulation have become the methods of choice for the treatment of all osteoid osteomas except those in contact with neural structures. We report 10 patients with spinal osteoid osteoma adjacent to the neural elements treated with 12 sessions of CT-guided monopolar radiofrequency ablation. The size range of the lesion was 3-14 mm (mean, 7.5 mm) and the distance between the nidus and the adjacent spinal cord or nerve root was 2-12 mm (mean, 5 mm). No intact cortex between the tumor and the spinal cord or nerve roots constituted an exclusion criterion because of a higher risk of undesirable neurotoxic effects. Patients were under general anesthesia. After location of the lesion, a 11G-bone biopsy was introduced into the nidus. The radiofrequency electrode was inserted through the biopsy needle and heated at 90 deg. C for 4 min. Primary success was obtained in eight patients. At follow-up (mean, 19.5 months; range, 6-24 months), pain persisted in two patients after 2 months. Both of them were re-treated. All patients are currently pain-free and complications were not detected. In our opinion, radiofrequency ablation can also be considered the treatment of choice for spinal osteoid osteoma.

  10. Multiple monopolar outflows driven by massive protostars in IRAS 18162-2048

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernández-López, M. [Department of Astronomy, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1002 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Girart, J. M. [Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (CSIC-IEEC), Campus UAB, Facultat de Ciencies, Torre C5-parell 2, E-08193 Bellaterra, Catalunya (Spain); Curiel, S.; Fonfría, J. P. [Instituto de Astronomía, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Apartado Postal 70-264, 04510 México, DF (Mexico); Zapata, L. A. [Centro de Radioastronomía y Astrofísica, UNAM, Apartado Postal 3-72, Morelia, Michoacán 58089 (Mexico); Qiu, K., E-mail: manferna@illinois.edu, E-mail: girart@ieec.cat [School of Astronomy and Space Science, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093 (China)

    2013-11-20

    In this article, we present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 3.5 mm observations and SubMillimeter Array (SMA) 870 μm observations toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 18162-2048, which is the core of the HH 80/81/80N system. Molecular emission from HCN, HCO{sup +}, and SiO traces two molecular outflows (the so-called northeast and northwest outflows). These outflows have their origin in a region close to the position of MM2, a millimeter source known to harbor two protostars. For the first time we estimate the physical characteristics of these molecular outflows, which are similar to those of 10{sup 3}-5 × 10{sup 3} L {sub ☉} protostars, and suggest that MM2 harbors high-mass protostars. High-angular resolution CO observations show an additional outflow due southeast. Also for the first time, we identify its driving source, MM2(E), and see evidence of precession. All three outflows have a monopolar appearance, but we link the NW and SE lobes, and explain their asymmetric shape as being a consequence of possible deflection.

  11. Efficacy of monopolar dielectric transmission radio frequency in panniculus adiposus and cellulite reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albornoz-Cabello, Manuel; Ibáñez-Vera, Alfonso Javier; De la Cruz-Torres, Blanca

    2017-07-05

    Despite high incidence rate of cellulite, there are few studies regarding its treatment. Most of them present non-validated evaluation tools. Radio frequency is a focused treatment very used in aesthetics to reduce it. To know the efficacy of Monopolar Dielectric Radio frequency (MDR) treatment in dynamic applications to reduce cellulite, panniculus adiposus and gluteal and posterior thigh regions. Experimental study consisting of inferior members of nine women. They received 10 sessions based on dynamic applications of MDR. Variables included the following: Cellulite Severity Scale (CSS), appearance of the cutaneous area, flaccidity and ultrasound measurement of the panniculus adiposus. The final CSS score of the leg treated reflects statistically significative differences (p = 0.023) when compared with control leg (p = 0.622). Significant reductions of body perimeters at the level of the great trochanter (p = 0.02), the gluteal region (p = 0.03) and the midpoint of the posterior thigh (p = 0.01) are found. The reduction of the panniculus adiposus measured using ultrasound techniques shows significant changes in the midpoint of the posterior thigh (p = 0.028) as well as in the gluteal region (p = 0.03). The dynamic application of MDR seems to be effective in order to reduce not only the thickness of panniculus adiposus but also gluteal and posterior thigh perimeters.

  12. Multiple monopolar outflows driven by massive protostars in IRAS 18162-2048

    CERN Document Server

    Fernández-López, Manuel; Curiel, Salvador; Zapata, Luis Alberto; Fonfría, Jose Pablo; Qiu, Keping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we present Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 3.5 mm observations and SubMillimeter Array (SMA) 870 microns observations toward the high-mass star-forming region IRAS 1816-2048, the core of the HH 80/81/80N system. Molecular emission from HCN, HCO+ and SiO is tracing two molecular outflows (the so-called Northeast and Northwest outflows). These outflows have their origin in a region close to the position of MM2, a millimeter source known to harbor a couple protostars. We estimate for the first time the physical characteristics of these molecular outflows, which are similar to those of 1000-5000 Lo protostars, suggesting that MM2 harbors high-mass protostars. High-angular resolution CO observations show an additional outflow due southeast. We identify for the first time its driving source, MM2(E), and see evidence of precession. All three outflows have a monopolar appearance, but we link the NW and SE lobes, explaining their asymmetric shape as a consequence of possi...

  13. The Lifetime of FRIIs in Groups and Clusters: Implications for Radio-Mode Feedback

    CERN Document Server

    Bird, Jonathan C; Kaiser, Christian R

    2007-01-01

    We determine the maximum lifetime t_max of 58 FRII radio jets found in 29 central group galaxies from cross correlation of the Berlind SDSS group catalog with the VLA FIRST survey. Mock catalogs of FRII sources were produced to match the selection criteria of FIRST and the redshift distribution of our parent sample, while an analytical model was used to calculate source sizes and luminosities. The maximum lifetime of FRII jets was then determined via a comparison of the observed and model projected length distributions. We estimate the average FRII lifetime is 1.2x10^7 years and the duty cycle is ~7x10^8 years. Degeneracies between t_max and the model parameters: jet power distribution, axial ratio, energy injection index, and ambient density introduce at most a factor of two uncertainty in our lifetime estimate. The radio active galactic nuclei (AGN) fraction in central group galaxies was calculated as a function of several group and host galaxy properties. We find greater group galaxy number, redder central...

  14. Roles Distribution and Group Identification in Sport Teams with Joint-Consistent Interaction Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.B. Kolosov

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents comparative analysis of differentiated space choice, presenting subjectively perceived ground of concrete athlete personal activity within Ukrainian National Fencing Team (13 women and 12 men. The received data gives reasons to believe that role repertoire of the team depends on team identification, but at the same time it has impact on activity redistribution inside the group, significant for competition actions regulation and optimal formation determination.

  15. Dichlorostannylene complexes of group 10 metals, a unique bonding mode stabilized by bridging 2-pyridyldiphenylphosphine ligands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cabon, Y.; Kleijn, H.; Siegler, M. A.; Spek, A.L.; Klein Gebbink, R.J.M.; Deelman, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    The reaction of tin dichloride with catalytically-relevant group 10 metal precursors [M(Cl)(X)(2-PyPPh2)2] (M = Ni, Pd, Pt; 2-PyPPh2 = 2-pyridyldiphenylphosphine; X = Cl, Me) provides easy access to unprecedented cationic dichlorostannylene complexes [M(X)(2-PyPPh2)2(SnCl2)]+ where the M–Sn bond is

  16. Roles Distribution and Group Identification in Sport Teams with Joint-Consistent Interaction Mode

    OpenAIRE

    A.B. Kolosov; S.M. Voutenko

    2012-01-01

    The article presents comparative analysis of differentiated space choice, presenting subjectively perceived ground of concrete athlete personal activity within Ukrainian National Fencing Team (13 women and 12 men). The received data gives reasons to believe that role repertoire of the team depends on team identification, but at the same time it has impact on activity redistribution inside the group, significant for competition actions regulation and optimal formation determination.

  17. Time-course of corticospinal excitability and autonomic function interplay during and following monopolar tDCS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano eSantarnecchi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available While polarity-specific after-effects of monopolar transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS on cortico-spinal excitability are well-documented, modulation of vital parameters due to current spread through the brainstem is still a matter of debate, raising potential concerns about its use through the general public, as well as for neurorehabilitation purposes. We monitored online and after-effects of monopolar tDCS (primary motor cortex in ten healthy subjects by adopting a neuronavigated transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS/tDCS combined protocol. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs together with vital parameters (e.g. blood pressure, heart-rate variability and sympathovagal balance were recorded and monitored before, during and after anodal, cathodal or sham tDCS. Ten MEPs every 2.5-minute time windows were recorded from the right First Dorsal Interosseus (FDI, while 5-minute epochs were used to record vital parameters. The protocol included 15 minutes of pre-tDCS and of online-tDCS, (anodal, cathodal or sham. After effects were recorded for 30 minutes. We showed a polarity-independent stabilization of cortical excitability level, a polarity-specific after-effects for cathodal and anodal stimulation, and an absence of persistent excitability changes during online stimulation. No significant effects on vital parameters emerged both during and after tDCS, while a linear increase in systolic/diastolic blood pressure and heart-rate variability was observed during each tDCS condition, as a possible unspecific response to experimental demands. Taken together, current findings provide new insights on the safety of monopolar tDCS, promoting its application both in research and clinical settings.

  18. COMPARATIVE STUDY OF FISTULECTOMY BY CORING TECHNIQUE IN FISTULA IN ANO, USING RADIOFREQUENCY CAUTERY AND MONOPOLAR CAUTERY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhura M

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Fistula in ano is common condition in perineal region. Anorectal fistulas are divided into four distinct types according to the Parks’ classification: intersphincteric, transsphincteric, suprasphincteric, and extrasphincteric.1 The ultimate goal of fistula surgery is to eradicate it without disturbing or disturbing minimally the anal sphincter mechanism. The radiofrequency scalpel is an innovative instrument, which allows cutting and coagulating tissues in an atraumatic manner and which facilitates in accelerating and improving the surgical procedure conversely to the electric scalpel.2 This prospective study which will be conducted in a single centre and in this study we are comparing use of monopolar cautery and radiofrequency cautery units for the patients with fistula in ano operated during the period of February 2012 to February 2015. All fistulas will be treated by fistulectomy using coring technique. Results will be analyzed on following points like intraoperative bleeding, clearance of visual field, intra- and post-operative odema, and time required for every procedure, recurrence. AIMS AND OBJECTIVES OF STUDY 1. To compare intraoperative bleeding during surgery using both the units (cautery/RF cautery during surgery. 2. To assess clearance of field of vision intraoperatively. 3. To see for intraoperative and post-operative edema. 4. To assess time required for the procedure. 5. Final results in terms of recurrence. CONCLUSION Radiofrequency ablation is better method for fistulectomy compared to monopolar cautery in terms of intraoperative blood loss, post-operative pain, oedema, and healing period. But if procedure is better taken care of recurrence is avoidable. Operative time required for monopolar cautery exceeds radiofrequency cautery.

  19. The mode of emplacement of Neogene flood basalts in eastern Iceland: Facies architecture and structure of simple aphyric basalt groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Riishuus, Morten S.

    2014-12-01

    Simple flows (tabular) in the Neogene flood basalt sections of Iceland are described and their mode of emplacement assessed. The flows belong to three aphyric basalt groups: the Kumlafell group, the Hólmatindur group and the Hjálmadalur group. The groups can be traced over 50 km and originate in the Breiðdalur-Thingmuli volcanic zone. The groups have flow fields that display mixed volcanic facies architecture and can be classified after dominating type morphology. The Kumlafell and the Hólmatindur groups have predominantly simple flows of pāhoehoe and rubbly pāhoehoe morphologies with minor compound or lobate pāhoehoe flows. The Hjálmadalur group has simple flows of rubbly pāhoehoe, but also includes minor compound or lobate flows of rubble and 'a'ā. Simple flows are most common in the distal and medial areas from the vents, while more lobate flows in proximal areas. The simple flows are formed by extensive sheet lobes that are several kilometers long with plane-parallel contacts, some reaching thicknesses of ~ 40 m (aspect ratios inflation structures. Their internal structure consists generally of a simple upper vesicular crust, a dense core and a thin basal vesicular zone. The brecciated flow-top is formed by clinker and crustal rubble, the clinker often welded or agglutinated. The simple flows erupted from seemingly short-lived fissures and have the characteristics of cooling-limited flows. We estimate the effusion rates to be ~ 105 m3/s for the simple flows of the Kumlafell and Hólmatindur groups and ~ 104 m3/s for the Hjálmadalur group. The longest flows advanced 15-20 km from the fissures, with lava streams of fast propagating flows inducing tearing and brecciation of the chilled crust. Compound or lobate areas appear to reflect areas of low effusion rates or the interaction of the lava with topographic barriers or wetlands, resulting in chaotic flowage. Slowing lobes with brecciated flow-tops developed into 'a'ā flows. The groups interdigitated

  20. Fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with in-wheel motors using actuator-grouping sliding mode controllers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Boyuan; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Although electric vehicles with in-wheel motors have been regarded as one of the promising vehicle architectures in recent years, the probability of in-wheel motor fault is still a crucial issue due to the system complexity and large number of control actuators. In this study, a modified sliding mode control (SMC) is applied to achieve fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-driving (4WID). Unlike in traditional SMC, in this approach the steering geometry is re-arranged according to the location of faulty wheels in the modified SMC. Three SMC control laws for longitudinal velocity control, lateral velocity control and yaw rate control are designed based on specific vehicle motion scenarios. In addition the actuator-grouping SMC method is proposed so that driving actuators are grouped and each group of actuators can be used to achieve the specific control target, which avoids the strong coupling effect between each control target. Simulation results prove that the proposed modified SMC can achieve good vehicle dynamics control performance in normal driving and large steering angle turning scenarios. In addition, the proposed actuator-grouping SMC can solve the coupling effect of different control targets and the control performance is improved.

  1. Group Theoretical Analysis of Vibrational Modes, Rovibronic Levels and Nuclear Spin Statistics of extended aromatic C48N12 Azafullerene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balasubramanian, K

    2004-03-17

    We have presented a group theoretical analysis of the vibrational modes and rovibronic levels of a novel extended aromatic C{sub 48}N{sub 12} azafullerene. The nuclear spin multiplets and statistical weights of {sup 14}N spin-1 bosons, vibrational and rotational analysis and computed vibrational spectra are provided. We have also predicted the properties of the {sup 3}A{sub u}, {sup 3}E{sub g}, and {sup 3}E{sub u} excited states of C{sub 48}N{sub 12} that lie 1.9 eV above the {sup 1}A{sub g} ground state, and that the {sup 3}E{sub g} and {sup 3}E{sub u} states would undergo Jahn-Teller distortion into chiral structures with no symmetry and an achiral structure with C{sub i} symmetry.

  2. Comparative evaluation of transmembrane ion transport due to monopolar and bipolar nanosecond, high-intensity electroporation pulses based on full three-dimensional analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Q.; Joshi, R. P.

    2017-07-01

    Electric pulse driven membrane poration finds applications in the fields of biomedical engineering and drug/gene delivery. Here we focus on nanosecond, high-intensity electroporation and probe the role of pulse shape (e.g., monopolar-vs-bipolar), multiple electrode scenarios, and serial-versus-simultaneous pulsing, based on a three-dimensional time-dependent continuum model in a systematic fashion. Our results indicate that monopolar pulsing always leads to higher and stronger cellular uptake. This prediction is in agreement with experimental reports and observations. It is also demonstrated that multi-pronged electrode configurations influence and increase the degree of cellular uptake.

  3. Monopolar high-frequency language mapping: can it help in the surgical management of gliomas? A comparative clinical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riva, Marco; Fava, Enrica; Gallucci, Marcello; Comi, Alessandro; Casarotti, Alessandra; Alfiero, Tommaso; Raneri, Fabio A; Pessina, Federico; Bello, Lorenzo

    2016-05-01

    OBJECT Intraoperative language mapping is traditionally performed with low-frequency bipolar stimulation (LFBS). High-frequency train-of-five stimulation delivered by a monopolar probe (HFMS) is an alternative technique for motor mapping, with a lower reported seizure incidence. The application of HFMS in language mapping is still limited. Authors of this study assessed the efficacy and safety of HFMS for language mapping during awake surgery, exploring its clinical impact compared with that of LFBS. METHODS Fifty-nine patients underwent awake surgery with neuropsychological testing, and LFBS and HFMS were compared. Frequency, type, and site of evoked interference were recorded. Language was scored preoperatively and 1 week and 3 months after surgery. Extent of resection was calculated as well. RESULTS High-frequency monopolar stimulation induced a language disturbance when the repetition rate was set at 3 Hz. Interference with counting (p = 0.17) and naming (p = 0.228) did not vary between HFMS and LFBS. These results held true when preoperative tumor volume, lesion site, histology, and recurrent surgery were considered. Intraoperative responses (1603) in all patients were compared. The error rate for both modalities differed from baseline values (p language errors (articulatory, anomia, paraphasia) did not differ between the 2 stimulation methods (p = 0.279). CONCLUSIONS With proper setting adjustments, HFMS is a safe and effective technique for language mapping.

  4. A Sliding-Mode Triboelectric Nanogenerator with Chemical Group Grated Structure by Shadow Mask Reactive Ion Etching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Wanyu; Gu, Guang Qin; Yang, Feng; Zhao, Lei; Cheng, Gang; Du, Zu-Liang; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2017-08-25

    The sliding-mode triboelectric nanogenerator (S-TENG) with grated structure has important applications in energy harvest and active sensors; however its concavo-convex structure leads to large frictional resistance and abrasion. Here, we developed a S-TENG with a chemical group grated structure (S-TENG-CGG), in which the triboelectric layer's triboelectric potential has a positive-negative alternating charged structure. The triboelectric layer of the S-TENG-CGG was fabricated through a reactive ion etching process with a metal shadow mask with grated structure. In the etched region, the nylon film, originally positively charged as in friction with stainless steel, gained opposite triboelectric potential and became negatively charged because of the change of surface functional groups. The output signals of the S-TENG-CGG are alternating and the frequency is determined by both the segment numbers and the moving speed. The applications of the S-TENG-CGG in the charging capacitor and driving calculator are demonstrated. In the S-TENG-CGG, since there is no concavo-convex structure, the frictional resistance and abrasion are largely reduced, which enhances its performances in better stability and longer working time.

  5. Monopolar fuel cell stack coupled together without use of top or bottom cover plates or tie rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narayanan, Sekharipuram R. (Inventor); Valdez, Thomas I. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    A monopolar fuel cell stack comprises a plurality of sealed unit cells coupled together. Each unit cell comprises two outer cathodes adjacent to corresponding membrane electrode assemblies and a center anode plate. An inlet and outlet manifold are coupled to the anode plate and communicate with a channel therein. Fuel flows from the inlet manifold through the channel in contact with the anode plate and flows out through the outlet manifold. The inlet and outlet manifolds are arranged to couple to the inlet and outlet manifolds respectively of an adjacent one of the plurality of unit cells to permit fuel flow in common into all of the inlet manifolds of the plurality of the unit cells when coupled together in a stack and out of all of the outlet manifolds of the plurality of unit cells when coupled together in a stack.

  6. Revealing the Value of “Green” and the Small Group with a Big Heart in Transportation Mode Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Gaker

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available To address issues of climate change, people are more and more being presented with the greenhouse gas emissions associated with their alternatives. Statements of pounds or kilograms of CO2 are showing up in trip planners, car advertisements, and even restaurant menus under the assumption that this information influences behavior. This research contributes to the literature that investigates how travelers respond to such information. Our objective is to better understand the “value of green” or how much travelers are willing to pay in money in order to reduce the CO2 associated with their travel. As with previous work, we designed and conducted a mode choice experiment using methods that have long been used to study value of time. The contributions of this paper are twofold. First, we employ revealed preference data, whereas previous studies have been based on stated preferences. Second, we provide new insight on how the value of green is distributed in the population. Whereas previous work has specified heterogeneity either systematically or with a continuous distribution, we find that a latent class choice model specification better fits the data and also is attractive behaviorally. The best fitting latent class model has two classes: one large class (76% of the sample who are not willing to spend any time or money to reduce their CO2 and a second class (24% of the sample who value reducing their CO2 at a very high rate of $2.68 per pound of reduction—our so-called small group with a big heart. We reanalyzed three datasets that we had previously collected and found considerable robustness of this two class result.

  7. Online Focus Group Discussion is a Valid and Feasible Mode When Investigating Sensitive Topics Among Young Persons With a Cancer Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wettergren, Lena; Eriksson, Lars E; Nilsson, Jenny; Jervaeus, Anna; Lampic, Claudia

    2016-05-09

    Clinical research often lacks participants of young age. Adding to the small amount of scientific studies that focus on the population entering adulthood, there are also difficulties to recruit them. To overcome this, there is a need to develop and scientifically evaluate modes for data collection that are suitable for adolescents and young adults. With this in mind we performed 39 online focus group discussions among young survivors of childhood cancer to explore thoughts and experiences around dating, being intimate with someone, and having children. The aim of the study was to evaluate online focus group discussions as a mode for data collection on sensitive issues among young persons with a cancer experience. One hundred thirty-three young persons (16-25 years) previously diagnosed with cancer, participated in 39 synchronous online focus group discussions (response rate 134/369, 36%). The mode of administration was evaluated by analyzing participant characteristics and interactions during discussions, as well as group members' evaluations of the discussions. Persons diagnosed with central nervous tumors (n=30, 27%) participated to a lower extent than those with other cancer types (n=103, 39%; χ 2= 4.89, P=.03). The participants described various health impairments that correspond to what would be expected among cancer survivors including neuropsychiatric conditions and writing disabilities. Even though participants were interested in others' experiences, sexual issues needed more probing by the moderators than did fertility-related issues. Group evaluations revealed that participants appreciated communicating on the suggested topics and thought that it was easier to discuss sex when it was possible to be anonymous toward other group members. Online focus group discussions, with anonymous participation, are suggested to be a feasible and valid mode for collecting sensitive data among young persons with a cancer experience.

  8. Comparing the effect of auditory-only and auditory-visual modes in two groups of Persian children using cochlear implants: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryadi Zanjani, Mohammad Majid; Hasanzadeh, Saeid; Rahgozar, Mehdi; Shemshadi, Hashem; Purdy, Suzanne C; Mahmudi Bakhtiari, Behrooz; Vahab, Maryam

    2013-09-01

    Since the introduction of cochlear implantation, researchers have considered children's communication and educational success before and after implantation. Therefore, the present study aimed to compare auditory, speech, and language development scores following one-sided cochlear implantation between two groups of prelingual deaf children educated through either auditory-only (unisensory) or auditory-visual (bisensory) modes. A randomized controlled trial with a single-factor experimental design was used. The study was conducted in the Instruction and Rehabilitation Private Centre of Hearing Impaired Children and their Family, called Soroosh in Shiraz, Iran. We assessed 30 Persian deaf children for eligibility and 22 children qualified to enter the study. They were aged between 27 and 66 months old and had been implanted between the ages of 15 and 63 months. The sample of 22 children was randomly assigned to two groups: auditory-only mode and auditory-visual mode; 11 participants in each group were analyzed. In both groups, the development of auditory perception, receptive language, expressive language, speech, and speech intelligibility was assessed pre- and post-intervention by means of instruments which were validated and standardized in the Persian population. No significant differences were found between the two groups. The children with cochlear implants who had been instructed using either the auditory-only or auditory-visual modes acquired auditory, receptive language, expressive language, and speech skills at the same rate. Overall, spoken language significantly developed in both the unisensory group and the bisensory group. Thus, both the auditory-only mode and the auditory-visual mode were effective. Therefore, it is not essential to limit access to the visual modality and to rely solely on the auditory modality when instructing hearing, language, and speech in children with cochlear implants who are exposed to spoken language both at home and at school

  9. Monopolar Radiofrequency Ablation for Medium-sized Hepatocellular Carcinoma: Preliminary Experience with Single-Electrode Overlapping Ablation and Multiple-Electrode Switching System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shen-Yung Wang

    2015-03-01

    Conclusions: Medium-sized hepatocellular carcinoma can be effectively ablated with monopolar radiofrequency ablation by either single-electrode overlapping ablation or a multiple-electrode switching system. Regarding mid-term treatment responses, both RFA approaches can achieve similar treatment effectiveness, local tumor progression rate, and survival probabilities. Multiple-electrode switching RFA can treat larger medium-sized HCC with comparable mid-term efficacy as smaller medium-sized HCC treated with single-electrode overlapping RFA.

  10. 超声刀结合单极电凝应用于腹腔镜胃癌根治术的评价%Ultrasonic Scalpel and Monopolar Electrocoagulation in Laparoscopic-assisted Radical Gastrectomy for Gastric Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鱼国盛; 汤黎明; 钱峻; 朱杰

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the outcome of ultrasonic scalpel combined with monopolar electrocoagulation in laparoscopic-assisted radical gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma. Methods From January 2010 to March 2011, 75 patients with curable gastric carcinoma underwent laparoscopic-assisted radical gastrectomy, of which 39 patients were treated solely by ultrasonic scalpel, the other 36 patients underwent ultrasonic scalpel combined with monopolar electrocoagulation. The operation time, intraoperative blood loss, number of resected lymph nodes, and postoperative drainage volume and complications were analyzed retrospectively and compared between the two groups. Results The mean operation time and blood loss of ultrasonic scalpel group were significantly more than that in the study group [ (347 ±38) min vs. (310 ±23) min, t =5. 049, P = 0. 000, and (274 ± 122) ml vs. (186 ± 90) ml, t = 3. 530, P = 0. 000]. The number of harvested lymph nodes, postoperative drainage volume and the incidence rate of complications were comparable between the two groups ( P > 0.05). Conclusion By combining ultrasonic scalpel with monopolar electrocoagulation in laparoscopic-assisted radical gastrectomy for gastric carcinoma, the advantages of the both methods can be utilized so that to reduce operation time and blood loss,and make lymph nodes resection easier.%目的 评价腹腔镜胃癌根治术中联合应用超声刀及单极电凝的效果.方法 回顾分析2010年1月~2011年3月75例腹腔镜胃癌D2根治术的临床资料,前39例单纯使用超声刀(超声刀组),后36例联合应用超声刀与单极电凝(联合组).比较2组手术时间、术中出血量、平均清扫淋巴结个数、术后引流量及术后并发症方面的差异.结果 与超声刀组相比,联合组术中出血少[(274±122)ml vs.(186±90) ml,t=3.530,P=0.000],手术时间短[(347±38)min vs.(310±23) min,t=5.049,P=0.000],2组清扫淋巴结个数、术后引流量及并发症

  11. An Immunomodulatory Protein (Ling Zhi-8 from a Ganoderma lucidum Induced Acceleration of Wound Healing in Rat Liver Tissues after Monopolar Electrosurgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hao-Jan Lin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of an immunomodulatory protein (Ling Zhi-8, LZ-8 on wound healing in rat liver tissues after monopolar electrosurgery. Animals were sacrificed for evaluations at 0, 3, 7, and 28 days postoperatively. It was found that the wound with the LZ-8 treatment significantly increases wound healing. Western blot analysis clearly indicated that the expression of NF-κB was decreased at 3, 7, and 28 days when liver tissues were treated with LZ-8. Moreover, caspase-3 activity of the liver tissue also significantly decreases at 7 and 28 days, respectively. DAPI staining and TUNEL assays revealed that only a minimal dispersion of NF-κB was found on the liver tissue treated with LZ-8 at day 7 as compared with day 3 and tissues without LZ-8 treatment. Similarly, apoptosis was decreased on liver tissues treated with LZ-8 at 7 days when compared to the control (monopolar electrosurgery tissues. Therefore, the analytical results demonstrated that LZ-8 induced acceleration of wound healing in rat liver tissues after monopolar electrosurgery.

  12. Correlations and coherence of monopolar EMG-currents of the medial gastrocnemius muscle in proximal and distal compartments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinzenz eVon Tscharner

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The penniform gastrocnemius muscle contains multiple heads in the proximal regions and the aponeuroses are attached to the Achilles tendon. The multiple head structure lead to the assumption that different regions of the muscle must be activated compartment wise. The purpose of this study was to compare the correlation and coherence of EMG-currents within and between proximal and distal compartments of the medial gastrocnemius muscle, which reflect underling synchronization of motor units. It was hypothesized and shown that phase-inverted signals represent a property that discriminates compartments. However, the phase-inverted and non-inverted signals showed values of correlations that were indicative for highly synchronized signals. The correlation increased with the complexity of the task and was higher for the calf-rising movement than while balancing in a tiptoe position. Because the muscle fibers do not span the whole length of the muscles one has to conclude that the MUs were synchronized by synchronizing the various motor nerves. This study shows that it is essential to measure monopolar signals and use non-isometric contractions to observe synchronization of the EMG-signals. One could speculate that compartmental differences can only be observed if more complex movements that generate rotational forces at the knee or ankle are used.

  13. Effectiveness of electrocoagulation process in removing organic compounds from slaughterhouse wastewater using monopolar and bipolar electrolytic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asselin, Mélanie; Drogui, Patrick; Benmoussa, Hamel; Blais, Jean-François

    2008-08-01

    Slaughterhouse wastewaters contain varied and high amounts of organic matter (e.g., proteins, blood, fat). In order to produce an effluent suitable for stream discharge, electrochemical techniques have been particularly explored at the laboratory pilot scale for organic compounds removal from poultry slaughterhouse (PS) effluent. Electrocoagulation (EC) process was tested using either mild steel or aluminium electrodes arranged in bipolar (BP) or monopolar configuration system. Results showed that the best performance was obtained using mild steel BP electrode system operated at a current intensity of 0.3A, through 60 or 90 min of treatment. Under these conditions, removals of 86+/-1% and 99+/-1% were measured for BOD and oil and grease, respectively, whereas soluble COD and total COD were removed by 50+/-4% and 82+/-2%, respectively. EC is also efficient for decolorization (red-color) and clarification of the PS effluent. Removals of 89+/-4% and 90+/-4% have been measured for total suspended solids and turbidity, respectively. Electrochemical coagulation operated under the optimal conditions involves a total cost of 0.71 USD $ per cubic meter of treated PS effluent. This cost includes energy and electrode consumptions, chemicals, and sludge disposal.

  14. Evaluation of the efficiency of monopolar and bipolar BDD electrodes for electrochemical oxidation of anthraquinone textile synthetic effluent for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdessamad, NourElHouda; Akrout, Hanene; Hamdaoui, Ghaith; Elghniji, Kais; Ksibi, Mohamed; Bousselmi, Latifa

    2013-10-01

    The efficiency of the electrochemical degradation of synthetic wastewater containing an anthraquinone dye has been comparatively studied in two electrolytic cells with a synthetic boron-doped diamond (Si/BDD) as an anode. The first is an individual cell (Cell 1) with monopolar electrode BDD and the second (Cell 2) has two bipolar electrodes BDD self-polarized. The bulk electrolysis was performed at the same initial operating conditions in order to quantify the influence of the initial pH and current density on dye discoloration and global mineralization removal. The current efficiency and the consumption energy were also evaluated. When the same solutions have been comparatively treated with the two cells, a quite good mineralization is found in Cell 2. This result supposed more fraction of the applied current is used for the electrocombustion reaction on Cell 2 if compared to Cell 1 and small amount rest for the side reaction of oxygen evolution. The HPLC analyses confirmed this hypothesis and showed that the concentration trend of intermediates (sulfanilic acid, phthalate acid and salicylic acid) with electrolysis time was different on two cells. Phototoxicity tests show that the electrochemical oxidation with BDD electrodes could be useful as a pretreatment technique for reducing hazardous wastewater toxicity. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Bipolar plasma vaporization versus monopolar TUR and “cold-knife" TUI in secondary bladder neck sclerosis – An evidence based, retrospective critical comparison in a single center clinical setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moldoveanu, C; Geavlete, B; Jecu, M; Stanescu, F; Adou, L; Bulai, C; Ene, C; Geavlete, P

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: A long term, retrospective study was performed aiming to outline a critical comparison concerning the efficacy, safety and durability of the bipolar plasma vaporization (BPV), standard monopolar transurethral resection (TUR) and “cold-knife" “star" transurethral incision (TUI) in secondary bladder neck sclerosis (BNS) cases. Materials & Methods: Of the 126 patients included in the trial based on maximum flow rate (Qmax) below 10 mL/s and International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) over 19, classical resection was performed in 46 cases, “cold-knife" TUI in 37 cases and bipolar vaporization in 43 patients. The evaluation protocol comprised IPSS, QoL (quality of life) score, Qmax and PVR (post-voiding residual urinary volume) assessment performed at 1, 3, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after the initial intervention. Results: Significant intraoperative complications (capsular perforation – 8.7%; bleeding – 4.3%) occurred secondary to monopolar resection. “Star" TUI was the fastest technique, followed by plasma-button vaporization (7.2 and 11.4 versus 16.5 minutes). BPV and TUI patients benefitted from the shortest catheterization periods (0.75 and 1 versus 2.0 days) and hospital stays (1.0 and 1.25 versus 2.0 days). Immediate postoperative adverse events consisted of hematuria (6.5% of the TUR cases) and acute urinary retention (8.1% of the TUI group). Significantly higher long term BNS recurrence rates requiring re-treatment were established in the TUI (18.7%) and TUR (12.8%) series by comparison to BPV (5.4%). Among patients that completed the follow-up protocol, equivalent IPSS, QoL, Qmax and PVR features were determined in the 3 study arms. Conclusions: The plasma vaporization approach was confirmed as a successful match to conventional TUR and “cold-knife" TUI in terms of surgical safety profile, postoperative recovery, therapeutic durability and urodynamic and symptom score parameters. PMID:24653766

  16. Comparison of thermal damage of the internal thoracic artery using ultra high radiofrequency and monopolar diathermy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulat, Cristijan; Pešutić-Pisac, Valdi; Capkun, Vesna; Marović, Zlatko; Pogorelić, Zenon; Družijanić, Nikica

    2014-10-01

    The internal thoracic artery (ITA) has been accepted worldwide as a first choice conduit for myocardial revascularisation. It still remains questionable what is the best method for ITA harvesting in a skeletonized fashion according to structural integrity of artery, as a risk factor of early and late graft failure. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the ultra-high radiofrequency energy used for ITA harvesting on arterial structural integrity, in particular on the endothelial layer. Seventy-four ITA specimens were divided into two groups depending on device used for harvesting (radiofrequency-knife (RF) or electrocauter (EC)). Thermal damage on arterial structural integrity was measured using light microscope, morphometric imaging analysis and immunohistochemical methods. Thermal damage of endothelium was 2.8 times higher in EC than in RF group (p = 0.041) and 5 times higher in patients older than 66 years of age (p = 0.002). Extent of endothelial damage (graded from 0 to 3) was significantly higher in EC group (p = 0.03). Also, in EC group, in patients older than 66 years of age higher proportion of extent of endothelial damage was found (p = 0.027). The endothelial damage was more often in EC than in RF group as in the patients older than 66 years of age. Demonstrated results suggest that the radiosurgery in comparison to conventional electrocautery is safe and effective method, and significantly reduces thermal damage to endothelial layer of artery. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Discuss on the Operation Mode of Group Purchase Websites in our country%我国团购网站的运营模式探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李向红

    2012-01-01

    互联网技术的快速发展,催生了许多新的电子商务运营模式,团购网站的兴起,OTO的普及,使得网上团购成为时下最流行的购物方式,团购网站带给消费者更低的价格,更自由、更个性化的商品或服务,大量的消费者喜爱团购也给商家和团购网站带来了极大的名气和快速增长的销量,但网络团购异常繁荣的背后也隐藏着若干问题。本文探讨我国团购网站的运营模式,分析目前存在的问题,并提出解决问题的建议对策。%The rapid development of Internet technology,has spawned a lot of new e-commerce operation mode,group purchase websites arisen,the popularity of OTO,making online group purchase became the most popular way of shopping,group purchase websites bring lower prices,more free and more personalized commodity or service for consumers,many consumers'group purchase has also brought great fame and the rapid growth of sales for merchants and group purchase websites,but the network group purchase abnormal prosperous backside hidden problems.This paper discusses group purchase websites operating mode in our country,the analysis of the existing problems,and put forward suggestions and countermeasures to solve the problems.

  18. Monopolar Electro-Coagulation Process for Azo Dye C.I. Acid Red 18 Removal from Aqueous Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghasem Azarian

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The discharge of wastewaters containing an untreated dye results in aesthetic problems and an increase in gases solubility, which causes light transmission inhibition into water bodies. In spite of advantages of physicochemical and biological methods, these processes produce huge amounts of sludge, toxic by-products and require several oxidant chemicals. By contrast, electrochemical processes because of their high versatility, high efficiency and eco-friendly properties are more acceptable. In the present study, the removal of azo dye Acid Red 18 and chemical oxygen demand (COD from synthetic wastewater by monopolar (EC process was investigated and key parameters such as operating time, current density (CD, initial pH and energy, and electrode consumption were optimized. It was found that the process had a very good efficiency in the removal of both COD and color; for the iron electrode, the maximum amounts of color and COD removal were 99.5% and 59.0%, respectively. An operating time of 45 min, pH of 7 and CD of 1.2 mA/cm2 was selected as the optimized condition. The optimization of variables is extremely crucial as it results in a decrease in costs, energy and electrode consumption. Overall, the iron electrode used less energy than the aluminum electrode and was more acceptable for use in this process due to economical reasons. The findings of UV/vis spectra illustrated that the structures of this dye were removed by the process. In comparison with traditional methods such as aerobic and anaerobic systems, the EC process is a suitable alternative for the treatment of wastewaters containing dye pollutants.

  19. A Plagioclase Ultraphyric Basalt group in the Neogene flood basalt piles of eastern Iceland: Volcanic architecture and mode of emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oskarsson, B. V.; Riishuus, M. S.

    2013-12-01

    3D photogrammetry in conjunction with ground mapping was applied in order to assess the architecture of a Plagioclase Ultraphyric Basalt (PUB) group in eastern Iceland, namely the Grænavatn group. The ~10 Myr old group is exposed in steep glacially carved fjords and can be traced over 60 km along strike. Two feeder dikes have been found and show that the group erupted along the trend of the dike swarm associated with the Breiddalur central volcano. The group has 9--14 flows where thickest, and thins to about 3--4 flows up-dip to the east within the distance of 15-20 km from the source. We have estimated the volume of the group to exceed 40 km3. The flows have mixed architecture of simple and compound morphology. The flow lobes have thicknesses from 1--24 m and many reach lengths over 1000 m. The surface morphology varies from rubbly to scoriaceous, but is dominantly of pahoehoe style. The internal structure of the lava flows is well preserved and the flows display abundant vesicle cylinders. The modal percentage of An-rich plagioclase macrocrysts varies from 25--50 % and they are in the range of 5--30 mm. The aspect ratio of the group and the nature of the flows indicate fissure-fed eruptions. A thick flow found at the base of the group in various locations seems to record the largest eruption episode in the formation of the group. This phase is also the most abundant in macrocryst. An asymmetric buildup is seen in one location and may have characterized the general buildup of the group. The general morphology of the lava flows suggests low viscous behavior, at odds with the high crystal content. Petrographic observations and mineral chemistry shows that the plagioclase macrocrysts are very calcic (An80-85) and in disequilibrium with the groundmass and plagioclases therein (An50-70). Thus the apparent lava rheology and emplacement of the PUBs was likely achieved due to fast ascent of the magma through the crust and transfer of heat from the primitive macrocrysts

  20. The 4-pyridylmethyl ester as a protecting group for glutamic and aspartic acids: 'flipping' peptide charge states for characterization by positive ion mode ESI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garapati, Sriramya; Burns, Colin S

    2014-03-01

    Use of the 4-pyridylmethyl ester group for side-chain protection of glutamic acid residues in solid-phase peptide synthesis enables switching of the charge state of a peptide from negative to positive, thus making detection by positive ion mode ESI-MS possible. The pyridylmethyl ester moiety is readily removed from peptides in high yield by hydrogenation. Combining the 4-pyridylmethyl ester protecting group with benzyl ester protection reduces the number of the former needed to produce a net positive charge and allows for purification by RP HPLC. This protecting group is useful in the synthesis of highly acidic peptide sequences, which are often beset by problems with purification by standard RP HPLC and characterization by ESI-MS.

  1. Reproducing Crystal Binding Modes of Ligand Functional Groups using Site-Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS) Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, E. Prabhu; Yu, Wenbo; Guvench, Olgun; MacKerell, Alexander D.

    2011-01-01

    The applicability of a computational method, Site Identification by Ligand Competitive Saturation (SILCS), to identify regions on a protein surface with which different types of functional groups on low-molecular weight inhibitors interact is demonstrated. The method involves molecular dynamics (MD) simulations of a protein in an aqueous solution of chemically diverse small molecules from which probability distributions of fragments types, termed FragMaps, are obtained. In the present application, SILCS simulations are performed with an aqueous solution of 1 M benzene and propane to map the affinity pattern of the protein for aromatic and aliphatic functional groups. In addition, water hydrogen and oxygen atoms serve as probes for hydrogen bond donor and acceptor affinity, respectively. The method is tested using a set of 7 proteins for which crystal structures of complexes with several high affinity inhibitors are known. Good agreement is obtained between FragMaps and the positions of chemically similar functional groups in inhibitors as observed in the X-ray crystallographic structures. Quantitative capabilities of the SILCS approach are demonstrated by converting FragMaps to free energies, termed Grid Free Energies (GFE), and showing correlation between the GFE values and experimental binding affinities. For proteins for which ligand decoy sets are available, GFE values are shown to typically score the crystal conformation and conformations similar to it more favorable than decoys. Additionally, SILCS is tested for its ability to capture the subtle differences in ligand affinity across homologous proteins, information which may be of utility towards specificity-guided drug design. Taken together, our results show that SILCS can recapitulate the known location of functional groups of bound inhibitors for a number of proteins, suggesting that the method may be of utility for rational drug design. PMID:21456594

  2. Modelado y Simulación del Procedimiento de Electrocirugía Monopolar Laparoscópica para Estimación de Riesgos en Pacientes

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela Bautista, Omar J.

    2004-01-01

    Esta tesis presenta un modelo de los riesgos a los que el paciente está expuesto durante una electrocirugía monopolar. Avances tecnológicos en el diseño de ESU´s (unidades de electrocirugía) proporcionan una alta confiabilidad en intervenciones quirÚrgicas mediante esta tecnología. El modelo implementado para representar los órganos internos involucrados en el procedimiento, así como el modelo para representar las extremidades del cuerpo humano están determinados por un circuito eléctrico RC....

  3. Artículo Original: Lesión tisular debida a dispersión térmica por el uso de electrodos monopolare

    OpenAIRE

    Azúa Córdova, Gonzalo; Zúñiga Montero, Marco; Chaves Chaves, Dennis; Quirós Alpízar, José Luis

    2016-01-01

    El uso de unidades de electrocirugía permite di-sección, corte y hemostasia debido al calor gene-rado por el flujo de la corriente eléctrica a través del tejido, efecto denominado diatermia. Este ca-lor, se difunde en un fenómeno conocido como dispersión térmica al tejido vecino, pudiendo le-sionarlo. Comparadas con otras modalidades, las unidades monopolares son las que producen ma-yor lesión tisular por dispersión térmica y dentro de las diferentes modalidades de uso que permiten estas unid...

  4. Comparación de las curvas de reclutamiento de unidades motoras extraídas con M-waves monopolares y bipolares

    OpenAIRE

    Erro Vicente, Leire

    2015-01-01

    El objetivo de este proyecto fin de máster es el estudio y caracterización de curvas de reclutamiento de unidades motoras a partir de M-waves monopolares y bipolares. En este proyecto, se registraron las M-waves de 20 sujetos masculinos de dos músculos del cuádriceps femoral (vasto lateral y vasto medial). A los sujetos se les aplicaron pulsos eléctricos de intensidad creciente desde los 10 mA hasta la intensidad que produce el reclutamiento completo de todas las unidades motoras....

  5. Realization of group control scheduling algorithm for dual-mode elevator%双模式电梯群控调度算法的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许林荣; 赵建勇

    2012-01-01

    针对电梯智能群控调度算法计算复杂,以及对硬件要求高的问题,提出了计算复杂度低、容易实现的双模式群控调度算法,以满足低性能控制器的需求.根据控制模式决策周期内的客流量不同,将电梯群控制模式分为能耗优先控制模式和最小等待时间控制模式;能耗优先模式调度算法以节能为目标,同时考虑电梯运行频率的平衡及乘客乘梯的拥挤程度;在最小等待时间控制模式下以等待时间最小为目标,利用等效时间法计算了每台电梯响应外召信号的等待时间,得出了最佳的呼梯分派策略,以贪婪调度机制对电梯群进行了调度;在上行高峰/空闲/随机层间/下行高峰交通流模式下对算法进行了仿真.仿真结果表明,该算法能满足不同客流状态下对电梯群控的需求,为中低端电梯群控应用场所提供了一种解决方法.%Aiming at the computational complexity, hardware high requirements of elevator intelligent group control scheduling algorithm, for meeting the needs of low-performance controller, the low computational complexity, easy to implement dual-mode group control scheduling algorithm was proposed. Depending on the traffic control mode decision cycle, the control mode was divided into energy consumption priority and minimum wait time control mode. Energy consumption priority mode scheduling algorithm was the target of energy saving, taking into account the elevator operating frequency balance and passengers by ladder congestion level. Minimum waiting time control mode was in order to minimize latency target, which using the equivalent time method to calculate the best call distribution elevator. The algorithm was evaluated in uplink peak, idle, random layer and down link peak traffic flow pattern. The result indicates that the algorithm can meet the demand for elevator group control and provide a solution for the low-end of elevator group control places.

  6. 城市轨道交通企业集团管控模式研究%On Group Control Mode of Urban Mass Transit Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鲁宁

    2011-01-01

    为解决城市轨道交通企业集团管控模式选择问题,以城市轨道交通多元化业务板块为基础,对集团管控模式进行了三维度分类,即管理控制、组织结构和治理结构.结合城市轨道交通企业的特殊性,分别对三个管控维度进行了分析,并阐述了三者之间的相互影响或匹配关系.%To deal with the selection of urban mass transit group control mode, base on the diversity business segments of UMT, this paper categorizes the group control mode in three dimensions, they are management control, organization structure and governance structure. Combined with the unique features of UMT enterprises, the paper analyses the three control dimensions respectively,and discusses the mutual influence or the matches in between.

  7. Exploration and Construction of an Efficient Group Calisthenics Training Mode%团体操高效训练模式的探索与构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄宽柔

    2014-01-01

    Group calisthenics is a traditional opening ceremony performance in various sports meetings at all levels .In the hope of promoting the existence and development of group calis-thenics ,a valuable square sports artistic performance ,by summarizing its 35 years of experience in participating in group calisthenics choreographing and training practices in various sports meetings both at home and abroad ,this paper probes and constructs an efficient group calisthen-ics training mode in accordance with its characteristics that includes decision orientation ,choreograph-ic foundation ,organizational guarantee ,disciplinary restriction ,procedure controlling and approach ac-celeration and so on .This mode will help to promote the opening ceremony performance to achieve the best results with as less expense and short training time as possible .%通过总结35年参加国内、外多类运动会团体操编训实践的经验,针对团体操项目的特点,探索与构建出一个包括决策定向、创编奠基、组织保障、纪律制约、程序掌控、方法提速等内容的团体操高效训练模式。该模式将有助于促进运动会开幕式表演以尽可能小的消耗和尽可能短的训练时间,取得最佳的表演效果。

  8. Cocaine addiction related reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network functional connectivity: a group ICA study with different model orders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiaoyu; Lee, Seong-Whan

    2013-08-26

    Model order selection in group independent component analysis (ICA) has a significant effect on the obtained components. This study investigated the reproducible brain regions of abnormal default-mode network (DMN) functional connectivity related with cocaine addiction through different model order settings in group ICA. Resting-state fMRI data from 24 cocaine addicts and 24 healthy controls were temporally concatenated and processed by group ICA using model orders of 10, 20, 30, 40, and 50, respectively. For each model order, the group ICA approach was repeated 100 times using the ICASSO toolbox and after clustering the obtained components, centrotype-based anterior and posterior DMN components were selected for further analysis. Individual DMN components were obtained through back-reconstruction and converted to z-score maps. A whole brain mixed effects factorial ANOVA was performed to explore the differences in resting-state DMN functional connectivity between cocaine addicts and healthy controls. The hippocampus, which showed decreased functional connectivity in cocaine addicts for all the tested model orders, might be considered as a reproducible abnormal region in DMN associated with cocaine addiction. This finding suggests that using group ICA to examine the functional connectivity of the hippocampus in the resting-state DMN may provide an additional insight potentially relevant for cocaine-related diagnoses and treatments. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization: a hypothesized competition mode between two dominant bacteria groups in hydrogen-producing anaerobic sludge processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C-L; Chen, C-C; Lin, C-Y; Liu, W-T

    2009-01-01

    Two hydrogen-producing continuous flow stirred tank reactors (CSTRs) fed respectively with glucose and sucrose were investigated by polymerase chain reaction-denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) and fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH). The substrate was fed in a continuous mode decreased from hydraulic retention time (HRT) 10 hours to 6, 5, 4, 3, and 2 hours. Quantitative fluorescent in-situ hybridization (FISH) observations further demonstrated that two morphotypes of bacteria dominated both microbial communities. One was long rod bacteria which can be targeted either by Chis150 probe designed to hybridize the gram positive low G + C bacteria or the specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6. The probe Lg10-6, affiliated with Clostridium pasteurianum, was designed and then checked with other reference organisms. The other type, unknown group, which cannot be detected by Chis150 was curved rod bacteria. Notably, the population ratios of the two predominant groups reflected the different operational performance of the two reactors, such as hydrogen producing rates, substrate turnover rates and metabolites compositions. Therefore, a competition mode of the two dominant bacteria groups was hypothesized. In the study, 16S rRNA-based gene library of hydrogen-producing microbial communities was established. The efficiency of hydrogen yields was correlated with substrates (glucose or sucrose), HRT, metabolites compositions (acetate, propionate, butyrate and ethanol), thermal pre-treatment (seed biomass was heated at 100 degrees C for 45 minutes), and microbial communities in the bioreactor, not sludge sources (municipal sewage sludge, alcohol-processing sludge, or bean-processing sludge). The designed specific oligonucleotide probe Lg10-6 also provides us a useful and fast molecular tool to screen hydrogen-producing microbial communities in the future research.

  10. Self-action of propagating and standing Lamb waves in the plates exhibiting hysteretic nonlinearity: Nonlinear zero-group velocity modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gusev, Vitalyi E; Lomonosov, Alexey M; Ni, Chenyin; Shen, Zhonghua

    2017-09-01

    An analytical theory accounting for the influence of hysteretic nonlinearity of micro-inhomogeneous plate material on the Lamb waves near the S1 zero group velocity point is developed. The theory predicts that the main effect of the hysteretic quadratic nonlinearity consists in the modification of the frequency and the induced absorption of the Lamb modes. The effects of the nonlinear self-action in the propagating and standing Lamb waves are expected to be, respectively, nearly twice and three times stronger than those in the plane propagating acoustic waves. The theory is restricted to the simplest hysteretic nonlinearity, which is influencing only one of the Lamé moduli of the materials. However, possible extensions of the theory to the cases of more general hysteretic nonlinearities are discussed as well as the perspectives of its experimental testing. Applications include nondestructive evaluation of micro-inhomogeneous and cracked plates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The mode of emplacement of Neogene flood basalts in Eastern Iceland: The plagioclase ultraphyric basalts in the Grænavatn group

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. Óskarsson, Birgir; B. Andersen, Christina; S. Riishuus, Morten; Sørensen, Erik Vest; Tegner, Christian

    2017-02-01

    Plagioclase ultraphyric basalt lava with high fraction of solids have a mode of emplacement that is poorly understood. In this study we conduct detailed mapping of a PUB group in eastern Iceland, namely the Grænavatn group, and assess the group architecture, flow morphology and internal structure with additional constraints from petrography, petrology and crystal size distribution, to derive information on emplacement dynamics of plagioclase ultraphyric basalts. We also derive information on the plumbing system of the group with reference to the source of the macrocysts. The group is exposed in steep glacially carved fjords and can be traced for more than 70 km along strike. The flows have mixed architecture of simple and compound flows. Individual flow lobes have thicknesses in the range of 1-24 m and many reach widths and lengths exceeding 1000 m. The flows vary from rubbly to slabby pahoehoe, but are predominantly of pahoehoe type. The aspect ratio of the group and the nature of the flows indicate fissure-fed eruptions. The plagioclase macrocrysts (5-30 mm) are An-rich, exhibit bimodal size distribution and the modal proportions within the group varies from 15-40%. Clinopyroxene macrocrysts are also present ranging from 1-6%. The lowermost flow is thickest and carries the greatest crystal cargo load. The morphology of the lava flows suggests low viscous behavior, at odds with the high crystal content. The very calcic plagioclase macrocrysts (An80-85) are in disequilibrium with the groundmass and plagioclase microlaths therein (An50-70), meaning that the crystal-laden magmas quickly ascended from deeper crustal levels to the surface. The flows with highest crystal content may have maintained high temperatures by heat exchange with the primitive macrocrysts in the flows and developed non-Newtonian behavior such as shear thinning. Such conditions would have enabled the flows to advance rapidly during episodes with high effusion rates forming the simple flows, and

  12. 企业集团集中销售模式下的团队建设%Team Construction of Enterprise Group under Mode of Central Marketing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡东甡

    2012-01-01

    Today when economy globalized, as an important force to promote economic development, enterprise group needs further speeding up optimization of structure and deepening recombination of resources. Through construction of mode of central marketing, we can overcome the shortcomings that the branch company operates by himself so as to play the superiority of unit marketing, while group construction is an effective approach to realizing the target of central marketing. To reform organization of central marketing, we should pay more attention to design of organization structure, construction of enterprise culture, reconstruction of marketing business flow, construction of performance examination, oriented by human, strengthen group construction, improve optimization of resources arrangement and efficiency, thus we can elevate the core competition force of the enterprise.%在经济全球化的今天,企业集团作为推动经济发展的重要力量,需进一步加快结构优化和深化资源整合。通过建立集中销售模式,解决各分(子)公司各自为战等弊端,以发挥整体营销优势,而团队建设是实现集中销售目标的有效管理途径。进行集中销售的组织变革,重点应围绕组织结构设计、企业文化建设、营销业务流程再造、绩效考核体系的建立等方面进行,以人为本,加强团队建设,强化资源的优化配置和效率,从而提高企业核心竞争力。

  13. The Service Mode and Path Selection of the Community Special Group%社区特殊群体服务的模式与路径选择

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马贵侠; 许小玲

    2012-01-01

    In the operation mode of the social work intervention into the community special group service, the street, community and social work services three parties provide special group cooperation community service, professional and social work in community special group service demand, the integration of community resources, the integrated use of social work professional skills with the method to service for the community, to provide community special group of family endowment, community children's education and other services. To safeguard the social work in community service special group of benign operation, the need to promote the social work services to buy the service project is the flow of scientific and standardization; to strengthen social work institutions themselves ability construction; to cultivate social workers professional competence and responsibility; to strengthen the publicity and community advocates and the public's trust.%在社会工作介入社区特殊群体服务的运作模式上,政府、社区与社会工作服务机构三方应相互协作,提供社区特殊群体服务。专业社工针对社区特殊群体的服务需求,整合社区内外资源,综合运用社会工作专业技巧与方法开展服务.为社区特殊群体提供居家养老、儿童教育等服务项目。为保障社会工作介入社区特殊群体服务的良性运行。需要增强政府向社会工作服务机构购买服务流程的科学化与规范化;加强社会工作机构自身能力建设;培养社会工作者的专业胜任力;加强社区宣传和倡导,增强公众的信任感。

  14. Three-phase shots and monopolar reclose in the core network of 400 kV of the Area de Control Occidental of CFE and Its normal probability of occurrence; Disparos trifasicos y de recierre monopolar en la red troncal de 400 kV del area de control occidental, CFE, y su probabilidad normal de ocurrencia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Narvaez Perez, Camilo; Garcia Conejo, Dante Aristoteles [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Centro Nacional de Control de Energia, Area de Control Occidental, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)]. E-mail: camilo.narvaez@cfe.gob.mx; camilo.narvaez@univa.mx; Ramirez Peredo, Patricia [Universidad de Guadalajara, Guadalajara, Jalisco (Mexico)]. E-mail: patyrape@hotmail.com; Blanco Gomez, Cesar Eduardo [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Centro Nacional de Control de Energia, Area de Control Occidental, Zapopan, Jalisco (Mexico)

    2013-03-15

    The growing power demand of users, who make loads of power systems, causes the components of such systems operating near its operating limits. And the transmission line, being the most common component in these, requires a thorough analysis in regard to the probability of three-phase shots and monopolars reclosing, considering thunderstorms, the demand system time, the flows circulating in lines, maintenance on other lines and other imponderantes. This research analyzes the normal probability of occurrence of shots in the 400 kV core network of the Area de Control Occidental, CFE and its impact on studies conducted prior to the maintenance. We intend to use the methodology in the Comision Federal de Electricidad and results can be validated with data from previous years, based on a pseudo shots forecast in a given period. [Spanish] La creciente demanda de energia electrica de los usuarios que componen las cargas de los sistemas electricos de potencia, provoca que los componentes de dichos sistemas funcionen cerca de sus limites operativos. Y la linea de transmision, al ser el componente mas comun en estos, requiere de un analisis minucioso en lo que respecta a la probabilidad de disparos trifasicos y recierres monopolares, considerando tormentas electricas, la demanda horaria del sistema, los flujos que circulan en las lineas, los mantenimientos en las demas lineas y demas imponderantes. En esta investigacion se analiza la probabilidad normal de ocurrencia de disparos en la red troncal de 400 kV del Area de Control Occidental y su impacto en los estudios que se realizan previos a los mantenimientos. Se pretende utilizar la metodologia en la Comision Federal de Electricidad, y los resultados pueden ser validados con datos de los anos anteriores, ya que se hace un pseudo pronostico de disparos en un periodo dado.

  15. Correction of phase errors in quantitative water-fat imaging using a monopolar time-interleaved multi-echo gradient echo sequence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruschke, Stefan; Eggers, Holger; Kooijman, Hendrik; Diefenbach, Maximilian N; Baum, Thomas; Haase, Axel; Rummeny, Ernst J; Hu, Houchun H; Karampinos, Dimitrios C

    2017-09-01

    To propose a phase error correction scheme for monopolar time-interleaved multi-echo gradient echo water-fat imaging that allows accurate and robust complex-based quantification of the proton density fat fraction (PDFF). A three-step phase correction scheme is proposed to address a) a phase term induced by echo misalignments that can be measured with a reference scan using reversed readout polarity, b) a phase term induced by the concomitant gradient field that can be predicted from the gradient waveforms, and c) a phase offset between time-interleaved echo trains. Simulations were carried out to characterize the concomitant gradient field-induced PDFF bias and the performance estimating the phase offset between time-interleaved echo trains. Phantom experiments and in vivo liver and thigh imaging were performed to study the relevance of each of the three phase correction steps on PDFF accuracy and robustness. The simulation, phantom, and in vivo results showed in agreement with the theory an echo time-dependent PDFF bias introduced by the three phase error sources. The proposed phase correction scheme was found to provide accurate PDFF estimation independent of the employed echo time combination. Complex-based time-interleaved water-fat imaging was found to give accurate and robust PDFF measurements after applying the proposed phase error correction scheme. Magn Reson Med 78:984-996, 2017. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine. © 2016 International Society for Magnetic Resonance in Medicine.

  16. Polarization Mode Dispersion Probability Distribution for Arbitrary Mode Coupling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The probability distribution of the differential group delay for arbitrary mode coupling is simulated with Monte-Carlo method. Fitting the simulation results, we obtain probability distribution function for arbitrary mode coupling.

  17. Impact of the molecular structure and adsorption mode of D-π-A dye sensitizers with a pyridyl group in dye-sensitized solar cells on the adsorption equilibrium constant for dye-adsorption on TiO2 surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ooyama, Yousuke; Yamaguchi, Naoya; Ohshita, Joji; Harima, Yutaka

    2016-12-07

    D-π-A dyes NI-4 bearing a pyridyl group, YNI-1 bearing two pyridyl groups and YNI-2 bearing two thienylpyridyl groups as the anchoring group on the TiO2 surface have been developed as dye sensitizers for dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs), where NI-4 and YNI-2 can adsorb onto the TiO2 electrode through the formation of the coordinate bond between the pyridyl group of the dye and the Lewis acid site (exposed Ti(n+) cations) on the TiO2 surface, but YNI-1 is predominantly adsorbed on the TiO2 electrode through the formation of the hydrogen bond between the pyridyl group of the dye and the Brønsted acid sites (surface-bound hydroxyl groups, Ti-OH) on the TiO2 surface. The difference in the dye-adsorption mode among the three dyes on the TiO2 surface has been investigated from the adsorption equilibrium constant (Kad) based on the Langmuir adsorption isotherms. It was found that the Kad values of YNI-1 and YNI-2 are higher than that of NI-4, and more interestingly, the Kad value of YNI-2 is higher than that of YNI-1. This work demonstrates that that for the D-π-A dye sensitizers with the pyridyl group as the anchoring group to the TiO2 surface the number of pyridyl groups and the dye-adsorption mode on the TiO2 electrode as well as the molecular structure of the dye sensitizer affect the Kad value for the adsorption of the dye to the TiO2 electrode, that is, resulting in a difference in the Kad value among the D-π-A dye sensitizers NI-4, YNI-1 and YNI-2.

  18. “铃木教学法”视域下高师钢琴小组课教学模式%Normal piano group lesson teaching mode under "Suzuki method" horizon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娜; 畅言

    2015-01-01

    铃木教学法是由日本著名小提琴家教育家铃木镇一创立,是被世界公认的著名音乐教育法之一。上世纪八十年代铃木教学法传入我国,影响了我国的音乐教育改革。在不断的教学实践中,小组课教学模式的弊端逐渐显现出来。本文分析目前小组课教学模式中存在的问题,在铃木教学法的指导下,探讨了如何建构高师钢琴小组课教学模式。%The Suzuki method is created by the famous Japanese violinist educator Shinichi Suzuki, is one of the famous music education in the world. in the 1980s, Suzuki method was introduced into our country, has affected our country music education reform. In the practice of teaching, group teaching mode exposed gradually. This paper analyzes the current problems existing in the teaching mode of groups, the Suzuki method, under the guidance of normal piano group lesson discusses how to construct the teaching mode.

  19. Application of General- sub Account Mode in Fund Centralized Management in Enterprise Group%企业集团资金集中管理总分账户模式的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓群伟

    2012-01-01

    Fund centralized management can improve fund management capacity, heighten fund service eflqciency, which has become the main trend of fund management in enterprise group. Through comparative analysis of fund centralized management mode, we have come to the conclusion that generalsub account mode meets necessary requirement of development of fund centralized management in giant enterprise group. We studied cause, principle, operation mode and special features of fund centralized management in the process of implementation of fund centralized management in giant enterprise group, taking financial corporation as the plat, depending on business bank network system, in terms of innovation mode of general sub account.%资金集中管理,可以增强资金管理能力,提高资金使用效率,目前已经成为企业集团资金管理的主流方式。通过对资金集中管理模式的比较分析,得出总分账户模式是适应特大型企业集团资金集中管理发展必然要求的结论。探讨特大型企业集团在实施资金集中管理过程中,以财务公司为平台,依托商业银行网络系统,借助总分账户这一创新模式进行资金集中管理的成因、原理、运行方式及特点。提出进一步完善总分账户模式的建议。

  20. 免钛夹单极梯度电凝法腹腔镜阑尾切除术120例临床体会%Clinical analysis of 120 cases of laparoscopic appendectomy using monopolar gradient electrocoagulation without clips

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐玉刚; 崔刚; 梁建伟; 杨光; 刘君

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To explore the security and surgical techniques of monopolar gradient electrocoagulation in laparoscopic appendectomy (LA) without clips. Methods:Clinical data of 120 patients who underwent LA with monopolar gradient electrocoagulation from 2009 to 2011 were retrospectively analyzed. Results:All of the 120 cases were treated successfully under laparoscopy without conversion to open surgery. Mean operation time was 45min ( range ,30-90min). Mean length of hospital stay was 4d (range,2-7d). No severe complications were found. Conclusions:The monopolar gradient electrocoagulation is a feasible and safe method with shorter operation time,less blood loss, and less hosptial cost. This procedure is worth popularization without titanium clips left.%目的:探讨腹腔镜阑尾切除术(laparoscopic appendectomy,LA)应用免钛夹单极梯度电凝法处理阑尾系膜的安全性和手术技巧.方法:回顾分析为120例患者应用免钛夹单极梯度电凝法行LA的临床资料.结果:120例手术均获成功,手术时间30~90min,平均45min.术后住院2~7d,平均4d,术后无出血、肠梗阻等并发症发生.结论:应用免钛夹梯度电凝法行LA安全可行,患者出血少,手术时间短,费用低,且无钛夹遗留,值得推广应用.

  1. 鼻内镜下吸引器联合单极电凝治疗鼻顶鼻中后部出血%Endoscopic Treatment of Epistaxis by Monopolar Electrocoagulation and Self-designed Suction Apparatus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卿箭

    2011-01-01

    [目的]探讨鼻内镜下自制吸引器联合单极电凝治疗鼻顶、中后部鼻出血的疗效.[方法]在鼻内镜引导下,探查63例鼻顶、中后部鼻出血患者的出血点.先自制吸引器,在鼻腔局部麻醉下进行,用单极靠近吸引器末端金属电凝止血.术后常规使用抗生素及止血药.随访并观察治疗效果.[结果] 63例患者均安全顺利完成手术,其中5例术后再出血,行第2次治疗成功.随访半年,均无再次鼻出血.[结论]鼻内镜联合单极电凝治疗鼻顶部、中后部出血方便、实用、有效,并发症少,并能避免盲目性.%[Objective] To explore the effect on treatment of nose bleeding by monopolar electrocoagulation and self-designed suction apparatus underEndoscopy. [Method] Under the guidance of the nasal endoscope, to find 63 cases of patients with bleeding nose bleeding, which locating on thenasal roof or postmedian of nasal cavity. All patients were cured by monopolar electrocoagulation and self-designed suction apparatus under localanesthesia. [Results] 63 cases all got safety and satisfactory results.no nose bleeding recurred with 6 months follow-up. [Conclusion] Under theguidance of endoscope, the monopolar electrocoagulation accompanied by self-designed suction apparatus was simple and effective method on treatmentof nose bleeding, especially at the portion of the nasal roof or postmedian of nasal cavity

  2. Evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of monopolar hook during laparoscopic pelvic lymphadenectomy for gynecological cancer%单极电钩在腹腔镜盆腔淋巴结清扫术中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张潍; 陈必良; 辛晓燕; 杨红; 刘淑娟; 蔡国青

    2013-01-01

    目的:评价单极电钩在腹腔镜盆腔淋巴结清扫术中的有效性、安全性.方法:设计开放、随机、配对、前瞻性实验,比较76例腹腔镜下妇科恶性肿瘤根治术患者单侧淋巴结清扫过程中出血量、淋巴结清扫数量、手术时间、术后髂窝引流量、10周后淋巴囊肿形成率及直径等数据.结果:单极电钩清扫盆腔淋巴结较之目前较流行的超声刀清扫过程,止血效果相当,但单侧淋巴结清扫数量(13.1±4.5个)、单侧手术时间(26.3±6.1min)、单侧淋巴囊肿形成率(11/76)明显优于后者.结论:合理应用单极电钩可完成腹腔镜盆腔淋巴结清扫,治疗效果强于超声刀,可降低腹腔镜手术费用.%Objective: In this prospective randomized pilot study, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of monopolar hook during laparoscopic pelvic lymphadeneetomy for gynecological cancer,and compared to ultrasound knife. Methods: All 76 patients with gynecological cancer , who were suitable to perform laparoscopic lymphadeneetomy, were randomly assigned for lymphadeneetomy in one side of the pelvis using monopolar hook, whereas, the other side using ultrasound knife. Results: Compared with the ultrasound knife, monopolar hook had the same ability in hemosta-sis and cutting during the pelvic lymphadeneetomy, but, make a superior performance in single - side lymph nodes dis-section(13. 1 ±4.5 Vs 9.4 ±3.7 ,P <0.001) .operation time(26. 3 ±6. 1min Vs 39. 4 ±7.5min ,P = 0.003) and lymphocele formation rate (11/76 Vs 16/76, P < 0. 001). Conclusion: Laparoscopic pelvic lymphadeneetomy with monopolar hook is better than ultrasound knife and with decreased cost.

  3. 单双极电凝法行腹腔镜阑尾切除术的临床应用研究%The clinical practice research of the iaparoscopic appendectomy with the monopolar and bipolar electrocoagulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨富财; 李建忠; 任恒宽

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究应用单双极电凝法行腹腔镜阑尾切除术的可行性和安全性.方法:48例阑尾炎患者均采用单双极电凝法行腹腔镜阑尾切除术,用双极电凝和剪刀处理阑尾动脉和系膜,用单极电钩分离粘连并切开阑尾根部浆膜层,钛夹或缝线处理阑尾根部后切除阑尾.结果:48例手术均获成功,均无残端粪漏发生,亦无残端脓肿及其他并发症发生.术后平均住院3.5d,均痊愈出院.结论:用单双极电凝法行腹腔镜阑尾切除术安全、可行、经济实用,易在基层医院大力推广.%Objective:To study the feasibility and safety of the application of monopolar and bipolar electrocoagulation in the laparoscopic appendectomy (LA). Methods:Forty-eight patients who suffered from appendicitis underwent LA with the monopolar and bipolar electrocoagulation. Appendix artery and mesoappendix were treated with bipolar electrocoagulation and scissors, the adhesion and placenta percreta layer in the root of appendix was isolated and cut with monopolar electrical hook, the root of appendix was dealt with Titanium clip or suture before appendix was cut. Results:All operations were successfully performed,no complications such as stump fecal leakage or stump abscess occurred. The mean postoperative hospital stay was 3.5 d. Conclusions:The monopolar and bipolar electrocoagulation in LA is a workable,secure,economical and practical method,which is worth generalization in primary hospital.

  4. Simulation of Myelinated Nerve Conduction Block Induced by Electrical Stimulus of Monopolar and Bipolar Electrodes%不同电极电刺激对有髓神经传导阻断影响的仿真研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙晨; 张旭; 任朝晖; 董谦; 崔南

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较双电极双向脉冲刺激和单电极双向脉冲刺激在神经纤维传导阻断中的阻断阈值以及对神经纤维的损伤,并通过该研究为电刺激促进脊髓损伤后下尿路功能重建的动物实验选择最优的刺激模式.方法 以有限长单根有髓神经为研究对象,以两栖动物的有髓神经纤维FrankenhaeuserHuxley(F-H)模型为仿真研究基础.结果 比较了单、双电极在双向对称方波以及双向间歇方波作用下的阻断阈值以及单双电极在同样的刺激条件下(包括刺激波形、频率以及电流强度)产生的离子电流强度大小.结论 双电极的阻断阈值大于单电极的阻断阈值.在相同的刺激条件下,双电极双向脉冲刺激对神经的损伤程度小于单电极双向脉冲刺激.%To compare the thresholds and the degrees of axonal injury caused by the impulse stimulations of monopolar and bipolar electrodes in simulation study of nerve conduction block. This study aimed to find an optimal stimulus pattern for the animal experiment of restoring the normal function of lower urinary tract after spinal cord injury through electrical stimulation. We used the myelinated nerve fiber with limited length as the research object, and the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley ( F - H) model for mammal' s marrow nerve fiber as the basic system. We simulated the symmetry biphasic pulses and intermittent biphasic pulses to compare the block threshold and ionic current intensity generated by monopolar and bipolar electrodes. The simulating results indicated that the conduction block threshold induced by bipolar electrode is higher than that of monopolar electrode, and monopolar electrode caused greater damage to the axon when the other situations were same.

  5. Bioefficacy and mode-of-action of some limonoids of salannin group from Azadirachta indica A. Juss and their role in a multicomponent system against lepidopteran larvae

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Opender Koul; Gurmeet Singh; Rajwinder Singh; Jasbir Singh; W M Daniewski; Stanislaw Berlozecki

    2004-12-01

    Biological activities of the salannin type of limonoids isolated from Azadirachta indica A. Juss were assessed using the gram pod borer Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) and the tobacco armyworm Spodoptera litura (Fabricius) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). Inhibition of larval growth was concomitant with reduced feeding by neonate and third instar larvae. All three compounds exhibited strong antifeedant activity in a choice leaf disc bioassay with 2.0, 2.3 and 2.8 g/cm2 of 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol and salannin, respectively deterring feeding by 50% in S. litura larvae. In nutritional assays, all three compounds reduced growth and consumption when fed to larvae without any effect on efficiency of conversion of ingested food (ECI), suggesting antifeedant activity alone. No toxicity was observed nor was there any significant affect on nutritional indices following topical application, further suggesting specific action as feeding deterrents. When relative growth rates were plotted against relative consumption rates, growth efficiency of the H. armigera fed diet containing 3-O-acetyl salannol, salannol or salannin did not differ from that of starved control larvae (used as calibration curve), further confirming the specific antifeedant action of salannin type of limonoids. Where the three compounds were co-administered, no enhancement in activity was observed. Non-azadirachtin limonoids having structural similarities and explicitly similar modes of action, like feeding deterrence in the present case, have no potentiating effect in any combination.

  6. Investigation of the interaction modes between nonpolar organic pollutants with ionizable functional groups and natural organic matter via AuNP-based colorimetric assays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongyun; Wang, Saihua; Tan, Yixin; Cai, Yaqi

    2015-12-14

    For the first time, natural organic matter (NOM) modified AuNPs have been used as sensors to "observe" the specific interactions (such as hydrogen-bonds and halogen-bonds) between functional groups of organic compounds and NOM using colorimetric assays.

  7. Guideline for Technical Quality Assurance (TQA) of ultrasound devices (B-Mode)--version 1.0 (July 2012): EFSUMB Technical Quality Assurance Group--US-TQA/B.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollmann, C; deKorte, C; Dudley, N J; Gritzmann, N; Martin, K; Evans, D H

    2012-12-01

    The Technical Quality Assurance group was initiated by the EFSUMB Board in 2007 and met firstly in 2008 to discuss and evaluate methods and procedures published for performing technical quality assurance for diagnostic ultrasound devices. It is the aim of this group of experts to advise the EFSUMB Board of effective and efficacious methods for routine use and to make recommendations regarding the technical aspects of EFSUMB by-law 9, parts 11.6. & 11.7. The group's work focused on new developments and related European projects to establish a common guideline. There is a great need of a well established protocol and dedicated processing software for the performance testing of medical ultrasound equipment. The measurements should be user independent as much as physically possible. Only if these goals are achieved in an international (firstly European) context, the optimal quality of ultrasound imaging can be offered and maintained to the medical community. This guideline aims to offer and summarize suitable procedures and evaluation processes to lend support for an optimal Technical Quality Assurance (TQA) scheme. The content of this guideline was presented to the EFSUMB Board of Directors (delegates) and approved by the EFSUMB Executive Board (ExB) at the regular meeting during EUROSON 2012 in Madrid April 2012.

  8. Short-term group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy for young adults with personality disorders and personality disorder features: associations with changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; van Goor, Michiel; Huibers, Marcus; Arntz, Arnoud; Butz, Betty; Bernstein, David

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to document the effects of a group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention (SCBT-g; van Vreeswijk & Broersen, 2006) on global symptomatic distress in young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features. We also sought to determine the stability of maladaptive schemas, schema modes, and coping responses throughout treatment as well as relations among these variables with improvement in symptomatic distress during treatment. Twenty-six young adults (mean age 22.5 years; range: 18-29 years) with a primary diagnosis of a DSM-IV Cluster-B or Cluster-C personality disorder or with personality disorder features participated in the 20-session SCBT-g protocol. Global symptomatic distress decreased substantially from pre-treatment to post-treatment (d = 0.81). Maladaptive schemas, schema modes and dysfunctional coping responses decreased with medium to large effect sizes (d's = 0.56 and 0.98, respectively), however decrease in maladaptive schemas was not significant after controlling for symptomatic distress. Adaptive schema modes increased slightly (d = 0.40) throughout treatment. Baseline levels of maladaptive schemas predicted symptomatic distress concurrently and at mid-treatment but not at post-treatment. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that SCBT-g might be an effective treatment for young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features in terms of improvements in global symptomatic distress and underlying vulnerability.

  9. 中国民营企业集团跨国并购融资创新模式%Financing Innovation Mode of Cross-border Merger & Acquisition of China's Private Enterprise Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江乾坤; 王泽霞

    2012-01-01

    Based on the abnormal pecking order theory, this paper discusses the present situation of domestic and foreign enterprise group's cross-border M~A financing,and designs a financing innovation mode of cross-border M~A of China's private enterprise group including inter- nal capital market financing, strategy alliance financing and financial innovation financing.%针对国内外企业集团跨国并购融资的现状,基于异常融资优序理论,构建了我国民营企业集团跨国并购融资创新模式——包括内部资本市场融资、战略联盟融资和金融创新融资。

  10. 群体AHP模式下成品油营销指标分析%Marketing Metrics Analysis of Refined Oil in Group AHP Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛泽琦

    2014-01-01

    Through judging, adapting and altering the factors affecting marketing results, and using the right marketing means, refined oil marketing can achieve marketing purposes. In this paper, the comprehensive evaluation index system of refined oil marketing was analyzed, each index weights were calculated to carry out comprehensive evaluation by group AHP model analysis, and a final sorting for each indicator systems of affecting refined oil marketing was determined, finally the key indicators were obtained, which was beneficial for the overall control and improvements for marketing activities.%成品油营销通过判断、适应、改变影响营销结果的因素,利用正确的营销手段,达到营销目的。分析了成品油营销的综合评价指标体系,利用群体 AHP 模型分析计算各指标权重幵迚行综合评判,对影响成品油营销的各指标体系迚行最终排序,得出其中的兲键指标,有利于对营销活动迚行整体的控制和改迚。

  11. Research of the Teaching in Large Class, Guiding in Small Class Teaching Mode for Circuit Course Group%电路课群大班上课和小班辅导模式的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄锦安; 蔡小玲; 徐行健

    2012-01-01

    本文针对学科基础课存在的学时数少,信息含量多,青年教师教学经验不足的现状,在电路、电工课群中探索提高教学效果,保证教学质量的教学模式一大班上课,小班辅导。研究结果表明该教学模式所花时间不多,实效明显;青年教师的教学能力也快速提升。%The basic courses contain much information, but the teaching time is less in general, and many young teachers lack teaching experience. Based on the situation, the teaching mode of teaching in large class, guiding in small class is explored in the circuit, electrotechnics course group. The result shows that this teaching mode had excellent effects for a short time and the teaching abilities of young teachers have been promoted quickly.

  12. 浅析集团管控模式下内部审计风险防范%Analysis on Inner Auditing Risk Prevention Under Group Management and Control Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐燕秋

    2012-01-01

    The paper pointed out the inner auditing risks of the auditing mode, scope development, risk sense and personnel quality under the group management and control mode. The paper pointed out that the risk guide auditing, the auditing with the inner control regulation, the auditing personnel quality improvement, auditing business standardization, the inner quality con- trol regulation and other measures could be applied to reduce and prevent the auditing risks.%提出了在集团管控模式下的审计模式、范围拓展、风险意识、人员素质方面存在的内部审计风险,指出通过风险导向审计、内部控制制度审计、提高审计人员素质、规范审计业务、内部质量控制制度等措施来降低审计风险。

  13. 基于电子商务平台网络团购模式研究%The Study of Online Group Purchasing Mode Based on the Electronic Commerce Platform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张华南

    2012-01-01

    随着电子商务的迅猛发展,网络团购的出现,产生了一种新型电子商务模式“B2T”,FtpBusinesstoTeam。网络团购很清晰的商业模式很快得到商家和用户的认可。网络团购电子商务平台,是商家有效的营销平台,是用户买到物美价廉很最要的途径。组建网络团购门槛很低,国内团购呈现爆炸式的增长,有少数几家网络团购企业逐渐稳定成熟,但大部分网络团购面临着激烈\残酷的竞争。有些企业缺乏市场调查和分析,比较盲目。本文对网络团购模式和市场运作进行了深入分析和研究。希望为一些网络团购企业有一定指导作用,对网络团购健康发展有所帮助。%with the rapid development of electronic commerce, the emergence of network group purchase, generated a new e-commerce mode" B2T", Business to Team. Network group purchase clear commercial pattern to quickly get the merchants and customers recognized. Network group purchase of e-commerce platform, businesses are effective marketing platform for users to buy a high quality and inexpensive, is very important way. Established network of group purchase threshold is very low, the domestic group purchase has seen explosive growth, there are a few online group purchase enterprises gradually mature and stable, but most online group purchase is facing intense and cruel competition. Some enterprises lack of market research and analysis, comparison of the blind. This paper focuses on the network group purchase mode and the operation of the market undertook thorough analysis and research. Hope for some network group purchase enterprises have a certain guiding role for the healthy development of the network, group purchase help.

  14. 国外大型零售集团在华空间扩张模式的实证研究%The Empiricial Research of Spacial Expansion Modes of the Foreign Large-scale Retail Group in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜霞; 白光润

    2012-01-01

      自从我国零售业市场对外开放以来,外资零售集团开始逐渐进入我国市场,迅速展开了“圈地运动”。本文主要从时间和空间的角度对外资零售集团的空间扩张特点及空间扩张模式进行研究。在不同的时期,外资零售商空间扩张的规模和速度是不一样的,它经历了由缓慢进入到飞速增长的阶段。外资零售集团在我国进行空间扩张的过程中,有三种空间扩张模式,分别是渗透式扩张、跳跃式扩张、复合式扩张。通过对不同外资零售集团的实证分析,阐述了各个扩张模式的特点和不足之处。该研究对于国内民族商业的跨区域发展及国际化具有一定的借鉴意义。%  Since our country retail trade market opened to the outside world, the foreign capital retail sales group has started to enter our country market gradually. The foreign retail groups in China have accelerated the pace of expansion space. This article mainly carries on the analysis on the foreign capital retail sales group's spatial expansion and spatial expansion mode from the perspectives of time and space. In our country different time stages, the scale of space and speed is not the same as the foreign capital retail merchants expand. It experienced from slow to fast growth stage. There are three kinds of spatial expansion pattern in the process which the foreign capital retail sales group carries on the space expansion in China, respectively infiltration of expansion, leaping ex-pansion, composite expansion. The empirical analysis to the different foreign capital retail sales group describe the characteristics of various expansion mode and inadequate. It has a certain referential significance for domestic national commercial crossing area develop-ment and internationalization development.

  15. 集团型施工企业优化项目管理模式的几点考虑%Some considerations to management modes of group construction enterprises optimization project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐彦军

    2012-01-01

    This paper discussed group construction enterprises how to adjust project management modes from the reinforcement of company organs regulation service function,the optimization of project item operating mechanism,the breeding of specialization construction team three aspects,so as to further improve the project management efficiency,enhance economic performance.%从公司机关调控服务功能的强化,工程项目运行机制的优化,专业化作业队伍的培育三方面论述集团型施工企业如何调试项目管理模式,从而进一步提高工程项目管理效率,提高经济效益。

  16. Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, K. P.; Burcharth, H. F.; Ibsen, Lars Bo;

    1999-01-01

    The present appendix contains the derivation of ten different limit state equations divided on three different failure modes. Five of the limit state equations can be used independently of the characteristics of the subsoil, whereas the remaining five can be used for either drained or undrained...

  17. Prótesis de cúpula monopolar en el tratamiento de fracturas y luxofracturas del radio. [Monopolar ­radial­ head ­arthroplasty­ in ­the ­treatment­ of ­fracture and ­fracture-dislocations ­of ­the ­radius.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo L. Gallucci

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo: Evaluar retrospectivamente los resultados clínicos y radiológicos de una serie consecutiva de pacientes con fracturas y luxofracturas de la cúpula radial a quienes se les realizó el reemplazo por una prótesis monopolar. Materiales­ y ­Métodos: Se incluyeron 20 pacientes. Criterios de inclusión: <18 años, con fracturas o luxofracturas de la cúpula radial, tratados con prótesis monoblock de titanio y seguimiento mínimo de un año. Quince eran mujeres, edad promedio 59 años. Siete eran fracturas aisladas y 13, luxofracturas. Se evaluaron el grado de aflojamiento protésico, la erosión capitelar, el ensanchamiento del espacio articular humeral lateral y las calcificaciones heterotópicas. El seguimiento fue de 26 meses. Resultados: La flexo-extensión fue de 139º-5º y la prono-supinación, de 79-79°. El arco total fue de 134°. Fuerza de puño: 84% del lado contralateral. El dolor según la escala analógica visual fue de 2, DASH: 11 puntos, 13 resultados excelentes y 6 buenos. Se detectó aflojamiento del implante (12 casos, aumento de la radiolucidez capitelar (4 casos y ensanchamiento del espacio ulnohumeral lateral (2 casos. Hubo 2 complicaciones: una neurodocitis cubital que debió ser operada y una extracción de implante por aflojamiento y dolor. Conclusiones: El reemplazo de la cúpula radial en lesiones no reconstruibles es una opción terapéutica viable, con buenos resultados funcionales a corto y mediano plazo. La recuperación de la estabilidad articular fue posible en todos los casos y el índice de aflojamiento protésico asintomático fue elevado.

  18. Mode evolution in polarization maintain few mode fibers and applications in mode-division-multiplexing systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Zeng, Xinglin; Mo, Qi; Li, Wei; Liu, Zhijian; Wu, Jian

    2016-10-01

    In few-mode polarization-maintaining-fiber (FM-PMF), the effective-index splitting exists not only between orthogonally polarization state but also between degenerated modes within a high-order mode group. Hence besides the polarization state evolution, the mode patterns in each LP set are need to be analyzed. In this letter, the completed firstorder mode (LP11 mode) evolution in PM-FMF is analyzed and represented by analogous Jones vector and Poincarésphere respectively. Furthermore, with Jones matrix analysis, the modal dynamics in FM-PMFs is conveniently analyzed. The conclusions are used to propose a PM-FMF based LP11 mode rotator and an PM-FMF based OAM generator. Both simulation and experiments are conducted to investigate performance of the two devices.

  19. Nosocomial infection management under healthcare group's management and operation mode%医疗集团管理模式运行机制下的医院感染管理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭振清; 李英兰; 王静; 林萍

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨医疗集团管理模式运行机制下医院感染管理的有效措施,减少医院感染的发生.方法 建立健全医院感染管理组织各项制度,对全体人员采取系统化、规范化的感染知识培训,采用网格化的管理模式,完善药事管理组织和各项制度,建立有效的督导检查与激励机制.结果 医疗集团在感染控制方面资金投入加大,感染控制专职人员水平得到优化,全体员工遵从感染管理规范的自觉性提高,感染控制意识增强,抗菌药物的使用日趋合理,医院感染管理整体水平得到提高.结论 领导重视,加强感染基础设施和专业队伍建设,采取多种形式对全体员工进行感染知识培训,加强督导检查,科学管理,多措并举才能不断提高集团医院感染管理水平.%OBJECTIVE To explore the effective measures of the nosocomial infections management under the health system management mode and the operation mechanisms so as to reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections. METHODS The main methods were to establish and improve the administrative system in hospital infections, the professional personnel took the systematic and standardized hospital infection knowledge training and the network management mode, perfected pharmaceutical affair management organization and the system, and established effective supervision and inspection and incentive mechanism. RESULTS The medical group increased the capital investment on the infection control, the infection control level of the full-time personnel was optimized, all the employees self-consciousness had a great improvement in keeping infection management standard and infection control consciousness enhancement, the use of antibiotics has been reasonable increasingly, the overall level of the nosocomial infection management has been improved. CONCLUSION Only when the leadership pays attention to the enhancement of the construction of facilities and the special team and takes

  20. Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    Distribution A. Cleared for public release; unlimited distribution. USAFA-CN-2013-457 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART...457 This report, "Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode)" is presented as a competent treatment of the subj ect, worthy of publication. The...Technical 20120810-20121215 Hardware Assisted ROP Detection Mode (HARD Mode) NATHANIEL HART MICHAEL WINSTEAD MARTIN CARLISLE RODNEY LYKINS MICHAEL

  1. Effects of Mode Shares on Mode Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Carrion; Nebiyou Tilahun; David Levinson

    2011-01-01

    This study considers the influence of the knowledge of existing mode shares on travelers mode choice. This contrasts with traditional mode choice models, where the main objective is to predict the overall mode shares as the aggregate of individual mode choices according to variables encompassing attributes of the modes, and characteristics of the travelers. In this study, a computer-administered adaptive stated preference survey is developed and applied to a sample of subjects selected from t...

  2. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide that are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS offline and computing operations, hosting dedicated analysis efforts such as during the CMS Heavy Ion lead-lead running. With a majority of CMS sub-detectors now operating in a “shifterless” mode, many monitoring operations are now routinely performed from there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. The CMS Communications Group, CERN IT and the EVO team are providing excellent videoconferencing support for the rapidly-increasing number of CMS meetings. In parallel, CERN IT and ...

  3. Voltage Mode-to-Current Mode Transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejmal S. Rathore

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a procedure for converting a class of Op Amp-, FTFN-, CC- and CFAbased voltage mode circuits to corresponding current mode circuits without requiring any additional circuit elements and finally from Op Amp-based voltage mode circuits to any of the FTFN, CC and CFA current mode circuits. The latter circuits perform better at high frequency than the former ones. The validity of the transformation has been checked on simulated circuits with PSPICE.

  4. Comparison of plasmakinetic transurethral resection of the prostate with monopolar transurethral resection of the prostate in terms of urethral stricture rates in patients with comorbidities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orhun Sinanoglu

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: The risk of urethral stricture increases with PK-TURP in elderly patients with a large prostate and concomitant hypertension and/or coronary artery disease and/or diabetes mellitus. Therefore, PK-TURP should be performed cautiously in this group of benign prostatic hyperplasia patients.

  5. Mode selection in pulsating stars

    CERN Document Server

    Smolec, R

    2013-01-01

    In this review we focus on non-linear phenomena in pulsating stars the mode selection and amplitude limitation. Of many linearly excited modes only a fraction is detected in pulsating stars. Which of them and why (the problem of mode selection) and to what amplitude (the problem of amplitude limitation) are intrinsically non-linear and still unsolved problems. Tools for studying these problems are briefly discussed and our understanding of mode selection and amplitude limitation in selected groups of self-excited pulsators is presented. Focus is put on classical pulsators (Cepheids and RR Lyrae stars) and main sequence variables (delta Scuti and beta Cephei stars). Directions of future studies are briefly discussed.

  6. Forms of knowledge and modes of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Berg; Johnson, Björn; Lorenz, Edward

    2007-01-01

    This paper contrasts two modes of innovation. One, the Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) mode, is based on the production and use of codified scientific and technical knowledge. The other, the Doing, Using and Interacting (DUI) mode, relies on informal processes of learning and experience......-based know-how. Drawing on the results of the 2001 Danish DISKO Survey, latent class analysis is used to identify groups of firms that practice the two modes with different intensities. Logit regression analysis is used to show that firms combining the two modes are more likely to innovate new products...

  7. Safety advantage of endocut mode over endoscopic sphincterotomy for choledocholithiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hirotada Akiho; Masahiro Matsumoto; Shingo Endo; Kazuhiko Nakamura; Yorinobu Sumida; Kazuya Akahoshi; Atsuhiko Murata; Jiro Ouchi; Yasuaki Motomura; Taisuke Toyomasu; Mitsuhide Kimura; Masaru Kubokawa

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether an automatically controlled cut system (endocut mode) could reduce the complication rate of endoscopic sphincterotomy (EST)and serum hyperamylasemia after EST compared to the conventional blended cut mode.METHODS: From January 2001 to October 2003, 134patients with choledocholithiasis were assigned to either endocut mode group or conventional blended cut mode group at the time of sphincterotomy. The two groups were retrospectively compared for the complications after EST and serum amylase level before and 24 h after the procedure.RESULTS: Of the 134 patients treated, 79 were assigned to conventional blended cut mode group and 55 to endocut mode group. There was no significant difference in age, sex, and serum amylase level before EST between the two groups. Complications were found in 5 patients of the endocut mode group (9%):hyperamylasemia (5 times higher than normal) in 4 and moderate pancreatitis in 1. Complications were found in 13 patients of the conventional blended cut mode group (16%): hyperamylasemia in 12 and moderate pancreatitis in 1. Serum amylase levels were elevated in both groups 24 h after EST (P<0.02). The average serum amylase level 24 h after EST in the conventional blended cut mode group was significantly higher than that in the endocut mode group (P< 0.05).CONCLUSION: Endocut mode offers a safety advantage over conventional blended cut mode for pancreatitis after EST by reducing hyperamylasemia.

  8. 利丰公司核心扩张模式与供应链策略研究%Study on Core Expansion Mode and Supply Chain Strategy of Li&Fung Group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢政谕

    2011-01-01

    运用Zook的核心扩张理论,从产品扩张、地理扩张、价值链扩张、通路扩张、顾客扩张和新事业扩张六个方面分析了利丰公司的核心扩张模式,并对利丰公司支持这种核心扩张模式的供应链策略进行了分析.%The paper uses Zook's Core Expansion Theory to analyze Li&Fung's core expansion mode from the following six dimensions: product expansion, geography expansion, value chain expansion, channel expansion, customer expansion and new business expansion and also probes into the supply chain strategy which supports the core expansion mode.

  9. On the Application of Group Learning Mode in Teaching--A Case of Teaching Japanese as a Second Foreign Language%小组学习模式在教学实践中的应用--以大学二外日语为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯丽颖

    2013-01-01

    小组学习模式是近年来兴起的教学模式。与普通课堂教学模式不同,小组学习模式强调发挥学生的主动性和增强学生的参与意识,因此在大学教育中渐受重视。笔者根据课程特点和学生的实际水平,在教学实践中积极尝试了小组学习这种教学模式,收到了较好的效果。本文论述了小组学习的概念以及所依托的理论,记述了在我校校选二外日语课上实施小组学习活动的具体步骤、教师发挥的职责以及实践结果,希望能对同行有所帮助。%Unlike the ordinary teaching mode, the group learning mode stresses the full development of students’initiative and participation. In recent years, the group learning mode has drawn more and more attention, especially in colleges. The author has attempted to put this mode into practice, and has had a positive outcome. The paper focuses on the concept of group learning mode and related theories, and records the process of teaching Japanese as a second foreign language in class, as well as the teacher’s responsibilities and the practice results.

  10. A reassessment of the potential for an alpha-mode containment failure and a review of the current understanding of broader fuel-coolant interaction issues. Second steam explosion review group workshop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, S. [Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States); Ginsberg, T. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-08-01

    This report summarizes the review and evaluation by experts of the current understanding of the molten fuel-coolant interaction (FCI) issues covering the complete spectrum of interactions, i.e., from mild quenching to very energetic interactions including those that could lead to the alpha-mode containment failure. Of the eleven experts polled, all but two concluded that the alpha-mode failure issue was resolved from a risk perspective, meaning that this mode of failure is of very low probability, that it is of little or no significance to the overall risk from a nuclear power plant, and that any further reduction in residual uncertainties is not likely to change the probability in an appreciable manner. To a lesser degree, discussions also took place on the broader FCI issues such as mild quenching of core melt during non-explosive FCI, and shock loading of lower head and ex-vessel support structures arising from explosive localized FCIs. These latter issues are relevant with regard to determining the efficacy of certain accident management strategies for operating reactors as well as for advanced light water reactors. The experts reviewed the status of understanding of the FCI phenomena in the context of these broader issues, identified residual uncertainties in the understanding, and recommended future research (both experimental and analytical) to reduce the uncertainties.

  11. Few-mode fiber technology for mode division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Takayoshi; Sakamoto, Taiji; Wada, Masaki; Yamamoto, Takashi; Nakajima, Kazuhide

    2017-02-01

    We review recent progress on few-mode fiber (FMF) technologies for mode-division multiplexing (MDM) transmission. First, we introduce fibers for use without and with multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) digital signal processing (DSP) to compensate for modal crosstalk, and briefly report recent work on FMF for use without/with a MIMO DSP system. We next discuss in detail a fiber for MIMO transmission systems, and show numerically that a graded-index core can flexibly tune the differential mode group delay (DMD) and a cladding trench can flexibly control the guiding mode number. We optimized the spacing of the core and trench. Accordingly, we can achieve a 6 LP (10 spatial) mode operation and a low DMD while preventing the high index difference that leads to manufacturing difficulties and any loss increase. We finally describe our experimental results for a 6 LP (10 spatial) mode transmission line for use in a C + L band wavelength-division multiplexing (WDM) MDM transmission with MIMO DSP.

  12. 高校特殊需求群体体育教学“4.5.4评价”模式研究%The“4 . 5 . 4”sports teaching evaluation mode for the special-needs groups in colleges

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘跃林

    2014-01-01

    Under the idea of education equity,the paper studies the physical education teaching evaluation mode for the special -needs groups and puts forward the patterns of idea and the guiding ideology,theory origin,paradigm and method,mode features for the mode. It has positive meaning in solving the problem of physical education teaching evaluation and improving the physical education teaching quality for special-needs groups in the colleges. Also,it plays an important role in perfecting the physical education teaching system for the special - needs groups.%在教育公平理念下,开展高校特殊群体体育教学评价模式研究。研究包括:模式的理念与指导思想;模式的理论来源;模式的概念与基本内容;模式的范式与方法;模式的特征等,对解决好当前高校特殊群体体育教学评价问题,提高高校特殊群体体育教育质量,完善特殊群体体育教学体系都有着积极意义。

  13. The influence of hierarchical group scheduling emergency mode on critically ill pa-tients' treatment effect%分层成组排班急救模式对急危重症患者救治效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何冰

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨分层成组排班急救模式与传统急救模式对急危重症患者的救治效果差异,寻求更有效的急救模式。方法选择我院急诊科2013年2月至2015年2月96例急危重症患者作为实验组,对患者实施分层成组排班急救模式救治;另选择我院急诊科2010年2月至2012年2月96例急危重症患者作为对照组,对患者实施传统急救救治。对两组研究对象的有效救治时间、救治效果、护理满意度、心理状态进行对比和分析。结果实验组患者有效救治总有效率为92.7%,护理满意率93.8%;对照组患者有效救治总有效率为83.3%,护理满意率79.2%,两组比较差异均具有统计学意义( P<0.05)。抢救后,实验组患者焦虑和抑郁评分均低于对照组,差异有统计学意义( P<0.05)。结论急危重症患者实施分层成组排班急救模式可以有利于提高救治效果,降低不良反应发生率,改善患者心理状态,提高护理满意度。%Objective To explore the differences of the treatment effect between hierarchical group scheduling emergency mode and traditional mode of emergency for critically ill patients to seek more effective emergency mode. Methods A total of 96 cases of critically ill patients in the emergency department of our hospital from February 2013 to February 2015 were selected as the experimental group. The patients of the experimental group implemented hi-erarchical grouping scheduling emergency treatment mode; another 96 cases of critically ill patients in the emergency department of our hospital from February 2010 to February 2012 were chosen as the control group and all the patients were given traditional emergency treatment. The effective treatment time, treatment effect, nursing satisfaction degree and psychological status of the two groups were compared and analyzed. Results The total efficiency rate of the effective treatment for the patients of the experimental group was

  14. The mode of emplacement of Neogene flood basalts in Eastern Iceland: Facies architecture and structure of the Hólmar and Grjótá olivine basalt groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Riishuus, Morten S.

    2013-11-01

    Hólmar and Grjótá are two stratigraphically distinct transitional alkaline olivine basalt lava groups within the westward-dipping Neogene flood basalts of eastern Iceland. The Hólmar olivine basalt group, separated from the overlying Grjótá olivine basalt group by only a few tholeiite flows, can be traced over 80 km north-south, with thicknesses varying from ~ 250 m where thickest to ~ 30 m where thinnest. The Grjótá group can be traced over 50 km also north-south, reaching thicknesses of ~ 250 m and thinning down-dip to ~ 10 m. In contrast to other groups in eastern Iceland that thicken down-dip, the studied olivine basalt groups thicken up-dip. The groups filled topographic confinements and formed aprons around central volcanoes. We have estimated the minimum volumes to be ~ 119 km3 for Hólmar and ~ 86 km3 for Grjótá. Scoria cones are found in the Hólmar group, and two thick olivine dolerite sills cross-cut the Hólmar group and probably belong to the plumbing system that fed the Grjótá group. The architecture of the lava groups are near identical. The architecture is compound, with lobes stacked horizontally and vertically, varying from 1-15 m thick and 2-200 m long, but do also encompass a number of thicker (15-20 m) and more extensive (> 1 km long) lava lobe in the stacks. Filled lava tubes are commonly observed within the lava flows. The constituent lobes of the flows are often directly emplaced or welded together, suggesting rapid buildup, but are also found interbedded with redbeds and thicker tuff deposits, and occasionally preserve tree molds. The internal structure follows the characteristics for lava lobe morphology in general, with an upper vesicular crust forming half to one third of the total thickness, a massive core with abundant vesicle cylinders, and a thin basal vesicular crust. Flow tops are of the pahoehoe type, seldom found with scoria or clinker. Inflation structures such as tumuli and inflation clefts were identified in the

  15. Few-mode fibers for mode division multiplexing transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Hirokazu; Morioka, Toshio

    2012-01-01

    A study is presented of the fiber properties needed to achieve 10-mode multiplexing transmission. A combination of MIMO processing with optical LP mode separation is proposed to prevent the need for massive MIMO computation. The impact of mode crosstalk, differential mode delay, and the mode dependent loss of the few-mode fibers on mode multiplexing are discussed.

  16. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  17. Mode selection laser

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor mode selection laser, particularly to a VCSEL laser (200) having mode selection properties. The mode selection capability of the laser is achieved by configuring one of the reflectors (15,51) in the resonance cavity so that a reflectivity of the reflector...... (15) varies spatially in one dimension or two dimensions. Accordingly, the reflector (15) with spatially varying reflectivity is part both of the resonance cavity and the mode selection functionality of the laser. A plurality of the lasers configured with different mode selectors, i.e. different...... spatial reflector variations, may be combined to generate a laser beam containing a plurality of orthogonal modes. The laser beam may be injected into a few- mode optical fiber, e.g. for the purpose of optical communication. The VCSEL may have intra-cavity contacts (31,37) and a Tunnel junction (33...

  18. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  19. Practice and effects of the hierarchical grouping schedule mode in delivery rooms%产房分组分层级排班模式的实践与效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘嘉; 安菊芳; 陈釥

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨分组分层级排班模式在产房临床实践中的应用效果.方法 将产房助产士分组,实施护士长-助产组长-带教老师-护师级助产士-初级助产士的层级管理,比较改革前后助产质量、产妇与医护人员满意度.结果 实施产房分组分层级排班后,助产质量及满意度均提高(P<0.01或P<0.05).结论 产房分组分层级排班模式提高管理效率,充分发挥高年资助产士的能力,有效促进初级助产士的成长,保证产房助产服务质量.%Objective To discuss the effects of the hierarchical grouping schedule method applied in the delivery room. Methods Midwives in the delivery room were divided into several groups,and the hierarchical management model of charge nurse- group leader-tutor nurse -senior midwife -junior midwife was implemented in each group. The midwifery quality and patient satisfation were collected and compared. Results Compared with before ,the midwifery quality and patient satisfaction both increased after implementation of the new model (P <0.01 or P <0.05 ). Conclusion The hierarchical grouping schedule model can improve the efficiency of management. It not only makes full adavantnges of senior nurses, but also enhances the development of junior midwives,so as to ehsure the whole quality of the delivery rooms.

  20. Hypersonic modes in nanophononic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepplestone, S P; Srivastava, G P

    2008-09-05

    Frequency gaps and negative group velocities of hypersonic phonon modes in periodically arranged composite semiconductors are presented. Trends and criteria for phononic gaps are discussed using a variety of atomic-level theoretical approaches. From our calculations, the possibility of achieving semiconductor-based one-dimensional phononic structures is established. We present results of the location and size of gaps, as well as negative group velocities of phonon modes in such structures. In addition to reproducing the results of recent measurements of the locations of the band gaps in the nanosized Si/Si{0.4}Ge{0.6} superlattice, we show that such a system is a true one-dimensional hypersonic phononic crystal.

  1. Experimental Study of the Small-group P.E. Teaching Mode to Promote the Mental Health of College Students%小集团体育教学模式促进大学生心理健康研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林媛

    2012-01-01

    为了提高大学体育教学质量,运用实验法和统计法分析了大学体育中小集团教学模式与传统教学模式对大学生心理健康的影响。结果表明:小集团异质分组法教学对大学生体育学习能力自我效能感、心理健康症状自评均有显著性改善,而社会适应能力水平提高不明显。提出了教学分组要充分了解学生的特点、尽量改善体育场地设施资源等建议。%This thesis is aimed at improving College P.E.teaching quality by using experimental method and statistics to contrast the effects to the mental health of college students exerted by Small-group P.E.Teaching Mode and traditional P.E.teaching mode respectively.It comes to the conclusion that the heterogeneous small-group teaching mode can improve college students' ability self-efficacy of college P.E.study and self-assessment of mental health symptoms considerately,but exert little influence on their social adaptation ability level.This thesis also puts forward the suggestion that the teaching-grouping be based on the sufficient knowledge of students' characteristics and the athletic ground facilities be improved as far as possible.

  2. Low-bending loss and single-mode operation in few-mode optical fiber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Ping; Wang, Hua; Chen, Ming-Yang; Wei, Jin; Cai, Zhi-Min; Li, Lu-Ming; Yang, Ji-Hai; Zhu, Yuan-Feng

    2016-10-01

    The technique of eliminating the higher-order modes in a few-mode optical fiber is proposed. The fiber is designed with a group of defect modes in the cladding. The higher-order modes in the fiber can be eliminated by bending the fiber to induce strong coupling between the defect modes and the higher-order modes. Numerical simulation shows the bending losses of the LP01 mode are lower than 1.5×10-4 dB/turn for the wavelength shorter than 1.625 μm. The proposed fiber can be bent multiple turns at small bending radius which are preferable for FTTH related applications.

  3. Single-Mode VCSELs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Anders; Gustavsson, Johan S.

    The only active transverse mode in a truly single-mode VCSEL is the fundamental mode with a near Gaussian field distribution. A single-mode VCSEL produces a light beam of higher spectral purity, higher degree of coherence and lower divergence than a multimode VCSEL and the beam can be more precisely shaped and focused to a smaller spot. Such beam properties are required in many applications. In this chapter, after discussing applications of single-mode VCSELs, we introduce the basics of fields and modes in VCSELs and review designs implemented for single-mode emission from VCSELs in different materials and at different wavelengths. This includes VCSELs that are inherently single-mode as well as inherently multimode VCSELs where higher-order modes are suppressed by mode selective gain or loss. In each case we present the current state-of-the-art and discuss pros and cons. At the end, a specific example with experimental results is provided and, as a summary, the most promising designs based on current technologies are identified.

  4. 台湾农业产销班的管理模式及启示%Management Mode of Agricultural Production and Marketing Groups in Taiwan and Its Enlightenments

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段小力; 蒋峰

    2012-01-01

    在对台湾农业产销班调研的基础上,分析台湾农业产销班的发展背景,从市场营销、生产控制、人力资源、财务管理方面探讨台湾农业企业化管理的主要策略,提出我国大陆发展农民专业合作社发展的对策与建议。%As the main pattern of agro-production and marketing organization,agro-production and marketing group plays an important role in triggering the local rural development,and farmers' income has been greatly improved.On the basis of investigation in Taiwan,the paper analyzes the background of the agro-groups and explores the development strategy from marketing,production control,human resource and financial management.And finally,measures and suggestions are put forward to promote the rural development of farmers' cooperative organizations in mainland China.

  5. Instability of vibrational modes in hexagonal lattice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korznikova, Elena A.; Bachurin, Dmitry V.; Fomin, Sergey Yu.; Chetverikov, Alexander P.; Dmitriev, Sergey V.

    2017-02-01

    The phenomenon of modulational instability is investigated for all four delocalized short-wave vibrational modes recently found for the two-dimensional hexagonal lattice with the help of a group-theoretic approach. The polynomial pair potential with hard-type quartic nonlinearity ( β-FPU potential with β > 0) is used to describe interactions between atoms. As expected for the hard-type anharmonic interactions, for all four modes the frequency is found to increase with the amplitude. Frequency of the modes I and III bifurcates from the upper edge of the phonon spectrum, while that of the modes II and IV increases from inside the spectrum. It is also shown that the considered model supports spatially localized vibrational mode called discrete breather (DB) or intrinsic localized mode. DB frequency increases with the amplitude above the phonon spectrum. Two different scenarios of the mode decay were revealed. In the first scenario (for modes I and III), development of the modulational instability leads to a formation of long-lived DBs that radiate their energy slowly until thermal equilibrium is reached. In the second scenario (for modes II and IV) a transition to thermal oscillations of atoms is observed with no formation of DBs.

  6. Asymmetric Bessel modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotlyar, V V; Kovalev, A A; Soifer, V A

    2014-04-15

    We propose a new, three-parameter family of diffraction-free asymmetric elegant Bessel modes (aB-modes) with an integer and fractional orbital angular momentum (OAM). The aB-modes are described by the nth-order Bessel function of the first kind with complex argument. The asymmetry degree of the nonparaxial aB-mode is shown to depend on a real parameter c≥0: when c=0, the aB-mode is identical to a conventional radially symmetric Bessel mode; with increasing c, the aB-mode starts to acquire a crescent form, getting stretched along the vertical axis and shifted along the horizontal axis for c≫1. On the horizontal axis, the aB-modes have a denumerable number of isolated intensity zeros that generate optical vortices with a unit topological charge of opposite sign on opposite sides of 0. At different values of the parameter c, the intensity zeros change their location on the horizontal axis, thus changing the beam's OAM. An isolated intensity zero on the optical axis generates an optical vortex with topological charge n. The OAM per photon of an aB-mode depends near-linearly on c, being equal to ℏ(n+cI1(2c)/I0(2c)), where ℏ is the Planck constant and In(x) is a modified Bessel function.

  7. The Research of Digital Certificate Application Mode of the Enterprise Group Financial Company%集团财务公司数字证书应用模式研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高建峰

    2011-01-01

    At present,the construction of large enterprise groups of the group company,provided to staff members of the financial services,in order to ensure that the business systems of security,in the past period,the financial companies are using a third-party digital certificate authentication provide digital certificate of the security guard.after a period of application,the source certificate,credential the use of models for certain issues.the article through detailed analysis,gives some corresponding suggestions,but also pointed out that the financial company follow-up certificate application still needs attention.%目前我国大型企业集团建设了大量的集团财务公司,为下属成员单位提供内部的金融服务。为了保证财务公司业务系统的安全性,在过去一段时间内,财务公司均使用第三方数字证书认证中心提供的数字证书进行了安全防护。经过一段时间的应用,针对证书的来源、证书的应用模式均出现了一定的问题。本文经过详细分析,给出了相应的建议,同时也指出了财务公司后续证书应用中仍需要关注的问题。

  8. Mode division multiplexing using an orbital angular momentum mode sorter and MIMO-DSP over a graded-index few-mode optical fibre.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hao; Milione, Giovanni; Lavery, Martin P J; Xie, Guodong; Ren, Yongxiong; Cao, Yinwen; Ahmed, Nisar; An Nguyen, Thien; Nolan, Daniel A; Li, Ming-Jun; Tur, Moshe; Alfano, Robert R; Willner, Alan E

    2015-10-09

    Mode division multiplexing (MDM)- using a multimode optical fiber's N spatial modes as data channels to transmit N independent data streams - has received interest as it can potentially increase optical fiber data transmission capacity N-times with respect to single mode optical fibers. Two challenges of MDM are (1) designing mode (de)multiplexers with high mode selectivity (2) designing mode (de)multiplexers without cascaded beam splitting's 1/N insertion loss. One spatial mode basis that has received interest is that of orbital angular momentum (OAM) modes. In this paper, using a device referred to as an OAM mode sorter, we show that OAM modes can be (de)multiplexed over a multimode optical fiber with higher than -15 dB mode selectivity and without cascaded beam splitting's 1/N insertion loss. As a proof of concept, the OAM modes of the LP11 mode group (OAM-1,0 and OAM+1,0), each carrying 20-Gbit/s polarization division multiplexed and quadrature phase shift keyed data streams, are transmitted 5km over a graded-index, few-mode optical fibre. Channel crosstalk is mitigated using 4 × 4 multiple-input-multiple-output digital-signal-processing with <1.5 dB power penalties at a bit-error-rate of 2 × 10(-3).

  9. 以护士为主导多学科参与的分组管理模式在血液透析患者中的应用%Application of Nurse Led Group Management Mode in Clinical Nursing of Hemodialysis Patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    萧远英; 李芸; 胡秀梅; 邝炎辉

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨以护士为主导多学科参与的分组管理模式在血液透析(hemodialysis,HD)患者中的应用效果.方法2015年6-12月,便利抽样法选择在深圳市人民医院血液净化中心门诊规律行 HD 的238例患者为研究对象,按照随机数字表法将其分为观察组127例和对照组111例,HD 期间,对照组患者给予常规护理干预,观察组患者在对照组的基础上采用以护士为主导多学科参与的分组管理模式,观察并比较两组患者干预前后临床症状的改善情况、血清甲状腺旁激素(intact parathyroid hormone,iPTH)及β2-微球蛋白(β2-MG)水平、钙磷代谢情况、相关营养指标的达标率及血管通路并发症的发生率.结果干预后,观察组患者临床症状的改善情况、血清 iPTH 和β2-MG 水平、钙磷代谢情况、相关营养指标的达标率均优于对照组,血管通路并发症的发生率低于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(均 P <0.05).结论应用以护士为主导多学科参与的分组管理模式能有效改善 HD 患者的钙磷代谢紊乱,改善临床症状,降低血管通路并发症的发生风险,值得在临床推广应用.%Objective To explore the effect of nurse led group management mode in the clinical nursing of hemodialysis (HD)patients.Methods By convenience sampling,238 cases were selected and randomly di-vided into observation group (n =127)and control group (n =1 1 1).The control group applied with conven-tional nursing model during HD,while the observation group was applied with nurse led group manage-ment mode during HD.The clinical symptom before and after nursing,serum iPTH and β2-microglobulin level and calcium phosphate metabolism,relevant nutritional index and vascular access complication were compared between two groups.Results The clinical symptom,serum iPTH,β2-microglobulin level and calcium phosphate metabolism,relevant nutritional index in observation group were better than that of control

  10. Theory of groups of finite order

    CERN Document Server

    Burnside, W

    2013-01-01

    After introducing permutation notation and defining group, the author discusses the simpler properties of group that are independent of their modes of representation; composition-series of groups; isomorphism of a group with itself; Abelian groups; groups whose orders are the powers of primes; Sylow's theorem; more. 18 illustrations. A classic introduction.

  11. A Lagrangian Dynamic Mode Decomposition

    CERN Document Server

    Sesterhenn, Jörn

    2016-01-01

    Temporal or spatial structures are readily extracted from complex data by modal decompositions like POD or DMD. Subspaces of that decompositions serve as reduced order models and define spatial structures in time or temporal structures in space. Convecting phenomena pose a major problem to those decompositions. A structure travelling with a certain group velocity will be perceived as a plethora of modes in time or space respectively. This manifests itself for example in poorly decaying Singular Values when using a POD. The poor decay is very counter-intuitive, since we expect a single structure to be represented by a few modes. The intuition proves to be correct and we show that in a properly chosen reference frame along the characteristic defined by the group velocity, a POD or DMD reduces moving structures to a few modes, as expected. Beyond serving as a reduced model, the re- sulting entity can be used to define a constant or minimally changing structure in turbulent flows. This can be interpreted as an em...

  12. Few mode fibers based quasi-single mode Raman distributed temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hao; Wang, Meng; Liu, Tongqing; Yang, Chen; Tong, Weijun; Fu, Songnian; Tang, Ming

    2017-04-01

    We demonstrate a distributed temperature sensor based on quasi-single mode (QSM) Raman scattering in few mode fibers (FMFs). The FMF allows much larger input pump power before the initiate of stimulated Raman scattering compared with the standard single mode fiber (SSMF) and mitigates the detrimental differential mode group delay (DMGD) existing in the conventional multimode fiber (MMF) based Raman distributed temperature sensor (RDTS). Distributed temperature sensing is realized using conventional RDTS hardware over 20km FMFs within 90s, with a spatial resolution of 3m. The temperature resolution is 2.3°C @10km and 6.7°C @20km, respectively.

  13. Mode decomposition evolution equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yang; Wei, Guo-Wei; Yang, Siyang

    2012-03-01

    Partial differential equation (PDE) based methods have become some of the most powerful tools for exploring the fundamental problems in signal processing, image processing, computer vision, machine vision and artificial intelligence in the past two decades. The advantages of PDE based approaches are that they can be made fully automatic, robust for the analysis of images, videos and high dimensional data. A fundamental question is whether one can use PDEs to perform all the basic tasks in the image processing. If one can devise PDEs to perform full-scale mode decomposition for signals and images, the modes thus generated would be very useful for secondary processing to meet the needs in various types of signal and image processing. Despite of great progress in PDE based image analysis in the past two decades, the basic roles of PDEs in image/signal analysis are only limited to PDE based low-pass filters, and their applications to noise removal, edge detection, segmentation, etc. At present, it is not clear how to construct PDE based methods for full-scale mode decomposition. The above-mentioned limitation of most current PDE based image/signal processing methods is addressed in the proposed work, in which we introduce a family of mode decomposition evolution equations (MoDEEs) for a vast variety of applications. The MoDEEs are constructed as an extension of a PDE based high-pass filter (Europhys. Lett., 59(6): 814, 2002) by using arbitrarily high order PDE based low-pass filters introduced by Wei (IEEE Signal Process. Lett., 6(7): 165, 1999). The use of arbitrarily high order PDEs is essential to the frequency localization in the mode decomposition. Similar to the wavelet transform, the present MoDEEs have a controllable time-frequency localization and allow a perfect reconstruction of the original function. Therefore, the MoDEE operation is also called a PDE transform. However, modes generated from the present approach are in the spatial or time domain and can be

  14. Excursions through KK modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furuuchi, Kazuyuki

    2016-07-01

    In this article we study Kaluza-Klein (KK) dimensional reduction of massive Abelian gauge theories with charged matter fields on a circle. Since local gauge transformations change position dependence of the charged fields, the decomposition of the charged matter fields into KK modes is gauge dependent. While whole KK mass spectrum is independent of the gauge choice, the mode number depends on the gauge. The masses of the KK modes also depend on the field value of the zero-mode of the extra dimensional component of the gauge field. In particular, one of the KK modes in the KK tower of each massless 5D charged field becomes massless at particular values of the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field. When the extra-dimensional component of the gauge field is identified with the inflaton, this structure leads to recursive cosmological particle productions.

  15. Optical Communications With A Geiger Mode APD Array

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-09

    Geiger mode avalanche photodiode (GM-APD, or Geiger mode APD) array for use in optical com- munications systems. I designed and...Newbury, 47 Michael E. O’Brien, Brian E. Player Three-dimensional imaging laser radars with Geiger - mode avalanche photodiode arrays. Lincoln Laboratory...using a Geiger - mode APD array developed by Group 87 at MIT Lincoln Laboratory, consisting of 1024 individual photodiodes arranged in a 32x32 grid.

  16. Working group on the modes of a TGAP remission or decrease concerning the intermediate energy consumptions; Groupe de travail sur les modalites d'exoneration et d'attenuation d'une tgap sur les consommations intermediaires d'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2000-04-01

    The french government decided to examine conditions of the application of the TGAP tax on intermediate energy consumption, in order to enforce the fight against the greenhouse effect and to better control the energy consumption. A working group has been created to examine the possibilities of the TGAP remission. This report presents the conclusions of the working group and analyses different scenario. (A.L.B.)

  17. Mode choice model parameters estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Strnad, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The present work focuses on parameter estimation of two mode choice models: multinomial logit and EVA 2 model, where four different modes and five different trip purposes are taken into account. Mode choice model discusses the behavioral aspect of mode choice making and enables its application to a traffic model. Mode choice model includes mode choice affecting trip factors by using each mode and their relative importance to choice made. When trip factor values are known, it...

  18. Surface modes in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sernelius, Bo E

    2011-01-01

    Electromagnetic surface modes are present at all surfaces and interfaces between material of different dielectric properties. These modes have very important effects on numerous physical quantities: adhesion, capillary force, step formation and crystal growth, the Casimir effect etc. They cause surface tension and wetting and they give rise to forces which are important e.g. for the stability of colloids.This book is a useful and elegant approach to the topic, showing how the concept of electromagnetic modes can be developed as a unifying theme for a range of condensed matter physics. The

  19. Higher Order Mode Fibers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller

    . The research presented in this thesis falls in three parts. In the first part, a first time demonstration of the break of the azimuthal symmetry of the Bessel-like LP0X modes is presented. This effect, known as the bowtie effect, causes the mode to have an azimuthal dependence as well as a quasi...... and polarization state are investigated. For this fiber, the onset of the bowtie effect is shown numerically to be LP011. The characteristics usually associated with Bessel-likes modes such as long diffraction free length and selfhealing are shown to be conserved despite the lack of azimuthal symmetry...

  20. Group X

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fields, Susannah

    2007-08-16

    This project is currently under contract for research through the Department of Homeland Security until 2011. The group I was responsible for studying has to remain confidential so as not to affect the current project. All dates, reference links and authors, and other distinguishing characteristics of the original group have been removed from this report. All references to the name of this group or the individual splinter groups has been changed to 'Group X'. I have been collecting texts from a variety of sources intended for the use of recruiting and radicalizing members for Group X splinter groups for the purpose of researching the motivation and intent of leaders of those groups and their influence over the likelihood of group radicalization. This work included visiting many Group X websites to find information on splinter group leaders and finding their statements to new and old members. This proved difficult because the splinter groups of Group X are united in beliefs, but differ in public opinion. They are eager to tear each other down, prove their superiority, and yet remain anonymous. After a few weeks of intense searching, a list of eight recruiting texts and eight radicalizing texts from a variety of Group X leaders were compiled.

  1. A Probe into the Group Work Mode in Community Integration of Migrant Children in Shenzhen:A Field Study%来深流动儿童社区融入小组工作模式的探索--基于流动儿童社区融入的实地研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭佳慧

    2016-01-01

    Through the questionnaire , the status and demands of community integration of migrant children is analyzed .It is found that migrant children face many problems in areas such as learning , psychology , in-terpersonal relationships , community integration etc .and require help on individuals , peer group , family and community levels .Taking migrant children within the industrial zone in Pingshan District , Shenzhen Cit-y as the research object , a group work working mode which combines “individual+peer groups+family +community” is designed from the perspective of social work and the use of group work approach , to help them to integrate into the community .Based on practices of six groups , estimated difficulties and response plans for the social group work in community integration of migrant children are summed up .%通过问卷调查,分析了流动儿童社区融入现状及需求情况,认为流动儿童面临学习、心理、人际关系、社区融入等诸多问题,在个人、朋辈群体、家庭及社区层面存在需求。以深圳市坪山新区大工业区内的流动儿童为研究对象,从社工的角度出发,运用小组工作的手法,设计了流动儿童社区融入的“个人+朋辈+家庭+社区”四位一体的小组工作模式,在6个小组案例的实践基础上,总结出流动儿童社区融入小组工作的预估困难和应对计划。

  2. Resonance vector mode locking

    CERN Document Server

    Kolpakov, Stanislav A; Loika, Yuri; Tarasov, Nikita; Kalashnikov, Vladimir; Agrawal, Govind P

    2015-01-01

    A mode locked fibre laser as a source of ultra-stable pulse train has revolutionised a wide range of fundamental and applied research areas by offering high peak powers, high repetition rates, femtosecond range pulse widths and a narrow linewidth. However, further progress in linewidth narrowing seems to be limited by the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control. Here for the first time we demonstrate experimentally and theoretically a new mechanism of resonance vector self-mode locking where tuning in-cavity birefringence leads to excitation of the longitudinal modes sidebands accompanied by the resonance phase locking of sidebands with the adjacent longitudinal modes. An additional resonance with acoustic phonons provides the repetition rate tunability and linewidth narrowing down to Hz range that drastically reduces the complexity of the carrier-envelope phase control and so will open the way to advance lasers in the context of applications in metrology, spectroscopy, microwave photonics, astronomy...

  3. Supersymmetric mode converters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinrich, Matthias; Miri, Mohammad-Ali; Stützer, Simon; Nolte, Stefan; Szameit, Alexander; Christodoulides, Demetrios N.

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, the ever-increasing demand for high-capacity transmission systems has driven remarkable advances in technologies that encode information on an optical signal. Mode-division multiplexing makes use of individual modes supported by an optical waveguide as mutually orthogonal channels. The key requirement in this approach is the capability to selectively populate and extract specific modes. Optical supersymmetry (SUSY) has recently been proposed as a particularly elegant way to resolve this design challenge in a manner that is inherently scalable, and at the same time maintains compatibility with existing multiplexing strategies. Supersymmetric partners of multimode waveguides are characterized by the fact that they share all of their effective indices with the original waveguide. The crucial exception is the fundamental mode, which is absent from the spectrum of the partner waveguide. Here, we demonstrate experimentally how this global phase-matching property can be exploited for efficient mode conversion. Multimode structures and their superpartners are experimentally realized in coupled networks of femtosecond laser-written waveguides, and the corresponding light dynamics are directly observed by means of fluorescence microscopy. We show that SUSY transformations can readily facilitate the removal of the fundamental mode from multimode optical structures. In turn, hierarchical sequences of such SUSY partners naturally implement the conversion between modes of adjacent order. Our experiments illustrate just one of the many possibilities of how SUSY may serve as a building block for integrated mode-division multiplexing arrangements. Supersymmetric notions may enrich and expand integrated photonics by versatile optical components and desirable, yet previously unattainable, functionalities.

  4. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trofimov, M. Yu.; Zakharenko, A. D.; Kozitskiy, S. B.

    2016-10-01

    A mode parabolic equation in the ray centered coordinates for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the ASA wedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method in the case of cross-slope propagation. But in the cases of wave propagation at some angles to the cross-slope direction an account of mode interaction becomes necessary.

  5. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  6. The effect study of carrying out group seeing a doctor management mode on the community patients with schizophrenia%群组看病管理模式对社区精神分裂症患者的康复效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴春荣; 高彩凤; 吴英锋

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨群组看病管理模式对社区精神分裂症患者的康复效果,为开展社区精神分裂症康复管理提供依据.方法 将临床“痊愈”出院的精神分裂症患者160例按抛硬币分组法随机分为研究组(84例)和对照组(76例),研究组建立以社区卫生服务中心为依托的精神病防治点,对社区精神分裂症患者实施群组看病管理模式,观察时间为1年;对照组实施自我护理模式,不给予任何形式的社区医疗护理干预.干预前后,采用阳性和阴性症状量表(PANSS)、服药依从性、社会功能缺陷筛查量表(SDSS)、综合生活质量评定问卷(GQOLI - 74)以及复发率进行效果评估.结果 干预前(出院时),两组PANSS、SDSS和GQOLI -74评定无明显差异(P>0.05),出院6个月、9个月及1年后,研究组PANSS,SDSS总分以及复发率明显低于对照组,而服药依从性、GQOLI - 74评分明显高于对照组,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.01).结论对社区精神分裂症患者实施群组看病管理模式能够稳定患者病情,改善社会功能,提高遵医行为和生活质量,降低复发,对促进患者良好康复具有积极的作用.%Objective To explore the rehabilitation effect of the group seeing a doctor management mode for the community patients with schizophrenia,in order to provide the basis of the rehabilitation management for community patients with schizophrenia.Methods Totaled of 160 clinical healed inpatients with schizophrenia were randomly divided into study groups ( 84 patients) and the control group (76 cases),the study group established the mental illness control point that relied on community health service center.Group seeing a doctor management mode was carried out for the community patients with schizophrenia.The observing time lasted for a year.The control group carried out the self- nursing mode without community health nursing intervention.Before and after the intervention,the effect was assessed by PANSS

  7. Group devaluation and group identification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leach, C.W.; Rodriguez Mosquera, P.M.; Vliek, M.L.W.; Hirt, E.

    2010-01-01

    In three studies, we showed that increased in-group identification after (perceived or actual) group devaluation is an assertion of a (preexisting) positive social identity that counters the negative social identity implied in societal devaluation. Two studies with real-world groups used order manip

  8. 危重症专科小组运作在呼吸道护理管理中的应用及效果%Application and effects of critical cases specialist groups' operation mode on the nursing quality of respiratory tract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘美连; 李芸; 李威; 许士海

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨危重症专科小组运作方式在提高呼吸道护理质量中的应用和效果.方法 将106例行气管插管患者实施专科小组运作后57例为实验组,实施专科小组运作前49例为对照组.实验组建立危重症专科小组定期组织查房、会诊指导、制定工作指引及护理质量标准和评价指标,对危重症患者的护理质量进行三级全程监控;对照组采取常规的护士长查房指导,护理部督导检查二级监控.以呼吸机相关肺炎及呼吸道护理意外发生率作为危重症患者护理质量观察指标之一.结果 实验组呼吸机相关肺炎及呼吸道护理意外发生率比对照组明显降低,差异有统计学意义(7.70%vs 20.04%,χ2=4.51,P<0.05;10.52%vs 26.53%,χ2=5.69,P<0.05);每月护士解决的护理问题及护理投诉均比对照组多,差异均有统计学意义(P<0.05);医生及患者对护理工作的满意度也比对照组提高了(P<0.05).结论 危重症专科小组运作方式有利于加强护士的危重症专业能力,规范临床危重症呼吸道护理管理,提高呼吸道的护理质量.%Objective To investigate the role and effect of critical cases specialist group' s operation mode on the nursing quality of respiratory tract. Methods Totally 106 tracheal intubation patients were selected for experiments. 57 cases that use specialist group's operation mode are in experimental group;and others are in control group, which don' t use specialist group' s operation mode. For experimental group, critical cases specialist group was established to organize regular patient rounds, instruct consultations, formulate work direction and nursing quality standards and evaluation indexes;the critical cases of patients with nursing quality were evaluated with three-tier process monitoring;while control group were treated with traditional head nurse rounds guidance, nurses supervision inspection second-level monitoring. This research chose the accident rate

  9. Thin layer Characterization by ZGV Lamb modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ces, Maximin; Clorennec, Dominique; Royer, Daniel; Prada, Claire, E-mail: maximin.ces@espci.fr [Laboratoire Ondes et Acoustique, ESPCI- Universite Paris 7- CNRS UMR 7587, 10 rue Vauquelin, 75231 Paris Cedex 05- France (France)

    2011-01-01

    Ultrasonic non-destructive testing of plates can be performed with Lamb modes guided by the structure. Non contact generation and detection of the elastic waves can be achieved with optical means such as a pulsed laser source and an interferometer. With this setup, we propose a method using zero group velocity (ZGV) Lamb modes rather than propagating modes. These ZGV modes have noteworthy properties, in particular their group velocity vanishes, whereas their phase velocity remains finite. Thus, a significant part of the energy deposited by the pulsed laser can be trapped in the source area. For example, in a homogeneous isotropic plate and at the minimum frequency of the S{sub 1}-Lamb mode a very sharp resonance can be observed, the frequency of which only depends on the plate thickness, for a given material. In fact, other ZGV modes exist and the set of ZGV resonance frequencies provide a local and absolute measurement of Poisson's ratio. These non-propagating modes can also be used to characterize multi-layered structures. Experimentally, we observed that a thin (500 nm) gold layer deposited on a thick (1.5 mm) Duralumin plate induces a sensitive down-shift of the set of ZGV resonance frequencies. This shift, which is typically 5 kHz for the S{sub 1}-Lamb mode at 1.924 MHz, can be approximated by a formula providing the layer thickness. Thickness down to 100 nm can be estimated by this method. Such a sensitivity with conventional ultrasound inspection by acoustic microscopy would require an operating frequency in the GHz range.

  10. Sliding mode control and observation

    CERN Document Server

    Shtessel, Yuri; Fridman, Leonid; Levant, Arie

    2014-01-01

    The sliding mode control methodology has proven effective in dealing with complex dynamical systems affected by disturbances, uncertainties and unmodeled dynamics. Robust control technology based on this methodology has been applied to many real-world problems, especially in the areas of aerospace control, electric power systems, electromechanical systems, and robotics. Sliding Mode Control and Observation represents the first textbook that starts with classical sliding mode control techniques and progresses toward newly developed higher-order sliding mode control and observation algorithms and their applications. The present volume addresses a range of sliding mode control issues, including: *Conventional sliding mode controller and observer design *Second-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Frequency domain analysis of conventional and second-order sliding mode controllers *Higher-order sliding mode controllers and differentiators *Higher-order sliding mode observers *Sliding mode disturbanc...

  11. Thermodynamics of radiation modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pina, Eduardo; De la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa [Departamento de Fisica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana - Iztapalapa, PO Box 55 534, Mexico, D F, 09340 (Mexico)], E-mail: pge@xanum.uam.mx, E-mail: tere@xanum.uam.mx

    2010-03-15

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the frequencies. One equation relating frequency and volume is used to define the thermodynamics of one mode, and to explain the mystery of the frequency-dependent quantities having a similar behaviour to the non-frequency-dependent quantities for some thermodynamic equations and different behaviour for others. Besides, this frequency-volume relation is used to count the number of modes in a band of frequency.

  12. Mode og mozzarella

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jakob Isak

    2013-01-01

    Under en samtale i Paolo Sorrentinos La grande bellezza/da. Den store skønhed (2013) anføres det, at Italiens primære eksportvarer er mode og mozzarella. Selve filmen vidner om, at Italien har andet at byde på – heriblandt filmkunst og Roms righoldige kulturhistorie.......Under en samtale i Paolo Sorrentinos La grande bellezza/da. Den store skønhed (2013) anføres det, at Italiens primære eksportvarer er mode og mozzarella. Selve filmen vidner om, at Italien har andet at byde på – heriblandt filmkunst og Roms righoldige kulturhistorie....

  13. Mode correlation and coherent-mode decomposition of laser beams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张彬; 文侨; 楚晓亮

    2003-01-01

    Theory of the coherent-mode decomposition of laser beams is proposed.The new model for the flat-topped beams proposed by Li recently is taken as an example.The analytical expressions for the M2-factor and mode coherence coefficients of flat-topped beams have been derived in the rectangular coordinate system,by means of which the mode correlation,mode structure,and coherent-mode decomposition of flat-topped beams can be analysed.

  14. The Symmetricity of Normal Modes in Symmetric Complexes

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Guang

    2016-01-01

    In this work, we look at the symmetry of normal modes in symmetric structures, particularly structures with cyclic symmetry. We show that normal modes of symmetric structures have different levels of symmetry, or symmetricity. One novel theoretical result of this work is that, for a ring structure with $m$ subunits, the symmetricity of the normal modes falls into $m$ groups of equal size, with normal modes in each group having the same symmetricity. The normal modes in each group can be computed separately, using a much smaller amount of memory and time (up to $m^3$ less), thus making it applicable to larger complexes. We show that normal modes with perfect symmetry or anti-symmetry have no degeneracy while the rest of the modes have a degeneracy of two. We show also how symmetry in normal modes correlates with symmetry in structure. While a broken symmetry in structure generally leads to a loss of symmetricity in symmetric normal modes, the symmetricity of some symmetric normal modes is preserved even when s...

  15. Cladding pumped few-mode EDFA for mode division multiplexed transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Y; Lim, E L; Kang, Q; May-Smith, T C; Wong, N H L; Standish, R; Poletti, F; Sahu, J K; Alam, S U; Richardson, D J

    2014-11-17

    We experimentally demonstrate a few-mode erbium doped fiber amplifier (FM-EDFA) supporting 6 spatial modes with a cladding pumped architecture. Average modal gains are measured to be >20dB between 1534nm-1565nm with a differential modal gain of ~3dB among the mode groups and noise figures of 6-7dB. The cladding pumped FM-EDFA offers a cost effective alternative to core-pumped variant as low cost, high power multimode pumps can be used, and offers performance, scalability and simplicity to FM-EDFA design.

  16. Mode Gaussian beam tracing

    CERN Document Server

    Trofimov, M Yu; Kozitskiy, S B

    2015-01-01

    An adiabatic mode Helmholtz equation for 3D underwater sound propagation is developed. The Gaussian beam tracing in this case is constructed. The test calculations are carried out for the crosswedge benchmark and proved an excellent agreement with the source images method.

  17. Free carboxylate stretching modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oomens, J.; Steill, J. D.

    2008-01-01

    We report the first IR spectroscopic observation of carboxylate stretching modes in free space, i.e., in the complete absence of solvent or counterions. Gas-phase spectra of a series of benzoate anions have been recorded and compared to condensed-phase spectra, revealing the profound influence of th

  18. Modes of Communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewatripont, Mathias; Tirole, Jean

    2005-01-01

    The paper develops a theory of costly communication in which the sender's and receiver's motivations and abilities endogenously determine the communication mode and the transfer of knowledge. Communication is modeled as a problem of moral hazard in teams, in which the sender and receiver select persuasion and message elaboration efforts. The model…

  19. Thermodynamics of Radiation Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pina, Eduardo; de la Selva, Sara Maria Teresa

    2010-01-01

    We study the equilibrium thermodynamics of the electromagnetic radiation in a cavity of a given volume and temperature. We found three levels of description, the thermodynamics of one mode, the thermodynamics of the distribution of frequencies in a band by summing over the frequencies in it and the global thermodynamics by summing over all the…

  20. Lubrication modes and the IRG transition diagram

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schipper, D.J.; Gee, de A.W.J.

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between a Lubrication Mode Diagram (LMD) for concentrated contacts (LCC's) and the IRG transition diagram has been studied. In addition, scuffing results, obtained by the IRG (International Research Group) have been analysed, as well as the results of scuffing tests performed by dif

  1. Myoelectric walking mode classification for transtibial amputees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Jason D; Beazer, Mahyo Seyedali; Hahn, Michael E

    2013-10-01

    Myoelectric control algorithms have the potential to detect an amputee's motion intent and allow the prosthetic to adapt to changes in walking mode. The development of a myoelectric walking mode classifier for transtibial amputees is outlined. Myoelectric signals from four muscles (tibialis anterior, medial gastrocnemius (MG), vastus lateralis, and biceps femoris) were recorded for five nonamputee subjects and five transtibial amputees over a variety of walking modes: level ground at three speeds, ramp ascent/descent, and stair ascent/descent. These signals were decomposed into relevant features (mean absolute value, variance, wavelength, number of slope sign changes, number of zero crossings) over three subwindows from the gait cycle and used to test the ability of classification algorithms for transtibial amputees using linear discriminant analysis (LDA) and support vector machine (SVM) classifiers. Detection of all seven walking modes had an accuracy of 97.9% for the amputee group and 94.7% for the nonamputee group. Misclassifications occurred most frequently between different walking speeds due to the similar nature of the gait pattern. Stair ascent/descent had the best classification accuracy with 99.8% for the amputee group and 100.0% for the nonamputee group. Stability of the developed classifier was explored using an electrode shift disturbance for each muscle. Shifting the electrode placement of the MG had the most pronounced effect on the classification accuracy for both samples. No increase in classification accuracy was observed when using SVM compared to LDA for the current dataset.

  2. An empirical test of schema mode conceptualizations in personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Van Vreeswijk, Michiel F; Arntz, Arnoud

    2008-07-01

    Although the use of schema modes in schema-focused therapy (SFT) has been very popular since its introduction, Young's schema mode concept remained largely empirically untested. In order to provide insight into the mode conceptualization of personality disorders (PDs), the current study assessed the relationships between 14 schema modes and all PDs. Relationships between dimensional PD scores and self-reported mode scores were tested in a mixed study group of 489 participants, consisting of axis I and axis II patients, and non-patients. Psychopathology was assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I and axis II disorders (SCID I and SCID II) or the Structural Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV), and modes were assessed by the Schema Mode Inventory. Kendall's partial tau coefficients, controlling each PD-mode correlation for all other PD scores, indicated unique mode profiles for all PDs and corroborated most of the hypothesized PD-mode correlations, supporting the construct validity of the mode model. Nevertheless, the high number of correlations found for some PDs raises concerns about the specificity of the mode model. Implications for both research and therapy are discussed.

  3. Algebraic Groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2007-01-01

    The workshop continued a series of Oberwolfach meetings on algebraic groups, started in 1971 by Tonny Springer and Jacques Tits who both attended the present conference. This time, the organizers were Michel Brion, Jens Carsten Jantzen, and Raphaël Rouquier. During the last years, the subject...... of algebraic groups (in a broad sense) has seen important developments in several directions, also related to representation theory and algebraic geometry. The workshop aimed at presenting some of these developments in order to make them accessible to a "general audience" of algebraic group......-theorists, and to stimulate contacts between participants. Each of the first four days was dedicated to one area of research that has recently seen decisive progress: \\begin{itemize} \\item structure and classification of wonderful varieties, \\item finite reductive groups and character sheaves, \\item quantum cohomology...

  4. Group Grammar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  5. MUYANG GROUP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ With its headquarters in the historic city of Yangzhou,Jiangsu Muyang Group Co.,Ltd has since its founding in 1967 grown into a well-known group corporation whose activities cover research&development.project design,manufacturing,installation and services in a multitude of industries including feed machinery and engineering,storage engineering,grain machinery and engineering,environmental protection,conveying equipment and automatic control systems.

  6. Abelian groups

    CERN Document Server

    Fuchs, László

    2015-01-01

    Written by one of the subject’s foremost experts, this book focuses on the central developments and modern methods of the advanced theory of abelian groups, while remaining accessible, as an introduction and reference, to the non-specialist. It provides a coherent source for results scattered throughout the research literature with lots of new proofs. The presentation highlights major trends that have radically changed the modern character of the subject, in particular, the use of homological methods in the structure theory of various classes of abelian groups, and the use of advanced set-theoretical methods in the study of undecidability problems. The treatment of the latter trend includes Shelah’s seminal work on the undecidability in ZFC of Whitehead’s Problem; while the treatment of the former trend includes an extensive (but non-exhaustive) study of p-groups, torsion-free groups, mixed groups, and important classes of groups arising from ring theory. To prepare the reader to tackle these topics, th...

  7. MRE properties under shear and squeeze modes and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Popp, K M [TU Bergakademie Freiberg, Institute of Machine Elements, Design and Production, Agricolastrasse 1, 09599 Freiberg (Germany); Zhang, X Z; Li, W H; Kosasih, P B [University of Wollongong, School of Mechanical, Materials and Mechatronic Engineering, NSW 2522 (Australia)], E-mail: Kristin.Popp@imkf.tu-freiberg.de, E-mail: weihuali@uow.edu.au

    2009-02-01

    Magnetorheological elastomers (MREs) belong to the group of so called smart materials. Due to an applied magnetic field the MREs change their material properties like the stiffness. This feature has resulted in a number of novel applications, such as adaptive tuned dynamic vibration absorbers (ATDVA) for suppressing unwanted vibrations over a wide frequency range. MRE based devices operate in different modes, such as shear mode and squeeze mode but the study of mechanical performances of MREs under squeeze mode is very rare. This paper aims to investigate MRE performances under both shear and squeeze modes. Both experimental and simulation studies were conducted to analyze the MR effect in both modes. These studies indicate that MRE working in squeeze mode would result in higher MR effects. As a case study, a MRE based ATDVA was analyzed, which demonstrated good capabilities in reducing vibrations.

  8. Higher order microfibre modes for dielectric particle trapping and propulsion

    CERN Document Server

    Maimaiti, Aili; Sergides, Marios; Gusachenko, Ivan; Chormaic, Síle Nic

    2014-01-01

    Optical manipulation in the vicinity of optical micro- and nanofibres has shown potential across several fields in recent years, including microparticle control, and cold atom probing and trapping. To date, most work has focussed on propagation of the fundamental mode through the fibre. However, along the maximum mode intensity axis, higher order modes have a longer evanescent field extension and larger field amplitude at the fibre waist compared to the fundamental mode, opening up new possibilities for optical manipulation and particle trapping. In this work, we demonstrate a microfibre/optical tweezers compact system for trapping and propelling dielectric particles based on the excitation of the first group of higher order modes at the fibre waist. Single polystyrene particles were trapped and propelled in the evanescent fields of higher order and fundamental modes near the surface of microfibres. Speed enhancement of particle propulsion was observed for the higher order modes compared to the fundamental mo...

  9. The choice of foreign entry modes in a control perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boyd, Britta; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie; Hollensen, Svend

    The aim of this article is to investigate the choice of entry modes for international markets in a control perspective. A survey from The Confederation of Danish Industry with 234 Danish small- and medium sized enterprises served as a data base. The entry modes are categorized into three groups d...... turnover. The factors: personal networks and the interruption of the international activities were the most significant factors for the choice of intermediate mode (joint ventures and strategic alliances)....

  10. Group Anonymity

    CERN Document Server

    Chertov, Oleg; 10.1007/978-3-642-14058-7_61

    2010-01-01

    In recent years the amount of digital data in the world has risen immensely. But, the more information exists, the greater is the possibility of its unwanted disclosure. Thus, the data privacy protection has become a pressing problem of the present time. The task of individual privacy-preserving is being thoroughly studied nowadays. At the same time, the problem of statistical disclosure control for collective (or group) data is still open. In this paper we propose an effective and relatively simple (wavelet-based) way to provide group anonymity in collective data. We also provide a real-life example to illustrate the method.

  11. Informal groups

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. van den Berg; P. van Houwelingen; J. de Hart

    2011-01-01

    Original title: Informele groepen Going out running with a group of friends, rather than joining an official sports club. Individuals who decide to take action themselves rather than giving money to good causes. Maintaining contact with others not as a member of an association, but through an Inter

  12. Resonance modes in optical fibres

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余寿绵; 余恬

    2002-01-01

    The weakly nonlinear boundary value problem of wave propagation in an optical fibre (for the transverse electric mode, for example) is formulated and a modified linear solution is obtained. It is shown that a self-consistent theory of fibre optics should be weakly nonlinear. The mode of critical refraction that does not exist in the linear theory is obtained, showing that it is a mode consisting of resonance modes. It is shown that the signal carriers in a long fibre are of resonance modes, not normal modes. Some experimental data are given for comparison with the theoretical predictions, and the agreement seems satisfactory.

  13. Constraining primordial vector mode from B-mode polarization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saga, Shohei; Ichiki, Kiyotomo [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, Nagoya University, Aichi 464-8602 (Japan); Shiraishi, Maresuke, E-mail: saga.shohei@nagoya-u.jp, E-mail: maresuke.shiraishi@pd.infn.it, E-mail: ichiki@a.phys.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia ' ' G. Galilei' ' , Università degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, I-35131, Padova (Italy)

    2014-10-01

    The B-mode polarization spectrum of the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) may be the smoking gun of not only the primordial tensor mode but also of the primordial vector mode. If there exist nonzero vector-mode metric perturbations in the early Universe, they are known to be supported by anisotropic stress fluctuations of free-streaming particles such as neutrinos, and to create characteristic signatures on both the CMB temperature, E-mode, and B-mode polarization anisotropies. We place constraints on the properties of the primordial vector mode characterized by the vector-to-scalar ratio r{sub v} and the spectral index n{sub v} of the vector-shear power spectrum, from the Planck and BICEP2 B-mode data. We find that, for scale-invariant initial spectra, the ΛCDM model including the vector mode fits the data better than the model including the tensor mode. The difference in χ{sup 2} between the vector and tensor models is Δχ{sup 2} = 3.294, because, on large scales the vector mode generates smaller temperature fluctuations than the tensor mode, which is preferred for the data. In contrast, the tensor mode can fit the data set equally well if we allow a significantly blue-tilted spectrum. We find that the best-fitting tensor mode has a large blue tilt and leads to an indistinct reionization bump on larger angular scales. The slightly red-tilted vector mode supported by the current data set can also create O(10{sup -22})-Gauss magnetic fields at cosmological recombination. Our constraints should motivate research that considers models of the early Universe that involve the vector mode.

  14. Anomalous Dispersion of the S1 Lamb Mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faiz Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The S1 mode of the Lamb spectrum of an isotropic plate exhibits negative group velocity in a narrow frequency domain. This anomalous behavior is explained analytically by examining the slope of each mode first in its initial state and then near its turning points.

  15. Lego Group

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller Larsen, Marcus; Pedersen, Torben; Slepniov, Dmitrij

    2010-01-01

    The last years’ rather adventurous journey from 2004 to 2009 had taught the fifth-largest toy-maker in the world - the LEGO Group - the importance of managing the global supply chain effectively. In order to survive the largest internal financial crisis in its roughly 70 years of existence......, the management had, among many initiatives, decided to offshore and outsource a major chunk of its production to Flextronics. In this pursuit of rapid cost-cutting sourcing advantages, the LEGO Group planned to license out as much as 80 per cent of its production besides closing down major parts...... of the production in high cost countries. Confident with the prospects of the new partnership, the company signed a long-term contract with Flextronics. This decision eventually proved itself to have been too hasty, however. Merely three years after the contracts were signed, LEGO management announced that it would...

  16. Group play

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tychsen, Anders; Hitchens, Michael; Brolund, Thea

    2008-01-01

    of group dynamics, the influence of the fictional game characters and the comparative play experience between the two formats. The results indicate that group dynamics and the relationship between the players and their digital characters, are integral to the quality of the gaming experience in multiplayer......Role-playing games (RPGs) are a well-known game form, existing in a number of formats, including tabletop, live action, and various digital forms. Despite their popularity, empirical studies of these games are relatively rare. In particular there have been few examinations of the effects...... of the various formats used by RPGs on the gaming experience. This article presents the results of an empirical study, examining how multi-player tabletop RPGs are affected as they are ported to the digital medium. Issues examined include the use of disposition assessments to predict play experience, the effect...

  17. The whistler mode in a Vlasov plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tokar, R. L.; Gary, S. P.

    1985-01-01

    In this study, properties of small-amplitude parallel and oblique whistler-mode waves are investigated for a wide range of plasma parameters by numerically solving the full electromagnetic Vlasov-dispersion equation. To investigate the cold-plasma and electrostatic approximations for the whistler mode, the results are compared with results obtained using these descriptions. For large wavelengths, the cold-plasma description is often accurate, while for short wavelengths and sufficiently oblique propagation, the electrostatic description is often accurate. The study demonstrates that in a Vlasov plasma the whistler mode near resonance has a group velocity more nearly parallel to the magnetic field than that predicted by cold-plasma theory.

  18. Nonlinear Bogolyubov-Valatin transformations: 2 modes

    CERN Document Server

    Scharnhorst, K

    2010-01-01

    Extending our earlier study of nonlinear Bogolyubov-Valatin transformations (canonical transformations for fermions) for one fermionic mode, in the present paper we perform a thorough study of general (nonlinear) canonical transformations for two fermionic modes. We find that the Bogolyubov-Valatin group for n=2 fermionic modes which can be implemented by means of unitary SU(2^n = 4) transformations is isomorphic to SO(6;R)/Z_2. The investigation touches on a number of subjects. As a novelty from a mathematical point of view, we study the structure of nonlinear basis transformations in a Clifford algebra [specifically, in the Clifford algebra C(0,4)] entailing (supersymmetric) transformations among multivectors of different grades. A prominent algebraic role in this context is being played by biparavectors (products of Dirac matrices, quadriquaternions, sedenions) and spin bivectors (antisymmetric complex matrices). The studied biparavectors are equivalent to Eddington's E-numbers and can be understood in ter...

  19. Longitudinal Tourism Development Mode of Karst Tiankeng -A Cast. Study on Leye Dashiwei Tiankeng Group in Guangxi%岩溶天坑纵向分带旅游产品开发方式——以广西乐业大石围天坑群为例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦跃龙; 陈伟海; 覃建雄; 黄保健

    2011-01-01

    Based on thc shape and conrastive charaeristics analysis of Leye Dashiwei Tiankeng group and the tounsm development, four different tourism development modes are introduced for four typical Tiankengs in or der to show their attractions: kast mountain tourism in Dashiwei Tiankeng. the cactourism system in Huangjingdong Tiankeng. the popular science and scientifie rearch toudsm it Chuandong Tiankeng; and the tourism advenlure in dacao Tiankeng. On the basis of Tiankeng growing characteristics, the longitudinal tourism producl modes are summarized inlo tourism ecotoulrism. mountaineering or sightseeing experience. high-poinl experientce, peptlar science of geology. with underground river and cave,xpleration, forest leisueanti envinmmental experience.%在对乐业大石围天坑群中各个典型天坑单体形态特征和对比特征分析的基础上,结合其旅游开发现状,提出4个典型天坑不同的旅游产品开发方式,以形成各自不同的核心吸引力:大石围天坑-岩溶山地观光产品体系;黄猄洞天坑-生态旅游产品体系;穿洞天坑-科普科考旅游产品体系;大曹天坑-探险旅游产品体系.根据不同天坑的旅游产品开发方式和各自的发育特征,将岩溶天坑旅游产品开发方式概括为纵向分带式:顶部,以观光或生态旅游为主;中部,外侧以登山观景体验为主,内侧以极限体验为主;坑底,地质科普游,或地下河、洞穴探险,或森林休闲、环境体验.

  20. Group Connections: Whole Group Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffiths, Dorothy

    2002-01-01

    A learner-centered approach to adult group instruction involved learners in investigating 20th-century events. The approach allowed learners to concentrate on different activities according to their abilities and gave them opportunities to develop basic skills and practice teamwork. (SK)

  1. A streamlined failure mode and effects analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ford, Eric C., E-mail: eford@uw.edu; Smith, Koren; Terezakis, Stephanie; Croog, Victoria; Gollamudi, Smitha; Gage, Irene; Keck, Jordie; DeWeese, Theodore; Sibley, Greg [Department of Radiation Oncology and Molecular Radiation Sciences, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21287 (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Explore the feasibility and impact of a streamlined failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) using a structured process that is designed to minimize staff effort. Methods: FMEA for the external beam process was conducted at an affiliate radiation oncology center that treats approximately 60 patients per day. A structured FMEA process was developed which included clearly defined roles and goals for each phase. A core group of seven people was identified and a facilitator was chosen to lead the effort. Failure modes were identified and scored according to the FMEA formalism. A risk priority number,RPN, was calculated and used to rank failure modes. Failure modes with RPN > 150 received safety improvement interventions. Staff effort was carefully tracked throughout the project. Results: Fifty-two failure modes were identified, 22 collected during meetings, and 30 from take-home worksheets. The four top-ranked failure modes were: delay in film check, missing pacemaker protocol/consent, critical structures not contoured, and pregnant patient simulated without the team's knowledge of the pregnancy. These four failure modes hadRPN > 150 and received safety interventions. The FMEA was completed in one month in four 1-h meetings. A total of 55 staff hours were required and, additionally, 20 h by the facilitator. Conclusions: Streamlined FMEA provides a means of accomplishing a relatively large-scale analysis with modest effort. One potential value of FMEA is that it potentially provides a means of measuring the impact of quality improvement efforts through a reduction in risk scores. Future study of this possibility is needed.

  2. Atomic dynamics in the mode-mode competition system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Qin; Fang Mao-Fa

    2004-01-01

    The atomic dynamical properties in the system with competing k-photon and l-photon transitions are studied fully by means of quantum theory. We discuss the influences of the mode-mode competition, the relative competing strengths of the atom and the two-mode field, and the initial state of the system on the atomic dynamics. We show that the presence of the mode-mode competition can result in quite a periodical collapses-revivals of the atomic inversion and the increase of the initial photons of the system can lead to the collapse-revival phenomenon and prolong the revival time of the atomic inversion.

  3. Localized Acoustic Surface Modes

    KAUST Repository

    Farhat, Mohamed

    2015-08-04

    We introduce the concept of localized acoustic surface modes (ASMs). We demonstrate that they are induced on a two-dimensional cylindrical rigid surface with subwavelength corrugations under excitation by an incident acoustic plane wave. Our results show that the corrugated rigid surface is acoustically equivalent to a cylindrical scatterer with uniform mass density that can be represented using a Drude-like model. This, indeed, suggests that plasmonic-like acoustic materials can be engineered with potential applications in various areas including sensing, imaging, and cloaking.

  4. Depeche Mode – 101

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Für den Tourfilm 101 der Synthie-Pop-Gruppe Depeche Mode wurde der bekannte Musikdokumentarfilmer D.A. Pennebaker zusammen mit seiner Ehefrau Chris Hedegus sowie David Dawkins engagiert, um die letzten Etappen der Tour filmisch im Stile des Direct Cinema zu begleiten. Die Wahl fiel deshalb auf genau dieses Filmteam, weil die Band einen unmanipulierten Einblick ins Tourleben geben wollte und man in Pennebaker und seinen Mitstreitern dafür die richtigen Leute vermutete. Der Sänger Dave Gahan er...

  5. Damage mechanics - failure modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krajcinovic, D.; Vujosevic, M. [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The present study summarizes the results of the DOE sponsored research program focused on the brittle failure of solids with disordered microstructure. The failure is related to the stochastic processes on the microstructural scale; namely, the nucleation and growth of microcracks. The intrinsic failure modes, such as the percolation, localization and creep rupture, are studied by emphasizing the effect of the micro-structural disorder. A rich spectrum of physical phenomena and new concepts that emerges from this research demonstrates the reasons behind the limitations of traditional, deterministic, and local continuum models.

  6. ACCA College English Teaching Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Renlun

    2008-01-01

    This paper elucidates a new college English teaching mode--"ACCA" (Autonomous Cooperative Class-teaching All-round College English Teaching Mode). Integrated theories such as autonomous learning and cooperative learning into one teaching mode, "ACCA", which is being developed and advanced in practice as well, is the achievement…

  7. Fluxon modes in superconducting multilayers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Niels Falsig; Madsen, Søren Peder

    2004-01-01

    We show how to construct fluxon modes from plasma modes in the inductively coupled stacked Josephson junctions, and consider some special cases of these fluxon modes analytically. In some cases we can find exact analytical solutions when we choose the bias current in a special way. We also consid...

  8. Standardization of Keyword Search Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Di

    2010-01-01

    In spite of its popularity, keyword search mode has not been standardized. Though information professionals are quick to adapt to various presentations of keyword search mode, novice end-users may find keyword search confusing. This article compares keyword search mode in some major reference databases and calls for standardization. (Contains 3…

  9. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group has been busy in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, is the centre of the CMS Offline and Computing operations, and a number of subdetector shifts can now take place there, rather than in the main Control Room at P5. A new CMS meeting room has been equipped for videoconferencing in building 42, next to building 40. Our building 28 meeting room and the facilities at P5 will be refurbished soon and plans are underway to steadily upgrade the ageing equipment in all 15 CMS meeting rooms at CERN. The CMS evaluation of the Vidyo tool indicates that it is not yet ready to be considered as a potential replacement for EVO. The Communications Group provides the CMS-TV (web) cha...

  10. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The CMS Communications Group, established at the start of 2010, has been strengthening the activities in all three areas of its responsibility: (1) Communications Infrastructure, (2) Information Systems, and (3) Outreach and Education. Communications Infrastructure The Communications Group has invested a lot of effort to support the operations needs of CMS. Hence, the CMS Centres where physicists work on remote CMS shifts, Data Quality Monitoring, and Data Analysis are running very smoothly. There are now 55 CMS Centres worldwide, up from just 16 at the start of CMS data-taking. The latest to join are Imperial College London, the University of Iowa, and the Università di Napoli. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin, which is now full repaired after the major flooding at the beginning of the year, has been at the centre of CMS offline and computing operations, most recently hosting a large fraction of the CMS Heavy Ion community during the lead-lead run. A number of sub-detector shifts can now take pla...

  11. 岩溶天生桥纵向分层旅游开发方式——以重庆黔江蒲花天生桥群为例%Longitudinal Tourism Development Delamination Mode of Karst Natural Bridge: A Case Study of Puhua Natural Bridge Group in Qianjiang, Chongqing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦跃龙; 陈伟海

    2012-01-01

    The natural bridges are classified into 4 types in this paper on the basis of their surrounding rocks (dissoluble rock or indissoluble rock), scale parameters (the height of bridge, the height and span of bridge arch), development characteristics of river valley under the bridge (perennial, seasonal river or enneri), and formation mechanism (at surface or underground ). A brief description is also made concerning the types, distribution patterns, scale parameters, characteristics of landscape combination and comparison of typical karst natural bridges discovered in China in recent years. With Qianjiang Puhua natural bridge group in Chongqing as an example, the authors preliminarily analyzed its formation mechanism, systematically evaluated its resource system, and generalized its resource characteristics as "one river, two bridges, three skylights" through a comparison with the tourist resources of Qianjiang area, Wuling Mountain area and other similar scenic areas. Its development theme is defined as "visiting underground river under natural bridge, walking overbridge above natural bridge, drifting riptide upper stream" on the basis of its characteristics and market conditions. The authors put forward its function layout of "1-2-1-3" structure, discussed the development of different function areas, posed 3 levels of tourism products, I.e., magistral, important and assorted product items, constructed 3 sight-seeing loop lines which connected underground and surface natural bridges, and designed lighting effects of triplicity of "river + human being + bridge". Based on generalizing, comparing and analyzing the tourism development of the typical karst natural bridges in China, this paper brings forward the scheme for tourism development of karst natural bridges as the longitudinal delamination mode, and generalizes the mode into 3 layers, I.e., the mode of "sightseeing under natural bridge, protecting above natural bridge", the mode of "sightseeing under and above

  12. Minimum fuel mode evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orme, John S.; Nobbs, Steven G.

    1995-01-01

    The minimum fuel mode of the NASA F-15 research aircraft is designed to minimize fuel flow while maintaining constant net propulsive force (FNP), effectively reducing thrust specific fuel consumption (TSFC), during cruise flight conditions. The test maneuvers were at stabilized flight conditions. The aircraft test engine was allowed to stabilize at the cruise conditions before data collection initiated; data were then recorded with performance seeking control (PSC) not-engaged, then data were recorded with the PSC system engaged. The maneuvers were flown back-to-back to allow for direct comparisons by minimizing the effects of variations in the test day conditions. The minimum fuel mode was evaluated at subsonic and supersonic Mach numbers and focused on three altitudes: 15,000; 30,000; and 45,000 feet. Flight data were collected for part, military, partial, and maximum afterburning power conditions. The TSFC savings at supersonic Mach numbers, ranging from approximately 4% to nearly 10%, are in general much larger than at subsonic Mach numbers because of PSC trims to the afterburner.

  13. Modes of fossil preservation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schopf, J.M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes of geologic preservation are important for understanding the organisms represented by fossils. Some fossil differences are due to basic differences in organization of animals and plants, but the interpretation of fossils has also tended to be influenced by modes of preservation. Four modes of preservation generally can be distinguished: (1) Cellular permineralization ("petrifaction") preserves anatomical detail, and, occasionally, even cytologic structures. (2) Coalified compression, best illustrated by structures from coal but characteristic of many plant fossils in shale, preserves anatomical details in distorted form and produces surface replicas (impressions) on enclosing matrix. (3) Authigenic preservation replicates surface form or outline (molds and casts) prior to distortion by compression and, depending on cementation and timing, may intergrade with fossils that have been subject to compression. (4) Duripartic (hard part) preservation is characteristic of fossil skeletal remains, predominantly animal. Molds, pseudomorphs, or casts may form as bulk replacements following dissolution of the original fossil material, usually by leaching. Classification of the kinds of preservation in fossils will aid in identifying the processes responsible for modifying the fossil remains of both animals and plants. ?? 1975.

  14. Properties of surface modes in one dimensional plasma photonic crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shukla, S.; Prasad, S., E-mail: prasad.surendra@gmail.com; Singh, V. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Banaras Hindu University, Varanasi 221005 (India)

    2015-02-15

    Properties of surface modes supported at the interface of air and a semi-infinite one dimensional plasma photonic crystal are analyzed. The surface mode equation is obtained by using transfer matrix method and applying continuity conditions of electric fields and its derivatives at the interface. It is observed that with increase in the width of cap layer, frequencies of surface modes are shifted towards lower frequency side, whereas increase in tangential component of wave-vector increases the mode frequency and total energy carried by the surface modes. With increase in plasma frequency, surface modes are found to shift towards higher frequency side. The group velocity along interface is found to control by cap layer thickness.

  15. Amplitude or Higgs modes in d-wave superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barlas, Yafis; Varma, C. M.

    2013-02-01

    In Lorentz-invariant systems spontaneously broken gauge symmetry results in three types of fundamental excitations: density excitations, Higgs bosons (amplitude modes), and Goldstone bosons (phase modes). The density and phase modes are coupled by electromagnetic interactions while the amplitude modes are not. In s-wave superconductors, the Higgs mode, which can be observed only under special conditions, has been detected. We show that unconventional d-wave superconductors, such as the high-temperature cuprate superconductors, should have a rich assortment of Higgs bosons, each in a different irreducible representation of the point-group symmetry of the lattice. We also show that these modes have a characteristic singular spectral structure and discuss conditions for their observability.

  16. Quasinormal modes of black holes and dissipative open systems

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, S P

    2006-01-01

    After explaining the physical origin of quasinormal modes of perturbations in the background geometry of a black hole, I critically review the recent proposal for the quantization of black hole area based on the real part of quasinormal modes. As instantons due to the barrier of black hole potentials lie at the root of the discrete set of complex quasinormal modes frequencies, it is likely that physics of quasinormal modes can be learned from quantum theory. I propose a connection of the system of quasinormal modes of black holes with a dissipative open system, in particular, the Feshbach-Tikochinsky oscillator. This argument is supported in part by the fact that these two systems have the same group structure SU(1,1) and the same group representation of Hamiltonians, and thereby their quantum states exhibit the same behavior.

  17. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Communications Infrastructure The 55 CMS Centres worldwide are well used by physicists working on remote CMS shifts, Computing operations, data quality monitoring, data analysis and outreach. The CMS Centre@CERN in Meyrin is particularly busy at the moment, hosting about 50 physicists taking part in the heavy-ion data-taking and analysis. Three new CMS meeting room will be equipped for videoconferencing in early 2012: 40/5B-08, 42/R-031, and 28/S-029. The CMS-TV service showing LHC Page 1, CMS Page 1, etc. (http://cmsdoc.cern.ch/cmscc/projector/index.jsp) is now also available for mobile devices: http://cern.ch/mcmstv. Figure 12: Screenshots of CMS-TV for mobile devices Information Systems CMS has a new web site: (http://cern.ch/cms) using a modern web Content Management System to ensure content and links are managed and updated easily and coherently. It covers all CMS sub-projects and groups, replacing the iCMS internal pages. It also incorporates the existing CMS public web site (http:/...

  18. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2012-01-01

      Outreach and Education We are fortunate that our research has captured the public imagination, even though this inevitably puts us under the global media spotlight, as we saw with the Higgs seminar at CERN in December, which had 110,000 distinct webcast viewers. The media interest was huge with 71 media organisations registering to come to CERN to cover the Higgs seminar, which was followed by a press briefing with the DG and Spokespersons. This event resulted in about 2,000 generally positive stories in the global media. For this seminar, the CMS Communications Group prepared up-to-date news and public material, including links to the CMS results, animations and event displays [http://cern.ch/go/Ch8thttp://cern.ch/go/Ch8t]. There were 44,000 page-views on the CMS public website, with the Higgs news article being by far the most popular item. CMS event displays from iSpy are fast becoming the iconic media images, featuring on numerous major news outlets (BBC, CNN, MSN...) as well as in the sci...

  19. COMMUNICATIONS GROUP

    CERN Multimedia

    L. Taylor

    2010-01-01

    The recently established CMS Communications Group, led by Lucas Taylor, has been busy in all three of its main are areas of responsibility: Communications Infrastructure, Information Systems, and Outreach and Education Communications Infrastructure The damage caused by the flooding of the CMS Centre@CERN on 21st December has been completely repaired and all systems are back in operation. Major repairs were made to the roofs, ceilings and one third of the floor had to be completely replaced. Throughout these works, the CMS Centre was kept operating and even hosted a major press event for first 7 TeV collisions, as described below. Incremental work behind the scenes is steadily improving the quality of the CMS communications infrastructure, particularly Webcasting, video conferencing, and meeting rooms at CERN. CERN/IT is also deploying a pilot service of a new videoconference tool called Vidyo, to assess whether it might provide an enhanced service at a lower cost, compared to the EVO tool currently in w...

  20. Viscous, Resistive Magnetorotational Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Pessah, Martin E

    2008-01-01

    We carry out a comprehensive analysis of the behavior of the magnetorotational instability (MRI) in viscous, resistive plasmas. We find exact, non-linear solutions of the non-ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations describing the local dynamics of an incompressible, differentially rotating background threaded by a vertical magnetic field when disturbances with wavenumbers perpendicular to the shear are considered. We provide a geometrical description of these viscous, resistive MRI modes and show how their physical structure is modified as a function of the Reynolds and magnetic Reynolds numbers. We demonstrate that when finite dissipative effects are considered, velocity and magnetic field disturbances are no longer orthogonal (as it is the case in the ideal MHD limit) unless the magnetic Prandtl number is unity. We generalize previous results found in the ideal limit and show that a series of key properties of the mean Reynolds and Maxwell stresses also hold for the viscous, resistive MRI. In particular, ...

  1. Quantum Statistical Theory of Polarization Mode Dispersion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yong-Sheng; GUO Guang-Can

    2006-01-01

    @@ Polarization mode dispersion is modelled as decoherence of polarization under the disturbance of environment and the coupling with frequency. This model is described by the quantum master equation and the Langevin equation. It can be predicted that the optical beam is depolarized exponentially in a fibre and the differential group delay (DGD) is proportional to the square root of the propagation distance. The distribution of the DGD can also be calculated.

  2. Radio Mode Outbursts in Giant Elliptical Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Nulsen, Paul; Forman, William; Churazov, Eugene; McNamara, Brian; David, Laurence; Murray, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    Outbursts from active galactic nuclei (AGN) affect the hot atmospheres of isolated giant elliptical galaxies (gE's), as well as those in groups and clusters of galaxies. Chandra observations of a sample of nearby gE's show that the average power of AGN outbursts is sufficient to stop their hot atmospheres from cooling and forming stars, consistent with radio mode feedback models. The outbursts are intermittent, with duty cycles that increases with size.

  3. Adaptive mode control in few mode fibers and its applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashry, Islam; Lu, Peng; Xu, Yong

    2016-10-01

    With the development of mode-division-multiplexing (MDM), few mode fibers (FMFs) have found a wide range of applications in optical sensing and communications. However, how to precisely control the mode composition of optical signals in FMFs remains a difficult challenge. In this paper, we present an adaptive mode control method that can selectively excite the linearly polarized (LP) mode within the FMF. The method is based on using optical pulses reflected by a fiber Bragg grating (FBG) for wavefront optimization. Two potential applications are discussed. First, we theoretically demonstrate the feasibility of large scale multiplexing of absorption based fiber optical sensors. Second, we discuss the possibility of using mode dependent loss to reconstruct the spatial distributions of absorptive chemicals diffused within a FMF.

  4. Novel picture of the soft modes at the QCD critical point based on the FRG method

    CERN Document Server

    Yokota, Takeru; Morita, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    We investigate the soft mode at the QCD critical point (CP) on the basis of the functional renormalization group. We calculate the spectral functions in the meson channels in the two-flavor quark--meson model. Our result shows that the energy of the peak position of the particle--hole mode in the sigma channel becomes vanishingly small as the system approaches the QCD CP, which is a manifestation of the softening of the phonon mode. We also extract the dispersion curves of the mesonic and the phonon mode, a hydrodynamic mode which leads to a finding that the dispersion curve of the sigma-mesonic mode crosses the light-cone into the space-like momentum region, and then eventually merges into the phonon mode as the system approaches further close to the CP. This may suggest that the sigma-mesonic mode forms the soft mode together with the hydrodynamic mode at the CP.

  5. Hydrogen local vibrational modes in semiconductors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCluskey, Matthew D. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics

    1997-06-01

    Following, a review of experimental techniques, theory, and previous work, the results of local vibrational mode (LVM) spectroscopy on hydrogen-related complexes in several different semiconductors are discussed. Hydrogen is introduced either by annealing in a hydrogen ambient. exposure to a hydrogen plasma, or during growth. The hydrogen passivates donors and acceptors in semiconductors, forming neutral complexes. When deuterium is substituted for hydrogen. the frequency of the LVM decreases by approximately the square root of two. By varying the temperature and pressure of the samples, the microscopic structures of hydrogen-related complexes are determined. For group II acceptor-hydrogen complexes in GaAs, InP, and GaP, hydrogen binds to the host anion in a bond-centered orientation, along the [111] direction, adjacent to the acceptor. The temperature dependent shift of the LVMs are proportional to the lattice thermal energy U(T), a consequence of anharmonic coupling between the LVM and acoustical phonons. In the wide band gap semiconductor ZnSe, epilayers grown by metalorganic chemical vapor phase epitaxy (MOCVD) and doped with As form As-H complexes. The hydrogen assumes a bond-centered orientation, adjacent to a host Zn. In AlSb, the DX centers Se and Te are passivated by hydrogen. The second, third, and fourth harmonics of the wag modes are observed. Although the Se-D complex has only one stretch mode, the Se-H stretch mode splits into three peaks. The anomalous splitting is explained by a new interaction between the stretch LVM and multi-phonon modes of the lattice. As the temperature or pressure is varied, and anti-crossing is observed between LVM and phonon modes.

  6. Automatic determination of important mode-mode correlations in many-mode vibrational wave functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    König, Carolin; Christiansen, Ove

    2015-04-14

    We introduce new automatic procedures for parameterizing vibrational coupled cluster (VCC) and vibrational configuration interaction wave functions. Importance measures for individual mode combinations in the wave function are derived based on upper bounds to Hamiltonian matrix elements and/or the size of perturbative corrections derived in the framework of VCC. With a threshold, this enables an automatic, system-adapted way of choosing which mode-mode correlations are explicitly parameterized in the many-mode wave function. The effect of different importance measures and thresholds is investigated for zero-point energies and infrared spectra for formaldehyde and furan. Furthermore, the direct link between important mode-mode correlations and coordinates is illustrated employing water clusters as examples: Using optimized coordinates, a larger number of mode combinations can be neglected in the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function than with normal coordinates for the same accuracy. Moreover, the fraction of important mode-mode correlations compared to the total number of correlations decreases with system size. This underlines the potential gain in efficiency when using optimized coordinates in combination with a flexible scheme for choosing the mode-mode correlations included in the parameterization of the correlated many-mode vibrational wave function. All in all, it is found that the introduced schemes for parameterizing correlated many-mode vibrational wave functions lead to at least as systematic and accurate calculations as those using more standard and straightforward excitation level definitions. This new way of defining approximate calculations offers potential for future calculations on larger systems.

  7. Curvature, zero modes and quantum statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calixto, M [Departamento de Matematica Aplicada y EstadIstica, Universidad Politecnica de Cartagena, Paseo Alfonso XIII 56, 30203 Cartagena (Spain); Aldaya, V [Instituto de AstrofIsica de AndalucIa, Apartado Postal 3004, 18080 Granada (Spain)

    2006-08-18

    We explore an intriguing connection between the Fermi-Dirac and Bose-Einstein statistics and the thermal baths obtained from a vacuum radiation of coherent states of zero modes in a second quantized (many-particle) theory on the compact O(3) and noncompact O(2, 1) isometry subgroups of the de Sitter and anti-de Sitter spaces, respectively. The high frequency limit is retrieved as a (zero-curvature) group contraction to the Newton-Hooke (harmonic oscillator) group. We also make some comments on the vacuum energy density and the cosmological constant problem. (letter to the editor)

  8. Principal modes in fiber amplifiers

    CERN Document Server

    Fridman, Moti; Dubinskii, Mark; Friesem, Asher A; Davidson, Nir

    2010-01-01

    The dynamics of the state of polarization in single mode and multimode fiber amplifiers are presented. The experimental results reveal that although the state of polarizations at the output can vary over a large range when changing the temperatures of the fiber amplifiers, the variations are significantly reduced when resorting to the principal states of polarization in single mode fiber amplifiers and principal modes in multimode fiber amplifiers.

  9. Passively mode locked Raman laser

    CERN Document Server

    Liang, W; Savchenkov, A A; Matsko, A B; Seidel, D; Maleki, L

    2010-01-01

    We report on the observation of a novel mode locked optical comb generated at the Raman offset (Raman comb) in an optically pumped crystalline whispering gallery mode resonator. Mode locking is confirmed via measurement of the radio-frequency beat note produced by the optical comb on a fast photodiode. Neither the conventional Kerr comb nor hyper-parametric oscillation is observed when the Raman comb is present.

  10. Zero Modes and Entanglement Entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Yazdi, Yasaman K

    2016-01-01

    Ultraviolet divergences are widely discussed in studies of entanglement entropy. Also present, but much less understood, are infrared divergences due to zero modes in the field theory. In this note, we discuss the importance of carefully handling zero modes in entanglement entropy. We give an explicit example for a chain of harmonic oscillators in 1D, where a mass regulator is necessary to avoid an infrared divergence due to a zero mode. We also comment on a surprising contribution of the zero mode to the UV-scaling of the entanglement entropy.

  11. Intelligence and musical mode preference

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonetti, Leonardo; Costa, Marco

    2016-01-01

    The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli th...... differences at the cognitive and personality level related to the enjoyment of sad music.......The relationship between fluid intelligence and preference for major–minor musical mode was investigated in a sample of 80 university students. Intelligence was assessed by the Raven’s Advanced Progressive Matrices. Musical mode preference was assessed by presenting 14 pairs of musical stimuli...

  12. Tomography of Spatial Mode Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bobrov, Ivan; Markov, Anton; Straupe, Stanislav; Kulik, Sergey

    2014-01-01

    Transformation and detection of photons in higher-order spatial modes usually requires complicated holographic techniques. Detectors based on spatial holograms suffer from non-idealities and should be carefully calibrated. We report a novel method for analyzing the quality of projective measurements in spatial mode basis inspired by quantum detector tomography. It allows us to calibrate the detector response using only gaussian beams. We experimentally investigate the inherent inaccuracy of the existing methods of mode transformation and provide a full statistical reconstruction of the POVM (positive operator valued measure) elements for holographic spatial mode detectors.

  13. Correlated rigid modes in protein families

    Science.gov (United States)

    Striegel, D. A.; Wojtowicz, D.; Przytycka, T. M.; Periwal, V.

    2016-04-01

    A great deal of evolutionarily conserved information is contained in genomes and proteins. Enormous effort has been put into understanding protein structure and developing computational tools for protein folding, and many sophisticated approaches take structure and sequence homology into account. Several groups have applied statistical physics approaches to extracting information about proteins from sequences alone. Here, we develop a new method for sequence analysis based on first principles, in information theory, in statistical physics and in Bayesian analysis. We provide a complete derivation of our approach and we apply it to a variety of systems, to demonstrate its utility and its limitations. We show in some examples that phylogenetic alignments of amino-acid sequences of families of proteins imply the existence of a small number of modes that appear to be associated with correlated global variation. These modes are uncovered efficiently in our approach by computing a non-perturbative effective potential directly from the alignment. We show that this effective potential approaches a limiting form inversely with the logarithm of the number of sequences. Mapping symbol entropy flows along modes to underlying physical structures shows that these modes arise due to correlated compensatory adjustments. In the protein examples, these occur around functional binding pockets.

  14. Modes of deformation of walled cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumais, Jacques

    2013-11-01

    The bewildering morphological diversity found in cells is one of the starkest illustrations of life's ability to self-organize. Yet the morphogenetic mechanisms that produce the multifarious shapes of cells are still poorly understood. The shared similarities between the walled cells of prokaryotes, many protists, fungi, and plants make these groups particularly appealing to begin investigating how morphological diversity is generated at the cell level. In this review, I attempt a first classification of the different modes of surface deformation used by walled cells. Five modes of deformation were identified: inextensional bending, equi-area shear, elastic stretching, processive intussusception, and chemorheological growth. The two most restrictive modes-inextensional and equi-area deformations-are embodied in the exine of pollen grains and the wall-like pellicle of euglenoids, respectively. For these modes, it is possible to express the deformed geometry of the cell explicitly in terms of the undeformed geometry and other easily observable geometrical parameters. The greatest morphogenetic power is reached with the processive intussusception and chemorheological growth mechanisms that underlie the expansive growth of walled cells. A comparison of these two growth mechanisms suggests a possible way to tackle the complexity behind wall growth.

  15. Gain equalization of FM-EDFA by optimizing ring doping and mode content of the pump with a genetic algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Changren; Yang, Tianxin; Jia, Dong fang; Wang, Zhaoying; Ge, Chunfeng

    2015-03-01

    We investigate gain equalization of a four-mode-group and six-mode-group erbium-doped fiber amplifiers with a genetic algorithm for mode division multiplexing transmission systems by optimizing rare earth dopant profile and pump modes powers, respectively. The optimizing gains are calculated to be > 28 dB between 1520 nm - 1565 nm with a maximum differential modal gain of ~ 2 dB among the mode groups only by optimizing the rare earth ring doping profile in the few-mode erbium-doped fiber.

  16. Single-mode squeezing in arbitrary spatial modes

    CERN Document Server

    Semmler, Marion; Chille, Vanessa; Gabriel, Christian; Banzer, Peter; Aiello, Andrea; Marquardt, Christoph; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-01-01

    As the generation of squeezed states of light has become a standard technique in laboratories, attention is increasingly directed towards adapting the optical parameters of squeezed beams to the specific requirements of individual applications. It is known that imaging, metrology, and quantum information may benefit from using squeezed light with a tailored transverse spatial mode. However, experiments have so far been limited to generating only a few squeezed spatial modes within a given setup. Here, we present the generation of single-mode squeezing in Laguerre-Gauss and Bessel-Gauss modes, as well as an arbitrary intensity pattern, all from a single setup using a spatial light modulator (SLM). The degree of squeezing obtained is limited mainly by the initial squeezing and diffractive losses introduced by the SLM, while no excess noise from the SLM is detectable at the measured sideband. The experiment illustrates the single-mode concept in quantum optics and demonstrates the viability of current SLMs as fl...

  17. Business Statistics: A Comparison of Student Performance in Three Learning Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simmons, Gerald R.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of three teaching modes and age groups of business statistics sections in terms of course exam scores. The research questions were formulated to determine the performance of the students within each teaching mode, to compare each mode in terms of exam scores, and to compare exam scores by…

  18. Two-mode clustering of genotype by trait and genotype by environment data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hageman, J.A.; Malosetti, M.; Eeuwijk, van F.A.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate the use of two-mode clustering for genotype by trait and genotype by environment data. In contrast to two separate (one mode) clusterings on genotypes or traits/environments, two-mode clustering simultaneously produces homogeneous groups of genotypes and traits/environm

  19. 小组工作介入精神疾病康复治疗模式的探讨--基于肝豆状核变性患者的实例分析%Discussion on Group Work Involved in Mental Illness Rehabilitation Mode -Based on the Case Study of Patients with Wilson's Disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨爱; 黄龙; 赵捷

    2016-01-01

    随着我国精神疾病发病率不断上升,精神疾病与精神健康越来越受到人们的关注,但医务社会工作介入精神疾病的治疗尚处于起步发展阶段。本项目通过小组工作介入形式,尝试运用“生理-心理-社会”的综合康复模式理论指导进行医务社会实践工作,以精神疾病患者的融入、适应、能力发展为目的,将生理、心理、社会不同方面的服务整合起来,进而探索总结新的康复治疗模式在肝豆状核变性伴发精神障碍患者康复过程中的作用和效果。本小组工作不仅对肝豆状核变性伴发精神障碍患者的康复工作起到了有效的促进作用,而且对于“生理-心理-社会”综合康复服务模式的开展起到了积极的探索作用。%With the rising incidence of mental illness,mental illness and mental health draw great attention. However,the treatment of mental illness was still in the initial stage of development.This subject was carried out in the form of a group.The practice of medical social work is guided by the comprehensive rehabilitation mode of“Physiological-Psychology-Society”.The effect of new rehabilitation therapy in the rehabilitation of patients with Wilson's disease associated with mental disorders was explored.This subject not only played an effective role in pro-moting for patients with Wilson's disease associated with mental disorders but also promote the new model of“Physi-ology-Psychology-Society”comprehensive rehabilitation services.

  20. Monopolar Needle Electrode in the Womb Mediastinotomy Value Intraoperative%单极针状电极在子宫纵隔切开术中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋敏桥

    2014-01-01

    目的:观察并探讨子宫纵隔切开术中单极针状电极的应用效果与临床价值。方法:选取2012年5月-2013年8月笔者所在医院收治的行子宫纵隔切开术患者60例,采用随机数字表法将其分为对照组与试验组,各30例。对照组为单极环状电极切除,试验组为单极针状电极切开,观察比较两组患者术中出血量、手术时间、术后3个月宫腔形态。结果:两组患者纵隔基底0.05);纵隔基底>1 cm者,对照组手术时间长于试验组,差异有统计学意义(P0.05). Mediastinal basement more than 1 cm,a control operation time was longer than experimental group,the difference was statistically significant(P<0.05). Two groups of no infection occurred,complications such as bleeding,uterine perforation and water poisoning. No postoperative 3 months hysteroscopy abnormal uterine cavity shape,not caused by intrauterine adhesions,including lining repair bad 3 cases in control group.Conclusion:Application of the uterine incision click mediastinal needle electrode is safe and effective,easy to operate,while also shortening the length of time of surgery,effectively reducing the incidence of postoperative complications,worthy to be widely used.

  1. From mapping class groups to automorphism groups of free groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wahl, Nathalie

    2005-01-01

    We show that the natural map from the mapping class groups of surfaces to the automorphism groups of free groups, induces an infinite loop map on the classifying spaces of the stable groups after plus construction. The proof uses automorphisms of free groups with boundaries which play the role...... of mapping class groups of surfaces with several boundary components....

  2. Electrically controlled optical-mode switch for fundamental mode and first order mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imansyah, Ryan; Tanaka, Tatsushi; Himbele, Luke; Jiang, Haisong; Hamamoto, Kiichi

    2016-08-01

    We have proposed an optical mode switch, the principle of which is based on the partial phase shift of injected light; therefore, one important issue is to clarify the proper design criteria for the mode combiner section. We focused on the bending radius of the S-bend waveguide issue that is connected to the multi mode waveguide in the Y-junction section that acts as mode combiner. Long radius leads to undesired mode coupling before the Y-junction section, whereas a short radius causes radiation loss. Thus, we simulated this mode combiner by the beam-propagation method to obtain the proper radius. In addition, we used a trench pin structure to simplify the fabrication process into a single-step dry-etching process. As a result, we successfully fabricated an optical-mode switch with the bending radius R = 610 µm. It showed the successful electrical mode switching and the achieved mode crosstalk was approximately -10 dB for 1550 nm wavelength with the injection current of 60 mA (5.7 V).

  3. Raman spectrum of plutonium dioxide: Vibrational and crystal field modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naji, M.; Magnani, N.; Bonales, L. J.; Mastromarino, S.; Colle, J.-Y.; Cobos, J.; Manara, D.

    2017-03-01

    The Raman spectrum of plutonium dioxide is studied both experimentally and theoretically. Particular attention has been devoted to the identification of high-energy modes at 2110 and 2620 c m-1 , whose attribution has so far been controversial. The temperature dependence of both modes suggests an electronic origin for them. Original crystal field (CF) calculations reported in this work show that these two modes can be respectively assigned to the Γ1→Γ5 and Γ1→Γ3 CF transitions within the I54 manifold. These two modes, together with the only vibrational line foreseen by the group theory for the F m -3 m Pu O2 symmetry—the T2 gPu -O stretching mode observed at 478 c m-1 —can thus be used as a Raman fingerprint of fcc plutonium dioxide.

  4. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time – providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. Our data...

  5. Mode Combinations and International Operations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Benito, Gabriel R. G.; Petersen, Bent; Welch, Lawrence S.

    2011-01-01

    reveals that companies tend to combine modes of operation; thereby producing unique foreign operation mode “packages” for given activities and/or countries, and that the packages are liable to be modified over time—providing a potentially important optional path for international expansion. The data show...

  6. Vibrational Modes of Trumpet Bells

    Science.gov (United States)

    MOORE, T. R.; KAPLON, J. D.; MCDOWALL, G. D.; MARTIN, K. A.

    2002-07-01

    We report on an investigation of the normal modes of vibration of the bells of several modern trumpets. We describe the results of experiments using electronic speckle-pattern interferometry to visualize the modal structure and we show that the mode frequencies follow a generalized version of Chladni's law.

  7. Transformation and Modes of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    modes of production and examine the ways of life that are enabled by the two modes of production. The central questions are around how market-based fisheries management transforms the principal preconditions for the self-employed fishers; and, in turn, why capitalist organized large-scale fisheries...

  8. Taxation, stateness and armed groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hoffmann, Kasper; Vlassenroot, Koen; Marchais, Gauthier

    2016-01-01

    rackets, to the material reciprocation of the recognition of rights. Focusing on the taxation practices of armed groups, the article argues that taxation is at the core of armed groups’ production of public authority and citizenship, and that their modes of taxation are based on long-standing registers...... of authority and practices of rule that originate in the colonial era. In particular, the article shows that by appealing to both local customary and national forms of political community and citizenship, armed groups are able to assume public authority to tax civilians. However, their public authority may...

  9. Causality and Primordial Tensor Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Baumann, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    We introduce the real space correlation function of $B$-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a probe of superhorizon tensor perturbations created by inflation. By causality, any non-inflationary mechanism for gravitational wave production after reheating, like global phase transitions or cosmic strings, must have vanishing correlations for angular separations greater than the angle subtended by the particle horizon at recombination, i.e. $\\theta \\gtrsim 2^\\circ$. Since ordinary $B$-modes are defined non-locally in terms of the Stokes parameters $Q$ and $U$ and therefore don't have to respect causality, special care is taken to define `causal $\\tilde B$-modes' for the analysis. We compute the real space $\\tilde B$-mode correlation function for inflation and discuss its detectability on superhorizon scales where it provides an unambiguous test of inflationary gravitational waves. The correct identification of inflationary tensor modes is crucial since it relates directly to the energy s...

  10. Social group and mobbing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baltezarević Vesna

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Our reality, having been subject to the numerous social crises during the last decades of the 20th century, is characterized by frequent incidences of powerlessness and alienation. The man is more frequently a subject to loneliness and overcomes the feeling of worthlessness, no matter whether he considers himself an individual or a part of a whole larger social. Such an environment leads to development of aggression in all fields of ones life. This paper has as an objective the pointing out of the mental harassment that is manifested in the working environment. There is a prevalence of mobbing cases, as a mode of pathological communication. The result of this is that a person, subjected to this kind of abuse, is soon faced with social isolation. This research also aspires to initiate the need for social groups self-organization of which victims are part of. The reaction modality of a social group directly conditions the outcome of the deliberate social drama, one is subjected to it as a result of mobbing.

  11. Threedimensional dynamics of nuclear decay modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirea, M.; Poenaru, D. N.; Greiner, W.

    1994-03-01

    We study nondissipative fission dynamics in a wide range of mass asymmetry, covering three groups of nuclear decay modes: cluster radioactivities; alpha-decay and cold fission. The WKB action integral is calculated by using the Werner-Wheeler inertia tensor and the deformation energy within Yukawa-plus-exponential model extended to binary systems with different charge densities. The optimum dynamical trajectory in a threedimensional deformation space (elongation, necking-in and mass-asymmetry) is determined by solving a nonlinear system of differential equations. This new method is illustrated for three decay modes of234U: α-decay, Mg-radioactivity and cold fission with100Zr as a light fragment.

  12. Low DSP complexity mid-haul mode-division multiplexing links utilizing wideband modal dispersion compensated two-mode fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, N. P.; Nakazawa, M.; Yoshida, Y.; Maruta, A.; Maruyama, R.; Kuwaki, N.; Matsuo, S.; Kitayama, K.

    2015-11-01

    Mode-division multiplexing (MDM) over wavelength division multiplexed (WDM) networks is studied, particularly for the deployment of metro area networks (MAN) using two-mode fibers (TMF). Full C-band differential mode group delay (DMGD)-compensated TMF links are adopted for decreasing the computational complexity of real-time multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO) signal processing. The effect of modal crosstalk to the maximum delay spread of the channel is validated through numerical simulations. Finally, the 2×2 MIMO channel state information (CSI) of a 102.6-km DMGD-compensated TMF link is experimentally estimated for mode path provisioning based upon routing and mode assignment (RMA) in MDM networks. The results confirm close-to-zero total DMGD value over the entire C-band.

  13. Mode-by-mode hydrodynamics: Ideas and concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Floerchinger, Stefan

    2014-06-15

    The main ideas, technical concepts and perspectives for a mode resolved description of the hydrodynamical regime of relativistic heavy ion collisions are discussed. A background-fluctuation splitting and a Bessel–Fourier expansion for the fluctuating part of the hydrodynamical fields allows for a complete characterization of initial conditions, the fluid dynamical propagation of single modes, the study of interaction effects between modes, the determination of the associated particle spectra and the generalization of the whole program to event-by-event correlations and probability distributions.

  14. Examination of a ’Web Mode Effect’

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shamshiri-Petersen, Ditte; Clement, Sanne Lund

    and sampling errors, Web surveys presumably produce more measurement errors than other modes due to respondents’ lack of cognitive effort to answer the survey questions carefully. However, a comparison of two groups of students, one asked to fill out a questionnaire on paper and the other asked to complete...... a Web version suggests that such “Web mode effect” does not exist, since Web respondents are not more prone to satisficing....

  15. Optical rogue waves in whispering-gallery-mode resonators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coillet, Aurélien; Dudley, John; Genty, Goëry; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K.

    2014-01-01

    We report a theoretical study showing that rogue waves can emerge in whispering-gallery-mode resonators as the result of the chaotic interplay between Kerr nonlinearity and anomalous group-velocity dispersion. The nonlinear dynamics of the propagation of light in a whispering-gallery-mode resonator is investigated using the Lugiato-Lefever equation, and we give evidence of a range of parameters where rare and extreme events associated with non-Gaussian statistics of the field maxima are observed.

  16. Optical Rogue Waves in Whispering-Gallery-Mode Resonators

    CERN Document Server

    Coillet, Aurélien; Genty, Goery; Larger, Laurent; Chembo, Yanne K

    2014-01-01

    We report a theoretical study showing that rogue waves can emerge in whispering gallery mode resonators as the result of the chaotic interplay between Kerr nonlinearity and anomalous group-velocity dispersion. The nonlinear dynamics of the propagation of light in a whispering gallery-mode resonator is investigated using the Lugiato-Lefever equation, and we evidence a range of parameters where rare and extreme events associated with a non-gaussian statistics of the field maxima are observed.

  17. Geodesic acoustic modes with poloidal mode couplings ad infinitum

    CERN Document Server

    Singh, Rameswar; Garbet, X; Hennequin, P; Vermare, L; Morel, P; Singh, R

    2015-01-01

    Geodesic acoustic modes (GAMs) are studied, for the first time, including all poloidal mode $(m)$ couplings using drift reduced fluid equations. The nearest neighbor coupling pattern, due to geodesic curvature, leads to a semi-infinite chain model of the GAM with the mode-mode coupling matrix elements proportional to the radial wave number $k_{r}$. The infinite chain can be reduced to a renormalized bi-nodal chain with a matrix continued fractions. Convergence study of linear GAM dispersion with respect to $k_{r}$ and the $m$-spectra confirms that high m couplings become increasingly important with $k_{r}$. The radially sorted roots overlap with experimentally measured GAM frequency profile in low collisionality shots in Tore Supra thus explaining the reduced frequency of GAM in Tore Supra.

  18. Mode Competition in Dual-Mode Quantum Dots Semiconductor Microlaser

    CERN Document Server

    Chusseau, Laurent; Viktorovitch, P; Letartre, Xavier

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the modeling of quantum dots lasers with the aim of assessing the conditions for stable cw dual-mode operation when the mode separation lies in the THz range. Several possible models suited for InAs quantum dots in InP barriers are analytically evaluated, in particular quantum dots electrically coupled through a direct exchange of excitation by the wetting layer or quantum dots optically coupled through the homogeneous broadening of their optical gain. A stable dual-mode regime is shown possible in all cases when quantum dots are used as active layer whereas a gain medium of quantum well or bulk type inevitably leads to bistable behavior. The choice of a quantum dots gain medium perfectly matched the production of dual-mode lasers devoted to THz generation by photomixing.

  19. Causality and primordial tensor modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baumann, Daniel; Zaldarriaga, Matias, E-mail: dbaumann@physics.harvard.edu, E-mail: mzaldarriaga@cfa.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Harvard University, 17 Oxford Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, U.S.A. and Center for Astrophysics, Harvard University, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2009-06-01

    We introduce the real space correlation function of B-mode polarization of the cosmic microwave background (CMB) as a probe of superhorizon tensor perturbations created by inflation. By causality, any non-inflationary mechanism for gravitational wave production after reheating, like global phase transitions or cosmic strings, must have vanishing correlations for angular separations greater than the angle subtended by the particle horizon at recombination, i.e. θ ∼> 2°. Since ordinary B-modes are defined non-locally in terms of the Stokes parameters Q and U and therefore don't have to respect causality, special care is taken to define 'causal B-tilde -modes' for the analysis. We compute the real space B-tilde -mode correlation function for inflation and discuss its detectability on superhorizon scales where it provides an unambiguous test of inflationary gravitational waves. The correct identification of inflationary tensor modes is crucial since it relates directly to the energy scale of inflation. Wrongly associating tensor modes from causal seeds with inflation would imply an incorrect inference of the energy scale of inflation. We find that the superhorizon B-tilde -mode signal is above cosmic variance for the angular range 2° < θ < 4° and is therefore in principle detectable. In practice, the signal will be challenging to measure since it requires accurately resolving the recombination peak of the B-mode power spectrum. However, a future CMB satellite (CMBPol), with noise level Δ{sub P} ≅ 1μK-arcmin and sufficient resolution to efficiently correct for lensing-induced B-modes, should be able to detect the signal at more than 3σ if the tensor-to-scalar ratio isn't smaller than r ≅ 0.01.

  20. Circular bacteriocins: biosynthesis and mode of action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabrielsen, Christina; Brede, Dag A; Nes, Ingolf F; Diep, Dzung B

    2014-11-01

    Circular bacteriocins are a group of N-to-C-terminally linked antimicrobial peptides, produced by Gram-positive bacteria of the phylum Firmicutes. Circular bacteriocins generally exhibit broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity, including against common food-borne pathogens, such as Clostridium and Listeria spp. These peptides are further known for their high pH and thermal stability, as well as for resistance to many proteolytic enzymes, properties which make this group of bacteriocins highly promising for potential industrial applications and their biosynthesis of particular interest as a possible model system for the synthesis of highly stable bioactive peptides. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on this group of bacteriocins, with emphasis on the recent progress in understanding circular bacteriocin genetics, biosynthesis, and mode of action; in addition, we highlight the current challenges and future perspectives for the application of these peptides.

  1. 10 Spatial mode transmission using low differential mode delay 6-LP fiber using all-fiber photonic lanterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Weerdenburg, John; Velàzquez-Benitez, Amado; van Uden, Roy; Sillard, Pierre; Molin, Denis; Amezcua-Correa, Adrian; Antonio-Lopez, Enrique; Kuschnerov, Maxim; Huijskens, Frans; de Waardt, Hugo; Koonen, Ton; Amezcua-Correa, Rodrigo; Okonkwo, Chigo

    2015-09-21

    To unlock the cost benefits of space division multiplexing transmission systems, higher spatial multiplicity is required. Here, we investigate a potential route to increasing the number of spatial mode channels within a single core few-mode fiber. Key for longer transmission distances and low computational complexity is the fabrication of fibers with low differential mode group delays. As such in this work, we combine wavelength and mode-division multiplexed transmission over a 4.45 km low-DMGD 6-LP-mode fiber by employing low-loss all-fiber 10-port photonic lanterns to couple light in and out of the fiber. Hence, a minimum DMGD of 0.2 ns (maximum 0.357 ns) is measured after 4.45 km. Instrumental to the multi-mode transmission system is the employed time-domain-SDM receiver, allowing 10 spatial mode channels (over both polarizations) to be captured using only 3 coherent receivers and real-time oscilloscopes in comparison with 10 for conventional methods. The spatial channels were unraveled using 20 × 20 multiple-input multiple-output digital signal processing. By employing a novel round-robin encoding technique, stable performance over a long measurement period demonstrates the feasibility of 10x increase in single-core multi-mode transmission.

  2. Scissors Mode in Gd Nuclei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu C.Y.

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Spectra of γ rays following neutron capture at isolated resonances of 6 stable Gd isotopes were measured with highly segmented BaF2 detector DANCE at the Los Alamos LANSCE spallation neutron source. The main emphasis was put on studying the γ-cascade decay of neutron resonances to get unique information on photon strength. An analysis of the accumulated γ-ray spectra within the extreme statistical model leads to an inescapable conclusion that scissors mode resonances are built not only on the ground-state, but also on excited levels in all product nuclei studied. The results on summed B(M1↑ strength and energy of the scissors mode are compared with systematics of scissors mode parameters for the ground-state transitions deduced from nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements. A specific feature of our experiments is the investigation of scissors mode of odd nuclei, for which the nuclear resonance fluorescence provides only limited information.

  3. Scissors Mode in Gd Nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroll, J.; Baramsai, B.; Becker, J. A.; Bečvář, F.; Bredeweg, T. A.; Couture, A.; Chyzh, A.; Dashdorj, D.; Haight, R. C.; Jandel, M.; Krtička, M.; Mitchell, G. E.; O'Donnell, J. M.; Parker, W.; Rundberg, R. S.; Ullmann, J. L.; Vieira, G. J.; Walker, C. L.; Wilhelmy, J. B.; Wouters, J. M.; Wu, C. Y.

    2012-02-01

    Spectra of γ rays following neutron capture at isolated resonances of 6 stable Gd isotopes were measured with highly segmented BaF2 detector DANCE at the Los Alamos LANSCE spallation neutron source. The main emphasis was put on studying the γ-cascade decay of neutron resonances to get unique information on photon strength. An analysis of the accumulated γ-ray spectra within the extreme statistical model leads to an inescapable conclusion that scissors mode resonances are built not only on the ground-state, but also on excited levels in all product nuclei studied. The results on summed B(M1)↑ strength and energy of the scissors mode are compared with systematics of scissors mode parameters for the ground-state transitions deduced from nuclear resonance fluorescence measurements. A specific feature of our experiments is the investigation of scissors mode of odd nuclei, for which the nuclear resonance fluorescence provides only limited information.

  4. Acoustic modes in fluid networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalopoulos, C. D.; Clark, Robert W., Jr.; Doiron, Harold H.

    Pressure and flow rate eigenvalue problems for one-dimensional flow of a fluid in a network of pipes are derived from the familiar transmission line equations. These equations are linearized by assuming small velocity and pressure oscillations about mean flow conditions. It is shown that the flow rate eigenvalues are the same as the pressure eigenvalues and the relationship between line pressure modes and flow rate modes is established. A volume at the end of each branch is employed which allows any combination of boundary conditions, from open to closed, to be used. The Jacobi iterative method is used to compute undamped natural frequencies and associated pressure/flow modes. Several numerical examples are presented which include acoustic modes for the Helium Supply System of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Main Propulsion System. It should be noted that the method presented herein can be applied to any one-dimensional acoustic system involving an arbitrary number of branches.

  5. Lyapunov modes in extended systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hong-Liu; Radons, Günter

    2009-08-28

    Hydrodynamic Lyapunov modes, which have recently been observed in many extended systems with translational symmetry, such as hard sphere systems, dynamic XY models or Lennard-Jones fluids, are nowadays regarded as fundamental objects connecting nonlinear dynamics and statistical physics. We review here our recent results on Lyapunov modes in extended system. The solution to one of the puzzles, the appearance of good and 'vague' modes, is presented for the model system of coupled map lattices. The structural properties of these modes are related to the phase space geometry, especially the angles between Oseledec subspaces, and to fluctuations of local Lyapunov exponents. In this context, we report also on the possible appearance of branches splitting in the Lyapunov spectra of diatomic systems, similar to acoustic and optical branches for phonons. The final part is devoted to the hyperbolicity of partial differential equations and the effective degrees of freedom of such infinite-dimensional systems.

  6. Adaptive Structural Mode Control Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes the development of an adaptive structural mode control system. The adaptive control system will begin from a "baseline" dynamic model of the...

  7. Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burcharth, H. F.; Z., Liu

    1995-01-01

    The RMBFM-Project (Rubble Mound Breakwater Failure Modes) is sponsored by the Directorate General XII of the Commission of the European Communities under the Contract MAS-CT92- 0042, with the objective of contributing to the development of rational methods for the design of rubble mound breakwaters...... modes, plus development of related partial coefficients which make it possible to design according to preselected reliability levels. Due to limited space only the major activities are described....

  8. THE SPIRITUAL PRODUCTION MODE INNOVATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖柯

    2016-01-01

    The innovation of spiritual production mode is an eclectic open-ended project. Promoting innovation of spiritual production mode involves numerous intricate specific measures, including both the top-level design(macro-level) and the inno-vation of specific spiritual products (micro-level), complete with promotion of population quality and the regulation and gover-nance of spiritual products distribution, consumption and other aspects.

  9. Breathing Modes in Dusty Plasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓钢; 王爽; 潘秋惠; 刘悦; 贺明峰

    2003-01-01

    Acoustic breathing modes of dusty plasmas have been investigated in a cylindricalsystem with an axial symmetry. The linear wave solution and a "dispersion" relation were derived.It was found that in an infinite area, the mode is reduced to a "classical" dust acoustic wave inthe region away from the center. If the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, however, thebreathing (or heart-beating) behavior would be found as observed in many experiments.

  10. The Fifth Mode of Representation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Poul; Krogh Hansen, Per

    2011-01-01

    “The fifth mode of representation: Ambiguous voices in unreliable third person narration”. Sammen med Poul Behrendt. In Per Krogh Hansen, Stefan Iversen, Henrik Skov Nielsen og Rolf Reitan (red.): Strange Voices. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York......“The fifth mode of representation: Ambiguous voices in unreliable third person narration”. Sammen med Poul Behrendt. In Per Krogh Hansen, Stefan Iversen, Henrik Skov Nielsen og Rolf Reitan (red.): Strange Voices. Walter de Gruyter, Berlin & New York...

  11. Bound Modes in Dielectric Microcavities

    CERN Document Server

    Visser, P M; Lenstra, D

    2002-01-01

    We demonstrate how exactly bound cavity modes can be realized in dielectric structures other than 3d photonic crystals. For a microcavity consisting of crossed anisotropic layers, we derive the cavity resonance frequencies, and spontaneous emission rates. For a dielectric structure with dissipative loss and central layer with gain, the beta factor of direct spontaneous emission into a cavity mode and the laser threshold is calculated.

  12. Effects of a Mixed-Mode Peer Response on Student Response Behavior and Writing Performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jen-Hang; Hsu, Shih-Hsun; Chen, Sherry Y.; Ko, Hwa-Wei; Ku, Yu-Min; Chan, Tak-Wai

    2014-01-01

    The study proposed a mix-mode peer response, the E-Peer Response (EPR), to overcome the bias of a single mode, and examined how students with different levels of ability react to the EPR. Two classes participated in this study. One was the experimental group (EG) with the EPR; the other was the control group (CG) with a teacher-centered writing…

  13. The evolution of transmission mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Mark R.; Hauffe, Heidi C.; Kallio, Eva R.; Okamura, Beth; Sait, Steven M.

    2017-01-01

    This article reviews research on the evolutionary mechanisms leading to different transmission modes. Such modes are often under genetic control of the host or the pathogen, and often in conflict with each other via trade-offs. Transmission modes may vary among pathogen strains and among host populations. Evolutionary changes in transmission mode have been inferred through experimental and phylogenetic studies, including changes in transmission associated with host shifts and with evolution of the unusually complex life cycles of many parasites. Understanding the forces that determine the evolution of particular transmission modes presents a fascinating medley of problems for which there is a lack of good data and often a lack of conceptual understanding or appropriate methodologies. Our best information comes from studies that have been focused on the vertical versus horizontal transmission dichotomy. With other kinds of transitions, theoretical approaches combining epidemiology and population genetics are providing guidelines for determining when and how rapidly new transmission modes may evolve, but these are still in need of empirical investigation and application to particular cases. Obtaining such knowledge is a matter of urgency in relation to extant disease threats. This article is part of the themed issue ‘Opening the black box: re-examining the ecology and evolution of parasite transmission’. PMID:28289251

  14. Assembly modes of dragonfly wings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hong-Xiao; Yin, Ya-Jun; Zhong, Zheng

    2011-12-01

    The assembly modes of dragonfly wings are observed through FEG-ESEM. Different from airplane wings, dragonfly wings are found to be assembled through smooth transition mode and global package mode. First, at the vein/membrane conjunctive site, the membrane is divided into upper and lower portions from the center layer and transited smoothly to the vein. Then the two portions pack the vein around and form the outer surface of the vein. Second, at the vein/spike conjunctive site, the vein and spike are connected smoothly into a triplet. Last, at the vein/membrane/spike conjunctive site, the membrane (i.e., the outer layer of the vein) transits smoothly to the spike, packs it around, and forms its outer layer. In short, the membrane looks like a closed coat packing the wing as a whole. The smooth transition mode and the global package mode are universal assembly modes in dragonfly wings. They provide us the references for better understanding of the functions of dragonfly wings and the bionic manufactures of the wings of flights with mini sizes.

  15. Electrocautery Devices With Feedback Mode and Teflon-Coated Blades Create Less Surgical Smoke for a Quality Improvement in the Operating Theater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kisch, Tobias; Liodaki, Eirini; Kraemer, Robert; Mailaender, Peter; Brandenburger, Matthias; Hellwig, Veronika; Stang, Felix H

    2015-07-01

    Monopolar electrocautery is a fast and elegant cutting option. However, as it creates surgical smoke containing polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), it may be hazardous to the health of the surgical team. Although new technologies, such as feedback mode (FM) and Teflon-coated blades (TBs), reduce tissue damage, their impact on surgical smoke creation has not yet been elucidated. Therefore, we analyzed the plume at its source.The aim of this study was to evaluate if electrocautery FM and TBs create less surgical smoke.Porcine tissue containing skin was cut in a standardized manner using sharp-edged Teflon-coated blades (SETBs), normal-shaped TBs, or stainless steel blades (SSBs). Experiments were performed using FM and pure-cut mode. Surgical smoke was sucked through filters or adsorption tubes. Subsequently, filters were scanned and analyzed using a spectrophotometer. A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-UV) was performed to detect benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and phenanthrene as 2 of the most critical PAHs. Temperature changes at the cutting site were measured by an infrared thermometer.In FM, more surgical smoke was created using SSB compared with TBs (P < 0.001). Furthermore, differences between FM and pure-cut mode were found for SSB and TB (P < 0.001), but not for SETB (P = 0.911). Photometric analysis revealed differences in the peak heights of the PAH spectrum. In HLPC-UV, the amount of BaP and phenanthrene detected was lower for TB compared with SSB. Tissue temperature variations increased when SSB was used in FM and pure-cut mode. Furthermore, different modes revealed higher temperature variations with the use of SETB (P = 0.004) and TB (P = 0.005) during cutting, but not SSB (P = 0.789).We found that the use of both TBs and FM was associated with reduced amounts of surgical smoke created during cutting. Thus, the surgical team may benefit from the adoption of such new technologies, which could contribute to the primary

  16. The analytic renormalization group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrari, Frank

    2016-08-01

    Finite temperature Euclidean two-point functions in quantum mechanics or quantum field theory are characterized by a discrete set of Fourier coefficients Gk, k ∈ Z, associated with the Matsubara frequencies νk = 2 πk / β. We show that analyticity implies that the coefficients Gk must satisfy an infinite number of model-independent linear equations that we write down explicitly. In particular, we construct "Analytic Renormalization Group" linear maps Aμ which, for any choice of cut-off μ, allow to express the low energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | < μ (with the possible exception of the zero mode G0), together with the real-time correlators and spectral functions, in terms of the high energy Fourier coefficients for |νk | ≥ μ. Operating a simple numerical algorithm, we show that the exact universal linear constraints on Gk can be used to systematically improve any random approximate data set obtained, for example, from Monte-Carlo simulations. Our results are illustrated on several explicit examples.

  17. An experimental test of the schema mode model of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, Arnoud; Klokman, Janet; Sieswerda, Simkje

    2005-09-01

    Young has proposed a schema mode model of borderline personality disorder (BPD), hypothesizing that BPD patients tend to flip from 1 of 4 maladaptive schema modes to another. The present study is the first empirical test of this model, investigating whether these 4 modes are specific for BPD patients and whether BPD-relevant stress specifically increases one of the modes, the detached protector mode. Eighteen BPD patients, 18 cluster-C personality disorder (PD) patients and 18 non-patient controls (all women) filled out trait and state versions of a newly developed schema mode questionnaire, assessing cognitions, feelings and behaviors characteristic of 7 schema modes. Using a cross over design, subjects subsequently watched a neutral and a BPD-specific emotional movie fragment (order balanced). After watching each movie, subjects again filled out the schema mode questionnaire, state version. Trait as well as state versions indicated that BPD patients were indeed characterized by the hypothesized four maladaptive modes (Detached Protector, Punitive Parent, Abused/Abandoned Child, Angry/Impulsive Child). BPD patients were lowest on the Healthy Adult mode. The stress induction induced negative emotions in all groups, but the BPD group was unique in that the Detached Protector mode increased significantly more than in both control groups.

  18. Normal modes and mode transformation of pure electron vortex beams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirunavukkarasu, G.; Mousley, M.; Babiker, M.; Yuan, J.

    2017-02-01

    Electron vortex beams constitute the first class of matter vortex beams which are currently routinely produced in the laboratory. Here, we briefly review the progress of this nascent field and put forward a natural quantum basis set which we show is suitable for the description of electron vortex beams. The normal modes are truncated Bessel beams (TBBs) defined in the aperture plane or the Fourier transform of the transverse structure of the TBBs (FT-TBBs) in the focal plane of a lens with the said aperture. As these modes are eigenfunctions of the axial orbital angular momentum operator, they can provide a complete description of the two-dimensional transverse distribution of the wave function of any electron vortex beam in such a system, in analogy with the prominent role Laguerre-Gaussian (LG) beams played in the description of optical vortex beams. The characteristics of the normal modes of TBBs and FT-TBBs are described, including the quantized orbital angular momentum (in terms of the winding number l) and the radial index p>0. We present the experimental realization of such beams using computer-generated holograms. The mode analysis can be carried out using astigmatic transformation optics, demonstrating close analogy with the astigmatic mode transformation between LG and Hermite-Gaussian beams. This article is part of the themed issue 'Optical orbital angular momentum'.

  19. Latent lifestyle and mode choice decisions when travelling short distances

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prato, Carlo Giacomo; Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Nielsen, Otto Anker

    2016-01-01

    of a representative sample of the Danish population in the Copenhagen Region were analysed, and more specifically a latent class choice model was estimated to uncover latent lifestyle groups and choice specific travel behaviour. Results show that four lifestyle groups are identified in the population: car oriented...... on active travel modes), and trip purpose effect on mode selection. Consequently, when thinking about measures to increase the appeal of sustainable travel options, decision-makers should look at specific individuals within the population and more sensitive individuals to comfort and level...

  20. The effective degeneracy of protein normal modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang

    2016-05-12

    Normal modes are frequently computed and used to portray protein dynamics and interpret protein conformational changes. In this work, we investigate the nature of normal modes and find that the normal modes of proteins, especially those at the low frequency range (0-600 cm(-1)), are highly susceptible to degeneracy. Two or more modes are degenerate if they have the same frequency and consequently any orthogonal transformation of them also is a valid representation of the mode subspace. Thus, degenerate modes can no longer characterize unique directions of motions as regular modes do. Though the normal modes of proteins are usually of different frequencies, the difference in frequency between neighboring modes is so small that, under even slight structural uncertainty that unavoidably exists in structure determination, it can easily vanish and as a result, a mode becomes effectively degenerate with its neighboring modes. This can be easily observed in that some modes seem to disappear and their matching modes cannot be found when the structure used to compute the modes is modified only slightly. We term this degeneracy the effective degeneracy of normal modes. This work is built upon our recent discovery that the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal. The high density of modes observed in the vibrational frequency spectra of proteins renders their normal modes highly susceptible to degeneracy, under even the smallest structural uncertainty. Indeed, we find the degree of degeneracy of modes is proportional to the density of modes in the vibrational spectrum. This means that for modes at the same frequency, degeneracy is more severe for larger proteins. Degeneracy exists also in the modes of coarse-grained models, but to a much lesser extent than those of all-atom models. In closing, we discuss the implications of the effective degeneracy of normal modes: how it may significantly affect the ways in which normal modes are used in various normal modes

  1. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk;

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  2. Mode characteristics of hollow core Bragg fiber

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Minning Ji; Zhidong Shi; Qiang Guo

    2005-01-01

    Analytical expression to calculate propagation constant and mode field of the hollow core Bragg fiber is derived. Numerical results are presented. It is shown that the fundamental mode of the hollow core Bragg fiber is circularly symmetric TE01 mode with no polarization degeneracy, while the higher order mode may be HE11, TM01, or TE02 etc.. This property is different from conventional optical fiber that its fundamental mode is the linearly polarized HE11 mode and is polarization degeneracy.

  3. Challenges in higher order mode Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Nielsen, Kristian; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk

    2015-01-01

    A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed......A higher order Raman amplifier model that take random mode coupling into account ispresented. Mode dependent gain and signal power fluctuations at the output of the higher order modeRaman amplifier are discussed...

  4. Integrated Groups and Smooth Distribution Groups

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pedro J. MIANA

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we prove directly that α-times integrated groups define algebra homo-morphisms. We also give a theorem of equivalence between smooth distribution groups and α-times integrated groups.

  5. Exotic decay transition from cluster mode to fission mode

    CERN Document Server

    Santhosh, K P

    2002-01-01

    Exotic decay of some heavy nuclei with Z >= 100 formed in heavy ion 'cold fusion' reaction were studied taking interacting barrier consisting of Coulomb and proximity potential. Calculated half-life time shows that some modes of decay are well within the present upper limit for measurements (T sub 1 sub / sub 2 < 10 sup 3 sup 0 s). Cluster formation probabilities are calculated for different clusters within fission model. It is found that transition from cluster mode to fission mode take place at mass of the cluster, A sub 2 = 20 in exotic decay which is comparable with the value A sub 2 = 16 of Shanmugam et al based on cubic plus Yukawa plus exponential model (CYEM). (author)

  6. Learning to communicate risk information in groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsuchi Ting

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Despite vigorous research on risk communication, little is known about the social forces that drive these choices. Erev, Wallsten, and Neal (1991 showed that forecasters learn to select verbal or numerical probability estimates as a function of which mode yields on average the larger group payoffs. We extend the result by investigating the effect of group size on the speed with which forecasters converge on the better communication mode. On the basis of social facilitation theory we hypothesized that small groups induce less arousal and anxiety among their members than do large groups when performing new tasks, and therefore that forecasters in small groups will learn the better communication mode more quickly. This result obtained in Experiment 1, which compared groups of size 3 to groups of size 5 or 6. To test whether social loafing rather than social facilitation was mediating the effects, Experiment 2 compared social to personal feedback holding group size constant at 3 members. Learning was faster in the personal feedback condition, suggesting that social facilitation rather than loafing underlay the results.

  7. Group typicality, group loyalty and cognitive development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Meagan M

    2014-09-01

    Over the course of childhood, children's thinking about social groups changes in a variety of ways. Developmental Subjective Group Dynamics (DSGD) theory emphasizes children's understanding of the importance of conforming to group norms. Abrams et al.'s study, which uses DSGD theory as a framework, demonstrates the social cognitive skills underlying young elementary school children's thinking about group norms. Future research on children's thinking about groups and group norms should explore additional elements of this topic, including aspects of typicality beyond loyalty.

  8. Which finite simple groups are unit groups?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Christopher James; Occhipinti, Tommy

    2014-01-01

    We prove that if G is a finite simple group which is the unit group of a ring, then G is isomorphic to either (a) a cyclic group of order 2; (b) a cyclic group of prime order 2^k −1 for some k; or (c) a projective special linear group PSLn(F2) for some n ≥ 3. Moreover, these groups do all occur...

  9. Exercices de grammaire et travail de groupe (Grammar Exercises and Group Work)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eluerd, Roland

    1977-01-01

    A discussion of pedagogical models and modes of communication as these apply to the adaptation of grammar exercises to group work. The model used is the small homogeneous group. Various types of exercises are suggested and the relevance of this procedure to communication is discussed. (Text is in French.) (AMH)

  10. Impact of Transit Network Layout on Resident Mode Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the impact of public transit network layout (TNL on resident mode choice. The review of TNL as a factor uses variables divided into three groups: a variable set without considering the TNL, one considering TNL from the zone level, and one considering TNL from the individual level. Using Baoding’s travel survey data, a Multinomial Logit (MNL model is used, and the parameter estimation result shows that TNL has significant effect on resident mode choice. Based on parameter estimation, the factors affecting mode choice are further screened. The screened variable set is regarded as the input data to the BP neural network’s training and forecasting. Both forecasting results indicate that introducing TNL can improve the performance of mode choice forecasting.

  11. Modes of therapeutic engagement. Part I: diplomacy and integrity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billow, Richard M

    2010-01-01

    Our topic concerns strategies of therapeutic discourse, four relational modes of speaking and listening, adopted with and without awareness: diplomacy, integrity, sincerity, and authenticity. The four modes are offered as conceptual tools to help the therapist build therapeutic relationships, respond to challenges and impasses, and advance group process and insight. They are navigated to cement bonding, build trust, allow troubled relationships to evolve and resolve, and strengthen the abilities to think and relate. Presented in two separate articles, in Part I the topic and its relationship to truth and falsity is introduced, and the modes of diplomacy and integrity are described. The discussion continues, in Part II, where the focus is on sincerity and authenticity, and the interrelationship among the four modes and their differing functions in the totality of the clinical situation is illustrated.

  12. Univariate and Bivariate Empirical Mode Decomposition for Postural Stability Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques Duchêne

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to compare empirical mode decomposition (EMD and two new extended methods of  EMD named complex empirical mode decomposition (complex-EMD and bivariate empirical mode decomposition (bivariate-EMD. All methods were used to analyze stabilogram center of pressure (COP time series. The two new methods are suitable to be applied to complex time series to extract complex intrinsic mode functions (IMFs before the Hilbert transform is subsequently applied on the IMFs. The trace of the analytic IMF in the complex plane has a circular form, with each IMF having its own rotation frequency. The area of the circle and the average rotation frequency of IMFs represent efficient indicators of the postural stability status of subjects. Experimental results show the effectiveness of these indicators to identify differences in standing posture between groups.

  13. Audit mode change, corporate governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Limei Cao

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates changes in audit strategy in China following the introduction of risk-based auditing standards rather than an internal control-based audit mode. Specifically, we examine whether auditors are implementing the risk-based audit mode to evaluate corporate governance before distributing audit resources. The results show that under the internal control-based audit mode, the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance was weak. However, implementation of the risk-based mode required by the new auditing standards has significantly enhanced the relationship between audit effort and corporate governance. Since the change in audit mode, the Big Ten have demonstrated a significantly better grasp of governance risk and allocated their audit effort accordingly, relative to smaller firms. The empirical evidence indicates that auditors have adjusted their audit strategy to meet the regulations, risk-based auditing is being achieved to a degree, reasonable and effective corporate governance helps to optimize audit resource allocation, and smaller auditing firms in particular should urgently strengthen their risk-based auditing capability. Overall, our findings imply that the mandatory switch to risk-based auditing has optimized audit effort in China.

  14. Travel Mode Detection Exploiting Cellular Network Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalatian Arash

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been growing interest in exploiting cellular network data for transportation planning purposes in recent years. In this paper, we utilize these data for determining mode of travel in the city of Shiraz, Iran. Cellular data records -including location updates in 5minute time intervals- of 300,000 users from the city of Shiraz has been collected for 40 hours in three consecutive days in a cooperation with the major telecommunications service provider of the country. Depending on the density of mobile BTS’s in different zones of the city, the user location can be located within an average of 200 meters. Considering data filtering and smoothing, data preparation and converting them to comprehensible traces is a large portion of the work. A novel approach to identify stay locations is proposed and implemented in this paper. Origin-Destination matrices are then created based on trips detected, which shows acceptable consistency with current O-D matrices. Finally, Travel times for all trips of a user is estimated as the main attribute for clustering. Trips between same origin and destination zones are combined together in a group. Using K-means algorithm, records within each group are the portioned in two or three clusters, based on their travel speeds. Each cluster represents a certain mode of travel; walking, public transportation or driving a private car.

  15. Modulation instabilities in randomly birefringent two-mode optical fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jin-Hua; Ren, Hai-Dong; Pei, Shi-Xin; Cao, Zhao-Lou; Xian, Feng-Lin

    2016-12-01

    Modulation instabilities in the randomly birefringent two-mode optical fibers (RB-TMFs) are analyzed in detail by accounting the effects of the differential mode group delay (DMGD) and group velocity dispersion (GVD) ratio between the two modes, both of which are absent in the randomly birefringent single-mode optical fibers (RB-SMFs). New MI characteristics are found in both normal and anomalous dispersion regimes. For the normal dispersion, without DMGD, no MI exists. With DMGD, a completely new MI band is generated as long as the total power is smaller than a critical total power value, named by Pcr, which increases significantly with the increment of DMGD, and reduces dramatically as GVD ratio and power ratio between the two modes increases. For the anomalous dispersion, there is one MI band without DMGD. In the presence of DMGD, the MI gain is reduced generally. On the other hand, there also exists a critical total power (Pcr), which increases (decreases) distinctly with the increment of DMGD (GVD ratio of the two modes) but varies complicatedly with the power ratio between the two modes. Two MI bands are present for total power smaller than Pcr, and the dominant band can be switched between the low and high frequency bands by adjusting the power ratio between the two modes. The MI analysis in this paper is verified by numerical simulation. Project supported by the Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Provincial Universities (Grant No. 14KJB140009), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 11447113), and the Startup Foundation for Introducing Talent of NUIST (Grant No. 2241131301064).

  16. Reconfigurable Mixed Mode Universal Filter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelofer Afzal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a novel mixed mode universal filter configuration capable of working in voltage and transimpedance mode. The proposed single filter configuration can be reconfigured digitally to realize all the five second order filter functions (types at single output port. Other salient features of proposed configuration include independently programmable filter parameters, full cascadability, and low sensitivity figure. However, all these features are provided at the cost of quite large number of active elements. It needs three digitally programmable current feedback amplifiers and three digitally programmable current conveyors. Use of six active elements is justified by introducing three additional reduced hardware mixed mode universal filter configurations and its comparison with reported filters.

  17. Macroscopic (and microscopic massless modes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael C. Abbott

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available We study certain spinning strings exploring the flat directions of AdS3×S3×S3×S1, the massless sector cousins of su(2 and sl(2 sector spinning strings. We describe these, and their vibrational modes, using the D(2,1;α2 algebraic curve. By exploiting a discrete symmetry of this structure which reverses the direction of motion on the spheres, and alters the masses of the fermionic modes s→κ−s, we find out how to treat the massless fermions which were previously missing from this formalism. We show that folded strings behave as a special case of circular strings, in a sense which includes their mode frequencies, and we are able to recover this fact in the worldsheet formalism. We use these frequencies to calculate one-loop corrections to the energy, with a version of the Beisert–Tseytlin resummation.

  18. Tapping mode microwave impedance microscopy

    KAUST Repository

    Lai, K.

    2009-01-01

    We report tapping mode microwave impedance imaging based on atomic force microscope platforms. The shielded cantilever probe is critical to localize the tip-sample interaction near the tip apex. The modulated tip-sample impedance can be accurately simulated by the finite-element analysis and the result agrees quantitatively to the experimental data on a series of thin-film dielectric samples. The tapping mode microwave imaging is also superior to the contact mode in that the thermal drift in a long time scale is totally eliminated and an absolute measurement on the dielectric properties is possible. We demonstrated tapping images on working nanodevices, and the data are consistent with the transport results. © 2009 American Institute of Physics.

  19. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    CERN Document Server

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a non-perturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely...

  20. Leaky Modes of Dielectric Cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Mansuripur, Masud; Jakobsen, Per

    2016-01-01

    In the absence of external excitation, light trapped within a dielectric medium generally decays by leaking out (and also by getting absorbed within the medium). We analyze the leaky modes of a parallel-plate slab, a solid glass sphere, and a solid glass cylinder, by examining those solutions of Maxwell's equations (for dispersive as well as non-dispersive media) which admit of a complex-valued oscillation frequency. Under certain circumstances, these leaky modes constitute a complete set into which an arbitrary distribution of the electromagnetic field residing inside a dielectric body can be expanded. We provide completeness proofs, and also present results of numerical calculations that illustrate the relationship between the leaky modes and the resonances of dielectric cavities formed by a simple parallel-plate slab, a glass sphere, and a glass cylinder.

  1. Group Cohesion in Experiential Growth Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steen, Sam; Vasserman-Stokes, Elaina; Vannatta, Rachel

    2014-01-01

    This article explores the effect of web-based journaling on changes in group cohesion within experiential growth groups. Master's students were divided into 2 groups. Both used a web-based platform to journal after each session; however, only 1 of the groups was able to read each other's journals. Quantitative data collected before and…

  2. Nonlinear dynamics by mode superposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nickell, R.E.

    1976-01-01

    A mode superposition technique for approximately solving nonlinear initial-boundary-value problems of structural dynamics is discussed, and results for examples involving large deformation are compared to those obtained with implicit direct integration methods such as the Newmark generalized acceleration and Houbolt backward-difference operators. The initial natural frequencies and mode shapes are found by inverse power iteration with the trial vectors for successively higher modes being swept by Gram-Schmidt orthonormalization at each iteration. The subsequent modal spectrum for nonlinear states is based upon the tangent stiffness of the structure and is calculated by a subspace iteration procedure that involves matrix multiplication only, using the most recently computed spectrum as an initial estimate. Then, a precise time integration algorithm that has no artificial damping or phase velocity error for linear problems is applied to the uncoupled modal equations of motion. Squared-frequency extrapolation is examined for nonlinear problems as a means by which these qualities of accuracy and precision can be maintained when the state of the system (and, thus, the modal spectrum) is changing rapidly. The results indicate that a number of important advantages accrue to nonlinear mode superposition: (a) there is no significant difference in total solution time between mode superposition and implicit direct integration analyses for problems having narrow matric half-bandwidth (in fact, as bandwidth increases, mode superposition becomes more economical), (b) solution accuracy is under better control since the analyst has ready access to modal participation factors and the ratios of time step size to modal period, and (c) physical understanding of nonlinear dynamic response is improved since the analyst is able to observe the changes in the modal spectrum as deformation proceeds.

  3. Photovoltaic failure and degradation modes: PV failure and degradation modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, Dirk C. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Silverman, Timothy J. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Wohlgemuth, John H. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA; Kurtz, Sarah R. [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), 15013 Denver West Parkway Golden Colorado 80401 USA; VanSant, Kaitlyn T. [Colorado School of Mines, 1500 Illinois Street Golden Colorado 8040 USA

    2017-01-30

    The extensive photovoltaic field reliability literature was analyzed and reviewed. Future work is prioritized based upon information assembled from recent installations, and inconsistencies in degradation mode identification are discussed to help guide future publication on this subject. Reported failure rates of photovoltaic modules fall mostly in the range of other consumer products; however, the long expected useful life of modules may not allow for direct comparison. In general, degradation percentages are reported to decrease appreciably in newer installations that are deployed after the year 2000. However, these trends may be convoluted with varying manufacturing and installation quality world-wide. Modules in hot and humid climates show considerably higher degradation modes than those in desert and moderate climates, which warrants further investigation. Delamination and diode/j-box issues are also more frequent in hot and humid climates than in other climates. The highest concerns of systems installed in the last 10 years appear to be hot spots followed by internal circuitry discoloration. Encapsulant discoloration was the most common degradation mode, particularly in older systems. In newer systems, encapsulant discoloration appears in hotter climates, but to a lesser degree. Thin-film degradation modes are dominated by glass breakage and absorber corrosion, although the breadth of information for thin-film modules is much smaller than for x-Si.

  4. Decay of Quantum Accelerator Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Sheinman, M; Guarneri, I; Rebuzzini, L; Fishman, Shmuel; Guarneri, Italo; Rebuzzini, Laura; Sheinman, Michael

    2005-01-01

    Experimentally observable Quantum Accelerator Modes are used as a test case for the study of some general aspects of quantum decay from classical stable islands immersed in a chaotic sea. The modes are shown to correspond to metastable states, analogous to the Wannier-Stark resonances. Different regimes of tunneling, marked by different quantitative dependence of the lifetimes on 1/hbar, are identified, depending on the resolution of KAM substructures that is achieved on the scale of hbar. The theory of Resonance Assisted Tunneling introduced by Brodier, Schlagheck, and Ullmo [9], is revisited, and found to well describe decay whenever applicable.

  5. Channel estimation in TDD mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Yi; GU Jian; YANG Da-cheng

    2006-01-01

    An efficient solution is proposed in this article for the channel estimation in time division duplex (TDD) mode wireless communication systems. In the proposed solution, the characteristics of fading channels in TDD mode systems are fully exploited to estimate the path delay of the fading channel.The corresponding amplitude is estimated using the minimum mean square error (MMSE) criterion. As a result, it is shown that the proposed novel solution is more accurate and efficient than the traditional solution, and the improvement is beneficial to the performance of Joint Detection.

  6. Azimuthal decomposition of optical modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Dudley, Angela L

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available of Optical Modes Angela Dudley1, Igor Litvin1, Filippus S. Roux1 and Andrew Forbes1,2,3 1 CSIR National Laser Centre, Pretoria, South Africa 2 School of Physics, University of KwaZulu-Natal, Durban, South Africa 3 Laser Research Institute, University... of Stellenbosch, Stellenbosch, South Africa Presented at the 2012 South African Institute of Physics Conference University of Pretoria Pretoria, South Africa 12 July 2012 To decompose the azimuthal modes we need two steps: generation and decomposition...

  7. Failure Mode/Mechanism Distributions

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-09-01

    nsc. Modas /Mach Dist. Dist. Suurce(,%)/Detai19 Bolt, MahineSources :1 Brcikon 𔃺.1% 59.0% Broken Bolt(s) (25j01-(000,Qty:l) C25101-000,Qty:Ij., Part...Center (RAC) * 201 Mill St., Rome, NY 13440 * 315-337-0900 3-114 Failure Distribution Summaries FMD-91 ? art Failure Norm Fail Data Docm. Mode/Moch Dist... Deco . Mode/Mech Dist. Dist. Source(s)/Details Lamp,Bulb Sourcent 4 Lamp Failure 68.8% 53.8% Light Bulb Failure (23038-00l,Qty:3) (23038-004,Qty:l

  8. Transformation and Modes of Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høst, Jeppe Engset

    2015-01-01

    modes of production and examine the ways of life that are enabled by the two modes of production. The central questions are around how market-based fisheries management transforms the principal preconditions for the self-employed fishers; and, in turn, why capitalist organized large-scale fisheries......The introduction of private and individual transferable quotas is widely considered to have a negative impact on small- and medium-sized fishing operations. In this chapter, I set out to explore this in a theoretical manner. I discuss the differences in the fishing operations as two contrasting...... are promoted by this type of fisheries management....

  9. Group Work Publication-1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimpfer, David G.

    1992-01-01

    Lists 21 new publications in group work, of which 9 are reviewed. Those discussed include publications on group counseling and psychotherapy, structured groups, support groups, psychodrama, and social group work. (Author/NB)

  10. Differences and similarities in therapeutic mode use between occupational therapists and occupational therapy students in Norway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstensen, Tove; Bonsaksen, Tore

    2017-11-01

    The Intentional Relationship Model (IRM) is a new model of the therapeutic relationship in occupational therapy practice. Two previous studies have focused on therapist communication style, or 'mode' use, but to date no group comparisons have been reported. To explore differences between occupational therapists and occupational therapy students with regard to their therapeutic mode use. The study had a cross-sectional design, and convenience samples consisting of occupational therapists (n = 109) and of second-year occupational therapy students (n = 96) were recruited. The Self-Assessment of Modes Questionnaire was the main data collection tool. Group differences were analysed with independent t-tests. The occupational therapists responded more within the collaborative and empathizing modes than the students did. The students responded more within the advocating and instructing modes than the occupational therapists did. There may be systematic differences between occupational therapists and students concerning their therapeutic mode use. Some modes, such as the collaborating and empathizing modes, may be viewed as requiring more experience, whereas other modes, such as the advocating mode may be related to more recent rehabilitation ideologies. These factors may contribute to explaining several of the group differences observed.

  11. Group theories: relevance to group safety studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benevento, A L

    1998-01-01

    Promoting safety in the workplace has been attempted in a variety of ways. Increasingly, industries are using groups such as safety teams and quality circles to promote worker safety. Group influences on individual behavior and attitudes have long been studied in the social psychology literature, but the theories have not been commonly found outside the psychology arena. This paper describes the group theories of group polarization, risky shift, social loafing, groupthink and team think and attempts to apply these theories to existing studies that examine work group influences on safety. Interesting parallels were found but only one study examined group influences as their primary focus of research. Since groups are increasingly used for safety promotion, future research on safety that studies group influences with respect to current group theories is recommended.

  12. Microtearing modes in tokamak discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rafiq, T.; Kritz, A. H. [Department of Physics, Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); Weiland, J. [Department of Applied Physics, Chalmers University, S41296 Gothenburg (Sweden); Luo, L. [IBM Research, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Pankin, A. Y. [Tech-X Corporation, Boulder, Colorado 80308 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Microtearing modes (MTMs) have been identified as a source of significant electron thermal transport in tokamak discharges. In order to describe the evolution of these discharges, it is necessary to improve the prediction of electron thermal transport. This can be accomplished by utilizing a model for transport driven by MTMs in whole device predictive modeling codes. The objective of this paper is to develop the dispersion relation that governs the MTM driven transport. A unified fluid/kinetic approach is used in the development of a nonlinear dispersion relation for MTMs. The derivation includes the effects of electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations, arbitrary electron-ion collisionality, electron temperature and density gradients, magnetic curvature, and the effects associated with the parallel propagation vector. An iterative nonlinear approach is used to calculate the distribution function employed in obtaining the nonlinear parallel current and the nonlinear dispersion relation. The third order nonlinear effects in magnetic fluctuations are included, and the influence of third order effects on a multi-wave system is considered. An envelope equation for the nonlinear microtearing modes in the collision dominant limit is introduced in order to obtain the saturation level. In the limit that the mode amplitude does not vary along the field line, slab geometry, and strong collisionality, the fluid dispersion relation for nonlinear microtearing modes is found to agree with the kinetic dispersion relation.

  13. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repeated at a nonperturbative level by investigating the nonlinear curvature inhomogeneities induced by the spatial variation of the viscous coefficients. It is demonstrated that the quasiadiabatic modes are suppressed in comparison with a bona fide adiabatic solution. Because of its anomalously large tensor to scalar ratio the quasiadiabatic mode cannot be a substitute for the conventional adiabatic paradigm so that, ultimately, the present findings seems to exclude the possibility of a successful accelerated dynamics solely based on relativistic viscous fluids. If the dominant adiabatic mode is not affected by the viscosity of the background a sufficiently small fraction of entropic fluctuations of viscous origin cannot be a priori ruled out.

  14. Microtearing modes in tokamak discharges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiq, T.; Weiland, J.; Kritz, A. H.; Luo, L.; Pankin, A. Y.

    2016-06-01

    Microtearing modes (MTMs) have been identified as a source of significant electron thermal transport in tokamak discharges. In order to describe the evolution of these discharges, it is necessary to improve the prediction of electron thermal transport. This can be accomplished by utilizing a model for transport driven by MTMs in whole device predictive modeling codes. The objective of this paper is to develop the dispersion relation that governs the MTM driven transport. A unified fluid/kinetic approach is used in the development of a nonlinear dispersion relation for MTMs. The derivation includes the effects of electrostatic and magnetic fluctuations, arbitrary electron-ion collisionality, electron temperature and density gradients, magnetic curvature, and the effects associated with the parallel propagation vector. An iterative nonlinear approach is used to calculate the distribution function employed in obtaining the nonlinear parallel current and the nonlinear dispersion relation. The third order nonlinear effects in magnetic fluctuations are included, and the influence of third order effects on a multi-wave system is considered. An envelope equation for the nonlinear microtearing modes in the collision dominant limit is introduced in order to obtain the saturation level. In the limit that the mode amplitude does not vary along the field line, slab geometry, and strong collisionality, the fluid dispersion relation for nonlinear microtearing modes is found to agree with the kinetic dispersion relation.

  15. Single-mode optical fibres

    CERN Document Server

    Cancellieri, G

    1991-01-01

    This book describes signal propagation in single-mode optical fibres for telecommunication applications. Such description is based on the analysis of field propagation, considering waveguide properties and also some of the particular characteristics of the material fibre. The book covers such recent advances as, coherent transmissions; optical amplification; MIR fibres; polarization maintaining; polarization diversity and photon counting.

  16. Mode of Action of Glyphosate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Although glyphosate is the most used and studied herbicide in the world, the available information is not enough to fully understand its mode of action. The molecular site of action of glyphosate is the enzyme 5-enolpyruvlyshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS). It is the only known compound that ...

  17. An acoustic mode measurement technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joppa, P. D.

    1984-10-01

    Turbomachinery noise propagates in aircraft jet engine ducts in a complicated manner. Measurement of this propagation is useful both to identify source mechanisms and to design efficient linings. A practical method of making these measurements has been developed, using linear arrays of equally spaced microphones mounted flush with the duct wall. Circumferential or axial arrays are analyzed by spatial Fourier transform, giving sound level as a function of spinning order or axial wavenumber respectively. Complex demodulation is used to acquire data in a modest bandwidth around a high frequency of interest. A joint NASA/Boeing test of the system used 32 microphones in a JT15D turbofan engine inlet. A 400-Hz bandwidth centered at blade passage frequency and at half blade passage frequency was studied. The theoretically predicted modes were clearly seen at blade passage frequency; broadband noise at half blade passage frequency was biased towards modes corotating with the fan. Interference between similar modes was not a significant problem. A lining design study indicated a 15 percent improvement in lining efficiency was possible when mode data were used, for this particular engine. The technique has proven reliable and useful for source diagnostics and lining design.

  18. Generation of high order modes

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Ngcobo, S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the generation of symmetrical high order Laguerre Gaussian modes. These high order Laguerre-Gaussian beams are generated by forcing the laser using an annular binary Diffractive Optical Element whose geometry is in connection...

  19. Mode-division multiplexed transmission with inline few-mode fiber amplifier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Neng; Ip, Ezra; Huang, Yue-Kai; Mateo, Eduardo; Yaman, Fatih; Li, Ming-Jun; Bickham, Scott; Ten, Sergey; Liñares, Jesús; Montero, Carlos; Moreno, Vicente; Prieto, Xesús; Tse, Vincent; Man Chung, Kit; Lau, Alan Pak Tao; Tam, Hwa-Yaw; Lu, Chao; Luo, Yanhua; Peng, Gang-Ding; Li, Guifang; Wang, Ting

    2012-01-30

    We demonstrate mode-division multiplexed WDM transmission over 50-km of few-mode fiber using the fiber's LP01 and two degenerate LP11 modes. A few-mode EDFA is used to boost the power of the output signal before a few-mode coherent receiver. A 6×6 time-domain MIMO equalizer is used to recover the transmitted data. We also experimentally characterize the 50-km few-mode fiber and the few-mode EDFA.

  20. Religious Identification and Modes of Civic and Political Participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezaei, Shahamak; Goli, Marco; Møballe, Svend

    and public debate, provide the religious and ethnic identification and participation with an attractive mode of civic and political participation among immigrants; whether these are newcomers or ‘old’ immigrants. There exists a rather substantial variation in the extent to which immigrant groups...

  1. Learning Modes: An Investigation of Perceptions in Five Kent Classrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Kathleen

    1995-01-01

    A majority of 123 British elementary students surveyed rated TV/video as the most enjoyable learning mode, but only 54% felt they learned a lot; half enjoyed whole-class teaching, 63% learned a lot this way. Whole-class and small-group discussion received the lowest ratings for enjoyment and learning potential, suggesting students are not aware of…

  2. Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mackinney-Valentin, Maria

    2011-01-01

    A textbook for school children 13-16 on fashion. Ethics, designers, social identity, zeitgeist, and gender are among the key themes.......A textbook for school children 13-16 on fashion. Ethics, designers, social identity, zeitgeist, and gender are among the key themes....

  3. Broadband mode conversion via gradient index metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, HaiXiao; Xu, YaDong; Genevet, Patrice; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Chen, HuanYang

    2016-04-21

    We propose a design for broadband waveguide mode conversion based on gradient index metamaterials (GIMs). Numerical simulations demonstrate that the zeroth order of transverse magnetic mode or the first order of transverse electric mode (TM0/TE1) can be converted into the first order of transverse magnetic mode or the second order of transverse electric mode (TM1/TE2) for a broadband of frequencies. As an application, an asymmetric propagation is achieved by integrating zero index metamaterials inside the GIM waveguide.

  4. Broadband mode conversion via gradient index metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, HaiXiao; Genevet, Patrice; Jiang, Jian-Hua; Chen, HuanYang

    2015-01-01

    We propose a design for broadband waveguide mode conversion based on gradient index metamaterials (GIMs). Numerical simulations demonstrate that the zeroth order of transverse magnetic mode or the first order of transverse electric mode (TM0/TE1) can be converted into the first order of transverse magnetic mode or the second order of transverse electric mode (TM1/TE2) for a broadband of frequencies. As an application, an asymmetric propagation is achieved by integrating zero index metamaterials inside the GIM waveguide.

  5. Mode and Intermediate Waters in Earth System Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanadesikan, Anand [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States); Sarmiento, Jorge L. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States)

    2015-12-22

    This report describes work done as part of a joint Princeton-Johns Hopkins project to look at the impact of mode and intermediate waters in Earth System Models. The Johns Hopkins portion of this work focussed on the role of lateral mixing in ventilating such waters, with important implications for hypoxia, the uptake of anthropogenic carbon, the dynamics of El Nino and carbon pumps. The Johns Hopkins group also collaborated with the Princeton Group to help develop a watermass diagnostics framework.

  6. Magnetic translation groups as group extension

    OpenAIRE

    Florek, Wojciech

    1998-01-01

    Extensions of a direct product T of two cyclic groups Z_n1 and Z_n2 by an Abelian (gauge) group G with the trivial action of T on G are considered. All possible (nonequivalent) factor systems are determined using the Mac Lane method. Some of resulting groups describe magnetic translation groups. As examples extensions with G=U(1) and G=Z_n are considered and discussed.

  7. The quest for the solar g modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appourchaux, T.; Belkacem, K.; Broomhall, A.-M.; Chaplin, W. J.; Gough, D. O.; Houdek, G.; Provost, J.; Baudin, F.; Boumier, P.; Elsworth, Y.; García, R. A.; Andersen, B. N.; Finsterle, W.; Fröhlich, C.; Gabriel, A.; Grec, G.; Jiménez, A.; Kosovichev, A.; Sekii, T.; Toutain, T.; Turck-Chièze, S.

    2010-02-01

    Solar gravity modes (or g modes)—oscillations of the solar interior on which buoyancy acts as the restoring force—have the potential to provide unprecedented inference on the structure and dynamics of the solar core, inference that is not possible with the well-observed acoustic modes (or p modes). The relative high amplitude of the g-mode eigenfunctions in the core and the evanesence of the modes in the convection zone make the modes particularly sensitive to the physical and dynamical conditions in the core. Owing to the existence of the convection zone, the g modes have very low amplitudes at photospheric levels, which makes the modes extremely hard to detect. In this article, we review the current state of play regarding attempts to detect g modes. We review the theory of g modes, including theoretical estimation of the g-mode frequencies, amplitudes and damping rates. Then we go on to discuss the techniques that have been used to try to detect g modes. We review results in the literature, and finish by looking to the future, and the potential advances that can be made—from both data and data-analysis perspectives—to give unambiguous detections of individual g modes. The review ends by concluding that, at the time of writing, there is indeed a consensus amongst the authors that there is currently no undisputed detection of solar g modes.

  8. Nonlinear Bogolyubov-Valatin transformations: Two modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scharnhorst, K.; van Holten, J.-W.

    2011-11-01

    Extending our earlier study of nonlinear Bogolyubov-Valatin transformations (canonical transformations for fermions) for one fermionic mode, in the present paper, we perform a thorough study of general (nonlinear) canonical transformations for two fermionic modes. We find that the Bogolyubov-Valatin group for n=2 fermionic modes, which can be implemented by means of unitary SU(2n=4) transformations, is isomorphic to SO(6;R)/Z2. The investigation touches on a number of subjects. As a novelty from a mathematical point of view, we study the structure of nonlinear basis transformations in a Clifford algebra [specifically, in the Clifford algebra C(0,4)] entailing (supersymmetric) transformations among multivectors of different grades. A prominent algebraic role in this context is being played by biparavectors (linear combinations of products of Dirac matrices, quadriquaternions, sedenions) and spin bivectors (antisymmetric complex matrices). The studied biparavectors are equivalent to Eddington's E-numbers and can be understood in terms of the tensor product of two commuting copies of the division algebra of quaternions H. From a physical point of view, we present a method to diagonalize any arbitrary two-fermion Hamiltonians. Relying on Jordan-Wigner transformations for two-spin- {1}/{2} and single-spin- {3}/{2} systems, we also study nonlinear spin transformations and the related problem of diagonalizing arbitrary two-spin- {1}/{2} and single-spin- {3}/{2} Hamiltonians. Finally, from a calculational point of view, we pay due attention to explicit parametrizations of SU(4) and SO(6;R) matrices (of respective sizes 4×4 and 6×6) and their mutual relation.

  9. Group Dynamic Processes in Email Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpay, Esat

    2005-01-01

    Discussion is given on the relevance of group dynamic processes in promoting decision-making in email discussion groups. General theories on social facilitation and social loafing are considered in the context of email groups, as well as the applicability of psychodynamic and interaction-based models. It is argued that such theories may indeed…

  10. Interagency mechanical operations group numerical systems group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-09-01

    This report consists of the minutes of the May 20-21, 1971 meeting of the Interagency Mechanical Operations Group (IMOG) Numerical Systems Group. This group looks at issues related to numerical control in the machining industry. Items discussed related to the use of CAD and CAM, EIA standards, data links, and numerical control.

  11. AREVA group overview; Presentation du groupe AREVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-02-08

    This document presents the Group Areva, a world nuclear industry leader, from a financial holding company to an industrial group, operating in two businesses: the nuclear energy and the components. The structure and the market of the group are discussed, as the financial assets. (A.L.B.)

  12. An Eavesdropping Detecting Approach Based on Mode-Mode Correlation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Jin; ZENG Gui-Hua; ZHOU Nan-Run

    2005-01-01

    @@ We find that second-order coherence as well as a Hanbury-Brown-Twiss intensity interferometer may provide an optimal approach for eavesdropping detection in the quantum key distribution based on two-mode squeezed'vacuum states. With this approach, eavesdropping can be easily detected without sacrificing extra secret bits as the test key. In addition, the efficiency of the quantum key distribution protocol is enhanced greatly.

  13. Mode-to-mode energy transfers in convective patterns

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mahendra K Verma; Krishna Kumar; Bhaskar Kamble

    2006-12-01

    We investigate the energy transfer between various Fourier modes in a low-dimensional model for thermal convection. We have used the formalism of mode-to-mode energy transfer rate in our calculation. The evolution equations derived using this scheme is the same as those derived using the hydrodynamical equations for thermal convection in Boussinesq fluids. Numerical and analytical studies of this model show that convective rolls appear as the Rayleigh number is raised above its critical value c. Further increase of Rayleigh number generates rolls in the perpendicular directions as well, and we obtain a dynamic asymmetric square pattern. This pattern is due to Hopf bifurcation. There are two sets of limit cycles corresponding to the two competing asymmetric square patterns. When the Rayleigh number is increased further, the limit cycles become unstable simultaneously, and chaotic motion sets in. The onset of chaos is via intermittent route. The trajectories wander for quite a long time almost periodically before jumping irregularly to one of the two ghost limit cycles.

  14. Effective representation of amide III, II, I, and A modes on local vibrational modes: Analysis of ab initio quantum calculation results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Seungsoo

    2016-10-01

    The Hamiltonian matrix for the first excited vibrational states of a protein can be effectively represented by local vibrational modes constituting amide III, II, I, and A modes to simulate various vibrational spectra. Methods for obtaining the Hamiltonian matrix from ab initio quantum calculation results are discussed, where the methods consist of three steps: selection of local vibrational mode coordinates, calculation of a reduced Hessian matrix, and extraction of the Hamiltonian matrix from the Hessian matrix. We introduce several methods for each step. The methods were assessed based on the density functional theory calculation results of 24 oligopeptides with four different peptide lengths and six different secondary structures. The completeness of a Hamiltonian matrix represented in the reduced local mode space is improved by adopting a specific atom group for each amide mode and reducing the effect of ignored local modes. The calculation results are also compared to previous models using C=O stretching vibration and transition dipole couplings. We found that local electric transition dipole moments of the amide modes are mainly bound on the local peptide planes. Their direction and magnitude are well conserved except amide A modes, which show large variation. Contrary to amide I modes, the vibrational coupling constants of amide III, II, and A modes obtained by analysis of a dipeptide are not transferable to oligopeptides with the same secondary conformation because coupling constants are affected by the surrounding atomic environment.

  15. Time-Frequency Analysis of the Dispersion of Lamb Modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prosser, W. H.; Seale, Michael D.; Smith, Barry T.

    1999-01-01

    Accurate knowledge of the velocity dispersion of Lamb modes is important for ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation methods used in detecting and locating flaws in thin plates and in determining their elastic stiffness coefficients. Lamb mode dispersion is also important in the acoustic emission technique for accurately triangulating the location of emissions in thin plates. In this research, the ability to characterize Lamb mode dispersion through a time-frequency analysis (the pseudo Wigner-Ville distribution) was demonstrated. A major advantage of time-frequency methods is the ability to analyze acoustic signals containing multiple propagation modes, which overlap and superimpose in the time domain signal. By combining time-frequency analysis with a broadband acoustic excitation source, the dispersion of multiple Lamb modes over a wide frequency range can be determined from as little as a single measurement. In addition, the technique provides a direct measurement of the group velocity dispersion. The technique was first demonstrated in the analysis of a simulated waveform in an aluminum plate in which the Lamb mode dispersion was well known. Portions of the dispersion curves of the A(sub 0), A(sub 1), S(sub 0), and S(sub 2)Lamb modes were obtained from this one waveform. The technique was also applied for the analysis of experimental waveforms from a unidirectional graphite/epoxy composite plate. Measurements were made both along, and perpendicular to the fiber direction. In this case, the signals contained only the lowest order symmetric and antisymmetric modes. A least squares fit of the results from several source to detector distances was used. Theoretical dispersion curves were calculated and are shown to be in good agreement with experimental results.

  16. About group digital signatures

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Adriana Cristina Enache

    2012-01-01

    ...).A group digital signature is a digital signature with enhanced privacy features that allows members of a given group to anonymously sign messages on behalf of the group, producing a group signature...

  17. The Incubator Concept as an Entry Mode option for SME’s

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Marie Dyhr Ulrich; Svend Hollensen

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the relevance of an alternative entry mode, the incubator concept. Such an alternative entry mode like the so-called incubator is increasingly being used as a shortcut or bridge to a distant market. In-depth qualitative research on a selected case (Kelsen Group selling butter cookies to India) reveals the reasoning behind the entry mode choice of a company entering an emergent market (India). The incubator option provides the opportunity for a company...

  18. Group Therapy Techniques for Sexually Abused Preteen Girls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, Pearl

    1990-01-01

    Describes an open-ended, structured, highly intensive therapy group for sexually abused preteen girls that was the primary mode of treatment for 11 girls from low-income, rural White families with numerous problems. Unique features of the group included simultaneous group and individualized goals. (Author/BB)

  19. Atmospheric type modes in laser fusion targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scannapieco, A. J.

    1981-09-01

    The fluid stability of laser-fusion targets is considered as a stability problem of a pseudo-planetary atmosphere. Three atmospheric type modes are studied; acoustic, gravity, and Lamb modes. The changing character (i.e., growing, oscillatory, or growing-oscillatory) of each is investigated as a function of the density-gradient scale length H of the fluid. A growing class of modes is found which is distinct from the gravity (i.e., Taylor) mode if a gradient in entropy exists in the fluid. These modes are shown to be overstable Lamb modes. Also, the gravity mode is only stable for a distinct band of values of H. These values, at which the density and Lamb modes change character, are derived from the dispersion relation for the modes. Finally, the consequences for laser targets are discussed.

  20. NMR Studies of a New Binding Mode of the Amino Acid Esters by Porphyrinatozinc(Ⅱ)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The binding mode of the amino acid ethyl esters(guest) by 5-(2-carboxylphenyl)-10,15,20-triphenylporphyrinatozinc(Ⅱ)(host 1) was studied by means of 1H NMR spectra. The binding mode is the hydrogen-bonding between the amino group of the guest and the carboxyl group of host 1 plus the coordination between the zinc atom of porphyrinatozinc(Ⅱ) and the carbonyl group of the guest. This is a novel binding mode of the metalloporphyrin to amino acid derivatives.

  1. Normal mode analyses of methyl palmitate all-trans and disordered forms in wagging progressive region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishioka, Tsutomu; Yan, Wenhong; Strauss, Herbert L; Snyder, Robert G

    2003-03-01

    Normal mode analyses are made for methyl palmitate molecule having all-trans or conformational disorders around the ester head group, in order to explain characteristic observed frequency shifts in the wagging progressive region between all-trans and disorder chains in triglyceride molecules. It was found that one gauche conformation at C(alpha)-C(beta) position and 90 degrees rotation of the ester head group in an alkyl chain produce frequency shifts for twisting mode as observed. For wagging modes, contamination of the disorders around the head group makes assignments change and apparent frequency shifts occur.

  2. Three-mode mode-division-multiplexing passive optical network over 12-km low mode-crosstalk FMF using all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Fang; Li, Juhao; Wu, Zhongying; Hu, Tao; Yu, Jinyi; Mo, Qi; He, Yongqi; Chen, Zhangyuan; Li, Zhengbin

    2017-01-01

    We propose three-mode mode-division-multiplexing passive optical network (MDM-PON) based on low mode-crosstalk few-mode fiber (FMF) and all-fiber mode multiplexer/demultiplexer (MUX/DEMUX). The FMF with step-index profile is designed and fabricated for effectively three-independent-spatial-mode transmission and low mode-crosstalk for MDM-PON transmission. The all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX are composed of cascaded mode selective couplers (MSCs), which simultaneously multiplex or demultiplex multiple modes. Based on the low mode-crosstalk of the FMF and all-fiber mode MUX/DEMUX, each optical network unit (ONU) communicates with the optical line terminal (OLT) independently utilizing a different optical linearly polarized (LP) spatial mode in MDM-PON system. We experimentally demonstrate MDM-PON transmission of three independent-spatial-modes over 12-km FMF with 10-Gb/s optical on-off keying (OOK) signal and direct detection.

  3. Decay modes in spontaneous fission

    CERN Document Server

    Gönnenwein, F

    1999-01-01

    Spontaneous fission (SF) is considered to be the choice reaction for studying the influence of shell and pairing effects in fission in general, and in particular their impact on the mass and energy distributions of fission fragments. For the time being some 35 SF reactions have been analysed in detail for elements ranging from Pu up to Rf. Going from the lighter to the heavier actinides both, the distributions of fragment mass (or charge) and of total kinetic energy undergo dramatic changes. It is observed in experiment, however, that these distributions may be well described as a superposition of a few fission modes, each with its own characteristic mass an energy pattern. The experimental modes are traced in theory to fine structures in the potential energy surface of a fissioning nucleus, provided shell and pairing corrections to the basic liquid drop model are accounted for.

  4. Climate Modes of the Phanerozoic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frakes, Lawrence A.; Francis, Jane E.; Syktus, Jozef I.

    1992-11-01

    This book views the Earth's climate as a global system, by describing the evolution of climate throughout the past 600 million years, from the Cambrian to the Quaternary. Palaeoclimates are examined in terms of Cold and Warm modes--phases during which the Earth's climates were either relatively cool with ice forming in high latitudes or when high levels of CO2 led to "greenhouse" warmings and temperate floras and faunas inhabited polar regions. Evidence for climate changes, such as biological indicators, geochemical parameters, and the presence of ice, are compared between these modes. These studies have highlighted the crucial role of tectonics and continental distribution in governing ocean circulation, the distribution of sea ice, sea level changes and global temperature distribution. Orbital forcing and the carbon cycle are also shown as important influences, particularly on short term climatic variations.

  5. Fission modes of mercury isotopes

    CERN Document Server

    Warda, M; Nazarewicz, W

    2012-01-01

    Recent experiments on beta-delayed fission in the mercury-lead region and the discovery of asymmetric fission in $^{180}$Hg [1] have stimulated renewed interest in the mechanism of fission in heavy nuclei. Here we study fission modes and fusion valleys in $^{180}$Hg and $^{198}$Hg using the self-consistent nuclear density functional theory employing Skyrme and Gogny energy density functionals. We show that the observed transition from asymmetric fission in $^{180}$Hg towards more symmetric distribution of fission fragments in $^{198}$Hg can be explained in terms of competing fission modes of different geometries that are governed by shell effects in pre-scission configurations. The density distributions at scission configurations are studied and related to the experimentally observed mass splits.

  6. Introduction to Sporadic Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis J. Boya

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an introduction to finite simple groups, in particular sporadic groups, intended for physicists. After a short review of group theory, we enumerate the 1+1+16=18 families of finite simple groups, as an introduction to the sporadic groups. These are described next, in three levels of increasing complexity, plus the six isolated ''pariah'' groups. The (old five Mathieu groups make up the first, smallest order level. The seven groups related to the Leech lattice, including the three Conway groups, constitute the second level. The third and highest level contains the Monster group M, plus seven other related groups. Next a brief mention is made of the remaining six pariah groups, thus completing the 5+7+8+6=26 sporadic groups. The review ends up with a brief discussion of a few of physical applications of finite groups in physics, including a couple of recent examples which use sporadic groups.

  7. Design and analysis of annulus core few mode EDFA for modal gain equalization

    CERN Document Server

    Gaur, Ankita

    2016-01-01

    Few-mode fiber amplifier is widely under study to overcome the issue of internet traffic in optical communication. This article proposes annulus core few-mode erbium doped fiber (FM-EDF) with annulus or extra annulus doping for amplification of the LP01, LP11, LP21, and LP31 signal mode groups with low differential modal gain (DMG). Our simulations confirm that extra annulus doping helps in reducing DMG of higher order mode groups. We have achieved less than 2.2 dB DMG over C-band for 4-mode groups using extra annulus doping. The proposed EDF would be useful for space division multiplexing (SDM) based optical fiber communication system.

  8. Design and Analysis of Annulus Core Few Mode EDFA for Modal Gain Equalization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaur, Ankita; Rastogi, Vipul

    2016-05-01

    Few-mode fiber amplifier is widely under study to overcome the issue of internet traffic in optical communication. This article proposes annulus core few-mode erbium doped fiber (FM-EDF) with annulus or extra annulus doping for amplification of the LP01, LP11, LP21, and LP31 signal mode groups with low differential modal gain (DMG). Our simulations confirm that extra annulus doping helps in reducing DMG of higher order mode groups. We have achieved less than 2.2 dB DMG over C-band for 4-mode groups using extra annulus doping. The proposed EDF would be useful for space division multiplexing (SDM) based optical fiber communication system.

  9. Dual Mode Slotted Monopole Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-01-05

    of 15 DUAL MODE SLOTTED MONOPOLE ANTENNA STATEMENT OF GOVERNMENT INTEREST [0001] The invention described herein may be manufactured and used by...REFERENCE TO OTHER PATENT APPLICATIONS [0002] None. BACKGROUND OF THE INVENTION (1) Field of the Invention [0003] The present invention is directed...such as this that is capable of radiating at a different frequency below this cutoff. The present invention provides a means by which the overall

  10. Mode S Baseline Radar Tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    range units and 20 azimuth units) overlaying the position of the beacon reports. In the cases analyzed where beacon reports were not radar reinforced ...82/53 j~ C ~ 7 C _ _ _ _ _ _ 4. Title end Su.btitle 5. Neget at. November 1982 MDDE S BASELINE RADAR TRACKIN4G 6. Poelin Orgeuianti.. Cede ACT-100...Ground Clutter 33 Mode S/ARTS III 100-Scan False Radar Track Summary 74 34 Percent Beacon Radar Reinforcement 77 vii INTRODUCTION PURPOSE. The purpose of

  11. Quasiadiabatic modes from viscous inhomogeneities

    OpenAIRE

    Giovannini, Massimo

    2016-01-01

    The viscous inhomogeneities of a relativistic plasma determine a further class of entropic modes whose amplitude must be sufficiently small since curvature perturbations are observed to be predominantly adiabatic and Gaussian over large scales. When the viscous coefficients only depend on the energy density of the fluid the corresponding curvature fluctuations are shown to be almost adiabatic. After addressing the problem in a gauge-invariant perturbative expansion, the same analysis is repea...

  12. Fast Response Liquid Crystal Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-19

    Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 39, No. 6A, Jun. 1, 2000, pp. 527-530. Hajime...Nakamura, et a!., "Bend Transition in Pi-cell" Journal of Applied Physics , vol. 39, No. 11, Nov. 1, 2000, pp. 6368-6375. "Electro-Optical Performance of a...Characteristic of Fringe-Field Switching Mode Depending on Rubbing Direction," S.H. Hong et a!, Journal of Applied Physics vol. 39, No. 6A, Jun. 1, 2000,

  13. Interface modes at step edges of media with anisotropic dispersion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toedt, Jan-Niklas; Mansfeld, Sebastian; Mellem, Daniel; Hansen, Wolfgang; Heitmann, Detlef; Mendach, Stefan

    2016-05-01

    Time-resolved scanning Kerr microscopy data are presented that illustrate the refraction and total reflection of spin waves in a Ni80Fe20 film at a film-thickness step. In our experiments spin waves are excited with microwaves on coplanar wave guides. By changing the orientation of an externally applied magnetic field, we can manipulate the group velocity of the wave and hence control the angle of incidence on the step. An interface mode bound at the step is observed, when the magnetic field vector is perpendicular to the step. We point out the general conditions under which such interface modes can be expected in media with strongly anisotropic dispersion.

  14. Symmetry and resonant modes in platonic grating stacks

    CERN Document Server

    Haslinger, Stewart G; Movchan, Natasha V; McPhedran, Ross C

    2013-01-01

    We study the flexural wave modes existing in finite stacks of gratings containing rigid, zero-radius pins. We group the modes into even and odd classes, and derive dispersion equations for each. We study the recently discovered EDIT (elasto-dynamically inhibited transmission) phenomenon, and relate it to the occurrence of trapped waves of even and odd symmetries being simultaneously resonant. We show how the EDIT interaction may be steered over a wide range of frequencies and angles, using a strategy in which the single-grating reflectance is kept high, so enabling the quality factors of the even and odd resonances to be kept large.

  15. Subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eigenwillig, Christoph M; Wieser, Wolfgang; Biedermann, Benjamin R; Huber, Robert

    2009-03-15

    We demonstrate a subharmonically Fourier domain mode-locked wavelength-swept laser source with a substantially reduced cavity fiber length. In contrast to a standard Fourier domain mode-locked configuration, light is recirculated repetitively in the delay line with the optical bandpass filter used as switch. The laser has a fundamental optical round trip frequency of 285 kHz and can be operated at integer fractions thereof (subharmonics). Sweep ranges up to 95 nm full width centred at 1317 nm are achieved at the 1/5th subharmonic. A maximum sensitivity of 116 dB and an axial resolution of 12 microm in air are measured at an average sweep power of 12 mW. A sensitivity roll-off of 11 dB over 4 mm and 25 dB over 10 mm is observed and optical coherence tomography imaging is demonstrated. Besides the advantage of a reduced fiber length, subharmonic Fourier domain mode locking (shFDML) enables simple scaling of the sweep speed by extracting light from the delay part of the resonator. A sweep rate of 570 kHz is achieved. Characteristic features of shFDML operation, such as power leakage during fly-back and cw breakthrough, are investigated.

  16. A History of Emerging Modes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schmitz Michael

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper I first introduce Tomasello’s notion of thought and his account of its emergence and development through differentiation, arguing that it calls into question the theory bias of the philosophical tradition on thought as well as its frequent atomism. I then raise some worries that he may be overextending the concept of thought, arguing that we should recognize an area of intentionality intermediate between action and perception on the one hand and thought on the other. After that I argue that the co-operative nature of humans is reflected in the very structure of their intentionality and thought: in co-operative modes such as the mode of joint attention and action and the we-mode, they experience and represent others as co-subjects of joint relations to situations in the world rather than as mere objects. In conclusion, I briefly comment on what Tomasello refers to as one of two big open questions in the theory of collective intentionality, namely that of the irreducibility of jointness.

  17. Two modes for dune orientation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrech Du Pont, Sylvain; Narteau, Clément; Gao, Xin

    2015-11-01

    Earth sand seas experience winds that blow with different strengths and from different directions in line with the seasons. In response, dune fields show a rich variety of shapes from small crescentic barchans to big star and linear dunes. Linear dunes often exhibit complex and compound patterns with different length scales and orientations, which seem difficult to relate to a single wind cycle. We present results of underwater experiments and numerical simulations where a single wind regime can lead to two different dunes orientation depending on sediment availability. Sediment availability selects the overriding mechanism for the formation of dunes: increasing in height from the destabilization of a sand bed or elongating in a finger on a non-erodible ground from a localized sand source. These mechanisms drive the dunes orientation. Therefore, dunes alignment maximizes dunes orthogonality to sand fluxes in the bed instability mode, while dunes are aligned with the sand transport direction in the fingering mode. Then, we derive a model for dunes orientation, which explains the coexistence of bedforms with different alignments and quantitatively predicts the orientation of dunes in Earth deserts. Finally, we explore the phase diagram and the stability of the fingering mode.

  18. Characteristics of magnetoacoustic sausage modes

    CERN Document Server

    Inglis, A R; Brady, C S; Nakariakov, V M; 10.1051/0004-6361/200912088

    2013-01-01

    Aims: We perform an advanced study of the fast magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations of coronal loops in the context of MHD coronal seismology to establish the dependence of the sausage mode period and cut-off wavenumber on the plasma-beta of the loop-filling plasma. A parametric study of the ratios for different harmonics of the mode is also carried out. Methods: Full magnetohydrodynamic numerical simulations were performed using Lare2d, simulating hot, dense loops in a magnetic slab environment. The symmetric Epstein profile and a simple step-function profile were both used to model the density structure of the simulated loops. Analytical expressions for the cut-off wavenumber and the harmonic ratio between the second longitudinal harmonic and the fundamental were also examined. Results: It was established that the period of the global sausage mode is only very weakly dependent on the value of the plasma-beta inside a coronal loop, which justifies the application of this model to hot flaring loops. The cut-o...

  19. Protected Edge Modes without Symmetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Levin

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available We discuss the question of when a gapped two-dimensional electron system without any symmetry has a protected gapless edge mode. While it is well known that systems with a nonzero thermal Hall conductance, K_{H}≠0, support such modes, here we show that robust modes can also occur when K_{H}=0—if the system has quasiparticles with fractional statistics. We show that some types of fractional statistics are compatible with a gapped edge, while others are fundamentally incompatible. More generally, we give a criterion for when an electron system with Abelian statistics and K_{H}=0 can support a gapped edge: We show that a gapped edge is possible if and only if there exists a subset of quasiparticle types M such that (1 all the quasiparticles in M have trivial mutual statistics, and (2 every quasiparticle that is not in M has nontrivial mutual statistics with at least one quasiparticle in M. We derive this criterion using three different approaches: a microscopic analysis of the edge, a general argument based on braiding statistics, and finally a conformal field theory approach that uses constraints from modular invariance. We also discuss the analogous result for two-dimensional boson systems.

  20. The tempo and mode of barnacle evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pérez-Losada, Marcos; Harp, Margaret; Høeg, Jens T

    2008-01-01

    (outgroup) species representing almost all the Thoracica families to assess the tempo and mode of barnacle evolution. Using phylogenetic methods of maximum parsimony, maximum likelihood, and Bayesian inference and 14 fossil calibrations, we found that: (1) Iblomorpha form a monophyletic group; (2......) pedunculated barnacles without shell plates (Heteralepadomorpha) are not ancestral, but have evolved, at least twice, from plated forms; (3) the ontogenetic pattern with 5-->6-->8-->12+ plates does not reflect Thoracica shell evolution; (4) the traditional asymmetric barnacles (Verrucidae) and the Balanomorpha......) the Thoracica suborders evolved since the Early Carboniferous (340mya) with the final radiation of the Sessilia in the Upper Jurassic (147mya). These results, therefore, reject many of the underlying hypotheses about character evolution in the Cirripedia Thoracica, stimulate a variety of new thoughts...

  1. Normal mode calculations of trigonal selenium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming Yssing; McMurry, H. L.

    1980-01-01

    symmetry. The intrachain force field is projected from a valence type field including a bond stretch, angle bend, and dihedral torsion. With these coordinates we obtain the strong dispersion of the upper optic modes as observed by neutron scattering, where other models have failed and give flat bands......The phonon dispersion relations for trigonal selenium have been calculated on the basis of a short range potential field model. Electrostatic long range forces have not been included. The force field is defined in terms of symmetrized coordinates which reflect partly the symmetry of the space group....... In this way we have eliminated the ambiguity in the choice of valence coordinates, which has been a problem in previous models which used valence type interactions. Calculated sound velocities and elastic moduli are also given. The Journal of Chemical Physics is copyrighted by The American Institute...

  2. Mode-dependent characterization of photonic lanterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Dawei; Fu, Songnian; Cao, Zizheng; Tang, Ming; Liu, Deming; Giles, Ian; Koonen, Ton; Okonkwo, Chigo

    2016-05-15

    We propose and experimentally demonstrate a simple method for characterizing the power transfer matrix of photonic lanterns (PLs) used for mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission. Due to the optical reflection arising at output facet of the few-mode fiber (FMF), we are able to detect the power at the individual single-mode fiber (SMF) input port and exploit a series of equations based on the theory of energy conservation to obtain mode-dependent characteristics of the PL, including the property of mode selectivity, insertion loss (IL), and channel-dependent loss (CDL). The proposed method is experimentally verified for both the mode selective and the nonmode selective photonic lanterns.

  3. High Polarization Single Mode Photonic Crystal Microlaser

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Wei; XING Ming-Xin; ZHOU Wen-Jun; LIU An-Jin; ZHENG Wan-Hua

    2009-01-01

    Generally,dipole mode is a doubly degenerate mode.Theoretical calculations have indicated that the single dipole mode of two-dimensional photonic crystal single point defect cavity shows high polarization property.We present a structure with elongated lattice,which only supports a single y-dipole mode.With this structure we can eliminate the degeneracy,control the lasing action of the cavity and demonstrate the high polarization property of the single dipole mode.In our experiment,the polarization extinction ratio of the y-dipole mode is as high as 51:1.

  4. Dipole modes with depressed amplitudes in red giants are mixed modes

    CERN Document Server

    Mosser, B; Pincon, C; Takata, M; Vrard, M; Barban, C; Goupil, M-J; Kallinger, T; Samadi, R

    2016-01-01

    Seismic observations have shown that a number of evolved stars exhibit low-amplitude dipole modes, which are referred to as depressed modes. Recently, these low amplitudes have been attributed to the presence of a strong magnetic field in the stellar core of those stars. We intend to study the properties of depressed modes in evolved stars, which is a necessary condition before concluding on the physical nature of the mechanism responsible for the reduction of the dipole mode amplitudes. We perform a thorough characterization of the global seismic parameters of depressed dipole modes and show that these modes have a mixed character. The observation of stars showing dipole mixed modes that are depressed is especially useful for deriving model-independent conclusions on the dipole mode damping. Observations prove that depressed dipole modes in red giants are not pure pressure modes but mixed modes. This result invalidates the hypothesis that the depressed dipole modes result from the suppression of the oscillat...

  5. Neonatal weaning from ventilator: PSV versus SIMV mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeri F

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available "nBackground: The use of synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV and pressure support ventilation (PSV have been used for older children and adults. The purpose of this study was to compare PSV and SIMV modes in weaning from mechanical ventilation in neonate with respiratory failure. "nMethods: A randomized clinical trial study carried out in NICU ward of Valiasr hospital Imam Khomeini Hospital complex, Tehran, Iran. Thirty neonates enrolled in two groups of 15. At the weaning time they randomly assigned to SIMV or PSV. They compared for tidal volume (VT, peak inspiratory pressure (PIP, incidence of pneumothorax, weaning failure and duration of weaning. For two groups to be homogeneous, maternal disease during pregnancy were also considered. "nResults: In this study, VT, PIP, incidence of pneumothorax and weaning failure did not differ between groups; duration of ventilation of the two methods (hours and duration of hospitalization (days were separately calculated. The only meaningful difference in two groups were due to weaning duration. The neonates weaned by PSV mode experienced shorter weaning time. (6.05 hours. The weaning time in SIMV mode was longer (45 hours (P=0.006. There were no other meaningful differences between the two groups "nConclusions: According to the results of this study there were no advantage using PSV over SIMV except that the weaning time were shorter in PSV. This decrease in weaning time causes less dependence of the neonate to the ventilator and as a result secure them from complications.

  6. Extreme group index measured and calculated in 2D SOI-based photonic crystal waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lavrinenko, Andrei; Jacobsen, Rune Shim; Fage-Pedersen, Jacob;

    2005-01-01

    lattice of air-holes in the 216-nm thick silicon layer in an SOI material. Experimental transmission spectra show a mode cut-off around 1562.5 nm for the fundamental photonic bandgap mode. In order to measure and model the group index of modes in the PCW, a time-of-flight (ToF) method is applied....

  7. The Incubator Concept as an Entry Mode Option for Danish SME's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Group selling butter cookies to India) reveals the reasoning behind the entry mode choice of a company entering an emergent market (India). The incubator option provides the opportunity for a company to bridge the ‘gap’ between a low-control entry mode (e.g. importer or distributor) and high...

  8. The Incubator Concept as an Entry Mode Option for Danish SME's

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hollensen, Svend; Dyhr Ulrich, Anna Marie

    2014-01-01

    Group selling butter cookies to India) reveals the reasoning behind the entry mode choice of a company entering an emergent market (India). The incubator option provides the opportunity for a company to bridge the ‘gap’ between a low-control entry mode (e.g. importer or distributor) and high...

  9. 基于日本“官产学”合作模式完善我国职教集团办学体制%Promotion on Our Vocational Education Group Cooperation Mode Based on Research of Japan’s Official Industry-Academic System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗燕

    2015-01-01

    〔Abstract〕 In recent years, the development of vocational education group has sprung up in our country, but in the process of running encountered many problems, which have become a bottleneck in the develop-ment of vocational education group. Japan’s official industry-academic system is formed jointly by the gov-ernment, industry and university scientific research system, whose members has the same effect with voca-tional education group in our country. Based on this, the author in the detailed analysis of the Japanese offi-cial industry-academic cooperation, on the basis of vocational education group, and the problems at present stage in our country, puts forward the increase in government policy and financial support; Formation characteristics professional cooperative ties, determine the unified management system; Based on the pro-ject, the realization group function diversification; The group members benefit maximization in achieving mutually beneficial win-win situation with some countermeasures and suggestions to promote the rapid de-velopment of China’s vocational education group.%近年来,职教集团在我国如雨后春笋般发展起来,但在运行的过程当中遇到了诸多问题,这些已经成为职教集团发展的瓶颈。日本“官产学”是由政府、产业界和大学共同形成的科研体制,从成员组成上来看与我国职教集团有着异曲同工之妙,基于此,笔者在详细剖析日本“官产学”合作的基础上,针对我国现阶段职教集团出现的问题,提出要加大政府在政策和经济上的扶持力度;形成特色专业合作纽带,确定统一管理体制;以项目为依托,实现集团功能多样化;推进集团各成员利益最大化,实现互惠共赢几点对策建议,以促进我国职教集团的长足发展。

  10. Quantum simulation of Dirac fermion mode, Majorana fermion mode and Majorana-Weyl fermion mode in cavity QED lattice

    OpenAIRE

    Sarkar, Sujit

    2014-01-01

    Quantum simulation aims to simulate a quantum system using a controble laboratory system that underline the same mathematical model. Cavity QED lattice system is that prescribe system to simulate the relativistic quantum effect. We quantum simulate the Dirac fermion mode, Majorana fermion mode and Majorana-Weyl fermion mode and a crossover between them in cavity QED lattice. We also present the different analytical relations between the field operators for different mode excitations.

  11. Interferometric detection of mode splitting for whispering gallery mode biosensors

    CERN Document Server

    Knittel, Joachim; Lee, Kwan H; Bowen, Warwick P

    2010-01-01

    Sensors based on whispering gallery mode resonators can detect single nanoparticles and even single molecules. Particles attaching to the resonator induce a doublet in the transmission spectrum which provides a self-referenced detection signal. However, in practice this spectral feature is often obscured by the width of the resonance line which hides the doublet structure. This happens particularly in liquid environments that reduce the effective Q factor of the resonator. In this paper we demonstrate an interferometric set-up that allows the direct detection of the hidden doublet and thus provides a pathway for developing practical sensor applications.

  12. WATERMARKING AUTHENTICATION: USING THE FRAGILE MODE OR THE ROBUST MODE?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Dan; Wu Qianhong; Wang Yumin

    2006-01-01

    Due to the lack of a unified authentication model certain mistakes occurred in the use of the watermarking authentication methods. To clarify the confusion, authentication models of robust and fragile watermarking are developed respectively in the paper. Concrete algorithms are proposed to prove the models that different Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT) domains are utilized to embed the watermarks and quantization method is presented with Just Notice Differences (JNDs) threshold as the quantization size. After the key technologies about the two methods are discussed, we detail the comparison of the two modes and recommend their respective application scenarios as applicable results.

  13. All-fiber mode selective couplers for mode-division-multiplexed optical transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Sun Hyok; Kim, Kwangjoon; Lee, Joon Ki

    2017-01-01

    All-fiber mode selective coupler (MSC) is comprised of a few mode fiber (FMF) and a single mode fiber (SMF), coupling the LP01 mode of the SMF to a specific higher-order mode (HOM) of the FMF. In order to achieve high coupling ratio and low insertion loss, phase-matching condition between the LP01 mode of SMF arm and the HOM of FMF arm should be satisfied. A polished-type MSC is made by getting their cores into intimate contact. Prism coupling with a polished coupler block can measure the effective refractive index of the mode accurately. We propose and demonstrate three kinds of allfiber mode multiplexer that is composed of consecutive MSCs. 4-mode multiplexer can multiplex 4 modes of LP01, LP11, LP21, and LP02 by cascading LP11, LP21, and LP02 MSCs. It is used for MDM transmission of three modes with 120 Gb/s DP-QPSK signals. In order to enhance the signal transmission performance by receiving degenerate LP modes simultaneously, a mode multiplexer to utilize two-fold degenerate LP11 modes is proposed. It is composed of two consecutive LP11 MSCs that allows the multiplexing of LP01 mode and two orthogonal LP11 modes. We demonstrates WDM transmission of 30 wavelength channels with 33.3 GHz spacing, each carrying 3 modes, over 560 km of FMF. 6- mode multiplexer can multiplex 6 modes of LP01, LP11a, LP11b, LP21a, LP21b, LP02 modes. We demonstrated WDM-MDM transmission with the all-fiber 6-mode multiplexer. In this paper, the manufacturing method and the recent advancements of the all-fiber mode multiplexer based on the MSCs are reviewed. Long-distance mode division multiplexing (MDM) optical signal transmissions with the all-fiber mode multiplexer are experimentally demonstrated.

  14. Optically controllable dual-mode switching in single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode subject to one side-mode feedback and external single mode injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-Wei; Won, Yong Hyub

    2017-06-01

    In this paper, broadly tunable dual-mode lasing system is presented and demonstrated based on single-mode Fabry-Pérot laser diode subject to the feedback of one side mode amplified by an erbium-doped fiber amplifier in the external feedback cavity. The spacing between two resonance modes in output lasing spectrum is broadly tuned by introducing differently amplified side mode into the single-mode laser via the external cavity consisted of amplifier, filter, and polarization controller so that two difference frequencies of 1 THz and 0.6 THz are given to display the tunable behavior of dual-mode emission in this work. Therefore, under an external injection mode into the laser condition, the power dependent injection locking and optical bistability of generated dual-mode emission are discussed in detail. At different wavelength detunings, the emitted two resonance modes including the dominant and feedback modes are switched to on- or off-state by selecting proper high-low power level of the external injection mode. As a consequence, the maximum value of achieved dual-mode on-off ratio is as high as up to 45 dB.

  15. The quest for the solar g modes

    CERN Document Server

    Appourchaux, T; Broomhall, A M; Chaplin, W J; Gough, D O; Houdek, G; Provost, J; Baudin, F; Boumier, P; Elsworth, Y; García, R A; Andersen, B; Finsterle, W; Fröhlich, C; Gabriel, A; Grec, G; Jiménez, A; Kosovichev, A; Sekii, T; Toutain, T; Turck-Chièze, S

    2009-01-01

    Solar gravity modes (or g modes) -- oscillations of the solar interior for which buoyancy acts as the restoring force -- have the potential to provide unprecedented inference on the structure and dynamics of the solar core, inference that is not possible with the well observed acoustic modes (or p modes). The high amplitude of the g-mode eigenfunctions in the core and the evanesence of the modes in the convection zone make the modes particularly sensitive to the physical and dynamical conditions in the core. Owing to the existence of the convection zone, the g modes have very low amplitudes at photospheric levels, which makes the modes extremely hard to detect. In this paper, we review the current state of play regarding attempts to detect g modes. We review the theory of g modes, including theoretical estimation of the g-mode frequencies, amplitudes and damping rates. Then we go on to discuss the techniques that have been used to try to detect g modes. We review results in the literature, and finish by looki...

  16. State, Culture and Life-modes. The foundations of Life-mode analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højrup, Thomas

    livsformsanalyse, statsteori, life-mode analysis, statsforms, dialectics, philosophy, war, culture......livsformsanalyse, statsteori, life-mode analysis, statsforms, dialectics, philosophy, war, culture...

  17. Identifying modes of large whispering-gallery mode resonators from the spectrum and emission pattern

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schunk, Gerhard; Fuerst, Josef U.; Förtsch, Michael;

    2014-01-01

    Identifying the mode numbers in whispering-gallery mode resonators (WGMRs) is important for tailoring them to experimental needs. Here we report on a novel experimental mode analysis technique based on the combination of frequency analysis and far-field imaging for high mode numbers of large WGMRs....... The radial mode numbers q and the angular mode numbers p = l-m are identified and labeled via far-field imaging. The polar mode numbers l are determined unambiguously by fitting the frequency differences between individual whispering gallery modes (WGMs). This allows for the accurate determination...

  18. Group Work: How to Use Groups Effectively

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Alison

    2011-01-01

    Many students cringe and groan when told that they will need to work in a group. However, group work has been found to be good for students and good for teachers. Employers want college graduates to have developed teamwork skills. Additionally, students who participate in collaborative learning get better grades, are more satisfied with their…

  19. Small Group Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGrath, Joseph E.

    1978-01-01

    Summarizes research on small group processes by giving a comprehensive account of the types of variables primarily studied in the laboratory. These include group structure, group composition, group size, and group relations. Considers effects of power, leadership, conformity to social norms, and role relationships. (Author/AV)

  20. Free Boolean Topological Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ol’ga Sipacheva

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Known and new results on free Boolean topological groups are collected. An account of the properties that these groups share with free or free Abelian topological groups and properties specific to free Boolean groups is given. Special emphasis is placed on the application of set-theoretic methods to the study of Boolean topological groups.

  1. Constructing the Course Group Teaching System of" Signal and Information Processing" on the Basis of Research-style Teaching Mode%基于研究型教学模式构建“信号信息处理”课程群教学体系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 郭汝静; 秦长海

    2012-01-01

    The research-style teaching mode and information processing course take five courses including the " signals and systems digital signal processing"" MATLAB"" DSP principles and Applications "and" image processing" as the subject of the study. This paper addresses and discusses the content of classroom teaching, the practice of optimization and integration of curriculum content, open operation setting, course thesis or discussion of curriculum design,teacher team construction, innovation of teaching methods, website construction, teaching material construction and other aspects. The purpose of this research is to study how to meet the needs of training talent with strong engineering practical ability and comprehensive application ability.%研究型教学模式、构建信号信息处理课程群建设是以“信号与系统”、“数字信号处理”、“MATLAB编程”、“DSP件原理与应用”、“图像信息处理”五门课程为研究对象,具体围绕课堂讲授内容和实践课程内容优化整合、开放型作业的设置、课程论文或课程讨论的设计、教师团队建设、创新教学手段、网站建设、教材建设等方面进行讨论研究。实现培养具有较强工程实践动手能力和综合应用能力的培养研究型人才的需要。

  2. Discrete-time nonlinear sliding mode controller

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    : Discrete-time delay system, Sliding mode control, nonlinear sliding ... The concept of the sliding mode control in recent years has drawn the ...... His area of interest is dc-dc converters, electrical vehicle and distributed generation application.

  3. Automobile Road Vibration Reproduction using Sliding Modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Monsees, G.; Scherpen, J.M.A.

    2001-01-01

    Sliding mode controllers have a reputation for their robustness against parameter variations, modeling errors and disturbances. They have been successfully applied in several practical situations which demonstrated the potential of sliding mode control for other control problems. However research ha

  4. Path planning during combustion mode switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li; Ravi, Nikhil

    2015-12-29

    Systems and methods are provided for transitioning between a first combustion mode and a second combustion mode in an internal combustion engine. A current operating point of the engine is identified and a target operating point for the internal combustion engine in the second combustion mode is also determined. A predefined optimized transition operating point is selected from memory. While operating in the first combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion engine to approach the selected optimized transition operating point. When the engine is operating at the selected optimized transition operating point, the combustion mode is switched from the first combustion mode to the second combustion mode. While operating in the second combustion mode, one or more engine actuator settings are adjusted to cause the operating point of the internal combustion to approach the target operating point.

  5. Higher order mode optical fiber Raman amplifiers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rottwitt, Karsten; Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Usuga Castaneda, Mario A.

    2016-01-01

    We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations.......We review higher order mode Raman amplifiers and discuss recent theoretical as well as experimental results including system demonstrations....

  6. Guaranteed performance in reaching mode of sliding mode controlled systems

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    G K Singh; K E Holé

    2004-02-01

    Conventionally, the parameters of a sliding mode controller (SMC) are selected so as to reduce the time spent in the reaching mode. Although, an upper bound on the time to reach (reaching time) the sliding surface is easily derived, performance guarantee in the state/error space needs more consideration. This paper addresses the design of constant plus proportional rate reaching law-based SMC for second-order nonlinear systems. It is shown that this controller imposes a bounding second-order error-dynamics, and thus guarantees robust performance during the reaching phase. The choice of the controller parameters based on the time to reach a desirable level of output tracking error (OTE), rather than on the reaching time is proposed. Using the Lyapunov theory, it is shown that parameter selections, based on the reaching time criterion, may need substantially larger time to achieve the OTE. Simulation results are presented for a nonlinear spring-massdamper system. It is seen that parameter selections based on the proposed OTE criterion, result in substantially quicker tracking, while using similar levels of control effort.

  7. Nanowire Plasmon Excitation by Adiabatic Mode Transformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhagen, Ewold; Spasenović, Marko; Polman, Albert; Kuipers, L. (Kobus)

    2009-05-01

    We show with both experiment and calculation that highly confined surface plasmon polaritons can be efficiently excited on metallic nanowires through the process of mode transformation. One specific mode in a metallic waveguide is identified that adiabatically transforms to the confined nanowire mode as the waveguide width is reduced. Phase- and polarization-sensitive near-field investigation reveals the characteristic antisymmetric polarization nature of the mode and explains the coupling mechanism.

  8. Selfhealing of asymmetric Bessel-like modes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Israelsen, Stine Møller; Rishøj, Lars Søgaard; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2014-01-01

    We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability.......We numerically investigate asymmetric Bessel-like modes in an aircladding fiber. The selfhealing ability of asymmetric Bessel-like modes is demonstrated and quantified including the angular dependency of this ability....

  9. Acoustic Rotation Modes in Complex Plasmas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白冬雪; 王正汹; 王晓钢

    2004-01-01

    Acoustic rotation modes in complex plasmas are investigated in a cylindrical system with an axial symmetry.The linear mode solution is derived. The mode in an infinite area is reduced to a classical dust acoustic wave in the region away from the centre. When the dusty plasma is confined in a finite region, the breathing and rotating-void behaviour are observed. Vivid structures of different mode number solutions are illustrated.

  10. Time-domain multimode dispersion measurement in a higher-order-mode fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Ji; Pedersen, Martin E V; Wang, Ke; Xu, Chris; Grüner-Nielsen, Lars; Jakobsen, Dan

    2012-02-01

    We present a new multimode dispersion measurement technique based on the time-of-flight method. The modal delay and group velocity dispersion of all excited modes in a few-mode fiber can be measured simultaneously by a tunable pulsed laser and a high speed sampling oscilloscope. A newly designed higher-order-mode fiber with large anomalous dispersion in the LP(02) mode has been characterized using this method, and experimental results are in good agreement with the designed dispersion values. The demonstrated technique is significantly simpler to implement than the existing frequency-domain or interferometry-based methods.

  11. Plasma depletion layer: the role of the slow mode waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. L. Wang

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The plasma depletion layer (PDL is a layer on the sunward side of the magnetopause with lower plasma density and higher magnetic field compared to their corresponding values in the upstream magnetosheath. The depletion layer usually occurs during northward (IMF conditions with low magnetic shear across the magnetopause. We have previously validated the Raeder global model by comparing the computed formation of a magnetosheath density depletion with in-situ observations. We also have performed a detailed force analysis and found the varying roles that different MHD forces play along the path of a plasma parcel flowing around the magnetopause. That study resulted in a new description of the behavior of magnetosheath magnetic flux tubes which better explains the plasma depletion along a flux tube. The slow mode waves have been observed in the magnetosheath and have been used to explain the formation of the PDL in some of the important PDL models. In this study, we extend our former work by investigating the possible role of the slow mode waves for the formation of the PDL, using global MHD model simulations. We propose a new technique to test where a possible slow mode front may occur in the magnetosheath by comparing the slow mode group velocity with the local flow velocity. We find that the slow mode fronts can exist in certain regions in the magnetosheath under certain solar wind conditions. The existence and location of such fronts clearly depend on the IMF. We do not see from our global simulation results either the sharpening of the slow mode front into a slow mode shock or noticeable changes of the flow and field in the magnetosheath across the slow mode front, which implies that the slow mode front is not likely responsible for the formation of the PDL, at least for the stable solar wind conditions used in these simulations. Also, we do not see the two-layered slow mode structures shown in some observations and proposed in certain PDL

  12. MSUD Family Support Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Group The MSUD Family Support Group is a non-profit 501 (c)(3) organization for those with MSUD ... Family Support Group is a 501(c)(3) non-profit organization with no paid staff. Funds are needed ...

  13. Profinite graphs and groups

    CERN Document Server

    Ribes, Luis

    2017-01-01

    This book offers a detailed introduction to graph theoretic methods in profinite groups and applications to abstract groups. It is the first to provide a comprehensive treatment of the subject. The author begins by carefully developing relevant notions in topology, profinite groups and homology, including free products of profinite groups, cohomological methods in profinite groups, and fixed points of automorphisms of free pro-p groups. The final part of the book is dedicated to applications of the profinite theory to abstract groups, with sections on finitely generated subgroups of free groups, separability conditions in free and amalgamated products, and algorithms in free groups and finite monoids. Profinite Graphs and Groups will appeal to students and researchers interested in profinite groups, geometric group theory, graphs and connections with the theory of formal languages. A complete reference on the subject, the book includes historical and bibliographical notes as well as a discussion of open quest...

  14. Homomorphisms of quantum groups

    CERN Document Server

    Meyer, Ralf; Woronowicz, Stanisław Lech

    2010-01-01

    We introduce some equivalent notions of homomorphisms between quantum groups that behave well with respect to duality of quantum groups. Our equivalent definitions are based on bicharacters, coactions, and universal quantum groups, respectively.

  15. New Modes of Nuclear Excitations

    CERN Document Server

    Tsoneva, Nadia

    2014-01-01

    We present a theoretical approach based on density functional theory supplemented by a microscopic multi-phonon model which is applied for investigations of pygmy resonances and other excitations of different multipolarities in stable and exotic nuclei. The possible relation of low-energy modes to the properties of neutron or proton skins is systematically studied in isotonic and isotopic chains. The fine structure of nuclear electric and magnetic response functions is analyzed and compared to experimental data. Their relevance to nuclear astrophysics is discussed.

  16. Applications of sliding mode control

    CERN Document Server

    Ghommam, Jawhar; Zhu, Quanmin

    2017-01-01

    This book presents essential studies and applications in the context of sliding mode control, highlighting the latest findings from interdisciplinary theoretical studies, ranging from computational algorithm development to representative applications. Readers will learn how to easily tailor the techniques to accommodate their ad hoc applications. To make the content as accessible as possible, the book employs a clear route in each paper, moving from background to motivation, to quantitative development (equations), and lastly to case studies/illustrations/tutorials (simulations, experiences, curves, tables, etc.). Though primarily intended for graduate students, professors and researchers from related fields, the book will also benefit engineers and scientists from industry. .

  17. Language Differences and Operation Mode

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dasi, Angels; Pedersen, Torben

    2013-01-01

    for a foreign market, so that language distance matters in the case of a home-based sales force, while language incidence is key when operating through a local agent. The hypotheses are tested on a large data set encompassing 462 multinational corporations headquartered in Finland, South Korea, New Zealand......Language serves different purposes depending on the international activity in question. Language has many dimensions and firms’ communicative requirements vary by operational platform. We argue that different dimensions of language vary in their importance depending on the operation mode chosen...

  18. Silicon Geiger mode avalanche photodiodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. Mazzillo; S. Billotta; G. Bonanno; A. Campisi; L. Cosentino; P. Finocchiaro; F. Musumeci; S.Privitera; S. Tudisco; G. Condorelli; D. Sanfilippo; G. Fallica; E. Sciacca; S. Aurite; S. Lombardo; E. Rlmini; M. Belluso

    2007-01-01

    In this letter we present the results regarding the electrical and optical characterization of Geiger mode silicon avalanche photodiodes (GMAP) fabricated by silicon standard planar technology. Low dark count rates, negligible afterpulsing effects,good timing resolution and high quantum detection efficiency in all the visible range have been measured. The very good electro-optical performances of our photodiodes make them attractive for the fabrication of arrays with a large number of GMAP to be used both in the commercial and the scientific fields, as telecommunications and nuclear medical imaging.

  19. Modes of relating to music

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Melo Campos

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The concept of modes of relating to music is presented, consisting of three conceptual levels and organized into thirteen analytical dimensions that may be operationalized for the purposes of observing empirical situations. It involves closely examining a diversified set of relationships specific to musical practices, in an integrated manner, qualitatively typifying the forms of enjoying them around two poles: the essential and the relational. Although formulated to analyze professional musicians, it is maintained that the concept is also suitable (with adaptations for the analysis of musical consumptions and other spheres of cultural production (intellectual and artistic.

  20. Principal modes in multimode fibers: exploring the crossover from weak to strong mode coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Xiong, Wen; Bromberg, Yaron; Redding, Brandon; Rotter, Stefan; Cao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    We present experimental and numerical studies on principal modes in a multimode fiber with mode coupling. By applying external stress to the fiber and gradually adjusting the stress, we have realized a transition from weak to strong mode coupling, which corresponds to the transition from single scattering to multiple scattering in mode space. Our experiments show that principal modes have distinct spatial and spectral characteristic in the weak and strong mode coupling regimes. We also investigate the bandwidth of the principal modes, in particular, the dependence of the bandwidth on the delay time, and the effects of the mode-dependent loss. By analyzing the path-length distributions, we discover two distinct mechanisms that are responsible for the bandwidth of principal modes in weak and strong mode coupling regimes. Taking into account the mode-dependent loss in the fiber, our numerical results are in good agreement with our experimental observations. Our study paves the way for exploring potential applica...

  1. Operating Modes Of Chemical Reactors Of Polymerization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meruyert Berdieva

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In the work the issues of stable technological modes of operation of main devices of producing polysterol reactors have been researched as well as modes of stable operation of a chemical reactor have been presented, which enables to create optimum mode parameters of polymerization process, to prevent emergency situations of chemical reactor operation in industrial conditions.

  2. Multimode optical fibers: steady state mode exciter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikeda, M; Sugimura, A; Ikegami, T

    1976-09-01

    The steady state mode power distribution of the multimode graded index fiber was measured. A simple and effective steady state mode exciter was fabricated by an etching technique. Its insertion loss was 0.5 dB for an injection laser. Deviation in transmission characteristics of multimode graded index fibers can be avoided by using the steady state mode exciter.

  3. The ion kinetic D'Angelo mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisov, D. V.; Mikhailenko, V. S.; Stepanov, K. N.

    2011-10-01

    An extension of hydrodynamic D'Angelo mode of inhomogeneous sheared plasma flow along the magnetic field into the short wavelength range, where the hydrodynamic treatment is not valid, has been considered. We find that D'Angelo mode in this wavelength range is excited by inverse ion Landau damping and is a shear flow driven ion-kinetic mode.

  4. Inertial modes of slowly rotating isentropic stars

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, S; Yoshida, Shijun; Lee, Umin

    2000-01-01

    We investigate inertial mode oscillations of slowly and uniformly rotating, isentropic, Newtonian stars. Inertial mode oscillations are induced by the Coriolis force due to the star's rotation, and their characteristic frequencies are comparable with the rotation frequency $\\Omega$ of the star. So called r-mode oscillations form a sub-class of the inertial modes. In this paper, we use the term ``r-modes'' to denote the inertial modes for which the toroidal motion dominates the spheroidal motion, and the term ``inertial modes'' to denote the inertial modes for which the toroidal and spheroidal motions have comparable amplitude to each other. Using the slow rotation approximation consistent up to the order of $\\Omega^3$, we study the properties of the inertial modes and r-modes, by taking account of the effect of the rotational deformation of the equilibrium on the eigenfrequencies and eigenfunctions. The eigenfrequencies of the r-modes and inertial modes calculated in this paper are in excellent agreement with...

  5. Turbo Codes with Hybrid Interleaving Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    In the investigation of turbo codes, either random interleavers or structured interleavers are used. Combined two kinds of interleavers in one turbo encoder, a hybrid interleaving mode is proposed in this paper. Computer simulations show that the performance of turbo codes with the hybrid interleaving mode is better than that with the typical interleaving mode.

  6. Silicon Photonic Integrated Circuit Mode Multiplexer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ding, Yunhong; Ou, Haiyan; Xu, Jing

    2013-01-01

    We propose and demonstrate a novel silicon photonic integrated circuit enabling multiplexing of orthogonal modes in a few-mode fiber (FMF). By selectively launching light to four vertical grating couplers, all six orthogonal spatial and polarization modes supported by the FMF are successfully...

  7. Forms of knowledge and modes of innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Morten Berg; Johnson, Björn; Lorenz, Edward

    2007-01-01

    This paper contrasts two modes of innovation. One, the Science, Technology and Innovation (STI) mode, is based on the production and use of codified scientific and technical knowledge. The other, the Doing, Using and Interacting (DUI) mode, relies on informal processes of learning and experience...

  8. Internal mode of incoherent photovoltaic vector solitons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Bing-Zhi; Wang Hong-Cheng; She Wei-Long

    2007-01-01

    The internal modes of incoherent vector solitons (IVSs) in photovoltaic photorefractive materials are investigated in the framework of coupled nonlinear Schr(o)dinger equations. It is found that there is a pair of internal modes corresponding to a bright-bright IVS. The propagation dynamics of the bright-bright IVS perturbed by the internal modes is simulated by numerical method.

  9. Food Groups Recipes

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    15 pages In 2011, My Plate replaced the Food Pyramid as a visual representation for the USDA Dietary Guidelines. This publication, a group of recipes based on this new division of food groups, reflects the effort of the USDA and other groups to translate science-based research into everyday practice for Americans. Fifteen recipes (3 from each food group) show ways to use foods from each food group. They are complete with basic nutritional analyses and food group amounts.

  10. Failure mode classification of reinforced concrete column using Fisher method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戚永乐; 韩小雷; 季静

    2013-01-01

    In order to apply the performance-based seismic design, an engineer must first find out whether the column is expected to fail in shear before or after flexural yielding. According to column failure characteristics and failure mode of reinforced concrete column, the UW-PEER structure performance database was discussed and analyzed. In order to investigate the relevance of failure mode and factors such as longitudinal reinforcement ratio, transverse reinforcement ratio, hoop spacing to depth ratio, aspect ratio, shearing resistance demand to shear capacity ratio and axial load ratio, Fisher’s discriminant analysis(FDA) of the above factors was carried out. A discriminant function was developed to identify column failure mode. Results show that three factors, i.e., Vp /Vn, hoop spacing to depth ratio and aspect ratio have important influence on the failure mode. The failure mode has less to do with longitudinal reinforcement ratio, transverse reinforcement ratio and axial load ratio. Through using these three factors and the model proposed, over 85.6% of the original grouped cases were correctly classified. The value of coefficient of Vp /Vn is the largest, which means that discriminant equation is most sensitive to the shearing resistance demand to shear capacity ratio.

  11. Children’s Social Desirability: Effects of Test Assessment Mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patricia H.; Baxter, Suzanne D.; Royer, Julie A.; Hitchcock, David B.; Smith, Albert F.; Collins, Kathleen L.; Guinn, Caroline H.; Smith, Alyssa L.; Puryear, Megan P.; Vaadi, Kate K.; Finney, Christopher J.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined a recently developed short version of the Children’s Social Desirability (CSD-S) scale with 157 fourth-grade children. Of interest was a) whether one-month test-retest reliability would vary as a function of test assessment mode (interview or classroom), gender, race, SES, and BMI percentile, and b) whether the degree of social desirability would vary as a function of these same variables. The CSD-S scale showed good test-retest reliability for both interview and classroom assessment modes (.85 and .83, respectively). Internal consistency also was good (first interview administration = .84; first classroom administration = .81). Reliability was good and did not vary significantly over assessment mode or any child subgroup variables, suggesting that the CSD-S scale is appropriate for general use. The interview mode elicited significantly more socially desirable answers than did the classroom mode. Social desirability did not differ across child subgroups. Some of these findings were examined, and replicated, on another sample. Thus, the CSD-S scale may be used with diverse groups of children to a) reliably assess a social desirability bias that may systematically bias other self-reports of interest to researchers and b) examine individual differences in degree of social desirability. PMID:25870465

  12. Children's Social Desirability: Effects of Test Assessment Mode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Patricia H; Baxter, Suzanne D; Royer, Julie A; Hitchcock, David B; Smith, Albert F; Collins, Kathleen L; Guinn, Caroline H; Smith, Alyssa L; Puryear, Megan P; Vaadi, Kate K; Finney, Christopher J

    2015-09-01

    This study examined a recently developed short version of the Children's Social Desirability (CSD-S) scale with 157 fourth-grade children. Of interest was a) whether one-month test-retest reliability would vary as a function of test assessment mode (interview or classroom), gender, race, SES, and BMI percentile, and b) whether the degree of social desirability would vary as a function of these same variables. The CSD-S scale showed good test-retest reliability for both interview and classroom assessment modes (.85 and .83, respectively). Internal consistency also was good (first interview administration = .84; first classroom administration = .81). Reliability was good and did not vary significantly over assessment mode or any child subgroup variables, suggesting that the CSD-S scale is appropriate for general use. The interview mode elicited significantly more socially desirable answers than did the classroom mode. Social desirability did not differ across child subgroups. Some of these findings were examined, and replicated, on another sample. Thus, the CSD-S scale may be used with diverse groups of children to a) reliably assess a social desirability bias that may systematically bias other self-reports of interest to researchers and b) examine individual differences in degree of social desirability.

  13. Vibrational Density Matrix Renormalization Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baiardi, Alberto; Stein, Christopher J; Barone, Vincenzo; Reiher, Markus

    2017-08-08

    Variational approaches for the calculation of vibrational wave functions and energies are a natural route to obtain highly accurate results with controllable errors. Here, we demonstrate how the density matrix renormalization group (DMRG) can be exploited to optimize vibrational wave functions (vDMRG) expressed as matrix product states. We study the convergence of these calculations with respect to the size of the local basis of each mode, the number of renormalized block states, and the number of DMRG sweeps required. We demonstrate the high accuracy achieved by vDMRG for small molecules that were intensively studied in the literature. We then proceed to show that the complete fingerprint region of the sarcosyn-glycin dipeptide can be calculated with vDMRG.

  14. PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexers for mode division multiplexing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saitoh, Kunimasa; Hanzawa, Nobutomo; Sakamoto, Taiji; Fujisawa, Takeshi; Yamashita, Yoko; Matsui, Takashi; Tsujikawa, Kyozo; Nakajima, Kazuhide

    2017-02-01

    Recently developed PLC-based mode multi/demultiplexers (MUX/DEMUXs) for mode division multiplexing (MDM) transmission are reviewed. We firstly show the operation principle and basic characteristics of PLC-based MUX/DEMUXs with an asymmetric directional coupler (ADC). We then demonstrate the 3-mode (2LP-mode) multiplexing of the LP01, LP11a, and LP11b modes by using fabricated PLC-based mode MUX/DEMUX on one chip. In order to excite LP11b mode in the same plane, a PLC-based LP11 mode rotator is introduced. Finally, we show the PLC-based 6-mode (4LP-mode) MUX/DEMUX with a uniform height by using ADCs, LP11 mode rotators, and tapered waveguides. It is shown that the LP21a mode can be excited from the LP11b mode by using ADC, and the two nearly degenerated LP21b and LP02 modes can be (de)multiplexed separately by using tapered mode converter from E13 (E31) mode to LP21b (LP02) mode.

  15. Locally minimal topological groups

    OpenAIRE

    Außenhofer, Lydia; Chasco, María Jesús; Dikranjan, Dikran; Domínguez, Xabier

    2009-01-01

    A Hausdorff topological group $(G,\\tau)$ is called locally minimal if there exists a neighborhood $U$ of 0 in $\\tau$ such that $U$ fails to be a neighborhood of zero in any Hausdorff group topology on $G$ which is strictly coarser than $\\tau.$ Examples of locally minimal groups are all subgroups of Banach-Lie groups, all locally compact groups and all minimal groups. Motivated by the fact that locally compact NSS groups are Lie groups, we study the connection between local minimality and the ...

  16. GROUP PROFILE Computer Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey V. Sidorenkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This article contains a description of the structure, the software and functional capabilities, and the scope and purposes of application of the Group Profile (GP computer technique. This technique rests on a conceptual basis (the microgroup theory, includes 16 new and modified questionnaires, and a unique algorithm, tied to the questionnaires, for identification of informal groups. The GP yields a wide range of data about the group as a whole (47 indices, each informal group (43 indices, and each group member (16 indices. The GP technique can be used to study different types of groups: production (work groups, design teams, military units, etc., academic (school classes, student groups, and sports.

  17. Detailed phase matching characterization of inter-modal four-wave mixing in a two-mode fiber

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis, Søren Michael Mørk; Jung, Y.; Begleris, I.

    2016-01-01

    We experimentally characterize the phase matching properties of two inter-modal four-wave mixing processes in a graded index fiber guiding the LP01 and LP11 mode-groups.......We experimentally characterize the phase matching properties of two inter-modal four-wave mixing processes in a graded index fiber guiding the LP01 and LP11 mode-groups....

  18. Transmission analysis of ultrasonic Lamb mode conversion in a plate with partial-thickness notch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Kailiang; Ta, Dean; Su, Zhongqing; Wang, Weiqi

    2014-01-01

    Mode conversions of Lamb waves can occur upon encountering damage or defect such as a notch, leading to newly-converted modes apart from wave reflection and transmission. In this paper, the transmission of the fundamental Lamb modes symmetrical S0 and anti-symmetrical A0 with anti-symmetrical notches were investigated in steel plates within the relatively short propagation distance. The group velocity and modal energy of the converted modes were analyzed using simulations and experiments. Two-dimensional finite difference time domain (2D-FDTD) method was employed to calculate the scattering field and extract numerical trends for simulation study and experimental confirmation. Both simulations and experiments revealed that the apparent group velocities of the converted modes in the transmitted signals subject to the notch positions. To describe the mode conversion degree and evaluate the notch severity, wave packets of the originally-transmitted modes and newly-converted modes were separated and corresponding mode energy percentages were analyzed at different notch severities. Frequency-sweeping measurements illustrated that the modal energy percentages varied monotonically over the notch-depth increase with a statistically consistency (R=1.00, P<0.0004).

  19. Untangled modes in multimode waveguides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plöschner, Martin; Tyc, TomáÅ.¡; Čižmár, TomáÅ.¡

    2016-03-01

    Small, fibre-based endoscopes have already improved our ability to image deep within the human body. A novel approach introduced recently utilised disordered light within a standard multimode optical fibre for lensless imaging. Importantly, this approach brought very significant reduction of the instruments footprint to dimensions below 100 μm. The most important limitations of this exciting technology is the lack of bending flexibility - imaging is only possible as long as the fibre remains stationary. The only route to allow flexibility of such endoscopes is in trading-in all the knowledge about the optical system we have, particularly the cylindrical symmetry of refractive index distribution. In perfect straight step-index cylindrical waveguides we can find optical modes that do not change their spatial distribution as they propagate through. In this paper we present a theoretical background that provides description of such modes in more realistic model of real-life step-index multimode fibre taking into account common deviations in distribution of the refractive index from its ideal step-index profile. Separately, we discuss how to include the influence of fibre bending.

  20. [Modes of action of IUDs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janaud, A

    1982-05-01

    There are between 14-17 million women in the world, excluding China, who wear an IUD, or about 3-5% of all married women younger than 45. Studies on the mode of action of IUDs have been conducted mostly on laboratory animals; they show that ovulation and fecundation are not inhibited by the presence of an IUD. Contrary to what was generally believed, the latest studies have shown that the principle mode of action of the IUD is not its anti-implantation effect, but it depends on the adjustment inside the uterine cavity between the size of the uterine cavity itself, and the size and shape of the device. Endometrial modifications caused by IUDs include inflammatory phenomena, and inhibition of endometrial maturation. Moreover, copper IUDs act directly on spermatozoa and on endometrial steroid receptors. It is still not clear what role prostaglandins play in the mechanism of action of IUDs. Incidence of ectopic pregnancy is not greater in IUD wearers than in women who do not use contraception. Follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels also are comparable in IUD wearers and in nonwearers. IUD wearers have a shorter luteal phase, which entails an earlier menstrual bleeding due to the antifibrinolytic action of the IUD; progesterone levels are identical in users and in nonusers of IUDs.

  1. Dominant modes via model error

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousuff, A.; Breida, M.

    1992-01-01

    Obtaining a reduced model of a stable mechanical system with proportional damping is considered. Such systems can be conveniently represented in modal coordinates. Two popular schemes, the modal cost analysis and the balancing method, offer simple means of identifying dominant modes for retention in the reduced model. The dominance is measured via the modal costs in the case of modal cost analysis and via the singular values of the Gramian-product in the case of balancing. Though these measures do not exactly reflect the more appropriate model error, which is the H2 norm of the output-error between the full and the reduced models, they do lead to simple computations. Normally, the model error is computed after the reduced model is obtained, since it is believed that, in general, the model error cannot be easily computed a priori. The authors point out that the model error can also be calculated a priori, just as easily as the above measures. Hence, the model error itself can be used to determine the dominant modes. Moreover, the simplicity of the computations does not presume any special properties of the system, such as small damping, orthogonal symmetry, etc.

  2. Localized vibrational modes in diamond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murzaev, R. T.; Bachurin, D. V.; Korznikova, E. A.; Dmitriev, S. V.

    2017-03-01

    Discrete breather (DB) or, synonymously, intrinsic localized mode (ILM) is a spatially localized and time-periodic vibrational mode in a defect-free nonlinear lattice, e.g., in a crystal lattice. Standing DB and DB clusters (double and triple) are studied in diamond using molecular dynamics method with the AIREBO interatomic potentials. Single DB can be easily excited by applying initial shifts, A0, to a pair of nearest atoms along the valence bond in the opposite directions. Admissible excitation amplitudes are 0.09 ≤A0 /a0 ≤ 0.12, where a0 is the equilibrium interatomic distance. The core of a DB is a pair of nearest carbon atoms oscillating out-of-phase, while the neighboring atoms oscillate with one order of magnitude lower amplitudes. DB frequency is above the top of the phonon spectrum and increases with the oscillation amplitude. DB lives for more than 100 oscillation periods which approximately corresponds to 2 ps. The range of initial amplitudes and other conditions necessary for the excitation of double and triple DB clusters as well as their lifetime are investigated in detail. Two different mechanisms of energy exchange between DBs in the DB clusters are revealed, which is the main result of the present study. Our results contribute to a deeper understanding of the nonlinear lattice dynamics of diamond.

  3. Ordered groups and infinite permutation groups

    CERN Document Server

    1996-01-01

    The subjects of ordered groups and of infinite permutation groups have long en­ joyed a symbiotic relationship. Although the two subjects come from very different sources, they have in certain ways come together, and each has derived considerable benefit from the other. My own personal contact with this interaction began in 1961. I had done Ph. D. work on sequence convergence in totally ordered groups under the direction of Paul Conrad. In the process, I had encountered "pseudo-convergent" sequences in an ordered group G, which are like Cauchy sequences, except that the differences be­ tween terms of large index approach not 0 but a convex subgroup G of G. If G is normal, then such sequences are conveniently described as Cauchy sequences in the quotient ordered group GIG. If G is not normal, of course GIG has no group structure, though it is still a totally ordered set. The best that can be said is that the elements of G permute GIG in an order-preserving fashion. In independent investigations around that t...

  4. A novel fairness control mode for Resilient Packet Ring (RPR) network

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Wang; Fu, Songnian; Wu, Chongqing; Zhang, Liren; Shum, P.

    2005-11-01

    Resilient Packet Ring (RPR), defined by the IEEE 802.17 working group, is a new solution to metropolitan area network. RPR adopts the packet-based dual ring structure so that it can provide the protection capability similar to the SDH as well as dynamic bandwidth allocation. The design of fairness control mechanism to allocate the bandwidth is a key problem for RPR. Currently, two different modes of fairness algorithm have been proposed in the RPR standard, the aggressive mode (AM) and the conservative mode (CM). However, there are several limitations for these modes, such as the amount of the bandwidth allocated oscillates permanently under unbalanced traffic scenarios. In this paper, we propose a novel fairness control mode. The simulation experiment shows the range of traffic oscillation controlled by our mode is significantly damped compared to current RPR algorithm.

  5. [Two possible modes of memory trace reproduction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natishvili, T; Bagashvili, T; Andronikashvili, G; Chipashvili, S; Kvernadze, G

    2011-11-01

    The current study tested spatial memory in 8 adult domestic cats using a spatial delayed response ("DR") memory task. Two existing different variants of that task were used by us in 8 adult domestic cats. One group of 4 cats was tested in the direct variant ("DDR"), while other group of 4 cats was trained to perform indirect variant ("IDDR"). DDR was based on the visual perception of baited food wells located in different places of large room which was rich of distal landmarks; testing of DDR proceeded initially with short delay intervals (minutes) followed after attainment of correct performance criterion (80% of correct responses during two consecutive days, each encompassing 20 trials of DDR), by long delays including one hour. In parallel other four cats were tested in NDDR situation. In that case before memory testing in cats was established quite strong (100% correct) visual discrimination of two different visual stimuli of the "go left - go right" type. Afterwards actual testing of IDDR was issued just with the same program of different delay presentations as was used in preceding DDR situation. Results obtained convinced us, that results of two different methods of DR testing might be explained by different modes of trace retrieval (reproduction) from the visuospatial memory stores - one working in DDR is based on the "cue recall" aided by distal landmarks, presented in DDR situations, and the other working in NDDR based on the "cue recognition" aided by visual discrimination of visual conditioned stimuli.

  6. Dispersion of coupled mode-gap cavities

    CERN Document Server

    Lian, Jin; Yüce, Emre; De Rossi, Sylvain Combrié Alfredo; Mosk, Allard P

    2015-01-01

    The dispersion of a CROW made of photonic crystal mode-gap cavities is pronouncedly asymmetric. This asymmetry cannot be explained by the standard tight binding model. We show that the fundamental cause of the asymmetric dispersion is the fact that the cavity mode profile itself is dispersive, i.e., the mode wave function depends on the driving frequency, not the eigenfrequency. This occurs because the photonic crystal cavity resonances do not form a complete set. By taking into account the dispersive mode profile, we formulate a mode coupling model that accurately describes the asymmetric dispersion without introducing any new free parameters.

  7. Digital holograms for laser mode multiplexing

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mhlanga, T

    2014-10-02

    Full Text Available : spatial modes, multiplex, mode coupling 1. INTRODUCTION Optical networks form a foundation of modern communications networks since the replacement of copper wires with optical fibres in the 1980’s. This fibre technology has been based on single mode fibres... been show that aberrated wave fronts result in a distorted modal spectrum.7 We illustrate that by taking this into account, we can successful multiplex and demultiplexed the LG modes of two degrees of freedom in free-space, with minimized mode coupling...

  8. Distributed mode filtering rod fiber amplifier delivering 292W with improved mode stability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laurila, Marko; Jørgensen, Mette Marie; Hansen, Kristian Rymann

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a high power fiber (85μm core) amplifier delivering up to 292Watts of average output power using a mode-locked 30ps source at 1032nm. Utilizing a single mode distributed mode filter bandgap rod fiber, we demonstrate 44% power improvement before the threshold-like onset of mode...

  9. Tearing mode instability due to anomalous resistivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furuya, Atsushi [Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan); Itoh, Sanae I.; Yagi, Masatoshi [Kyushu Univ., Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    2000-09-01

    Tearing mode instability in the presence of microscopic truculence is investigates. The effects of microscopic turbulence on tearing mode are taken as drags which are calculated by one-point renormalization method and mean-field approximation. These effects are reduced to effective diffusivities in reduced MHD equations. Using these equations, the stability analyses of the tearing mode are performed. It is shown that a finite amplitude of fluctuation enhances the growth rate of tearing mode. For very high values of turbulent diffusivities, marginally stable state exists. The effects of each turbulent diffusivity on mode stability are examined near marginal stability boundary. Parameter dependence of the resistive ballooning mode turbulence on tearing mode is analyzed as an example. (author)

  10. New Edge Coherent Mode Providing Continuous Transport in Long-Pulse H-mode Plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H. Q.; Xu, G. S.; Wan, B. N.; Ding, S. Y.; Guo, H. Y.; Shao, L. M.; Liu, S. C.; Xu, X. Q.; Wang, E.; Yan, N.; Naulin, V.; Nielsen, A. H.; Rasmussen, J. Juul; Candy, J.; Bravenec, R.; Sun, Y. W.; Shi, T. H.; Liang, Y. F.; Chen, R.; Zhang, W.; Wang, L.; Chen, L.; Zhao, N.; Li, Y. L.; Liu, Y. L.; Hu, G. H.; Gong, X. Z.

    2014-05-01

    An electrostatic coherent mode near the electron diamagnetic frequency (20-90 kHz) is observed in the steep-gradient pedestal region of long pulse H-mode plasmas in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak, using a newly developed dual gas-puff-imaging system and diamond-coated reciprocating probes. The mode propagates in the electron diamagnetic direction in the plasma frame with poloidal wavelength of ˜8 cm. The mode drives a significant outflow of particles and heat as measured directly with the probes, thus greatly facilitating long pulse H-mode sustainment. This mode shows the nature of dissipative trapped electron mode, as evidenced by gyrokinetic turbulence simulations.

  11. Observaton of tunneling of slow and fast electromagnetic modes in coupled periodic waveguides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ha, Sangwoo; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Lavrinenko, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    We report the experimental observation of tunneling of slow and fast electromagnetic modes in coupled periodic waveguides shifted longitudinally by half of modulation period. According to the symmetry analysis, such a coupler supports two electromagnetic modes with exactly matched slow or fast...... group velocities but different phase velocities for frequencies close to the edge of the photonic band. We confirm the predicted properties of the modes by directly extracting their dispersion and group velocities from the near-field measurements using specialized Bloch-wave spectral analysis method....

  12. Communication in Organizational Groups

    OpenAIRE

    Monica RADU

    2007-01-01

    Organizational group can be defined as some persons between who exist interactive connections (functional, communication, affective, normative type). Classification of these groups can reflect the dimension, type of relationship or type of rules included. Organizational groups and their influence over the individual efficiency and the efficiency of the entire group are interconnected. Spontaneous roles in these groups sustain the structure of the relationship, and the personality of each indi...

  13. GATS Mode 4 Negotiation and Policy Options

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kil-Sang Yoo

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available This study reviews the characteristics and issues of GATS Mode 4 and guesses the effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market to suggest policy options to Korea. Mode 4 negotiation started from the trade perspective, however, since Mode 4 involves international labor migration, it also has migration perspective. Thus developed countries, that have competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of skilled workers such as intra-company transferees and business visitors. On the other hand, developing countries, that have little competitiveness in service sector, are interested in free movement of low-skilled workers. Empirical studies predict that the benefits of Mode 4 liberalization will be focused on developed countries rather than developing countries. The latter may suffer from brain drain and reduction of labor supply. Nevertheless developed countries are reluctant to Mode 4 negotiation because they can utilize skilled workers from developing countries by use of their own temporary visa programs. They are interested in Mode 4 related with Mode 3 in order to ease direct investment and movement of natural persons to developing countries. Regardless of the direction of a single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation, the net effects of Mode 4 liberalization on Korean economy and labor market may be negative. The Korean initial offer on Mode 4 is the same as the UR offer. Since Korean position on Mode 4 is most defensive, it is hard to expect that Korean position will be accepted as the single undertaking of Mode 4 negotiation. Thus Korea has to prepare strategic package measures to minimize the costs of Mode 4 liberalization and improve competitiveness of service sector.

  14. “1+1+3”三段化教学模式下的城乡规划专业核心课程群优化研究∗%Study on Optimization of Urban and Rural Planning Specialty Core Curriculum Group in “1+1+3”Three Segment Type Teaching Mode

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕静

    2015-01-01

    Jilin Jianzhu University takes the new requirement to adapt to the discipline and professional development as the starting point. According to process of specialty cognition of students and professional teaching rules, the school actively promote the reform in teaching basic platform , the teaching contents and the curriculum system. The college focus on the connection of course group construction in the longitudinal and transverse in optimization study of core curriculum group , to ensure to cultivate students' ability to smoothly connected among different stages and to achieve the teaching reform which takes "thick foundation, high quality, strong ability"as the core, and takes the practicing ability promotion as the goal.%吉林建筑大学以适应城乡规划学学科建设及专业发展的新要求为出发点,根据学生对专业的认知进程和专业教学的规律,积极推进在课程体系、教学基础平台和教学内容的改革,从而建构起“1+1+3”的三段化教学模式。在核心课程群优化研究上注重课程群建设在纵向和横向的衔接,以确保学生能力的培养在各阶段之间得以顺畅衔接,架构学生“厚基础、高素质、强能力”为核心能力培养的教学改革目标。

  15. Gauge Invariance and Equations of Motion for Closed String Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Sathiapalan, B

    2014-01-01

    We continue earlier discussions on the exact renormalization group and loop variables on the string world sheet for closed and open string backgrounds. The world sheet action with a UV regulator is written in a generally background covariant way by introducing a background metric. It is shown that the renormalization group gives background covariant equations of motion - this is the gauge invariance of the graviton. Interaction is written in terms of gauge invariant and generally covariant field strength tensors. The basic idea is to work in Riemann normal coordinates and covariantize the final equation. It turns out that the equations for massive modes are gauge invariant only if the space time curvature of the (arbitrary) background is zero. The exact RG equations give quadratic equations of motion for all the modes {\\em including} the physical graviton. The level $(2,\\bar 2)$ massive field equations are used to illustrate the techniques. At this level there are mixed symmetry tensors. Gauge invariant inter...

  16. Mode-selective optical packet switching in mode-division multiplexing networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulos, N P; Hayashi, M; Yoshida, Y; Maruta, A; Maruyama, R; Kuwaki, N; Takenaga, K; Uemura, H; Matsuo, S; Kitayama, K

    2015-09-07

    A novel mode-selective optical packet switching, based on mode-multiplexers/demultiplexers and multi-port optical micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) switches, has been proposed and experimentally demonstrated. The experimental demonstration was performed using the LP(01), LP(11a) and LP(11b) modes of a 30-km long mode-division multiplexed few-mode fiber link, utilizing 40 Gb/s, 16-QAM signals.

  17. Quantum Collapse and Revival of Atom in Mode-Mode Competing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Qin; FANG Mao-Fa

    2005-01-01

    The atomic inversion dynamics in the mode-mode competing system is studied by means of fully quantum theory. A general solution to the Schrodinger equation of this system is obtained. The influence of the relative competing strength between the atom and the two-mode field on the atomic inversion is disccussed. We show that the presence of the mode-mode competition can result in periodical collapses-revivals of the atomic inversion.

  18. The MODES_SNM project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curioni, A.

    2013-05-01

    MODES SNM is a collaborative project (funded under the FP7 - Security program), aimed at developing a prototype for a mobile, modular detection system for radioactive and Special Nuclear Materials (SNM). To maximize the detection capability for SNM, the prototype will combine detectors for fast and thermal neutrons, as well as for gamma-rays. The key detector technology in the development is high pressure scintillation cells filled with noble gases, as recently developed by ARKTIS. The project started officially at the beginning of 2012, for a duration of 30 months. The goal of the project is to deliver a fully integrated and field tested prototype of a modular mobile system capable of passively detecting weak or shielded radioactive sources with accuracy higher than currently available systems. We will present the status of the project, preliminary results and future prospects.

  19. A Collaborative Writing Mode for Avoiding Blind Modifications

    OpenAIRE

    Ignat, Claudia,; Oster, Gérald; Molli, Pascal; Skaf-Molli, Hala

    2007-01-01

    International audience; Existing collaborative environments such as Wiki or version control systems allow users to work in isolation, but they do not prevent blind modifications. For instance, users may concurrently perform the same task or they might work on obsolete versions of shared documents. We propose a novel writing mode for avoiding blind modifications by providing real-time information about group activities. Changes performed concurrently are filtered according to user privacy pref...

  20. Sliding-Mode Formation Control for Cooperative Autonomous Mobile Robots

    OpenAIRE

    Defoort, Michael; Floquet, Thierry; Kökösy, Annemarie; Perruquetti, Wilfrid

    2008-01-01

    International audience; This paper considers the control of a group of autonomous mobile robots. A coordinated control scheme based on a leader-follower approach is developed to achieve formation maneuvers. First and second order sliding mode controllers are proposed for asymptotically stabilizing the vehicles to a time-varying desired formation. The latter controller, based on the relative motion states, eliminates the need for measurement or estimation of the leader velocity. It enables for...

  1. Group Psychotherapy in Iceland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ívarsson, Ómar

    2015-10-01

    In this overview of group psychotherapy in Iceland, an attempt will be made to describe how it is practiced today, give some glimpses into its earlier history, and clarify seven issues: (1) the standing of group psychotherapy in Iceland, its previous history, and the theoretical orientation of dynamic group therapy in the country; (2) the role of group therapy in the health care system; (3) how training in group therapy is organized; (4) the relationship between group psychotherapy research and clinical practice; (5) which issues/processes can be identified as unique to therapy groups in Iceland; and (6) how important are group-related issues within the social background of the country; and (7) what group work holds for the future.

  2. Locally minimal topological groups

    CERN Document Server

    enhofer, Lydia Au\\ss; Dikranjan, Dikran; Domínguez, Xabier

    2009-01-01

    A Hausdorff topological group $(G,\\tau)$ is called locally minimal if there exists a neighborhood $U$ of 0 in $\\tau$ such that $U$ fails to be a neighborhood of zero in any Hausdorff group topology on $G$ which is strictly coarser than $\\tau.$ Examples of locally minimal groups are all subgroups of Banach-Lie groups, all locally compact groups and all minimal groups. Motivated by the fact that locally compact NSS groups are Lie groups, we study the connection between local minimality and the NSS property, establishing that under certain conditions, locally minimal NSS groups are metrizable. A symmetric subset of an abelian group containing zero is said to be a GTG set if it generates a group topology in an analogous way as convex and symmetric subsets are unit balls for pseudonorms on a vector space. We consider topological groups which have a neighborhood basis at zero consisting of GTG sets. Examples of these locally GTG groups are: locally pseudo--convex spaces, groups uniformly free from small subgroups (...

  3. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    CERN Document Server

    Gil, J I Burgos

    2009-01-01

    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov context, of the higher algebraic Chow groups defined by Bloch. The degree zero group agrees with the arithmetic Chow groups of Burgos. Our new construction is shown to be a contravariant functor and is endowed with a product structure, which is commutative and associative.

  4. CMB anisotropies from a gradient mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2015-03-01

    A linear gradient mode must have no observable dynamical effect on short distance physics. We confirm this by showing that if there was such a gradient mode extending across the whole observable Universe, it would not cause any hemispherical asymmetry in the power of CMB anisotropies, as long as Maldacena's consistency condition is satisfied. To study the effect of the long wavelength mode on short wavelength modes, we generalize the existing second order Sachs-Wolfe formula in the squeezed limit to include a gradient in the long mode and to account for the change in the location of the last scattering surface induced by this mode. Next, we consider effects that are of second order in the long mode. A gradient mode Φ = qṡx generated in Single-field inflation is shown to induce an observable quadrupole moment. For instance, in a matter-dominated model it is equal to Q = 5(qṡx)2/18. This quadrupole can be canceled by superposition of a quadratic perturbation. The result is shown to be a nonlinear extension of Weinberg's adiabatic modes: a long-wavelength physical mode which looks locally like a coordinate transformation.

  5. Teachers' Leadership and Students' Experience of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar Chiriac, Eva; Granstrom, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    Group work is used as a means of learning at all levels of most educational systems. However, teachers often use group work without considering its "pros and cons." Such a mode of non-reflected application may sometimes end up in positive experiences and learning, but the likelihood is that the outcome will be the opposite. The aim of this…

  6. Teachers' Leadership and Students' Experience of Group Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammar Chiriac, Eva; Granstrom, Kjell

    2012-01-01

    Group work is used as a means of learning at all levels of most educational systems. However, teachers often use group work without considering its "pros and cons." Such a mode of non-reflected application may sometimes end up in positive experiences and learning, but the likelihood is that the outcome will be the opposite. The aim of…

  7. Applied group theory selected readings in physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cracknell, Arthur P

    1968-01-01

    Selected Readings in Physics: Applied Group Theory provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of applied group theory. This book discusses the properties of symmetry of a system in quantum mechanics.Organized into two parts encompassing nine chapters, this book begins with an overview of the problem of elastic vibrations of a symmetric structure. This text then examines the numbers, degeneracies, and symmetries of the normal modes of vibration. Other chapters consider the conditions under which a polyatomic molecule can have a stable equilibrium configuration when its electronic

  8. Polarization-maintaining higher-order mode fiber module with anomalous dispersion at 1 μm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Stine Højer Møller; Pedersen, Martin Erland Vestergaard; Grüner-Nielsen, L.

    2012-01-01

    This Letter demonstrates a polarization-maintaining higher-order mode fiber module that has anomalous dispersion at 1 μm. The group velocity dispersion of the module is measured, showing a split of the two polarization axes. The excellent polarization-maintaining properties of the relevant fiber...... modes for the higher-order mode fiber are likewise demonstrated employing a new simple method for the measurement of the beat length of higher-order modes at a single wavelength. The higher-order fiber module is intended for group velocity dispersion compensation....

  9. Polarization-maintaining higher-order mode fiber module with anomalous dispersion at 1 μm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, S H M; Pedersen, M E V; Grüner-Nielsen, L; Yan, M F; Monberg, E M; Wisk, P W; Rottwitt, K

    2012-10-15

    This Letter demonstrates a polarization-maintaining higher-order mode fiber module that has anomalous dispersion at 1 μm. The group velocity dispersion of the module is measured, showing a split of the two polarization axes. The excellent polarization-maintaining properties of the relevant fiber modes for the higher-order mode fiber are likewise demonstrated employing a new simple method for the measurement of the beat length of higher-order modes at a single wavelength. The higher-order fiber module is intended for group velocity dispersion compensation.

  10. Working with Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Joan, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes nine Canadian programs for counseling groups of students. Topics include introducing computer-assisted guidance, future challenges for counselors, sociometry, sexuality, parent counseling, reluctant students, shyness, peer groups, education for living, and guidance advisory committees. (JAC)

  11. Gestalt Interactional Groups

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, Robert L.; Franklin, Richard W.

    1975-01-01

    Gestalt therapy in groups is not limited to individual work in the presence of an audience. Describes several ways to involve gestalt groups interactionally. Interactions described focus on learning by doing and discovering, and are noninterpretive. (Author/EJT)

  12. Group B streptococcus - pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000511.htm Group B streptococcus - pregnancy To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a type of bacteria that ...

  13. Group Decision Process Support

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtze, John; Hijikata, Masao

    1997-01-01

    Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists.......Introducing the notion of Group Decision Process Support Systems (GDPSS) to traditional decision-support theorists....

  14. About group digital signatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Cristina Enache

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Group signatures try to combine security (no framing, no cheating and privacy(anonymity, unlinkability.A group digital signature is a digital signature with enhanced privacy features that allows members of a given group to anonymously sign messages on behalf of the group, producing a group signature. However, in the case of dispute the identity of the signature's originator can be revealed by a designated entity (group manager. The present paper describes the main concepts about group signatures, along with a brief state of the art and shows a personal cryptographic library implemented in Java that includes two group signatures.

  15. Fast Overlapping Group Lasso

    CERN Document Server

    Liu, Jun

    2010-01-01

    The group Lasso is an extension of the Lasso for feature selection on (predefined) non-overlapping groups of features. The non-overlapping group structure limits its applicability in practice. There have been several recent attempts to study a more general formulation, where groups of features are given, potentially with overlaps between the groups. The resulting optimization is, however, much more challenging to solve due to the group overlaps. In this paper, we consider the efficient optimization of the overlapping group Lasso penalized problem. We reveal several key properties of the proximal operator associated with the overlapping group Lasso, and compute the proximal operator by solving the smooth and convex dual problem, which allows the use of the gradient descent type of algorithms for the optimization. We have performed empirical evaluations using the breast cancer gene expression data set, which consists of 8,141 genes organized into (overlapping) gene sets. Experimental results demonstrate the eff...

  16. Generalized Group Signature Scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The concept of generalized group signature scheme will bepresent. Based on the generalized secret sharing scheme proposed by Lin and Ha rn, a non-interactive approach is designed for realizing such generalized group signature scheme. Using the new scheme, the authorized subsets of the group in w hich the group member can cooperate to produce the valid signature for any messa ge can be randomly specified

  17. Multicultural group work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Annette Skovsted

    2014-01-01

    Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds.......Motivation for the activity I use this strategy for forming groups to ensure diverse/multicultural groups that combine a variety of different strengths and resources based on student's academic, disciplinary, linguistic, national, personal and work backgrounds....

  18. Nonlinear r-Modes in Neutron Stars Instability of an unstable mode

    CERN Document Server

    Gressman, P T; Suen, W M; Stergioulas, N; Friedman, J L; Gressman, Philip; Lin, Lap-Ming; Suen, Wai-Mo; Friedman, John L.

    2002-01-01

    We study the dynamical evolution of a large amplitude r-mode by numerical simulations. R-modes in neutron stars are unstable growing modes, driven by gravitational radiation reaction. In these simulations, r-modes of amplitude unity or above are destroyed by a catastrophic decay: A large amplitude r-mode gradually leaks energy into other fluid modes, which in turn act nonlinearly with the r-mode, leading to the onset of the rapid decay. As a result the r-mode suddenly breaks down into a differentially rotating configuration. The catastrophic decay does not appear to be related to shock waves at the star's surface. The limit it imposes on the r-mode amplitude is significantly smaller than that suggested by previous fully nonlinear numerical simulations.

  19. Groups, combinatorics and geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Ivanov, A A; Saxl, J

    2003-01-01

    Over the past 20 years, the theory of groups in particular simplegroups, finite and algebraic has influenced a number of diverseareas of mathematics. Such areas include topics where groups have beentraditionally applied, such as algebraic combinatorics, finitegeometries, Galois theory and permutation groups, as well as severalmore recent developments.

  20. Asymmetry within social groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barker, Jessie; Loope, Kevin J.; Reeve, H. Kern

    2016-01-01

    Social animals vary in their ability to compete with group members over shared resources and also vary in their cooperative efforts to produce these resources. Competition among groups can promote within-group cooperation, but many existing models of intergroup cooperation do not explicitly account...

  1. Higher arithmetic Chow groups

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gil, J. I. Burgos; Feliu, Elisenda

    2012-01-01

    We give a new construction of higher arithmetic Chow groups for quasi-projective arithmetic varieties over a field. Our definition agrees with the higher arithmetic Chow groups defined by Goncharov for projective arithmetic varieties over a field. These groups are the analogue, in the Arakelov co...

  2. Transient analysis mode participation for modal survey target mode selection using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Alan R.; Ibrahim, Omar M.; Sullivan, Timothy L.; Goodnight, Thomas W.

    1994-01-01

    Many methods have been developed to aid analysts in identifying component modes which contribute significantly to component responses. These modes, typically targeted for dynamic model correlation via a modal survey, are known as target modes. Most methods used to identify target modes are based on component global dynamic behavior. It is sometimes unclear if these methods identify all modes contributing to responses important to the analyst. These responses are usually those in areas of hardware design concerns. One method used to check the completeness of target mode sets and identify modes contributing significantly to important component responses is mode participation. With this method, the participation of component modes in dynamic responses is quantified. Those modes which have high participation are likely modal survey target modes. Mode participation is most beneficial when it is used with responses from analyses simulating actual flight events. For spacecraft, these responses are generated via a structural dynamic coupled loads analysis. Using MSC/NASTRAN DMAP, a method has been developed for calculating mode participation based on transient coupled loads analysis results. The algorithm has been implemented to be compatible with an existing coupled loads methodology and has been used successfully to develop a set of modal survey target modes.

  3. On Quasinormal Modes, Black Hole Entropy, and Quantum Geometry

    CERN Document Server

    Corichi, A

    2003-01-01

    Loop quantum gravity can account for the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole provided a free parameter is chosen appropriately. Recently it was proposed that a new choice of parameter could predict both black hole entropy and the frequencies of quasinormal modes in the large $n$ limit, but at the price of changing the gauge group of the theory. In this note we use a simple physical argument to support SU(2) as the relevant gauge group. The argument uses strongly the necessity of having fermions satisfying basic conservation principles.

  4. Mode analysis of numerical geodynamo models

    CERN Document Server

    Schrinner, Martin; Hoyng, Peter

    2011-01-01

    It has been suggested in Hoyng (2009) that dynamo action can be analysed by expansion of the magnetic field into dynamo modes and statistical evaluation of the mode coefficients. We here validate this method by analysing a numerical geodynamo model and comparing the numerically derived mean mode coefficients with the theoretical predictions. The model belongs to the class of kinematically stable dynamos with a dominating axisymmetric, antisymmetric with respect to the equator and non-periodic fundamental dynamo mode. The analysis requires a number of steps: the computation of the so-called dynamo coefficients, the derivation of the temporally and azimuthally averaged dynamo eigenmodes and the decomposition of the magnetic field of the numerical geodynamo model into the eigenmodes. For the determination of the theoretical mode excitation levels the turbulent velocity field needs to be projected on the dynamo eigenmodes. We compare the theoretically and numerically derived mean mode coefficients and find reason...

  5. Surface acoustic wave mode conversion resonator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, S. J.; Gunshor, R. L.; Melloch, M. R.; Datta, S.; Pierret, R. F.

    1983-08-01

    The fact that a ZnO-on-Si structure supports two distinct surface waves, referred to as the Rayleigh and the Sezawa modes, if the ZnO layer is sufficiently thick is recalled. A description is given of a unique surface wave resonator that operates by efficiently converting between the two modes at the resonant frequency. Since input and output coupling is effected through different modes, the mode conversion resonator promises enhanced out-of-band signal rejection. A Rayleigh wave traversing the resonant cavity in one direction is reflected as a Sezawa wave. It is pointed out that the off-resonance rejection of the mode conversion resonator could be enhanced by designing the transducers to minimize the level of cross coupling between transducers and propagating modes.

  6. Mode Switching and Filtering in Nanowire Lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röder, Robert; Sidiropoulos, Themistoklis P H; Buschlinger, Robert; Riediger, Max; Peschel, Ulf; Oulton, Rupert F; Ronning, Carsten

    2016-04-13

    Coherent light sources confining the light below the vacuum wavelength barrier will drive future concepts of nanosensing, nanospectroscopy, and photonic circuits. Here, we directly image the angular emission of such a light source based on single semiconductor nanowire lasers. It is confirmed that the lasing switches from the fundamental mode in a thin ZnO nanowire to an admixture of several transverse modes in thicker nanowires approximately at the multimode cutoff. The mode competition with higher order modes substantially slows down the laser dynamics. We show that efficient photonic mode filtering in tapered nanowires selects the desired fundamental mode for lasing with improved performance including power, efficiency, and directionality important for an optimal coupling between adjacent nanophotonic waveguides.

  7. Interchange mode excited by trapped energetic ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, Seiya, E-mail: n-seiya@kobe-kosen.ac.jp [Kobe City College of Technology, Kobe, Hyogo 651-2194 (Japan)

    2015-07-15

    The kinetic energy principle describing the interaction between ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) modes with trapped energetic ions is revised. A model is proposed on the basis of the reduced ideal MHD equations for background plasmas and the bounce-averaged drift-kinetic equation for trapped energetic ions. The model is applicable to large-aspect-ratio toroidal devices. Specifically, the effect of trapped energetic ions on the interchange mode in helical systems is analyzed. Results show that the interchange mode is excited by trapped energetic ions, even if the equilibrium states are stable to the ideal interchange mode. The energetic-ion-induced branch of the interchange mode might be associated with the fishbone mode in helical systems.

  8. Classical Coupled Mode Theory of Optomechanical Crystals

    CERN Document Server

    Khorasani, Sina

    2016-01-01

    Acousto-optic interaction in optomechanical crystals allows unidirectional control of elastic waves over optical waves. However, as a result of this nonlinear interaction, infinitely many optical modes are born. This article presents an exact formulaion of coupled mode theory for interaction between elastic Bloch wave waves and photonic Bloch waves moving in a phonotonic waveguide. In general, an optical wavefront is strongly diffracted by an elastic wave in frequency and wavevector, and thus infinite modes with different frequencies and wavevectors appear. We discuss resonance and mode conversion conditions, and present a rigorous method to derive coupling rates and mode profiles. We also find a conservation law which rules over total optical power from interacting individual modes. Modifications of the theory to phonotonic cavities are also discussed. We present application examples including switch, frequency shifter, and reflector.

  9. CMB Delensing Beyond the B Modes

    CERN Document Server

    Green, Daniel; van Engelen, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Gravitational lensing by large-scale structure significantly impacts observations of the cosmic microwave background (CMB): it smooths the acoustic peaks in temperature and $E$-mode polarization power spectra, correlating previously uncorrelated modes; and it converts $E$-mode polarization into $B$-mode polarization. The act of measuring and removing the effect of lensing from CMB maps, or delensing, has been well studied in the context of $B$ modes, but little attention has been given to the delensing of the temperature and $E$ modes. In this paper, we model the expected delensed $T$ and $E$ power spectra to all orders in the lensing potential, demonstrating the sharpening of the acoustic peaks and a significant reduction in lens-induced power spectrum covariances. We then perform cosmological forecasts, demonstrating that delensing will yield improved sensitivity to parameters with upcoming surveys. We highlight the breaking of the degeneracy between the effective number of neutrino species and primordial h...

  10. Mixed-mode fracture of ceramics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Petrovic, J.J.

    1985-01-01

    The mixed-mode fracture behavior of ceramic materials is of importance for monolithic ceramics in order to predict the onset of fracture under generalized loading conditions and for ceramic composites to describe crack deflection toughening mechanisms. Experimental data on surface flaw mixed-mode fracture in various ceramics indicate that the flaw-plane normal stress at fracture decreases with increasing in-flaw-plane shear stress, although present data exhibit a fairly wide range in details of this sigma - tau relationship. Fracture from large cracks suggests that Mode II has a greater effect on Mode I fracture than Mode III. A comparison of surface flaw and large crack mixed-mode I-II fracture responses indicated that surface flaw behavior is influenced by shear resistance effects.

  11. CMB Anisotropies from a Gradient Mode

    CERN Document Server

    Mirbabayi, Mehrdad

    2014-01-01

    A pure gradient mode must have no observable dynamical effect at linear level. We confirm this by showing that its contribution to the dipolar power asymmetry of CMB anisotropies vanishes, if Maldacena's consistency condition is satisfied. To this end, the existing second order Sachs-Wolfe formula in the squeezed limit is extended to include a gradient in the long mode and to account for the change in the location of the last scattering surface induced by this mode. At second order, a gradient mode generated in Single-field inflation is shown to induce a quadrupole moment. For instance in a matter-dominated model it is equal to 5/18 times the square of the linear gradient part. This quadrupole can be cancelled by superposing a quadratic perturbation. The result is shown to be a non-linear extension of Weinberg's adiabatic modes: a long-wavelength physical mode which looks locally like a coordinate transformation.

  12. Lateral Modes in Quantum Cascade Lasers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gregory C. Dente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available We will examine the waveguide mode losses in ridge-guided quantum cascade lasers. Our analysis illustrates how the low-loss mode for broad-ridge quantum cascade lasers (QCLs can be a higher-order lateral waveguide mode that maximizes the feedback from the sloped ridge-wall regions. The results are in excellent agreement with the near- and far-field data taken on broad-ridge-guided quantum cascade lasers processed with sloped ridge walls.

  13. Multi-Mode Broadband Patch Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanofsky, Robert R. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A multi-mode broad band patch antenna is provided that allows for the same aperture to be used at independent frequencies such as reception at 19 GHz and transmission at 29 GHz. Furthermore, the multi-mode broadband patch antenna provides a ferroelectric film that allows for tuning capability of the multi-mode broadband patch antenna over a relatively large tuning range. The alternative use of a semiconductor substrate permits reduced control voltages since the semiconductor functions as a counter electrode.

  14. Work group diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Knippenberg, Daan; Schippers, Michaéla C

    2007-01-01

    Work group diversity, the degree to which there are differences between group members, may affect group process and performance positively as well as negatively. Much is still unclear about the effects of diversity, however. We review the 1997-2005 literature on work group diversity to assess the state of the art and to identify key issues for future research. This review points to the need for more complex conceptualizations of diversity, as well as to the need for more empirical attention to the processes that are assumed to underlie the effects of diversity on group process and performance and to the contingency factors of these processes.

  15. Groups of Circle Diffeomorphisms

    CERN Document Server

    Navas, Andrés

    2011-01-01

    In recent years scholars from a variety of branches of mathematics have made several significant developments in the theory of group actions. Groups of Circle Diffeomorphisms systematically explores group actions on the simplest closed manifold, the circle. As the group of circle diffeomorphisms is an important subject in modern mathematics, this book will be of interest to those doing research in group theory, dynamical systems, low dimensional geometry and topology, and foliation theory. The book is mostly self-contained and also includes numerous complementary exercises, making it an excell

  16. On -nilpotent abelian groups

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Mohammad Mehdi Nasrabadi; Ali Gholamian

    2014-11-01

    Let be a group and $A = \\text{Aut}(G)$ be the group of automorphisms of . Then, the element $[g, ] = g^{-1}(g)$ is an autocommutator of $g \\in G$ and $ \\in A$. Hence, for any natural number the -th autocommutator subgroup of is defined as $K_{m}(G)=\\langle [g,_{1},\\ldots,_{m}]|g\\in G,_{1},\\ldots,_{m}\\in A\\rangle$, where $[g, _{1}, _{2},\\ldots, _{m}] = [[g,_{1},\\ldots,_{m−1}], _{m}]$. In this paper, we introduce the new notion of -nilpotent groups and classify all abelian groups which are -nilpotent groups.

  17. CHAOTIC GROUP ACTIONS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShiEnhui; ZhouLizhen; ZhouYoucheng

    2003-01-01

    It is proved that there is no chaotic group actions on any topological space with free arc.In this paper the chaotic actions of the group like G×F,where F is a finite group,are studied.In particular,under a suitable assumption ,if F is a cyclic group,then the topological space which admits a chaotic action of Z×F must admit a chatotic homeomorphism.A topological space which admits a chaotic group action but admits no chaotic horneomorphism is constructed.

  18. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J [Bellaire, TX; Coit, William George [Bellaire, TX; Griffin, Peter Terry [Brixham, GB; Hamilton, Paul Taylor [Houston, TX; Hsu, Chia-Fu [Granada Hills, CA; Mason, Stanley Leroy [Allen, TX; Samuel, Allan James [Kular Lumpar, ML; Watkins, Ronnie Wade [Cypress, TX

    2012-07-31

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  19. Grouped exposed metal heaters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vinegar, Harold J. (Bellaire, TX); Coit, William George (Bellaire, TX); Griffin, Peter Terry (Brixham, GB); Hamilton, Paul Taylor (Houston, TX); Hsu, Chia-Fu (Granada Hills, CA); Mason, Stanley Leroy (Allen, TX); Samuel, Allan James (Kular Lumpar, MY); Watkins, Ronnie Wade (Cypress, TX)

    2010-11-09

    A system for treating a hydrocarbon containing formation is described. The system includes two or more groups of elongated heaters. The group includes two or more heaters placed in two or more openings in the formation. The heaters in the group are electrically coupled below the surface of the formation. The openings include at least partially uncased wellbores in a hydrocarbon layer of the formation. The groups are electrically configured such that current flow through the formation between at least two groups is inhibited. The heaters are configured to provide heat to the formation.

  20. Group I intron ribozymes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2012-01-01

    Group I intron ribozymes constitute one of the main classes of ribozymes and have been a particularly important model in the discovery of key concepts in RNA biology as well as in the development of new methods. Compared to other ribozyme classes, group I intron ribozymes display considerable......, the intronic products of these pathways have the potential to integrate into targets and to form various types of circular RNA molecules. Thus, group I intron ribozymes and associated elements found within group I introns is a rich source of biological phenomena. This chapter provides a strategy and protocols...... for initial characterization of new group I intron ribozymes....