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Sample records for monophosphate camp levels

  1. "cAMP sponge": a buffer for cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate.

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    Konstantinos Lefkimmiatis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While intracellular buffers are widely used to study calcium signaling, no such tool exists for the other major second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a genetically encoded buffer for cAMP based on the high-affinity cAMP-binding carboxy-terminus of the regulatory subunit RIbeta of protein kinase A (PKA. Addition of targeting sequences permitted localization of this fragment to the extra-nuclear compartment, while tagging with mCherry allowed quantification of its expression at the single cell level. This construct (named "cAMP sponge" was shown to selectively bind cAMP in vitro. Its expression significantly suppressed agonist-induced cAMP signals and the downstream activation of PKA within the cytosol as measured by FRET-based sensors in single living cells. Point mutations in the cAMP-binding domains of the construct rendered the chimera unable to bind cAMP in vitro or in situ. Cyclic AMP sponge was fruitfully applied to examine feedback regulation of gap junction-mediated transfer of cAMP in epithelial cell couplets. CONCLUSIONS: This newest member of the cAMP toolbox has the potential to reveal unique biological functions of cAMP, including insight into the functional significance of compartmentalized signaling events.

  2. Plasma levels of cAMP, cGMP and CGRP in sildenafil-induced headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Frandsen, E; Schifter, S

    2004-01-01

    Sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) degrading phosphodiestrase 5 (PDE5), induced migraine without aura in 10 of 12 migraine patients and in healthy subjects it induced significantly more headache than placebo. The aim of the present study was to determine...... whether the pain-inducing effects of sildenafil would be reflected in plasma levels of important signalling molecules in migraine: cGMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Ten healthy subjects (four women, six men) and 12 patients (12 women) suffering from...... migraine without aura were included in two separate double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over studies in which placebo or sildenafil 100 mg was administered orally. Plasma levels of CGRP, cAMP and cGMP were determined in blood from the antecubital vein. Despite the ability of sildenafil to induce...

  3. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp Chemosensory System Regulates Intracellular cAMP Levels by Modulating Adenylate Cyclase Activity

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    Fulcher, Nanette B.; Holliday, Phillip M.; Klem, Erich; Cann, Martin J.; Wolfgang, Matthew C.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Multiple virulence systems in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are regulated by the second messenger signaling molecule adenosine 3’, 5’-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Production of cAMP by the putative adenylate cyclase enzyme CyaB represents a critical control point for virulence gene regulation. To identify regulators of CyaB, we screened a transposon insertion library for mutants with reduced intracellular cAMP. The majority of insertions resulting in reduced cAMP mapped to the Chp gene cluster encoding a putative chemotaxis-like chemosensory system. Further genetic analysis of the Chp system revealed that it has both positive and negative effects on intracellular cAMP and that it regulates cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity. The Chp system was previously implicated in the production and function of type IV pili (TFP). Given that cAMP and the cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Vfr control TFP biogenesis gene expression, we explored the relationship between cAMP, the Chp system and TFP regulation. We discovered that the Chp system controls TFP production through modulation of cAMP while control of TFP-dependent twitching motility is cAMP-independent. Overall, our data define a novel function for a chemotaxis-like system in controlling cAMP production and establish a regulatory link between the Chp system, TFP and other cAMP-dependent virulence systems. PMID:20345659

  4. cAMP level modulates scleral collagen remodeling, a critical step in the development of myopia.

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    Yijin Tao

    Full Text Available The development of myopia is associated with decreased ocular scleral collagen synthesis in humans and animal models. Collagen synthesis is, in part, under the influence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. We investigated the associations between cAMP, myopia development in guinea pigs, and collagen synthesis by human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs. Form-deprived myopia (FDM was induced by unilateral masking of guinea pig eyes. Scleral cAMP levels increased selectively in the FDM eyes and returned to normal levels after unmasking and recovery. Unilateral subconjunctival treatment with the adenylyl cyclase (AC activator forskolin resulted in a myopic shift accompanied by reduced collagen mRNA levels, but it did not affect retinal electroretinograms. The AC inhibitor SQ22536 attenuated the progression of FDM. Moreover, forskolin inhibited collagen mRNA levels and collagen secretion by HSFs. The inhibition was reversed by SQ22536. These results demonstrate a critical role of cAMP in control of myopia development. Selective regulation of cAMP to control scleral collagen synthesis may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating myopia.

  5. Cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in the anterior pituitary gland in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2018-03-05

    The cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was the first among the so-called "second messengers" to be described. It is conserved in most organisms and functions as a signal transducer by mediating the intracellular effects of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters. In this review, we first delineate how different members of the cAMP pathway ensure its correct compartmentalization and activity, mediate the terminal intracellular effects, and allow the crosstalk with other signaling pathways. We then focus on the pituitary gland, where cAMP exerts a crucial function by controlling the responsiveness of the cells to hypothalamic hormones, neurotransmitters and peripheral factors. We discuss the most relevant physiological functions mediated by cAMP in the different pituitary cell types, and summarize the defects affecting this pathway that have been reported in the literature. We finally discuss how a deregulated cAMP pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary disorders and how it affects the response to therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. Decreased levels of guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) are associated with cognitive decline and amyloid pathology in Alzheimer's disease.

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    Ugarte, Ana; Gil-Bea, Francisco; García-Barroso, Carolina; Cedazo-Minguez, Ángel; Ramírez, M Javier; Franco, Rafael; García-Osta, Ana; Oyarzabal, Julen; Cuadrado-Tejedor, Mar

    2015-06-01

    Levels of the cyclic nucleotides guanosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cGMP) or adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) that play important roles in memory processes are not characterized in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aim of this study was to analyse the levels of these nucleotides in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples from patients diagnosed with clinical and prodromal stages of AD and study the expression level of the enzymes that hydrolyzed them [phosphodiesterases (PDEs)] in the brain of AD patients vs. For cGMP and cAMP CSF analysis, the cohort (n = 79) included cognitively normal participants (subjective cognitive impairment), individuals with stable mild cognitive impairment or AD converters (sMCI and cMCI), and mild AD patients. A high throughput liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method was used. Interactions between CSF cGMP or cAMP with mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score, CSF Aβ(1-42) and CSF p-tau were analysed. For PDE4, 5, 9 and 10 expression analysis, brains of AD patients vs. controls (n = 7 and n = 8) were used. cGMP, and not cAMP levels, were significantly lower in the CSF of patients diagnosed with mild AD when compared with nondemented controls. CSF levels of cGMP showed a significant association with MMSE-diagnosed clinical dementia and with CSF biomarker Aβ42 in AD patients. Significant increase in PDE5 expression was detected in temporal cortex of AD patients compared with that of age-matched healthy control subjects. No changes in the expression of others PDEs were detected. These results support the potential involvement of cGMP in the pathological and clinical development of AD. The cGMP reduction in early stages of AD might participate in the aggravation of amyloid pathology and cognitive decline. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  7. Presence of cyclic adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in primary shoots of Zea mays L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edlich, W.; Graeser, H.

    1978-01-01

    The concentration of cAMP was determined in extracts of crude homogenates of maize seedlings, 3800 . g supernatants and isolated chloroplasts by the isotope dilution test. After extractpurification by precipitation with BaSO 4 and by chromatography on aluminium oxide column, a factor by means of which the binding of [8- 3 H]-cAMP with cAMP-dependent protein kinase was inhibited. The inhibitor was found inactive after treatment of the extracts with phosphodiesterase. In conclusion, this factor was identical with cAMP. It is suggested that cAMP-synthesis is localized in chloroplasts. Microbial contaminations which might disturb the detection of cAMP was excluded at least in the preparations of chloroplasts. (author)

  8. Effect of cholera toxin on cAMP levels and Na+ influx in isolated intestinal epithelial cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hyun, C.S.; Kimmich, G.A.

    1982-01-01

    Freshly isolated chicken intestinal cells contain approximately 20 pmol adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)/mg cellular protein. Incubation with 3 μg/ml cholera toxin (CT) at 37 0 C induces an elevation of cellular cAMP beginning 10-15 min after initial exposure. The response is linear with time for 40-50 min and causes a six- to eightfold increase over control levels at steady state. Dibutyryl cAMP and agents that increase cAMP production inhibit Na + influx into the isolated enterocytes. Chlorpromazine completely abolishes the toxin-induced elevation of cAMP in the isolated cells and also reverses the effect on Na + entry. The data provide evidence for a cAMP-mediated control of intestinal cell Na + uptake, which may represent the mechanistic basis for the antiabsorptive effect of CT on Na + during induction of intestinal secretory activity. Studies on the time-dependent effects of chlorpromazine on both intracellular cAMP concentration and Na + influx suggest that the reactivation of the Na + transport system after cAMP-induced inhibition is slow relative to the disappearance of cAMP

  9. Release from Xenopus oocyte prophase I meiotic arrest is independent of a decrease in cAMP levels or PKA activity.

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    Nader, Nancy; Courjaret, Raphael; Dib, Maya; Kulkarni, Rashmi P; Machaca, Khaled

    2016-06-01

    Vertebrate oocytes arrest at prophase of meiosis I as a result of high levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and protein kinase A (PKA) activity. In Xenopus, progesterone is believed to release meiotic arrest by inhibiting adenylate cyclase, lowering cAMP levels and repressing PKA. However, the exact timing and extent of the cAMP decrease is unclear, with conflicting reports in the literature. Using various in vivo reporters for cAMP and PKA at the single-cell level in real time, we fail to detect any significant changes in cAMP or PKA in response to progesterone. More interestingly, there was no correlation between the levels of PKA inhibition and the release of meiotic arrest. Furthermore, we devised conditions whereby meiotic arrest could be released in the presence of sustained high levels of cAMP. Consistently, lowering endogenous cAMP levels by >65% for prolonged time periods failed to induce spontaneous maturation. These results argue that the release of oocyte meiotic arrest in Xenopus is independent of a reduction in either cAMP levels or PKA activity, but rather proceeds through a parallel cAMP/PKA-independent pathway. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  10. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate levels and the function of skin microvascular endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuder, R M; Karasek, M A; Bensch, K G

    1990-02-01

    The maintenance of the normal epithelioid morphology of human dermal microvascular endothelial cells (MEC) grown in vitro depends strongly on the presence of factors that increase intracellular levels of cyclic AMP. Complete removal of dibutyryl cAMP and isobutylmethylxanthine (IMX) from the growth medium results in a progressive transition from an epithelioid to a spindle-shaped cell line. This transition cannot be reversed by the readdition of dibutyryl cAMP and IMX to the growth medium or by addition of agonists that increase cAMP levels. Spindle-shaped MEC lose the ability to express Factor VIII rAG and DR antigens and to bind peripheral blood mononuclear leukocyte (PBML). Ultrastructural analyses of transitional cells and spindle-shaped cells show decreased numbers of Weibel-Palade bodies in transitional cells and their complete absence in spindle-shaped cells. Interferon-gamma alters several functional properties of both epithelioid and spindle-shaped cells. In the absence of dibutyryl cAMP it accelerates the transition from epithelial to spindle-shaped cells, whereas in the presence of cyclic AMP interferon-gamma increases the binding of PBMLs to both epithelioid and spindle-shaped MEC and the endocytic activity of the endothelial cells. These results suggest that cyclic AMP is an important second messenger in the maintenance of several key functions of microvascular endothelial cells. Factors that influence the levels of this messenger in vivo can be expected to influence the angiogenic and immunologic functions of the microvasculature.

  11. Uridine 5'-Monophosphate Synthase Is Transcriptionally Regulated by Pyrimidine Levels in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia

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    Santoso; Thornburg

    1998-02-01

    To understand the regulation and expression of pyrimidine biosynthesis in plants, we have examined the effect of the metabolic inhibitor 5-fluoroorotic acid (FOA) on uridine-5'-monophosphate synthase (UMPSase) expression in cell cultures of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. UMPSase is the rate-limiting step of pyrimidine biosynthesis in plants. Addition of FOA causes an up-regulation of UMPSase enzyme activity in cell cultures after a lag phase of several days. Western-blot analysis demonstrated that the up-regulation in enzyme activity was caused by increased expression of the UMPSase protein. Northern-blot analysis demonstrated a higher level of UMPSase mRNA in the FOA-induced tissues than in control tissues. Run-on transcriptional assays showed that the UMPSase gene was transcriptionally activated after FOA treatment. The mechanism of toxicity of FOA is through thymine starvation. We found that addition of thymine abrogated the FOA-mediated up-regulation of UMPSase. In addition, methotrexate and aminopterin, which affect thymine levels by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase, also up-regulate UMPSase in N. plumbaginifolia cells.

  12. Uridine 5′-Monophosphate Synthase Is Transcriptionally Regulated by Pyrimidine Levels in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Djoko; Thornburg, Robert

    1998-01-01

    To understand the regulation and expression of pyrimidine biosynthesis in plants, we have examined the effect of the metabolic inhibitor 5-fluoroorotic acid (FOA) on uridine-5′-monophosphate synthase (UMPSase) expression in cell cultures of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia. UMPSase is the rate-limiting step of pyrimidine biosynthesis in plants. Addition of FOA causes an up-regulation of UMPSase enzyme activity in cell cultures after a lag phase of several days. Western-blot analysis demonstrated that the up-regulation in enzyme activity was caused by increased expression of the UMPSase protein. Northern-blot analysis demonstrated a higher level of UMPSase mRNA in the FOA-induced tissues than in control tissues. Run-on transcriptional assays showed that the UMPSase gene was transcriptionally activated after FOA treatment. The mechanism of toxicity of FOA is through thymine starvation. We found that addition of thymine abrogated the FOA-mediated up-regulation of UMPSase. In addition, methotrexate and aminopterin, which affect thymine levels by inhibiting dihydrofolate reductase, also up-regulate UMPSase in N. plumbaginifolia cells. PMID:9490773

  13. Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates and Their Cyclases in Plant Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2017-10-04

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains. A major advance came with the discovery and characterization of a steadily increasing number of guanylate cyclases (GCs) and adenylate cyclases (ACs). Several of the GCs are receptor kinases and include the brassinosteroid receptor, the phytosulfokine receptor, the Pep receptor, the plant natriuretic peptide receptor as well as a nitric oxide sensor. We foresee that in the near future many more molecular mechanisms and biological roles of GCs and ACs and their catalytic products will be discovered and further establish cNMPs as a key component of plant responses to the environment.

  14. Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates and Their Cyclases in Plant Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A; Turek, Ilona S.

    2017-01-01

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains. A major advance came with the discovery and characterization of a steadily increasing number of guanylate cyclases (GCs) and adenylate cyclases (ACs). Several of the GCs are receptor kinases and include the brassinosteroid receptor, the phytosulfokine receptor, the Pep receptor, the plant natriuretic peptide receptor as well as a nitric oxide sensor. We foresee that in the near future many more molecular mechanisms and biological roles of GCs and ACs and their catalytic products will be discovered and further establish cNMPs as a key component of plant responses to the environment.

  15. A cAMP Biosensor-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay for Identification of Gs-Coupled GPCR Ligands and Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vedel, Line; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans; Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff

    2015-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is an important second messenger, and quantification of intracellular cAMP levels is essential in studies of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). The intracellular cAMP levels are regulated by the adenylate cyclase (AC) upon activation of either Gs- or ...... also observed for the other representative Gs-coupled GPCRs tested, GLP-1R and GlucagonR. The FRET-based cAMP biosensor assay is robust, reproducible, and inexpensive with good Z factors and is highly applicable for HTS....

  16. Biatriosporin D displays anti-virulence activity through decreasing the intracellular cAMP levels

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    Zhang, Ming; Chang, Wenqiang; Shi, Hongzhuo; Zhou, Yanhui; Zheng, Sha; Li, Ying; Li, Lin; Lou, Hongxiang, E-mail: louhongxiang@sdu.edu.cn

    2017-05-01

    Candidiasis has long been a serious human health problem, and novel antifungal approaches are greatly needed. During both superficial and systemic infection, C. albicans relies on a battery of virulence factors, such as adherence, filamentation, and biofilm formation. In this study, we found that a small phenolic compound, Biatriosporin D (BD), isolated from an endolichenic fungus, Biatriospora sp., displayed anti-virulence activity by inhibiting adhesion, hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Of note is the high efficacy of BD in preventing filamentation with a much lower dose than its MIC value. Furthermore, BD prolonged the survival of worms infected by C. albicans in vivo. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis, exogenous cAMP rescue experiments and intracellular cAMP measurements revealed that BD regulates the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway by reducing cAMP levels to inhibit the hyphal formation. Further investigation showed that BD could upregulate Dpp3 to synthesize much more farnesol, which could inhibit the activity of Cdc35 and reduce the generation of cAMP. Taken together, these findings indicate that BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol that directly inhibits the Cdc35 activity, reducing intracellular cAMP and thereby disrupting the morphologic transition and attenuating the virulence of C. albicans. Our study uncovers the underlying mechanism of BD as a prodrug in fighting against pathogenic C. albicans and provides a potential application of BD in fighting clinically relevant fungal infections by targeting fungal virulence. - Highlights: • BD inhibits the filamentation of C. albicans in multiple hypha-inducing conditions. • BD can prolong the survival of nematodes infected by C. albicans. • BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol. • BD reduces intracellular cAMP and regulates Ras1-cAMP-PKA pathway.

  17. Biatriosporin D displays anti-virulence activity through decreasing the intracellular cAMP levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Ming; Chang, Wenqiang; Shi, Hongzhuo; Zhou, Yanhui; Zheng, Sha; Li, Ying; Li, Lin; Lou, Hongxiang

    2017-01-01

    Candidiasis has long been a serious human health problem, and novel antifungal approaches are greatly needed. During both superficial and systemic infection, C. albicans relies on a battery of virulence factors, such as adherence, filamentation, and biofilm formation. In this study, we found that a small phenolic compound, Biatriosporin D (BD), isolated from an endolichenic fungus, Biatriospora sp., displayed anti-virulence activity by inhibiting adhesion, hyphal morphogenesis and biofilm formation of C. albicans. Of note is the high efficacy of BD in preventing filamentation with a much lower dose than its MIC value. Furthermore, BD prolonged the survival of worms infected by C. albicans in vivo. Quantitative real-time PCR analysis, exogenous cAMP rescue experiments and intracellular cAMP measurements revealed that BD regulates the Ras1-cAMP-Efg1 pathway by reducing cAMP levels to inhibit the hyphal formation. Further investigation showed that BD could upregulate Dpp3 to synthesize much more farnesol, which could inhibit the activity of Cdc35 and reduce the generation of cAMP. Taken together, these findings indicate that BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol that directly inhibits the Cdc35 activity, reducing intracellular cAMP and thereby disrupting the morphologic transition and attenuating the virulence of C. albicans. Our study uncovers the underlying mechanism of BD as a prodrug in fighting against pathogenic C. albicans and provides a potential application of BD in fighting clinically relevant fungal infections by targeting fungal virulence. - Highlights: • BD inhibits the filamentation of C. albicans in multiple hypha-inducing conditions. • BD can prolong the survival of nematodes infected by C. albicans. • BD stimulates the expression of Dpp3 to synthesize more farnesol. • BD reduces intracellular cAMP and regulates Ras1-cAMP-PKA pathway.

  18. Studies on c-AMP contents in sea urchin eggs fertilized with normal and x-irradiated sperm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kimura, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    Intracellular levels of cyclic 3', 5'-adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP) seemed to remain constant through the first cleavage cycle of sea urchin eggs. X-irradiation to the sperm, which induced the first cleavage delay, did not change this level. Although it was shown in the previous paper that X-ray-induced cleavage delay was reduced by caffeine but not by aminophyline, both caffeine and aminophyline caused an increase in c-AMP levels. These results indicated the possibility that c-AMP does not mediate this caffeine effect on cleavage delay. (auth.)

  19. Proteomic signatures implicate cAMP in light and temperature responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Ludivine; Marondedze, Claudius; Ederli, Luisa; Pasqualini, Stefania; Gehring, Christoph A

    2013-01-01

    The second messenger 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenylyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, are increasingly recognized as important signaling molecules in a number of physiological responses

  20. The clinical correlation of regulatory T cells and cyclic adenosine monophosphate in enterovirus 71 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Min Wang

    Full Text Available Brainstem encephalitis (BE and pulmonary edema (PE are notable complications of enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection.This study investigated the immunoregulatory characterizations of EV71 neurological complications by disease severity and milrinone treatment.Patients <18 years with virologically confirmed EV71 infections were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: the hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD or BE group, and the autonomic nervous system (ANS dysregulation or PE group. Cytokine and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels, and the regulatory T cell (Tregs profiles of the patients were determined.Patients with ANS dysregulation or PE exhibited significantly low frequency of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3+ and CD4(+Foxp3(+ T cells compared with patients with HFMD or BE. The expression frequency of CD4-CD8- was also significantly decreased in patients with ANS dysregulation or PE. Among patients with ANS dysregulation or PE, the expression frequency of CD4+Foxp3+ increased markedly after milrinone treatment, and was associated with reduction of plasma levels IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Plasma concentrations of cAMP were significantly decreased in patients with ANS dysregulation or PE compared with patients with HFMD or BE; however, cAMP levels increased after milrinone treatment.These findings suggested decreased different regulatory T populations and cAMP expression correlate with increased EV71 disease severity. Improved outcome after milrinone treatment may associate with increased regulatory T populations, cAMP expression and modulation of cytokines levels.

  1. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) enhances cAMP-responsive element binding (CREB) protein phosphorylation and phospho-CREB interaction with the mouse steroidogenic acute regulatory protein gene promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clem, Brian F; Hudson, Elizabeth A; Clark, Barbara J

    2005-03-01

    Steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR) transcription is regulated through cAMP-protein kinase A-dependent mechanisms that involve multiple transcription factors including the cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB) family members. Classically, binding of phosphorylated CREB to cis-acting cAMP-responsive elements (5'-TGACGTCA-3') within target gene promoters leads to recruitment of the coactivator CREB binding protein (CBP). Herein we examined the extent of CREB family member phosphorylation on protein-DNA interactions and CBP recruitment with the StAR promoter. Immunoblot analysis revealed that CREB, cAMP-responsive element modulator (CREM), and activating transcription factor (ATF)-1 are expressed in MA-10 mouse Leydig tumor cells, yet only CREB and ATF-1 are phosphorylated. (Bu)2cAMP treatment of MA-10 cells increased CREB phosphorylation approximately 2.3-fold within 30 min but did not change total nuclear CREB expression levels. Using DNA-affinity chromatography, we now show that CREB and ATF-1, but not CREM, interact with the StAR promoter, and this interaction is dependent on the activator protein-1 (AP-1) cis-acting element within the cAMP-responsive region. In addition, (Bu)2cAMP-treatment increased phosphorylated CREB (P-CREB) association with the StAR promoter but did not influence total CREB interaction. In vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated CREB binding to the StAR proximal promoter is independent of (Bu)2cAMP-treatment, confirming our in vitro analysis. However, (Bu)2cAMP-treatment increased P-CREB and CBP interaction with the StAR promoter, demonstrating for the first time the physical role of P-CREB:DNA interactions in CBP recruitment to the StAR proximal promoter.

  2. Targeting brain tumor cAMP: the case for sex-specific therapeutics

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    Nicole M Warrington

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between cyclic adenosine 3’, 5’-monophosphate (cAMP levels and brain tumor biology has been evident for nearly as long as cAMP and its synthetase, adenylate cyclase (ADCY have been known. The importance of the pathway in brain tumorigenesis has been demonstrated in vitro and in multiple animal models. Recently, we provided human validation for a cooperating oncogenic role for cAMP in brain tumorigenesis when we found that SNPs in ADCY8 were correlated with glioma (brain tumor risk in individuals with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Together, these studies provide a strong rationale for targeting cAMP in brain tumor therapy. However, the cAMP pathway is well known to be sexually dimorphic, and SNPs in ADCY8 affected glioma risk in a sex-specific fashion, elevating the risk for females while protecting males. The cAMP pathway can be targeted at multiple levels in the regulation of its synthesis and degradation. Sex differences in response to drugs that target cAMP regulators indicate that successful targeting of the cAMP pathway for brain tumor patients is likely to require matching specific mechanisms of drug action with patient sex.

  3. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP are reduced in lymphocytes from alcoholic patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, I.; Wrubel, B.; Estrin, W.; Gordon, A.

    1987-01-01

    Alcoholism causes serious neurologic disease that may be due, in part, to the ability of ethanol to interact with neural cell membranes and change neuronal function. Adenosine receptors are membrane-bound proteins that appear to mediate some of the effects of ethanol in the brain. Human lymphocytes also have adenosine receptors, and their activation causes increases in cAMP levels. To test the hypothesis that basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels in lymphocytes might be abnormal in alcoholism, the authors studied lymphocytes from 10 alcoholic subjects, 10 age- and sex-matched normal individuals, and 10 patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels were reduced 75% in lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects. Also, there was a 76% reduction in ethanol stimulation of cAMP accumulation in lymphocytes from alcoholics. Similar results were demonstrable in isolated T cells. Unlike other laboratory tests examined, these measurements appeared to distinguish alcoholics from normal subjects and from patients with nonalcoholic liver disease. Reduced basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated levels of cAMP in lymphocytes from alcoholics may reflect a change in cell membranes due either to chronic alcohol abuse or to a genetic predisposition unique to alcoholic subjects

  4. A simplified radioimmunoassay of adenosine-3':5'-monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katoh, Yoshiki; Takezawa, Junichi; Suzuki, Morio; Kuninaka, Akira; Yoshino, Hiroshi

    1975-01-01

    Dextran-coated charcoal was proved to be able to separate free adenosine-3':5'monophosphate (cAMP) from antibody-bound cAMP. Only free cAMO was adsorbed on dextran-coated charcoal within 1 min after contacting the charcoal. In a reaction mixture of cAMP and anti-cAMP-plasma, most of antibody-bound cAMP had not been adsorbed 4 min after contacting. The data obtained were found to be almost the same as the data of another experiment using cellulose ester filter separation technique. Thus, dextran-coated charcoal could be employed to simplify the radioimmunoassay of cAMP. (author)

  5. Genetically-encoded tools for cAMP probing and modulation in living systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy M Paramonov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is one of the principal second messengers downstream of a manifold of signal transduction pathways, including the ones triggered by G protein-coupled receptors. Not surprisingly, biochemical assays for cAMP have been instrumental for basic research and drug discovery for decades, providing insights into cellular physiology and guiding pharmaceutical industry. However, despite impressive track record, the majority of conventional biochemical tools for cAMP probing share the same fundamental shortcoming - all the measurements require sample disruption for cAMP liberation. This common bottleneck, together with inherently low spatial resolution of measurements (as cAMP is typically analyzed in lysates of thousands of cells, underpin the ensuing limitations of the conventional cAMP assays: 1 genuine kinetic measurements of cAMP levels over time in a single given sample are unfeasible; 2 inability to obtain precise information on cAMP spatial distribution and transfer at subcellular levels, let alone the attempts to pinpoint dynamic interactions of cAMP and its effectors. At the same time, tremendous progress in synthetic biology over the recent years culminated in drastic refinement of our toolbox, allowing us not only to bypass the limitations of conventional assays, but to put intracellular cAMP life-span under tight control – something, that seemed scarcely attainable before. In this review article we discuss the main classes of modern genetically-encoded tools tailored for cAMP probing and modulation in living systems. We examine the capabilities and weaknesses of these different tools in the context of their operational characteristics and applicability to various experimental set-ups involving living cells, providing the guidance for rational selection of the best tools for particular needs.

  6. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent phosphorylation of mammalian mitochondrial proteins: enzyme and substrate characterization and functional role

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dobrová, Zuzana; Sardanelli, A. M.; Speranza, F.; Scacco, S.; Signorile, A.; Lorusso, V.; Papa, S.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 40, - (2001), s. 13941-13947 ISSN 0006-2960 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : cAMP * cyclic adenosine monophosphate Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.114, year: 2001

  7. Induction of increased cAMP levels in articular chondrocytes blocks matrix metalloproteinase-mediated cartilage degradation, but not aggrecanase-mediated cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten Asser; Sumer, Eren Ufuk; Wulf, Helle

    2007-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Calcitonin has been suggested to have chondroprotective effects. One signaling pathway of calcitonin is via the second messenger cAMP. We undertook this study to investigate whether increased cAMP levels in chondrocytes would be chondroprotective. METHODS: Cartilage degradation......-dependently inhibited by forskolin and IBMX. The highest concentration of IBMX lowered cytokine-induced release of sGAG by 72%. CONCLUSION: Levels of cAMP in chondrocytes play a key role in controlling catabolic activity. Increased cAMP levels in chondrocytes inhibited MMP expression and activity and consequently...... strongly inhibited cartilage degradation. Specific cAMP modulators in chondrocytes may be potential treatments for cartilage degenerative diseases....

  8. Cyclic adenosine 3:5-monophosphate binding proteins in Hartmannella culbertsoni

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, A.K.; Krishna Murti, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    When 100, 000 g supernatant fractions of homogenates of Hartmannella culbertsoni were incubated with ('- 3 H)-cyclic adenosine 3 : 5 monophosphate and passed through a sephadex G-100 column, radioactivity appeared with protein fractions eluted after the void colume. About 75% radioactivity bound to these fractions was recovered as cyclic adenosine 3 : 5 monophosphate. Unlabelled cAMP diluted the amount of radioactivity bound. Adenosine, deoxyadenosine, 5-AMP, 3-AMP, ADP and ATP did not inhibit binding. (author)

  9. Effects of octacosanol extracted from rice bran on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase in weaning piglets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Long

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of this study was to explore the regulatory mechanism of octacosanol to the body of animals and the effects of octacosanol on blood hormone levels and gene expressions of glucose transporter protein (GLUT-4 and adenosine monophosphate protein kinase (AMPK in liver and muscle tissue of weaning piglets. A total of 105 crossbred piglets ([Yorkshire × Landrace] × Duroc with an initial BW of 5.70 ± 1.41 kg (21 d of age were used in a 6-wk trial to evaluate the effects of octacosanol and tiamulin supplementation on contents of triiodothyronine (T3, thyroxine (T4, growth hormone (GH, glucagon (GU and adrenaline (AD in blood and gene expressions of GLUT-4 and AMPK in liver and muscle. Piglets were randomly distributed into 3 dietary treatments on the basis of BW and sex. Each treatment had 7 replicate pens with 5 piglets per pen. Treatments were as followed: control group, tiamulin group and octacosanol group. The results showed that compared with control group and tiamulin group, octacosanol greatly promoted the secretion of T3, GH, GU and AD (P  0.05. Results of the present study has confirmed that octacosanol affects energy metabolism of body by regulating secretion of blood hormones and related gene expression in tissue of weaning piglets, which can reduce stress response and has an impact on performance.

  10. Developmental Competence of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes at the Germinal-Vesicle Stage is Improved by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Modulators during In Vitro Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ezoe

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos has provided numerous benefits in reproductive medicine. Although successful cryopreservation of germinal-vesicle stage (GV oocytes holds promise for further advances in reproductive biology and clinical embryology fields, reports regarding cryopreservation of immature oocytes are limited. Oocyte survival and maturation rates have improved since vitrification is being performed at the GV stage, but the subsequent developmental competence of GV oocytes is still low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of the maturation medium with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP modulators on the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV bovine oocytes. GV oocytes were vitrified-warmed and cultured to allow for oocyte maturation, and then parthenogenetically activated or fertilized in vitro. Our results indicate that addition of a cAMP modulator forskolin (FSK or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX to the maturation medium significantly improved the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV oocytes. We also demonstrated that vitrification of GV oocytes led to a decline in cAMP levels and maturation-promoting factor (MPF activity in the oocytes during the initial and final phases of maturation, respectively. Nevertheless, the addition of FSK or IBMX to the maturation medium significantly elevated cAMP levels and MPF activity during IVM. Taken together, our results suggest that the cryopreservation-associated meiotic and developmental abnormalities observed in GV oocytes may be ameliorated by an artificial increase in cAMP levels during maturation culture after warming.

  11. A conjugate of decyltriphenylphosphonium with plastoquinone can carry cyclic adenosine monophosphate, but not cyclic guanosine monophosphate, across artificial and natural membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firsov, Alexander M; Rybalkina, Irina G; Kotova, Elena A; Rokitskaya, Tatyana I; Tashlitsky, Vadim N; Korshunova, Galina A; Rybalkin, Sergei D; Antonenko, Yuri N

    2018-02-01

    The present study demonstrated for the first time the interaction between adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), one of the most important signaling compounds in living organisms, and the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant plastoquinonyl-decyltriphenylphosphonium (SkQ1). The data obtained on model liquid membranes and human platelets revealed the ability of SkQ1 to selectively transport cAMP, but not guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP), across both artificial and natural membranes. In particular, SkQ1 elicited translocation of cAMP from the source to the receiving phase of a Pressman-type cell, while showing low activity with cGMP. Importantly, only conjugate with plastoquinone, but not dodecyl-triphenylphosphonium, was effective in carrying cAMP. In human platelets, SkQ1 also appeared to serve as a carrier of cAMP, but not cGMP, from outside to inside the cell, as measured by phosphorylation of the vasodilator stimulated phosphoprotein. The SkQ1-induced transfer of cAMP across the plasma membrane found here can be tentatively suggested to interfere with cAMP signaling pathways in living cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Rac1 controls Schwann cell myelination through cAMP and NF2/merlin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Li; Moon, Chandra; Niehaus, Karen; Zheng, Yi; Ratner, Nancy

    2013-01-01

    During peripheral nervous system development, Schwann cells (SCs) surrounding single large axons differentiate into myelinating SCs. Previous studies implicate RhoGTPases in SC myelination, but the mechanisms involved in RhoGTPase regulation of SC myelination are unknown. Here, we show that SC myelination is arrested in Rac1 conditional knockout (Rac1-CKO) mice. Rac1 knockout abrogated phosphorylation of the effector p21-activated kinase (PAK) and decreased NF2/merlin phosphorylation. Mutation of NF2/merlin rescued the myelin deficit in Rac1-CKO mice in vivo, and the shortened processes in cultured Rac1-CKO SCs in vitro. Mechanistically, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) levels and E-cadherin expression were decreased in the absence of Rac1, and both were restored by mutation of NF2/merlin. Reduced cAMP is a cause of the myelin deficiency in Rac1-CKO mice, as elevation of cAMP by rolipram in Rac1-CKO mice in vivo allowed myelin formation. Thus NF2/merlin and cAMP function downstream of Rac1 signaling in SC myelination, and cAMP levels control Rac1-regulated SC myelination. PMID:23197717

  13. Direct Light-up of cAMP Derivatives in Living Cells by Click Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 8-Azidoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-azido cAMP was directly detected in living cells, by applying Cu-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition to probe cAMP derivatives by fluorescence light-up. Fluorescence emission was generated by two non-fluorescent molecules, 8-azido cAMP as a model target and difluorinated cyclooctyne (DIFO reagent as a probe. The azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction between 8-azido cAMP and DIFO induces fluorescence in 8-azido cAMP. The fluorescence emission serves as a way to probe 8-azido cAMP in cells.

  14. Level of development of the physical components of social activity schoolchildren 10-11 years children summer camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.Ya. Chovgan

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the level of physical health of schoolchildren. Material : the study involved 146 children aged 10-11 years. Results : the questions of children's health issues such: the state of development of physical qualities, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the ratio of children to their own health, interest in physical education means in terms of the Camp. The characteristic of the state of physical health and adaptive capacity of the organism respondents. Found that 50.7 % of children had low, 42.5% - the average, 6.8% - a high level of physical activity. Daily physical fitness - 11.0 % 2-3 times a week - 26.0 % once a week, 18.5%, and sometimes - 44.5%. The health camp prefer morning gymnastics 89.0 % of students ; hiking 67.1 % physical training on interest - 63.7%. Conclusions : the identified leading and lagging physical qualities in children studied age group. Dominant over the other physical properties were agility and strength of the abdominal muscles. By lagging physical qualities include strength of arm and leg flexibility. A significant amount of children surveyed are not able to fulfill the standards of the State tests of Ukraine for its age-sex groups on a positive assessment.

  15. The Orphan G Protein-coupled Receptor Gpr175 (Tpra40) Enhances Hedgehog Signaling by Modulating cAMP Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Jaskirat; Wen, Xiaohui; Scales, Suzie J

    2015-12-04

    The Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway plays an essential role in vertebrate embryonic tissue patterning of many developing organs. Signaling occurs predominantly in primary cilia and is initiated by the entry of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR)-like protein Smoothened into cilia and culminates in gene transcription via the Gli family of transcription factors upon their nuclear entry. Here we identify an orphan GPCR, Gpr175 (also known as Tpra1 or Tpra40: transmembrane protein, adipocyte associated 1 or of 40 kDa), which also localizes to primary cilia upon Hh stimulation and positively regulates Hh signaling. Interaction experiments place Gpr175 at the level of PKA and upstream of the Gαi component of heterotrimeric G proteins, which itself localizes to cilia and can modulate Hh signaling. Gpr175 or Gαi1 depletion leads to increases in cellular cAMP levels and in Gli3 processing into its repressor form. Thus we propose that Gpr175 coupled to Gαi1 normally functions to inhibit the production of cAMP by adenylyl cyclase upon Hh stimulation, thus maximizing signaling by turning off PKA activity and hence Gli3 repressor formation. Taken together our data suggest that Gpr175 is a novel positive regulator of the Hh signaling pathway. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  16. Changes of blood levels of several hormones, catecholamines, prostaglandins, electrolytes and cAMP in man during emotional stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tigranian, R A; Orloff, L L; Kalita, N F; Davydova, N A; Pavlova, E A

    1980-01-01

    The levels of several hormones (ACTH, GH, TSH, FSH, LH, parathyroid hormone--PTH, insulin, thyroxine--T4, triiodothyronine--T3, cortisol, testosterone, aldosterone, renin), catecholamines (epinephrine, norepinephrine, dopamin), prostaglandins (F1 alpha, F2 alpha, A + E), electrolytes (Na, K, Ca, Mg), cAMP and glucose in blood were measured before and immediately after the examination in 15 male students aged 28 to 35 years. Simultaneously the blood pressure was measured and hemodynamic measures were registered with the aid of echocardiography. A remarkable increase of catecholamines, ACTH, renin, T3, PTH, cAMP, PG F1 alpha, PG F2 alpha and Ca was found before the examination together with the increase of blood pressure. After the examination the levels of catecholamines, renin, aldosterone, T3, PTH, GH, FSH, LH, testosterone, PG A + E, glucose and Ca were found to be increased, while these of insulin, Na, PG F1 alpha, PG F2 alpha were decreased. The decrease of blood pressure was also found.

  17. Does pan diameter influence carbon monoxide levels during heating of water to boiling point with a camping stove?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Smith, Simon; Stevenson, Richard; Watt, Martin; Watt, Ian; McFadyen, Angus; Grant, Stan

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether pan diameter influences carbon monoxide (CO) concentration during heating of water to boiling point with a camping stove. The hypothesis was that increasing pan diameter increases CO concentration because of greater flame dispersal and a larger flame. This was a randomized, prospective study. A Coleman Dual Fuel 533 stove was used to heat pans of water to boiling point, with CO concentration monitored every 30 seconds for 5 minutes. The stove was inside a partially ventilated 200-L cardboard box model that was inside an environmental chamber at -6 degrees C. Water temperature, water volume, and flame characteristics were all standardized. Ten trials were performed for each of 2 pan diameters (base diameters of 165 mm [small] and 220 mm [large]). There was a significant difference (P = .002) between the pans for CO levels at each measurement interval from 60 seconds onward. These differences were markedly larger after 90 seconds, with a mean difference of 185 ppm (95% CI 115, 276 ppm) for all the results from 120 seconds onwards. This study has shown that there is significantly higher CO production with a large-diameter pan compared with a small-diameter pan. These findings were evident by using a camping stove to heat water to boiling point when a maximum blue flame was present throughout. Thus, in enclosed environments it is recommended that small-diameter pans be used in an attempt to prevent high CO levels.

  18. Glucose becomes one of the worst carbon sources for E.coli on poor nitrogen sources due to suboptimal levels of cAMP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bren, Anat; Park, Junyoung O.; Towbin, Benjamin D.; Dekel, Erez; Rabinowitz, Joshua D.; Alon, Uri

    2016-01-01

    In most conditions, glucose is the best carbon source for E. coli: it provides faster growth than other sugars, and is consumed first in sugar mixtures. Here we identify conditions in which E. coli strains grow slower on glucose than on other sugars, namely when a single amino acid (arginine, glutamate, or proline) is the sole nitrogen source. In sugar mixtures with these nitrogen sources, E. coli still consumes glucose first, but grows faster rather than slower after exhausting glucose, generating a reversed diauxic shift. We trace this counterintuitive behavior to a metabolic imbalance: levels of TCA-cycle metabolites including α-ketoglutarate are high, and levels of the key regulatory molecule cAMP are low. Growth rates were increased by experimentally increasing cAMP levels, either by adding external cAMP, by genetically perturbing the cAMP circuit or by inhibition of glucose uptake. Thus, the cAMP control circuitry seems to have a ‘bug’ that leads to slow growth under what may be an environmentally rare condition. PMID:27109914

  19. A Temporal-Specific and Transient cAMP Increase Characterizes Odorant Classical Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wen; Smith, Andrew; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are proposed to initiate learning in a wide variety of species. Here, we measure changes in cAMP in the olfactory bulb prior to, during, and following a classically conditioned odor preference trial in rat pups. Measurements were taken up to the point of maximal CREB phosphorylation in olfactory…

  20. Relationship between Platelet PPARs, cAMP Levels, and P-Selectin Expression: Antiplatelet Activity of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are no longer considered simply as cells participating in thrombosis. In atherosclerosis, platelets are regulators of multiple processes, with the recruitment of inflammatory cells towards the lesion sites, inflammatory mediators release, and regulation of endothelial function. The antiplatelet therapy has been used for a long time in an effort to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, limited efficacy in some patients, drug resistance, and side effects are limitations of current antiplatelet therapy. In this context, a large number of natural products (polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, and fatty acids have been reported with antiplatelet activity. In this sense, the present paper describes mechanisms of antiplatelet action of natural products on platelet P-selectin expression through cAMP levels and its role as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists.

  1. High levels of mortality, malnutrition, and measles, among recently-displaced Somali refugees in Dagahaley camp, Dadaab refugee camp complex, Kenya, 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonsky, Jonathan A; Ronsse, Axelle; Ciglenecki, Iza; Rull, Monica; Porten, Klaudia

    2013-01-22

    Following a rapid influx of over 200,000 displaced Somalis into the Dadaab refugee camp complex in Kenya, Médecins Sans Frontières conducted a mortality and nutrition survey of the population living in Bulo Bacte, a self-settled area surrounding Dagahaley camp (part of this complex). The survey was conducted between 31st July and 10th August 2011. We exhaustively interviewed representatives from all households in Bulo Bacte, collecting information on deaths, births, and population movements during the recall period (15th February 2011 to survey date), in order to provide estimates of retrospective death rates. We recorded the mid-upper arm circumference and presence or absence of bipedal oedema of all children of height 67-global and severe acute malnutrition. The surveyed population included 26,583 individuals, of whom 6,488 (24.4%) were children aged under 5 years. There were 360 deaths reported during the 177 days of the recall period, of which 186 (52%) were among children aged under 5 years. The crude death rate for the entire recall period was 0.8 per 10,000 person-days. The under-5 death rate was 1.8 per 10,000 person-days. More than two-thirds of all deaths were reported to have been associated with diarrhoea (25%), cough or other breathing difficulties (24%), or with fever (19%). Measles accounted for a reported 17% of all deaths; this was due to a measles outbreak that occurred between June and October 2011.Global acute malnutrition was observed in 13.4%, and severe acute malnutrition in 3.0%, of children measuring 67-crisis-affected populations should be revised to take into account the epidemiologic context. Organisations must be sensitive and reactive to changes in the health status of the populations they assist.

  2. Evidence for CB2 receptor involvement in LPS-induced reduction of cAMP intracellular levels in uterine explants from pregnant mice: pathophysiological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salazar, Ana Inés; Carozzo, Alejandro; Correa, Fernando; Davio, Carlos; Franchi, Ana María

    2017-07-01

    What is the role of the endocannabinoid system (eCS) on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) effects on uterine explants from 7-day pregnant mice in a murine model of endotoxin-induced miscarriage? We found evidence for cannabinoid receptor type2 (CB2) involvement in LPS-induced increased prostaglandin-F2α (PGF2α) synthesis and diminished cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) intracellular content in uterine explants from early pregnant mice. Genital tract infections by Gram-negative bacteria are a common complication of human pregnancy that results in an increased risk of pregnancy loss. LPS, the main component of the Gram-negative bacterial wall, elicits a strong maternal inflammatory response that results in embryotoxicity and embryo resorption in a murine model endotoxin-induced early pregnancy loss. We have previously shown that the eCS mediates the embryotoxic effects of LPS, mainly via CB1 receptor activation. An in vitro study of mice uterine explants was performed to investigate the eCS in mediating the effects of LPS on PGF2α production and cAMP intracellular content. Eight to 12-week-old virgin female BALB/c or CD1 (wild-type [WT] or CB1-knockout [CB1-KO]) mice were paired with 8- to 12-week-old BALB/c or CD1 (WT or CB1-KO) males, respectively. On day 7 of pregnancy, BALB/c, CD1 WT or CD1 CB1-KO mice were euthanized, the uteri were excised, implantation sites were removed and the uterine tissues were separated from decidual and embryo tissues. Uterine explants were cultured and exposed for an appropriate amount of time to different pharmacological treatments. The tissues were then collected for cAMP assay and PGF2α content determination by radioimmunoassay. In vitro treatment of uteri explants from 7-day pregnant BALB/c or CD1 (WT or CB1-KO) mice with LPS induced an increased production of PGF2α (P Investigaciones Científicas y Técnicas (PIP 2012/0061). Dr Carlos Davio was funded by Agencia Nacional para la Promoción Científica y Tecnológica (PICT 2013

  3. Imaging alterations of cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eFroese

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is an important second messenger which regulates heart function by acting in distinct subcellular microdomains. Recent years have provided deeper mechanistic insights into compartmentalized cAMP signaling and its link to cardiac disease. In this mini review, we summarize newest developments in this field achieved by cutting-edge biochemical and biophysical techniques. We further compile the data from different studies into a bigger picture of so far uncovered alterations in cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains which occur in compensated cardiac hypertrophy and chronic heart failure. Finally, future research directions and translational perspectives are briefly discussed.

  4. Effects of oxytocin and methacholine on cyclic nucleotide levels of rabbit myometrium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlageter, N; Janis, R A; Gualtieri, R T; Hechter, O

    1980-03-01

    The effects of oxytocin and methacholine on cyclic nucleotide levels in estrogen-primed rabbit myometrium were studied in the presence and absence of 1-methyl-3-isobutyl xanthine (MIX), a phosphodiesterase inhibitor. In the absence of MIX, methacholine increased guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cGMP) levels at a time when contraction was decreasing, but had no influence on adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) levels. In contrast, oxytocin did not elevate cGMP, but rapidly decreased cAMP levels. MIX (1 mM) increased both cAMP and cGMP levels. Oxytocin or methacholine further increased cGMP, indicating activation of guanylate cyclase. Oxytocin- but not methacholine-induced stimulation of guanylate cyclase was abolished in Ca2+-free solution. Oxytocin increased cAMP over the levels produced by MIX alone, whereas methacholine decreased cAMP below the MIX control values; these effects were insensitive to indomethacin. Tissue levels of cGMP and cAMP did not directly correlate with isometric tension. The results also indicate that both oxytocin and methacholine stimulate guanylate cyclase but have opposing effects on adenylate cyclase of rabbit myometrium.

  5. A continuous spectrophotometric assay for monitoring adenosine 5'-monophosphate production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    First, Eric A

    2015-08-15

    A number of biologically important enzymes release adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) as a product, including aminoacyl-tRNA synthetases, cyclic AMP (cAMP) phosphodiesterases, ubiquitin and ubiquitin-like ligases, DNA ligases, coenzyme A (CoA) ligases, polyA deadenylases, and ribonucleases. In contrast to the abundance of assays available for monitoring the conversion of adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) to ADP, there are relatively few assays for monitoring the conversion of ATP (or cAMP) to AMP. In this article, we describe a homogeneous assay that continuously monitors the production of AMP. Specifically, we have coupled the conversion of AMP to inosine 5'-monophosphate (IMP) (by AMP deaminase) to the oxidation of IMP (by IMP dehydrogenase). This results in the reduction of oxidized nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) to reduced nicotine adenine dinucleotide (NADH), allowing AMP formation to be monitored by the change in the absorbance at 340 nm. Changes in AMP concentrations of 5 μM or more can be reliably detected. The ease of use and relatively low expense make the AMP assay suitable for both high-throughput screening and kinetic analyses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. A Facile and Sensitive Method for Quantification of Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates in Mammalian Organs: Basal Levels of Eight cNMPs and Identification of 2',3'-cIMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, versatile and economical method to extract and quantify cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs using LC-MS/MS, including both 3',5'-cNMPs and 2',3'-cNMPs, in mammalian tissues and cellular systems has been developed. Problems, such as matrix effects from complex biological samples, are addressed and have been optimized. This protocol allows for comparison of multiple cNMPs in the same system and was used to examine the relationship between tissue levels of cNMPs in a panel of rat organs. In addition, the study reports the first identification and quantification of 2',3'-cIMP. The developed method will allow for quantification of cNMPs levels in cells and tissues with varying disease states, which will provide insight into the role(s and interplay of cNMP signalling pathways.

  7. A facile and sensitive method for quantification of cyclic nucleotide monophosphates in mammalian organs: basal levels of eight cNMPs and identification of 2',3'-cIMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Fontaine, Benjamin M; Strobel, Fred; Weinert, Emily E

    2014-12-12

    A sensitive, versatile and economical method to extract and quantify cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs) using LC-MS/MS, including both 3',5'-cNMPs and 2',3'-cNMPs, in mammalian tissues and cellular systems has been developed. Problems, such as matrix effects from complex biological samples, are addressed and have been optimized. This protocol allows for comparison of multiple cNMPs in the same system and was used to examine the relationship between tissue levels of cNMPs in a panel of rat organs. In addition, the study reports the first identification and quantification of 2',3'-cIMP. The developed method will allow for quantification of cNMPs levels in cells and tissues with varying disease states, which will provide insight into the role(s) and interplay of cNMP signalling pathways.

  8. Marketing Your Day Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, George

    1997-01-01

    Marketing strategies for day camps include encouraging camp staff to get involved in organizations involving children, families, and communities; holding camp fairs; offering the use of camp facilities to outside groups; hosting sport leagues and local youth outings; planning community fairs; and otherwise involving the camp in the community. (LP)

  9. An Analysis on the Level of Leisure Satisfaction and the Level of Satisfaction with Life of Young People Who Attend Sport Education Camps in Nature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Polat

    2016-01-01

    This study analyzes the influence of leisure satisfaction on young people who attended the sport education camp in Bolu city. Target group of the study are students who have participated in the activities called "Nature Camp for Youth" which is held annually by Youth and Sport Ministry. The age range of the target group is between 17 and…

  10. Comparison of carbon monoxide levels during heating of ice and water to boiling point with a camping stove.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leigh-Smith, Simon; Watt, Ian; McFadyen, Angus; Grant, Stan

    2004-01-01

    To determine whether using a camping stove to bring a pan of ice to boiling point produces higher carbon monoxide (CO) concentration than would bringing a pan of water to boiling point. The hypothesis was that ice would cause greater CO concentration because of its greater flame-cooling effect and, consequently, more incomplete combustion. This was a randomized, prospective observational study. After an initial pilot study, CO concentration was monitored during 10 trials for each of ice and water. A partially ventilated 200-L cardboard box model was developed and then used inside a chamber at -6 degrees C. Ice temperature and volume, water temperature and volume, pan size, and flame characteristics were all standardized. Temperature of the heated medium was monitored to determine time to boiling point. Carbon monoxide concentration was monitored every 30 seconds for the first 3 minutes, then every minute until the end of each 10-minute trial. There was no significant difference (P > .05) in CO production levels between ice and water. Each achieved a similar mean plateau level of approximately 400 ppm CO concentration with a similar rate of rise. However, significantly higher (P = .014) CO concentration occurred at 4 and 5 minutes when the flame underwent a yellow flare; this occurred only on 3 occasions when ice was the medium. There were no significant differences for CO production between bringing a pan of ice or water to boiling point. In a small number of ice trials, the presence of a yellow flame resulted in high CO concentration. Yellow flares might occur more often with ice or snow melting, but this has not been proven.

  11. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric eBOULARAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors’ signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefly discuss the complexity of cAMP synthesis and degradation in the cardiac context, describe the way to detect it and review the main pharmacological arsenal to modulate its availability.

  12. Modulation of cAMP levels by high-fat diet and curcumin and regulatory effects on CD36/FAT scavenger receptor/fatty acids transporter gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zingg, Jean-Marc; Hasan, Syeda T; Nakagawa, Kiyotaka; Canepa, Elisa; Ricciarelli, Roberta; Villacorta, Luis; Azzi, Angelo; Meydani, Mohsen

    2017-01-02

    Curcumin, a polyphenol from turmeric (Curcuma longa), reduces inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity in several animal studies. In Ldlr -/- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), curcumin reduces plasma lipid levels, therefore contributing to a lower accumulation of lipids and to reduced expression of fatty acid transport proteins (CD36/FAT, FABP4/aP2) in peritoneal macrophages. In this study, we analyzed the molecular mechanisms by which curcumin (500, 1000, 1500 mg/kg diet, for 4 months) may influence plasma and tissue lipid levels in Ldlr -/- mice fed an HFD. In liver, HFD significantly suppressed cAMP levels, and curcumin restored almost normal levels. Similar trends were observed in adipose tissues, but not in brain, skeletal muscle, spleen, and kidney. Treatment with curcumin increased phosphorylation of CREB in liver, what may play a role in regulatory effects of curcumin in lipid homeostasis. In cell lines, curcumin increased the level of cAMP, activated the transcription factor CREB and the human CD36 promoter via a sequence containing a consensus CREB response element. Regulatory effects of HFD and Cur on gene expression were observed in liver, less in skeletal muscle and not in brain. Since the cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA)/CREB pathway plays an important role in lipid homeostasis, energy expenditure, and thermogenesis by increasing lipolysis and fatty acid β-oxidation, an increase in cAMP levels induced by curcumin may contribute to its hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects. © 2016 BioFactors, 43(1):42-53, 2017. © 2016 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  13. Octopamine regulates antennal sensory neurons via daytime-dependent changes in cAMP and IP3 levels in the hawkmoth Manduca sexta.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Schendzielorz

    Full Text Available The biogenic amine octopamine (OA mediates reward signals in olfactory learning and memory as well as circadian rhythms of sleep and activity. In the crepuscular hawkmoth Manduca sexta, OA changed pheromone detection thresholds daytime-dependently, suggesting that OA confers circadian control of olfactory transduction. Thus, with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays we searched hawkmoth antennae for daytime-dependent changes in the concentration of OA and its respective second messengers. Antennal stimulation with OA raised cAMP- and IP3 levels. Furthermore, antennae expressed daytime-dependent changes in the concentration of OA, with maxima at Zeitgebertime (ZT 20 when moths were active and also maximal concentrations of cAMP occurred. Maximal IP3 levels at ZT 18 and 23 correlated with maximal flight activity of male moths, while minimal IP3 levels at dusk correlated with peaks of feeding activity. Half maximal effective concentration (EC50 for activation of the OA-receptor decreased during the moth's activity phase suggesting daytime-dependent changes in OA receptor sensitivity. With an antiserum against tyramine, the precursor of OA, two centrifugal neurons were detected projecting out into the sensory cell layer of the antenna, possibly mediating more rapid stimulus-dependent OA actions. Indeed, in fast kinetic assays OA receptor stimulation increased cAMP concentrations within 50 msec. Thus, we hypothesize that fast, stimulus-dependent centrifugal control of OA-release in the antenna occurs. Additional slow systemic OA actions might be based upon circadian release of OA into the hemolymph mediating circadian rhythms of antennal second messenger levels. The resulting rhythms of odor sensitivity are suggested to underlie circadian rhythms in odor-mediated behavior.

  14. Discovery of a cAMP Deaminase That Quenches Cyclic AMP-Dependent Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Alissa M.; Feng, Youjun; Raushel, Frank M.; Cronan, John E.

    2013-01-01

    An enzyme of unknown function within the amidohydrolase superfamily was discovered to catalyze the hydrolysis of the universal second messenger, cyclic-3’, 5’-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The enzyme, which we have named CadD, is encoded by the human pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans. Although CadD is annotated as an adenosine deaminase, the protein specifically deaminates cAMP to cyclic-3’, 5’-inosine monophosphate (cIMP) with a kcat/Km of 2.7 ± 0.4 × 105 M−1 s−1 and has no activity on adenosine, adenine, or 5’-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This is the first identification of a deaminase specific for cAMP. Expression of CadD in Escherichia coli mimics the loss of adenylate cyclase in that it blocks growth on carbon sources that require the cAMP-CRP transcriptional activator complex for expression of the cognate genes. The cIMP reaction product cannot replace cAMP as the ligand for CRP binding to DNA in vitro and cIMP is a very poor competitor of cAMP activation of CRP for DNA binding. Transcriptional analyses indicate that CadD expression represses expression of several cAMP-CRP dependent genes. CadD adds a new activity to the cAMP metabolic network and may be a useful tool in intracellular study of cAMP-dependent processes. PMID:24074367

  15. Dendritic diameter influences the rate and magnitude of hippocampal cAMP and PKA transients during β-adrenergic receptor activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luczak, Vincent; Blackwell, Kim T; Abel, Ted; Girault, Jean-Antoine; Gervasi, Nicolas

    2017-02-01

    In the hippocampus, cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) form a critical signaling cascade required for long-lasting synaptic plasticity, learning and memory. Plasticity and memory are known to occur following pathway-specific changes in synaptic strength that are thought to result from spatially and temporally coordinated intracellular signaling events. To better understand how cAMP and PKA dynamically operate within the structural complexity of hippocampal neurons, we used live two-photon imaging and genetically-encoded fluorescent biosensors to monitor cAMP levels or PKA activity in CA1 neurons of acute hippocampal slices. Stimulation of β-adrenergic receptors (isoproterenol) or combined activation of adenylyl cyclase (forskolin) and inhibition of phosphodiesterase (IBMX) produced cAMP transients with greater amplitude and rapid on-rates in intermediate and distal dendrites compared to somata and proximal dendrites. In contrast, isoproterenol produced greater PKA activity in somata and proximal dendrites compared to intermediate and distal dendrites, and the on-rate of PKA activity did not differ between compartments. Computational models show that our observed compartmental difference in cAMP can be reproduced by a uniform distribution of PDE4 and a variable density of adenylyl cyclase that scales with compartment size to compensate for changes in surface to volume ratios. However, reproducing our observed compartmental difference in PKA activity required enrichment of protein phosphatase in small compartments; neither reduced PKA subunits nor increased PKA substrates were sufficient. Together, our imaging and computational results show that compartment diameter interacts with rate-limiting components like adenylyl cyclase, phosphodiesterase and protein phosphatase to shape the spatial and temporal components of cAMP and PKA signaling in CA1 neurons and suggests that small neuronal compartments are most sensitive to cAMP

  16. Further studies on the effect of adenosine cyclic monophosphate derivatives on cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1982-01-01

    1. Cell proliferation in the jejunal crypt epithelium of rat was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. 2. Sodium butyrate was found to promote jejunal crypt cell proliferation. 3. N6, O2'-Dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), N6-monobutyryl-cAMP and N6-monobutyryl-8-bromo-cAMP were found to inhibit cell proliferation when compared to sodium butyrate treated tissues. 4. 8-Chlorophenylthio-cAMP was found to inhibit cell division when compared to untreated animals. 5. O2'-Monobutyryl cAMP and 8-bromo-cAMP were not found to inhibit cell proliferation.

  17. Synthesis, structural characterization and effect on human granulocyte intracellular cAMP levels of abscisic acid analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, Marta; Salis, Annalisa; Grozio, Alessia; Damonte, Gianluca; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Galatini, Andrea; Zocchi, Elena; Benatti, Umberto; Millo, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), in addition to regulating physiological functions in plants, is also produced and released by several mammalian cell types, including human granulocytes, where it stimulates innate immune functions via an increase of the intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i). We synthesized several ABA analogs and evaluated the structure-activity relationship, by the systematical modification of selected regions of these analogs. The resulting molecules were tested for their ability to inhibit the ABA-induced increase of [cAMP]i in human granulocytes. The analogs with modified configurations at C-2' and C-3' abrogated the ABA-induced increase of the [cAMP]i and also inhibited several pro-inflammatory effects induced by exogenous ABA on granulocytes and monocytes. Accordingly, these analogs could be suitable as novel putative anti-inflammatory compounds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Plasma concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3'.5'-monophosphate, in healthy adults treated with theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Eriksen, P B; Andersen, O

    1982-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine monophosph...

  19. Effects of sodium ions on rat thyrocyte (FRTL-5 cells) swelling- and thyrotropin-activated taurine efflux dependent on cAMP and Epac.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fugelli, Kjell

    2016-03-01

    Cellular osmolyte release is important in preventing water accumulation and swelling. However, the signaling pathways that detect volume increase and activate solute efflux are still not fully understood. We investigated efflux activation of the osmolyte taurine which is actively accumulated in rat thyrocytes (FRTL-5). Efflux of accumulated [(3)H]taurine was stimulated by cellular swelling and thyrotropin (TSH). These effects were significantly diminished in cells having reduced TSH receptor concentrations. Phosphodiesterase inhibitors (IBMX, Rolipram) enhanced both responses. An analog of forskolin (FSK; 7-deacetyl-7-[O-(N-methylpiperazino)-γ-butyryl] dihydrochloride) and an analog of cAMP, specific for activating exchange protein activated directly by cAMP (Epac; 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-2'-O-methyladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, acetoxymethyl ester), significantly stimulated [(3)H]taurine efflux. A cAMP analog specific for activating protein kinase A (PKA; N6-benzoyladenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, acetoxymethyl ester) had no significant stimulatory effect on [(3)H]taurine efflux rate. The amiloride analog, 5-(N-ethyl-N-isopropyl)-amiloride, which inhibits a TSH-stimulated Na(+)/H(+) exchanger, enhanced (100 %) and ouabain inhibited (50 %) the TSH-stimulated [(3)H]taurine efflux rate. The effect of FSK on efflux was strongly potentiated by Na(+)-free iso-osmotic conditions and by osmolality/cell volume that affected also the db-cAMP-stimulated efflux. The TSH receptors and downstream elements of the signaling pathway comprising adenylyl cyclase, cAMP and Epac appeared to mediate the hormone-induced signal for [(3)H]taurine efflux from FRTL-5 cells. With less evidence, the cell volume/osmolality-induced [(3)H]taurine efflux cascade appeared to share some of the hormone signaling elements and to modulate the hormone signaling pathway at two levels through cellular Na(+).

  20. PKA and PDE4D3 anchoring to AKAP9 provides distinct regulation of cAMP signals at the centrosome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrin, Anna; Monterisi, Stefania; Stangherlin, Alessandra; Zoccarato, Anna; Koschinski, Andreas; Surdo, Nicoletta C.; Mongillo, Marco; Sawa, Akira; Jordanides, Niove E.; Mountford, Joanne C.

    2012-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the protein kinase A (PKA)–regulated phosphodiesterase (PDE) 4D3 binds to A kinase–anchoring proteins (AKAPs). One such protein, AKAP9, localizes to the centrosome. In this paper, we investigate whether a PKA–PDE4D3–AKAP9 complex can generate spatial compartmentalization of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling at the centrosome. Real-time imaging of fluorescence resonance energy transfer reporters shows that centrosomal PDE4D3 modulated a dynamic microdomain within which cAMP concentration selectively changed over the cell cycle. AKAP9-anchored, centrosomal PKA showed a reduced activation threshold as a consequence of increased autophosphorylation of its regulatory subunit at S114. Finally, disruption of the centrosomal cAMP microdomain by local displacement of PDE4D3 impaired cell cycle progression as a result of accumulation of cells in prophase. Our findings describe a novel mechanism of PKA activity regulation that relies on binding to AKAPs and consequent modulation of the enzyme activation threshold rather than on overall changes in cAMP levels. Further, we provide for the first time direct evidence that control of cell cycle progression relies on unique regulation of centrosomal cAMP/PKA signals. PMID:22908311

  1. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor I transcription by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in fetal rat bone cells through an element within exon 1: protein kinase A-dependent control without a consensus AMP response element

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. L.; Thomas, M. J.; Centrella, M.; Rotwein, P.

    1995-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a locally synthesized anabolic growth factor for bone. IGF-I synthesis by primary fetal rat osteoblasts (Ob) is stimulated by agents that increase the intracellular cAMP concentration, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Previous studies with Ob cultures demonstrated that PGE2 enhanced IGF-I transcription through selective use of IGF-I promoter 1, with little effect on IGF-I messenger RNA half-life. Transient transfection of Ob cultures with an array of promoter 1-luciferase reporter fusion constructs has now allowed localization of a potential cis-acting promoter element(s) responsible for cAMP-stimulated gene expression to the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of IGF-I exon 1, within a segment lacking a consensus cAMP response element. Our evidence derives from three principal observations: 1) a transfection construct containing only 122 nucleotides (nt) of promoter 1 and 328 nt of the 5'-UTR retained full PGE2-stimulated reporter expression; 2) maximal PGE2-driven reporter expression required the presence of nt 196 to 328 of exon 1 when tested within the context of IGF-I promoter 1; 3) cotransfection of IGF-I promoter-luciferase-reporter constructs with a plasmid encoding the alpha-isoform of the catalytic subunit of murine cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) produced results comparable to those seen with PGE2 treatment, whereas cotransfection with a plasmid encoding a mutant regulatory subunit of PKA that cannot bind cAMP blocked PGE2-induced reporter expression. Deoxyribonuclease I footprinting of the 5'-UTR of exon 1 demonstrated protected sequences at HS3A, HS3B, and HS3D, three of six DNA-protein binding sites previously characterized with rat liver nuclear extracts. Of these three regions, only the HS3D binding site is located within the functionally identified hormonally responsive segment of IGF-I exon 1. These results directly implicate PKA in the control of IGF-I gene transcription by PGE2 and identify a segment of

  2. Physiological and Molecular Effects of the Cyclic Nucleotides cAMP and cGMP on Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera, Natalia M.

    2012-12-01

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (CNs), cAMP and cGMP, are second messengers that participate in the regulation of development, metabolism and adaptive responses. In plants, CNs are associated with the control of pathogen responses, pollen tube orientation, abiotic stress response, membrane transport regulation, stomatal movement and light perception. In this study, we hypothesize that cAMP and cGMP promote changes in the transcription level of genes related to photosynthesis, high light and membrane transport in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and, that these changes at the molecular level can have functional biological consequences. For this reason we tested if CNs modulate the photosynthetic rate, responses to high light and root ion transport. Real time quantitative PCR was used to assess transcription levels of selected genes and infrared gas analyzers coupled to fluorescence sensors were used to measure the photosynthetic parameters. We present evidence that both cAMP and cGMP modulate foliar mRNA levels early after stimulation. The two CNs trigger different responses indicating that the signals have specificity. A comparison of proteomic and transcriptional changes suggest that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are modulated by CNs. cGMP up-regulates the mRNA levels of components of the photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. However, neither cAMP nor cGMP trigger differences in the rate of carbon assimilation, maximum efficiency of the photosystem II (PSII), or PSII operating efficiency. It was also demonstrated that CN regulate the expression of its own targets, the cyclic nucleotide gated channels - CNGC. Further studies are needed to identify the components of the signaling transduction pathway that mediate cellular changes and their respective regulatory and/or signaling roles.

  3. A suggested emergency medicine boot camp curriculum for medical students based on the mapping of Core Entrustable Professional Activities to Emergency Medicine Level 1 milestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sangeeta Lamba, Bryan Wilson, Brenda Natal, Roxanne Nagurka, Michael Anana, Harsh Sule Department of Emergency Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA Background: An increasing number of students rank Emergency Medicine (EM as a top specialty choice, requiring medical schools to provide adequate exposure to EM. The Core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs for Entering Residency by the Association of American Medical Colleges combined with the Milestone Project for EM residency training has attempted to standardize the undergraduate and graduate medical education goals. However, it remains unclear as to how the EPAs correlate to the milestones, and who owns the process of ensuring that an entering EM resident has competency at a certain minimum level. Recent trends establishing specialty-specific boot camps prepare students for residency and address the variability of skills of students coming from different medical schools. Objective: Our project’s goal was therefore to perform a needs assessment to inform the design of an EM boot camp curriculum. Toward this goal, we 1 mapped the core EPAs for graduating medical students to the EM residency Level 1 milestones in order to identify the possible gaps/needs and 2 conducted a pilot procedure workshop that was designed to address some of the identified gaps/needs in procedural skills. Methods: In order to inform the curriculum of an EM boot camp, we used a systematic approach to 1 identify gaps between the EPAs and EM milestones (Level 1 and 2 determine what essential and supplemental competencies/skills an incoming EM resident should ideally possess. We then piloted a 1-day, three-station advanced ABCs procedure workshop based on the identified needs. A pre-workshop test and survey assessed knowledge, preparedness, confidence, and perceived competence. A post-workshop survey evaluated the program, and a posttest combined with psychomotor skills test using three

  4. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Tudor, Jennifer C.; Ferri, Sarah L.; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the

  5. Recreation Summer Camps

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — List of all Camps (Register here:https://apm.activecommunities.com/montgomerycounty/Home) to include Aquatics, Basketball, Soccer, Special Interest, General Sports,...

  6. Registration Summer Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Reminder: registration for the CERN Staff Association Summer Camp is now open for children from 4 to 6 years old.   More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The summer camp is open to all children. The proposed cost is 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. For further questions, you are welcome to contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch. CERN Staff Association

  7. Kinetics of hydrogen-deuterium exchange in adenosine 5'-monophosphate, adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate, and poly(riboadenylic acid) determined by laser-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, G J; Livramento, J

    1975-11-18

    Pseudo-first-order rate constants governing the deuterium exchange of 8-CH groups in adenosine 5'-monophosphate, adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate, and poly(riboadenylic acid) (poly(rA)) were determined as a function of temperature in the range 20-90 degrees C by means of laser-Raman spectroscopy. For 5'-rAMP, the logarithm of the rate constant exhibits a strictly linear dependence on reciprocal temperature, i.e., kpsi = Ae-Ea/RT, with A = 2.3 X 10(14) hr-1 and Ea = 24.2 +/- 0.6 kcal/mol. For cAMP, above 50 degrees C, kpsi is nearly identical in magnitude and temperature dependence to that of 5'-rAMP. However, below 50 degrees C, isotope exchange in cAMP is much more rapid than in 5'-rAMP, characterized by a lower activation energy (17.7 kcal/mol) and frequency factor (9.6 X 10(9) hr-1). Exchange in poly(rA) is considerably slower than in 5'-rAMP at all temperatures, but like cAMP the in k vs. 1/T plot may be divided into high temperature and low temperature domains, each characterized by different Arrhenius parameters. Above 60 degrees C, poly(rA) gives Ea = 22.0 kcal/mol and A = 3.2 X 10(12) hr-1, while below 60 degrees C, Ea = 27.7 kcal/mol and A = 1.8 X 10(16) hr-1. Thus, increasing the temperature above 60 degrees C does not diminish the retardation of exchange in poly(rA) vis a vis 5'-rAMP. These results indicate that the distribution of electrons in the adenine ring of cAMP is altered by lowering the temperature below 50 degrees C, although no similar perturbation occurs for 5'-rAMP. Retardation of exchange in poly(rA) is most probably due to base stacking at lower temperatures and to steric hindrance from the ribopolymer backbone at higher temperatures. We also report the spectral effects of deuterium exchange on the vibrational Raman frequencies of 5'-rAMP, cAMP, and poly(rA) and suggest a number of new assignments for the 5' and cyclic ribosyl phosphate groups.

  8. An Analysis of the Relationship of Military Affiliation to Demographics, New Sailor Survey Responses, and Boot Camp Success

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Pond, Eric L

    2008-01-01

    .... Recruits' military affiliation showed no significant relationship with AFQT scores, age, bonus amounts, college level, graduation rate from boot camp, number of dependents, boot camp pay grade, race...

  9. Novel adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate dependent protein kinases in a marine diatom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lin, P.P.C.; Volcani, B.E.

    1989-01-01

    Two novel adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) dependent protein kinases have been isolated from the diatom Cylindrotheca fusiformis. The kinases, designated I and II, are eluted from DEAE-Sephacel at 0.10 and 0.15 M NaCl. They have a high affinity for cAMP and are activated by micromolar cAMP. They exhibit maximal activity at 5 mM Mg 2+ and pH 8 with the preferred phosphate donor ATP and phosphate acceptor histone H1. They phosphorylate sea urchin sperm histone H1 on a single serine site in the sequence Arg-Lys-Gly-Ser( 32 P)-Ser-Asn-Ala-Arg and have an apparent M r of 75,000 as determined by gel filtration and sucrose density sedimentation. In the kinase I preparation a single protein band with an apparent M r of about 78,000 is photolabeled with 8-azido[ 32 P]cAMP and is also phosphorylated with [γ- 32 P]ATP in a cAMP-dependent manner, after autoradiography following sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis. The rate of phosphorylation of the 78,000-dalton band is independent of the enzyme concentration. The results indicate that (i) these diatom cAMP-dependent protein kinases are monomeric proteins, possessing both the cAMP-binding regulatory and catalytic domains on the same polypeptide chain, (ii) the enzymes do not dissociate into smaller species upon activation by binding cAMP, and (iii) self-phosphorylation of the enzymes by an intrapeptide reaction is cAMP dependent. The two diatom cAMP kinases are refractory to the heat-stable protein kinase modulator from rabbit muscle, but they respond differently to proteolytic degradation and to inhibition by arachidonic acid and several microbial alkaloids

  10. The Popeye Domain Containing Genes and cAMP Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is a second messenger, which plays an important role in the heart. It is generated in response to activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Initially, it was thought that protein kinase A (PKA exclusively mediates cAMP-induced cellular responses such as an increase in cardiac contractility, relaxation, and heart rate. With the identification of the exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (EPAC and hyperpolarizing cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels as cAMP effector proteins it became clear that a protein network is involved in cAMP signaling. The Popeye domain containing (Popdc genes encode yet another family of cAMP-binding proteins, which are prominently expressed in the heart. Loss-of-function mutations in mice are associated with cardiac arrhythmia and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration. Interestingly, the cardiac phenotype, which is present in both, Popdc1 and Popdc2 null mutants, is characterized by a stress-induced sinus bradycardia, suggesting that Popdc proteins participate in cAMP signaling in the sinuatrial node. The identification of the two-pore channel TREK-1 and Caveolin 3 as Popdc-interacting proteins represents a first step into understanding the mechanisms of heart rate modulation triggered by Popdc proteins.

  11. Marketing for Camp Trends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Alicia

    1998-01-01

    To effectively market a camp, current trends and issues must be considered: specialty programming, the Americans With Disabilities Act, competing recreational programs, changes in the school year, programming for seniors, and accountability. Camps should have a marketing strategy that includes public relations, a marketing plan, a pricing…

  12. Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renville, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

  13. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Lene; Pries-Heje, Jan; Dalgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  14. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.

  15. Exposure to a specific time-varying electromagnetic field inhibits cell proliferation via cAMP and ERK signaling in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buckner, Carly A; Buckner, Alison L; Koren, Stan A; Persinger, Michael A; Lafrenie, Robert M

    2018-04-01

    Exposure to specific electromagnetic field (EMF) patterns can affect a variety of biological systems. We have shown that exposure to Thomas-EMF, a low-intensity, frequency-modulated (25-6 Hz) EMF pattern, inhibited growth and altered cell signaling in malignant cells. Exposure to Thomas-EMF for 1 h/day inhibited the growth of malignant cells including B16-BL6 mouse melanoma cells, MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-468, BT-20, and MCF-7 human breast cancer and HeLa cervical cancer cells but did not affect non-malignant cells. The Thomas-EMF-dependent changes in cell proliferation were mediated by adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular-signal-regulated kinase (ERK) signaling pathways. Exposure of malignant cells to Thomas-EMF transiently changed the level of cellular cAMP and promoted ERK phosphorylation. Pharmacologic inhibitors (SQ22536) and activators (forskolin) of cAMP production both blocked the ability of Thomas-EMF to inhibit cell proliferation, and an inhibitor of the MAP kinase pathway (PD98059) was able to partially block Thomas-EMF-dependent inhibition of cell proliferation. Genetic modulation of protein kinase A (PKA) in B16-BL6 cells also altered the effect of Thomas-EMF on cell proliferation. Cells transfected with the constitutively active form of PKA (PKA-CA), which interfered with ERK phosphorylation, also interfered with the Thomas-EMF effect on cell proliferation. The non-malignant cells did not show any EMF-dependent changes in cAMP levels, ERK phosphorylation, or cell growth. These data indicate that exposure to the specific Thomas-EMF pattern can inhibit the growth of malignant cells in a manner dependent on contributions from the cAMP and MAP kinase pathways. Bioelectromagnetics. 39;217-230, 2018. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Measurement of cAMP in an undergraduate teaching laboratory, using ALPHAscreen technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartho, Joseph D; Ly, Kien; Hay, Debbie L

    2012-02-14

    Adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is a cellular second messenger with central relevance to pharmacology, cell biology, and biochemistry teaching programs. cAMP is produced from adenosine triphosphate by adenylate cyclase, and its production is reduced or enhanced upon activation of many G protein-coupled receptors. Therefore, the measurement of cAMP serves as an indicator of receptor activity. Although there are many assays available for measuring cAMP, few are suitable for large class teaching, and even fewer seem to have been adapted for this purpose. Here, we describe the use of bead-based ALPHAscreen (Amplified Luminescent Proximity Homogenous Assay) technology for teaching a class of more than 300 students the practical aspects of detecting signal transduction. This technology is applicable to the measurement of many different signaling pathways. This resource is designed to provide a practical guide for instructors and a useful model for developing other classes using similar technologies.

  17. Summer Camp Registrations 2018

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2018-01-01

    Registration for the CERN SA Summer camp, for children from 4 to 6 years old, is now open. The general conditions are available on the EVE and School website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch For further questions, please contact us by email at  Summer.Camp@cern.ch An inscription per week is proposed, for 450.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open on weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. This year the theme will be Vivaldi’s Four Seasons.

  18. Hitler's Death Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)

  19. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-02

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  20. Combinatorial effects of genistein and sex-steroids on the level of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), adenylate cyclase (AC) and cAMP in the cervix of ovariectomised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Naguib; Ismail, Nurain; Muniandy, Sekaran; Korla, Praveen Kumar; Giribabu, Nelli

    2015-12-01

    The combinatorial effects of genistein and estrogen (E) or estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) on CFTR, AC and cAMP levels in cervix were investigated. Ovariectomised adult female rats received 50 or 100mg/kg/day genistein with E or E followed by E+P [E+(E+P)] for seven consecutive days. Cervixes were harvested and analyzed for CFTR mRNA levels by Real-time PCR. Distribution of AC and CFTR proteins in endocervix were observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. Molecular docking predicted interaction between genistein and AC. Our results indicate that levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of rats receiving genistein plus E were higher than E-only treatment (pcervix of E and E+(E+P)-treated rats by genistein could affect the cervical secretory function which could influence the female reproductive processes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase, metabolism and exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aschenbach, William G; Sakamoto, Kei; Goodyear, Laurie J

    2004-01-01

    The 5' adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a member of a metabolite-sensing protein kinase family that functions as a metabolic 'fuel gauge' in skeletal muscle. AMPK is a ubiquitous heterotrimeric protein, consisting of an alpha catalytic, and beta and gamma regulatory subunits that exist in multiple isoforms and are all required for full enzymatic activity. During exercise, AMPK becomes activated in skeletal muscle in response to changes in cellular energy status (e.g. increased adenosine monophosphate [AMP]/adenosine triphosphate [ATP] and creatine/phosphocreatine ratios) in an intensity-dependent manner, and serves to inhibit ATP-consuming pathways, and activate pathways involved in carbohydrate and fatty-acid metabolism to restore ATP levels. Recent evidence shows that although AMPK plays this key metabolic role during acute bouts of exercise, it is also an important component of the adaptive response of skeletal muscles to endurance exercise training because of its ability to alter muscle fuel reserves and expression of several exercise-responsive genes. This review discusses the putative roles of AMPK in acute and chronic exercise responses, and suggests avenues for future AMPK research in exercise physiology and biochemistry.

  2. Primary adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase deficiency in a hypotonic infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Gago, Manuel; Gómez-Lado, Carmen; Pérez-Gay, Laura; Eirís-Puñal, Jesús; Martínez, Elena Pintos; García-Consuegra, Inés; Martín, Miguel Angel

    2011-06-01

    The spectrum of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase deficiency ranges from asymptomatic carriers to patients who manifest exercise-induced muscle pain, occasionally rhabdomyolysis, and idiopathic hyperCKemia. However, previous to the introduction of molecular techniques, rare cases with congenital weakness and hypotonia have also been reported. We report a 6-month-old girl with the association of congenital muscle weakness and hypotonia, muscle deficiency of adenosine monophosphate deaminase, and the homozygous C to T mutation at nucleotide 34 of the adenosine monophosphate deaminase-1 gene. This observation indicates the possible existence of a primary adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency manifested by congenital muscle weakness and hypotonia.

  3. Limonin, a Component of Dictamni Radicis Cortex, Inhibits Eugenol-Induced Calcium and cAMP Levels and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Non-Neuronal 3T3-L1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Cho Yoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Limonin, one of the major components in dictamni radicis cortex (DRC, has been shown to play various biological roles in cancer, inflammation, and obesity in many different cell types and tissues. Recently, the odorant-induced signal transduction pathway (OST has gained attention not only because of its function in the perception of smell but also because of its numerous physiological functions in non-neuronal cells. However, little is known about the effects of limonin and DRC on the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells. We investigated odorant-stimulated increases in Ca2+ and cAMP, major second messengers in the OST pathway, in non-neuronal 3T3-L1 cells pretreated with limonin and ethanol extracts of DRC. Limonin and the extracts significantly decreased eugenol-induced Ca2+ and cAMP levels and upregulated phosphorylation of CREB and PKA. Our results demonstrated that limonin and DRC extract inhibit the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells by modulating Ca2+ and cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB.

  4. cAMP and forskolin decrease γ-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride flux in rat brain synaptoneurosomes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heuschneider, G.; Schwartz, R.D.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of the cyclic nucleotide cAMP on γ-aminobutyric acid-gated chloride channel function were investigated. The membrane-permeant cAMP analog N 6 , O 2' -dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate inhibited muscimol-induced 36 Cl - uptake into rat cerebral cortical synaptoneurosomes in a concentration-dependent manner. The inhibition was due to a decrease in the maximal effect of muscimol, with no change in potency. Similar effects were observed with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, 8-bromoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, and the phosphodiesterase inhibitor isobutylmethylxanthine. The effect of endogenous cAMP accumulation on the γ-aminobutyric acid-gated Cl - channel was studied with forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase. Under identical conditions, in the intact synaptoneurosomes, forskolin inhibited muscimol-induced 36 Cl - uptake and generated cAMP with similar potencies. Surprisingly, 1,9-dideoxyforskolin, which does not activate adenylate cyclase, also inhibited the muscimol response, suggesting that forskolin and its lipophilic derivatives may interact with the Cl - channel directly. The data suggest that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA A ) receptor function in brain can be regulated by cAMP-dependent phosphorylation

  5. Agents that affect cAMP levels or protein kinase A activity modulate memory consolidation when injected into rat hippocampus but not amygdala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Bevilaqua

    1997-08-01

    Full Text Available Male Wistar rats were trained in one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance using a 0.4-mA footshock. At various times after training (0, 1.5, 3, 6 and 9 h for the animals implanted into the CA1 region of the hippocampus; 0 and 3 h for those implanted into the amygdala, these animals received microinfusions of SKF38393 (7.5 µg/side, SCH23390 (0.5 µg/side, norepinephrine (0.3 µg/side, timolol (0.3 µg/side, 8-OH-DPAT (2.5 µg/side, NAN-190 (2.5 µg/side, forskolin (0.5 µg/side, KT5720 (0.5 µg/side or 8-Br-cAMP (1.25 µg/side. Rats were tested for retention 24 h after training. When given into the hippocampus 0 h post-training, norepinephrine enhanced memory whereas KT5720 was amnestic. When given 1.5 h after training, all treatments were ineffective. When given 3 or 6 h post-training, 8-Br-cAMP, forskolin, SKF38393, norepinephrine and NAN-190 caused memory facilitation, while KT5720, SCH23390, timolol and 8-OH-DPAT caused retrograde amnesia. Again, at 9 h after training, all treatments were ineffective. When given into the amygdala, norepinephrine caused retrograde facilitation at 0 h after training. The other drugs infused into the amygdala did not cause any significant effect. These data suggest that in the hippocampus, but not in the amygdala, a cAMP/protein kinase A pathway is involved in memory consolidation at 3 and 6 h after training, which is regulated by D1, ß, and 5HT1A receptors. This correlates with data on increased post-training cAMP levels and a dual peak of protein kinase A activity and CREB-P levels (at 0 and 3-6 h in rat hippocampus after training in this task. These results suggest that the hippocampus, but not the amygdala, is involved in long-term storage of step-down inhibitory avoidance in the rat.

  6. Camp Marmal Flood Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    was simulated by means of a broad - crested weir built into the topography of the mesh. There is 0.5 m of freeboard and the width of the weir is 30 m...ER D C/ CH L TR -1 2- 5 Camp Marmal Flood Study Co as ta l a nd H yd ra ul ic s La bo ra to ry Jeremy A. Sharp , Steve H. Scott...Camp Marmal Flood Study Jeremy A. Sharp , Steve H. Scott, Mark R. Jourdan, and Gaurav Savant Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory U.S. Army Engineer

  7. Geographies of the camp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minca, C.

    2015-01-01

    Facing the current growing global archipelago of encampments – including concentration, detention, transit, identification, refugee, military and training camps, this article is a geographical reflection on ‘the camp’, as a modern institution and as a spatial bio-political technology. In particular,

  8. The influence of dibutyryl adenosine cyclic monophosphate on cell proliferation in the epithelium of the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and in colonic carcinomata of rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tutton, P J; Barkla, D H

    1980-01-01

    1. Cell proliferation in the jejunal crypts, the colonic crypts and in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced adenocarcinomata of rat colon was measured using a stathmokinetic technique. 2. Dibutryl cyclic adneosine monophosphate (dibutyryl cAMP) was found to inhibit cell proliferation in colonic crypts and in colonic adenocarcinomata. 3. Dibutryl cAMP at very high doses was found to inhibit jejunal crypt cell proliferation but at lower doses was found to accelerate jejunal crypt cell proliferation. 4. Neither bilateral adrenalectomy nor chemical sympathectomy was found to abolish the ability of dibutryl cAMP to stimulate jejunal crypt cell proliferation. 5. The present results are difficult to interpret in terms of known hormonal influences on cell proliferation in the tissues examined and of established actions, of these hormones on cyclic nucleotide metabolism in other tissues.

  9. Decreased hepatic response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists, and cAMP in glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biazi, Giuliana R; Frasson, Isabele G; Miksza, Daniele R; de Morais, Hely; de Fatima Silva, Flaviane; Bertolini, Gisele L; de Souza, Helenir M

    2018-05-15

    The response to glucagon and adrenaline in cancer cachexia is poorly known. The aim of this study was to investigate the response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists (α and β) and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) on glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in liver perfusion of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats with advanced cachexia. Liver ATP content was also investigated. Rats without tumor (healthy) were used as controls. Agonists α (phenylephrine) and β (isoproterenol) adrenergic, instead of adrenaline, and cAMP, the second messenger of glucagon and isoproterenol, were used in an attempt to identify mechanisms involved in the responses. Glucagon (1 nM) stimulated glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and inhibited glycolysis in the liver of healthy and tumor-bearing rats, but their effects were lower in tumor-bearing rats. Isoproterenol (20 µM) stimulated glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis in healthy rats and had virtually no effect in tumor-bearing rats. cAMP (9 µM) also stimulated glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and inhibited glycolysis in healthy rats but had practically no effect in tumor-bearing rats. Phenylephrine (2 µM) stimulated glycogenolysis and gluconeogenesis and inhibited glycolysis and these effects were also lower in tumor-bearing rats than in healthy. Liver ATP content was lower in tumor-bearing rats. In conclusion, tumor-bearing rats with advanced cachexia showed a decreased hepatic response to glucagon, adrenergic agonists (α and β), and cAMP in glycogenolysis, gluconeogenesis, and glycolysis, which may be due to a reduced rate of regulatory enzyme phosphorylation caused by the low ATP levels in the liver. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Connexin31.1 deficiency in the mouse impairs object memory and modulates open-field exploration, acetylcholine esterase levels in the striatum, and cAMP response element-binding protein levels in the striatum and piriform cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dere, E; Zheng-Fischhöfer, Q; Viggiano, D; Gironi Carnevale, U A; Ruocco, L A; Zlomuzica, A; Schnichels, M; Willecke, K; Huston, J P; Sadile, A G

    2008-05-02

    Neuronal gap junctions in the brain, providing intercellular electrotonic signal transfer, have been implicated in physiological and behavioral correlates of learning and memory. In connexin31.1 (Cx31.1) knockout (KO) mice the coding region of the Cx31.1 gene was replaced by a LacZ reporter gene. We investigated the impact of Cx31.1 deficiency on open-field exploration, the behavioral response to an odor, non-selective attention, learning and memory performance, and the levels of memory-related proteins in the hippocampus, striatum and the piriform cortex. In terms of behavior, the deletion of the Cx31.1 coding DNA in the mouse led to increased exploratory behaviors in a novel environment, and impaired one-trial object recognition at all delays tested. Despite strong Cx31.1 expression in the peripheral and central olfactory system, Cx31.1 KO mice exhibited normal behavioral responses to an odor. We found increased levels of acetylcholine esterase (AChE) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) in the striatum of Cx31.1 KO mice. In the piriform cortex the Cx31.1 KO mice had an increased heterogeneity of CREB expression among neurons. In conclusion, gap-junctions featuring the Cx31.1 protein might be involved in open-field exploration as well as object memory and modulate levels of AChE and CREB in the striatum and piriform cortex.

  11. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate metabolism in synaptic growth, strength, and precision: neural and behavioral phenotype-specific counterbalancing effects between dnc phosphodiesterase and rut adenylyl cyclase mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2012-03-01

    Two classic learning mutants in Drosophila, rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc), are defective in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and degradation, respectively, exhibiting a variety of neuronal and behavioral defects. We ask how the opposing effects of these mutations on cAMP levels modify subsets of phenotypes, and whether any specific phenotypes could be ameliorated by biochemical counter balancing effects in dnc rut double mutants. Our study at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) demonstrates that dnc mutations caused severe defects in nerve terminal morphology, characterized by unusually large synaptic boutons and aberrant innervation patterns. Interestingly, a counterbalancing effect led to rescue of the aberrant innervation patterns but the enlarged boutons in dnc rut double mutant remained as extreme as those in dnc. In contrast to dnc, rut mutations strongly affect synaptic transmission. Focal loose-patch recording data accumulated over 4 years suggest that synaptic currents in rut boutons were characterized by unusually large temporal dispersion and a seasonal variation in the amount of transmitter release, with diminished synaptic currents in summer months. Experiments with different rearing temperatures revealed that high temperature (29-30°C) decreased synaptic transmission in rut, but did not alter dnc and wild-type (WT). Importantly, the large temporal dispersion and abnormal temperature dependence of synaptic transmission, characteristic of rut, still persisted in dnc rut double mutants. To interpret these results in a proper perspective, we reviewed previously documented differential effects of dnc and rut mutations and their genetic interactions in double mutants on a variety of physiological and behavioral phenotypes. The cases of rescue in double mutants are associated with gradual developmental and maintenance processes whereas many behavioral and physiological manifestations on faster time scales could not be rescued. We discuss

  12. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  13. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  14. Rapid synthesis of triazine inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitts, William J; Guo, Junqing; Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Gu, Henry H; Watterson, Scott H; Bednarz, Mark S; Chen, Bang Chi; Barrish, Joel C; Bassolino, Donna; Cheney, Daniel; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-08-19

    A series of novel triazine-based small molecule inhibitors (IV) of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase was prepared. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SAR) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  15. Novel amide-based inhibitors of inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Dhar, T G Murali; Gu, Henry H; Pitts, William J; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel amide-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs) derived from in vitro studies are described.

  16. Immunomodulatory effect of APS and PSP is mediated by Ca2+-cAMP and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in macrophage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhixue; Liu, Zijing; Zhou, Lijng; Long, Tingting; Zhou, Xing; Bao, Yixi

    2017-01-01

    This study is to investigate the role of second messengers and TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway in the immunomodulatory activities of Astragalus polysaccharide (APS) and Polysaccharopeptide (PSP) in macrophages. RAW 264.7 macrophage cells were treated with APS, PSP, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), or NiCl 2 . Power-spectral method was used to detect protein kinase C (PKC) and Griess reaction to detect nitric oxide (NO). ELISA was conducted to detect cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), diglycerides (DAG), inositol 1, 4, 5-triphosphate (IP3), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Confocal laser scanning microscopy was performed to detect calcium level. qRT-PCR and Western blot was used to detect mRNA and protein expression of NF-κB. APS and PSP significantly increased the concentrations of intracellular second messengers (NO, cAMP, DAG, IP3, Ca 2+ ) and the activity of PKC in macrophages (pAPS and PSP (pAPS and PSP mediated immunomodulatory activities in macrophages. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Reminder Registration for the CERN Staff Association Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  18. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  19. Alteration of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase activity in rabbit ciliary processes by cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delamere, N.A.; Socci, R.R.; King, K.L.

    1990-01-01

    The response of sodium, potassium-adenosine triphosphatase (Na,K-ATPase) to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase was examined in membranes obtained from rabbit iris-ciliary body. In the presence of the protein kinase together with 10(-5) M cAMP, Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced. No change in Na,K-ATPase activity was detected in response to the protein kinase without added cAMP. Likewise cAMP alone did not alter Na,K-ATPase activity. Reduction of Na,K-ATPase activity was also observed in the presence of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit. The response of the enzyme to the kinase catalytic subunit was also examined in membranes obtained from rabbit ciliary processes. In the presence of 8 micrograms/ml of the catalytic subunit, ciliary process Na,K-ATPase activity was reduced by more than 50%. To examine whether other ATPases were suppressed by the protein kinase, calcium-stimulated ATPase activity was examined; its activity was stimulated by the catalytic subunit. To test whether the response of the ciliary process Na,K-ATPase is unique, experiments were also performed using membrane preparations from rabbit lens epithelium or rabbit kidney; the catalytic subunit significantly reduced the activity of Na,K-ATPase from the kidney but not the lens. These Na,K-ATPase studies suggest that in the iris-ciliary body, cAMP may alter sodium pump activity. In parallel 86Rb uptake studies, we observed that ouabain-inhibitable potassium uptake by intact pieces of iris-ciliary body was reduced by exogenous dibutryl cAMP or by forskolin

  20. Summer Camp, July 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    During the month of July, the Staff Association’s Children’s Day-Care Centre and School EVEE held a summer camp for 4- to 6-year-olds. 24 children altogether joined in on the adventures. On the summer camp, the children got to “travel” to a different continent of the world every week. Day after day, they would pass through make-believe Customs upon arrival and get their passports stamped by a “customs officer”. For the first week, we went on a trip to Africa. In the spirit of the theme, the children got to do plenty of crafts and coloring, make their own little bindles and play various games. They even had the chance to visit the Museum of Ethnography in Geneva (MEG), learn to play the balafon and make musical instruments with Sterrenlab. For the second week, we set off to discover the Americas, exploring both the South and the North. Alongside different workshops (singing, dancing, storytelling, crafts), the children could enjoy several special ac...

  1. cAMP signaling in skeletal muscle adaptation: hypertrophy, metabolism, and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Among organ systems, skeletal muscle is perhaps the most structurally specialized. The remarkable subcellular architecture of this tissue allows it to empower movement with instructions from motor neurons. Despite this high degree of specialization, skeletal muscle also has intrinsic signaling mechanisms that allow adaptation to long-term changes in demand and regeneration after acute damage. The second messenger adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) not only elicits acute changes within myofibers during exercise but also contributes to myofiber size and metabolic phenotype in the long term. Strikingly, sustained activation of cAMP signaling leads to pronounced hypertrophic responses in skeletal myofibers through largely elusive molecular mechanisms. These pathways can promote hypertrophy and combat atrophy in animal models of disorders including muscular dystrophy, age-related atrophy, denervation injury, disuse atrophy, cancer cachexia, and sepsis. cAMP also participates in muscle development and regeneration mediated by muscle precursor cells; thus, downstream signaling pathways may potentially be harnessed to promote muscle regeneration in patients with acute damage or muscular dystrophy. In this review, we summarize studies implicating cAMP signaling in skeletal muscle adaptation. We also highlight ligands that induce cAMP signaling and downstream effectors that are promising pharmacological targets. PMID:22354781

  2. Inhibition of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Specific Phosphodiesterase by Various Food Plant-Derived Phytotherapeutic Agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röhrig, Teresa; Pacjuk, Olga; Hernández-Huguet, Silvia; Körner, Johanna; Scherer, Katharina; Richling, Elke

    2017-11-04

    Background: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Four plant extracts ( Arbutus unedo , Camellia sinensis , Cynara scolymus , Zingiber officinale ) with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay. Results: Strawberry tree fruit ( Arbutus unedo ) and tea ( Camellia sinensis ) extracts did not inhibit PDE markedly. Alternatively, artichoke ( Cynara scolymus ) extract had a significant inhibitory influence on PDE activity (IC 50 = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/mL) as well as its flavone luteolin (IC 50 = 41 ± 10 μM) and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (IC 50 > 1.0 mM). Additionally, the ginger ( Zingiber officinale ) extract and one of its constituents, [6]-gingerol, significantly inhibited PDE (IC 50 = 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/mL and IC 50 > 1.7 mM, respectively). Crude fractionation of ginger extract showed that substances responsible for PDE inhibition were in the lipoid fraction (IC 50 = 455 ± 19 μg/mL). Conclusions: A PDE-inhibitory effect was shown for artichoke and ginger extract. Whether PDE inhibition in vivo can be achieved through ingestion of artichoke or ginger extracts leading to physiological effects concerning cardiovascular health should be addressed in future research.

  3. Inhibition of Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Specific Phosphodiesterase by Various Food Plant-Derived Phytotherapeutic Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Röhrig

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phosphodiesterases (PDEs play a major role in the regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP- and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP-mediated pathways. Their inhibitors exhibit anti-inflammatory, vasodilatory and antithrombotic effects. Therefore, consumption of foods with PDE-inhibiting potential may possess beneficial influence on the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Methods: Four plant extracts (Arbutus unedo, Camellia sinensis, Cynara scolymus, Zingiber officinale with promising ingredient profiles and physiological effects were tested for their ability to inhibit cAMP-specific PDE in vitro in a radioactive assay. Results: Strawberry tree fruit (Arbutus unedo and tea (Camellia sinensis extracts did not inhibit PDE markedly. Alternatively, artichoke (Cynara scolymus extract had a significant inhibitory influence on PDE activity (IC50 = 0.9 ± 0.1 mg/mL as well as its flavone luteolin (IC50 = 41 ± 10 μM and 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid (IC50 > 1.0 mM. Additionally, the ginger (Zingiber officinale extract and one of its constituents, [6]-gingerol, significantly inhibited PDE (IC50 = 1.7 ± 0.2 mg/mL and IC50 > 1.7 mM, respectively. Crude fractionation of ginger extract showed that substances responsible for PDE inhibition were in the lipoid fraction (IC50 = 455 ± 19 μg/mL. Conclusions: A PDE-inhibitory effect was shown for artichoke and ginger extract. Whether PDE inhibition in vivo can be achieved through ingestion of artichoke or ginger extracts leading to physiological effects concerning cardiovascular health should be addressed in future research.

  4. Regulation of cessation of respiration and killing by cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate and its receptor protein after far-ultraviolet irradiation of Escherichia coli

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swenson, P.A.; Schenley, R.L.; Joshi, J.G.

    1978-01-01

    When Escherichia coli B/r cultures are irradiated with ultraviolet light (UV) (254 nm), those cells that are killed stop respiring by 60 min after irradiation. Post-UV treatment with cyclic adenosine 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) causes more cells to stop respiring and to die. We have studied these effects at a UV fluence of 52 I/m 2 in a a wild-type E. coli K 12 strain and in mutants defective in cAMP metabolism. Strain CA 8,000 has crp + and cya + genes for the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) (required for transcription of operons regulated by cAMP) and for adenylate cyclase, respectively; CA 7901 is crp - ; and CA 8306 is a cya deletion (Δ). The wild-type culture showed a small transient cessation of respiration, and addition of cAMP caused cessation to be nearly complete. The crp - culture showed no evidence of cessation of respiration, and cAMP had no effect. The Δ cya mutant also showed no cessation of respiration, but cAMP (5 mM) caused as complete inhibition as in the wild type. cAMP caused a 10-fold loss in viability of UV-irradiated wild-type and Δ cya liquid cultures but had no effect on the cpr - culture. Respiration and viability changes were also studied in a double mutant, CA8404 Δ cya crp*, which has an altered CRP that is, with respect to the lac operon, independent of cAMP. The respiration response to UV was similar to that of the wild-type culture, and both respiration and viability of cells in liquid culture were sensitive to cAMP. The survival data, obtained by plating immediately after irradiation, show the wild type, Δ cya strains, and Δ cya crp* to be equally sensitive and the crp - strain to be more resistant. We conclude that cessation of respiration and cell killing after UV irradiation are regulated by cAMP and the CRP. (orig.) [de

  5. Deoxypyrimidine monophosphate bypass therapy for thymidine kinase 2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garone, Caterina; Garcia-Diaz, Beatriz; Emmanuele, Valentina; Lopez, Luis C; Tadesse, Saba; Akman, Hasan O; Tanji, Kurenai; Quinzii, Catarina M; Hirano, Michio

    2014-08-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in the thymidine kinase 2 gene (TK2) cause mitochondrial DNA depletion, multiple deletions, or both due to loss of TK2 enzyme activity and ensuing unbalanced deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) pools. To bypass Tk2 deficiency, we administered deoxycytidine and deoxythymidine monophosphates (dCMP+dTMP) to the Tk2 H126N (Tk2(-/-)) knock-in mouse model from postnatal day 4, when mutant mice are phenotypically normal, but biochemically affected. Assessment of 13-day-old Tk2(-/-) mice treated with dCMP+dTMP 200 mg/kg/day each (Tk2(-/-200dCMP/) (dTMP)) demonstrated that in mutant animals, the compounds raise dTTP concentrations, increase levels of mtDNA, ameliorate defects of mitochondrial respiratory chain enzymes, and significantly prolong their lifespan (34 days with treatment versus 13 days untreated). A second trial of dCMP+dTMP each at 400 mg/kg/day showed even greater phenotypic and biochemical improvements. In conclusion, dCMP/dTMP supplementation is the first effective pharmacologic treatment for Tk2 deficiency. © 2014 The Authors. Published under the terms of the CC BY 4.0 license.

  6. High glucose enhances cAMP level and extracellular signal-regulated kinase phosphorylation in Chinese hamster ovary cell: Usage of Br-cAMP in foreign protein β-galactosidase expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hsiao-Hsien; Lee, Tsung-Yih; Liu, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Ching-Ping

    2017-07-01

    Glucose is a carbon source for Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell growth, while low growth rate is considered to enhance the production of recombinant proteins. The present study reveals that glucose concentrations higher than 1 g/L reduce the growth rate and substantially increase in cAMP (∼300%) at a high glucose concentration (10 g/L). High glucose also enhances the phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and p27 kip by Western blot analysis. To determine whether the phosphorylation of ERK is involved in the mechanism, a cyclic-AMP dependent protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor (H-8) or MEK (MAPKK) inhibitor (PD98059) was added to block ERK phosphorylation. We show that both the high glucose-induced ERK phosphorylation and growth rate return to baseline levels. These results suggest that the cAMP/PKA and MAP signaling pathways are involved in the abovementioned mechanism. Interestingly, the direct addition of 8-bromo-cAMP (Br-cAMP), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog, can mimic the similar effects produced by high glucose. Subsequently Br-cAMP could induce β-galactosidase (β-Gal) recombinant protein expression by 1.6-fold. Furthermore, Br-cAMP can additionally enhance the β-Gal production (from 2.8- to 4.5-fold) when CHO cells were stimulated with glycerol, thymidine, dimethyl sulfoxide, pentanoic acid, or sodium butyrate. Thus, Br-cAMP may be used as an alternative agent in promoting foreign protein expression for CHO cells. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Elevation of cAMP Levels Inhibits Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis in Pre- B ALL NALM- 6 Cells Through Induction of BAD Phosphorylation and Inhibition of P53 Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Ahmad; Kazemi, Ahmad; Kashiri, Meysam; Safa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of the molecular mechanisms of cAMP action against DNA damage-induced apoptosis can be useful to improve the efficacy of DNA damaging therapeutic agents. Considering the critical role of bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) and p53 proteins in DNA damage -induced apoptosis, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of cAMP-elevating agents on these proteins in doxorubicin-treated pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) NALM-6 cells.The pre-B ALL cell line NALM-6 was cultured and treated with doxorubicin in combination with or without cAMP-elevating agents forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Cell viability was measured by trypan blue staining and MTT assay. For evaluation of apoptosis, annexin-V staining by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay were used. Protein expression of p53, BAD and phoshorylated BAD was detected by western blotting analysis.cAMP-increasing agents diminished the doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxicity in NALM-6 cells as indicated by the viability assays. Annexin-V apoptosis assay showed that the cAMP-elevating agents decreased doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, doxorubicin-induced caspase-3 activity was attenuated in the presence of cAMP-increasing agents. Western blot results revealed the reduced expression of p53 protein in cells treated with combination of cAMP-elevating agents and doxorubicin in contrast to cells treated with doxorubicin alone. Expression of total BAD protein was not affected by doxorubicin and cAMP-elevating agents. However, phosphorylation of BAD protein was induced in the presence of cAMP-elevating agents. Our study suggests that elevated cAMP levels inhibit doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in pre-B ALL cells through induction of BAD phosphorylation and abrogation of p53 accumulation.

  8. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Registration for the CERN SA Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old From March 14 to 25 for children already enrolled in CERN SA EVE and School From April 4 to 15 for the children of CERN members of the personnel (MP) From April 18 for other children More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  9. Base Camp Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warebi Gabriel Brisibe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal or time line studies of change in the architecture of a particular culture are common, but an area still open to further research is change across space or place. In particular, there is need for studies on architectural change of cultures stemming from the same ethnic source split between their homeland and other Diasporas. This change may range from minor deviations to drastic shifts away from an architectural norm and the accumulation of these shifts within a time frame constitutes variations. This article focuses on identifying variations in the architecture of the Ijo fishing group that migrates along the coastline of West Africa. It examines the causes of cross-cultural variation between base camp dwellings of Ijo migrant fishermen in the Bakassi Peninsula in Cameroon and Bayelsa State in Nigeria. The study draws on the idea of the inevitability of cultural and social change over time as proposed in the theories of cultural dynamism and evolution. It tests aspects of cultural transmission theory using the principal coordinates analysis to ascertain the possible causes of variation. From the findings, this research argues that migration has enhanced the forces of cultural dynamism, which have resulted in significant variations in the architecture of this fishing group.

  10. Adenyl cyclases and cAMP in plant signaling - Past and present

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2010-06-25

    In lower eukaryotes and animals 3\\'-5\\'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, have long been established as key components and second messengers in many signaling pathways. In contrast, in plants, both the presence and biological role of cAMP have been a matter of ongoing debate and some controversy. Here we shall focus firstly on the discovery of cellular cAMP in plants and evidence for a role of this second messenger in plant signal transduction. Secondly, we shall review current evidence of plant ACs, analyse aspects of their domain organisations and the biological roles of candidate molecules. In addition, we shall assess different approaches based on search motifs consisting of functionally assigned amino acids in the catalytic centre of annotated and/or experimentally tested nucleotide cyclases that can contribute to the identification of novel candidate molecules with AC activity such as F-box and TIR proteins. 2010 Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  11. Adenyl cyclases and cAMP in plant signaling - Past and present

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A

    2010-01-01

    In lower eukaryotes and animals 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, have long been established as key components and second messengers in many signaling pathways. In contrast, in plants, both the presence and biological role of cAMP have been a matter of ongoing debate and some controversy. Here we shall focus firstly on the discovery of cellular cAMP in plants and evidence for a role of this second messenger in plant signal transduction. Secondly, we shall review current evidence of plant ACs, analyse aspects of their domain organisations and the biological roles of candidate molecules. In addition, we shall assess different approaches based on search motifs consisting of functionally assigned amino acids in the catalytic centre of annotated and/or experimentally tested nucleotide cyclases that can contribute to the identification of novel candidate molecules with AC activity such as F-box and TIR proteins. 2010 Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Proteomic signatures implicate cAMP in light and temperature responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Ludivine

    2013-05-01

    The second messenger 3\\'-5\\'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenylyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, are increasingly recognized as important signaling molecules in a number of physiological responses in higher plants. Here we used proteomics to identify cAMP-dependent protein signatures in Arabidopsis thaliana and identify a number of differentially expressed proteins with a role in light- and temperature-dependent responses, notably photosystem II subunit P-1, plasma membrane associated cation-binding protein and chaperonin 60 β. Based on these proteomics results we conclude that, much like in cyanobacteria, algae and fungi, cAMP may have a role in light signaling and the regulation of photosynthesis as well as responses to temperature and we speculate that ACs could act as light and/or temperature sensors in higher plants. Biological significance: This current study is significant since it presents the first proteomic response to cAMP, a novel and key second messenger in plants. It will be relevant to researchers in plant physiology and in particular those with an interest in second messengers and their role in biotic and abiotic stress responses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  13. Charge-density-wave instabilities expected in monophosphate tungsten bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canadell, E.; Whangbo, M.

    1991-01-01

    On the basis of tight-binding band calculations, we examined the electronic structures of the tungsten oxide layers found in the monophosphate tungsten bronze (MPTB) phases. The Fermi surfaces of these MPTB phases consist of five well-nested one- and two-dimensional pieces. We calculated the nesting vectors of these Fermi surfaces and discussed the expected charge-density-wave instabilities

  14. Metabolism of inositol 4-monophosphate in rat mammalian tissues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delvaux, A.; Dumont, J.E.; Erneux, C.

    1987-01-01

    Rat brain soluble fraction contains an enzymatic activity that dephosphorylates inositol 1,4-bisphosphate (Ins(1,4)P2). We have used anion exchange h.p.l.c. in order to identify the inositol monophosphate product of Ins(1,4)P2 hydrolysis (i.e. Ins(1)P1, Ins(4)P1 or both). When [ 3 H]Ins(1,4)P2 was used as substrate, we obtained an inositol monophosphate isomer that was separated from the co-injected standard [ 3 H]Ins(1)P1. This suggested an Ins(1,4)P21-phosphatase pathway leading to the production of the inositol 4-monophosphate isomer. The dephosphorylation of [ 32 P]Ins(4)P1 was measured in rat brain, liver and heart soluble fraction and was Li+-sensitive. Chromatography of the soluble fraction of a rat brain homogenate on DEAE-cellulose resolved a monophosphate phosphatase activity that hydrolyzed both [ 3 H]Ins(1)P1 and [4- 32 P]Ins(4)P1 isomers

  15. Novel guanidine-based inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Watterson, Scott H; Liu, Chunjian; Gu, Henry H; Mitt, Toomas; Leftheris, Katerina; Barrish, Joel C; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Hollenbaugh, Diane L

    2002-10-21

    A series of novel guanidine-based small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) was explored. IMPDH catalyzes the rate determining step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis and is a target for anticancer, immunosuppressive and antiviral therapy. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs), derived from in vitro studies, for this new series of inhibitors is given.

  16. cAMP biosensors applied in molecular pharmacological studies of G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Vedel, Line; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2013-01-01

    end-point assays for quantifying GPCR-mediated changes in intracellular cAMP levels exist. More recently, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP biosensors that can quantify intracellular cAMP levels in real time have been developed. These FRET-based cAMP biosensors have been used...... primarily in single cell FRET microscopy to monitor and visualize changes in cAMP upon GPCR activation. Here, a similar cAMP biosensor with a more efficient mCerulean/mCitrine FRET pair is described for use in the 384-well plate format. After cloning and expression in HEK293 cells, the biosensor...... is characterized in the 384-well plate format and used for measuring the signaling of the G(s)-coupled ß(2)-adrenergic receptor. The procedures described may be applied for other FRET-based biosensors in terms of characterization and conversion to the 384-well plate format....

  17. Thinking Big for 25 Years: Astronomy Camp Research Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric Jon; McCarthy, D. W.; Benecchi, S. D.; Henry, T. J.; Kirkpatrick, J. D.; Kulesa, C.; Oey, M. S.; Regester, J.; Schlingman, W. M.; Camp Staff, Astronomy

    2013-01-01

    Astronomy Camp is a deep immersion educational adventure for teenagers and adults in southern Arizona that is entering its 25th year of existence. The Camp Director (McCarthy) is the winner of the 2012 AAS Education Prize. A general overview of the program is given in an accompanying contribution (McCarthy et al.). In this presentation we describe some of the research projects conducted by Astronomy Camp participants over the years. Many of the Camps contain a strong project-oriented emphasis, which reaches its pinnacle in the Advanced Camps for teenagers. High school students from around the world participate in a microcosm of the full arc of astronomy research. They plan their own projects before the start of Camp, and the staff provide a series of "key projects." Early in the Camp the students submit observing proposals to utilize time on telescopes. (The block of observing time is secured in advance by the staff.) The participants collect, reduce and analyze astronomical data with the help of staff, and they present the results to their peers on the last night of Camp, all in a span of eight days. The Camps provide research grade telescopes and instruments, in addition to amateur telescopes. Some of the Camps occur on Kitt Peak, where we use an ensemble of telescopes: the 2.3-meter (University of Arizona) with a spectrograph; the WIYN 0.9-meter; the McMath-Pierce Solar Telescope; and the 12-meter millimeter wave telescope. Additionally the Camp has one night on the 10-meter Submillimeter Telescope on Mt. Graham. Campers use these resources to study stars, galaxies, AGN, transiting planets, molecular clouds, etc. Some of the camper-initiated projects have led to very high level performances in prestigious international competitions, such as the Intel International Science and Engineering Fair. The key projects often contribute to published astronomical research (e.g., Benecchi et al. 2010, Icarus, 207, 978). Many former Campers have received Ph.D. degrees in

  18. Characterization of a monoclonal antibody to thymidine glycol monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, B.X.; Hubbard, K.; Ide, H.; Wallace, S.S.; Erlanger, B.F.

    1990-01-01

    A monoclonal antibody specific for thymine glycol (TG) in irradiated or OsO4-treated DNA was obtained by immunizing with thymidine glycol monophosphate (TMP-glycol) conjugated to bovine serum albumin by a carbodiimide procedure. Screening by dot-immunobinding and enzyme-linked immunosorbant assay (ELISA) procedures gave eight clones that bound OsO4- treated DNA. One of them, 2.6F.6B.6C, an IgG2a kappa, was characterized further. Hapten inhibition studies with OsO4-treated DNA showed that the antibody was specific for TMP-glycol. Among the various inhibitors tested, inhibition was in the order TMP-glycol greater than 5,6-dihydrothymidine phosphate greater than TMP greater than thymidine glycol greater than TG. Inhibition by 5,6-dihydrothymidine, thymidine, thymine, AMP, and CMP was negligible. In OsO4-treated DNA, as few as 0.5 TG per 10,000 bp were detectable by direct ELISA. Inhibition assays could detect as few as 1.5 TG per 10,000 bp. The antibody was equally reactive with native or denatured DNA containing TG. Among the X-irradiated homopolymers dC, dA, dG, and dT, only dT reacted with the antibody. Using an ELISA, the antibody could detect damage in irradiated DNA at the level of 20 Gy. Thus the antibody is of potential use in assays for DNA damage caused by X rays or other agents that damage DNA by free radical interactions

  19. Investigations of structural, dielectric and optical properties on silicon ion irradiated glycine monophosphate single crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanagasekaran, T. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, New Delhi 110 007 (India); Mythili, P. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India); Bhagavannarayana, G. [Materials Characterization Division, National Physical Laboratory, New Delhi 110012 (India); Kanjilal, D. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, New Delhi 110 067 (India); Gopalakrishnan, R. [Department of Physics, Anna University, Chennai 600 025 (India)], E-mail: krgkrishnan@annauniv.edu

    2009-08-01

    The 50 MeV silicon ion irradiation induced modifications on structural, optical and dielectric properties of solution grown glycine monophosphate (GMP) crystals were studied. The high-resolution X-ray diffraction study shows the unaltered value of integrated intensity on irradiation. The dielectric constant as a function of frequency and temperature was studied. UV-visible studies reveal the decrease in bandgap values on irradiation and presence of F-centers. The fluorescence spectrum shows the existence of some energy levels, which remains unaffected after irradiation. The scanning electron micrographs reveal the defects formed on irradiation.

  20. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuki Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  1. Management of diabetes at summer camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambra, Roberta; Locatelli, Chiara; Suprani, Tosca; Pocecco, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    We report our experience in the organization of diabetic children summer-camps since 1973. Guidelines for organization have been recently reported by the SIEDP (Società Italiana di Endocrinologia e Diabetologia Pediatrica). Our attention is focused on diabetes management at camp, organization and planning, medical staff composition and staff training, treatment of diabetes-related emergencies, written camp management plan, diabetes education and psychological issues at camp, prevention of possible risks, assessment of effectiveness of education in summer camps and research at camp.

  2. CSF concentrations of cAMP and cGMP are lower in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease but not Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Oeckl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cyclic nucleotides cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP and cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP are important second messengers and are potential biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we investigated by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations of cAMP and cGMP of 82 patients and evaluated their diagnostic potency as biomarkers. For comparison with a well-accepted biomarker, we measured tau concentrations in CSF of CJD and control patients. CJD patients (n = 15 had lower cAMP (-70% and cGMP (-55% concentrations in CSF compared with controls (n = 11. There was no difference in PD, PD dementia (PDD and ALS cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses confirmed cAMP and cGMP as valuable diagnostic markers for CJD indicated by the area under the curve (AUC of 0.86 (cAMP and 0.85 (cGMP. We calculated a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 64% for cAMP and a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 100% for cGMP. The combination of both nucleotides increased the sensitivity to 80% and specificity to 91% for the term cAMPxcGMP (AUC 0.92 and to 93% and 100% for the ratio tau/cAMP (AUC 0.99. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the CSF determination of cAMP and cGMP may easily be included in the diagnosis of CJD and could be helpful in monitoring disease progression as well as in therapy control.

  3. 1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol inhibits progesterone production through the expression of steroidogenic enzymes and cAMP concentration in Leydig cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jianxia; Bai, Shun; Bai, Weibin; Zou, Feiyan; Zhang, Lei; Li, Guoqiang; Hu, Yunfeng; Li, Mingwei; Yan, Rian; Su, Zhijian; Huang, Yadong

    2014-07-01

    1,3-Dichloro-2-propanol (1,3-DCP) is a well-known food processing contaminant that has been shown to impede male reproductive function. However, its mechanism of action remains elusive. In this study, the effects of 1,3-DCP on progesterone production were investigated using the R2C Leydig cell model. 1,3-DCP significantly reduced cell viability from 7.48% to 97.4% at doses comprised between 0.5 and 6mM. Single cell gel/comet assays and atomic force microscopy assays showed that 1,3-DCP induced early phase cell apoptosis. In addition, 1,3-DCP significantly reduced progesterone production detected by radioimmunoassay (RIA). The results from quantitative polymerase chain reaction and western blotting demonstrated that the mRNA expression levels of steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome P450 side-chain cleavage enzyme and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase were significantly down-regulated in R2C cells. Particularly, the change rhythm of Star expression was highly consistent with progesterone production. Furthermore, the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and the mitochondrial membrane potential mediated by ROS, which are involved in regulating progesterone synthesis were also decreased in response to the 1,3-DCP treatment. Overall, the data presented here suggested that 1,3-DCP interferes with the male steroidogenic capacity mainly by down-regulating the level of cAMP and the key enzymes involved in the androgen synthesis pathway. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Modulation of cAMP levels by high fat diet and curcumin and regulatory effects on CD36/FAT scavenger receptor/fatty acids transporter gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcumin, a polyphenol from turmeric (Curcuma longa), reduces inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity in several animal studies. In Ldlr-/- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), curcumin reduces plasma lipid levels, therefore contributing to a lower accumulation of lipids and to reduced expression of f...

  5. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  6. Emergency Medicine Residency Boot Camp Curriculum: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataya, Ramsey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Establishing a boot camp curriculum is pertinent for emergency medicine (EM residents in order to develop proficiency in a large scope of procedures and leadership skills.  In this article, we describe our program’s EM boot camp curriculum as well as measure the confidence levels of resident physicians through a pre- and post-boot camp survey. Methods: We designed a one-month boot camp curriculum with the intention of improving the confidence, procedural performance, leadership, communication and resource management of EM interns. Our curriculum consisted of 12 hours of initial training and culminated in a two-day boot camp. The initial day consisted of clinical skill training and the second day included code drill scenarios followed by interprofessional debriefing.   Results: Twelve EM interns entered residency with an overall confidence score of 3.2 (1-5 scale across all surveyed skills. Interns reported the highest pre-survey confidence scores in suturing (4.3 and genitourinary exams (3.9. The lowest pre-survey confidence score was in thoracostomy (2.4. Following the capstone experience, overall confidence scores increased to 4.0. Confidence increased the most in defibrillation and thoracostomy. Additionally, all interns reported post-survey confidence scores of at least 3.0 in all skills, representing an internal anchor of “moderately confident/need guidance at times to perform procedure.” Conclusion: At the completion of the boot camp curriculum, EM interns had improvement in self-reported confidence across all surveyed skills and procedures. The described EM boot camp curriculum was effective, feasible and provided a foundation to our trainees during their first month of residency. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:356–361.

  7. Putting Your Camp on Video.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Creating a video to use in marketing camp involves selecting a format, writing the script, determining the video's length, obtaining release forms from campers who appear in the video, determining strategies for filming, choosing a narrator, and renting a studio and a mixing engineer (videotape editor). Includes distribution tips. (LP)

  8. Lyme Disease Comes to Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes one summer camp's plan for dealing with Lyme disease. Describes the disease and the deer tick. Recommends avoiding tick exposure through clothing, frequent examination, showers, and avoiding high grass and brushy areas, and using chemical insect repellents and chemicals to kill ticks in deer mouse nests. (DHP)

  9. Future Interoperability of Camp Protection Systems (FICAPS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Sylvie; Gündisch, Rainer; Marchand, Alain; Stahl, Karl-Hermann

    2013-05-01

    The FICAPS Project has been established as a Project of the European Defence Agency based on an initiative of Germany and France. Goal of this Project was to derive Guidelines, which by a proper implementation in future developments improve Camp Protection Systems (CPS) by enabling and improving interoperability between Camp Protection Systems and its Equipments of different Nations involved in multinational missions. These Guidelines shall allow for: • Real-time information exchange between equipments and systems of different suppliers and nations (even via SatCom), • Quick and easy replacement of equipments (even of different Nations) at run-time in the field by means of plug and play capability, thus lowering the operational and logistic costs and making the system highly available, • Enhancement of system capabilities (open and modular systems) by adding new equipment with new capabilities (just plug-in, automatic adjustment of the HMI Human Machine Interface) without costly and time consuming validation and test on system level (validation and test can be done on Equipment level), Four scenarios have been identified to summarize the interoperability requirements from an operational viewpoint. To prove the definitions given in the Guideline Document, a French and a German Demonstration System, based on existing national assets, were realized. Demonstrations, showing the capabilities given by the defined interoperability requirements with respect to the operational scenarios, were performed. Demonstrations included remote control of a CPS by another CPS, remote sensor control (Electro-Optic/InfraRed EO/IR) and remote effector control. This capability can be applied to extend the protection area or to protect distant infrastructural assets Demonstrations have been performed. The required interoperability functionality was shown successfully. Even if the focus of the FICAPS project was on camp protection, the solution found is also appropriate for other

  10. Camp Wanna-Read: Program Guide for the Texas Reading Club 1991.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switzer, Robin Works

    Camp Wanna-Read is the theme for the 1991 program for the Texas Reading Club, which centers around the experiences and types of things that happen at summer camp. Each chapter is a type of camp a child might attend such as cooking camp, art camp, music camp, science camp, Indian camp, nature camp, and regular summer camp. The chapters are divided…

  11. Simulation-based otolaryngology - head and neck surgery boot camp: 'how I do it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C J; Chin, C A; Roth, K; Rotenberg, B W; Fung, K

    2016-03-01

    In otolaryngology, surgical emergencies can occur at any time. An annual surgical training camp (or 'boot camp') offers junior residents from across North America the opportunity to learn and practice these skills in a safe environment. The goals of this study were to describe the set-up and execution of a simulation-based otolaryngology boot camp and to determine participants' confidence in performing routine and emergency on-call procedures in stressful situations before and after the boot camp. There were three main components of the boot camp: task trainers, simulations and an interactive panel discussion. Surveys were given to participants before and after the boot camp, and their confidence in performing the different tasks was assessed via multiple t-tests. Participants comprised 22 residents from 12 different universities; 10 of these completed both boot camp surveys. Of the nine tasks, the residents reported a significant improvement in confidence levels for six, including surgical airway and orbital haematoma management. An otolaryngology boot camp gives residents the chance to learn and practice emergency skills before encountering the emergencies in everyday practice. Their confidence in multiple skillsets was significantly improved after the boot camp. Given the shift towards competency-based learning in medical training, this study has implications for all surgical and procedural specialties.

  12. Regulation of melanogenesis: the role of cAMP and MITF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Otręba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the melanogenesis pathway and the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF in regulation of this process. Products of melanogenesis are eu- and/or pheomelanins synthesized in a multistage process of tyrosine oxidation and polymerization. The conversions require the presence of tyrosinase (TYR, key enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase isoform I (THI and tyrosinase related proteins (TRP1 and TRP2. Many types of signal molecules and transcription factors participate in regulation of melanin synthesis, but the most important are cAMP and MITF. cAMP is the second messenger in the intracellular signal cascade, which is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP by adenylyl cyclase, activated among others by the melanocortin receptor and the αS subunit of G protein. The signal molecule cAMP regulates MITF, TYR, THI, GTP-cyclohydroxylase I (GTP-CHI transcription and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH phosphorylation at Ser16 by protein kinase A (PKA. Mutations of genes encoding proteins belonging to the cAMP signal cascade may lead to McCune-Albright and Carney syndromes. MITF is one of the most important nuclear transcription factors regulating melanogenesis. Currently 10 isoforms of human MITF are known, but in melanocytes only MITF-M, MITF-Mdel, MITF-A and MITF-H occur. MITF transcription factor regulates melanogenesis by activation of tyrosinase, TRP1 and TRP2 transcription. It also affects expression of other factors regulating melanosome maturation, biogenesis and transport. Moreover, it regulates melanocyte proliferation and protection against apoptosis. Mutations of the MITF gene may lead to hereditary diseases: Waardenburg type II and Tietz syndromes.

  13. An Observational Study of Peer Learning for High School Students at a Cybersecurity Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pittman, Jason M.; Pike, Ronald E.

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on the design and implementation of a cybersecurity camp offered as a cybersecurity learning experience to a group of female and male high school students. Students ranged in grade level from freshmen to senior. Student demographics, including any existing pre-requisite knowledge, were unknown to camp designers prior to the…

  14. An odor-specific threshold deficit implicates abnormal cAMP signaling in youths at clinical risk for psychosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamath, Vidyulata; Moberg, Paul J; Calkins, Monica E; Borgmann-Winter, Karin; Conroy, Catherine G; Gur, Raquel E; Kohler, Christian G; Turetsky, Bruce I

    2012-07-01

    While olfactory deficits have been reported in schizophrenia and youths at-risk for psychosis, few studies have linked these deficits to current pathophysiological models of the illness. There is evidence that disrupted cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) signaling may contribute to schizophrenia pathology. As cAMP mediates olfactory signal transduction, the degree to which this disruption could manifest in olfactory impairment was ascertained. Odor-detection thresholds to two odorants that differ in the degree to which they activate intracellular cAMP were assessed in clinical risk and low-risk participants. Birhinal assessments of odor-detection threshold sensitivity to lyral and citralva were acquired in youths experiencing prodromal symptoms (n=17) and controls at low risk for developing psychosis (n=15). Citralva and lyral are odorants that differ in cAMP activation; citralva is a strong cAMP activator and lyral is a weak cAMP activator. The overall group-by-odor interaction was statistically significant. At-risk youths showed significantly reduced odor detection thresholds for lyral, but showed intact detection thresholds for citralva. This odor-specific threshold deficit was uncorrelated with deficits in odor identification or discrimination, which were also present. ROC curve analysis revealed that olfactory performance correctly classified at-risk and low-risk youths with greater than 97% accuracy. This study extends prior findings of an odor-specific hyposmia implicating cAMP-mediated signal transduction in schizophrenia and unaffected first-degree relatives to include youths at clinical risk for developing the disorder. These results suggest that dysregulation of cAMP signaling may be present during the psychosis prodrome. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Transformative Leadership: The Camp Counselor Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Femrite

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A study, utilizing focus groups, was conducted with teens serving as camp counselors at the North Central 4-H camp in Missouri.  High school students, 14-18 years old, served as camp counselors during a four-day residential camp the summer of 2014. Each counselor was a current 4-H member and had served as a 4-H camp counselor in Missouri for at least one year, some serving as many as five years. Comparing two training models, evidence was found that intentional training sessions are crucial for the empowerment that leads to transformation.

  16. Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)-Activated Protein Kinase: A New Target for Nutraceutical Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Aguilar, Fabiola; Pavillard, Luis E; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro; Cordero, Mario D

    2017-01-29

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy sensor which is activated by increases in adenosine monophosphate (AMP)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio and/or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/ATP ratio, and increases different metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, glucose transport and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this sense, AMPK maintains cellular energy homeostasis by induction of catabolism and inhibition of ATP-consuming biosynthetic pathways to preserve ATP levels. Several studies indicate a reduction of AMPK sensitivity to cellular stress during aging and this could impair the downstream signaling and the maintenance of the cellular energy balance and the stress resistance. However, several diseases have been related with an AMPK dysfunction. Alterations in AMPK signaling decrease mitochondrial biogenesis, increase cellular stress and induce inflammation, which are typical events of the aging process and have been associated to several pathological processes. In this sense, in the last few years AMPK has been identified as a very interesting target and different nutraceutical compounds are being studied for an interesting potential effect on AMPK induction. In this review, we will evaluate the interaction of the different nutraceutical compounds to induce the AMPK phosphorylation and the applications in diseases such as cancer, type II diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases or cardiovascular diseases.

  17. Adrenal hormones and liver cAMP in exercising rats--different modes of anesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winder, W W; Fuller, E O; Conlee, R K

    1983-11-01

    We have compared five different modes of anesthesia (iv and ip pentobarbital sodium, ether, CO2, and cervical dislocation) with respect to their effects on liver glycogen, liver adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), blood glucose and lactate, plasma corticosterone, norepinephrine, and epinephrine in resting rats and in rats run on a treadmill at 26 m/min for 30 min. Ether, CO2, and cervical dislocation were found to be unsuitable due to the marked elevation in plasma catecholamines seen in both resting and exercising rats. Injection of pentobarbital sodium ip required an average of 8 min before onset of surgical anesthesia as opposed to less than 5 s for iv pentobarbital. Exercising rats anesthetized with ip pentobarbital showed markedly lower plasma catecholamines compared with rats given iv pentobarbital. Hepatic cAMP increased in response to exercise in all groups except the ip pentobarbital group. This is most likely due to the long delay between the end of the exercise and freezing of the liver in the ip pentobarbital-anesthetized animals. We conclude that iv injection of pentobarbital is the most suitable method of anesthesia for obtaining accurate measurements of plasma stress hormones, substrates, and metabolites and of hepatic cAMP and glycogen in resting and exercising rats.

  18. Regulation of cAMP on the first mitotic cell cycle of mouse embryos.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Aiming; Zhang, Zhe; Bi, Qiang; Sun, Bingqi; Su, Wenhui; Guan, Yifu; Mu, Runqing; Miao, Changsheng; Zhang, Jie; Yu, Bingzhi

    2008-03-01

    Mitosis promoting factor (MPF) plays a central role during the first mitosis of mouse embryo. We demonstrated that MPF activity increased when one-cell stage mouse embryo initiated G2/M transition following the decrease of cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) and cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) activity. When cAMP and PKA activity increases again, MPF activity decreases and mouse embryo starts metaphase-anaphase transition. In the downstream of cAMP/PKA, there are some effectors such as polo-like kinase 1 (Plk1), Cdc25, Mos (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase), MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), Wee1, anaphase-promoting complex (APC), and phosphoprotein phosphatase that are involved in the regulation of MPF activity. Here, we demonstrated that following activation of MPF, MAPK activity was steady, whereas Plk1 activity fluctuated during the first cell cycle. Plk1 activity was the highest at metaphase and decreased at metaphase-anaphase transition. Further, we established a mathematical model using Gepasi algorithm and the simulation was in agreement with the experimental data. Above all the evidences, we suggested that cAMP and PKA might be the upstream factors which were included in the regulation of the first cell cycle development of mouse embryo. Copyright 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  19. New kids on the block: The Popeye domain containing (POPDC) protein family acting as a novel class of cAMP effector proteins in striated muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brand, Thomas; Schindler, Roland

    2017-12-01

    The cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling pathway constitutes an ancient signal transduction pathway present in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Previously, it was thought that in eukaryotes three effector proteins mediate cAMP signalling, namely protein kinase A (PKA), exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (EPAC) and the cyclic-nucleotide gated channels. However, recently a novel family of cAMP effector proteins emerged and was termed the Popeye domain containing (POPDC) family, which consists of three members POPDC1, POPDC2 and POPDC3. POPDC proteins are transmembrane proteins, which are abundantly present in striated and smooth muscle cells. POPDC proteins bind cAMP with high affinity comparable to PKA. Presently, their biochemical activity is poorly understood. However, mutational analysis in animal models as well as the disease phenotype observed in patients carrying missense mutations suggests that POPDC proteins are acting by modulating membrane trafficking of interacting proteins. In this review, we will describe the current knowledge about this gene family and also outline the apparent gaps in our understanding of their role in cAMP signalling and beyond. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. An Inaugural Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebofsky, Larry A.; McCarthy, Donald W.; Wright, Joe; Wright, Rita; Mace, Mikayla; Floyd, Charmayne

    2017-10-01

    The University of Arizona (UA) conducted its first teenage Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp. This program was preceded by 24 Leadership Workshops for Adult Girl Scout Leaders, initially supported by EPO funding from NIRCam for JWST. For five days in late June, 24 girls (ages 13-17 years) attended from 16 states. The Camp was led by UA astronomers and long-term educators. Representing Girl Scouts of the USA (GSUSA) were a husband/wife amateur astronomer team who are SOFIA Airborne Astronomy and NASA Solar System Ambassadors. Other leaders included a Stanford undergraduate engineering student who is a lifelong Girl Scout and Gold Award recipient and a recent UA Master’s degree science journalist. The Camp is a residential, hands-on “immersion” adventure in scientific exploration using telescopes in southern Arizona’s Catalina Mountains near Tucson. Under uniquely dark skies girls become real astronomers, operating telescopes (small and large) and associated technologies, interacting with scientists, obtaining images and quantitative data, investigating their own questions, and most importantly having fun actually doing science and building observing equipment. Girls achieve a basic understanding of celestial objects, how and why they move, and their historical significance, leading to an authentic understanding of science, research, and engineering. Girls can lead these activities back home in their own troops and councils, encouraging others to consider STEM field careers. These programs are supported by a 5-year NASA Collaborative Agreement, Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (www.seti.org/GirlScoutStars), through the SETI Institute in collaboration with the UA, GSUSA, Girl Scouts of Northern California, the Astronomical Society of the Pacific, and Aries Scientific, Inc. The Girl Scout Destinations Astronomy Camp aligns with the GSUSA Journey: It’s Your Planet-Love It! and introduces the girls to some of the activities being

  1. Summer Camp July 2017 - Registration

    CERN Multimedia

    EVE et École

    2017-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association’s Summer Camp will be open for children from 4 to 6 years old during four weeks, from 3 to 28 July. Registration is offered on a weekly basis for 450 CHF, lunch included. This year, the various activities will revolve around the theme of the Four Elements. Registration opened on 20 March 2017 for children currently attending the EVE and School of the Association. It will be open from 3 April for children of CERN Members of Personnel, and starting from 24 April for all other children. The general conditions are available on the website of the EVE and School of CERN Staff Association: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch. For further questions, please contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  2. Leptin interferes with 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP signaling to inhibit steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HoYuen Basil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of female infertility. Leptin, an adipocytokine which is elevated during obesity, may influence gonadal function through modulating steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. Methods The effect of leptin on progesterone production in simian virus 40 immortalized granulosa (SVOG cells was examined by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The effect of leptin on the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, P450scc, 3betaHSD in SVOG cells was examined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The mRNA expression of leptin receptor isoforms in SVOG cells were examined by using PCR. SVOG cells were co-treated with leptin and specific pharmacological inhibitors to identify the signaling pathways involved in leptin-reduced progesterone production. Silencing RNA against leptin receptor was used to determine that the inhibition of leptin on cAMP-induced steroidogenesis acts in a leptin receptor-dependent manner. Results and Conclusion In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying leptin-regulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. We show that leptin inhibits 8-bromo cAMP-stimulated progesterone production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that leptin inhibits expression of the cAMP-stimulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein, the rate limiting de novo protein in progesterone synthesis. Leptin induces the activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK but only the ERK1/2 (PD98059 and p38 (SB203580 inhibitors attenuate the leptin-induced inhibition of cAMP-stimulated StAR protein expression and progesterone production. These data suggest that the leptin-induced MAPK signal transduction pathway interferes with cAMP/PKA-stimulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. Moreover, siRNA mediated knock-down of the endogenous leptin receptor attenuates the effect of leptin on cAMP-induced StAR protein expression and progesterone production, suggesting that the effect of leptin on steroidogenesis in granulosa cells is receptor dependent. In summary, leptin acts through the MAPK pathway to downregulate cAMP-induced StAR protein expression and progesterone production in immortalized human granulosa cells. These results suggest a possible mechanism by which gonadal steroidogenesis could be suppressed in obese women.

  3. Installation Restoration Program Preliminary Assessment Naknek Recreational Camps, Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-04-01

    Conservation Service, the soils at Camps I and II consist of the Typic Cryandepts-Histic Pergelic Cryaquepts complex (Reiger and others, 1979). The permeability...2 0 0 IC IP 3 - -r TVI 111-3-rIiovil 8 I Histic Pergelic Cryaquepts, sandy, nearly level to rolling, are poorly drained soils with permafrost in broad

  4. Deoxypyrimidine monophosphate bypass therapy for thymidine kinase 2 deficiency

    OpenAIRE

    Garone, Caterina; Garc??a-D??az, Beatriz; Emmanuele, Valentina; L??pez Garc??a, Luis Carlos; Tadesse, Saba; Akman, Hasan O.; Tanji, Kurenai; Quinzii, Catarina M.; Hirano, Michio

    2014-01-01

    Autosomal recessive mutations in the thymidine kinase 2 gene (TK2) cause mitochondrial DNA depletion, multiple deletions, or both due to loss of TK2 enzyme activity and ensuing unbalanced deoxynucleotide triphosphate (dNTP) pools. To bypass Tk2 deficiency, we administered deoxycytidine and deoxythymidine monophosphates (dCMP+dTMP) to the Tk2 H126N (Tk2 −/− ) knock-in mouse model from postnatal day 4, when mutant mice are phenotypically normal, but biochemically affected. Assessment of 13-day-...

  5. Inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase messenger RNA expression is correlated to clinical outcomes in mycophenolate mofetil-treated kidney transplant patients, whereas inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity is not

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sombogaard, Ferdi; Peeters, Annemiek M. A.; Baan, Carla C.; Mathot, Ron A. A.; Quaedackers, Monique E.; Vulto, Arnold G.; Weimar, Willem; van Gelder, Teun

    2009-01-01

    Measurement of the pharmacodynamic biomarker inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity in renal transplant recipients has been proposed to reflect the biological effect better than using pharmacokinetic parameters to monitor mycophenolate mofetil therapy. The IMPDH assays are however

  6. Specific Interactions of Antitumor Metallocenes with Deoxydinucleoside Monophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Rahel P.; Hari, Yvonne; Schürch, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Bent metallocenes Cp2MCl2 (M = Ti, V, Nb, Mo) are known to exhibit cytotoxic activity against a variety of cancer types. Though the mechanism of action is not fully understood yet, the accumulation of the metal ions in the nucleus points towards DNA as one of the primary targets. A set of eight deoxydinucleoside monophosphates was used to study the adduct yields with metallocenes and cisplatin. The binding affinities are reflected by the relative intensities of the adducts and were found to follow the order of Pt > V > Ti > Mo (no adducts were detected with Nb). High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was applied to locate the binding patterns in the deoxydinucleoside monophosphates. Whereas cisplatin binds to the soft nitrogen atoms in the purine nucleobases, the metallocenes additionally interact with the hard phosphate oxygen, which is in good agreement with the hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases (HSAB) concept. However, the binding specificities were found to be unique for each metallocene. The hard Lewis acids titanium and vanadium predominantly bind to the deprotonated phosphate oxygen, whereas molybdenum, an intermediate Lewis acid, preferentially interacts with the nucleobases. Nucleobases comprise alternative binding sites for titanium and vanadium, presumably oxygen atoms for the first and nitrogen atoms for the latter. In summary, the intrinsic binding behavior of the different metallodrugs is reflected by the gas-phase dissociation of the adducts. Consequently, MS/MS can provide insights into therapeutically relevant interactions between metallodrugs and their cellular targets. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Monophosphate end groups produced in radiation induced strand breakage in DNA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kay, E.; Ward, J.F.

    1976-01-01

    A solution of DNA was gamma-irradiated and treated with monophosphatase for studies on the amount of inorganic phosphate released as a function of time. Studies were also conducted on: effect of alkali on yield of monophosphate end groups; induction of DNA strand breaks by treatment with DNAase; initial G values for monophosphate termini; and effect of alkali on radioinduced DNA damage

  8. Research summer camp in photonics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buyanovskaya, Elizaveta; Melnik, Maksim; Egorov, Vladimir; Gleim, Artur; Lukishova, Svetlana; Kozlov, Sergei; Zhang, Xi-Cheng

    2017-08-01

    ITMO University and the University of Rochester became close partners several years ago. One of the first outcomes of this mutually beneficial partnership was the creation of International Institute of Photonics and Optical Information Technologies led by Prof. Sergei Kozlov and Prof. Xi-Cheng Zhang. Universities have created a double Masters-degree program in optics in 2014, and several ITMO students have been awarded degrees from Rochester. At the same time ITMO University organizes Summer Research camp in Photonics for University of Rochester students. Students spent two weeks in the Northern Capital of Russia learning about the emerging practical applications of femtosecond optics, terahertz biomedicine and quantum information technologies.

  9. Vegetation response to wagon wheel camp layouts.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wagon wheel camp layouts have been favoured, in some quarters, for rotational grazing due to the economy and convenience of having the camps radially arranged around central facilities. A possible disadvantage of such layouts is the tendency for over-grazing near the hub and under-grazing at the extremities.

  10. Summer Camp of Mathematical Modeling in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Xiaoxi; Xie, Jinxing

    2013-01-01

    The Summer Camp of Mathematical Modeling in China is a recently created experience designed to further Chinese students' academic pursuits in mathematical modeling. Students are given more than three months to research on a mathematical modeling project. Researchers and teams with outstanding projects are invited to the Summer Camp to present…

  11. Sustainable Design Principles for Refugee Camps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rooij, de L.L.; Wascher, D.M.; Paulissen, M.P.C.P.

    2016-01-01

    This report’s main focus is on the phenomenon of refugee camps as one of the most visible and spatially explicit results of refuge and migration movements at the global scale. Given the steadily growing numbers of people on the move and staying in temporary homes and settlements, refugee camps must

  12. Creating a Sun-Safe Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landrey, Ann

    1996-01-01

    Strategies for minimizing sun exposure of campers and staff include educating campers about the sun's effect on their skin, scheduling activities when the sun is less intense, creating shade at the camp site, incorporating sun protection into camp dress code, and training staff regarding sun protection. Addresses OSHA and liability issues. (LP)

  13. Life Skills Developed on the Camp "Stage."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Gwynn M.

    2000-01-01

    Draws on research concerning the components of sense of place, the rootedness of college students to their hometowns, and categories of environmental competence. Offer insights to camp staff into fostering sense of place and the emotional attachments to camp that comprise place attachment, and to developing environmental competence among campers…

  14. 1940s: Camping in the War Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camping Magazine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Camps continued to operate during World War II, but young male counselors, food, and supplies were difficult to obtain. An illustrative article from 1943, "Meal Planning for Summer Camps in Wartime" (Agnes B. Peterson), presents a guide to planning nutritious meals for campers despite shortages caused by wartime rationing, increased food…

  15. Camping Safety--Bring 'Em Back Alive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Ernest F.

    1980-01-01

    A "prioritized" list of dangers of the woods is discussed and suggestions for safety in organized camping are listed. Available from: Center for Environmental, Camping and Outdoor Education; University of North Carolina at Greensboro; Pine Lake Field Campus; 4016 Blumenthal Road; Greensboro, NC, 27406. (AN)

  16. Forest Fire: A Crisis Reality for Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Don; Mickelson, Rhonda

    2002-01-01

    Two camp directors were interviewed about evacuations from their camps due to forest fires. Topics covered include descriptions of the events; actions taken; aspects of advance planning that proved helpful; unexpected portions of the experience and resultant changes made in plans; relations with outside agencies, the media, and parents; working…

  17. The Camp Hill Project: Objectives and Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mattingly, John B.

    1976-01-01

    Available from: EC 090 474. Outlined are the problems and objectives of Pennsylvania's Camp Hill Project--a program designed to complete psychological needs assessments for juveniles incarcerated at Camp Hill, to develop project policies and guidelines in preparation for meeting with juvenile court judges, and to hire staff. (SBH)

  18. Teen Moms and Babies Benefit from Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goode, Marsha; Broesamle, Barbara

    1987-01-01

    Describes nine-day residential camp for Michigan teenage mothers/babies to enhance personal growth and develop responsible social skills. Outlines goals, pre-camp planning, staff, activities, evaluation. Reports 31 teen moms (ages 13-21) and 35 babies attended in 1986. Indicates participants were in therapy, experienced abuse, had low self-esteem,…

  19. Is ROEE Good for Your Camp?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parry, Jim

    1998-01-01

    Resident outdoor environmental education (ROEE) is a camp-based extension of the classroom for two to five days, promoting student independence, interpersonal skills, and ecological awareness. Advantages and disadvantages of the "camp as innkeeper" and full program-provider models are given. Program development guidelines cover expenses,…

  20. Effect of cAMP on short-circuit current in isolated human ciliary body.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ren-yi; Ma, Ning; Hu, Qian-qian

    2013-07-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) could activate chloride channels in bovine ciliary body and trigger an increase in the ionic current (short-circuit current, Isc) across the ciliary processes in pigs. The purpose of this study was to investigate how cAMP modulates Isc in isolated human ciliary processes and the possible involvement of chloride transport across the tissue in cAMP-induced Isc change. In an Ussing-type chamber system, the Isc changes induced by the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP and an adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in isolated human ciliary processes were assessed. The involvement of Cl(-) component in the bath solution was investigated. The effect of Cl(-) channel (10 µmol/L niflumic acid and 1 mmol/L 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS)), K(+) channel (10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA)), or Na(+) channel blockers (1 mmol/L amiloride) on 8-bromo-cAMP-induced Isc change was also studied. Dose-dependently, 8-bromo-cAMP (10 nmol/L-30 µmol/L) or forskolin (10 nmol/L-3 µmol/L) increased Isc across the ciliary processes with an increase in negative potential difference on the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) side of the tissue. Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP was more pronounced when the drug was applied on the NPE side than on the pigmented epithelium side. When the tissue was bathed in low Cl(-) solutions, the Isc increase was significantly inhibited. Finally, niflumic acid and DIDS, but not TEA or amiloride, significantly prevented the Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP. cAMP stimulates stroma-to-aqueous anionic transport in isolated human ciliary processes. Chloride is likely to be among the ions, the transportation of which across the tissue is triggered by cAMP, suggesting the potential role of cAMP in the process of aqueous humor formation in human eyes.

  1. Opening of a summer camp at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Association has the pleasure to announce the opening of a summer camp in l’EVE et Ecole de l’AP du CERN. With a capacity of 40 children, aged 4 to 6 years, it will be open from July 6 to 30. Registration Summer camp 2015 Registration for the CERN SA Summer camp for children aged 4 to 6 is open 16 to 30 April 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/ The Summer camp is open to all children of CERN Staff. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 28, 29, 30 and 31, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm.

  2. The Development of Environmental Conservation Youth Camping Using Environmental Education Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okrit Tee-ngarm

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The purposes of this research were: to make youths camp activities using environmental education process, to study and to compare the knowledge and attitude before and after the camp activities for conserving environment by using the process of environmental education. The sample were 30 youths in Mueng district, Sisaket province. The tools used in the research including activity manual, knowledge test, attitudes test and participation measurement. The data were analyzed by percentage, mean, standard deviation, and Paired t-test at significant level .05. The result showed that After camp activities for conserving environment by using the process of environmental education, the participats had mean score of knowledge and attitude toward environmental conservation at was higher than before the activities at statistical significantly level .05. And they had participation in youths camp activities for environmental conservation at the most level.

  3. Mental health needs of children and adolescents at camp: are they being assessed and treated appropriately by the camp nurse?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courey, Tamra J

    2006-11-01

    Increasingly, more children and adolescents are attending camps with mental health concerns. This can pose a challenge for camp nurses who may lack experience in assessment and treatment of mental health issues. To focus on the importance of addressing and treating mental health needs of children and adolescents at camp utilizing the Scope and Standards of Psychiatric Mental Health Nursing Practice. Personal observations, camp nursing experience, and scholarly published literature. It is paramount that mental health needs of children and adolescents at camp are addressed and managed appropriately by the camp nurse. Education of camp nurses and camp administrators is also a vital part of providing care.

  4. Gabriel Camps (1927-2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marceau Gast

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Le professeur Gabriel Camps nous a quittés le 6 septembre 2002, emporté par les suites d’une grave maladie. Né le 20 mai 1927 à Misserghin, en Oranie, il affirma très jeune de grandes capacités intellectuelles. Dès l’âge de huit ans il se passionnait déjà à identifier des collections de pièces romaines. Son père, ingénieur à la Société nationale des chemins de fer algériens, sut favoriser sa curiosité concernant l’histoire antique de l’Afrique du Nord. Après des études secondaires au lycée d’...

  5. Increasing plasma fibrinogen, but unchanged levels of intraplatelet cyclic nucleotides, plasma endothelin-1, factor VII, and neopterin during cholesterol lowering with fluvastatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gottsäter, A; Anwaar, I; Lind, P; Mattiasson, I; Lindgärde, F

    1999-04-01

    Lipid-lowering statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and improves endothelial function in patients with hypercholesterolemia. The aim of the present study was to evaluate plasma levels of fibrinogen, factor VII, and the macrophage-derived inflammatory mediator neopterin during lipid lowering. In addition, the endothelial production of platelet antiaggregatory and vasodilatory factors such as nitric oxide and prostacyclin, and vasoconstrictive factors such as endothelin-1, was assessed. Plasma fibrinogen, factor VII, endothelin-1, and the neopterin and intraplatelet nitric oxide and prostacyclin mediators cyclic 3'-5'guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic 3'-5'adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) were measured before and 6 months after the institution of treatment with fluvastatin in 17 patients (eight men and nine women, median age 60 years) with vascular disease and previously untreated hypercholesterolemia. After 6 months, a decrease of 1.62 mmol/l [1.26-2.18 (19%); P factor VII [from 1.14 IE/ml (0.58-1.38) to 1.22 IE/ml (0.96-1.46); NS], or plasma neopterin [from 8.6 nmol/l (7.1-11.5) to 8.7 nmol/l (7.9-11.3); NS]. In conclusion, during cholesterol-lowering treatment with fluvastatin, plasma levels of fibrinogen increased whereas intraplatelet cyclic nucleotide levels and plasma endothelin-1, factor VII and neopterin levels were unchanged.

  6. Resveratrol Ameliorates Aging-Related Metabolic Phenotypes by Inhibiting cAMP Phosphodiesterases

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sung-Jun; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Philp, Andrew; Baar, Keith; Williams, Tishan; Luo, Haibin; Ke, Hengming; Rehmann, Holger; Taussig, Ronald; Brown, Alexandra L.; Kim, Myung K.; Beaven, Michael A.; Burgin, Alex B.; Manganiello, Vincent; Chung, Jay H.

    2012-01-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca2...

  7. Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bożena Karwowska

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The article Body and Gender in Nazi Concentration Camps is an attempt to discuss difficult issues of human sexuality and sexually marked behaviors in the context of the concentration camps, and their descriptions in the memoirs of the survivors. Using notions and concepts of the so called "black American feminism" the author (referring extensively to books by Stanisław Grzesiuk and Zofia Romanowiczowa shows how in the concentration camp the human body became the only space of a relative privacy of the prisoner. At the same time the body becomes a territory on which all - both biological and socially constructed - human fates cross.

  8. Changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana Proteome Implicate cAMP in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses and Changes in Energy Metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Alquraishi, May Majed; Gehring, Christoph A; Marondedze, Claudius

    2016-01-01

    The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for 5 or 10 min. Here, applying mass spectrometry and comparative proteomics, 20 proteins were identified as differentially expressed and we noted a specific bias in proteins with a role in abiotic stress, particularly cold and salinity, biotic stress as well as proteins with a role in glycolysis. These findings suggest that cAMP is sufficient to elicit specific stress responses that may in turn induce complex changes to cellular energy homeostasis.

  9. Changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana Proteome Implicate cAMP in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses and Changes in Energy Metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Alquraishi, May Majed

    2016-06-01

    The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for 5 or 10 min. Here, applying mass spectrometry and comparative proteomics, 20 proteins were identified as differentially expressed and we noted a specific bias in proteins with a role in abiotic stress, particularly cold and salinity, biotic stress as well as proteins with a role in glycolysis. These findings suggest that cAMP is sufficient to elicit specific stress responses that may in turn induce complex changes to cellular energy homeostasis.

  10. Design and Development Issues for Educational Robotics Training Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucgul, Memet; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore critical design issues for educational robotics training camps and to describe how these factors should be implemented in the development of such camps. For this purpose, two robotics training camps were organized for elementary school students. The first camp had 30 children attendees, and the second had 22. As…

  11. Increasing the flexibility of the LANCE cAMP detection kit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Morag Rose; Glass, Michelle

    2015-01-01

    The detection of cAMP signalling is a common endpoint in the study of G-protein coupled receptors. A number of commercially available kits enable easy detection of cAMP. These kits are based on competition for a cAMP binding site on an antibody or cAMP binding protein and as such have a limited dynamic range. Here, we describe the optimisation of the commercially-available LANCE cAMP detection kit (PerkinElmer) to enable detection in cell lysates. This kit has been designed for use with live cells, with detection reagents applied to cells without wash steps. The standard protocol therefore requires that all assay reagents are compatible with the antibody and the final fluorescent detection stage, limiting the range of assay media and test compounds that can be utilised. The entire experiment must be repeated if cAMP levels fall outside the limited dynamic range. Here we describe a modified protocol that enables the assay to be performed on cell lysates, thereby overcoming these limitations. In this modified protocol, cells are stimulated for a cAMP response in standard media/buffers, washed and then lysed. The cell lysate is then assayed using a modified protocol for the LANCE cAMP detection kit. Samples were tested for stability following a freeze-thaw cycle. The modified LANCE cAMP detection protocol gives a reproducible measurement of cAMP in cell lysate. Lysate samples remain stable when stored at -80°C. Separating the stimulation and detection phases of this cAMP assay allows a vast array of cell stimulation conditions to be tested. The lysate-modified protocol for the LANCE cAMP detection kit therefore increases the flexibility, versatility and convenience of the assay. As samples are insensitive to freeze-thaw, it enables retesting of samples under different dilution conditions to ensure that all samples remain within the dynamic range of the standard curve. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Yinna; Zhang, Xiaoying; Billiar, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► cAMP blocks cell death induced by TNF and actinomycin D in cultured hepatocytes. ► cAMP blocks NF-κB activation induced by TNF and actinomycin D. ► cAMP blocks DISC formation following TNF and actinomycin D exposure. ► cAMP blocks TNF signaling at a proximal step. -- Abstract: Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found that cAMP exerts its affect at the proximal level of TNF signaling by inhibiting the formation of the DISC

  13. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xiang, Wenpei [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yinna [Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 10051-5A BST 3, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Zhang, Xiaoying [Department of Medicine/Endocrinology Division, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Billiar, Timothy R., E-mail: billiartr@upmc.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-06-22

    that cAMP exerts its affect at the proximal level of TNF signaling by inhibiting the formation of the DISC complex upon the binding of TNF to TNFR1. In conclusion, our study shows that cAMP prevents TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes by inhibiting DISC complex formation.

  14. 2012 USGS Lidar: Brooks Camp (AK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) had a requirement for high resolution Lidar needed for mapping the Brooks Camp region of Katmai National Park in Alaska....

  15. Method of preparing tritium-labelled thymidine-5'-monophosphates of high specific activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Filip, J.; Vesely, J.; Cihak, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described of preparing thymidine-5'-monophosphates labelled with tritium of high specific activity based on enzyme synthesis in vitro. Phosphorylation was carried out using the catalytic effect of an enzyme contained in the supernatant fraction prepared from Yoshida ascites carcinoma in rats. The course of the enzyme reaction can be controlled by the concentration of the individual reaction mixture components. The method described allows obtaining thymidine-5'-monophosphate of radiochemical purity better than 95%. (J.B.)

  16. The fate of H atom adducts to 3'-uridine monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ran; Zhang, Ru Bo; Eriksson, Leif A

    2010-07-29

    The stabilities of the adducts deriving from H free radical addition to the O2, O4, and C5 positions of 3'-uridine monophosphate (3'UMP) are studied by the hybrid density functional B3LYP approach. Upon H atom addition at the O2 position, a concerted low-barrier proton-transfer process will initially occur, followed by the potential ruptures of the N-glycosidic or beta-phosphate bonds. The rupture barriers are strongly influenced by the rotational configuration of the phosphate group at the 3' terminal, and are influenced by bulk solvation effects. The O4-H adduct has the highest thermal stability, as the localization of the unpaired electron does not enable cleavage of either the C1'-N1 or the C3'-O(P) bonds. For the most stable adduct, with H atom added to the C5 position, the rate-controlled step is the H2'a abstraction by the C6 radical site, after which the subsequent strand rupture reactions proceed with low barriers. The main unpaired electron densities are presented for the transient species. Combined with previous results, it is concluded that the H atom adducts are more facile to drive the strand scission rather than N-glycosidic bond ruptures within the nucleic acid bases.

  17. Protein kinase A and Epac activation by cAMP regulates the expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein in glial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sugimoto Naotoshi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP controls differentiation in several types of cells during brain development. However, the molecular mechanism of cAMP-controlled differentiation is not fully understood. We investigated the role of protein kinase A (PKA and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac on cAMP-induced glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP, an astrocyte marker, in cultured glial cells. B92 glial cells were treated with cAMP-elevating drugs, an activator of adenylate cyclase, phosphodiesterase inhibitor and a ß adrenal receptor agonist. These cAMP-elevating agents induced dramatic morphological changes and expression of GFAP. A cAMP analog, 8-Br-cAMP, which activates Epac as well as PKA, induced GFAP expression and morphological changes, while another cAMP analog, 8-CPT-cAMP, which activates Epac with greater efficacy when compared to PKA, induced GFAP expression but very weak morphological changes. Most importantly, the treatment with a PKA inhibitor partially reduced cAMP-induced GFAP expression. Taken together, these results indicate that cAMP-elevating drugs lead to the induction of GFAP via PKA and/or Epac activation in B92 glial cells.

  18. Planning and Executing the Neurosurgery Boot Camp: The Bolivia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Kim, Timothy; Gold-Markel, Judah; Germano, Isabelle M; Dempsey, Robert; Weaver, John P; DiPatri, Arthur J; Andrews, Russell J; Sanchez, Mary; Hinojosa, Juan; Moser, Richard P; Glick, Roberta

    2017-08-01

    The neurosurgical boot camp has been fully incorporated into U.S. postgraduate education. This is the first implementation of the neurosurgical boot in a developing country. To advance neurosurgical education, we developed a similar boot camp program, in collaboration with Bolivian neurosurgeons, to determine its feasibility and effectiveness in an international setting. In a collective effort, the Bolivian Society for Neurosurgery, Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery, Solidarity Bridge, and University of Massachusetts organized and executed the first South American neurosurgical boot camp in Bolivia in 2015. Both U.S. and Bolivian faculty led didactic lectures followed by a practicum day using mannequins and simulators. South American residents and faculty were surveyed after the course to determine levels of enthusiasm and their perceived improvement in fund of knowledge and course effectiveness. Twenty-four neurosurgery residents from 5 South American countries participated. Average survey scores ranged between 4.2 and 4.9 out of 5. Five Bolivian neurosurgeons completed the survey with average scores of 4.5-5. This event allowed for Bolivian leaders in the field to unify around education, resulting in the formation of an institute to continue similar initiatives. Total cost was estimated at $40 000 USD; however, significant faculty, industry, and donor support helped offset this amount. The first South American neurosurgical boot camp had significant value and was well received in Bolivia. This humanitarian model provides a sustainable solution to education needs and should be expanded to other regions as a means for standardizing the core competencies in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Ladders to Leadership: What Camp Counselor Positions Do for Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darcy Tessman

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The 4-H youth development organization understands and has recognized residential camping as one of the major modes of program delivery. Primary benefactors of the residential camping program are those youth who serve as camp counselors. Not only are they recipients of the educational program, but also supervise and teach younger campers (Garst & Johnson, 2005; McNeely, 2004. As a result of their experience, camp counselors learn about and develop leadership and life skills (Thomas, 1996; Purcell, 1996. The residential camping experience allows youth to serve as volunteers through their role as camp counselors. In addition to the benefits earned from their volunteer role, residential camping provides youth camp counselors the opportunity to gain leadership skills (Arnold, 2003 as well as add to the camp structure, planning, and implementation (Hines & Riley, 2005.

  20. Adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP)-dependent phosphoregulation of mitochondrial complex I is inhibited by nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Kaleb C.; Wallace, Kendall B.

    2008-01-01

    Nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are known to directly inhibit mitochondrial complex I activity as well as various mitochondrial kinases. Recent observations that complex I activity and superoxide production are modulated through cAMP-dependent phosphorylation suggests a mechanism through which NRTIs may affect mitochondrial respiration via kinase-dependent protein phosphorylation. In the current study, we examine the potential for NRTIs to inhibit the cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of complex I and the associated NADH:CoQ oxidoreductase activities and rates of superoxide production using HepG2 cells. Phosphoprotein staining of immunocaptured complex I revealed that 3'-azido-3'-deoxythymidine (AZT; 10 and 50 μM), AZT monophosphate (150 μM), and 2',3'-dideoxycytidine (ddC; 1 μM) prevented the phosphorylation of the NDUFB11 subunit of complex I. This was associated with a decrease in complex I activity with AZT and AZT monophosphate only. In the presence of succinate, superoxide production was increased with 2',3'-dideoxyinosine (ddI; 10 μM) and ddC (1 μM). In the presence of succinate + cAMP, AZT showed an inverse dose-dependent effect on superoxide production. None of the NRTIs examined inhibit PKA activity suggesting that the observed effects are due to a direct interaction with complex I. These data demonstrate a direct effect of NRTIs on cAMP-dependent regulation of mitochondrial bioenergetics independent of DNA polymerase-γ activity; in the case of AZT, these observations may provide a mechanism for the observed long-term toxicity with this drug

  1. Summer camp course in nuclear operations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, P.F.; James, J.Z.; Terrell, B.E.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a new kind of nuclear engineering curriculum that echoes an old method of professional training - the intensive summer camp. For many years a staple of the training of civil engineers and foresters, summer camp courses immerse the student in an intensive, focused experience, isolated from the familiar campus and resembling the actual work environment for which the student is being trained. With financial support from the U.S. Department of Energy, University of California-Berkeley (UCB) and Pacific Gas ampersand Electric (PG ampersand E) have launched such a course for UCB nuclear engineering undergraduates

  2. A Closer Look at the Camp Experience: Examining Relationships between Life Skills, Elements of Positive Youth Development, and Antecedents of Change among Camp Alumni

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garst, Barry A.; Gagnon, Ryan J.; Whittington, Anja

    2016-01-01

    Understanding program components that contribute to positive youth outcomes following camp experiences can help program providers bring a greater level of intentionality to their efforts. The purposes of this study were twofold: (a) to develop reliable and valid measures of life skill development, elements of positive youth development (PYD), and…

  3. Adventure Code Camp: Library Mobile Design in the Backcountry

    OpenAIRE

    Ward, David; Hahn, James; Mestre, Lori

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a case study exploring the use of a student Coding Camp as a bottom-up mobile design process to generate library mobile apps. A code camp sources student programmer talent and ideas for designing software services and features.  This case study reviews process, outcomes, and next steps in mobile web app coding camps. It concludes by offering implications for services design beyond the local camp presented in this study. By understanding how patrons expect to integrate li...

  4. Medical Record Keeping in the Summer Camp Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Laura; Holland, Jaycelyn; Weinberg, Stuart; Rosenbloom, S Trent

    2016-12-14

    Approximately one fifth of school-aged children spend a significant portion of their year at residential summer camp, and a growing number have chronic medical conditions. Camp health records are essential for safe, efficient care and for transitions between camp and home providers, yet little research exists regarding these systems. To survey residential summer camps for children to determine how camps create, store, and use camper health records. To raise awareness in the informatics community of the issues experienced by health providers working in a special pediatric care setting. We designed a web-based electronic survey concerning medical recordkeeping and healthcare practices at summer camps. 953 camps accredited by the American Camp Association received the survey. Responses were consolidated and evaluated for trends and conclusions. Of 953 camps contacted, 298 (31%) responded to the survey. Among respondents, 49.3% stated that there was no computer available at the health center, and 14.8% of camps stated that there was not any computer available to health staff at all. 41.1% of camps stated that internet access was not available. The most common complaints concerning recordkeeping practices were time burden, adequate completion, and consistency. Summer camps in the United States make efforts to appropriately document healthcare given to campers, but inconsistency and inefficiency may be barriers to staff productivity, staff satisfaction, and quality of care. Survey responses suggest that the current methods used by camps to document healthcare cause limitations in consistency, efficiency, and communications between providers, camp staff, and parents. As of 2012, survey respondents articulated need for a standard software to document summer camp healthcare practices that accounts for camp-specific needs. Improvement may be achieved if documentation software offers the networking capability, simplicity, pediatrics-specific features, and avoidance of

  5. Vancouver AIDS conference: special report. Rwandan refugee camps: NGOs get rough treatment from both sides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whiteside, A; Winsbury, R

    1996-01-01

    NGOs attempting to grapple with the thankless task of helping the Rwandan refugee camps have come in for some rough treatment from two directions over their HIV/AIDS efforts. At the policy level, an AMREF paper presented to the Vancouver conference charges bluntly that "There is no policy regarding HIV/STDs in refugee camps among international organizations specializing in refugee crises; thus there is absence of STD drugs and protocols, no privacy in open (tent) clinics, no means of protection (no condoms), and no information regarding STDs/HIV." AMREF bases its comments upon its experience among 700,000 Rwandan refugees in camps in West and North-West Tanzania, an area where (AMREF remarks pointedly) there was previously a low prevalence of HIV by Tanzanian standards, at 2-5%. At the operational level, CARE International, in a conference paper, reported rough treatment at the hands of the Rwandans themselves. It has been working under contract from AIDSCAP among the 400,000 Rwandans who fled to the Ngara district of Tanzania. Not surprisingly, it found that women and girls in the camps faced a higher risk than men. But more surprisingly at first sight, it found that after its HIV educational efforts "negative attitudes about condom use increased from 22% to 78%," which was possibly explained by "political ideology." "Young Hutu men in the camps boasted of their efforts to impregnate as many women and girls as possible to help replenish the population." full text

  6. Effect of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine and 3,5-diiodothyronine on progesterone production, cAMP synthesis, and mRNA expression of STAR, CYP11A1, and HSD3B genes in granulosa layer of chicken preovulatory follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechman, A; Pawlowska, K; Hrabia, A

    2011-10-01

    In vitro studies were performed to assess whether stimulatory effects of triiodothyronine (T3) on progesterone (P4) production in a granulosa layer (GL) of chicken preovulatory follicles are associated with 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and mRNA expression of STAR protein, CYP11A1, and HSD3B. Effects of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) on steroidogenic function in these follicles were also investigated. The GL of F3 to F1 follicles was incubated in medium supplemented with T3 or 3,5-T2, LH, or forskolin (F), and a combination of each iodothyronine with LH or F. Levels of P4 and cAMP in culture media were determined by RIA. Expression of genes involved in P4 synthesis (ie, STAR protein, CYP11A1, and HSD3B) in the GL of F3 to F1 follicles incubated in medium with T3 or 3,5-T2 and their combination with LH was performed by real-time PCR. Triiodothyronine increased basal and LH- and F-stimulated P4 secretion by preovulatory follicles. The 3,5-T2 elevated P4 synthesis by F3, had no effect on F2 follicles, and diminished P4 production by the GL of F1 follicles. It had no effect on LH-stimulated P4 production; however, it augmented F-stimulated P4 production by F2 and F1 follicles. Although T3 did not affect basal and F-stimulated cAMP synthesis by the GL of preovulatory follicles, it increased LH-stimulated synthesis of this nucleotide. However, 3,5-T2 elevated F-stimulated cAMP synthesis in F3 and F2 follicles; it did not change basal and LH-stimulated cAMP production. Triiodothyronine decreased basal STAR and CYP11A1 mRNAs in F3 follicles, increased them in F1 follicles, and elevated HSD3B mRNA levels in F1 follicles. Triiodothyronine augmented LH-stimulated STAR, CYP11A1, and HSD3B mRNA levels in F2 and CYP11A1 in F1 follicles. However, T3 decreased LH-stimulated STAR and HSD3B mRNA levels in F1 follicles. The 3,5-T2 did not affect basal STAR and CYP11A1 mRNA expression in all investigated follicles; however, it decreased LH-stimulated STAR

  7. Transitioning Traditions: Rectifying an Ontario Camp's Indian Council Ring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkes, Taylor

    2011-01-01

    Council Ring has always been a very special event, remembered fondly by generations of campers. Taylor Statten Camps (TSC) are not the only camps to cherish such an activity. Across Canada there are dozens of camps that have supported "Indian" assemblies in the past, but a select few still do. Most organizations abandoned them during the…

  8. Rethinking the lessons from Za’atari refugee camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa N Gatter

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Humanitarian efforts to build a model refugee camp when constructing Azraq camp in Jordan – drawing on what was supposed to have been learned in Za’atari camp – missed crucial aspects of Za’atari’s governance.

  9. 49 CFR 218.80 - Movement of occupied camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Movement of occupied camp cars. 218.80 Section 218... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.80 Movement of occupied camp cars. Occupied cars may not be humped or flat switched unless coupled to...

  10. Camp Health Aide Manual = Manual para trabajadores de salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June Grube; And Others

    This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…

  11. E. Coli: Preventing Outbreaks at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Mary D.

    1996-01-01

    One strain of E. coli is not usually found in foods, but has been related to consumption of undercooked ground beef. Symptoms are stomach cramps and diarrhea, and 2-7% of infections lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is life threatening. Camps can prevent outbreaks by avoiding uncooked meat on overnight campouts and requiring appropriate…

  12. Sexual Harassment at Camp: Reducing Liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakleaf, Linda; Grube, Angela Johnson

    2003-01-01

    Employers are responsible for sexual harassment perpetrated by a supervisor. Camps may be responsible for sexual harassment between campers. Steps to reduce liability include providing multiple channels for reporting sexual harassment; having written policies prohibiting sexual harassment and procedures for reporting it; posting these policies and…

  13. Conduct Disorders: Are Boot Camps Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, LaVaughn V.

    2010-01-01

    Youth diagnosed with "conduct disorder" are often placed in programs using forced compliance and coercive control. One type of intervention used to treat conduct disorder is the boot camp. The basic idea is that disruptive behaviors can be corrected by strict behavioral regulation and an emphasis on skills training (Weis & Toolis 2009; Weis,…

  14. Homosexual inmates in the Buchenwald Concentration Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Röll, W

    1996-01-01

    The treatment of homosexual inmates in Nazi concentration camps is a subject which was largely ignored by historians in both West and East Germany after the war. Not until the 1980s, when research began to focus on some of the lesser-known victims of Nazi terror, did attention shift to the fate of homosexuals. This process can be seen clearly at the Buchenwald Memorial in the former GDR, the site of the persecution and also the death of considerable numbers of prisoners identified by the pink triangle on their clothing. The persecution of homosexuals in Nazi Germany began in 1933, even before Buchenwald was built in 1937. The Nazis aimed to eradicate homosexuality, which they saw as a threat to the survival of the German people. Incarceration in concentration camps like Buchenwald marked a stage in the radicalization of Nazi policy against homosexuals. There they were subjected to the harshest conditions and treated as the lowest of the low in the camp hierarchy. They were continually exposed to the terror of the SS but also the latent prejudices of the rest of the camp population. The culminating points of their maltreatment in Buchenwald were the use of homosexuals in experiments to develop immunization against typhus fever and the attempt by an SS doctor to "cure" homosexuality through the implantation of sexual hormones.

  15. Riflery: A Specialty Opportunity for Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pulliam, Richard

    1997-01-01

    Campers at the Virginia 4-H Shooting Education Camp receive intensive training from certified range coaches in shotgun, rifle, air rifle, air pistol, and archery. Such programs teach campers responsibility; develop character and self-concept; and promote safety, sportsmanship, and ethical behavior. Includes resources for developing a shooting…

  16. Modulation of adhesion-dependent cAMP signaling by echistatin and alendronate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, J. H.; Ingber, D. E.

    1996-01-01

    We measured intracellular cAMP levels in cells during attachment and spreading on different extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins. Increases in cAMP were observed within minutes when cells attached to fibronectin, vitronectin, and a synthetic RGD-containing fibronectin peptide (Petite 2000), but not when they adhered to another integrin alpha nu beta 3 ligand, echistatin. Because echistatin also inhibits bone resorption, we measured the effects of adding another osteoporosis inhibitor, alendronate, in this system. Alendronate inhibited the cAMP increase induced by ligands that primarily utilize integrin alpha nu beta 3 (vitronectin, Peptite 2000), but not by fibronectin which can also use integrin alpha 5 beta 1. These results show that cell adhesion to ECM can increase intracellular cAPM levels and raise the possibility that inhibitors of osteoporosis may act, in part, by preventing activation of this pathway by integrins.

  17. Regulation of Maltodextrin Phosphorylase Synthesis in Escherichia coli by Cyclic Adenosine 3′, 5′-Monophosphate and Glucose1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Julie; Weathersbee, Carolyn J.

    1974-01-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3′, 5′-monophosphate (AMP) stimulates maltodextrin phosphorylase synthesis in Escherichia coli cells induced with maltose. A maximal effect occurs at 2 to 3 mM cyclic AMP. The action of cyclic AMP is specific, inasmuch as adenosine triphosphate, 3′-AMP, 5′-AMP, adenosine, and dibutyryl cyclic AMP are inactive. Glucose, α-methyl glucoside, 2-deoxyglucose, and pyridoxal 5′-phosphate repress maltodextrin phosphorylase synthesis. This repression is reversed by cyclic AMP. The action of cyclic AMP appears to be at the transcriptional level, since cyclic AMP fails to stimulate phosphorylase production in induced cells in which messenger ribonucleic acid synthesis has been arrested by rifampin or by inducer removal. The two other enzymes involved in the metabolism of maltose, amylomaltase and maltose permease, are also induced in this strain of E. coli and affected by glucose and cyclic AMP in a manner similar to phosphorylase. PMID:4358043

  18. The impact of a surgical boot camp on early acquisition of technical and nontechnical skills by novice surgical trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heskin, Leonie; Mansour, Ehab; Lane, Brian; Kavanagh, Dara; Dicker, Pat; Ryan, Donncha; Gildea-Byrne, Kate; Pawlikowska, Teresa; Tierney, Sean; Traynor, Oscar

    2015-09-01

    Acquisition of skills early in surgical training represents a significant challenge at present because of training time constraints. The aim of this study was to investigate if an intensive surgical boot camp was effective in transferring skills at the beginning of a surgical training program. New core surgical trainees (n = 58) took part in a 5-day boot camp. There were pretest and posttest assessments of knowledge, technical skills, and confidence levels. The boot camp used simulation and senior surgical faculty to teach a defined range of technical and nontechnical skills. The scores for knowledge (53.8% vs 68.4%, P technical skills (35.9% to 60.6% vs 50.6% to 78.2%, P Skills improvements were still present a year later. The 5-day surgical boot camp proved to be an effective way to rapidly acquire surgical knowledge and skills while increasing the confidence levels of trainees. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended.

  20. Suicide in Nazi concentration camps, 1933-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goeschel, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Too often histories of the concentration camps tend to be ignorant of the wider political context of nazi repression and control. This article tries to overcome this problem. Combining legal, social and political history, it contributes to a more thorough understanding of the changing relationship between the camps as places of extra-legal terror and the judiciary, between nazi terror and the law. It argues that the conflict between the judiciary and the SS was not a conflict between "good" and "evil," as existing accounts claim. Rather, it was a power struggle for jurisdiction over the camps. Concentration camp authorities covered up the murders of prisoners as suicides to prevent judicial investigations. This article also looks at actual suicides in the pre-war camps, to highlight individual inmates' reactions to life within the camps. The article concludes that the history of the concentration camps needs to be firmly integrated into the history of nazi terror and the Third Reich.

  1. Components of Camp Experiences for Positive Youth Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Henderson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Youth development specialists advocate that well designed, implemented, and staffed youth centered programs result in positive outcomes for young people. Youth organizations have provided opportunities for young people to participate in camping experiences for over a century. The purpose of this paper is to describe what program components were related to camp environments and positive youth development. We describe these program components related to positive youth development based on a large scale national study of ACA (American Camp Association accredited camps that included independent, religiously affiliated, government, and not-for-profit organizations. Based on the responses given by camp directors, contact and leadership from trained staff and the supportive relationships they provided were essential elements of camp. Other aspects leading to positive youth development in camps were program mission and structure along with elements of accountability, assessment of outcomes, and opportunities for skill building.

  2. cAMP response element binding protein1 is essential for activation of steroyl co-enzyme a desaturase 1 (Scd1 in mouse lung type II epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Antony

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein 1 (Creb1 is a transcription factor that mediates cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP signalling in many tissues. Creb1(-/- mice die at birth due to respiratory failure and previous genome-wide microarray analysis of E17.5 Creb1(-/- fetal mouse lung identified important Creb1-regulated gene targets during lung development. The lipogenic enzymes stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1 and fatty acid synthase (Fasn showed highly reduced gene expression in Creb1(-/- lungs. We therefore hypothesized that Creb1 plays a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in pulmonary lipid biosynthetic pathways during lung development. In this study we confirmed that Scd1 and Fasn mRNA levels were down regulated in the E17.5 Creb1(-/- mouse lung while the lipogenic-associated transcription factors SrebpF1, C/ebpα and Pparγ were increased. In vivo studies using germline (Creb1(-/- and lung epithelial-specific (Creb1(EpiΔ/Δ Creb1 knockout mice showed strongly reduced Scd1, but not Fasn gene expression and protein levels in lung epithelial cells. In vitro studies using mouse MLE-15 epithelial cells showed that forskolin-mediated activation of Creb1 increased both Scd1 gene expression and protein synthesis. Additionally, MLE15 cells transfected with a dominant-negative ACreb vector blocked forskolin-mediated stimulation of Scd1 gene expression. Lipid profiling in MLE15 cells showed that dominant-negative ACreb suppressed forskolin-induced desaturation of ether linked lipids to produce plasmalogens, as well as levels of phosphatidylethanolamine, ceramide and lysophosphatidylcholine. Taken together these results demonstrate that Creb1 is essential for the induction and maintenance of Scd1 in developing fetal mouse lung epithelial cells.

  3. Gold Core Mesoporous Organosilica Shell Degradable Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging and Gemcitabine Monophosphate Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Rhamani, Saher; Chaix, Arnaud; Aggad, Dina; Hoang, Phuong Mai; Moosa, Basem; Garcia, Marcel; Gary-Bobo, Magali; Charnay, Clarence; Almalik, Abdulaziz; Durand, Jean-Olivier; Khashab, Niveen M.

    2017-01-01

    The synthesis of gold core degradable mesoporous organosilica shell nanoparticles is described. The nanopaticles were very efficient for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells and for in vitro gemcitabine monophosphate delivery, allowing promising theranostic applications in the nanomedicine field.

  4. Gold Core Mesoporous Organosilica Shell Degradable Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging and Gemcitabine Monophosphate Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Rhamani, Saher

    2017-09-12

    The synthesis of gold core degradable mesoporous organosilica shell nanoparticles is described. The nanopaticles were very efficient for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells and for in vitro gemcitabine monophosphate delivery, allowing promising theranostic applications in the nanomedicine field.

  5. Short-term treatment with budesonide does not improve hyperresponsiveness to adenosine 5 '-monophosphate in COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, [No Value; Koeter, GH; van der Mark, TW; Postma, DS

    The role of inhaled corticosteroids in the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is unclear. We investigated the effects of budesonide on airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) to methacholine (MCh) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP), to which we hypothesized the existence of greater

  6. 3-cyanoindole-based inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase: synthesis and initial structure-activity relationships.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, T G Murali; Shen, Zhongqi; Gu, Henry H; Chen, Ping; Norris, Derek; Watterson, Scott H; Ballentine, Shelley K; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Barrish, Joel C; Townsend, Robert; Hollenbaugh, Diane L; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2003-10-20

    A series of novel small molecule inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), based upon a 3-cyanoindole core, were explored. IMPDH catalyzes the rate determining step in guanine nucleotide biosynthesis and is a target for anticancer, immunosuppressive and antiviral therapy. The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SAR), derived from in vitro studies, for this new series of inhibitors is given.

  7. A survey of cyclic replacements for the central diamide moiety of inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhar, T G Murali; Liu, Chunjian; Pitts, William J; Guo, Junquing; Watterson, Scott H; Gu, Henry; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine; Sherbina, N Z; Barrish, Joel C; Hollenbaugh, Diane; Iwanowicz, Edwin J

    2002-11-04

    A series of heterocyclic replacements for the central diamide moiety of 1, a potent small molecule inhibitor of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) were explored The synthesis and the structure-activity relationships (SARs), derived from in vitro studies, for these new series of inhibitors is given.

  8. Effects of prostaglandin E2 and cAMP elevating drugs on GM-CSF release by cultured human airway smooth muscle cells. Relevance to asthma therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeri, N; Belvisi, M G; Patel, H J; Yacoub, M H; Chung, K F; Mitchell, J A

    2001-01-01

    Human airway smooth muscle (HASM) cells release granulocyte macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) and express cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 (resulting in the release of prostaglandin [PG] E2) after stimulation with cytokines. Because COX-2 activity can regulate a number of inflammatory processes, we have assessed its effects, as well as those of agents that modulate cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), on GM-CSF release by HASM cells. Cells stimulated with a combination of proinflammatory cytokines (interleukin-1beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha each at 10 ng/ml) for 24 h released significant amounts of PGE2 (measured by radioimmunoassay) and GM-CSF (measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). Indomethacin and other COX-1/COX-2 inhibitors caused concentration-dependent inhibitions of PGE2 concomitantly with increases in GM-CSF formation. Addition of exogenous PGE2 or the beta2-agonist fenoterol, which increase cAMP, to cytokine-treated HASM cells had no effect on GM-CSF release unless COX activity was first blocked with indomethacin. The type 4 phosphodiesterase inhibitors rolipram and SB 207499 both caused concentration-dependent reductions in GM-CSF production. Thus, when HASM cells are activated with cytokines they release PGE2, which acts as a "braking mechanism" to limit the coproduction of GM-CSF. Moreover, agents that elevate cAMP also reduce GM-CSF formation by these cells.

  9. Requirement of cAMP signaling for Schwann cell differentiation restricts the onset of myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketty Bacallao

    Full Text Available Isolated Schwann cells (SCs respond to cAMP elevation by adopting a differentiated post-mitotic state that exhibits high levels of Krox-20, a transcriptional enhancer of myelination, and mature SC markers such as the myelin lipid galactocerebroside (O1. To address how cAMP controls myelination, we performed a series of cell culture experiments which compared the differentiating responses of isolated and axon-related SCs to cAMP analogs and ascorbate, a known inducer of axon ensheathment, basal lamina formation and myelination. In axon-related SCs, cAMP induced the expression of Krox-20 and O1 without a concomitant increase in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP and without promoting axon ensheathment, collagen synthesis or basal lamina assembly. When cAMP was provided together with ascorbate, a dramatic enhancement of MBP expression occurred, indicating that cAMP primes SCs to form myelin only under conditions supportive of basal lamina formation. Experiments using a combination of cell permeable cAMP analogs and type-selective adenylyl cyclase (AC agonists and antagonists revealed that selective transmembrane AC (tmAC activation with forskolin was not sufficient for full SC differentiation and that the attainment of an O1 positive state also relied on the activity of the soluble AC (sAC, a bicarbonate sensor that is insensitive to forskolin and GPCR activation. Pharmacological and immunological evidence indicated that SCs expressed sAC and that sAC activity was required for morphological differentiation and the expression of myelin markers such as O1 and protein zero. To conclude, our data indicates that cAMP did not directly drive myelination but rather the transition into an O1 positive state, which is perhaps the most critical cAMP-dependent rate limiting step for the onset of myelination. The temporally restricted role of cAMP in inducing differentiation independently of basal lamina formation provides a clear example of the

  10. Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate Aerosol Challenge Does Not Provoke Airflow Limitation in Healthy Cats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Vondráková

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our study was to investigate the effects of nebulized adenosine 5'- monophosphate on airflow limitation in healthy cats determined by barometric whole body plethysmography (BWBP, in comparison to the effects of carbachol. Ten healthy 4- to 6-year-old domestic shorthair cats were included in the study. Each cat was placed in a BWBP plexiglass chamber (volume 38 l. Changes in box pressure were measured at baseline and after nebulization of vehicle and increasing concentrations of carbachol and adenosine 5'- monophosphate. Airway responsiveness was monitored as increases in enhanced pause (PENH, a unitless variable derived from dose-response curves estimating airflow limitation. The chosen endpoint was the agonist concentration which increased PENH to 300% of the value obtained after saline nebulization (PCPENH 300. Inter-day repeatability of measurements was assessed by repeated bronchoprovocations with both agonists 2-3 days apart. For carbachol, PCPENH300 was reached in all cats and correlated significantly between days (mean ± SD; 0.54 ± 0.42 mg/ml and 0.64 ± 0.45 mg/ml respectively; r = 0.58, p < 0.05 In contrast, we found no reaction to adenosine 5'- monophosphate even with the highest concentration nebulized during both measurements. At baseline, mean ± SD PENH was 0.47 ± 0.18 and 0.58 ± 0.24 (measurements 1 and 2, whereas PENH after 500 mg/ml adenosine 5'- monophosphate was 0.46 ± 0.20 and 0.71 ± 0.37. All bronchoprovocation tests were well tolerated by the cats. We conclude that healthy airways in cats do not demonstrate airway responsiveness to inhaled adenosine 5'- monophosphate. This is in agreement with observations in humans as well as our previous findings in dogs, where adenosine 5'- monophosphate had no effect on healthy canine airways, but caused significant airflow limitation after induction of acute bronchitis. To define the value of bronchoprovocation testing with adenosine 5'- monophosphate in the feline

  11. Mortality study of civilian employees exposed to contaminated drinking water at USMC Base Camp Lejeune: a retrospective cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Two drinking water systems at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune, North Carolina were contaminated with solvents during 1950s-1985. Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort mortality study of 4,647 civilian, full-time workers employed at Camp Lejeune during 1973–1985 and potentially exposed to contaminated drinking water. We selected a comparison cohort of 4,690 Camp Pendleton workers employed during 1973–1985 and unexposed to contaminated drinking water. Mortality follow-up period was 1979-2008. Cause-specific standardized mortality ratios utilized U.S. age-, sex-, race-, and calendar period-specific mortality rates as reference. We used survival analysis to compare mortality rates between Camp Lejeune and Camp Pendleton workers and assess the effects of estimated cumulative contaminant exposures within the Camp Lejeune cohort. Ground water contaminant fate/transport and distribution system models provided monthly estimated contaminant levels in drinking water serving workplaces at Camp Lejeune. The confidence interval (CI) indicated precision of effect estimates. Results Compared to Camp Pendleton, Camp Lejeune workers had mortality hazard ratios (HRs) >1.50 for kidney cancer (HR = 1.92, 95% CI: 0.58, 6.34), leukemias (HR = 1.59, 95% CI: 0.66, 3.84), multiple myeloma (HR = 1.84, 95% CI: 0.45, 7.58), rectal cancer (HR = 1.65, 95% CI: 0.36, 7.44), oral cavity cancers (HR = 1.93, 95% CI: 0.34, 10.81), and Parkinson’s disease (HR = 3.13, 95% CI: 0.76, 12.81). Within the Camp Lejeune cohort, monotonic exposure-response relationships were observed for leukemia and vinyl chloride and PCE, with mortality HRs at the high exposure category of 1.72 (95% CI: 0.33, 8.83) and 1.82 (95% CI: 0.36, 9.32), respectively. Cumulative exposures were above the median for most deaths from cancers of the kidney, esophagus, rectum, prostate, and Parkinson’s disease, but small numbers precluded evaluation of exposure-response relationships. Conclusion The study found

  12. Girl Scout Camps and Badges: Engaging Girls in NASA Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harman, P. K.; DeVore, E. K.

    2017-12-01

    Reaching for the Stars: NASA Science for Girl Scouts (Girl Scout Stars) disseminates NASA STEM education-related resources, fosters interaction between Girl Scouts and NASA Subject Matter Experts (SMEs), and engages Girl Scouts in NASA science and programs through space science badges and summer camps. A space science badge is in development for each of the six levels of Girl Scouts: Daisies, Grades K - 1; Brownies, Grades 2 -3; Juniors, Grades 4 -5; Cadettes, Grades 6 -8; Seniors, Grades 9 -10: and Ambassadors, Grades 11 -12. Daisy badge will be accomplished by following three steps with two choices each. Brownie to Ambassador badges will be awarded by completing five steps with three choices for each. The badges are interwoven with science activities, role models (SMEs), and steps that lead girls to explore NASA missions. External evaluators monitor three rounds of field-testing and deliver formative assessment reports. Badges will be released in Fall of 2018 and 2019. Girl Scout Stars supports two unique camp experiences. The University of Arizona holds an Astronomy Destination, a travel and immersion adventure for individual girls ages 13 and older, which offers dark skies and science exploration using telescopes, and interacting with SMEs. Girls lean about motion of celestial objects and become astronomers. Councils send teams of two girls, a council representative and an amateur astronomer to Astronomy Camp at Goddard Space Flight Center. The teams were immersed in science content and activities, and a star party; and began to plan their new Girl Scout Astronomy Clubs. The girls will lead the clubs, aided by the council and amateur astronomer. Camps are evaluated by the Girl Scouts Research Institute. In Girl Scouting, girls discover their skills, talents and what they care about; connect with other Girl Scouts and people in their community; and take action to change the world. This is called the Girl Scout Leadership Experience. With girl-led, hands on

  13. Different characteristics and nucleotide binding properties of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C Thomas

    Full Text Available We recently reported that Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMPDH, a rate-limiting enzyme in de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, clustered into macrostructures in response to decreased nucleotide levels and that there were differences between the IMPDH isoforms, IMPDH1 and IMPDH2. We hypothesised that the Bateman domains, which are present in both isoforms and serve as energy-sensing/allosteric modules in unrelated proteins, would contribute to isoform-specific differences and that mutations situated in and around this domain in IMPDH1 which give rise to retinitis pigmentosa (RP would compromise regulation. We employed immuno-electron microscopy to investigate the ultrastructure of IMPDH macrostructures and live-cell imaging to follow clustering of an IMPDH2-GFP chimera in real-time. Using a series of IMPDH1/IMPDH2 chimera we demonstrated that the propensity to cluster was conferred by the N-terminal 244 amino acids, which includes the Bateman domain. A protease protection assay suggested isoform-specific purine nucleotide binding characteristics, with ATP protecting IMPDH1 and AMP protecting IMPDH2, via a mechanism involving conformational changes upon nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain without affecting IMPDH catalytic activity. ATP binding to IMPDH1 was confirmed in a nucleotide binding assay. The RP-causing mutation, R224P, abolished ATP binding and nucleotide protection and this correlated with an altered propensity to cluster. Collectively these data demonstrate that (i the isoforms are differentially regulated by AMP and ATP by a mechanism involving the Bateman domain, (ii communication occurs between the Bateman and catalytic domains and (iii the RP-causing mutations compromise such regulation. These findings support the idea that the IMPDH isoforms are subject to distinct regulation and that regulatory defects contribute to human disease.

  14. Uridine monophosphate synthetase enables eukaryotic de novo NAD+ biosynthesis from quinolinic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McReynolds, Melanie R; Wang, Wenqing; Holleran, Lauren M; Hanna-Rose, Wendy

    2017-07-07

    NAD + biosynthesis is an attractive and promising therapeutic target for influencing health span and obesity-related phenotypes as well as tumor growth. Full and effective use of this target for therapeutic benefit requires a complete understanding of NAD + biosynthetic pathways. Here, we report a previously unrecognized role for a conserved phosphoribosyltransferase in NAD + biosynthesis. Because a required quinolinic acid phosphoribosyltransferase (QPRTase) is not encoded in its genome, Caenorhabditis elegans are reported to lack a de novo NAD + biosynthetic pathway. However, all the genes of the kynurenine pathway required for quinolinic acid (QA) production from tryptophan are present. Thus, we investigated the presence of de novo NAD + biosynthesis in this organism. By combining isotope-tracing and genetic experiments, we have demonstrated the presence of an intact de novo biosynthesis pathway for NAD + from tryptophan via QA, highlighting the functional conservation of this important biosynthetic activity. Supplementation with kynurenine pathway intermediates also boosted NAD + levels and partially reversed NAD + -dependent phenotypes caused by mutation of pnc-1 , which encodes a nicotinamidase required for NAD + salvage biosynthesis, demonstrating contribution of de novo synthesis to NAD + homeostasis. By investigating candidate phosphoribosyltransferase genes in the genome, we determined that the conserved uridine monophosphate phosphoribosyltransferase (UMPS), which acts in pyrimidine biosynthesis, is required for NAD + biosynthesis in place of the missing QPRTase. We suggest that similar underground metabolic activity of UMPS may function in other organisms. This mechanism for NAD + biosynthesis creates novel possibilities for manipulating NAD + biosynthetic pathways, which is key for the future of therapeutics. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  15. S'Cool LAB Summer CAMP 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Woithe, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The S’Cool LAB Summer CAMP is an opportunity for high-school students (aged 16-19) from all around the world to spend 2 weeks exploring the fascinating world of particle physics. The 24 selected participants spend their summer at S’Cool LAB, CERN’s hands-on particle physics learning laboratory, for an epic programme of lectures and tutorials, team research projects, visits of CERN’s research installations, and social activities.

  16. Summer Reading Camp Self-Study Guide. REL 2015-070

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Kevin G.; Foorman, Barbara R.

    2015-01-01

    This guide is designed to facilitate self-studies of planning and implementation of state-required summer reading camp programs for grade 3 students who scored at the lowest level on the state reading assessment. It provides a template for data collection and guiding questions for discussion that may improve instruction and increase the number of…

  17. Examining Camper Learning Outcomes and Knowledge Retention at Oklahoma FFA Leadership Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Terry, Robert, Jr.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2014-01-01

    The National FFA Organization is committed to providing non-formal learning activities focusing on leadership education. Summer camps are a major component of FFA activities and concentrate on personal growth, leadership development, and recreational activities for youth. This repeated measures study determined the level of cognitive gain and the…

  18. Summer Camp of the CERN Staff Association

    CERN Document Server

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Journey to Discover the Four Elements Over the past few years, the Children’s Day-Care Centre and School (EVEE) of the CERN Staff Association has transformed into a summer camp for the four weeks of July. Every year, this summer camp welcomes up to 40 children from 4 to 6 years old. The camp offers a rich and varied program. This year, the theme was the four elements of life, and the children set out on a journey to discover a different element every week: WATER was the theme of the first week. What is water? What purpose does it serve? Where can we find it? With these questions and many others in mind, the children set out on a cruise, sailing across Lake Geneva to visit the Lake Geneva Museum in Nyon. All through the week, the children were able to discover the different properties of water by carrying out various scientific experiments. For instance, getting soaked can certainly help observe a simple property of water: it’s wet! Giggles guaranteed. The children made fancy hats and e...

  19. Diabetes Camp as Continuing Education for Diabetes Self-Management in Middle-Aged and Elderly People with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    So Young Park

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundDespite the established benefits of diabetes camps for the continuing education of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus, little is known about the long-term metabolic benefits of diabetes camps for middle-aged and elderly people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM, especially in terms of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c variability.MethodsThe 1-year mean and variability of HbA1c before and after the diabetes camp was compared between the participants of the diabetes camp (n=57; median age 65 years [range, 50 to 86 years]; median diabetes duration 14 years [range, 1 to 48 years]. Additional case-control analysis compared the metabolic outcomes of the participants of the diabetes camp and their propensity score-matched controls who underwent conventional diabetes education (n=93.ResultsThe levels of HbA1c during the first year after the diabetes camp were comparable to those of the matched controls (P=0.341. In an analysis of all participants of the diabetes camp, the 1-year mean±standard deviation (SD of HbA1c decreased (P=0.010 and P=0.041 after the diabetes camp, whereas the adjusted SD and coefficient of variance (CV of HbA1c did not decrease. The adjusted SD and CV significantly decreased after the diabetes camp in participants whose 1-year mean HbA1c was ≥6.5% before the diabetes camp (n=40 and those with a duration of diabetes less than 15 years (n=32.ConclusionThe 1-year mean and SD of HbA1c decreased after the diabetes camp, with significant reduction in the adjusted SD and CV in those with higher baseline HbA1c and a shorter duration of diabetes.

  20. Inhibitory effects of ginseng total saponin on up-regulation of cAMP pathway induced by repeated administration of morphine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Jeong-Ju; Lee, Jae-Woong; Lee, Wan-Kyu; Hong, Jin-Tae; Lee, Chong-Kil; Lee, Myung-Koo; Oh, Ki-Wan

    2008-02-01

    We have reported that ginseng total saponin (GTS) inhibited the development of physical and psychological dependence on morphine. However, the possible molecular mechanisms of GTS are unclear. Therefore, this study was undertaken to understand the possible molecular mechanism of GTS on the inhibitory effects of morphine-induced dependence. It has been reported that the up-regulated cAMP pathway in the LC of the mouse brain after repeated administration of morphine contributes to the feature of withdrawals. GTS inhibited up-regulation of cAMP pathway in the LC after repeated administration of morphine in this experiment. GTS inhibited cAMP levels and protein expression of protein kinase A (PKA). In addition, GTS inhibited the increase of cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) phosphorylation. Therefore, we conclude that the inhibitory effects of GTS on morphine-induced dependence might be mediated by the inhibition of cAMP pathway.

  1. The pde2 gene of Saccharomyces cerevisiae is allelic to rca1 and encodes a phosphodiesterase which protects the cell from extracellular cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R B; Renault, G; Jacquet, M; Tatchell, K

    1993-07-05

    The high affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase, encoded by PDE2, is an important component of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase signaling system in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. An unexpected phenotype of pde2 mutants is sensitivity to external cAMP. This trait has been found independently for rca1 mutants and has been used to monitor the effects of cAMP on several biological processes. We demonstrate here that RCA1 is identical to PDE2. Further analysis of the phenotype of pde2 deletions reveal that exogenously added cAMP results in an increase in the internal level of cAMP. This increase slows down the rate of cell division by increasing the length of the G1 phase of the cell cycle and leads to increased cell volume. Also, cells with a disrupted PDE2 gene previously arrested by nutrient starvation rapidly lose thermotolerance when incubated with exogenous cAMP. From these observations we propose that a role of the PDE2-encoded phosphodiesterase may be to help insulate the internal cAMP pools from the external environment. This protective role might also be important in other eukaryotic organisms where cAMP is a key second messenger.

  2. A biphasic and brain-region selective down-regulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations supports object recognition in the rat.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maïte Hotte

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We aimed to further understand the relationship between cAMP concentration and mnesic performance. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Rats were injected with milrinone (PDE3 inhibitor, 0.3 mg/kg, i.p., rolipram (PDE4 inhibitor, 0.3 mg/kg, i.p. and/or the selective 5-HT4R agonist RS 67333 (1 mg/kg, i.p. before testing in the object recognition paradigm. Cyclic AMP concentrations were measured in brain structures linked to episodic-like memory (i.e. hippocampus, prefrontal and perirhinal cortices before or after either the sample or the testing phase. Except in the hippocampus of rolipram treated-rats, all treatment increased cAMP levels in each brain sub-region studied before the sample phase. After the sample phase, cAMP levels were significantly increased in hippocampus (1.8 fold, prefrontal (1.3 fold and perirhinal (1.3 fold cortices from controls rat while decreased in prefrontal cortex (∼0.83 to 0.62 fold from drug-treated rats (except for milrinone+RS 67333 treatment. After the testing phase, cAMP concentrations were still increased in both the hippocampus (2.76 fold and the perirhinal cortex (2.1 fold from controls animals. Minor increase were reported in hippocampus and perirhinal cortex from both rolipram (respectively, 1.44 fold and 1.70 fold and milrinone (respectively 1.46 fold and 1.56 fold-treated rat. Following the paradigm, cAMP levels were significantly lower in the hippocampus, prefrontal and perirhinal cortices from drug-treated rat when compared to controls animals, however, only drug-treated rats spent longer time exploring the novel object during the testing phase (inter-phase interval of 4 h. CONCLUSIONS: Our results strongly suggest that a "pre-sample" early increase in cAMP levels followed by a specific lowering of cAMP concentrations in each brain sub-region linked to the object recognition paradigm support learning efficacy after a middle-term delay.

  3. Radioprotection of the rat parotid gland by cAMP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sodicoff, M.; Conger, A.D.

    1983-01-01

    Most earlier studies showing a radioprotective effect by cAMP show only slight degrees of protection. The present study demonstrates a substantial protective effect (DMF, 1.63) of exogenously administered cAMP on the rat parotid gland and supports the mechanism suggested previously for protection afforded the parotid glands by the β-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, which is known to elevate endogenous intracellular cAMP

  4. IDENTIFYING DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY POPULATION : A CAMP APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Anand P; Chaukimath; Srikanth; Koli

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Dementia is an emerging medico social problem affecting elderly, and poses a challenge to clinician and caregivers. It is usually identified in late stage where management becomes difficult. AIM: The aim of camp was to identify dementia in elderly population participating in screening camp. MATERIAL AND METHODS : The geriatric clinic and department of psychiatry jointly organised screening camp to detect dementia in elderly for five days in Sept...

  5. Adventure Code Camp: Library Mobile Design in the Backcountry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study exploring the use of a student Coding Camp as a bottom-up mobile design process to generate library mobile apps. A code camp sources student programmer talent and ideas for designing software services and features.  This case study reviews process, outcomes, and next steps in mobile web app coding camps. It concludes by offering implications for services design beyond the local camp presented in this study. By understanding how patrons expect to integrate library services and resources into their use of mobile devices, librarians can better design the user experience for this environment.

  6. Malnourished Children in Refugee Camps and Lack of Connection with Services After US Resettlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cookson, Susan T.; Talley, Leisel; Rochat, Roger

    2016-01-01

    Identifying and addressing malnutrition among US-bound refugee children is an important human rights issue. Failure to address childhood malnutrition can impair cognitive development and productivity. The target population was children aged 6–59 months, originating from eight countries representing 51 % of US-resettled refugees for 2005–2011, living in 22 camps prior to potential US-resettlement. The corresponding camp-level nutritional survey data were evaluated. State Refugee Health Coordinators were surveyed on nutritional assessment, reporting and referrals for their US-refugee medical screenings. From 2004 to 2010, half of the camps (63 total surveys) had global acute malnutrition prevalence over 15 % at least once (surveys not done annually) and anemia prevalence greater than 40 %. The majority of US-refugee medical screenings included height and weight measurements but few used national or WHO standards to evaluate presence or level of malnutrition. Improve overseas camp monitoring and link these nutritional data to US-resettling refugee children to inform potential nutritional interventions. Domestically, use WHO or US growth standards for anthropometrics to determine presence of malnutrition and need for corrective action. PMID:23430464

  7. Malnourished children in refugee camps and lack of connection with services after US resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfy, Caitlyn; Cookson, Susan T; Talley, Leisel; Rochat, Roger

    2014-10-01

    Identifying and addressing malnutrition among US-bound refugee children is an important human rights issue. Failure to address childhood malnutrition can impair cognitive development and productivity. The target population was children aged 6-59 months, originating from eight countries representing 51 % of US-resettled refugees for 2005-2011, living in 22 camps prior to potential US-resettlement. The corresponding camp-level nutritional survey data were evaluated. State Refugee Health Coordinators were surveyed on nutritional assessment, reporting and referrals for their US-refugee medical screenings. From 2004 to 2010, half of the camps (63 total surveys) had global acute malnutrition prevalence over 15 % at least once (surveys not done annually) and anemia prevalence greater than 40 %. The majority of US-refugee medical screenings included height and weight measurements but few used national or WHO standards to evaluate presence or level of malnutrition. Improve overseas camp monitoring and link these nutritional data to US-resettling refugee children to inform potential nutritional interventions. Domestically, use WHO or US growth standards for anthropometrics to determine presence of malnutrition and need for corrective action.

  8. The cAMP effectors PKA and Epac activate endothelial NO synthase through PI3K/Akt pathway in human endothelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Morales, Verónica; Luaces-Regueira, María; Campos-Toimil, Manuel

    2017-12-01

    3',5'-Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) exerts an endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant action by stimulating endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) activity, and the subsequent NO release, through cAMP protein kinase (PKA) and exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) activation in endothelial cells. Here, we have investigated the mechanism by which the cAMP-Epac/PKA pathway activates eNOS. cAMP-elevating agents (forskolin and dibutyryl-cAMP) and the joint activation of PKA (6-Bnz-cAMP) and Epac (8-pCPT-2'-O-Me-cAMP) increased cytoplasmic Ca 2+ concentration ([Ca 2+ ] c ) in ≤30% of fura-2-loaded isolated human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC). However, these drugs did not modify [Ca 2+ ] c in fluo-4-loaded HUVEC monolayers. In DAF-2-loaded HUVEC monolayers, forskolin, PKA and Epac activators significantly increased NO release, and the forskolin effect was reduced by inhibition of PKA (Rp-cAMPs), Epac (ESI-09), eNOS (L-NAME) or phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K; LY-294,002). On the other hand, inhibition of CaMKII (KN-93), AMPK (Compound C), or total absence of Ca 2+ , was without effect. In Western blot experiments, Serine 1177 phosphorylated-eNOS was significantly increased in HUVEC by cAMP-elevating agents and PKA or Epac activators. In isolated rat aortic rings LY-294,002, but not KN-93 or Compound C, significantly reduced the vasorelaxant effects of forskolin in the presence of endothelium. Our results suggest that Epac and PKA activate eNOS via Ser 1177 phosphorylation by activating the PI3K/Akt pathway, and independently of AMPK or CaMKII activation or [Ca 2+ ] c increase. This action explains, in part, the endothelium-dependent vasorelaxant effect of cAMP. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Extracellular cAMP activates molecular signalling pathways associated with sperm capacitation in bovines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alonso, Carlos Agustín I; Osycka-Salut, Claudia E; Castellano, Luciana; Cesari, Andreína; Di Siervi, Nicolás; Mutto, Adrián; Johannisson, Anders; Morrell, Jane M; Davio, Carlos; Perez-Martinez, Silvina

    2017-08-01

    Is extracellular cAMP involved in the regulation of signalling pathways in bovine sperm capacitation? Extracellular cAMP induces sperm capacitation through the activation of different signalling pathways that involve phospholipase C (PLC), PKC/ERK1-2 signalling and an increase in sperm Ca2+ levels, as well as soluble AC and cAMP/protein kinase A (PKA) signalling. In order to fertilize the oocyte, ejaculated spermatozoa must undergo a series of changes in the female reproductive tract, known as capacitation. This correlates with a number of membrane and metabolic modifications that include an increased influx of bicarbonate and Ca2+, activation of a soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) to produce cAMP, PKA activation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation and the development of hyperactivated motility. We previously reported that cAMP efflux by Multidrug Resistance Protein 4 (MRP4) occurs during sperm capacitation and the pharmacological blockade of this inhibits the process. Moreover, the supplementation of incubation media with cAMP abolishes the inhibition and leads to sperm capacitation, suggesting that extracellular cAMP regulates crucial signalling cascades involved in this process. Bovine sperm were selected by the wool glass column method, and washed by centrifugation in BSA-Free Tyrode's Albumin Lactate Pyruvate (sp-TALP). Pellets were resuspended then diluted for each treatment. For in vitro capacitation, 10 to 15 × 106 SPZ/ml were incubated in 0.3% BSA sp-TALP at 38.5°C for 45 min under different experimental conditions. To evaluate the role of extracellular cAMP on different events associated with sperm capacitation, 10 nM cAMP was added to the incubation medium as well as different inhibitors of enzymes associated with signalling transduction pathways: U73122 (PLC inhibitor, 10 μM), Gö6983 (PKC inhibitor, 10 μM), PD98059 (ERK-1/2 inhibitor, 30 μM), H89 and KT (PKA inhibitors, 50 μM and 100 nM, respectively), KH7 (sAC inhibitor, 10 μM), BAPTA

  10. Kinetics of hydrogen-deuterium exchange in guanosine 5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate determined by laser-Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, M J; Thomas, G J

    1979-09-04

    Pseudo-first-order rate constants governing the deuterium exchange of 8-CH groups in guanosine 5'-monophosphate (5'-rGMP) and guanosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cGMP) were determined as a function of temperature in the range 30-80 degrees C by means of laser-Raman spectroscopy. For each guanine nucleotide the logarithm of the rate constant exhibits a strictly linear dependence on reciprocal temperature: i.e., k psi = Ae-Ea/RT with A = 8.84 X 10(14) h-1 and Ea = 24.6 kcal/mol for 5'-rGMP and A = 3.33 X 10(13) h-1 and Ea = 22.2 kcal/mol for cGMP. Exchange of the 8-CH groups in guanine nucleotides is generally 2-3 times more rapid than in adenine nucleotides [cf. g. j. thomas, Jr., & J. Livramento (1975) Biochemistry 14, 5210-5218]. As in the case of adenine nucleotides, cyclic and 5' nucleotides of guanine exchange at markedly different rates at lower temperatures, with exchange in the cyclic nucleotide being the more facile. Each of the guanine nucleotides was prepared in four different isotopic modifications for Raman spectral analysis. The Raman frequency shifts resulting from the various isotopic substitutions have been tabulated, and assignments have been given for most of the observed vibrational frequencies.

  11. Bronchodilator responses after methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenges in children with asthma: their relationships with eosinophil markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Young; Seo, Sung Chul; Kim, Young Il; Chung, Bo Hyun; Song, Dae Jin; Choung, Ji Tae

    2012-09-01

    Bronchodilator responsiveness (BDR) and eosinophilic inflammation are characteristic features of asthma. Objective. The aim of this study was to compare the relationships of BDR after methacholine challenge or adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) challenge to blood eosinophil markers in children with asthma. Methacholine and AMP challenges were performed on 69 children with mild intermittent to moderate persistent asthma. BDR was calculated as the change in forced expiratory volume in 1 second, expressed as percentage change of the value immediately after the each challenge and the value after inhalation of salbutamol. Serum total IgE levels, blood eosinophil counts, and serum eosinophil cationic protein (ECP) levels were determined for each subject. A positive relationship between serum total IgE levels and BDR was found only after the AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.345, p = .001) rather than after the methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.007, p = .495). Peripheral blood eosinophil counts correlated more significantly with BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.212, p = .001) than BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.002, p = .724). Both BDR after methacholine challenge (R(2) = 0.063, p = .038) and BDR after AMP challenge (R(2) = 0.192, p = .001) were significantly correlated with serum ECP levels. BDR after AMP challenge may be more closely related to eosinophilic inflammation, compared with that after methacholine challenge.

  12. Reward or its denial during the neonatal period affects adult spatial memory and hippocampal phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein levels of both the neonatal and adult rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diamantopoulou, A; Stamatakis, A; Panagiotaropoulos, T; Stylianopoulou, F

    2011-05-05

    Early life experiences, particularly mother-infant interactions, have been shown to influence adult coping and learning abilities via gene-environment interactions. We have developed a paradigm, in which mother contact is used as either a positive or a negative reinforcer in a T-maze, during postnatal days 10-13. In both neonates receiving (RER) or denied (DER) the expected reward, exposure to the memory test in the absence of the mother resulted in a remarkable increase in the number of pCREB immunopositive cells, when compared to their corresponding levels 2 h after the completion of the training process, but also to the levels of naïve animals. In the CA3 area, the pattern of pCREB immunoreactivity, when evaluated 2 h after the completion of the training on postnatal day 13 seemed to distinguish between the two different neonatal experiences in the T-maze, with the DER pups showing higher levels of pCREB immunopositive cells than the RER. Exposure to the Morris Water Maze (MWM) during adulthood revealed a memory advantage of the DER animals compared to the RER and the animals not exposed to the neonatal experience. Relevantly, in the DER animals an increased number of pCREB immunopositive cells was observed in the CA3 area even 24 h after the end of MWM training. When also measured after exposure to the probe trial, the number of pCREB immunopositive cells was again higher in the DER compared to the RER animals. In conclusion, we show that a learning experience involving discrepancy during the particularly plastic neonatal period is able to induce long-term effects, which result in enhanced adult hippocampal dependent spatial memory. Furthermore, our data document a role of plasticity molecules like pCREB in mediating hippocampal dependent learning and detection of novelty not only in adulthood, but also more importantly in the neonatal period of the rat. Copyright © 2011 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Refugee camps, fire disasters and burn injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atiyeh, B.S.; Gunn, S.W.A.

    2017-01-01

    Summary In the past five years, no fewer than 15 conflicts have brought unspeakable tragedy and misery to millions across the world. At present, nearly 20 people are forcibly displaced every minute as a result of conflict or persecution, representing a crisis of historic proportions. Many displaced persons end up in camps generally developing in an impromptu fashion, and are totally dependent on humanitarian aid. The precarious condition of temporary installations puts the nearly 700 refugee camps worldwide at high risk of disease, child soldier and terrorist recruitment, and physical and sexual violence. Poorly planned, densely packed refugee settlements are also one of the most pathogenic environments possible, representing high risk for fires with potential for uncontrolled fire spread and development over sometimes quite large areas. Moreover, providing healthcare to refugees comes with its own unique challenges. Internationally recognized guidelines for minimum standards in shelters and settlements have been set, however they remain largely inapplicable. As for fire risk reduction, and despite the high number of fire incidents, it is not evident that fire safety can justify a higher priority. In that regard, a number of often conflicting influences will need to be considered. The greatest challenge remains in balancing the various risks, such as the need/cost of shelter against the fire risk/cost of fire protection. PMID:29849526

  14. PDF and cAMP enhance PER stability in Drosophila clock neurons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Guo, Fang; Shen, James; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-01-01

    The neuropeptide PDF is important for Drosophila circadian rhythms: pdf01 (pdf-null) animals are mostly arrhythmic or short period in constant darkness and have an advanced activity peak in light–dark conditions. PDF contributes to the amplitude, synchrony, as well as the pace of circadian rhythms within clock neurons. PDF is known to increase cAMP levels in PDR receptor (PDFR)-containing neurons. However, there is no known connection of PDF or of cAMP with the Drosophila molecular clockworks. We discovered that the mutant period gene perS ameliorates the phenotypes of pdf-null flies. The period protein (PER) is a well-studied repressor of clock gene transcription, and the perS protein (PERS) has a markedly short half-life. The result therefore suggests that the PDF-mediated increase in cAMP might lengthen circadian period by directly enhancing PER stability. Indeed, increasing cAMP levels and cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) activity stabilizes PER, in S2 tissue culture cells and in fly circadian neurons. Adding PDF to fly brains in vitro has a similar effect. Consistent with these relationships, a light pulse causes more prominent PER degradation in pdf01 circadian neurons than in wild-type neurons. The results indicate that PDF contributes to clock neuron synchrony by increasing cAMP and PKA, which enhance PER stability and decrease clock speed in intrinsically fast-paced PDFR-containing clock neurons. We further suggest that the more rapid degradation of PERS bypasses PKA regulation and makes the pace of clock neurons more uniform, allowing them to avoid much of the asynchrony caused by the absence of PDF. PMID:24707054

  15. Teen camp: a unique approach to recruit future nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redding, Donna A; Riech, Sandy; Prater, Marsha A

    2004-01-01

    A collaborative and unique approach to interest high school students in nursing. To inform educators and nursing departments about an innovative approach to recruit future nurses. Professional literature and authors' experience. All students related positive experiences. The initial camp evaluation produced innovative input from the students, and each camp met its goal of creating career interest in the nursing profession.

  16. Camp Verde Adult Reading Program. Final Performance Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maynard, David A.

    This document begins with a four-page performance report describing how the Camp Verde Adult Reading Program site was relocated to the Community Center Complex, and the Town Council contracted directly with the Friends of the Camp Verde Library to provide for the requirements of the program. The U.S. Department of Education grant allowed the…

  17. Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World): Handbook for Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peace Corps, Washington, DC. Information Collection and Exchange Div.

    Camp GLOW (Girls Leading Our World) began in Romania in 1995 as a weeklong leadership camp with the purpose of encouraging young women to become active citizens by building their self-esteem and confidence, increasing their self-awareness, and developing their skills in goal-setting, assertiveness, and career and life planning. Since that first…

  18. Boot Camps: A Critique and a Proposed Alternative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salerno, Anthony W.

    1994-01-01

    Explores origins of boot camp concept and application of its principles to juvenile delinquents. Offers eight-point critique of concept itself. Concludes with alternative: combination of intermittent incarceration (lasting at least six months and comprised of "no frills" camp for one week, followed by weekends gradually spaced further…

  19. Specialized Summer Camps: Provide Benefits for Children and Families Alike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The arrival of summer signals a season of endless days of swimming, fishing, summer camps, and other outdoor activities. For children with chronic or terminal illnesses, it can be difficult to participate in many of these activities as well as challenging for parents to find summer camps that not only engage their children, but also offer the…

  20. Serum brain-derived neurotrophic factor and glucocorticoid receptor levels in lymphocytes as markers of antidepressant response in major depressive patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas, Paulina Soledad; Fritsch, Rosemarie; Rojas, Romina Andrea; Jara, Pablo; Fiedler, Jenny Lucy

    2011-09-30

    Depressive patients often have altered cortisol secretion, an effect that likely derives from impaired activity of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), the main regulator of the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. Glucocorticoids reduce the levels of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), a downstream target of antidepressants. Antidepressants promote the transcriptional activity of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) response element binding protein (CREB), a regulator of BDNF expression. To identify potential biomarkers for the onset of antidepressant action in depressive patients, GR and phospho-CREB (pCREB) levels in lymphocytes and serum BDNF levels were repeatedly measured during the course of antidepressant treatment. Thirty-four depressed outpatients (10 male and 24 female) were treated with venlafaxine (75mg/day), and individuals exhibiting a 50% reduction in their baseline 17-Item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score by the 6th week of treatment were considered responders. Responders showed an early improvement in parallel with a rise in BDNF levels during the first two weeks of treatment. Non-responders showed increased GR levels by the third week and reduced serum BDNF by the sixth week of treatment. In contrast, venlafaxine did not affect levels of pCREB. We conclude that levels of BDNF in serum and GR levels in lymphocytes may represent biomarkers that could be used to predict responses to venlafaxine treatment. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Cows are not mice: the role of cyclic AMP, phosphodiesterases, and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in the maintenance of meiotic arrest in bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Meiotic maturation in mammalian oocytes is initiated during fetal development, and is then arrested at the dictyate stage - possibly for several years. Oocyte meiosis resumes in preovulatory follicles in response to the lutenizing hormone (LH) surge or spontaneously when competent oocytes are removed from follicles and cultured. The mechanisms involved in meiotic arrest and resumption in bovine oocytes are not fully understood, and several studies point to important differences between oocytes from rodent and livestock species. This paper reviews earlier and contemporary studies on the effects of cAMP-elevating agents and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme inhibitors on the maintenance of meiotic arrest in bovine oocytes in vitro. Contrary to results obtained with mouse oocytes, bovine oocyte meiosis is inhibited by activators of the energy sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, mammalian gene PRKA), which is activated by AMP, the degradation product of cAMP. It is not clear whether or not the effects were due to AMPK activation, and they may depend on culture conditions. Evidence suggests that other signaling pathways (for example, the cGMP/nitric oxide pathway) are involved in bovine oocyte meiotic arrest, but further studies are needed to understand the interactions between the signaling pathways that lead to maturation promoting factor (MPF) being inactive or active. An improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in the control of bovine oocyte meiosis will facilitate better control of the process in vitro, resulting in increased developmental competence and increased efficiency of in vitro embryo production procedures. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Extending prematuration with cAMP modulators enhances the cumulus contribution to oocyte antioxidant defence and oocyte quality via gap junctions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, H J; Sutton-McDowall, M L; Wang, X; Sugimura, S; Thompson, J G; Gilchrist, R B

    2016-04-01

    Can bovine oocyte antioxidant defence and oocyte quality be improved by extending the duration of pre-in vitro maturation (IVM) with cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate (cAMP) modulators? Lengthening the duration of cAMP-modulated pre-IVM elevates intra-oocyte reduced glutathione (GSH) content and reduces hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) via increased cumulus cell-oocyte gap-junctional communication (GJC), associated with an improvement in subsequent embryo development and quality. Oocytes are susceptible to oxidative stress and the oocyte's most important antioxidant glutathione is supplied, at least in part, by cumulus cells. A temporary inhibition of spontaneous meiotic resumption in oocytes can be achieved by preventing a fall in cAMP, and cyclic AMP-modulated pre-IVM maintains cumulus-oocyte GJC and improves subsequent embryo development. This study consisted of a series of 10 experiments using bovine oocytes in vitro, each with multiple replicates. A range of pre-IVM durations were examined as the key study treatments which were compared with a control. The study was designed to examine if one of the oocyte's major antioxidant defences can be enhanced by pre-IVM with cAMP modulators, and to examine the contribution of cumulus-oocyte GJC on these processes. Immature bovine cumulus-oocyte complexes were treated in vitro without (control) or with the cAMP modulators; 100 µM forskolin (FSK) and 500 µM 3-isobutyl-1-methyxanthine (IBMX), for 0, 2, 4 or 6 h (pre-IVM phase) prior to IVM. Oocyte developmental competence was assessed by embryo development and quality post-IVM/IVF. Cumulus-oocyte GJC, intra-oocyte GSH and H2O2 were quantified at various time points during pre-IVM and IVM, in the presence and the absence of functional inhibitors: carbenoxolone (CBX) to block GJC and buthionine sulfoximide (BSO) to inhibit glutathione synthesis. Pre-IVM with FSK + IBMX increased subsequent blastocyst formation rate and quality compared with standard IVM (P gap junctions between

  3. Self-Efficacy of Students with Visual Impairments before and after Participation in an Inquiry-Based Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farrand, Kathleen; Wild, Tiffany A.; Hilson, Margilee P.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this pilot study was to determine students' self-efficacy level prior to participation and after participation in an inquiry-based science camp to determine if self-efficacy levels changed as a result of participation. A validated instrument, the 30 item Morgan-Jinks Student Self-Efficacy Scale (MJSES) (Jinks & Morgan, 1996) was…

  4. cAMP signalling in the vasculature: the role of Epac (exchange protein directly activated by cAMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Owain Llŷr; Dart, Caroline

    2014-02-01

    The second messenger cAMP plays a central role in mediating vascular smooth muscle relaxation in response to vasoactive transmitters and in strengthening endothelial cell-cell junctions that regulate the movement of solutes, cells and macromolecules between the blood and the surrounding tissue. The vasculature expresses three cAMP effector proteins: PKA (protein kinase A), CNG (cyclic-nucleotide-gated) ion channels, and the most recently discovered Epacs (exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP). Epacs are a family of GEFs (guanine-nucleotide-exchange factors) for the small Ras-related GTPases Rap1 and Rap2, and are being increasingly implicated as important mediators of cAMP signalling, both in their own right and in parallel with the prototypical cAMP target PKA. In the present paper, we review what is currently known about the role of Epac within blood vessels, particularly with regard to the regulation of vascular tone, endothelial barrier function and inflammation.

  5. Using lot quality assurance sampling to assess access to water, sanitation and hygiene services in a refugee camp setting in South Sudan: a feasibility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harding, Elizabeth; Beckworth, Colin; Fesselet, Jean-Francois; Lenglet, Annick; Lako, Richard; Valadez, Joseph J

    2017-08-08

    Humanitarian agencies working in refugee camp settings require rapid assessment methods to measure the needs of the populations they serve. Due to the high level of dependency of refugees, agencies need to carry out these assessments. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS) is a method commonly used in development settings to assess populations living in a project catchment area to identify their greatest needs. LQAS could be well suited to serve the needs of refugee populations, but it has rarely been used in humanitarian settings. We adapted and implemented an LQAS survey design in Batil refugee camp, South Sudan in May 2013 to measure the added value of using it for sub-camp level assessment. Using pre-existing divisions within the camp, we divided the Batil catchment area into six contiguous segments, called 'supervision areas' (SA). Six teams of two data collectors randomly selected 19 respondents in each SA, who they interviewed to collect information on water, sanitation, hygiene, and diarrhoea prevalence. These findings were aggregated into a stratified random sample of 114 respondents, and the results were analysed to produce a coverage estimate with 95% confidence interval for the camp and to prioritize SAs within the camp. The survey provided coverage estimates on WASH indicators as well as evidence that areas of the camp closer to the main road, to clinics and to the market were better served than areas at the periphery of the camp. This assumption did not hold for all services, however, as sanitation services were uniformly high regardless of location. While it was necessary to adapt the standard LQAS protocol used in low-resource communities, the LQAS model proved to be feasible in a refugee camp setting, and program managers found the results useful at both the catchment area and SA level. This study, one of the few adaptations of LQAS for a camp setting, shows that it is a feasible method for regular monitoring, with the added value of enabling camp

  6. Using lot quality assurance sampling to assess access to water, sanitation and hygiene services in a refugee camp setting in South Sudan: a feasibility study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth Harding

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Humanitarian agencies working in refugee camp settings require rapid assessment methods to measure the needs of the populations they serve. Due to the high level of dependency of refugees, agencies need to carry out these assessments. Lot Quality Assurance Sampling (LQAS is a method commonly used in development settings to assess populations living in a project catchment area to identify their greatest needs. LQAS could be well suited to serve the needs of refugee populations, but it has rarely been used in humanitarian settings. We adapted and implemented an LQAS survey design in Batil refugee camp, South Sudan in May 2013 to measure the added value of using it for sub-camp level assessment. Methods Using pre-existing divisions within the camp, we divided the Batil catchment area into six contiguous segments, called ‘supervision areas’ (SA. Six teams of two data collectors randomly selected 19 respondents in each SA, who they interviewed to collect information on water, sanitation, hygiene, and diarrhoea prevalence. These findings were aggregated into a stratified random sample of 114 respondents, and the results were analysed to produce a coverage estimate with 95% confidence interval for the camp and to prioritize SAs within the camp. Results The survey provided coverage estimates on WASH indicators as well as evidence that areas of the camp closer to the main road, to clinics and to the market were better served than areas at the periphery of the camp. This assumption did not hold for all services, however, as sanitation services were uniformly high regardless of location. While it was necessary to adapt the standard LQAS protocol used in low-resource communities, the LQAS model proved to be feasible in a refugee camp setting, and program managers found the results useful at both the catchment area and SA level. Conclusions This study, one of the few adaptations of LQAS for a camp setting, shows that it is a feasible

  7. Camp neobarroco: homenaje, artificio y violencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Montes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine some distinctive characteristics of post-vanguard, as shown in the works of Copi and Perlongher, as it is my intention to demonstrate that in the texts of these authors, the constructive principle that organizes the writing is related to a neo-baroque aesthetic and a camp view, as this carnival-like perspective allows them to work with the literary tradition, the different genres and the culture of masses from a parodic distance, that is violence and homage at the same time. This is why the world is represented as chaos, illusion, pure change, a carnival party where costume and transvestism proliferate.

  8. Yesterday and Today: The Impact of Research Conducted at Camp Detrick on Botulinum Toxin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebeda, Frank J; Adler, Michael; Dembek, Zygmunt F

    2018-05-01

    This review summarizes the research conducted on botulinum toxin (BoTx) from 1943 to 1956 by a small group of Camp Detrick investigators and their staff. A systematic, cross-disciplinary approach was used to develop effective vaccines against this biological warfare threat agent. In response to the potential need for medical countermeasures against BoTx during World War II, the refinement of isolation and purification techniques for BoTx successfully led to the large-scale production of botulinum toxoid vaccines. In addition, the work at Camp Detrick provided the foundation for the subsequent use of BoTx as a tool for studying the trophic regulation of skeletal muscle within motor neuron terminals and, more recently, for elucidation of the intricate details of neurotransmitter release at the molecular level. Indirectly, Camp Detrick investigators also played a significant role in studies that culminated in the use of BoTx as a pharmaceutical product that has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for treating movement disorders, autonomic dysfunctions, and other conditions. Online literature searches were performed with Google, Google Scholar, PubMed, the bibliography from the Camp Detrick technical library, and at the Defense Technical Information Center. Reference lists in some of the primary research publications and reviews also provided source material. Search terms included botulinum, botulinus, and Camp Detrick. References related to the subsequent impacts of the Camp Detrick results were selected and cited from reviews and primary references in the more recent literature. Notes on toxin nomenclature and potential sources of error in this study are presented. The literature searches returned 27 citations of Camp Detrick authors, 24 of which were articles in peer-reviewed journals. The publications by these investigators included several disciplines such as biochemistry, immunology, pharmacology, physiology, and toxicology. A fundamental

  9. The Camp Edwards Experiment in Battalion Level Consolidated Field Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    foods such as swedish · meatballs , salisbury steak, and fresh potato items were also deletep. Food difficult to precook and hold or transport·in...considered, this potential shortfall is eliminated. According to USDA Handbook No. 8, tryptophan from eggs can contribute 1. 6 mg of riiacin...equivalents per day and eggs are a major component of military breakfasts. It must be emphasized that the nutritional values presented are computer estimates

  10. Possible involvement of G-proteins and cAMP in the induction of progesterone hydroxylating enzyme system in the vascular wilt fungus Fusarium oxysporum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poli, Anna; Di Pietro, Antonio; Zigon, Dusan; Lenasi, Helena

    2009-02-01

    Fungi present the ability to hydroxylate steroids. In some filamentous fungi, progesterone induces an enzyme system which converts the compound into a less toxic hydroxylated product. We investigated the progesterone response in the vascular wilt pathogen Fusarium oxysporum, using mass spectrometry and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Progesterone was mainly transformed into 15alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, which was found predominantly in the extracellular medium. The role of two conserved fungal signaling cascades in the induction of the progesterone-transforming enzyme system was studied, using knockout mutants lacking the mitogen-activated protein kinase Fmk1 or the heterotrimeric G-protein beta subunit Fgb1 functioning upstream of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) pathway. No steroid hydroxylation was induced in the Deltafgb1 strain, suggesting a role for the G-protein beta subunit in progesterone signaling. Exogenous cAMP restored the induction of progesterone-transforming activity in the Deltafgb1 strain, suggesting that steroid signaling in F. oxysporum is mediated by the cAMP-PKA pathway.

  11. IDENTIFYING DEMENTIA IN ELDERLY POPULATION : A CAMP APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand P

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Dementia is an emerging medico social problem affecting elderly, and poses a challenge to clinician and caregivers. It is usually identified in late stage where management becomes difficult. AIM: The aim of camp was to identify dementia in elderly population participating in screening camp. MATERIAL AND METHODS : The geriatric clinic and department of psychiatry jointly organised screening camp to detect dementia in elderly for five days in September 2014 to commemorate world Alzheimer’s day. The invitation regarding camp was sent to all senio r citizen forums and also published in leading Kannada daily newspaper. Mini Mental Status Examination and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4 th edition criteria (DSM IV was used to identify dementia. RESULTS: Elderly male participate d in camp in more number than females and dementia was identified in 36% elderly with education less than 9 th standard. Dementia was found in 18% in our study population. CONCLUSION: The camp help identify elderly suffering from dementia and also created a wareness about it. Hypertension and diabetes mellitus were common co morbidity in study population. Our study suggested organising screening camp will help identify elderly living with dementia.

  12. Structural Characterization of the Molecular Events during a Slow Substrate-Product Transition in Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujihashi, Masahiro; Wei, Lianhu; Kotra, Lakshmi P; Pai, Emil F; (TGRI); (Toronto); (Kyoto)

    2009-04-06

    Crystal structures of substrate-product complexes of Methanobacterium thermoautotrophicum orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase, obtained at various steps in its catalysis of the unusual transformation of 6-cyano-uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) into barbituric acid ribosyl monophosphate, show that the cyano substituent of the substrate, when bound to the active site, is first bent significantly from the plane of the pyrimidine ring and then replaced by an oxygen atom. Although the K72A and D70A/K72A mutants are either catalytically impaired or even completely inactive, they still display bending of the C6 substituent. Interestingly, high-resolution structures of the D70A and D75N mutants revealed a covalent bond between C6 of UMP and the Lys72 side chain after the -CN moiety's release. The same covalent bond was observed when the native enzyme was incubated with 6-azido-UMP and 6-iodo-UMP; in contrast, the K72A mutant transformed 6-iodo-UMP to barbituric acid ribosyl 5'-monophosphate. These results demonstrate that, given a suitable environment, native orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase and several of its mutants are not restricted to the physiologically relevant decarboxylation; they are able to catalyze even nucleophilic substitution reactions but consistently maintain distortion on the C6 substituent as an important feature of catalysis.

  13. Barrier-free proton transfer in the valence anion of 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate. II. A computational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyłecka, Monika; Gu, Jiande; Rak, Janusz; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2008-01-01

    The propensity of four representative conformations of 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate (5'-dAMPH) to bind an excess electron has been studied at the B3LYP /6-31++G(d,p) level. While isolated canonical adenine does not support stable valence anions in the gas phase, all considered neutral conformations of 5'-dAMPH form adiabatically stable anions. The type of an anionic 5'-dAMPH state, i.e., the valence, dipole bound, or mixed (valence/dipole bound), depends on the internal hydrogen bond(s) pattern exhibited by a particular tautomer. The most stable anion results from an electron attachment to the neutral syn-south conformer. The formation of this anion is associated with a barrier-free proton transfer triggered by electron attachment and the internal rotation around the C4'-C5' bond. The adiabatic electron affinity of the a&barbelow;south-syn anion is 1.19eV, while its vertical detachment energy is 1.89eV. Our results are compared with the photoelectron spectrum (PES) of 5'-dAMPH- measured recently by Stokes et al., [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044314 (2008)]. The computational VDE obtained for the most stable anionic structure matches well with the experimental electron binding energy region of maximum intensity. A further understanding of DNA damage might require experimental and computational studies on the systems in which purine nucleotides are engaged in hydrogen bonding.

  14. Investigation of Sylvatic Typhus at a Wilderness Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, Dr. Greg Dasch discusses an outbreak of four cases of sylvatic typhus that occurred at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania. Sylvatic typhus is very rare in the United States, with only 41 cases since it was discovered in the United States in 1975. Lab work at CDC and the discovery that all four camp counselors who became ill had slept in the same bunk at the camp between 2004 and 2006 ultimately led to confirmation that flying squirrels living in the wall of the cabin were to blame for the illnesses.

  15. Compartmentalized cAMP Signaling Associated With Lipid Raft and Non-raft Membrane Domains in Adult Ventricular Myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Shailesh R; Gratwohl, Jackson; Cozad, Mia; Yang, Pei-Chi; Clancy, Colleen E; Harvey, Robert D

    2018-01-01

    Aim: Confining cAMP production to discrete subcellular locations makes it possible for this ubiquitous second messenger to elicit unique functional responses. Yet, factors that determine how and where the production of this diffusible signaling molecule occurs are incompletely understood. The fluid mosaic model originally proposed that signal transduction occurs through random interactions between proteins diffusing freely throughout the plasma membrane. However, it is now known that the movement of membrane proteins is restricted, suggesting that the plasma membrane is segregated into distinct microdomains where different signaling proteins can be concentrated. In this study, we examined what role lipid raft and non-raft membrane domains play in compartmentation of cAMP signaling in adult ventricular myocytes. Methods and Results: The freely diffusible fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based biosensor Epac2-camps was used to measure global cytosolic cAMP responses, while versions of the probe targeted to lipid raft (Epac2-MyrPalm) and non-raft (Epac2-CAAX) domains were used to monitor local cAMP production near the plasma membrane. We found that β-adrenergic receptors, which are expressed in lipid raft and non-raft domains, produce cAMP responses near the plasma membrane that are distinctly different from those produced by E-type prostaglandin receptors, which are expressed exclusively in non-raft domains. We also found that there are differences in basal cAMP levels associated with lipid raft and non-raft domains, and that this can be explained by differences in basal adenylyl cyclase activity associated with each of these membrane environments. In addition, we found evidence that phosphodiesterases 2, 3, and 4 work together in regulating cAMP activity associated with both lipid raft and non-raft domains, while phosphodiesterase 3 plays a more prominent role in the bulk cytoplasmic compartment. Conclusion: These results suggest that different membrane

  16. Race in California's prison fire camps for men: prison politics, space, and the racialization of everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The vast majority of social scientists agree that race is "socially constructed." Yet many scholars of punishment and prisons still treat race as static, self-evident categories. One result is that not enough is known about the production, meanings, and consequences of race as experienced by prisoners and those who guard and manage them. The author's research on California's prison fire camps uncovers the micro-level ways in which race is performed and imbued with meaning; he reveals how racial understandings color people and settings. One puzzle is that prisoners in California's fire camps will fight natural disasters side by side, sharing water and provisions, but separate into racial groups when in the camp itself. In part to answer this (and in part to develop better understandings of race and prisons more generally), the author unpacks the variegated nature of punishment and the spatialization of race and advocates for research that is faithful to the constructivist framework.

  17. A second look at the heavy half of the camping market

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbur R. LaPage; Dale P. Ragain; Dale P. Ragain

    1971-01-01

    A 1968 survey of campers revealed that one-half of the campers did more than three-fourths of all the reported camping. Campers in this heavy half of the camping market were found to differ significantly from light-half campers in their camping motivations, past experience, and investments in camping equipment (LdPage 1969). However, the 1968 survey identified heavy-...

  18. 49 CFR 218.75 - Methods of protection for camp cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Methods of protection for camp cars. 218.75... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RAILROAD OPERATING PRACTICES Protection of Occupied Camp Cars § 218.75 Methods of protection for camp cars. When camp cars requiring protection are on either main track...

  19. Tying the Design of Your Camp Staff Training to the Delivery of Desired Youth Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Robin; Bourdeau, Virginia; Arnold, Mary; Nott, Brooke D.

    2013-01-01

    As experience camp directors, we've seen the challenges faced by young camp counselors and inexperienced staff. Evaluations from staff at many camps motivated us to help our people be more effective with their campers. In response we created a comprehensive camp staff training. Lessons showed staff what we wanted them to do and say as they…

  20. Method of preparing thymidine-5'-monophosphate specifically or nonspecifically labelled with 14C or with 3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejedly, Z.; Filip, J.; Ekl, J.; Kolina, J.; Votruba, I.; Skoda, J.

    1977-01-01

    The invention claims a method for labelled thymidine-5'-monophosphate preparation by cultivating a special thymine-dependent Escherichia coli SPT - strain in the optimum synthetic culture medium containing 0.8 to 1.2 g/ml of labelled thymine. Practically the whole amount of labelled thymine is utilized for cellular deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. The radioactive biomass obtained is processed using such chemical and enzymatic decomposition procedures as to allow separating the labelled thymidine-5'-monophosphate as the only thymine reaction product. Experiments conducted showed that the radiochemical purity of the thymidine-5'-monophosphate obtained was better than 98%. The absence of other nonactive substances was confirmed by spectrophotometric analysis. The overall product activity was 92.3% of the activity of thymine-2- 14 C introduced in the reaction. (Ha)

  1. Direct Determination of Six Cytokinin Nucleotide Monophosphates in Coconut Flesh by Reversed-Phase Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Zhao-Yun; Ma, You-Ning; Sun, Li-Hua; Mou, Ren-Xiang; Zhu, Zhi-Wei; Chen, Ming-Xue

    2017-11-15

    Coconut contains many uncharacterized cytokinins that have important physiological effects in plants and humans. In this work, a method based on liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry was developed for identification and quantification of six cytokinin nucleotide monophosphates in coconut flesh. Excellent separation was achieved using a low-coverage C18 bonded-phase column with an acidic mobile phase, which greatly improved the retention of target compounds. To enable high-throughput analysis, a single-step solid-phase extraction using mixed-mode anion-exchange cartridges was employed for sample preparation. This proved to be an effective method to minimize matrix effects and ensure high selectivity. The limits of detection varied from 0.06 to 0.3 ng/mL, and the limits of quantification ranged from 0.2 to 1.0 ng/mL. The linearity was statistically verified over 2 orders of magnitude, giving a coefficient of determination (R 2 ) greater than 0.9981. The mean recoveries were from 81 to 108%; the intraday precision (n = 6) was less than 11%; and the interday precision (n = 11) was within 14%. The developed method was applied to the determination of cytokinin nucleotide monophosphates in coconut flesh samples, and four of them were successfully identified and quantified. The results showed that trans-zeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate was the dominant cytokinin, with a concentration of 2.7-34.2 ng/g, followed by N 6 -isopentenyladenosine-5'-monophosphate (≤12.9 ng/g), while the concentrations of cis-zeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate and dihydrozeatin riboside-5'-monophosphate were less than 2.2 and 4.9 ng/g, respectively.

  2. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-01-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ([Ca2+]i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased [Ca2+] significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of [Ca2+]i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in [Ca2+]i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased 45 Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells

  3. Sustainable transportation : technology, engineering, and science - summer camp instructor's guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This document reproduces the instructors guide for a ten day transportation engineering summer camp that was held at the University of Idaho in July 2013. The instructors guide is split into three units: Unit 1: Vehicle Technology, Unit 2: Traf...

  4. Camp as a Teaching Method in Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringby, Betina

    Background Camp as a learning activity was introduced in entrepreneurship teaching. Students were engaged to get experiences on how to cope with uncertainty, complexity and to take action in collaboration with external partners. Relevance Society calls for creative and innovative health professio......Background Camp as a learning activity was introduced in entrepreneurship teaching. Students were engaged to get experiences on how to cope with uncertainty, complexity and to take action in collaboration with external partners. Relevance Society calls for creative and innovative health...... to the future didactic development in health education. Camp as a learning process based on participation, creativity and an innovative approach combined with a professional focus seems relevant when trying to engage students to take action. Keywords Innovation, method, camp...

  5. The Physics of Quidditch Summer Camp: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Donna; Uher, Tim

    The University of Maryland Physics Department has developed an innovative summer camp program that takes an interdisciplinary approach to engaging and teaching physics. The Physics of Quidditch Camp uniquely sits at the intersection of physics, sports, and literature, utilizing the real-life sport of quidditch adapted from the Harry Potter novels to stimulate critical thinking about real laws of physics and leaps of imagination, while actively engaging students in learning the sport and discussing the literature. Throughout the camp, middle school participants become immersed in fun physics experiments and exciting physical activities, which aim to build and enhance skills in problem-solving, analytical thinking, and teamwork. This camp has pioneered new ways of teaching physics to pre-college students, successfully engaged middle school students in learning physics, and grown a large demand for such activities.

  6. STRATEGI CAMP DALAM NOVEL HIDING MY CANDY KARYA LADY CHABLIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Saraswati

    2016-07-01

    Penerapan strategi Camp tersebut ditujukan sebagai upaya untuk meraih kebertahanan transgender. Selanjutnya, kebertahanan transgender dapat dicerminkan melalui visibilitas sosial, terbentuknya wacana normalitas alternatif dan pemberdayaan transgender

  7. Woods and Camping Safety for the Whole Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Woods and Camping Safety for the Whole Family KidsHealth / For Parents / Woods ... products before hiking that will act as a barrier against the oils of the plants. Any area ...

  8. Opposing effects of cAMP and T259 phosphorylation on plasma membrane diffusion of the water channel aquaporin-5 in Madin-Darby canine kidney cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Marlar, Saw

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-5 (AQP5) facilitates passive water transport in glandular epithelia in response to secretory stimuli via intracellular pathways involving calcium release, cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA). In epithelial plasma membranes, AQP5 may be acutely regulated to facilitate water transport...... in the plasma membrane diffusion coefficient of AQP5. We aimed to test the short-term regulatory effects of the above pathways, by measuring lateral diffusion of AQP5 and an AQP5 phospho-mutant, T259A, using k-space Image Correlation Spectroscopy of quantum dot- and EGFP-labeled AQP5. Elevated cAMP and PKA...... inhibition significantly decreased lateral diffusion of AQP5, whereas T259A mutation showed opposing effects; slowing diffusion without stimulation and increasing diffusion to basal levels after cAMP elevation. Thus, lateral diffusion of AQP5 is significantly regulated by cAMP, PKA, and T259 phosphorylation...

  9. Therapeutic effects of the joint administration of magnesium aspartate and adenosine monophosphate in gamma-irradiated mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Pipalova, I.; Kozubik, A.

    1990-01-01

    The joint administration of magnesium aspartate and adenosine monophosphate, injected on days 1 to 4 post radiation, has been found to exert stimulatory effects on the recovery of hemopoietic functions in sublethally gamma-irradiated mice. These therapeutical effects were enhanced in animals protected by peroral administration of cystamine. The treatment scheme used did not modify survival of lethally irradiated mice. The therapeutic effects of magnesium aspartate and adenosine monophosphate in sublethally irradiated mice are explained by the stimulatory action of these drugs on the cell adenylate cyclase system, which influences the erythropoietic functions. (author)

  10. Science and technology camp for girls. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This document reports on the success of Pacific University`s camp held during the summers of 1992 and 1993; ultimate goal of this summer day camp was to increase the number of women in technical and scientific fields. Some experimentation was done with the age groups (7th and 8th grade girls). The curriculum was biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics/computer science. Laboratory work and field trips were emphasized, along with socialization.

  11. [Widows of victims of Nazi concentration camps: their pathology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryn, Z J

    1992-09-01

    The psychosocial situation of widows and orphans of victims of the Nazi concentration camps in Poland are presented. In 1984, 74 widows of victims from the Auschwitz-Birkenau camp were interviewed. This article describes widows' emotional-behavioral reactions when facing the imprisonment and death of their husbands, their difficulties in adapting themselves to widowhood, different adaptative forms of memories of their married life, and consequences relevant to widows' mental health and family, and social consequences of widowhood.

  12. The UXO Classification Demonstration at the Former Camp Butner, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Symposium and Workshop, Technical Session 2D: Classification Methods for Military Munitions Response. 1 December 2010. [49] Pasion , L. Personal...Communication. 15 June 2011. [50] Pasion , L. “Practical Strategies for UXO Discrimination: Camp Butner Analysis.” ESTCP Munitions Management In-Progress...Review. 9 February 2011. [51] Pasion , L., et al. “UXO Discrimination Using Full Coverage and Cued Interrogation Data Sets at Camp Butner, NC.” Partners

  13. Klambi Lurik Compang-Camping: Sebuah Komposisi Karawitan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUHARDJONO -

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Klambi Lurik Compang-Camping Karawitan Composition. This article discusses the creation process ofKlambi Lurik Compang Camping karawitan composition. This composition is inspired by Jineman Klambi Lurik,penned by Wasiran –a traditional artist and teaching staff in Karawitan study programme in ISI Yogyakarta. Thisjineman is favoured by both laypeople and karawitan traditional artists. This composition consists of eight parts,united as one full composition. The creation methods are exploration, improvisation, and shaping.

  14. Effects of exogenous inosine monophosphate on growth performance, flavor compounds, enzyme activity, and gene expression of muscle tissues in chicken.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Junshu; Liu, Peifeng; Xu, Liangmei; Huan, Hailin; Zhou, Weiren; Xu, Xiaoming; Shi, Zhendan

    2018-04-01

    The goal of this experiment was to examine effects of diets supplemented with exogenous inosine monophosphate (IMP) on the growth performance, flavor compounds, enzyme activity and gene expression of chicken. A total of 1,500 healthy, 1-day-old male 3-yellow chickens were used for a 52-d experimental period. Individuals were randomly divided into 5 groups (group I, II, III, IV, V) with 6 replicates per group, and fed a basal diet supplemented with 0.0, 0.05, 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3% IMP, respectively. There was no significant response to the increasing dietary IMP level in average daily feed intake (ADFI), average daily gain (ADG), and feed:gain ratio (F/G) (P ≥ 0.05). IMP content of the breast and thigh muscle showed an exponential and linear response to the increasing dietary IMP level (P exogenous IMP was fed. There were significant effects of IMP level in diet on free amino acids (FAA) (exponential, linear and quadratic effect, P exogenous IMP was fed. Dietary IMP supplementation had a quadratic effect on 5΄-NT and the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) enzyme activity in the breast muscle (P exogenous IMP group had the highest (AMPD1) gene expression of the breast muscle and ATIC gene expression of the thigh muscle. These results indicate that dietary IMP did not affect the growth performance of chicken, the diet with 0.2 to 0.3% exogenous IMP is optimal to improve the meat flavor quality in chicken.

  15. Exploring Marine Science through the University of Delaware's TIDE camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veron, D. E.; Newton, F. A.; Veron, F.; Trembanis, A. C.; Miller, D. C.

    2012-12-01

    For the past five years, the University of Delaware has offered a two-week, residential, summer camp to rising sophomores, juniors, and seniors who are interested in marine science. The camp, named TIDE (Taking an Interest in Delaware's Estuary) camp, is designed to introduce students to the breadth of marine science while providing them with a college experience. Campers participate in a variety of academic activities which include classroom, laboratory, and field experiences, as well as numerous social activities. Two unique features of this small, focused camp is the large number of university faculty that are involved, and the ability of students to participate in ongoing research projects. At various times students have participated in fish and dolphin counts, AUV deployment, wind-wave tank experiments, coastal water and beach studies, and ROV activities. In addition, each year campers have participated in a local service project. Through communication with former TIDE participants, it is clear that this two-week, formative experience plays a large role in students choice of major when entering college.2012 Tide Camp - Salt marsh in southern Delaware 2012 Tide Camp - Field trip on a small boat

  16. Lipoic acid attenuates inflammation via cAMP and protein kinase A signaling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonemany Salinthone

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abnormal regulation of the inflammatory response is an important component of diseases such as diabetes, Alzheimer's disease and multiple sclerosis (MS. Lipoic acid (LA has been shown to have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties and is being pursued as a therapy for these diseases. We first reported that LA stimulates cAMP production via activation of G-protein coupled receptors and adenylyl cyclases. LA also suppressed NK cell activation and cytotoxicity. In this study we present evidence supporting the hypothesis that the anti-inflammatory properties of LA are mediated by the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. Additionally, we show that LA oral administration elevates cAMP levels in MS subjects.We determined the effects of LA on IL-6, IL-17 and IL-10 secretion using ELISAs. Treatment with 50 µg/ml and 100 µg/ml LA significantly reduced IL-6 levels by 19 and 34%, respectively, in T cell enriched PBMCs. IL-17 levels were also reduced by 35 and 50%, respectively. Though not significant, LA appeared to have a biphasic effect on IL-10 production. Thymidine incorporation studies showed LA inhibited T cell proliferation by 90%. T-cell activation was reduced by 50% as measured by IL-2 secretion. Western blot analysis showed that LA treatment increased phosphorylation of Lck, a downstream effector of protein kinase A. Pretreatment with a peptide inhibitor of PKA, PKI, blocked LA inhibition of IL-2 and IFN gamma production, indicating that PKA mediates these responses. Oral administration of 1200 mg LA to MS subjects resulted in increased cAMP levels in PBMCs four hours after ingestion. Average cAMP levels in 20 subjects were 43% higher than baseline.Oral administration of LA in vivo resulted in significant increases in cAMP concentration. The anti-inflammatory effects of LA are mediated in part by the cAMP/PKA signaling cascade. These novel findings enhance our understanding of the mechanisms of action of LA.

  17. Maintenance of cAMP in non-heart-beating donor lungs reduces ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, S C; Bleiweis, M S; Jones, D R; Paik, H C; Ciriaco, P; Egan, T M

    2001-06-01

    Studies suggest that pulmonary vascular ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) can be attenuated by increasing intracellular cAMP concentrations. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of IRI on capillary permeability, assessed by capillary filtration coeficient (Kfc), in lungs retrieved from non-heart-beating donors (NHBDs) and reperfused with the addition of the beta(2)-adrenergic receptor agonist isoproterenol (iso), and rolipram (roli), a phosphodiesterase (type IV) inhibitor. Using an in situ isolated perfused lung model, lungs were retrieved from NHBD rats at varying intervals after death and either ventilated with O(2) or not ventilated. The lungs were reperfused with Earle's solution with or without a combination of iso (10 microM) and roli (2 microM). Kfc, lung viability, and pulmonary hemodynamics were measured. Lung tissue levels of adenine nucleotides and cAMP were measured by HPLC. Combined iso and roli (iso/roli) reperfusion decreased Kfc significantly (p Kfc in non-iso/roli-reperfused (r = 0.89) and iso/roli-reperfused (r = 0.97) lungs. cAMP levels correlated with Kfc (r = 0.93) in iso/roli-reperfused lungs. Pharmacologic augmentation of tissue TAN and cAMP levels might ameliorate the increased capillary permeability observed in lungs retrieved from NHBDs.

  18. The Arabidopsis thiamin-deficient mutant pale green1 lacks thiamin monophosphate phosphatase of the vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Wei-Yu; Liao, Jo-Chien; Wang, Hsin-Tzu; Hung, Tzu-Huan; Tseng, Ching-Chih; Chung, Tsui-Yun; Hsieh, Ming-Hsiun

    2017-07-01

    Thiamin diphosphate (TPP, vitamin B 1 ) is an essential coenzyme present in all organisms. Animals obtain TPP from their diets, but plants synthesize TPPde novo. We isolated and characterized an Arabidopsis pale green1 (pale1) mutant that contained higher concentrations of thiamin monophosphate (TMP) and less thiamin and TPP than the wild type. Supplementation with thiamin, but not the thiazole and pyrimidine precursors, rescued the mutant phenotype, indicating that the pale1 mutant is a thiamin-deficient mutant. Map-based cloning and whole-genome sequencing revealed that the pale1 mutant has a mutation in At5g32470 encoding a TMP phosphatase of the TPP biosynthesis pathway. We further confirmed that the mutation of At5g32470 is responsible for the mutant phenotypes by complementing the pale1 mutant with constructs overexpressing full-length At5g32470. Most plant TPP biosynthetic enzymes are located in the chloroplasts and cytosol, but At5g32470-GFP localized to the mitochondrion of the root, hypocotyl, mesophyll and guard cells of the 35S:At5g32470-GFP complemented plants. The subcellular localization of a functional TMP phosphatase suggests that the complete vitamin B1 biosynthesis pathway may involve the chloroplasts, mitochondria and cytosol in plants. Analysis of PALE1 promoter-uidA activity revealed that PALE1 is mainly expressed in vascular tissues of Arabidopsis seedlings. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of TPP biosynthesis genes and genes encoding the TPP-dependent enzymes pyruvate dehydrogenase, α-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase and transketolase revealed that the transcript levels of these genes were upregulated in the pale1 mutant. These results suggest that endogenous levels of TPP may affect the expression of genes involved in TPP biosynthesis and TPP-dependent enzymes. © 2017 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Good Camping for Children and Youth of Low Income Families; Some Suggestions for Camps Concerned About Providing Equal Opportunities for Children and Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Catharine V.

    Guidelines are offered for positive camping experiences for poverty children and youth. There are sections on community organizations which can offer services for camp placement, recruitment of campers from among disadvantaged groups, and the orientation of new campers to camp (including such practical suggestions as the types of food and snacks…

  20. Can You Hack It? Validating Predictors for IT Boot Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Courtney C.

    Given the large number of information technology jobs open and lack of qualified individuals to fill them, coding boot camps have sprung up in response to this skill gap by offering a specialized training program in an accelerated format. This fast growth has created a need to measure these training programs and understand their effectiveness. In the present study, a series of analyses examined whether specific or combinations of predictors were valid for training performance in this coding academy. Self-rated, daily efficacy scores were used as outcome variables of training success and correlation results showed a positive relationship with efficacy scores and the logic test score as a predictor. Exploratory analyses indicated a Dunning-Kruger effect where students with lower education levels experience higher overall mood during the training program. Limitations of the study included small sample size, severe range restriction in predictor scores, lack of variance in predictor scores, and low variability in training program success. These limitations made identifying jumps between training stages difficult to identify. By identifying which predictors matter most for each stage of skill acquisition, further research should consider more objective variables such as instructor scores which can serve as a guideline to better asses what stage learners join at and how to design curriculum and assignments accordingly (Honken, 2013).

  1. Protective effect of oral terfenadine and not inhaled ipratropium on adenosine 5 '-monophosphate-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, [No Value; Koeter, GH; Van der Mark, TW; Postma, DS

    Background Inhalation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) causes bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma and in many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In asthma, AMP-induced bronchoconstriction has been shown to be determined mainly by release of mast cell mediators,

  2. The solvent effect on the enthalpy of hydrolysis of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate : a quantum chemical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers - Sap, Miek; Buck, H.M.

    1978-01-01

    The solvent effect on the enthalpy of hydrolysis has been studied by the Extended-Hückel method for the hydrolysis reactions of cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic 3',5'-AMP) and related cyclic phosphate diesters. The results show that the difference in enthalpy of hydrolysis between cyclic

  3. Inhibitors of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase: SARs about the N-[3-Methoxy-4-(5-oxazolyl)phenyl moiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwanowicz, Edwin J; Watterson, Scott H; Guo, Junqing; Pitts, William J; Murali Dhar, T G; Shen, Zhongqi; Chen, Ping; Gu, Henry H; Fleener, Catherine A; Rouleau, Katherine A; Cheney, Daniel L; Townsend, Robert M; Hollenbaugh, Diane L

    2003-06-16

    The first reported structure-activity relationships (SARs) about the N-[3-methoxy-4-(5-oxazolyl)phenyl moiety for a series of recently disclosed inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) inhibitors are described. The syntheses and in vitro inhibitory values for IMPDH II, and T-cell proliferation (for select analogues) are given.

  4. He Sapa Bloketu Waecun: 2008 Summer Science and Cultural Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kliche, D. V.; Sanovia, J.; Decker, R.; Bolman, J.

    2008-12-01

    The South Dakota School of Mines, Humboldt State University and Sinte Gleska University with support from the National Science Foundation, sponsored four camps for South Dakota Lakota youth to nurture a geosciences learning community linked to culturally significant sites in the Black Hills. These camps utilized outdoor, experiential learning to integrate indigenous knowledge with contemporary western science. The project resulted in increased awareness among Native and non-Native Americans, young and adult, about the importance of geosciences in their connection and interpretation of nature. The project also motivated participants in learning and becoming active in land and resources protection and the importance of becoming knowledgeable and active in regulatory policies (both Tribal and State). The four camps were scheduled during the month of June, 2008, which is the month of the summer solstice, a sacred time for the Lakota people which signal the Lakota Sundance Ceremony. The timing of the camps was chosen to give the Native American participants the framework to express their connection to Native lands through the understanding of their oral history. For the first time in such camps, middle and high school students were encouraged to have a parent or relative attending with them. The camps proved to be a great success among students and their families. The curriculum and activities helped participants immerse themselves mentally, physically and spiritually into an experience of a life time. We plan to show our results from these camps and emphasize the usefulness of this new approach in teaching science and encouraging the new generation to pursue careers in geosciences.

  5. Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp, Turkana, Kenya: facilitation of Anopheles arabiensis vector populations by installed water distribution and catchment systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetron Martin S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major health concern for displaced persons occupying refugee camps in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there is little information on the incidence of infection and nature of transmission in these settings. Kakuma Refugee Camp, located in a dry area of north-western Kenya, has hosted ca. 60,000 to 90,000 refugees since 1992, primarily from Sudan and Somalia. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence and attack rate and sources of Anopheles vectors in Kakuma refugee camp, in 2005-2006, after a malaria epidemic was observed by staff at camp clinics. Methods Malaria prevalence and attack rate was estimated from cases of fever presenting to camp clinics and the hospital in August 2005, using rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy of blood smears. Larval habitats of vectors were sampled and mapped. Houses were sampled for adult vectors using the pyrethrum knockdown spray method, and mapped. Vectors were identified to species level and their infection with Plasmodium falciparum determined. Results Prevalence of febrile illness with P. falciparum was highest among the 5 to 17 year olds (62.4% while malaria attack rate was highest among the two to 4 year olds (5.2/1,000/day. Infected individuals were spatially concentrated in three of the 11 residential zones of the camp. The indoor densities of Anopheles arabiensis, the sole malaria vector, were similar during the wet and dry seasons, but were distributed in an aggregated fashion and predominantly in the same zones where malaria attack rates were high. Larval habitats and larval populations were also concentrated in these zones. Larval habitats were man-made pits of water associated with tap-stands installed as the water delivery system to residents with year round availability in the camp. Three percent of A. arabiensis adult females were infected with P. falciparum sporozoites in the rainy season. Conclusions Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp was due mainly

  6. [Central Work Camp in Jaworzno (1945-1949) -- epidemiological aspects -- attempt of evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smolik, Przemysław

    2013-01-01

    Publication presents the short history of camp hospital which was organised in 1943 Nazi concentration camp Neu-Dachs in Jaworzno. The camp was a branch of Oświecim concentration camp. Atfer the war damage of the camp, the restoration was begun in 1945. Already in Febraury 1945, in place of German concentration camp, rises Central Work Camp. Several thousands of prisoners of war were placed there. The prisoners of war: Germans, Volksdeutches, Silesians were forced emlpoyed in nearby coal mines. Since 1947 the camp was a place of staying for several thousands Ukrainians who were displaced from eastern part of Poland in "Vistula Operation". Based on available written materials, publication is an attempt to analyse and evaluate: sanitary conditions, prison illnesses, mortality reasons among prisoners, hospital equipment, personel work conditions. The publication gives opportunity to compare conditions of prison hospital under nazi occupation and conditions in the camp which was organised in the same place under Stalin system of terror.

  7. Hydrogels Based on Ag+ -Modulated Assembly of 5'-Adenosine Monophosphate for Enriching Biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Xie, Dong; Wu, Yang; Lin, Nangui; Song, Aixin; Hao, Jingcheng

    2017-11-07

    Supramolecular hydrogels obtained by combining 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP) with Ag + were fabricated in this work. Their gelation capability was enhanced by increasing the concentration of Ag + or decreasing the pH. The gels are very sensitive to light, which endows them with potential applications as visible-light photosensitive materials. Coordination between the nucleobase of AMP and Ag + , as well as π-π stacking of nucleobases, are considered to be the main driving forces for self-assembly. The hydrogels successfully achieved the encapsulation and enrichment of biomolecules. Hydrogen bonding between the amino group of guest molecules and silver nanoparticles along the nanofibers drives the enrichment and is considered to be a crucial interaction. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  8. Erythrocytic Adenosine Monophosphate as an Alternative Purine Source in Plasmodium falciparum*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassera, María B.; Hazleton, Keith Z.; Riegelhaupt, Paul M.; Merino, Emilio F.; Luo, Minkui; Akabas, Myles H.; Schramm, Vern L.

    2008-01-01

    Plasmodium falciparum is a purine auxotroph, salvaging purines from erythrocytes for synthesis of RNA and DNA. Hypoxanthine is the key precursor for purine metabolism in Plasmodium. Inhibition of hypoxanthine-forming reactions in both erythrocytes and parasites is lethal to cultured P. falciparum. We observed that high concentrations of adenosine can rescue cultured parasites from purine nucleoside phosphorylase and adenosine deaminase blockade but not when erythrocyte adenosine kinase is also inhibited. P. falciparum lacks adenosine kinase but can salvage AMP synthesized in the erythrocyte cytoplasm to provide purines when both human and Plasmodium purine nucleoside phosphorylases and adenosine deaminases are inhibited. Transport studies in Xenopus laevis oocytes expressing the P. falciparum nucleoside transporter PfNT1 established that this transporter does not transport AMP. These metabolic patterns establish the existence of a novel nucleoside monophosphate transport pathway in P. falciparum. PMID:18799466

  9. DNA-specific labelling by deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphates in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brendel, M.; Faeth, W.W.; Toper, R.

    1975-01-01

    Growth of 5'-dTMP low-requiring strains is inhibited by exogenous 5'-dGMP and 5'-GMP at concentrations higher than 5 x 10 -4 M. Synthesis of nucleic acids ceases and cells remain fixed in their respective place in the cell cycle. At concentrations lower than 10 -5 M deoxyribonucleoside 5'-monophosphates may be employed for radioactive labelling, the label being preferentially used for DNA synthesis. Affinity to DNA of the 5'-dNMPs is in the order of 5'-dAMPS > 5'-dGMP > 5'-dCMP > 5'-dUMP. DNA-specific label is achieved with 5'-dAMP when the medium is supplemented with adenine and deoxyadenosine. (orig.) [de

  10. Diphtheria toxin can simultaneously bind to its receptor and adenylyl-(3',5')-uridine 3'-monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbieri, J.T.; Collins, C.M.; Collier, R.J.

    1986-01-01

    Diphtheria toxin (DT) that was bound to receptors on BS-C-1 cells was able to bind approximately 1 molar equiv of adenylyl-(3',5')-uridine 3'-monophosphate (ApUp). In contrast, receptor-bound CRM197, a mutant form of toxin with greatly diminished affinity for dinucleotides, did not bind ApUp. Affinity of the dinucleotide for receptor-bound toxin differed from that for free toxin by less than an order of magnitude. These results indicate that the receptor site and the ApUp site on the toxin do not significantly overlap. BS-C-1 cells were incubated with or without 125 I-DT or CRM 197. They were then incubated with [ 32 P]ApUp, and assayed

  11. Enhancement of radioprotective effectiveness of adenosine monophosphate by magnesium aspartate in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pospisil, M.; Netikova, J.; Kozubik, A.; Chertkov, K.S.; Ministry of Health, Moscow

    1988-01-01

    The enhancing effect of magnesium aspartate on the radioprotective effectiveness of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) administered to whole-body gamma-irradiated mice was studied. Male (CBA x C57BL/10)F 1 hybrid mice of a mean body weight of 32 g were used. 5 mg AMP per mouse was injected i.p. 15 min before and 15 min after irradiation; magnesium aspartate (13.3 mg per mouse) was administered s.c. 35 min before irradiation. The benefical effect of the drug combination used was manifested when investigating hematological indices at the recovery phase of sublethally irradiated animals, as well as when observing the survival of lethally irradiated mice. The synergistic radioprotective effects of AMP and magnesium aspartate are explained by the stimulatory action of both these compounds on the cell adenylate cyclase system. (author)

  12. Training Diaries during Altitude Training Camp in Two Olympic Champions: An Observational Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Serpiello, Fabio R; Millet, Grégoire P; La Torre, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally, Live High-Train High (LHTH) interventions were adopted when athletes trained and lived at altitude to try maximising the benefits offered by hypoxic exposure and improving sea level performance. Nevertheless, scientific research has proposed that the possible benefits of hypoxia would be offset by the inability to maintain high training intensity at altitude. However, elite athletes have been rarely recruited as an experimental sample, and training intensity has almost never been monitored during altitude research. This case study is an attempt to provide a practical example of successful LHTH interventions in two Olympic gold medal athletes. Training diaries were collected and total training volumes, volumes at different intensities, and sea level performance recorded before, during and after a 3-week LHTH camp. Both athletes successfully completed the LHTH camp (2090 m) maintaining similar absolute training intensity and training volume at high-intensity (> 91% of race pace) compared to sea level. After the LHTH intervention both athletes obtained enhancements in performance and they won an Olympic gold medal. In our opinion, LHTH interventions can be used as a simple, yet effective, method to maintain absolute, and improve relative training intensity in elite endurance athletes. Key PointsElite endurance athletes, with extensive altitude training experience, can maintain similar absolute intensity during LHTH compared to sea level.LHTH may be considered as an effective method to increase relative training intensity while maintaining the same running/walking pace, with possible beneficial effects on sea level performance.Training intensity could be the key factor for successful high-level LHTH camp.

  13. Methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) responsiveness, and the presence and degree of atopy in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong I; Lee, Ju K; Kim, Chang K; Koh, Young Y

    2011-02-01

    The relationship between atopy and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), both key features of asthma, remains to be clarified. BHR is commonly evaluated by bronchial challenges using direct and indirect stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of BHR to methacholine (direct stimulus) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) (indirect stimulus) according to the presence and degree of atopy in children with asthma. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 120 children presenting with a diagnosis of asthma. These children were characterized by skin-prick tests (SPTs), spirometry and bronchial challenges with methacholine and AMP. Atopy was defined by at least one positive reaction to SPTs, and its degree was measured using serum total IgE levels, number of positive SPTs and atopic scores (sum of graded wheal size). A provocative concentration causing a 20% decline in FEV(1) (PC(20) ) was determined for each challenge. Patients with atopy(n=94) had a significantly lower AMP PC(20) than non-atopic patients (n=26), whereas methacholine PC(20) was not different between the two groups. Among the patients with atopy, there was no association between methacholine PC(20) and any atopy parameter. In contrast, a significant association was found between AMP PC(20) and the degree of atopy reflected in serum total IgE, number of positive SPTs and atopic scores (anova trend test, p=0.002, 0.001, 0.003, respectively). AMP responsiveness was associated with the presence and degree of atopy, whereas such a relationship was not observed for methacholine responsiveness. These findings suggest that atopic status may be better reflected by bronchial responsiveness assessed by AMP than by methacholine. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  14. Ginsenoside Compound K suppresses the hepatic gluconeogenesis via activating adenosine-5'monophosphate kinase: A study in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Shengnan; Li, Wei; Yu, Yang; Yao, Fan; A, Lixiang; Lan, Xiaoxin; Guan, Fengying; Zhang, Ming; Chen, Li

    2015-10-15

    Compound K (CK) is a final intestinal metabolite of protopanaxadiol-type ginsenoside. We have reported that CK presented anti-diabetic effect via diminishing the expressions of hepatic gluconeogenesis key enzyme. Here, we further explore the possible mechanism of CK on suppression hepatic gluconeogenesis via activation of adenosine-5'monophosphate kinase (AMPK) on type 2 diabetes mice in vivo and in HepG2 cells. Type 2 diabetes mice model was developed by high fat diet combined with STZ injection. 30mg/kg/d CK was orally administrated for 4weeks, the fasting blood glucose level and 2h OGTT were conducted, and the protein expression of AMPK, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), Phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) and Glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) were examined. The mechanism of Compound K on hepatic gluconeogenesis was further explored in HepG2 hepatocytes. Glucose production, the protein expression of AMPK, PEPCK, G6pase and PGC-1α, hepatic nuclear factor 4α (HNF-4α) and forkhead transcription factor O1 (FOXO1) were determined after Compound K treatment at the presence of AMPK inhibitor Compound C. We observed that CK inhibited the expression of PEPCK and G6Pase in the liver and in HepG2 hepatocytes. Meanwhile, CK treatment remarkably increased the activation of AMPK, while decreasing the expressions of PGC-1α, HNF-4α and FOXO1. However, AMPK inhibitor Compound C could reverse these effects of CK on gluconeogenesis in part. The results indicated that the effect of CK on suppression hepatic gluconeogenesis might be via the activation the AMPK activity. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. [The ski camp doctor's role in the the prevention of winter sport accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai, Péter

    2007-08-26

    Skiing is a risky sport for many, even for children and beginners. When the ski-group is escorted by doctors who are able to provide advanced life support on the scene and are trained either in the field of emergency medicine or in travel medicine, a good possibility is given for the prevention of ski-accidents and for decreasing the number of travel related illnesses. This fact has led to the basic idea of training ski-camp doctors in Hungary. There is no similar initiative in the Hungarian literature. Therefore the article tries to summarise the medical knowledge and requirements of a ski-camp doctor, and analyses the prevention tasks of the doctor as well. The camp doctor must be well informed and highly trained in the field of emergency and travel medicine. The main tasks are: pre-travel advice, treatment of the common (travel-related) diseases, providing basic and advanced life-support on the scene, and to organise the hospitalisation and repatriation of patient, in cooperation with the hospital and insurance doctor. Moreover, the prevention should start before departure: the estimation of the physical and health condition of the skiers, a continuous care of the chronic people, and supervision of the place (hygienic circumstances, rescue forces available, the condition of the ski slopes, etc.) are vital--as for the primary prevention. The secondary level of the prevention is the treatment of the injured/sick persons, and assistance in the medical evacuation. During the training, not only postgraduate medical, mountain and alpine medicine lessons have been provided, but basic legal and insurance information as well. Moreover, the doctors received ski-course from professional ski-trainers in order to improve their ski-technique and skills on different slopes and off-piste places. In the future the local mountain rescue and air-rescue forces have to be involved in postgraduate training. Hopefully different travel-insurance companies and travel offices will use

  16. Targeted antiviral prophylaxis with oseltamivir in a summer camp setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimberlin, David W; Escude, Janell; Gantner, Janel; Ott, Jeanne; Dronet, Melissa; Stewart, Timothy A; Jester, Penelope; Redden, David T; Chapman, Whitney; Hammond, Rob

    2010-04-01

    To describe the effectiveness of containment of novel influenza A(H1N1) infection at a summer camp. Targeted use of oseltamivir phosphate by individuals in close contact with influenza-confirmed cases. Boys' camp in Alabama in July 2009. A total of 171 campers, 48 camp counselors, and 27 camp staff. Campers with confirmed influenza received oseltamivir and were immediately isolated and sent home. All boys and counselors in the infected child's adjoining cabins received prophylactic oseltamivir for 10 days, including 8 campers at higher risk for influenza infection (eg, those with asthma, seizure disorder, or diabetes). Alcohol-based hand sanitizer was provided at each of the daily activities, in the boys' cabins, and in the dining hall, and counselors were educated by the medical staff on the spread of influenza and its prevention through good hand hygiene. All cabins, bathrooms, and community sports equipment were sprayed or wiped down with disinfectant each day. Main Outcome Measure Virologic confirmation of influenza. Three of the 171 campers tested positive for influenza A during the course of the 2-week fourth session, for an attack rate of 1.8%. The probability of observing 3 or fewer infected campers if the attack rate was 12% is less than 1 in 10,000,000 (P hand sanitization and surface decontamination, a targeted approach to antiviral prophylaxis contained the spread of influenza in a summer camp setting.

  17. Investigation of Sylvatic Typhus at a Wilderness Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    In this podcast, Dr. Greg Dasch discusses an outbreak of four cases of sylvatic typhus that occurred at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania. Sylvatic typhus is very rare in the United States, with only 41 cases since it was discovered in the United States in 1975. Lab work at CDC and the discovery that all four camp counselors who became ill had slept in the same bunk at the camp between 2004 and 2006 ultimately led to confirmation that flying squirrels living in the wall of the cabin were to blame for the illnesses.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  18. Advances in Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Boot Camp Training Promotes Fellowship Readiness and Enables Retention of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresnak, Scott R; Axelrod, David M; Sacks, Loren D; Motonaga, Kara S; Johnson, Emily R; Krawczeski, Catherine D

    2017-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that a pediatric cardiology boot camp can improve knowledge acquisition and decrease anxiety for trainees. We sought to determine if boot camp participants entered fellowship with a knowledge advantage over fellows who did not attend and if there was moderate-term retention of that knowledge. A 2-day training program was provided for incoming pediatric cardiology fellows from eight fellowship programs in April 2016. Hands-on, immersive experiences and simulations were provided in all major areas of pediatric cardiology. Knowledge-based examinations were completed by each participant prior to boot camp (PRE), immediately post-training (POST), and prior to the start of fellowship in June 2016 (F/U). A control group of fellows who did not attend boot camp also completed an examination prior to fellowship (CTRL). Comparisons of scores were made for individual participants and between participants and controls. A total of 16 participants and 16 control subjects were included. Baseline exam scores were similar between participants and controls (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. CTRL 52 ± 10%; p = 0.22). Participants' knowledge improved with boot camp training (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. POST 70 ± 8%; p cardiology knowledge after the training program and had excellent moderate-term retention of that knowledge. Participants began fellowship with a larger fund of knowledge than those fellows who did not attend.

  19. The effectiveness of a peer support camp for siblings of children with cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, Ranita; Passmore, Anne; Baker, David

    2006-10-15

    Siblings of children with cancer have higher levels of psychological stress and adaptational difficulties compared to siblings of healthy children and children with other chronic illness. This is the first study to report on the mental health of Australian siblings of children with cancer and examines the effects of a therapeutic peer support camp-Camp Onwards, as an intervention. A protocol, designed to reduce levels of distress, improve social competence, and improve knowledge about the impact of cancer and its treatment was developed. Siblings (n=26) 8-13 years were assessed using standardised self-report measures pre and post intervention and at -8 weeks follow-up with: the Behaviour Assessment for Children (BASC) (Reynolds & Kamphaus, 1992), Self Perception Profile for Children (SPP-C) (Harter, 1985), Sibling Perception Questionnaire (SPQ) (Carpenter & Sahler, 1991). Change was measured using paired t tests. At pre-test, 40% of the sample demonstrated increased levels of emotional distress when compared to the normal population. Post intervention, siblings reported lower levels of distress demonstrated by decreased anxiety (P=0.01) and positive changes in the Self Report of Personality [BASC] (P=0.00). Improved social competence was noted in the interpersonal domain of the SPQ (P=0.01) and also greater social acceptance scores on the SPP-C (P=0.01). Improved knowledge about the impact of cancer and its treatment was evidenced by significant reductions in the fear of disease domain on the SPQ (P=0.01). Siblings who attended Camp Onwards demonstrated improved mental health outcomes that were sustained at follow-up, demonstrating its effectiveness as an intervention strategy in supporting sibling adjustment. Copyright (c) 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  20. Science Camp - lystigt eller lærerigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel, Linda; Albrechtsen, Thomas S. R.

    2013-01-01

    I oplægget vil vi undersøge fænomenet Science Camps nærmere ved at fortælle om dets historiske udvikling og ikke mindst lægge op til en diskussion af en definition. Derudover vil vi præsentere en case, hvor der med udgangspunkt i et aktuelt ph.d.-projekt er blevet undersøgt, hvad deltagerne får ud...... af at deltage i en science camp: Kan man både vække begejstring og medvirke til læring?...

  1. Science Skills Boot Camp Gets Interns Ready for Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Summer interns learned how to read a scientific paper, present a poster, maintain a laboratory notebook, and much more, at the Science Skills Boot Camp in June. “It was a great experience, and it was a great opportunity to meet some of the other interns also working on the campus,” said Alyssa Klein, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Cellular Immunology Group, Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation. “The boot camp covered many topics essential to being a good scientist and science researcher.”

  2. Winter Camp: A Blog from the Greenland Summit, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lora

    2009-01-01

    An earlier issue presents the first half of the author's experience living and working at the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Greenland Summit Camp. The author is a remote-sensing glaciologist at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center. She took measurements that will be used to validate data collected by NASA s Aqua, Terra, and Ice, Clouds, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) satellites with ground-truth measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet she made at Summit Camp from November 2008-February 2009. This article presents excerpts from the second half of her stay and work at the Greenland Summit.

  3. Measuring the Influences of Youth Participation in Ohio 4-H Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Greg Homan

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Findings from a multi-component 4-H camp marketing and enrollment study of Ohio 4-H camps are highlighted. Significant influencers on the camp enrollment decision (parents, other adults, peers, siblings, and the respective camper are evaluated as well as the effectiveness of various marketing techniques. The data found in this study indicates that the decision to enroll in camp is most influenced by the respective 4-H camper; however parents are also a strong factor in the choice to participate in 4-H camps. Alumni parents report significantly higher influence in the camp enrollment decision than those parents who are not alumni of 4-H. Personal methods of promoting camps were rated the most effective in reaching potential camp audiences.

  4. Seafloor Science and Remotely Operated Vehicle (SSROV) Day Camp: A Week-Long, Hands-On STEM Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, C. G.; Fournier, T.; Monahan, K.; Paul, C.

    2015-12-01

    RETINA (Robotic Exploration Technologies IN Astrobiology) has developed a program geared towards stimulating our youth with innovative and relevant hands-on learning modules under a STEM umbrella. Given the breadth of potential science and engineering topics that excite children, the RETINA Program focuses on interactive participation in the design and development of simple robotic and sensor systems, providing a range of challenges to engage students through project-based learning (PBL). Thus, young students experience scientific discovery through the use and understanding of technology. This groundwork serves as the foundation for SSROV Camp, a week-long, summer day camp for 6th-8th grade students. The camp is centered on the sensors and platforms that guide seafloor exploration and discovery and builds upon the notion that transformative discoveries in the deep sea result from either sampling new environments or making new measurements with sensors adapted to this extreme environment. These technical and scientific needs are folded into the curriculum. Each of the first four days of the camp includes four team-based, hands-on technical challenges, communication among peer groups, and competition. The fifth day includes additional activities, culminating in camper-led presentations to describe a planned mission based on a given geologic setting. Presentations include hypotheses, operational requirements and expected data products. SSROV Camp was initiated last summer for three sessions, two in Monterey, CA and one in Oxford, MS. Campers from both regions grasped key elements of the program, based on written responses to questions before and after the camp. On average, 32% of the pre-test questions were answered correctly compared with 80% of the post-test questions. Additional confirmation of gains in campers' knowledge, skills, and critical thinking on environmental issues and engineering problems were apparent during the "jeopardy" competition, nightly homework

  5. Pharmacokinetics of IDX184, a liver-targeted oral prodrug of 2'-methylguanosine-5'-monophosphate, in the monkey and formulation optimization for human exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan-Zhou, Xin-Ru; Mayes, Benjamin A; Rashidzadeh, Hassan; Gasparac, Rahela; Smith, Steven; Bhadresa, Sanjeev; Gupta, Kusum; Cohen, Marita Larsson; Bu, Charlie; Good, Steven S; Moussa, Adel; Rush, Roger

    2016-10-01

    IDX184 is a phosphoramidate prodrug of 2'-methylguanosine-5'-monophosphate, developed to treat patients infected with hepatitis C virus. A mass balance study of radiolabeled IDX184 and pharmacokinetic studies of IDX184 in portal vein-cannulated monkeys revealed relatively low IDX184 absorption but higher exposure of IDX184 in the portal vein than in the systemic circulation, indicating >90 % of the absorbed dose was subject to hepatic extraction. Systemic exposures to the main metabolite, 2'-methylguanosine (2'-MeG), were used as a surrogate for liver levels of the pharmacologically active entity 2'-MeG triphosphate, and accordingly, systemic levels of 2'-MeG in the monkey were used to optimize formulations for further clinical development of IDX184. Capsule formulations of IDX184 delivered acceptable levels of 2'-MeG in humans; however, the encapsulation process introduced low levels of the genotoxic impurity ethylene sulfide (ES), which necessitated formulation optimization. Animal pharmacokinetic data guided the development of a tablet with trace levels of ES and pharmacokinetic performance equal to that of the clinical capsule in the monkey. Under fed conditions in humans, the new tablet formulation showed similar exposure to the capsule used in prior clinical trials.

  6. The NO/cGMP pathway inhibits transient cAMP signals through the activation of PDE2 in striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina ePolito

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The NO-cGMP signaling plays an important role in the regulation of striatal function although the mechanisms of action of cGMP specifically in medium spiny neurons (MSNs remain unclear. Using genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors, including a novel Epac-based sensor (EPAC-SH150 with increased sensitivity for cAMP, we analyze the cGMP response to NO and whether it affected cAMP/PKA signaling in MSNs. The Cygnet2 sensor for cGMP reported large responses to NO donors in both striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, and this cGMP signal was controlled partially by PDE2. At the level of cAMP brief forskolin stimulations produced transient cAMP signals which differed between D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons. NO inhibited these cAMP transients through cGMP-dependent PDE2 activation, an effect that was translated and magnified downstream of cAMP, at the level of PKA. PDE2 thus appears as a critical effector of NO which modulates the post-synaptic response of MSNs to dopaminergic transmission.

  7. Impact of Attending Jump Start Literacy Camp on Reading Achievement among Third and Fourth Grade Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padgett, Carrie B.

    2010-01-01

    The Jump Start Literacy Camp was developed as a means to combat summer learning loss. The camp utilized high-energy activities to target phonemic awareness, phonics, vocabulary, fluency, and comprehension. This study examined the effects of the Jump Start Literacy Camp on reading achievement for rising third and fourth grade students in an urban…

  8. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  9. The Impact of Learning Styles on Learning Outcomes at FFA Camp: What Campers Retain over Time

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Terry, Robert, Jr.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2013-01-01

    Twenty-four states host FFA summer camps to support adolescent maturation along with indoctrination into the culture and values of the FFA. Camps typically include a variety of activities designed to engage members in social activities and non-formal academic content. More than 1500 campers attend the Oklahoma FFA Alumni Leadership Camp annually…

  10. 77 FR 5398 - Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Vicinity of Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, NC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-03

    ...-AA00 Safety Zone; Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway, Vicinity of Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, NC... zone on the Atlantic Intracoastal Waterway (AICW) adjacent to Marine Corps Base (MCB) Camp Lejeune..., Vicinity of Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, NC in the Federal Register (77 FR 1431). We received no...

  11. Reflections on Refugee Students' Major Perceptions of Education in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareng, Chuei D.

    2010-01-01

    This reflective study explores refugee students' perceptions of the educational approach used in Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya. The study focuses on my personal reflections as a teacher and a student in this camp, and as a refugee. My goal of writing this narrative is to reflect fully on the refugee students' life in a camp and then contribute to…

  12. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in

    Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of

    the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis

    per se. The reference to the

  13. Hack City Summer: Computer Camps Can Bring a Vacation of Keyboard Delights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Ellen Ruppel

    1983-01-01

    Activities at a summer computer camp (Camp Atari held at East Stroudsburg State College PA) are described. The curriculum, using logic, systematic analysis, and other fundamental programing skills, teaches students to interact effectively and creatively with computers. Sources for finding a computer camp are included. (JN)

  14. Biphasic action of cyclic adenosine 3',5'- monophosphate in gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analog-stimulated hormone release from GH3 cells stably transfected with GnRH receptor complementary deoxyribonucleic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanislaus, D; Arora, V; Awara, W M; Conn, P M

    1996-03-01

    GH3 cells are a PRL-secreting adenoma cell line derived from pituitary lactotropes. These cells have been stably transfected with rat GnRH receptor complementary DNA to produce four cell lines: GGH(3)1', GGH(3)2', GGH(3)6', and GGH(3)12'. In response to either GnRH or Buserelin (a metabolically stable GnRH agonist), these cell lines synthesize PRL in a cAMP-dependent manner. Only GGH(3)6' cells desensitize in response to persistent treatment with 10(-7) g/ml Buserelin. GGH(3)1', GGH(3)2', and GGH(3)12' cells, however, can be made refractory to Buserelin stimulation by raising cAMP levels either by the addition of (Bu)2cAMP to the medium or by treatment with cholera toxin. In GGH(3) cells, low levels of cAMP fulfill the requirements for a second messenger, whereas higher levels appear to mediate the development of desensitization. The observation that in GGH(3)6' cells, cAMP production persists after the onset of desensitization is consistent with the view that the mechanism responsible for desensitization is distal to the production of cAMP. Moreover, the absence of any significant difference in the amount of cAMP produced per cell in GGH(3)2', GGH(3)6', or GGH(3)12' cells suggests that elevated cAMP production per cell does not explain the development of desensitization in GGH(3)6' cells. We suggest that Buserelin-stimulated PRL synthesis in GGH(3)6' cells is mediated by a different cAMP-dependent protein kinase pool(s) than that in nondesensitizing GGH(3) cells. Such a protein kinase A pool(s) may be more susceptible to degradation via cAMP-mediated mechanisms than the protein kinase pools mediating the Buserelin response in nondesensitizing GGH(3) cells. A similar mechanism has been reported in other systems.

  15. PdeH, a high-affinity cAMP phosphodiesterase, is a key regulator of asexual and pathogenic differentiation in Magnaporthe oryzae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravikrishna Ramanujam

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP-dependent pathways mediate the communication between external stimuli and the intracellular signaling machinery, thereby influencing important aspects of cellular growth, morphogenesis and differentiation. Crucial to proper function and robustness of these signaling cascades is the strict regulation and maintenance of intracellular levels of cAMP through a fine balance between biosynthesis (by adenylate cyclases and hydrolysis (by cAMP phosphodiesterases. We functionally characterized gene-deletion mutants of a high-affinity (PdeH and a low-affinity (PdeL cAMP phosphodiesterase in order to gain insights into the spatial and temporal regulation of cAMP signaling in the rice-blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. In contrast to the expendable PdeL function, the PdeH activity was found to be a key regulator of asexual and pathogenic development in M. oryzae. Loss of PdeH led to increased accumulation of intracellular cAMP during vegetative and infectious growth. Furthermore, the pdeHDelta showed enhanced conidiation (2-3 fold, precocious appressorial development, loss of surface dependency during pathogenesis, and highly reduced in planta growth and host colonization. A pdeHDelta pdeLDelta mutant showed reduced conidiation, exhibited dramatically increased (approximately 10 fold cAMP levels relative to the wild type, and was completely defective in virulence. Exogenous addition of 8-Br-cAMP to the wild type simulated the pdeHDelta defects in conidiation as well as in planta growth and development. While a fully functional GFP-PdeH was cytosolic but associated dynamically with the plasma membrane and vesicular compartments, the GFP-PdeL localized predominantly to the nucleus. Based on data from cAMP measurements and Real-Time RTPCR, we uncover a PdeH-dependent biphasic regulation of cAMP levels during early and late stages of appressorial development in M. oryzae. We propose that PdeH-mediated sustenance and dynamic regulation of cAMP signaling

  16. First urology simulation boot camp in the United Kingdom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.S. Biyani

    2017-09-01

    Conclusion: This first UK Urology Simulation Boot Camp has demonstrated feasibility and effectiveness in enhancing trainee’s experience. Given these positive feedbacks there is a good reason to expect that future courses will improve the overall skills of a new urology trainee.

  17. Addressing Nature Deficit Disorder through Primitive Camping Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kevin; Varner, Keegan; Sallee, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Today's youth suffer from Nature Deficit Disorder, a condition that has been connected to ADHD, shortage of creativity, and general lack of knowledge about the outdoors. A team of educators and specialists are addressing this issue with primitive camping. County educators were trained using experiential learning and train-the-trainer techniques.…

  18. 29 CFR 1910.142 - Temporary labor camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... employed or permitted to work in the preparation, cooking, serving, or other handling of food, foodstuffs... facilities shall be provided for storing and preparing food. (11) All heating, cooking, and water heating... principal camp area in which food is prepared and served and where sleeping quarters are located shall be at...

  19. Refugee-led humanitarianism in Lebanon’s Shatila camp

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    Hind Sharif

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Refugee-led humanitarian initiatives by ‘established’ Palestinian refugees in response to the arrival of ‘new’ displaced Syrians to Shatila camp raise key questions about the limitations of the humanitarian system and representations of refugees as passive victims.

  20. Snakes Have Feelings, Too: Elements of a Camp Snake Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert Ross

    2001-01-01

    A camp snake program can help campers overcome their fear of snakes, and people cannot truly enjoy nature when they carry a phobia about any one part of it. It can also help overcome prejudice by teaching truth and respect, instilling compassion, and helping campers develop empathy. Advice on catching, handling, identifying, keeping, and feeding…

  1. Middle School Girls Sample "Hard Hat" Life at Construction Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aneeta

    2013-01-01

    On a Monday morning in July, a fan as tall as a refrigerator churned noisily in the cavernous classroom. As the outdoor temperature crept higher, teenage girls wearing hardhats and safety glasses wiped perspiration and sawdust from their faces. This was not a field trip. This was the second hour of camp at Ranken Technical College in St. Louis,…

  2. Coaching Emotional Skills at Camp: You Bet You Can!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Marla

    1997-01-01

    Stresses the importance of camps fostering the self-esteem and emotional intelligence of campers by creating an envelope of physical safety, building emotional security, creating a sense of identity, developing a sense of belonging, nurturing competence, and achieving a sense of mission. Discusses achieving this goal through cooperation with…

  3. Expert Review of Pedagogical Activities at Therapeutic Recreation Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiselev, N. N.; Kiseleva, E. V.

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of pedagogical expert reviews at children's therapeutic recreation camps in Novosibirsk Region shows that it is necessary to implement an expert review system that plays a supporting and developmental role. Such a system should allow teams of teachers to submit their work to expert review and to move forward by reflecting on their…

  4. Participant Perspectives on the ESO Astronomy Camp Programme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivotto, C.; Cenadelli, D.; Gamal, M.; Grossmann, D.; Teller, L. A. I.; Marta, A. S.; Matoni, C. L.; Taillard, A.

    2015-09-01

    This article describes the experience of attending the European Southern Observatory (ESO) Astronomy Camp from the perspective of its participants - students aged between 16 and 18 years old from around the world. The students shared a week together during the winter of 2014 in the Alpine village of Saint-Barthelemy, Italy. The camp was organised by ESO in collaboration with Sterrenlab and the Astronomical Observatory of the Autonomous Region of the Aosta Valley and offered a rich programme of astronomy and leisure activities. This article focuses on the concept of astronomy camps, and their role as a unique tool to complement formal classroom education, rather than on the astronomy activities and the scientific programme. Thus, it is not an academic review of the implemented methodologies, but rather a reflection on the overall experience. The article was brought together from collaborative accounts by some of the participants who were asked to reflect on the experience. The participants who contributed to this article represent the diversity of the ESO Astronomy Camp's alumni community.

  5. Academic Boot Camp for the Writing of Psychology Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…

  6. Criticality for Global Citizenship in Korean English Immersion Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, So-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    Given a heavy social, ideological pressure for parents to pursue better English education for their children in the globalized world, short-term English immersion camp programs have emerged as an educational option in South Korea, promoted as environments for intercultural communication between native English-speaking teachers and local Korean…

  7. Punishing Kids: The Rise of the "Boot Camp"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Martin; Pini, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the rise of 'the boot camp' as a means of addressing "the problem of troubled youth" in contemporary industrialised nations such as Australia and the UK. Drawing on a corpus of publicly available material including press releases and policy documents, media reports, and programme websites, the paper explores…

  8. Evaluation of a Summer Camp Environmental Education Program in Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samperiz, Ana; Herrero, Juan

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a nonformal environmental education program in a summer camp and to measure its effectiveness increasing environmental knowledge and attitudes of the participants. Seventy six teenagers between 14 and 17 years participated. Activities dealt with both natural and urban environment. Preactivity and…

  9. Interaction of renin-angiotensin system and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway in renal carcinogenesis of uninephrectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke-Ke; Sui, Yi; Zhou, Hui-Rong; Zhao, Hai-Lu

    2017-05-01

    Renin-angiotensin system and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway both play important roles in carcinogenesis, but the interplay of renin-angiotensin system and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in carcinogenesis is not clear. In this study, we researched the interaction of renin-angiotensin system and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in renal carcinogenesis of uninephrectomized rats. A total of 96 rats were stratified into four groups: sham, uninephrectomized, and uninephrectomized treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker. Renal adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and its downstream molecule acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase were detected by immunohistochemistry and western blot at 10 months after uninephrectomy. Meanwhile, we examined renal carcinogenesis by histological transformation and expressions of Ki67 and mutant p53. During the study, fasting lipid profiles were detected dynamically at 3, 6, 8, and 10 months. The results indicated that adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase expression in uninephrectomized rats showed 36.8% reduction by immunohistochemistry and 89.73% reduction by western blot. Inversely, acetyl coenzyme A carboxylase expression increased 83.3% and 19.07% in parallel to hyperlipidemia at 6, 8, and 10 months. The histopathology of carcinogenesis in remnant kidneys was manifested by atypical proliferation and carcinoma in situ, as well as increased expressions of Ki67 and mutant p53. Intervention with angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor or angiotensin receptor blocker significantly prevented the inhibition of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway and renal carcinogenesis in uninephrectomized rats. In conclusion, the novel findings suggest that uninephrectomy-induced disturbance in adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase signaling pathway resulted in hyperlipidemia and

  10. Effect of cAMP derivates on assembly and maintenance of tight junctions in human umbilical vein endothelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beese Michaela

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Endothelial tight and adherens junctions control a variety of physiological processes like adhesion, paracellular transport of solutes or trafficking of activated leukocytes. Formation and maintenance of endothelial junctions largely depend on the microenvironment of the specific vascular bed and on interactions of the endothelium with adjacent cell types. Consequently, primary cultures of endothelial cells often lose their specific junctional pattern and fail to establish tight monolayer in vitro. This is also true for endothelial cells isolated from the vein of human umbilical cords (HUVEC which are widely used as model for endothelial cell-related studies. Results We here compared the effect of cyclic 3'-5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and its derivates on formation and stabilization of tight junctions and on alterations in paracellular permeability in HUVEC. We demonstrated by light and confocal laser microscopy that for shorter time periods the sodium salt of 8-bromoadenosine-cAMP (8-Br-cAMP/Na and for longer incubation periods 8-(4-chlorophenylthio-cAMP (pCPT-cAMP exerted the greatest effects of all compounds tested here on formation of continuous tight junction strands in HUVEC. We further demonstrated that although all compounds induced protein kinase A-dependent expression of the tight junction proteins claudin-5 and occludin only pCPT-cAMP slightly enhanced paracellular barrier functions. Moreover, we showed that pCPT-cAMP and 8-Br-cAMP/Na induced expression and membrane translocation of tricellulin. Conclusions pCPT-cAMP and, to a lesser extend, 8-Br-cAMP/Na improved formation of continuous tight junction strands and decreased paracellular permeability in primary HUVEC. We concluded that under these conditions HUVEC represent a feasible in vitro model to study formation and disassembly of endothelial tight junctions and to characterize tight junction-associated proteins

  11. The camp analogue, dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit reproductive functions: I. Effect on ovarian folliculogenesis, ovulation and embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrenek P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the influence of administration of N6,2’-dibutyryladenosine 3’5’-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP, a cAMP agonist, on ovarian folliculogenesis and atresia, as well as on reproductive efficiency in rabbits, whose ovarian cycle and ovulation was induced by gonadotropins. Ovarian cycle and ovulation of control rabbits were induced by 20 IU/kg PMSG followed by 35 IU/kg hCG administration. Experimental animals received PMSG and hCG together with dbcAMP (at 5, 25 or 50 μg/animal. After ovulation and insemination, the animals were sacrificed. Ovaries were weighted, histological sections of ovaries were prepared, and the presence of ovulated and not ovulated follicles and different stages of atresia was evaluated by light microscopy. The eggs were flushed from the oviducts after insemination and cultured up to blastocyst cell stage. Numbers of ovarian Corpora lutea, ovulated oocytes and oocyte-derived zygotes and embryos reaching hatched blastocyst stage were determined. Administration of dbcAMP (at doses 25 or 50 μg/animal, but not at 5 μg/animal was able to increase the proportion of follicles with cystic and luteinization-related atresia. Furthermore, dbcAMP (50 μg/animal, but not lower doses increased the ovarian mass, number of Corpora lutea, number of harvested oocytes, zygotes and embryos at blastocyst stage derived from these zygotes after culture. These data demonstrate that dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit ovarian follicle atresia, ovulation, oocyte, zygote and embryo yield and development. Furthermore, they confirm in the involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent intracellular mechanisms in the control of rabbit reproductive functions and potential practical usefulness of dbcAMP in improving animal reproduction and fertility.

  12. Crystallization and preliminary crystallographic analysis of orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase from the human malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krungkrai, Sudaratana R.; Tokuoka, Keiji; Kusakari, Yukiko; Inoue, Tsuyoshi; Adachi, Hiroaki; Matsumura, Hiroyoshi; Takano, Kazufumi; Murakami, Satoshi; Mori, Yusuke; Kai, Yasushi; Krungkrai, Jerapan; Horii, Toshihiro

    2006-01-01

    Orotidine 5′-monophosphate decarboxylase of human malaria parasite P. falciparum was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation. Orotidine 5′-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase (OMPDC; EC 4.1.1.23) catalyzes the final step in the de novo synthesis of uridine 5′-monophosphate (UMP) and defects in the enzyme are lethal in the malaria parasite Plasmodium falciparum. Active recombinant P. falciparum OMPDC (PfOMPDC) was crystallized by the seeding method in a hanging drop using PEG 3000 as a precipitant. A complete set of diffraction data from a native crystal was collected to 2.7 Å resolution at 100 K using synchrotron radiation at the Swiss Light Source. The crystal exhibits trigonal symmetry (space group R3), with hexagonal unit-cell parameters a = b = 201.81, c = 44.03 Å. With a dimer in the asymmetric unit, the solvent content is 46% (V M = 2.3 Å 3 Da −1 )

  13. The Effect of an Altitude Training Camp on Swimming Start Time and Loaded Squat Jump Performance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amador García-Ramos

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the influence of an altitude training (AT camp on swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance. To accomplish this goal, 13 international swimmers (8 women, 5 men were allocated to both the control (Sea Level Training, SLT and experimental conditions (AT, 2320 m above sea level that were separated by a one year period. All tests (15 m freestyle swimming start and loaded squat jumps with additional loads of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of swimmers' body weight were performed before and after a concurrent 3-week strength and endurance training program prescribed by the national coach. Following the SLT camp, significant impairments in swimming start times to 10 (+3.1% and 15 m (+4.0% were observed (P 0.05. Trivial changes in peak velocity were obtained during the loaded squat jump after both training periods (effect sizes: < 0.20. Based on these results we can conclude that a traditional training high-living high strategy concurrent training of 3 weeks does not adversely affect swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance in high level swimmers, but further studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness of power-oriented resistance training in the development of explosive actions.

  14. The Effect of an Altitude Training Camp on Swimming Start Time and Loaded Squat Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Calderón, Carmen; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Tomazin, Katja; Strumbelj, Boro; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of an altitude training (AT) camp on swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance. To accomplish this goal, 13 international swimmers (8 women, 5 men) were allocated to both the control (Sea Level Training, SLT) and experimental conditions (AT, 2320 m above sea level) that were separated by a one year period. All tests (15 m freestyle swimming start and loaded squat jumps with additional loads of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of swimmers' body weight) were performed before and after a concurrent 3-week strength and endurance training program prescribed by the national coach. Following the SLT camp, significant impairments in swimming start times to 10 (+3.1%) and 15 m (+4.0%) were observed (P 0.05). Trivial changes in peak velocity were obtained during the loaded squat jump after both training periods (effect sizes: training high-living high strategy concurrent training of 3 weeks does not adversely affect swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance in high level swimmers, but further studies are necessary to assess the effectiveness of power-oriented resistance training in the development of explosive actions.

  15. Training Diaries during Altitude Training Camp in Two Olympic Champions: An Observational Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pugliese, Fabio R. Serpiello, Grégoire P. Millet, Antonio La Torre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Live High-Train High (LHTH interventions were adopted when athletes trained and lived at altitude to try maximising the benefits offered by hypoxic exposure and improving sea level performance. Nevertheless, scientific research has proposed that the possible benefits of hypoxia would be offset by the inability to maintain high training intensity at altitude. However, elite athletes have been rarely recruited as an experimental sample, and training intensity has almost never been monitored during altitude research. This case study is an attempt to provide a practical example of successful LHTH interventions in two Olympic gold medal athletes. Training diaries were collected and total training volumes, volumes at different intensities, and sea level performance recorded before, during and after a 3-week LHTH camp. Both athletes successfully completed the LHTH camp (2090 m maintaining similar absolute training intensity and training volume at high-intensity (> 91% of race pace compared to sea level. After the LHTH intervention both athletes obtained enhancements in performance and they won an Olympic gold medal. In our opinion, LHTH interventions can be used as a simple, yet effective, method to maintain absolute, and improve relative training intensity in elite endurance athletes.

  16. Adenosine Monophosphate Binding Stabilizes the KTN Domain of the Shewanella denitrificans Kef Potassium Efflux System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliotas, Christos; Grayer, Samuel C; Ekkerman, Silvia; Chan, Anthony K N; Healy, Jess; Marius, Phedra; Bartlett, Wendy; Khan, Amjad; Cortopassi, Wilian A; Chandler, Shane A; Rasmussen, Tim; Benesch, Justin L P; Paton, Robert S; Claridge, Timothy D W; Miller, Samantha; Booth, Ian R; Naismith, James H; Conway, Stuart J

    2017-08-15

    Ligand binding is one of the most fundamental properties of proteins. Ligand functions fall into three basic types: substrates, regulatory molecules, and cofactors essential to protein stability, reactivity, or enzyme-substrate complex formation. The regulation of potassium ion movement in bacteria is predominantly under the control of regulatory ligands that gate the relevant channels and transporters, which possess subunits or domains that contain Rossmann folds (RFs). Here we demonstrate that adenosine monophosphate (AMP) is bound to both RFs of the dimeric bacterial Kef potassium efflux system (Kef), where it plays a structural role. We conclude that AMP binds with high affinity, ensuring that the site is fully occupied at all times in the cell. Loss of the ability to bind AMP, we demonstrate, causes protein, and likely dimer, instability and consequent loss of function. Kef system function is regulated via the reversible binding of comparatively low-affinity glutathione-based ligands at the interface between the dimer subunits. We propose this interfacial binding site is itself stabilized, at least in part, by AMP binding.

  17. Identification of the orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase gene of the oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fan; Zhang, Sufang; Tang, Wei; Zhao, Zongbao K

    2008-09-01

    Oleaginous yeast Rhodosporidium toruloides is an excellent microbial lipid producer of great industrial potential, yet there is no effective genetic tool for rationally engineering this microorganism. To develop a marker recycling system, the orotidine-5'-monophosphate (OMP) decarboxylase gene of R. toruloides (RtURA3) was isolated using methods of degenerate polymerase chain reaction (PCR) together with rapid amplification of cDNA ends. The results showed that RtURA3 contains four extrons and three introns, and that the encoded polypeptide holds a sequence of 279 amino acid residues with significant homology to those of OMP decarboxylases from other yeasts. A shuttle vector pYES2/CT-RtURA3 was constructed via site-specific insertion of RtURA3 into the commercial vector pYES2/CT. Transformation of the shuttle vector into Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741, a URA3-deficient yeast strain, ensured the viability of the strain on synthetic dextrose agar plate without uracil, suggesting that the isolated RtURA3 was functionally equivalent to the URA3 gene from S. cerevisiae.

  18. Inosine-5'-monophosphate is a candidate agent to resolve rigor mortis of skeletal muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuishi, Masanori; Tsuji, Mariko; Yamaguchi, Megumi; Kitamura, Natsumi; Tanaka, Sachi; Nakamura, Yukinobu; Okitani, Akihiro

    2016-11-01

    The object of the present study was to reveal the action of inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) toward myofibrils in postmortem muscles. IMP solubilized isolated actomyosin within a narrow range of KCl concentration, 0.19-0.20 mol/L, because of the dissociation of actomyosin into actin and myosin, but it did not solubilize the proteins in myofibrils with 0.2 mol/L KCl. However, IMP could solubilize both proteins in myofibrils with 0.2 mol/L KCl in the presence of 1 m mol/L pyrophosphate or 1.0-3.3 m mol/L adenosine-5'-diphosphate (ADP). Thus, we presumed that pyrophosphate and ADP released thin filaments composed of actin, and thick filaments composed of myosin from restraints of myofibrils, and then both filaments were solubilized through the IMP-induced dissociation of actomyosin. Thus, we concluded that IMP is a candidate agent to resolve rigor mortis because of its ability to break the association between thick and thin filaments. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  19. Post-translational Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Proteins in Response to Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Parrott, Brian

    2011-12-12

    The introduction of mass spectrometry techniques to the field of biology has made possible the exploration of the proteome as a whole system as opposed to prior techniques, such as anti-body based assays or yeast two-hybrid studies, which were strictly limited to the study of a few proteins at a time. This practice has allowed for a systems biology approach of exploring the proteome, with the possibility of viewing entire pathways over increments of time. In this study, the effect of treating Arabidopsis thaliana suspension culture cells with 3’,5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is a native second messenger, was examined. Samples were collected at four time points and proteins were extracted and enriched for both oxidation and phosphorylation before analysis via mass spectrometry. Preliminary results suggest a tendency towards an increased number of phosphorylated proteins as a result of cGMP treatment. The data also showed a sharp increase in methionine oxidation in response to the treatment, occurring within the first ten minutes. This finding suggests that cGMP may utilize methionine oxidation as a mechanism of signal transduction. As such, this study corroborates a growing body of evidence supporting the inclusion of methionine oxidation in intracellular signaling pathways.

  20. A Mixed-Valent Molybdenum Monophosphate with a Layer Structure: KMo 3P 2O 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guesdon, A.; Borel, M. M.; Leclaire, A.; Grandin, A.; Raveau, B.

    1994-03-01

    A new mixed-valent molybdenum monophosphate with a layer structure KMo 3P 2O 14 has been isolated. It crystallizes in the space group P2 1/ m with a = 8.599(2) Å, b = 6.392(2) Å, c = 10.602(1) Å, and β = 111.65(2)°. The layers [Mo 3P 2O 14] ∞ are parallel to (100) and consist of [MoPO 8] ∞ chains running along limitb→ , in which one MoO 6 octahedron alternates with one PO 4 tetrahedron. In fact, four [MoPO 8] ∞ chains share the corners of their polyhedra and the edges of their octahedra, forming [Mo 4P 4O 24] ∞ columns which are linked through MoO 5 bipyramids along limitc→. The K + ions interleaved between these layers are surrounded by eight oxygens, forming bicapped trigonal prisms KO 8. Besides the unusual trigonal bipyramids MoO 5, this structure is also characterized by a tendency to the localization of the electrons, since one octahedral site is occupied by Mo(V), whereas the other octahedral site and the trigonal bipyramid are occupied by Mo(VI). The similarity of this structure with pure octahedral layer structures suggests the possibility of generating various derivatives, and of ion exchange properties.

  1. Controlled supramolecular structure of guanosine monophosphate in the interlayer space of layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Hyeon Gwak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Guanosine monophosphates (GMPs were intercalated into the interlayer space of layered double hydroxides (LDHs and the molecular arrangement of GMP was controlled in LDHs. The intercalation conditions such as GMP/LDH molar ratio and reaction temperature were systematically adjusted. When the GMP/LDH molar ratio was 1:2, which corresponds to the charge balance between positive LDH sheets and GMP anions, GMP molecules were well-intercalated to LDH. At high temperature (100 and 80 °C, a single GMP molecule existed separately in the LDH interlayer. On the other hand, at lower temperature (20, 40 and 60 °C, GMPs tended to form ribbon-type supramolecular assemblies. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the ribbon-type GMP assembly had an intermolecular interaction energy of ≈101 kJ/mol, which corresponds to a double hydrogen bond between guanosine molecules. Once stabilized, the interlayer GMP orientations, single molecular and ribbon phase, were successfully converted to the other phase by adjusting the external environment by stoichiometry or temperature control.

  2. Hit discovery of Mycobacterium tuberculosis inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase, GuaB2, inhibitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahu, Niteshkumar U; Singh, Vinayak; Ferraris, Davide M; Rizzi, Menico; Kharkar, Prashant S

    2018-04-18

    Tuberculosis remains a global concern. There is an urgent need of newer antitubercular drugs due to the development of resistant forms of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH), guaB2, of Mtb, required for guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, is an attractive target for drug development. In this study, we screened a focused library of 73 drug-like molecules with desirable calculated/predicted physicochemical properties, for growth inhibitory activity against drug-sensitive MtbH37Rv. The eight hits and mycophenolic acid, a prototype IMPDH inhibitor, were further evaluated for activity on purified Mtb-GuaB2 enzyme, target selectivity using a conditional knockdown mutant of guaB2 in Mtb, followed by cross-resistance to IMPDH inhibitor-resistant SRMV2.6 strain of Mtb, and activity on human IMPDH2 isoform. One of the hits, 13, a 5-amidophthalide derivative, has shown growth inhibitory potential and target specificity against the Mtb-GuaB2 enzyme. The hit, 13, is a promising molecule with potential for further development as an antitubercular agent. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Creating a social work link to the burn community: a research team goes to burn camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Nancy R; Reeves, Patricia M; Cox, Ellen R; Call, Serena B

    2004-01-01

    Social work faculty and graduate students conducted focus groups with 52 burn-injured adolescents from three burn camps to explore perceptions of their camp experience. Three themes emerged from data analysis that suggest burn camps play an important role in participants' lives. Camp is a place where burn-injured adolescents: (1) feel "normal" and accepted; (2) acquire insight in regard to self and meaning in life; and (3) gain confidence, increase self-esteem, and develop empathy. This project highlights how the use of qualitative research methods with grassroots organizations such as burn camps can serve as a link to greater social work involvement with this community.

  4. Activation of PKA in cell requires higher concentration of cAMP than in vitro: implications for compartmentalization of cAMP signalling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koschinski, Andreas; Zaccolo, Manuela

    2017-10-26

    cAMP is a ubiquitous second messenger responsible for the cellular effects of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters via activation of its main effector, protein kinase A (PKA). Multiple studies have shown that the basal concentration of cAMP in several cell types is about 1 μM. This value is well above the reported concentration of cAMP required to half-maximally activate PKA, which measures in the 100-300 nM range. Several hypotheses have been suggested to explain this apparent discrepancy including inaccurate measurements of intracellular free cAMP, inaccurate measurement of the apparent activation constant of PKA or shielding of PKA from bulk cytosolic cAMP via localization of the enzyme to microdomains with lower basal cAMP concentration. However, direct experimental evidence in support of any of these models is limited and a firm conclusion is missing. In this study we use multiple FRET-based reporters for the detection of cAMP and PKA activity in intact cells and we establish that the sensitivity of PKA to cAMP is almost twenty times lower when measured in cell than when measured in vitro. Our findings have important implications for the understanding of compartmentalized cAMP signalling.

  5. Elevated carbon dioxide blunts mammalian cAMP signaling dependent on inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate receptor-mediated Ca2+ release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Zara C; Gray, Michael A; Cann, Martin J

    2012-07-27

    Elevated CO(2) is generally detrimental to animal cells, suggesting an interaction with core processes in cell biology. We demonstrate that elevated CO(2) blunts G protein-activated cAMP signaling. The effect of CO(2) is independent of changes in intracellular and extracellular pH, independent of the mechanism used to activate the cAMP signaling pathway, and is independent of cell context. A combination of pharmacological and genetic tools demonstrated that the effect of elevated CO(2) on cAMP levels required the activity of the IP(3) receptor. Consistent with these findings, CO(2) caused an increase in steady state cytoplasmic Ca(2+) concentrations not observed in the absence of the IP(3) receptor or under nonspecific acidotic conditions. We examined the well characterized cAMP-dependent inhibition of the isoform 3 Na(+)/H(+) antiporter (NHE3) to demonstrate a functional relevance for CO(2)-mediated reductions in cellular cAMP. Consistent with the cellular biochemistry, elevated CO(2) abrogated the inhibitory effect of cAMP on NHE3 function via an IP(3) receptor-dependent mechanism.

  6. Elevated Carbon Dioxide Blunts Mammalian cAMP Signaling Dependent on Inositol 1,4,5-Triphosphate Receptor-mediated Ca2+ Release*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Zara C.; Gray, Michael A.; Cann, Martin J.

    2012-01-01

    Elevated CO2 is generally detrimental to animal cells, suggesting an interaction with core processes in cell biology. We demonstrate that elevated CO2 blunts G protein-activated cAMP signaling. The effect of CO2 is independent of changes in intracellular and extracellular pH, independent of the mechanism used to activate the cAMP signaling pathway, and is independent of cell context. A combination of pharmacological and genetic tools demonstrated that the effect of elevated CO2 on cAMP levels required the activity of the IP3 receptor. Consistent with these findings, CO2 caused an increase in steady state cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations not observed in the absence of the IP3 receptor or under nonspecific acidotic conditions. We examined the well characterized cAMP-dependent inhibition of the isoform 3 Na+/H+ antiporter (NHE3) to demonstrate a functional relevance for CO2-mediated reductions in cellular cAMP. Consistent with the cellular biochemistry, elevated CO2 abrogated the inhibitory effect of cAMP on NHE3 function via an IP3 receptor-dependent mechanism. PMID:22654111

  7. Modulation of phenotype and function of human CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes mediated by cAMP elevating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Riccomi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that Cholera Toxin (CT and other cyclic AMP (cAMP elevating agents induce up-regulation of the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 in human resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, which following the treatment acquired suppressive functions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cAMP elevating agents on human CD4+CD25+ T cells, which include the T regulatory (Treg cells that play a pivotal role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. We found that cAMP elevating agents induce up-regulation of CTLA-4 in CD4+CD25- and further enhance its expression in CD4+CD25+ T cells. We observed an increase of two isoforms of mRNA coding for the membrane and the soluble CTLA-4 molecules, suggesting that the regulation of CTLA-4 expression by cAMP is at the transcriptional level. In addition, we found that the increase of cAMP in CD4+CD25+ T cells converts the CD4+CD25+Foxp3- T cells in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, whereas the increase of cAMP in CD4+CD25- T cells did not up-regulate Foxp3 in the absence of activation stimuli. To investigate the function of these cells, we performed an in vitro suppression assay by culturing CD4+CD25+ T cells untreated or pre-treated with CT with anti-CD3 mAbs-stimulated autologous PBMC. We found that CT enhances the inhibitory function of CD4+CD25+ T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation and IFNγ production are strongly inhibited by CD4+CD25+ T cells pre-treated with cAMP elevating agents. Furthermore, we found that CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes pre-treated with cAMP elevating agents induce the up-regulation of CD80 and CD86 co-stimulatory molecules on immature dendritic cells (DCs in the absence of antigenic stimulation, however without leading to full DC maturation. These data show that the increase of intracellular cAMP modulates the phenotype and function of human CD4+CD25+ T cells.

  8. Resveratrol ameliorates aging-related metabolic phenotypes by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jun; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Philp, Andrew; Baar, Keith; Williams, Tishan; Luo, Haibin; Ke, Hengming; Rehmann, Holger; Taussig, Ronald; Brown, Alexandra L; Kim, Myung K; Beaven, Michael A; Burgin, Alex B; Manganiello, Vincent; Chung, Jay H

    2012-02-03

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca(2+) levels and activates the CamKKβ-AMPK pathway via phospholipase C and the ryanodine receptor Ca(2+)-release channel. As a consequence, resveratrol increases NAD(+) and the activity of Sirt1. Inhibiting PDE4 with rolipram reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, including prevention of diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina, and glucose tolerance in mice. Therefore, administration of PDE4 inhibitors may also protect against and ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic diseases associated with aging. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Dopamine receptors D3 and D5 regulate CD4(+)T-cell activation and differentiation by modulating ERK activation and cAMP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franz, Dafne; Contreras, Francisco; González, Hugo; Prado, Carolina; Elgueta, Daniela; Figueroa, Claudio; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2015-07-15

    Dopamine receptors have been described in T-cells, however their signalling pathways coupled remain unknown. Since cAMP and ERKs play key roles regulating T-cell physiology, we aim to determine whether cAMP and ERK1/2-phosphorylation are modulated by dopamine receptor 3 (D3R) and D5R, and how this modulation affects CD4(+) T-cell activation and differentiation. Our pharmacologic and genetic evidence shows that D3R-stimulation reduced cAMP levels and ERK2-phosphorylation, consequently increasing CD4(+) T-cell activation and Th1-differentiation, respectively. Moreover, D5R expression reinforced TCR-triggered ERK1/2-phosphorylation and T-cell activation. In conclusion, these findings demonstrate how D3R and D5R modulate key signalling pathways affecting CD4(+) T-cell activation and Th1-differentiation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Assessing Disaster Preparedness Among Select Children's Summer Camps in the United States and Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Megan; Sielaff, Alan; Bradin, Stuart; Walker, Kevin; Ambrose, Michael; Hashikawa, Andrew

    2017-08-01

    Children's summer camps are at risk for multiple pediatric casualties during a disaster. The degree to which summer camps have instituted disaster preparedness is unknown. We assessed disaster preparedness among selected camps nationally for a range of disasters. We partnered with a national, web-based electronic health records system to send camp leadership of 315 camp organizations a 14-question online survey of disaster preparedness. One response from each camp was selected in the following order of importance: owner, director, physician, nurse, medical technician, office staff, and other. The results were analyzed using descriptive statistics. A total of 181 camps responses were received, 169 of which were complete. Camp types were overnight (60%), day (21%), special/medical needs (14%), and other (5%). Survey respondents were directors (52%), nurses (14%), office staff (10%), physicians (5%), owners (5%), emergency medical technicians (2%), and other (12%). Almost 18% of camps were located >20 mi from a major medical center, and 36% were >5 mi from police/fire departments. Many camps were missing emergency supplies: car/booster seats for evacuation (68%), shelter (35%), vehicles for evacuation (26%), quarantine isolation areas (21%), or emergency supplies of extra water (20%) or food (17%). Plans were unavailable for the following: power outages (23%); lockdowns (15%); illness outbreaks (15%); tornadoes (11%); evacuation for fire, flood, or chemical spill (9%); and other severe weather (8%). Many camps did not have online emergency plans (53%), plans for children with special/medical needs (38%), methods to rapidly communicate information to parents (25%), or methods to identify children for evacuation/reunification with parents (40%). Respondents reported that staff participation in disaster drills varied for weather (58%), evacuations (46%), and lockdowns (36%). The majority (75%) of respondents had not collaborated with medical organizations for planning. A

  11. Access to Safe Water and Personal Hygiene Practices in the Kulandia Refugee Camp (Jerusalem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mohamad; McHenry, Michael; Issa, Abdul Aziz; Blackwood, R Alexander

    2015-12-22

    Diarrheal illness, frequently associated with fecal-oral transmission, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is commonly preventable through the implementation of safe water practices. This experiment concerns how to best implement safe water practices in a quasi-permanent refugee camp setting with limited ability for structural changes. Specifically, we explore how health promotion activities that help identify target groups for hygiene interventions can play a role in disease prevention. An anonymous survey was conducted at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency Health Clinic in the Kulandia refugee camp to assess the safe water and personal hygiene practices. Demographic and social characteristics, accessible water and personal hygiene characteristics, and gastrointestinal (GI) burden for individuals and their households were assessed. A total of 96 individuals were enrolled; 62 females and 34 males. Approximately 58% of the sample had soap available and washed hands before and after eating and when preparing food. Piped water was the main source of drinking water (62%), while 31% of our sample utilized tanker-trucks. 93% of participants had access to toilet facilities, with 86% of these facilities being private households. 55% practice extra water hygiene measures on their household drinking water source. 51.3% considered vendor cleanliness when they were buying food. 51% had received formal health education. 68.8% had been taught by their parents, but only 55.2% were teaching their children and 15.6% had consistent access to a health professional for hygiene inquiries. Individual variables and hygiene practices associated with lower rates of diarrheal illnesses included having water piped into the home, proper hand washing, adequate soap availability, proper consideration of vendor cleanliness, higher income, levels of education, health hygiene education, and having access to healthcare professions to discuss hygiene related matters. This is

  12. From camp to kitsch: A queer eye on console fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gallagher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offering a queer perspective on video game fandom, this article considers the factors that fostered a subculture of Western devotees of Japanese video games in the 1990s. Focused on readers of the English publication Sega Saturn Magazine, it shows how, for these players, Japanese games became the basis of a collective identity founded on precisely the kinds of perverse over-attachment, projective identification and hermeneutic ingenuity that Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick identifies with camp. Citing this subculture as an example of how fans transform the texts they put to use, the article also addresses its implications for our understanding of fandom today, at a time when the proliferation of quantitative analysis techniques is transforming the production and consumption of games. Such techniques, I argue, threaten to compromise the contingency and ambiguity on which camp thrives, instead fostering the kinds of cynical calculation Sedgwick associates with kitsch.

  13. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase modulates the activated phenotype of hepatic stellate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiuri, Alessandra; Bertolani, Cristiana; Guerra, Cristina Tosti; Aleffi, Sara; Galastri, Sara; Trappoliere, Marco; Vizzutti, Francesco; Gelmini, Stefania; Laffi, Giacomo; Pinzani, Massimo; Marra, Fabio

    2008-02-01

    Adiponectin limits the development of liver fibrosis and activates adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK). AMPK is a sensor of the cellular energy status, but its possible modulation of the fibrogenic properties of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) has not been established. In this study, we investigated the role of AMPK activation in the biology of activated human HSCs. A time-dependent activation of AMPK was observed in response to a number of stimuli, including globular adiponectin, 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide-1-beta-4-ribofuranoside (AICAR), or metformin. All these compounds significantly inhibited platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-stimulated proliferation and migration of human HSCs and reduced the secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1. In addition, AICAR limited the secretion of type I procollagen. Knockdown of AMPK by gene silencing increased the mitogenic effects of PDGF, confirming the negative modulation exerted by this pathway on HSCs. AMPK activation did not reduce PDGF-dependent activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) or Akt at early time points, whereas a marked inhibition was observed 24 hours after addition of PDGF, reflecting a block in cell cycle progression. In contrast, AICAR blocked short-term phosphorylation of ribosomal S6 kinase (p70(S6K)) and 4E binding protein-1 (4EBP1), 2 downstream effectors of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) pathway, by PDGF. The ability of interleukin-a (IL-1) to activate nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB) was also reduced by AICAR. Activation of AMPK negatively modulates the activated phenotype of HSCs.

  14. Enzyme architecture: deconstruction of the enzyme-activating phosphodianion interactions of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldman, Lawrence M; Amyes, Tina L; Goryanova, Bogdana; Gerlt, John A; Richard, John P

    2014-07-16

    The mechanism for activation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (OMPDC) by interactions of side chains from Gln215 and Try217 at a gripper loop and R235, adjacent to this loop, with the phosphodianion of OMP was probed by determining the kinetic parameters k(cat) and K(m) for all combinations of single, double, and triple Q215A, Y217F, and R235A mutations. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic binding energy of the phosphodianion is shown to be equal to the sum of the binding energies of the side chains of R235 (6 kcal/mol), Q215 (2 kcal/mol), Y217 (2 kcal/mol), and hydrogen bonds to the G234 and R235 backbone amides (2 kcal/mol). Analysis of a triple mutant cube shows small (ca. 1 kcal/mol) interactions between phosphodianion gripper side chains, which are consistent with steric crowding of the side chains around the phosphodianion at wild-type OMPDC. These mutations result in the same change in the activation barrier to the OMPDC-catalyzed reactions of the whole substrate OMP and the substrate pieces (1-β-D-erythrofuranosyl)orotic acid (EO) and phosphite dianion. This shows that the transition states for these reactions are stabilized by similar interactions with the protein catalyst. The 12 kcal/mol intrinsic phosphodianion binding energy of OMP is divided between the 8 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to drive a thermodynamically unfavorable conformational change of the free enzyme, resulting in an increase in (k(cat))(obs) for OMPDC-catalyzed decarboxylation of OMP, and the 4 kcal/mol of binding energy, which is utilized to stabilize the Michaelis complex, resulting in a decrease in (K(m))(obs).

  15. Current Status of Women in Physics in Korea—and the New Physics Camp Initiative for High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyunjung; Song, Sanghoon; Park, Hyunjeong; Park, Jiseon; An, Jihye; Park, Joyoung; Yim, Haein; Song, Jeonghyeon; Yoon, Jin-Hee; Park, Youngah

    2009-04-01

    The Korean Physical Society (KPS) Women Committee has organized a series of the physics camps for high school girl students to give them an opportunity to work together and interact with professional physicists. Although the KPS Women Committee has successfully set the KPS's face toward women's issues, it still needs more systematic support for helping and promoting the activities of women physicists. We describe the physics camp initiative and present the current status of women in physics in Korea, comparing female ratios in undergraduate and graduate school and faculty for the last ten years (1998-2007). The employment rate for females is compared with that for males according to education level. The total number of female students in physics in Korea has increased; however, it is still a very small portion of females who stay in physics with professional positions.

  16. Building Energy Audit Report for Camp Smith, HI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chvala, William D.; De La Rosa, Marcus I.; Brown, Daryl R.; Dixon, Douglas R.

    2010-09-30

    A detailed energy assessment was performed by a team of engineers from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) under contract to the Department of Energy/Federal Energy Management program (FEMP). The effort used the Facility Energy Decision System (FEDS) model to determine how energy is consumed at Camp Smith, identify the most cost-effective energy retrofit measures, and calculate the potential energy and cost savings. This report documents the results of that assessment.

  17. A Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp improves trainee confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Catherine K; Tannous, Paul; DeWitt, Elizabeth; Farias, Michael; Mansfield, Laura; Ronai, Christina; Schidlow, David; Sanders, Stephen P; Lock, James E; Newburger, Jane W; Brown, David W

    2016-12-01

    Introduction New paediatric cardiology trainees are required to rapidly assimilate knowledge and gain clinical skills to which they have limited or no exposure during residency. The Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp (PCBC) at Boston Children's Hospital was designed to provide incoming fellows with an intensive exposure to congenital cardiac pathology and a broad overview of major areas of paediatric cardiology practice. The PCBC curriculum was designed by core faculty in cardiac pathology, echocardiography, electrophysiology, interventional cardiology, exercise physiology, and cardiac intensive care. Individual faculty contributed learning objectives, which were refined by fellowship directors and used to build a programme of didactics, hands-on/simulation-based activities, and self-guided learning opportunities. A total of 16 incoming fellows participated in the 4-week boot camp, with no concurrent clinical responsibilities, over 2 years. On the basis of pre- and post-PCBC surveys, 80% of trainees strongly agreed that they felt more prepared for clinical responsibilities, and a similar percentage felt that PCBC should be offered to future incoming fellows. Fellows showed significant increase in their confidence in all specific knowledge and skills related to the learning objectives. Fellows rated hands-on learning experiences and simulation-based exercises most highly. We describe a novel 4-week-long boot camp designed to expose incoming paediatric cardiology fellows to the broad spectrum of knowledge and skills required for the practice of paediatric cardiology. The experience increased trainee confidence and sense of preparedness to begin fellowship-related responsibilities. Given that highly interactive activities were rated most highly, boot camps in paediatric cardiology should strongly emphasise these elements.

  18. Assessment of DoD Wounded Warrior Matters -- Camp Lejeune

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    wheelchairs, oxygen equipment, crutches , hospital beds, patient lifts, power scooters and nebulizers. The Naval Hospital Camp Lejeune’s lead MCM...on paper , it looked much different than the picture he had in his mind. Our interviews with Platoon Leaders reveal that they did not have an...noted that in the past year the MTF had used over 1.5 million sheets of paper processing paper work for medical boards. The current PEB backlog was

  19. Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, Matthias; Boyd, Paul A.; Koehler, Theresa M.; Goel, Supriya; Sisk, Daniel R.; Hatley, Darrel D.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Hail, John C.

    2014-02-11

    The U.S. Army Logistics Innovation Agency’s (LIA’s) Smart and Green Energy (SAGE) for Base Camps project was to investigate how base camps’ fuel consumption can be reduced by 30% to 60% using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) technologies for power generation, renewables, and energy efficient building systems. Field tests and calibrated energy models successfully demonstrated that the fuel reductions are achievable.

  20. The Promotion of HAMK Winter and Summer Camps: Case China

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Yulu

    2017-01-01

    The main purpose of this thesis is to promote HAMK winter and summer camps in China and maintain its competitive advantages by figuring out more effective marketing activities to attract students. The theories used to support and give references to this thesis were based on the research and studies from Philip Kotler, Kevin Keller and Armstrong. Some marketing related books such as Principles of Marketing or Marketing Management proved to be professional sources and explanations for conce...

  1. CORRECTIVE SURGERY IN CONGENITAL TALIPES EQUINOVARUS DEFORMITY: A CAMP APPROACH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antony R.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was intended to assess the results of soft tissue release and bony corrective surgery in patients of moderate to severe deformed rigid club foot (CTEV and neglected clubfoot (CTEV at free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state . MATERIAL AND METHODS : In our study 50 patients were included with 70% male and 30% female with 4 - 16 years of age grou p and 70% unilateral and 30% bilateral foot involvement. Patients were admitted and operated in different free disabled surgical camps at Chhattisgarh state over the period of 36 months (1 may 2004 to 30 th April 2007. Improvement in functional ability and locomotion of all operated patients were assessed by physical and clinical examination. RESULTS : All patients who were operated in our study showed significant improvement in functional ability and locomotion after surgery. All patients were maintaining f unctional ability at follow up duration of 12 months (1 year. 75% patients were walking normally, 10% cases were walking with internal rotation of leg and 5% cases were walking with midtarsal varus foot with AFO with medial bar support. CONCLUSION : Our st udy showed and established that excellent results can be obtained in congenital talipes equinovarus (CTEV patients by soft tissue release with bony corrective surgery. The team work of devoted surgeons, paramedical and rehabilitation staff in whole durati on of camps to achieve the goal. With an aim to help more number of CTEV cases by surgery, our team has started doing surgeries in small institutions, and organize charity camps to help poor patients and mankind even in small clinics

  2. MIDSUMMER IN TOP CAMPING YYTERI - A CUSTOMER SATISFACTION SURVEY

    OpenAIRE

    Iisakkala, Riikka

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays camping is a popular way to spend holidays, because the accommodation possibilities are cheap. There are different types campsites, like sports campsites, religious campsites and nature campsites. What makes them so popular is that idea of the campsites are the same in all over the world, so people knows what to get when they come to Finland and use the campsites. Customer satisfaction and quality of a campsite are key words to every campsite. If the customer leaves a campsi...

  3. Incidence and risk factors for Malaria, pneumonia and diarrhea in children under 5 in UNHCR refugee camps: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hershey Christine L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR refugee camps are located predominantly in rural areas of Africa and Asia in protracted or post-emergency contexts. Recognizing the importance of malaria, pneumonia and diarrheal diseases as major causes of child morbidity and mortality in refugee camps, we analyzed data from the UNHCR Health Information System (HIS to estimate incidence and risk factors for these diseases in refugee children younger than five years of age. Methods Data from 90 UNHCR camps in 16 countries, including morbidity, mortality, health services and refugee health status, were obtained from the UNHCR HIS for the period January 2006 to February 2010. Monthly camp-level data were aggregated to yearly estimates for analysis and stratified by location in Africa (including Yemen or Asia. Poisson regression models with random effects were constructed to identify factors associated with malaria, pneumonia and diarrheal diseases. Spatial patterns in the incidence of malaria, pneumonia and diarrheal diseases were mapped to identify regional heterogeneities. Results Malaria and pneumonia were the two most common causes of mortality, with confirmed malaria and pneumonia each accounting for 20% of child deaths. Suspected and confirmed malaria accounted for 23% of child morbidity and pneumonia accounted for 17% of child morbidity. Diarrheal diseases were the cause of 7% of deaths and 10% of morbidity in children under five. Mean under-five incidence rates across all refugee camps by region were: malaria [Africa 84.7 cases/1000 U5 population/month (95% CI 67.5-102.0, Asia 2.2/1000/month (95% CI 1.4-3.0]; pneumonia [Africa 59.2/1000/month (95% CI 49.8-68.7, Asia 254.5/1000/month (95% CI 207.1-301.8]; and diarrheal disease [Africa 35.5/1000/month (95% CI 28.7-42.4, Asia 69.2/1000/month (95% CI 61.0-77.5]. Measles was infrequent and accounted for a small proportion of child morbidity (503 cases, Conclusions As in

  4. The quest for chron E23r at Partridge Island, bay of Fundy, Canada: CAMP emplacement postdates the end-Triassic extinction event at the North American craton

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deenen, M.H.L.; Krijgsman, W.; Ruhl, M.

    2011-01-01

    The Partridge Island stratigraphic section at the Bay of Fundy, Maritime Canada, reveals a continental sedimentary succession with the end-Triassic mass extinction level closely followed by basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). New Paleomagnetic data show that a short reverse

  5. Effects of a Competency-Based Professional Development Training on Children's Physical Activity and Staff Physical Activity Promotion in Summer Day Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Webster, Collin A.; Moore, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The YMCA of the USA serves more than nine million youth in its summer day camping programs nationwide. In spring 2011, the YMCA of Columbia, SC, with support from the University of South Carolina, adopted a competency-based staff-level training approach in an attempt to align staff behaviors with the YMCA of the USA new physical activity standards…

  6. Outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of northern Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camélique Olivier

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although chickenpox is a generally mild, self-limited illness of children, it can cause fatal disease in adults. Accumulating reports from tropical countries showed a high prevalence of seronegativity among the adults, implying that varicella diseases could become a heavy burden in tropical countries. However, in the situation of humanitarian emergencies in tropical areas, chickenpox has largely been ignored as a serious communicable disease, due to lack of data regarding varicella mortality and hospital admissions in such a context. This is the first report describing an outbreak of chickenpox in a refugee camp of tropical region. In 2008, we experienced a varicella outbreak in ethnic Lao Hmong refugee camp in Phetchabun Province, northern Thailand. The attack rate was 4.0% (309/7,815 and this caused 3 hospitalizations including one who developed severe varicella pneumonia with respiratory failure. All hospitalizations were exclusively seen in adults, and the proportion of patients ≥15 years old was 13.6% (42/309. Because less exposure to varicella-zoster virus due to low population density has previously been suggested to be one of the reasons behind higher prevalence of susceptible adults in tropics, the influx of displaced people from rural areas to a densely populated asylum might result in many severe adult cases once a varicella outbreak occurs. Control interventions such as vaccination should be considered even in refugee camp, if the confluence of the risk factors present in this situation.

  7. Effectiveness of mammography boot camp for radiology residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keum Won; Kim, Young Joong; Seo, Jae Young

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate an educational effect of the mammography boot camp (MBC) for radiology residents and analyze affecting factors. Between December 2014 and February 2015, radiology residents in 16 institutions performed the MBC program. We compared the educational effect (score difference between pre- and post-camp test) using 25 case series and analyzed the affecting factors including institution, grades of residents, training periods, presence of sub-specialized breast staff, breast density, and types of cases. The mean scores of 92 residents were 52.80 ± 18.10 and 72.50 ± 12.91 in the pre- and post-camp test, respectively (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference of educational effect according to institution (19.70 ± 16.31), grade, or training period. Although the educational effect of non-trainees was superior to that of trainees (28.10 ± 17.55 vs. 15.90 ± 14.22; p = 0.001), the scores of trainees were higher than those of non-trainees. The diagnostic accuracy showed more improvement in a fatty breast and cases with microcalcifications than compared with others. The MBC showed an effective educational result for radiology residents when interpretating a mammography. It was helpful even for non-trainees. The institution, grades training period, and presence of sub-specialized breast staff did not affect the educational effect

  8. Effectiveness of mammography boot camp for radiology residents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keum Won; Kim, Young Joong; Seo, Jae Young [Dept. of Radiology, Konyang University Hospital, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); and others

    2017-01-15

    To evaluate an educational effect of the mammography boot camp (MBC) for radiology residents and analyze affecting factors. Between December 2014 and February 2015, radiology residents in 16 institutions performed the MBC program. We compared the educational effect (score difference between pre- and post-camp test) using 25 case series and analyzed the affecting factors including institution, grades of residents, training periods, presence of sub-specialized breast staff, breast density, and types of cases. The mean scores of 92 residents were 52.80 ± 18.10 and 72.50 ± 12.91 in the pre- and post-camp test, respectively (p = 0.001). There was no significant difference of educational effect according to institution (19.70 ± 16.31), grade, or training period. Although the educational effect of non-trainees was superior to that of trainees (28.10 ± 17.55 vs. 15.90 ± 14.22; p = 0.001), the scores of trainees were higher than those of non-trainees. The diagnostic accuracy showed more improvement in a fatty breast and cases with microcalcifications than compared with others. The MBC showed an effective educational result for radiology residents when interpretating a mammography. It was helpful even for non-trainees. The institution, grades training period, and presence of sub-specialized breast staff did not affect the educational effect.

  9. Developing Social Skills of Summer Campers with Autism Spectrum Disorder: A Case Study of Camps on TRACKS Implementation in an Inclusive Day-Camp Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maich, Kimberly; Hall, Carmen L.; van Rhijn, Tricia Marie; Quinlan, Laurie

    2015-01-01

    This research provides preliminary results of an exploratory case study conducted of the Camps on TRACKS program in an inclusive, municipal day-camp program in southwestern Ontario, Canada. Positive changes are demonstrated in the social skills of nine day campers with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD) who participated in the program. In this…

  10. The Effect of a Disability Camp Program on Attitudes towards the Inclusion of Children with Disabilities in a Summer Sport and Leisure Activity Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papaioannou, Christina; Evaggelinou, Christina

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of a specific Disability Camp Program (DCP) in the attitudes of children without disabilities toward the inclusion of children with disabilities in a summer sport and leisure activity camp. Three hundred eighty-seven campers without disabilities participated in the study and were divided into…

  11. Exchange Protein Directly Activated by cAMP (epac) : A Multidomain cAMP Mediator in the Regulation of Diverse Biological Functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schmidt, Martina; Dekker, Frank J.; Maarsingh, Harm

    Since the discovery nearly 60 years ago, cAMP is envisioned as one of the most universal and versatile second messengers. The tremendous feature of cAMP to tightly control highly diverse physiologic processes, including calcium homeostasis, metabolism, secretion, muscle contraction, cell fate, and

  12. Impact of pediatric burn camps on participants' self esteem and body image: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakker, Anne; Van der Heijden, Peter G M; Van Son, Maarten J M; Van de Schoot, Rens; Van Loey, Nancy E E

    2011-12-01

    This study focuses on possible effects of specialized summer camps on young burn survivors' self esteem and body image. Quantitative as well as qualitative measures was used. To study possible effects, a pretest-posttest comparison group design with a follow-up was employed. Self-report questionnaires were used to measure self esteem and body image in a burn camp group (n=83, 8-18 years) and in a comparison group of children with burns who did not attend a burn camp during the course of the study (n=90, 8-18 years). Additionally, burn camp participants and parents completed an evaluation form about benefits derived from burn camp. A small positive short-term effect of burn camp participation was found on the 'satisfaction with appearance' component of body image. Overall, participants and parents showed high appreciation of the burn camps and reported several benefits, particularly concerning meeting other young burn survivors. Albeit statistically modest, this is the first quantitative study to document on a significant short-term impact of burn camp on young burn survivors' body image. Implications of this result for future research and burn camp organization were discussed, including the strengths of residential camps for young burn survivors. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.

  13. A novel Ras-interacting protein required for chemotaxis and cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal relay in Dictyostelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, S; Parent, C A; Insall, R; Firtel, R A

    1999-09-01

    We have identified a novel Ras-interacting protein from Dictyostelium, RIP3, whose function is required for both chemotaxis and the synthesis and relay of the cyclic AMP (cAMP) chemoattractant signal. rip3 null cells are unable to aggregate and lack receptor activation of adenylyl cyclase but are able, in response to cAMP, to induce aggregation-stage, postaggregative, and cell-type-specific gene expression in suspension culture. In addition, rip3 null cells are unable to properly polarize in a cAMP gradient and chemotaxis is highly impaired. We demonstrate that cAMP stimulation of guanylyl cyclase, which is required for chemotaxis, is reduced approximately 60% in rip3 null cells. This reduced activation of guanylyl cyclase may account, in part, for the defect in chemotaxis. When cells are pulsed with cAMP for 5 h to mimic the endogenous cAMP oscillations that occur in wild-type strains, the cells will form aggregates, most of which, however, arrest at the mound stage. Unlike the response seen in wild-type strains, the rip3 null cell aggregates that form under these experimental conditions are very small, which is probably due to the rip3 null cell chemotaxis defect. Many of the phenotypes of the rip3 null cell, including the inability to activate adenylyl cyclase in response to cAMP and defects in chemotaxis, are very similar to those of strains carrying a disruption of the gene encoding the putative Ras exchange factor AleA. We demonstrate that aleA null cells also exhibit a defect in cAMP-mediated activation of guanylyl cyclase similar to that of rip3 null cells. A double-knockout mutant (rip3/aleA null cells) exhibits a further reduction in receptor activation of guanylyl cyclase, and these cells display almost no cell polarization or movement in cAMP gradients. As RIP3 preferentially interacts with an activated form of the Dictyostelium Ras protein RasG, which itself is important for cell movement, we propose that RIP3 and AleA are components of a Ras

  14. Application and optimization of the tenderization of pig Longissimus dorsi muscle by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) using the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoying; Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong

    2016-03-01

    Based on single factor experiments, NaCl concentration, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) concentration and temperature were selected as independent variables for a three-level Box-Behnken experimental design, and the shear force and cooking loss were response values for regression analysis. According to the statistical models, it showed that all independent variables had significant effects on shear force and cooking loss, and optimal values were at the NaCl concentration of 4.15%, AMP concentration of 22.27 mmol/L and temperature of 16.70°C, which was determined with three-dimensional response surface diagrams and contour plots. Under this condition, the observed shear force and cooking loss were 0.625 kg and 8.07%, respectively, exhibiting a good agreement with their predicted values, showing the good applicability and feasibility of response surface methodology (RSM) for improving pork tenderness. Compared with control pig muscles, AMP combined with NaCl treatment demonstrated significant effects on improvement of meat tenderness and reduction of cooking loss. Therefore, AMP could be regarded as an effective tenderization agent for pork. © 2015 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  15. The Role of Growth Factors (VEGF, TGF-β1 and Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate in the Formation of Pulmonary Hypertension in Children with Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.S. Senatorova

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available In 82 children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (from 1 to 36 months of corrected age we investigated the level of VEGF, TGF-β1 in blood and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP in sputum. It was revealed that children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia had a significant increase in TGF-β1 (p < 0.05 and cGMP (p < 0.01–0.001, reduced VEGF (p < 0.05, indicating inhibition of angiogenesis, activation of fibrosis factors and endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Reliable direct dependence of activation of TGF-β1 in blood and cGMP in sputum, as well as inverse correlation between VEGF in blood and rLA had been proved, which gave reason to think of pulmonary hypertension as an adverse factor in fibrosis activation and angiogenesis inhibition in children with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Reduced oxygen saturation and oxygen partial pressure moderately activated cGMP, but did not provide a sufficient reduction of pressure in the pulmonary artery.

  16. Adenosine monophosphate is elevated in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid of mice with acute respiratory toxicity induced by nanoparticles with high surface hydrophobicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dailey, Lea Ann; Hernández-Prieto, Raquel; Casas-Ferreira, Ana Maria; Jones, Marie-Christine; Riffo-Vasquez, Yanira; Rodríguez-Gonzalo, Encarnación; Spina, Domenico; Jones, Stuart A; Smith, Norman W; Forbes, Ben; Page, Clive; Legido-Quigley, Cristina

    2015-02-01

    Inhaled nanomaterials present a challenge to traditional methods and understanding of respiratory toxicology. In this study, a non-targeted metabolomics approach was used to investigate relationships between nanoparticle hydrophobicity, inflammatory outcomes and the metabolic fingerprint in bronchoalveolar fluid. Measures of acute lung toxicity were assessed following single-dose intratracheal administration of nanoparticles with varying surface hydrophobicity (i.e. pegylated lipid nanocapsules, polyvinyl acetate nanoparticles and polystyrene beads; listed in order of increasing hydrophobicity). Broncho-alveolar lavage (BAL) fluid was collected from mice exposed to nanoparticles at a surface area dose of 220 cm(2) and metabolite fingerprints were acquired via ultra pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry-based metabolomics. Particles with high surface hydrophobicity were pro-inflammatory. Multivariate analysis of the resultant small molecule fingerprints revealed clear discrimination between the vehicle control and polystyrene beads (p < 0.05), as well as between nanoparticles of different surface hydrophobicity (p < 0.0001). Further investigation of the metabolic fingerprints revealed that adenosine monophosphate (AMP) concentration in BAL correlated with neutrophilia (p < 0.01), CXCL1 levels (p < 0.05) and nanoparticle surface hydrophobicity (p < 0.001). Our results suggest that extracellular AMP is an intermediary metabolite involved in adenine nucleotide-regulated neutrophilic inflammation as well as tissue damage, and could potentially be used to monitor nanoparticle-induced responses in the lung following pulmonary administration.

  17. Health-related quality of life of Palestinian refugees inside and outside camps in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alduraidi, Hamza; Waters, Catherine M

    Jordan hosts more Palestinian refugees than any country in the world. Conditions under which people in a community live influence their health-related quality of life (HRQOL). The purpose of this descriptive comparative cross-sectional study was to compare HRQOL of Palestinian refugees in Jordan who live inside camps with those who live outside camps. Participants, recruited from inside the Baqa'a camp (n = 86) and the surrounding Abu Nsair community (n = 91), completed the World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief questionnaire. There were disparities in education and social relations and environment HRQOL related to income and residency, but not gender, among refugees. Refugees living inside camps, particularly if poorer, fared worse than refugees living outside camps. Enhanced programs and policies may be needed to improve HRQOL, education, and socioeconomics for camp refugees. Nursing's perspective on refugee health could make an important contribution to humanitarian efforts and health diplomacy. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. How Women Work: The Symbolic and Material Reproduction of Migrant Labor Camps in United States Agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert CARLEY

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes gender exploitation in Mexican and Central American migrant farm worker camps in the U.S through small group interactions. We describe how gender exploitation and oppression is transmitted through the social fabric of the camp. We argue that the camp produces an endogenous system of social interaction, which maintains uneven gender relationships. Our data is based on observations of twenty-five women and girls in three labor camps in North Carolina. Research was conducted over a period of six weeks. We found that women who served as the primary bearers of patrimonial authority best maintained the camp community. We conclude that women who successfully reproduce the authority structure gain social status in the camps and are more likely to stay.

  19. Effect of agmatine on the development of morphine dependence in rats: potential role of cAMP system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aricioglu, Feyza; Means, Andrea; Regunathan, Soundar

    2010-01-01

    Agmatine is an endogenous amine derived from arginine that potentiates morphine analgesia and blocks symptoms of naloxone-precipitated morphine withdrawal in rats. In this study, we sought to determine whether treatment with agmatine during the development of morphine dependence inhibits the withdrawal symptoms and that the effect is mediated by cAMP system. Exposure of rats to morphine for 7 days resulted in marked naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms and agmatine treatment along with morphine significantly decreasing the withdrawal symptoms. The levels of cAMP were markedly increased in morphine-treated rat brain slices when incubated with naloxone and this increase was significantly reduced in rats treated with morphine and agmatine. The induction of tyrosine hydroxylase after morphine exposure was also reduced in locus coeruleus when agmatine was administered along with morphine. We conclude that agmatine reduces the development of dependence to morphine and that this effect is probably mediated by the inhibition of cAMP signaling pathway during chronic morphine exposure. PMID:15541421

  20. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) improves the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) via up-regulation of CGRP and cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Liucheng; Song, Tao; Yi, Chaoran; Huang, Yi; Yu, Wen; Ling, Lin; Dai, Yutian; Wei, Zhongqing

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects and mechanism of Transcutaneous Electrical Nerve Stimulation (TENS) on the diabetic cytopathy (DCP) in the diabetic bladder. A total of 45 rats were randomly divided into diabetes mellitus (DM)/TENS group (n=15), DM group (n=15) and control group (n=15). The rats in the DM/TENS and TENS groups were electronically stimulated (stimulating parameters: intensity-31 V, frequency-31 Hz, and duration of stimulation of 15 min) for three weeks. Bladder histology, urodynamics and contractile responses to field stimulation and carbachol were determined. The expression of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) was analyzed by RT-PCR and Western blotting. The results showed that contractile responses of the DM rats were ameliorated after 3 weeks of TENS. Furthermore, TENS significantly increased bladder wet weight, volume threshold for micturition and reduced PVR, V% and cAMP content of the bladder. The mRNA and protein levels of CGRP in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) in the DM/TENS group were higher than those in the DM group. TENS also significantly up-regulated the cAMP content in the bladder body and base compared with diabetic rats. We conclude that TENS can significantly improve the urine contractility and ameliorate the feeling of bladder fullness in DM rats possibly via up-regulation of cAMP and CGRP in DRG.

  1. Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Description and Evaluation of a Novel Intensive Training Program for Pediatric Cardiology Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresnak, Scott R; Axelrod, David M; Motonaga, Kara S; Johnson, Emily R; Krawczeski, Catherine D

    2016-06-01

    The transition from residency to subspecialty fellowship in a procedurally driven field such as pediatric cardiology is challenging for trainees. We describe and assess the educational value of a pediatric cardiology "boot camp" educational tool designed to help prepare trainees for cardiology fellowship. A two-day intensive training program was provided for pediatric cardiology fellows in July 2015 at a large fellowship training program. Hands-on experiences and simulations were provided in: anatomy, auscultation, echocardiography, catheterization, cardiovascular intensive care (CVICU), electrophysiology (EP), heart failure, and cardiac surgery. Knowledge-based exams as well as surveys were completed by each participant pre-training and post-training. Pre- and post-exam results were compared via paired t tests, and survey results were compared via Wilcoxon rank sum. A total of eight participants were included. After boot camp, there was a significant improvement between pre- and post-exam scores (PRE 54 ± 9 % vs. POST 85 ± 8 %; p ≤ 0.001). On pre-training survey, the most common concerns about starting fellowship included: CVICU emergencies, technical aspects of the catheterization/EP labs, using temporary and permanent pacemakers/implantable cardiac defibrillators (ICDs), and ECG interpretation. Comparing pre- and post-surveys, there was a statistically significant improvement in the participants comfort level in 33 of 36 (92 %) areas of assessment. All participants (8/8, 100 %) strongly agreed that the boot camp was a valuable learning experience and helped to alleviate anxieties about the start of fellowship. A pediatric cardiology boot camp experience at the start of cardiology fellowship can provide a strong foundation and serve as an educational springboard for pediatric cardiology fellows.

  2. Student understanding development in chemistry concepts through constructivist-informed laboratory and science camp process in secondary school

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathommapas, Nookorn

    2018-01-01

    Science Camp for Chemistry Concepts was the project which designed to provide local students with opportunities to apply chemistry concepts and thereby developing their 21st century skills. The three study purposes were 1) to construct and develop chemistry stations for encouraging students' understandings in chemistry concepts based on constructivist-informed laboratory, 2) to compare students' understandings in chemistry concepts before and after using chemistry learning stations, and 3) to study students' satisfactions of using their 21st century skills in science camp activities. The research samples were 67 students who attended the 1-day science camp. They were levels 10 to 11 students in SumsaoPittayakarn School, UdonThani Province, Thailand. Four constructivist-informed laboratory stations of chemistry concepts were designed for each group. Each station consisted of a chemistry scenario, a question, answers in tier 1 and supporting reasons in tier 2, and 4 sets of experimental instruments. Four to five-member subgroups of four student groups parallel participated in laboratory station for an hour in each station. Student activities in each station concluded of individual pretest, group prediction, experimental design, testing out and collection data, interpreting the results, group conclusion, and individual post-test. Data collection was done by station mentors using two-tier multiple choice questions, students' written work and interviews. Data triangulation was used for interpreting and confirming students' understandings of chemistry concepts which divided into five levels, Sound Understanding (SU), Partial Understanding (PU), Specific Misconception (SM), No Understanding (NU) and No Response (NR), before and after collaborating at each station. The study results found the following: 1) four constructivist-laboratory stations were successfully designed and used to investigate student' understandings in chemistry concepts via collaborative workshop of

  3. Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase defines a nuclear cAMP microdomain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zippin, Jonathan H.; Farrell, Jeanne; Huron, David; Kamenetsky, Margarita; Hess, Kenneth C.; Fischman, Donald A.; Levin, Lonny R.; Buck, Jochen

    2004-01-01

    Bicarbonate-responsive “soluble” adenylyl cyclase resides, in part, inside the mammalian cell nucleus where it stimulates the activity of nuclear protein kinase A to phosphorylate the cAMP response element binding protein (CREB). The existence of this complete and functional, nuclear-localized cAMP pathway establishes that cAMP signals in intracellular microdomains and identifies an alternate pathway leading to CREB activation. PMID:14769862

  4. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    OpenAIRE

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorically and physically relevant. First, the metaphorical dimension of the city places refugees and their negotiation of space into the realm of the normal and the possible, contrary to prevailing not...

  5. Preparing for the primary care clinic: an ambulatory boot camp for internal medicine interns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esch, Lindsay M.; Bird, Amber-Nicole; Oyler, Julie L.; Lee, Wei Wei; Shah, Sachin D.; Pincavage, Amber T.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Internal medicine (IM) interns start continuity clinic with variable ambulatory training. Multiple other specialties have utilized a boot camp style curriculum to improve surgical and procedural skills, but boot camps have not been used to improve interns’ ambulatory knowledge and confidence. The authors implemented and assessed the impact of an intern ambulatory boot camp pilot on primary care knowledge, confidence, and curricular satisfaction. Methods During July 2014, IM interns attended ambulatory boot camp. It included clinically focused case-based didactic sessions on common ambulatory topics as well as orientation to the clinic and electronic medical records. Interns anonymously completed a 15-question pre-test on topics covered in the boot camp as well as an identical post-test after the boot camp. The interns were surveyed regarding their confidence and satisfaction. Results Thirty-eight interns participated in the boot camp. Prior to the boot camp, few interns reported confidence managing common outpatient conditions. The average pre-test knowledge score was 46.3%. The average post-test knowledge score significantly improved to 76.1% (pinterns reported that the boot camp was good preparation for clinics and 97% felt that the boot camp boosted their confidence. Conclusions The ambulatory boot camp pilot improved primary care knowledge, and interns thought it was good preparation for clinic. The ambulatory boot camp was well received and may be an effective way to improve the preparation of interns for primary care clinic. Further assessment of clinical performance and expansion to other programs and specialties should be considered. PMID:26609962

  6. Environmental and social-motivational contextual factors related to youth physical activity: systematic observations of summer day camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarrett, Nicole; Sorensen, Carl; Skiles, Brittany

    2013-05-20

    Youth risk of obesity is high during the summer months. Summer day camps can be ideal settings for preventing obesity through reducing youth summer sedentary behaviors. However, with limited research on camp settings, the mechanisms by which these programs promote children's physical activity (PA) remains largely unknown. The current study was designed to take a first step in addressing this gap in research through systematic observations of 4 summer day camps. Systematic observations of 4 summer day camps was conducted using the System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth (SOPLAY) and a social-motivational climate supplemental observation tool founded on Self-Determination Theory and previous research developed by the authors. Teams of two coders observed daily activities for four days across two-week periods at each camp. On 15 minute intervals throughout each day, camps were assessed on level of youth PA (e.g., sedentary, moderate, vigorous), five physical features (e.g., equipment), eight staff interactions (e.g., encourage PA), and six social climate components (e.g., inclusive game). Across the sample, highly engaging games [F(1,329) = 17.68, p < .001], positive peer interactions [F(1,329) = 8.43, p < .01], and bullying [F(1,329) = 9.39, p < .01] were significantly related to higher PA participation rates, and clarity of rules [F(1,329) = 11.12, p < .001] was related to fewer youth participating in PA. Separate analyses for males and females indicated some sex differences with highly engaging games [F(1,329) = 23.10, p < .001] and bullying [F(1,329) = 10.00, p < .01] related to males' but not females' PA, and positive peer interactions related to only females' PA [F(1,329) = 9.58, p < .01]. Small, yet significant physical-environmental effects of temperature [F(1,328) = 1.54, p < .05] and equipment [F(1,328) = 4.34, p = .05] for girls also suggests that activities offered

  7. USE OF MODIFIED CAMP TEST FOR PRELIMINARY NONSEROLOGIC IDENTIFICATION OF VIBRIO CHOLERAE IN STOOL SPECIMENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Lesmana

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Suatu modifikasi uji CAMP digunakan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi untuk identifikasi Vibrio cholerae pada sampel klinis. Dari 579 usap dubur penderita diare, 92 (16% memberikan hasil isolasi V. cholerae 01 biotipe El Tor dan 34 (6% V. cholerae non-01. Semua isolat V. cholerae 01 El Tor menunjukkan reaksi CAMP positif kuat dengan gambaran hemolisis sinergistik lengkap berbentuk sosis; sedangkan V. cholerae non-01 memberikan reaksi CAMP yang sempit dengan pola hemolisis menyerupai bulan sabit. Hasil uji CAMP yang dilakukan bersama dengan reaksi biokimiawi sesuai dengan metode biakan konvensional yang menyertakan tes aglutinasi dengan antiserum V. cholerae 01 untuk mengidentifikasi V. cholerae.

  8. The potential role of cAMP as a pollution biomarker of terrestrial environments using the land snail Eobania vermiculata: Correlation with lysosomal membrane stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itziou, A.; Dimitriadis, V.K. [Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki (Greece). School of Biology

    2009-09-15

    The present study investigates the role of the signal transduction molecule cAMP, and the lysosomal membrane stability (LMS), as biomarkers of terrestrial environmental pollution using the land snail Eobania vermiculata. Snails were exposed to different concentrations of heavy metals (Ca, Pb and Cu) and organic pollutants (chlorpyrifos, parathion-methyl and PAHs) in laboratory conditions for 25 days. In addition, snails were collected from various sites located at different distances away from two polluted areas in northern Greece (the road Agiou Dimitriou in Thessaloniki city and a lignite power station in the district of Kozani). The results of the current investigation showed significantly increased levels of cAMP in the digestive gland of snails, as well as decreased LMS values in all experimental groups compared to control animals. In support of our data, cAMP levels were significantly negatively correlated with the conventional biomarker LMS, thus encouraging the use of cAMP as a new potential stress index in terrestrial pollution biomonitoring studies.

  9. Wellness, fatigue and physical performance acclimatisation to a 2-week soccer camp at 3600 m (ISA3600)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchheit, Martin; Simpson, Ben M; Garvican-Lewis, Laura A; Hammond, Kristal; Kley, Marlen; Schmidt, Walter F; Aughey, Robert J; Soria, Rudy; Sargent, Charli; Roach, Gregory D; Claros, Jesus C Jimenez; Wachsmuth, Nadine; Gore, Christopher J; Bourdon, Pitre C

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To examine the time course of wellness, fatigue and performance during an altitude training camp (La Paz, 3600 m) in two groups of either sea-level (Australian) or altitude (Bolivian) native young soccer players. Methods Wellness and fatigue were assessed using questionnaires and resting heart rate (HR) and HR variability. Physical performance was assessed using HR responses to a submaximal run, a Yo-Yo Intermittent recovery test level 1 (Yo-YoIR1) and a 20 m sprint. Most measures were performed daily, with the exception of Yo-YoIR1 and 20 m sprints, which were performed near sea level and on days 3 and 10 at altitude. Results Compared with near sea level, Australians had moderate-to-large impairments in wellness and Yo-YoIR1 relative to the Bolivians on arrival at altitude. The acclimatisation of most measures to altitude was substantially slower in Australians than Bolivians, with only Bolivians reaching near sea-level baseline high-intensity running by the end of the camp. Both teams had moderately impaired 20 m sprinting at the end of the camp. Exercise HR had large associations (r>0.5–0.7) with changes in Yo-YoIR1 in both groups. Conclusions Despite partial physiological and perceptual acclimatisation, 2 weeks is insufficient for restoration of physical performance in young sea-level native soccer players. Because of the possible decrement in 20 m sprint time, a greater emphasis on speed training may be required during and after altitude training. The specific time course of restoration for each variable suggests that they measure different aspects of acclimatisation to 3600 m; they should therefore be used in combination to assess adaptation to altitude. PMID:24282195

  10. The effect of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) on tenderness, microstructure and chemical-physical index of duck breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Daoying; Deng, Shaoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong

    2016-03-30

    Adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) is often used in meat and poultry soups as a flavor enhancer (flavor modifier), or as food additives for specific nutritional purposes. Our previous research as well as evidence from others showed that actomyosin could be dissociated into myosin and actin by AMP in extracted muscle solution. However, there is no report available on the application of AMP to dissociate actomyosin and to improve meat tenderness. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the effect of AMP on duck meat tenderness and other quality traits and to explore the mechanism of the action of AMP on meat tenderness. Duck breast muscle was treated with 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 mmol L(-1) AMP at 5 °C for 10 h and examined for shear force, microstructure, actomyosin dissociation, myofibril fragmentation index (MFI), pH, water content, cooking loss, CIE* color (L*, a*, b*), inosine monophosphate (IMP) and free amino acid (FAA) contents. Results showed that shear force, cooking loss, L* and b* of the muscles significantly decreased after AMP treatment (P 0.05), and muscle shrinkage in transverse and longitudinal directions were restrained after AMP treatment. The results suggest that AMP could notably improve meat tenderness, and this effect was probably mainly through increasing muscle pH, promoting actomyosin dissociation and disrupting the Z-line; meanwhile, the conversion of AMP to IMP may contribute to the flavor of meat. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  11. [Pediatric case series in an ophthalmic camp in Turkana (Kenya)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noval, S; Cabrejas, L; Jarrín, E; Ruiz-Guerrero, M; Ciancas, E

    2013-12-01

    Turkana is the largest district in Kenya, situated in the Northwest of the country. It features a semi-nomadic population of 850,000. Around 60% of population lives below the poverty threshold. The ratio of doctors is 1:75,000 inhabitants. Five ophthalmologists took part in the last deployment in November. Local staff had previously selected the patients from the rural areas, as well as in Lodwar, the capital of the district. Of the 371 patients who attended the clinic, 128 required surgery. To describe the pediatric population attended to in the last «Turkana Eye Project» Camp. Description of the ophthalmic pathologies of the children seen in the clinic in this surgical camp, and the diagnostic and therapeutic options according to the limitations of the environment. Of the 371 patients, 54 were younger than 15 years old (14.5%). Four children had surgery (3.25% of the 128 patients). In 2 more cases surgery was the indicated but not performed. Therefore, of the total of 54 cases, 6 could be considered as surgical (11.1%), and 17 suffered ophthalmic problems other than refraction defects, or mild ocular surface pathologies: traumatic cataracts, neuropathies, impetigo, exophthalmos, retinal dystrophies, dermoid cysts, or nyctalopia. The etiology was traumatic in four of the 17 children (23.5%). Surgical camps are increasing in the developing countries. They are usually focused on particular pathologies, such as cataracts or trachoma. Our case series shows the importance of pediatric teams and the need to be prepared to face complex pediatric pathologies. Copyright © 2012 Sociedad Española de Oftalmología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  12. Elevated cAMP increases aquaporin-3 plasma membrane diffusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Marlar, Saw; Christensen, Eva Arnspang; Koffman, Jennifer Skaarup

    2014-01-01

    be short-term regulated via changes in protein-protein interactions, incorporation into lipid rafts, and/or changes in steady-state turnover, which could result in changes in the diffusion behavior of AQP3. Thus we measured AQP3 diffusion coefficients upon stimulation with the AVP mimic forskolin to reveal...... if AQP3 could be short-term regulated by AVP. k-Space image correlation spectroscopy (kICS) analysis of time-lapse image sequences of basolateral enhanced green fluorescent protein-tagged AQP3 (AQP3-EGFP) revealed that the forskolin-mediated elevation of cAMP increased the diffusion coefficient by 58...

  13. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    OpenAIRE

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as ...

  14. Prevalence of mental health disorders and its associated demographic factors in resettled Afghan refugees of Dalakee Refugee Camp in Bushehr Province 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Azizi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Iran has received Afghan refugees for many years. Few studies have been done to assess psychiatric morbidity among Afghan refugees in Iran, especially those who are resettled in camps. This study has been designed to determine the prevalence of mental health problems and the associated demographic factors, in Afghan refugees resettled in Dalakee refugee camp of Bushehr Province, in 2005. Methods: In this cross-sectional survey, a Persian version of the General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28 was administered to 321 resettled Afghan refugees with the minimum age of 15 years old who were randomly selected among 2200 residents of Dalakee refugee camp in Bushehr Province. Results: Among mental health subscales, the prevalence of social dysfunction, psychosomatic problem, anxiety and depression in the studied population were 80.1%, 48.9%, 39.3% and 22.1%, respectively. The total prevalence of mental health disorders in this camp was 88.5%. Male gender, living with more than eight persons per house, and being age ten or under at migration time were associated with higher level of social dysfunction. Higher rate of psychosomatic problem was associated with unemployment, being born in Iran, being age ten or under at migration time, and having no entertaining programs. Having 1-3 children, living with more than eight persons per house, and positive history of chronic disease were associated with higher level of anxiety. Having no entertaining programs, and family members' death during migration were associated with higher level of depression. Conclusion: Mental health problems related to immigration and living in camps, are common among Afghan refugees.

  15. Prayer Camps and Biomedical Care in Ghana: Is Collaboration in Mental Health Care Possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arias, Daniel; Taylor, Lauren; Ofori-Atta, Angela; Bradley, Elizabeth H

    2016-01-01

    Experts have suggested that intersectoral partnerships between prayer camps and biomedical care providers may be an effective strategy to address the overwhelming shortage of mental health care workers in Africa and other low-income settings. Nevertheless, previous studies have not explored whether the prayer camp and biomedical staff beliefs and practices provide sufficient common ground to enable cooperative relationships. Therefore, we sought to examine the beliefs and practices of prayer camp staff and the perspective of biomedical care providers, with the goal of characterizing interest in-and potential for-intersectoral partnership between prayer camp staff and biomedical care providers. We conducted 50 open-ended, semi-structured interviews with prophets and staff at nine Christian prayer camps in Ghana, and with staff within Ghana's three public psychiatric hospitals. We used the purposive sampling method to recruit participants and the constant comparative method for qualitative data analysis. Prayer camp staff expressed interest in collaboration with biomedical mental health care providers, particularly if partnerships could provide technical support introducing medications in the prayer camp and address key shortcomings in their infrastructure and hygienic conditions. Nevertheless, challenges for collaboration were apparent as prayer camp staff expressed strong beliefs in a spiritual rather than biomedical explanatory model for mental illness, frequently used fasting and chained restraints in the course of treatment, and endorsed only short-term use of medication to treat mental illness-expressing concerns that long-term medication regimens masked underlying spiritual causes of illness. Biomedical providers were skeptical about the spiritual interpretations of mental illness held by faith healers, and were concerned by the use of chains, fasting, and the lack of adequate living facilities for patients in prayer camps; many, however, expressed interest in

  16. Comparison of the glacial chronology of Eastern Baffin Island, East Greenland and Camp century accumulation record

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andrews, John; Funder, Svend Visby; Hjort, Chritian

    1974-01-01

    ) an interval about 40,000 to 11,000 yr ago of restricted ice extent; and (5) a late glacial sladial belween 11,000 and 8,000 B.P. This record shows basic agreement with a chronology of snow accumulation at the Camp Century ice core site based on a revised chronostratigraphic interpretation. Fluctuations in sea...... level between 120,000 and 70,000 B.P. may well be related to glacierization of high arctic land masses under conditions of heavy snowfall. The subsequent reduction of accumulation in these high arctic areas then leads to a reduction of ice volume with a dry, cold interstadial correlative in time...

  17. Conservation and divergence of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP–PKA) pathway in two plant-pathogenic fungi: Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-PKA pathway is a central signaling cascade that transmits extracellular stimuli and governs cell responses through the second messenger cAMP. The importance of cAMP signaling in fungal biology has been well documented. Two key conserved components, adenylate cyclase (AC) and ca...

  18. Early Jurassic Carbon and Sodium Sequestration in a CAMP basalt flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, K. A.; Puffer, J. H.

    2017-12-01

    The initial HTQ-type CAMP Orange Mountain Basalt flow, as well as related pillowed flows and the overlying Preakness flows, locally underwent substantial and well documented albitization, chloritization, and sulphate, carbonate, and zeolite mineralization. Layers representing at least 25 vol % of the Orange Mountain Basalt have undergone a major net increase in sodium and carbon content and a major redistribution of magnesium and calcium. Most alteration occurred during the development of a widespread early Jurassic geothermal system similar to the active system of Iceland. In both cases alteration was controlled by active circulation of basin brines through vesicular layers during rapid burial at temperatures that were kept elevated by recurring magmatism. Whole rock Na2O levels typically increased from 2.2 wt. % in unaltered layers to 3.2 wt. % in vesicular layers, and commonly reached levels exceeding 5 wt. %. The environmental implications of the removal of such massive amounts of sodium from the geothermal system on the chlorine budget and the salt content of Early Jurassic lakes are currently being evaluated. Massive amounts of carbon sequestration from the geothermal system may have mitigated an increased burden on the early Jurassic atmosphere where geothermal CO2 may have otherwise been vented at hot springs or solfataras. Calcite amygdules typically account for 5 to 10 vol. % of the vesiculated layers amounting to 66 to 132 kg of CO2 per m3 of basalt. If 25 vol. % of the 160 thick Orange Mountain Basalt is vesiculated that would equate to about 2640 to 5280 kg of CO2 per m2 of basalt. The full extent of calcite enrichment across the entire CAMP province, however, has not yet been determined.

  19. Rapid Assessment of Seismic Vulnerability in Palestinian Refugee Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Dabbeek, Jalal N.; El-Kelani, Radwan J.

    Studies of historical and recorded earthquakes in Palestine demonstrate that damaging earthquakes are occurring frequently along the Dead Sea Transform: Earthquake of 11 July 1927 (ML 6.2), Earthquake of 11 February 2004 (ML 5.2). In order to reduce seismic vulnerability of buildings, losses in lives, properties and infrastructures, an attempt was made to estimate the percentage of damage degrees and losses at selected refugee camps: Al Ama`ri, Balata and Dhaishe. Assessing the vulnerability classes of building structures was carried out according to the European Macro-Seismic Scale 1998 (EMS-98) and the Fedral Emergency Management Agency (FEMA). The rapid assessment results showed that very heavy structural and non structural damages will occur in the common buildings of the investigated Refugee Camps (many buildings will suffer from damages grades 4 and 5). Bad quality of buildings in terms of design and construction, lack of uniformity, absence of spaces between the building and the limited width of roads will definitely increase the seismic vulnerability under the influence of moderate-strong (M 6-7) earthquakes in the future.

  20. Effect of cAMP signaling on expression of glucocorticoid receptor, Bim and Bad in glucocorticoid-sensitive and resistant leukemic and multiple myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Hongli; Carlton, Michael E; Lerner, Adam; Epstein, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Stimulation of cAMP signaling induces apoptosis in glucocorticoid-sensitive and resistant CEM leukemic and MM.1 multiple myeloma cell lines, and this effect is enhanced by dexamethasone in both glucocorticoid-sensitive cell types and in glucocorticoid-resistant CEM cells. Expression of the mRNA for the glucocorticoid receptor alpha (GR) promoters 1A3, 1B and 1C, expression of mRNA and protein for GR, and the BH3-only proapoptotic proteins, Bim and Bad, and the phosphorylation state of Bad were examined following stimulation of the cAMP and glucocorticoid signaling pathways. Expression levels of GR promoters were increased by cAMP and glucocorticoid signaling, but GR protein expression was little changed in CEM and decreased in MM.1 cells. Stimulation of these two signaling pathways induced Bim in CEM cells, induced Bad in MM.1 cells, and activated Bad, as indicated by its dephosphorylation on ser112, in both cell types. This study shows that leukemic and multiple myeloma cells, including those resistant to glucocorticoids, can be induced to undergo apoptosis by stimulating the cAMP signaling pathway, with enhancement by glucocorticoids, and the mechanism by which this occurs may be related to changes in Bim and Bad expression, and in all cases, to activation of Bad.

  1. Involvement of nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway in the antidepressant-like effect of tropisetron and ondansetron in mice forced swimming test and tail suspension test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Kordjazy, Nastaran; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arvin; Amini-Khoei, Hossien; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Dehpour, AhmadReza

    2016-06-05

    Antidepressant-like effects of 5-hydroxytryptamine subtype 3 (5-HT3) antagonists including tropisetron and ondansetron have been previously demonstrated in the literature. It was reported that stimulation of 5-HT3 receptors activate the nitric oxide-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (NO-cGMP) pathway, which is involved in regulation of behavioral and emotional functions. In our study, treating animals with tropisetron (5, 10, and 30mg/kg) and ondansetron (0.01 and 0.1µg/kg) significantly decreased the immobility time in forced swimming test (FST) and tail-suspension test (TST). Co-administration of subeffective doses of tropisetron (1mg/kg) and ondansetron (0.001µg/kg) with subeffective dose of l-NAME (10mg/kg, nonselective NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor) and 7-nitroindazole (25mg/kg, neural NOS inhibitor) exerted antidepressant-like effect in FST and TST, while aminoguanidine (50mg/kg, inducible NOS inhibitor) did not enhance the antidepressant-like effect of 5-HT3 antagonists. Besides, l-arginine (750mg/kg, NO precursor) and sildenafil (5mg/kg, phosphodiesterase inhibitor) suppressed the anti-immobility effect of 5-HT3 antagonists. None of the treatments altered the locomotor behavior of mice in open-field test. Also, hippocampal (but not cortical) nitrite level was significantly lower in tropisetron and ondansetron-treated mice compared with saline-injected mice. Also, co-administration of 7-nitroindazole with tropisetron or ondansetron caused a significant decrease in hippocampal nitrite levels. In conclusion, we suggest that antidepressant-like effect of tropisetron and ondansetron are partially mediated by modulation of NO-cGMP pathway. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Offering a Forensic Science Camp to Introduce and Engage High School Students in Interdisciplinary Science Topics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahrenkiel, Linda; Worm-Leonhard, Martin

    2014-01-01

    In this article, we present details of a one-week interdisciplinary science camp for high school students in Denmark, "Criminal Camp". We describe the use of forensic science and simulated crimes as a common foundation for teaching the theory and practice of concepts in chemistry, physics, and medicine or biology. The main goal of the…

  3. Glycemic control in diabetic children and adolescents after attending diabetic camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erwin P. Soenggono

    2011-10-01

    Conclusion Glycemic control in T1DM children and adolescents was significantly improved 3 months after attending diabetic camp compared to that before attending camp. According to subjects’ self-assessment by PedsQL questionnaire, no subjects indicated a poor quality of life for the duration of their illness. [Paediatr Indones. 2011;51:294-7].

  4. UXO Discrimination Using Vehicle Towed and Man Portable Sensor Data Collected at Camp Beale, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    UXO Discrimination Using Vehicle Towed and Man Portable Sensor Data Collected at Camp Beale, California Len Pasion , Laurens Beran, Stephen Billings...PORTABLE SENSOR DATA COLLECTED AT CAMP BEALE, CALIFORNIA LEN PASION Sky Research 112A 2386 East Mall Vancouver, BC V6T1Z3 CANADA (604) 221

  5. Hands-on Summer Camp to Attract K-12 Students to Engineering Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yilmaz, Muhittin; Ren, Jianhong; Custer, Sheryl; Coleman, Joyce

    2010-01-01

    This paper explains the organization and execution of a summer engineering outreach camp designed to attract and motivate high school students as well as increase their awareness of various engineering fields. The camp curriculum included hands-on, competitive design-oriented engineering projects from several disciplines: the electrical,…

  6. EVERYDAY LIFE IN CAMPS FOR DISPLACED PERSONS IN GERMANY (ON PERSONAL MEMOIRS OF THEIR INHABITANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Татьяна Александровна Котова

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The object of the research of the article is to reveal the main lines of everyday life in camps for displaced persons on the example of such camps as Fyussen, Kempten and Shlayskhaym, located in Germany. The author reveals thepeculiarities of the structure of the camps, household, cultural and spiritual life. The article is written on the basis of memoirs of contemporaries of that time, inhabitants of camps DPs I. N. Koren, V. Gashurova, O. Bezradetskaya-Astromova, I. Hrapunov, I. Savostina and others. The author concludes that in the camps for displaced persons there was active life, but not without difficulties. Despite various problems, in DP camps there was cultural life, various sporting and game events; inhabitants of camps spent leisure time by participating in theatrical and scout circles, ballet troupes. An important role in people’sadaptation to difficult conditions of accommodation in camps was played by publishing activities and the Church which helped people to survive financially and spiritually.

  7. Science Camps in Europe--Collaboration with Companies and School, Implications and Results on Scientific Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindner, M.; Kubat, C.

    2014-01-01

    The paper informs on the characteristics of a Comenius Network of seven organizations, who are collaborating in exchanging best practice on science camps. This exchange includes evaluation results on more science camps of European organizations, which will deliver information on organization, collaboration with companies, pedagogical aspects, as…

  8. Psychological Security and Self-Efficacy among Syrian Refugee Students inside and outside the Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ALharbi, Bassam H. M.

    2017-01-01

    The present study aimed to identify the degree of psychological security and self-efficacy among the Syrian refugee students inside and outside the camps. The sample consisted of 600 students from Syrian refugees inside and outside the camps in the second semester of the academic year 2014-2015. Scales for psychological security and self-efficacy…

  9. Alexander Pechersky Testifies: an Open Page of Sobibor Death Camp History

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lev S. Simkin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Here, the author introduces the interrogation of the witness Alexander Aronovich Pechersky, the leader of the German death camp Sobibor Revolt during the World War II. Special attention is attached to the daily life of the death camp. The picture of revolt preparation was completed

  10. Factors Related to the Developmental Experiences of Youth Serving as 4-H Camp Counselors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, David N.; Kotrlik, Joe W.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the developmental experiences of high-school-aged 4-H youth volunteering as counselors at Louisiana 4-H summer camps. A total of 288 counselors from 10 different camping sessions participated in the study. The Youth Experiences Survey 2.0 and the Developmental Experience Survey measured the personal…

  11. Assessment of the Psychosocial Development of Children Attending Nursery Schools in Karen Refugee Camps in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akiko

    2013-01-01

    The Karen, an ethnic minority group in Burma, have experienced a prolonged state of exile in refugee camps in neighboring Thailand because of ethnic conflict in their home country. Nursery schools in the three largest Karen refugee camps aim to promote the psychosocial development of young children by providing a child-centered, creative,…

  12. Global and local missions of cAMP signaling in neural plasticity, learning and memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daewoo eLee

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster has been a popular model to study cAMP signaling and resultant behaviors due to its powerful genetic approaches. All molecular components (AC, PDE, PKA, CREB, etc essential for cAMP signaling have been identified in the fly. Among them, adenylyl cyclase (AC gene rutabaga and phosphodiesterase (PDE gene dunce have been intensively studied to understand the role of cAMP signaling. Interestingly, these two mutant genes were originally identified on the basis of associative learning deficits. This commentary summarizes findings on the role of cAMP in Drosophila neuronal excitability, synaptic plasticity and memory. It mainly focuses on two distinct mechanisms (global versus local regulating excitatory and inhibitory synaptic plasticity related to cAMP homeostasis. This dual regulatory role of cAMP is to increase the strength of excitatory neural circuits on one hand, but to act locally on postsynaptic GABA receptors to decrease inhibitory synaptic plasticity on the other. Thus the action of cAMP could result in a global increase in the neural circuit excitability and memory. Implications of this cAMP signaling related to drug discovery for neural diseases are also described.

  13. Examining the Effectiveness of Boot Camps: A Randomized Experiment with a Long-Term Follow Up

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bottcher, Jean; Ezell, Michael E.

    2005-01-01

    The boot camp model became a correctional panacea for juvenile offenders during the early 1990s, promising the best of both worlds--less recidivism and lower operating costs. Although there have been numerous studies of boot camp programs since that time, most have relied on nonrandomized comparison groups. The California Youth Authority's (CYA's)…

  14. Camp Site City, suburban porosity and eclecticism in San José, Costa Rica.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.; Heynen, Hilde; Meulder, Bruno de

    2005-01-01

    The notion of 'camp' seems opposed to the more solid city and its almost permanent architecture. In this contribution, we regard the camp as a spatial concept with a twofold appearance: as both repressing and freeing, as a site for both larger, planned strategic activities, and smaller scale tactic

  15. Distancing Students from Nature: Science Camp and the Representation of the Human-Nature Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Laura Anne

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the curricular representations of the environment and the human-environment relationship at one residential school sponsored science camp. Data gathered included field notes from observational time at the camp, interviews with staff and classroom teachers, and documents from the site's website, guides, manuals, and…

  16. Self-Awareness and Leadership Skills of Female Students in Outdoor Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esentas, Melike; Özbey, Selhan; Güzel, Pinar

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to determine the role of youth camp practices, organised by the Ministry of Youth and Sports, in the development of self-awareness and leadership skills of female students participating in youth camps. As a result of analysis of the data collected with triangulation method--observation, focus group discussions and document…

  17. Exploring early twenty-first century developed forest camping experiences and meanings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barry A. Garst; Daniel R. Williams; Joseph W. Roggenbuck

    2010-01-01

    This study examines experiences and associated meanings of 38 family groups participating in developed camping. The analysis is guided by discursive social psychology in which expressed meanings reflect interpretive frames campers use to explain experiences. Key elements of camping experience include nature, social interaction, and comfort/convenience. The most common...

  18. The Kurse of Kumbayah: Five Camp Stereotypes That Derail New Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinowski, Jon C.

    2003-01-01

    The camp community is plagued by various stereotypes, including that camps and their staff are excessively happy, of poor quality, focused on partying and debauchery, scary, or overly strict. These cliches are perpetuated by the mass media. Each stereotype is discussed, and strategies for countering them during staff training are presented. (TD)

  19. The Easter Seal Directory of Resident Camps for Persons with Special Health Needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, Chicago, IL.

    The directory of resident camps is designed for persons with special health needs (children and adults with physical, mental, social, or emotional handicaps). Published by the National Easter Seal Society for Crippled Children and Adults, the listing contains residential facilities only (day care camp program information is not included). Listed…

  20. Cellular chromophores and signaling in low level light therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Demidova-Rice, Tatiana N.

    2007-02-01

    particular, signaling cascades are initiated via cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB). These signal transduction pathways in turn lead to increased cell proliferation and migration (particularly by fibroblasts), modulation in levels of cytokines, growth factors and inflammatory mediators, and increases in anti-apoptotic proteins. The results of these biochemical and cellular changes in animals and patients include such benefits as increased healing in chronic wounds, improvements in sports injuries and carpal tunnel syndrome, pain reduction in arthritis and neuropathies, and amelioration of damage after heart attacks, stroke, nerve injury and retinal toxicity.

  1. Visitor evaluations of management actions at a highly impacted Appalachian Trail camping area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniels, Melissa L; Marion, Jeffrey L

    2006-12-01

    Protected area management involves balancing environmental and social objectives. This is particularly difficult at high-use/high-impact recreation sites, because resource protection objectives may require substantial site management or visitor regulation. This study examined visitors' reactions to both of these types of actions at Annapolis Rocks, Maryland, a popular Appalachian Trail camping area. We surveyed visitors before and after implementation of camping policies that included shifting camping to designated newly constructed campsites and prohibiting campfires. Survey results reveal that visitors were more satisfied with all social and environmental indicators after the changes were enacted. An Importance-Performance analysis also determined that management actions improved conditions for factors of greatest concern to campers prior to the changes. Posttreatment visitors were least satisfied with factors related to reduced freedom and to some characteristics of the constructed campsites. Although there was evidence of visitor displacement, the camping changes met management goals by protecting the camping area's natural resources and improving social conditions.

  2. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of adenosine 5′-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD) from Arabidopsis thaliana in complex with coformycin 5′-phosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byung Woo; Bingman, Craig A.; Mahnke, Donna K.; Sabina, Richard L.; Phillips, George N. Jr

    2005-01-01

    Adenosine 5′-monophosphate deaminase from A. thaliana has been crystallized in complex with coformycin 5′-phosphate. Diffraction data have been collected to 3.34 Å resolution. Adenosine 5′-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD) is a eukaryotic enzyme that converts adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) to inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP) and ammonia. AMPD from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtAMPD) was cloned into the baculoviral transfer vector p2Bac and co-transfected along with a modified baculoviral genome into Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. The resulting recombinant baculovirus were plaque-purified, amplified and used to overexpress recombinant AtAMPD. Crystals of purified AtAMPD have been obtained to which coformycin 5′-phosphate, a transition-state inhibitor, is bound. Crystals belong to space group P6 2 22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 131.325, c = 208.254 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Diffraction data were collected to 3.34 Å resolution from a crystal in complex with coformycin 5′-phosphate and to 4.05 Å resolution from a crystal of a mercury derivative

  3. Crystallization and preliminary X-ray crystallographic analysis of adenosine 5′-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD) from Arabidopsis thaliana in complex with coformycin 5′-phosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Byung Woo [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706-1544 (United States); Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics (CESG), University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706-1549 (United States); Bingman, Craig A. [Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics (CESG), University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706-1549 (United States); Mahnke, Donna K.; Sabina, Richard L. [Department of Biochemistry, The Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, WI 53226-4801 (United States); Phillips, George N. Jr, E-mail: phillips@biochem.wisc.edu [Department of Biochemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706-1544 (United States); Center for Eukaryotic Structural Genomics (CESG), University of Wisconsin-Madison, WI 53706-1549 (United States)

    2005-08-01

    Adenosine 5′-monophosphate deaminase from A. thaliana has been crystallized in complex with coformycin 5′-phosphate. Diffraction data have been collected to 3.34 Å resolution. Adenosine 5′-monophosphate deaminase (AMPD) is a eukaryotic enzyme that converts adenosine 5′-monophosphate (AMP) to inosine 5′-monophosphate (IMP) and ammonia. AMPD from Arabidopsis thaliana (AtAMPD) was cloned into the baculoviral transfer vector p2Bac and co-transfected along with a modified baculoviral genome into Spodoptera frugiperda (Sf9) cells. The resulting recombinant baculovirus were plaque-purified, amplified and used to overexpress recombinant AtAMPD. Crystals of purified AtAMPD have been obtained to which coformycin 5′-phosphate, a transition-state inhibitor, is bound. Crystals belong to space group P6{sub 2}22, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 131.325, c = 208.254 Å, α = β = 90, γ = 120°. Diffraction data were collected to 3.34 Å resolution from a crystal in complex with coformycin 5′-phosphate and to 4.05 Å resolution from a crystal of a mercury derivative.

  4. Coordinated induction of GST and MRP2 by cAMP in Caco-2 cells: Role of protein kinase A signaling pathway and toxicological relevance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arana, Maite Rocío, E-mail: arana@ifise-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Tocchetti, Guillermo Nicolás, E-mail: gtocchetti@live.com.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Domizi, Pablo, E-mail: domizi@ibr-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Biología Molecular y Celular de Rosario (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Arias, Agostina, E-mail: agoarias@yahoo.com.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Rigalli, Juan Pablo, E-mail: jprigalli@gmail.com [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); Ruiz, María Laura, E-mail: ruiz@ifise-conicet.gov.ar [Instituto de Fisiología Experimental (CONICET), Facultad de Ciencias Bioquímicas y Farmacéuticas (UNR), Suipacha 570, 2000 Rosario (Argentina); and others

    2015-09-01

    The cAMP pathway is a universal signaling pathway regulating many cellular processes including metabolic routes, growth and differentiation. However, its effects on xenobiotic biotransformation and transport systems are poorly characterized. The effect of cAMP on expression and activity of GST and MRP2 was evaluated in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium. Cells incubated with the cAMP permeable analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP: 1,10,100 μM) for 48 h exhibited a dose–response increase in GST class α and MRP2 protein expression. Incubation with forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, confirmed the association between intracellular cAMP and upregulation of MRP2. Consistent with increased expression of GSTα and MRP2, db-cAMP enhanced their activities, as well as cytoprotection against the common substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors totally abolished upregulation of MRP2 and GSTα induced by db-cAMP. In silico analysis together with experiments consisting of treatment with db-cAMP of Caco-2 cells transfected with a reporter construct containing CRE and AP-1 sites evidenced participation of these sites in MRP2 upregulation. Further studies involving the transcription factors CREB and AP-1 (c-JUN, c-FOS and ATF2) demonstrated increased levels of total c-JUN and phosphorylation of c-JUN and ATF2 by db-cAMP, which were suppressed by a PKA inhibitor. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP assay studies demonstrated that db-cAMP increased c-JUN/ATF2 interaction, with further recruitment to the region of the MRP2 promoter containing CRE and AP-1 sites. We conclude that cAMP induces GSTα and MRP2 expression and activity in Caco-2 cells via the PKA pathway, thus regulating detoxification of specific xenobiotics. - Highlights: • cAMP positively modulates the expression and activity of GST and MRP2 in Caco-2 cells. • Such induction resulted in increased cytoprotection against chemical injury. • PKA

  5. Coordinated induction of GST and MRP2 by cAMP in Caco-2 cells: Role of protein kinase A signaling pathway and toxicological relevance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arana, Maite Rocío; Tocchetti, Guillermo Nicolás; Domizi, Pablo; Arias, Agostina; Rigalli, Juan Pablo; Ruiz, María Laura

    2015-01-01

    The cAMP pathway is a universal signaling pathway regulating many cellular processes including metabolic routes, growth and differentiation. However, its effects on xenobiotic biotransformation and transport systems are poorly characterized. The effect of cAMP on expression and activity of GST and MRP2 was evaluated in Caco-2 cells, a model of intestinal epithelium. Cells incubated with the cAMP permeable analog dibutyryl cyclic AMP (db-cAMP: 1,10,100 μM) for 48 h exhibited a dose–response increase in GST class α and MRP2 protein expression. Incubation with forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, confirmed the association between intracellular cAMP and upregulation of MRP2. Consistent with increased expression of GSTα and MRP2, db-cAMP enhanced their activities, as well as cytoprotection against the common substrate 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitors totally abolished upregulation of MRP2 and GSTα induced by db-cAMP. In silico analysis together with experiments consisting of treatment with db-cAMP of Caco-2 cells transfected with a reporter construct containing CRE and AP-1 sites evidenced participation of these sites in MRP2 upregulation. Further studies involving the transcription factors CREB and AP-1 (c-JUN, c-FOS and ATF2) demonstrated increased levels of total c-JUN and phosphorylation of c-JUN and ATF2 by db-cAMP, which were suppressed by a PKA inhibitor. Co-immunoprecipitation and ChIP assay studies demonstrated that db-cAMP increased c-JUN/ATF2 interaction, with further recruitment to the region of the MRP2 promoter containing CRE and AP-1 sites. We conclude that cAMP induces GSTα and MRP2 expression and activity in Caco-2 cells via the PKA pathway, thus regulating detoxification of specific xenobiotics. - Highlights: • cAMP positively modulates the expression and activity of GST and MRP2 in Caco-2 cells. • Such induction resulted in increased cytoprotection against chemical injury. • PKA

  6. Effects of Participation in a STEM Camp on STEM Attitudes and Anticipated Career Choices of Middle School Girls: A Mixed Methods Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kager, Elisabeth

    Middle school is a critical time for the development of girls' attitudes toward science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Existing research has indicated declining positive attitudes toward these fields among girls throughout adolescence. This study investigated how, to what extent, and for whom participation in a summer STEM Camp at a Midwestern college in the United States affected the STEM attitudes and career aspirations of 23 female participants, ages 10-14 years. Using a concurrent triangulation design, the researcher collected pre- and post-questionnaire data (N = 20), interviewed participants (N = 9), read journal entries (N = 22), and wrote field notes. The researcher adapted the Fennema-Sherman Attitude Scales (FSAS) to measure five of the original nine attitude scales concerning STEM: Male Domain, Confidence, Usefulness, Success, and Motivation. In addition to these standardized, Likert-type scale questions, the questionnaire included demographic items to gauge participants' anticipated career choices and the level of STEM motivation (e.g., extracurricular activities and guardians' STEM involvement). The interview questions elicited information about the participants' Camp experiences and the Camp's influence on participants' attitudes and career aspirations. The journal prompts provoked participants to think about their perceptions of, and relationship with, science and mathematics as well as how supportive their parents and peers had been regarding these two fields. Participants' incoming STEM attitudes were positive. Accordingly, there was no statistically significant difference between pre- and post-scores of attitudes toward STEM. Nevertheless, qualitative results showed that the Camp did strengthen participants' positive attitudes through enthusiastic instructors, STEM-motivated peers, and hands-on activities that allowed for creative freedom. Participating in the STEM Camp challenged participants' prior career aspirations by

  7. A Multiinstitutional Simulation Boot Camp for Pediatric Cardiac Critical Care Nurse Practitioners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Kristen M; Mudd, Shawna S; Hunt, Elizabeth A; Perretta, Julianne S; Shilkofski, Nicole A; Diddle, J Wesley; Yurasek, Gregory; Bembea, Melania; Duval-Arnould, Jordan; Nelson McMillan, Kristen

    2018-03-10

    Assess the effect of a simulation "boot camp" on the ability of pediatric nurse practitioners to identify and treat a low cardiac output state in postoperative patients with congenital heart disease. Additionally, assess the pediatric nurse practitioners' confidence and satisfaction with simulation training. Prospective pre/post interventional pilot study. University simulation center. Thirty acute care pediatric nurse practitioners from 13 academic medical centers in North America. We conducted an expert opinion survey to guide curriculum development. The curriculum included didactic sessions, case studies, and high-fidelity simulation-based on high-complexity cases, congenital heart disease benchmark procedures, and a mix of lesion-specific postoperative complications. To cover multiple, high-complexity cases, we implemented Rapid Cycle Deliberate Practice method of teaching for selected simulation scenarios using an expert driven checklist. Knowledge was assessed with a pre-/posttest format (maximum score, 100%). A paired-sample t test showed a statistically significant increase in the posttest scores (mean [SD], pre test, 36.8% [14.3%] vs post test, 56.0% [15.8%]; p simulation. Median time improved overall "time to task" across these scenarios. There was a significant increase in the proportion of clinically time-sensitive tasks completed within 5 minutes (pre, 60% [30/50] vs post, 86% [43/50]; p = 0.003] Confidence and satisfaction were evaluated with a validated tool ("Student Satisfaction and Self-Confidence in Learning"). Using a five-point Likert scale, the participants reported a high level of satisfaction (4.7 ± 0.30) and performance confidence (4.8 ± 0.31) with the simulation experience. Although simulation boot camps have been used effectively for training physicians and educating critical care providers, this was a novel approach to educating pediatric nurse practitioners from multiple academic centers. The course improved overall knowledge, and the

  8. Relationship Between Vertical Jump Height and Swimming Start Performance Before and After an Altitude Training Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Padial, Paulino; de la Fuente, Blanca; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Feriche, Belén

    2016-06-01

    This study aimed (a) to analyze the development in the squat jump height and swimming start performance after an altitude training camp, (b) to correlate the jump height and swimming start performance before and after the altitude training period, and (c) to correlate the percent change in the squat jump height with the percent change in swimming start performance. Fifteen elite male swimmers from the Spanish Junior National Team (17.1 ± 0.8 years) were tested before and after a 17-day training camp at moderate altitude. The height reached in the squat jump exercise with additional loads of 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of swimmers' pretest body weight and swimming start performance (time to 5, 10, and 15 m) were the dependent variables analyzed. Significant increases in the jump height (p ≤ 0.05; effect size [ES]: 0.35-0.48) and swimming start performance (p jump height before training (r = -0.56 to -0.77) and after training (r = -0.50 to -0.71). The change in the squat jump height was inversely correlated with the change in the start time at 5 m (r = -0.47), 10 m (r = -0.73), and 15 m (r = -0.62). These results suggest that altitude training can be suitable to enhance explosive performance. The correlations obtained between the squat jump height and start time in the raw and change scores confirm the relevance of having high levels of lower-body muscular power to optimize swimming start performance.

  9. Stereoselective aminoacylation of a dinucleoside monophosphate by the imidazolides of DL-alanine and N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-DL-alanine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profy, A. T.; Usher, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    The aminoacylation of diinosine monophosphate was studied experimentally. When the acylating agent was the imidazolide of N-(tert-butoxycarbonyl)-DL-alanine, a 40 percent enantiomeric excess of the isomer was incorporated at the 2' site and the positions of equilibrium for the reversible 2'-3' migration reaction differed for the D and L enantiomers. The reactivity of the nucleoside hydroxyl groups was found to decrease on the order 2'(3') less than internal 2' and less than 5', and the extent of the reaction was affected by the concentration of the imidazole buffer. Reaction of IpI with imidazolide of unprotected DL-alanine, by contrast, led to an excess of the D isomer at the internal 2' site. Finally, reaction with the N-carboxy anhydride of DL-alanine occurred without stereoselection. These results are found to be relevant to the study of the evolution of optical chemical activity and the origin of genetically directed protein synthesis.

  10. Brain-natriuretic peptide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate as biomarkers of myxomatous mitral valve disease in dogs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, Sophia Gry; Falk, Bo Torkel; Teerlink, Tom

    2011-01-01

    Elevations in the plasma concentrations of natriuretic peptides correlate with increased severity of myxomatous mitral valve disease (MMVD) in dogs. This study correlates the severity of MMVD with the plasma concentrations of the biomarkers N-terminal fragment of the pro-brain-natriuretic peptide...... (NT-proBNP) and its second messenger, cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP). Furthermore, the l-arginine:asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) ratio was measured as an index of nitric oxide availability. The study included 75 dogs sub-divided into five groups based on severity of MMVD as assessed...... by clinical examination and echocardiography. Plasma NT-proBNP and cGMP concentrations increased with increasing valve dysfunction and were significantly elevated in dogs with heart failure. The cGMP:NT-proBNP ratio decreased significantly in dogs with heart failure, suggesting the development of natriuretic...

  11. Predicting Stress Related to Basic Needs and Safety in Darfur Refugee Camps: A Structural and Social Ecological Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Andrew; Annan, Jeannie

    2010-03-01

    The research on the determinants of mental health among refugees has been largely limited to traumatic events, but recent work has indicated that the daily hassles of living in refugee camps also play a large role. Using hierarchical linear modelling to account for refugees nested within camp blocks, this exploratory study attempted to model stress surrounding safety and acquiring basic needs and functional impairment among refugees from Darfur living in Chad, using individual-level demographics (e.g., gender, age, presence of a debilitating injury), structural factors (e.g., distance from block to distribution centre), and social ecological variables (e.g., percentage of single women within a block). We found that stress concerning safety concerns, daily hassles, and functional impairment were associated with several individual-level demographic factors (e.g., gender), but also with interactions between block-level and individual-level factors as well (e.g., injury and distance to distribution centre). Findings are discussed in terms of monitoring and evaluation of refugee services.

  12. Combined activity of post-exercise concentrations of NA and eHsp72 on human neutrophil function: role of cAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo, Esther; Hinchado, María D; Ortega, Eduardo

    2013-09-01

    Extracellular heat shock proteins of 72 kDa (eHsp72) and noradrenaline (NA) can act as "danger signals" during exercise-induced stress by activating neutrophil function (chemotaxis, phagocytosis, and fungicidal capacity). In addition, post-exercise concentrations of NA increase the expression and release of Hsp72 by human neutrophils, and adrenoreceptors and cAMP are involved in the stimulation of neutrophils by eHsp72. This suggests an interaction between the two molecules in the modulation of neutrophils during exercise-induced stress. Given this context, the aim of the present investigation was to study the combined activity of post-exercise circulating concentrations of NA and eHsp72 on the neutrophil phagocytic process, and to evaluate the role of cAMP as intracellular signal in these effects. Results showed an accumulative stimulation of chemotaxis induced by NA and eHsp72. However, while NA and eHsp72, separately, stimulate the phagocytosis and fungicidal activity of neutrophils, when they act together they do not modify these capacities of neutrophils. Similarly, post-exercise concentrations of NA and eHsp72 separately increased the intracellular level of cAMP, but NA and eHsp72 acting together did not modify the intracellular concentration of cAMP. These results confirm that cAMP can be involved in the autocrine/paracrine physiological regulation of phagocytosis and fungicidal capacity of human neutrophils mediated by NA and eHsp72 in the context of exercise-induced stress. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Organizing an App Inventor Summer Camp for Middle School Girls: What the Experts Don't Tell You

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Nancy L.; Soares, Andrey

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we report on our experience as rookies organizing, funding, and running a summer computing camp for middle school girls. The focus of the camp was building mobile applications using App Inventor. The three day/two night camp targeted girls in rural, high poverty school districts and was funded through an award from the National…

  14. Living without Boys: A Retrospective Analysis of the Benefits and Skills Gained at All-Female Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittington, Anja; Garst, Barry A.; Gagnon, Ryan J.; Baughman, Sarah

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the outcomes of all-female camp experiences on women's lives. Using a retrospective approach, this study collected qualitative data from 131 women to examine the benefits of all-female camp experiences, to analyze the skills they gained at camp, and to understand how they apply these skills to their…

  15. Backgrounds of Outdoor Education: A Review of Early Studies in Camping as Education. Taft Campus Occasional Paper No. IX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, Morris

    Until the depression of the 1930s, camping was valued simply for its recreational and health benefits. Then, with the advent of the philosophy of progressivism and the consequent changes in educational goals and practices, the educational potentials of camping also began to be examined. Attempts to redefine the role of camping and to seek…

  16. Roadside camping on forest preserve lands in the Adirondack Park: A qualitative exploration of place attachment and resource substitutability

    Science.gov (United States)

    David A. Graefe; Chad Dawson; Rudolph M. Schuster

    2012-01-01

    Roadside camping is a popular and widespread public outdoor recreation activity on New York State Forest Preserve (FP) lands within the Adirondack Park (AP). While several roadside camping areas exist on FP lands throughout the Park, little is known about these camping areas or the visitors who use them. Recently, debate has developed over how to define and manage...

  17. Effects of dietary administration of guanosine monophosphate on the growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hossain, Md Sakhawat; Koshio, Shunsuke; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yokoyama, Saichiro; Sony, Nadia Mahjabin

    2016-10-01

    The present study explored the dietary administration effects of guanosine monophosphate (GMP) on growth, digestibility, innate immune responses and stress resistance of juvenile red sea bream, Pagrus major. A semi-purified basal diet supplemented with 0% (Control), 0.1% (GMP-0.1), 0.2% (GMP-0.2), 0.4% (GMP-0.4) and 0.8% (GMP-0.8) purified GMP to formulate five experimental diets. Each diet was randomly allocated to triplicate groups of fish (mean initial weight 3.4 g) for 56 days. The obtained results clearly indicated that, growth performance of red sea bream enhanced by dietary GMP supplementation compared to control and significantly higher final weight was found in fish fed diet group GMP-0.4. Specific growth rate (SGR) and percent weight gain (%WG) also significantly higher in diet group GMP-0.4 in compared to control and it was not differed (P > 0.05) with diet group GMP-0.8. Feed intake significantly increased with the supplementation of GMP. Feed conversion efficiency (FCE) and protein efficiency ratio (PER) also improved (P  0.05) by GMP supplementation. In contrast, catalase activity decreased with GMP supplementation. In terms of oxidative stress GMP-0.2 showed best condition with low oxidative stress and high antioxidant level. Moreover, the fish fed GMP supplemented diets had better improvement (P red sea bream, which is also in line with the most of the growth performance and health parameters of the fish. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Involvement of adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in the influence of timed high-fat evening diet on the hepatic clock and lipogenic gene expression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yan; Zhu, Zengyan; Xie, Meilin; Xue, Jie

    2015-09-01

    A high-fat diet may result in changes in hepatic clock gene expression, but potential mechanisms are not yet elucidated. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase that is recognized as a key regulator of energy metabolism and certain clock genes. Therefore, we hypothesized that AMPK may be involved in the alteration of hepatic clock gene expression under a high-fat environment. This study aimed to examine the effects of timed high-fat evening diet on the activity of hepatic AMPK, clock genes, and lipogenic genes. Mice with hyperlipidemic fatty livers were induced by orally administering high-fat milk via gavage every evening (19:00-20:00) for 6 weeks. Results showed that timed high-fat diet in the evening not only decreased the hepatic AMPK protein expression and activity but also disturbed its circadian rhythm. Accordingly, the hepatic clock genes, including clock, brain-muscle-Arnt-like 1, cryptochrome 2, and period 2, exhibited prominent changes in their expression rhythms and/or amplitudes. The diurnal rhythms of the messenger RNA expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorα, acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1α, and carnitine palmitoyltransferase 1 were also disrupted; the amplitude of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptorγcoactivator 1α was significantly decreased at 3 time points, and fatty liver was observed. These findings demonstrate that timed high-fat diet at night can change hepatic AMPK protein levels, activity, and circadian rhythm, which may subsequently alter the circadian expression of several hepatic clock genes and finally result in the disorder of hepatic lipogenic gene expression and the formation of fatty liver. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Are dinucleoside monophosphates relevant models for the study of DNA intrastrand cross-link lesions? The example of g[8-5m]T.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrec, Julian; Dumont, Elise

    2014-07-21

    Oxidatively generated tandem lesions such as G[8-5m]T pose a potent threat to genome integrity. Direct experimental studies of the kinetics and thermodynamics of a specific lesion within DNA are very challenging, mostly due to the variety of products that can be formed in oxidative conditions. Dinucleoside monophosphates (DM) involving only the reactive nucleobases in water represent appealing alternative models on which most physical chemistry and structural techniques can be applied. However, it is not yet clear how relevant these models are. Here, we present QM/MM MD simulations of the cyclization step involved in the formation of G[8-5m]T from the guanine-thymine (GpT) DM in water, with the aim of comparing our results to our previous investigation of the same reaction in DNA ( Garrec , J. , Patel , C. , Rothlisberger , U. , and Dumont , E. ( 2012 ) J. Am. Chem. Soc. 134 , 2111 - 2119 ). We show that, despite the different levels of preorganization of the two systems, the corresponding reactions share many energetic and structural characteristics. The main difference lies in the angle between the G and T bases, which is slightly higher in the transition state (TS) and product of the reaction in water than in the reaction in DNA. This effect is due to the Watson-Crick H-bonds, which are absent in the {GpT+water} system and restrain the relative positioning of the reactive nucleobases in DNA. However, since the lesion is accommodated easily in the DNA macromolecule, the induced energetic penalty is relatively small. The high similarity between the two reactions strongly supports the use of GpT in water as a model of the corresponding reaction in DNA.

  20. A multi-angular mass spectrometric view at cyclic nucleotide signaling proteins : Structure/function and protein interactions of cAMP- and cGMP-dependent protein kinase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scholten, A.

    2006-01-01

    The primary focus of this thesis is the two kinases PKA and PKG, cAMP and cGMP dependent protein kinase respectively. PKA and PKG are studied both at structure/function level as well as at the level of interaction with other proteins in tissue. Our primary methods are all based on mass spectrometry.

  1. Crisis DSM Generation To Support Refugee Camp Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gstaiger, Veronika; d'Angelo, Pablo; Schneiderhan, Tobais; Krauss, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    The extraction of high resolution surface information from satellite data has become an important area of research. One of the numerous fields of application is disaster management. Detailed information about the affected terrain is not only needed for analyses during the emergency relief phase, but also for reconstruction and prevention activities. In this paper the authors present the generation of a Digital Surface Model (DSM) based on three very high resolution optical satellite images. The DSM was produced to supplement a flood mapping activity in Jordan and serves as example for the implementation of scientific results during an emergency request. The flood affected the Zaatari refugee camp in Jordan and was mapped by the Center for Satellite Based Crisis Information (ZKI) at the German Aerospace Center (DLR) in January 2013 under emergency mapping conditions.

  2. Detainee optometry at Camp Cropper, Iraq, 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Thomas M; Elledge, James B

    2012-06-01

    This article details the first in-depth analysis of an Optometry Service working with a large Middle Eastern detainee population composed entirely of Iraqi males. The mission of the Camp Cropper Optometry Service was to provide eye care services to the detainee population consistent with the standards of optometric care that would be provided to any U.S. military member in the same geographic area. This included providing detainees with eyeglasses, therapeutic treatment of eye disease, and referral for treatment of medical conditions and surgical care, if it was needed and available at the U.S. military facilities in the Iraq Theater. Diagnoses, services provided, and medications given to the detainees are listed in detail and demonstrate the complexity of pathology encountered in this population.

  3. Agitation and Propagandistic Work in Soviet POW Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gulzhaukhar K. Kokebayeva

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper studies the problem of agitation work done among POWs in Soviet camps, the creation of military units and political organizations from POWs. Not only armed force was used during the Second World War, but also the power of words. The battles were accompanied by the information warfare. Opponents tried to use all possible means to manipulate people’s minds. Main directions of agitation and propaganda were defined by the «Soviet bureau of military and political propaganda», as well as the 7th Division of Soviet army. In the propaganda work among German POWs, the priority was given on shaping the ideological and political views of former soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht. As the result of the analysis of sources the author comes to conclusion that POWs of the Second World War period became the object of testing means and methods of ideological struggle of warring nations.

  4. UAV Survey Data from Clifton Camp (ST56557330, Bristol, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Gray

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This data was collected via low-altitude UAV (Unmanned Aerial Vehicle survey of an area of Clifton Camp (ST565557330, best known for its Iron Age promontory fort. The dataset comprises of metadata records, near-vertical photographs and a derived 3D polygonal mesh. This dataset has been constructed with two kinds of reuse in mind: Firstly, the area surveyed is culturally rich and underexplored; while some of the non-natural features detected by this survey can be identified, others cannot. This data is intended to inform future investigations of the site. Secondly, the survey methodologies employed and the structuring of the resulting dataset are intended to act as an exemplar, a standard method of creating survey data while prioritising open technologies, and of organising UAV survey datasets to ensure maximum re-usability.

  5. Environmental Factors Affecting Mercury in Camp Far West Reservoir, California, 2001-03

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alpers, Charles N.; Stewart, A. Robin; Saiki, Michael K.; Marvin-DiPasquale, Mark C.; Topping, Brent R.; Rider, Kelly M.; Gallanthine, Steven K.; Kester, Cynthia A.; Rye, Robert O.; Antweiler, Ronald C.; De Wild, John F.

    2008-01-01

    This report documents water quality in Camp Far West Reservoir from October 2001 through August 2003. The reservoir, located at approximately 300 feet above sea level in the foothills of the northwestern Sierra Nevada, California, is a monomictic lake characterized by extreme drawdown in the late summer and fall. Thermal stratification in summer and fall is coupled with anoxic conditions in the hypolimnion. Water-quality sampling was done at approximately 3-month intervals on eight occasions at several stations in the reservoir, including a group of three stations along a flow path in the reservoir: an upstream station in the Bear River arm (principal tributary), a mid-reservoir station in the thalweg (prereservoir river channel), and a station in the deepest part of the reservoir, in the thalweg near Camp Far West Dam. Stations in other tributary arms of the reservoir included those in the Rock Creek arm of the reservoir, a relatively low-flow tributary, and the Dairy Farm arm, a small tributary that receives acidic, metal-rich drainage seasonally from the inactive Dairy Farm Mine, which produced copper, zinc, and gold from underground workings and a surface pit. Several water-quality constituents varied significantly by season at all sampling stations, including major cations and anions, total mercury (filtered and unfiltered samples), nitrogen (ammonia plus organic), and total phosphorus. A strong seasonal signal also was observed for the sulfurisotope composition of aqueous sulfate from filtered water. Although there were some spatial differences in water quality, the seasonal variations were more profound. Concentrations of total mercury (filtered and unfiltered water) were highest during fall and winter; these concentrations decreased at most stations during spring and summer. Anoxic conditions developed in deep parts of the reservoir during summer and fall in association with thermal stratification. The highest concentrations of methylmercury in unfiltered

  6. Proven Effectiveness of Missouri 4-H Camps in Developing Life Skills in Youth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle D. Klem

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Camping is generally believed to be a context for positive youth development. The 4-H Camp environments presumably focus on the development of life skills including managing and thinking; relating and caring; giving and working and; living and being. However, the effectiveness of the Missouri 4-H Camp environments in developing life skills among campers had never been evaluated in a consistent manner across the multiple camping programs. In order to evaluate the efficacy of these camp programs, resident campers within the 10-13 year age range were surveyed about their camping experience during the summer of 2005 and a similar group was surveyed in 2006. Parents of campers were also surveyed both years to gather their perceptions of 4-H Camp’s impact on their children in developing the life skill areas identified above. Parents and youth agreed strongly that the 4-H Camp experience was substantially valuable in developing the life skills identified in the Targeting Life Skills Model (Hendricks, 1998.

  7. Suicide in inmates in Nazis and Soviet concentration camps: historical overview and critique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eLopez-Munoz

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Living conditions in concentration camps were harsh and often inhumane, leading many prisoners to commit suicide. We have reviewed this topic in Nazi concentration camps (KL, Soviet special camps and gulags, providing some preliminary data of our research. Data show that the incidence of suicide in Nazi KL could be up to 30 times higher than the general population, and was also much higher than in Soviet special camps (maybe due to more favorable conditions for prisoners and the abolishment of death penalty, while available data on Soviet gulags are contradictory. However, data interpretation is very controversial, because, for example, the Nazi KL authorities used to cover up the murder victims as suicides. Most of suicides were committed in the first years of imprisonment and the method of suicide most commonly used was hanging, although other methods included cutting blood vessels, poisoning, contact with electrified wire, or starvation. It is possible to differentiate two behavior when committing suicide; impulsive behavior (contact with electrified barbed or premeditated suicide (hanging up or through poison. In Soviet special camps, possible motives for suicides could include feelings of guilt for crimes committed, fear of punishment and a misguided understanding of honor on the eve of criminal trials. Self-destructive behaviors such as self-mutilation in gulag camps or prisoners who let themselves die have been widely reported. Committing suicide in concentration camps was a common practice, although precise data may be impossible to obtain.

  8. Impact of incarceration in Nazi concentration camps on multimorbidity of former prisoners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jablonski, Robert K; Leszek, Jerzy; Rosińczuk, Joanna; Uchmanowicz, Izabella; Panaszek, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    Objective To show the extent to which the health of former prisoners was affected by incarceration in extermination camps after 5 and 30 years of leaving the camp, and to determine the etiological factors underlying particular dysfunctions. Methods Medical records of former prisoners developed in 1950 (n=250) and 1975 (n=120) were then, after several decades, retrospectively analyzed and compared with the control group, randomized and matched according to age, sex, occupation, and environment. None of the subjects in the control group was a prisoner either at a concentration camp or at any other prison or detention facility. Results Multimorbidity affected mainly the central nervous system (CNS). Five years after leaving a camp, CNS dysfunctions were observed in 66% of former prisoners. Skeletal (42.4%) and cardiovascular system (34.4%) dysfunctions were the second and third most frequent dysfunctions. Thirty years after leaving a camp, the most prevalent coexisting conditions were also found within the CNS (80%), cardiovascular system (58.33%), and skeletal system (55%). Five and 30 years after leaving a camp, multiorgan lesions were found in 21.6% and 60% of survivors, respectively. Multimorbidity was more frequent in a group of prisoners who underwent the state of apathy and depression or who had been incarcerated longer than 24 months. The rate of CNS diseases was four times higher, and the rate of cardiovascular diseases or skeletal system dysfunctions was two times higher, in the study group after 30 years of leaving a camp compared with the control group. Conclusion The consequences of incarceration in concentration camps manifesting as multimorbidity, premature aging, and dramatic increase in mortality rate are observed in the majority of former prisoners. The multimorbidity mostly affected older prisoners who stayed at a camp for a longer time period. PMID:25792836

  9. Distancing Students From Nature: Science Camp and the Representation of the Human-Nature Relationship

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terrill, Laura Anne

    This study investigated the curricular representations of the environment and the human-environment relationship at one residential school sponsored science camp. Data gathered included field notes from observational time at the camp, interviews with staff and classroom teachers, and documents from the site's website, guides, manuals, and curricular guides. These data were analyzed to understand how the camp represented the human-environment relationship and the "proper" human-environment relationship to its participants. Analysis indicated that the camp's official and enacted curriculum was shaped in response to two perceived problems, (1) students were perceived as having a disconnected relationship with the outdoors and lacking in outdoor experiences; and (2) staff members of the camp believed that time for science during the school day had diminished and that students were not receiving adequate science instruction at school. In response, the goal of the camp was to connect students to the outdoors through hands-on, sensory, experience based science and outdoor education experiences. However, key aspects of the camp experience and the formal and enacted curriculum unintentionally positioned students as separate from nature. The camp experience presented a vacation like understanding of the human-environment relationship as students became tourists of the outdoors. Despite the site's goal of connecting students to the outdoors, the science camp experience worked to distance students from the outdoors by unintentionally representing the outdoors as a place that existed away from home and students' everyday lives. Notably, nature became a place that existed in the past, separate from modernity. Students were tourists in an exotic location - nature. They received tours of the foreign outdoors, had fun, and returned home to their ordinary lives that were separate and distinct from the natural world.

  10. The Antidepressant Agomelatine Improves Memory Deterioration and Upregulates CREB and BDNF Gene Expression Levels in Unpredictable Chronic Mild Stress (UCMS-Exposed Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esen Gumuslu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Agomelatine, a novel antidepressant with established clinical efficacy, acts as an agonist of melatonergic MT 1 and MT 2 receptors and as an antagonist of 5-HT 2C receptors. The present study was undertaken to investigate whether chronic treatment with agomelatine would block unpredictable chronic mild stress (UCMS-induced cognitive deterioration in mice in passive avoidance (PA, modified elevated plus maze (mEPM, novel object recognition (NOR, and Morris water maze (MWM tests. Moreover, the effects of stress and agomelatine on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP response element binding protein (CREB messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA levels in the hippocampus was also determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR. Male inbred BALB/c mice were treated with agomelatine (10 mg/kg, i.p., melatonin (10 mg/kg, or vehicle daily for five weeks. The results of this study revealed that UCMS-exposed animals exhibited memory deterioration in the PA, mEPM, NOR, and MWM tests. The chronic administration of melatonin had a positive effect in the PA and +mEPM tests, whereas agomelatine had a partial effect. Both agomelatine and melatonin blocked stress-induced impairment in visual memory in the NOR test and reversed spatial learning and memory impairment in the stressed group in the MWM test. Quantitative RT-PCR revealed that CREB and BDNF gene expression levels were downregulated in UCMS-exposed mice, and these alterations were reversed by chronic agomelatine or melatonin treatment. Thus, agomelatine plays an important role in blocking stress-induced hippocampal memory deterioration and activates molecular mechanisms of memory storage in response to a learning experience.

  11. 1992 Environmental Summer Science Camp Program evaluation. The International Environmental Institute of Westinghouse Hanford Company

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-07-01

    This report describes the 1992 Westinghouse Hanford Company/US Department of Energy Environmental Summer Science Camp. The objective of the ``camp`` was to motivate sixth and seventh graders to pursue studies in math, science, and the environment. This objective was accomplished through hands-on fun activities while studying the present and future challenges facing our environment. The camp was funded through Technical Task Plan, 424203, from the US Department of Energy-Headquarters, Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management, Technology Development,to Westinghouse Hanford Company`s International Environmental Institute, Education and Internship Performance Group.

  12. "Coaching the Camp Coach: Leadership Development for Small Organizations" Resource Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Hedrick

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Coaching is an important component of successful professional growth for leaders within any organization. However, organizations with limited resources may have challenges providing such coaching opportunities. This can be especially true for small business, non profit organizations and summer camps. “Coaching the Camp Coach; Leadership Development for Small Organizations” by Shelton, M. (2003 provides a framework, both in theory and practice, for camp leaders to improve interpersonal and intrapersonal skills through self evaluation. Accompanying the book is a CD-ROM that has multiple worksheets to be used in conjunction with the text.

  13. Integration of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle with cAMP signaling and Sfl2 pathways in the regulation of CO2 sensing and hyphal development in Candida albicans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Tao

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Morphological transitions and metabolic regulation are critical for the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to adapt to the changing host environment. In this study, we generated a library of central metabolic pathway mutants in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA cycle, and investigated the functional consequences of these gene deletions on C. albicans biology. Inactivation of the TCA cycle impairs the ability of C. albicans to utilize non-fermentable carbon sources and dramatically attenuates cell growth rates under several culture conditions. By integrating the Ras1-cAMP signaling pathway and the heat shock factor-type transcription regulator Sfl2, we found that the TCA cycle plays fundamental roles in the regulation of CO2 sensing and hyphal development. The TCA cycle and cAMP signaling pathways coordinately regulate hyphal growth through the molecular linkers ATP and CO2. Inactivation of the TCA cycle leads to lowered intracellular ATP and cAMP levels and thus affects the activation of the Ras1-regulated cAMP signaling pathway. In turn, the Ras1-cAMP signaling pathway controls the TCA cycle through both Efg1- and Sfl2-mediated transcriptional regulation in response to elevated CO2 levels. The protein kinase A (PKA catalytic subunit Tpk1, but not Tpk2, may play a major role in this regulation. Sfl2 specifically binds to several TCA cycle and hypha-associated genes under high CO2 conditions. Global transcriptional profiling experiments indicate that Sfl2 is indeed required for the gene expression changes occurring in response to these elevated CO2 levels. Our study reveals the regulatory role of the TCA cycle in CO2 sensing and hyphal development and establishes a novel link between the TCA cycle and Ras1-cAMP signaling pathways.

  14. Integration of the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle with cAMP signaling and Sfl2 pathways in the regulation of CO2 sensing and hyphal development in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Li; Zhang, Yulong; Fan, Shuru; Nobile, Clarissa J; Guan, Guobo; Huang, Guanghua

    2017-08-01

    Morphological transitions and metabolic regulation are critical for the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans to adapt to the changing host environment. In this study, we generated a library of central metabolic pathway mutants in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle, and investigated the functional consequences of these gene deletions on C. albicans biology. Inactivation of the TCA cycle impairs the ability of C. albicans to utilize non-fermentable carbon sources and dramatically attenuates cell growth rates under several culture conditions. By integrating the Ras1-cAMP signaling pathway and the heat shock factor-type transcription regulator Sfl2, we found that the TCA cycle plays fundamental roles in the regulation of CO2 sensing and hyphal development. The TCA cycle and cAMP signaling pathways coordinately regulate hyphal growth through the molecular linkers ATP and CO2. Inactivation of the TCA cycle leads to lowered intracellular ATP and cAMP levels and thus affects the activation of the Ras1-regulated cAMP signaling pathway. In turn, the Ras1-cAMP signaling pathway controls the TCA cycle through both Efg1- and Sfl2-mediated transcriptional regulation in response to elevated CO2 levels. The protein kinase A (PKA) catalytic subunit Tpk1, but not Tpk2, may play a major role in this regulation. Sfl2 specifically binds to several TCA cycle and hypha-associated genes under high CO2 conditions. Global transcriptional profiling experiments indicate that Sfl2 is indeed required for the gene expression changes occurring in response to these elevated CO2 levels. Our study reveals the regulatory role of the TCA cycle in CO2 sensing and hyphal development and establishes a novel link between the TCA cycle and Ras1-cAMP signaling pathways.

  15. Communication, Coping, and Connections: Campers’ and Parents’ Perspectives of Self-Efficacy and Benefits of Participation in Deployment Support Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christy D. Clary

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Military youth have unique challenges, particularly when a parent is deployed. Camp participation has been linked to multiple positive outcomes, thus camps have become popular as a setting for addressing these youth’s unique needs. With limited existing research on outcomes related to participation, this study explored to what extent participation in OMK camps affected military youth’s self-efficacy for communication, coping, and social skills. Participants responded to an online instrument three months after camp. Both campers and parents reported the largest increase in self-efficacy for communication skills, followed by social skills, and then coping skills. Open-ended responses overwhelmingly supported that developing friendships was one of the greatest benefits of attending a camp. The results are consistent with the literature regarding the importance of connectedness. Recommendations for conducting camps are offered. These finding may also be useful to those working with other special populations in the camp setting.

  16. The cAMP signaling system inhibits the repair of {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage by promoting Epac1-mediated proteasomal degradation of XRCC1 protein in human lung cancer cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Eun-Ah [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cancer Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of); Juhnn, Yong-Sung, E-mail: juhnn@snu.ac.kr [Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Cancer Research Center, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul 110-799 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system inhibits repair of {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system inhibits DNA damage repair by decreasing XRCC1 expression. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer cAMP signaling system decreases XRCC1 expression by promoting its proteasomal degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The promotion of XRCC1 degradation by cAMP signaling system is mediated by Epac1. -- Abstract: Cyclic AMP is involved in the regulation of metabolism, gene expression, cellular growth and proliferation. Recently, the cAMP signaling system was found to modulate DNA-damaging agent-induced apoptosis by regulating the expression of Bcl-2 family proteins and inhibitors of apoptosis. Thus, we hypothesized that the cAMP signaling may modulate DNA repair activity, and we investigated the effects of the cAMP signaling system on {gamma}-ray-induced DNA damage repair in lung cancer cells. Transient expression of a constitutively active mutant of stimulatory G protein (G{alpha}sQL) or treatment with forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator, augmented radiation-induced DNA damage and inhibited repair of the damage in H1299 lung cancer cells. Expression of G{alpha}sQL or treatment with forskolin or isoproterenol inhibited the radiation-induced expression of the XRCC1 protein, and exogenous expression of XRCC1 abolished the DNA repair-inhibiting effect of forskolin. Forskolin treatment promoted the ubiquitin and proteasome-dependent degradation of the XRCC1 protein, resulting in a significant decrease in the half-life of the protein after {gamma}-ray irradiation. The effect of forskolin on XRCC1 expression was not inhibited by PKA inhibitor, but 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP, an Epac-selective cAMP analog, increased ubiquitination of XRCC1 protein and decreased XRCC1 expression. Knockdown of Epac1 abolished the effect of 8-pCPT-2 Prime -O-Me-cAMP and restored XRCC1 protein level following {gamma}-ray irradiation. From

  17. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pacini, Stefania; Morucci, Gabriele; Punzi, Tiziana; Gulisano, Massimo; Ruggiero, Marco

    2011-04-01

    The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory effect of GcMAF on PBMCs. In addition, we demonstrate that GcMAF (1 ng/ml) inhibited prostaglandin E(1)- and human breast cancer cell-stimulated angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane (CAM) assay. Finally, we tested different GcMAF preparations on CAM, and the assay proved to be a reliable, reproducible and inexpensive method to determine the relative potencies of different preparations and their stability; we observed that storage at room temperature for 15 days decreased GcMAF potency by about 50%. These data could prove useful for upcoming clinical trials on GcMAF.

  18. Trichoderma G protein-coupled receptors: functional characterisation of a cAMP receptor-like protein from Trichoderma atroviride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Kurt; Omann, Markus; Pucher, Marion E; Delic, Marizela; Lehner, Sylvia M; Domnanich, Patrick; Kratochwill, Klaus; Druzhinina, Irina; Denk, Dagmar; Zeilinger, Susanne

    2008-12-01

    Galpha subunits act to regulate vegetative growth, conidiation, and the mycoparasitic response in Trichoderma atroviride. To extend our knowledge on G protein signalling, we analysed G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs). As the genome sequence of T. atroviride is not publicly available yet, we carried out an in silico exploration of the genome database of the close relative T. reesei. Twenty genes encoding putative GPCRs distributed over eight classes and additional 35 proteins similar to the Magnaporthe grisea PTH11 receptor were identified. Subsequently, four T. atroviride GPCR-encoding genes were isolated and affiliated to the cAMP receptor-like family by phylogenetic and topological analyses. All four genes showed lowest expression on glycerol and highest mRNA levels upon carbon starvation. Transcription of gpr3 and gpr4 responded to exogenously added cAMP and the shift from liquid to solid media. gpr3 mRNA levels also responded to the presence of fungal hyphae or cellulose membranes. Further characterisation of mutants bearing a gpr1-silencing construct revealed that Gpr1 is essential for vegetative growth, conidiation and conidial germination. Four genes encoding the first GPCRs described in Trichoderma were isolated and their expression characterized. At least one of these GPCRs is important for several cellular processes, supporting the fundamental role of G protein signalling in this fungus.

  19. Histone deacetylase 6 inhibition reduces cysts by decreasing cAMP and Ca2+ in knock-out mouse models of polycystic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanda, Murali K; Liu, Qiangni; Cebotaru, Valeriu; Guggino, William B; Cebotaru, Liudmila

    2017-10-27

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is associated with progressive enlargement of multiple renal cysts, often leading to renal failure that cannot be prevented by a current treatment. Two proteins encoded by two genes are associated with ADPKD: PC1 ( pkd1 ), primarily a signaling molecule, and PC2 ( pkd2 ), a Ca 2+ channel. Dysregulation of cAMP signaling is central to ADPKD, but the molecular mechanism is unresolved. Here, we studied the role of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in regulating cyst growth to test the possibility that inhibiting HDAC6 might help manage ADPKD. Chemical inhibition of HDAC6 reduced cyst growth in PC1-knock-out mice. In proximal tubule-derived, PC1-knock-out cells, adenylyl cyclase 6 and 3 (AC6 and -3) are both expressed. AC6 protein expression was higher in cells lacking PC1, compared with control cells containing PC1. Intracellular Ca 2+ was higher in PC1-knock-out cells than in control cells. HDAC inhibition caused a drop in intracellular Ca 2+ and increased ATP-simulated Ca 2+ release. HDAC6 inhibition reduced the release of Ca 2+ from the endoplasmic reticulum induced by thapsigargin, an inhibitor of endoplasmic reticulum Ca 2+ -ATPase. HDAC6 inhibition and treatment of cells with the intracellular Ca 2+ chelator 1,2-bis(2-aminophenoxy)ethane- N , N , N ', N '-tetraacetic acid tetrakis(acetoxymethyl ester) reduced cAMP levels in PC1-knock-out cells. Finally, the calmodulin inhibitors W-7 and W-13 reduced cAMP levels, and W-7 reduced cyst growth, suggesting that AC3 is involved in cyst growth regulated by HDAC6. We conclude that HDAC6 inhibition reduces cell growth primarily by reducing intracellular cAMP and Ca 2+ levels. Our results provide potential therapeutic targets that may be useful as treatments for ADPKD. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  20. Involvement of G proteins and cAMP in the production of chitinolytic enzymes by Trichoderma harzianum Envolvimento de proteínas G e cAMP na produção de enzimas quitinolíticas por Trichoderma harzianum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre A.P. Firmino

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of G protein modulators and cyclic AMP (cAMP on N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGase production was investigated during 84 h of growth of a Trichoderma harzianum strain in chitin-containing medium. Caffeine (5 mM, N6--2'-O-dibutyryladenosine 3'5'-cyclic monophosphate sodium salt (dBcAMP (1 mM and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX (2 mM decreased extracellular NAGase activity by 80%, 77% and 37%, respectively. AlCl3/KF (100 µM/10 mM and 200 µM/ 20 mM decreased the activity by 85% and 95%, respectively. Cholera (10 µ/mL and pertussis (20 µ/mL toxins also affected NAGase activity, causing a decrease of approximately 75%. Upon all treatments, protein bands of approximately 73 kDa, 68 kDa and 45 kDa had their signals diminished whilst a 50 kDa band was enhanced only by treatment with cholera and pertussis toxins. N-terminal sequencing analysis identified the 73 kDa and 68 kDa proteins as being T. harzianum NAGase in two different truncated forms whereas the 45 kDa band comprised a T. harzianum endochitinase. The 50 kDa protein showed sequence similarity to Coriolus vesicolor cellobiohydrolase. The above results suggest that a signaling pathway comprising G-proteins, adenylate cyclase and cAMP may be involved in the synthesis of T. harzianum chitinases.O efeito de cAMP e de moduladores de proteínas G sobre a produção de N-acetilglicosaminidase (NAGase foi investigado durante o crescimento de Trichoderma harzianum em meio contendo quitina. Cafeína (5 mM, dBcAMP (1mM e IBMX (2 mM provocaram diminuições na atividade extracelular de NAGase em 80%, 77% e 37%, respectivamente. Por outro lado, a presença de AlCl3/KF nas concentrações de 100 µM/10 mM e 200 µM/ 20 mM causou decréscimo na atividade em 85% e 95%, respectivamente. A toxina do cólera (10 µ/mL e a toxina pertussis (20 µ/mL também afetaram a atividade de NAGase, causando um decréscimo de aproximadamente 75%. Análises eletroforéticas mostraram que todos os tratamentos

  1. Identification of a specific assembly of the G protein Golf as a critical and regulated module of dopamine and adenosine-activated cAMP pathways in the striatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denis eHervé

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In the principal neurons of striatum (medium spiny neurons, MSNs, cAMP pathway is primarily activated through the stimulation of dopamine D1 and adenosine A2A receptors, these receptors being mainly expressed in striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, respectively. Since cAMP signaling pathway could be altered in various physiological and pathological situations, including drug addiction and Parkinson’s disease, it is of crucial importance to identify the molecular components involved in the activation of this pathway. In MSNs, cAMP pathway activation is not dependent on the classical Gs GTP-binding protein but requires a specific G protein subunit heterotrimer containing Galpha-olf/beta2/gamma7 in particular association with adenylate cyclase type 5. This assembly forms an authentic functional signaling unit since loss of one of its members leads to defects of cAMP pathway activation in response to D1 or A2A receptor stimulation, inducing dramatic impairments of behavioral responses dependent on these receptors. Interestingly, D1 receptor-dependent cAMP signaling is modulated by the neuronal levels of Galpha-olf, indicating that Galpha-olf represents the rate-limiting step in this signaling cascade and could constitute a critical element for regulation of D1 receptor responses. In both Parkinsonian patients and several animal models of Parkinson’s disease, the lesion of dopamine neurons produces a prolonged elevation of Galpha-olf levels. This observation gives an explanation for the cAMP pathway hypersensitivity to D1 stimulation, occurring despite an unaltered D1 receptor density. In conclusion, alterations in the highly specialized assembly of Galpha-olf/beta2/gamma7 subunits can happen in pathological conditions, such as Parkinson’s disease, and it could have important functional consequences in relation to changes in D1 receptor signaling in the striatum.

  2. Children's cancer camps: a sense of community, a sense of family.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laing, Catherine M; Moules, Nancy J

    2014-05-01

    Childhood cancer is a family affair, and each year in Canada, approximately 1,400 children and adolescents under the age of 20 are diagnosed with cancer. Innumerable challenges accompany this diagnosis, and in recognition of the stress of childhood cancer, children's cancer camps arose in the 1970s to help children and their families escape the rigidity and severity of cancer treatment. Very little is known about these cancer camps, and to that end, a philosophical hermeneutic study was conducted to understand the meaning of children's cancer camps for the child with cancer and the family. Six families were interviewed to bring understanding to this topic. While the research included findings related to the concept of play, fit and acceptance, storytelling, and grief, this paper will detail the finding related to the solidarity of the community--the "camp family"--as one that creates intense, healing bonds.

  3. Experience from mental health clinics held during medical service camps in Fiji.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumaran, Hemalatha; George, Kuruvilla; Naker, Gunu; Nadanachandran, Kathir

    2015-12-01

    We aim to describe the experience and findings of mental health clinics held during medical service camps in the rural settings of Fiji. Descriptive data collated at the end of the medical camps across 2011-2014 are used to highlight the main findings. The exposure to mental health assessments and brief interventions at these camps was a validating experience for both individuals and medical students attending the clinics. The most common presentations can be categorised under symptoms of depression, anxiety and relationship problems. The accessibility of mental health support services is a challenge in Fiji. Medical service camps can form an important pathway in promoting mental health awareness, especially amongst the rural communities of Fiji, and a useful platform for medical students to acquire some clinical exposure. © The Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists 2015.

  4. Payment or reimbursement for certain medical expenses for Camp Lejeune family members. Interim final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-24

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) is promulgating regulations to implement statutory authority to provide payment or reimbursement for hospital care and medical services provided to certain veterans' family members who resided at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, for at least 30 days during the period beginning on January 1, 1957, and ending on December 31, 1987. Under this rule, VA will reimburse family members, or pay providers, for medical expenses incurred as a result of certain illnesses and conditions that may be attributed to exposure to contaminated drinking water at Camp Lejeune during this time period. Payment or reimbursement will be made within the limitations set forth in statute and Camp Lejeune family members will receive hospital care and medical services that are consistent with the manner in which we provide hospital care and medical services to Camp Lejeune veterans.

  5. Impacts of a Southern Indiana Summer Camp: Adult Reflections on Childhood Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin L. Snider

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Scholars have well documented the impact on youth of attending a residential summer camp. Quantitative studies, generally consisting of pre/post assessments, have found positive outcomes related to self-esteem, self-efficacy, hard skills, and social skills. We explored the long-term outcomes of the camp experience through adult recollections of the camp experience. Participants’ interviews provided four primary, emergent themes: self growth, affinity for nature, life skills, and relationship. Outcomes appear to stem from camper-counselor relationships and unstructured free time. This study highlights the lifelong benefits of the camp experience and suggests there is utility in collecting adult long-term recollections of childhood memories.

  6. A Real-Time Application of the ADCIRC-2DDI Hydrodynamic Model at Camp Pendleton, California

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Blain, Cheryl

    1998-01-01

    ...) off the coast of southern California 16-23 Jul 1997. A modeling strategy is designed for Camp Pendleton coastal waters and appropriate sensitivity analyses are conducted to assess initial model performance...

  7. Sustainable transportation : technology, engineering, and science : summer camp instructor’s guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-03-01

    This document reproduces the instructors guide for a ten day transportation engineering summer camp that was held at the University of Idaho in July 2013. The instructors guide is split into three units: Unit 1: Vehicle Technology, Unit 2: Traf...

  8. Prissy’s Quittin’ Time: The Black Camp Aesthetics of Kara Walker

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephens Brian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Through a close reading of Walker’s first silhouette instalment-the audaciously titled Gone, An Historical Romance of a Civil War as it Occurred Between the Dusky Thighs of One Young Negress and Her Heart (1994-this article examines how Walker utilises black camp to undermine both white supremacist and restrictive black uplift discourse. To be sure, the article is not an attempt to conflate these two, for the former is powerfully worse than the latter. However, it is necessary to explore how both discourses reinforce essentialist articulations of blackness and also to examine how black camp is a provocative analytic for their simultaneous disruption. Camp is usually understood as a queer-derived cultural practice that inflates identity to expose the constructed nature of gender. However, this article shows that black articulations of camp inflate identity to demonstrate the fiction of race as well.

  9. From charity and philanthropy to State social protection: school holiday camps in Spain (1887-1936

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro L. MORENO MARTÍNEZ

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available School holiday camps, which started in Switzerland in 1886, would start to function in Spain under the institutionalist and director of the then called Museo de Instrucción Primaria de Madrid (Museum of Primary Instruction, Manuel B. Cossío, in 1887. The paper analyses briefly the social, hygienic and educational context in which international movement of summer camps made their appearance and with special reference to Spain. The paper focuses on the beginnings and the scope of these camps in Spain and on the influence of public policies on these processes. These policies shifted from initial government inhibition and the call to the forces of the country to charity and patriotism, to a progressive promotion and to State protection for the summer camps.

  10. 77 FR 25952 - Oregon Army National Guard, Camp Rilea, Clatsop County, OR; Danger Zone

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-02

    ... because the proposed site for the danger zone is located in the Pacific Ocean and vessels may navigate...). 2. Add Sec. 334.1175 to read as follows: Sec. 334.1175 Pacific Ocean, at Camp Rilea, Clatsop County...

  11. Caxingo - a promising model for integrating the hydroelectric work camps to the site communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luna, A.M.; Falcao, A.A.

    1989-01-01

    The social and economical impacts caused by the hydroelectric work camps in the sites where the hydroelectric will be constructed are studied, analysing the great supply of works when the hydroelectric is been constructed face to the reduction one when the works are concluded; the neglect by the State in providing medical and educational assistances to the neighbour populations; the appearance of a commerce in the neighbour areas; the employer stableness in the camp after the pension and the lack by the neighbour cities of a social and economical substructure to offer to the population, that come with the hydroelectric construction. A new solution for these problems is presented in the Xingo camp, where the camp will be as a district of city near to the work, with community services provide by the State and the needful substructure to its construction and the equipment provide by the concessionaire. (C.G.C.). 1 fig

  12. Environmental Assessment of Lead at Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, Small Arms Ranges

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Clausen, Jay L; Korte, Nic; Bostick, Benjamin; Rice, Benjamin; Walsh, Matthew; Nelson, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    Environmental issues for small arms training with lead projectiles are examined in this report for Camp Edwards, Massachusetts, in order to evaluate whether past or future use of lead in small arms...

  13. Integrating Enhanced STEM Themes in the UTEP CAREERS Weather Camp for Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güereque, M.; Olgin, J. G.; Kier, M. W.; Winston, C. E.; Fitzgerald, R. M.; Morris, V. R.

    2014-12-01

    The NOAA Center for Atmospheric Science (NCAS) sponsors a network of high school and middle school summer camps entitled "Channeling Atmospheric Research into Educational Experiences Reaching Students program, CAREERS". These camps are conducted nationwide at NCAS academic partners; the University of Texas at El Paso (UTEP), Howard University (HU), University of Puerto Rico at Mayagüez (UPRM), and Jackson State University (JSU). The goals of these camps are to increase the interest of secondary school (HS) students in atmospheric and weather related sciences, target under-represented students, and to ultimately boost their college enrollment in STEM related fields. For 2014 at UTEP, the annual student-outreach weather camp program underwent a thematic overhaul that sought to incorporate more of the geological and environmental context of the region. Doctoral students were allowed to assume greater responsibility for the design, development and implementation of the camp activities. The prevailing assumption was that these Ph.D. students were better suited for peer mentoring, bridging the age and interest gap, and delivering the material through the modern technologies and modes of communication. The redesigned approach focused on the identification of climate drivers within the region and this concept formed a thread throughout the planning and design of the camp modules. The outcome resulted in the incorporation of project based learning (PBL) activities, field excursions, and deployment of weather instrumentation, for explaining regional climate processes and events. Standardized surveys were administered to camp participants to evaluate the efficacy, as well as student perceptions of the camp and its activities. Results will be presented that are based on qualitative and quantitative analysis of student responses.

  14. Narratives from Jenin Refugee Camp: Children as extreme defence against the disintegration of family and community

    OpenAIRE

    Veronese, Guido; Said, Mahmud Shobi; Castiglioni, Marco

    2010-01-01

    This paper aim to explore practices that create serious risks to the physical and psychological  health of Palestinian children. The typical stories of three children interviewed at Jenin Refugee Camp are subjected to content analysis. This analysis also extends to the micro and macro social developmental context of these children (which the share with the entire population of the camp). Key themes emerging from the analysis include the need to "redeem" grand parents and parents (de...

  15. cAMP Stimulates Transepithelial Short-Circuit Current and Fluid Transport Across Porcine Ciliary Epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Angela King-Wah; Civan, Mortimer M; To, Chi-Ho; Do, Chi-Wai

    2016-12-01

    To investigate the effects of cAMP on transepithelial electrical parameters and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium. Transepithelial electrical parameters were determined by mounting freshly isolated porcine ciliary epithelium in a modified Ussing chamber. Similarly, fluid movement across intact ciliary body was measured with a custom-made fluid flow chamber. Addition of 1, 10, and 100 μM 8-Br-cAMP (cAMP) to the aqueous side (nonpigmented ciliary epithelium, NPE) induced a sustained increase in short-circuit current (Isc). Addition of niflumic acid (NFA) to the aqueous surface effectively blocked the cAMP-induced Isc stimulation. The administration of cAMP to the stromal side (pigmented ciliary epithelium, PE) triggered a significant stimulation of Isc only at 100 μM. No additive effect was observed with bilateral application of cAMP. Likewise, forskolin caused a significant stimulation of Isc when applied to the aqueous side. Concomitantly, cAMP and forskolin increased fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium, and this stimulation was effectively inhibited by aqueous NFA. Depleting Cl- in the bathing solution abolished the baseline Isc and inhibited the subsequent stimulation by cAMP. Pretreatment with protein kinase A (PKA) blockers (H89/KT5720) significantly inhibited the cAMP- and forskolin-induced Isc responses. Our results suggest that cAMP triggers a sustained stimulation of Cl- and fluid transport across porcine ciliary epithelium; Cl- channels in the NPE cells are potentially a cellular site for this PKA-sensitive cAMP-mediated response.

  16. Beyoncé’s Slay Trick: The Performance of Black Camp and its Intersectional Politics

    OpenAIRE

    Chatzipapatheodoridis Constantine

    2017-01-01

    This article pays attention to African-American artist Beyonce Knowles and her performance of black camp. Beyonce’s stage persona and performances invite multiple ideological readings as to what pertains to her interpretation of gender, sexuality, and race. While cultural theory around the icon of Beyonce has focused on her feminist and racial politics as well as her politicization of the black female body, a queer reading applied from the perspective of camp performance will concentrate on t...

  17. APA Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research: Cameron J. Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-01

    The Award for Distinguished Professional Contributions to Applied Research is given to a psychologist whose research has led to important discoveries or developments in the field of applied psychology. The 2017 recipient is Cameron J. Camp, whose innovative programs have informed psychologists in working with dementia patients to improve their living skills and enhance their independence. Camp's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).

  18. The Study on the Lives and Health Conditions of Internees in Santo Thomas Camp of Philippines - Based on McAnlis’s (1941-1945 -

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jueyeon LEE

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available When Japan invaded the Philippines, two missionary dentists (Dr. McAnlis and Dr. Boots who were forced to leave Korea were captured and interned in the Santo Thomas camp in Manila. Japan continued to bombard and plunder the Philippines in the wake of the Pacific War following the Great East Asia policy, leading to serious inflation and material deficiency. More than 4,000 Allied citizens held in Santo Thomas camp without basic food and shelter. Santo Thomas Camp was equipped with the systems of the Japanese military medical officers and Western doctors of captivity based on the Geneva Conventions(1929. However, it was an unsanitary environment in a dense space, so it could not prevent endemic diseases such as dysentery and dengue fever. With the expansion of the war in Japan, prisoners in the Shanghai and Philippine prisons were not provided with medicines, cures and food for healing diseases. In May 1944, the Japanese military ordered the prisoners to reduce their ration. The war starting in September 1944, internees received 1000 kcal of food per day, and since January 1945, they received less than 800 kcal of food. This was the lowest level of food rationing in Japan’s civilian prison camps. They suffered beriberi from malnutrition, and other endemic diseases. An averaged 24 kg was lost by adult men due to food shortages, and 10 percent of the 390 deaths were directly attributable to starvation. The doctors demanded food increases. The Japanese Military forced the prisoner to worship the emperor and doctors not to record malnourishment as the cause of death. During the period, the prisoners suffered from psychosomatic symptoms such as headache, diarrhea, acute inflammation, excessive smoking, and alcoholism also occurred. Thus, the San Thomas camp had many difficulties in terms of nutrition, hygiene and medical care. The Japanese military had unethical and careless medical practices in the absence of medicines. Dr. McAnlis and missionary

  19. The Study on the Lives and Health Conditions of Internees in Santo Thomas Camp of Philippines - Based on McAnlis's The War in Manila (1941-1945).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jueyeon; Cho, Youngsoo

    2017-08-01

    When Japan invaded the Philippines, two missionary dentists (Dr. McAnlis and Dr. Boots) who were forced to leave Korea were captured and interned in the Santo Thomas camp in Manila. Japan continued to bombard and plunder the Philippines in the wake of the Pacific War following the Great East Asia policy, leading to serious inflation and material deficiency. More than 4,000 Allied citizens held in Santo Thomas camp without basic food and shelter. Santo Thomas Camp was equipped with the systems of the Japanese military medical officers and Western doctors of captivity based on the Geneva Conventions(1929). However, it was an unsanitary environment in a dense space, so it could not prevent endemic diseases such as dysentery and dengue fever. With the expansion of the war in Japan, prisoners in the Shanghai and Philippine prisons were not provided with medicines, cures and food for healing diseases. In May 1944, the Japanese military ordered the prisoners to reduce their ration. The war starting in September 1944, internees received 1000 kcal of food per day, and since January 1945, they received less than 800 kcal of food. This was the lowest level of food rationing in Japan's civilian prison camps. They suffered beriberi from malnutrition, and other endemic diseases. An averaged 24 kg was lost by adult men due to food shortages, and 10 percent of the 390 deaths were directly attributable to starvation. The doctors demanded food increases. The Japanese Military forced the prisoner to worship the emperor and doctors not to record malnourishment as the cause of death. During the period, the prisoners suffered from psychosomatic symptoms such as headache, diarrhea, acute inflammation, excessive smoking, and alcoholism also occurred. Thus, the San Thomas camp had many difficulties in terms of nutrition, hygiene and medical care. The Japanese military had unethical and careless medical practices in the absence of medicines. Dr. McAnlis and missionary doctors handled a lot

  20. Ground water in Fountain and Jimmy Camp Valleys, El Paso County, Colorado with a section on Computations of drawdowns caused by the pumping of wells in Fountain Valley

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Edward D.; Glover, Robert E.

    1964-01-01

    The part of Fountain Valley considered in this report extends from Colorado Springs to the Pueblo County line. It is 23 miles long and has an area of 26 square miles. The part of Jimmy Camp Valley discussed is 11 miles long and has an area of 9 square miles. The topography is characterized by level flood plains and alluvial terraces that parallel the valley and by rather steep hills along the valley sides. The climate is semiarid, average annual precipitation being about 13 inches. Farming and stock raising are the principal occupations in the valleys; however, some of the agricultural land near Colorado Springs is being used for housing developments. The Pierre Shale and alluvium underlie most of the area, and mesa gravel caps the shale hills adjacent to Fountain Valley. The alluvium yields water to domestic, stock, irrigation, and public-supply wells and is capable of yielding large quantities of water for intermittent periods. Several springs issue along the sides of the valley at the contact of the mesa gravel and the underlying Pierre Shale. The water table ranges in depth from less than 10 feet along the bottom lands to about 80 feet along the sides of the valleys; the saturated thickness ranges from less than a foot to about 50 feet. The ground-water reservoir in Fountain Valley is recharged by precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Fountain Creek, which originates in the Pikes Peak, Monument Valley, and Rampart Range areas, and by seepage from irrigation water. This reservoir contains about 70,000 acre-feet of ground water in storage. The ground-water reservoir in Jimmy Camp Valley is recharged from precipitation that falls within the area, by percolation from Jimmy Camp Creek during periods of streamflow, and by seepage from irrigation water. The Jimmy Camp ground-water reservoir contains about 25,000 acre-feet of water in storage. Ground water is discharged from the area by movement to the south, by evaporation and transpiration in

  1. Mental health of internally displaced persons in Jalozai camp, Pakistan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mujeeb, Arooj

    2015-11-01

    Internal displacement has been a distressing issue of Pakistan for last one decade. Few research works have been conducted on the psychological issues of internally displaced persons in Pakistan. The current research was aimed at determining the psychological effects of internal displacement, that is, psychological well-being, depression, anxiety and stress (internalizing problems) of the individuals who were displaced as a result of an armed conflict in Swat. A sample of 126 internally displaced persons was taken from Jalozai camp which included females (n = 65) and males (n = 61). Age of the sample ranged from 20 to 75 years with a mean of 47.5 years. Translated and adapted versions of Well-Being Affectometer-2 Scale and Depression Anxiety Stress Scale were used in the current research. Results of the study indicated differences between males and females, females being higher on internalizing problems and lower on psychological well-being, whereas family loss during displacement affected the results in the same way. Well-being, gender and family loss emerged as significant predictors of internalizing problems, and gender moderated the relationship between well-being and internalizing problems. Internal displacement may bring psychological issues for internally displaced persons, that is, their well-being may decrease and depression, anxiety and stress may increase during displacement. Limitations and implications of the study were discussed further. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Radiation exposure in the use of camping gas lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elmer, E.

    1985-01-01

    The gas lamps used during camping are provided with so-called incandescent hood. To increase the luminous power, they include an average of 330 mg of thorium oxide (Th-nat), which corresponds to an overall activity of about 36 nCi (1.3 kBq). The assessment of radiological risks of campers showed that the radiation doses from external irradiation or ingestion of the existing activity may be neglected. However, special attention must be given to inhalation because the incandescent hood embrittles after while and in the course of replacement may fall to dust which might be breathed in. A person who replaces the hood carelessly twice can reach the maximum permissible annual inhalation rate (=1 nCi Th-nat) this way. This also applies to the maximum permissible surface contamination. In Switzerland, thorium incandescent hood may only be sold for general use on the condition that the purchaser is instructed by a notice how to replacement is to be made to avoid dust. (orig./HP) [de

  3. How physically active are children attending summer day camps?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W; Weaver, Robert G; Beighle, Aaron; Webster, Collin; Pate, Russell R

    2013-08-01

    Summer day camps (SDC) represent one of the largest settings, outside the academic school year, where children can engage in safe, enjoyable physical activity (PA). Yet, little is known about this setting and how active children are while attending. System for Observing Play and Leisure Activity in Youth was used to categorize PA of boys/girls as Sedentary/Walking/Vigorous across multiple days (8 AM to 6 PM) in 4 large-scale community-based SDCs. Contextual characteristics of type of activity, activity management, equipment, and in/outdoors were collected simultaneously. Mixed-model regression analyses examined associations between PA categories and contextual characteristics. A total of 4649 scans of 2462 children were made across 27 days in the SDCs. Physical activity opportunities represented 38% of the daily schedule. Overall, 74%-79%, 13%-16%, and 7%-9% of children were observed Sedentary, Walking, or Vigorous during the SDC, and this changed to 62%-67%, 18%-19%, and 15%-18% observed Sedentary, Walking, or Vigorous during PA opportunities. Water-based PA, equipment, and free-play were related to increased PA. Children waiting-in-line for turns, staff instructing, and organized PA were related to increased sedentary. These findings provide evidence of modifiable characteristics of SDCs associated with PA. Improving staff skills related to facilitating active environments is a viable avenue to increase PA accumulated within SDCs.

  4. Hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase and inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase activities in three mammalian species: aquatic (Mirounga angustirostris, semiaquatic (Lontra longicaudis annectens and terrestrial (Sus scrofa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Myrna eBarjau Perez-Milicua

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have the capacity of breath hold (apnea diving. Northern elephant seals (Mirounga angustirostris have the ability to perform deep and long duration dives; during a routine dive, adults can hold their breath for 25 min. Neotropical river otters (Lontra longicaudis annectens can hold their breath for about 30 sec. Such periods of apnea may result in reduced oxygen concentration (hypoxia and reduced blood supply (ischemia to tissues. Production of adenosine 5’-triphosphate (ATP requires oxygen, and most mammalian species, like the domestic pig (Sus scrofa, are not adapted to tolerate hypoxia and ischemia, conditions that result in ATP degradation. The objective of this study was to explore the differences in purine synthesis and recycling in erythrocytes and plasma of three mammalian species adapted to different environments: aquatic (northern elephant seal (n=11, semiaquatic (neotropical river otter (n=4 and terrestrial (domestic pig (n=11. Enzymatic activity of hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyltransferase (HGPRT was determined by spectrophotometry, and activity of inosine 5’-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH and the concentration of hypoxanthine (HX, inosine 5’-monophosphate (IMP, adenosine 5’-monophosphate (AMP, adenosine 5’-diphosphate (ADP, ATP, guanosine 5’-diphosphate (GDP, guanosine 5’-triphosphate (GTP, and xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC. The activities of HGPRT and IMPDH and the concentration of HX, IMP, AMP, ADP, ATP, GTP and XMP in erythrocytes of domestic pigs were higher than in erythrocytes of northern elephant seals and river otters. These results suggest that under basal conditions (no diving, sleep apnea or exercise, aquatic and semiaquatic mammals have less purine mobilization than their terrestrial counterparts.

  5. Forced migration and sexual abuse: experience of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme refugee camp, Rwanda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Innocent Iyakaremye

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Background This study deals with the link between forced migration and sexual abuse, with a special focus on adolescent girls. Existing literature associates forced migration with sexual abuse and identifies adolescent girls as the most vulnerable. However, little is known about the situation of sexual abuse among Congolese refugees in Rwanda since their arrival in 2012 due to the conflict between Congolese government forces and the M23 rebel group. This study was initiated to explore the situation of sexual abuse of Congolese adolescent girls in Kigeme camp and to suggest remedial strategies. Participants and procedure Qualitative data were collected through individual interviews and focus group discussions (FGDs with adolescent girls. Interviews also involved parents, boys, camp authorities, and neighbouring citizens. Results The findings show that rape, unwanted physical touching, sexual exploitation, commercial sex, early marriage and girl trafficking are the main forms of sexual abuse. These are facilitated by the miserable life in the camp, shortcomings in the camp layout and security system, and adolescent developmental stage. They negatively impact girls’ reproductive health, social integration and mental health. Conclusions Existing strategies to address sexual abuse in the camp have had positive but insufficient results, and thus need to be improved and reinforced. Improvement is suggested in the areas of the abuse reporting system, the camp layout and security system, involvement of men and youth, and the consolidation of anti-GBV (gender-based violence clubs.

  6. Payment or Reimbursement for Certain Medical Expenses for Camp Lejeune Family Members. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-05

    The Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) adopts as final an interim final rule addressing payment or reimbursement of certain medical expenses for family members of Camp Lejeune veterans. Under this rule, VA reimburses family members, or pays providers, for medical expenses incurred as a result of certain illnesses and conditions that may be associated with contaminants present in the base water supply at U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune (Camp Lejeune), North Carolina, from August 1, 1953, to December 31, 1987. Payment or reimbursement is made within the limitations set forth in statute and Camp Lejeune family members receive hospital care and medical services that are consistent with the manner in which we provide hospital care and medical services to Camp Lejeune veterans. The statutory authority has since been amended to also include certain veterans' family members who resided at Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, for no less than 30 days (consecutive or nonconsecutive) between August 1, 1953, and December 31, 1987. This final rule will reflect that statutory change and will address public comments received in response to the interim final rule.

  7. Investigation of cAMP microdomains as a path to novel cancer diagnostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desman, Garrett; Waintraub, Caren; Zippin, Jonathan H

    2014-12-01

    Understanding of cAMP signaling has greatly improved over the past decade. The advent of live cell imaging techniques and more specific pharmacologic modulators has led to an improved understanding of the intricacies by which cAMP is able to modulate such a wide variety of cellular pathways. It is now appreciated that cAMP is able to activate multiple effector proteins at distinct areas in the cell leading to the activation of very different downstream targets. The investigation of signaling proteins in cancer is a common route to the development of diagnostic tools, prognostic tools, and/or therapeutic targets, and in this review we highlight how investigation of cAMP signaling microdomains driven by the soluble adenylyl cyclase in different cancers has led to the development of a novel cancer biomarker. Antibodies directed against the soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) are highly specific markers for melanoma especially for lentigo maligna melanoma and are being described as "second generation" cancer diagnostics, which are diagnostics that determine the 'state' of a cell and not just identify the cell type. Due to the wide presence of cAMP signaling pathways in cancer, we predict that further investigation of both sAC and other cAMP microdomains will lead to additional cancer biomarkers. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: The role of soluble adenylyl cyclase in health and disease. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Beyoncé’s Slay Trick: The Performance of Black Camp and its Intersectional Politics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chatzipapatheodoridis Constantine

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available This article pays attention to African-American artist Beyonce Knowles and her performance of black camp. Beyonce’s stage persona and performances invite multiple ideological readings as to what pertains to her interpretation of gender, sexuality, and race. While cultural theory around the icon of Beyonce has focused on her feminist and racial politics as well as her politicization of the black female body, a queer reading applied from the perspective of camp performance will concentrate on the artist’s queer appeal and, most importantly, on her exposition of black camp, an intersection of feminist, racial and queer poetics. By examining video and live performances, the scope of this article is to underline those queer nuances inherent in Beyonce’s dramatisation of black femininity and the cultural pool she draws from for its effective staging. More specifically, since Beyonce plays with tropes and themes that are common in camp culture, her performance relies on a meta-camping effect that interacts with African-American queer culture. This article, thus, traces black queer traditions and discourses in the artist’s praxis of black camp.

  9. Joining psychiatric care and faith healing in a prayer camp in Ghana: randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori-Atta, A; Attafuah, J; Jack, H; Baning, F; Rosenheck, R

    2018-01-01

    Care of people with serious mental illness in prayer camps in low-income countries generates human rights concerns and ethical challenges for outcome researchers. Aims To ethically evaluate joining traditional faith healing with psychiatric care including medications (Clinical trials.gov identifier NCT02593734). Residents of a Ghana prayer camp were randomly assigned to receive either indicated medication for schizophrenia or mood disorders along with usual prayer camp activities (prayers, chain restraints and fasting) (n = 71); or the prayer camp activities alone (n = 68). Masked psychologists assessed Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) outcomes at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Researchers discouraged use of chaining, but chaining decisions remained under the control of prayer camp staff. Total BPRS symptoms were significantly lower in the experimental group (P = 0.003, effect size -0.48). There was no significant difference in days in chains. Joining psychiatric and prayer camp care brought symptom benefits but, in the short-run, did not significantly reduce days spent in chains. Declaration of interest None.

  10. Regulation of cAMP Responsive Element Binding Protein 3-Like 1 (Creb3l1 Expression by Orphan Nuclear Receptor Nr4a1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P. Greenwood

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP (cAMP inducible transcription factor cAMP responsive element binding protein 3 like 1 (Creb3l1 is strongly activated in the hypothalamus in response to hyperosmotic cues such as dehydration (DH. We have recently shown that Creb3l1 expression is upregulated by cAMP pathways in vitro, however the exact mechanisms are not known. Here we show that increasing Creb3l1 transcription by raising cAMP levels in mouse pituitary AtT20 cells automatically initiates cleavage of Creb3l1, leading to a greater abundance of the transcriptionally active N-terminal portion. Inhibiting protein synthesis indicated that de novo protein synthesis of an intermediary transcription factor was required for Creb3l1 induction. Strategic mining of our microarray data from dehydrated rodent hypothalamus revealed four candidates, reduced to two by analysis of acute hyperosmotic-induced transcriptional activation profiles in the hypothalamus, and one, orphan nuclear receptor Nr4a1, by direct shRNA mediated silencing in AtT20 cells. We show that activation of Creb3l1 transcription by Nr4a1 involves interaction with a single NBRE site in the promoter region. The ability to activate Creb3l1 transcription by this pathway in vitro is dictated by the level of methylation of a CpG island within the proximal promoter/5′UTR of this gene. We thus identify a novel cAMP-Nr4a1-Creb3l1 transcriptional pathway in AtT20 cells and also, our evidence would suggest, in the hypothalamus.

  11. Orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase catalysis: Kinetic isotope effects and the state of hybridization of a bound transition-state analogue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Acheson, S.A.; Bell, J.B.; Jones, M.E.; Wolfenden, R. (Univ. of North Carolina School of Medicine, Chapel Hill (USA))

    1990-04-03

    The enzymatic decarboxylation of orotidine 5'-monophosphate may proceed by an addition-elimination mechanism involving a covalently bound intermediate or by elimination of CO2 to generate a nitrogen ylide. In an attempt to distinguish between these two alternatives, 1-(phosphoribosyl)barbituric acid was synthesized with 13C at the 5-position. Interaction of this potential transition-state analogue inhibitor with yeast orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase resulted in a small (0.6 ppm) downfield displacement of the C-5 resonance, indicating no rehybridization of the kind that might have been expected to accompany 5,6-addition of an enzyme nucleophile. When the substrate orotidine 5'-monophosphate was synthesized with deuterium at C-5, no significant change in kcat (H/D = 0.99 +/- 0.06) or kcat/KM (H/D = 1.00 +/- 0.06) was found to result, suggesting that C-5 does not undergo significant changes in geometry before or during the step that determines the rate of the catalytic process. These results are consistent with a nitrogen ylide mechanism and offer no support for the intervention of covalently bound intermediates in the catalytic process.

  12. A new sensitive 32P-postlabeling assay based on the specific enzymatic conversion of bulky DNA lesions to radiolabeled dinucleotides and nucleoside 5'-monophosphates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Randerath, Kurt; Randerath, Erika; Danna, T.F.; Van Golen, K.L.; Putman, K.L.

    1989-01-01

    A new sensitive 32 P-postlabelling assay for DNA adducts has been developed. When DNA containing bulky adducts, X 1 , X 2 , .....X n , is digested with nuclease P1 at pH 5, normal nucleotides are released as 5'-monophosphates, pN, while adducts are excised as 5'-phosphorylated dinucleotides, pX i pN, because inter-nucleotide linkages on the 3' side of X resist attack by nuclease P1. Addition of prostatic acid phosphatase to such a digest results in 5'-dephosphorylation of the nucleotides to normal nucleosides, N, and adducted dinucleotides, X i pN, carrying a 5'-terminal free hydroxyl group. The dinucleotides but not nucleosides are converted to 5'- 32 P-labeled dinucleotides,[ 32 P]pX i pN, by T4 polynucleotide kinase-catalyzed [ 32 P]posphate transfer from [γ- 32 P]ATP. Upon mapping on polyethyleneimine-cellulose anion-exchange TLC, the labeled dinucleotide adducts produce characteristic autoradiographic fingerprints. Alternatively, they are further digested with snake venom phosphodiesterase to yield 5'-monophosphates, [ 32 P]pX i and pN. TLC profiles of the monophosphate adducts are distinct from those of the dinucleotides. These reactions provide the basis of the new 32 P-postlabeling scheme, which is compared in this paper with a previously reported protocol yielding adducts in the form of 5'- 32 P-labeled 3',5'-bisphosphates, [ 32 P]pX i p. (author)

  13. Application of graphene-ionic liquid-chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode for the sensitive determination of adenosine-5′-monophosphate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Fan; Gong, Shixing; Xu, Li; Zhu, Huanhuan; Sun, Zhenfan; Sun, Wei

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a graphene (GR) ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode (CMWE) was fabricated by a drop-casting method and further applied to the sensitive electrochemical detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP). CMWE was prepared with diphenylacetylene (DPA) as the modifier and the binder. The properties of modified electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behaviors of AMP was carefully investigated with enhanced responses appeared, which was due to the presence of GR-IL composite on the electrode surface with excellent electrocatalytic ability. A well-defined oxidation peak of AMP appeared at 1.314 V and the electrochemical parameters were calculated by electrochemical methods. Under the selected conditions, the oxidation peak current of AMP was proportional to its concentration in the range from 0.01 μM to 80.0 μM with the detection limit as 3.42 nM (3σ) by differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed method exhibited good selectivity and was applied to the detection of vidarabine monophosphate injection samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A graphene, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite were prepared. • Composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode was fabricated and characterized. • A sensitive electrochemical method for the detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate was established

  14. Application of graphene-ionic liquid-chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode for the sensitive determination of adenosine-5′-monophosphate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shi, Fan [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Gong, Shixing; Xu, Li; Zhu, Huanhuan [College of Chemistry and Molecular Engineering, Qingdao University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266042 (China); Sun, Zhenfan [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China); Sun, Wei, E-mail: swyy26@hotmail.com [Key Laboratory of Tropical Medicinal Plant Chemistry of Ministry of Education, College of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Hainan Normal University, Haikou 571158 (China)

    2013-12-01

    In this paper, a graphene (GR) ionic liquid (IL) 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode (CMWE) was fabricated by a drop-casting method and further applied to the sensitive electrochemical detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate (AMP). CMWE was prepared with diphenylacetylene (DPA) as the modifier and the binder. The properties of modified electrode were examined by scanning electron microscopy, cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Electrochemical behaviors of AMP was carefully investigated with enhanced responses appeared, which was due to the presence of GR-IL composite on the electrode surface with excellent electrocatalytic ability. A well-defined oxidation peak of AMP appeared at 1.314 V and the electrochemical parameters were calculated by electrochemical methods. Under the selected conditions, the oxidation peak current of AMP was proportional to its concentration in the range from 0.01 μM to 80.0 μM with the detection limit as 3.42 nM (3σ) by differential pulse voltammetry. The proposed method exhibited good selectivity and was applied to the detection of vidarabine monophosphate injection samples with satisfactory results. - Highlights: • A graphene, ionic liquid 1-octyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate and chitosan composite were prepared. • Composite-modified carbon molecular wire electrode was fabricated and characterized. • A sensitive electrochemical method for the detection of adenosine-5′-monophosphate was established.

  15. Investigation of the enzymatic mechanism of yeast orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase using 13C kinetic isotope effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smiley, J.A.; Bell, J.B.; Jones, M.E.; Paneth, P.; O'Leary, M.H.

    1991-01-01

    Orotidine-5'-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae displays an observed 13 C kinetic isotope effect of 1.0247 ± 0.0008 at 25 C, pH 6.8. The observed isotope effect is sensitive to changes in the reaction medium, such as pH, temperature, or glycerol content. The value of 1.0494 ± 0.0006 measured at pH 4.0, 25 C, is not altered significantly by temperature or glycerol, and thus the intrinsic isotope effect for the reaction is apparently being observed under these conditions and decarboxylation is almost entirely rate-determining. These data require a catalytic mechanism with freely reversible binding and one in which a very limited contribution to the overall rate is made by chemical steps preceding decarboxylation; the zwitterion mechanism of Beak and Siegel, which involves only protonation of the pyrimidine ring, is such a mechanism. With use of an intrinsic isotope effect of 1.05, a partitioning factor of less than unity is calculated for ODCase at pH 6.0, 25 C. A quantitative kinetic analysis using this result excludes the possibility of an enzymatic mechanism involving covalent attachment of an enzyme nucleophile to C-5 of the pyrimidine ring. These data fit a kinetic model in which an enzyme proton necessary for catalysis is titrated at high pH, thus providing evidence for the catalytic mechanism of Beak and Siegal

  16. Mechanism of adenylate kinase. Dose adenosine 5'-triphosphate bind to the adenosine 5'-monophosphate site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shyy, Y.J.; Tian, G.; Tsai, M.D.

    1987-10-06

    Although the subtrate binding properties of adenylate kinase (AK) have been studied extensively by various biochemical and biophysical techniques, it remains controversial whether uncomplexed adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) binds to the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) site of AK. The authors present two sets of experiments which argue against binding of ATP to the AMP site. (a) /sup 31/P nuclear magnetic resonance titration of ATP with AK indicated a 1:1 stoichiometry on the basis of changes in coupling constants and line widths. This ruled out binding of ATP to both sites. (b) ATP and MgATP were found to behave similarly by protecting AK from spontaneous inactivation while AMP showed only a small degree of protection. Such inactivation could also be protected or reversed by dithioerythritol and is most likely due to oxidation of sulfhydryl groups, one of which (cysteine-25) is located near the MgATP site. The results support binding of ATP to the MgATP site predominantly, instead of the AMP site, in the absence of Mg/sup 2 +/.

  17. Differential Sensitivities of Fast- and Slow-Cycling Cancer Cells to Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase 2 Inhibition by Mycophenolic Acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kan; Cao, Wanlu; Li, Juan; Sprengers, Dave; Hernanda, Pratika Y; Kong, Xiangdong; van der Laan, Luc JW; Man, Kwan; Kwekkeboom, Jaap; Metselaar, Herold J; Peppelenbosch, Maikel P; Pan, Qiuwei

    2015-01-01

    As uncontrolled cell proliferation requires nucleotide biosynthesis, inhibiting enzymes that mediate nucleotide biosynthesis constitutes a rational approach to the management of oncological diseases. In practice, however, results of this strategy are mixed and thus elucidation of the mechanisms by which cancer cells evade the effect of nucleotide biosynthesis restriction is urgently needed. Here we explored the notion that intrinsic differences in cancer cell cycle velocity are important in the resistance toward inhibition of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) by mycophenolic acid (MPA). In short-term experiments, MPA treatment of fast-growing cancer cells effectively elicited G0/G1 arrest and provoked apoptosis, thus inhibiting cell proliferation and colony formation. Forced expression of a mutated IMPDH2, lacking a binding site for MPA but retaining enzymatic activity, resulted in complete resistance of cancer cells to MPA. In nude mice subcutaneously engrafted with HeLa cells, MPA moderately delayed tumor formation by inhibiting cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Importantly, we developed a lentiviral vector–based Tet-on label-retaining system that enables to identify, isolate and functionally characterize slow-cycling or so-called label-retaining cells (LRCs) in vitro and in vivo. We surprisingly found the presence of LRCs in fast-growing tumors. LRCs were superior in colony formation, tumor initiation and resistance to MPA as compared with fast-cycling cells. Thus, the slow-cycling compartment of cancer seems predominantly responsible for resistance to MPA. PMID:26467706

  18. Experimental measurement and modelling of solubility of inosine-5′-monophosphate disodium in pure and mixed solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zou, Fengxia; Zhuang, Wei; Wu, Jinglan; Zhou, Jingwei; Liu, Qiyan; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Zhu, Chenjie; Guo, Ting; Ying, Hanjie

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Solubility of 5′-IMPNa 2 in various solvents was studied for the first time. • The solubility could be ranked as follows: water > methanol > ethanol > acetone. • Modified Apelblat equation gave the best correlating results. • Mixing Gibbs free energies, enthalpies, and entropies were predicted. • Solubility data and equations can optimise the crystallization conditions. - Abstract: The solubility of biological chemicals in solvents provide important fundamental data and is generally considered as an essential factor in the design of crystallization processes. The equilibrium solubility data of inosine-5′-monophosphate disodium (5′-IMPNa 2 ) in water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, as well as in the solvent mixtures (methanol + water, ethanol + water, acetone + water), were measured by an isothermal method at temperatures ranging from (293.15 to 313.15) K. The measured data in pure and mixed solvents were then modelled using the modified Apelblat equation, van’t Hoff equation, λh equation, ideal model and the Wilson model. The modified Apelblat equation showed the best modelling results, and it was therefore used to predict the mixing Gibbs free energies, enthalpies, and entropies of 5′-IMPNa 2 in pure and binary solvents. The positive values of the calculated partial molar Gibbs free energies indicated the variations in the solubility trends of 5′-IMPNa 2 . Water and ethanol (in the binary mixture with water) were found to be the most effective solvent and anti-solvent, respectively

  19. Effects of Exergame Play on EF in Children and Adolescents at a Summer Camp for Low Income Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Rachel M; Richert, Rebekah A; Staiano, Amanda E; Wartella, Ellen; Calvert, Sandra L

    2014-01-01

    Past research has suggested exergame play improves adolescents' executive function (EF) skills. EF change in 70 African American and Hispanic/Latino 10- to 16-year-olds participating in an inner-city summer camp was assessed following five 30-minute exergame play sessions. Children's EF scores improved from pre- to posttest, and factors related to this change were examined. The number of exergame sessions the participants attended predicted posttest scores. In addition, level of achievement during game play was related to EF scores. Finally, the children's level of enjoyment was not related to EF; however, frustration and boredom during game play were negatively related to EF. The findings are discussed in terms of their implications for the relationship between exergame play and cognitive benefits for adolescent players.

  20. Multiple Drug Treatments That Increase cAMP Signaling Restore Long-Term Memory and Aberrant Signaling in Fragile X Syndrome Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Catherine H.; Schoenfeld, Brian P.; Bell, Aaron J.; Hinchey, Joseph; Rosenfelt, Cory; Gertner, Michael J.; Campbell, Sean R.; Emerson, Danielle; Hinchey, Paul; Kollaros, Maria; Ferrick, Neal J.; Chambers, Daniel B.; Langer, Steven; Sust, Steven; Malik, Aatika; Terlizzi, Allison M.; Liebelt, David A.; Ferreiro, David; Sharma, Ali; Koenigsberg, Eric; Choi, Richard J.; Louneva, Natalia; Arnold, Steven E.; Featherstone, Robert E.; Siegel, Steven J.; Zukin, R. Suzanne; McDonald, Thomas V.; Bolduc, Francois V.; Jongens, Thomas A.; McBride, Sean M. J.

    2016-01-01

    Fragile X is the most common monogenic disorder associated with intellectual disability (ID) and autism spectrum disorders (ASD). Additionally, many patients are afflicted with executive dysfunction, ADHD, seizure disorder and sleep disturbances. Fragile X is caused by loss of FMRP expression, which is encoded by the FMR1 gene. Both the fly and mouse models of fragile X are also based on having no functional protein expression of their respective FMR1 homologs. The fly model displays well defined cognitive impairments and structural brain defects and the mouse model, although having subtle behavioral defects, has robust electrophysiological phenotypes and provides a tool to do extensive biochemical analysis of select brain regions. Decreased cAMP signaling has been observed in samples from the fly and mouse models of fragile X as well as in samples derived from human patients. Indeed, we have previously demonstrated that strategies that increase cAMP signaling can rescue short term memory in the fly model and restore DHPG induced mGluR mediated long term depression (LTD) in the hippocampus to proper levels in the mouse model (McBride et al., 2005; Choi et al., 2011, 2015). Here, we demonstrate that the same three strategies used previously with the potential to be used clinically, lithium treatment, PDE-4 inhibitor treatment or mGluR antagonist treatment can rescue long term memory in the fly model and alter the cAMP signaling pathway in the hippocampus of the mouse model. PMID:27445731