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Sample records for monophosphate camp levels

  1. "cAMP sponge": a buffer for cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Lefkimmiatis

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While intracellular buffers are widely used to study calcium signaling, no such tool exists for the other major second messenger, cyclic AMP (cAMP. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here we describe a genetically encoded buffer for cAMP based on the high-affinity cAMP-binding carboxy-terminus of the regulatory subunit RIbeta of protein kinase A (PKA. Addition of targeting sequences permitted localization of this fragment to the extra-nuclear compartment, while tagging with mCherry allowed quantification of its expression at the single cell level. This construct (named "cAMP sponge" was shown to selectively bind cAMP in vitro. Its expression significantly suppressed agonist-induced cAMP signals and the downstream activation of PKA within the cytosol as measured by FRET-based sensors in single living cells. Point mutations in the cAMP-binding domains of the construct rendered the chimera unable to bind cAMP in vitro or in situ. Cyclic AMP sponge was fruitfully applied to examine feedback regulation of gap junction-mediated transfer of cAMP in epithelial cell couplets. CONCLUSIONS: This newest member of the cAMP toolbox has the potential to reveal unique biological functions of cAMP, including insight into the functional significance of compartmentalized signaling events.

  2. Effect of electromagnetic field on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) in a human mu-opioid receptor cell model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Christina L; Teli, Thaleia; Harrison, Benjamin S

    2016-01-01

    During the cell communication process, endogenous and exogenous signaling affect normal as well as pathological developmental conditions. Exogenous influences such as extra-low-frequency electromagnetic field (EMF) have been shown to effect pain and inflammation by modulating G-protein receptors, down-regulating cyclooxygenase-2 activity, and affecting the calcium/calmodulin/nitric oxide pathway. Investigators have reported changes in opioid receptors and second messengers, such as cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), in opiate tolerance and dependence by showing how repeated exposure to morphine decreases adenylate cyclase activity causing cAMP to return to control levels in the tolerant state, and increase above control levels during withdrawal. Resonance responses to biological systems using exogenous EMF signals suggest that frequency response characteristics of the target can determine the EMF biological response. In our past research we found significant down regulation of inflammatory markers tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and nuclear factor kappa B (NFκB) using 5 Hz EMF frequency. In this study cAMP was stimulated in Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO) cells transfected with human mu-opioid receptors, then exposed to 5 Hz EMF, and outcomes were compared with morphine treatment. Results showed a 23% greater inhibition of cAMP-treating cells with EMF than with morphine. In order to test our results for frequency specific effects, we ran identical experiments using 13 Hz EMF, which produced results similar to controls. This study suggests the use of EMF as a complementary or alternative treatment to morphine that could both reduce pain and enhance patient quality of life without the side-effects of opiates.

  3. Effects of plant extract neferine on cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels in rabbit corpus cavernosum in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun Chen; Ji-Hong Liu; Tao Wang; Heng-Jun Xiao; Chun-Ping Yin; Jun Yang

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To further investigate the relaxation mechanism of neferine (Nef), a bis-benzylisoquinoline alkaloid extracted (isolated) from the green seed embryo of Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn in China, on rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue in vitro. Methods: The effects of Nef on the concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) in isolated and incubated rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue were re-corded using125Ⅰ radioimmunoassay. Results: The basal concentration of cAMP in corpus cavernosum tissue was 5.67±0.97 pmol/mg. Nef increased the cAMP concentration in a dose-dependent manner (P 0.05). The accumulation of cAMP induced by prostaglandin E1(PGE1, a stimulator of cAMP production) was also augmented by Nef in a dose-dependent manner (P 0.05). Also,sodium nitroprusside (SNP, a stimulator of cGMP production)-induced cGMP production was not enhanced by Nef (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Nef, with its relaxation mechanism, can enhance the concentration of cAMP in rabbit corpus cavernosum tissue, probably by inhibiting phosphodiesterase activity.

  4. Measuring the dynamics of cyclic adenosine monophosphate level in living cells induced by low-level laser irradiation using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer

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    Huang, Yimei; Zheng, Liqin; Yang, Hongqin; Chen, Jiangxu; Wang, Yuhua; Li, Hui; Xie, Shusen; Zeng, Haishan

    2015-05-01

    Several studies demonstrated that the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), an important second messenger, is involved in the mechanism of low-level laser irradiation (LLLI) treatment. However, most of these studies obtained the cAMP level in cell culture extracts or supernatant. In this study, the cAMP level in living cells was measured with bioluminescence resonance energy transfer (BRET). The effect of LLLI on cAMP level in living cells with adenosine receptors blocked was explored to identify the role of adenosine receptors in LLLI. The results showed that LLLI increased the cAMP level. Moreover, the rise of cAMP level was light dose dependent but wavelength independent for 658-, 785-, and 830-nm laser light. The results also exhibited that the adenosine receptors, a class of G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR), modulated the increase of cAMP level induced by LLLI. The cAMP level increased more significantly when the A3 adenosine receptors (A3R) were blocked by A3R antagonist compared with A1 adenosine receptor or A2a adenosine receptor blocked in HEK293T cells after LLLI, which was in good agreement with the adenosine receptors' expressions. All these results suggested that measuring the cAMP level with BRET could be a useful technique to study the role of GPCRs in living cells under LLLI.

  5. Cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in the anterior pituitary gland in health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández-Ramírez, Laura C; Trivellin, Giampaolo; Stratakis, Constantine A

    2017-08-16

    The cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was the first among the so-called "second messengers" to be described. It is conserved in most organisms and functions as a signal transducer by mediating the intracellular effects of multiple hormones and neurotransmitters. In this review, we first delineate how different members of the cAMP pathway ensure its correct compartmentalization and activity, mediate the terminal intracellular effects, and allow the crosstalk with other signaling pathways. We then focus on the pituitary gland, where cAMP exerts a crucial function by controlling the responsiveness of the cells to hypothalamic hormones, neurotransmitters and peripheral factors. We discuss the most relevant physiological functions mediated by cAMP in the different pituitary cell types, and summarize the defects affecting this pathway that have been reported in the literature. We finally discuss how a deregulated cAMP pathway is involved in the pathogenesis of pituitary disorders and how it affects the response to therapy. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The Pseudomonas aeruginosa Chp chemosensory system regulates intracellular cAMP levels by modulating adenylate cyclase activity.

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    Fulcher, Nanette B; Holliday, Phillip M; Klem, Erich; Cann, Martin J; Wolfgang, Matthew C

    2010-05-01

    Multiple virulence systems in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa are regulated by the second messenger signalling molecule adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP). Production of cAMP by the putative adenylate cyclase enzyme CyaB represents a critical control point for virulence gene regulation. To identify regulators of CyaB, we screened a transposon insertion library for mutants with reduced intracellular cAMP. The majority of insertions resulting in reduced cAMP mapped to the Chp gene cluster encoding a putative chemotaxis-like chemosensory system. Further genetic analysis of the Chp system revealed that it has both positive and negative effects on intracellular cAMP and that it regulates cAMP levels by modulating CyaB activity. The Chp system was previously implicated in the production and function of type IV pili (TFP). Given that cAMP and the cAMP-dependent transcriptional regulator Vfr control TFP biogenesis gene expression, we explored the relationship between cAMP, the Chp system and TFP regulation. We discovered that the Chp system controls TFP production through modulation of cAMP while control of TFP-dependent twitching motility is cAMP-independent. Overall, our data define a novel function for a chemotaxis-like system in controlling cAMP production and establish a regulatory link between the Chp system, TFP and other cAMP-dependent virulence systems.

  7. Plasma levels of cAMP, cGMP and CGRP in sildenafil-induced headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruuse, Christina Rostrup; Frandsen, E; Schifter, S;

    2004-01-01

    Sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) degrading phosphodiestrase 5 (PDE5), induced migraine without aura in 10 of 12 migraine patients and in healthy subjects it induced significantly more headache than placebo. The aim of the present study was to determin...... an important role of these signalling molecules, the present study questions whether cAMP and cGMP in peripheral blood can be used for monitoring pathophysiological events in headache and migraine mechanisms.......Sildenafil, a selective inhibitor of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) degrading phosphodiestrase 5 (PDE5), induced migraine without aura in 10 of 12 migraine patients and in healthy subjects it induced significantly more headache than placebo. The aim of the present study was to determine...... whether the pain-inducing effects of sildenafil would be reflected in plasma levels of important signalling molecules in migraine: cGMP, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP). Ten healthy subjects (four women, six men) and 12 patients (12 women) suffering from...

  8. cAMP level modulates scleral collagen remodeling, a critical step in the development of myopia.

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    Yijin Tao

    Full Text Available The development of myopia is associated with decreased ocular scleral collagen synthesis in humans and animal models. Collagen synthesis is, in part, under the influence of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP. We investigated the associations between cAMP, myopia development in guinea pigs, and collagen synthesis by human scleral fibroblasts (HSFs. Form-deprived myopia (FDM was induced by unilateral masking of guinea pig eyes. Scleral cAMP levels increased selectively in the FDM eyes and returned to normal levels after unmasking and recovery. Unilateral subconjunctival treatment with the adenylyl cyclase (AC activator forskolin resulted in a myopic shift accompanied by reduced collagen mRNA levels, but it did not affect retinal electroretinograms. The AC inhibitor SQ22536 attenuated the progression of FDM. Moreover, forskolin inhibited collagen mRNA levels and collagen secretion by HSFs. The inhibition was reversed by SQ22536. These results demonstrate a critical role of cAMP in control of myopia development. Selective regulation of cAMP to control scleral collagen synthesis may be a novel therapeutic strategy for preventing and treating myopia.

  9. Icariin upregulates phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein levels in the hippocampus of the senescence- accelerated mouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhanwei Zhang; Ting Zhang; Keli Dong

    2012-01-01

    At 8 weeks after intragastric administration of icariin to senescence-accelerated mice (P8 strain), Morris water maze results showed that escape latency was shortened, and the number of platform crossings was increased. Immunohistochemical staining and western blot assay detected signifi-cantly increased levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein. These results suggest that icariin upregulates phosphorylated cyclic adenosine monophosphate response element binding protein levels and improves learning and memory functions in hippo-campus of the senescence-accelerated mouse.

  10. cAMP levels in fast- and slow-twitch skeletal muscle after an acute bout of aerobic exercise

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    Sheldon, A.; Booth, F. W.; Kirby, C. R.

    1993-01-01

    The present study examined whether exercise duration was associated with elevated and/or sustained elevations of postexercise adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) by measuring cAMP levels in skeletal muscle for up to 4 h after acute exercise bouts of durations that are known to either produce (60 min) or not produce (10 min) mitochondrial proliferation after chronic training. Treadmill-acclimatized, but untrained, rats were run at 22 m/min for 0 (control), 10, or 60 min and were killed at various postexercise (0, 0.5, 1, 2, and 4 h) time points. Fast-twitch white and red (quadriceps) and slow-twitch (soleus) muscles were quickly excised, frozen in liquid nitrogen, and assayed for cAMP with a commercial kit. Unexpectedly, cAMP contents in all three muscles were similar to control (nonexercise) at most (21 of 30) time points after a single 10- or 60-min run. Values at 9 of 30 time points were significantly different from control (P single bout of endurance-type exercise is not, by itself, associated with exercise duration.

  11. Cyclic adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (cAMP) exerts proliferative and anti-proliferative effects in pituitary cells of different types by activating both cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac).

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    Vitali, E; Peverelli, E; Giardino, E; Locatelli, M; Lasio, G B; Beck-Peccoz, P; Spada, A; Lania, A G; Mantovani, G

    2014-03-05

    In the pituitary the activation of cyclic adenosine 3'-5'-monophosphate (cAMP) dependent pathways generates proliferative signals in somatotrophs, whereas in pituitary cells of other lineages its effect remains uncertain. Moreover, the specific role of the two main cAMP effectors, protein kinase A (PKA) and exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac), has not been defined. Aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cAMP on pituitary adenomatous cells proliferation and to identify PKA and Epac differential involvement. We found that cAMP increased DNA synthesis and cyclin D1 expression in somatotropinomas, whereas it reduced both parameters in prolactinomas and nonfunctioning adenomas, these effects being replicated in corresponding cell lines. Moreover, the divergent cAMP effects were mimicked by Epac and PKA analogs, which activated Rap1 and CREB, respectively. In conclusion, we demonstrated that cAMP exerted opposite effects on different pituitary cell types proliferation, these effects being mediated by both Epac and PKA.

  12. Association between plasma cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels and hemodynamic instability during liver transplantation.

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    Bezinover, Dmitri; Kadry, Zakiyah; Uemura, Tadahiro; Sharghi, Michael; Mastro, Andrea M; Sosnoski, Donna M; Dalal, Priti; Janicki, Piotr K

    2013-02-01

    The activation of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) production in patients with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) has been associated with hemodynamic instability during orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT). The aim of this prospective, observational study was to investigate the involvement of cGMP in the mediation of profound hypotension during liver graft reperfusion. An additional objective was to determine whether preoperative cGMP levels are associated with intraoperative hemodynamic instability. Forty-four consecutive patients undergoing OLT were included in the study. Blood samples for cGMP analysis were obtained from (1) the radial artery before the surgical incision; (2) the radial artery, portal vein, and flush blood during the anhepatic phase; and (3) the radial artery 20 minutes after liver graft reperfusion. On the basis of a statistical analysis, the patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 (preoperative cGMP level ≥ 0.05 μmol/L) and group 2 (preoperative cGMP level < 0.05 μmol/L). We demonstrated a significant correlation between the preoperative levels of cGMP and the amount of catecholamine required to maintain hemodynamic stability during reperfusion (r = 0.52, P < 0.001), the length of the hospital stay (r = 0.38, P = 0.01), and the length of the intensive care unit (ICU) stay (r = 0.44, P = 0.004). We also demonstrated a significantly higher intraoperative catecholamine requirement (P < 0.001) and a prolonged postoperative ICU stay (P = 0.02) in group 1 patients versus group 2 patients. In conclusion, this study demonstrates increased baseline cGMP production in patients with ESLD, which is significantly associated with severe hypotension during OLT. We suggest that preoperative levels of cGMP correlate with hemodynamic instability during liver graft reperfusion. Copyright © 2012 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  13. Changes in ganglioside contents, plasma sialic acid and cAMP levels in experimental hepatoma in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Abstract The present sutdy was designed to assess whether changes in glycolipids and cyclic AMP contents might serve as markers for the diagnosis of malignancy in the liver. The experimental model was a transplantable murine hepatoma. Experimental mice were divided into three groups:(1) a therapeutic group. which had been transplanted with hepatoma and treated with the antimetabolism drug 5-flurouracil(0.2mg/day i.p).(2) a control group, which had been transplanted with hepatoma and treated with 0.2ml 0.9% NaCl day and (3) a normal group of mice . The ganglioside and cAMP contents in the hepatoma tissue, plasma cAMP, total and lipid-bound sialic acid levels and red blood cell memebrane sialic acid levels were determined. Results showed that the ganglioside content, total and lipid-bound sialic acid levels in the control group were significantly higher than those in the livers of normal mice(P<0.01) while these respective values in the therapeutic group were significantly lower than those in the control group(P<0.01).The cAMP levels of tumor tissues and plasma in the control group were lower than those in normal mice. No significant difference in red blood cell membrane sialic acid content was observed between the therapeutic and control groups though levels for both were higher than those in normal mice. These results indicate that ganglioside ocntent and sialic acid levels in hepatoma tissues were significantly elevated, and cAMP levels in hepatoma tissues were significantly decreased during proliferation and abnormal differentiation. Key words transplantable hepatoma, gangliosides , sialic acid, cyclic adenosine mono-phosphate, 5-flurouracil 摘自Molecular and cellular biochemistry, 2000; Vol 207,29~33 该杂志摘要被美国科学引证索引(SCI)收录

  14. Elevated nitric oxide and 3',5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis

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    C(i)ntia Siqueira; Miguel Carneiro de Moura; Ana J(u)lia Pedro; Paula Rocha

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate whether serum levels of nitric oxide (NO') and plasma levels of cyclic guanosine monophosphate (Cgmp) and total glutathione (GSH) are altered in patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and to examine their correlation with the severity of liver disease.METHODS: Twenty-six patients with alcoholic liver cirrhosis were studied. Serum levels of NO· and plasma levels of cGMP and GSH were measured in 7 patients with compensated alcoholic cirrhosis (Child-Pugh A) and 19 patients with advanced cirrhosis (Child-Pugh B and C).The model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score was evaluated. Sixteen healthy volunteers served as controls.Liver enzymes and creatinine levels were also tested.RESULTS: NO· and cGMP levels were higher in patients with Child-Pugh B and C cirrhosis than in Child-Pugh A cirrhosis or controls (NO·: 21.70 ± 8.07 vs 11.70 ± 2.74; 21.70 ± 8.07 vs 7.26 ± 2.47 μmol/L, respectively;P < 0.001) and (cGMP: 20.12 ± 6.62 vs 10.14 ± 2.78;20.12 ± 6.62 vs 4.95 ± 1.21 pmol/L, respectively; P <0.001). Total glutathione levels were lower in patients with Child-Pugh B and C cirrhosis than in patients with Child-Pugh A cirrhosis or controls (16.04 ± 6.06 vs 23.01 ± 4.38 or 16.04 ± 6.06 vs 66.57 ± 26.23 μmol/L,respectively; P < 0.001). There was a significant correlation between NO· and cGMP levels in all patients with alcoholic cirrhosis. A significant negative correlation between reduced glutathione/glutathione disulfide and the MELD score was found in all cirrhotic patients. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest a role for oxidative stress in alcoholic liver cirrhosis, which is more significant in decompensated patients with higher levels of NO· and cGMP and lower GSH levels than in compensated and control patients. Altered mediator levels in decompensated patients may influence the hemodynamic changes in and progression of liver disease.

  15. Inhibitory effect of luteolin on the odorant-induced cAMP level in HEK293 cells expressing the olfactory receptor.

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    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Hwang, Jin-Teak; Sung, Mi-Jeong; Wang, Shuaiyu; Munkhtugs, Davaatseren; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2012-01-01

    Luteolin is a flavonoid in many fruits and vegetables. Although luteolin has important biological functions, including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, and neuroprotective activities, little is known about the functions of luteolin in the olfactory system. Various odorants can be detected and distinguished by using several molecular processes, including the binding of odorants to odorant receptors, activation of adenylyl cyclase (AC), changes of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and Ca(2+) levels in olfactory sensory neurons, as well as changes in membrane potentials and the transmission of electric signals to the brain. Because AC-cAMP signal transduction plays a pivotal role in the olfactory system, we evaluated the effects of luteolin on the AC-cAMP pathway that had been stimulated by the odorant eugenol. We demonstrated that eugenol caused an upregulation of the cAMP level and the phosphorylation of phosphokinase A (PKA, a downstream target of cAMP) in human embryonic kidney 293 (HEK293) cells expressing the murine eugenol receptor. This upregulation significantly decreased in the presence of luteolin, suggesting that luteolin inhibited the odorant-induced production of cAMP and affected the downstream phosphorylation of PKA.

  16. Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and germination of sporangiospores from the fungus Mucor.

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    Orlowski, M

    1980-06-01

    Cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) metabolism was examined in germinating sporangiospores of Mucor genevensis and Mucor mucedo. Exogenous cAMP prevented normal hyphal development from sporangiospores. Internal pools of cAMP fluctuated profoundly during development. Spherical growth of the spores was characterized by large pools of cAMP whereas germ tube emergence and hyphal elongation were characterized by small pools of cAMP. These observations suggest a possible role for cAMP in sporangiospore germination. Adenylate cyclase activities fluctuated significantly during germination with maximum values attained during spherical growth. In contrast, cAMP phosphodiesterase activities remained constant throughout germination. Internal cAMP levels may therefore be regulated by adjustment of adenylate cyclase activities. The binding of cAMP by soluble cell proteins was measured. cAMP-binding activity changed greatly during germination. Dormant and spherically growing spores possessed the highest activities. Developing hyphae contained the lowest activities. Use of the photoaffinity label, 8-azido-[32P]cAMP, in conjunction with sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis allowed the identification of a small population of morphogenetic-stage-specific proteins which bind cAMP and may be of regulatory significance to development.

  17. The AreA transcription factor mediates the regulation of deoxynivalenol (DON) synthesis by ammonium and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signalling in Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Rui; Jiang, Cong; Zheng, Qian; Wang, Chenfang; Xu, Jin-Rong

    2015-12-01

    Deoxynivalenol (DON), a trichothecene mycotoxin produced by Fusarium graminearum, is harmful to humans and animals. Because different nitrogen sources are known to have opposite effects on DON production, in this study, we characterized the regulatory mechanisms of the AREA transcription factor in trichothecene biosynthesis. The ΔareA mutant showed significantly reduced vegetative growth and DON production in cultures inoculated with hyphae. Suppression of TRI gene expression and DON production by ammonium were diminished in the ΔareA mutant. The deletion of AREA also affected the stimulatory effects of arginine on DON biosynthesis. The AreA-green fluorescent protein (GFP) fusion complemented the ΔareA mutant, and its localization to the nucleus was enhanced under nitrogen starvation conditions. Site-directed mutagenesis showed that the conserved predicted protein kinase A (PKA) phosphorylation site S874 was important for AreA function, indicating that AreA may be a downstream target of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-PKA pathway, which is known to regulate DON production. We also showed that AreA interacted with Tri10 in co-immunoprecipitation assays. The interaction of AreA with Tri10 is probably related to its role in the regulation of TRI gene expression. Interestingly, the ΔareA mutant showed significantly reduced PKA activity and expression of all three predicted ammonium permease (MEP) genes, in particular MEP1, under low ammonium conditions. Taken together, our results show that AREA is involved in the regulation of DON production by ammonium suppression and the cAMP-PKA pathway. The AreA transcription factor may interact with Tri10 and control the expression and up-regulation of MEP genes.

  18. Regulation of cAMP Intracellular Levels in Human Platelets Stimulated by 2-Arachidonoylglycerol.

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    Signorello, Maria Grazia; Leoncini, Giuliana

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrated that in human platelets the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) decreased dose- and time-dependently cAMP intracellular levels. No effect on cAMP decrease induced by 2-AG was observed in the presence of the adenylate cyclase inhibitor SQ22536 as well in platelets pretreated with the thromboxane A2 receptor antagonist, SQ29548 or with aspirin, inhibitor of arachidonic acid metabolism through the cyclooxygenase pathway. An almost complete recovering of cAMP level was measured in platelets pretreated with the specific inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) 3A, milrinone. In platelets pretreated with LY294002 or MK2206, inhibitors of PI3K/AKT pathway, and with U73122, inhibitor of phospholipase C pathway, only a partial prevention was shown. cAMP intracellular level depends on synthesis by adenylate cyclase and hydrolysis by PDEs. In 2-AG-stimulated platelets adenylate cyclase activity seems to be unchanged. In contrast PDEs appear to be involved. In particular PDE3A was specifically activated, as milrinone reversed cAMP reduction by 2-AG. 2-AG enhanced PDE3A activity through its phosphorylation. The PI3K/AKT pathway and PKC participate to this PDE3A phosphorylation/activation mechanism as it was greatly inhibited by platelet pretreatment with LY294002, MK2206, U73122, or the PKC specific inhibitor GF109203X. Taken together these data suggest that 2-AG potentiates its power of platelet agonist reducing cAMP intracellular level.

  19. The Camp Edwards Experiment in Battalion Level Consolidated Field Feeding

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-12-01

    Cucumbers 6 - 1.0 1 Apple Juices 8 42 8.5 NATIONAL GUARD CAMP EDWARDS MENU REVISED BY NARADCOM & 101ST EWG 7 J"{JLY -1975 Rl 88 MENU I - SATURDAY 9...August 1975 Dinner Cheeseburgers/Hamburgers (~32) Catsup - Mustard Pickle Relish Lyonnaise Potatoes {Q-54) Buttered Cor~ (Q-G-3) Lettuce and... Pickle Relish O’Brien Potatoes (Q-54) Buttered Green Beans (Q-G-1) Lettuce and Tomato Salad (M-33) Sliced Onion French Dressing (M-58) Hamburger

  20. Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates and Their Cyclases in Plant Signaling

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2017-10-04

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs), and notably 3′,5′-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are now accepted as key signaling molecules in many processes in plants including growth and differentiation, photosynthesis, and biotic and abiotic defense. At the single molecule level, we are now beginning to understand how cNMPs modify specific target molecules such as cyclic nucleotide-gated channels, while at the systems level, a recent study of the Arabidopsis cNMP interactome has identified novel target molecules with specific cNMP-binding domains. A major advance came with the discovery and characterization of a steadily increasing number of guanylate cyclases (GCs) and adenylate cyclases (ACs). Several of the GCs are receptor kinases and include the brassinosteroid receptor, the phytosulfokine receptor, the Pep receptor, the plant natriuretic peptide receptor as well as a nitric oxide sensor. We foresee that in the near future many more molecular mechanisms and biological roles of GCs and ACs and their catalytic products will be discovered and further establish cNMPs as a key component of plant responses to the environment.

  1. Transcriptional regulation of inhibin beta B messenger ribonucleic acid levels in TM.4 or primary rat Sertoli cells by 8-bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najmabadi, H; Rosenberg, L A; Yuan, Q X; Reyaz, G; Bhasin, S

    1993-04-01

    FSH, a major regulator of inhibin production in the testis, is believed to exert its effects via cAMP second messenger system. Inhibin alpha-subunit gene appears to be regulated by cAMP and has a palindromic cAMP response element sequence TGACGTCA. However, the regulation of the inhibin beta B-subunit gene by cAMP has been less clear. It has been assumed that beta B may not be regulated by cAMP, based mainly on observations that FSH stimulates only alpha, not beta B, mRNA levels, and that the 5'-up-stream regulatory region of the beta B gene does not contain the classical cAMP response element. However, we have observed that 8-bromo-cAMP stimulates beta B mRNA levels in both primary Sertoli (approximately 2-fold) and TM.4 cells (approximately 5-fold). We examined whether this cAMP-induced increase in beta B mRNA levels is the result of increased transcription or altered mRNA stability. Data from nuclear run-on assays demonstrate about a 2-fold increase in relative mRNA synthesis rates in primary Sertoli-cells and about a 4- to 5-fold increase in TM.4 cells. Transfection studies in TM.4 and JEG.3 cell lines with beta B:luciferase chimeric reporter gene constructs containing 1.5 kilobases of the beta B 5'-up-stream regulatory region revealed marked cAMP induction of reporter gene activity in both cell types.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  2. Effects of diazepam on orthodontic tooth movement and alveolar bone cAMP levels in cats.

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    Burrow, S J; Sammon, P J; Tuncay, O C

    1986-08-01

    Cyclic AMP has been suggested as a possible intracellular mediator in bone remodeling during tooth movement. Accordingly, an increase in the level of this nucleotide should result in faster tooth movement. Breakdown of cAMP was inhibited by administration of diazepam in eight cats undergoing orthodontic tooth movement; another matched group of eight animals served as controls. Orthodontic appliances consisted of coil springs stretching between the right side maxillary and mandibular canines and third premolars. The data for tooth movement and cAMP concentrations were analyzed by repeated measures factorial analyses of variance. The results indicated that administration of diazepam increased the rate of tooth movement at P less than 0.0005 and, interestingly, although diazepam had no effect on undisturbed tissues, it lowered the cAMP levels in the periodontal tissues of orthodontically moved teeth at P less than 0.01. On the basis of these results, it was concluded that the concentration of cAMP did not correlate with bone remodeling in this model and perhaps should not be used as an index of periodontal-tissue response during orthodontic tooth movement.

  3. The clinical correlation of regulatory T cells and cyclic adenosine monophosphate in enterovirus 71 infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shih-Min Wang

    Full Text Available Brainstem encephalitis (BE and pulmonary edema (PE are notable complications of enterovirus 71 (EV71 infection.This study investigated the immunoregulatory characterizations of EV71 neurological complications by disease severity and milrinone treatment.Patients <18 years with virologically confirmed EV71 infections were enrolled and divided into 2 groups: the hand, foot, and mouth disease (HFMD or BE group, and the autonomic nervous system (ANS dysregulation or PE group. Cytokine and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP levels, and the regulatory T cell (Tregs profiles of the patients were determined.Patients with ANS dysregulation or PE exhibited significantly low frequency of CD4(+CD25(+Foxp3+ and CD4(+Foxp3(+ T cells compared with patients with HFMD or BE. The expression frequency of CD4-CD8- was also significantly decreased in patients with ANS dysregulation or PE. Among patients with ANS dysregulation or PE, the expression frequency of CD4+Foxp3+ increased markedly after milrinone treatment, and was associated with reduction of plasma levels IL-6, IL-8 and IL-10. Plasma concentrations of cAMP were significantly decreased in patients with ANS dysregulation or PE compared with patients with HFMD or BE; however, cAMP levels increased after milrinone treatment.These findings suggested decreased different regulatory T populations and cAMP expression correlate with increased EV71 disease severity. Improved outcome after milrinone treatment may associate with increased regulatory T populations, cAMP expression and modulation of cytokines levels.

  4. Determination of Trace Level of cAMP in Locusta Migratoria Manilensis Meyen by HPLC with Fluorescence Derivation

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    Canping Pan

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive and rapid method was developed for the determination of cAMP inLocusta migratoria manilensis Meyen by high-performance liquid chromatography withfluorescence detection. The cAMP was derivatized using chloroacetaldehyde and TBASbuffer/methanol was used as the mobile phase. A detection quantification of 40 fmol/mlcould be achieved when using fluorescence detection. An HPLC-MS method using DMHAas an ion-pair agent to analyze cAMP was also demonstrated. We studied the effect ofdopamine and other stimulants on cAMP levels from isolated locust central nervoussystems. The new method is well suited for the analysis of cAMP in small biologicalsamples.

  5. Associative conditioning analog selectively increases cAMP levels of tail sensory neurons in Aplysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ocorr, K A; Walters, E T; Byrne, J H

    1985-04-01

    Bilateral clusters of sensory neurons in the pleural ganglia of Aplysia contain cells involved in a defensive tail withdrawal reflex. These cells exhibit heterosynaptic facilitation in response to noxious skin stimulation that can be mimicked by the application of serotonin. Recently it has been shown that this facilitation can be selectively amplified by the application of a classical conditioning procedure to individual sensory neurons. We now report that an analog of this classical conditioning paradigm produces a selective amplification of the cAMP content of isolated sensory neuron clusters. The enhancement is achieved within a single trial and appears to be localized to the sensory neurons. These results indicate that a pairing-specific enhancement of cAMP levels may be a biochemical mechanism for associative neuronal modifications and perhaps learning.

  6. Stochastic noise and synchronisation during Dictyostelium aggregation make cAMP oscillations robust

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, J

    2007-01-01

    Author Summary The molecular network, which underlies the oscillations in the concentration of adenosine 3′, 5′-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) during the aggregation phase of starvation-induced development in Dictyostelium discoideum, achieves remarkable levels of robust performance in the face of environmental variations and cellular heterogeneity. However, the reasons for this robustness remain poorly understood. Tools and concepts from the field of control engineering provide powerful methods...

  7. Targeting brain tumor cAMP: the case for sex-specific therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicole M Warrington

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available A relationship between cyclic adenosine 3’, 5’-monophosphate (cAMP levels and brain tumor biology has been evident for nearly as long as cAMP and its synthetase, adenylate cyclase (ADCY have been known. The importance of the pathway in brain tumorigenesis has been demonstrated in vitro and in multiple animal models. Recently, we provided human validation for a cooperating oncogenic role for cAMP in brain tumorigenesis when we found that SNPs in ADCY8 were correlated with glioma (brain tumor risk in individuals with Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1. Together, these studies provide a strong rationale for targeting cAMP in brain tumor therapy. However, the cAMP pathway is well known to be sexually dimorphic, and SNPs in ADCY8 affected glioma risk in a sex-specific fashion, elevating the risk for females while protecting males. The cAMP pathway can be targeted at multiple levels in the regulation of its synthesis and degradation. Sex differences in response to drugs that target cAMP regulators indicate that successful targeting of the cAMP pathway for brain tumor patients is likely to require matching specific mechanisms of drug action with patient sex.

  8. Genetically-encoded tools for cAMP probing and modulation in living systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valeriy M Paramonov

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Intracellular 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is one of the principal second messengers downstream of a manifold of signal transduction pathways, including the ones triggered by G protein-coupled receptors. Not surprisingly, biochemical assays for cAMP have been instrumental for basic research and drug discovery for decades, providing insights into cellular physiology and guiding pharmaceutical industry. However, despite impressive track record, the majority of conventional biochemical tools for cAMP probing share the same fundamental shortcoming - all the measurements require sample disruption for cAMP liberation. This common bottleneck, together with inherently low spatial resolution of measurements (as cAMP is typically analyzed in lysates of thousands of cells, underpin the ensuing limitations of the conventional cAMP assays: 1 genuine kinetic measurements of cAMP levels over time in a single given sample are unfeasible; 2 inability to obtain precise information on cAMP spatial distribution and transfer at subcellular levels, let alone the attempts to pinpoint dynamic interactions of cAMP and its effectors. At the same time, tremendous progress in synthetic biology over the recent years culminated in drastic refinement of our toolbox, allowing us not only to bypass the limitations of conventional assays, but to put intracellular cAMP life-span under tight control – something, that seemed scarcely attainable before. In this review article we discuss the main classes of modern genetically-encoded tools tailored for cAMP probing and modulation in living systems. We examine the capabilities and weaknesses of these different tools in the context of their operational characteristics and applicability to various experimental set-ups involving living cells, providing the guidance for rational selection of the best tools for particular needs.

  9. Systems biology investigation of cAMP modulation to increase SMN levels for the treatment of spinal muscular atrophy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean G Mack

    Full Text Available Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA, a leading genetic cause of infant death worldwide, is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by the loss of SMN1 (survival motor neuron 1, which encodes the protein SMN. The loss of SMN1 causes a deficiency in SMN protein levels leading to motor neuron cell death in the anterior horn of the spinal cord. SMN2, however, can also produce some functional SMN to partially compensate for loss of SMN1 in SMA suggesting increasing transcription of SMN2 as a potential therapy to treat patients with SMA. A cAMP response element was identified on the SMN2 promoter, implicating cAMP activation as a step in the transcription of SMN2. Therefore, we investigated the effects of modulating the cAMP signaling cascade on SMN production in vitro and in silico. SMA patient fibroblasts were treated with the cAMP signaling modulators rolipram, salbutamol, dbcAMP, epinephrine and forskolin. All of the modulators tested were able to increase gem formation, a marker for SMN protein in the nucleus, in a dose-dependent manner. We then derived two possible mathematical models simulating the regulation of SMN2 expression by cAMP signaling. Both models fit well with our experimental data. In silico treatment of SMA fibroblasts simultaneously with two different cAMP modulators resulted in an additive increase in gem formation. This study shows how a systems biology approach can be used to develop potential therapeutic targets for treating SMA.

  10. Revisiting cAMP signaling in the carotid body

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rita eNunes

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chronic carotid body (CB activation is now recognized as being essential in the development of hypertension and promoting insulin resistance; thus, it is imperative to characterize the chemotransduction mechanisms of this organ in order to modulate its activity and improve patient outcomes. For several years, and although controversial, cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP was considered an important player in initiating the activation of the CB. However, its relevance was partially displaced in the 90s by the emerging role of the mitochondria and molecules such as AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK and O2-sensitive K+ channels. Neurotransmitters/neuromodulators binding to metabotropic receptors are essential to chemotransmission in the CB, and cAMP is central to this process. cAMP also contributes to raise intracellular Ca2+ levels, and is intimately related to the cellular energetic status (AMP/ATP ratio. Furthermore, cAMP signaling is a target of multiple current pharmacological agents used in clinical practice. This review provides an outline on 1 the classical view of the cAMP-signaling pathway in the CB that originally supported its role in the O2/CO2 sensing mechanism, 2 present recent evidence on CB cAMP neuromodulation and 3 discuss how CB activity is affected by current clinical therapies that modify cAMP-signaling, namely dopaminergic drugs, caffeine (modulation of A2A/A2B receptors and roflumilast (PDE4 inhibitors. cAMP is key to any process that involves metabotropic receptors and the intracellular pathways involved in CB disease states are likely to involve this classical second messenger. Research examining the potential modification of cAMP levels and/or interactions with molecules associated with CB hyperactivity is currently in its beginning and this review will open doors for future explorations.

  11. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate signal pathway in targeted therapy of lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DOU Ai-xia; WANG Xin

    2010-01-01

    Objective To review the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signal pathway in the pathogenesis oflymphoma and explore a potential lymphoma therapy targeted on this signaling pathway.Data sources The data cited in this review were mainly obtained from the articles listed in Medline and PubMed,published from January 1995 to June 2009. The search terms were "cAMP" and "lymphoma".Study selection Articles regarding the role of the cAMP pathway in apoptosis of lymphoma and associated cells and itspotential role in targeted therapy of lymphoma.Results In the transformation of lymphocytic malignancies, several signal pathways are involved. Among of them, thecAMP pathway has attracted increasing attention because of its apoptosis-inducing role in several lymphoma cells. cAMPpathway impairment is found to influence the prognosis of lymphoma. Targeted therapy to the cAMP pathway seems tobe a new direction for lymphoma treatment, aiming at restoring the cAMP function.Conclusions cAMP signal pathway has different effects on various lymphoma cells. cAMP analogues andphosphodiesterase 4B (PDE4B) inhibitors have potential clinical significance. However, many challenges remain inunderstanding the various roles of such agents.

  12. Hindbrain raphe stimulation boosts cyclic adenosine monophosphate and signaling proteins in the injured spinal cord.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballosa-Gonzalez, Melissa M; Vitores, Alberto; Hentall, Ian D

    2014-01-16

    Early recovery from incomplete spinal cord contusion is improved by prolonged stimulation of the hindbrain's serotonergic nucleus raphe magnus (NRM). Here we examine whether increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), an intracellular signaling molecule with several known restorative actions on damaged neural tissue, could play a role. Subsequent changes in cAMP-dependent phosphorylation of protein kinase A (PKA) and PKA-dependent phosphorylation of the transcription factor "cAMP response element-binding protein" (CREB) are also analyzed. Rats with moderate weight-drop injury at segment T8 received 2h of NRM stimulation beginning three days after injury, followed immediately by separate extraction of cervical, thoracic and lumbar spinal cord for immunochemical assay. Controls lacked injury, stimulation or both. Injury reduced cAMP levels to under half of normal in all three spinal regions. NRM stimulation completely restored these levels, while producing no significant change in non-injured rats. Pretreatment with the 5-HT7 receptor antagonist pimozide (1 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) lowered cAMP in non-injured rats to injury amounts, which were unchanged by NRM stimulation. The phosphorylated fraction of PKA (pPKA) and CREB (pCREB) was reduced significantly in all three regions after SCI and restored by NRM stimulation, except for pCREB in lumbar segments. In conclusion, SCI produces spreading deficits in cAMP, pPKA and pCREB that are reversible by Gs protein-coupled 5-HT receptors responding to raphe-spinal activity, although these signaling molecules are not reactive to NRM stimulation in normal tissue. These findings can partly explain the benefits of NRM stimulation after SCI. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  13. Involvement of the second messenger cAMP in gravity-signal transduction in physarum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, I.; Rabien, H.; Ivanova, K.

    The aim of the investigation was to clarify, whether cellular signal processing following graviperception involves second messenger pathways. The test object was a most gravisensitive free-living ameboid cell, the myxomycete (acellular slime mold) Physarum polycephalum. It was demonstrated that the motor response is related to acceleration-dependent changes in the levels of the cellular second messenger cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). Rotating Physarum plasmodia in the gravity field of the Earth about a horizontal axis increased their cAMP concentration. Depriving the cells for a few days of the acceleration stimulus (near weightlessness in a space experiment on STS-69) slightly lowered plasmodial cAMP levels. Thus, the results provide first indications that the acceleration-stimulus signal transduction chain of Physarum uses an ubiquitous second messenger pathway.

  14. Antagonists of chemoattractants reveal separate receptors for cAMP, folic acid and pterin in Dictyostelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van; Wit, René J.W. de; Konijn, Theo M.

    1982-01-01

    Adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP), folic acid and pterin are chemoattractants in the cellular slime molds. The cAMP analog, 3’-amino-cAMP, inhibits a chemotactic reaction to cAMP at a concentration at which the analog is chemotactically inactive. The antagonistic effect of 3’-amino-cAMP on the ch

  15. Investigation on the occurrence and significance of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in phytoplankton and natural aquatic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francko, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study is an investigation into the occurrence and potential functions of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP), a potent and ubiquitous metabolic regulatory molecule in heterotrophic organisms, in phytoplankton and in natural aquatic communities. Laboratory-cultured phytoplankton were grown under both optimal and suboptimal nutrient regimes under constant temperature and illumination regimes. Cellular and extracellular cAMP production, characterized by a number of biochemical techniques, was correlated with growth rate dynamics, chlorophyll a synthesis, /sup 14/C-bicarbonate uptake, alkaline phosphatase activity, and heterocyst formation. The blue-green alga Anabaena flos-aquae was used as a model system in the examination of these metabolic variables. Additionally, this alga was used to test the effects of perturbation of cAMP levels on the aforementioned metabolic variables. Investigations on the occurrence and seasonal dynamics of cAMP in aquatic systems were conducted on Lawrence Lake, a hardwater oligotrophic lake, and on Wintergreen Lake, a hardwater hypereutrophic lake, both in southwestern Michigan. Putative cAMP from both systems was characterized by several biochemical techniques. Weekly sampling of particulate and dissolved cAMP in the epilimnia of both lakes was correlated with data on the rates of primary productivity, alkaline phosphatase activity, chlorophyll a synthesis and changes in phytoplankton community structure.

  16. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) confers drug resistance against DNA damaging agents via PKAIA in CML cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Ling-Yi; Kan, Wai-Ming

    2017-01-05

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) regulates many vital functions such as metabolism, proliferation, differentiation and death. Depending on cell types and stimulators, cAMP could either promote or attenuate cell death. cAMP signal can be transduced by protein kinase A (PKA) and/or exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (EPAC). In CML cells, cAMP may suppress their proliferation and enhance their differentiation. However, the role of cAMP on DNA damaging agent toxicity and the mechanism involved has not been studied. In this study, we studied the effect of cAMP on the sensitivity of CML cells to DNA damaging agents. We observed that forskolin (FSK) and dibutyryl-cAMP (DBcAMP) decreased cisplatin and etoposide-induced cell death in K562 cells. Moreover, PKA activator prevented K562 cells from DNA damaging agent-induced cell death while EPAC activator had no effect. Furthermore, we found that the PKA subtype, PKAIA, was involved in cAMP-attenuated resistance in K562 cells. Taken together, our results suggest that increased cAMP level confers CML cells to acquire a novel mechanism against DNA damaging agent toxicity via PKAIA. Thus, PKAIA inhibitor may be helpful in overcoming the resistance to DNA damaging agents in CML cells.

  17. Developmental Competence of Vitrified-Warmed Bovine Oocytes at the Germinal-Vesicle Stage is Improved by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Modulators during In Vitro Maturation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenji Ezoe

    Full Text Available Cryopreservation of mature oocytes and embryos has provided numerous benefits in reproductive medicine. Although successful cryopreservation of germinal-vesicle stage (GV oocytes holds promise for further advances in reproductive biology and clinical embryology fields, reports regarding cryopreservation of immature oocytes are limited. Oocyte survival and maturation rates have improved since vitrification is being performed at the GV stage, but the subsequent developmental competence of GV oocytes is still low. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of supplementation of the maturation medium with cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP modulators on the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV bovine oocytes. GV oocytes were vitrified-warmed and cultured to allow for oocyte maturation, and then parthenogenetically activated or fertilized in vitro. Our results indicate that addition of a cAMP modulator forskolin (FSK or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX to the maturation medium significantly improved the developmental competence of vitrified-warmed GV oocytes. We also demonstrated that vitrification of GV oocytes led to a decline in cAMP levels and maturation-promoting factor (MPF activity in the oocytes during the initial and final phases of maturation, respectively. Nevertheless, the addition of FSK or IBMX to the maturation medium significantly elevated cAMP levels and MPF activity during IVM. Taken together, our results suggest that the cryopreservation-associated meiotic and developmental abnormalities observed in GV oocytes may be ameliorated by an artificial increase in cAMP levels during maturation culture after warming.

  18. Groundwater level and specific conductance monitoring at Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, Onslow County, North Carolina, 2007-2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSwain, Kristen Bukowski

    2010-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, monitored water-resources conditions in the surficial, Castle Hayne, Peedee, and Black Creek aquifers in Onslow County, North Carolina, from November 2007 through September 2008. To comply with North Carolina Central Coastal Plain Capacity Use Area regulations, large-volume water suppliers in Onslow County must reduce their dependency on the Black Creek aquifer as a water-supply source and have, instead, proposed using the Castle Hayne aquifer as an alternative water-supply source. The Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune, uses water obtained from the unregulated surficial and Castle Hayne aquifers for drinking-water supply. Water-level data were collected and field measurements of physical properties were made at 19 wells at 8 locations spanning the Marine Corps Base, Camp Lejeune. These wells were instrumented with near real-time monitoring equipment to collect hourly measurements of water level. Additionally, specific conductance and water temperature were measured hourly in 16 of the 19 wells. Graphs are presented relating altitude of groundwater level to water temperature and specific conductance measurements collected during the study, and the relative vertical gradients between aquifers are discussed. The period-of-record normal (25th to 75th percentile) monthly mean groundwater levels at two well clusters were compared to median monthly mean groundwater levels at these same well clusters for 2008 to determine groundwater-resources conditions. In 2008, water levels were below normal in the 3 wells at one of the well clusters and were normal in 4 wells at the other cluster.

  19. A Facile and Sensitive Method for Quantification of Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates in Mammalian Organs: Basal Levels of Eight cNMPs and Identification of 2',3'-cIMP

    OpenAIRE

    Xin Jia; Fontaine, Benjamin M.; Fred Strobel; Weinert, Emily E.

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, versatile and economical method to extract and quantify cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs) using LC-MS/MS, including both 3',5'-cNMPs and 2',3'-cNMPs, in mammalian tissues and cellular systems has been developed. Problems, such as matrix effects from complex biological samples, are addressed and have been optimized. This protocol allows for comparison of multiple cNMPs in the same system and was used to examine the relationship between tissue levels of cNMPs in a panel of ...

  20. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M; Tudor, Jennifer C; Ferri, Sarah L; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-11-19

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the hippocampus. Further, it is unclear which cell types are responsible for the memory impairments associated with sleep deprivation. Transgenic approaches lack the spatial resolution to manipulate specific signaling pathways selectively in the hippocampus, while pharmacological strategies are limited in terms of cell-type specificity. Therefore, we used a pharmacogenetic approach based on a virus-mediated expression of a Gαs-coupled Drosophila octopamine receptor selectively in mouse hippocampal excitatory neurons in vivo. With this approach, a systemic injection with the receptor ligand octopamine leads to increased cAMP levels in this specific set of hippocampal neurons. We assessed whether transiently increasing cAMP levels during sleep deprivation prevents memory consolidation deficits associated with sleep loss in an object-location task. Five hours of total sleep deprivation directly following training impaired the formation of object-location memories. Transiently increasing cAMP levels in hippocampal neurons during the course of sleep deprivation prevented these memory consolidation deficits. These findings demonstrate that attenuated cAMP signaling in hippocampal excitatory neurons is a critical component underlying the memory deficits in hippocampus-dependent learning tasks associated with sleep deprivation.

  1. Perfluorooctyl Iodide Stimulates Steroidogenesis in H295R Cells via a Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Signaling Pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chang; Ruan, Ting; Liu, Jiyan; He, Bin; Zhou, Qunfang; Jiang, Guibin

    2015-05-18

    Perfluorinated iodine alkanes (PFIs) are used widely in the organic fluorine industry. Increased production of PFIs has caused environmental health concerns. To evaluate the potential endocrine-disrupting effect of PFIs, we investigated the effects of perfluorooctyl iodide (PFOI) on steroidogenesis in human adrenocortical carcinoma cells (H295R). Levels of aldosterone, cortisol, 17β-estradiol, and testosterone were measured in H295R culture medium upon treatment with perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and PFIs. Expression of 10 steroidogenic genes (StAR, HMGR, CYP11A1, 3βHSD2, 17βHSD, CYP17, CYP21, CYP11B1, CYP11B2, and CYP19) was measured by real-time polymerase chain reaction. Levels of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenylate cyclase (AC) activity were measured to understand the underlying mechanism of steroidogenic perturbations. Levels of production of aldosterone, cortisol, and 17β-estradiol were elevated significantly, and the level of testosterone generation decreased upon treatment with 100 μM PFOI. Similar to the effect induced by forskolin (AC activator), expression of all 10 genes involved in the synthesis of steroid hormones was upregulated significantly upon exposure to 100 μM PFOI. PFOA had no effect on steroid hormone production or steroidogenic gene expression even though it is highly structurally similar with PFOI. Therefore, the terminal -CF2I group in PFOI could be a critical factor for mediation of steroidogenesis. PFOI increased AC activity and cAMP levels in H295R cells, which implied an underlying mechanism for the disturbance of steroidogenesis. These data suggest that PFOI may act as an AC activator, thereby stimulating steroidogenesis by activating a cAMP signaling pathway.

  2. Level of development of the physical components of social activity schoolchildren 10-11 years children summer camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chovgan R.Ya.

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to determine the level of physical health of schoolchildren. Material : the study involved 146 children aged 10-11 years. Results : the questions of children's health issues such: the state of development of physical qualities, cardiovascular and respiratory systems, the ratio of children to their own health, interest in physical education means in terms of the Camp. The characteristic of the state of physical health and adaptive capacity of the organism respondents. Found that 50.7 % of children had low, 42.5% - the average, 6.8% - a high level of physical activity. Daily physical fitness - 11.0 % 2-3 times a week - 26.0 % once a week, 18.5%, and sometimes - 44.5%. The health camp prefer morning gymnastics 89.0 % of students ; hiking 67.1 % physical training on interest - 63.7%. Conclusions : the identified leading and lagging physical qualities in children studied age group. Dominant over the other physical properties were agility and strength of the abdominal muscles. By lagging physical qualities include strength of arm and leg flexibility. A significant amount of children surveyed are not able to fulfill the standards of the State tests of Ukraine for its age-sex groups on a positive assessment.

  3. Direct Light-up of cAMP Derivatives in Living Cells by Click Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Xu

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available 8-Azidoadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (8-azido cAMP was directly detected in living cells, by applying Cu-free azide-alkyne cycloaddition to probe cAMP derivatives by fluorescence light-up. Fluorescence emission was generated by two non-fluorescent molecules, 8-azido cAMP as a model target and difluorinated cyclooctyne (DIFO reagent as a probe. The azide-alkyne cycloaddition reaction between 8-azido cAMP and DIFO induces fluorescence in 8-azido cAMP. The fluorescence emission serves as a way to probe 8-azido cAMP in cells.

  4. A facile and sensitive method for quantification of cyclic nucleotide monophosphates in mammalian organs: basal levels of eight cNMPs and identification of 2',3'-cIMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Xin; Fontaine, Benjamin M; Strobel, Fred; Weinert, Emily E

    2014-12-12

    A sensitive, versatile and economical method to extract and quantify cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs) using LC-MS/MS, including both 3',5'-cNMPs and 2',3'-cNMPs, in mammalian tissues and cellular systems has been developed. Problems, such as matrix effects from complex biological samples, are addressed and have been optimized. This protocol allows for comparison of multiple cNMPs in the same system and was used to examine the relationship between tissue levels of cNMPs in a panel of rat organs. In addition, the study reports the first identification and quantification of 2',3'-cIMP. The developed method will allow for quantification of cNMPs levels in cells and tissues with varying disease states, which will provide insight into the role(s) and interplay of cNMP signalling pathways.

  5. A Facile and Sensitive Method for Quantification of Cyclic Nucleotide Monophosphates in Mammalian Organs: Basal Levels of Eight cNMPs and Identification of 2',3'-cIMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Jia

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A sensitive, versatile and economical method to extract and quantify cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (cNMPs using LC-MS/MS, including both 3',5'-cNMPs and 2',3'-cNMPs, in mammalian tissues and cellular systems has been developed. Problems, such as matrix effects from complex biological samples, are addressed and have been optimized. This protocol allows for comparison of multiple cNMPs in the same system and was used to examine the relationship between tissue levels of cNMPs in a panel of rat organs. In addition, the study reports the first identification and quantification of 2',3'-cIMP. The developed method will allow for quantification of cNMPs levels in cells and tissues with varying disease states, which will provide insight into the role(s and interplay of cNMP signalling pathways.

  6. Induction of increased cAMP levels in articular chondrocytes blocks matrix metalloproteinase-mediated cartilage degradation, but not aggrecanase-mediated cartilage degradation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karsdal, Morten Asser; Sumer, Eren Ufuk; Wulf, Helle

    2007-01-01

    was assessed by 1) quantification of C-terminal crosslinking telopeptide of type II collagen fragments (CTX-II), 2) matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-mediated aggrecan degradation by (342)FFGV- G2 assay, 3) aggrecanase-mediated degradation by (374)ARGS-G2 assay, 4) release of sulfated glycosaminoglycans (s......-dependently inhibited by forskolin and IBMX. The highest concentration of IBMX lowered cytokine-induced release of sGAG by 72%. CONCLUSION: Levels of cAMP in chondrocytes play a key role in controlling catabolic activity. Increased cAMP levels in chondrocytes inhibited MMP expression and activity and consequently...

  7. Relationship between Platelet PPARs, cAMP Levels, and P-Selectin Expression: Antiplatelet Activity of Natural Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Platelets are no longer considered simply as cells participating in thrombosis. In atherosclerosis, platelets are regulators of multiple processes, with the recruitment of inflammatory cells towards the lesion sites, inflammatory mediators release, and regulation of endothelial function. The antiplatelet therapy has been used for a long time in an effort to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, limited efficacy in some patients, drug resistance, and side effects are limitations of current antiplatelet therapy. In this context, a large number of natural products (polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, and fatty acids) have been reported with antiplatelet activity. In this sense, the present paper describes mechanisms of antiplatelet action of natural products on platelet P-selectin expression through cAMP levels and its role as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists. PMID:24324520

  8. Relationship between Platelet PPARs, cAMP Levels, and P-Selectin Expression: Antiplatelet Activity of Natural Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Fuentes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Platelets are no longer considered simply as cells participating in thrombosis. In atherosclerosis, platelets are regulators of multiple processes, with the recruitment of inflammatory cells towards the lesion sites, inflammatory mediators release, and regulation of endothelial function. The antiplatelet therapy has been used for a long time in an effort to prevent and treat cardiovascular diseases. However, limited efficacy in some patients, drug resistance, and side effects are limitations of current antiplatelet therapy. In this context, a large number of natural products (polyphenols, terpenoids, alkaloids, and fatty acids have been reported with antiplatelet activity. In this sense, the present paper describes mechanisms of antiplatelet action of natural products on platelet P-selectin expression through cAMP levels and its role as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors agonists.

  9. A Temporal-Specific and Transient cAMP Increase Characterizes Odorant Classical Conditioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Wen; Smith, Andrew; Darby-King, Andrea; Harley, Carolyn W.; McLean, John H.

    2007-01-01

    Increases in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) are proposed to initiate learning in a wide variety of species. Here, we measure changes in cAMP in the olfactory bulb prior to, during, and following a classically conditioned odor preference trial in rat pups. Measurements were taken up to the point of maximal CREB phosphorylation in olfactory…

  10. Testosterone regulates levels of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, adenylate cyclase, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles of orchidectomized rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Siti Khadijah; Giribabu, Nelli; Muniandy, Sekaran; Salleh, Naguib

    2016-01-15

    Secretions of chloride (Cl(-))- and bicarbonate (HCO3(-))-rich fluid by the seminal vesicles could involve cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), which activity can be stimulated by cAMP generated from the reaction involving adenylate cyclase (AC). In this study, we investigated levels of CFTR, AC, and cAMP in the seminal vesicles under testosterone influence. Orchidectomized adult male rats received 7-day treatment with 125 or 250 μg/kg/day of testosterone with or without flutamide or finasteride. At the end of the treatment, animals were sacrificed and seminal vesicles were harvested for analyses of CFTR and AC protein expression level by Western blotting. Distribution of CFTR and AC in seminal vesicles was observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP and dihydrotestosterone in seminal vesicle homogenates were measured by ELISA. Cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator, AC, and cAMP levels increased with increasing doses of testosterone (P seminal vesicle lumen with higher expression levels observed in testosterone-treated rats than in non-treated orchidectomized rats (P seminal vesicle homogenates after treatment with 250 μg/kg/day than with 125 μg/kg/day of testosterone (P seminal vesicles might contribute toward an increase in Cl(-) and HCO3(-) concentrations in the seminal fluid as reported under testosterone influence.

  11. Enhanced tumor necrosis factor suppression and cyclic adenosine monophosphate accumulation by combination of phosphodiesterase inhibitors and prostanoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinha, B; Semmler, J; Eisenhut, T; Eigler, A; Endres, S

    1995-01-01

    We investigated cooperative effects of phosphodiesterase (PDE) inhibitors and prostanoids on cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha synthesis in human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). PDE inhibitors alone induced only a small increase in cA

  12. [Hemophilia camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juárez-Sierra, Julieta; Del Pilar Torres-Arreola, Laura; Marín-Palomares, Teresa; Dueñas-González, María Teresa; Monteros-Rincón, Martha Patricia; Osorio-Guzmán, Maricela

    2013-01-01

    We reported the experience of hemophilia camps which was accomplished with patients from hospitals of the Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social. The aim was to prepare the families and patients regarding the disease treatment, in order to promote the self sufficiency and to know the impact of the program on the course of the disease. Surveys were applied about treatment items and personal opinions were collected. The results of the national hemophilia camp were: group of 56 patients, average 14 years, 2 % women, 51 % severe hemophilia and 43 % had hemophilic brothers. Benefits: patients increased their knowledge about earlier bleeding identification and the self-infusion method; they became aware on their responsibility in self care, timely treatment and duties at home. Hemophilia camps with patients are an option for attitude change before disease complications. Social network creation and the increase in self-sufficiency are other benefits.

  13. Piperine, a component of black pepper, decreases eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in non-chemosensory 3T3-L1 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Hye Jeong; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of an ethanol extract of black pepper and its constituent, piperine, on odorant-induced signal transduction in non-chemosensory cells. An ethanol extract of black pepper decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in preadipocyte 3T3-L1 cells with no toxicity. Phosphorylation of CREB (cAMP response element-binding protein) was down-regulated by the black pepper extract. The concentration (133.8 mg/g) and retention time (5.5 min) of piperine in the ethanol extract were quantified using UPLC-MS/MS. Pretreatment with piperine decreased eugenol-induced cAMP and calcium levels in 3T3-L1 cells. Piperine also decreased the phosphorylation of CREB, which is up-regulated by eugenol. These results suggest that piperine inhibits the eugenol-induced signal transduction pathway through modulation of cAMP and calcium levels and phosphorylation of CREB in non-chemosensory cells.

  14. Regulated expression of HCN channels and cAMP levels shape the properties of the h current in developing rat hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surges, Rainer; Brewster, Amy L; Bender, Roland A; Beck, Heinz; Feuerstein, Thomas J; Baram, Tallie Z

    2006-07-01

    The hyperpolarization-activated current (I(h)) contributes to intrinsic properties and network responses of neurons. Its biophysical properties depend on the expression profiles of the underlying hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels and the presence of cyclic AMP (cAMP) that potently and differentially modulates I(h) conducted by HCN1, HCN2 and/or HCN4. Here, we studied the properties of I(h) in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, the developmental evolution of the HCN-subunit isoforms that contribute to this current, and their interplay with age-dependent free cAMP concentrations, using electrophysiological, molecular and biochemical methods. I(h) amplitude increased progressively during the first four postnatal weeks, consistent with the observed overall increased expression of HCN channels. Activation kinetics of the current accelerated during this period, consonant with the quantitative reduction of mRNA and protein expression of the slow-kinetics HCN4 isoform and increased levels of HCN1. The sensitivity of I(h) to cAMP, and the contribution of the slow component to the overall I(h), decreased with age. These are likely a result of the developmentally regulated transition of the complement of HCN channel isoforms from cAMP sensitive to relatively cAMP insensitive. Thus, although hippocampal cAMP concentrations increased over twofold during the developmental period studied, the coordinated changes in expression of three HCN channel isoforms resulted in reduced effects of this signalling molecule on neuronal h currents.

  15. Imaging alterations of cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains in disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander eFroese

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available 3’,5’-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is an important second messenger which regulates heart function by acting in distinct subcellular microdomains. Recent years have provided deeper mechanistic insights into compartmentalized cAMP signaling and its link to cardiac disease. In this mini review, we summarize newest developments in this field achieved by cutting-edge biochemical and biophysical techniques. We further compile the data from different studies into a bigger picture of so far uncovered alterations in cardiomyocyte cAMP microdomains which occur in compensated cardiac hypertrophy and chronic heart failure. Finally, future research directions and translational perspectives are briefly discussed.

  16. How to run a successful and educational basketball camp

    OpenAIRE

    Brooke LeMar; Joe Deutsch

    2015-01-01

    Camps are a great introduction to the sport of basketball for children. Universities and colleges usually offer different types of camps, typically during the summer months. Depending on the skill and maturity level of the player, basketball camps can serve a variety of purposes. Some popular types of camps include offensive skills, shooting, team, and youth camps. Regardless of the camp that is chosen, children need to have goals set for themselves before, during, and after to enhance the be...

  17. Psychological stress level and features of recruits in training camp%集训期新兵心理应激水平及特点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田益沁; 左昕; 彭李; 于永菊; 刘波涛; 边晨; 李敏

    2016-01-01

    目的 分析某部新兵集训期心理应激水平及特点.方法 使用军人心理应激自评问卷(Psychological stress self-evaluation test,PSET)对某部1 600名集训期新兵进行调查分析.结果 ①1 600名新兵中心理应激水平较高的有64人(T分≥70,占4%);②集训期新兵心理应激症状主要表现在警觉性增加(87.7%)、睡眠不好(57.6%)、身心疲惫(48.7%)及紧张烦躁(45.2%);③不同年龄新兵、自我感觉在部队适应程度不同的新兵在心理应激水平上差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 集训期新兵存在一定程度的过度心理应激反应,有必要在新兵中开展针对性的应激减压训练.%Objective To analyze psychological stress level and features of recruits in training camp.Methods Psychological stress self-evaluation test (PSET) was applied to 1 600 recruits in training camp.Results ①There were 64 recruits(64/1600,4%) who had high level of psychological stress(T score ≥70).②The psychological stress symptoms of recruits in training camp mainly manifested as increased alertness (87.7%),sleep deprivation (57.6%),mental and physical fatigue (48.7%) and nervous irritability (45.2%).③Psychological stress levels of recruits with different ages and different levels of self-feeling in camp had significant differences(P<0.05).Conclusion Recruits in training camp have partly excessive psychological stress responses,targeted emergency decompression trainings should be carried out in recruits.

  18. [Involvement of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in the control of motile behavior of Physarum polycephalum plasmodium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matveeva, N B; Teplov, V A; Nezvetskiĭ, A R; Orlova, T G; Beĭlina, S I

    2012-01-01

    Possible involvement of autocrine factors into the control of motile behavior via a receptor-mediated mechanism was investigated in Physarum polycephalum plasmodium, a multinuclear amoeboid cell with the auto-oscillatory mode of motility. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and extracellular cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase, its involvement into the control of plasmodium motile behavior was proved by action of its strong inhibitor, were regarded as putative autocrine factors. It was shown that the plasmodium secreted cAMP. When it was introduced into agar support, 0,1-1 mM cAMP induced a delay of the plasmodium spreading and its transition to migration. When locally applied, cAMP at the same concentrations induced typical for attractant action the increase in oscillation frequency and the decrease of ectoplasm elasticity. The ability to exhibit positive chemotaxis in cAMP gradient and the dependence of its realization were shown to depend on the plasmodium state. Chemotaxis test specimens obtained from the migrating plasmodium, unlike those obtained from growing culture, generate alternative fronts which compete effectively with fronts oriented towards the attractant increment. The results obtained support our supposition stated earlier that advance of the Physarum polycephalum plasmodium leading edge is determined by local extracellular cAMP gradients arising from a time delay between secretion and hydrolysis of the nucleotide.

  19. Increases in cAMP, MAPK Activity and CREB Phosphorylation during REM Sleep: Implications for REM Sleep and Memory Consolidation

    OpenAIRE

    Luo, Jie; Phan, Trongha X.; Yang, Yimei; Garelick, Michael G.; Storm, Daniel R.

    2013-01-01

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcriptional pathway is required for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. In mice, this pathway undergoes a circadian oscillation required for memory persistence that reaches a peak during the daytime. Since mice exhibit polyphasic sleep patterns during the day, this suggested the interesting possibility that cAMP, MAPK activity and CREB phosphorylat...

  20. Preliminary Study on the Relationship between cAMP Level and gsp Expression in Cultured Human Pituitary Somatotrophinomas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between abnormal intracellular signal transduction and tumorgenesis of human pituitary somatotrophinomas, the effects of protein kinase A (PKA)-dependent growth hormone (GH) releasing hormone (GHRH) and protein kinase C (PKC)-dependent GH-releasing peptide (GHRP-6) on cAMP production were observed by using cell culture and biochemical methods, and the expression of the gsp oncogene was detected by using PCR and direct sequence assay methods in 11 patients with human pituitary somatotrophinomas. It was found that GHRP-6 exerted significant stimulatory effect on cAMP production by 2 gsp-positive tumors and no effect on the gsp-negative tumors. GHRP-6 could enhance the stimulation of cAMP production induced by GHRH in tumor without gsp oncogenes. It was suggested that both GHRH and GHRP-6 exert identical effects on human pituitary soamtotrophinomas, which was contributed to the cross-talk between the two intracellular signal transduction pathways in pituitary cells.

  1. Cardiac cAMP: production, hydrolysis, modulation and detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cédric eBOULARAN

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Cyclic adenosine 3’,5’-monophosphate (cAMP modulates a broad range of biological processes including the regulation of cardiac myocyte contractile function where it constitutes the main second messenger for β-adrenergic receptors’ signaling to fulfill positive chronotropic, inotropic and lusitropic effects. A growing number of studies pinpoint the role of spatial organization of the cAMP signaling as an essential mechanism to regulate cAMP outcomes in cardiac physiology. Here, we will briefly discuss the complexity of cAMP synthesis and degradation in the cardiac context, describe the way to detect it and review the main pharmacological arsenal to modulate its availability.

  2. Plasma concentrations of the cyclic nucleotides, adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate and guanosine 3'.5'-monophosphate, in healthy adults treated with theophylline

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fenger, M; Eriksen, P B; Andersen, O;

    1982-01-01

    Plasma concentrations of cyclic adenosine monophosphate and cyclic guanosine monophosphate were measured in 10 health adults before, during and after periods of theophylline administration. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate concentrations did not change significantly, but cyclic guanosine monophosph...

  3. [C-AMP concentration in various organs of female rats and in human ovaries with aging (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arima, M

    1982-02-01

    The change in 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (c-AMP) concentration was observed in various organs of rats in gonadal cycle in adult group and with aging (30, 70, 100, 120 weeks), and in human ovaries with aging. 1) The average c-AMP concentration of ovaries of rats showed a significant change with estrus cycle and was higher in the following sequence: proestrus, diestrus II, diestrus I and estrus phase. This tendency was also seen in hypothalamus and pituitary, but was not statistically significant, 2) The average c-AMP concentration in tissues began to decline significantly from 70 weeks in cerebral cortex and hypothalamus, and from 80 weeks in ovaries. However, on the other hand the concentrations in pituitary, liver and adrenal declined markedly from 100 weeks. 3) The c-AMP in ovaries of 80 weeks rats by pregnant mare serum (PMS) road increased by 0.5-fold in concentration, and by 0.6-fold in whole tissue relative to that of 30 weeks rats. 4) A significant difference in serum LH and FSH level between ovarian artery and vein was not found in cycling mature group, non-cycling climacteric group and post-menopausal group of women. 5) Both average concentrations and total values of c-AMP in ovaries of non-cycling climacteric and post-menopausal women were lower than those of mature cycling women. This fact may imply a different response by ovarian tissues such as corpus luteum, follicle and other tissues to gonadotropin. From these results of c-AMP in tissues, it is concluded that the decline of ovarian function with aging of rats was relatively earlier than pituitary, although being delayed compared with hypothalamus, and were the ovarian function in humans declined in the premenopausal period.

  4. Discovery of a cAMP deaminase that quenches cyclic AMP-dependent regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goble, Alissa M; Feng, Youjun; Raushel, Frank M; Cronan, John E

    2013-12-20

    An enzyme of unknown function within the amidohydrolase superfamily was discovered to catalyze the hydrolysis of the universal second messenger, cyclic-3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP). The enzyme, which we have named CadD, is encoded by the human pathogenic bacterium Leptospira interrogans. Although CadD is annotated as an adenosine deaminase, the protein specifically deaminates cAMP to cyclic-3',5'-inosine monophosphate (cIMP) with a kcat/Km of 2.7 ± 0.4 × 10(5) M(-1) s(-1) and has no activity on adenosine, adenine, or 5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP). This is the first identification of a deaminase specific for cAMP. Expression of CadD in Escherichia coli mimics the loss of adenylate cyclase in that it blocks growth on carbon sources that require the cAMP-CRP transcriptional activator complex for expression of the cognate genes. The cIMP reaction product cannot replace cAMP as the ligand for CRP binding to DNA in vitro and cIMP is a very poor competitor of cAMP activation of CRP for DNA binding. Transcriptional analyses indicate that CadD expression represses expression of several cAMP-CRP dependent genes. CadD adds a new activity to the cAMP metabolic network and may be a useful tool in intracellular study of cAMP-dependent processes.

  5. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor I transcription by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in fetal rat bone cells through an element within exon 1: protein kinase A-dependent control without a consensus AMP response element

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. L.; Thomas, M. J.; Centrella, M.; Rotwein, P.

    1995-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a locally synthesized anabolic growth factor for bone. IGF-I synthesis by primary fetal rat osteoblasts (Ob) is stimulated by agents that increase the intracellular cAMP concentration, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Previous studies with Ob cultures demonstrated that PGE2 enhanced IGF-I transcription through selective use of IGF-I promoter 1, with little effect on IGF-I messenger RNA half-life. Transient transfection of Ob cultures with an array of promoter 1-luciferase reporter fusion constructs has now allowed localization of a potential cis-acting promoter element(s) responsible for cAMP-stimulated gene expression to the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of IGF-I exon 1, within a segment lacking a consensus cAMP response element. Our evidence derives from three principal observations: 1) a transfection construct containing only 122 nucleotides (nt) of promoter 1 and 328 nt of the 5'-UTR retained full PGE2-stimulated reporter expression; 2) maximal PGE2-driven reporter expression required the presence of nt 196 to 328 of exon 1 when tested within the context of IGF-I promoter 1; 3) cotransfection of IGF-I promoter-luciferase-reporter constructs with a plasmid encoding the alpha-isoform of the catalytic subunit of murine cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) produced results comparable to those seen with PGE2 treatment, whereas cotransfection with a plasmid encoding a mutant regulatory subunit of PKA that cannot bind cAMP blocked PGE2-induced reporter expression. Deoxyribonuclease I footprinting of the 5'-UTR of exon 1 demonstrated protected sequences at HS3A, HS3B, and HS3D, three of six DNA-protein binding sites previously characterized with rat liver nuclear extracts. Of these three regions, only the HS3D binding site is located within the functionally identified hormonally responsive segment of IGF-I exon 1. These results directly implicate PKA in the control of IGF-I gene transcription by PGE2 and identify a segment of

  6. Regulation of insulin-like growth factor I transcription by cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in fetal rat bone cells through an element within exon 1: protein kinase A-dependent control without a consensus AMP response element

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, T. L.; Thomas, M. J.; Centrella, M.; Rotwein, P.

    1995-01-01

    Insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) is a locally synthesized anabolic growth factor for bone. IGF-I synthesis by primary fetal rat osteoblasts (Ob) is stimulated by agents that increase the intracellular cAMP concentration, including prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Previous studies with Ob cultures demonstrated that PGE2 enhanced IGF-I transcription through selective use of IGF-I promoter 1, with little effect on IGF-I messenger RNA half-life. Transient transfection of Ob cultures with an array of promoter 1-luciferase reporter fusion constructs has now allowed localization of a potential cis-acting promoter element(s) responsible for cAMP-stimulated gene expression to the 5'-untranslated region (5'-UTR) of IGF-I exon 1, within a segment lacking a consensus cAMP response element. Our evidence derives from three principal observations: 1) a transfection construct containing only 122 nucleotides (nt) of promoter 1 and 328 nt of the 5'-UTR retained full PGE2-stimulated reporter expression; 2) maximal PGE2-driven reporter expression required the presence of nt 196 to 328 of exon 1 when tested within the context of IGF-I promoter 1; 3) cotransfection of IGF-I promoter-luciferase-reporter constructs with a plasmid encoding the alpha-isoform of the catalytic subunit of murine cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) produced results comparable to those seen with PGE2 treatment, whereas cotransfection with a plasmid encoding a mutant regulatory subunit of PKA that cannot bind cAMP blocked PGE2-induced reporter expression. Deoxyribonuclease I footprinting of the 5'-UTR of exon 1 demonstrated protected sequences at HS3A, HS3B, and HS3D, three of six DNA-protein binding sites previously characterized with rat liver nuclear extracts. Of these three regions, only the HS3D binding site is located within the functionally identified hormonally responsive segment of IGF-I exon 1. These results directly implicate PKA in the control of IGF-I gene transcription by PGE2 and identify a segment of

  7. FimL regulates cAMP synthesis in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuki F Inclan

    Full Text Available Pseudomonas aeruginosa, a ubiquitous bacteria found in diverse ecological niches, is an important cause of acute infections in immunocompromised individuals and chronic infections in patients with Cystic Fibrosis. One signaling molecule required for the coordinate regulation of virulence factors associated with acute infections is 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate, (cAMP, which binds to and activates a catabolite repressor homolog, Vfr. Vfr controls the transcription of many virulence factors, including those associated with Type IV pili (TFP, the Type III secretion system (T3SS, the Type II secretion system, flagellar-mediated motility, and quorum sensing systems. We previously identified FimL, a protein with histidine phosphotransfer-like domains, as a regulator of Vfr-dependent processes, including TFP-dependent motility and T3SS function. In this study, we carried out genetic and physiologic studies to further define the mechanism of action of FimL. Through a genetic screen designed to identify suppressors of FimL, we found a putative cAMP-specific phosphodiesterase (CpdA, suggesting that FimL regulates cAMP levels. Inactivation of CpdA increases cAMP levels and restores TFP-dependent motility and T3SS function to fimL mutants, consistent with in vivo phosphodiesterase activity. By constructing combinations of double and triple mutants in the two adenylate cyclase genes (cyaA and cyaB, fimL, and cpdA, we show that ΔfimL mutants resemble ΔcyaB mutants in TM defects, decreased T3SS transcription, and decreased cAMP levels. Similar to some of the virulence factors that they regulate, we demonstrate that CyaB and FimL are polarly localized. These results reveal new complexities in the regulation of diverse virulence pathways associated with acute P. aeruginosa infections.

  8. Increasing cAMP levels of preadipocytes by cyanidin-3-glucoside treatment induces the formation of beige phenotypes in 3T3-L1 adipocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsukawa, Toshiya; Villareal, Myra O; Motojima, Hideko; Isoda, Hiroko

    2017-02-01

    Obesity is a serious health problem and a major risk factor for the onset of several diseases such as heart disease, diabetes, stroke and cancer. The conversion of white adipocytes to brown-like adipocytes, also called beige or brite adipocytes, by pharmacological and dietary compounds has gained attention as an effective treatment for obesity. Cyanidin-3-glucoside (Cy3G), a polyphenolic compound contained in black soybean, blueberry and grape, has several antiobesity effects. However, there are no reports on the role of Cy3G in the induction of differentiation of preadipocytes to beige adipocytes and corresponding phenotypes. Here, the formation of beige adipocyte phenotypes following treatment with Cy3G was evaluated using 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Cy3G induced phenotypic changes to white adipocytes, such as increased multilocular lipid droplets and mitochondrial content. Additionally, the expression of mitochondrial genes (TFAM, SOD2, UCP-1 and UCP-2), UCP-1 protein and beige adipocyte markers (CITED1 and TBX1) in 3T3-L1 adipocytes was increased by Cy3G. Furthermore, Cy3G promoted preadipocyte differentiation by up-regulating of C/EBPβ through the elevation of the intracellular cAMP levels. These results indicated that Cy3G elevates the intracellular cAMP levels, which induces beige adipocyte phenotypes. This is the first report on the effect of Cy3G on induction of differentiation of preadipocytes into beige adipocyte phenotypes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Evidence against mediation of adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate in the bud-inducing effect of cytokinins in moss protonemata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Scheneider

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects Oif adenosdne-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP, N6,O2-dibuityryl adenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (DBcAMP, caffeine and theophylline on the bud-inducing activity of cytokinin in the protonema of two moss species, Ceratodon purpureus and Funaria hygrometrica were examined. The sub-stances have been found ineffective as gametophore bud inducers. Some synergism between cytokinin and cAMP or DBcAMP was observed with relation to the buds' growth, but this effect is nonspecific since it can be obtained with 5'-AMP or 5'-GMiP as well, The results seem to exclude the possibility of an involvement of cAMP as a second messenger in the mechanism of cytokinin action on morphogenetic processes in moss protonemata.

  10. Inositol monophosphate phosphatase genes of Mycobacterium tuberculosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parish Tanya

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Mycobacteria use inositol in phosphatidylinositol, for anchoring lipoarabinomannan (LAM, lipomannan (LM and phosphatidylinosotol mannosides (PIMs in the cell envelope, and for the production of mycothiol, which maintains the redox balance of the cell. Inositol is synthesized by conversion of glucose-6-phosphate to inositol-1-phosphate, followed by dephosphorylation by inositol monophosphate phosphatases (IMPases to form myo-inositol. To gain insight into how Mycobacterium tuberculosis synthesises inositol we carried out genetic analysis of the four IMPase homologues that are present in the Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome. Results Mutants lacking either impA (Rv1604 or suhB (Rv2701c were isolated in the absence of exogenous inositol, and no differences in levels of PIMs, LM, LAM or mycothiol were observed. Mutagenesis of cysQ (Rv2131c was initially unsuccessful, but was possible when a porin-like gene of Mycobacterium smegmatis was expressed, and also by gene switching in the merodiploid strain. In contrast, we could only obtain mutations in impC (Rv3137 when a second functional copy was provided in trans, even when exogenous inositol was provided. Experiments to obtain a mutant in the presence of a second copy of impC containing an active-site mutation, in the presence of porin-like gene of M. smegmatis, or in the absence of inositol 1-phosphate synthase activity, were also unsuccessful. We showed that all four genes are expressed, although at different levels, and levels of inositol phosphatase activity did not fall significantly in any of the mutants obtained. Conclusions We have shown that neither impA, suhB nor cysQ is solely responsible for inositol synthesis. In contrast, we show that impC is essential for mycobacterial growth under the conditions we used, and suggest it may be required in the early stages of mycothiol synthesis.

  11. Synthesis, structural characterization and effect on human granulocyte intracellular cAMP levels of abscisic acid analogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellotti, Marta; Salis, Annalisa; Grozio, Alessia; Damonte, Gianluca; Vigliarolo, Tiziana; Galatini, Andrea; Zocchi, Elena; Benatti, Umberto; Millo, Enrico

    2015-01-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA), in addition to regulating physiological functions in plants, is also produced and released by several mammalian cell types, including human granulocytes, where it stimulates innate immune functions via an increase of the intracellular cAMP concentration ([cAMP]i). We synthesized several ABA analogs and evaluated the structure-activity relationship, by the systematical modification of selected regions of these analogs. The resulting molecules were tested for their ability to inhibit the ABA-induced increase of [cAMP]i in human granulocytes. The analogs with modified configurations at C-2' and C-3' abrogated the ABA-induced increase of the [cAMP]i and also inhibited several pro-inflammatory effects induced by exogenous ABA on granulocytes and monocytes. Accordingly, these analogs could be suitable as novel putative anti-inflammatory compounds.

  12. Blood glucose levels and performance in a sports cAMP for adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus: a field study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Dylan; Hamilton, Jill K; Riddell, Michael C

    2010-01-01

    Background. Acute hypo- and hyperglycemia causes cognitive and psychomotor impairment in individuals with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) that may affect sports performance. Objective. To quantify the effect of concurrent and antecedent blood glucose concentrations on sports skills and cognitive performance in youth with T1DM attending a sports camp. Design/Methods. 28 youth (ages 6-17 years) attending a sports camp carried out multiple skill-based tests (tennis, basketball, or soccer skills) with glucose monitoring over 4 days. Glucose levels at the time of testing were categorized as (a) hypoglycemic (13.9 mM). Results. Overall, sports performance skill was approximately 20% lower when glucose concentrations were hypoglycemic compared to either acceptable or hyperglycemic at the time of skill testing (P lasting an average of 84 minutes, but this did not affect sports skill performance the following day. Conclusions. Mild hypoglycemia markedly reduces sports skill performance and cognition in young athletes with T1DM.

  13. Spilanthol from Acmella Oleracea Lowers the Intracellular Levels of cAMP Impairing NKCC2 Phosphorylation and Water Channel AQP2 Membrane Expression in Mouse Kidney.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Gerbino

    Full Text Available Acmella oleracea is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine as diuretic, although few scientific data have been published to support this effect. Aim of this study was to determine the molecular effect of Acmella oleracea extract and its main alkylamide spilanthol on two major processes involved in the urine concentrating mechanism: Na-K-2Cl symporter (NKCC2 activity in the thick ascending limb and water channel aquaporin 2 accumulation at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct cells. Phosphorylation of NKCC2 was evaluated as index of its activation by Western blotting. Rate of aquaporin 2 apical expression was analyzed by confocal laser microscopy. Spilanthol-induced intracellular signalling events were dissected by video-imaging experiments. Exposure to spilanthol reduced the basal phosphorylation level of NKCC2 both in freshly isolated mouse kidney slices and in NKCC2-expresing HEK293 cells. In addition, exposure to spilanthol strongly reduced both desmopressin and low Cl--dependent increase in NKCC2 phosphorylation in mouse kidney slices and NKCC2-expressing HEK293 cells, respectively. Similarly, spilanthol reduced both desmopressin- and forskolin-stimulated aquaporin 2 accumulation at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct in mouse kidney slice and MCD4 cells, respectively. Of note, when orally administered, spilanthol induced a significant increase in both urine output and salt urinary excretion associated with a markedly reduced urine osmolality compared with control mice. Finally, at cellular level, spilanthol rapidly reduced or reversed basal and agonist-increased cAMP levels through a mechanism involving increases in intracellular [Ca2+]. In conclusion, spilanthol-induced inhibition of cAMP production negatively modulates urine-concentrating mechanisms thus holding great promise for its use as diuretic.

  14. Spilanthol from Acmella Oleracea Lowers the Intracellular Levels of cAMP Impairing NKCC2 Phosphorylation and Water Channel AQP2 Membrane Expression in Mouse Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerbino, Andrea; Schena, Giorgia; Milano, Serena; Milella, Luigi; Barbosa, Alan Franco; Armentano, Francesca; Procino, Giuseppe; Svelto, Maria; Carmosino, Monica

    2016-01-01

    Acmella oleracea is well recognized in Brazilian traditional medicine as diuretic, although few scientific data have been published to support this effect. Aim of this study was to determine the molecular effect of Acmella oleracea extract and its main alkylamide spilanthol on two major processes involved in the urine concentrating mechanism: Na-K-2Cl symporter (NKCC2) activity in the thick ascending limb and water channel aquaporin 2 accumulation at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct cells. Phosphorylation of NKCC2 was evaluated as index of its activation by Western blotting. Rate of aquaporin 2 apical expression was analyzed by confocal laser microscopy. Spilanthol-induced intracellular signalling events were dissected by video-imaging experiments. Exposure to spilanthol reduced the basal phosphorylation level of NKCC2 both in freshly isolated mouse kidney slices and in NKCC2-expresing HEK293 cells. In addition, exposure to spilanthol strongly reduced both desmopressin and low Cl--dependent increase in NKCC2 phosphorylation in mouse kidney slices and NKCC2-expressing HEK293 cells, respectively. Similarly, spilanthol reduced both desmopressin- and forskolin-stimulated aquaporin 2 accumulation at the apical plasma membrane of collecting duct in mouse kidney slice and MCD4 cells, respectively. Of note, when orally administered, spilanthol induced a significant increase in both urine output and salt urinary excretion associated with a markedly reduced urine osmolality compared with control mice. Finally, at cellular level, spilanthol rapidly reduced or reversed basal and agonist-increased cAMP levels through a mechanism involving increases in intracellular [Ca2+]. In conclusion, spilanthol-induced inhibition of cAMP production negatively modulates urine-concentrating mechanisms thus holding great promise for its use as diuretic.

  15. Intracellular cAMP signaling by soluble adenylyl cyclase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tresguerres, Martin; Levin, Lonny R; Buck, Jochen

    2011-06-01

    Soluble adenylyl cyclase (sAC) is a recently identified source of the ubiquitous second messenger cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP). sAC is distinct from the more widely studied source of cAMP, the transmembrane adenylyl cyclases (tmACs); its activity is uniquely regulated by bicarbonate anions, and it is distributed throughout the cytoplasm and in cellular organelles. Due to its unique localization and regulation, sAC has various functions in a variety of physiological systems that are distinct from tmACs. In this review, we detail the known functions of sAC, and we reassess commonly held views of cAMP signaling inside cells.

  16. A suggested emergency medicine boot camp curriculum for medical students based on the mapping of Core Entrustable Professional Activities to Emergency Medicine Level 1 milestones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lamba S

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Sangeeta Lamba, Bryan Wilson, Brenda Natal, Roxanne Nagurka, Michael Anana, Harsh Sule Department of Emergency Medicine, Rutgers New Jersey Medical School, Newark, NJ, USA Background: An increasing number of students rank Emergency Medicine (EM as a top specialty choice, requiring medical schools to provide adequate exposure to EM. The Core Entrustable Professional Activities (EPAs for Entering Residency by the Association of American Medical Colleges combined with the Milestone Project for EM residency training has attempted to standardize the undergraduate and graduate medical education goals. However, it remains unclear as to how the EPAs correlate to the milestones, and who owns the process of ensuring that an entering EM resident has competency at a certain minimum level. Recent trends establishing specialty-specific boot camps prepare students for residency and address the variability of skills of students coming from different medical schools. Objective: Our project’s goal was therefore to perform a needs assessment to inform the design of an EM boot camp curriculum. Toward this goal, we 1 mapped the core EPAs for graduating medical students to the EM residency Level 1 milestones in order to identify the possible gaps/needs and 2 conducted a pilot procedure workshop that was designed to address some of the identified gaps/needs in procedural skills. Methods: In order to inform the curriculum of an EM boot camp, we used a systematic approach to 1 identify gaps between the EPAs and EM milestones (Level 1 and 2 determine what essential and supplemental competencies/skills an incoming EM resident should ideally possess. We then piloted a 1-day, three-station advanced ABCs procedure workshop based on the identified needs. A pre-workshop test and survey assessed knowledge, preparedness, confidence, and perceived competence. A post-workshop survey evaluated the program, and a posttest combined with psychomotor skills test using three

  17. Gene transfer of a β2-adrenergic receptor kinase inhibitor up-regulates the level of β2-adrenergic receptor and cAMP in the asthmatic murine lung

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mao Huang; Yan Wu; Xin Yao; Wuangjian Cha; Kaisheng Yin

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the effects of gene transfer of a β-adrenergic receptor(β-AR) kinase inhibitor(β ARKct)on pulmonary β2-adrenergic receptor and cAMP following β2-AR agonist treatment in asthmatic mice, and to analyze the relationship between the routes of gene delivery and the changes of β2AR and cAMP. Methods: BALB/c mice were sensitized and challenged by ovalbumin to establish the asthmatic model treated with βAR agonist ( salbutamol injected intramuscularly). The plasmid with the expression of βARKct was constructed and βARKct gene transfer was performed through intravenous injection or intratracheal instillation in asthmatic mice.The gene expression was measured with Western blot analysis, and the changes of pulmonary β-AR and cAMP evaluated by Radioimmunoassay. Results: The expression of tranfered βARKct gene was detectable in lungs and it was expressed more in the lungs of the mice receiving intratracheally plasmid than those receiving intravenously. The levels of βAR and cAMP were upregulated after using plasmid-βARKct to the asthmatic mice treated with β AR agonist. Conclusion: Our results indicated that there were down-regulation of βAR and cAMP in asthmatic mice treated with βAR agonist. Gene transfer of βARKct could inhibit the extent of the down-regulation of βAR and cAMP. The route of gene delivery could also affect the degree of up-regulation of βAR and cAMP. Gene transfer βARKct may provide a novel approach to the therapeutic strategy for asthma.

  18. Physiological and Molecular Effects of the Cyclic Nucleotides cAMP and cGMP on Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Herrera, Natalia M.

    2012-12-01

    The cyclic nucleotide monophosphates (CNs), cAMP and cGMP, are second messengers that participate in the regulation of development, metabolism and adaptive responses. In plants, CNs are associated with the control of pathogen responses, pollen tube orientation, abiotic stress response, membrane transport regulation, stomatal movement and light perception. In this study, we hypothesize that cAMP and cGMP promote changes in the transcription level of genes related to photosynthesis, high light and membrane transport in Arabidopsis thaliana leaves and, that these changes at the molecular level can have functional biological consequences. For this reason we tested if CNs modulate the photosynthetic rate, responses to high light and root ion transport. Real time quantitative PCR was used to assess transcription levels of selected genes and infrared gas analyzers coupled to fluorescence sensors were used to measure the photosynthetic parameters. We present evidence that both cAMP and cGMP modulate foliar mRNA levels early after stimulation. The two CNs trigger different responses indicating that the signals have specificity. A comparison of proteomic and transcriptional changes suggest that both transcriptional and post-transcriptional mechanisms are modulated by CNs. cGMP up-regulates the mRNA levels of components of the photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. However, neither cAMP nor cGMP trigger differences in the rate of carbon assimilation, maximum efficiency of the photosystem II (PSII), or PSII operating efficiency. It was also demonstrated that CN regulate the expression of its own targets, the cyclic nucleotide gated channels - CNGC. Further studies are needed to identify the components of the signaling transduction pathway that mediate cellular changes and their respective regulatory and/or signaling roles.

  19. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Tudor, Jennifer C.; Ferri, Sarah L.; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the

  20. Transiently increasing cAMP levels selectively in hippocampal excitatory neurons during sleep deprivation prevents memory deficits caused by sleep loss

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havekes, Robbert; Bruinenberg, Vibeke M.; Tudor, Jennifer C.; Ferri, Sarah L.; Baumann, Arnd; Meerlo, Peter; Abel, Ted

    2014-01-01

    The hippocampus is particularly sensitive to sleep loss. Although previous work has indicated that sleep deprivation impairs hippocampal cAMP signaling, it remains to be determined whether the cognitive deficits associated with sleep deprivation are caused by attenuated cAMP signaling in the hippoca

  1. Protective Effect of a cAMP Analogue on Behavioral Deficits and Neuropathological Changes in Cuprizone Model of Demyelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vakilzadeh, Gelareh; Khodagholi, Fariba; Ghadiri, Tahereh; Darvishi, Marzieh; Ghaemi, Amir; Noorbakhsh, Farshid; Gorji, Ali; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad

    2015-08-01

    Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory demyelinating disease that leads to neuronal cell loss. Cyclic AMP and its analogs are well known to decrease inflammation and apoptosis. In the present study, we examined the effects of bucladesine, a cell-permeable analogue of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), on myelin proteins (PLP, PMP-22), inflammation, and apoptotic, as well as anti-apoptotic factors in cuprizone model of demyelination. C57BL/6J mice were fed with chow containing 0.2% copper chelator cuprizone or vehicle by daily oral gavage for 5 weeks to induce reversible demyelination predominantly of the corpus callosum. Bucladesine was administered intraperitoneally at different doses (0.24, 0.48, or 0.7 μg/kg body weight) during the last 7 days of 5-week cuprizone treatment. Bucladesine exhibited a protective effect on myelination. Furthermore, bucladesine significantly decreased the production of interleukin-6 pro-inflammatory mediator as well as nuclear factor-κB activation and reduced the mean number of apoptotic cells compared to cuprizone-treated mice. Bucladesine also decreased production of caspase-3 as well as Bax and increased Bcl-2 levels. Our data revealed that enhancement of intracellular cAMP prevents demyelination and plays anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties in mice cuprizone model of demyelination. This suggests the modulation of intracellular cAMP as a potential target for treatment of MS.

  2. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate-mediated protection against bile acid-induced apoptosis in cultured rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webster, C R; Anwer, M S

    1998-05-01

    Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) has been shown to modulate apoptosis. To evaluate the role of cAMP in bile acid-induced hepatocyte apoptosis, we studied the effect of agents that increase cAMP on the induction of apoptosis by glycochenodeoxycholate (GCDC) in cultured rat hepatocytes. GCDC induced apoptosis in 26.5%+/-1.1% of hepatocytes within 2 hours. Twenty-minute pretreatment of hepatocytes with 100 micromol/L 8-(4-chlorothiophenyl) cAMP (CP-cAMP) resulted in a reduction in the amount of apoptosis to 35.2%+/-3.8% of that seen in hepatocytes treated with GCDC alone. Other agents that increase intracellular cAMP, including dibutyryl cAMP (100 micromol/L), glucagon (200 nmol/L), and a combination of forskolin (20 micromol/L) and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (20 micromol/L), also inhibited GCDC-induced apoptosis to a similar extent. Pretreatment with the protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor, KT5720, prevented the protective effect of CP-cAMP and inhibited CP-cAMP-induced activation of PKA activity. Inhibitors of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K), wortmannin (50 nmol/L), or Ly 294002 (20 micromol/L) also prevented the cytoprotective effect of cAMP. PI3K assays confirmed that wortmannin (50 nmol/L) inhibited PI3K activity, while CP-cAMP had no effect on the activity of this lipid kinase. GCDC increased mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activity, but had no effect on stress-activated protein kinase (SAPK) activity in hepatocytes. cAMP decreased basal and GCDC-induced MAPK activity and increased SAPK activity. The MAPK kinase inhibitor, PD 98059, inhibited both GCDC-mediated MAPK activation and GCDC-induced apoptosis. 1) agents that increase intracellular cAMP protect against hepatocyte apoptosis induced by hydrophobic bile acids; 2) activation of MAPK by GCDC may be involved in bile acid-induced apoptosis; and 3) cAMP-mediated cytoprotection against bile acid-induced apoptosis appears to involve PKA, MAPK, and PI3K.

  3. Lesbian camp: An unearthing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Elly-Jean

    2016-01-01

    Camp-a sensibility, a style, and a form of artistic self-expression-is an elusive concept said to be in the eye of the beholder. To refute Susan Sontag's ( 1966 ) claims that camp is apolitical and not especially homosexual, a number of recent scholarly works have been geared toward revealing camp's fundamental gayness. With the odd footnote aside, lesbian camp has been collapsed into the category of gay male camp, if not eclipsed entirely. Despite the negligible efforts made to legitimize lesbian camp, there are numerous salient cultural examples one might draw on to illustrate, typify, and substantiate a lesbian camp sensibility. I lay the ground work for this scholarly exercise by outlining various definitions and critiques of camp, and by discussing its history and application to queer theory. Then, to unveil lesbian camp, three non-mutually exclusive categories are discussed: classic, erotic, and radical. By gathering various strands of inquiry, and various textual examples (e.g., photography, artistic performances, and literary tropes), this article attempts to reach a more inclusive and nuanced understanding of lesbian camp.

  4. Detection of novelty, but not memory of spatial habituation, is associated with an increase in phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein levels in the hippocampus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winograd, Milena; Viola, Haydée

    2004-01-01

    There is a growing body of evidence showing that the formation of associative memories is associated with an increase in phosphorylated cAMP response element-binding protein (pCREB) levels. We recently reported increased pCREB levels in the rat hippocampus after an exploration to a novel environment. In the present work, we studied whether this increment in CREB activation is associated with the formation of memory of habituation to a novel environment or with the detection of novelty. Rats were submitted to consecutive open field sessions at 3-h intervals. Measurement of the hippocampal pCREB level, carried out 1 h after each training session, showed that (1) it did not increase when rats explored a familiar environment; (2) it did not increase after a reexposure that improves the memory of habituation; (3) it increased after a brief novel exploration unable to form memory of habituation; and (4) it increased in amnesic rats for spatial habituation. Taken as a whole, our results suggest that the elevated pCREB level after a single open field exploration is not associated with the memory formation of habituation. It is indeed associated with the detection of a novel environment.

  5. Combinatorial effects of genistein and sex-steroids on the level of cystic fibrosis transmembrane regulator (CFTR), adenylate cyclase (AC) and cAMP in the cervix of ovariectomised rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salleh, Naguib; Ismail, Nurain; Muniandy, Sekaran; Korla, Praveen Kumar; Giribabu, Nelli

    2015-12-01

    The combinatorial effects of genistein and estrogen (E) or estrogen plus progesterone (E+P) on CFTR, AC and cAMP levels in cervix were investigated. Ovariectomised adult female rats received 50 or 100mg/kg/day genistein with E or E followed by E+P [E+(E+P)] for seven consecutive days. Cervixes were harvested and analyzed for CFTR mRNA levels by Real-time PCR. Distribution of AC and CFTR proteins in endocervix were observed by immunohistochemistry. Levels of cAMP were measured by enzyme-immunoassay. Molecular docking predicted interaction between genistein and AC. Our results indicate that levels of CFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of rats receiving genistein plus E were higher than E-only treatment (pCFTR, AC and cAMP in cervix of E and E+(E+P)-treated rats by genistein could affect the cervical secretory function which could influence the female reproductive processes.

  6. Effect of dietary fluorine from Araxá rock phosphate on the hepatic production of cyclic-adenosine monophosphate in broilers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rezende M.J.M.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The cyclic adenosine 3?, 5?-monophosphate (cAMP production was evaluated in liver thin sections of broiler chicks fed on a experimental diet containing bicalcium phosphate or Araxá rock phosphate (ARP as source of P, with a high content of fluorine, at different ages: from the first to the 42nd and from the 21st to the 42nd day of age. The intake of the ARP formulated diet starting from birth elicited an increase of cAMP production in broiler liver. However, when this diet was offered after the 21st day of age, the hepatic cAMP production in broilers was not significantly (P>0.05 affected, suggesting that the effect of high fluorine present in Araxá rock phosphate, on hepatic cAMP of broiler chicks depends on the age in which the experimental diet is started.

  7. Investigation on the occurrence and significance of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate in phytoplankton and natural aquatic communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Francko, D.A.

    1980-01-01

    This study demonstrates, on the basis of several analyanalytical criteria, that the production and extracellular release of cyclic adenosine 3':5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is widespread among phytoplankton species. The production and release of CAMP varied markedly among different species grown under similar environmental conditions, and intraspecifically during the life cycle of a given algal species. This investigation marks the first time cAMP has been investigated in natural aquatic systems. An examination of epilimnetic lakewater samples from Lawrence Lake, a hardwater oligotrophic lake, and Wintergreen Lake, a hardwater hypereutrophic lake, both in southwestern Michigan, demonstrated that cAMP existed in both particulate-associated and dissolved forms in these systems.

  8. Registration Summer Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Reminder: registration for the CERN Staff Association Summer Camp is now open for children from 4 to 6 years old.   More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The summer camp is open to all children. The proposed cost is 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 a.m. to 5:30 p.m. For further questions, you are welcome to contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch. CERN Staff Association

  9. Recreation Summer Camps 2016

    Data.gov (United States)

    Montgomery County of Maryland — List of all Camps (Register here:https://apm.activecommunities.com/montgomerycounty/Home) to include Aquatics, Basketball, Soccer, Special Interest, General Sports,...

  10. Primary adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase deficiency in a hypotonic infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro-Gago, Manuel; Gómez-Lado, Carmen; Pérez-Gay, Laura; Eirís-Puñal, Jesús; Martínez, Elena Pintos; García-Consuegra, Inés; Martín, Miguel Angel

    2011-06-01

    The spectrum of the adenosine monophosphate (AMP) deaminase deficiency ranges from asymptomatic carriers to patients who manifest exercise-induced muscle pain, occasionally rhabdomyolysis, and idiopathic hyperCKemia. However, previous to the introduction of molecular techniques, rare cases with congenital weakness and hypotonia have also been reported. We report a 6-month-old girl with the association of congenital muscle weakness and hypotonia, muscle deficiency of adenosine monophosphate deaminase, and the homozygous C to T mutation at nucleotide 34 of the adenosine monophosphate deaminase-1 gene. This observation indicates the possible existence of a primary adenosine monophosphate deaminase deficiency manifested by congenital muscle weakness and hypotonia.

  11. Ratiometric bioluminescence indicators for monitoring cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in live cells based on luciferase-fragment complementation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Masaki; Nagaoka, Yasutaka; Yamada, Toshimichi; Takakura, Hideo; Ozawa, Takeaki

    2010-11-15

    Bioluminescent indicators for cyclic 3',5'-monophosphate AMP (cAMP) are powerful tools for noninvasive detection with high sensitivity. However, the absolute photon counts are affected substantially by adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) and d-luciferin concentrations, limiting temporal analysis in live cells. This report describes a genetically encoded bioluminescent indicator for detecting intracellular cAMP based on complementation of split fragments of two-color luciferase mutants originated from click beetles. A cAMP binding domain of protein kinase A was connected with an engineered carboxy-terminal fragment of luciferase, of which ends were connected with amino-terminal fragments of green luciferase and red luciferase. We demonstrated that the ratio of green to red bioluminescence intensities was less influenced by the changes of ATP and d-luciferin concentrations. We also showed an applicability of the bioluminescent indicator for time-course and quantitative assessments of intracellular cAMP in living cells and mice. The bioluminescent indicator will enable quantitative analysis and imaging of spatiotemporal dynamics of cAMP in opaque and autofluorescent living subjects.

  12. The Popeye Domain Containing Genes and cAMP Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thomas Brand

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is a second messenger, which plays an important role in the heart. It is generated in response to activation of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. Initially, it was thought that protein kinase A (PKA exclusively mediates cAMP-induced cellular responses such as an increase in cardiac contractility, relaxation, and heart rate. With the identification of the exchange factor directly activated by cAMP (EPAC and hyperpolarizing cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN channels as cAMP effector proteins it became clear that a protein network is involved in cAMP signaling. The Popeye domain containing (Popdc genes encode yet another family of cAMP-binding proteins, which are prominently expressed in the heart. Loss-of-function mutations in mice are associated with cardiac arrhythmia and impaired skeletal muscle regeneration. Interestingly, the cardiac phenotype, which is present in both, Popdc1 and Popdc2 null mutants, is characterized by a stress-induced sinus bradycardia, suggesting that Popdc proteins participate in cAMP signaling in the sinuatrial node. The identification of the two-pore channel TREK-1 and Caveolin 3 as Popdc-interacting proteins represents a first step into understanding the mechanisms of heart rate modulation triggered by Popdc proteins.

  13. Friends' Discovery Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seymour, Seth

    2008-01-01

    This article features Friends' Discovery Camp, a program that allows children with and without autism spectrum disorder to learn and play together. In Friends' Discovery Camp, campers take part in sensory-rich experiences, ranging from hands-on activities and performing arts to science experiments and stories teaching social skills. Now in its 7th…

  14. Camp's "Disneyland" Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renville, Gary

    1999-01-01

    Describes the positive mental, physical, and social growth impacts that the camping experience had on the author, and urges camp program evaluation to plan and implement such changes. Sidebar lists steps of effective evaluation: program goals and objectives, goals of evaluation, implementation of evaluation, data analysis, and findings and…

  15. Orienteering in Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Elston F.

    One of the recent developments in camping is "orienteering", a program using a map and compass. Orienteering can be dovetailed into an overall camping program and used to "point up" the entire program, or it can be confined to a single simple game. The arrangement depends on the situation. The minimum age of the participants should be about 9 or…

  16. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  17. Scrum Code Camps

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Pries-Heje, Lene; Dahlgaard, Bente

    2013-01-01

    is required. In this paper we present the design of such a new approach, the Scrum Code Camp, which can be used to assess agile team capability in a transparent and consistent way. A design science research approach is used to analyze properties of two instances of the Scrum Code Camp where seven agile teams...

  18. Internationalize Your Camp Staff.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grier, Linda J.

    1986-01-01

    Provides a rationale for using international applicants for American summer camp positions and summarizes the services of organizations that screen, interview, and orient qualified applicants. Discusses contributions that international staff can make to a camp program with a global perspective and points out staff orientation and other practical…

  19. Ground Level Observations of a Possible Downward-Beamed TGF during a Rocket-Triggered Lightning Flash at Camp Blanding, Florida in August 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozarth, A.; Dwyer, J. R.; Cramer, E. S.; Rassoul, H.; Uman, M. A.; Jordan, D.; Grove, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Ground level high-energy observations of an August 2014 rocket-triggered lightning event at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing (ICLRT) in Camp Blanding, Florida show a 180 µs burst of multiple-MeV photons during the latter part of the Upward Positive Leader (UPL) phase of an altitude-triggered lightning flash, following the first, truncated return stroke. The timing and waveform profile being atypical from x-ray emissions from lightning leaders, our observations suggest the occurrence of a downward beamed terrestrial gamma ray flash (TGF). Instrumentation operating during this event include a set of 16 NaI(TI)/PMT detectors plus 7 1-m2 plastic scintillation detectors spread across the 1 km2 facility, with 38 additional Na(TI)/PMT detectors located inside the 1"-thick Pb-shielded x-ray camera and an x-ray spectrometer. Comparing the location and energy data from these detectors to Monte Carlo simulations of TGFs from the REAM code developed by Dwyer [2003], our analysis investigates possible TGF production regions and determines the likelihood of the observed high-energy emissions being produced by a TGF inside the thunderstorm.

  20. How to run a successful and educational basketball camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brooke LeMar

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Camps are a great introduction to the sport of basketball for children. Universities and colleges usually offer different types of camps, typically during the summer months. Depending on the skill and maturity level of the player, basketball camps can serve a variety of purposes. Some popular types of camps include offensive skills, shooting, team, and youth camps. Regardless of the camp that is chosen, children need to have goals set for themselves before, during, and after to enhance the benefits. Each camper should have the opportunity to grow and develop as a basketball player as well as an individual. Running a successful camp is not only rewarding for the coaches, but for the players and campers too, which ultimately leads to the campers choosing to come back every year.

  1. Vascular relaxation and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in hypertension

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otsuka, Y.; DiPiero, A.; Lockette, W.

    1986-03-01

    Isolated aortae from hypertensive rats have a decreased relaxation response to acetylcholine (Ach), A23187, and nitroprusside (SNP). Since cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) has been shown to increase in response to these vasodilators, the authors measured cGMP in response to these agents in isolated aortae from normotensive rats and DOCA, 1K1C, and coarctation induced hypertension. cGMP was measured by radioimmunoassay in vessels after exposure to phenylephrine followed by either Ach, A23187, or SNP. The aortae from the hypertensive rats had decreased basal levels of cGMP and attenuated increases in cGMP in response to Ach and A23187. Rises in cGMP in response to SNP were also attenuated in aortae from the hypertensive rats, even at concentrations which induced similar relaxation in normotensive and hypertensive blood vessels. The data suggest that changes in cGMP do not necessarily reflect changes in endothelium independent vascular relaxation in hypertension.

  2. Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Accumulation and beta-Adrenergic Binding in Unweighted and Denervated Rat Soleus Muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, Christopher R.; Woodman, Christopher R.; Woolridge, Dale; Tischler, Marc E.

    1992-01-01

    Unweighting, but not denervation, of muscle reportedly "spares" insulin receptors, increasing insulin sensitivity. Unweighting also increases beta-adrenergic responses of carbohydrate metabolism. These differential characteristics were studied further by comparing cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) accumulation and beta-adrenergic binding in normal and 3-day unweighted or denervated soleus muscle. Submaximal amounts of isoproterenol, a p-agonist, increased cAMP accumulation in vitro and in vivo (by intramuscular (IM) injection) to a greater degree (P less than .05) in unweighted muscles. Forskolin or maximal isoproterenol had similar in vitro effects in all muscles, suggesting increased beta-adrenergic sensitivity following unweighting. Increased sensitivity was confirmed by a greater receptor density (B(sub max)) for iodo-125(-)-pindolol in particulate preparations of unweighted (420 x 10(exp -18) mol/mg muscle) than of control or denervated muscles (285 x 10(exp-18) mol/mg muscle). The three dissociation constant (Kd) values were similar (20.3 to 25.8 pmol/L). Total binding capacity (11.4 fmol/muscle) did not change during 3 days of unweighting, but diminished by 30% with denervation. This result illustrates the "sparing" and loss of receptors, respectively, in these two atrophy models. In diabetic animals, IM injection of insulin diminished CAMP accumulation in the presence of theophylline in unweighted muscle (-66% +/- 2%) more than in controls (-42% +'- 6%, P less than .001). These results show that insulin affects CAMP formation in muscle, and support a greater in vivo insulin response following unweighting atrophy. These various data support a role for lysosomal proteolysis in denervation, but not in unweighting, atrophy.

  3. Hitler's Death Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wieser, Paul

    1995-01-01

    Presents a high school lesson on Hitler's death camps and the widespread policy of brutality and oppression against European Jews. Includes student objectives, instructional procedures, and a chart listing the value of used clothing taken from the Jews. (CFR)

  4. CDC Disease Detective Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-08-02

    The CDC Disease Detective Camp gives rising high school juniors and seniors exposure to key aspects of the CDC, including basic epidemiology, infectious and chronic disease tracking, public health law, and outbreak investigations. The camp also helps students explore careers in public health.  Created: 8/2/2010 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 8/2/2010.

  5. Limonin, a Component of Dictamni Radicis Cortex, Inhibits Eugenol-Induced Calcium and cAMP Levels and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Non-Neuronal 3T3-L1 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yeo Cho Yoon

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Limonin, one of the major components in dictamni radicis cortex (DRC, has been shown to play various biological roles in cancer, inflammation, and obesity in many different cell types and tissues. Recently, the odorant-induced signal transduction pathway (OST has gained attention not only because of its function in the perception of smell but also because of its numerous physiological functions in non-neuronal cells. However, little is known about the effects of limonin and DRC on the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells. We investigated odorant-stimulated increases in Ca2+ and cAMP, major second messengers in the OST pathway, in non-neuronal 3T3-L1 cells pretreated with limonin and ethanol extracts of DRC. Limonin and the extracts significantly decreased eugenol-induced Ca2+ and cAMP levels and upregulated phosphorylation of CREB and PKA. Our results demonstrated that limonin and DRC extract inhibit the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells by modulating Ca2+ and cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB.

  6. Limonin, a Component of Dictamni Radicis Cortex, Inhibits Eugenol-Induced Calcium and cAMP Levels and PKA/CREB Signaling Pathway in Non-Neuronal 3T3-L1 Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Yeo Cho; Kim, Sung-Hee; Kim, Min Jung; Yang, Hye Jeong; Rhyu, Mee-Ra; Park, Jae-Ho

    2015-12-10

    Limonin, one of the major components in dictamni radicis cortex (DRC), has been shown to play various biological roles in cancer, inflammation, and obesity in many different cell types and tissues. Recently, the odorant-induced signal transduction pathway (OST) has gained attention not only because of its function in the perception of smell but also because of its numerous physiological functions in non-neuronal cells. However, little is known about the effects of limonin and DRC on the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells. We investigated odorant-stimulated increases in Ca(2+) and cAMP, major second messengers in the OST pathway, in non-neuronal 3T3-L1 cells pretreated with limonin and ethanol extracts of DRC. Limonin and the extracts significantly decreased eugenol-induced Ca(2+) and cAMP levels and upregulated phosphorylation of CREB and PKA. Our results demonstrated that limonin and DRC extract inhibit the OST pathway in non-neuronal cells by modulating Ca(2+) and cAMP levels and phosphorylation of CREB.

  7. 半边旗活性成分5F对C26结肠癌细胞cAMP水平的影响%Effects of 5F on cAMP Levels in C26 Color Cancer Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶华; 吴琼; 郭蒙; 秦峥; 吕应年; 梁念慈; 郑学宝

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨半边旗活性成分Ent-11α-hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic-acid(5F)对C26结肠癌细胞环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)水平的影响.方法:以不同时间、不同浓度5F处理C26细胞,放免法测定cAMP含量.磷酸二酯酶抑制剂3-Isobutyl-1-methylxanthine(IBMX)预先孵育后再与5F联合应用,放免法检测cAMP含量,MTT法检测C26细胞活力.结果:5F可以显著增加cAMP含量,具有时间和剂量依赖性;5F对cAMP含量的作用不受IBMX影响,IBMX可以增强5F对cAMP的促进作用和对C26细胞增殖的抑制作用.结论:5F可能通过激活腺苷酸环化酶(AC)增加C26细胞cAMP含量,这可能是5F抗肿瘤的作用机制之一,5F与IBMX联合应用具有协同效应.%Objective:To investigate the effect of ent-1 lα - hydroxy-15-oxo-kaur-16-en-19-oic-acid(5F) ,a compound isolated from Pteris semipinnata L(PsL) ,on cAMP levels in C26 color cancer cells. Methods:C26 cells were treated with 5F(0 ~40μg/ mL)for different time periods. The cAMP levels were examined by radioimmunoassay. IBMX was used for pre-incubation and then combined with 5F,cAMP levels were measured. Viability was examined using a MTT method. Results:5F increased cAMP levels significantly,in a concentration and time dependent manner. The effect was not affected by IBMX. IBMX can enhance the role of 5F on cAMP levels and the inhibition of C26 cell proliferation. Conclusion:5F may increase the cAMP content of C26 cells by activating the adenylate cyclase( AC) ,which may be one of the anti-tumor mechanisms oi 5F.5F has a synergistic effect with IBMX.

  8. Cyclic adenosine monophosphate metabolism in synaptic growth, strength, and precision: neural and behavioral phenotype-specific counterbalancing effects between dnc phosphodiesterase and rut adenylyl cyclase mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ueda, Atsushi; Wu, Chun-Fang

    2012-03-01

    Two classic learning mutants in Drosophila, rutabaga (rut) and dunce (dnc), are defective in cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and degradation, respectively, exhibiting a variety of neuronal and behavioral defects. We ask how the opposing effects of these mutations on cAMP levels modify subsets of phenotypes, and whether any specific phenotypes could be ameliorated by biochemical counter balancing effects in dnc rut double mutants. Our study at larval neuromuscular junctions (NMJs) demonstrates that dnc mutations caused severe defects in nerve terminal morphology, characterized by unusually large synaptic boutons and aberrant innervation patterns. Interestingly, a counterbalancing effect led to rescue of the aberrant innervation patterns but the enlarged boutons in dnc rut double mutant remained as extreme as those in dnc. In contrast to dnc, rut mutations strongly affect synaptic transmission. Focal loose-patch recording data accumulated over 4 years suggest that synaptic currents in rut boutons were characterized by unusually large temporal dispersion and a seasonal variation in the amount of transmitter release, with diminished synaptic currents in summer months. Experiments with different rearing temperatures revealed that high temperature (29-30°C) decreased synaptic transmission in rut, but did not alter dnc and wild-type (WT). Importantly, the large temporal dispersion and abnormal temperature dependence of synaptic transmission, characteristic of rut, still persisted in dnc rut double mutants. To interpret these results in a proper perspective, we reviewed previously documented differential effects of dnc and rut mutations and their genetic interactions in double mutants on a variety of physiological and behavioral phenotypes. The cases of rescue in double mutants are associated with gradual developmental and maintenance processes whereas many behavioral and physiological manifestations on faster time scales could not be rescued. We discuss

  9. Urinary cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate changes in spontaneous and induced onset active labor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Da-Chung; Yuan, Shyng-Shiou F; Su, Her-Young; Lo, Shin-Chieh; Ren, Shin-Sia; Wu, Gwo-Jang

    2005-11-01

    The aim of this prospective, randomized study was to investigate the changes in urinary cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP) and cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP) between the latent and the active phases of spontaneous and prostaglandin E(1) (PGE(1))-induced labor. Seventy singleton pregnant women at 36-41(+) weeks' gestation without signs of fetal distress were enrolled. The first group consisted of 35 pregnant women in whom labor was induced by PGE(1) applied intravaginally. The second group consisted of 35 women who had spontaneous active labor. Clinical data of the two groups were assessed as labor progressed. After the onset of active labor, urinary cGMP/creatinine (U cGMP/Cr) decreased in both groups with the percentage decline of 35.2 and 9.7, respectively, but this difference was only significant in the PGE(1)-induced group (P=0.033). After the onset of active labor, urinary cAMP/creatinine (U cAMP/Cr) decreased in both groups with the percentage decline of 36.5 and 15.6, respectively, but this difference was only significant in the PGE(1)-induced group (P=0.001). The duration of the latent phase was significantly shortened in the PGE(1)-induced group compared with the spontaneous labor group (Plabor. Our results suggest that U cGMP/Cr and U cAMP/Cr can serve as easily obtained secondary messenger markers of myometrial contractility and cervical ripening at the onset of active labor. The NO-cGMP system and the G-protein alpha-cAMP system in the human uterus may concomitantly contribute to uterine quiescence during pregnancy and show downregulation in U cGMP/Cr and U cAMP/Cr at the initiation of active labor.

  10. Students' Perceptions of the Long-Term Impact of Attending a "CSI Science Camp"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanowitz, Karen L.

    2016-07-01

    A science summer camp is a popular type of informal science experience for youth. While there is no one model of a science camp, these experiences typically allow for more focused and in-depth exploration of different science domains and are usually hands-on and participatory. The goal of this research was to examine the impact of a short science camp program approximately 1 year after students attended the camp. Overall, the results revealed that attending a 2-day forensic science camp had a positive and continuing influence on the participants. Students' science self-efficacy increased immediately after attending the camp and remained higher than pre-camp levels approximately 1 year later. Students were able to articulate why they believed the camp had a long-term impact on their lives. Furthermore, participants attributed a higher level of engaging in additional informal STEM-related activities during the academic year as a result of attending the camp.

  11. Students' Perceptions of the Long-Term Impact of Attending a "CSI Science Camp"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanowitz, Karen L.

    2016-12-01

    A science summer camp is a popular type of informal science experience for youth. While there is no one model of a science camp, these experiences typically allow for more focused and in-depth exploration of different science domains and are usually hands-on and participatory. The goal of this research was to examine the impact of a short science camp program approximately 1 year after students attended the camp. Overall, the results revealed that attending a 2-day forensic science camp had a positive and continuing influence on the participants. Students' science self-efficacy increased immediately after attending the camp and remained higher than pre-camp levels approximately 1 year later. Students were able to articulate why they believed the camp had a long-term impact on their lives. Furthermore, participants attributed a higher level of engaging in additional informal STEM-related activities during the academic year as a result of attending the camp.

  12. Effect of Sodium-Potassium Pump Inhibitors and Membrane-Depolarizing Agents on Sodium Nitroprusside-Induced Relaxation and Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Accumulation in Rat Aorta

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rapoport, Robert M; Schwartz, Karen; Murad, Ferid

    1985-01-01

    ... or tetraethylammonium, membrane-depolarizing agents, inhibited relaxation to nitroprusside. These conditions had little or no effect on the elevated cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels at a concentration of nitroprusside (0.1 μM...

  13. Rehabilitating camp cities : community driven planning for urbanised refugee camps

    OpenAIRE

    Misselwitz, Philipp

    2009-01-01

    Focussing on Palestine refugee camps in the Near East, this dissertation aims to shed light on the potential relevance of urban planning to refugee camp environments worldwide. In particular, there is a focus on the role architects and urban planners can play in facilitating participatory planning processes as well as providing guidance and expertise in the development of a spatial vision for Camp Cities. Part I - The Urbanisation of Refugee Camps as a Global Challenge The first part o...

  14. The camp model for entrepreneurship teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler brugen af camps i entrepreneurship undervising - illustreret med danske camp eksempler Udgivelsesdato: online 31.03.2010......Artiklen omhandler brugen af camps i entrepreneurship undervising - illustreret med danske camp eksempler Udgivelsesdato: online 31.03.2010...

  15. The camp model for entrepreneurship teaching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bager, Torben

    2011-01-01

    Artiklen omhandler brugen af camps i entrepreneurship undervising - illustreret med danske camp eksempler Udgivelsesdato: online 31.03.2010......Artiklen omhandler brugen af camps i entrepreneurship undervising - illustreret med danske camp eksempler Udgivelsesdato: online 31.03.2010...

  16. Structure of Staphylococcus aureus cytidine monophosphate kinase in complex with cytidine 5'-monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhaliwal, Balvinder; Ren, Jingshan; Lockyer, Michael; Charles, Ian; Hawkins, Alastair R; Stammers, David K

    2006-08-01

    The crystal structure of Staphylococcus aureus cytidine monophosphate kinase (CMK) in complex with cytidine 5'-monophosphate (CMP) has been determined at 2.3 angstroms resolution. The active site reveals novel features when compared with two orthologues of known structure. Compared with the Streptococcus pneumoniae CMK solution structure of the enzyme alone, S. aureus CMK adopts a more closed conformation, with the NMP-binding domain rotating by approximately 16 degrees towards the central pocket of the molecule, thereby assembling the active site. Comparing Escherichia coli and S. aureus CMK-CMP complex structures reveals differences within the active site, including a previously unreported indirect interaction of CMP with Asp33, the replacement of a serine residue involved in the binding of CDP by Ala12 in S. aureus CMK and an additional sulfate ion in the E. coli CMK active site. The detailed understanding of the stereochemistry of CMP binding to CMK will assist in the design of novel inhibitors of the enzyme. Inhibitors are required to treat the widespread hospital infection methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), currently a major public health concern.

  17. Base Camp Design Simulation Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    The Army needs officers and noncommissioned officers with requisite base camp competencies. The Army’s Field Manual (FM) 3-34.400 defines a Base Camp...reason, we designed a 600-man base camp on VBS2TM from an AutoCAD diagram found on the Theater Construction Management System (version 3.2). Known

  18. 8-OH-DPAT facilitated memory consolidation and increased hippocampal and cortical cAMP production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuel-Apolinar, L; Meneses, A

    2004-01-05

    Animals were submitted to an associative learning task named Pavlovian/instrumental autoshaping (P/I-A) and treated with selective 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor agonists and antagonists. Next, they were sacrificed, their brains removed, dissected and changes on cortical and hippocampal cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) production were determined. Results revealed that, the 8-OH-DPAT treatment facilitated memory consolidation of autoshaping and that effect was blocked completely by WAY100635 and partially by DR4004. WAY100635 or DR4004 alone had no effect on autoshaping. The cAMP results were complex and yielded no clear relationship to the memory results. Thus, cortical and hippocampal increased on cAMP production was observed following administration of the 5-HT(1A/7) agonist 8-OH-DPAT. The memory effect was, completely or partially, reversed by the selective antagonists WAY100635 (5-HT1A) or DR4004 (5-HT7), respectively.

  19. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  20. A Multidisciplinary Science Summer Camp for Students with Emphasis on Environmental and Analytical Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Gunnar; Frenzel, Wolfgang; Richter, Wolfgang M.; Ta¨uscher, Lothar; Kubsch, Georg

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the course of events of a five-day summer camp on environmental chemistry with high emphasis on chemical analysis. The annual camp was optional and open for students of all disciplines and levels. The duration of the summer camp was five and a half days in the Feldberg Lake District in northeast Germany (federal state of…

  1. Running Boot Camp

    CERN Document Server

    Toporek, Chuck

    2008-01-01

    When Steve Jobs jumped on stage at Macworld San Francisco 2006 and announced the new Intel-based Macs, the question wasn't if, but when someone would figure out a hack to get Windows XP running on these new "Mactels." Enter Boot Camp, a new system utility that helps you partition and install Windows XP on your Intel Mac. Boot Camp does all the heavy lifting for you. You won't need to open the Terminal and hack on system files or wave a chicken bone over your iMac to get XP running. This free program makes it easy for anyone to turn their Mac into a dual-boot Windows/OS X machine. Running Bo

  2. A Summer Camp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正This summer,I had some special days.I joined Dongzhou International Educational Exchange Summer Camp. First,I will tell you about our foreign teachers,they are Shrina and Rebecca. They are friendly and beautiful.They are students at Oxford University. We talked about many things:famous people,subjects in England,different jobs, our deal days,western star signs,what can we say in a restaurant and so on.

  3. Interprofessional Flight Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alfes, Celeste M; Rowe, Amanda S

    2016-01-01

    The Dorothy Ebersbach Academic Center for Flight Nursing in Cleveland, OH, holds an annual flight camp designed for master's degree nursing students in the acute care nurse practitioner program, subspecializing in flight nursing at the Frances Payne Bolton School of Nursing at Case Western Reserve University. The weeklong interprofessional training is also open to any health care provider working in an acute care setting and focuses on critical care updates, trauma, and emergency care within the critical care transport environment. This year, 29 graduate nursing students enrolled in a master's degree program from Puerto Rico attended. Although the emergency department in Puerto Rico sees and cares for trauma patients, there is no formal trauma training program. Furthermore, the country only has 1 rotor wing air medical transport service located at the Puerto Rico Medical Center in San Juan. Flight faculty and graduate teaching assistants spent approximately 9 months planning for their participation in our 13th annual flight camp. Students from Puerto Rico were extremely pleased with the learning experiences at camp and expressed particular interest in having more training time within the helicopter flight simulator.

  4. Cis-Lunar Base Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merrill, Raymond G.; Goodliff, Kandyce E.; Mazanek, Daniel D.; Reeves, John D., Jr.

    2012-01-01

    Historically, when mounting expeditions into uncharted territories, explorers have established strategically positioned base camps to pre-position required equipment and consumables. These base camps are secure, safe positions from which expeditions can depart when conditions are favorable, at which technology and operations can be tested and validated, and facilitate timely access to more robust facilities in the event of an emergency. For human exploration missions into deep space, cis-lunar space is well suited to serve as such a base camp. The outer regions of cis-lunar space, such as the Earth-Moon Lagrange points, lie near the edge of Earth s gravity well, allowing equipment and consumables to be aggregated with easy access to deep space and to the lunar surface, as well as more distant destinations, such as near-Earth Asteroids (NEAs) and Mars and its moons. Several approaches to utilizing a cis-lunar base camp for sustainable human exploration, as well as some possible future applications are identified. The primary objective of the analysis presented in this paper is to identify options, show the macro trends, and provide information that can be used as a basis for more detailed mission development. Compared within are the high-level performance and cost of 15 preliminary cis-lunar exploration campaigns that establish the capability to conduct crewed missions of up to one year in duration, and then aggregate mass in cis-lunar space to facilitate an expedition from Cis-Lunar Base Camp. Launch vehicles, chemical propulsion stages, and electric propulsion stages are discussed and parametric sizing values are used to create architectures of in-space transportation elements that extend the existing in-space supply chain to cis-lunar space. The transportation options to cis-lunar space assessed vary in efficiency by almost 50%; from 0.16 to 0.68 kg of cargo in cis-lunar space for every kilogram of mass in Low Earth Orbit (LEO). For the 15 cases, 5-year campaign

  5. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Reminder Registration for the CERN Staff Association Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  6. cAMP signaling in blood platelets - old friends and new players.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaher eRaslan

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Atherothrombosis, the pathology underlying numerous cardiovascular diseases, is a major cause of death globally. Hyperactive blood platelets play a key role in the atherothrombotic process through the release of inflammatory mediators and formation of thrombi. In healthy blood vessels, excessive platelet activation is restricted by endothelial-derived prostacyclin (PGI2 through cyclic adenosine-5’-monophosphate (cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA-dependent mechanisms. Elevation in intracellular cAMP is associated with the control of a number of distinct platelet functions including actin polymerisation, granule secretion, calcium mobilisation and integrin activation. Unfortunately, in atherosclerotic disease the protective effects of cAMP are compromised, which may contribute to pathological thrombosis. The cAMP signalling network in platelets is highly complex with the presence of multiple isoforms of adenylyl cyclase (AC, PKA and phosphodiesterases (PDE. However, a precise understanding of the relationship between specific AC, PKA and PDE isoforms, and how individual signalling substrates are targeted to control distinct platelet functions is still lacking. In other cells types, compartmentalisation of cAMP signalling has emerged as a key mechanism to allow precise control of specific cell functions. A-kinase anchoring proteins (AKAPs play an important role in this spatiotemporal regulation of cAMP signalling networks. Evidence of AKAP-mediated compartmentalisation of cAMP signalling in blood platelets has begun to emerge and is providing new insights into the regulation of platelet function. Dissecting the mechanisms that allow cAMP to control excessive platelet activity without preventing effective haemostasis may unleash the possibility of therapeutic targeting of the pathway to control unwanted platelet activity.

  7. The cAMP analogs have potent anti-proliferative effects on medullary thyroid cancer cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dicitore, Alessandra; Grassi, Elisa Stellaria; Caraglia, Michele; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Gaudenzi, Germano; Hofland, Leo J; Persani, Luca; Vitale, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    The oncogenic activation of the rearranged during transfection (RET) proto-oncogene has a main role in the pathogenesis of medullary thyroid cancer (MTC). Several lines of evidence suggest that RET function could be influenced by cyclic AMP (cAMP)-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) activity. We evaluated the in vitro anti-tumor activity of 8-chloroadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Cl-cAMP) and PKA type I-selective cAMP analogs [equimolar combination of the 8-piperidinoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-PIP-cAMP) and 8-hexylaminoadenosine-3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-HA-cAMP) in MTC cell lines (TT and MZ-CRC-1)]. 8-Cl-cAMP and the PKA I-selective cAMP analogs showed a potent anti-proliferative effect in both cell lines. In detail, 8-Cl-cAMP blocked significantly the transition of TT cell population from G2/M to G0/G1 phase and from G0/G1 to S phase and of MZ-CRC-1 cells from G0/G1 to S phase. Moreover, 8-Cl-cAMP induced apoptosis in both cell lines, as demonstrated by FACS analysis for annexin V-FITC/propidium iodide, the activation of caspase-3 and PARP cleavage. On the other hand, the only effect induced by PKA I-selective cAMP analogs was a delay in G0/G1-S and S-G2/M progression in TT and MZ-CRC-1 cells, respectively. In conclusion, these data demonstrate that cAMP analogs, particularly 8-Cl-cAMP, significantly suppress in vitro MTC proliferation and provide rationale for a potential clinical use of cAMP analogs in the treatment of advanced MTC.

  8. Summer Camp as Therapeutic Context: The Camp Logan Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCammon, Susan; And Others

    These symposium papers describe various aspects of the Camp Logan, South Carolina, program, a therapeutic summer residential program for children, ages 8-14, who have significant behavior problems. The philosophy and advantages of the therapeutic camping model are discussed, e.g., structure during the summer, controlled though informal…

  9. Summer Camp, July 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2016-01-01

    During the month of July, the Staff Association’s Children’s Day-Care Centre and School EVEE held a summer camp for 4- to 6-year-olds. 24 children altogether joined in on the adventures. On the summer camp, the children got to “travel” to a different continent of the world every week. Day after day, they would pass through make-believe Customs upon arrival and get their passports stamped by a “customs officer”. For the first week, we went on a trip to Africa. In the spirit of the theme, the children got to do plenty of crafts and coloring, make their own little bindles and play various games. They even had the chance to visit the Museum of Ethnography in Geneva (MEG), learn to play the balafon and make musical instruments with Sterrenlab. For the second week, we set off to discover the Americas, exploring both the South and the North. Alongside different workshops (singing, dancing, storytelling, crafts), the children could enjoy several special ac...

  10. Novel cAMP signalling paradigms: therapeutic implications for airway disease

    OpenAIRE

    Billington, Charlotte K; Hall, Ian P

    2012-01-01

    Since its discovery over 50 years ago, cAMP has been the archetypal second messenger introducing students to the concept of cell signalling at the simplest level. As explored in this review, however, there are many more facets to cAMP signalling than the path from Gs-coupled receptor to adenylyl cyclase (AC) to cAMP to PKA to biological effect. After a brief description of this canonical cAMP signalling pathway, a snapshot is provided of the novel paradigms of cAMP signalling. As in the airwa...

  11. Inactivation of Multidrug Resistance Proteins Disrupts Both Cellular Extrusion and Intracellular Degradation of cAMP

    OpenAIRE

    Xie, Moses; Rich, Thomas C.; Scheitrum, Colleen; Conti, Marco; Richter, Wito

    2011-01-01

    In addition to xenobiotics and several other endogenous metabolites, multidrug-resistance proteins (MRPs) extrude the second-messenger cAMP from various cells. Pharmacological and/or genetic inactivation of MRPs has been shown to augment intracellular cAMP signaling, an effect assumed to be a direct consequence of the blockade of cAMP extrusion. Here we provide evidence that the augmented intracellular cAMP levels are not due exclusively to the prevention of cAMP efflux because MRP inactivati...

  12. Evidence for cAMP as a mediator of gonadotropin secretion from male pituitaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, G.A.; Baldwin, D.M.

    1987-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to use sodium flufenamate, a compound that inhibits gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP) production in the pituitary, to evaluate the potential role of cAMP as a mediator of GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin secretion from male pituitaries. Quartered male pituitaries were perifused at 37/sup 0/C and sequential effluent fractions collected every 10 min. Infusions of GnRH resulted in a twofold increase in luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) secretion. Cycloheximide, 5 ..mu..M, completely inhibited the GnRH-stimulated LH and FSH secretion. Infusions of 0.1 mM flufenamate had similar effects on gonadotropin secretion as cycloheximide, whereas the administration of 5 mM dibutyryl cAMP in combination with GnRH and flufenamate restored the secretory responses of both hormones. The flufenamate-inhibited GnRH stimulated LH and FSH release, which was restored by DBcAMP and appeared to be protein synthesis dependent and specific for cAMP.These results suggest an indirect role for cAMP as a mediator of gonadotropin secretion from male pituitaries. However, in contrast to female pituitaries, the secretion of these hormones form male pituitaries is completely dependent on cAMP and de novo protein synthesis.

  13. cAMP signaling in skeletal muscle adaptation: hypertrophy, metabolism, and regeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Randi

    2012-01-01

    Among organ systems, skeletal muscle is perhaps the most structurally specialized. The remarkable subcellular architecture of this tissue allows it to empower movement with instructions from motor neurons. Despite this high degree of specialization, skeletal muscle also has intrinsic signaling mechanisms that allow adaptation to long-term changes in demand and regeneration after acute damage. The second messenger adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate (cAMP) not only elicits acute changes within myofibers during exercise but also contributes to myofiber size and metabolic phenotype in the long term. Strikingly, sustained activation of cAMP signaling leads to pronounced hypertrophic responses in skeletal myofibers through largely elusive molecular mechanisms. These pathways can promote hypertrophy and combat atrophy in animal models of disorders including muscular dystrophy, age-related atrophy, denervation injury, disuse atrophy, cancer cachexia, and sepsis. cAMP also participates in muscle development and regeneration mediated by muscle precursor cells; thus, downstream signaling pathways may potentially be harnessed to promote muscle regeneration in patients with acute damage or muscular dystrophy. In this review, we summarize studies implicating cAMP signaling in skeletal muscle adaptation. We also highlight ligands that induce cAMP signaling and downstream effectors that are promising pharmacological targets. PMID:22354781

  14. Camping CAN Make a Difference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Greg

    1987-01-01

    During 1985-86, Storer Camps conducted 23 leadership weekend camp workshops for groups of 25-40 Jackson, Michigan, adolescents to develop self-esteem. Special activities involved name tags, a cooperative obstacle course, discussions on stereotypes and walls, and a canoe-rowboat relay. (NEC)

  15. Kids Camping Takes the Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Vickie L.; Hohnbaum, Claudia

    2002-01-01

    A Wisconsin Girl Scout camp integrated The Healthy Kids Challenge into its program. The camp evaluated policies related to meals, snacks, physical activities, team building, and self-esteem. Staff inservice training resulted in healthier meals on the same budget and developed ownership of the program. Campers and families had opportunities to…

  16. Encountering Child Abuse at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durall, John K.

    1997-01-01

    Defines child abuse, including the three categories: physical, sexual, and psychological. Presents characteristics and behaviors of each type of abuse, and long-term effects. Discusses how to handle abuse that occurs at camp, and the effects on the camp. Sidebars present abuse statistics, 15 activities that promote psychological wellness, and 8…

  17. How to run a sports camp – legally speaking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven Monk

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Camps are a great way to keep kids active throughout the summer and to make money for the program sponsoring them. Planning is needed for a sports camp to be safe for both the camp personnel and the athletes, and to minimize legal negligence.  Having a risk management plan in place is important to insure that everyone is aware of the risks of participating. Background checks on camp personnel help ensure the camp leaders and coaches do not have a criminal background.  It is important to inspect the facilities/equipment to make sure they are safe to use.  Athletic trainers help with injuries that may occur with participation.  Supervisors make sure that everyone is accounted for and camp rules help the campers behave in an appropriate manner.  When planning activities, it is important to look at the skill level of the athletes. If all of these areas are covered, camps should be legally protected if an issue were to arise.

  18. Elevation of cAMP Levels Inhibits Doxorubicin-Induced Apoptosis in Pre- B ALL NALM- 6 Cells Through Induction of BAD Phosphorylation and Inhibition of P53 Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Ahmad; Kazemi, Ahmad; Kashiri, Meysam; Safa, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Recognition of the molecular mechanisms of cAMP action against DNA damage-induced apoptosis can be useful to improve the efficacy of DNA damaging therapeutic agents. Considering the critical role of bcl-2-associated death promoter (BAD) and p53 proteins in DNA damage -induced apoptosis, the aim of this study was to assess the effect of cAMP-elevating agents on these proteins in doxorubicin-treated pre-B acute lymphoblastic leukemia (pre-B ALL) NALM-6 cells.The pre-B ALL cell line NALM-6 was cultured and treated with doxorubicin in combination with or without cAMP-elevating agents forskolin and 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX). Cell viability was measured by trypan blue staining and MTT assay. For evaluation of apoptosis, annexin-V staining by flow cytometry and caspase-3 activity assay were used. Protein expression of p53, BAD and phoshorylated BAD was detected by western blotting analysis.cAMP-increasing agents diminished the doxorubicin-mediated cytotoxicity in NALM-6 cells as indicated by the viability assays. Annexin-V apoptosis assay showed that the cAMP-elevating agents decreased doxorubicin-induced apoptosis. Moreover, doxorubicin-induced caspase-3 activity was attenuated in the presence of cAMP-increasing agents. Western blot results revealed the reduced expression of p53 protein in cells treated with combination of cAMP-elevating agents and doxorubicin in contrast to cells treated with doxorubicin alone. Expression of total BAD protein was not affected by doxorubicin and cAMP-elevating agents. However, phosphorylation of BAD protein was induced in the presence of cAMP-elevating agents. Our study suggests that elevated cAMP levels inhibit doxorubicin-induced apoptosis in pre-B ALL cells through induction of BAD phosphorylation and abrogation of p53 accumulation.

  19. The importance of dietary modulation of cAMP and insulin signaling in adipose tissue and the development of obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Lise; Kristiansen, Karsten

    2010-01-01

    Adipose tissue plays a pivotal role in whole body energy homeostasis. In this review, we summarize knowledge of the seemingly paradoxical roles of insulin and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) signaling in adipocyte differentiation and function, emphasizing the interplay between the two...... branches of cAMP signaling, the canonical protein kinase A-dependent pathways and the novel exchange protein activated by cAMP (Epac)-dependent pathways, and insulin signaling. We discuss how macronutrients via changes in the balance between insulin- and cAMP-dependent signaling can affect the development...... of obesity by changing energy expenditure and/or feed efficiency. We review results demonstrating how the balance between different classes of carbohydrates and proteins modulates the obesigenic action of saturated as well as unsaturated fatty acids pointing to insulin as a key determinant in the regulation...

  20. [Isolation of inosine-5'-monophosphate from fish muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugaĭ, V A; Akulin, V N; Epshteĭn, L M

    1987-01-01

    Conditions for transformation of tissue adenosine-5'-monophosphate (AMP) into inosine-5'-monophosphate (IMP) with the aid of endogenic AMP-aminohydrolase are developed resting on the studied properties of AMP-aminohydrolase (EC 3.5.4.6) from saltwater fish muscles (one of the enzymes participating in the nucleotide metabolism). Sorption of the nucleotide is performed on the activated charcoals A gamma-3 A gamma-5 which eluate IMP from acid solutions. It reduces the process of isolation, permits application of the acid wash solutions to remove salts; the alkaline ethyl alcohol-aid elution at the subsequent stages accelerates the process of nucleotide concentration by means of vacuum evaporation. The suggested approaches allow developing a simple method of IMP production from fish tissues which diminishes the cost of preparation.

  1. Effects of fucoidan on insulin stimulation and pancreatic protection via the cAMP signaling pathway in vivo and in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xiaoming; Yu, Jinfeng; Ma, Zhi; Zhang, Hong; Xie, Fengjie

    2015-09-01

    Diabetes is a global disease, in which pancreatic dysfunction is an important pathological process. In previous years, interest in the biological activities of seaweed has increased. Fucoidan is an extract of the seaweed Fucus vesiculosus, which has been widely investigated. The present study aimed to determine the effects of fucoidan on insulin stimulation and pancreatic protection in vivo and in vitro. Goto‑Kakizaki (GK) rats were provided with free access to standard food, with or without fucoidan, for 13 weeks, following which the body weights, and blood glucose and serum insulin levels of the rats were measured. Wistar rats were used as a control. In addition, the RIN‑5F rat insulin‑secreting cell line was treated with fucoidan in high glucose conditions, following which the dose‑dependent and time‑dependent effects of fucoidan were determined, and the concentration of insulin was measured. Glybenclamide was used as a positive control. In vivo, the body weight and serum insulin levels decreased, whereas blood glucose levels increased significantly in the GK rats, compared with the Wistar control rats. Although, fucoidan did not improve changes in body weight, the increased blood glucose levels were reduced and the decreased serum insulin levels were increased in the GK rats following oral administration of fucoidan. In vitro, fucoidan did not exhibit significant cytotoxicity towards the RIN‑5F cells, and the insulin secretion increased significantly in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner. Treatment with amylin, an islet amyloid polypeptide and glybenclamide inhibitor, did not inhibit the stimulatory activity of fucoidan. The results of the present study also demonstrated that the concentration of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) was significantly increased in the fucoidan‑treated RIN‑5F cells, and this increase was dose‑ and time‑dependent. In addition, treatment with a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, which decreases the degradation of

  2. RECIPIENT PRETRANSPLANT INOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE ACTIVITY IN NONMYELOABLATIVE HCT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Meagan J.; Risler, Linda J.; Phillips, Brian R.; Wang, Joanne; Storer, Barry E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Duan, Haichuan; Raccor, Brianne S.; Boeckh, Michael J.; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2014-01-01

    Mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity. IMPDH is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides and catalyzes the oxidation of inosine 5’- monophosphate (IMP) to xanthosine 5’-monophosphate (XMP). We developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry method to quantitate XMP concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNC) isolated from the recipient pretransplant and used this method to determine IMPDH activity in 86 nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients. The incubation procedure and analytical method yielded acceptable within-sample and within-individual variability. Considerable between-individual variability was observed (12.2-fold). Low recipient pretransplant IMPDH activity was associated with increased day +28 donor T-cell chimerism, more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), lower neutrophil nadirs, and more cytomegalovirus reactivation, but not with chronic GVHD, relapse, non-relapse mortality, or overall mortality. We conclude that quantitation of the recipient’s pretransplant IMPDH activity in PMNC lysate could provide a useful biomarker to evaluate a recipient’s sensitivity to MMF, but confirmatory studies are needed. Further trials should be conducted to confirm our findings and to optimize postgrafting immunosuppression in nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. PMID:24923537

  3. Day Camp Manual: Administration. Book I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babcock, William

    The first book in a 5-book manual on day camping focuses on summer day camp administration. The book defines day camps as organized group experiences in outdoor living on a day-by-day basis and under trained leadership. It includes a philosophy of day camping, noting benefits to the campers. The book is divided into further chapters that describe…

  4. Slave Labor Camps of the Third Reich.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Adolf

    1983-01-01

    Describes the ground rules used by Nazi architects in choosing the sites for slave labor camps. While some, like Auschwitz, became extermination camps, others also produced armaments. One camp, Theresienstadt, became a "model" camp to show to reporters and Red Cross representatives. (CS)

  5. Comparison of work motivation in camp supervisors and camp counselors in Greek private camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Costa

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was twofold. First, the study sought to better understand the work motivators that led camp supervisors and counselors to accept their job. Second, the study sought to better understand the ranking and rating of 20 work motivators from supervisors and camp counselors. Responders to the research questionnaire (n=121 were camp supervisory staff and counselors, age 15-55, working in seven private camps in Greece. Two instruments were used to collect data. The first instrument collected demographic data while the second instrument focused on ranking and rating 20 work motivators. The study suggested that Herzberg's theory (Motivator / Hygiene does not apply on a full scale. The results suggested that supervisory staff indicated good working conditions, meeting other people and carrying out personal growth are important. In addition, they don't like travel and don't consider working in a camp, as a stable job. The camp counselors want to have fun in their job and the opportunity to work with youth. They also don't consider working in a camp, as a stable job and they don't accept the responsibility in proportion to their position.

  6. Registration Day-Camp 2016

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2016-01-01

    Registration for the CERN SA Day-camp are open for children from 4 to 6 years old From March 14 to 25 for children already enrolled in CERN SA EVE and School From April 4 to 15 for the children of CERN members of the personnel (MP) From April 18 for other children More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/. The day-camp is open to all children. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included The camp will be open weeks 27, 28, 29 and 30, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm. For further questions, thanks you for contacting us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  7. Base Camp Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Warebi Gabriel Brisibe

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Longitudinal or time line studies of change in the architecture of a particular culture are common, but an area still open to further research is change across space or place. In particular, there is need for studies on architectural change of cultures stemming from the same ethnic source split between their homeland and other Diasporas. This change may range from minor deviations to drastic shifts away from an architectural norm and the accumulation of these shifts within a time frame constitutes variations. This article focuses on identifying variations in the architecture of the Ijo fishing group that migrates along the coastline of West Africa. It examines the causes of cross-cultural variation between base camp dwellings of Ijo migrant fishermen in the Bakassi Peninsula in Cameroon and Bayelsa State in Nigeria. The study draws on the idea of the inevitability of cultural and social change over time as proposed in the theories of cultural dynamism and evolution. It tests aspects of cultural transmission theory using the principal coordinates analysis to ascertain the possible causes of variation. From the findings, this research argues that migration has enhanced the forces of cultural dynamism, which have resulted in significant variations in the architecture of this fishing group.

  8. Nucleic acid molecules encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, and methods of use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Croteau, Rodney B. (Pullman, WA); Lange, Bernd M. (Pullman, WA)

    2001-01-01

    A cDNA encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase (IPK) from peppermint (Mentha x piperita) has been isolated and sequenced, and the corresponding amino acid sequence has been determined. Accordingly, an isolated DNA sequence (SEQ ID NO:1) is provided which codes for the expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase (SEQ ID NO:2), from peppermint (Mentha x piperita). In other aspects, replicable recombinant cloning vehicles are provided which code for isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or for a base sequence sufficiently complementary to at least a portion of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase DNA or RNA to enable hybridization therewith. In yet other aspects, modified host cells are provided that have been transformed, transfected, infected and/or injected with a recombinant cloning vehicle and/or DNA sequence encoding isopentenyl monophosphate kinase. Thus, systems and methods are provided for the recombinant expression of the aforementioned recombinant isopentenyl monophosphate kinase that may be used to facilitate its production, isolation and purification in significant amounts. Recombinant isopentenyl monophosphate kinase may be used to obtain expression or enhanced expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase in plants in order to enhance the production of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or isoprenoids derived therefrom, or may be otherwise employed for the regulation or expression of isopentenyl monophosphate kinase, or the production of its products.

  9. Evidence for cAMP as a mediator of gonadotropin secretion from female pituitaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourne, G.A.; Baldwin, D.M.

    1987-09-01

    Sodium flufenamate, which inhibited gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH)-stimulated increases in adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (cAMP), was used to evaluate the potential role of cAMP as a mediator of GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin secretion. Quartered pituitaries from diestrous II female rats were perifused at 37/sup 0/C, and sequential effluent fractions were collected every 10 min. Administration of GnRH resulted in a characteristic biphasic response for both luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), whereas 5 ..mu..M cycloheximide inhibited the secondary augmented responses (phase II) of both hormones. Infusions of 0.1 mM flufenamate inhibited GnRH-stimulated gonadotropin secretion in a manner similar to that of cycloheximide, whereas the administration of 5 mM dibutyryl cAMP in combination with GnRH and flufenamate resulted in the restoration of LH and FSH secretion. The dibutyryl cAMP-restored response appeared to be protein synthesis dependent and specific for cAMP. These results suggest that although the cyclic nucleotide is not involved in the acute release of LH and FSH, it does appear to play a pivotal but indirect role in phase II release of the hormones, by effects involving the stimulation of de novo protein synthesis.

  10. Proteomic signatures implicate cAMP in light and temperature responses in Arabidopsis thaliana

    KAUST Repository

    Thomas, Ludivine

    2013-05-01

    The second messenger 3\\'-5\\'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenylyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, are increasingly recognized as important signaling molecules in a number of physiological responses in higher plants. Here we used proteomics to identify cAMP-dependent protein signatures in Arabidopsis thaliana and identify a number of differentially expressed proteins with a role in light- and temperature-dependent responses, notably photosystem II subunit P-1, plasma membrane associated cation-binding protein and chaperonin 60 β. Based on these proteomics results we conclude that, much like in cyanobacteria, algae and fungi, cAMP may have a role in light signaling and the regulation of photosynthesis as well as responses to temperature and we speculate that ACs could act as light and/or temperature sensors in higher plants. Biological significance: This current study is significant since it presents the first proteomic response to cAMP, a novel and key second messenger in plants. It will be relevant to researchers in plant physiology and in particular those with an interest in second messengers and their role in biotic and abiotic stress responses. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  11. Adenyl cyclases and cAMP in plant signaling - Past and present

    KAUST Repository

    Gehring, Christoph A.

    2010-06-25

    In lower eukaryotes and animals 3\\'-5\\'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenyl cyclases (ACs), enzymes that catalyse the formation of cAMP from ATP, have long been established as key components and second messengers in many signaling pathways. In contrast, in plants, both the presence and biological role of cAMP have been a matter of ongoing debate and some controversy. Here we shall focus firstly on the discovery of cellular cAMP in plants and evidence for a role of this second messenger in plant signal transduction. Secondly, we shall review current evidence of plant ACs, analyse aspects of their domain organisations and the biological roles of candidate molecules. In addition, we shall assess different approaches based on search motifs consisting of functionally assigned amino acids in the catalytic centre of annotated and/or experimentally tested nucleotide cyclases that can contribute to the identification of novel candidate molecules with AC activity such as F-box and TIR proteins. 2010 Gehring; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

  12. Biological roles of cAMP: variations on a theme in the different kingdoms of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gancedo, Juana M

    2013-08-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) plays a key regulatory role in most types of cells; however, the pathways controlled by cAMP may present important differences between organisms and between tissues within a specific organism. Changes in cAMP levels are caused by multiple triggers, most affecting adenylyl cyclases, the enzymes that synthesize cAMP. Adenylyl cyclases form a large and diverse family including soluble forms and others with one or more transmembrane domains. Regulatory mechanisms for the soluble adenylyl cyclases involve either interaction with diverse proteins, as happens in Escherichia coli or yeasts, or with calcium or bicarbonate ions, as occurs in mammalian cells. The transmembrane cyclases can be regulated by a variety of proteins, among which the α subunit and the βγ complex from G proteins coupled to membrane receptors are prominent. cAMP levels also are controlled by the activity of phosphodiesterases, enzymes that hydrolyze cAMP. Phosphodiesterases can be regulated by cAMP, cGMP or calcium-calmodulin or by phosphorylation by different protein kinases. Regulation through cAMP depends on its binding to diverse proteins, its proximal targets, this in turn causing changes in a variety of distal targets. Specifically, binding of cAMP to regulatory subunits of cAMP-dependent protein kinases (PKAs) affects the activity of substrates of PKA, binding to exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac) regulates small GTPases, binding to transcription factors such as the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) or the virulence factor regulator (Vfr) modifies the rate of transcription of certain genes, while cAMP binding to ion channels modulates their activity directly. Further studies on cAMP signalling will have important implications, not only for advancing fundamental knowledge but also for identifying targets for the development of new therapeutic agents.

  13. cAMP biosensors applied in molecular pharmacological studies of G protein-coupled receptors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mathiesen, Jesper Mosolff; Vedel, Line; Bräuner-Osborne, Hans

    2013-01-01

    end-point assays for quantifying GPCR-mediated changes in intracellular cAMP levels exist. More recently, fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based cAMP biosensors that can quantify intracellular cAMP levels in real time have been developed. These FRET-based cAMP biosensors have been used...... primarily in single cell FRET microscopy to monitor and visualize changes in cAMP upon GPCR activation. Here, a similar cAMP biosensor with a more efficient mCerulean/mCitrine FRET pair is described for use in the 384-well plate format. After cloning and expression in HEK293 cells, the biosensor...... is characterized in the 384-well plate format and used for measuring the signaling of the G(s)-coupled ß(2)-adrenergic receptor. The procedures described may be applied for other FRET-based biosensors in terms of characterization and conversion to the 384-well plate format....

  14. Core Concepts: Orthopedic Intern Curriculum Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seeley, Mark A; Kazarian, Erick; King, Brandon; Biermann, Janet S; Carpenter, James E; Caird, Michelle S; Irwin, Todd A

    2016-01-01

    Orthopedic surgical interns must gain a broad array of clinical skills in a short time. However, recent changes in health care have limited resident-patient exposures. With the reported success of simulation training in the surgical literature, the American Board of Orthopaedic Surgery (ABOS) and Residency Review Committee for Orthopaedic Surgery have required that surgical simulation training be a component of the intern curricula in orthopedic surgical residencies. This study examined the short-term effectiveness of an orthopedic "intern boot camp" covering 7 of 17 simulation training concept modules published by the ABOS. Eight orthopedic post-graduate year 1 (PGY-1) residents (study group) completed a structured 3-month curriculum and were compared with 7 post-graduate year 2 (PGY-2) residents (comparison group) who had just completed their orthopedic surgical internship. Seven core skills were assessed using both task-specific and global rating scales. The PGY-1 residents demonstrated a statistically significant improvement in all 7 modules with respect to their task-specific pre-test scores: sterile technique (P=.001), wound closure (P<.001), knot tying (P=.017), casting and splinting (P<.001), arthrocentesis (P=.01), basics of internal fixation (P<.001), and compartment syndrome evaluation (P=.004). After the camp, PGY-1 and -2 scores in task-specific measures were not significantly different. A 3-month simulation-based boot camp instituted early in orthopedic internship elevated a variety of clinical skills to levels exhibited by PGY-2 residents.

  15. Adenosine Monophosphate (AMP)-Activated Protein Kinase: A New Target for Nutraceutical Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín-Aguilar, Fabiola; Pavillard, Luis E; Giampieri, Francesca; Bullón, Pedro; Cordero, Mario D

    2017-01-29

    Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is an important energy sensor which is activated by increases in adenosine monophosphate (AMP)/adenosine triphosphate (ATP) ratio and/or adenosine diphosphate (ADP)/ATP ratio, and increases different metabolic pathways such as fatty acid oxidation, glucose transport and mitochondrial biogenesis. In this sense, AMPK maintains cellular energy homeostasis by induction of catabolism and inhibition of ATP-consuming biosynthetic pathways to preserve ATP levels. Several studies indicate a reduction of AMPK sensitivity to cellular stress during aging and this could impair the downstream signaling and the maintenance of the cellular energy balance and the stress resistance. However, several diseases have been related with an AMPK dysfunction. Alterations in AMPK signaling decrease mitochondrial biogenesis, increase cellular stress and induce inflammation, which are typical events of the aging process and have been associated to several pathological processes. In this sense, in the last few years AMPK has been identified as a very interesting target and different nutraceutical compounds are being studied for an interesting potential effect on AMPK induction. In this review, we will evaluate the interaction of the different nutraceutical compounds to induce the AMPK phosphorylation and the applications in diseases such as cancer, type II diabetes, neurodegenerative diseases or cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Cultured lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects have altered cAMP signal transduction.

    OpenAIRE

    Nagy, L E; Diamond, I; Gordon, A.

    1988-01-01

    Previous work has shown that freshly isolated lymphocytes from alcoholic subjects show significantly reduced basal and adenosine receptor-stimulated cAMP levels. This decrease could be due to ethanol-induced cellular adaptation or to a genetic difference in the regulation of cAMP signal transduction. Therefore, we cultured human lymphocytes in defined medium without ethanol for 7-8 days and then examined differences in receptor-dependent cAMP accumulation between lymphocytes from alcoholic an...

  17. Effects of a Conservation Education Camp Program on Campers' Self-Reported Knowledge, Attitude, and Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruse, Cara K.; Card, Jaclyn A.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, the authors examined the effects of a conservation education camp program offered through one zoo education department. The conservation education program included 4 levels of camps with increasing levels of animal husbandry. Campers rated their conservation knowledge, attitude, and behavior prior to, immediately after, and 1 month…

  18. The antilipolytic agent 3,5-dimethylpyrazole inhibits insulin release in response to both nutrient secretagogues and cyclic adenosine monophosphate agonists in isolated rat islets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masiello, P; Novelli, M; Bombara, M; Fierabracci, V; Vittorini, S; Prentki, M; Bergamini, E

    2002-01-01

    This study intended to test the hypothesis that intracellular lipolysis in the pancreatic beta cells is implicated in the regulation of insulin secretion stimulated by nutrient secretagogues or cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) agonists. Indeed, although lipid signaling molecules were repeatedly reported to influence beta-cell function, the contribution of intracellular triglycerides to the generation of these molecules has remained elusive. Thus, we have studied insulin secretion of isolated rat pancreatic islets in response to various secretagogues in the presence or absence of 3,5-dimethylpyrazole (DMP), a water-soluble and highly effective antilipolytic agent, as previously shown in vivo. In vitro exposure of islets to DMP resulted in an inhibition (by approximately 50%) of the insulin release stimulated not only by high glucose, but also by another nutrient secretagogue, 2-ketoisocaproate, as well as the cAMP agonists 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine and glucagon. The inhibitory effect of DMP, which was not due to alteration of islet glucose oxidation, could be reversed upon addition of sn-1,2-dioctanoylglycerol, a synthetic diglyceride, which activates protein kinase C. The results provide direct pharmacologic evidence supporting the concept that endogenous beta-cell lipolysis plays an important role in the generation of lipid signaling molecules involved in the control of insulin secretion in response to both fuel stimuli and cAMP agonists.

  19. A Computational Modeling and Simulation Approach to Investigate Mechanisms of Subcellular cAMP Compartmentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pei-Chi; Boras, Britton W; Jeng, Mao-Tsuen; Docken, Steffen S; Lewis, Timothy J; McCulloch, Andrew D; Harvey, Robert D; Clancy, Colleen E

    2016-07-01

    distribution of cAMP at the subcellular level could be important for developing new strategies for the prevention or treatment of unfavorable responses associated with different disease states.

  20. Three-dimensional measurement of cAMP gradients using hyperspectral confocal microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rich, Thomas C.; Annamdevula, Naga; Britain, Andrea L.; Mayes, Samuel; Favreau, Peter F.; Leavesley, Silas J.

    2016-03-01

    Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a ubiquitous second messenger known to differentially regulate many cellular functions over a wide range of timescales. Several lines of evidence have suggested that the distribution of cAMP within cells is not uniform, and that cAMP compartmentalization is largely responsible for signaling specificity within the cAMP signaling pathway. However, to date, no studies have experimentally measured three dimensional (3D) cAMP distributions within cells. Here we use both 2D and 3D hyperspectral microscopy to visualize cAMP gradients in endothelial cells from the pulmonary microvasculature (PMVECs). cAMP levels were measured using a FRETbased cAMP sensor comprised of a cAMP binding domain from EPAC sandwiched between FRET donors and acceptors -- Turquoise and Venus fluorescent proteins. Data were acquired using either a Nikon A1R spectral confocal microscope or custom spectral microscopy system. Analysis of hyperspectral image stacks from a single confocal slice or from summed images of all slices (2D analysis) indicated little or no cAMP gradients were formed within PMVECs under basal conditions or following agonist treatment. However, analysis of hyperspectral image stacks from 3D cellular geometries (z stacks) demonstrate marked cAMP gradients from the apical to basolateral membrane of PMVECs. These results strongly suggest that 2D imaging studies of cAMP compartmentalization -- whether epifluorescence or confocal microscopy -- may lead to erroneous conclusions about the existence of cAMP gradients, and that 3D studies are required to assess mechanisms of signaling specificity.

  1. Chlorella intake attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion in kendo training camp participants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Otsuki Takeshi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The green alga Chlorella contains high levels of proteins, vitamins, and minerals. We previously reported that a chlorella-derived multicomponent supplement increased the secretion rate of salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA in humans. Here, we investigated whether intake of this chlorella-derived supplement attenuated the reduced salivary SIgA secretion rate during a kendo training camp. Methods Ten female kendo athletes participated in inter-university 6-day spring and 4-day summer camps. They were randomized into two groups; one took placebo tablets during the spring camp and chlorella tablets during the summer camp, while the other took chlorella tablets during the spring camp and placebo tablets during the summer camp. Subjects took these tablets starting 4 weeks before the camp until post-camp saliva sampling. Salivary SIgA concentrations were measured by ELISA. Results All subjects participated in nearly all training programs, and body-mass changes and subjective physical well-being scores during the camps were comparable between the groups. However, salivary SIgA secretion rate changes were different between these groups. Salivary SIgA secretion rates decreased during the camp in the placebo group (before vs. second, middle, and final day of camp, and after the camp: 146 ± 89 vs. 87 ± 56, 70 ± 45, 94 ± 58, and 116 ± 71 μg/min, whereas no such decreases were observed in the chlorella group (121 ± 53 vs. 113 ± 68, 98 ± 69,115 ± 80, and 128 ± 59 μg/min. Conclusion Our results suggest that a use of a chlorella-derived dietary supplement attenuates reduced salivary SIgA secretion during a training camp for a competitive sport.

  2. Evaluating the Effectiveness of the General Surgery Intern Boot Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoolfield, Clint S; Samra, Navdeep; Kim, Roger H; Shi, Runhua; Zhang, Wayne W; Tan, Tze-Woei

    2016-03-01

    The aim of our study is to evaluate the effectiveness of newly implemented general surgery intern boot camp. A 2-day didactic and skills-based intern boot camp was implemented before the start of clinical duties. Participants who did not attend all boot camp activities and had prior postgraduate training were excluded. A survey utilizing a 5-point Likert scale scoring system was used to assess the participants' confidence to perform intern-level tasks before and after the boot camp. Subgroup analyses were performed comparing changes in confidence among graduates from home institution versus others and general surgery versus other subspecialties. In the analysis, 21 participants over two years were included. Among them, 7 were graduates from home institution (4 general surgery, 3 subspecialty) and 14 were from other institutions (6 general surgery and 8 subspecialty). There were significant increases in overall confidence levels (pre = 2.79 vs post = 3.43, P surgery (2.78 vs 3.46, P = 0.001) and other specialties (2.74 vs 3.34, P surgery intern boot camp before the start of official rotation is effective in improving confidence level in performing level-appropriate tasks of the incoming new interns.

  3. Modulation of cAMP levels by high fat diet and curcumin and regulatory effects on CD36/FAT scavenger receptor/fatty acids transporter gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curcumin, a polyphenol from turmeric (Curcuma longa), reduces inflammation, atherosclerosis, and obesity in several animal studies. In Ldlr-/- mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD), curcumin reduces plasma lipid levels, therefore contributing to a lower accumulation of lipids and to reduced expression of f...

  4. Hydromania: Summer Science Camp Curriculum.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Joan

    1995-07-01

    In 1992, Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) and the US Department of Energy (DOE) began a collaborative pilot project with the Portland Parks and Recreation Community Schools Program and others to provide summer science camps to children in Grades 4--6. Camps run two weeks in duration between late June and mid-August. Sessions are five days per week, from 9 a.m. to 3 p.m. In addition to hands-on science and math curriculum, at least three field trips are incorporated into the educational learning experience. The purpose of the BPA/DOE summer camps is to make available opportunities for fun, motivating experiences in science to students who otherwise would have difficulty accessing them. This includes inner city, minority, rural and low income students. Public law 101-510, which Congress passed in 1990, authorizes DOE facilities to establish collaborative inner-city and rural partnership programs in science and math. A primary goal of the BPA summer hands on science camps is to bring affordable science camp experiences to students where they live. It uses everyday materials to engage students` minds and to give them a sense that they have succeeded through a fun hands-on learning environment.

  5. Management of diabetes at summer camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciambra, Roberta; Locatelli, Chiara; Suprani, Tosca; Pocecco, Mauro

    2005-01-01

    We report our experience in the organization of diabetic children summer-camps since 1973. Guidelines for organization have been recently reported by the SIEDP (Società Italiana di Endocrinologia e Diabetologia Pediatrica). Our attention is focused on diabetes management at camp, organization and planning, medical staff composition and staff training, treatment of diabetes-related emergencies, written camp management plan, diabetes education and psychological issues at camp, prevention of possible risks, assessment of effectiveness of education in summer camps and research at camp.

  6. CSF concentrations of cAMP and cGMP are lower in patients with Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease but not Parkinson's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Oeckl

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The cyclic nucleotides cyclic adenosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cAMP and cyclic guanosine-3',5'-monophosphate (cGMP are important second messengers and are potential biomarkers for Parkinson's disease (PD, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we investigated by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF concentrations of cAMP and cGMP of 82 patients and evaluated their diagnostic potency as biomarkers. For comparison with a well-accepted biomarker, we measured tau concentrations in CSF of CJD and control patients. CJD patients (n = 15 had lower cAMP (-70% and cGMP (-55% concentrations in CSF compared with controls (n = 11. There was no difference in PD, PD dementia (PDD and ALS cases. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses confirmed cAMP and cGMP as valuable diagnostic markers for CJD indicated by the area under the curve (AUC of 0.86 (cAMP and 0.85 (cGMP. We calculated a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 64% for cAMP and a sensitivity of 67% and specificity of 100% for cGMP. The combination of both nucleotides increased the sensitivity to 80% and specificity to 91% for the term cAMPxcGMP (AUC 0.92 and to 93% and 100% for the ratio tau/cAMP (AUC 0.99. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We conclude that the CSF determination of cAMP and cGMP may easily be included in the diagnosis of CJD and could be helpful in monitoring disease progression as well as in therapy control.

  7. Leptin interferes with 3',5'-Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate (cAMP signaling to inhibit steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HoYuen Basil

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Obesity has been linked to an increased risk of female infertility. Leptin, an adipocytokine which is elevated during obesity, may influence gonadal function through modulating steroidogenesis in granulosa cells. Methods The effect of leptin on progesterone production in simian virus 40 immortalized granulosa (SVOG cells was examined by Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA. The effect of leptin on the expression of the steroidogenic enzymes (StAR, P450scc, 3betaHSD in SVOG cells was examined by real-time PCR and Western blotting. The mRNA expression of leptin receptor isoforms in SVOG cells were examined by using PCR. SVOG cells were co-treated with leptin and specific pharmacological inhibitors to identify the signaling pathways involved in leptin-reduced progesterone production. Silencing RNA against leptin receptor was used to determine that the inhibition of leptin on cAMP-induced steroidogenesis acts in a leptin receptor-dependent manner. Results and Conclusion In the present study, we investigated the cellular mechanisms underlying leptin-regulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. We show that leptin inhibits 8-bromo cAMP-stimulated progesterone production in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, we show that leptin inhibits expression of the cAMP-stimulated steroidogenic acute regulatory (StAR protein, the rate limiting de novo protein in progesterone synthesis. Leptin induces the activation of ERK1/2, p38 and JNK but only the ERK1/2 (PD98059 and p38 (SB203580 inhibitors attenuate the leptin-induced inhibition of cAMP-stimulated StAR protein expression and progesterone production. These data suggest that the leptin-induced MAPK signal transduction pathway interferes with cAMP/PKA-stimulated steroidogenesis in human granulosa cells. Moreover, siRNA mediated knock-down of the endogenous leptin receptor attenuates the effect of leptin on cAMP-induced StAR protein expression and progesterone production, suggesting that the effect of leptin on steroidogenesis in granulosa cells is receptor dependent. In summary, leptin acts through the MAPK pathway to downregulate cAMP-induced StAR protein expression and progesterone production in immortalized human granulosa cells. These results suggest a possible mechanism by which gonadal steroidogenesis could be suppressed in obese women.

  8. Decreased response to cAMP in the glucose and glycogen catabolism in perfused livers of Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Morais, Hely; Cassola, Priscila; Moreira, Carolina Campos Lima; Bôas, Suéllen Kathiane Fernandes Vilas; Borba-Murad, Glaucia Regina; Bazotte, Roberto Barbosa; de Souza, Helenir Medri

    2012-09-01

    The hepatic response to cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and N6-monobutyryl-cAMP (N6-MB-cAMP) in the glucose and glycogen catabolism and hepatic glycogen levels were evaluated in Walker-256 tumor-bearing rats, on days 5 (WK5), 8 (WK8), and 11 (WK11) after the implantation of tumor. Rats without tumor fed ad libitum (fed control rats) or that received the same daily amount of food ingested by anorexics tumor-bearing rats (pair-fed control rats) or 24 h fasted (fasted control rats) were used as controls. Glucose and glycogen catabolism were measured in perfused liver. Hepatic glycogen levels were lower (p catabolism was lower (p catabolism, under condition of depletion of hepatic glycogen (24 h fast), was lower (p catabolism was lower (p catabolism in various stages of tumor development (days 5, 8 and 11), which was probably not due to the lower hepatic glycogen levels nor due to the increased activity of PDE3B.

  9. Specific Interactions of Antitumor Metallocenes with Deoxydinucleoside Monophosphates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eberle, Rahel P.; Hari, Yvonne; Schürch, Stefan

    2017-09-01

    Bent metallocenes Cp2MCl2 (M = Ti, V, Nb, Mo) are known to exhibit cytotoxic activity against a variety of cancer types. Though the mechanism of action is not fully understood yet, the accumulation of the metal ions in the nucleus points towards DNA as one of the primary targets. A set of eight deoxydinucleoside monophosphates was used to study the adduct yields with metallocenes and cisplatin. The binding affinities are reflected by the relative intensities of the adducts and were found to follow the order of Pt > V > Ti > Mo (no adducts were detected with Nb). High-resolution tandem mass spectrometry was applied to locate the binding patterns in the deoxydinucleoside monophosphates. Whereas cisplatin binds to the soft nitrogen atoms in the purine nucleobases, the metallocenes additionally interact with the hard phosphate oxygen, which is in good agreement with the hard and soft (Lewis) acids and bases (HSAB) concept. However, the binding specificities were found to be unique for each metallocene. The hard Lewis acids titanium and vanadium predominantly bind to the deprotonated phosphate oxygen, whereas molybdenum, an intermediate Lewis acid, preferentially interacts with the nucleobases. Nucleobases comprise alternative binding sites for titanium and vanadium, presumably oxygen atoms for the first and nitrogen atoms for the latter. In summary, the intrinsic binding behavior of the different metallodrugs is reflected by the gas-phase dissociation of the adducts. Consequently, MS/MS can provide insights into therapeutically relevant interactions between metallodrugs and their cellular targets. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  10. The effectiveness of an American science camp for Taiwanese high school students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Pi-Chu

    The purposes of this study were: (1) to evaluate the effectiveness of an American science camp for Taiwanese high school students in terms of student attitudes toward science; (2) to understand the factors that affect student attitudes toward science in the American science camp. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected and analyzed to answer my research questions: (1) How did the influence of the abroad science camp differ from the local one in terms of student attitudes toward science? (2) How did gender, grade level, and personality affect student attitudes toward science in the abroad science camp? An Attitudes toward Science Inventory was used in this study to measure student attitudes. The results of factor analysis suggested that the attitudes measured in this study include five common factors: science as school subjects (SC), science in society (SS), value of science (VS), science in laboratory (SL), and nature of science (NS). Significant improvements were found in SS, VS, and NS after the experiences of the abroad science camp. In the local science camp, only NS was non-significant comparing before and after the camp. The results from the comparisons between the two science camps show that different program designs have different impacts on student attitudes toward science. Furthermore, whether the science camps are designed based on learning theory or not, and regardless of how much time the campers spend in science-related activities during science camps, science camps can motivate students' interests in learning science. The results of mixed-design ANOVA for gender, grade level, and personality suggest that most of these personal factors did not significantly affect student attitudes. However, extraversion/introversion and sensing/intuition had impacts on the persuasibility of the abroad science camp.

  11. Increases in cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation during REM sleep: implications for REM sleep and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Jie; Phan, Trongha X; Yang, Yimei; Garelick, Michael G; Storm, Daniel R

    2013-04-10

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK), and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) transcriptional pathway is required for consolidation of hippocampus-dependent memory. In mice, this pathway undergoes a circadian oscillation required for memory persistence that reaches a peak during the daytime. Because mice exhibit polyphasic sleep patterns during the day, this suggested the interesting possibility that cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation may be elevated during sleep. Here, we report that cAMP, phospho-p44/42 MAPK, and phospho-CREB are higher in rapid eye movement (REM) sleep compared with awake mice but are not elevated in non-REM sleep. This peak of activity during REM sleep does not occur in mice lacking calmodulin-stimulated adenylyl cyclases, a mouse strain that learns but cannot consolidate hippocampus-dependent memory. We conclude that a preferential increase in cAMP, MAPK activity, and CREB phosphorylation during REM sleep may contribute to hippocampus-dependent memory consolidation.

  12. Starting a Technology Camp for Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litowitz, Len S.; Baylor, Steven C.

    1997-01-01

    Presents information for starting and maintaining a technology camp for students. Includes selecting topics, identifying participants, marketing, managing the camp, budgeting, and benefits to students and host institutions. (JOW)

  13. Eurasia Project—2007 Italian Camp Held

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    <正>From July 14 to 29,the Eurasia Project—2007 Italian Camp was held at the Castle Fusano Country Club in Rome. 52 high school students from Germany,Poland,Italy and China participated in the summer camp.

  14. Assay of adenosine 3',5' cyclic monophosphate by stimulation of protein kinase: a method not involving radioactivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handa, A.K.; Bressan, R.A.

    1980-03-01

    In order to meet a need for a cAMP assay which is not subject to interference by compounds in plant extracts, and which is suitable for use on occasions separated by many /sup 32/P half-lives, an assay based on cAMP-dependent protein kinase has been developed which does not require the use of (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP. Instead of measuring the cAMP-stimulated increase in the rate of transfer of (..gamma..-/sup 32/P) phosphate from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP to protein, the rate of loss of ATP from the reaction mixture is determined. The ATP remaining after the protein kinase reaction is assayed by ATP-dependent chemiluminescence of the firefly luciferin-luciferase system. Under conditions of the protein kinase reaction in which a readily measurable decrease in ATP concentration occurs, the logarithm of the concentration of ATP decreases in proportion to the cAMP concentration, i.e., the reaction can be described by the equation: (ATP) = (ATP)/sub 0/ e/sup -(cAMP)kt/. The assay based on this relationship can detect less than 1 pmol of cAMP. The levels of cAMP found with this assay after partial purification of the cAMP from rat tissue, algal cells, and the media in which the cells were grown agreed with measurements made by the cAMP binding-competition assay of Gilman, and the potein kinase stimulation assay based on transfer of (/sup 32/P) phosphate from (..gamma..-/sup 32/P)ATP to protein. All of the enzymes and chemicals required for the assay of cAMP by protein kinase catalyzed loss of ATP can be stored frozen for months, making the assay suitable for occasional use.

  15. Emergency Medicine Residency Boot Camp Curriculum: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ataya, Ramsey

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Establishing a boot camp curriculum is pertinent for emergency medicine (EM residents in order to develop proficiency in a large scope of procedures and leadership skills.  In this article, we describe our program’s EM boot camp curriculum as well as measure the confidence levels of resident physicians through a pre- and post-boot camp survey. Methods: We designed a one-month boot camp curriculum with the intention of improving the confidence, procedural performance, leadership, communication and resource management of EM interns. Our curriculum consisted of 12 hours of initial training and culminated in a two-day boot camp. The initial day consisted of clinical skill training and the second day included code drill scenarios followed by interprofessional debriefing.   Results: Twelve EM interns entered residency with an overall confidence score of 3.2 (1-5 scale across all surveyed skills. Interns reported the highest pre-survey confidence scores in suturing (4.3 and genitourinary exams (3.9. The lowest pre-survey confidence score was in thoracostomy (2.4. Following the capstone experience, overall confidence scores increased to 4.0. Confidence increased the most in defibrillation and thoracostomy. Additionally, all interns reported post-survey confidence scores of at least 3.0 in all skills, representing an internal anchor of “moderately confident/need guidance at times to perform procedure.” Conclusion: At the completion of the boot camp curriculum, EM interns had improvement in self-reported confidence across all surveyed skills and procedures. The described EM boot camp curriculum was effective, feasible and provided a foundation to our trainees during their first month of residency. [West J Emerg Med. 2015;16(2:356–361.

  16. Growth potential of the family camping market

    Science.gov (United States)

    W.F. LaPage; W.F. LaPage

    1973-01-01

    A study of the camping market's short-term growth potential, based upon interviews with the heads of 2,003 representative American households. The study estimates the size of the potential camping market and divides it into three segments: those families with a high, medium and low propensity to become campers. The developed camping market is also divided into an...

  17. Marketing Camp to Parents and Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cony, Steven R.

    1995-01-01

    An effective camp marketing strategy should address both parents' and children's concerns that influence decisions about camp. Includes strategies for developing a targeted message through print media or video that addresses these concerns and persuades families to choose camp. Stresses the importance of following up with parents and children. (LP)

  18. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  19. Extension Sustainability Camp: Design, Implementation, and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brain, Roslynn; Upton, Sally; Tingey, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Sustainability Camps provide an opportunity for Extension educators to be in the forefront of sustainability outreach and to meet the growing demand for sustainability education. This article shares development, implementation, and evaluation of an Extension Sustainability Camp for youth, grades 4-6. Camp impact was measured via daily pre-and…

  20. The NAO goes to camp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigdor, N.; Fraaije, A.; Solms, L.; Greeff, J. de; Janssen, J.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    ALIZ-E is a Europe-wide project focusing on long-term child-robot interaction, specifically as a means of educating diabetic children on their condition. This video showcases a recent field study at "SugarKidsClub", a camp devoted to helping 7-12 year-olds handle type-1 diabetes. A wide range of CRI

  1. The Emotional Benefits of Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Rebecca Cowan

    1991-01-01

    Regardless of participant background, age, or ethnic origin, camp can aid in the following key components of emotional maturity: open, positive and appropriate expression of feelings; self-acceptance; a sense of self; an awareness and acceptance of others and their feelings; the ability to develop relationships; and emotional stability. (LP)

  2. Lyme Disease Comes to Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Michael

    1989-01-01

    Describes one summer camp's plan for dealing with Lyme disease. Describes the disease and the deer tick. Recommends avoiding tick exposure through clothing, frequent examination, showers, and avoiding high grass and brushy areas, and using chemical insect repellents and chemicals to kill ticks in deer mouse nests. (DHP)

  3. Summer Science Camps Program (SSC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Science Foundation, Washington, DC. Directorate for Education and Human Resources.

    The Summer Science Camps (SSC) Program supports residential and commuter enrichment projects for seventh through ninth grade minority students who are underrepresented in science, engineering, and mathematics. Eligible organizations include school districts, museums, colleges, universities, and nonprofit youth-centered and/or community-based…

  4. The NAO goes to camp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wigdor, N.; Fraaije, A.; Solms, L.; Greeff, J. de; Janssen, J.; Blanson Henkemans, O.A.

    2014-01-01

    ALIZ-E is a Europe-wide project focusing on long-term child-robot interaction, specifically as a means of educating diabetic children on their condition. This video showcases a recent field study at "SugarKidsClub", a camp devoted to helping 7-12 year-olds handle type-1 diabetes. A wide range of CRI

  5. Simulation-based otolaryngology - head and neck surgery boot camp: 'how I do it'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chin, C J; Chin, C A; Roth, K; Rotenberg, B W; Fung, K

    2016-03-01

    In otolaryngology, surgical emergencies can occur at any time. An annual surgical training camp (or 'boot camp') offers junior residents from across North America the opportunity to learn and practice these skills in a safe environment. The goals of this study were to describe the set-up and execution of a simulation-based otolaryngology boot camp and to determine participants' confidence in performing routine and emergency on-call procedures in stressful situations before and after the boot camp. There were three main components of the boot camp: task trainers, simulations and an interactive panel discussion. Surveys were given to participants before and after the boot camp, and their confidence in performing the different tasks was assessed via multiple t-tests. Participants comprised 22 residents from 12 different universities; 10 of these completed both boot camp surveys. Of the nine tasks, the residents reported a significant improvement in confidence levels for six, including surgical airway and orbital haematoma management. An otolaryngology boot camp gives residents the chance to learn and practice emergency skills before encountering the emergencies in everyday practice. Their confidence in multiple skillsets was significantly improved after the boot camp. Given the shift towards competency-based learning in medical training, this study has implications for all surgical and procedural specialties.

  6. Muscle A-Kinase Anchoring Protein-α is an Injury-Specific Signaling Scaffold Required for Neurotrophic- and Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate-Mediated Survival

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Neurotrophic factor and cAMP-dependent signaling promote the survival and neurite outgrowth of retinal ganglion cells (RGCs after injury. However, the mechanisms conferring neuroprotection and neuroregeneration downstream to these signals are unclear. We now reveal that the scaffold protein muscle A-kinase anchoring protein-α (mAKAPα is required for the survival and axon growth of cultured primary RGCs. Although genetic deletion of mAKAPα early in prenatal RGC development did not affect RGC survival into adulthood, nor promoted the death of RGCs in the uninjured adult retina, loss of mAKAPα in the adult increased RGC death after optic nerve crush. Importantly, mAKAPα was required for the neuroprotective effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and cyclic adenosine-monophosphate (cAMP after injury. These results identify mAKAPα as a scaffold for signaling in the stressed neuron that is required for RGC neuroprotection after optic nerve injury.

  7. Thiamine diphosphate in whole blood, thiamine and thiamine monophosphate in breast-milk in a refugee population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Stuetz

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The provision of high doses of thiamine may prevent thiamine deficiency in the post-partum period of displaced persons. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The study aimed to evaluate a supplementation regimen of thiamine mononitrate (100 mg daily at the antenatal clinics in Maela refugee camp. Women were enrolled during antenatal care and followed after delivery. Samples were collected at 12 weeks post partum. Thiamine diphosphate (TDP in whole blood and thiamine in breast-milk of 636 lactating women were measured. Thiamine in breast-milk consisted of thiamine monophosphate (TMP in addition to thiamine, with a mean TMP to total thiamine ratio of 63%. Mean whole blood TDP (130 nmol/L and total thiamine in breast-milk (755 nmol/L were within the upper range reported for well-nourished women. The prevalence of women with low whole blood TDP (<65 nmol/L was 5% and with deficient breast-milk total thiamine (<300 nmol/L was 4%. Whole blood TDP predicted both breast-milk thiamine and TMP (R(2 = 0.36 and 0.10, p<0.001. A ratio of TMP to total thiamine ≥63% was associated with a 7.5 and 4-fold higher risk of low whole blood TDP and deficient total breast-milk thiamine, respectively. Routine provision of daily 100 mg of thiamine mononitrate post-partum compared to the previous weekly 10 mg of thiamine hydrochloride resulted in significantly higher total thiamine in breast-milk. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Thiamine supplementation for lactating women in Maela refugee camp is effective and should be continued. TMP and its ratio to total thiamine in breast-milk, reported for the first time in this study, provided useful information on thiamine status and should be included in future studies of breast-milk thiamine.

  8. Biochemical characterization and cellular imaging of a novel, membrane permeable fluorescent cAMP analog

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaccolo Manuela

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A novel fluorescent cAMP analog (8-[Pharos-575]- adenosine-3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate was characterized with respect to its spectral properties, its ability to bind to and activate three main isoenzymes of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA-Iα, PKA-IIα, PKA-IIβ in vitro, its stability towards phosphodiesterase and its ability to permeate into cultured eukaryotic cells using resonance energy transfer based indicators, and conventional fluorescence imaging. Results The Pharos fluorophore is characterized by a Stokes shift of 42 nm with an absorption maximum at 575 nm and the emission peaking at 617 nm. The quantum yield is 30%. Incubation of the compound to RIIα and RIIβ subunits increases the amplitude of excitation and absorption maxima significantly; no major change was observed with RIα. In vitro binding of the compound to RIα subunit and activation of the PKA-Iα holoenzyme was essentially equivalent to cAMP; RII subunits bound the fluorescent analog up to ten times less efficiently, resulting in about two times reduced apparent activation constants of the holoenzymes compared to cAMP. The cellular uptake of the fluorescent analog was investigated by cAMP indicators. It was estimated that about 7 μM of the fluorescent cAMP analog is available to the indicator after one hour of incubation and that about 600 μM of the compound had to be added to intact cells to half-maximally dissociate a PKA type IIα sensor. Conclusion The novel analog combines good membrane permeability- comparable to 8-Br-cAMP – with superior spectral properties of a modern, red-shifted fluorophore. GFP-tagged regulatory subunits of PKA and the analog co-localized. Furthermore, it is a potent, PDE-resistant activator of PKA-I and -II, suitable for in vitro applications and spatial distribution evaluations in living cells.

  9. Regulation of melanogenesis: the role of cAMP and MITF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michał Otręba

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the melanogenesis pathway and the role of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP and microphthalmia transcription factor (MITF in regulation of this process. Products of melanogenesis are eu- and/or pheomelanins synthesized in a multistage process of tyrosine oxidation and polymerization. The conversions require the presence of tyrosinase (TYR, key enzyme, tyrosine hydroxylase isoform I (THI and tyrosinase related proteins (TRP1 and TRP2. Many types of signal molecules and transcription factors participate in regulation of melanin synthesis, but the most important are cAMP and MITF. cAMP is the second messenger in the intracellular signal cascade, which is synthesized from adenosine triphosphate (ATP by adenylyl cyclase, activated among others by the melanocortin receptor and the αS subunit of G protein. The signal molecule cAMP regulates MITF, TYR, THI, GTP-cyclohydroxylase I (GTP-CHI transcription and phenylalanine hydroxylase (PAH phosphorylation at Ser16 by protein kinase A (PKA. Mutations of genes encoding proteins belonging to the cAMP signal cascade may lead to McCune-Albright and Carney syndromes. MITF is one of the most important nuclear transcription factors regulating melanogenesis. Currently 10 isoforms of human MITF are known, but in melanocytes only MITF-M, MITF-Mdel, MITF-A and MITF-H occur. MITF transcription factor regulates melanogenesis by activation of tyrosinase, TRP1 and TRP2 transcription. It also affects expression of other factors regulating melanosome maturation, biogenesis and transport. Moreover, it regulates melanocyte proliferation and protection against apoptosis. Mutations of the MITF gene may lead to hereditary diseases: Waardenburg type II and Tietz syndromes.

  10. Welcome to Clipper Camp!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holler, Edward W.

    2008-01-01

    Rising middle level students face many new situations when they enter middle school. Stress is not uncommon for new students in any grade, but it is most acute during middle level years when students are dealing with the rapidly changing physical characteristics and emotions associated with early adolescence. The community of adults at a middle…

  11. Adenosine Monophosphate-Based Detection of Bacterial Spores

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern, Roger G.; Chen, Fei; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Hattori, Nori; Suzuki, Shigeya

    2009-01-01

    A method of rapid detection of bacterial spores is based on the discovery that a heat shock consisting of exposure to a temperature of 100 C for 10 minutes causes the complete release of adenosine monophosphate (AMP) from the spores. This method could be an alternative to the method described in the immediately preceding article. Unlike that method and related prior methods, the present method does not involve germination and cultivation; this feature is an important advantage because in cases in which the spores are those of pathogens, delays involved in germination and cultivation could increase risks of infection. Also, in comparison with other prior methods that do not involve germination, the present method affords greater sensitivity. At present, the method is embodied in a laboratory procedure, though it would be desirable to implement the method by means of a miniaturized apparatus in order to make it convenient and economical enough to encourage widespread use.

  12. Glutathione upregulates cAMP signalling via G protein alpha 2 during the development of Dictyostelium discoideum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyang-Mi; Kim, Ji-Sun; Kang, Sa-Ouk

    2016-12-01

    Despite the importance of glutathione in Dictyostelium, the role of glutathione synthetase (gshB/GSS) has not been clearly investigated. In this study, we observed that increasing glutathione content by constitutive expression of gshB leads to mound-arrest and defects in 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-mediated aggregation and developmental gene expression. The overexpression of gpaB encoding G protein alpha 2 (Gα2), an essential component of the cAMP signalling pathway, results in a phenotype similar to that caused by gshB overexpression, whereas gpaB knockdown in gshB-overexpressing cells partially rescues the above-mentioned phenotypic defects. Furthermore, Gα2 is highly enriched at the plasma membrane of gshB-overexpressing cells compared to wild-type cells. Therefore, our findings suggest that glutathione upregulates cAMP signalling via Gα2 modulation during Dictyostelium development. © 2016 Federation of European Biochemical Societies.

  13. Clinical Implication of the Changes of cAMP, TXA2 and PGI2 in CSF of Asphyxiated Newborns

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘汉楚; 常立文; 陈晔; 夏世文; 张晓慧

    2003-01-01

    Summary: To evaluate the changes of 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP), thrombox-ane A2(TXA2) and prostacyclin (PGI2) in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in the asphyxiated newborn andexplore their roles in hypoxic-ischamic brain damage (HIBD). Thirty-six full term newborns were di-vided into 3 groups, including 12 with moderate-severe hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy (HIE), 13with mild HIE, 11 without HIE (control group). The levels of cAMP, TXB2 (TXA2 metabolite) and6-keto-PGF1α(PGI2 metabolite) in CSF and plasma were measured 36-72 h after birth by RIA, andthe concentrations were expressed as nM/L (cAMP), ng/L(TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α). The infantswere followed-up at 6 and 12 month of age and Mental Development Index (MD1) and PsychomotorDevelopment Index (PDI) were measured using Bayley Scales of Infant Development (BSID). TheCSF cAMP level in moderate-severe HIE group was 8.60±2.40, significantly lower than that of themild HIE group (14.83±2.84) and the control group (24. 43±2.39) (for both P<0. 01). The lev-els of TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α in CFS in the moderate-severe HIE group (206.06±29.74, 168.47±23.02, respectively) were significantly higher than in the mild HIE group (83. 37±28.57, 131.42±16.57, respectively, P<0. 01) and the control group (41. 77± 21.58, 86. 23±13.05, respectively,P<0. 01). The level changes of cAMP,TXB2 and 6-keto-PGF1α in plasma in all groups were similarto those in CSF, but no significant difference was found between mild HIE group and the controlgroup (P>0. 05). The follow-up results showed that MDI and PDI of the moderate-severe HIEgroup were the lowest (84. 79±13.34, 83. 50±13.28, respectively), followed by mild HIE group(102, 19±7. 02, 99. 94±9.08, respectively) , with the control group being the highest (116. 63±12.08, 116. 69±10. 87, respectively). Univariate analysis showed some significant difference (themoderate-severe HIE group vs. the mild HIE group or the control group, P<0. 01; the mild HIEgroup

  14. Evaluation of undergraduate nursing students' clinical confidence following a mental health recovery camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowley, Thomas; Sumskis, Sue; Moxham, Lorna; Taylor, Ellie; Brighton, Renee; Patterson, Chris; Halcomb, Elizabeth

    2016-02-01

    In the present study, we evaluate the impact of participation in a mental health recovery camp on the clinical confidence of undergraduate nursing students in dealing with individuals with mental illness. Twenty undergraduate nursing students who participated in the recovery camp completed the Mental Health Nursing Clinical Confidence Scale both before and directly after attending the camp. Data were analysed using descriptive and inferential statistics. Participation in the recovery camp was associated with a statistically-significant increase in students' level of overall confidence between the pretest and post-test data (P students over the age of 25 years and who do not have a family history of mental illness are more likely to self-report a higher level of confidence in both the pre- and post-results. The clinical confidence of undergraduate nursing students improved through participation in an immersive clinical experience within the recovery camp.

  15. Phenotype, virulence and immunogenicity of Edwardsiella ictaluri cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate receptor protein (Crp) mutants in catfish host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santander, Javier; Mitra, Arindam; Curtiss, Roy

    2011-12-01

    Edwardsiella ictaluri is an Enterobacteriaceae that causes lethal enteric septicemia in catfish. Being a mucosal facultative intracellular pathogen, this bacterium is an excellent candidate to develop immersion-oral live attenuated vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry. Deletion of the cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) receptor protein (crp) gene in several Enterobacteriaceae has been utilized in live attenuated vaccines for mammals and birds. Here we characterize the crp gene and report the effect of a crp deletion in E. ictaluri. The E. ictaluri crp gene and encoded protein are similar to other Enterobacteriaceae family members, complementing Salmonella enterica Δcrp mutants in a cAMP-dependent fashion. The E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 in-frame deletion mutant demonstrated growth defects, loss of maltose utilization, and lack of flagella synthesis. We found that the E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 mutant was attenuated, colonized lymphoid tissues, and conferred immune protection against E. ictaluri infection to zebrafish (Danio rerio) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Evaluation of the IgM titers indicated that bath immunization with the E. ictaluri Δcrp-10 mutant triggered systemic and skin immune responses in catfish. We propose that deletion of the crp gene in E. ictaluri is an effective strategy to develop immersion live attenuated antibiotic-sensitive vaccines for the catfish aquaculture industry.

  16. Low-power laser irradiation promotes the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human periodontal ligament cells via cyclic adenosine monophosphate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jyun-Yi Wu; Chia-Hsin Chen; Li-Yin Yeh; Ming-Long Yeh; Chun-Chan Ting; Yan-Hsiung Wang

    2013-01-01

    Retaining or improving periodontal ligament (PDL) function is crucial for restoring periodontal defects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiological effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) on the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human PDL (hPDL) cells. Cultured hPDL cells were irradiated (660 nm) daily with doses of 0, 1, 2 or 4 J?cm22. Cell proliferation was evaluated by the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and the effect of LPLI on osteogenic differentiation was assessed by Alizarin Red S staining and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. Additionally, osteogenic marker gene expression was confirmed by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Our data showed that LPLI at a dose of 2 J?cm22 significantly promoted hPDL cell proliferation at days 3 and 5. In addition, LPLI at energy doses of 2 and 4 J?cm22 showed potential osteogenic capacity, as it stimulated ALP activity, calcium deposition, and osteogenic gene expression. We also showed that cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a critical regulator of the LPLI-mediated effects on hPDL cells. This study shows that LPLI can promote the proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of hPDL cells. These results suggest the potential use of LPLI in clinical applications for periodontal tissue regeneration.

  17. 电针对吗啡戒断大鼠cAMP、cGMP水平的影响%Effect of Electroacupunture on cAMP and cGMP Level of Morphine Withdrawal Rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯晓蓉; 张荣军; 宋小鸽; 唐照亮; 许冠荪

    2005-01-01

    目的研究电针吗啡戒断大鼠足三里穴对大鼠环磷鸟苷酸(cyclic guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate,cGMP)及环磷腺苷酸(cyclic adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate,cAMP)含量的影响,探讨电针改善戒断症状作用的可能机制.方法建立吗啡依赖大鼠自然戒断模型,采用放射免疫分析法测定血液、脑组织中cGMP、cAMP含量.结果戒断Ⅰ组大鼠血液cAMP含量增高(P<0.01),cGMP含量明显降低(P<0.01),cAMP/cGMP比值显著增高(P<0.01);戒断Ⅱ组大鼠脑中cGMP、cAMP含量均明显减少(P<0.01);电针组cGMP、cAMP含量接近正常水平.结论电针足三里穴改善大鼠吗啡戒断症状可能与调节cGMP、cAMP系统的相互作用有关.

  18. Summer Camp July 2017 - Registration

    CERN Multimedia

    EVE et École

    2017-01-01

    The CERN Staff Association’s Summer Camp will be open for children from 4 to 6 years old during four weeks, from 3 to 28 July. Registration is offered on a weekly basis for 450 CHF, lunch included. This year, the various activities will revolve around the theme of the Four Elements. Registration opened on 20 March 2017 for children currently attending the EVE and School of the Association. It will be open from 3 April for children of CERN Members of Personnel, and starting from 24 April for all other children. The general conditions are available on the website of the EVE and School of CERN Staff Association: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch. For further questions, please contact us by email at Summer.Camp@cern.ch.

  19. Camping Burner-Based Flame Emission Spectrometer for Classroom Demonstrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ne´el, Bastien; Crespo, Gasto´n A.; Perret, Didier; Cherubini, Thomas; Bakker, Eric

    2014-01-01

    A flame emission spectrometer was built in-house for the purpose of introducing this analytical technique to students at the high school level. The aqueous sample is sprayed through a homemade nebulizer into the air inlet of a consumer-grade propane camping burner. The resulting flame is analyzed by a commercial array spectrometer for the visible…

  20. Huijia School Summer Camp Program

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    As an open and international educational institution, Beijing Huijia Private School is located in Changping, a scenic district in Beijing's northern suburb. In order to strengthen international cultural exchanges, promote the study of Chinese language and the spread of Chinese culture, and make the world know more about China, Huijia School regularly organizes various summer camps for students of different ages every year. Until now, we have already successfully received more than 1,000 students from hom...

  1. 抗高热I号合剂对肺炎双球菌所致发热家兔脑脊液PGE、cAMP含量的影响%THE EFFECTS OF ANTI-FEVER MIXTURE I TO THE LEVELS OF PGE AND cAMP IN THE CEREBROSPINAL FLUID OF FEVER RABBITS INFECTED BY PNEUMOCOCCUS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蓝肇熙; 张进淘; 王杰龙; 张发荣; 谢春光; 刘宁; 孙鸿辉

    2001-01-01

    目的:观察抗高热I号合剂(AFMI)对发热家兔脑脊液前列腺素E(PGE)、环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)含量的影响。方法:用肺炎双球菌感染家兔,造成发热模型,提前应用AFMI合剂及以两种不同剂量于家兔体温达到高峰时应用,观测家兔脑脊液PGE、cAMP含量的变化并进行比较。结果:发热家兔脑脊液PGE、cAMP含量异常升高(P<0.01),AFMI可显著降低发热家兔脑脊液中异常升高的PGE和cAMP的含量(P<0.01),最佳剂量为26.25 g*kg-1, 提前应用AFMI,可阻抑感染家兔脑脊液中PGE、cAMP的合成释放。结论:AFMI具有良好的解热降温作用。%OBJECTIVE:To study effects of Anti-fever mixture I(AFMI,composed of Herba Ephedrae Decoction and Radix Puerariae Decoction) to the levels of PGE and cAMP in the cerebrospinal fluid of fever rabbits.METHODS:Rabbits were infected by pneumococcus to produce a fever model. Two different doses of AFMI were used when the rabbits' temperature reached its peak, and also used AFMI ahead of schedule. Survey the changes of PGE and cAMP levels and compared with each other.RESULTS:The levels of PGE and cAMP in fever rabbits' cerebrospinal fluid was rised abnormally(P<0.01), AFMI can lower the abnormally rised levels of PGE and cAMP in the cerebrospinal fluid(P<0.01), and the use of AFMI ahead of schedule can inhibit the synthesis and release of PGE and cAMP in the cerebrospinal fluid.CONCLUSION:The antipyretic and lowering temperature effects of AFMI are excellent.

  2. Structural basis for the catalytic mechanism of a proficient enzyme: Orotidine 5'-Monophosphate Decarboxylase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harris, Pernille Hanne; Poulsen, Jens-Christian Navarro; Jensen, Kaj Frank

    2000-01-01

    Orotidine 5‘-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) catalyzes the decarboxylation of orotidine 5‘-monophosphate, the last step in the de novo synthesis of uridine 5‘-monophosphate. ODCase is a very proficient enzyme [Radzicka, A., and Wolfenden, R. (1995) Science 267, 90-93], enhancing the reaction...... rate by a factor of 1017. This proficiency has been enigmatic, since it is achieved without metal ions or cofactors. Here we present a 2.5 Å resolution structure of ODCase complexed with the inhibitor 1-(5‘-phospho-ß-d-ribofuranosyl)barbituric acid. It shows a closely packed dimer composed of two a...

  3. Inhibin alpha gene expression in human trophoblasts is regulated by interactions between TFAP2 and cAMP signaling pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Depoix, Christophe L; Debiève, Frédéric; Hubinont, Corinne

    2014-11-01

    Inhibin α (Inha) gene expression is regulated, in rat granulosa cells, via a cyclic 3',5'-adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-response element (CRE) found in a region of the promoter that is homologous to the human INHA promoter. We previously found that during in vitro cytotrophoblast differentiation, human INHA gene expression was regulated by TFAP2A via association with an AP-2 site located upstream of this CRE. The aim of this study was to evaluate if the human INHA gene was also regulated by cAMP in trophoblasts, and to investigate the possible crosstalk between TFAP2 and cAMP signaling pathways in the regulation of INHA gene expression. Treatment with cAMP or forskolin increased INHA mRNA expression by 7- and 2-fold in primary cytotrophoblasts and choriocarcinoma-derived BeWo cells, respectively. Treatment with the protein kinase A inhibitor H-89 reduced forskolin-induced luciferase activity by ∼40% in BeWo cells transfected with an INHA promoter-driven luciferase reporter vector. TFAP2 overexpression increased basal luciferase activity, whereas the dominant repressor KCREB abolished it. Surprisingly, mutation of the CRE also eliminated the TFAP2-induced transcription, although TFAP2 overexpression was still able to increase forskolin-induced luciferase activity when the AP-2 binding site, but not the CRE site, was mutated. Thus, INHA gene expression is upregulated by cAMP via CRE in human trophoblasts, and TFAP2 regulates this expression by interacting with CRE.

  4. [Identification of thiamine monophosphate hydrolyzing enzymes in chicken liver].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolos, I K; Makarchikov, A F

    2014-01-01

    In animals, thiamine monophosphate (TMP) is an intermediate on the path of thiamine diphosphate, the coenzyme form of vitamin B1, degradation. The enzymes involved in TMP metabolism in animal tissues are not identified hitherto. The aim of this work was to study TMP hydrolysis in chicken liver. Two phosphatases have been found to contribute to TMP hydrolysis in liver homogenate. The first one, possessing a maximal activity at pH 6.0, is soluble, whereas the second one represents a membrane-bound enzyme with a pH optimum of 9.0. Membrane-bound TMPase activity was enhanced 1.7-fold by 5 mM Mg2+ ions and strongly inhibited by levamisole in uncompetitive manner with K1 of 53 μM, indicating the involvement of alkaline phosphatase. An apparent Km of alkaline phosphatase for TMP was calculated from the Hanes plot to be 0.6 mM. The soluble TMPase has an apparent Km of 0.7 mM; this enzyme is Mg2+ independent and insensitive to levamisole. As estimated by gel filtration on a Toyopearl HW-55 column, the soluble enzyme has a molecular mass of 17.8 kDa, TMPase activity being eluted simultaneously with peaks of flavinmononucleotide and p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity. Thus, TMP appears to be a physiological substrate for a low-molecular weight acid phosphatase, also known as low-molecular-weight protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase.

  5. Contingency Base Camp Solid Waste Generation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-01

    wastes gener- ated at Army base camps. The data in this report were obtained from solid waste characterization surveys of base camps in Bosnia, Kosovo ...ER D C/ CE RL T R- 13 -1 7 Contingency Base Camp Solid Waste Generation Co ns tr uc tio n En gi ne er in g R es ea rc h La bo ra to...Contingency Base Camp Solid Waste Generation Stephen D. Cosper, H. Garth Anderson, Kurt Kinnevan, and Byung J. Kim Construction Engineering Research

  6. ALLERGEN-INDUCED CHANGES IN ADENOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS - EFFECT OF NEDOCROMIL SODIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFMAN, HF; GROEN, H; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1992-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) was studied after allergen challenge in allergic asthmatic patients. Measurements were made with and without nedocromil sodium pretreatment. Nedocromil sodium inhibited both the early and late asthmatic reactions (P <.01). After aller

  7. ALLERGEN-INDUCED CHANGES IN ADENOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE BRONCHIAL RESPONSIVENESS - EFFECT OF NEDOCROMIL SODIUM

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFMAN, HF; GROEN, H; KOETER, GH; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1992-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness to adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) was studied after allergen challenge in allergic asthmatic patients. Measurements were made with and without nedocromil sodium pretreatment. Nedocromil sodium inhibited both the early and late asthmatic reactions (P <.01). After

  8. Development and application of an LC-MS/MS method for measuring the effect of (partial) agonists on cAMP accumulation in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goutier, W; Spaans, P A; van der Neut, M A W; McCreary, A C; Reinders, J H

    2010-04-30

    Cyclic-adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) plays an important role in cell signalling and is widely used as a marker for receptor activation and as a target for treating various diseases. In this paper we present the development and validation of a new method for the determination of cAMP and ATP (adenosine triphosphate) and other nucleotides in a biological system by combining zwitterionic hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) and tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS). The HILIC-MS/MS method was developed for the simultaneous quantitative analysis of cAMP and ATP, and was validated by assessment of linearity (over a range from 0.5 to 100nM for cAMP and 50 nM to 50 microM for ATP (r(2)>0.999)), resolution, limit of detection (0.5 and 50 nM for cAMP and ATP, respectively) and reproducibility. Furthermore, the method was validated and applied in vitro to determine cAMP accumulation in biological samples. The effect of several dopamine D(2) (partial) agonists and antagonists on cAMP accumulation was assessed by determination of the cAMP/ATP ratio in cells transfected with the human dopamine D(2L) receptor. Quinpirole, dopamine and ropinirole produced agonist effects on cAMP accumulation, with a potency of quinpirole>ropinirole>dopamine. Lisuride, terguride and bifeprunox were found to be partial agonists with efficacies of lisuride>terguride>bifeprunox. As expected, haloperidol, (-)-sulpiride and LY-741626 were antagonists. These results demonstrate that the present analytical method was robust, fast, sensitive, and selective. Moreover, it showed utility in determining cAMP/ATP in biological systems and the ability to study the effect of (partial) agonists and antagonists which makes it a useful tool for drug discovery.

  9. Identification of thiamine monophosphate hydrolyzing enzymes in chicken liver

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. K. Kolas

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In animals, thiamine monophosphate (TMP is an intermediate on the path of thiamine diphosphate, the coenzyme form of vitamin B1, degradation. The enzymes involved in TMP metabolism in animal tissues are not identified hitherto. The aim of this work was to study TMP hydrolysis in chicken liver. Two phosphatases have been found to contribute to TMP hydrolysis in liver homogenate. The first one, possessing a maximal activity at pH 6.0, is soluble, whereas the second one represents a membrane-bound enzyme with a pH optimum of 9.0. Membrane-bound TMPase activity was enhanced 1.7-fold by 5 mM Mg2+ ions and strongly inhibited by levami­sole in uncompetitive manner with Ki of 53 μM, indicating the involvement of alkaline phosphatase. An apparent Km of alkaline phosphatase for TMP was calculated from the Hanes plot to be 0.6 mM. The soluble TMPase has an apparent­ Km of 0.7 mM; this enzyme is Mg2+ independent and insensitive to levamisole. As estimated by gel filtration on a Toyopearl HW-55 column, the soluble enzyme has a molecular mass of 17.8 kDa, TMPase activity being eluted simultaneously with peaks of flavinmononucleotide and p-nitrophenyl phosphatase activity. Thus, TMP appears to be a physiological substrate for a low-molecular weight acid phosphatase, also known as low-molecu­lar-weight protein phosphotyrosine phosphatase

  10. Accounting Boot Camp for College Juniors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myring, Mark; Wrege, William; Van Alst, Lucinda

    2008-01-01

    We describe a day-long introduction to new accounting majors, which we call a boot camp. Boot camp it is an effort to make juniors more aware of their identity, career purposes and learning resources that are now parts of their world, much of which is not covered explicitly in the accounting curriculum. This paper provides an overview of the…

  11. Children with Cancer: Positive Benefits of Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winfree, Christy; Williams, Richard; Powell, Gwynn M.

    2002-01-01

    A relatively new method of helping pediatric cancer patients cope with their illness is specially designed summer camps. Camp helps children with cancer address psychological effects of the disease, bodily changes, and self-concept, and helps parents and siblings cope. Sidebars present resources and tips on incorporating children with cancer into…

  12. Why It's Good to Go to Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Matthew

    2008-01-01

    In the author's fourth year of undergraduate studies at the University of Waterloo he had the opportunity to explore the benefits attained by children attending a summer camp by way of an academic literature review. The author worked with Dr. Troy Glover who has been commissioned by a group of camping associations to perform a study on the…

  13. 1940s: Camping in the War Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camping Magazine, 1999

    1999-01-01

    Camps continued to operate during World War II, but young male counselors, food, and supplies were difficult to obtain. An illustrative article from 1943, "Meal Planning for Summer Camps in Wartime" (Agnes B. Peterson), presents a guide to planning nutritious meals for campers despite shortages caused by wartime rationing, increased food…

  14. Mental health in Palestinian camps in Lebanon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Forgione

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Health agencies in refugee camps face the dual challenge of, firstly,convincing both camp populations and the international communitythat mental health disorders deserve treatment as much as any otherillness – and, secondly, building enough trust to encourage people toseek that treatment.

  15. Developmental and diurnal dynamics of Pax4 expression in the mammalian pineal gland: nocturnal down-regulation is mediated by adrenergic-cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate signaling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rath, Martin F; Bailey, Michael J; Kim, Jong-So

    2009-01-01

    that treatment with adrenergic agonists suppresses pineal Pax4 expression in vivo and in vitro. This suppression appears to be mediated by cAMP, a second messenger of norepinephrine in the pineal gland, based on the observation that treatment with a cAMP mimic reduces pineal Pax4 mRNA levels. These findings...

  16. Opening of a summer camp at CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Nursery School

    2015-01-01

    The Staff Association has the pleasure to announce the opening of a summer camp in l’EVE et Ecole de l’AP du CERN. With a capacity of 40 children, aged 4 to 6 years, it will be open from July 6 to 30. Registration Summer camp 2015 Registration for the CERN SA Summer camp for children aged 4 to 6 is open 16 to 30 April 2015 More information on the website: http://nurseryschool.web.cern.ch/ The Summer camp is open to all children of CERN Staff. An inscription per week is proposed, cost 480.-CHF/week, lunch included. The camp will be open weeks 28, 29, 30 and 31, from 8:30 am to 5:30 pm.

  17. Dynamic monitoring of Gi/o-protein-mediated decreases of intracellular cAMP by FRET-based Epac sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storch, Ursula; Straub, Julie; Erdogmus, Serap; Gudermann, Thomas; Mederos Y Schnitzler, Michael

    2017-06-01

    Analysis of G-protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) signaling, in particular of the second messenger cAMP that is tightly controlled by Gs- and Gi/o-proteins, is a central issue in biomedical research. The classical biochemical method to monitor increases in intracellular cAMP concentrations consists of a radioactive multicellular assay, which is well established, highly sensitive, and reproducible, but precludes continuous spatial and temporal assessment of cAMP levels in single living cells. For this purpose, Förster resonance energy transfer (FRET)-based Epac cAMP sensors are well suitable. So far, the latter sensors have been employed to monitor Gs-induced cAMP increases and it has remained elusive whether Epac sensors can reliably detect decreased intracellular cAMP levels as well. In this study, we systematically optimize experimental strategies employing FRET-based cAMP sensors to monitor Gi/o-mediated cAMP reductions. FRET experiments with adrenergic α2A or μ opioid receptors and a set of different Epac sensors allowed for time-resolved, valid, and reliable detection of cAMP level decreases upon Gi/o-coupled receptor activation in single living cells, and this effect can be reversed by selective receptor antagonists. Moreover, pre-treatment with forskolin or 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX) to artificially increase basal cAMP levels was not required to monitor Gi/o-coupled receptor activation. Thus, using FRET-based cAMP sensors is of major advantage when compared to classical biochemical and multi-cellular assays.

  18. Relationship between Adaptation of the Folic Acid and the cAMP Mediated cGMP Response in Dictyostelium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haastert, Peter J.M. van

    1983-01-01

    Chemotactic stimulation of post-vegetative Dictyostelium cells with folic acid or aggregative cells with cAMP results in a fast transient cGMP response which peaks at 10 s; basal levels are recovered in about 30-40 s. Stimulation with folic acid or cAMP rapidly desensitizes the cells for equal or lo

  19. Ex vivo study of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor agonists and antagonists on cAMP accumulation during memory formation and amnesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-García, G; Meneses, A

    2008-12-16

    The cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is a second messenger and a central component of intracellular signaling pathways that regulate a wide range of biological functions, including memory. Hence, in this work, firstly the time-course of memory formation was determined in an autoshaping learning task, which had allowed the identification of testing times for increases or decreases in performance. Next, untrained, trained and overtrained groups were compared in cAMP production. Moreover, selective stimulation and antagonism of 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptors during memory formation and cAMP production were determined. Finally, since there is scarce information about how pharmacological models of amnesia affect cAMP production, the cholinergic or glutamatergic antagonists, scopolamine and dizocilpine, were tested. The major findings of this work showed that when the time-course was determined inasmuch as training and testing sessions occurred, memory performance was graduate and progressive. Notably, for the fourth to seventh (i.e., 48-120 h following autoshaping training session) testing session performance was significantly higher from the previous ones. When animals received 5-HT(1A) and 5-HT(7) receptor agonists and antagonists or amnesic drugs significant increases or decrements in memory performance were observed at 24 and 48 h. Moreover, when ex vivo cAMP production from trained and overtrained groups were compared to untrained ones, significant differences were observed among groups and brain areas. Trained animals treated with 8-OHDPAT, AS19, 8-OHDPAT plus AS19, WAY100635, SB-269970, scopolamine or dizocilpine were compared to similar untrained groups, and eightfold-reduced cAMP production was evident, showing the importance of cAMP production in the signaling case in mammalian memory formation.

  20. Effects of adenosine 5’monophosphate-activated protein kinase on europrotection induced by ischemic preconditioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-ru-hua TIAN

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective To investigate the effects of adenosine 5'-monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK and phosphated AMPK (pAMPK signals in ischemic preconditioning (IPC, and the effect of pharmacological intervention of AMPK on infarct size of the brain. Methods A brief (3min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO was employed to induce IPC in male rat, and another 90-min MCAO was performed 4 or 72h later. The levels of AMPK and pAMPK were assessed after IPC. A pharmacological activator metformin, or inhibitor compound C of AMPK, was used to analyze the correlation of IPC to AMPK signaling in MCAO rats. Results The infarct size of total cerebral hemisphere and cortex was significantly decreased in MCAO animals by IPC for 72h (P0.05, n=6. The AMPK activator metformin can significantly reverse the protective effect of IPC (P<0.05, n=6. Conclusions The signals of AMPK and pAMPK play an important role in neuroprotective effect of IPC on cerebral ischemic injury. The neuroprotective effect of IPC may be associated with the down-regulation of pAMPK. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2015.05.07

  1. Antidiabetic sulfonylureas and cAMP cooperatively activate Epac2A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Toshimasa; Shibasaki, Tadao; Takahashi, Harumi; Sugawara, Kenji; Ono, Aika; Inoue, Naoko; Furuya, Toshio; Seino, Susumu

    2013-10-22

    Sulfonylureas are widely used drugs for treating insulin deficiency in patients with type 2 diabetes. Sulfonylureas bind to the regulatory subunit of the pancreatic β cell potassium channel that controls insulin secretion. Sulfonylureas also bind to and activate Epac2A, a member of the Epac family of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-binding proteins that promote insulin secretion through activation of the Ras-like guanosine triphosphatase Rap1. Using molecular docking simulation, we identified amino acid residues in one of two cyclic nucleotide-binding domains, cNBD-A, in Epac2A predicted to mediate the interaction with sulfonylureas. We confirmed the importance of the identified residues by site-directed mutagenesis and analysis of the response of the mutants to sulfonylureas using two assays: changes in fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) of an Epac2A-FRET biosensor and direct sulfonylurea-binding experiments. These residues were also required for the sulfonylurea-dependent Rap1 activation by Epac2A. Binding of sulfonylureas to Epac2A depended on the concentration of cAMP and the structures of the drugs. Sulfonylureas and cAMP cooperatively activated Epac2A through binding to cNBD-A and cNBD-B, respectively. Our data suggest that sulfonylureas stabilize Epac2A in its open, active state and provide insight for the development of drugs that target Epac2A.

  2. Generation solar case study : solar summer camp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    This document presented a case study of the use of solar power at camp Tanamakoon in Ontario's Algonquin Park. It discussed camp facilities which include solar powered composting toilets and solar heated showers. Composting, recycling, and use of environmentally friendly products were also discussed. The camp also has a grid interactive solar electric system and a solar water heating system. The solar electric system provides backup power to critical loads such as safety lights and an emergency fridge and is also connected to the existing grid electricity system. Any excess energy from the solar system can be used by other kitchen appliances or, any other load anywhere in the camp. The main user of the solar heated water is a large automatic dishwasher which has as a built-in boost heater for those days when the solar heated water is insufficiently hot to sanitize dishes. It was concluded that while camp utility bills have been reduced by this investment in renewable energy technology, the primary objectives of the project were the protection of Tanamakoon's pristine Algonquin environment and the attraction and retention of clients for the camp by enhancing the camping experience. fig.

  3. Role of cAMP in the reactivation of demembranated ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    San Agustin, J T; Witman, G B

    1994-01-01

    Ejaculated ram sperm were demembranated with Triton X-100, separated from the detergent-soluble matrix, and reactivated [San Agustin and Witman (1993): Cell Motil. Cytoskeleton 24:264-273]. The percent motility of models prepared from freshly washed sperm was comparable to that of the washed sample before demembranation, regardless of whether cAMP was included in the reactivation medium. However, demembranated models derived from aging or metabolically inhibited sperm exhibited a lower percent reactivation and required cAMP to attain the level of motility of freshly washed sperm. Cyclic AMP was approximately 100 times more effective than cGMP. The requirement for cAMP could be bypassed by addition of porcine heart cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) catalytic subunit to the reactivation medium, demonstrating that cAMP was acting via PKA. The cAMP stimulation of reactivation was not affected by inclusion of the PKA inhibitor PKI(5-24) in the reactivation medium, but was decreased when the models were preincubated with PKI(5-24) prior to reactivation. The cytosol-free models retained > 90% of the sperm PKA activity; therefore, the PKA appears to be anchored to internal sperm structures. This PKA could not be extracted by cAMP or Triton X-100 alone, but only by cAMP and Triton X-100 in combination. We conclude that cAMP-dependent protein phosphorylation is critical for sperm motility, but that the essential protein phosphate sites turn over slowly under our reactivation conditions, so that the cAMP requirement is apparent only in models prepared from sperm having a low internal ATP or cAMP content. Interestingly, reactivation was rapidly blocked by the peptide arg-lys-arg-ala-arg-lys-glu, which has been reported to be a selective inhibitor of cGMP-dependent protein kinase.

  4. Temporal cAMP Signaling Selectivity by Natural and Synthetic MC4R Agonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molden, Brent M; Cooney, Kimberly A; West, Kirk; Van Der Ploeg, Lex H T; Baldini, Giulia

    2015-11-01

    The melanocortin-4 receptor (MC4R) is a G protein-coupled receptor expressed in the brain, where it controls energy balance through pathways including α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH)-dependent signaling. We have reported that the MC4R can exist in an active conformation that signals constitutively by increasing cAMP levels in the absence of receptor desensitization. We asked whether synthetic MC4R agonists differ in their ability to increase intracellular cAMP over time in Neuro2A cells expressing endogenous MC4R and exogenous, epitope-tagged hemagglutinin-MC4R-green fluorescent protein. By analyzing intracellular cAMP in a temporally resolved Förster resonance energy transfer assay, we show that withdrawal of α-MSH leads to a quick reversal of cAMP induction. By contrast, the synthetic agonist melanotan II (MTII) induces a cAMP signal that persists for at least 1 hour after removal of MTII from the medium and cannot be antagonized by agouti related protein. Similarly, in mHypoE-42 immortalized hypothalamic neurons, MTII, but not α-MSH, induced persistent AMP kinase signal, which occurs downstream of increased cAMP. By using a fluorescence recovery after photobleaching assay, it appears that the receptor exposed to MTII continues to signal after being internalized. Similar to MTII, the synthetic MC4R agonists, THIQ and BIM-22511, but not LY2112688, induced prolonged cAMP signaling after agonist withdrawal. However, agonist-exposed MC4R desensitized to the same extent, regardless of the ligand used and regardless of differences in receptor intracellular retention kinetics. In conclusion, α-MSH and LY2112688, when compared with MTII, THIQ, and BIM-22511, vary in the duration of the acute cAMP response, showing distinct temporal signaling selectivity, possibly linked to specific cell compartments from which cAMP signals may originate.

  5. Modulation of the cAMP signaling pathway after traumatic brain injury

    OpenAIRE

    Atkins, Coleen M.; Oliva, Anthony A.; Alonso, Ofelia F.; Pearse, Damien D.; Bramlett, Helen M; Dietrich, W. Dalton

    2007-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in both focal and diffuse brain pathologies that are exacerbated by the inflammatory response and progress from hours to days after the initial injury. Using a clinically relevant model of TBI, the parasagittal fluid-percussion brain injury (FPI) model, we found injury-induced impairments in the cyclic AMP (cAMP) signaling pathway. Levels of cAMP were depressed in the ipsilateral parietal cortex and hippocampus, as well as activation of its downstream targ...

  6. Xylazine Activates Adenosine Monophosphate-Activated Protein Kinase Pathway in the Central Nervous System of Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Xing-Xing; Yin, Bai-Shuang; Yang, Peng; Chen, Hao; Li, Xin; Su, Li-Xue; Fan, Hong-Gang; Wang, Hong-Bin

    2016-01-01

    Xylazine is a potent analgesic extensively used in veterinary and animal experimentation. Evidence exists that the analgesic effect can be inhibited using adenosine 5’-monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) inhibitors. Considering this idea, the aim of this study was to investigate whether the AMPK signaling pathway is involved in the central analgesic mechanism of xylazine in the rat. Xylazine was administrated via the intraperitoneal route. Sprague-Dawley rats were sacrificed and the cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, thalamus and brainstem were collected for determination of liver kinase B1 (LKB1) and AMPKα mRNA expression using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα levels using western blot. The results of our study showed that compared with the control group, xylazine induced significant increases in AMPK activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, thalamus and cerebellum after rats received xylazine (P < 0.01). Increased AMPK activities were accompanied with increased phosphorylation levels of LKB1 in corresponding regions of rats. The protein levels of phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα in these regions returned or tended to return to control group levels. However, in the brainstem, phosphorylated LKB1 and AMPKα protein levels were decreased by xylazine compared with the control (P < 0.05). In conclusion, our data indicates that xylazine alters the activities of LKB1 and AMPK in the central nervous system of rats, which suggests that xylazine affects the regulatory signaling pathway of the analgesic mechanism in the rat brain. PMID:27049320

  7. Genetically-encoded yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator with an expanded dynamic range for dual-color imaging.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haruki Odaka

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous second messenger, which mediates many cellular responses mainly initiated by activation of cell surface receptors. Various Förster resonance energy transfer-based ratiometric cAMP indicators have been created for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of cAMP at the single-cell level. However, single fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicators have been poorly developed, with improvement required for dynamic range and brightness. Based on our previous yellow fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicator, Flamindo, we developed an improved yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator named Flamindo2. Flamindo2 has a 2-fold expanded dynamic range and 8-fold increased brightness compared with Flamindo by optimization of linker peptides in the vicinity of the chromophore. We found that fluorescence intensity of Flamindo2 was decreased to 25% in response to cAMP. Live-cell cAMP imaging of the cytosol and nucleus in COS7 cells using Flamindo2 and nlsFlamindo2, respectively, showed that forskolin elevated cAMP levels in each compartment with different kinetics. Furthermore, dual-color imaging of cAMP and Ca2+ with Flamindo2 and a red fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, R-GECO, showed that cAMP and Ca2+ elevation were induced by noradrenaline in single HeLa cells. Our study shows that Flamindo2, which is feasible for multi-color imaging with other intracellular signaling molecules, is useful and is an alternative tool for live-cell imaging of intracellular cAMP dynamics.

  8. Genetically-Encoded Yellow Fluorescent cAMP Indicator with an Expanded Dynamic Range for Dual-Color Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odaka, Haruki; Arai, Satoshi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kitaguchi, Tetsuya

    2014-01-01

    Cyclic AMP is a ubiquitous second messenger, which mediates many cellular responses mainly initiated by activation of cell surface receptors. Various Förster resonance energy transfer-based ratiometric cAMP indicators have been created for monitoring the spatial and temporal dynamics of cAMP at the single-cell level. However, single fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicators have been poorly developed, with improvement required for dynamic range and brightness. Based on our previous yellow fluorescent protein-based cAMP indicator, Flamindo, we developed an improved yellow fluorescent cAMP indicator named Flamindo2. Flamindo2 has a 2-fold expanded dynamic range and 8-fold increased brightness compared with Flamindo by optimization of linker peptides in the vicinity of the chromophore. We found that fluorescence intensity of Flamindo2 was decreased to 25% in response to cAMP. Live-cell cAMP imaging of the cytosol and nucleus in COS7 cells using Flamindo2 and nlsFlamindo2, respectively, showed that forskolin elevated cAMP levels in each compartment with different kinetics. Furthermore, dual-color imaging of cAMP and Ca2+ with Flamindo2 and a red fluorescent Ca2+ indicator, R-GECO, showed that cAMP and Ca2+ elevation were induced by noradrenaline in single HeLa cells. Our study shows that Flamindo2, which is feasible for multi-color imaging with other intracellular signaling molecules, is useful and is an alternative tool for live-cell imaging of intracellular cAMP dynamics. PMID:24959857

  9. Changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana Proteome Implicate cAMP in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses and Changes in Energy Metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Alqurashi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for 5 or 10 min. Here, applying mass spectrometry and comparative proteomics, 20 proteins were identified as differentially expressed and we noted a specific bias in proteins with a role in abiotic stress, particularly cold and salinity, biotic stress as well as proteins with a role in glycolysis. These findings suggest that cAMP is sufficient to elicit specific stress responses that may in turn induce complex changes to cellular energy homeostasis.

  10. Changes in the Arabidopsis thaliana Proteome Implicate cAMP in Biotic and Abiotic Stress Responses and Changes in Energy Metabolism

    KAUST Repository

    Alquraishi, May Majed

    2016-06-01

    The second messenger 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) is increasingly recognized as having many different roles in plant responses to environmental stimuli. To gain further insights into these roles, Arabidopsis thaliana cell suspension culture was treated with 100 nM of cell permeant 8-bromo-cAMP for 5 or 10 min. Here, applying mass spectrometry and comparative proteomics, 20 proteins were identified as differentially expressed and we noted a specific bias in proteins with a role in abiotic stress, particularly cold and salinity, biotic stress as well as proteins with a role in glycolysis. These findings suggest that cAMP is sufficient to elicit specific stress responses that may in turn induce complex changes to cellular energy homeostasis.

  11. An evaluation of ROME Camp: forgotten innovation in medical education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dongre, A R; Deshmukh, P R; Gupta, S S; Garg, B S

    2010-04-01

    Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences (MGIMS), Sewagram, India's first rural medical institute, has been implementing its community-based public health teaching with the aim of building a physician workforce for the rural poor. For the past four decades, the MGIMS has organized and run the Re-orientation of Medical Education (ROME) camp for final year medical undergraduates at one of the rural centres of the department of Community Medicine. The objectives of the present study were to learn students' perceptions of the value and effectiveness of various components of the ROME camp and learn the factors they perceive facilitate and inhibit learning. A mixed-method research design of quantitative (survey) and qualitative (force field analysis) methods was used. The study participants were all 61 of the final year medical undergraduates participating in the ROME camp in 2008. The quantitative data was analyzed using SPSS software package and summative content analysis of the qualitative data was undertaken. Students were generally very positive about all aspects of the camp and its component parts. The greatest consensus (88.9%, on a 0 to 100% scale) was for the contribution to student learning of the visit to the Primary health centre and Sub-centre, as offering direct exposure and interaction with the village-level service providers. There was poorer consensus for students' involvement with the field-based clinics, as this was felt by some not to contribute significantly to their understanding of socio-economic and environmental factors related to cases (78.8%) and their ability to diagnose health problems in resource poor settings (76.5%). The major strength of the camp was felt to be its exposure visits and hands-on experiences in surveys and interaction with village-level health care providers. Students reported poor interactions with teachers in some educational sessions, including the field-based clinics and classes on theories of national health

  12. Lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy and vascular function: Role of the nitric oxide-phosphodiesterase type 5-cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higashi, Yukihito

    2017-06-01

    It is well known that there is an association of lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy with cardiovascular disease, suggesting that lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy is a risk factor for cardiovascular events. Vascular function, including endothelial function and vascular smooth muscle function, is involved in the pathogenesis, maintenance and development of atherosclerosis, leading to cardiovascular events. Vascular dysfunction per se should also contribute to lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy. Both lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy and vascular dysfunction have cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, aging, obesity and smoking. Inactivation of the phosphodiesterase type 5-cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate-nitric oxide pathway causes lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy through an enhancement of sympathetic nervous activity, endothelial dysfunction, increase in Rho-associated kinase activity and vasoconstriction, and decrease in blood flow of pelvic viscera. Both endogenous nitric oxide and exogenous nitric oxide act as vasodilators on vascular smooth muscle cells through an increase in the content of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate, which is inactivated by phosphodiesterase type 5. In a clinical setting, phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors are widely used in patients with lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy. Phosphodiesterase type 5 inhibitors might have beneficial effects on vascular function through not only inhibition of cyclic guanosine 3',5'-monophosphate degradation, but also increases in testosterone levels and nitric oxide bioavailability, increase in the number and improvement of the function of endothelial progenitor cells, and decrease in insulin resistance. In the present review, the relationships between lower urinary tract symptoms/benign prostatic hypertrophy, the

  13. Design and Development Issues for Educational Robotics Training Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucgul, Memet; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore critical design issues for educational robotics training camps and to describe how these factors should be implemented in the development of such camps. For this purpose, two robotics training camps were organized for elementary school students. The first camp had 30 children attendees, and the second had 22. As…

  14. Design and Development Issues for Educational Robotics Training Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ucgul, Memet; Cagiltay, Kursat

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study is to explore critical design issues for educational robotics training camps and to describe how these factors should be implemented in the development of such camps. For this purpose, two robotics training camps were organized for elementary school students. The first camp had 30 children attendees, and the second had 22. As…

  15. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Xiang, Wenpei [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Family Planning Research Institute, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, People' s Republic of China (China); Wang, Yinna [Vascular Medicine Institute, University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine, 10051-5A BST 3, 3501 Fifth Avenue, Pittsburgh, PA 15261 (United States); Zhang, Xiaoying [Department of Medicine/Endocrinology Division, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, 200 Lothrop St., Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States); Billiar, Timothy R., E-mail: billiartr@upmc.edu [Department of Surgery, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center, Pittsburgh, PA 15213 (United States)

    2012-06-22

    that cAMP exerts its affect at the proximal level of TNF signaling by inhibiting the formation of the DISC complex upon the binding of TNF to TNFR1. In conclusion, our study shows that cAMP prevents TNF + ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes by inhibiting DISC complex formation.

  16. Silence as a Part of a Camping Product : Case: Evo Camping Centre

    OpenAIRE

    Syrjäniemi, Meeri

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the Bachelor’s thesis was to research whether there is a need for a silence product in Evo Camping Centre. Silence and nature can have a vast positive effect on a person’s health and the role of silence as a camping product will be examined. The thesis was conducted in co-operation with Metsähallitus, former Finnish National Board of Forestry and the entrepreneurs of Evo Camping Centre. A Visitor Surveys of Evo Camping Centre 2010 and Metsähallitus Annual Book 2014 were used as a o...

  17. 2012 USGS Lidar: Brooks Camp (AK)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) had a requirement for high resolution Lidar needed for mapping the Brooks Camp region of Katmai National Park in Alaska....

  18. Food Safety While Hiking, Camping and Boating

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Standard Forms FSIS United States Department of Agriculture Food Safety and Inspection Service About FSIS District Offices Careers ... Web Content Viewer (JSR 286) Actions ${title} Loading... Food Safety While Hiking, Camping & Boating Outdoor activities are popular ...

  19. Effect of cAMP on short-circuit current in isolated human ciliary body

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Ren-yi; MA Ning; HU Qian-qian

    2013-01-01

    Background Cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) could activate chloride channels in bovine ciliary body and trigger an increase in the ionic current (short-circuit current,Isc) across the ciliary processes in pigs.The purpose of this study was to investigate how cAMP modulates Isc in isolated human ciliary processes and the possible involvement of chloride transport across the tissue in cAMP-induced Isc change.Methods In an Ussing-type chamber system,the Isc changes induced by the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP and an adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin in isolated human ciliary processes were assessed.The involvement of Cl-component in the bath solution was investigated.The effect of Cl-channel (10 μmol/L niflumic acid and 1 mmol/L 4,4′-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2′-disulfonic acid (DIDS)),K+ channel (10 mmol/L tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA)),or Na+ channel blockers (1 mmol/L amiloride) on 8-bromo-cAMP-induced Isc change was also studied.Results Dose-dependently,8-bromo-cAMP (10 nmol/L-30 μmol/L) or forskolin (10 nmol/L-3 μmol/L) increased Isc across the ciliary processes with an increase in negative potential difference on the non-pigmented epithelium (NPE) side of the tissue.Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP was more pronounced when the drug was applied on the NPE side than on the pigmented epithelium side.When the tissue was bathed in low Cl-solutions,the Isc increase was significantly inhibited.Finally,niflumic acid and DIDS,but not TEA or amiloride,significantly prevented the Isc increase induced by 8-bromo-cAMP.Conclusions cAMP stimulates stroma-to-aqueous anionic transport in isolated human ciliary processes.Chloride is likely to be among the ions,the transportation of which across the tissue is triggered by cAMP,suggesting the potential role of cAMP in the process of aqueous humor formation in human eyes.

  20. Pleiotropic effects of cAMP on germination, antibiotic biosynthesis and morphological development in Streptomyces coelicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Süsstrunk, U; Pidoux, J; Taubert, S; Ullmann, A; Thompson, C J

    1998-10-01

    In wild-type Streptomyces coelicolor MT1110 cultures, cyclic adenosine 3',5' monophosphate (cAMP) was synthesized throughout the developmental programme with peaks of accumulation both during germination and later when aerial mycelium and actinorhodin were being produced. Construction and characterization of an adenylate cyclase disruption mutant (BZ1) demonstrated that cAMP facilitated these developmental processes. Although pulse-labelling experiments showed that a similar germination process was initiated in BZ1 and MT1110, germ-tube emergence was severely delayed in BZ1 and never occurred in more than 85% of the spores. Studies of growth and development on solid glucose minimal medium (SMMS, buffered or unbuffered) showed that MT1110 and BZ1 produced acid during the first rapid growth phase, which generated substrate mycelium. Thereafter, on unbuffered SMMS, only MT1110 resumed growth and produced aerial mycelium by switching to an alternative metabolism that neutralized its medium, probably by reincorporating and metabolizing extracellular acids. BZ1 was not able to neutralize its medium or produce aerial mycelium on unbuffered SMMS; these defects were suppressed by high concentrations (>1 mM) of cAMP during early growth or on buffered medium. Other developmental mutants (bldA, bldB, bldC, bldD, bldG) also irreversibly acidified this medium. However, these bald mutants were not suppressed by exogenous cAMP or neutralizing buffer. BZ1 also differentiated when it was cultured in close proximity to MT1110, a property observed in cross-feeding experiments between bald mutants and commonly thought to reflect diffusion of a discrete positively acting signalling molecule. In this case, MT1110 generated a more neutral pH environment that allowed BZ1 to reinitiate growth and form aerial mycelium. The fact that actinorhodin synthesis could be induced by concentrations of cAMP (< 20 microM) found in the medium of MT1110 cultures, suggested that it may serve as a

  1. The role of renal adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate in the control of erythropoietin production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodgers, G M; Fisher, J W; George, W J

    1975-01-01

    A regulatory role for adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate (cyclic AMP) in the production of the renal hormone rythropoietin following erythropoietic stimulation with cobaltous chloride hexahydrate is proposed. Studies in rates reveal a temporal relationship between renal cyclic AMP levels and plasma titers of erythropoietin. In addition, cobalt increases the activity of an erythropoietin-generating enzyme (renal erythropoietic factor) with maximal enzyme activity occurring after the rise in cyclic AMP levels but before the increase in erythropoietin titers. This increase in renal cyclic AMP is localized to the renal cortex. Cobalt stimulates renal cortical adenylate cyclase but has no effect on renal cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. The addition of cyclic AMP (3 time 10-6 M) and a partially purified cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase from rat kidney to an inactive preparation of renal erythropoietic factor increases the ability of renal erythropoietic factor to generate erythropoietin. Data from the polycythemic mouse assay, a bioassay used to quantitate erythropoietic activity of test substances, indicate that dibutyryl cyclic AMP is erythropoietically active with respect to its ability to increase radioactive-labelled iron (59Fe) incorporation into heme of newly formed red blood cells. Theophylline, which by itself is erythropoietically inactive, potentiated the erythropoietic effect of cobalt in polycythemic mice. These results suggest that cyclic AMP plays a significant role in the renal production of erythropoietin following cobalt administration. It is postulated that cobalt stimulates renal cortical adenyoate cyclase, thus increasing renal cyclic AMP levels. Cyclic AMP then activates a protein kinase which subsequently stimulates renal erythropoietic factor to generate erythropoietin. A similar cyclic AMP mechanism may be operative after erythropoietic stimulation by exposure to hypoxia or prostaglandin treatment.

  2. Squalenoyl nucleoside monophosphate nanoassemblies: new prodrug strategy for the delivery of nucleotide analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caron, Joachim; Reddy, L Harivardhan; Lepêtre-Mouelhi, Sinda; Wack, Séverine; Clayette, Pascal; Rogez-Kreuz, Christine; Yousfi, Rahima; Couvreur, Patrick; Desmaële, Didier

    2010-05-01

    4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoyldideoxycytidine monophosphate (SQddC-MP) and 4-(N)-1,1',2-trisnor-squalenoylgemcitabine monophosphate (SQdFdC-MP) were synthesized using phosphoramidite chemistry. These amphiphilic molecules self-assembled to about hundred nanometers size nanoassemblies in aqueous medium. Nanoassemblies of SQddC-MP displayed significant anti-HIV activity whereas SQdFdC-MP nanoassemblies displayed promising anticancer activity on leukemia cells. These results suggested that squalene conjugate of negatively charged nucleotide analogues efficiently penetrated within cells. Thus, we propose a new prodrug strategy for improved delivery of nucleoside analogues to ameliorate their biological efficacy.

  3. ESTCP Live Site Demonstrations Former Camp Beale

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    instrumentation package includes a real-time kinematic global positioning system ( RTK - GPS ) receiver for recording positional data and inertial measurement...RS232C ports. For the survey at Camp Beale, the RTK - GPS base station consisted of a Trimble R8 receiver and Trimble HPB450 external radio. CH2M...the former Camp Beale were selected by the ESTCP Program Office. Survey benchmarks for RTK - GPS base station locations had also been established by

  4. Los campings en España

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Feo Parrondo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Los campings son una de las variedades turísticas con más crecimiento en España en las últimas décadas: 52’76% el número de campings y 60’22% el de plazas que ofrecen entre 1980 y 2002. Aunque están presentes en todas las provincias, se ubican mayoritariamente en zonas costeras, superando en muchas localidades a los alojamientos hoteleros.

  5. Arabidopsis TH2 Encodes the Orphan Enzyme Thiamin Monophosphate Phosphatase[OPEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niehaus, Thomas D.; Hasnain, Ghulam; Gidda, Satinder K.; Nguyen, Thuy N.D.; Anderson, Erin M.; Brown, Greg; Yakunin, Alexander F.; de Crécy-Lagard, Valérie; Gregory, Jesse F.

    2016-01-01

    To synthesize the cofactor thiamin diphosphate (ThDP), plants must first hydrolyze thiamin monophosphate (ThMP) to thiamin, but dedicated enzymes for this hydrolysis step were unknown and widely doubted to exist. The classical thiamin-requiring th2-1 mutation in Arabidopsis thaliana was shown to reduce ThDP levels by half and to increase ThMP levels 5-fold, implying that the THIAMIN REQUIRING2 (TH2) gene product could be a dedicated ThMP phosphatase. Genomic and transcriptomic data indicated that TH2 corresponds to At5g32470, encoding a HAD (haloacid dehalogenase) family phosphatase fused to a TenA (thiamin salvage) family protein. Like the th2-1 mutant, an insertional mutant of At5g32470 accumulated ThMP, and the thiamin requirement of the th2-1 mutant was complemented by wild-type At5g32470. Complementation tests in Escherichia coli and enzyme assays with recombinant proteins confirmed that At5g32470 and its maize (Zea mays) orthologs GRMZM2G148896 and GRMZM2G078283 are ThMP-selective phosphatases whose activity resides in the HAD domain and that the At5g32470 TenA domain has the expected thiamin salvage activity. In vitro and in vivo experiments showed that alternative translation start sites direct the At5g32470 protein to the cytosol and potentially also to mitochondria. Our findings establish that plants have a dedicated ThMP phosphatase and indicate that modest (50%) ThDP depletion can produce severe deficiency symptoms. PMID:27677881

  6. Growth hormone release from chicken anterior pituitary cells in primary culture: TRH and hpGRF synergy, protein synthesis, and cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, F M; Malamed, S; Scanes, C G

    1989-01-01

    Our earlier work showed that the effects of thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and human pancreatic growth hormone-releasing factor (hpGRF) on growth hormone (GH) release are synergistic (greater than additive) in a primary culture of chicken adenohypophyseal cells. The purpose of the present studies was to investigate the possible participation of protein synthesis and cyclic adenosine 3'5'-monophosphate (cAMP) in GH release. Following culture (48 hr), cells were incubated for 2 hr with test agents. Cycloheximide (an inhibitor of protein synthesis) had no effect on basal (absence of test agent) GH release or hpGRF-induced GH release. However, cycloheximide abolished the synergy between TRH and hpGRF. Although neither TRH nor hpGRF alone stimulated GH production (intracellular GH plus GH release) during a 2-hr incubation period, in combination these secretagogues increased total GH. These findings suggest that GH release from the chicken somatotroph under conditions of TRH and hpGRF synergy requires protein synthesis. In other studies, cells were exposed to agents inducing the formation of cAMP and either TRH or hpGRF. 8 Br-cAMP (10(-3) M), forskolin (10(-6) M), or isobutylmethylxanthine (IBMX; 10(-3) M) alone stimulated GH release to values between 30 and 50% over the basal value. The combined effects of each of these agents and TRH on GH release were synergistic. Similarly, IBMX and hpGRF exerted synergistic effects on GH release. In contrast, no synergy was shown between hpGRF and either 8 Br-cAMP or forskolin; their combined actions were less than additive.

  7. Planning and Executing the Neurosurgery Boot Camp: The Bolivia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ament, Jared D; Kim, Timothy; Gold-Markel, Judah; Germano, Isabelle M; Dempsey, Robert; Weaver, John P; DiPatri, Arthur J; Andrews, Russell J; Sanchez, Mary; Hinojosa, Juan; Moser, Richard P; Glick, Roberta

    2017-08-01

    The neurosurgical boot camp has been fully incorporated into U.S. postgraduate education. This is the first implementation of the neurosurgical boot in a developing country. To advance neurosurgical education, we developed a similar boot camp program, in collaboration with Bolivian neurosurgeons, to determine its feasibility and effectiveness in an international setting. In a collective effort, the Bolivian Society for Neurosurgery, Foundation for International Education in Neurological Surgery, Solidarity Bridge, and University of Massachusetts organized and executed the first South American neurosurgical boot camp in Bolivia in 2015. Both U.S. and Bolivian faculty led didactic lectures followed by a practicum day using mannequins and simulators. South American residents and faculty were surveyed after the course to determine levels of enthusiasm and their perceived improvement in fund of knowledge and course effectiveness. Twenty-four neurosurgery residents from 5 South American countries participated. Average survey scores ranged between 4.2 and 4.9 out of 5. Five Bolivian neurosurgeons completed the survey with average scores of 4.5-5. This event allowed for Bolivian leaders in the field to unify around education, resulting in the formation of an institute to continue similar initiatives. Total cost was estimated at $40 000 USD; however, significant faculty, industry, and donor support helped offset this amount. The first South American neurosurgical boot camp had significant value and was well received in Bolivia. This humanitarian model provides a sustainable solution to education needs and should be expanded to other regions as a means for standardizing the core competencies in neurosurgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. cAMP prevents TNF-induced apoptosis through inhibiting DISC complex formation in rat hepatocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, Rajesh; Xiang, Wenpei; Wang, Yinna; Zhang, Xiaoying; Billiar, Timothy R

    2012-06-22

    Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF) is a pleiotropic proinflammatory cytokine that plays a role in immunity and the control of cell proliferation, cell differentiation, and apoptosis. The pleiotropic nature of TNF is due to the formation of different signaling complexes upon the binding of TNF to its receptor, TNF receptor type 1 (TNFR1). TNF induces apoptosis in various mammalian cells when the cells are co-treated with a transcription inhibitor like actinomycin D (ActD). When TNFR1 is activated, it recruits an adaptor protein, TNF receptor-associated protein with death domain (TRADD), through its cytoplasmic death effector domain (DED). TRADD, in turn, recruits other signaling proteins, including TNF receptor-associated protein 2 (TRAF2) and receptor-associated protein kinase (RIPK) 1, to form a complex. Subsequently, this complex combines with FADD and procaspase-8, converts into a death-inducing signaling complex (DISC) to induce apoptosis. Cyclic AMP (cAMP) is a second messenger that regulates various cellular processes such as cell proliferation, gene expression, and apoptosis. cAMP analogues are reported to act as anti-apoptotic agents in various cell types, including hepatocytes. We found that a cAMP analogue, dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP), inhibits TNF+ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes. The protein kinase A (PKA) inhibitor KT-5720 reverses this inhibitory effect of cAMP on apoptosis. Cytoprotection by cAMP involves down-regulation of various apoptotic signal regulators like TRADD and FADD and inhibition of caspase-8 and caspase-3 cleavage. We also found that cAMP exerts its affect at the proximal level of TNF signaling by inhibiting the formation of the DISC complex upon the binding of TNF to TNFR1. In conclusion, our study shows that cAMP prevents TNF+ActD-induced apoptosis in rat hepatocytes by inhibiting DISC complex formation.

  9. Camping in the Disciplines: Assessing the Effect of Writing Camps on Graduate Student Writers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busl, Gretchen; Donnelly, Kara Lee; Capdevielle, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    In the past ten years, an increasing number of universities have begun organizing writing "camps," or full-week immersion experiences, in an effort to address the increased need to support graduate student writing. Outside of anecdotes and testimonials, we have previously had very little data about these camps' success. This study,…

  10. Linking cellular actin status with cAMP signaling in Candida albicans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yue; Zou, Hao; Fang, Hao-Ming; Zhu, Yong

    2010-01-01

    The fungal pathogen Candida albicans has a remarkable ability to switch growth forms. Particularly, the yeast-to-hyphae switch is closely linked with its virulence. A range of chemicals and conditions can promote hyphal growth including serum, peptidoglycan, CO2, neutral pH, and elevated temperature. All these signals act essentially through the adenylyl cyclase Cyr1 that synthesizes cAMP. Cells lacking Cyr1 are completely defective in hyphal growth. Recently, cellular actin status is found to influence cAMP synthesis. However, how Cyr1 senses and processes multiple external and internal signals to produce a contextually proper level of cAMP remains unclear. We hypothesized that Cyr1 itself possesses multiple sensors for different signals and achieves signal integration through a combined allosteric effect on the catalytic center. To test this hypothesis, we affinity-purified a Cyr1-containing complex and found that it could enhance cAMP synthesis upon treatment with serum, peptidoglycan or CO2 in vitro. The data indicate that the complex is an essentially intact sensor/effector apparatus for cAMP synthesis. The complex contains two more subunits, the cyclase-associated protein Cap1 and G-actin. We discovered that G-actin plays a regulatory role, rendering cAMP synthesis responsive to actin dynamics. These findings shed new lights on the mechanisms that regulate cAMP-mediated responses in fungi.

  11. Epac and PKA: a tale of two intracellular cAMP receptors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaodong Cheng; Zhenyu Ji; Tamara Tsalkova; Fang Mei

    2008-01-01

    cAMP-mediated signaling pathways regulate a multitude of important biological processes under both physiological and pathological conditions,including diabetes,heart failure and cancer.In eukaryotic cells,the effects of cAMP are mediated by two ubiquitously expressed intracellular cAMP receptors,the classic protein kinase A (PKA)/cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the recently discovered exchange protein directly activated by cAMP(Epac)/cAMP-regulated guanine nucleotide exchange factors.Like PKA,Epac contains an evolutionally conserved cAMP binding domain that acts as a molecular switch for sensing intracellular second messenger cAMP levels to control diverse biological functions.The existence of two families of cAMP effectors provides a mechanism for a more precise and integrated control of the cAMP signaling pathways in a spatial and temporal manner.Depending upon the specific cellular environments as well as their relative abundance,distrbution and localization,Epac and PKA may act independently,converge synergistically or oppose each other in regulating a specific cellular function.

  12. Effects of ginsenoside Rg1 on c-fos gene expression and cAMP levels in rat hippocampus%人参皂苷Rg1对大鼠海马c-fos基因表达和cAMP含量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘忞; 张均田

    1996-01-01

    To study the mechanisms of Rg1 antiaging and nootropic function. METHODS: Using Northern and Western blot analyses, the levels of cfos mRNA and fos protein were determined in the hippocampus of young and old rats treated with or without ginsenoside Rg1. RESULTS: The expression of c-fos gene and protein was decreased in the hippocampus of aged rats, but dose-dependently increased in young and aged rats after the administration of Rg1. Furthermore, Rg1 increased the level of cAMP in the hippocampus of both young and old rats. CONCLUSION: The changes at the genomic and protein levels, arisen from the increase of cAMP, provide an explanation of the mechanisms of Rg1 nootropic and antiaging function.%探讨Rg1对神经系统作用的机制.方法:采用Northern和Western印迹分析法,检测了Rg1处理前后大鼠海马组织的c-fos基因和蛋白的表达.结果:老年鼠c-fos基因和蛋白的表达明显低于青年鼠,但给Rg1后老年鼠和青年鼠均呈现显著性增强效应.此外,Rg1还明显增加青年鼠和老年鼠海马组织的cAMP含量.结论:Rg1升高cAMP水平及促进c-fos基因和蛋白的表达有助于阐明其促智和抗衰老作用的机制.

  13. Gold Core Mesoporous Organosilica Shell Degradable Nanoparticles for Two-Photon Imaging and Gemcitabine Monophosphate Delivery

    KAUST Repository

    Rhamani, Saher

    2017-09-12

    The synthesis of gold core degradable mesoporous organosilica shell nanoparticles is described. The nanopaticles were very efficient for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells and for in vitro gemcitabine monophosphate delivery, allowing promising theranostic applications in the nanomedicine field.

  14. DISSIMILARITY IN METHACHOLINE AND ADENOSINE 5'-MONOPHOSPHATE RESPONSIVENESS 3-H AND 24-H AFTER ALLERGEN CHALLENGE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    AALBERS, R; KAUFFMAN, HF; KOETER, GH; POSTMA, DS; DEVRIES, K; DEMONCHY, JGR

    1991-01-01

    Bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR) to methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) was studied in 15 allergic asthmatic patients before and 3 and 24 h after allergen challenge with hose dust mite (HDM). Subjects attended the clinic on 3 consecutive days. On the first day a control solution was

  15. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition prevents myocardial infarction-induced increase in renal cortical cGMP and cAMP phosphodiesterase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, François; Charloux, Anne; Piquard, François; Doutreleau, Stéphane; Talha, Samy; Zoll, Joffrey; Lugnier, Claire; Geny, Bernard

    2015-08-01

    We investigated whether myocardial infarction (MI) enhances renal phosphodiesterases (PDE) activities, investigating particularly the relative contribution of PDE1-5 isozymes in total PDE activity involved in both cGMP and cAMP pathways, and whether angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEi) decreases such renal PDE hyperactivities. We also investigated whether ACEi might thereby improve atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) efficiency. We studied renal cortical PDE1-5 isozyme activities in sham (SH)-operated, MI rats and in MI rats treated with perindopril (ACEi) 1 month after coronary artery ligation. Circulating atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), its second intracellular messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) and cGMP/ANP ratio were also determined. Cortical cGMP-PDE2 (80.3 vs. 65.1 pmol/min/mg) and cGMP-PDE1 (50.7 vs. 30.1 pmol/min/mg), and cAMP-PDE2 (161 vs. 104.1 pmol/min/mg) and cAMP-PDE4 (307.5 vs. 197.2 pmol/min/mg) activities were higher in MI than in SH rats. Despite increased ANP plasma level, ANP efficiency tended to be decreased in MI compared to SH rats. Perindopril restored PDE activities and tended to improve ANP efficiency in MI rats. One month after coronary ligation, perindopril treatment of MI rats prevents the increase in renal cortical PDE activities. This may contribute to increase renal ANP efficiency in MI rats.

  16. Characterization of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC12600 and its involvement in biofilm formation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Yeswanth

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: In Staphylococcus aureus purine metabolism plays a crucial role in the formation of biofilm which is a key pathogenic factor. The present study is aimed in the characterization of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH from Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12600. Methods: IMPDH gene was amplified using primers designed from IMPDH gene sequence of S. aureus reported in the database. Then polymerase chain reaction (PCR product was cloned in the Sma I site of M13mp18 and expressed in Escherichia coli JM109. The recombinant IMPDH (rIMPDH was overexpressed with 1 mM isopropyl beta-D-1- thiogalactopyranoside (IPTG; Michaelis constant (Km, maximum enzyme velocity (Vmax and catalytic constant (Kcat of expressed IMPDH were determined. Results: The enzyme kinetics of IMPDH grown under aerobic conditions showed a Km of 43.71±1.56 µM, Vmax of 0.247±0.84/µM/mg/min and Kcat of 2.74±0.015/min while in anaerobic conditions the kinetics showed Km of 42.81±3.154/ µM, Vmax of 0.378±0.036 µM/mg/min and Kcat of 4.78±0.021 /min, indicating elevated levels of IMPDH activity under anaerobic conditions. Three-folds increased activity in the presence of 1 mM adenosine triphosphate (ATP correlated with biofilm formation. The kinetics of pure rIMPDH were close to the native IMPDH of S. aureus ATCC12600 and the enzyme showed single band in sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis with a molecular weight of 53 KDa. Conclusions: Elevated activity of IMPDH was observed in S. aureus grown under anaerobic conditions and this was correlated with the biofilm formation indicating the linkage between purine metabolism and pathogenesis.

  17. Different characteristics and nucleotide binding properties of inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH isoforms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine C Thomas

    Full Text Available We recently reported that Inosine Monophosphate Dehydrogenase (IMPDH, a rate-limiting enzyme in de novo guanine nucleotide biosynthesis, clustered into macrostructures in response to decreased nucleotide levels and that there were differences between the IMPDH isoforms, IMPDH1 and IMPDH2. We hypothesised that the Bateman domains, which are present in both isoforms and serve as energy-sensing/allosteric modules in unrelated proteins, would contribute to isoform-specific differences and that mutations situated in and around this domain in IMPDH1 which give rise to retinitis pigmentosa (RP would compromise regulation. We employed immuno-electron microscopy to investigate the ultrastructure of IMPDH macrostructures and live-cell imaging to follow clustering of an IMPDH2-GFP chimera in real-time. Using a series of IMPDH1/IMPDH2 chimera we demonstrated that the propensity to cluster was conferred by the N-terminal 244 amino acids, which includes the Bateman domain. A protease protection assay suggested isoform-specific purine nucleotide binding characteristics, with ATP protecting IMPDH1 and AMP protecting IMPDH2, via a mechanism involving conformational changes upon nucleotide binding to the Bateman domain without affecting IMPDH catalytic activity. ATP binding to IMPDH1 was confirmed in a nucleotide binding assay. The RP-causing mutation, R224P, abolished ATP binding and nucleotide protection and this correlated with an altered propensity to cluster. Collectively these data demonstrate that (i the isoforms are differentially regulated by AMP and ATP by a mechanism involving the Bateman domain, (ii communication occurs between the Bateman and catalytic domains and (iii the RP-causing mutations compromise such regulation. These findings support the idea that the IMPDH isoforms are subject to distinct regulation and that regulatory defects contribute to human disease.

  18. Effect of swimming training on spatial learning-memory function of rats and its relationship with cAMP and cGMP in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex%游泳训练对大鼠空间学习记忆能力与海马、前额叶皮质环磷酸腺苷、环磷酸鸟苷水平的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢敏; 徐波; 王泽军

    2009-01-01

    目的:探讨8周游泳训练对大鼠空间学习记忆能力的影响与环磷酸腺苷(cAMP)、环磷酸鸟苷(cGMP)信号传导途径的关系.方法:以大鼠为实验对象,采用Morris水迷官法,研究8周游泳训练对大鼠空间学习记忆能力的作用;采用放射免疫法测定研究8周游泳训练对大鼠海马、前额叶皮质中cGMP、cAMP含量的影响.结果:①Morris水迷宫的测试表明,8周游泳训练后,大鼠的空间记忆能力有一定提高.②与安静组相比,8周游泳训练使大鼠海马cAMP水平非常显著性增加(P<0.01),cAMP/cGMP比值显著性增高(P<0.05),同时,前额叶皮质cAMP与cAMP/cGMP比值显著性增高(P<0.05).结论:8周的游泳训练在提高大鼠空间学习记忆能力的同时伴有海马、前额叶皮质cAMP含量与cAMP/cGMP比值的变化,从而部分揭示了运动促进学习记忆能力提高的可能机制.%Objective: To analyze the influence of long-term swimming training on spatial learning-memory in rats and its relationship with cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP) and cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cGMP) signal transduction pathway. Method: After 3 times adaptable swimming exercises (30min each time), 40 male SD rats were divided into 2 groups: control group (CR, n=20) and exercises, group (TR, n=20). CR group didn't swim, and TR group swam without burden (6 times/week, 60 min each time). After 8 weeks training, 10 rats were selected from both groups respectively for examing of Morris water maze test. Radioimmunoassay was used to measure the levels of cAMP and cGMP in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of rats. Result: ①Compared with CR group, in TR group learning-memory improved in a certain extent: ②Compared with CR group, in TR group, the level of cAMP in hippocampus enhanced very obviously (P<0.01), the cAMP/cGMP ratio enhanced obviously (P<0.05); in prefrontal cortex the levels of cAMP and cAMP/cGMP ratio enhanced obviously (P<0.05). Conclusion: Swimming

  19. Progesterone, estradiol, arachidonic acid, oxytocin, forskolin and cAMP influence on aquaporin 1 and 5 expression in porcine uterine explants during the mid-luteal phase of the estrous cycle and luteolysis: an in vitro study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skowronska, Agnieszka; Młotkowska, Patrycja; Wojciechowicz, Bartosz; Okrasa, Stanisław; Nielsen, Soren; Skowronski, Mariusz T

    2015-02-18

    The cell membrane water channel protein, aquaporins (AQPs), regulate cellular water transport and cell volume and play a key role in water homeostasis. Recently, AQPs are considered as important players in the field of reproduction. In previous studies, we have established the presence of AQP1 and 5 in porcine uterus. Their expression at protein level altered in distinct tissues of the female reproductive system depending on the phase of the estrous cycle. However, the regulation of aquaporin genes and proteins expression has not been examined in porcine uterine tissue. Therefore, we have designed an in vitro experiment to explain whether steroid hormones, progesterone (P4) and estradiol (E2), and other factors: oxytocine (OT), arachidonic acid (AA; substrate for prostaglandins synthesis) as well as forskolin (FSK; adenylate cyclase activator) and cAMP (second messenger, cyclic adenosine monophosphate) may impact AQPs expression. Uterine tissues were collected on Days 10-12 and 14-16 of the estrous cycle representing the mid-luteal phase and luteolysis. Real-time PCR and Western blot analysis were performed to examine the expression of porcine AQP1 and AQP5. Their expression in the uterine explants was also evaluated by immunohistochemistry. The results indicated that uterine expression of AQP1 and AQP5 potentially remains under control of steroid hormones and AA-derived compounds (e.g. prostaglandins). P4, E2, AA, FSK and cAMP cause translocation of AQP5 from apical to the basolateral plasma membrane of the epithelial cells, which might affect the transcellular water movement (through epithelial cells) between uterine lumen and blood vessels. The AC/cAMP pathway is involved in the intracellular signals transduction connected with the regulation of AQPs expression in the pig uterus. This study documented specific patterns of AQP1 and AQP5 expression in response to P4, E2, AA, FSK and cAMP, thereby providing new indirect evidence of their role in maintaining the

  20. Cows are not mice: the role of cyclic AMP, phosphodiesterases, and adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase in the maintenance of meiotic arrest in bovine oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilodeau-Goeseels, Sylvie

    2011-01-01

    Meiotic maturation in mammalian oocytes is initiated during fetal development, and is then arrested at the dictyate stage - possibly for several years. Oocyte meiosis resumes in preovulatory follicles in response to the lutenizing hormone (LH) surge or spontaneously when competent oocytes are removed from follicles and cultured. The mechanisms involved in meiotic arrest and resumption in bovine oocytes are not fully understood, and several studies point to important differences between oocytes from rodent and livestock species. This paper reviews earlier and contemporary studies on the effects of cAMP-elevating agents and phosphodiesterase (PDE) enzyme inhibitors on the maintenance of meiotic arrest in bovine oocytes in vitro. Contrary to results obtained with mouse oocytes, bovine oocyte meiosis is inhibited by activators of the energy sensor adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK, mammalian gene PRKA), which is activated by AMP, the degradation product of cAMP. It is not clear whether or not the effects were due to AMPK activation, and they may depend on culture conditions. Evidence suggests that other signaling pathways (for example, the cGMP/nitric oxide pathway) are involved in bovine oocyte meiotic arrest, but further studies are needed to understand the interactions between the signaling pathways that lead to maturation promoting factor (MPF) being inactive or active. An improved understanding of the mechanisms involved in the control of bovine oocyte meiosis will facilitate better control of the process in vitro, resulting in increased developmental competence and increased efficiency of in vitro embryo production procedures.

  1. Long-term cilostazol administration ameliorates memory decline in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8) through a dual effect on cAMP and blood-brain barrier.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanai, Shuichi; Toyohara, Jun; Ishiwata, Kiichi; Ito, Hideki; Endo, Shogo

    2016-12-12

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs), which hydrolyze and inactivate 3', 5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and 3', 5'-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), play an important role in synaptic plasticity that underlies memory. Recently, several PDE inhibitors were assessed for their possible therapeutic efficacy in treating cognitive disorders. Here, we examined how cilostazol, a selective PDE3 inhibitor, affects brain functions in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), an animal model of age-related cognitive impairment. Long-term administration of cilostazol restored the impaired context-dependent conditioned fear memory of SAMP8 to match that in normal aging control substrain SAMR1. Cilostazol also increased the number of cells containing phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), a downstream component of the cAMP pathway. Finally, cilostazol improves blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, demonstrated by reduced extravasation of 2-deoxy-2-(18)F-fluoro-d-glucose and Evans Blue dye in the brains of SAMP8. This improvement in BBB integrity was associated with an increased amount of zona occludens protein 1 (ZO-1) and occludin proteins, components of tight junctions integral to the BBB. The results suggest that long-term administration of cilostazol exerts its beneficial effects on age-related cognitive impairment through a dual mechanism: by enhancing the cAMP system in the brain and by maintaining or improving BBB integrity.

  2. TLR-2 Recognizes Propionibacterium acnes CAMP Factor 1 from Highly Inflammatory Strains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ollagnier, Guillaume; Désiré, Nathalie; Sayon, Sophie; Raingeaud, Jöel; Marcelin, Anne-Geneviève; Calvez, Vincent; Khammari, Amir; Batteux, Frédéric; Dréno, Brigitte; Dupin, Nicolas

    2016-01-01

    Background Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes) is an anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria encountered in inflammatory acne lesions, particularly in the pilosebaceous follicle. P. acnes triggers a strong immune response involving keratinocytes, sebocytes and monocytes, the target cells during acne development. Lipoteicoic acid and peptidoglycan induce the inflammatory reaction, but no P. acnes surface protein interacting with Toll-like receptors has been identified. P. acnes surface proteins have been extracted by lithium stripping and shown to induce CXCL8 production by keratinocytes. Methodology and principal findings Far-western blotting identified two surface proteins, of 24.5- and 27.5-kDa in size, specifically recognized by TLR2. These proteins were characterized, by LC-MS/MS, as CAMP factor 1 devoid of its signal peptide sequence, as shown by N-terminal sequencing. Purified CAMP factor 1 induces CXCL8 production by activating the CXCL8 gene promoter, triggering the synthesis of CXCL8 mRNA. Antibodies against TLR2 significantly decreased the CXCL8 response. For the 27 P. acnes strains used in this study, CAMP1-TLR2 binding intensity was modulated and appeared to be strong in type IB and II strains, which produced large amounts of CXCL8, whereas most of the type IA1 and IA2 strains presented little or no CAMP1-TLR2 binding and low levels of CXCL8 production. The nucleotide sequence of CAMP factor displays a major polymorphism, defining two distinct genetic groups corresponding to CAMP factor 1 with 14 amino-acid changes from strains phylotyped II with moderate and high levels of CAMP1-TLR2 binding activity, and CAMP factor 1 containing 0, 1 or 2 amino-acid changes from strains phylotyped IA1, IA2, or IB presenting no, weak or moderate CAMP1-TLR2 binding. Conclusions Our findings indicate that CAMP factor 1 may contribute to P. acnes virulence, by amplifying the inflammation reaction through direct interaction with TLR2. PMID:27902761

  3. cAMP and Schwann cells promote axonal growth and functional recovery after spinal cord injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearse, Damien D; Pereira, Francisco C; Marcillo, Alexander E; Bates, Margaret L; Berrocal, Yerko A; Filbin, Marie T; Bunge, Mary Bartlett

    2004-06-01

    Central neurons regenerate axons if a permissive environment is provided; after spinal cord injury, however, inhibitory molecules are present that make the local environment nonpermissive. A promising new strategy for inducing neurons to overcome inhibitory signals is to activate cAMP signaling. Here we show that cAMP levels fall in the rostral spinal cord, sensorimotor cortex and brainstem after spinal cord contusion. Inhibition of cAMP hydrolysis by the phosphodiesterase IV inhibitor rolipram prevents this decrease and when combined with Schwann cell grafts promotes significant supraspinal and proprioceptive axon sparing and myelination. Furthermore, combining rolipram with an injection of db-cAMP near the graft not only prevents the drop in cAMP levels but increases them above those in uninjured controls. This further enhances axonal sparing and myelination, promotes growth of serotonergic fibers into and beyond grafts, and significantly improves locomotion. These findings show that cAMP levels are key for protection, growth and myelination of injured CNS axons in vivo and recovery of function.

  4. A specialized program for children with developmental disabilities within a "typical" overnight summer camp: Camp Ramah's Tikvah Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blas, Howard I

    2007-10-01

    The Tikvah Program is an overnight camping program at Camp Ramah in New England that serves campers with a range of developmental disabilities. The program has evolved over its 37-year history and includes a camping program, vocational training program, and inclusion program. Select graduates are hired by the camp for summer employment. The Tikvah Program offers a model for serving campers with special needs within a larger "typical" summer camp. Although serving the needs of such campers offers unique challenges, the presence of such a program in a regular summer camp offers tremendous opportunities and benefits for campers with special needs and more typically developing campers.

  5. G beta gamma signaling reduces intracellular cAMP to promote meiotic progression in mouse oocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Arvind; Hammes, Stephen R

    2007-02-01

    In nearly every vertebrate species, elevated intracellular cAMP maintains oocytes in prophase I of meiosis. Prior to ovulation, gonadotropins trigger various intra-ovarian processes, including the breakdown of gap junctions, the activation of EGF receptors, and the secretion of steroids. These events in turn decrease intracellular cAMP levels in select oocytes to allow meiotic progression, or maturation, to resume. Studies suggest that cAMP levels are kept elevated in resting oocytes by constitutive G protein signaling, and that the drop in intracellular cAMP that accompanies maturation may be due in part to attenuation of this inhibitory G protein-mediated signaling. Interestingly, one of these G protein regulators of meiotic arrest is the Galpha(s) protein, which stimulates adenylyl cyclase to raise intracellular cAMP in two important animal models of oocyte development: Xenopus leavis frogs and mice. In addition to G(alpha)(s), constitutive Gbetagamma activity similarly stimulates adenylyl cyclase to raise cAMP and prevent maturation in Xenopus oocytes; however, the role of Gbetagamma in regulating meiosis in mouse oocytes has not been examined. Here we show that Gbetagamma does not contribute to the maintenance of murine oocyte meiotic arrest. In fact, contrary to observations in frog oocytes, Gbetagamma signaling in mouse oocytes reduces cAMP and promotes oocyte maturation, suggesting that Gbetagamma might in fact play a positive role in promoting oocyte maturation. These observations emphasize that, while many general concepts and components of meiotic regulation are conserved from frogs to mice, specific differences exist that may lead to important insights regarding ovarian development in vertebrates.

  6. Medical Record Keeping in the Summer Camp Setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Laura; Holland, Jaycelyn; Weinberg, Stuart; Rosenbloom, S Trent

    2016-12-14

    Approximately one fifth of school-aged children spend a significant portion of their year at residential summer camp, and a growing number have chronic medical conditions. Camp health records are essential for safe, efficient care and for transitions between camp and home providers, yet little research exists regarding these systems. To survey residential summer camps for children to determine how camps create, store, and use camper health records. To raise awareness in the informatics community of the issues experienced by health providers working in a special pediatric care setting. We designed a web-based electronic survey concerning medical recordkeeping and healthcare practices at summer camps. 953 camps accredited by the American Camp Association received the survey. Responses were consolidated and evaluated for trends and conclusions. Of 953 camps contacted, 298 (31%) responded to the survey. Among respondents, 49.3% stated that there was no computer available at the health center, and 14.8% of camps stated that there was not any computer available to health staff at all. 41.1% of camps stated that internet access was not available. The most common complaints concerning recordkeeping practices were time burden, adequate completion, and consistency. Summer camps in the United States make efforts to appropriately document healthcare given to campers, but inconsistency and inefficiency may be barriers to staff productivity, staff satisfaction, and quality of care. Survey responses suggest that the current methods used by camps to document healthcare cause limitations in consistency, efficiency, and communications between providers, camp staff, and parents. As of 2012, survey respondents articulated need for a standard software to document summer camp healthcare practices that accounts for camp-specific needs. Improvement may be achieved if documentation software offers the networking capability, simplicity, pediatrics-specific features, and avoidance of

  7. Effect of 3,3',5-triiodothyronine and 3,5-diiodothyronine on progesterone production, cAMP synthesis, and mRNA expression of STAR, CYP11A1, and HSD3B genes in granulosa layer of chicken preovulatory follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sechman, A; Pawlowska, K; Hrabia, A

    2011-10-01

    In vitro studies were performed to assess whether stimulatory effects of triiodothyronine (T3) on progesterone (P4) production in a granulosa layer (GL) of chicken preovulatory follicles are associated with 3',5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) synthesis and mRNA expression of STAR protein, CYP11A1, and HSD3B. Effects of 3,5-diiodothyronine (3,5-T2) on steroidogenic function in these follicles were also investigated. The GL of F3 to F1 follicles was incubated in medium supplemented with T3 or 3,5-T2, LH, or forskolin (F), and a combination of each iodothyronine with LH or F. Levels of P4 and cAMP in culture media were determined by RIA. Expression of genes involved in P4 synthesis (ie, STAR protein, CYP11A1, and HSD3B) in the GL of F3 to F1 follicles incubated in medium with T3 or 3,5-T2 and their combination with LH was performed by real-time PCR. Triiodothyronine increased basal and LH- and F-stimulated P4 secretion by preovulatory follicles. The 3,5-T2 elevated P4 synthesis by F3, had no effect on F2 follicles, and diminished P4 production by the GL of F1 follicles. It had no effect on LH-stimulated P4 production; however, it augmented F-stimulated P4 production by F2 and F1 follicles. Although T3 did not affect basal and F-stimulated cAMP synthesis by the GL of preovulatory follicles, it increased LH-stimulated synthesis of this nucleotide. However, 3,5-T2 elevated F-stimulated cAMP synthesis in F3 and F2 follicles; it did not change basal and LH-stimulated cAMP production. Triiodothyronine decreased basal STAR and CYP11A1 mRNAs in F3 follicles, increased them in F1 follicles, and elevated HSD3B mRNA levels in F1 follicles. Triiodothyronine augmented LH-stimulated STAR, CYP11A1, and HSD3B mRNA levels in F2 and CYP11A1 in F1 follicles. However, T3 decreased LH-stimulated STAR and HSD3B mRNA levels in F1 follicles. The 3,5-T2 did not affect basal STAR and CYP11A1 mRNA expression in all investigated follicles; however, it decreased LH-stimulated STAR

  8. Contingency Base Camp Operations and Management: Staffing and Organization

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-17

    preparing contract scopes of work, and electrical safety and power management ( McCracken 2011). 3.3.1.5 FOB Lindsey FOB Lindsey is a smaller base camp...Commandant). 2011. Experience as MHG Camp Leatherneck, 2010-11. Interviews by Garth Anderson, Camp Leatherneck, Afghanistan, 22 January 11. McCracken

  9. The Effect of a Camp Experience on Self Esteem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorian, Alexia Eve

    Two groups of American adolescents of Greek descent (12-15 year olds N=90 and 16-18 year olds N=166) at an Orthodox Christian Camp in Greece responded to the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (1965). Campers took the test on the first day of camp (pretest) and then two weeks later at the camp's conclusion (posttest). All subjects showed a significant…

  10. Benefits of Residential and Nonresidential Youth Summer Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, David M.; Driver, B. L.

    1988-01-01

    Describes survey made as part of Youth Conservation Corps evaluation. Compares personal benefits of residential camping with benefits of nonresidential camps. Concludes residential participants benefited in different ways and to greater extent than nonresidential campers. Residential camping benefits measurable at least nine months after…

  11. 14 CFR 91.1427 - CAMP: Manual requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false CAMP: Manual requirements. 91.1427 Section... Operations Program Management § 91.1427 CAMP: Manual requirements. (a) Each program manager who maintains program aircraft under a CAMP must put in the operating manual the chart or description of the...

  12. Camp Health Aide Manual = Manual para trabajadores de salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June Grube; And Others

    This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…

  13. Summer Camp and Positive Youth Development: Program with Romanian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of activities are used in camps to help promote positive youth development, improving social skills and self-esteem in campers. I expanded on previous camp research in this study to address the influence camps have on trust, belief in the honesty of others, empowerment, and care for others in youth in Eastern Europe. Since 1999, New…

  14. Summer Camp and Positive Youth Development: Program with Romanian Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feenstra, Jennifer S.

    2015-01-01

    A variety of activities are used in camps to help promote positive youth development, improving social skills and self-esteem in campers. I expanded on previous camp research in this study to address the influence camps have on trust, belief in the honesty of others, empowerment, and care for others in youth in Eastern Europe. Since 1999, New…

  15. Trainer Guide: Business and Finance Managerial. Camp Administration Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, Elizabeth, Ed.

    Suggested ideas on conducting a managerial workshop for camp directors are offered in this trainer's guide. Workshops must be at least one full day of training (6 hours) on each topic to be counted toward the American Camping Association (ACA) Camp Director Certification Program. Suggested topics to be addressed are: (1) basic principles and…

  16. Camp Health Aide Manual = Manual para trabajadores de salud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, June Grube; And Others

    This bilingual manual serves as a textbook for migrant Camp Health Aides. Camp Health Aides are members of migrant labor camps enlisted to provide information about health and social services to migrant workers and their families. The manual is divided into 12 tabbed sections representing lessons. Teaching notes printed on contrasting paper…

  17. Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) stimulates cAMP formation in human mononuclear cells and inhibits angiogenesis in chick embryo chorionallantoic membrane assay

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Abstract: The effects of Gc protein-derived macrophage-activating factor (GcMAF) have been studied in cancer and other conditions where angiogenesis is deregulated. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that the mitogenic response of human peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) to GcMAF was associated with 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) formation. The effect was dose dependent, and maximal stimulation was achieved using 0.1 ng/ml. Heparin inhibited the stimulatory ...

  18. E. Coli: Preventing Outbreaks at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Mary D.

    1996-01-01

    One strain of E. coli is not usually found in foods, but has been related to consumption of undercooked ground beef. Symptoms are stomach cramps and diarrhea, and 2-7% of infections lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is life threatening. Camps can prevent outbreaks by avoiding uncooked meat on overnight campouts and requiring appropriate…

  19. Community policing in Kakuma camp, Kenya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanno Brankamp

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Community policing has become a popular way of promoting local ownership of security in refugee camps in Kenya and more widely, but it can also fall victim to its ambivalent position at the intersection of refugee communities and state policing.

  20. CS Radar Imaging via Adaptive CAMP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present results on application of Compressive Sensing (CS) to high resolution radar imaging and pro- pose the adaptive Complex Approximate Message Passing (CAMP) algorithm for image reconstruction. CS provides a theoretical framework that guarantees, under certain assumptions,

  1. CS Radar Imaging via Adaptive CAMP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Anitori, L.; Otten, M.P.G.; Hoogeboom, P.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we present results on application of Compressive Sensing (CS) to high resolution radar imaging and pro- pose the adaptive Complex Approximate Message Passing (CAMP) algorithm for image reconstruction. CS provides a theoretical framework that guarantees, under certain assumptions, recon

  2. Conduct Disorders: Are Boot Camps Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, LaVaughn V.

    2010-01-01

    Youth diagnosed with "conduct disorder" are often placed in programs using forced compliance and coercive control. One type of intervention used to treat conduct disorder is the boot camp. The basic idea is that disruptive behaviors can be corrected by strict behavioral regulation and an emphasis on skills training (Weis & Toolis 2009; Weis,…

  3. E. Coli: Preventing Outbreaks at Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKinney, Mary D.

    1996-01-01

    One strain of E. coli is not usually found in foods, but has been related to consumption of undercooked ground beef. Symptoms are stomach cramps and diarrhea, and 2-7% of infections lead to hemolytic uremic syndrome, which is life threatening. Camps can prevent outbreaks by avoiding uncooked meat on overnight campouts and requiring appropriate…

  4. Conduct Disorders: Are Boot Camps Effective?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeter, LaVaughn V.

    2010-01-01

    Youth diagnosed with "conduct disorder" are often placed in programs using forced compliance and coercive control. One type of intervention used to treat conduct disorder is the boot camp. The basic idea is that disruptive behaviors can be corrected by strict behavioral regulation and an emphasis on skills training (Weis & Toolis 2009; Weis,…

  5. Astronomy Camp: Adventures in Scientific Research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Eric J.; McCarthy, Donald W.

    1993-01-01

    Explains the nature of the Advanced Astronomy Camp (AAC), which is held at an observatory at the University of Arizona. For one week, students are immersed in doing science and engineering, using modern astronomical equipment under the guidance of scientists and graduate students. (DDR)

  6. 36 CFR 13.1402 - Camping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Camping. 13.1402 Section 13.1402 Parks, Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL PARK SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR NATIONAL PARK SYSTEM UNITS IN ALASKA Special Regulations-Klondike Gold Rush National Historical Park §...

  7. Triazole inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase

    OpenAIRE

    Maurya, Sushil K.; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R.; Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Zhang, Minjia; Johnson, Corey R.; Benjamin, Nicole N.; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Gregory D Cuny

    2009-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an important human pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent. This protozoan parasite cannot salvage guanine or guanosine and therefore relies on inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) for biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides and hence for survival. Since C. parvum IMPDH is highly divergent from the host counterpart, selective inhibitors could potentially be used to treat cryptosporidiosis with minimal effects on its mammalian host. A series of 1,2,3-triazole ...

  8. High adenylyl cyclase activity and in vivo cAMP fluctuations in corals suggest central physiological role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barott, K L; Helman, Y; Haramaty, L; Barron, M E; Hess, K C; Buck, J; Levin, L R; Tresguerres, M

    2013-01-01

    Corals are an ecologically and evolutionarily significant group, providing the framework for coral reef biodiversity while representing one of the most basal of metazoan phyla. However, little is known about fundamental signaling pathways in corals. Here we investigate the dynamics of cAMP, a conserved signaling molecule that can regulate virtually every physiological process. Bioinformatics revealed corals have both transmembrane and soluble adenylyl cyclases (AC). Endogenous cAMP levels in live corals followed a potential diel cycle, as they were higher during the day compared to the middle of the night. Coral homogenates exhibited some of the highest cAMP production rates ever to be recorded in any organism; this activity was inhibited by calcium ions and stimulated by bicarbonate. In contrast, zooxanthellae or mucus had >1000-fold lower AC activity. These results suggest that cAMP is an important regulator of coral physiology, especially in response to light, acid/base disturbances and inorganic carbon levels.

  9. Protective effects of inhibition of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase activity against cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury in mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    补娟

    2013-01-01

    Objective To observe the effect of inhibition of adenosine monophosphate activated protein kinase (AMPK) on shape,function and inflammatory factor of microglia for mice after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion

  10. Recipient pretransplant inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase activity in nonmyeloablative hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bemer, Meagan J; Risler, Linda J; Phillips, Brian R; Wang, Joanne; Storer, Barry E; Sandmaier, Brenda M; Duan, Haichuan; Raccor, Brianne S; Boeckh, Michael J; McCune, Jeannine S

    2014-10-01

    Mycophenolic acid, the active metabolite of mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), inhibits inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity. IMPDH is the rate-limiting enzyme involved in de novo synthesis of guanosine nucleotides and catalyzes the oxidation of inosine 5'-monophosphate to xanthosine 5'-monophosphate (XMP). We developed a highly sensitive liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry method to quantitate XMP concentrations in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNCs) isolated from the recipient pretransplant and used this method to determine IMPDH activity in 86 nonmyeloablative allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) patients. The incubation procedure and analytical method yielded acceptable within-sample and within-individual variability. Considerable between-individual variability was observed (12.2-fold). Low recipient pretransplant IMPDH activity was associated with increased day +28 donor T cell chimerism, more acute graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), lower neutrophil nadirs, and more cytomegalovirus reactivation but not with chronic GVHD, relapse, nonrelapse mortality, or overall mortality. We conclude that quantitation of the recipient's pretransplant IMPDH activity in PMNC lysate could provide a useful biomarker to evaluate a recipient's sensitivity to MMF. Further trials should be conducted to confirm our findings and to optimize postgrafting immunosuppression in nonmyeloablative HCT recipients.

  11. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE EFFECT OF ACUPUNCTURE ON TROPISM-DISTRIBUTION OF TETRAMETHYLPYRAZINE AND THE CONTENT OF cAMP IN ARTHRITIS RATS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GU Yu; CHEN Yi-guo

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To verify two hypotheses: 1) Acupuncture can increase the re-distribution of tetramethylpyrazine (ligustrazine) hydrochloride (TMPH) to the target organs in adjuvant arthritic rats. 2) Cyclic Adenosine-3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP) is one of the guidance cues involved in this event. Methods: A total of 40 Wistar rats were randomized into blank control (BC), model (MO), medication (ME), Acupuncture (Acu) and Acu+ME groups, with 8 cases in each group. Arthritis model was established by subcutaneous injection of complete Freund's adjuvant (0.1 mL) into the rat's foot pad. Electroacupuncture (15 Hz, 0.2-0.3V) was applied to bilateral "Daling"(大陵PC 7), "Taichong" (太冲LR 3) and "Xiguan" (膝关LR 7) for 20 min, and the contents of TMPH in the heart, liver, kidney and the foot (affected focus) tissues and the contents of cAMP in the heart and liver tissues were determined with high performance liquid chromatography and radioimmunoassay techniques respectively. Results: Compared with medication group, the TMPH contents in the heart, liver, kidney and the affected foot tissues in Acu-ME group was obviously higher (P<0.05, P<0.01). In comparison with ME and Acu groups, the cAMP contents in the heart and liver in Acu+ME group was also significantly higher (P<0.05, P<0.01). No significant differences were found between ME and Acu+ME groups in TMPH content of kidney and between Acu+ME and BC groups in cAMP contents in both liver and heart tissues. Conclusion: Acupuncture may promote the target-tropism distribution of ligustrazine, and cAMP may play an important role in it.

  12. MRP4 and CFTR in the regulation of cAMP and β-adrenergic contraction in cardiac myocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sellers, Zachary M; Naren, Anjaparavanda P; Xiang, Yang; Best, Philip M

    2012-04-15

    Spatiotemporal regulation of cAMP in cardiac myocytes is integral to regulating the diverse functions downstream of β-adrenergic stimulation. The activities of cAMP phosphodiesterases modulate critical and well-studied cellular processes. Recently, in epithelial and smooth muscle cells, it was found that the multi-drug resistant protein 4 (MRP4) acts as a cAMP efflux pump to regulate intracellular cAMP levels and alter effector function, including activation of the cAMP-stimulated Cl(-) channel, CFTR (cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator). In the current study we investigated the potential role of MRP4 in regulating intracellular cAMP and β-adrenergic stimulated contraction rate in cardiac myocytes. Cultured neonatal ventricular myocytes were used for all experiments. In addition to wildtype mice, β(1)-, β(2)-, and β(1)/β(2)-adrenoceptor, and CFTR knockout mice were used. MRP4 expression was probed via Western blot, intracellular cAMP was measured by fluorescence resonance energy transfer, while the functional role of MRP4 was assayed via monitoring of isoproterenol-stimulated contraction rate. We found that MRP4 is expressed in mouse neonatal ventricular myocytes. A pharmacological inhibitor of MRP4, MK571, potentiated submaximal isoproterenol-stimulated cAMP accumulation and cardiomyocyte contraction rate via β(1)-adrenoceptors. CFTR expression was critical for submaximal isoproterenol-stimulated contraction rate. Interestingly, MRP4-dependent changes in contraction rate were CFTR-dependent, however, PDE4-dependent potentiation of contraction rate was CFTR-independent. We have shown, for the first time, a role for MRP4 in the regulation of cAMP in cardiac myocytes and involvement of CFTR in β-adrenergic stimulated contraction. Together with phosphodiesterases, MRP4 must be considered when examining cAMP regulation in cardiac myocytes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. The effect of hypoxia on PGE2-stimulated cAMP generation in HMEC-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiktorowska-Owczarek, Anna; Owczarek, Jacek

    2015-06-01

    Prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) is generated in various cells, including endothelial cells, and is responsible for various functions, such as vascular relaxation and angiogenesis. Effects of PGE2 are mediated via receptors EP1-EP4, among which EP2 and EP4 are coupled to Gs protein which activates adenylate cyclase (AC) and cAMP synthesis. The aim of this work was to study the ability of human microvascular endothelial cells (HMEC-1) to synthesize cAMP in the presence of PGE2, and to determine the effect of hypoxia on the PGE2- stimulated cAMP level. It was decided to evaluate the effect of PGE2 on the secretion of VEGF, an inducer of angiogenesis. In summary, our findings show that PGE2 induces cAMP production, but hypoxia may impair PGE2-stimulated activity of the AC-cAMP signaling pathway. These results suggest that the cardioprotective effect of PGE2/EP4/cAMP may be attenuated during ischemia. Furthermore, this study indicates that the pro-angiogenic effect of PGE2 is not associated with VEGF secretion in HMEC-1 cells.

  14. cAMP response element binding protein1 is essential for activation of steroyl co-enzyme a desaturase 1 (Scd1 in mouse lung type II epithelial cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisha Antony

    Full Text Available Cyclic AMP Response Element-Binding Protein 1 (Creb1 is a transcription factor that mediates cyclic adenosine 3', 5'-monophosphate (cAMP signalling in many tissues. Creb1(-/- mice die at birth due to respiratory failure and previous genome-wide microarray analysis of E17.5 Creb1(-/- fetal mouse lung identified important Creb1-regulated gene targets during lung development. The lipogenic enzymes stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 (Scd1 and fatty acid synthase (Fasn showed highly reduced gene expression in Creb1(-/- lungs. We therefore hypothesized that Creb1 plays a crucial role in the transcriptional regulation of genes involved in pulmonary lipid biosynthetic pathways during lung development. In this study we confirmed that Scd1 and Fasn mRNA levels were down regulated in the E17.5 Creb1(-/- mouse lung while the lipogenic-associated transcription factors SrebpF1, C/ebpα and Pparγ were increased. In vivo studies using germline (Creb1(-/- and lung epithelial-specific (Creb1(EpiΔ/Δ Creb1 knockout mice showed strongly reduced Scd1, but not Fasn gene expression and protein levels in lung epithelial cells. In vitro studies using mouse MLE-15 epithelial cells showed that forskolin-mediated activation of Creb1 increased both Scd1 gene expression and protein synthesis. Additionally, MLE15 cells transfected with a dominant-negative ACreb vector blocked forskolin-mediated stimulation of Scd1 gene expression. Lipid profiling in MLE15 cells showed that dominant-negative ACreb suppressed forskolin-induced desaturation of ether linked lipids to produce plasmalogens, as well as levels of phosphatidylethanolamine, ceramide and lysophosphatidylcholine. Taken together these results demonstrate that Creb1 is essential for the induction and maintenance of Scd1 in developing fetal mouse lung epithelial cells.

  15. Summer camps for children with burn injuries: a literature review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maslow, Gary R; Lobato, Debra

    2010-01-01

    The first summer camps for children with burn injuries started over 25 years ago, and as of 2008, there were 60 camps worldwide. This review examines the literature on summer pediatric burn camps. The authors describe common characteristics of burn camp structure, activities, and staffing and then examine the scientific evidence regarding the effect of burn camp programs on campers and camp staff volunteers. A search of Pubmed and Psychinfo databases from 1970 to 2008 for articles related to pediatric burn summer camps identified 17 articles, of which 13 fit the inclusion criteria. Existing literature consists primarily of qualitative studies, suggesting that burn camp can decrease camper isolation, improve self-esteem, and promote coping and social skills. Studies examining volunteer staff at burn camp have consistently found that there are both personal and professional benefits. Quantitative studies of self-esteem have yielded equivocal results. No studies have examined safety or the effect of burn camp on medical or rehabilitation outcomes. For the past 25 years, pediatric summer camps for children with burn injuries have played an important rehabilitation role and provided a strong community that benefits both campers and staff. Future research using more rigorous research methods and examining a broader range of outcomes (eg, safety and medical/rehabilitation outcomes) is recommended.

  16. Components of Camp Experiences for Positive Youth Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla A. Henderson

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Youth development specialists advocate that well designed, implemented, and staffed youth centered programs result in positive outcomes for young people. Youth organizations have provided opportunities for young people to participate in camping experiences for over a century. The purpose of this paper is to describe what program components were related to camp environments and positive youth development. We describe these program components related to positive youth development based on a large scale national study of ACA (American Camp Association accredited camps that included independent, religiously affiliated, government, and not-for-profit organizations. Based on the responses given by camp directors, contact and leadership from trained staff and the supportive relationships they provided were essential elements of camp. Other aspects leading to positive youth development in camps were program mission and structure along with elements of accountability, assessment of outcomes, and opportunities for skill building.

  17. Requirement of cAMP signaling for Schwann cell differentiation restricts the onset of myelination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacallao, Ketty; Monje, Paula V

    2015-01-01

    Isolated Schwann cells (SCs) respond to cAMP elevation by adopting a differentiated post-mitotic state that exhibits high levels of Krox-20, a transcriptional enhancer of myelination, and mature SC markers such as the myelin lipid galactocerebroside (O1). To address how cAMP controls myelination, we performed a series of cell culture experiments which compared the differentiating responses of isolated and axon-related SCs to cAMP analogs and ascorbate, a known inducer of axon ensheathment, basal lamina formation and myelination. In axon-related SCs, cAMP induced the expression of Krox-20 and O1 without a concomitant increase in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP) and without promoting axon ensheathment, collagen synthesis or basal lamina assembly. When cAMP was provided together with ascorbate, a dramatic enhancement of MBP expression occurred, indicating that cAMP primes SCs to form myelin only under conditions supportive of basal lamina formation. Experiments using a combination of cell permeable cAMP analogs and type-selective adenylyl cyclase (AC) agonists and antagonists revealed that selective transmembrane AC (tmAC) activation with forskolin was not sufficient for full SC differentiation and that the attainment of an O1 positive state also relied on the activity of the soluble AC (sAC), a bicarbonate sensor that is insensitive to forskolin and GPCR activation. Pharmacological and immunological evidence indicated that SCs expressed sAC and that sAC activity was required for morphological differentiation and the expression of myelin markers such as O1 and protein zero. To conclude, our data indicates that cAMP did not directly drive myelination but rather the transition into an O1 positive state, which is perhaps the most critical cAMP-dependent rate limiting step for the onset of myelination. The temporally restricted role of cAMP in inducing differentiation independently of basal lamina formation provides a clear example of the uncoupling of signals

  18. Requirement of cAMP signaling for Schwann cell differentiation restricts the onset of myelination.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketty Bacallao

    Full Text Available Isolated Schwann cells (SCs respond to cAMP elevation by adopting a differentiated post-mitotic state that exhibits high levels of Krox-20, a transcriptional enhancer of myelination, and mature SC markers such as the myelin lipid galactocerebroside (O1. To address how cAMP controls myelination, we performed a series of cell culture experiments which compared the differentiating responses of isolated and axon-related SCs to cAMP analogs and ascorbate, a known inducer of axon ensheathment, basal lamina formation and myelination. In axon-related SCs, cAMP induced the expression of Krox-20 and O1 without a concomitant increase in the expression of myelin basic protein (MBP and without promoting axon ensheathment, collagen synthesis or basal lamina assembly. When cAMP was provided together with ascorbate, a dramatic enhancement of MBP expression occurred, indicating that cAMP primes SCs to form myelin only under conditions supportive of basal lamina formation. Experiments using a combination of cell permeable cAMP analogs and type-selective adenylyl cyclase (AC agonists and antagonists revealed that selective transmembrane AC (tmAC activation with forskolin was not sufficient for full SC differentiation and that the attainment of an O1 positive state also relied on the activity of the soluble AC (sAC, a bicarbonate sensor that is insensitive to forskolin and GPCR activation. Pharmacological and immunological evidence indicated that SCs expressed sAC and that sAC activity was required for morphological differentiation and the expression of myelin markers such as O1 and protein zero. To conclude, our data indicates that cAMP did not directly drive myelination but rather the transition into an O1 positive state, which is perhaps the most critical cAMP-dependent rate limiting step for the onset of myelination. The temporally restricted role of cAMP in inducing differentiation independently of basal lamina formation provides a clear example of the

  19. Evidences for involvement of endogenous cAMP in Arabidopsis defense responses to Verticillium toxins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing JIANG; Ling Wen FAN; Wei Hua WU

    2005-01-01

    Although there were reports suggesting the involvement of endogenous cAMP in plant defense signaling cascades,there is no direct evidence supporting this notion yet and the detailed mechanism is unclear. In the present study, we have used pathogenic fungi Verticillium dahliae and Arabidopsis plants as a model system of plant-microb interaction to demonstrate the function of endogenous cAMP in Arabidopsis defense responses. Both V. dahliae inoculation and Verticillium toxins injection induced typical "wilt" symptoms in Arabidopsis seedlings. When either 8-Br-AMP (a membrane permeable cAMP analogue) or salicylic acid (SA) was applied to Arabidopsis, the plants became resistant to V. dahliae toxins. However, addition of 8-Br-AMP did not increase the resistance of Arabidopsis transgenic plants deficient in SA to the toxins, suggesting that cAMP might act upstream of SA in plant defense signaling pathway.Indeed, 8-Br-cAMP and forskolin, an activator of adenylyl cyclase, significantly stimulated the endogenous SA level in plants, whereas DDA, an inhibitor of adenylyl cyclase dramatically reduced toxin-induced SA increase. Both the endogenous cAMP and SA increased significantly in Arabidopsis seedlings treated with toxins. Furthermore, transcription level of pathogenesis-related protein 1 gene (PR1) was strongly induced by both 8-Br-cAMP and the toxin treatment. Taken together, our data demonstrate that endogenous cAMP is involved in plant defense responses against Verticilliumsecreted toxins by regulating the production of the known signal SA in plant defense pathway.

  20. Calcium regulates motility and protein phosphorylation by changing cAMP and ATP concentrations in boar sperm in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xinhong; Wang, Lirui; Li, Yuhua; Zhao, Na; Zhen, Linqing; Fu, Jieli; Yang, Qiangzhen

    2016-09-01

    Considering the importance of calcium (Ca(2+)) in regulating sperm capacitation, hyperactivation and acrosome reaction, little is known about the molecular mechanism of action of this ion in this process. In the present study, assessment of the molecular mechanism from the perspective of energy metabolism occurred. Sperm motility variables were determined using computer-assisted sperm analysis (CASA) and the phosphorylation of PKA substrates, tyrosine residues and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were analyzed by Western blot. Moreover, intracellular sperm-specific glyceraldehyde 3-phosphatedehydrogenase (GAPDH) activity, 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) and adenosine 5'-triphosphate (ATP) concentrations were assessed in boar sperm treated with Ca(2+). Results of the present study indicated that, under greater extracellular Ca(2+)concentrations (≥3.0mM), sperm motility and protein phosphorylation were inhibited. Interestingly, these changes were correlated with that of GAPDH activity, AMPK phosphorylation, cAMP and ATP concentrations. The negative effects of Ca(2+) on these intracellular processes were attenuated by addition of the calmodulin (CaM) inhibitor W7 and the inhibitor of calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMK), KN-93. In the presence of greater extracellular Ca(2+), however, the phosphorylation pathway was suppressed by H-89. Taken together, these results suggested that Ca(2+) had a dual role in regulating boar sperm motility and protein phosphorylation due to the changes of cAMP and ATP concentrations, in response to cAMP-mediated signal transduction and the Ca(2+) signaling cascade. The present study provided some novel insights into the molecular mechanism underlying the effects of Ca(2+) on boar sperm as well as the involvement of energy metabolism in this mechanism.

  1. Flaubert et Du Camp : quelques remarques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michel Brix

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Les spécialistes de Flaubert ont fait de nombreux reproches à Maxime Du Camp et ne prêtent plus guère d’attention à ce qu’il a écrit. C’est une situation très regrettable, qui prive les lecteurs d’informations nombreuses, susceptibles d’éclairer les enjeux mais aussi les impasses et les contradictions du projet esthétique de Flaubert. Quelques cas significatifs sont évoqués dans le présent article, qui se penche plus particulièrement sur la ressemblance entre un passage du livre de Du Camp Le Nil (1854 et les lignes de L’Éducation sentimentale (1869 qui rapportent l’“apparition” de Mme Arnoux.

  2. Yoga camp in Ayurvedgrams of Chhattisgarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra Madhu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The clinical and empirical health benefits of yoga and pranayam have been reiterated through research. Yoga is being adopted as a system to alleviate the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs across the globe. The Directorate of AYUSH, Government of Chhattisgarh (DoA, GoCG conducts annual 5-day-yoga camp across 146 Ayurvedgrams in the State. The present article brings out the AYUSH initiatives the State is taking toward active ageing. A total of 71,096 people participated in the 5-day-yoga camp across the State. A mean participation of 5079 people over 5 days was reported across districts. Such statewide practices need to be promoted and appraised.

  3. Effects of a Developmental Boot Camp: Improving Student Performance on a College Placement Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Heather H.

    2012-01-01

    Nationwide, students are entering college unprepared for college-level work. Recent high school graduates are placing into developmental courses at an alarming rate. The purpose of this research study is to examine the effect of a developmental boot camp on standardized placement test scores of students enrolling at a community college in North…

  4. Examining Camper Learning Outcomes and Knowledge Retention at Oklahoma FFA Leadership Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Terry, Robert, Jr.; Kelsey, Kathleen D.

    2014-01-01

    The National FFA Organization is committed to providing non-formal learning activities focusing on leadership education. Summer camps are a major component of FFA activities and concentrate on personal growth, leadership development, and recreational activities for youth. This repeated measures study determined the level of cognitive gain and the…

  5. S'Cool LAB Summer CAMP 2017

    CERN Multimedia

    Woithe, Julia

    2017-01-01

    The S’Cool LAB Summer CAMP is an opportunity for high-school students (aged 16-19) from all around the world to spend 2 weeks exploring the fascinating world of particle physics. The 24 selected participants spend their summer at S’Cool LAB, CERN’s hands-on particle physics learning laboratory, for an epic programme of lectures and tutorials, team research projects, visits of CERN’s research installations, and social activities.

  6. Summer Camp of the CERN Staff Association

    CERN Multimedia

    Staff Association

    2017-01-01

    A Journey to Discover the Four Elements Over the past few years, the Children’s Day-Care Centre and School (EVEE) of the CERN Staff Association has transformed into a summer camp for the four weeks of July. Every year, this summer camp welcomes up to 40 children from 4 to 6 years old. The camp offers a rich and varied program. This year, the theme was the four elements of life, and the children set out on a journey to discover a different element every week: WATER was the theme of the first week. What is water? What purpose does it serve? Where can we find it? With these questions and many others in mind, the children set out on a cruise, sailing across Lake Geneva to visit the Lake Geneva Museum in Nyon. All through the week, the children were able to discover the different properties of water by carrying out various scientific experiments. For instance, getting soaked can certainly help observe a simple property of water: it’s wet! Giggles guaranteed. The children made fancy hats and e...

  7. cyclic monophosphate

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2006-10-02

    Oct 2, 2006 ... Second messengers are small transient molecules that transmit and/or modulate environmental or hormonal signals ... cyclases (pGCs), and soluble cytosolic guanylyl cyclases ... Figure 2. Model of cGMP generation and cGMP dependent cellular effects. ..... dynamics of colonic epithelial proliferation.

  8. Gas-phase spectroscopy of protonated adenine, adenosine 5′-monophosphate and monohydrated ions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S.O.; Støchkel, K.; Byskov, C.S.

    2013-01-01

    Microsolvation of chromophore ions commonly has large effects on their electronic structure and as a result on their optical absorption spectra. Here spectroscopy of protonated adenine (AdeH+) and its complex with one water molecule isolated in vacuo was done using a home-built mass spectrometer...... in combination with a tuneable pulsed laser system. Experiments also included the protonated adenosine 5′-monophosphate nucleotide (AMPH+). In the case of bare AdeH+ ions, one-photon absorption leads to four dominant fragment ions corresponding to ammonium and ions formed after loss of either NH3, HCN, or NH2CN...

  9. Barrier-free proton transfer in the valence anion of 2'-deoxyadenosine-5'-monophosphate. II. A computational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyłecka, Monika; Gu, Jiande; Rak, Janusz; Leszczynski, Jerzy

    2008-01-28

    The propensity of four representative conformations of 2(')-deoxyadenosine-5(')-monophosphate (5(')-dAMPH) to bind an excess electron has been studied at the B3LYP6-31++G(d,p) level. While isolated canonical adenine does not support stable valence anions in the gas phase, all considered neutral conformations of 5(')-dAMPH form adiabatically stable anions. The type of an anionic 5(')-dAMPH state, i.e., the valence, dipole bound, or mixed (valence/dipole bound), depends on the internal hydrogen bond(s) pattern exhibited by a particular tautomer. The most stable anion results from an electron attachment to the neutral syn-south conformer. The formation of this anion is associated with a barrier-free proton transfer triggered by electron attachment and the internal rotation around the C4(')-C5(') bond. The adiabatic electron affinity of the a_south-syn anion is 1.19 eV, while its vertical detachment energy is 1.89 eV. Our results are compared with the photoelectron spectrum (PES) of 5(')-dAMPH(-) measured recently by Stokes et al., [J. Chem. Phys. 128, 044314 (2008)]. The computational VDE obtained for the most stable anionic structure matches well with the experimental electron binding energy region of maximum intensity. A further understanding of DNA damage might require experimental and computational studies on the systems in which purine nucleotides are engaged in hydrogen bonding.

  10. Horses – A Natural Fit for Camp Programs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin Galloway

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available A 4-H Member’s Horse Camp allows horse project members to enjoy their equine partner in a non-competitive, outdoor setting. Campers learn about leave-no-trace outdoor ethics, trail riding, maneuvering trail obstacles, equine emergency first aid, and low impact camping. 4?H has long understood that providing opportunities for youth to learn about things that interest them is just one aspect of the program. Project specific content, in this case horses, helps youth in 4?H programs to develop important life skills. In the positive atmosphere at 4?H horse camp, youth may feel a sense of belonging, and are provided opportunities to develop mastery, independence, and a spirit of generosity? which are all essential elements in high quality youth development programs. Horse camps are a natural extension of opportunities for horse project members, and they can be added to existing camps, or create new camping lessons.

  11. The nature and impact of chronic stressors on refugee children in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Sarah; Murray, Laura K; Puffer, Eve S; Larsen, Jillian; Bolton, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Refugee camps are replete with risk factors for mental health problems among children, including poverty, disruption of family structure, family violence and food insecurity. This study, focused on refugee children from Burma, in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp in Thailand, sought to identify the particular risks children are exposed to in this context, and the impacts on their mental health and psychosocial well-being. This study employed two qualitative methods--free list interviews and key informant interviews--to identify the main problems impacting children in Ban Mai Nai Soi camp and to explore the causes of these problems and their impact on children's well-being. Respondents in free list interviews identified a number of problems that impact children in this context, including fighting between adults, alcohol use by adults and children, and child abuse and neglect. Across the issues, the causes included economic and social conditions associated with living in the camp and changes in family structures. Children are chronically exposed to stressors during their growth and development in the camp environment. Policies and interventions in areas of protracted displacement in camp-based settings should work to address these stressors and their impacts at community, household and individual levels.

  12. Selective modulation of protein kinase isozymes by the site-selective analog 8-chloroadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate provides a biological means for control of human colon cancer cell growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ally, S.; Tortora, G.; Clair, T.; Grieco, D.; Merlo, G.; Katsaros, D.; Ogreid, D.; Doeskeland, S.O.; Jahnsen, T.; Cho-Chung, Yoonsang

    1988-09-01

    Differential expression of type I and type II cAMP-dependent protein kinase isozymes has been linked to growth regulation and differentiation. The authors examined the expression of protein kinase isozymes in the LS 174T human colon cancer cell line during 8-chloroadenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-Cl-cAMP)-induced growth inhibition. Two species of R/sup II/ (the regulatory subunit of protein kinase type II) with apparent M/sub r/ 52,000 (R/sup II//sub 52/) and M/sub r/ 56,000 (R/sup II//sub 56/) and a single species of R/sup I/ (the regulatory subunit of protein kinase type I) with M/sub r/ 48,000 were identified in the cancer cells. R/sup I/ and both forms of R/sup II/ were covalently labeled with 8-azidoadenosine 3',5'-cyclic (/sup 32/P)monophosphate, and two anti-R/sup II/ antibodies that exclusively recognize either R/sup II//sub 52/ or R/sup II//sub 56/ resolved two forms of the R/sup II/ receptors. 8-Cl-cAMP caused transcriptional activation of the R/sup II//sub 52/ receptor gene and inactivation of the R/sup I/ receptor gene. Thus, differential regulation of various forms of cAMP receptor proteins is involved in 8-Cl-cAMP-induced regulation of cancer cell growth, and nuclear translocation of R/sup II//sub 52/ receptor protein appears to be an early event in such differential regulation.

  13. Radioprotection of the rat parotid gland by cAMP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sodicoff, M.; Conger, A.D.

    1983-10-01

    Most earlier studies showing a radioprotective effect by cAMP show only slight degrees of protection. The present study demonstrates a substantial protective effect (DMF, 1.63) of exogenously administered cAMP on the rat parotid gland and supports the mechanism suggested previously for protection afforded the parotid glands by the ..beta..-adrenergic agonist isoproterenol, which is known to elevate endogenous intracellular cAMP.

  14. Malnourished children in refugee camps and lack of connection with services after US resettlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutfy, Caitlyn; Cookson, Susan T; Talley, Leisel; Rochat, Roger

    2014-10-01

    Identifying and addressing malnutrition among US-bound refugee children is an important human rights issue. Failure to address childhood malnutrition can impair cognitive development and productivity. The target population was children aged 6-59 months, originating from eight countries representing 51 % of US-resettled refugees for 2005-2011, living in 22 camps prior to potential US-resettlement. The corresponding camp-level nutritional survey data were evaluated. State Refugee Health Coordinators were surveyed on nutritional assessment, reporting and referrals for their US-refugee medical screenings. From 2004 to 2010, half of the camps (63 total surveys) had global acute malnutrition prevalence over 15 % at least once (surveys not done annually) and anemia prevalence greater than 40 %. The majority of US-refugee medical screenings included height and weight measurements but few used national or WHO standards to evaluate presence or level of malnutrition. Improve overseas camp monitoring and link these nutritional data to US-resettling refugee children to inform potential nutritional interventions. Domestically, use WHO or US growth standards for anthropometrics to determine presence of malnutrition and need for corrective action.

  15. The central role of cAMP in regulating Plasmodium falciparum merozoite invasion of human erythrocytes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amrita Dawn

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available All pathogenesis and death associated with Plasmodium falciparum malaria is due to parasite-infected erythrocytes. Invasion of erythrocytes by P. falciparum merozoites requires specific interactions between host receptors and parasite ligands that are localized in apical organelles called micronemes. Here, we identify cAMP as a key regulator that triggers the timely secretion of microneme proteins enabling receptor-engagement and invasion. We demonstrate that exposure of merozoites to a low K+ environment, typical of blood plasma, activates a bicarbonate-sensitive cytoplasmic adenylyl cyclase to raise cytosolic cAMP levels and activate protein kinase A, which regulates microneme secretion. We also show that cAMP regulates merozoite cytosolic Ca2+ levels via induction of an Epac pathway and demonstrate that increases in both cAMP and Ca2+ are essential to trigger microneme secretion. Our identification of the different elements in cAMP-dependent signaling pathways that regulate microneme secretion during invasion provides novel targets to inhibit blood stage parasite growth and prevent malaria.

  16. Adventure Code Camp: Library Mobile Design in the Backcountry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Ward

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a case study exploring the use of a student Coding Camp as a bottom-up mobile design process to generate library mobile apps. A code camp sources student programmer talent and ideas for designing software services and features.  This case study reviews process, outcomes, and next steps in mobile web app coding camps. It concludes by offering implications for services design beyond the local camp presented in this study. By understanding how patrons expect to integrate library services and resources into their use of mobile devices, librarians can better design the user experience for this environment.

  17. [Successful treatment of T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) with fludarabine monophosphate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maeda, Akinori; Iwai, Kazuya; Ishibashi, Takafumi

    2009-08-01

    We report a 79-year-old woman with T-cell prolymphocytic leukemia (T-PLL) who was successfully treated with fludarabine monophosphate. She was admitted to our hospital because of dyspnea on effort. On admission, anemia and hepatosplenomegaly were apparent but lymphadenopathy was absent. Peripheral blood examination showed anemia and leukocytosis with 29.5% abnormal lymphocytes. The bone marrow was infiltrated with 84.1% abnormal lymphocytes. The nucleolus was visible in some of these abnormal cells. These cells were positive for CD2, CD3, CD4, CD5, CD7, CD38, CD52, and negative for CD8, CD10, CD19, CD20, CD25, CD56. Based on these findings, she was diagnosed as having T-PLL. Therapy with oral cyclophosphamide (50 mg/day) was started, but was discontinued because of agranulocytosis. Then, she received intravenous fludarabine monophosphate (30 mg/day) on days 1-5 every four to five weeks. The reticulocyte count increased gradually, and she became free from red cell transfusions. Unfortunately, she finally died from massive gastro intestinal hemorrhage, but T-PLL was well controlled at the time of death.

  18. Camp Insurance 101: Understanding the Fundamentals of a Camp Insurance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garner, Ian

    2001-01-01

    This short course on insurance for camps discusses coverage, including the various types of liability, property, and other types of coverage; the difference between direct writers, brokers, agents, and captive agents; choosing an insurance company; and checking on the financial stability of recommended carriers. Three Web sites are given for…

  19. Staphylococcus pseudintermedius for CAMP-test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savini, Vincenzo; Paparella, Antonello; Serio, Annalisa; Marrollo, Roberta; Carretto, Edoardo; Fazii, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    CAMP test reliably detects Listeria monocytogenes (Lm) and Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS); it is traditionally performed streaking the tested isolate perpendicularly to Staphylococcus aureus (Sa), provided that reference Sa strains (that produce β-hemolysin) are used. In a zone of β-hemolysin activity, in fact, GBS and Lm form typical arrow-shaped hemolytic areas. While Sa production of the toxin is strain-dependent, however, that of Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (Sp), a pet-owner colonizer and an emerging human pathogen, is constitutive, then observed in all clinical isolates. Therefore, Sp may indeed represent a valid alternative to perform the assay.

  20. Transcriptome changes and cAMP oscillations in an archaeal cell cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soppa Jörg

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The cell cycle of all organisms includes mass increase by a factor of two, replication of the genetic material, segregation of the genome to different parts of the cell, and cell division into two daughter cells. It is tightly regulated and typically includes cell cycle-specific oscillations of the levels of transcripts, proteins, protein modifications, and signaling molecules. Until now cell cycle-specific transcriptome changes have been described for four eukaryotic species ranging from yeast to human, but only for two prokaryotic species. Similarly, oscillations of small signaling molecules have been identified in very few eukaryotic species, but not in any prokaryote. Results A synchronization procedure for the archaeon Halobacterium salinarum was optimized, so that nearly 100% of all cells divide in a time interval that is 1/4th of the generation time of exponentially growing cells. The method was used to characterize cell cycle-dependent transcriptome changes using a genome-wide DNA microarray. The transcript levels of 87 genes were found to be cell cycle-regulated, corresponding to 3% of all genes. They could be clustered into seven groups with different transcript level profiles. Cluster-specific sequence motifs were detected around the start of the genes that are predicted to be involved in cell cycle-specific transcriptional regulation. Notably, many cell cycle genes that have oscillating transcript levels in eukaryotes are not regulated on the transcriptional level in H. salinarum. Synchronized cultures were also used to identify putative small signaling molecules. H. salinarum was found to contain a basal cAMP concentration of 200 μM, considerably higher than that of yeast. The cAMP concentration is shortly induced directly prior to and after cell division, and thus cAMP probably is an important signal for cell cycle progression. Conclusion The analysis of cell cycle-specific transcriptome changes of H. salinarum

  1. Differential regulation of glucose transport activity in yeast by specific cAMP signatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Clara; Haerizadeh, Farzad; Sadoine, Mayuri S C; Chermak, Diane; Frommer, Wolf B

    2013-06-15

    Successful colonization and survival in variable environments require a competitive advantage during the initial growth phase after experiencing nutrient changes. Starved yeast cells anticipate exposure to glucose by activating the Hxt5p (hexose transporter 5) glucose transporter, which provides an advantage during early phases after glucose resupply. cAMP and glucose FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) sensors were used to identify three signalling pathways that co-operate in the anticipatory Hxt5p activity in glucose-starved cells: as expected the Snf1 (sucrose nonfermenting 1) AMP kinase pathway, but, surprisingly, the sugar-dependent G-protein-coupled Gpr1 (G-protein-coupled receptor 1)/cAMP/PKA (protein kinase A) pathway and the Pho85 (phosphate metabolism 85)/Plc (phospholipase C) 6/7 pathway. Gpr1/cAMP/PKA are key elements of a G-protein-coupled sugar response pathway that produces a transient cAMP peak to induce growth-related genes. A novel function of the Gpr1/cAMP/PKA pathway was identified in glucose-starved cells: during starvation the Gpr1/cAMP/PKA pathway is required to maintain Hxt5p activity in the absence of glucose-induced cAMP spiking. During starvation, cAMP levels remain low triggering expression of HXT5, whereas cAMP spiking leads to a shift to the high capacity Hxt isoforms.

  2. Mental Health Outcomes for Youth Living in Refugee Camps: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vossoughi, Nadia; Jackson, Yo; Gusler, Stephanie; Stone, Katie

    2016-10-11

    Currently, there are approximately 10.8 million child refugees worldwide. Youth living in refugee camps face a wide range of difficulties placing them at risk for trauma exposure and negative mental health outcomes. However, little is known about the mental health functioning of these youth. The present review provides a systematic review of mental health outcomes for refugee/displaced youth residing in refugee camps. Twenty studies were included in the present review. Among these studies, the prevalence of mental health disorders varied greatly with some studies reporting null effects for disorders like posttraumatic stress disorder and others reporting prevalence as high as 87%. Levels of anxiety, somatic symptoms, depression, and aggression also varied across studies. The results point to the significant need for more research on the mental health of youth residing in refugee camps. Despite the wide range of measurement approaches, the evidence points to a fairly consistent finding of a range of maladjustment problems for youth living in refugee camps. Implications for improving the methodology for investigating mental health are discussed. © The Author(s) 2016.

  3. Arginine vasopressin increases cellular free calcium concentration and adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate production in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishikawa, S.; Okada, K.; Saito, T.

    1988-09-01

    The role of calcium (Ca) in the cellular action of arginine vasopressin (AVP) was examined in rat renal papillary collecting tubule cells in culture. AVP increased both the cellular free Ca concentration ((Ca2+)i) using fura-2, and cAMP production in a dose-dependent manner. AVP-induced cellular Ca mobilization was totally blocked by the antagonist to the antidiuretic action of AVP, and somewhat weakened by the antagonist to the vascular action of AVP. 1-Deamino-8-D-AVP (dDAVP). an antidiuretic analog of AVP, also increased (Ca2+) significantly. Cellular Ca mobilization was not obtained with cAMP, forskolin (a diterpene activator of adenylate cyclase), or phorbol-12-myristate-13-acetate. The early phase of (Ca2+)i depended on the intracellular Ca pool, since an AVP-induced rise in (Ca2+)i was obtained in cells pretreated with Ca-free medium containing 1 mM EGTA, verapamil, or cobalt, which blocked cellular Ca uptake. Also, AVP increased /sup 45/Ca2+ influx during the initial 10 min, which initiated the sustained phase of cellular Ca mobilization. However, cellular cAMP production induced by AVP during the 10-min observation period was diminished in the cells pretreated with Ca-free medium, verapamil, or cobalt, but was still significantly higher than the basal level. This was also diminished by a high Ca concentration in medium. These results indicate that 1) AVP concomitantly regulates cellular free Ca as well as its second messenger cAMP production; 2) AVP-induced elevation of cellular free Ca is dependent on both the cellular Ca pool and extracellular Ca; and 3) there is an optimal level of extracellular Ca to modulate the AVP action in renal papillary collecting tubule cells.

  4. PDF and cAMP enhance PER stability in Drosophila clock neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Guo, Fang; Shen, James; Rosbash, Michael

    2014-04-01

    The neuropeptide PDF is important for Drosophila circadian rhythms: pdf(01) (pdf-null) animals are mostly arrhythmic or short period in constant darkness and have an advanced activity peak in light-dark conditions. PDF contributes to the amplitude, synchrony, as well as the pace of circadian rhythms within clock neurons. PDF is known to increase cAMP levels in PDR receptor (PDFR)-containing neurons. However, there is no known connection of PDF or of cAMP with the Drosophila molecular clockworks. We discovered that the mutant period gene per(S) ameliorates the phenotypes of pdf-null flies. The period protein (PER) is a well-studied repressor of clock gene transcription, and the per(S) protein (PERS) has a markedly short half-life. The result therefore suggests that the PDF-mediated increase in cAMP might lengthen circadian period by directly enhancing PER stability. Indeed, increasing cAMP levels and cAMP-mediated protein kinase A (PKA) activity stabilizes PER, in S2 tissue culture cells and in fly circadian neurons. Adding PDF to fly brains in vitro has a similar effect. Consistent with these relationships, a light pulse causes more prominent PER degradation in pdf(01) circadian neurons than in wild-type neurons. The results indicate that PDF contributes to clock neuron synchrony by increasing cAMP and PKA, which enhance PER stability and decrease clock speed in intrinsically fast-paced PDFR-containing clock neurons. We further suggest that the more rapid degradation of PERS bypasses PKA regulation and makes the pace of clock neurons more uniform, allowing them to avoid much of the asynchrony caused by the absence of PDF.

  5. Reconstructive Surgery Camp for Leprosy Deformities in a Tertiary Hospital: An Example of Service Delivery at Low Costs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatt, Nikita R.; Vyas, Kinnari; Merchant, Rajiv

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Seventy percent of all cases of leprosy in the world occur in India. 8,462 new cases of disability were reported in India between 2010-11. Reconstructive Surgery Camps (RSC) provide free of cost plastic surgical expertise to patients of leprosy with deformity. Aim The aim of this article was to report the outcomes of a RSC in a tertiary level university hospital in India. We also described the types of deformities in the patient group and the cost of conducting such a camp. Materials and Methods The RSC involved 130 patients with leprosy related deformities operated by a team of plastic surgeons in a tertiary university hospital over 5 days. Health workers of the National Leprosy Elimination Program identified patients at community level. The camp was funded by the central government of India and the patients were provided incentives for undergoing treatment. Results Plantar ulcer was the commonest deformity (51.5%) while lagopthalmos (9.2%) was the least common deformity in the patient group. The overall complication rate in our study was around 10.6% (n=11). The total cost of this camp was 730,000 rupees (£7029.9). Conclusion Reconstructive surgery in a camp setup is a low cost alternative of correcting leprosy related deformity. It also provides valuable practical experience in reconstructive surgery to surgical trainees. Tertiary hospital based camps for conducting large-scale surgeries may be a cost effective alternative to reduce waiting lists in public health sectors. Long-term studies monitoring patients operated in a camp setting would be worthwhile. PMID:27630868

  6. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Diego Ernesto Leal

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of…

  7. Residential Grief Camps: An Initial Phenomenological Study of Staff Perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Tiffany B.; Kimball, Thomas G.

    2012-01-01

    Research has focused primarily on the impact of death on family functioning and the stages and tasks of grief, though little attention has been given to grief camps or the experiences of those who work there. This study explored the experiences of staff at a four-day overnight children's grief camp. Eight participants reported their experience of…

  8. Vision, Leadership, and Change: The Case of Ramah Summer Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimer, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    In his retrospective essay, Seymour Fox (1997) identified "vision" as the essential element that shaped the Ramah camp system. I will take a critical look at Fox's main claims: (1) A particular model of vision was essential to the development of Camp Ramah; and (2) That model of vision should guide contemporary Jewish educators in creating Jewish…

  9. Creating a Healthy Camp Community: A Nurse's Role.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishner, Kris Miller; Bruya, Margaret Auld

    This book provides an organized, systematic overview of the basic aspects of health program management, nursing practice, and human relations issues in camp nursing. A foremost assumption is that health care in most camps needs improvement. Good health is dependent upon interventions involving social, environmental, and lifestyle factors that…

  10. Socialization of Adolescents: Cultural Practices in Children's Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demakova, Irina D.; Valeeva, Roza A.; Shipova, Alina V.

    2016-01-01

    The article describes the relevant aspects of the adolescents' cultural practices in children's summer camp, taking into account their specific characteristics. The summer camp is considered as an educational formation and holistic socio-pedagogical body, designed to create conditions for the development of the person. The criteria for inclusion…

  11. College and University Summer Camps: Creative Alternatives to Day Care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wever, Matthew F.

    1995-01-01

    The successful summer day camp program of Saint Louis University (Missouri) is described. Program rationale, philosophy, objectives, structure, staffing, activities, and benefits to the university community are discussed. A majority of the children served by the camp are the children, ages 6 to 12, of university employees. (MSE)

  12. Specialized Summer Camps: Provide Benefits for Children and Families Alike

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neff, John M.

    2009-01-01

    The arrival of summer signals a season of endless days of swimming, fishing, summer camps, and other outdoor activities. For children with chronic or terminal illnesses, it can be difficult to participate in many of these activities as well as challenging for parents to find summer camps that not only engage their children, but also offer the…

  13. Art Matters: The Creative Side of the Summer Camp Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, Eden

    2003-01-01

    In western North Carolina, 24 summer camps, business leaders, and a local community arts council collaborated on a project celebrating the visual and performing arts created by campers. Campers' art in every media was displayed in Hendersonville to highlight the benefits of summer camps to the community, including their economic, educational,…

  14. Novel cAMP targets in cell proliferation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiperij, Hinke Bertha

    2004-01-01

    cAMP is a second messenger that plays a role in a wide variety of biological processes, one of which is the regulation of cell proliferation. Adenylate cyclases generate cAMP in the cell upon activation, followed by binding to and activation of its direct targets, PKA and Epac. PKA is a protein kina

  15. Measuring the attitudes and awareness of environmental education camp users

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roger E. McCay; David A. Gansner; John J. Padalino

    1978-01-01

    Questionnaires for evaluating what people expect from environmental camps and what they learn while there have been developed and applied at the Pocono Environmental Education Center, Dingman's Ferry, Penna. Nine questionnaires for various ages and types of users are presented. The results can be used by camp administrators and educators to evaluate their own...

  16. Inclusion Coordinators at Jewish Summer Camps: Roles and Challenges

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shefter, Laura; Uhrman, Abigail L.; Tobin, Lisa; Kress, Jeffrey S.

    2017-01-01

    As appreciation of the impact of Jewish camping has grown, so have efforts to increase the number of campers able to participate in these settings. Inclusion of campers with disabilities, though not a new phenomenon, has likewise expanded. As more services are provided to campers with disabilities, more camps are hiring an Inclusion Coordinator to…

  17. How to Respond to Problem Behavior in Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotman, Charles B.

    1987-01-01

    Deals with types of behavior that cannot be allowed among staff or campers in the camp community--use of drugs or alcohol, personal abuse, crime, violence, and sexual activity. Urges camp directors to develop a written policy spelling out standards, expectations, and sanctions. Suggests staff orientation strategies. (JHZ)

  18. Students Become Scientists at Science Skills Boot Camp | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    At the 2016 Science Skills Boot Camp (SSBC), a one-day training program designed for NIH summer interns with little or no prior research experience, students gathered to learn about basic research and laboratory skills. The boot camp provided a unique opportunity for interns to expand their knowledge of simple bench techniques, scientific papers, and ways to communicate their research.

  19. 14 CFR 91.1431 - CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1431 CAMP: Continuing analysis and surveillance. (a) Each program manager who maintains program aircraft under a CAMP must establish and maintain a system for the continuing analysis and surveillance of the performance and effectiveness of its inspection program and the...

  20. Teaching Ugandan Traditional Dances and Drumming in Summer Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mabingo, Alfdaniels

    2017-01-01

    Dances and drum rhythms from African traditions have been integrated into summer camp activities in the United States as a response to the ever-globalized environments in which these camps are located and the diversity of the campers and teachers that they attract. This reflective article draws on critical reflections, observations and experiences…

  1. Phosphodiesterases in the rat ovary: effect of cAMP in primordial follicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Tonny Studsgaard; Stahlhut, Martin; Andersen, Claus Yding

    2015-07-01

    Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) are important regulators of the intracellular cAMP concentration, which is a central second messenger that affects a multitude of intracellular functions. In the ovaries, cAMP exerts diverse functions, including regulation of ovulation and it has been suggested that augmented cAMP levels stimulate primordial follicle growth. The present study examined the gene expression, enzyme activity and immunolocalization of the different cAMP hydrolysing PDEs families in the rat ovary. Further, the effect of PDE4 inhibition on primordial follicle activation in cultured neonatal rat ovaries was also evaluated. We found varied expression of all eight families in the ovary with Pde7b and Pde8a having the highest expression each accounting for more than 20% of the total PDE mRNA. PDE4 accounted for 15-26% of the total PDE activity. Immunoreactive PDE11A was found in the oocytes and PDE2A in the corpora lutea. Incubating neonatal rat ovaries with PDE4 inhibitors did not increase primordial follicle activation or change the expression of the developing follicle markers Gdf9, Amh, Inha, the proliferation marker Mki67 or the primordial follicle marker Tmeff2. In addition, the cAMP analogue 8-bromo-cAMP did not increase AKT1 or FOXO3A phosphorylation associated with follicle activation or increase the expression of Kitlg known to be associated with follicle differentiation but did increase the Tmeff2, Mki67 and Inha expression in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, this study shows that both Pde7b and Pde8a are highly expressed in the rodent ovary and that PDE4 inhibition does not cause an increase in primordial follicle activation. © 2015 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.

  2. Osmium (VI) complexes of the 3', 5'-dinucleoside monophosphates, ApU and UpA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daniel, F B; Behrman, E J

    1976-02-10

    The dinucleoside monophosphates, ApU and UpA, react with potassium osmate (VI) and 2,2'-bipyridyl to form the corresponding oxo-osmium (VI) bipyridyl sugar ester in which the osmate group is bonded to the terminal 2',3'-glycol. Osmium (VIII) tetroxide and 2,2'-bipyridyl react with the dinucleosides to form the corresponding oxo-osmium (VI) bipyridyl heterocyclic esters which result from addition of the tetroxide to the 5,6-double bond of the uracil residue. Although capable of transesterification reactions, these heterocyclic esters are exceptionally stable toward exchange reactions in solution. No apparent exchange was observed after 1 month. This reaction thus seems promising for single-site osmium labeling in polynucleotides.

  3. Influences of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate and forskolin on human sperm motility in vitro

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ji-HongLIU; YangLI; Zheng-GuoCAO; Zhang-QunYE

    2003-01-01

    Aim: To study the influences of dibutyryl cyclic adenosine monophosphate (dbcAMP) and forskolin on human sperm motility in vitro. Methods: Semen samples, aseptically obtained by masturbation and prepared by swim-up technique from 20 fertile men, were incubated with different concenlrations of dbcAMP and forskolin at 37℃. Measurements were carried out after l0 min, 20 min, 30 min and 60 min incubation. Motility parameters were estimated by using an automatic analyzing system. Results: Treatment with dbcAMP or forskolin resulted in a significant increase in sperm motility and progressive motility. The larger the concenlrations of dbcAMP or forskolin,the greater the effect appeared. The straight linear velocity and curvilinear velocity were not affected by both agents.Conclusion: dbcAMP and forskolin increase the motility and progressive motility of human sperm in vitro. ( Asian J Androl 2003 Jun; 5: 113-115)

  4. Corticosteroid-Responsive Pulmonary Toxicity Associated with Fludarabine Monophosphate: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milda Rudzianskiene

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Fludarabine monophosphate is an effective drug for the treatment of lymphoid malignancies. Myelosuppression, opportunistic infections, and autoimmune hemolytic anemia are the most common side effects of fludarabine. Herein we report a 55-year-old female that presented with fever and dyspnea after completing her third cycle of FMD (fludarabine, mitoxantrone, and dexamethasone chemotherapy for stage IV non-Hodgkin follicular lymphoma. Chest X-ray revealed bilateral pneumofibrotic changes and chest CT showed bilateral diffuse interstitial changes with fibrotic alterations. No evidence of infectious agents was noted. The patient had a reduced carbon monoxide transfer factor (45%. Her symptoms and radiographic findings resolved following treatment with prednisolone. The literature contains several cases of fludarabine-associated interstitial pulmonary toxicity that responded to steroid therapy. Fludarabine-induced pulmonary toxicity is reversible with cessation of the drug and administration of glucocorticosteroids.

  5. Structural determinants for the inhibitory ligands of orotidine-5′-monophosphate decarboxylase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meza-Avina, Maria Elena; Wei, Lianhu; Liu, Yan; Poduch, Ewa; Bello, Angelica M.; Mishra, Ram K.; Pai, Emil F.; Kotra, Lakshmi P. (TGRI); (Toronto)

    2010-06-14

    In recent years, orotidine-5{prime}-monophosphate decarboxylase (ODCase) has gained renewed attention as a drug target. As a part of continuing efforts to design novel inhibitors of ODCase, we undertook a comprehensive study of potent, structurally diverse ligands of ODCase and analyzed their structural interactions in the active site of ODCase. These ligands comprise of pyrazole or pyrimidine nucleotides including the mononucleotide derivatives of pyrazofurin, barbiturate ribonucleoside, and 5-cyanouridine, as well as, in a computational approach, 1,4-dihydropyridine-based non-nucleoside inhibitors such as nifedipine and nimodipine. All these ligands bind in the active site of ODCase exhibiting distinct interactions paving the way to design novel inhibitors against this interesting enzyme. We propose an empirical model for the ligand structure for rational modifications in new drug design and potentially new lead structures.

  6. Metabolic syndrome: adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and malonyl coenzyme A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruderman, Neil B; Saha, Asish K

    2006-02-01

    The metabolic syndrome can be defined as a state of metabolic dysregulation characterized by insulin resistance, central obesity, and a predisposition to type 2 diabetes, dyslipidemia, premature atherosclerosis, and other diseases. An increasing body of evidence has linked the metabolic syndrome to abnormalities in lipid metabolism that ultimately lead to cellular dysfunction. We review here the hypothesis that, in many instances, the cause of these lipid abnormalities could be a dysregulation of the adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)/malonyl coenzyme A (CoA) fuel-sensing and signaling mechanism. Such dysregulation could be reflected by isolated increases in malonyl CoA or by concurrent changes in malonyl CoA and AMPK, both of which would alter intracellular fatty acid partitioning. The possibility is also raised that pharmacological agents and other factors that activate AMPK and/or decrease malonyl CoA could be therapeutic targets.

  7. Protective effect of oral terfenadine and not inhaled ipratropium on adenosine 5 '-monophosphate-induced bronchoconstriction in patients with COPD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rutgers, [No Value; Koeter, GH; Van der Mark, TW; Postma, DS

    1999-01-01

    Background Inhalation of adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) causes bronchoconstriction in patients with asthma and in many patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In asthma, AMP-induced bronchoconstriction has been shown to be determined mainly by release of mast cell mediators, an

  8. Adsorption of nucleotides on biomimetic apatite: The case of adenosine 5‧ monophosphate (AMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammami, K.; Feki, H. El; Marsan, O.; Drouet, C.

    2015-10-01

    This work investigates the interaction between the nucleotide adenosine 5‧ monophosphate molecule (AMP) and a biomimetic nanocrystalline carbonated apatite as a model for bone mineral. The analogy of the apatite phase used in this work with biological apatite was first pointed out by complementary techniques. AMP adsorption isotherms were then investigated. Obtained data were fitted to a Sips isotherm with an exponent greater than one suggesting positive cooperativity among adsorbed molecules. The data were compared to a previous study relative to the adsorption of another nucleotide, cytidine monophosphate (CMP) onto a similar substrate, evidencing some effect of the chemical nature of the nucleic base. An enhanced adsorption was observed under acidic (pH 6) conditions as opposed to pH 7.4, which parallels the case of DNA adsorption on biomimetic apatite. An estimated standard Gibbs free energy associated to the adsorption process (ΔG°ads ≅ -22 kJ/mol) intermediate between "physisorption" and "chemisorption" was found. The analysis of the solids after adsorption pointed to the preservation of the main characteristics of the apatite substrate but shifts or enhancements of Raman bands attributed to AMP showed the existence of chemical interactions involving both the phosphate and adenine parts of AMP. This contribution adds to the works conducted in view of better understanding the interaction of DNA/RNA and their constitutive nucleotides and the surface of biomimetic apatites. It could prove helpful in disciplines such as bone diagenesis (DNA/apatite interface in aged bones) or nanomedicine (setup of DNA- or RNA-loaded apatite systems). Also, the adsorption of nucleic acids on minerals like apatites could have played a role in the preservation of such biomolecules in the varying conditions known to exist at the origin of life on Earth, underlining the importance of dedicated adsorption studies.

  9. Hyperactivation of NF-κB via the MEK signaling is indispensable for the inhibitory effect of cAMP on DNA damage-induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kloster, Martine M; Naderi, Elin H; Carlsen, Harald; Blomhoff, Heidi K; Naderi, Soheil

    2011-04-21

    With cAMP signaling having a profound inhibitory effect on DNA damage-induced apoptosis in B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (BCP-ALL) cells, understanding how this signaling pathway affects the survival capacity of the cell has important implications for cancer therapy. We have recently shown that p53 is critical for the inhibitory effect of cAMP on genotoxic agents-mediated apoptosis in BCP-ALLs. Here, we show that elevation of cAMP levels in cells exposed to DNA damage enhances the nuclear translocation and DNA binding of NF-κB by accelerating the phosphorylation of IKKβ and thereby phosphorylation and degradation of IκBα. Furthermore, we show that the ability of cAMP to potentiate the ionizing radiation-induced activation of NF-κB requires the activity of MEK. Importantly, pharmacological or genetic ablation of NF-κB reversed the inhibitory effect of cAMP on DNA damage-induced apoptosis, demonstrating that, in addition to p53, cAMP relies on the activity of NF-κB to provide cells with a survival advantage in the face of DNA damage. Collectively, our results uncover a novel and important interaction between the cAMP and NF-κB pathways that may have implications for the targeted treatment of lymphoid malignancies, such as BCP-ALL, in which aberrant NF-κB activity functions as a driving force for treatment resistance.

  10. Camp neobarroco: homenaje, artificio y violencia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia Montes

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to examine some distinctive characteristics of post-vanguard, as shown in the works of Copi and Perlongher, as it is my intention to demonstrate that in the texts of these authors, the constructive principle that organizes the writing is related to a neo-baroque aesthetic and a camp view, as this carnival-like perspective allows them to work with the literary tradition, the different genres and the culture of masses from a parodic distance, that is violence and homage at the same time. This is why the world is represented as chaos, illusion, pure change, a carnival party where costume and transvestism proliferate.

  11. Directed evolution of the Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein at the cAMP pocket.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunasekara, Sanjiva M; Hicks, Matt N; Park, Jin; Brooks, Cory L; Serate, Jose; Saunders, Cameron V; Grover, Simranjeet K; Goto, Joy J; Lee, Jin-Won; Youn, Hwan

    2015-10-30

    The Escherichia coli cAMP receptor protein (CRP) requires cAMP binding to undergo a conformational change for DNA binding and transcriptional regulation. Two CRP residues, Thr(127) and Ser(128), are known to play important roles in cAMP binding through hydrogen bonding and in the cAMP-induced conformational change, but the connection between the two is not completely clear. Here, we simultaneously randomized the codons for these two residues and selected CRP mutants displaying high CRP activity in a cAMP-producing E. coli. Many different CRP mutants satisfied the screening condition for high CRP activity, including those that cannot form any hydrogen bonds with the incoming cAMP at the two positions. In vitro DNA-binding analysis confirmed that these selected CRP mutants indeed display high CRP activity in response to cAMP. These results indicate that the hydrogen bonding ability of the Thr(127) and Ser(128) residues is not critical for the cAMP-induced CRP activation. However, the hydrogen bonding ability of Thr(127) and Ser(128) was found to be important in attaining high cAMP affinity. Computational analysis revealed that most natural cAMP-sensing CRP homologs have Thr/Ser, Thr/Thr, or Thr/Asn at positions 127 and 128. All of these pairs are excellent hydrogen bonding partners and they do not elevate CRP activity in the absence of cAMP. Taken together, our analyses suggest that CRP evolved to have hydrogen bonding residues at the cAMP pocket residues 127 and 128 for performing dual functions: preserving high cAMP affinity and keeping CRP inactive in the absence of cAMP.

  12. Methacholine and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) responsiveness, and the presence and degree of atopy in children with asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suh, Dong I; Lee, Ju K; Kim, Chang K; Koh, Young Y

    2011-02-01

    The relationship between atopy and bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), both key features of asthma, remains to be clarified. BHR is commonly evaluated by bronchial challenges using direct and indirect stimuli. The aim of this study was to investigate the degree of BHR to methacholine (direct stimulus) and adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) (indirect stimulus) according to the presence and degree of atopy in children with asthma. We performed a retrospective analysis of data from 120 children presenting with a diagnosis of asthma. These children were characterized by skin-prick tests (SPTs), spirometry and bronchial challenges with methacholine and AMP. Atopy was defined by at least one positive reaction to SPTs, and its degree was measured using serum total IgE levels, number of positive SPTs and atopic scores (sum of graded wheal size). A provocative concentration causing a 20% decline in FEV(1) (PC(20) ) was determined for each challenge. Patients with atopy(n=94) had a significantly lower AMP PC(20) than non-atopic patients (n=26), whereas methacholine PC(20) was not different between the two groups. Among the patients with atopy, there was no association between methacholine PC(20) and any atopy parameter. In contrast, a significant association was found between AMP PC(20) and the degree of atopy reflected in serum total IgE, number of positive SPTs and atopic scores (anova trend test, p=0.002, 0.001, 0.003, respectively). AMP responsiveness was associated with the presence and degree of atopy, whereas such a relationship was not observed for methacholine responsiveness. These findings suggest that atopic status may be better reflected by bronchial responsiveness assessed by AMP than by methacholine.

  13. Ultraviolet light induction of skin carcinoma in the mouse; influence of cAMP modifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zajdela, F; Latarjet, R

    1978-01-01

    A short review of pathogenic factors in U.V. light skin carcinogenesis in the mouse is presented. Caffeine and theophylline applied locally during U.V. irradiation caused a 50 percent reduction of skin tumour induction in Swiss mice. These two chemicals are inhibitors of DNA postreplication repair, but they also raise the intracellular level of cyclic AMP by inhibiting cAMP phosphodiesterase with, as a consequence, a possible slowing down of cellular growth. Control experiments using three different chemicals capable of raising the cAMP level in epidermal cells gave negative results. These experimental data are compatible with our original hypothesis according to which production of skin cancers by U.V. radiation is in same way related to DNA repair which helps the cell to survive but allows or favours the occurrence of errors in cellular DNA.

  14. Post-Translational Regulation of the Glucose-6-Phosphatase Complex by Cyclic Adenosine Monophosphate Is a Crucial Determinant of Endogenous Glucose Production and Is Controlled by the Glucose-6-Phosphate Transporter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soty, Maud; Chilloux, Julien; Delalande, François; Zitoun, Carine; Bertile, Fabrice; Mithieux, Gilles; Gautier-Stein, Amandine

    2016-04-01

    The excessive endogenous glucose production (EGP) induced by glucagon participates in the development of type 2 diabetes. To further understand this hormonal control, we studied the short-term regulation by cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) of the glucose-6-phosphatase (G6Pase) enzyme, which catalyzes the last reaction of EGP. In gluconeogenic cell models, a 1-h treatment by the adenylate cyclase activator forskolin increased G6Pase activity and glucose production independently of any change in enzyme protein amount or G6P content. Using specific inhibitors or protein overexpression, we showed that the stimulation of G6Pase activity involved the protein kinase A (PKA). Results of site-directed mutagenesis, mass spectrometry analyses, and in vitro phosphorylation experiments suggested that the PKA stimulation of G6Pase activity did not depend on a direct phosphorylation of the enzyme. However, the temperature-dependent induction of both G6Pase activity and glucose release suggested a membrane-based mechanism. G6Pase is composed of a G6P transporter (G6PT) and a catalytic unit (G6PC). Surprisingly, we demonstrated that the increase in G6PT activity was required for the stimulation of G6Pase activity by forskolin. Our data demonstrate the existence of a post-translational mechanism that regulates G6Pase activity and reveal the key role of G6PT in the hormonal regulation of G6Pase activity and of EGP.

  15. Camp Sports Injuries: Analysis of Causes, Modes and Frequencies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota Papageorgiou

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was the description of sports injuries sustained by campers at summer camps, aged 7-15 years. A sample of 8 camps from the Greek camp population participated in this sport injury surveillance study. Doctors and camp directors completed reports detailing the number of sports injuries events sustained and provided specific information about each event. During the period of the study, 337 sport injury reports were completed. A total of 237 (70.3% boys and 100 (29.7% girls reported having a sport injury. Age of campers sustaining a sport injury was 10-12 years old (60.8%. The frequency of sports injuries was highest during the first camp season. The leading causes of sports injuries in children’s were: falls, crushed by object, collision with other person and slips. Cut/scratch injuries were the most common diagnoses (38.9%. Football, basketball and volleyball were the most frequent sport activities for injuries. Reports based surveillance systems can be successfully used to conducts sport injury surveillance among children attending summer camps. Data collected via such systems can be used to calculate sports injury rates, to describe patterns of sport injury and to identify risk factors for camper – related sport injuries. The results provide necessary information to develop prevention interventions to decrease the number of youth whose camp experiences are negatively affected by sport injury.

  16. Optogenetic Modulation of an Adenylate Cyclase in Toxoplasma gondii Demonstrates a Requirement of the Parasite cAMP for Host-Cell Invasion and Stage Differentiation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Anne; Arroyo-Olarte, Ruben Dario; Imkeller, Katharina; Hegemann, Peter; Lucius, Richard; Gupta, Nishith

    2013-01-01

    Successful infection and transmission of the obligate intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii depends on its ability to switch between fast-replicating tachyzoite (acute) and quiescent bradyzoite (chronic) stages. Induction of cAMP in the parasitized host cells has been proposed to influence parasite differentiation. It is not known whether the parasite or host cAMP is required to drive this phenomenon. Other putative roles of cAMP for the parasite biology also remain to be identified. Unequivocal research on cAMP-mediated signaling in such intertwined systems also requires a method for an efficient and spatial control of the cAMP pool in the pathogen or in the enclosing host cell. We have resolved these critical concerns by expressing a photoactivated adenylate cyclase that allows light-sensitive control of the parasite or host-cell cAMP. Using this method, we reveal multiple roles of the parasite-derived cAMP in host-cell invasion, stage-specific expression, and asexual differentiation. An optogenetic method provides many desired advantages such as: (i) rapid, transient, and efficient cAMP induction in extracellular/intracellular and acute/chronic stages; (ii) circumvention of the difficulties often faced in cultures, i.e. poor diffusion, premature degradation, steady activation, and/or pleiotropic effects of cAMP agonists and antagonists; (iii) genetically encoded enzyme expression, thus inheritable to the cell progeny; and (iv) conditional and spatiotemporal control of cAMP levels. Importantly, a successful optogenetic application in Toxoplasma also illustrates its wider utility to study cAMP-mediated signaling in other genetically amenable two-organism systems such as in symbiotic and pathogen-host models. PMID:23525100

  17. Race in California's prison fire camps for men: prison politics, space, and the racialization of everyday life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodman, Philip

    2014-09-01

    The vast majority of social scientists agree that race is "socially constructed." Yet many scholars of punishment and prisons still treat race as static, self-evident categories. One result is that not enough is known about the production, meanings, and consequences of race as experienced by prisoners and those who guard and manage them. The author's research on California's prison fire camps uncovers the micro-level ways in which race is performed and imbued with meaning; he reveals how racial understandings color people and settings. One puzzle is that prisoners in California's fire camps will fight natural disasters side by side, sharing water and provisions, but separate into racial groups when in the camp itself. In part to answer this (and in part to develop better understandings of race and prisons more generally), the author unpacks the variegated nature of punishment and the spatialization of race and advocates for research that is faithful to the constructivist framework.

  18. Understanding a Spiritual Youth Camp as a Consciousness Raising Group: The Effects of a Subculture's Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnell, Jim

    This paper defines a spiritual youth camp as a consciousness raising group. The camp, founded in 1956 as a community church camp, has been independent of any religious denomination since disassociating from the founding community church in 1986. Communication processes are described as they relate to primary aspects of the camp experience. Primary…

  19. Tying the Design of Your Camp Staff Training to the Delivery of Desired Youth Outcomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Robin; Bourdeau, Virginia; Arnold, Mary; Nott, Brooke D.

    2013-01-01

    As experience camp directors, we've seen the challenges faced by young camp counselors and inexperienced staff. Evaluations from staff at many camps motivated us to help our people be more effective with their campers. In response we created a comprehensive camp staff training. Lessons showed staff what we wanted them to do and say as they…

  20. [Suitability of spatial pattern of camping sites in Langxiang Natural Reserve, Northeast Chi- na, based on GIS technology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Jie; Tan Ji-qiang; Zhou, Bo; Kang, Rui-cun; Wang, Ai-hong; Liu, Wei; Zhang, Lu

    2015-09-01

    It is an effective way for natural reserves to enhance self-supportive ability and realize sustainable development by developing ecotourism. Taking the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve in Heilongjiang Province as research object, the forest sub-compartment as research unit, and spatial pattern of environmental suitability of camping sites as research content, an evaluation index system taking natural environment, geographical security, infrastructure and traffic as project levels was built. Delphi and AHP methods were used to determine index weights. A spatial distribution map of camping environmental suitability in Langxiang Natural Reserve was drawn using the GIS spatial information processing technology based on "3S" measurement and the survey data. The results showed that the highest score for quantification of environmental suitability was 90, while the lowest score was 78, and the average value was 83.66 in the 1067 forest sub-compartments for test. The area of forest sub-compartments which were suitable for camping was 1094.44 hm2, being 12.2% of the experimental zone. The forest sub-compartments which had high environmental suitability in the research area were distributed uniformly and centralized with low degree of fragmentation. It was suggested that the contiguous forest sub-compartments with high scores of environmental suitability could be integrated for camping tourism. Due to the high level of environmental suitability for camping, the experimental zone of Langxiang Natural Reserve is suitable for developing camping tourism. Based on "3S" technology, the land use conditions of ecotourism environment of a natural reserve could be evaluated quickly and quantitatively by mathematical model.

  1. Glucagon and cAMP inhibit cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expression in human hepatocytes: discordant regulation of bile acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Kwang-Hoon; Chiang, John Y L

    2006-01-01

    The gene encoding cholesterol 7alpha-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) is tightly regulated to control bile acid synthesis and maintain lipid homeostasis. Recent studies in mice suggest that bile acid synthesis is regulated by the fasted-to-fed cycle, and fasting induces CYP7A1 gene expression in parallel to the induction of peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1alpha (PGC-1alpha) and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK). How glucagon regulates CYP7A1 gene expression in the human liver is not clear. Here we show that glucagon and cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) strongly repressed CYP7A1 mRNA expression in human primary hepatocytes. Reporter assays confirmed that cAMP and protein kinase A (PKA) inhibited human CYP7A1 gene transcription, in contrast to their stimulation of the PEPCK gene. Mutagenesis analysis identified a PKA-responsive region located within the previously identified HNF4alpha binding site in the human CYP7A1 promoter. Glucagon and cAMP increased HNF4alpha phosphorylation and reduced the amount of HNF4alpha present in CYP7A1 chromatin. Our findings suggest that glucagon inhibited CYP7A1 gene expression via PKA phosphorylation of HNF4alpha, which lost its ability to bind the CYP7A1 gene and resulted in inhibition of human CYP7A1 gene transcription. In conclusion, this study unveils a species difference in nutrient regulation of the human and mouse CYP7A1 gene and suggests a discordant regulation of bile acid synthesis and gluconeogenesis by glucagon in human livers during fasting.

  2. Circadian regulation of Limulus visual functions: A role for octopamine and cAMP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jasbir S. DALAL, Barbara-Anne BATTELLE

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this contribution is to review our current understanding of the source and biochemistry of the circadian efferent input to the eyes of the American horseshoe crab Limulus polyphemus and the impact of this input on the structure, physiology and biochemistry of Limulus eyes. Special emphasis is given to the role of the biogenic amine octopamine and biochemical cascades it activates in the eyes. In addition to reviewing published data, we present new data showing that octopamine elevates cAMP levels in Limulus lateral eyes, and we partially characterize the pharmacology of the receptors involved in this response. We also present new data showing that octopamine regulates gene expression in Limulus lateral eyes by activating a cAMP cascade [Current Zoology 56 (5: 518–536, 2010].

  3. Supporting Transgender and Gender Nonconforming Youth at Summer Camp

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ann Gillard; Erin E Buzuvis; M Deborah Bialeschki

    2014-01-01

      EXECUTIVE SUMMARY: With increasing visibility of the transgender population, and with more people openly identifying as transgender and expressing their gender nonconformity at younger ages, it is inevitable that camp...

  4. Camp as a Teaching Method in Health Education

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ringby, Betina

    Progression Model’ served as background theory. Evaluation Three different camps were evaluated by students in 2012 and 2013. A written individual evaluation form was filled in at the end of CAMP one; two and three. Data consisted of descriptive questionnaires with open answer alternatives. Evaluations were...... optional and all 33 participants have completed. CAMP three was furthermore explored through one focus group interview of four students. Results The participants described experiences related to a sense of community as challenging, intense and as a learning process that required openness, creativity...... and concentration. Responsibility of own and others' learning process in combination with a professional focus seemed to ensure and maintain students’ motivation. Furthermore, CAMP was experienced as a self-governing and dialogue-based way of learning. Conclusions The result comprises important issues of interest...

  5. A summer day camp approach to adolescent weight loss.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Southam, M A; Kirkley, B G; Murchison, A; Berkowitz, R I

    1984-01-01

    Twenty-five overweight adolescents completed a summer weight loss day camp program on the Stanford University campus. All participants attended camp four days per week for four hours to learn and practice eating and exercise skills conducive to weight loss. Parents met weekly to discuss the program content and to explore their role in their adolescent's weight management. At posttreatment, reductions were achieved in weight, percent overweight, and skinfold, with greater changes observed for the eight-week group than for the four-week group. Improvements were also evident in participants' self-reported habits and knowledge of weight management concepts. Parent and participant assessment of the camp experience was very positive. The results of the summer weight loss day camp suggest that an intensive program of eating and exercise habit instruction, practice, and monitoring, which allows the participants to remain in the home setting, may provide benefits not found in other more traditional approaches to adolescent weight loss.

  6. 14 CFR 91.1423 - CAMP: Maintenance organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Operations Program Management § 91.1423 CAMP: Maintenance organization. (a) Each program manager who... maintenance, or alterations, must organize the performance of those functions so as to separate the...

  7. Nationalsozialistische Konzentrations- und Vernichtungslager National Socialist Concentration and Extermination Camps

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Max Plassmann

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Das Buch stellt Organisationsformen, Zuständigkeiten und Politik hinter dem nationalsozialistischen Konzentrationslagersystem dar.This book presents organization, competences and policies underlying the system of National Socialist concentration camps.

  8. New York Operation: Military Kids Afterschool Universe Cosmic Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaff, N.

    2010-08-01

    The Cornell Center for Radiophysics and Space Research education and public outreach program and the New York State Operation: Military Kids program partnered to plan four weekend "Cosmic Camps" for youth from military families using the NASA Afterschool Universe program.

  9. 14 CFR 91.1413 - CAMP: Responsibility for airworthiness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., including airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, rotors, appliances, and parts. (2) Maintaining its..., including airframes, aircraft engines, propellers, rotors, appliances, emergency equipment and parts, under... Ownership Operations Program Management § 91.1413 CAMP: Responsibility for airworthiness. (a) For...

  10. Building a Successful Middle School Outreach Effort: Microscopy Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penn, Lee R.; Flynn, Leslie; Johnson, Page

    2007-01-01

    Microscopy Camp program is designed to introduce acceptable representations of crystalline particles and their atomic structure to twelve-year-old middle school students at a developmental and educational stage.

  11. The Physics of Quidditch Summer Camp: An Interdisciplinary Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Donna; Uher, Tim

    The University of Maryland Physics Department has developed an innovative summer camp program that takes an interdisciplinary approach to engaging and teaching physics. The Physics of Quidditch Camp uniquely sits at the intersection of physics, sports, and literature, utilizing the real-life sport of quidditch adapted from the Harry Potter novels to stimulate critical thinking about real laws of physics and leaps of imagination, while actively engaging students in learning the sport and discussing the literature. Throughout the camp, middle school participants become immersed in fun physics experiments and exciting physical activities, which aim to build and enhance skills in problem-solving, analytical thinking, and teamwork. This camp has pioneered new ways of teaching physics to pre-college students, successfully engaged middle school students in learning physics, and grown a large demand for such activities.

  12. Impact of Participating in a Short-Term Intervention Model of Sports Education Camps for Children with Visual Impairments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mc Mahon, John M.

    2013-01-01

    This three-paper format dissertation explores three topics relevant to participating in a short-term model Sports Education Camp for youth with vision impairments. The three papers are independent studies, yet build upon each other by first measuring physical performance in certain skills, then exploring their levels of self-perception, body mass…

  13. The Effect of an Altitude Training Camp on Swimming Start Time and Loaded Squat Jump Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Ramos, Amador; Štirn, Igor; Padial, Paulino; Argüelles-Cienfuegos, Javier; De la Fuente, Blanca; Calderón, Carmen; Bonitch-Góngora, Juan; Tomazin, Katja; Strumbelj, Boro; Strojnik, Vojko; Feriche, Belén

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of an altitude training (AT) camp on swimming start time and loaded squat jump performance. To accomplish this goal, 13 international swimmers (8 women, 5 men) were allocated to both the control (Sea Level Training, SLT) and experimental conditions (AT, 2320 m above sea level) that were separated by a one year period. All tests (15 m freestyle swimming start and loaded squat jumps with additional loads of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of swimmers' body weight) were performed before and after a concurrent 3-week strength and endurance training program prescribed by the national coach. Following the SLT camp, significant impairments in swimming start times to 10 (+3.1%) and 15 m (+4.0%) were observed (P camp (-0.89%; P > 0.05). Trivial changes in peak velocity were obtained during the loaded squat jump after both training periods (effect sizes: effectiveness of power-oriented resistance training in the development of explosive actions.

  14. Role of 3'-5'-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on the epidermal growth factor dependent survival in mammary epithelial cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinman, Diego Y; Romorini, Leonardo; Presman, Diego M; Rocha-Viegas, Luciana; Coso, Omar A; Davio, Carlos; Pecci, Adali

    2016-01-01

    Epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been suggested to play a key role in the maintenance of epithelial cell survival during lactation. Previously, we demonstrated that EGF dependent activation of PI3K pathway prevents apoptosis in confluent murine HC11 cells cultured under low nutrient conditions. The EGF protective effect is associated with increased levels of the antiapoptotic protein Bcl-XL. Here, we identify the EGF-dependent mechanism involved in cell survival that converges in the regulation of bcl-X expression by activated CREB. EGF induces Bcl-XL expression through activation of a unique bcl-X promoter, the P1; being not only the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway but also the increase in cAMP levels and the concomitant PKA/CREB activation necessary for both bcl-XL upregulation and apoptosis avoidance. Results presented in this work suggest the existence of a novel connection between the EGF receptor and the adenylate cyclase that would have an impact in preventing apoptosis under low nutrient conditions.

  15. Science and technology camp for girls. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-31

    This document reports on the success of Pacific University`s camp held during the summers of 1992 and 1993; ultimate goal of this summer day camp was to increase the number of women in technical and scientific fields. Some experimentation was done with the age groups (7th and 8th grade girls). The curriculum was biology, chemistry, physics, and mathematics/computer science. Laboratory work and field trips were emphasized, along with socialization.

  16. IMPROVEMENTS TO POLAR CAMPS, USE OF A 64-FOOT JAMESWAY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Certain practical considerations have usually limited the length of Jamesways to 48 feet’ however, by using a side entry and heating the building...foot Jamesway was used as a 12-man quarters in the NCEL experimental camp near McMurdo, Antarctica, during Deep Freeze 64 and 65. The building size and... Jamesway was also used in the experimental camp for a mess hall, galley and utility building. This combination permitted placement of a snow melter and

  17. Functional status and relationships of melanocortin 1 receptor signaling to the cAMP and extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases 1 and 2 pathways in human melanoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herraiz, Cecilia; Journé, Fabrice; Ghanem, Ghanem; Jiménez-Cervantes, Celia; García-Borrón, José C

    2012-12-01

    Melanocortin 1 receptor (MC1R), a major determinant of skin phototype frequently mutated in melanoma, is a Gs protein-coupled receptor that regulates pigment production in melanocytes. MC1R stimulation activates cAMP synthesis and the extracellular signal-regulated (ERK) ERK1 and ERK2. In human melanocytes, ERK activation by MC1R relies on cAMP-independent transactivation of the c-KIT receptor. Thus MC1R functional coupling to the cAMP and ERK pathways may involve different structural requirements giving raise to biased effects of skin cancer-associated mutations. We evaluated the impact of MC1R mutations on ERK activation, cAMP production and agonist binding. We found that MC1R mutations impair cAMP production much more often than ERK activation, suggesting less stringent requirements for functional coupling to the ERK pathway. We examined the crosstalk of the cAMP and ERK pathways in HBL human melanoma cells (wild-type for MC1R, NRAS and BRAF). ERK activation by constitutively active upstream effectors or pharmacological inhibition had little effect on MC1R-stimulated cAMP synthesis. High cAMP levels were compatible with normal ERK activation but, surprisingly, the adenylyl cyclase activator forskolin abolished ERK activation by MC1R, most likely by a cAMP-independent mechanism. These results indicate little crosstalk of the cAMP and ERK pathways in HBL melanoma cells. Finally, we studied cAMP accumulation in a panel of 22 human melanoma cell lines stimulated with MC1R agonists or forskolin. cAMP synthesis was often inhibited, even in cells wild-type for MC1R and NRAS. Therefore, the cAMP pathway is more frequently impaired in melanoma than could be predicted by the MC1R or NRAS genotype.

  18. The Effect of a Nature Camp on Children’s Conceptions of Nature

    OpenAIRE

    Esra Yardimci; Gulsen Leblebicioglu

    2012-01-01

    In this study, a nature camp which provides authentic learning opportunities for children was conducted. Twenty-four 4th and 5th graders (9 girls, 15 boys) participated to the camp. The camp program started with observations in the forest nearby. More focused observations were also made. Children discussed their observations with their friends and scientists. A questionnaire was applied at the beginning and end of the camp. The results showed that the nature camp program was effective in exte...

  19. Camp Sacajawea Passive Solar Demonstration Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1983-08-31

    The intent of the Passive Solar Demonstration Project was to have: an actual demonstration of the effectiveness of a passive solar design and working automatic shading devices; accurate data of energy saved by the passive design and shading devices; a brochure distributed to architects, builders, and consumers, with the monitoring data and information about the project; and the continued monitoring of the building to help explain to those who are using the building the value of the system; this would not only include the 7000 members, bu visitors and other users of the facility. To accomplish these goals, a monitoring system was installed in the recently build Passive Solar Lodge at Camp Sacajawea on Casper Mountain south of Casper, Wyoming. The building was monitored continously for the remainder of the project. The installation of the automatic shading device, a curtain wall was accomplished but had some difficulty. The results indicate there is some effectiveness of the Curtain Wall, but a quantitative value would be impossible at this time.

  20. A dynamic interface between ubiquitylation and cAMP signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura eRinaldi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phosphorylation waves drive the propagation of signals generated in response to hormones and growth factors in target cells. cAMP is an ancient second messenger implicated in key biological functions. In mammals, most of the effects elicited by cAMP are mediated by protein kinase A (PKA. Activation of the kinase by cAMP results in the phosphorylation of a variety of cellular substrates, leading to differentiation, proliferation, survival, metabolism. The identification of scaffold proteins, namely A-Kinase Anchor proteins (AKAPs, that localize PKA in specific cellular districts, provides critical cues for our understanding of the role played by cAMP in cell biology. Multivalent complexes are assembled by AKAPs and include signaling enzymes, mRNAs, adapter molecules, receptors and ion channels. A novel development derived from the molecular analysis of these complexes nucleated by AKAPs is represented by the presence of components of the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS. More to it, the AKAP complex can be regulated by the UPS, eliciting relevant effects on downstream cAMP signals.This represents a novel, yet previously unpredicted interface between compartmentalized signaling and the UPS. We anticipate that impairment of these regulatory mechanisms could promote cell dysfunction and disease. Here, we will focus on the reciprocal regulation between cAMP signaling and UPS, and its relevance to human proliferative disorders.

  1. Multiple facets of cAMP signalling and physiological impact : cAMP compartmentalization in the lung

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenburger, Anouk; Maarsingh, Harm; Schmidt, Martina

    2012-01-01

    Therapies involving elevation of the endogenous suppressor cyclic AMP (cAMP) are currently used in the treatment of several chronic inflammatory disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Characteristics of COPD are airway obstruction, airway inflammation and airway remodelli

  2. Gemcitabine-based therapy for pancreatic cancer using the squalenoyl nucleoside monophosphate nanoassemblies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maksimenko, Andrei; Caron, Joachim; Mougin, Julie; Desmaële, Didier; Couvreur, Patrick

    2015-03-30

    Gemcitabine is currently the most effective agent against advanced pancreatic cancer. However, the major therapeutic hurdles using gemcitabine include rapid inactivation by blood deaminases and fast development of cell chemoresistance, induced by down-regulation of deoxycytidine kinase or nucleoside transporters. To overcome the above drawbacks we designed recently a novel nanomedicine strategy based on squalenoyl prodrug of 5'-monophosphate gemcitabine (SQdFdC-MP). This amphiphilic conjugate self-organized in water into unilamellar vesicles with a mean diameter of 100 nm. In this study the antitumor efficacy of SQdFdC-MP nanoassemblies (NAs) on chemoresistant and chemosensitive pancreatic adenocarcinoma models have been investigated. Cell viability assays showed that SQdFdC-MP NAs displayed higher antiproliferative and cytotoxic effects, particularly in chemoresistant pancreatic tumor cells. In in vivo studies, SQdFdC-MP NAs decreased significantly the growth (∼70%) of human MiaPaCa2 xenografts, also preventing tumor cell invasion, whereas native dFdC did not display any anticancer activity when tumor growth inhibition was only 35% with SQdFdC NAs. These results correlated with a reduction of Ki-67 antigen and the induction of apoptosis mediated by caspase-3 activation in tumor cells. These findings demonstrated the feasibility of utilizing SQdFdC-MP NAs to make tumor cells more sensitive to gemcitabine and thus providing an efficient new therapeutic alternative for pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  3. Switching direction in electric-signal-induced cell migration by cyclic guanosine monophosphate and phosphatidylinositol signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Masayuki J; Kuwayama, Hidekazu; van Egmond, Wouter N; Takayama, Airi L K; Takagi, Hiroaki; van Haastert, Peter J M; Yanagida, Toshio; Ueda, Masahiro

    2009-04-21

    Switching between attractive and repulsive migration in cell movement in response to extracellular guidance cues has been found in various cell types and is an important cellular function for translocation during cellular and developmental processes. Here we show that the preferential direction of migration during electrotaxis in Dictyostelium cells can be reversed by genetically modulating both guanylyl cyclases (GCases) and the cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP)-binding protein C (GbpC) in combination with the inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinases (PI3Ks). The PI3K-dependent pathway is involved in cathode-directed migration under a direct-current electric field. The catalytic domains of soluble GCase (sGC) and GbpC also mediate cathode-directed signaling via cGMP, whereas the N-terminal domain of sGC mediates anode-directed signaling in conjunction with both the inhibition of PI3Ks and cGMP production. These observations provide an identification of the genes required for directional switching in electrotaxis and suggest that a parallel processing of electric signals, in which multiple-signaling pathways act to bias cell movement toward the cathode or anode, is used to determine the direction of migration.

  4. Turning an antiviral into an anticancer drug: nanoparticle delivery of acyclovir monophosphate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Jing; Zhang, Yuan; Ramishetti, Srinivas; Wang, Yuhua; Huang, Leaf

    2013-09-28

    Anti-herpes simplex virus (HSV) drug acyclovir (ACV) is phosphorylated by the viral thymidine kinase (TK), but not the cellular TK. Phosphorylated ACV inhibits cellular DNA synthesis and kills the infected cells. We hypothesize that ACV monophosphate (ACVP), which is an activated metabolite of ACV, should be efficient in killing cells independent of HSV-TK. If so, ACVP should be a cytotoxic agent if properly delivered to the cancer cells. The Lipid/Calcium/Phosphate (LCP) nanoparticles (NPs) with a membrane/core structure were used to encapsulate ACVP to facilitate the targeted delivery of ACVP to the tumor. The LCP NPs showed entrapment efficiency of ~70%, the nano-scaled particle size and positive zeta potential. Moreover, ACVP-loaded LCP NPs (A-LCP NPs) exhibited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity against H460 cells and increased S-phase arrest. More importantly, a significant reduction of the tumor volume over 4 days following administration (pACV and ACVP) and blank LCP NPs showed little or no therapeutic effect. It was also found that the high efficacy of A-LCP NPs was associated with the ability to induce dramatic apoptosis of the tumor cells, as well as significantly inhibit tumor cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. In conclusion, with the help of LCP NPs, monophosphorylation modification of ACV can successfully modify an HSV-TK-dependent antiviral drug into an anti-tumor drug.

  5. Controlled supramolecular structure of guanosine monophosphate in the interlayer space of layered double hydroxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gyeong-Hyeon Gwak

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Guanosine monophosphates (GMPs were intercalated into the interlayer space of layered double hydroxides (LDHs and the molecular arrangement of GMP was controlled in LDHs. The intercalation conditions such as GMP/LDH molar ratio and reaction temperature were systematically adjusted. When the GMP/LDH molar ratio was 1:2, which corresponds to the charge balance between positive LDH sheets and GMP anions, GMP molecules were well-intercalated to LDH. At high temperature (100 and 80 °C, a single GMP molecule existed separately in the LDH interlayer. On the other hand, at lower temperature (20, 40 and 60 °C, GMPs tended to form ribbon-type supramolecular assemblies. Differential scanning calorimetry showed that the ribbon-type GMP assembly had an intermolecular interaction energy of ≈101 kJ/mol, which corresponds to a double hydrogen bond between guanosine molecules. Once stabilized, the interlayer GMP orientations, single molecular and ribbon phase, were successfully converted to the other phase by adjusting the external environment by stoichiometry or temperature control.

  6. 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase and the metabolic syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mor, Vijay; Unnikrishnan, M K

    2011-09-01

    Lifestyle changes such as physical inactivity combined with calorie-rich, low-fibre diets have triggered an explosive surge in metabolic syndrome, outlined as a cluster of heart attack risk factors such as insulin resistance, raised fasting plasma glucose, abdominal obesity, high cholesterol and high blood pressure. By acting as a master-switch of energy homeostasis and associated pathophysiological phenomena, 5'-adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK) appears to orchestrate the adaptive physiology of energy deficit, suggesting that the sedentary modern human could be suffering from chronic suboptimal AMPK activation. Addressing individual targets with potent ligands with high specificity may be inappropriate (it has not yielded any molecule superior to the sixty year old metformin) because this strategy cannot address a cluster of interrelated pathologies. However, spices, dietary supplements and nutraceuticals attenuate the multiple symptoms of metabolic syndrome in a collective and perhaps more holistic fashion with fewer adverse events. Natural selection could have favoured races that developed a taste for spices and dietary supplements, most of which are not only antioxidants but also activators of AMPK. The review will outline the various biochemical mechanisms and pathophysiological consequences of AMPK activation involving the cluster of symptoms that embrace metabolic syndrome and beyond. Recent advances that integrate energy homeostasis with a number of overarching metabolic pathways and physiological phenomena, including inflammatory conditions, cell growth and development, malignancy, life span, and even extending into environmental millieu, as in obesity mediated by gut microflora and others will also be outlined.

  7. Post-translational Analysis of Arabidopsis thaliana Proteins in Response to Cyclic Guanosine Monophosphate Treatment

    KAUST Repository

    Parrott, Brian

    2011-12-12

    The introduction of mass spectrometry techniques to the field of biology has made possible the exploration of the proteome as a whole system as opposed to prior techniques, such as anti-body based assays or yeast two-hybrid studies, which were strictly limited to the study of a few proteins at a time. This practice has allowed for a systems biology approach of exploring the proteome, with the possibility of viewing entire pathways over increments of time. In this study, the effect of treating Arabidopsis thaliana suspension culture cells with 3’,5’-cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), which is a native second messenger, was examined. Samples were collected at four time points and proteins were extracted and enriched for both oxidation and phosphorylation before analysis via mass spectrometry. Preliminary results suggest a tendency towards an increased number of phosphorylated proteins as a result of cGMP treatment. The data also showed a sharp increase in methionine oxidation in response to the treatment, occurring within the first ten minutes. This finding suggests that cGMP may utilize methionine oxidation as a mechanism of signal transduction. As such, this study corroborates a growing body of evidence supporting the inclusion of methionine oxidation in intracellular signaling pathways.

  8. PHARMACOKINETIC AND PHARMACODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF INOSINE MONOPHOSPHATE DEHYDROGENASE (IMPDH) ACTIVITY IN MMF-TREATED HCT RECIPIENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hong; Mager, Donald E.; Sandmaier, Brenda M.; Storer, Barry E.; Boeckh, Michael J.; Bemer, Meagan J.; Phillips, Brian R.; Risler, Linda J.; McCune, Jeannine S.

    2014-01-01

    A novel approach to personalizing postgrafting immunosuppression in hematopoietic cell transplant (HCT) recipients is evaluating inosine monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) activity as a drug-specific biomarker of mycophenolic acid (MPA)-induced immunosuppression. This prospective study evaluated total MPA, unbound MPA, and total MPA glucuronide plasma concentrations and IMPDH activity in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PMNC) at five time points after the morning dose of oral mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) on day +21 in 56 nonmyeloablative HCT recipients. Substantial interpatient variability in the pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics was observed and accurately characterized by the population pharmacokinetic/dynamic model. IMPDH activity decreased with increasing MPA plasma concentration, with maximum inhibition coinciding with maximum MPA concentration in most patients. The overall relationship between MPA concentration and IMPDH activity was described by a direct inhibitory Emax model with an IC50 = 3.23 mg/L total MPA and 57.3 ng/mL unbound MPA. The day +21 IMPDH area under the effect curve (AUEC) was associated with cytomegalovirus reactivation, non-relapse mortality, and overall mortality. In conclusion, a pharmacokinetic/dynamic model was developed that relates plasma MPA concentrations with PMNC IMPDH activity after an MMF dose in HCT recipients. Future studies should validate this model and confirm that day +21 IMPDH AUEC is a predictive biomarker. PMID:24727337

  9. Triazole inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maurya, Sushil K.; Gollapalli, Deviprasad R.; Kirubakaran, Sivapriya; Zhang, Minjia; Johnson, Corey R.; Benjamin, Nicole N.; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Cuny, Gregory D.

    2010-01-01

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an important human pathogen and potential bioterrorism agent. This protozoan parasite cannot salvage guanine or guanosine and therefore relies on inosine 5′-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH) for biosynthesis of guanine nucleotides and hence for survival. Since C. parvum IMPDH is highly divergent from the host counterpart, selective inhibitors could potentially be used to treat cryptosporidiosis with minimal effects on its mammalian host. A series of 1,2,3-triazole containing ether CpIMPDH inhibitors are described. A structure-activity relationship study revealed that a small alkyl group on the alpha-position of the ether was required with the (R)-enantiomer significantly more active than the (S)-enantiomer. Electron-withdrawing groups in the 3- and/or 4-positions of the pendent phenyl ring were best and conversion of the quinoline containing inhibitors to quinoline-N-oxides retained inhibitory activity both in the presence and absence of bovine serum albumin. The 1,2,3-triazole CpIMPDH inhibitors provide new tools for elucidating the role of IMPDH in C. parvum and may serve as potential therapeutics for treating cryptosporidiosis. PMID:19624136

  10. Recognition of nucleoside monophosphate substrates by Haemophilus influenzae class C acid phosphatase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P; Reilly, Thomas J; Calcutt, Michael J; Tanner, John J

    2010-12-10

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD(+) utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5',3'-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5'-AMP, 3'-AMP, and 2'-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5'-nucleotides and 3'-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5' substrates in an anti conformation and 3' substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  11. Ion-exclusion chromatography determination of organic acid in uridine 5'-monophosphate fermentation broth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Huanqing; Chen, Yong; Xie, Jingjing; Chen, Xiaochun; Bai, Jianxin; Wu, Jinglan; Liu, Dong; Ying, Hanjie

    2012-09-01

    Simultaneous determination of organic acids using ion-exclusion liquid chromatography and ultraviolet detection is described. The chromatographic conditions are optimized when an Aminex HPX-87H column (300 × 7.8 mm) is employed, with a solution of 3 mmol/L sulfuric acid as eluent, a flow rate of 0.4 mL/min and a column temperature of 60°C. Eight organic acids (including orotic acid, α-ketoglutaric acid, citric acid, pyruvic acid, malic acid, succinic acid, lactic acid and acetic acid) and one nucleotide are successfully quantified. The calibration curves for these analytes are linear, with correlation coefficients exceeding 0.999. The average recovery of organic acids is in the range of 97.6% ∼ 103.1%, and the relative standard deviation is in the range of 0.037% ∼ 0.38%. The method is subsequently applied to obtain organic acid profiles of uridine 5'-monophosphate culture broth fermented from orotic acid by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. These data demonstrate the quantitative accuracy for nucleotide fermentation mixtures, and suggest that the method may also be applicable to other biological samples.

  12. CMP kinase from Escherichia coli is structurally related to other nucleoside monophosphate kinases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bucurenci, N; Sakamoto, H; Briozzo, P; Palibroda, N; Serina, L; Sarfati, R S; Labesse, G; Briand, G; Danchin, A; Bărzu, O; Gilles, A M

    1996-02-02

    CMP kinase from Escherichia coli is a monomeric protein of 225 amino acid residues. The protein exhibits little overall sequence similarities with other known NMP kinases. However, residues involved in binding of substrates and/or in catalysis were found conserved, and sequence comparison suggested conservation of the global fold found in adenylate kinases or in several CMP/UMP kinases. The enzyme was purified to homogeneity, crystallized, and analyzed for its structural and catalytic properties. The crystals belong to the hexagonal space group P6(3), have unit cell parameters a = b = 82.3 A and c = 60.7 A, and diffract x-rays to a 1.9 A resolution. The bacterial enzyme exhibits a fluorescence emission spectrum with maximum at 328 nm upon excitation at 295 nm, which suggests that the single tryptophan residue (Trp30) is located in a hydrophobic environment. Substrate specificity studies showed that CMP kinase from E. coli is active with ATP, dATP, or GTP as donors and with CMP, dCMP, and arabinofuranosyl-CMP as acceptors. This is in contrast with CMP/UMP kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum, an enzyme active on CMP or UMP but much less active on the corresponding deoxynucleotides. Binding of CMP enhanced the affinity of E. coli CMP kinase for ATP or ADP, a particularity never described in this family of proteins that might explain inhibition of enzyme activity by excess of nucleoside monophosphate.

  13. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U.; Gubler, H. P.; Engel, G.; Huch, R.; Huch, A.

    1993-01-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists. PMID:8383562

  14. Lymphocyte beta 2-adrenoceptors and adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate during and after normal pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Mandach, U; Gubler, H P; Engel, G; Huch, R; Huch, A

    1993-02-01

    1. The beta 2-sympathomimetics, used to inhibit preterm labour, bind predominantly to beta 2-adrenoceptors, activating adenylate cyclase to form adenosine 3':5'-cyclic monophosphate (cyclic AMP), a messenger substance which inhibits the enzyme cascade triggering smooth muscle contraction. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP formation can be used as markers of beta 2-adrenergic effect. 2. The present study addresses the influence of pregnancy on the beta-adrenoceptor system. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density and cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) in circulating lymphocytes were determined at three points in gestation (16, 29 and 37 weeks) and 9 weeks post partum in 22 normal pregnancies. (-)-[125Iodo]-cyanopindolol was used as the ligand to identify a homogeneous population of beta 2-adrenoceptors on lymphocytes. B- and T-cell fractions were estimated from the same samples. 3. beta 2-Adrenoceptor density decreased significantly during gestation until week 37 (P < 0.01), then increased post partum (P < 0.005). Cyclic AMP concentrations (basal and evoked by isoprenaline) were significantly lower after 16 weeks of gestation than post partum (P < 0.05). 4. The results, which cannot be explained in terms of a shift in the lymphocyte (B- and T-cell) ratio, indicate that beta-adrenoceptor density and function are reduced in normal pregnancy and only return to normal post partum. These findings may be of significance in devising future tocolytic therapy with beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists.

  15. Kinetic mechanism and energetics of binding of phosphoryl group acceptors to Mycobacterium tuberculosis cytidine monophosphate kinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaskulski, Léia; Rosado, Leonardo A; Rostirolla, Diana C; Timmers, Luis F S M; de Souza, Osmar N; Santos, Diogenes S; Basso, Luiz A

    2013-08-01

    Cytidine monophosphate kinase from Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MtCMK) likely plays a role in supplying precursors for nucleic acid synthesis. MtCMK catalyzes the ATP-dependent phosphoryl group transfer preferentially to CMP and dCMP. Initial velocity studies and Isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) measurements showed that MtCMK follows a random-order mechanism of substrate (CMP and ATP) binding, and an ordered mechanism for product release, in which ADP is released first followed by CDP. The thermodynamic signatures of CMP and CDP binding to MtCMK showed favorable enthalpy and unfavorable entropy, and ATP binding was characterized by favorable changes in enthalpy and entropy. The contribution of linked protonation events to the energetics of MtCMK:phosphoryl group acceptor binary complex formation suggested a net gain of protons. Values for the pKa of a likely chemical group involved in proton exchange and for the intrinsic binding enthalpy were calculated. The Asp187 side chain of MtCMK is suggested as the likely candidate for the protonation event. Data on thermodynamics of binary complex formation were collected to evaluate the contribution of 2'-OH group to intermolecular interactions. The data are discussed in light of functional and structural comparisons between CMP/dCMP kinases and UMP/CMP ones.

  16. Structure-Based Design, Synthesis, Evaluation And Crystal Structures of Transition State Analogue Inhibitors of Inosine Monophosphate Cyclohydrolase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, L.; Chong, Y.; Hwang, I.; D' Onofrio, A.; Amore, K.; Beardsley, G.P.; Li, C.; Olson, A.J.; Boger, D.L.; Wilson, I.A.; /Skaggs Inst. Chem. Biol. /Scripps Res. Inst.

    2007-07-13

    The inosine monophosphate cyclohydrolase (IMPCH) component (residues 1-199) of the bifunctional enzyme aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleotide transformylase (AICAR Tfase, residues 200-593)/IMPCH (ATIC) catalyzes the final step in the de novo purine biosynthesis pathway that produces IMP. As a potential target for antineoplastic intervention, we designed IMPCH inhibitors, 1,5-dihydroimidazo[4,5-c][1,2,6]thiadiazin-4(3H)-one 2,2-dioxide (heterocycle, 1), the corresponding nucleoside (2), and the nucleoside monophosphate (nucleotide) (3), as mimics of the tetrahedral intermediate in the cyclization reaction. All compounds are competitive inhibitors against IMPCH (K(i) values = 0.13-0.23 microm) with the simple heterocycle 1 exhibiting the most potent inhibition (K(i) = 0.13 microm). Crystal structures of bifunctional ATIC in complex with nucleoside 2 and nucleotide 3 revealed IMPCH binding modes similar to that of the IMPCH feedback inhibitor, xanthosine 5'-monophosphate. Surprisingly, the simpler heterocycle 1 had a completely different IMPCH binding mode and was relocated to the phosphate binding pocket that was identified from previous xanthosine 5'-monophosphate structures. The aromatic imidazole ring interacts with a helix dipole, similar to the interaction with the phosphate moiety of 3. The crystal structures not only revealed the mechanism of inhibition of these compounds, but they now serve as a platform for future inhibitor improvements. Importantly, the nucleoside-complexed structure supports the notion that inhibitors lacking a negatively charged phosphate can still inhibit IMPCH activity with comparable potency to phosphate-containing inhibitors. Provocatively, the nucleotide inhibitor 3 also binds to the AICAR Tfase domain of ATIC, which now provides a lead compound for the design of inhibitors that simultaneously target both active sites of this bifunctional enzyme.

  17. Predictive value of adenosine 5'-monophosphate challenge in preschool children for the diagnosis of asthma 5 years later.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Shlomo; Avital, Avraham; Hevroni, Avigdor; Avenshtein, Alina; Hadi, Ronen; Springer, Chaim

    2012-07-01

    We evaluated the predictive values of preschool bronchial challenge with nebulized adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) using the auscultation method for having asthma 5 years later. Preschool AMP challenge had a high negative (90%) and a moderate positive (67%) predictive value for asthma 5 years later. Positive predictive value increased with the age at which the challenge was performed. The degree of preschool response to AMP was associated with the severity of asthma at school age.

  18. Diatom acclimation to elevated CO2 via cAMP signalling and coordinated gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennon, Gwenn M. M.; Ashworth, Justin; Groussman, Ryan D.; Berthiaume, Chris; Morales, Rhonda L.; Baliga, Nitin S.; Orellana, Mónica V.; Armbrust, E. V.

    2015-08-01

    Diatoms are responsible for ~40% of marine primary productivity, fuelling the oceanic carbon cycle and contributing to natural carbon sequestration in the deep ocean. Diatoms rely on energetically expensive carbon concentrating mechanisms (CCMs) to fix carbon efficiently at modern levels of CO2 (refs , , ). How diatoms may respond over the short and long term to rising atmospheric CO2 remains an open question. Here we use nitrate-limited chemostats to show that the model diatom Thalassiosira pseudonana rapidly responds to increasing CO2 by differentially expressing gene clusters that regulate transcription and chromosome folding, and subsequently reduces transcription of photosynthesis and respiration gene clusters under steady-state elevated CO2. These results suggest that exposure to elevated CO2 first causes a shift in regulation, and then a metabolic rearrangement. Genes in one CO2-responsive cluster included CCM and photorespiration genes that share a putative cAMP-responsive cis-regulatory sequence, implying these genes are co-regulated in response to CO2, with cAMP as an intermediate messenger. We verified cAMP-induced downregulation of CCM gene δ-CA3 in nutrient-replete diatom cultures by inhibiting the hydrolysis of cAMP. These results indicate an important role for cAMP in downregulating CCM and photorespiration genes under elevated CO2 and provide insights into mechanisms of diatom acclimation in response to climate change.

  19. Translocation of an unusual cAMP receptor to the nucleus during development of Dictyostelium discoideum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, C.A.; Noce, T.; Tsang, A.S.

    1987-04-01

    cAMP has been implicated in the control of the expression of developmental genes in Dictyostelium discoideum. To determine the potential role of cAMP receptors as regulators of gene expression, the authors have used immunocytochemical and immunoblotting techniques to reveal the subcellular localization of a cAMP binding protein CABP1. Most of the CABP1 antigen in early developing cells is localized near the cell periphery, with a small amount found in the nucleus. The level of CABP1 in the nucleus increases approx. = 30-fold during development. Moreover, immunofluorescence studies showed that CABP1 can also be detected on the cell surface. Binding of anti-CABP1 to intact cells followed by reaction with /sup 125/I-labeled secondary antibody revealed that the cell-surface CABP1 activity peaks during aggregation and culmination. In addition, several proteins related to CABP1 are found mainly in the nuclear fraction of developing cells. The possible role of these proteins in the regulation of development gene activity is discussed.

  20. [Evaluation of metabolic control in a summer camp for diabetic children (Villarcayo 1991)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuertes Alija, J J; Ruiz Pérez, E; Galindo Jimeno, M; Ergueta Martín, P; González Sarmiento, E

    1993-04-01

    The relevance of the diabetological education in the treatment of diabetis mellitus must be a prioritary goal in order to reach a proper metabolic control and to avoid as much as possible both acute metabolic complications and long-term vascular and neurological complications, achieving thus a total integration of the diabetic patient in the society. We have monitored during 15 days a group of diabetic children with IDDM in a summer camp, assessing in all of them several clinical and biochemical parameters. The results have been statistically analyzed using the Student's test. After the stay in the summer camp, we observed a significant reduction in the total dose of insulin (p < 0.001) and in the number of hypoglycemias (p < 0.001) and an increase in the average levels of capillary glycemia at the end of the study period when compared with the beginning, with p < 0.001 (breakfast preprandial), p < 0.05 (lunch preprandial) and p < 0.01 (dinner and night preprandial). We did not observe any significant differences in the other parameters studied. In inclusion, the stay in the summer camp of this group had a positive effect, achieving a better metabolic control with lower doses of insulin.

  1. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Alexander S; Raju, Nikhilesh P; Webster, Thomas F; Stapleton, Heather M

    2014-02-11

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met CPAI-84 standards by analyzing 11 samples of tent fabrics for chemical flame retardant additives. Furthermore, we investigated potential exposure by collecting paired samples of tent wipes and hand wipes from 27 individuals after tent setup. Of the 11 fabric samples analyzed, 10 contained flame retardant additives, which included tris(1,3-dichloroisopropyl) phosphate (TDCPP), decabromodiphenyl ether (BDE-209), triphenyl phosphate, and tetrabromobisphenol-A. Flame retardant concentrations were discovered to be as high as 37.5 mg/g (3.8% by weight) in the tent fabric samples, and TDCPP and BDE-209 were the most frequently detected in these samples. We also observed a significant association between TDCPP levels in tent wipes and those in paired hand wipes, suggesting that human contact with the tent fabric material leads to the transfer of the flame retardant to the skin surface and human exposure. These results suggest that direct contact with flame retardant-treated textiles may be a source of exposure. Future studies will be needed to better characterize exposure, including via inhalation and dermal sorption from air.

  2. Can You Hack It? Validating Predictors for IT Boot Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gear, Courtney C.

    Given the large number of information technology jobs open and lack of qualified individuals to fill them, coding boot camps have sprung up in response to this skill gap by offering a specialized training program in an accelerated format. This fast growth has created a need to measure these training programs and understand their effectiveness. In the present study, a series of analyses examined whether specific or combinations of predictors were valid for training performance in this coding academy. Self-rated, daily efficacy scores were used as outcome variables of training success and correlation results showed a positive relationship with efficacy scores and the logic test score as a predictor. Exploratory analyses indicated a Dunning-Kruger effect where students with lower education levels experience higher overall mood during the training program. Limitations of the study included small sample size, severe range restriction in predictor scores, lack of variance in predictor scores, and low variability in training program success. These limitations made identifying jumps between training stages difficult to identify. By identifying which predictors matter most for each stage of skill acquisition, further research should consider more objective variables such as instructor scores which can serve as a guideline to better asses what stage learners join at and how to design curriculum and assignments accordingly (Honken, 2013).

  3. cAMP increases surface expression of NKCC2 in rat thick ascending limbs: role of VAMP.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz, Pablo A

    2006-03-01

    NaCl absorption by the thick ascending limb of Henle's loop (TAL) is mediated by the apical Na-K-2Cl cotransporter NKCC2. cAMP increases NaCl absorption in the TAL by stimulating NKCC2. In oocytes, cAMP increases NKCC2 activity by regulating its trafficking. However, the mechanism by which cAMP stimulates NKCC2 in TALs is not clear. We hypothesized that cAMP increases surface expression of NKCC2 and NaCl absorption in TALs and that vesicle-associated membrane protein (VAMP) is involved in this mechanism. We used surface biotinylation of rat medullary TALs (mTAL) to examine surface and total NKCC2 levels. When mTAL suspensions were treated with dibutyryl cAMP (db-cAMP) or forskolin plus IBMX for 20 min, surface NKCC2 expression increased by 126 +/- 23 and 92 +/- 17% above basal, respectively (P < 0.03). No changes in total NKCC2 expression were observed, suggesting that cAMP increased translocation of NKCC2. We studied the role of VAMP in NKCC2 translocation and found that incubating mTALs with tetanus toxin (30 nM), which inhibits vesicle trafficking by inactivating VAMP-2 and -3, completely blocked the stimulatory effect of db-cAMP on surface NKCC2 expression (tetanus toxin = 100% vs. tetanus toxin + db-cAMP = 102 +/- 21% of control; not significant). We studied VAMP-2 and -3 expression and localization in isolated perfused TALs by confocal microscopy and found that both of them were located in the subapical space of the TAL. Finally, in isolated perfused mTALs, db-cAMP increased net Cl absorption by 95.0 +/- 34.8% (P < 0.03), and pretreatment of TALs with tetanus toxin blocked the stimulation of Cl absorption (from 110.9 +/- 15.9 to 109.7 +/- 15.6 pmol.min(-1).mm(-1); not significant). We concluded that cAMP increases NKCC2 surface expression by a mechanism involving VAMP and that NKCC2 trafficking to the apical membrane is involved in the stimulation of TAL NaCl absorption by cAMP.

  4. Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp, Turkana, Kenya: facilitation of Anopheles arabiensis vector populations by installed water distribution and catchment systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cetron Martin S

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malaria is a major health concern for displaced persons occupying refugee camps in sub-Saharan Africa, yet there is little information on the incidence of infection and nature of transmission in these settings. Kakuma Refugee Camp, located in a dry area of north-western Kenya, has hosted ca. 60,000 to 90,000 refugees since 1992, primarily from Sudan and Somalia. The purpose of this study was to investigate malaria prevalence and attack rate and sources of Anopheles vectors in Kakuma refugee camp, in 2005-2006, after a malaria epidemic was observed by staff at camp clinics. Methods Malaria prevalence and attack rate was estimated from cases of fever presenting to camp clinics and the hospital in August 2005, using rapid diagnostic tests and microscopy of blood smears. Larval habitats of vectors were sampled and mapped. Houses were sampled for adult vectors using the pyrethrum knockdown spray method, and mapped. Vectors were identified to species level and their infection with Plasmodium falciparum determined. Results Prevalence of febrile illness with P. falciparum was highest among the 5 to 17 year olds (62.4% while malaria attack rate was highest among the two to 4 year olds (5.2/1,000/day. Infected individuals were spatially concentrated in three of the 11 residential zones of the camp. The indoor densities of Anopheles arabiensis, the sole malaria vector, were similar during the wet and dry seasons, but were distributed in an aggregated fashion and predominantly in the same zones where malaria attack rates were high. Larval habitats and larval populations were also concentrated in these zones. Larval habitats were man-made pits of water associated with tap-stands installed as the water delivery system to residents with year round availability in the camp. Three percent of A. arabiensis adult females were infected with P. falciparum sporozoites in the rainy season. Conclusions Malaria in Kakuma refugee camp was due mainly

  5. Training Diaries during Altitude Training Camp in Two Olympic Champions: An Observational Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugliese, Lorenzo; Serpiello, Fabio R; Millet, Grégoire P; La Torre, Antonio

    2014-09-01

    Traditionally, Live High-Train High (LHTH) interventions were adopted when athletes trained and lived at altitude to try maximising the benefits offered by hypoxic exposure and improving sea level performance. Nevertheless, scientific research has proposed that the possible benefits of hypoxia would be offset by the inability to maintain high training intensity at altitude. However, elite athletes have been rarely recruited as an experimental sample, and training intensity has almost never been monitored during altitude research. This case study is an attempt to provide a practical example of successful LHTH interventions in two Olympic gold medal athletes. Training diaries were collected and total training volumes, volumes at different intensities, and sea level performance recorded before, during and after a 3-week LHTH camp. Both athletes successfully completed the LHTH camp (2090 m) maintaining similar absolute training intensity and training volume at high-intensity (> 91% of race pace) compared to sea level. After the LHTH intervention both athletes obtained enhancements in performance and they won an Olympic gold medal. In our opinion, LHTH interventions can be used as a simple, yet effective, method to maintain absolute, and improve relative training intensity in elite endurance athletes. Key PointsElite endurance athletes, with extensive altitude training experience, can maintain similar absolute intensity during LHTH compared to sea level.LHTH may be considered as an effective method to increase relative training intensity while maintaining the same running/walking pace, with possible beneficial effects on sea level performance.Training intensity could be the key factor for successful high-level LHTH camp.

  6. [The ski camp doctor's role in the the prevention of winter sport accidents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felkai, Péter

    2007-08-26

    Skiing is a risky sport for many, even for children and beginners. When the ski-group is escorted by doctors who are able to provide advanced life support on the scene and are trained either in the field of emergency medicine or in travel medicine, a good possibility is given for the prevention of ski-accidents and for decreasing the number of travel related illnesses. This fact has led to the basic idea of training ski-camp doctors in Hungary. There is no similar initiative in the Hungarian literature. Therefore the article tries to summarise the medical knowledge and requirements of a ski-camp doctor, and analyses the prevention tasks of the doctor as well. The camp doctor must be well informed and highly trained in the field of emergency and travel medicine. The main tasks are: pre-travel advice, treatment of the common (travel-related) diseases, providing basic and advanced life-support on the scene, and to organise the hospitalisation and repatriation of patient, in cooperation with the hospital and insurance doctor. Moreover, the prevention should start before departure: the estimation of the physical and health condition of the skiers, a continuous care of the chronic people, and supervision of the place (hygienic circumstances, rescue forces available, the condition of the ski slopes, etc.) are vital--as for the primary prevention. The secondary level of the prevention is the treatment of the injured/sick persons, and assistance in the medical evacuation. During the training, not only postgraduate medical, mountain and alpine medicine lessons have been provided, but basic legal and insurance information as well. Moreover, the doctors received ski-course from professional ski-trainers in order to improve their ski-technique and skills on different slopes and off-piste places. In the future the local mountain rescue and air-rescue forces have to be involved in postgraduate training. Hopefully different travel-insurance companies and travel offices will use

  7. Recognition of Nucleoside Monophosphate Substrates by Haemophilus influenzae Class C Acid Phosphatase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Harkewal; Schuermann, Jonathan P.; Reilly, Thomas J.; Calcutt, Michael J.; Tanner, John J. (Cornell); (UMC)

    2010-12-08

    The e (P4) phosphatase from Haemophilus influenzae functions in a vestigial NAD{sup +} utilization pathway by dephosphorylating nicotinamide mononucleotide to nicotinamide riboside. P4 is also the prototype of class C acid phosphatases (CCAPs), which are nonspecific 5{prime},3{prime}-nucleotidases localized to the bacterial outer membrane. To understand substrate recognition by P4 and other class C phosphatases, we have determined the crystal structures of a substrate-trapping mutant P4 enzyme complexed with nicotinamide mononucleotide, 5{prime}-AMP, 3{prime}-AMP, and 2{prime}-AMP. The structures reveal an anchor-shaped substrate-binding cavity comprising a conserved hydrophobic box that clamps the nucleotide base, a buried phosphoryl binding site, and three solvent-filled pockets that contact the ribose and the hydrogen-bonding edge of the base. The span between the hydrophobic box and the phosphoryl site is optimal for recognizing nucleoside monophosphates, explaining the general preference for this class of substrate. The base makes no hydrogen bonds with the enzyme, consistent with an observed lack of base specificity. Two solvent-filled pockets flanking the ribose are key to the dual recognition of 5{prime}-nucleotides and 3{prime}-nucleotides. These pockets minimize the enzyme's direct interactions with the ribose and provide sufficient space to accommodate 5{prime} substrates in an anti conformation and 3{prime} substrates in a syn conformation. Finally, the structures suggest that class B acid phosphatases and CCAPs share a common strategy for nucleotide recognition.

  8. Optimization of benzoxazole-based inhibitors of Cryptosporidium parvum inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorla, Suresh Kumar; Kavitha, Mandapati; Zhang, Minjia; Chin, James En Wai; Liu, Xiaoping; Striepen, Boris; Makowska-Grzyska, Magdalena; Kim, Youngchang; Joachimiak, Andrzej; Hedstrom, Lizbeth; Cuny, Gregory D

    2013-05-23

    Cryptosporidium parvum is an enteric protozoan parasite that has emerged as a major cause of diarrhea, malnutrition, and gastroenteritis and poses a potential bioterrorism threat. C. parvum synthesizes guanine nucleotides from host adenosine in a streamlined pathway that relies on inosine 5'-monophosphate dehydrogenase (IMPDH). We have previously identified several parasite-selective C. parvum IMPDH (CpIMPDH) inhibitors by high-throughput screening. In this paper, we report the structure-activity relationship (SAR) for a series of benzoxazole derivatives with many compounds demonstrating CpIMPDH IC50 values in the nanomolar range and >500-fold selectivity over human IMPDH (hIMPDH). Unlike previously reported CpIMPDH inhibitors, these compounds are competitive inhibitors versus NAD(+). The SAR study reveals that pyridine and other small heteroaromatic substituents are required at the 2-position of the benzoxazole for potent inhibitory activity. In addition, several other SAR conclusions are highlighted with regard to the benzoxazole and the amide portion of the inhibitor, including preferred stereochemistry. An X-ray crystal structure of a representative E·IMP·inhibitor complex is also presented. Overall, the secondary amine derivative 15a demonstrated excellent CpIMPDH inhibitory activity (IC50 = 0.5 ± 0.1 nM) and moderate stability (t1/2 = 44 min) in mouse liver microsomes. Compound 73, the racemic version of 15a, also displayed superb antiparasitic activity in a Toxoplasma gondii strain that relies on CpIMPDH (EC50 = 20 ± 20 nM), and selectivity versus a wild-type T. gondii strain (200-fold). No toxicity was observed (LD50 > 50 μM) against a panel of four mammalian cells lines.

  9. Changes of nitric oxide synthase and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in form deprivation myopia in guinea pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jie; LIU Qiong; YANG Xiao; YANG Hui; WANG Xin-mei; ZENG Jun-wen

    2007-01-01

    Background The form deprivation(FD)reduces spatial contrasts and induces myopia. Nitric oxide and cyclic guanosine monophosphate(cGMP)are involved in visual signal transmission.This study investigated changes in nitric oxide synthase(NOS)activity and cGMP concentration in ocular tissues in acute and chronic form deprivation myopia.Methods Guinea pigs had one eye covered by translucent glass for 7,14 or 21 days.Untreated litter mates were used as controls.NOS activity and cGMP concentrations in the retinal,choroidal and scleral tissues of FD eyes and controleyes were analyzed by radioimmunoassay after various durations of FD.The expression of NOS subtypes was identified by immunohistochemistry.Results Myopia was successfully induced in FD eyes after 14 days.Compared with control groups,the retinal NOS activity and cGMP concentrations in the FD eyes significantly increased after 14 and 21 days while the retinal NOS activity in the FD eyes was transiently suppressed by 7 days of FD.The NOS activity and cGMP concentrations of choroid and sclera in the FD eyes were higher than in the control groups at 21 days.The three isoenzymes of nitric oxide synthase were detected in the ocular tissues of guinea pigs.Conclusions The NOS activity and cGMP concentrations were upregulated after chronic FD and the retinal NOS activity was transiently suppressed at acute FD.The function of elevated NOS activity may be mediated by cGMP.

  10. [cAMP analogue 8-CPT-cAMP inducing differentiation in the M2b subtype of acute myeloid leukemia cell line Kasumi-1].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Qi; Hu, Jun-Pei; Jia, Pei-Min; Wang, Zhen-Yi; Tong, Jian-Hua

    2008-02-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the possible effects of cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) analogue 8-(4-chlorophenylthio) adenosine 3', 5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-CPT-cAMP) on the M(2b) subtype of acute myeloid leukemia (AML-M(2b)) cells. AML-M(2b) is characterized by the non-random chromosome translocation t (8; 21) (q22; q22), through which AML1 (acute myeloid leukemia 1) gene on chromosome 21 is fused with ETO (eight twenty-one) gene on chromosome 8, coding correspondent AML1-ETO fusion protein, which plays a crucial role in the leukemogenesis of AML-M(2b). The AML-M(2b) cell line Kasumi-1 cells were used as an in vitro model. The influences of 8-CPT-cAMP on the proliferation and differentiation of Kasumi-1 cells were evaluated according to cellular morphology, changes in cell surface antigen and cell cycle, as well as nitroblue-tetrazolium (NBT) assay. Meanwhile, semi-quantity RT-PCR and Western blot assay were used to detect the degradation of AML1-ETO fusion protein in Kasumi-1 cells before and after the treatment. The results showed that 8-CPT-cAMP (200 micromol/L) could significantly inhibit cell growth and induce differentiation of Kasumi-1 cells. However, it must be pointed out that 8-CPT-cAMP-induced differentiation in Kasumi-1 is not a typical terminal differentiation. Furthermore, 8-CPT-cAMP exerted little influence on the expression of AML1-ETO fusion gene and its product in Kasumi-1 cells. In conclusion, the 8-CPT-cAMP induced differentiation in Kasumi-1 cells. This results may provide experimental and theoretical basis for the breakthrough of differentiation-induced therapy extended to another leukemia.

  11. Investigation of Sylvatic Typhus at a Wilderness Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    In this podcast, Dr. Greg Dasch discusses an outbreak of four cases of sylvatic typhus that occurred at a wilderness camp in Pennsylvania. Sylvatic typhus is very rare in the United States, with only 41 cases since it was discovered in the United States in 1975. Lab work at CDC and the discovery that all four camp counselors who became ill had slept in the same bunk at the camp between 2004 and 2006 ultimately led to confirmation that flying squirrels living in the wall of the cabin were to blame for the illnesses.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Emerging Infectious Diseases.   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  12. Advances in Pediatric Cardiology Boot Camp: Boot Camp Training Promotes Fellowship Readiness and Enables Retention of Knowledge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceresnak, Scott R; Axelrod, David M; Sacks, Loren D; Motonaga, Kara S; Johnson, Emily R; Krawczeski, Catherine D

    2017-03-01

    We previously demonstrated that a pediatric cardiology boot camp can improve knowledge acquisition and decrease anxiety for trainees. We sought to determine if boot camp participants entered fellowship with a knowledge advantage over fellows who did not attend and if there was moderate-term retention of that knowledge. A 2-day training program was provided for incoming pediatric cardiology fellows from eight fellowship programs in April 2016. Hands-on, immersive experiences and simulations were provided in all major areas of pediatric cardiology. Knowledge-based examinations were completed by each participant prior to boot camp (PRE), immediately post-training (POST), and prior to the start of fellowship in June 2016 (F/U). A control group of fellows who did not attend boot camp also completed an examination prior to fellowship (CTRL). Comparisons of scores were made for individual participants and between participants and controls. A total of 16 participants and 16 control subjects were included. Baseline exam scores were similar between participants and controls (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. CTRL 52 ± 10%; p = 0.22). Participants' knowledge improved with boot camp training (PRE 47 ± 11% vs. POST 70 ± 8%; p cardiology knowledge after the training program and had excellent moderate-term retention of that knowledge. Participants began fellowship with a larger fund of knowledge than those fellows who did not attend.

  13. Gene Expression Patterns Define Key Transcriptional Events InCell-Cycle Regulation By cAMP And Protein Kinase A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zambon, Alexander C.; Zhang, Lingzhi; Minovitsky, Simon; Kanter, Joan R.; Prabhakar, Shyam; Salomonis, Nathan; Vranizan, Karen; Dubchak Inna,; Conklin, Bruce R.; Insel, Paul A.

    2005-06-01

    Although a substantial number of hormones and drugs increase cellular cAMP levels, the global impact of cAMP and its major effector mechanism, protein kinase A (PKA), on gene expression is not known. Here we show that treatment of murine wild-type S49 lymphoma cells for 24 h with 8-(4-chlorophenylthio)-cAMP (8-CPTcAMP), a PKA-selective cAMP analog, alters the expression of approx equal to 4,500 of approx. equal to 13,600 unique genes. By contrast, gene expression was unaltered in Kin- S49 cells (that lack PKA) incubated with 8-CPTcAMP. Changes in mRNA and protein expression of several cell cycle regulators accompanied cAMP-induced G1-phase cell-cycle arrest of wild-type S49 cells. Within 2h, 8-CPT-cAMP altered expression of 152 genes that contain evolutionarily conserved cAMP-response elements within 5 kb of transcriptional start sites, including the circadian clock gene Per1. Thus, cAMP through its activation of PKA produces extensive transcriptional regulation in eukaryotic cells. These transcriptional networks include a primary group of cAMP-response element-containing genes and secondary networks that include the circadian clock.

  14. Preliminary Outcomes from a Week-Long Environmental Engineering Summer Camp for High School Female Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S.; Koloutsou-Vakakis, S.

    2014-12-01

    There is a need for environment engineers and sustainability managers to address global environmental, energy and health challenges. Environmental literacy programs at K-12 level provide a unique opportunity in motivating young minds in joining STEM and also provide additional value in learning about "saving planet earth". The Women in Engineering at the University of Illinois organize an annual week long camp, for female high school students with tracks corresponding to different fields of Engineering. The Environmental Engineering and Sustainability (EES) track is organized by faculty and graduate students of the Civil and Environmental Engineering department and introduces students to concepts in sustainability and systems thinking in connection with air and water quality, climate change and renewable energy. This study is a preliminary assessment of the relevance of the EES outreach track conducted in July 2014 in student learning. Specific goals include assessing (a) demographics of participants and their motivation to join this camp, (b) educational and enjoyability quotients of the modules and (c) learning and motivational outcomes using the Likert scale. A pre-camp survey indicated keen interest in learning about environmental engineering (4.56/5.0) and expected this camp to be a venue to learn about related career choices (4.9/5.0). Five days of instruction were divided thematically and included a mix of lectures, activity based learning, demonstrations and field visits. Overall modules were rated as educational (4.4/5.0) and enjoyable (4.5/5.0). Modules with hands-on learning were best received (4.67/5.0) and rated unique (4.7/5.0). Post camp, participants acknowledged the important contribution of environmental engineers to society (4.8/5.0) and could relate the different modules to the role engineer's play (4.06/5.0) for sustainability. On an average, the participants evinced interest in engineering as a career choice (4.0/5.0) but there was a broader

  15. Stress and glucocorticoids impair memory retrieval via β2-adrenergic, Gi/o-coupled suppression of cAMP signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schutsky, Keith; Ouyang, Ming; Castelino, Christina B; Zhang, Lei; Thomas, Steven A

    2011-10-05

    Acute stress impairs the retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory, and this effect is mimicked by exogenous administration of stress-responsive glucocorticoid hormones. It has been proposed that glucocorticoids affect memory by promoting the release and/or blocking the reuptake of norepinephrine (NE), a stress-responsive neurotransmitter. It has also been proposed that this enhanced NE signaling impairs memory retrieval by stimulating β(1)-adrenergic receptors and elevating levels of cAMP. In contrast, other evidence indicates that NE, β(1), and cAMP signaling is transiently required for the retrieval of hippocampus-dependent memory. To resolve this discrepancy, wild-type rats and mice with and without gene-targeted mutations were stressed or treated with glucocorticoids and/or adrenergic receptor drugs before testing memory for inhibitory avoidance or fear conditioning. Here we report that glucocorticoids do not require NE to impair retrieval. However, stress- and glucocorticoid-induced impairments of retrieval depend on the activation of β(2) (but not β(1))-adrenergic receptors. Offering an explanation for the opposing functions of these two receptors, the impairing effects of stress, glucocorticoids and β(2) agonists on retrieval are blocked by pertussis toxin, which inactivates signaling by G(i/o)-coupled receptors. In hippocampal slices, β(2) signaling decreases cAMP levels and greatly reduces the increase in cAMP mediated by β(1) signaling. Finally, augmenting cAMP signaling in the hippocampus prevents the impairment of retrieval by systemic β(2) agonists or glucocorticoids. These results demonstrate that the β(2) receptor can be a critical effector of acute stress, and that β(1) and β(2) receptors can have quite distinct roles in CNS signaling and cognition.

  16. Winter Camp: A Blog from the Greenland Summit, Part II

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koenig, Lora

    2009-01-01

    An earlier issue presents the first half of the author's experience living and working at the National Science Foundation's (NSF) Greenland Summit Camp. The author is a remote-sensing glaciologist at NASA s Goddard Space Flight Center. She took measurements that will be used to validate data collected by NASA s Aqua, Terra, and Ice, Clouds, and land Elevation Satellite (ICESat) satellites with ground-truth measurements of the Greenland Ice Sheet she made at Summit Camp from November 2008-February 2009. This article presents excerpts from the second half of her stay and work at the Greenland Summit.

  17. Science Skills Boot Camp Gets Interns Ready for Research | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Ashley DeVine, Staff Writer Summer interns learned how to read a scientific paper, present a poster, maintain a laboratory notebook, and much more, at the Science Skills Boot Camp in June. “It was a great experience, and it was a great opportunity to meet some of the other interns also working on the campus,” said Alyssa Klein, a Werner H. Kirsten student intern in the Cellular Immunology Group, Laboratory of Molecular Immunoregulation. “The boot camp covered many topics essential to being a good scientist and science researcher.”

  18. EduCamp Colombia: Social Networked Learning for Teacher Training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Ernesto Leal Fonseca

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a learning experience called EduCamp, which was launched by the Ministry of Education of Colombia in 2007, based on emerging concepts such as e-Learning 2.0, connectivism, and personal learning environments. An EduCamp proposes an unstructured collective learning experience, which intends to make palpable the possibilities of social software tools in learning and interaction processes while demonstrating face-to-face organizational forms that reflect social networked learning ideas. The experience opens new perspectives for the design of technology training workshops and for the development of lifelong learning experiences.

  19. Science Camp - lystigt eller lærerigt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahrenkiel, Linda; Albrechtsen, Thomas S. R.

    2013-01-01

    I oplægget vil vi undersøge fænomenet Science Camps nærmere ved at fortælle om dets historiske udvikling og ikke mindst lægge op til en diskussion af en definition. Derudover vil vi præsentere en case, hvor der med udgangspunkt i et aktuelt ph.d.-projekt er blevet undersøgt, hvad deltagerne får ud...... af at deltage i en science camp: Kan man både vække begejstring og medvirke til læring?...

  20. Rebuilding Jewish identities in Displaced Persons Camps in Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Ouzan

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available In the summer 1945, Displaced Persons camps in Germany epitomized a place of contrasts and paradoxes. DPs still languished behind barbed wires after the Allied armies had liberated the concentration camps. The military had assumed that practically all of the Displaced Persons would be sent to their countries of origin. In the spring and summer 1945, 65 000 DPs were sent back home every day and almost six million were repatriated in September 1945. Accurate statistics are impossible, yet, acco...

  1. "Camping up" self-esteem in children with hemophilia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, D; Gaslin, T C

    2001-01-01

    Children with hemophilia have often been viewed at greater risk for altered self-esteem than their healthy counterparts. Our article shares the positive effects of the camp experience on children with hemophilia and subsequent enhancement of self-esteem. Interaction and support in the camp environment provide an opportunity for these children to gain independence and "prove" their self-worth and ability. Previous literature has provided a variety of findings on the relationship between chronic illness, such as hemophilia, and self-esteem alterations. We identify many opportunities for future education and research to provide quality nursing support to this unique population.

  2. Horses – A Natural Fit for Camp Programs

    OpenAIRE

    Robin Galloway; Chris Names; Melanie Mintken

    2011-01-01

    A 4-H Member’s Horse Camp allows horse project members to enjoy their equine partner in a non-competitive, outdoor setting. Campers learn about leave-no-trace outdoor ethics, trail riding, maneuvering trail obstacles, equine emergency first aid, and low impact camping. 4?H has long understood that providing opportunities for youth to learn about things that interest them is just one aspect of the program. Project specific content, in this case horses, helps youth in 4?H programs to develop im...

  3. Promoting independence in adolescent paraplegics: a 2-week "camping" experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bodzioch, J; Roach, J W; Schkade, J

    1986-01-01

    In the summer of 1982, Texas Scottish Rite Hospital (Dallas, TX, U.S.A.) sponsored a camp for paraplegic adolescents. Six patients, three boys and three girls 14-17 years of age, participated in a 2-week program that was designed to improve their self-esteem, independence, and eventual employability. In their pre- and postcamp psychological evaluations, the campers demonstrated improvement in social skills and self-concept testing as compared with the scores of a matched control group, although this improvement did not reach statistical significance. We believe the camp was immensely successful, an opinion that was shared by both the campers and their parents.

  4. 篮球夏令营活动模式的理论研究%Theoretical Research on the Activity Mode of Basketball Summer Camp

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨建哲

    2015-01-01

    本文通过实地走访与文献综述相结合的研究方法,对篮球夏令营活动模式进行归因分析,梳理出篮球夏令营的种类和特点,即按照经营性质,可分为营利性篮球夏令营和非营利性篮球夏令营;按照目的任务的不同,可分为:1)高水平后备人才篮球夏令营;2)选拔性篮球夏令营;3)普及提高和兴趣培养夏令营;4)文化交流训练营。按照活动时间组织形式的可分为:寄宿营(overnight camp)和走训营(day camp)。特点:优势资源集中配置,组织与运营的灵活性,形式与内容的多样性。%In this paper, through on-the-spot visiting research methods combined with literature review, an attribution analysis was carried out on the activity mode of basketball summer camp, and the types and characteristics of basketball summer camp were combed. According to the nature of management, basketball summer camp can be divided into for-profit and nonprofit bas-ketball camp. According to the difference of purposes and tasks, it can be divided into:1) basketball summer camp for high-level reserved talents; 2) basketball summer camp for recruitment; 3) summer camp for popularity, improvement and interest training;4) summer camp for cultural exchange. According to the time of activity and the form of organization, it can be divided into overnight camp and day camp. Features:centralized configuration of superior resources, flexibility in organization and operation, and diversity of form and content.

  5. Dibutyryl cAMP effects on thromboxane and leukotriene production in decompression-induced lung injury

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, T. M.; Butler, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Decompression-induced venous bubble formation has been linked to increased neutrophil counts, endothelial cell injury, release of vasoactive eicosanoids, and increased vascular membrane permeability. These actions may account for inflammatory responses and edema formation. Increasing the intracellular cAMP has been shown to decrease eicosanoid production and edema formation in various models of lung injury. Reduction of decompression-induced inflammatory responses was evaluated in decompressed rats pretreated with saline (controls) or dibutyryl cAMP (DBcAMP, an analog of cAMP). After pretreatment, rats were exposed to either 616 kPa for 120 min or 683 kPa for 60 min. The observed increases in extravascular lung water ratios (pulmonary edema), bronchoalveolar lavage, and pleural protein in the saline control group (683 kPa) were not evident with DBcAMP treatment. DBcAMP pretreatment effects were also seen with the white blood cell counts and the percent of neutrophils in the bronchoalveolar lavage. Urinary levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were significantly increased with the 683 kPa saline control decompression exposure. DBcAMP reduced the decompression-induced leukotriene E4 production in the urine. Plasma levels of thromboxane B2, 11-dehydrothromboxane B2, and leukotriene E4 were increased with the 683-kPa exposure groups. DBcAMP treatment did not affect these changes. The 11-dehydrothromboxane B2 and leukotriene E4 levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage were increased with the 683 kPa exposure and were reduced with the DBcAMP treatment. Our results indicate that DBcAMP has the capability to reduce eicosanoid production and limit membrane permeability and subsequent edema formation in rats experiencing decompression sickness.

  6. Propranolol Targets Hemangioma Stem Cells via cAMP and Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munabi, Naikhoba C.O.; England, Ryan W.; Edwards, Andrew K.; Kitajewski, Alison A.; Tan, Qian Kun; Weinstein, Andrew; Kung, Justin E.; Wilcox, Maya; Kitajewski, Jan K.; Shawber, Carrie J.

    2016-01-01

    Infantile hemangiomas (IHs) are the most common vascular tumor and arise from a hemangioma stem cell (HemSC). Propranolol has proved efficacious for problematic IHs. Propranolol is a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) antagonist that can lower cAMP levels and activate the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway downstream of βARs. We found that HemSCs express β1AR and β2AR in proliferating IHs and determined the role of these βARs and the downstream pathways in mediating propranolol’s effects. In isolated HemSCs, propranolol suppressed cAMP levels and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)1/2 in a dose-dependent fashion. Propranolol, used at doses of hemangiomas (IHs). IHs are the most common vascular tumor in children and have been proposed to arise from a hemangioma stem cell (HemSC). Propranolol, a nonselective β-adrenergic receptor (βAR) antagonist, has proven efficacy; however, understanding of its mechanism of action on HemSCs is limited. The presented data demonstrate that propranolol, via βAR perturbation, dose dependently suppresses cAMP levels and activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2. Furthermore, propranolol acts via perturbation of β2AR, and not β1AR, although both receptors are expressed in HemSCs. These results provide important insight into propranolol’s action in IHs and can be used to guide the development of more targeted therapy. PMID:26574555

  7. Seafloor Science and Remotely Operated Vehicle (SSROV) Day Camp: A Week-Long, Hands-On STEM Summer Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat, C. G.; Fournier, T.; Monahan, K.; Paul, C.

    2015-12-01

    RETINA (Robotic Exploration Technologies IN Astrobiology) has developed a program geared towards stimulating our youth with innovative and relevant hands-on learning modules under a STEM umbrella. Given the breadth of potential science and engineering topics that excite children, the RETINA Program focuses on interactive participation in the design and development of simple robotic and sensor systems, providing a range of challenges to engage students through project-based learning (PBL). Thus, young students experience scientific discovery through the use and understanding of technology. This groundwork serves as the foundation for SSROV Camp, a week-long, summer day camp for 6th-8th grade students. The camp is centered on the sensors and platforms that guide seafloor exploration and discovery and builds upon the notion that transformative discoveries in the deep sea result from either sampling new environments or making new measurements with sensors adapted to this extreme environment. These technical and scientific needs are folded into the curriculum. Each of the first four days of the camp includes four team-based, hands-on technical challenges, communication among peer groups, and competition. The fifth day includes additional activities, culminating in camper-led presentations to describe a planned mission based on a given geologic setting. Presentations include hypotheses, operational requirements and expected data products. SSROV Camp was initiated last summer for three sessions, two in Monterey, CA and one in Oxford, MS. Campers from both regions grasped key elements of the program, based on written responses to questions before and after the camp. On average, 32% of the pre-test questions were answered correctly compared with 80% of the post-test questions. Additional confirmation of gains in campers' knowledge, skills, and critical thinking on environmental issues and engineering problems were apparent during the "jeopardy" competition, nightly homework

  8. Crosstalk Between mTORC1 and cAMP Signaling

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    Arlington, VA 22202- 4302. Respondents should be aware that notwithstanding any other provision of law, no person shall be subject to any penalty for...mechanisms. 15. SUBJECT TERMS TSC, mTOR, cAMP, PKA. 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF ABSTRACT 18. NUMBER OF PAGES 16 19a. NAME...nutrient-induced mTORC1 acti- vation increases the levels of the E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2, which ubiquiti - nates and targets the miRNA-processing enzyme

  9. Hypothermia induced by adenosine 5'-monophosphate attenuates early stage injury in an acute gouty arthritis rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miao, Zhimin; Guo, Weiting; Lu, Shulai; Lv, Wenshan; Li, Changgui; Wang, Yangang; Zhao, Shihua; Yan, Shengli; Tao, Zhenyin; Wang, Yunlong

    2013-08-01

    To investigate whether the hypothermia induced by Adenosine 5'-Monophosphate (5'-AMP) could attenuate early stage injury in a rat acute gouty arthritis model. Ankle joint injection with monosodium urate monohydrate crystals (MSU crystals) in hypothermia rat model which was induced by 5'-AMP and then observe whether hypothermia induced by 5'-AMP could be effectively inhibit the inflammation on acute gouty arthritis in rats. AMP-induced hypothermia has protective effects on our acute gouty arthritis, which was demonstrated by the following criteria: (1) a significant reduction in the ankle swelling (p gouty arthritis model.

  10. Streptococcus pyogenes streptolysin O as a cause of false-positive CAMP reactions.

    OpenAIRE

    Tapsall, J W; Phillips, E A

    1984-01-01

    The synergistic hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes in the CAMP reaction by the sequential action of staphylococcal beta-lysin and the CAMP factor of group B streptococci is the only known function of this extracellular product of group B streptococci. The reaction forms the basis of the CAMP test used to identify group B streptococci because the CAMP factor is believed to be restricted to this group of organisms. However, on occasion other streptococci, notably group A streptococci, may produce ...

  11. The freshman camp report of Computer & Information Engineering(Educationai Development Symposiums)

    OpenAIRE

    粂野, 文洋; Fumihiro, Kumeno

    2016-01-01

    In 2015 and 2016, the freshman camp of Computer & Information Engineering was conducted at Kinugawa Park Hotels, Nikko National Park. We successfully carried out the both camps in almost the same program and schedule. Based on this experience, the basic outline of our camp and the process for preparation and execution has been definite. In this report, we explain the basic outline and what we have done in each phase of the camp: plan, preparation, execution and finalizing. We also analyze the...

  12. The NO/cGMP pathway inhibits transient cAMP signals through the activation of PDE2 in striatal neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina ePolito

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The NO-cGMP signaling plays an important role in the regulation of striatal function although the mechanisms of action of cGMP specifically in medium spiny neurons (MSNs remain unclear. Using genetically encoded fluorescent biosensors, including a novel Epac-based sensor (EPAC-SH150 with increased sensitivity for cAMP, we analyze the cGMP response to NO and whether it affected cAMP/PKA signaling in MSNs. The Cygnet2 sensor for cGMP reported large responses to NO donors in both striatonigral and striatopallidal MSNs, and this cGMP signal was controlled partially by PDE2. At the level of cAMP brief forskolin stimulations produced transient cAMP signals which differed between D1 and D2 medium spiny neurons. NO inhibited these cAMP transients through cGMP-dependent PDE2 activation, an effect that was translated and magnified downstream of cAMP, at the level of PKA. PDE2 thus appears as a critical effector of NO which modulates the post-synaptic response of MSNs to dopaminergic transmission.

  13. Modification of Tau by 8-Nitroguanosine 3',5'-Cyclic Monophosphate (8-Nitro-cGMP): EFFECTS OF NITRIC OXIDE-LINKED CHEMICAL MODIFICATION ON TAU AGGREGATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshitake, Jun; Soeda, Yoshiyuki; Ida, Tomoaki; Sumioka, Akio; Yoshikawa, Misato; Matsushita, Kenji; Akaike, Takaaki; Takashima, Akihiko

    2016-10-21

    Neurofibrillar tangles caused by intracellular hyperphosphorylated tau inclusion and extracellular amyloid β peptide deposition are hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Tau contains one or two cysteine residues in three or four repeats of the microtubule binding region following alternative splicing of exon 10, and formation of intermolecular cysteine disulfide bonds accelerates tau aggregation. 8-Nitroguanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate (8-nitro-cGMP) acts as a novel second messenger of nitric oxide (NO) by covalently binding cGMP to cysteine residues by electrophilic properties, a process termed protein S-guanylation. Here we studied S-guanylation of tau and its effects on tau aggregation. 8-Nitro-cGMP exposure induced S-guanylation of tau both in vitro and in tau-overexpressed HEK293T cells. S-guanylated tau inhibited heparin-induced tau aggregation in a thioflavin T assay. Atomic force microscopy observations indicated that S-guanylated tau could not form tau granules and fibrils. Further biochemical analyses showed that S-guanylated tau was inhibited at the step of tau oligomer formation. In P301L tau-expressing Neuro2A cells, 8-nitro-cGMP treatment significantly reduced the amount of sarcosyl-insoluble tau. NO-linked chemical modification on cysteine residues of tau could block tau aggregation, and therefore, increasing 8-nitro-cGMP levels in the brain could become a potential therapeutic strategy for Alzheimer's disease. © 2016 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  14. Application and optimization of the tenderization of pig Longissimus dorsi muscle by adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) using the response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shaoying; Wang, Daoying; Zhang, Muhan; Geng, Zhiming; Sun, Chong; Bian, Huan; Xu, Weimin; Zhu, Yongzhi; Liu, Fang; Wu, Haihong

    2016-03-01

    Based on single factor experiments, NaCl concentration, adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP) concentration and temperature were selected as independent variables for a three-level Box-Behnken experimental design, and the shear force and cooking loss were response values for regression analysis. According to the statistical models, it showed that all independent variables had significant effects on shear force and cooking loss, and optimal values were at the NaCl concentration of 4.15%, AMP concentration of 22.27 mmol/L and temperature of 16.70°C, which was determined with three-dimensional response surface diagrams and contour plots. Under this condition, the observed shear force and cooking loss were 0.625 kg and 8.07%, respectively, exhibiting a good agreement with their predicted values, showing the good applicability and feasibility of response surface methodology (RSM) for improving pork tenderness. Compared with control pig muscles, AMP combined with NaCl treatment demonstrated significant effects on improvement of meat tenderness and reduction of cooking loss. Therefore, AMP could be regarded as an effective tenderization agent for pork.

  15. What Do Children Most Enjoy about Summer Soccer Camp? Gender and Group Perceptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Rhys

    2005-01-01

    One hundred children attending a summer soccer camp in NE Ohio provided written data on what they most enjoyed about the camp. Findings indicated that, overall, they ranked "soccer games and skills" and "camp related activities" as the two leading major categories. In terms of gender group analysis (females = 49; males = 51)…

  16. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  17. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both

  18. Activation of FoxO transcription factors contributes to the antiproliferative effect of cAMP

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuiperij, H.B.; Horst, Armando van der; Raaijmakers, Judith; Weijzen, S.; Medema, R.H.; Bos, J.L.; Burgering, B.M.T.; Zwartkruis, G.J.T.

    2005-01-01

    cAMP is a potent inhibitor of cell proliferation in a variety of cell lines. Downregulation of cyclin D1 and upregulation of the cell cycle inhibitor p27Kip1 are two mechanisms by which cAMP may induce a G1-arrest. Here we show that cAMP inhibits proliferation of cells that constitutively express cy

  19. History Matters: Children's Art Education inside the Japanese American Internment Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Gina Mumma

    2012-01-01

    What did art education look like within the confines of the Japanese American Internment Camp classrooms? Did the art education in the camps reflect the same curriculum that was being taught outside the camps and what other factors may have played a part in the students' experience? I propose that there were at least three significant…

  20. Reflections on Refugee Students' Major Perceptions of Education in Kakuma Refugee Camp, Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mareng, Chuei D.

    2010-01-01

    This reflective study explores refugee students' perceptions of the educational approach used in Kakuma Refugee Camp in Kenya. The study focuses on my personal reflections as a teacher and a student in this camp, and as a refugee. My goal of writing this narrative is to reflect fully on the refugee students' life in a camp and then contribute to…

  1. The accidental city : violence, economy and humanitarianism in Kakuma refugee camp Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, B.J.

    2011-01-01

    In this research I examine social ordering processes in Kakuma refugee camp in Kenya. I view the camp as an accidental city, by which I challenge the image of the camp as a temporary and artificial waiting space or a protracted refugee crisis per se. The reference to the city is both metaphorical

  2. Hack City Summer: Computer Camps Can Bring a Vacation of Keyboard Delights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Ellen Ruppel

    1983-01-01

    Activities at a summer computer camp (Camp Atari held at East Stroudsburg State College PA) are described. The curriculum, using logic, systematic analysis, and other fundamental programing skills, teaches students to interact effectively and creatively with computers. Sources for finding a computer camp are included. (JN)

  3. 77 FR 56174 - Proposed Establishment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Camp Guernsey, WY

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-12

    ... 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class D and Class E Airspace; Camp Guernsey, WY AGENCY... action proposes to establish Class D airspace and Class E airspace at Camp Guernsey Airport, Camp... holidays. An informal docket may also be examined during normal business hours at the Northwest...

  4. Hack City Summer: Computer Camps Can Bring a Vacation of Keyboard Delights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shell, Ellen Ruppel

    1983-01-01

    Activities at a summer computer camp (Camp Atari held at East Stroudsburg State College PA) are described. The curriculum, using logic, systematic analysis, and other fundamental programing skills, teaches students to interact effectively and creatively with computers. Sources for finding a computer camp are included. (JN)

  5. 78 FR 55671 - Hospital Care and Medical Services for Camp Lejeune Veterans

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-11

    ... the residences and workplaces, in addition to other water systems on Camp Lejeune, have tested... substances while at Camp Lejeune. U.S. Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune includes base housing, training sites..., 2015. We believe that 2 years would provide veterans sufficient time to learn about the new status...

  6. Culture Camp, Ethnic Identity, and Adoption Socialization for Korean Adoptees: A Pretest and Posttest Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baden, Amanda L.

    2015-01-01

    This study explores the impact of racial-ethnic socialization on adopted South Korean children and adolescents who attended a sleepaway Korean culture camp for one week. This camp provided racial-ethnic socialization experiences via exposure to camp counselors, staff, and teachers who were Korean Americans, Korean nationals, and Korean adult…

  7. Educating for a Culture of Peace in Refugee Camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillman, Diane G.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the "Living Values Activities for Refugees and Children Affected by War" program and its use in two refugee camps in Thailand. Details how the program provides children an opportunity to relate their experiences in an accepting environment and offers some tools for dealing with emotional pain, while helping them develop…

  8. Group-Integrated Reality Therapy in a Wilderness Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clagett, Arthur F.

    1992-01-01

    Abridges Glasser's (1975) theory of United States as identity society to explicate causative characteristics of "identity achievers" versus "failures" in U.S. society. Discusses Reality Therapy and therapeutic treatment programs developed by Hope Center Wilderness Camp. Presents evidence to suggest that group-integrated reality…

  9. Graying America Presents Golden Opportunities for Camp Directors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosky, Alicia C.

    1989-01-01

    Discusses quality-of-life issues for ever-increasing population of American elderly, emphasizing value of recreation. Offers organized camping as way of exposing older adults to enjoyable physical activities. Cites evidence supporting beneficial effects of regular exercise for elderly, beginning at any age. (TES)

  10. The Career Camp: An Early, Early Career Guidance Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Sue Edmonds

    1995-01-01

    Describes Marshall University's summer camp where young people participate in activities that help prepare them for important career choices they will need to make when entering college. Benefits for the university include: recruitment, enhanced community partnerships, better informed incoming freshman, and publicity for the career center. (JBJ)

  11. Academic Boot Camp for the Writing of Psychology Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…

  12. Chinese Students’ Winter Camp Tour of the U. S.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    <正>At the invitation of Brigham Young University (BYU)-Hawaii of the U. S., a 26-member middle school student winter camp delegation, organized and sent by the CPAFFC, made a study tour of the U. S. with the theme of enhancing friendship between the

  13. Novel H1N1 Flu and Camp

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2009-06-30

    This podcast gives tips to stay healthy and help prevent infection with novel H1N1 flu if your child or someone you know is going to camp.  Created: 6/30/2009 by Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).   Date Released: 6/30/2009.

  14. Addressing Nature Deficit Disorder through Primitive Camping Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Kevin; Varner, Keegan; Sallee, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Today's youth suffer from Nature Deficit Disorder, a condition that has been connected to ADHD, shortage of creativity, and general lack of knowledge about the outdoors. A team of educators and specialists are addressing this issue with primitive camping. County educators were trained using experiential learning and train-the-trainer techniques.…

  15. Credit-based livelihood interventions in a Zambian refugee camp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane Travis

    2004-05-01

    Full Text Available Establishing community credit facilities has become an important developmental tool for building livelihood strategies. In the refugee camps where the British NGO Christian Outreach Relief andDevelopment (CORD has worked, programmes have provided credit in the form of cash, agricultural inputs or livestock.

  16. Middle School Girls Sample "Hard Hat" Life at Construction Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Aneeta

    2013-01-01

    On a Monday morning in July, a fan as tall as a refrigerator churned noisily in the cavernous classroom. As the outdoor temperature crept higher, teenage girls wearing hardhats and safety glasses wiped perspiration and sawdust from their faces. This was not a field trip. This was the second hour of camp at Ranken Technical College in St. Louis,…

  17. 29 CFR 1910.142 - Temporary labor camps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... such installations. If a camp is used during cold weather, adequate heating equipment shall be provided... following ratio: (i) Handwash basin per family shelter or per six persons in shared facilities. (ii) Shower... materials; they shall be impervious to moisture. Floor drains shall be provided in all shower baths, shower...

  18. Archaeology and Memory. Former WWII Camps in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; Ooijen, van I.M.A.

    The archaeology of 20th-century war, terror and conflict is a growing field of research. The archaeological research of ‘terrorscapes’ often overlaps with personal and collective memories. Besides memory, the heritage of the camps has been dominated in the last decades by historical research. What t

  19. Phun Physics 4 Phemales: Physics Camp for High School Girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Chuhee; Gu, Jiyeong; Henriquez, Laura

    2014-03-01

    The department of Physics and Astronomy with the department of Science Education at California State University, Long Beach hosted summer program of ``Phun Physics 4 Phemales (PP4P)'' during summer 2012 and summer 2013 with the support from APS public outreach program. PP4P summer camp was hosted along with a two-week summer science camp, Young Scientists Camp, which has been institutionalized for the last 14 years since 1999. More than 2,500 3rd -8th grade students and 250 teachers have participated in the program. PP4P program provided the tools and support that female high school students need to pursue careers in physics and/or science, technology, engineering and math (STEM) field. This girls-only camp created connections among the girls and built confidence. In addition PP4P program introduced students to key principles in physics by a hands-on lab environment and demonstrated the real-world social impact of physics. In summer 2012, high school girls worked on physics experimental project on electronics and in summer 2013 they worked on the mechanics. I would share our experience in this program and the impact on the female high school students. This work was supported by 2012 Public Outreach and Informing the Public Grants from American Physical Society.

  20. Archaeology and Memory. Former WWII Camps in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarse, van der R.; Ooijen, van I.M.A.

    The archaeology of 20th-century war, terror and conflict is a growing field of research. The archaeological research of ‘terrorscapes’ often overlaps with personal and collective memories. Besides memory, the heritage of the camps has been dominated in the last decades by historical research. What

  1. Snakes Have Feelings, Too: Elements of a Camp Snake Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Robert Ross

    2001-01-01

    A camp snake program can help campers overcome their fear of snakes, and people cannot truly enjoy nature when they carry a phobia about any one part of it. It can also help overcome prejudice by teaching truth and respect, instilling compassion, and helping campers develop empathy. Advice on catching, handling, identifying, keeping, and feeding…

  2. English Camp: A Language Immersion Program in Thailand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugasken, Kris; Harris, Jacqueline A.

    2009-01-01

    A summer English camp language immersion program, which began in 2003, provided instruction by native English speakers to Thai college students via collaboration between Prince of Songkla University in Thailand and Ball State University in Indiana, USA. During this program, Thai students were exposed to English formally through classroom…

  3. Academic Boot Camp for the Writing of Psychology Research Reports

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skues, Jason L.; Wise, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we describe the implementation of, and responses to, a structured writing workshop in the form of an academic boot camp. Participants were 42 undergraduate psychology students from a medium-sized Australian university who were completing their major assignment for the semester. A majority of the students expressed satisfaction with the…

  4. Camp stability predicts patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Daniel; Dyble, Mark; Thompson, James; Major, Katie; Page, Abigail E; Chaudhary, Nikhil; Salali, Gul Deniz; Vinicius, Lucio; Migliano, Andrea Bamberg; Mace, Ruth

    2016-07-01

    Humans regularly cooperate with non-kin, which has been theorized to require reciprocity between repeatedly interacting and trusting individuals. However, the role of repeated interactions has not previously been demonstrated in explaining real-world patterns of hunter-gatherer cooperation. Here we explore cooperation among the Agta, a population of Filipino hunter-gatherers, using data from both actual resource transfers and two experimental games across multiple camps. Patterns of cooperation vary greatly between camps and depend on socio-ecological context. Stable camps (with fewer changes in membership over time) were associated with greater reciprocal sharing, indicating that an increased likelihood of future interactions facilitates reciprocity. This is the first study reporting an association between reciprocal cooperation and hunter-gatherer band stability. Under conditions of low camp stability individuals still acquire resources from others, but do so via demand sharing (taking from others), rather than based on reciprocal considerations. Hunter-gatherer cooperation may either be characterized as reciprocity or demand sharing depending on socio-ecological conditions.

  5. Cross-cultural Relationships in a Summer Camp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groff, Donald W.; Warlow, G. L.

    This study of an exchange camping program was conducted to evaluate the potential for developing understanding and appreciation between people of varying cultural backgrounds. The subjects were 31 English speaking Ontario campers and 30 French speaking Quebec campers ranging in age from 8 to 16. Attitude change was determined by administering a…

  6. Menselijk gedrag bij de evacuatie van een camping

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerstholt, J.H.; Groenewegen-Ter Morsche, K.; Johannink, R.; Getz-Smeenk, A.F.

    2010-01-01

    In geval van onbeheersbare natuurbranden zal er een beroep moeten worden gedaan op de zelfredzaamheid van burgers. De resultaten van een ontruiming van een camping laten zien dat vele deelnemers niet reageerden op rook en brandgeur en dat ze slechts in actie kwamen nadat z|j door een personeelslid v

  7. Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP): The Palisade Sill Connection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghatak, A.; Basu, A. R.

    2012-12-01

    The extensively studied 200Ma Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP) is considered to be the world's largest continental Large Igneous Province (LIP) covering up to 7 X 106 km2. This igneous province has been linked to the ~200Ma Mesozoic opening of the Central Atlantic Ocean. This opening fragmented the CAMP into several segments that occur on four different tectonic plates today. The CAMP related LIP is different from others in that it constitutes almost entirely of dikes and sills with sparse volcanic outflows. The 200 Ma Palisade Sill, exposed along the Hudson River in northeastern North America is an expression of the CAMP magmatism. On the basis of similar ages of eruption, Palisade Sill tholeiites have been correlated to other CAMP exposures in four continents. We provide an isotopic tracer study of the Palisade Sill basalts and relate them to low-Ti (gabbros, 3 chilled margin basalts, and 4 sandstones spanning the entire length and thickness of the Palisade Sill in New York and New Jersey. These geochemical data are essential to understand the relationship between mantle geodynamic processes involved in the generation of the CAMP tholeiites prior to the formation of the of the Atlantic Ocean crust. The Palisade Sill basalts of this study yield the typical composition of low-Ti CAMP tholeiites with small LREE enrichments (LaN/SmN = 1.7 to 2.3), radiogenic Sr and negative ɛNd(I) values (87Sr/87Sr(I) = 0.70668 to 0.71037; ɛNd(I) = -0.64 to -3.8), and Pb-isotopic ratios (e.g. 206Pb/204Pb = 18.11 to 18.69) above the NHRL and subparallel to it. These geochemical data indicate the Palisade Sill basalts were derived from a slightly enriched OIB-like mantle source. Further, these rocks were derived by ~15% melting of a slightly depleted spinel peridotite with up to 20% contamination by the continental lithosphere prior to or during the emplacement of these lavas. Since other low-Ti CAMP lavas have similar geochemistry and eruption ages of the Palisade Sill

  8. How Come the Best Job I Ever Had Was When I Worked at a Summer Camp?: Understanding Retention Among Camp Counselors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jay Whitacre

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available When attempting to discover a manner in which to maintain employment during the summer, many individuals have realized the job of camp counselor. What begins as a seasonal position may transform into a lifelong commitment to both person and place. For years, individuals have come to appreciate and understand the experiences that occur when approaching particular places. Data, for this study, was collected via in-depth interviews from twenty-four camp counselors from three separate, but similar camps. Phenomenological analysis on the qualitative data was performed to explore the staff retention amongst counselors. This study links sense of place as a salient component of employee retention among camp counselors. By developing a strong sense of community amongst staff, camp administrators may be promoting a deeper, more long-term, commitment among the staff and towards the camp.

  9. Training Diaries during Altitude Training Camp in Two Olympic Champions: An Observational Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenzo Pugliese, Fabio R. Serpiello, Grégoire P. Millet, Antonio La Torre

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Live High-Train High (LHTH interventions were adopted when athletes trained and lived at altitude to try maximising the benefits offered by hypoxic exposure and improving sea level performance. Nevertheless, scientific research has proposed that the possible benefits of hypoxia would be offset by the inability to maintain high training intensity at altitude. However, elite athletes have been rarely recruited as an experimental sample, and training intensity has almost never been monitored during altitude research. This case study is an attempt to provide a practical example of successful LHTH interventions in two Olympic gold medal athletes. Training diaries were collected and total training volumes, volumes at different intensities, and sea level performance recorded before, during and after a 3-week LHTH camp. Both athletes successfully completed the LHTH camp (2090 m maintaining similar absolute training intensity and training volume at high-intensity (> 91% of race pace compared to sea level. After the LHTH intervention both athletes obtained enhancements in performance and they won an Olympic gold medal. In our opinion, LHTH interventions can be used as a simple, yet effective, method to maintain absolute, and improve relative training intensity in elite endurance athletes.

  10. The camp analogue, dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit reproductive functions: I. Effect on ovarian folliculogenesis, ovulation and embryo production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chrenek P.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to examine the influence of administration of N6,2’-dibutyryladenosine 3’5’-cyclic monophosphate (dbcAMP, a cAMP agonist, on ovarian folliculogenesis and atresia, as well as on reproductive efficiency in rabbits, whose ovarian cycle and ovulation was induced by gonadotropins. Ovarian cycle and ovulation of control rabbits were induced by 20 IU/kg PMSG followed by 35 IU/kg hCG administration. Experimental animals received PMSG and hCG together with dbcAMP (at 5, 25 or 50 μg/animal. After ovulation and insemination, the animals were sacrificed. Ovaries were weighted, histological sections of ovaries were prepared, and the presence of ovulated and not ovulated follicles and different stages of atresia was evaluated by light microscopy. The eggs were flushed from the oviducts after insemination and cultured up to blastocyst cell stage. Numbers of ovarian Corpora lutea, ovulated oocytes and oocyte-derived zygotes and embryos reaching hatched blastocyst stage were determined. Administration of dbcAMP (at doses 25 or 50 μg/animal, but not at 5 μg/animal was able to increase the proportion of follicles with cystic and luteinization-related atresia. Furthermore, dbcAMP (50 μg/animal, but not lower doses increased the ovarian mass, number of Corpora lutea, number of harvested oocytes, zygotes and embryos at blastocyst stage derived from these zygotes after culture. These data demonstrate that dbcAMP can stimulate rabbit ovarian follicle atresia, ovulation, oocyte, zygote and embryo yield and development. Furthermore, they confirm in the involvement of cyclic nucleotide-dependent intracellular mechanisms in the control of rabbit reproductive functions and potential practical usefulness of dbcAMP in improving animal reproduction and fertility.

  11. A study of the hydration of deoxydinucleoside monophosphates containing thymine, uracil and its 5-halogen derivatives: Monte Carlo simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alderfer, J L; Danilov, V I; Poltev, V I; Slyusarchuk, O N

    1999-04-01

    An extensive Monte Carlo simulation of hydration of various conformations of the dinucleoside monophosphates (DNP), containing thymine, uracil and its 5-halogen derivatives has been performed. An anti-anti conformation is the most energetically stable one for each of the DNPs. In the majority of cases the energy preference is determined by water-water interaction. For other dimers conformational energy is the most important factor, or both the factors are of nearly equal importance. The introduction of the methyl group into the 5-position of uracil ring most noticeably influences the conformational energy and leads to the decrease of its stabilizing contribution to the total interaction energy. The introduction of halogen atoms increases the relative content of anti-syn and syn-anti conformations of DNPs as compared to the parent ones due to the formation of an energetically more favorable water structure around these conformations. A correlation is observed between the Monte Carlo results for the halogenated DNPs and their experimental photoproduct distribution. The data obtained demonstrates a sequence dependence in the photochemistry of the halogenated dinucleoside monophosphates.

  12. A novel procedure for purification of uridine 5'-monophosphate based on adsorption methodology using a hyper-cross-linked resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jinglan; Zhu, Hui; Liu, Yanan; Zhou, Jingwei; Zhuang, Wei; Jiao, Pengfei; Ke, Xu; Ying, Hanjie

    2015-05-01

    The conventional ion exchange process used for recovery of uridine 5'-monophosphate (UMP) from the enzymatic hydrolysate of RNA is environmentally harmful and cost intensive. In this work, an innovative benign process, which comprises adsorption technology and use of a hyper-cross-linked resin as a stationary phase is proposed. The adsorption properties of this kind of resin in terms of adsorption equilibrium as well as kinetics were evaluated. The influences of the operating conditions, i.e., initial UMP concentration, feed flow rate, and bed height on the breakthrough curves of UMP in the fixed bed system were investigated. Subsequently, a chromatographic column model was established and validated for the prediction of the experimentally attained breakthrough curves of UMP and the main impurity component (phosphate ion) with a real enzymatic hydrolysate of RNA as a feed mixture. At the end of this paper, the crystallization of UMP was carried out. The purity of the final product (uridine 5'-monophosphate disodium, UMPNa2) of over 99.5 % was obtained.

  13. Using Science Camps to Develop Understandings about Scientific Inquiry--Taiwanese Students in a U.S. Summer Science Camp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antink-Meyer, Allison; Bartos, Stephen; Lederman, Judith S.; Lederman, Norman G.

    2016-01-01

    Recent years have witnessed a dramatic rise in the number of middle and high school students from Asian countries participating in U.S.-based summer experiences (Perlez & Gao, 2013). Although summer science camps have been shown to improve students' attitudes and interests related to science and science learning (Bhattacharyya, Mead &…

  14. Effects of Exergame Play on EF in Children and Adolescents at a Summer Camp for Low Income Youth

    OpenAIRE

    Flynn, Rachel M.; Richert, Rebekah A.; Staiano, Amanda E; Wartella, Ellen; Calvert, Sandra L.

    2014-01-01

    Past research has suggested exergame play improves adolescents’ executive function (EF) skills. EF change in 70 African American and Hispanic/Latino 10- to 16-year-olds participating in an inner-city summer camp was assessed following five 30-minute exergame play sessions. Children’s EF scores improved from pre- to posttest, and factors related to this change were examined. The number of exergame sessions the participants attended predicted posttest scores. In addition, level of achievement d...

  15. Novel mechanisms and signaling pathways of esophageal ulcer healing: the role of prostaglandin EP2 receptors, cAMP, and pCREB.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahluwalia, Amrita; Baatar, Dolgor; Jones, Michael K; Tarnawski, Andrzej S

    2014-09-15

    Clinical studies indicate that prostaglandins of E class (PGEs) may promote healing of tissue injury e.g., gastroduodenal and dermal ulcers. However, the precise roles of PGEs, their E-prostanoid (EP) receptors, signaling pathways including cAMP and cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB), and their relation to VEGF and angiogenesis in the tissue injury healing process remain unknown, forming the rationale for this study. Using an esophageal ulcer model in rats, we demonstrated that esophageal mucosa expresses predominantly EP2 receptors and that esophageal ulceration triggers an increase in expression of the EP2 receptor, activation of CREB (the downstream target of the cAMP signaling), and enhanced VEGF gene expression. Treatment of rats with misoprostol, a PGE1 analog capable of activating EP receptors, enhanced phosphorylation of CREB, stimulated VEGF expression and angiogenesis, and accelerated esophageal ulcer healing. In cultured human esophageal epithelial (HET-1A) cells, misoprostol increased intracellular cAMP levels (by 163-fold), induced phosphorylation of CREB, and stimulated VEGF expression. A cAMP analog (Sp-cAMP) mimicked, whereas an inhibitor of cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (Rp-cAMP) blocked, these effects of misoprostol. These results indicate that the EP2/cAMP/protein kinase A pathway mediates the stimulatory effect of PGEs on angiogenesis essential for tissue injury healing via the induction of CREB activity and VEGF expression.

  16. A mTurquoise-based cAMP sensor for both FLIM and ratiometric read-out has improved dynamic range.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey B Klarenbeek

    Full Text Available FRET-based sensors for cyclic Adenosine Mono Phosphate (cAMP have revolutionized the way in which this important intracellular messenger is studied. The currently prevailing sensors consist of the cAMP-binding protein Epac1, sandwiched between suitable donor- and acceptor fluorescent proteins (FPs. Through a conformational change in Epac1, alterations in cellular cAMP levels lead to a change in FRET that is most commonly detected by either Fluorescence Lifetime Imaging (FLIM or by Sensitized Emission (SE, e.g., by simple ratio-imaging. We recently reported a range of different Epac-based cAMP sensors with high dynamic range and signal-to-noise ratio. We showed that constructs with cyan FP as donor are optimal for readout by SE, whereas other constructs with green FP donors appeared much more suited for FLIM detection. In this study, we present a new cAMP sensor, termed (TEpac(VV, which employs mTurquoise as donor. Spectrally very similar to CFP, mTurquoise has about doubled quantum efficiency and unlike CFP, its fluorescence decay is strictly single-exponential. We show that (TEpac(VV appears optimal for detection both by FLIM and SE, that it has outstanding FRET span and signal-to-noise ratio, and improved photostability. Hence, (TEpac(VV should become the cAMP sensor of choice for new experiments, both for FLIM and ratiometric detection.

  17. Multiple Facets of cAMP Signalling and Physiological Impact: cAMP Compartmentalization in the Lung

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Schmidt

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Therapies involving elevation of the endogenous suppressor cyclic AMP (cAMP are currently used in the treatment of several chronic inflammatory disorders, including chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Characteristics of COPD are airway obstruction, airway inflammation and airway remodelling, processes encompassed by increased airway smooth muscle mass, epithelial changes, goblet cell and submucosal gland hyperplasia. In addition to inflammatory cells, airway smooth muscle cells and (myofibroblasts, epithelial cells underpin a variety of key responses in the airways such as inflammatory cytokine release, airway remodelling, mucus hypersecretion and airway barrier function. Cigarette smoke, being next to environmental pollution the main cause of COPD, is believed to cause epithelial hyperpermeability by disrupting the barrier function. Here we will focus on the most recent progress on compartmentalized signalling by cAMP. In addition to G protein-coupled receptors, adenylyl cyclases, cAMP-specific phospho-diesterases (PDEs maintain compartmentalized cAMP signalling. Intriguingly, spatially discrete cAMP-sensing signalling complexes seem also to involve distinct members of the A-kinase anchoring (AKAP superfamily and IQ motif containing GTPase activating protein (IQGAPs. In this review, we will highlight the interaction between cAMP and the epithelial barrier to retain proper lung function and to alleviate COPD symptoms and focus on the possible molecular mechanisms involved in this process. Future studies should include the development of cAMP-sensing multiprotein complex specific disruptors and/or stabilizers to orchestrate cellular functions. Compartmentalized cAMP signalling regulates important cellular processes in the lung and may serve as a therapeutic target.

  18. [Medicine in the concentration camps of the Third Reich].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shasha, Shaul M

    2005-04-01

    Between 1942 and 1944 millions of prisoners were subjected to forced labor in concentration camps throughout the Third Reich, all the while being the victims of a systematic and "scientific" extermination policy. Though the policy was directed mainly against Jews, it was implemented against other "inferior races" as well. The prisoners, stripped of all rights, experienced constant humiliation, uncertain survival and terror. The harsh living condition, characterized by crowding, absent sanitation and poor personal hygiene led to considerable morbidity, mainly due to injuries, infectious diseases and famine, and to high mortality rates. Medical care in the camps was the responsibility of the S.S. Each camp had a chief S.S. physician accompanied by a number of assistants and orderlies. There was also a parallel system of "prisoner-physicians." There was a chief prisoner-physician in every camp, and each block was assigned a "block doctor" who was responsible for sanitation, the removal of corpses, setting up the sick- call and authorizing sick leave. Work teams were accompanied by "mobile doctors" (Streckenpfleger), who dispensed first aid for work injuries. Prisoner-physicians were also charged with disinfecting the blocks and maintaining hygienic conditions in the camp. Every camp had one or more blocks, called "Reviers", that were used for treatment and hospitalization. In the larger camps a number of blocks were designated to function as a sort of hospital (Krankenbau). At times one camp out of a group of camps would be set aside as quarantine, primarily for patients with infectious diseases. Officially, the "Revier" was the responsibility of an S.S. physicians', assisted by a chief prisoner-physician, his assistants and, at times, nurses. But in actuality the Reviers were managed by prisoners (Capos) who did not have medical training but were authorized to make decisions in medical matters such as operations and, on occasion, even performed them. The Reviers

  19. Streptococcus pyogenes CAMP factor attenuates phagocytic activity of RAW 264.7 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurosawa, Mie; Oda, Masataka; Domon, Hisanori; Saitoh, Issei; Hayasaki, Haruaki; Terao, Yutaka

    2016-02-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes produces molecules that inhibit the function of human immune system, thus allowing the pathogen to grow and spread in tissues. It is known that S. pyogenes CAMP factor increases erythrocytosis induced by Staphylococcus aureus β-hemolysin. However, the effects of CAMP factor for immune cells are unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of CAMP factor to macrophages. Western blotting analysis demonstrated that all examined strains expressed CAMP factor protein. In the presence of calcium or magnesium ion, CAMP factor was significantly released in the supernatant. In addition, both culture supernatant from S. pyogenes strain SSI-9 and recombinant CAMP factor dose-dependently induced vacuolation in RAW 264.7 cells, but the culture supernatant from Δcfa isogenic mutant strain did not. CAMP factor formed oligomers in RAW 264.7 cells in a time-dependent manner. CAMP factor suppressed cell proliferation via G2 phase cell cycle arrest without inducing cell death. Furthermore, CAMP factor reduced the uptake of S. pyogenes and phagocytic activity indicator by RAW 264.7 cells. These results suggest that CAMP factor works as a macrophage dysfunction factor. Therefore, we conclude that CAMP factor allows S. pyogenes to escape the host immune system, and contribute to the spread of streptococcal infection.

  20. Adenosine monophosphate-activated protein kinase activation enhances embryonic neural stem cell apoptosis in a mouse model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yanling Sui; Zichun Zhao; Rong Liu; Bin Cai; Dongsheng Fan

    2014-01-01

    Alterations in embryonic neural stem cells play crucial roles in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We hypothesized that embryonic neural stem cells from SOD1G93A individuals might be more susceptible to oxidative injury, resulting in a propensity for neurodegeneration at later stages. In this study, embryonic neural stem cells obtained from human superoxide dis-mutase 1 mutant (SOD1G93A) and wild-type (SOD1WT) mouse models were exposed to H2O2. We assayed cell viability with mitochondrial succinic dehydrogenase colorimetric reagent, and measured cell apoptosis by lfow cytometry. Moreover, we evaluated the expression of the adenos-ine monophosphate-activated protein kinase (AMPK)α-subunit, paired box 3 (Pax3) protein, and p53 in western blot analyses. Compared with SOD1WT cells, SOD1G93A embryonic neural stem cells were more likely to undergo H2O2-induced apoptosis. Phosphorylation of AMPKαin SOD1G93A cells was higher than that in SOD1WT cells. Pax3 expression was inversely correlated with the phosphorylation levels of AMPKα. p53 protein levels were also correlated with AMPKαphosphorylation levels. Compound C, an inhibitor of AMPKα, attenuated the effects of H2O2. These results suggest that embryonic neural stem cells from SOD1G93A mice are more susceptible to apoptosis in the presence of oxidative stress compared with those from wild-type controls, and the effects are mainly mediated by Pax3 and p53 in the AMPKα pathway.

  1. cAMP receptor protein (CRP) downregulates Klebsiella pneumoniae nif promoters in Escherichia coli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In enteric bacteria, in response to the PTS system, the cAMP receptor protein (CRP) mediates the glucose effect, via regulating s70-dependent catabolic genes at transcriptional level. In this study, it is observed that the nitrogen fixation capacity of Klebsiella pneumoniae varies strongly when cells are grown on different carbohydrates, and this carbon effect occurs at the level of nif gene expression. Here we show that CRP can repress s54-dependent nif promoters (nifB, nifE, nifF, nifH, nifJ, nifLA and nifU), in a cAMP dependent fashion, in closed related E. coli background. Sequence analysis of these nif promoters indicates that there is no direct correlation between the fold of CRP-cAMP-mediated inhibition and the upstream cis elements at the promoters. In addition, the crp gene of K. pneumoniae has been isolated and sequenced, which is structural and functional highly homologous to that of E. coli. This suggests that CRP-cAMP-mediated inhibition on the nif promoters could be the reason for carbon effect on nitrogen fixation and thus has its physiological significance. A novel regulatory linkage between carbon metabolism and nitrogen fixation is proposed.

  2. Resveratrol Ameliorates Aging-Related Metabolic Phenotypes by Inhibiting cAMP Phosphodiesterases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Jun; Ahmad, Faiyaz; Philp, Andrew; Baar, Keith; Williams, Tishan; Luo, Haibin; Ke, Hengming; Rehmann, Holger; Taussig, Ronald; Brown, Alexandra L.; Kim, Myung K.; Beaven, Michael A.; Burgin, Alex B.; Manganiello, Vincent; Chung, Jay H.

    2012-01-01

    SUMMARY Resveratrol, a polyphenol in red wine, has been reported as a calorie restriction mimetic with potential antiaging and antidiabetogenic properties. It is widely consumed as a nutritional supplement, but its mechanism of action remains a mystery. Here, we report that the metabolic effects of resveratrol result from competitive inhibition of cAMP-degrading phosphodiesterases, leading to elevated cAMP levels. The resulting activation of Epac1, a cAMP effector protein, increases intracellular Ca2+ levels and activates the CamKKβ-AMPK pathway via phospholipase C and the ryanodine receptor Ca2+-release channel. As a consequence, resveratrol increases NAD+ and the activity of Sirt1. Inhibiting PDE4 with rolipram reproduces all of the metabolic benefits of resveratrol, including prevention of diet-induced obesity and an increase in mitochondrial function, physical stamina, and glucose tolerance in mice. Therefore, administration of PDE4 inhibitors may also protect against and ameliorate the symptoms of metabolic diseases associated with aging. PMID:22304913

  3. Modulation of phenotype and function of human CD4+CD25+ T regulatory lymphocytes mediated by cAMP elevating agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Riccomi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available We have shown that Cholera Toxin (CT and other cyclic AMP (cAMP elevating agents induce up-regulation of the inhibitory molecule CTLA-4 in human resting CD4+ T lymphocytes, which following the treatment acquired suppressive functions. In this study, we evaluated the effect of cAMP elevating agents on human CD4+CD25+ T cells, which include the T regulatory (Treg cells that play a pivotal role in the maintenance of immunological tolerance. We found that cAMP elevating agents induce up-regulation of CTLA-4 in CD4+CD25- and further enhance its expression in CD4+CD25+ T cells. We observed an increase of two isoforms of mRNA coding for the membrane and the soluble CTLA-4 molecules, suggesting that the regulation of CTLA-4 expression by cAMP is at the transcriptional level. In addition, we found that the increase of cAMP in CD4+CD25+ T cells converts the CD4+CD25+Foxp3- T cells in CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ T cells, whereas the increase of cAMP in CD4+CD25- T cells did not up-regulate Foxp3 in the absence of activation stimuli. To investigate the function of these cells, we performed an in vitro suppression assay by culturing CD4+CD25+ T cells untreated or pre-treated with CT with anti-CD3 mAbs-stimulated autologous PBMC. We found that CT enhances the inhibitory function of CD4+CD25+ T cells, CD4+ and CD8+ T cell proliferation and IFNγ production are strongly inhibited by CD4+CD25+ T cells pre-treated with cAMP elevating agents. Furthermore, we found that CD4+CD25+ T lymphocytes pre-treated with cAMP elevating agents induce the up-regulation of CD80 and CD86 co-stimulatory molecules on immature dendritic cells (DCs in the absence of antigenic stimulation, however without leading to full DC maturation. These data show that the increase of intracellular cAMP modulates the phenotype and function of human CD4+CD25+ T cells.

  4. Social Isolation of the Stateless and the Destitute: A Study on the Refugee-Camp and the Sullied Slum of Dhaka City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Rehan Masoom

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The lower-class segment of the population of the developing nations often fails to form meaningful social relations and remain disengaged from essential social institutions. The research examines those people who live in refugee-camp and sullied slum of Dhaka city and inspect how much they are socially isolated. Certain characteristics, taken as indicators to test the level of social isolation, indicate that a large segment of camp and slum dwellers are feeling isolated. However, the evidence shows no differences in the predicted direction with respect to the objective demographic variables; nonetheless, a pattern of perceived social isolation was found from the survey data.

  5. Dibutyryl c-AMP as an inducer of sporidia formation: Biochemical and antigenic changes during morphological differentiation of Karnal bunt (Tilletia indica) pathogen in axenic culture

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Anil Kumar; Kaushlendra Tripathi; Manish Rana; Shalini Purwar; G K Garg

    2004-03-01

    Effect of dibutyryl adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate (dbc-AMP), an analogue of c-AMP, was investigated on growth and morphological differentiation of Tilletia indica. Exponential growth was observed up to 21 days in both presence and absence of dbc-AMP; however, increasing concentration of dbc-AMP was deleterious to mycelial growth in liquid culture. A slow increase of mycelial biomass up to 21 days and decline at 30 days in the presence of 2.5 mM dbc-AMP was observed, therefore, this concentration was chosen in subsequent investigations. The inhibitory influence of dbc-AMP was further substantiated by decrease in soluble protein. The fungus on exposure to dbc-AMP experienced morphological differentiation from vegetative mycelial phase to sporogenous mycelial phase, and was induced to produce filiform sporidia. Use of quantitative ELISA further suggested that sporidia formation took more than 21 days in the presence of dbc-AMP. Variations of proteins during different stages of T. indica grown in the presence and absence of dbc-AMP suggested the expression of stage-specific proteins or differential expression of proteins induced by dbc-AMP. The changes in expression of cell surface antigens as evidenced from decrease and increase binding of anti-mycelial and anti-sporidial anti-bodies in dbc-AMP treated culture by ELISA was further interpreted on the basis of morphological differentiation from mycelial to sporidial phase.

  6. The Camp Community's Response to September 11: What We Did, Why We Did It, and What It Means.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silverstein, David; Jacobs, Jay; Scholl, Brian; Cronin, Greg; Grossman, Irwin; Zenkel, Daniel; Coleman, Marla; Callahan, Amy; Ditter, Bob

    2003-01-01

    Six programs are described in which camps served children who lost parents in the September 11 attacks. Programs ranged from providing free camp or making the annual camp more supportive and safe, to special camps just for those children. All included outreach to families, special staff orientation, bereavement counseling, and balancing support…

  7. Access to safe water and personal hygiene practices in the Kulandia Refugee Camp (Jerusalem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamad Issa

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Diarrheal illness, frequently associated with fecal-oral transmission, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is commonly preventable through the implementation of safe water practices. This experiment concerns how to best implement safe water practices in a quasi-permanent refugee camp setting with limited ability for structural changes. Specifically, we explore how health promotion activities that help identify target groups for hygiene interventions can play a role in disease prevention. An anonymous survey was conducted at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency Health Clinic in the Kulandia refugee camp to assess the safe water and personal hygiene practices. Demographic and social characteristics, accessible water and personal hygiene characteristics, and gastrointestinal (GI burden for individuals and their households were assessed. A total of 96 individuals were enrolled; 62 females and 34 males. Approximately 58% of the sample had soap available and washed hands before and after eating and when preparing food. Piped water was the main source of drinking water (62%, while 31% of our sample utilized tanker-trucks. 93% of participants had access to toilet facilities, with 86% of these facilities being private households. 55% practice extra water hygiene measures on their household drinking water source. 51.3% considered vendor cleanliness when they were buying food. 51% had received formal health education. 68.8% had been taught by their parents, but only 55.2% were teaching their children and 15.6% had consistent access to a health professional for hygiene inquiries. Individual variables and hygiene practices associated with lower rates of diarrheal illnesses included having water piped into the home, proper hand washing, adequate soap availability, proper consideration of vendor cleanliness, higher income, levels of education, health hygiene education, and having access to healthcare professions to discuss hygiene related

  8. Access to Safe Water and Personal Hygiene Practices in the Kulandia Refugee Camp (Jerusalem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Issa, Mohamad; McHenry, Michael; Issa, Abdul Aziz; Blackwood, R Alexander

    2015-12-22

    Diarrheal illness, frequently associated with fecal-oral transmission, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. It is commonly preventable through the implementation of safe water practices. This experiment concerns how to best implement safe water practices in a quasi-permanent refugee camp setting with limited ability for structural changes. Specifically, we explore how health promotion activities that help identify target groups for hygiene interventions can play a role in disease prevention. An anonymous survey was conducted at the United Nations Relief and Works Agency Health Clinic in the Kulandia refugee camp to assess the safe water and personal hygiene practices. Demographic and social characteristics, accessible water and personal hygiene characteristics, and gastrointestinal (GI) burden for individuals and their households were assessed. A total of 96 individuals were enrolled; 62 females and 34 males. Approximately 58% of the sample had soap available and washed hands before and after eating and when preparing food. Piped water was the main source of drinking water (62%), while 31% of our sample utilized tanker-trucks. 93% of participants had access to toilet facilities, with 86% of these facilities being private households. 55% practice extra water hygiene measures on their household drinking water source. 51.3% considered vendor cleanliness when they were buying food. 51% had received formal health education. 68.8% had been taught by their parents, but only 55.2% were teaching their children and 15.6% had consistent access to a health professional for hygiene inquiries. Individual variables and hygiene practices associated with lower rates of diarrheal illnesses included having water piped into the home, proper hand washing, adequate soap availability, proper consideration of vendor cleanliness, higher income, levels of education, health hygiene education, and having access to healthcare professions to discuss hygiene related matters. This is

  9. Academic Camps: Why Spend Summer in Class?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rigby, Kristin

    2005-01-01

    Gifted students tend to be drawn to summer gifted programs because of their high level of motivation and their drive to experience an academic challenge (Olszewski-Kubilius & Lee, 2004). Concurrently, academic summer programs yield numerous social-emotional, educational, and family benefits for gifted young people. One of the most beneficial…

  10. Conservation and divergence of the cyclic adenosine monophosphate-protein kinase A (cAMP–PKA) pathway in two plant-pathogenic fungi: Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides

    Science.gov (United States)

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-PKA pathway is a central signaling cascade that transmits extracellular stimuli and governs cell responses through the second messenger cAMP. The importance of cAMP signaling in fungal biology has been well documented. Two key conserved components, adenylate cyclase (AC) and ca...

  11. From camp to kitsch: A queer eye on console fandom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rob Gallagher

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Offering a queer perspective on video game fandom, this article considers the factors that fostered a subculture of Western devotees of Japanese video games in the 1990s. Focused on readers of the English publication Sega Saturn Magazine, it shows how, for these players, Japanese games became the basis of a collective identity founded on precisely the kinds of perverse over-attachment, projective identification and hermeneutic ingenuity that Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick identifies with camp. Citing this subculture as an example of how fans transform the texts they put to use, the article also addresses its implications for our understanding of fandom today, at a time when the proliferation of quantitative analysis techniques is transforming the production and consumption of games. Such techniques, I argue, threaten to compromise the contingency and ambiguity on which camp thrives, instead fostering the kinds of cynical calculation Sedgwick associates with kitsch.

  12. Yoga cAMP in ayurvedgrams of chhattisgarh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhu, Raghavendra; Jain, Nilesh

    2012-04-01

    The clinical and empirical health benefits of yoga and pranayam have been reiterated through research. Yoga is being adopted as a system to alleviate the burden of noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) across the globe. The Directorate of AYUSH, Government of Chhattisgarh (DoA, GoCG) conducts annual 5-day-yoga camp across 146 Ayurvedgrams in the State. The present article brings out the AYUSH initiatives the State is taking toward active ageing. A total of 71,096 people participated in the 5-day-yoga camp across the State. A mean participation of 5079 people over 5 days was reported across districts. Such statewide practices need to be promoted and appraised.

  13. The Effects of Group Leader Learning Style on Student Knowledge Gain in a Leadership Camp Setting: A Repeated-Measures Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Nicholas R.; Terry, Robert, Jr.

    2013-01-01

    Many state FFA associations conduct summer camps focusing on leadership and personal development for FFA members. Interestingly, little research has been conducted on the impact or outcomes of these common activities. The purpose of this split-plot factorial repeated-measures experiment was to assess the level of campers' learning of the…

  14. Effects of a Competency-Based Professional Development Training on Children's Physical Activity and Staff Physical Activity Promotion in Summer Day Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Webster, Collin A.; Moore, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The YMCA of the USA serves more than nine million youth in its summer day camping programs nationwide. In spring 2011, the YMCA of Columbia, SC, with support from the University of South Carolina, adopted a competency-based staff-level training approach in an attempt to align staff behaviors with the YMCA of the USA new physical activity standards…

  15. Effects of a Competency-Based Professional Development Training on Children's Physical Activity and Staff Physical Activity Promotion in Summer Day Camps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weaver, R. Glenn; Beets, Michael W.; Turner-McGrievy, Gabrielle; Webster, Collin A.; Moore, Justin

    2014-01-01

    The YMCA of the USA serves more than nine million youth in its summer day camping programs nationwide. In spring 2011, the YMCA of Columbia, SC, with support from the University of South Carolina, adopted a competency-based staff-level training approach in an attempt to align staff behaviors with the YMCA of the USA new physical activity standards…

  16. PPARgamma-dependent regulation of adenylate cyclase 6 amplifies the stimulatory effect of cAMP on renin gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desch, Michael; Schubert, Thomas; Schreiber, Andrea; Mayer, Sandra; Friedrich, Björn; Artunc, Ferruh; Todorov, Vladimir T

    2010-11-01

    The second messenger cAMP plays an important role in the regulation of renin gene expression. Nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) is known to stimulate renin gene transcription acting through PPARγ-binding sequences in renin promoter. We show now that activation of PPARγ by unsaturated fatty acids or thiazolidinediones drastically augments the cAMP-dependent increase of renin mRNA in the human renin-producing cell line Calu-6. The underlying mechanism involves potentiation of agonist-induced cAMP increase and up-regulation of adenylate cyclase 6 (AC6) gene expression. We identified a palindromic element with a 3-bp spacer (Pal3) in AC6 intron 1 (AC6Pal3). AC6Pal3 bound PPARγ and mediated trans-activation by PPARγ agonist. AC6 knockdown decreased basal renin mRNA level and attenuated the maximal PPARγ-dependent stimulation of the cAMP-induced renin gene expression. AC6Pal3 decoy oligonucleotide abrogated the PPARγ-dependent potentiation of cAMP-induced renin gene expression. Treatment of mice with PPARγ agonist increased AC6 mRNA kidney levels. Our data suggest that in addition to its direct effect on renin gene transcription, PPARγ "sensitizes" renin gene to cAMP via trans-activation of AC6 gene. AC6 has been identified as PPARγ target gene with a functional Pal3 sequence.

  17. Flame Retardant Applications in Camping Tents and Potential Exposure

    OpenAIRE

    Keller, Alexander S.; Raju, Nikhilesh P.; Webster, Thomas F.; Stapleton, Heather M.

    2014-01-01

    Concern has mounted over health effects caused by exposure to flame retardant additives used in consumer products. Significant research efforts have focused particularly on exposure to polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) used in furniture and electronic applications. However, little attention has focused on applications in textiles, particularly textiles meeting a flammability standard known as CPAI-84. In this study, we investigated flame retardant applications in camping tents that met C...

  18. Tidal Marsh Vegetation of China Camp, San Pablo Bay, California

    OpenAIRE

    Baye, Peter R.

    2012-01-01

    China Camp (Marin County, California) preserves extensive relict stands of salt marsh vegetation developed on a prehistoric salt marsh platform with a complex sinuous tidal creek network. The low salt marsh along tidal creeks supports extensive native stands of Pacific cordgrass (Spartina foliosa). The outer salt marsh accreted following hydraulic gold mining sedimentation. It consists of a wave-scarped pickleweed-dominated (Sarcocornia pacifica) high salt marsh terrace with a broad fringing ...

  19. Bore-hole survey at Camp Century, 1989

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl-Jensen, Dorthe; Gundestrup, NS.; Hansen, BL.

    1993-01-01

    A combination of the directional surveys of the Camp Century borehole from 1966, 1967, 1969 and 1989 has revealed a deformation pattern similar to that measured at Dye-3, South Greenland and Byrd Station, Antarctica showing high deformation rate for Wisconsin ice. Compared to the Dye-3 profile, t......, the deformation shows the same pattern even in details. The surface velocity obtained by integrating the bore hole deformation is in agreement with that obtained from satellite measurements Udgivelsesdato: jan...

  20. A Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp improves trainee confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Catherine K; Tannous, Paul; DeWitt, Elizabeth; Farias, Michael; Mansfield, Laura; Ronai, Christina; Schidlow, David; Sanders, Stephen P; Lock, James E; Newburger, Jane W; Brown, David W

    2016-12-01

    Introduction New paediatric cardiology trainees are required to rapidly assimilate knowledge and gain clinical skills to which they have limited or no exposure during residency. The Pediatric Cardiology Fellowship Boot Camp (PCBC) at Boston Children's Hospital was designed to provide incoming fellows with an intensive exposure to congenital cardiac pathology and a broad overview of major areas of paediatric cardiology practice. The PCBC curriculum was designed by core faculty in cardiac pathology, echocardiography, electrophysiology, interventional cardiology, exercise physiology, and cardiac intensive care. Individual faculty contributed learning objectives, which were refined by fellowship directors and used to build a programme of didactics, hands-on/simulation-based activities, and self-guided learning opportunities. A total of 16 incoming fellows participated in the 4-week boot camp, with no concurrent clinical responsibilities, over 2 years. On the basis of pre- and post-PCBC surveys, 80% of trainees strongly agreed that they felt more prepared for clinical responsibilities, and a similar percentage felt that PCBC should be offered to future incoming fellows. Fellows showed significant increase in their confidence in all specific knowledge and skills related to the learning objectives. Fellows rated hands-on learning experiences and simulation-based exercises most highly. We describe a novel 4-week-long boot camp designed to expose incoming paediatric cardiology fellows to the broad spectrum of knowledge and skills required for the practice of paediatric cardiology. The experience increased trainee confidence and sense of preparedness to begin fellowship-related responsibilities. Given that highly interactive activities were rated most highly, boot camps in paediatric cardiology should strongly emphasise these elements.