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Sample records for monophasic combined oral

  1. Comparative study on the acceptability of two modern monophasic oral contraceptive preparations: 30 microgram ethinyl estradiol combined with 150 microgram desogestrel or 75 microgram gestodene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zichella, L; Sbrignadello, C; Tomassini, A; Di Lieto, A; Montoneri, C; Zarbo, G; Mancone, M; Pietrobattista, P; Bertoli, G; Perrone, G

    1999-01-01

    Cycle control and tolerability of two monophasic oral contraceptive pills containing 30 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) with either 150 microg desogestrel (DSG) or 75 microg gestodene (GSD) were compared in women starting oral contraception. A minimum of 200 healthy women at risk for pregnancy were to be treated for a total of 6 cycles per patient in a prospective, randomized open parallel-group multicenter trial. Two hundred and forty-one subjects were randomized, 115 to DSG/EE and 126 to GSD/EE. Compliance to the study preparation was high (around 95%) in both groups and no pregnancies occurred during the study. Cycle control was excellent; there were no differences between the two groups with regard to incidence of spotting and breakthrough bleeding or duration and intensity of withdrawal bleeding. Side-effects were mild and in general comparable in the two groups. Both at baseline and during treatment, a higher proportion of women taking GSD/EE complained about breast tenderness. This resulted in more early withdrawals because of breast tenderness in the GSD/EE group. It was concluded that monophasic DSG/EE and GSD/EE are equally effective, have similar cycle control and both are generally well tolerated.

  2. Carbohydrate metabolism after one year of using a gestodene containing monophasic oral contraceptive

    OpenAIRE

    Ayşegül Yıldırım; Efe Onganer; Kemal Erkal

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To prospectively evaluate the effects of an oral contraceptive containing the progestin gestodene on carbohydrate metabolism in ordinary Turkish women Material / Method: Carbohydrate metabolism was prospectively evaluated in 53 normal women prior to and during their use of monophasic oral contraceptive containing the progestin gestodene plus ethinyl estradiol for one year. The women had a two hour oral glucose tolerance test using 75 gram glucose load, measuring serum glucose and ...

  3. Clinical comparison of monophasic oral contraceptive preparations of gestodene/ ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol

    OpenAIRE

    Aguiar, Luis Fernando; Aldrighi, Jose Mendes; Andrade, Rosires Pereira de.; Barbosa, Ione Cristina; Barreto, Cristina Maria Vasconcellos

    1994-01-01

    Texto completo: acesso restrito. p.201–214 The efficacy, cycle control, subjective complaints, and safety of monophasic preparations of the oral contraceptives containing gestodene 75 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg versus desogestrel 150 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg were compared in a 6-cycle, open-label, parallel, randomized, multicenter phase IV clinical study in Latin America. Of a total of 176 women in each group, 163 in the gestodene group and 160 in the desogestrel group comp...

  4. Carbohydrate metabolism after one year of using a gestodene containing monophasic oral contraceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayşegül Yıldırım

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To prospectively evaluate the effects of an oral contraceptive containing the progestin gestodene on carbohydrate metabolism in ordinary Turkish women Material / Method: Carbohydrate metabolism was prospectively evaluated in 53 normal women prior to and during their use of monophasic oral contraceptive containing the progestin gestodene plus ethinyl estradiol for one year. The women had a two hour oral glucose tolerance test using 75 gram glucose load, measuring serum glucose and insulin level, performed at the beginning of the contraceptive therapy and after one year. Results: The results demonstrate no significant changes in either of carbohydrate metabolic indices between the two tests.  Conclusion: The progestin containing contraceptive pill can be safely used in consideration of the carbohydrate metabolism.

  5. Salivary SIgA responses to acute moderate-vigorous exercise in monophasic oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashida, Harumi; Dolan, Nicola J; Hounsome, Charlotte; Alajmi, Nawal; Bishop, Nicolette C

    2015-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of oral contraceptive (OC) use on salivary secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) levels at rest and in response to an acute bout of moderate-vigorous exercise during 2 phases of the 4-week OC cycle corresponding to different phases of the synthetic menstrual cycle. Ten healthy active females completed a cycling at 70% peak oxygen uptake for 45 min at 2 time points of an OC cycle: during the equivalent in time to the mid-follicular phase (day 8 ± 2) and the mid-luteal phase (day 20 ± 2). Timed unstimulated saliva samples were obtained before, immediately postexercise, and 1 h postexercise and analyzed for salivary SIgA. Salivary SIgA secretion rate was 26% (95% confidence limits (CI) 6-46) lower at postexercise compared with pre-exercise during the synthetic follicular phase (p = 0.019) but no differences were observed during the synthetic luteal trial. Saliva flow rate was 11% (95% CI, 8-30) lower at postexercise compared with pre-exercise (main effect for time; p = 0.025). In conclusion, the pattern of salivary SIgA secretion rate response to moderate-vigorous exercise varies across the early and late phases of a monophasic OC cycle, with a transient reduction in salivary SIgA responses during the synthetic follicular phase. These findings indicate that monophasic OC use should be considered when assessing mucosal immune responses to acute exercise.

  6. Clinical trial of a monophasic estroprogestin oral formulation containing 20 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 75 micrograms gestodene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lello, S; Monterubbianesi, M; Guardianelli, F; Bianchi, C; Simonelli, C

    2001-08-01

    The attempt to decrease the hormonal components of combined estrogen/progestin-containing oral formulations has led to use of low-dose formulations. The monophasic formulation containing ethinyl estradiol 20 micrograms (EE20) plus gestodene 75 micrograms (GSD75) was studied in an open, non-comparative, multicenter, clinical trial investigating its efficacy, safety, effects on body weight, blood pressure and sexual function. To evaluate the impact on sexual function, the Golombok Rust Questionnaire on Sexual Satisfaction (GRISS) was used. The study population comprised 216 women treated for 1 year. The EE20/GSD75 formulation did not show any significant effect on blood pressure, hematological parameters, body weight or sexual function. The treatment was well tolerated with a high compliance rate by the patients, with a low rate of estrogen-dependent symptoms. Moreover, there was no overall effect on sexual function, with no disturbance of sexual behavior or activity. In conclusion, our data show that the EE20/GSD75 has a very good tolerability profile, without any significant side-effects.

  7. A comparison of cycle control and effect on well-being of monophasic gestodene-, triphasic gestodene- and monophasic desogestrel-containing oral contraceptives. Gestodene Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruni, V; Croxatto, H; De La Cruz, J; Dhont, M; Durlot, F; Fernandes, M T; Andrade, R P; Weisberg, E; Rhoa, M

    2000-04-01

    This was an open-label multicenter study to compare the cycle control and effect on well-being of two oral contraceptives containing gestodene and one containing desogestrel. A total of 2419 healthy women gestodene (Minulet; n = 806, mean age 24.5 years), triphasic gestodene (Tri-Minulet; n = 808, mean age 24.6 years) or monophasic desogestrel (Mercilon; n = 805, mean age 24.6 years). Subjects were to participate in the study for up to 13 treatment cycles. A modified Moos Menstrual Distress Questionnaire was used to evaluate menstrual symptoms and to assess overall well-being. A total of 698 women were withdrawn from the study, 154 due to adverse events. Cycle control with gestodene was superior to that with desogestrel at almost all time points, particularly for breakthrough bleeding and/or spotting, which occurred significantly less frequently with gestodene than with desogestrel at cycles 1-7 and 9-11 (p gestodene. The duration of bleeding was not consistently different between the gestodene and desogestrel groups; however, the intensity of bleeding was greater with gestodene at all time points (p gestodene at cycles 1-5 and 8-10 (p gestodene and at cycle 13 with desogestrel; however, no statistically significant differences among treatment groups in overall well-being scores or individual factors of well-being could be identified. All three treatments were well tolerated. The most common drug-related adverse events were headache (14.2%), breast pain (6.2%), nausea (4.1%), metrorrhagia (3.9%) and abdominal pain (3.5%). The incidence of adverse events in all treatment groups was similar, with the exception of metrorrhagia, which occurred in more patients in the desogestrel group than in the gestodene treatment groups (p < 0.05).

  8. The effect on blood pressure of a monophasic oral contraceptive containing ethinylestradiol and gestodene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuchs, N; Düsterberg, B; Weber-Diehl, F; Mühe, B

    1995-06-01

    To obtain an overview of the effect of monophasic gestodene on blood pressure and to determine the frequency of "OC elevated BP/hypertension," the results of blood pressure monitoring from four clinical studies of contraceptive efficacy and safety have been retrospectively analyzed. A total of 1930 women took part in the studies, which recorded BP for up to 24 cycles. Analysis of results revealed that 97 women (5.0%) showed an increase in blood pressure from previously normal to elevated values while taking monophasic gestodene, with only 26 (1.35%) fulfilling the criteria of "OC elevated BP/hypertension." Only four women dropped out of the trials due to hypertensive blood pressure values, while 67 women (3.5%) experienced a normalization of previously elevated blood pressure measurements. In conclusion, this analysis has confirmed that gestodene has a negligible effect on blood pressure, with increased BP a relatively rare event.

  9. Clinical comparison of monophasic oral contraceptive preparations of gestodene/ethinyl estradiol and desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol. Latin American Oral Contraceptive Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    The efficacy, cycle control, subjective complaints, and safety of monophasic preparations of the oral contraceptives containing gestodene 75 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg versus desogestrel 150 mcg plus ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg were compared in a 6-cycle, open-label, parallel, randomized, multicenter phase IV clinical study in Latin America. Of a total of 176 women in each group, 163 in the gestodene group and 160 in the desogestrel group completed 6 cycles, providing data for 1,015 and 1,006 cycles, respectively. Subject compliance was excellent; pills were missed during only 6.9% of the cycles in each group. No woman became pregnant during the study. Gestodene group exhibited significantly better cycle control as evidenced by the lower incidence of breakthrough bleeding and spotting. Spotting in some cycles was reported by 11.9% of women taking the gestodene-combination compared with 21% of women taking the desogestrel-combination. Based on number of women, 86.4% of the gestodene group reported all cycles were normal (no BTB) compared with 76.7% of the desogestrel group. Also, the women in the gestodene group reported a significantly lower incidence of nuisance side effects during treatment cycles. No amenorrhea was observed for either group. There were no clinically significant differences between groups with respect to body weight, blood pressure, or laboratory evaluations. Seven women withdrew from the gestodene group and 8 women withdrew from the desogestrel group because of adverse reactions. The results of this study indicate that, although both OCs provided effective contraception, in comparison to the desogestrel-combination, the gestodene-containing OC is associated with better cycle control, less bleeding, and fewer subjective complaints.

  10. A prospective study of a monophasic oral contraceptive containing 30 mcg ethinyl oestradiol and 150 mcg desogestrel (Marvelon).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ismail, M T

    1994-06-01

    Marvelon, a monophasic oral contraceptive (OC) containing 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol and 150 mcg of desogestrel, has been available to Malaysian women through the national family planning program since 1982. To assess the safety, effectiveness, and side effects associated with this OC, 247 women who requested the pill were enrolled in a multicenter prospective study that included follow-up after the first, third, and sixth cycles of use. 81% of participants had never used any form of contraception before Marvelon. 194 women (79%) completed the 6-month study. There were no pregnancies recorded. Although women reported a slightly increased incidence of nausea, breast tenderness, and headache in the first treatment cycle, these side effects had abated by the end of the third cycle. After six cycles, mean body weight had decreased by an average of 0.4 kg. Both systolic and diastolic blood pressure were unaffected. An unexpected finding was a decrease in the severity of acne with continuous use of Marvelon. Although both spotting and breakthrough bleeding increased slightly in the first two cycles, irregular bleeding returned to pretreatment levels by the third cycle. The length of the withdrawal bleed in the pill-free week was reduced. The incidence of irregular bleeding and other side effects was substantially lower in this sample of Malaysian women than in Asian and Caucasian Marvelon users surveyed in other studies.

  11. Effects of monophasic low-dose oral contraceptives on fibrin formation and resolution in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K R; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen; Skouby, S O

    1993-01-01

    of fibrinogen and Factor VIIc increased, and the capacity of coagulation inhibition was affected by increased protein C and decreased protein S levels. Increased fibrinolytic capacity was indicated by elevated activity and reduced antigen levels of tissue plasminogen activator and by reduced activity......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine key variables in the regulation of coagulation and fibrinolysis during intake of low-dose oral contraceptives containing newly developed progestogens. STUDY DESIGN: Thirty-four healthy young women were allocated to 12 consecutive cycles...

  12. Changes in blood levels of proteinase inhibitors, pregnancy zone protein, steroid carriers and complement factors induced by oral contraceptives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Poulsen, H K; Teisner, B

    1993-01-01

    Three low-dose oral contraceptives Trinordiol, Gynatrol, and Marvelon, containing ethinylestradiol (EE) in combination with triphasic levonorgestrel (LNg), monophasic levonorgestrel, and monophasic desogestrel (DGS), respectively, were given to 65 healthy women, n = 21-22 in each group. Blood...

  13. [The monophasic pattern in oral glucose tolerance test as a predictive risk factor of type 2 diabetes in obese paediatric patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrera-Martínez, Aura D; Enes, Patricia; Martín-Frías, María; Roldán, Belén; Yelmo, Rosa; Barrio, Raquel

    2017-10-01

    The onset of obesity at young ages is strongly associated with the early development of type 2diabetes (T2D). The shape of the curves of glucose and insulin curves during an oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) could predict the risk of developing T2D. To analyse the morphology of the OGTT and determine T2D risk factors in a mainly Caucasian population of children and adolescents. Observational retrospective study including 588 patients (309 males, 279 females) with a mean age of 11.1±2years, and of whom 90.3% were Caucasian. Risk factors for T2D were compared in patients with a monophasic or biphasic pattern during the performance of an OGTT, as well as anthropometric and biochemical variables, insulin resistance, and beta-cell function. The shape of the glucose curve was monophasic in 50.2% of patients (50.8% male), biphasic in 48.5% (47.6% males), and indeterminate in 1.3%. The monophasic pattern showed lower insulin-sensitivity and worse beta-cell function. Patients with a biphasic pattern had a higher BMI, waist circumference, and blood pressure, although the results were not significant. Latin-American patients had significantly lower serum glucose levels with higher insulin levels during the OGTT. The pattern of response to an OGTT reflects different metabolic phenotypes. Paediatric patients with a biphasic pattern have lower risk-profiling for T2D. The performing of an OGTT could be useful to implement early intervention strategies in children and adolescents with obesity, in order to prevent the development of pre-diabetes or T2D. Copyright © 2016 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Importance of levonorgestrel dose in oral contraceptives for effects on coagulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluft, C.; Maat, M.P.M. de; Heinemann, L.A.J.; Spannagl, M.; Schramm, W.

    1999-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives show clear differences in effect on the tissue factor-initiated coagulation test of activated protein C resistance, which is dependent on the presence and dosage of levonorgestrel. Multiphasic levonorgestrol oral contraceptives differ from monophasic contraceptives and

  15. Changes in blood levels of proteinase inhibitors, pregnancy zone protein, steroid carriers and complement factors induced by oral contraceptives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Claus Henrik; Poulsen, Henning Kvist; Teisner, Børge

    1993-01-01

    Three low-dose oral contraceptives Trinordiol, Gynatrol, and Marvelon, containing ethinylestradiol (EE) in combination with triphasic levonorgestrel (LNg), monophasic levonorgestrel, and monophasic desogestrel (DGS), respectively, were given to 65 healthy women, n = 21-22 in each group. Blood...... presumably enhances fibrinolysis, and that LNg has higher anti-estrogenicity and androgenicity than DSG. Udgivelsesdato: 1993-Sep...

  16. Changes in blood levels of proteinase inhibitors, pregnancy zone protein, steroid carriers and complement factors induced by oral contraceptives

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, C H; Poulsen, H K; Teisner, B

    1993-01-01

    Three low-dose oral contraceptives Trinordiol, Gynatrol, and Marvelon, containing ethinylestradiol (EE) in combination with triphasic levonorgestrel (LNg), monophasic levonorgestrel, and monophasic desogestrel (DGS), respectively, were given to 65 healthy women, n = 21-22 in each group. Blood...... presumably enhances fibrinolysis, and that LNg has higher anti-estrogenicity and androgenicity than DSG....

  17. A 13-month multicenter clinical experience of a low-dose monophasic oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinylestradiol and 75 microg gestodene in Latin American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bassol, Susana; Alvarado, Gloria; Arreola, Ranferi Gaona; Celis-Gonzalez, Cuauhtemoc; Peña, Efrain Perez; Flores, Josue Garza; Ahued, Jose R; Ricalde, Roger Lara; Lopez, Carlos R; Prieto, Gustavo; Gurucharri, Carlos; Heredia, Monica G; Ortiz, Oscar Contreras; Percossi, Gabriela; Figueroa Casas, Pedro R; Botto, Elida; Tozzini, Roberto Italo; Botti, Gustavo; Nuñez de Pierro, Anibal; Fernandez, Mirta; Lastreto, Enrique; Nañez, Monica; Carneiro de Oliveira, Hildoberto; Diogenes Holanda Yazlle, Martha E; Silva, Jaime; Salazar, German; Gomez, Jorge; Penagos, Gloria; Cifuentes, Rodrigo; Torres, Luz A; Reyes-Marquez, Roberto; Albrecht, Gerhard

    2003-05-01

    This prospective, multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the contraceptive reliability, cycle control and tolerability of a 21-day oral contraceptive regimen containing 20 microg ethinylestradiol and 75 microg gestodene in four Latin American countries (Mexico, Argentina, Brazil and Colombia). Participants took trial medication daily for 21 days. Contraceptive efficacy, cycle control and tolerability were evaluated over a period of 13 cycles. Efficacy data gathered from 5,109 treatment cycles were obtained from 393 participants. The trial medication proved to be an effective contraceptive and provided good cycle control. One pregnancy because of poor compliance was recorded. This resulted in a study Pearl index of 0.25. Forty-six percent of Latin American women reported one intracyclic spotting bleeding episode and 37.6% reported one intracyclic breakthrough bleeding (medium/excessive bleeding) episode during cycles 2-4 (primary target). Overall, intracyclic bleeding was reported in 41%. Overall, there was a trend towards a lower incidence of spotting in all the countries and this difference had statistical significance between Argentina and the others three countries (p < 0.05) during cycles 2-4. This trend was also apparent with respect to breakthrough bleeding, but again the difference did not achieve statistical significance. The discontinuation rate because of adverse events was low (3%); no serious adverse events were reported. More than 78% of the women in the four countries maintained constant body weight or lost weight (2 kg) during the study. The treatment effect on blood pressure was negligible. There were no appreciable changes in mean laboratory values over the course of the study.

  18. A comparative study of the effects of the hemostatic system of two monophasic gestodene oral contraceptives containing 20 micrograms and 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, U H; Schindler, A E; Endrikat, J; Düsterberg, B

    1996-02-01

    The effects of two oral contraceptives, containing gestodene and either 20 micrograms or 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol, on hemostatic parameters was investigated in a six-month randomized study involving a total of 40 healthy women between the ages of 18 and 30 years. A large number of hemostatic parameters were measured, which were categorized as either pro-coagulatory, anti-coagulatory, profibrinolytic, anti-fibrinolytic or indicative of fibrin turnover. Additionally, tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) and plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1) were measured before and after venous occlusion and delta and ratio values calculated. Pro-coagulatory factors as well as reaction products reflecting in vivo coagulatory activity (thrombin-antithrombin III complex, prothrombin fragment 1 + 2) were found to increase. Among the anti-coagulatory parameters, only protein S concentration and protein S activity decreased, most notably in the 30 micrograms EE group. There was a corresponding increase in fibrinolytic activity reflected by reaction products of in vivo fibrinolysis (plasmin-antiplasmin 2-complex, fibrin-degradation products). Measurement of t-PA and PAI-1, before and after venous occlusion, revealed that the fibrinolytic response was more pronounced in the 20 micrograms EE group. There was also an increase in the threshold of fibrinolytic inhibition (ratio PAI-1) in both groups, which was less pronounced in the 20 micrograms EE group. Apart from isolated measurements, all parameters remained within their normal ranges and values returned to baseline in the follow-up cycle. It is concluded that both preparations had a balanced effect on the hemostatic system stimulating both pro-coagulant and fibrinolytic activity. No statistically significant differences were observed between the two groups; however, there was a trend towards greater fibrinolytic capacity in the 20 micrograms EE group.

  19. Choosing a combined oral contraceptive pill

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    The combined oral contraceptive pill is an effective contraceptive method which can also offer other benefits. However, other contraceptive options should be discussed. If the pill is the chosen method, prescribe a pill with the lowest effective dose of oestrogen and progestogen.

  20. Oral Contraceptive Pills: Combinations, Dosages and the Rationale behind 50 Years or Oral Hormonal Contraceptive Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabe T

    2011-01-01

    symptoms, but also to find new compounds and formulas intended to replace those at the end of their patent lifespan. Methods of Good Clinical Practice have been established and large-scale epidemiological studies initiated (i.e. Study of the Royal College of General Practitioners, 1974 [566]. Several general approaches to OC development can be followed. Synthetic or natural estrogens provide a reliable cycle control and prevent estrogen deficiency symptoms due to the decreased secretion of endogenous estrogen from growth follicles. More selective, highly specific progestins have been developed with pharmacological properties similar to natural progesterone, some with antiandrogenic properties and suitable for transvaginal, transdermal, subdermal or intrauterine application. Furthermore, these new progestins produce fewer undesired effects on the breast and other reproductive organs and exhibit low carcinogenicity. Various additives have been tested for their additional non-contraceptive benefits (i.e. iron, folate, DHEA either by preventing certain undesired side effects of estrogens and progestins or by improving the general health status. Combinations of estrogen and progestin have evolved from monophasic to multiphasic formulations. Combination products require lower doses of steroids and provide a clinical profile similar to the normal menstrual cycle. New regimens (21 + 7, 22 + 6, 24 + 4, 84 + 7 with and without placebo pills or continuous administration have been used to maintain the contraceptive efficacy of the higher dose products and to achieve a stable bleeding pattern at lower doses. To date only Ortho-McNeil, Bayer HealthCare, MSD and Pfizer have been able to afford scientific research in the field of contraception and develop new products. The loss of patent lawsuits on their part, however, has allowed for the production of generic alternatives of oral contraceptives by other companies thus making it difficult for them to continue research in this specific

  1. Effects of hypothermia combined with dexmedetomidine on myocardial monophasic action potentials in isolated rabbit hearts%低温联合右美托咪定对兔心肌单相动作电位的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李惠; 高鸿; 赵艳; 龙娟; 张凯强; 刘艳秋

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of hypothermia combined with dexmedetomidine on myocardial monophasic action potentials (MAPs) in isolated rabbit hearts.Methods Adult rabbits,weighing 2.0-2.5 kg,were heparinized and anesthetized with pentobarbital sodium 30 mg/kg.Their hearts were rapidly removed and retrogradely perfused in a Langendorff apparatus at 37 ℃.Eighteen hearts were randomly divided into 3 groups (n =6 each) using a random number table:control group (group C),hypothermia group (group H),and hypothermia+dexmedetomidine group (group HD).The hearts were continuously perfused for 60 min with 37 ℃ K-H solution in group C,with 32 ℃ K-H solution in group H,or with 32 ℃ K-H solution containing dexmedetomidine 25 ng/ml in group HD.At the end of equilibration (T0) and at 15,30 and 60 min of perfusion with K-H solution,HR and MAPs of left ventricular epicardium,mid-myocardium and endocardium were recorded.MAP duration at 50% repolarization (MAPD50) and at 90% repolarization (MAPD90),monophasic action potential amplitude (MAPA) and maximal velocity (Vmax) were calculated.Results Compared with group C,HR was significantly decreased,and MAPD50 and MAPD90 were prolonged at each time of perfusion with K-H solution in H and HD groups.There was no significant difference in HR,MAPD50 and MAPD90 between H group and HD group.There was no significant difference in MAPA and Vmax between the three groups.Conclusion Hypothermia combined with dexmedetomidine can lead to prolongation of myocardial repolarization,and dexmedetomidine exerts no effect on hypothermia-induced change in MAPs in isolated rabbit hearts.%目的 探讨低温联合右美托咪定对兔心肌单相动作电位的影响.方法 成年家兔,体重2.0~ 2.5 kg,制备Langendorff离体心脏灌注模型,取模型制备成功的心脏18个,采用随机数字表法分为3组(n=6):正常对照组(C组)、低温组(H组)和低温+右美托咪定组(HD组).C组继续灌注37℃K-H液60 min

  2. Combined oral contraceptives: health benefits beyond contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caserta, D; Ralli, E; Matteucci, E; Bordi, G; Mallozzi, M; Moscarini, M

    2014-09-01

    It has been recognized for over 50 years that combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are also capable of offering health benefits beyond contraception through the treatment and prevention of several gynaecological and medical disorders. During the last years a constant attention was given to the adverse effects of COCs, whereas their non-contraceptive benefits were underestimated. To date, most women are still unaware of the therapeutic uses of hormonal contraceptives, while on the contrary there is an extensive and constantly increasing of these non-contraceptive health benefits. This review summarizes the conditions of special interest for physicians, including dysmenorrhoea, menorrhagia, hyperandrogenism (acne, hirsutism, polycystic ovary syndrome), functional ovarian cysts, endometriosis, premenstrual syndrome, myomas, pelvic inflammatory disease, bone mineral density, benign breast disease and endometrial/ovarian and colorectal cancer. The benefits of COCs in rheumatoid arthritis, multiple sclerosis, menstrual migraine and in perimenopause have also been treated for more comprehensive information. Using COCs specifically for non-contraceptive indications is still outside the product licence in the majority of cases. We strongly believe that these aspects are not of minor relevance and they deserve a special consideration by health providers and by the mass media, which have the main responsibility in the diffusion of scientific information. Thus, counseling and education are necessary to help women make well-informed health-care decisions and it is also crucial to increase awareness among general practitioners and gynaecologists.

  3. Combinations of genetic data in a study of oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mellerup, Erling Thyge; Møller, Gert Lykke; Mondal, Pinaki

    2015-01-01

    for a polygenic disorder will not occur in in control persons genetically unrelated to patients, so the strategy is to analyze combinations of genetic variants present exclusively in patients. In a previous study of oral cancer and leukoplakia 325 SNPs were analyzed. This study has been supplemented...... with an analysis of combinations of two SNP genotypes from among the 325 SNPs. Two clusters of combinations containing 95 patient specific combinations were significantly associated with oral cancer or leukoplakia. Of 373 patients with oral cancer 205 patients had a number of these 95 combinations in their genome...

  4. Comparison of a transdermal contraceptive patch vs. oral contraceptives on hemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluft, C.; Meijer, P.; LaGuardia, K.D.; Fisher, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare effects of the transdermal contraceptive patch, a desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol (EE)-containing, monophasic combination oral contraceptive (COC) and a levonorgestrel/EE-containing, triphasic COC on hemostasis variables. Study Design: This was a

  5. Comparison of a transdermal contraceptive patch vs. oral contraceptives on hemostasis variables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kluft, C.; Meijer, P.; LaGuardia, K.D.; Fisher, A.C.

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to compare effects of the transdermal contraceptive patch, a desogestrel/ethinyl estradiol (EE)-containing, monophasic combination oral contraceptive (COC) and a levonorgestrel/EE-containing, triphasic COC on hemostasis variables. Study Design: This was a randomize

  6. Phototoxic reaction to a combined oral contraceptive (levonorgestrel/ethinylestradiol).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richarz, N A; Aguilera, J; Castillo, G; Fuente, M J; Ferrándiz, C; Carrascosa, J M

    2017-09-13

    We present the case of a phototoxic skin reaction due to the regular intake of a combined oral contraceptive (levonorgestrel/ethinylestradiol). Upon spectrophotometer testing, we demonstrated high absorption in the UV-B region of the solar spectrum of the combined product (Ovoplex®), especially for the estrogen compound (ethinylestradiol).

  7. Investigation of the influence of two low-dose monophasic oral contraceptives containing 20 micrograms ethinylestradiol/75 micrograms gestodene and 30 micrograms ethinylestradiol/75 micrograms gestodene, on lipid metabolism in an open randomized trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, K; Then, A; Beisiegel, U; Jene, A; Wünsch, C; Leidenberger, F

    1996-11-01

    An open comparison at a single center was performed in volunteers (n = 58) randomly allocated to two treatment groups, one receiving tablets containing 20 micrograms ethinylestradiol (EE) + 75 micrograms gestodene, and the other 30 micrograms EE + 75 micrograms gestodene. The study consisted of three treatment-free pre-cycles, followed by thirteen 28-day treatment cycles. Analysis of results revealed that there were no statistically significant differences between the two groups with regard to the plasma levels of HDL-cholesterol and its subfractions, LDL-cholesterol and apolipoproteins. There was, however, a trend toward a more favorable effect on HDL-cholesterol in the 20 micrograms EE group, where levels increased by 3% compared with the 30 micrograms EE group, where levels decreased by 9%. There was a statistically significant difference between the adjusted mean values of total triglycerides in the two groups in favor of the 20 micrograms EE group (+21%), compared with the 30 micrograms EE group (+64%) (p = 0.029). Two serious adverse events were reported (lymphadenopathy and vertigo), but neither were considered to be causally related to either study medication. The formulation containing 75 micrograms gestodene and 20 micrograms EE was shown to be a reliable and well tolerated oral contraceptive, with a favorable lipid profile.

  8. Influence of combined oral contraceptives on the periodontal condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Santos Domingues

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Most studies investigating the impact of oral contraceptives have been performed some years ago, when the level of sexual hormones was greater than the actual formulations. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of current combined oral contraceptives (COC on periodontal tissues, correlating the clinical parameters examined with the total duration of continuous oral contraceptive intake. Material and methods: Twenty-five women (19-35 years old taking combined oral contraceptives for at least 1 year were included in the test group. The control group was composed by 25 patients at the same age range reporting no use of hormone-based contraceptive methods. Clinical parameters investigated included pocket probing depth (PD, clinical attachment level (CAL, sulcular bleeding index (SBI and plaque index (Pl.I. Data were statistically evaluated by unpaired t test, Pearson’s correlation test and Spearman’s correlation test. Results: The test group showed increased PD (2.228±0.011 x 2.154±0.012; p<0.0001 and SBI (0.229±0.006 x 0.148±0.005, p<0.0001 than controls. No significant differences between groups were found in CAL (0.435±0.01 x 0.412±0.01; p=0.11. The control group showed greater Pl.I than the test group (0.206±0.007 x 0.303±0.008; p<0.0001. No correlation between the duration of oral contraceptive intake, age and periodontal parameters was observed. Conclusions: These findings suggest that the use of currently available combined oral contraceptives can influence the periodontal conditions of the patients, independently of the level of plaque accumulation or total duration of medication intake, resulting in increased gingival inflammation.

  9. The combined oral contraceptive pill -- recent developments, risks and benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragoman, Monica V

    2014-08-01

    The introduction of the birth control pill as an effective, coitally-independent method of contraception was a public health milestone of the last century. Over time, combined oral contraception (COC) formulations and pill-taking regimens have evolved with improved safety and tolerability while maintaining contraceptive efficacy. In addition to protection against pregnancy, use of combined oral contraception confers a number of significant non-contraceptive benefits to users. COC use is also associated with well-studied risks. Common side effects are generally self-limiting and improve with increasing duration of use while serious adverse events, including venous thromboembolism, are rare among healthy COC users. Contraceptive decision-making should include consideration of both the risks and benefits of a given method versus the real consequences of unintended pregnancy.

  10. [A clinical trial with the monophasic contraceptive Marvelon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rachev, E; Damianov, L; Katsarova, M

    1994-01-01

    The authors present their clinical experience with a monophasic preparation consisting of 30 mcg ethynyl estradiol and 150 mcg desogestrel (Marvelon, Organon). 121 cycles of 24 fertile women were followed. The results show a full contraceptive success, a stable cycle control as well as a low incidence of the side effects.

  11. Female sexual dysfunction with combined oral contraceptive use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jean Jasmin M L; Tan, Thiam Chye; Ang, Seng Bin

    2017-06-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (COCs) remain one of the most popular forms of contraception to prevent unwanted pregnancy in women. While it is known that COCs can cause sexual dysfunction in women, there is currently no recommendation to screen for sexual function before and after initiation of COCs. We propose that, based on the evidence available, assessment of sexual function should be done at initiation of COCs, as well as at regular intervals thereafter. This would allow COC-related sexual dysfunction to be managed early, such as by switching the patient to newer-generation COCs or other forms of contraception. Copyright: © Singapore Medical Association.

  12. Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes Using Combined Oral Contraceptives

    OpenAIRE

    Cauci, S; Buligan, C; Marangone, M; Francescato, Mp.

    2016-01-01

    Background Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits. Methods Italian sportswomen (n?=?144; mean age 23.4???4.2?years; body mass index 21.2???2.2?kg?m?2; sport activity 9.2???4.1?h?week?1) were analyzed; 48?% were volleyball players, 12.5?% soccer players, 10.4?% track-and-field sports, and followed by other disciplines? athletes...

  13. The effect of combined bleaching techniques on oral microbiota

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franz-Montan Michelle

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims : To evaluate the antimicrobial activity of 10% and 37% carbamide peroxide during dental bleaching in three different modes. Materials and Methods : This five-week double-blind randomized controlled trial included 32 volunteers assigned to four groups (n = 8. Each group received bleaching agents or placebo as an in-office and at-home treatment. The dental bleaching techniques were: In-office bleaching (37% carbamide peroxide: CP37; at-home bleaching (10% carbamide peroxide: CP10 and the association of both (CP37 and CP10. Saliva samples were collected right before (baseline, right after, 12 hours after, and seven days after the treatment. Counts of total microorganisms, Streptococci, and Mutans streptococci were carried out. Friedman test (α = 0.05 was used to compare the microorganism counts. Results : The number of the all oral microorganisms remained stable during all experiment. Conclusions : No bleaching agent (CP37, CP10 or the combination of both was able to reduce the oral microorganisms tested.

  14. Combined Use of Self-Efficacy Scale for Oral Health Behaviour and Oral Health Questionnaire: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soutome, Sakiko; Kajiwara, Kazumi; Oho, Takahiko

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To examine whether the combined use of a task-specific self-efficacy scale for oral health behaviour (SEOH) and an oral health questionnaire (OHQ) would be useful for evaluating subjects' behaviours and cognitions. Design: Questionnaires. Methods: One hundred and eighty-five students completed the SEOH and OHQ. The 30-item OHQ uses a…

  15. Dynamics of intraocular IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10-producing cell populations during relapsing and monophasic rat experimental autoimmune uveitis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Kaufmann

    Full Text Available A major limitation of most animal models of autoimmune diseases is that they do not reproduce the chronic or relapsing-remitting pattern characteristic of many human autoimmune diseases. This problem has been overcome in our rat models of experimentally induced monophasic or relapsing-remitting autoimmune uveitis (EAU, which depend on the inducing antigen peptides from retinal S-Antigen (monophasic EAU or interphotoreceptor retinoid-binding protein (relapsing EAU. These models enable us to compare autoreactive and regulatory T cell populations. Intraocular, but not peripheral T cells differ in their cytokine profiles (IFN-γ, IL-17 and IL-10 at distinct time points during monophasic or relapsing EAU. Only intraocular T cells concomitantly produced IFN-γ, IL-17 and/or IL-10. Monophasic EAU presented rising numbers of cells expressing IFN-γ and IL-17 (Th1/Th17 and cells expressing IL-10 or Foxp3. During relapsing uveitis an increase of intraocular IFN-γ+ cells and a concomitant decrease of IL-17+ cells was detected, while IL-10+ populations remained stable. Foxp3+ cells and cells expressing IL-10, even in combination with IFN-γ or IL-17, increased during the resolution of monophasic EAU, suggesting a regulatory role for these T cells. In general, cells producing multiple cytokines increased in monophasic and decreased in relapsing EAU. The distinct appearance of certain intraocular populations with characteristics of regulatory cells points to a differential influence of the ocular environment on T cells that induce acute and monophasic or relapsing disease. Here we provide evidence that different autoantigens can elicit distinct and differently regulated immune responses. IFN-γ, but not IL-17 seems to be the key player in relapsing-remitting uveitis, as shown by increased, synchronized relapses after intraocular application of IFN-γ. We demonstrated dynamic changes of the cytokine pattern during monophasic and relapsing-remitting disease

  16. Combined preoperative therapy for oral cancer with nedaplatin and radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adachi, Masatoshi; Shibata, Akihiko; Hayashi, Munehiro [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Hospital] (and others)

    2002-03-01

    We performed preoperative combined therapy using nedaplatin (CDGP) and radiation in 12 patients with squamous cell carcinoma originating from the oral cavity and maxillary sinus, and examined for any adverse events that may have occurred during this therapeutic regimen. Regarding the irradiation, external irradiation utilizing a 6 MV linac (linear accelerator) at a dose of 2.0 Gy/day was performed 5 times a week, with the target total radiation dose set at 40 Gy. In addition, CDGP was intravenously administered 30 minutes before irradiation at a dose of 5 mg/m{sup 2}/day. Mucositis was observed in all 12 subjects, however, the severity was observed to be grade 1-2 with no major differences in comparison to the patients given standard radiation monotherapy. Two subjects developed grade 3 leucopenia and were thus given granulocyte colony stimulating factor (G-CSF). In addition, grade 2 and grade 3 thrombocytopenia were both observed in one subject each. The subject with grade 3 thrombocytopenia required a platelet transfusion during surgery. No marked changes in serum creatinine levels were noted. These findings are therefore considered to provide evidence supporting the safety of this combination therapy. (author)

  17. Headache induced by the use of combined oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allais, Gianni; Gabellari, Ilaria Castagnoli; Airola, Gisella; Borgogno, Paola; Schiapparelli, Paola; Benedetto, Chiara

    2009-05-01

    Although combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are a safe and highly effective method of birth control, they may also give rise to problems of clinical tolerability in migraine patients. Indeed, headache is among the most common side effects reported with the use of COCs, frequently leading to their being discontinued. The latest International Classification of Headache Disorders identified at least two entities evidently related to the use of COCs, i.e., exogenous hormone-induced headache and estrogen-withdrawal headache. As to the former, the newest formulations of COCs are generally well tolerated by migraine without aura patients, but can worsen headache in migraine with aura patients. Headache associated with COCs, generally, tends to improve as their use continues. However, although it is not yet clear if there is an association between headache and the composition of COCs (both in the type and amount of hormones), it has been observed that the incidence of headache during COC use seems greater if migraine is associated with menstrual trigger. The estrogen-withdrawal headache is a headache that generally appears within the first 5 days after cessation of estrogen use and resolves within 3 days, even if in some cases it may appear on the sixth or seventh day after pill suspension and lasts more than 3 days.

  18. Combined oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome - indications and cautions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozdag, Gurkan; Yildiz, Bulent Okan

    2013-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptive pills (OCPs) have been used in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) for the treatment of menstrual disorders, acne and hirsutism. Despite years of their use and broad clinical experience, there are still ongoing doubts concerning their implications for the cardiovascular system and carbohydrate metabolism both in the general population and women with PCOS. In the general population, the risk of venous thromboembolism is reported to be increased. However, arterial thrombotic events seem to require concomitant risk factors to appear during administration of OCPs. In terms of carbohydrate metabolism, available data do not consistently suggest an increased risk of impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) or conversion of IGT to type 2 diabetes mellitus, in spite of some subtle fluctuations in glucose and insulin levels. In subgroup analyses of epidemiological studies in the general population, there is no finding indicating an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and related mortality in premenopausal women with PCOS. There is no significant alteration in carbohydrate and lipid metabolism after use of OCP in PCOS either. The absence of further cardiometabolic risk with OCP use in PCOS might suggest some unproven preventive alterations in this patient population.

  19. Occlusion-amblyopia following high dose oral levodopa combined with part time patching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihir Kothari

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Part time occlusion therapy is not reported to cause occlusion (reverse amblyopia. However, when combined with high dose oral levodopa, an increase in the plasticity of the visual cortex can lead to occlusion amblyopia. In this case report, we describe a six year old child who developed occlusion amblyopia following part time patching combined with oral levodopa.

  20. Oxidative Stress in Female Athletes Using Combined Oral Contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cauci, Sabina; Buligan, Cinzia; Marangone, Micaela; Francescato, Maria Pia

    2016-12-01

    Oxidative stress in female athletes is understudied. We investigated oxidative stress in sportswomen of different disciplines according to combined oral contraceptive (OC) use and lifestyle/alimentary habits. Italian sportswomen (n = 144; mean age 23.4 ± 4.2 years; body mass index 21.2 ± 2.2 kg m(-2); sport activity 9.2 ± 4.1 h week(-1)) were analyzed; 48 % were volleyball players, 12.5 % soccer players, 10.4 % track-and-field sports, and followed by other disciplines' athletes. Oxidative stress was evaluated by free oxygen radical test (FORT) assessing blood hydroperoxides and free oxygen radical defense (FORD) assay evaluating antioxidant capacity in OC users (n = 42) compared to non-OC users. Elevated oxidative stress levels (≥310 FORT units) were found in 92.9 % of OC users and in 23.5 % of non-OC users (crude OR = 42, 95 % CI 12-149, p correlated to hydroperoxides. In non-OC users only, hydroperoxide values were positively correlated with weight and BMI and inversely correlated with chocolate and fish consumption. The markedly elevated oxidative stress we revealed in OC-user athletes could be detrimental to physical activity and elevate cardiovascular risk (as thromboembolism). Further research is needed to extend our results, to clarify the biochemical pathways leading to increased hydroperoxides (mainly lipid peroxides) and reduced antioxidant defense, and to elucidate the potential effects on athletic performance. OC use should be considered when developing gender-focused strategies against oxidative stress.

  1. Effect of combination antiretroviral therapy on the frequency of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayuti Hasibuan

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Oral candidiasis is one of the most common opportunistic infections in HIV/AIDS patients. It serves as important markers of HIV infection, viral load, and CD4 cells count in the blood and predict disease progression to AIDS. The development of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patients associated by imbalances between Candida and impaired host immune defenses that caused by decreased of CD4 cell counts and the increased of plasma HIV-viral load. Since the introduction of antiretroviral therapy combination, commonly known as Highly Active Antiretroviral Therapy (HAART, it has been observed that certain oral lesions, such as oral candidiasis as declined. The aim of this paper is to review the mechanism of combination antiretroviral therapy influenced the frequency of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patient. We conclude that combination antiretroviral therapy generally reduced the frequency and severity of oral candidiasis in HIV/AIDS patient.

  2. Combined oral contraceptive pills for treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arowojolu, Ayodele O; Gallo, Maria F; Lopez, Laureen M; Grimes, David A

    2012-07-11

    Acne is a common skin disorder among women. Although no uniform approach to the management of acne exists, combination oral contraceptives (COCs), which contain an estrogen and a progestin, often are prescribed for women. To determine the effectiveness of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) for the treatment of facial acne compared to placebo or other active therapies. In January 2012, we searched for randomized controlled trials of COCs and acne in the computerized databases of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), MEDLINE, EMBASE, POPLINE, and LILACS. We also searched for clinical trials in ClinicalTrials.gov and the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (Aug 2011). For the initial review, we wrote to researchers to seek any unpublished or published trials that we might have missed. We considered randomized controlled trials reported in any language that compared the effectiveness of a COC containing an estrogen and a progestin to placebo or another active therapy for acne in women. We extracted data on facial lesion counts, both total and specific (i.e., open or closed comedones, papules, pustules and nodules); acne severity grades; global assessments by the clinician or the participant, and discontinuation due to adverse events. Data were entered and analyzed in RevMan. For continuous data, we calculated the mean difference (MD) and 95% confidence interval (CI). For dichotomous data, we calculated the Peto odds ratio (OR) and 95% CI. The review includes 31 trials with 12,579 participants. Of 24 comparisons made, 6 compared a COC to placebo, 17 different COCs, and 1 compared a COC to an antibiotic. Of nine placebo-controlled trials with data for analysis, all showed COCs reduced acne lesion counts, severity grades and self-assessed acne compared to placebo. A levonorgestrel-COC group had fewer total lesion counts (MD -9.98; 95% CI -16.51 to -3.45), inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesion counts, and were more likely to

  3. Oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclennan, A H

    1987-12-01

    Over 60 million women use highly efficient and safe modern combined oral contraceptives (OCs) every day. A women who takes the oral contraceptive for 5 years before the age of 30 will actually live 12 days longer, although a woman taking the pill for the 1st time for 5 years after the age of 30 will have her life span reduced on the average by 80 days. OC related morbidity and mortality mostly occur in women over 35 who smoke. Combined low dose OCs are safe for women who do not smoke, at least to 45 years of age and probably to the menopause. The prescription of OCs is also safe to the young adolescent. The pill does not interfere with maturation of the hypothalamic-pituitary ovarian axis and does not increase the incidence of amenorrhoea, oligomenorrhoea or infertility in later life. Patients with contraindications to estrogen therapy are excluded from OC use (history of thromboembolism, major heart disease, liver disease, breast cancer). Low-dose (30-35 mcg estrogen-containing monophasic or triphasic) pills are recommended. Combined oral contraceptives contain either ethinyl estradiol (1.7 to 2 times more potent) or mestranol. After absorption the progestagens, norethisterone acetate, ethynodiol diacetate and lynoestrenol are all metabolized to norethisterone. The progestagen-only pill has about a 2% failure rate and poorer cycle control than the combined pill, but it lacks estrogenic, progestagenic and androgenic side effects. This pill is suitable for the lactating mother, for smokers over 35, for hypertensive patients, and for those with a history of thrombosis. The efficacy of the progestagen-only pill is restored in 3 days of pill taking. Postcoital contraception is an alternative: treatment can be given for at least 72 hours after intercourse. The Yuzpe method calls for the patient to take 2 combined oral contraceptive tablets containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol (Eugynon or Ovral) followed by a further 2 tablets 12 hours later. This regimen

  4. Lifetime cancer risk and combined oral contraceptives: the Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iversen, Lisa; Sivasubramaniam, Selvaraj; Lee, Amanda J; Fielding, Shona; Hannaford, Philip C

    2017-06-01

    Oral contraceptives have been used by hundreds of millions of women around the world. Important questions remain regarding the very long-term cancer risks that are associated with oral contraception. Despite previous research, important questions remain about the safety of these contraceptives: (1) How long do endometrial, ovarian, and colorectal cancer benefits persist? (2) Does combined oral contraceptive use during the reproductive years produce new cancer risks later in life? (3) What is the overall balance of cancer among past users as they enter the later stages of their lives? The purpose of this study was to examine the very long-term cancer risks or benefits associated with the use of combined oral contraceptives, including the estimated overall life-time balance. The 46,022 women who were recruited to the UK Royal College of General Practitioners' Oral Contraception Study in 1968 and 1969 were observed for up to 44 years. Directly standardized rates of specific and any cancer were calculated for "ever" and "never" users of combined oral contraceptives; data were standardized for age, parity, social class, and smoking. Attributable risk and preventive fraction percentages were calculated. Poisson regression that adjusted for the same variables was used to estimate incidence rate ratios between ever and never users and to examine effects by time since last oral contraceptive use. There were 4661 ever users with at least 1 cancer during 884,895 woman-years of observation and 2341 never users with at least 1 cancer during 388,505 woman-years of observation. Ever use of oral contraceptives was associated with reduced colorectal (incidence rate ratio, 0.81; 99% confidence interval, 0.66-0.99), endometrial (incidence rate ratio, 0.66; 99% confidence interval, 0.48-0.89), ovarian (incidence rate ratio, 0.67; 99% confidence interval, 0.50-0.89), and lymphatic and hematopoietic cancer (incidence rate ratio, 0.74; 99% confidence interval, 0.58-0.94). An increased

  5. Estradiol + dienogest. Oral contraception: estradiol does not provide a therapeutic advantage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    A monophasic combination of ethinylestradiol plus levonorgestrel or norethisterone is the oral contraceptive with which we have most experience. A quadriphasic combination of estradiol and dienogest was recently authorised in various European Union member states. The results of two non-comparative trials and one comparative trial versus ethinylestradiol + levonorgestrel suggest that the contraceptive efficacy of the estradiol + dienogest combination is no better than that of other oral contraceptives. In addition, there is no tangible difference in regulation of the menstrual cycle compared to the ethinylestradiol + levonorgestrel combination, as assessed by bleeding during and after dosing. The estradiol + dienogest combination has the same frequent and mild adverse effects as other combined contraceptives, such as nausea, breast tenderness and headache. In contrast, little is known of the potential cardiovascular adverse effects of the new combination, including the risk of thrombosis. Use of this quadriphasic combination is inconvenient. The monthly blister pack contains 5 different tablets, with different compositions, that must be taken in exactly the right order. In addition, a woman must follow complicated directions for catching up if she misses a pill, and they differ throughout the cycle. In practice, it is better to continue to use a well-documented combined contraceptive such as the monophasic ethinylestradiol + levonorgestrel combination.

  6. Vaccination of cattle with Mycobacterium bovis BCG by a combination of systemic and oral routes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddle, Bryce M; Denis, Michel; Aldwell, Frank E; Martin Vordermeier, H; Glyn Hewinson, R; Neil Wedlock, D

    2008-11-01

    Mycobacterium bovis bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine delivered to calves by the subcutaneous (s.c.) or by the oral route in a formulated lipid matrix has been previously shown to induce similar levels of protection against bovine tuberculosis. The current study was aimed at determining whether a combination of delivering BCG by s.c. and oral routes would enhance levels of protection, compared to only one route of vaccination. Forty calves were randomly divided into four groups (10/group). Calves were vaccinated with 10(6)colony forming units (CFU) of BCG Pasteur by the s.c. route or orally with 10(9)CFU BCG incorporated into a lipid formulation. One group received a combination of BCG administered by both the s.c. and oral routes and a non-vaccinated group served as a control. The two groups of calves that received s.c. BCG produced strong IFN-gamma responses in whole blood cultures stimulated with bovine purified protein derivative (PPD) 3 weeks after vaccination. Cattle vaccinated just with oral BCG in a lipid matrix produced a strong IFN-gamma response 8 weeks after vaccination, and peaking at 11 weeks after vaccination. All calves were challenged by the intratracheal route with M. bovis 15 weeks after vaccination and were euthanized and necropsied to assess protection at 17 weeks following challenge. BCG given s.c. or orally induced significant and comparable levels of protection against the virulent challenge. Vaccination of cattle by a combination of s.c./oral routes did not enhance protection beyond that achieved by s.c. or oral vaccination alone. We conclude that vaccination of cattle with BCG by a combination of routes has no beneficial additive effects, compared to a single s.c. administration of BCG or BCG given orally in a lipid formulation.

  7. Comparison of monophasic and biphasic shocks for transthoracic cardioversion of atrial fibrillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.F. Scholten (Marcoen); T. Szili-Torok (Tamas); L.J.L.M. Jordaens (Luc); A.P.J. Klootwijk (Peter)

    2003-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: To compare the efficacy of cardioversion in patients with atrial fibrillation between monophasic damped sine waveform and rectilinear biphasic waveform shocks at a high initial energy level and with a conventional paddle position. DESIGN: Prospective randomis

  8. Combined compared to dissociated oral and intestinal sucrose stimuli induce different brain hedonic processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clouard, Caroline; Meunier-Salaün, Marie-Christine; Meurice, Paul; Malbert, Charles-Henri; Val-Laillet, David

    2014-01-01

    The characterization of brain networks contributing to the processing of oral and/or intestinal sugar signals in a relevant animal model might help to understand the neural mechanisms related to the control of food intake in humans and suggest potential causes for impaired eating behaviors. This study aimed at comparing the brain responses triggered by oral and/or intestinal sucrose sensing in pigs. Seven animals underwent brain single photon emission computed tomography (99mTc-HMPAO) further to oral stimulation with neutral or sucrose artificial saliva paired with saline or sucrose infusion in the duodenum, the proximal part of the intestine. Oral and/or duodenal sucrose sensing induced differential cerebral blood flow changes in brain regions known to be involved in memory, reward processes and hedonic (i.e., pleasure) evaluation of sensory stimuli, including the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, cingulate cortex, insular cortex, hippocampus, and parahippocampal cortex. Sucrose duodenal infusion only and combined sucrose stimulation induced similar activity patterns in the putamen, ventral anterior cingulate cortex and hippocampus. Some brain deactivations in the prefrontal and insular cortices were only detected in the presence of oral sucrose stimulation. Finally, activation of the right insular cortex was only induced by combined oral and duodenal sucrose stimulation, while specific activity patterns were detected in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex with oral sucrose dissociated from caloric load. This study sheds new light on the brain hedonic responses to sugar and has potential implications to unravel the neuropsychological mechanisms underlying food pleasure and motivation. PMID:25147536

  9. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially th...

  10. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills

    OpenAIRE

    Kiran G Piparva; Buch, Jatin G.

    2011-01-01

    Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially th...

  11. Combined and sequential treatment of oral and maxillofacial malignancies: an evolving concept and clinical protocol

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Jia-wei; QIU Wei-liu; ZHANG Zhi-yuan

    2008-01-01

    Objective To introduce the concept and rational regimens and present the latest development of combined treatment of oral and maxillofacial malignancies.Data sources The related published literature was searched through the CNKI database and MEDLINE using the terms of oral cancer, oral and maxillofacial malignancies, combined and sequential therapy, multidisciplinary approach.Study selection The available related literature was read and evaluated. Studies that met the inclusion criteria were selected.Results The results show that oral and maxillofacial malignancies diagnosed at an eady stages (stages Ⅰ and Ⅱ) can be well treated with surgery alone and/or radiotherapy with optimal outcome, but advanced or recurrent diseases should be treated with rational combined and sequential treatment modalities. The use of concomitant chemoradiotherapy,taxane-containing, three-drug induction regimens and Cetuximab in combination with chemotherapy or radiotherapy demonstrated favorable results in previously untreated patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma.Conclusions The concept of combined and sequential treatment of advanced oral and maxillofacial malignancies should be widely accepted, and the rational regimen for individual and each type of entity should be determined based on the anatomical site and the patient's performance status.

  12. Lyophilization monophase solution technique for preparation of amorphous flutamide dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elgindy, Nazik; Elkhodairy, Kadria; Molokhia, Abdallah; Elzoghby, Ahmed

    2011-07-01

    Flutamide (FLT) is a poorly soluble anticancer drug. Therefore, lyophilized dispersions (LDs) of FLT with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) K30, polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000, and pluronic F127 were prepared via lyophilization monophase solution technique with the aim of increasing its dissolution rate. FLT showed an A(L)-type phase solubility diagrams with PVP and PEG, whereas A(N)-type diagram was obtained with pluronic. The amount of residual tertiary butyl alcohol, determined by gas chromatography, was 0.015-0.021% w/w. Differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffractometry revealed that FLT-polymer 1:1 LDs were partially amorphous, whereas the 1:3 and 1:5 LDs were completely amorphous. After 6 months storage, polymers under study inhibited FLT recrystallization maintaining its amorphous form. The particle size of FLT-polymer LDs was between 0.81 and 2.13 μm, with a high surface area (268.43-510.82 m²/g) and porosity (354.01-676.23 e⁻³ mL/g). Also, the poor flow properties of FLT could be improved but to a limited extent. FLT dissolution was significantly enhanced with the fastest dissolution that was achieved using pluronic. After 30 min, about 66.52%, 78.23%, and 81.64% of FLT was dissolved from 1:5 FLT-PVP, PEG, and pluronic LDs, respectively, compared with only 13.45% of FLT. These data suggest that these polymers might be useful adjuncts in preparation and stabilization of amorphous immediate-release FLT LDs.

  13. A COMPARISON OF MIDAZOLAM AND KETAMINE PLUS MIDAZOLAM COMBINATION AS AN ORAL PREMEDICANT IN PAEDIATRIC PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Prabu

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Effective premedication in pediatric patients posted for elective surgeries allays patients’ anxiety and reduces risk of post-operative behavioral problems. Oral midazolam and oral ketamine are tried in different doses as pediatric premedicant, but addition of 3mg/kg of oral ketamine with 0.5 mg/kg of oral midazolam resulted in better premedication when compared to oral midazolam 0.5mg/kg or oral ketamine 6mg/kg given alone. MATERIAL AND METHODS: 60 healthy children under 1-8 yrs. age group posted for elective surgeries chosen for this study were randomly divided into two groups of 30 each. Double blinding was done using sealed envelope technique to prevent observer bias. Children with other co-existing illnesses were excluded from the study. Group KM received Ketamine 3 mg/kg and midazolam 0.5 mg/kg + atropine 20 µg/kg (oral route and Group M received midazolam 0.5 mg/kg and atropine 20 µg/kg (oral route 30 minutes before proposed induction time. Sedation score, anxiolysis score, parental separation and mask tolerance was assessed in all the patients 30 minutes after administration of the drug. RESULTS: The data collected was analyzed using SPSS statistical software. There was a statistically significant increase in sedation score at 15 and 30 minutes in group KM compared to group M. Parental separation at 30 minutes is peaceful in 30 children (100% in group KM compared to 24 children (80% in group M. CONCLUSION: The oral ketamine and midazolam combination produces significantly better anxiolysis, sedation, parental separation and mask tolerance, without hemodynamic alteration, when compared to oral midazolam (0.5mg/kg given alone.

  14. Acute oral toxicity and histopathological study of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin in wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raj, Jaya; Mohineesh; Ray, Ruma; Dogra, T D; Raina, Anupuma

    2013-01-01

    Endosulfan, a neurotoxic organochlorine insecticide and cypermethrin, a synthetic pyrethroid insecticide used to control pests in domestic, industrial, and agricultural situations. The present study was carried out to investigate the acute oral toxicity, behavioral and histopathological changes of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin in albino rats. According to Miller and Tainter analysis method, at 48 h, LD50 value of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin (ratio 1:1) in rats was found to be 691.83 mg/kg bw by oral gavage. When combination of both these pesticides was administered orally at concentration of 103.72 mg/kg bw, 172.95 mg/kg bw and 207.50 mg/kg bw, respectively, as a single dose, no significant changes in behavior of rats was observed, neither in dosed nor in control group of rats. Combination of endosulfan- and cypermethrin-treated rats showed mild histopathological changes in liver and kidney in group IV (207.50 mg/kg BW) as compared to the control. However, no significant changes were observed in brain and small intestine at either dose of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin with respect to control. Thus, the present study, first of its kind in India, demonstrated the oral toxicity, behavioral, and histo-architectual alterations after induction of combination of endosulfan and cypermethrin at acute doses in Wistar rats.

  15. Therapeutic efficacy of the combination of intratympanic methylprednisolone and oral steroid for idiopathic sudden deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundogan, Onur; Pinar, Ercan; Imre, Abdulkadir; Ozturkcan, Sedat; Cokmez, Ozge; Yigiter, Ali Cihan

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the efficacy of systemic steroid alone and combined with intratympanic methylprednisolone in the treatment of patients with idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss. Prospective, randomized controlled trial. Settings Katip Celebi University Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Izmir, Turkey. Seventy-nine patients who met the inclusion criteria for idiopathic sudden sensorineural hearing loss were included in this study. Patients were randomly divided into 2 groups according to treatment: group A received combination therapy (intratympanic methylprednisolone + oral steroid) and group B received oral steroid alone. Of the 79 patients included, 6 patients missed the 1-month follow-up visit. Overall, 73 patients (37 combination group, 36 oral steroid group) who completed the 1-month follow-up and study intervention were included in the per-protocol analysis. Both the relationship between certain prognostic factors and the clinical outcome after treatment were analyzed. Combination therapy showed significant hearing improvement and speech discrimination scores compared with the use of systemic steroids alone (P < .05). In hearing outcomes in patients with severe hearing loss, combination therapy had statistically significant hearing improvement compared with oral steroid alone (P < .05). We recommend that combination therapy can be considered as initial treatment especially for patients with severe hearing loss.

  16. Use of combined oral contraceptive pills among teenage girls in Calabar, Nigeria

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    Iklaki CU

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Christopher U Iklaki,1 John E Inaku,2 John E Ekabua,1 Patience O Odusolu,1 Charles O Njoku11Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Calabar, Calabar, Nigeria; 2Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, Calabar, NigeriaAbstract: The objective of this study was to find out about the use of combined oral contraceptive pills by women in Calabar, Nigeria, with a particular interest in single nulliparous teenage women. During the period from 2006 to 2010, a total of 1980 women seen in the University of Calabar Teaching Hospital's family planning unit used various methods of contraception. Of these, 316 (15.96% used combined oral contraceptive pills. Twenty girls aged between 13 and 19 years accounted for 6.3% of those who used combined oral contraceptive pills. There were 296 (93.6% women between the ages of 20 and 34 years who accounted for the remaining users. Of these women, 195 (61.5% were educated to the secondary level, and 34 (10.8% were educated to primary level. No women without formal education used combined oral contraceptive pills during the period of study. The majority of the users were nulliparous (128; 40.4%; the rest had parity values of at least one to more than four. One hundred thirty-seven (43.4% of the users were single, 112 (35.4% were married, and the remaining 67 (21.1% were separated, divorced, or widowed. There is a growing need to educate young Nigerian women about the use of combined oral contraceptive pills; this medication is suitable and effective for most young women, and it also has additional noncontraceptive health benefits.Keywords: combined, oral, contraception, pills

  17. Effects of combination oral care on oral health, dry mouth and salivary pH of intubated patients: A randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Chun Sun; Shin, Yong Soon

    2016-10-01

    Intubated patients are at risk of oral health problems. Although a variety of oral care regimens for intubated patients have been studied, there is a lack of research on the effects of combination oral care that includes tooth brushing, chlorhexidine and cold water. This open-labelled, randomized, controlled trial aimed to evaluate the effects of combination oral care on oral health status. Participants aged 20 years and older were recruited on the first day after intubation through convenience sampling in a medical intensive care unit. Random assignment was performed using an internet randomization service. The primary outcome was oral health status. Data were collected during May and June 2013. Participants were randomized to one of two groups (23 intervention and 21 control). The final analysis included 18 patients with combination oral care and 17 in the control group. The intervention group had better oral health (effect size = 1.56), less dry mouth and higher salivary pH than the control group. Any additional burden of providing combination oral care to patients who are mechanically ventilated is worthwhile in terms of clinical outcomes.

  18. Efektifitas Astaxanthin Oral disertai Gel Astaxanthin Dibandingkan dengan Astaxanthin Oral disertai Krim Triple Combination (Hidrokuinon 4%, Tretinoin 0,05%, Fluosinolon Asetonid 0,01%) dalam Pengobatan Melasma

    OpenAIRE

    Lubis, Faridah Israwaty

    2011-01-01

    Background : Melasma is a common acquired symmetrical hypermelanosis that occurs on sun-exposed facial areas. Melasma is frequently observed among women. Many modalities of treatment are available but none is satisfactory. Aim : To compare the efficacy and safety of oral astaxanthin combined with astaxanthin gel and oral astaxanthin combined with triple combination cream in the treatment of melasma. Subject and methods : A double blind, randomize, clinical trial design study was condu...

  19. Restoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive : II. Clinical effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, J. M.; Pintiaux, A.; Minon, J. M.; Fauser, B. C J M; Cobey, K.; Coelingh Bennink, H. J T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease androgen levels, including testosterone (T), which may be associated with sexual dysfunction and mood complaints in some women. We have shown that 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) to a drospirenone (DRSP)-containing COC

  20. Restoring testosterone levels by adding dehydroepiandrosterone to a drospirenone containing combined oral contraceptive : I. Endocrine effects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zimmerman, Y.; Foidart, J. M.; Pintiaux, A.; Minon, J. M.; Fauser, B. C J M; Cobey, K.; Coelingh Bennink, H. J T

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) decrease testosterone (T) levels. This study investigated restoration of T and other androgen concentrations during COC use by 'co-administration' of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA). Study design In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study

  1. [DVT and combined oral contraceptives: update of the pluridisciplinary CNGOF-FNCGM-GEHT-SFMV group].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbert-Buffet, N; Guigues, B; Trillot, N; Biron, C; Morange, P; Pernod, G; Scheffler, M; Brugere, S; Hedon, B

    2013-06-01

    Thrombotic risk among combined oral contraceptives (COC) users has recently been debated following a court action initiated by a patient. Recent epidemiological data, as well as accumulating biological data underlying these data, have led French Health authorities to modify COC prescription and reimbursement modalities. A short synthesis is proposed by a multidisciplinary group of experts from four French societies (CGOF, FNCGM, GHT, and SFMV).

  2. Combined oral and local therapy for the dissolution of urinary calculi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Götz, F; Frang, D; Hübler, J; Nagy, Z

    1982-01-01

    The factors underlying the formation of Ca-phosphate and struvite calculi, as well as the present possibilities for oral and local therapy, their advantages and drawbacks are discussed in the light of published evidence. In this context a clinical case of multiple injuries is reported in which practically complete chemolitholysis has been achieved by combined oral and local therapy. The rapid growth of the calculi and their alarming tendency to recurrence in case of inadequate treatment is emphasized. The therapeutic method used in this case is regarded as suitable for practical purposes.

  3. The role of combined oral contraceptives in the management of acne and seborrhea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    del Marmol, V; Teichmann, A; Gertsen, K

    2004-06-01

    Acne and seborrhea (or facial oiliness) are related androgenic skin disorders which affect a high proportion of women after menarche. They can have a negative effect on psychological well-being and social life. Androgens play an important role in the pathogenesis of acne through the stimulation of sebum secretion, increasing sebaceous gland size and possibly through follicular hyperkeratinization. Conversely, estrogens decrease sebum production by suppressing gonadotropin release and androgen production and increasing sex hormone binding globulin production. One of the treatment options for these conditions is hormonal therapy, especially for women who require contraception. The effect of combined oral contraceptives in androgenic skin disorders depends on their estrogen:progestogen balance and on the antiestrogenic activity of the progestogen component. Improved understanding of what women value about oral contraceptives suggests that the choice of product should be tailored as much as possible to the individual. Several combined oral contraceptives containing new-generation progestogens (e.g. desogestrel, gestodene) or progestational antiandrogens (e.g. cyproterone acetate, chlormadinone acetate) have demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of women with acne, although comparisons between trials are difficult because of differing endpoints. Seborrhea has been less well studied, but the few studies that are available show an improvement in women with this condition using combined oral contraceptives.

  4. Comparison of oral midazolam with a combination of oral midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation in the effectiveness of dental sedation for young children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Zahrani A

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To compare the effectiveness of 0.6 mg/kg oral midazolam sedation alone and a combination of 0.6 mg/kg oral midazolam plus nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation sedation, in controlling the behavior of uncooperative children during dental treatment. Study Design: The study had a crossover design where the same patient received two different sedation regimens, that is, oral midazolam 0.6 mg/kg and oral midazolam 0.6 mg/kg with nitrous oxide-oxygen inhalation during two dental treatment visits. Materials and Methods: Thirty children (17 males and 13 females were randomly selected for the study, with a mean age of 55.07 (± 9.29 months, ranging from 48 - 72 months. A scoring system suggested by Houpt et al. (1985 was utilized for assessment of the children′s behavior. Results : There was no significant (p > 0.05 difference in the overall behavior assessment between the two sedation regimens, that is, oral midazolam alone and oral midazolam plus nitrous oxide-oxygen. However, the combination of midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen showed significantly (p < 0.05 superior results as compared to midazolam alone, in terms of controlling movement and crying during local anesthesia administration and restorative procedures. Conclusion: Compared to oral midazolam alone, a combination of oral midazolam and nitrous oxide inhalation sedation appears to provide more comfort to pediatric dental patients and operators during critical stages of dental treatment.

  5. Childhood vitiligo : Response to methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy and topical fluticasone combination

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    Majid Imran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Childhood vitiligo is always a challenge to treat, especially when the disease is progressing rapidly in such a patient. Oral minipulse with betamethasone has been tried in childhood vitiligo and also in some other immune mediated skin disorders with good results. Aims: The aim of the present study was to see the overall efficacy of methylprednisolone oral minipulse therapy in combination with topical fluticasone in progressive childhood vitiligo. The combination was tried to achieve a significant amount of repigmentation of vitiligo lesions already present at the initial visit. Materials and Methods: Four hundred children with progressive vitiligo were enrolled for this study and were prescribed oral methylprednisolone on two consecutive days every week in a minipulse form for a period of six months. In addition, the patients were instructed to apply fluticasone ointment topically once a day on their vitiligo lesions. The patients were assessed for the remission achieved as well as the extent of repigmentation of their already existent lesions. Results: More than 90% of patients went into complete remission after the start of the therapy. Moreover, about 65% (two-thirds of patients achieved good to excellent repigmentation of lesions at the end of six months of therapy. The therapy was also well tolerated and the side effects seen were almost negligible. Conclusions: Oral minipulse treatment with methylprednisolone is an effective treatment option for controlling the disease spread in childhood vitiligo and with the addition of topical fluticasone the extent of repigmentation achieved is also quite significant.

  6. Stress, serotonergic function, and mood in users of oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuiten, A; Panhuysen, G; Koppeschaar, H; Fekkes, D; Pijl, H; Frölich, M; Krabbe, P; Everaerd, W

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between stress and changes in insulin levels, plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), mood, and food intake was investigated in women taking monophasic oral contraceptives containing progestagens. Subjects experiencing high levels of stress displayed significant decreases of insulin and tryptophan to other LNAAs ratios, before and after the consumption of a standard meal during the pill-free period as compared with the period of pill use. The decline of the tryptophan to other LNAAs ratio was accompanied by worsening of mood. In a control group of subjects experiencing low levels of stress there was no relationship between insulin and tryptophan to other LNAAs ratio, nor between tryptophan to other LNAAs ratio and mood. These results suggest that the combination of stress and alterations in sex hormones may be responsible for mood changes during the pill-free period in women taking oral contraceptives.

  7. [Biochemical composition of oral rehydration solutions and their combinations suggested for use in Venezuela].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyo-Rivas, J J; Rendón, F

    1989-03-01

    We studied the electrolyte composition, pH and osmolality of six solutions for oral rehydration available in drug stores in Venezuela, and also their combinations with whole milk in a dilution of 6.6%. The solutions such as Pedialyte, Hidramilac and Hidramines showed an acid pH (4.30-5.10) in direct relationship to the concentration of carbohydrates (5% or more). Also, Pedialyte and Hidramilac had greater osmolalities (360-365 mOsm/kg) than plasma. Some of the levels of sodium and potassium in the solutions were found to be under the concentrations given by the producers. The combination of whole milk with oral solutions diminishes the concentrations of sodium and potassium in the mixture, changing the sodium-glucose relationship, pH and osmolality. The therapeutic implications for the use of oral rehydration solutions with low concentrations of sodium, acid pH, large content of glucose and elevated osmolality are discussed. It is concluded that the combination of whole milk with Sueroral (WHO) is not adequate for the optimum absorption of sodium and therefore to prevent dehydration. Therefore, except for the WHO solution and Oralite, other solutions are not adequate for the correction of the electrolytic and acid-base alterations present in infants with dehydration secondary to acute diarrhea.

  8. Fatigue and depression in children with multiple sclerosis and monophasic variants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ketelslegers, Immy A.; Catsman-Berrevoets, Coriene E.; Boon, Maartje; Eikelenboom, M. Judith; Stroink, Hans; Neuteboom, Rinze F.; Aarsen, Femke K.; van de Putte, Elise M.; Hintzen, Rogier Q.

    Background: Fatigue is an important symptom in adult multiple sclerosis (MS) and it is likely to occur in children with MS. It is currently unknown whether children who experienced a monophasic inflammatory demyelinating event of the central nervous system in the past also suffer from fatigue.

  9. Successful treatment of a large oral verrucous hyperplasia with photodynamic therapy combined with cryotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Chao Chang

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Studies have shown that topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy (ALA-PDT can be used successfully for the treatment of oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH. Studies have also demonstrated that cryotherapy could be used as a treatment modality for OVH lesions. In this case report, we tested the efficacy of topical ALA-PDT, combined with cryogun cryotherapy, for an extensive OVH lesion on the right buccal mucosa of a 65-year-old male areca quid chewer. The tumor was cleared after six treatments of combined topical ALA-PDT and cryogun cryotherapy. No recurrence of the lesion was found after a follow-up period of 18 months. We suggest that our combined treatment protocol may be effective in treating OVH lesions. The treatment course may be slightly shortened with this combined protocol and was well tolerated by the patient.

  10. A phase I study of intravenous and oral rucaparib in combination with chemotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Richard H; Evans, Tr Jeffry; Middleton, Mark R; Molife, L Rhoda; Spicer, James; Dieras, Veronique; Roxburgh, Patricia; Giordano, Heidi; Jaw-Tsai, Sarah; Goble, Sandra; Plummer, Ruth

    2017-03-28

    This study evaluated safety, pharmacokinetics, and clinical activity of intravenous and oral rucaparib, a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor, combined with chemotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumours. Initially, patients received escalating doses of intravenous rucaparib combined with carboplatin, carboplatin/paclitaxel, cisplatin/pemetrexed, or epirubicin/cyclophosphamide. Subsequently, the study was amended to focus on oral rucaparib (once daily, days 1-14) combined with carboplatin (day 1) in 21-day cycles. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) were assessed in cycle 1 and safety in all cycles. Eighty-five patients were enrolled (22 breast, 15 ovarian/peritoneal, and 48 other primary cancers), with a median of three prior therapies (range, 1-7). Neutropenia (27.1%) and thrombocytopenia (18.8%) were the most common grade ⩾3 toxicities across combinations and were DLTs with the oral rucaparib/carboplatin combination. Maximum tolerated dose for the combination was 240 mg per day oral rucaparib and carboplatin area under the curve 5 mg ml(-1) min(-1). Oral rucaparib demonstrated dose-proportional kinetics, a long half-life (≈17 h), and good bioavailability (36%). Pharmacokinetics were unchanged by carboplatin coadministration. The rucaparib/carboplatin combination had radiologic antitumour activity, primarily in BRCA1- or BRCA2-mutated breast and ovarian/peritoneal cancers. Oral rucaparib can be safely combined with a clinically relevant dose of carboplatin in patients with advanced solid tumours (Trial registration ID: NCT01009190).

  11. A Randomized, Controlled Trial to Assess the Efficacy of Arthroscopic Debridement in Combination with Oral Medication Versus Oral Medication in Patients with Gouty Knee Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Wanyan, Pingping; Wang, Jian Min; Tian, Jin Hui; Hu, Long; Shen, Xi Ping; Yang, Ke Hu

    2015-12-01

    Gouty knee arthritis refers to a form of inflammatory diseases caused by deposits of needle-like crystals of uric acid in knee joint. The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of arthroscopic debridement in combination with oral medication versus oral medication alone for the treatment of gouty knee arthritis. A total of 60 patients with gouty knee arthritis were randomized to receive either arthroscopic surgery in combination with oral medication or oral medication alone. Efficacy was assessed with the angle of motion, functions, and visual analog scale (VAS). These indices were measured prior to treatment and at 2, 4, 12, 24, and 48 weeks posttreatment. Surgery- and medication-related complications were observed. Significant differences in flexion and extension of the knee joint, lymphoma scores, and VAS were detected between the two groups at 2, 4, and 12 weeks posttreatment (P  0.05) . Significant differences in these indices were detected at different time points in each group (P  0.05). Arthroscopic surgery in combination with oral medication is superior to single oral medication in the flexion and extension of the knee joint, lymphoma scores, and pain relief (VAS) before 24 weeks, although no statistical differences were detected in the efficacy after 24 weeks, and in medication-related safety between the two groups. Although arthroscopic debridement cannot replace systemic uric acid-lowering treatments such as medication and dietary control, it is still an effective approach.

  12. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piparva, Kiran G; Buch, Jatin G

    2011-07-01

    Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP) is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT). A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially the risk of blood clot was believed to be due to dose of estrogen but recent study relates it to the type of progesterone involved in OCCP. Thus, it is still a matter of debate, whether to associate risk of DVT to the amount of estrogen alone or also to the type of progestin. Apart from careful selection of patients, one should also look for the risk of venous thromboembolism irrespective of type of OCCP prescribed.

  13. Combination of retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and Seldinger method in locally advanced oral cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masataka Uehara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nonsurgical strategies for locally advanced oral cancer are desirable. Superselective intra-arterial infusion with radiotherapy was utilized for this purpose, and there are two types of superselective intra-arterial infusion methods: The Seldinger method and the retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (HFT method. In one case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced tongue cancer, and the Seldinger method was used for additional administration of cisplatin (CDDP to compensate for a lack of drug flow in the HFT method. In another case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced lower gingival cancer. The Seldinger method was applied to metastatic lymph nodes. In both cases, additional administration of CDDP using the Seldinger method resulted in a complete response. The combination of the HFT and Seldinger methods was useful to eradicate locally advanced oral cancer because each method compensated for the defects of the other.

  14. Combination of retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy and Seldinger method in locally advanced oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uehara, Masataka; Ohya, Ryouichi; Kodama, Masaaki; Shiraishi, Takeshi; Asahina, Izumi; Tominaga, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The nonsurgical strategies for locally advanced oral cancer are desirable. Superselective intra-arterial infusion with radiotherapy was utilized for this purpose, and there are two types of superselective intra-arterial infusion methods: The Seldinger method and the retrograde superselective intra-arterial chemotherapy (HFT method). In one case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced tongue cancer, and the Seldinger method was used for additional administration of cisplatin (CDDP) to compensate for a lack of drug flow in the HFT method. In another case, the HFT method was applied to locally advanced lower gingival cancer. The Seldinger method was applied to metastatic lymph nodes. In both cases, additional administration of CDDP using the Seldinger method resulted in a complete response. The combination of the HFT and Seldinger methods was useful to eradicate locally advanced oral cancer because each method compensated for the defects of the other.

  15. Deep vein thrombosis in a woman taking oral combined contraceptive pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kiran G Piparva

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral combined contraceptive pill (OCCP is popular as birth control pills. Like all other drugs, they are not free from risks. Women taking certain types of OCCP have higher risk of developing deep vein thrombosis (DVT. A 29 year old married woman had taken OCCP for 3.5 months, developed deep vein thrombosis of left leg. Hereditary and acquired causes of DVT were excluded. She was treated with parenteral and oral anticoagulants simultaneously and was advised to discontinue OCCP. Initially the risk of blood clot was believed to be due to dose of estrogen but recent study relates it to the type of progesterone involved in OCCP. Thus, it is still a matter of debate, whether to associate risk of DVT to the amount of estrogen alone or also to the type of progestin. Apart from careful selection of patients, one should also look for the risk of venous thromboembolism irrespective of type of OCCP prescribed.

  16. Two new species and a new subgenus of toothed Brachyhypopomus electric knifefishes (Gymnotiformes, Hypopomidae from the central Amazon and considerations pertaining to the evolution of a monophasic electric organ discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Sullivan

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We describe two new, closely related species of toothed Brachyhypopomus (Hypopomidae: Gymnotiformes: Teleostei from the central Amazon basin and create a new subgenus for them. Odontohypopomus, new subgenus of Brachyhypopomus, is diagnosed by (1 small teeth present on premaxillae; (2 medialmost two branchiostegal rays thin with blades oriented more vertically than remaining three rays; (3 background color in life (and to lesser extent in preservation distinctly yellowish with head and sides peppered with small, widely spaced, very dark brown stellate chromatophores that greatly contrast with light background coloration; (4 a dark blotch or bar of subcutaneous pigment below the eye; (5 electric organ discharge waveform of very long duration (head-positive phase approx. 2 milliseconds or longer, head-negative phase shorter or absent and slow pulse repetition rate (3–16 Hz. The type species of the new subgenus, Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus walteri sp. n., is diagnosed by the following additional character states: (1 subcutaneous dark pigment at base of orbit particularly prominent, (2 body semi-translucent and nearly bright yellow background coloration in life, (3 a biphasic electric organ discharge (EOD waveform of very long duration (between 3.5 and 4 milliseconds at 25° C with head-positive first phase significantly longer than second head-negative phase in both sexes. Brachyhypopomus (Odontohypopomus bennetti sp. n. is diagnosed by two character states in addition to those used to diagnose the subgenus Odontohypopomus: (1 a deep electric organ, visible as large semi-transparent area, occupying approximately 14–17% body depth directly posterior to the abdominal cavity in combination with a short, but deep, caudal filament, and (2 a monophasic, head-positive EOD waveform, approximately 2.1 milliseconds in duration in both sexes. These are the only described rhamphichthyoid gymnotiforms with oral teeth, and B. bennetti is the first

  17. ORMELOXIFEN HCL VS. COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVE PILL IN TREATMENT OF DUB

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    Veena

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION : DUB is defined as a state of abnormal uterine bleeding without any clinically detectable organic pelvic pathology - tumor , inflammation or pregnancy. The present study was conducted to compare the effect of ormeloxifene HCL ( SERM and combined oral contraceptive pills in medical treatment of DUB. MATERIAL & METHOD: This study is based on 100 cases of DUB from age group of 20 to 50 years , out of which fifty cases were prescribed Ormeloxifen HCL (Drug A and another 50 cases were given Combined Contrac eptive pills. (Drug B Ormeloxifen HCL was given in doses of 60mg biweekly for 12 weeks and from 13 th week one tablet weekly for another 12 weeks. CC pills (Levonorgestrel 0.15mg & Ethinyloestradiol 0.03mg – One tablet from 5th day of menses for 21 days g iven cyclically for six months. Regular cyclic follow - up was done to assess response , compliance tolerance and recurrence of the symptoms and side effects of every patient. RESULT : The study revealed marked decrease in PBAC score 82% vs. 35% , reduction in percentage of bleeding 100%vs 68% , regularization of menstrual cycle100%vs74% , recurrence of symptoms in the form of excessive bleeding 4% vs. 64% and irregular cycle 0%vs 68% in drug A vs. drug B and side effects were comparable in both the groups. CONCL USION : Ormeloxifen HCL is more effective , well tolerated with superior compliance than combined oral contraceptive pills in medical treatment of DUB.

  18. [Effect of combined hormonal oral contraception on the somatic and psychic status of women of reproductive age].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertkin, A L; Nosova, A V

    2012-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the topical problem of maintaining somatic and psychic health of the women of reproductive age by rational pregnancy planning and prevention of abortions by modern methods of contraception including combined oral hormonal contraception. Unfortunately, this approach is rarely employed in this country (5-6%). Results of retrospective analysis of medical documentation, clinical efficacy and safety of modern combined oral hormonal contraception are presented.

  19. Combined oral contraceptives' influence on weight, body composition, height, and bone mineral density in girls younger than 18 years

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warholm, Lina; Petersen, Kresten R; Ravn, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years.......Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are increasingly used by adolescents. The aim of this review is to investigate the evidence regarding COCs' influence on weight, height and bone mineral density (BMD) in girls younger than 18 years....

  20. Noncontraceptive benefits of the estradiol valerate/dienogest combined oral contraceptive: a review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nappi RE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Rossella E Nappi,1 Marco Serrani,2 Jeffrey T Jensen3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Research Centre for Reproductive Medicine, IRCCS Policlinico San Matteo Foundation, University of Pavia, Pavia, Italy; 2Global Medical Affairs Women's Healthcare, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany; 3Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA Abstract: Combined oral contraceptives formulated to include estradiol (E2 have recently become available for the indication of pregnancy prevention. A combined estradiol valerate and dienogest pill (E2V/DNG, designed to be administered using an estrogen step-down and a progestin step-up regimen over 26 days of active treatment followed by 2 days of placebo (26/2-day regimen, has also undergone research to assess the potential for additional noncontraceptive benefits. Randomized, placebo-controlled studies have demonstrated that E2V/DNG is an effective treatment for heavy menstrual bleeding – a reduction in median menstrual blood loss approaching 90% occurs after 6 months of treatment. To date, E2V/DNG is the only oral contraceptive approved for this indication. Comparator studies have also demonstrated a reduction in hormone withdrawal-associated symptoms in users of E2V/DNG compared with a conventional 21/7-day regimen of ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel. Other potential noncontraceptive benefits associated with E2V/DNG, like improvement in dysmenorrhea, sexual function, and quality of life, are comparable with those associated with other combined oral contraceptives and are discussed further in this review. Keywords: heavy menstrual bleeding, hormone withdrawal-associated symptoms, quality of life

  1. Combined oral administration of bovine collagen peptides with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in ovariectomized rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JunLi Liu

    Full Text Available Collagen peptides (CPs and calcium citrate are commonly used as bone health supplements for treating osteoporosis. However, it remains unknown whether the combination of oral bovine CPs with calcium citrate is more effective than administration of either agent alone.Forty 12-week-old Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups (n = 8 for once-daily intragastric administration of different treatments for 3 months at 3 months after ovariectomy (OVX as follows: sham + vehicle; OVX + vehicle; OVX + 750 mg/kg CP; OVX + CP-calcium citrate (75 mg/kg; OVX + calcium citrate (75 mg/kg. After euthanasia, the femurs were removed and analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry and micro-computed tomography, and serum samples were analyzed for bone metabolic markers.OVX rats supplemented with CPs or CP-calcium citrate showed osteoprotective effects, with reductions in the OVX-induced decreases in their femoral bone mineral density. Moreover, CP-calcium citrate prevented trabecular bone loss, improved the microarchitecture of the distal femur, and significantly inhibited bone loss with increased bone volume, connectivity density, and trabecular number compared with OVX control rats. CP or CP-calcium citrate administration significantly increased serum procollagen type I N-terminal propeptide levels and reduced serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and C-telopeptide of type I collagen levels.Our data indicate that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate inhibits bone loss in OVX rats. The present findings suggest that combined oral administration of bovine CPs with calcium citrate is a promising alternative for reducing bone loss in osteopenic postmenopausal women.

  2. Serum Level and 24hr. Excretion Pattern of Potassium Following the Intake of Combined Oral Contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kamyab

    1978-01-01

    Full Text Available Serum level and 24hr urinary excretion pattern of potassium have been studied in 104 healthy women, aged 18-44 years, using combinedoral contraceptives for a period of 3-48 months, and results h av e been compared with those obtained from 21 healthy controls of the same clinic. aged 19-40 years, using IUD. There was no sign ificant change observed in s erum potassium level, but 24hr urinary excretion pattern of potassium decreased significantly in 90% of the individuals equivalent to 2. &- 78 . 3% of the mean control, possibly due to a retention of potas sium in the cells.

  3. Pharmacokinetics of amoxicillin/clavulanic acid combination after intravenous and oral administration in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carceles, C M; Escudero, E; Vicente, M S; Serrano, J M; Carli, S

    1995-12-01

    The intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of an amoxicillin and clavulanic acid combination (20 mg/kg of sodium amoxicillin and 5 mg/kg of potassium clavulanate) were studied in six goats. After intravenous administration the pharmacokinetics of both drugs could be described by an open two-compartment model. Amoxicillin had a greater distribution volume (0.19 +/- 0.01 l/kg) than clavulanic acid (0.15 +/- 0.01 l/kg), whereas the distribution and elimination constants were higher for the latter, which was eliminated more quickly than amoxicillin. After oral administration of both drugs their pharmacokinetic behaviour was best described by an open one-compartment model with first-order absorption. Elimination half-lives were twice as long after oral (2.15 +/- 0.20 h and 1.94 +/- 0.16 h for amoxicillin and clavulanic acid respectively) than after intravenous administration (1.20 +/- 0.16 h and 0.86 +/- 0.09, respectively). An apparent 'flip-flop' situation was evident in this study. Bioavailability was 27% for amoxicillin and 50% for clavulanic acid.

  4. Comparison of the pharmacologic and clinical profiles of new combined oral contraceptives containing estradiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jensen JT

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Jeffrey T Jensen,1 Johannes Bitzer,2 Marco Serrani3 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland, OR, USA; 2Department of Social Medicine and Psychosomatics, Women’s Hospital, University Hospital of Basel, Basel, Switzerland; 3Global Medical Affairs, Women’s Healthcare, Bayer HealthCare Pharmaceuticals, Berlin, Germany Abstract: Three estradiol (E2-containing oral contraceptives, estradiol valerate/cyproterone acetate (E2V/CPA, Femilar®, estradiol valerate/dienogest (E2V/DNG, Qlaira®/Natazia™, and estradiol/nomegestrol acetate (E2/NOMAC; Zoely®, have received approval for use in general practice. Only Finnish women currently have access to all three E2-based formulations. E2/NOMAC is currently approved only in Europe, while E2V/DNG is approved globally. To assist clinicians counseling women considering use of one of these formulations, we conducted a review of the published information about the current E2-containing oral contraceptives. A literature search was conducted using the Ovid interface and a combination of free search terms relevant to estradiol and oral contraception to identify suitable articles for inclusion in this review. The available data show that E2V/DNG, E2/NOMAC, and E2V/CPA are all effective oral contraceptives. While direct comparisons are lacking, indirect evidence suggests that E2V/DNG and E2/NOMAC may have better bleeding profiles than E2V/CPA. E2V/DNG is also approved for the treatment of heavy menstrual bleeding. Both E2V/DNG and E2/NOMAC have minimal influence on hemostatic, lipid, and carbohydrate metabolism parameters, or induce less change in these parameters relative to ethinylestradiol-based oral contraceptives. However, the predictive value of these surrogate parameters is a matter of debate, and whether these differences can be translated into meaningful clinical outcomes needs to be established in large-scale, post-marketing, prospective, Phase IV cohort

  5. Shock-induced termination of reentrant cardiac arrhythmias: Comparing monophasic and biphasic shock protocols

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bragard, Jean, E-mail: jbragard@unav.es; Simic, Ana; Elorza, Jorge [Department of Physics and Applied Math., University of Navarra, Pamplona (Spain); Grigoriev, Roman O.; Fenton, Flavio H. [School of Physics, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia 30332 (United States); Cherry, Elizabeth M. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Gilmour, Robert F. [University of Prince Edward Island, Charlottetown C1A 4P3 (Canada); Otani, Niels F. [School of Mathematical Sciences, Rochester Institute of Technology, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States); Department of Biomedical Sciences, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York 14853 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    In this article, we compare quantitatively the efficiency of three different protocols commonly used in commercial defibrillators. These are based on monophasic and both symmetric and asymmetric biphasic shocks. A numerical one–dimensional model of cardiac tissue using the bidomain formulation is used in order to test the different protocols. In particular, we performed a total of 4.8 × 10{sup 6} simulations by varying shock waveform, shock energy, initial conditions, and heterogeneity in internal electrical conductivity. Whenever the shock successfully removed the reentrant dynamics in the tissue, we classified the mechanism. The analysis of the numerical data shows that biphasic shocks are significantly more efficient (by about 25%) than the corresponding monophasic ones. We determine that the increase in efficiency of the biphasic shocks can be explained by the higher proportion of newly excited tissue through the mechanism of direct activation.

  6. Dissolved nutrients and atrazine removal by column-scale monophasic and biphasic rain garden model systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Hanbae; McCoy, Edward L; Grewal, Parwinder S; Dick, Warren A

    2010-08-01

    Rain gardens are bioretention systems that have the potential to reduce peak runoff flow and improve water quality in a natural and aesthetically pleasing manner. We compared hydraulic performance and removal efficiencies of nutrients and atrazine in a monophasic rain garden design versus a biphasic design at a column-scale using simulated runoff. The biphasic rain garden was designed to increase retention time and removal efficiency of runoff pollutants by creating a sequence of water saturated to unsaturated conditions. We also evaluated the effect of C substrate availability on pollutant removal efficiency in the biphasic rain garden. Five simulated runoff events with various concentrations of runoff pollutants (i.e. nitrate, phosphate, and atrazine) were applied to the monophasic and biphasic rain gardens once every 5d. Hydraulic performance was consistent over the five simulated runoff events. Peak flow was reduced by approximately 56% for the monophasic design and 80% for the biphasic design. Both rain garden systems showed excellent removal efficiency of phosphate (89-100%) and atrazine (84-100%). However, significantly (p<0.001) higher removal of nitrate was observed in the biphasic (42-63%) compared to the monophasic rain garden (29-39%). Addition of C substrate in the form of glucose increased removal efficiency of nitrate significantly (p<0.001), achieving up to 87% removal at a treatment C/N ratio of 2.0. This study demonstrates the importance of retention time, environmental conditions (i.e. saturated/unsaturated conditions), and availability of C substrate for bioremediation of pollutants, especially nitrates, in rain gardens.

  7. Sodium fusidate (fusidin) ameliorates the course of monophasic experimental allergic encephalomyelitis in the Lewis rat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Marco, R; Puglisi, G; Papaccio, G;

    2001-01-01

    We have evaluated the effect of the immunosuppressant sodium fusidate (fusidin) on the course of acute monophasic experimental encephalomyelitis (EAE) in male Lewis rats. Prophylactic treatment with fusidin, 80 or 120 mg/kg bd wt., markedly ameliorated the course of the disease in rats immunized ....... These data provide further evidence for the anti-inflammatory effect of fusidin and suggest that this drug may be valuable for the treatment of human multiple sclerosis....

  8. Predicting the oral uptake efficiency of chemicals in mammals: Combining the hydrophilic and lipophilic range

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Connor, Isabel A., E-mail: i.oconnor@science.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Huijbregts, Mark A.J., E-mail: m.huijbregts@science.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Ragas, Ad M.J., E-mail: a.ragas@science.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Open University, School of Science, P.O. Box 2960,6401 DL Heerlen (Netherlands); Hendriks, A. Jan, E-mail: a.j.hendriks@science.ru.nl [Radboud University Nijmegen, Institute for Water and Wetland Research, Department of Environmental Science, P.O. Box 9010, NL-6500 GL, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2013-01-01

    Environmental risk assessment requires models for estimating the bioaccumulation of untested compounds. So far, bioaccumulation models have focused on lipophilic compounds, and only a few have included hydrophilic compounds. Our aim was to extend an existing bioaccumulation model to estimate the oral uptake efficiency of pollutants in mammals for compounds over a wide K{sub ow} range with an emphasis on hydrophilic compounds, i.e. compounds in the lower K{sub ow} range. Usually, most models use octanol as a single surrogate for the membrane and thus neglect the bilayer structure of the membrane. However, compounds with polar groups can have different affinities for the different membrane regions. Therefore, an existing bioaccumulation model was extended by dividing the diffusion resistance through the membrane into an outer and inner membrane resistance, where the solvents octanol and heptane were used as surrogates for these membrane regions, respectively. The model was calibrated with uptake efficiencies of environmental pollutants measured in different mammals during feeding studies combined with human oral uptake efficiencies of pharmaceuticals. The new model estimated the uptake efficiency of neutral (RMSE = 14.6) and dissociating (RMSE = 19.5) compounds with logK{sub ow} ranging from − 10 to + 8. The inclusion of the K{sub hw} improved uptake estimation for 33% of the hydrophilic compounds (logK{sub ow} < 0) (r{sup 2} = 0.51, RMSE = 22.8) compared with the model based on K{sub ow} only (r{sup 2} = 0.05, RMSE = 34.9), while hydrophobic compounds (logK{sub ow} > 0) were estimated equally by both model versions with RMSE = 15.2 (K{sub ow} and K{sub hw}) and RMSE = 15.7 (K{sub ow} only). The model can be used to estimate the oral uptake efficiency for both hydrophilic and hydrophobic compounds. -- Highlights: ► A mechanistic model was developed to estimate oral uptake efficiency. ► Model covers wide logK{sub ow} range (- 10 to + 8) and several mammalian

  9. [Clinical experience of combined oral contraceptives of low doses in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saldívar Rodríguez, Donato; Vázquez, Juanita; Lara, Roger; Ramos, Carlos; Lira, Josefina; Rodríguez, Ever; Romo, Jorge

    2006-11-01

    The combined oral contraceptives are one of the most prescribed medicines. Across the years they have given to more than 60 million women of the whole world a suitable method for the highly reliable and effective natal control. The oral contraceptives are different from other medicines; principally they are not in use for controlling any disease and have the potential of giving advantages. To evaluate the control of the cycle, tolerability and acceptance of an oral contraceptive of ultralow dose with gestodene (60 microg) and ethinylestradiol (15 microg) in a population of healthy women from 18 to 35 years. The study included adult healthy women, all the users signed assent of informed before being included to the study and of the beginning of any procedure in agreement with the declarations of Helsinki and its amendments. Descriptive statistics was used for the demographic information and the comparison between the initial and final visits of the variables of efficiency. There was used the test (Proof) of ranges of Wilcoxon's sign for related samples. There were included 113 women. The average of age was 26.08 years (SD = 4.43), weight of 62.02 kg (SD = 11.13) and height of 159.20 cm (SD = 6.06). The distribution in four centers was: 32 in the University Hospital (Monterrey), 21 in the Country 2000 (Guadalajara), 30 in in the Medical Center La Mora (Aguascalientes) and 30 in Perinatology National Institute (Mexico City). The contraceptive efficiency of the combination of 15 microg of ethinylestradiol and 60 microg of gestodene has been demonstrated in previous studies. This study ratifies the international results of efficiency and tolerability.

  10. Tailoring controlled-release oral dosage forms by combining inkjet and flexographic printing techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Genina, Natalja; Fors, Daniela; Vakili, Hossein;

    2012-01-01

    We combined conventional inkjet printing technology with flexographic printing to fabricate drug delivery systems with accurate doses and tailored drug release. Riboflavin sodium phosphate (RSP) and propranolol hydrochloride (PH) were used as water-soluble model drugs. Three different paper...... substrates: A (uncoated woodfree paper), B (triple-coated inkjet paper) and C (double-coated sheet fed offset paper) were used as porous model carriers for drug delivery. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) containing solutions were printed onto 1 cm × 1 cm substrate areas using an inkjet printer...... showed excellent content uniformity. So, combining the two printing technologies allowed fabricating controlled-release oral dosage forms that are challenging to produce using a single technique. The approach opens up new perspectives in the manufacture of flexible doses and tailored drug...

  11. The evolution of combined oral contraception: improving the risk-to-benefit ratio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkman, Ronald; Bell, Carrie; Serfaty, David

    2011-07-01

    Since its introduction in 1960, the combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill has become one of the most widely and frequently used methods of contraception worldwide. Although highly effective, early COC formulations were associated with significant adverse effects and unacceptable cardiovascular risk. Improvements in tolerability and safety have been achieved, without compromises in effectiveness, primarily via hormone dosage reductions and the development of several new progestins. Multiphasic COCs and extended-/continuous-cycle COCs have also been introduced, although the clinical advantages of these formulations vs. traditional COCs have yet to be established. Inclusion of natural estrogens such as estradiol valerate and 17β-estradiol with selective progestins in new combinations that maintain good cycle control is the most recent evolutionary step designed to improve COC tolerability and safety. Vigorous research needs to continue to help guarantee that the unmet need for safe and effective contraception is satisfied in future generations.

  12. Hemolysis after Oral Artemisinin Combination Therapy for Uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum Malaria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lingscheid, Tilman; Steiner, Florian; Stegemann, Miriam S.; Bélard, Sabine; Menner, Nikolai; Pongratz, Peter; Kim, Johanna; von Bernuth, Horst; Mayer, Beate; Damm, Georg; Seehofer, Daniel; Salama, Abdulgabar; Suttorp, Norbert; Zoller, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Episodes of delayed hemolysis 2–6 weeks after treatment of severe malaria with intravenous artesunate have been described. We performed a prospective observational study of patients with uncomplicated malaria to investigate whether posttreatment hemolysis also occurs after oral artemisinin-based combination therapy. Eight of 20 patients with uncomplicated malaria who were given oral artemisinin-based combination therapy met the definition of posttreatment hemolysis (low haptoglobin level and increased lactate dehydrogenase level on day 14). Five patients had hemolysis persisting for 1 month. Patients with posttreatment hemolysis had a median decrease in hemoglobin level of 1.3 g/dL (interquartile range 0.3–2.0 g/dL) in the posttreatment period, and patients without posttreatment hemolysis had a median increase of 0.3 g/dL (IQR −0.1 to 0.7 g/dL; p = 0.002). These findings indicate a need for increased vigilance for hemolytic events in malaria patients, particularly those with predisposing factors for anemia. PMID:27434054

  13. Preoperative simultaneous combined radiotherapy and chemotherapy with mainly composed of CDDP in oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirita, Tadaaki; Tsuyuki, Motokatsu; Ohgi, Kazuhiko; Kamibayashi, Toyohiko; Horiuchi, Keisuke; Horiuchi, Katsuhiro; Sugimura, Masahito [Nara Medical Univ., Kashihara (Japan)

    1995-03-01

    Thirty-six patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral region were treated preoperatively with CDDP (15 mg/m{sup 2} x 3 days), PEP (5 mg/body x 4 days) or CBDCA (70-100 mg/m{sup 2} x 3 days), 5FU (500-750 mg/body x 4 days) in combination with simultaneous radiation (30-40 Gy). Thirty-three patients (91.2%) had Stage III or IV carcinomas whereas 3 patients had Stage II lesions. The clinical response was vary encouraging: 22 patients (61.1%) achieved CR, 13 patients (36.1%) were judged as PR, only one patient (2.8%) was NC, and overall response rates were 97.2%. Histological effects were seen in 33/36 (91.7%) (9 as Grade IIB, 8 as Grade III, 16 as Grade IV according to Shimosato`s classification.) and especially 72.7% of CR were histologically negative for tumor. Side effects of this therapy were minimal and reversible. With a follow-up ranging from 8-76 months, 5-year cumulative survival rates are 81.5% for all patients, and 100% as Stage II, 87.4% as Stage III, 72.8% as Stage IV, respectively. Morbidity after subsequent curative surgery is none, and histologic complete response are frequent. This preoperative combined simultaneous chemoradiotherapy appeares a highly active and well tolerated regimen for even advanced and highly malignant carcinomas of the oral cavity. (author).

  14. Serum resistin levels in women taking combined oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or gestodene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechberger, Tomasz; Tomaszewski, Jacek; Pieprzowska-Białek, Anna; Kulik-Rechberger, Beata; Skorupski, Paweł

    2004-06-01

    Resistin is a hormone secreted by adipose tissue that could be involved in the development of insulin resistance. Previous studies confirmed that endogenous sex steroids may influence serum resistin concentration in women. The aim of our study was to investigate the influence of combined oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or gestodene on circulating levels of resistin. Fifty-three women were enrolled in the study. Thirteen patients received 20 microg ethinylestradiol/150 microg desogestrel, 15 women were treated with 20 microg ethinylestradiol/75 microg gestodene, 11 with 30 microg ethinylestradiol/150 microg desogestrel and 14 with 30 microg ethinylestradiol/75 microg gestodene. Blood samples for estimation of serum resistin and insulin levels were drawn before administration of oral contraceptive and after 6 cycles of therapy. We found that serum resistin level remained unchanged in women receiving ethinylestradiol/desogestrel and was reduced in women treated with formulations containing gestodene. We conclude that ethinylestradiol combined with desogestrel or gestodene is unlikely to induce insulin resistance through resistin pathway.

  15. Combination of Telmisartan with Cisplatin Controls Oral Cancer Cachexia in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhoomika M.; Damle, Deepak

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to study the effect of combination of telmisartan with cisplatin in oral cancer cachexia induced by applying 0.5% 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4-NQO) in propylene glycol to tongue, thrice a week for 8 weeks. From 8th to 22nd week, cisplatin (0.23 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered once in three weeks and telmisartan (5 mg/kg/day, p.o.) was administered daily. 4-NQO produced significant decrease in food intake, body weight, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and bradycardia, worsened hemodyanamics, increased cachexia markers like insulin, C-reactive protein, and interleukin-6, and increased tumor markers like lactate dehydrogenase and γ-glutamyl transferase.Treatment with combination of telmisartan with cisplatin produced significant increase in food intake and body weight and controlled hyperglycaemia and dyslipidemia, preserved hemodynamic function, and decreased the cachexia markers while cisplatin alone did not produce any increase in food intake and body weight. Further, the combination of telmisartan with cisplatin significantly reduced tumor marker levels. Combination of telmisartan with cisplatin prevented 4-NQO induced oxidative stress, hyperplasia and hyperkeratosis, premalignant dysplasia, and invasive squamous cell carcinoma in the tongue. Our data suggests that combination of telmisartan with cisplatin treatment is beneficial in controlling cancer cachexia. Telmisartan can be used as an add-on therapy with cisplatin or other traditional chemotherapeutic agents. PMID:24381940

  16. Efficacy and safety of combined ethinyl estradiol/drospirenone oral contraceptives in the treatment of acne

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jerry KL Tan

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Jerry KL Tan1, Chemanthi Ediriweera21University of Western Ontario and Windsor Clinical Research Inc., Windsor, Ontario, Canada; 2University of Western Ontario, Southwest Ontario Medical Education Network, Windsor, Ontario, CanadaAbstract: Acne is a common disorder affecting the majority of adolescents and often extends into adulthood. The central pathophysiological feature of acne is increased androgenic stimulation and/or end-organ sensitivity of pilosebaceous units leading to sebum hypersecretion and infundibular hyperkeratinization. These events lead to Propionibacterium acnes proliferation and subsequent inflammation. Hormonal therapy, including combined oral contraceptives (OCs, can attenuate the proximate androgenic trigger of this sequence. For many women, hormonal therapy is a rational option for acne treatment as it may be useful across the spectrum of severity. Drospirenone (DRSP is a unique progestin structurally related to spironolactone with progestogenic, antimineralocorticoid, and antiandrogenic properties. It is available in 2 combined OC preparations (30 µg EE/3 mg DRSP; Yasmin® in a 21/7 regimen; and 20 µg EE/3 mg DRSP; Yaz® in a 24/4 regimen. These preparations are bereft of the fluid retentional side effects typical of other progestins and their safety has been demonstrated in large epidemiological studies in which no increased risk of vascular thromboembolic disease or arrhythmias was observed. In acne, the efficacy of DRSP-containing OCs has been shown in placebo-controlled superiority trials and in active-comparator non-inferiority trials.Keywords: acne vulgaris, combined oral contraceptives, drosperinone, ethinyl estradiol, efficacy, safety, treatment

  17. Comparative study of preoperative use of oral gabapentin, intravenous dexamethasone and their combination in gynaecological procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Agrawal

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: We studied the effects of oral gabapentin and intravenous (I.V. dexamethasone given together or separately 1 h before the start of surgery on intraoperative hemodynamics Postoperative analgesia and postoperative nausea vomiting (PONV in patients undergoing gynaecological procedure. Materials and Methods: Patients were randomly divided into three groups: Group 1 (gabapentin, n = 46 received 400 mg gabapentin, Group 2 (dexamethasone, n = 46 received 8 mg dexamethasone and Group 3 (gabapentin plus dexamethasone, n = 46 received both 400 mg gabapentin and 8 mg dexamethasone I.V. 1 h before the start of surgery. Standard induction and maintenance of anesthesia were accomplished. Visual analog scale for pain was recorded for 12 h. Side effects were noted. Results: Hemodynamics at various time interval (0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 min of laryngeal mask airway insertion and PONV were found significantly lower in Group 3 than in Group 1 and Group 2 (P 3 was significantly longer in Group 3 (510.00 ± 61.64 min than in Group 1 (352.83 ± 80.61 min and in Group 2 (294.78 ± 60.76 min, (P < 0.05. Conclusion: The present study concludes that the combination of oral Gabapentin and I.V. dexamethasone has significantly less hemodynamic changes, better postoperative analgesia and less incidence of PONV than individual administration of each drug.

  18. Fatores associados à descontinuação do uso de anticoncepcionais orais combinados Associated factors with discontinuation use of combined oral contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Bahamondes

    2011-06-01

    sobre os eventos adversos esperados que são mínimos e temporários e sobre os benefícios não contraceptivos dos ACO.PURPOSE: Due to the scarce information available in Brazil in relation to the number of women who initiated the use of combined oral contraceptives and prematurely discontinued, the objective was to assess the reasons for discontinuation of the use of several combined oral contraceptives among Brazilian women living in urban areas. METHODS: A cross-sectional study with 400 gynecologists registered withy the Brazilian Federation of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Each physician interviewed 10 non-pregnant, not breastfeeding, not amenorrheic women aged 18 to 39 years who consulted requesting combined oral contraceptive (COC with a questionnaire at the beginning of use and at six months later. The questionnaire included sociodemographic data, type of COC chosen or prescribed and reasons for discontinuation when it occurred during follow-up. The strategy of selection allowed the inclusion of women from different socioeconomic strata, however, only those attended at private or insurance offices. The sample size was estimated at 1,427 women. RESULTS: A total of 3,465 interviews were conducted at the first visit and 1,699 six months later. The women were 20 to 29 years old, 57.3% were single and an equal proportion of 45.0% attended high school or college. Most (60.7% were nulligravidas and among those who had used some contraceptive before, 71.8% had used a COC. Among the more prescribed or chosen COC the most prevalent were monophasic with ethynil estradiol (20 µg and regarding progestin the most prevalent was with gestodene (36.5% followed by a COC with drosperinone (22.0%. At six months 63.5% still used COC. Among those who discontinued the main reasons were wishing to become pregnant (36.5% and side effects (57.3% and the most prevalent were headache (37.6%, weight gain (16.6% and irregular bleeding (23.6%. CONCLUSIONS: The continuation rate of COC was

  19. Combined Oral Contraception and Obesity Are Strong Predictors of Low-Grade Inflammation in Healthy Individuals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Cecilie J; Pedersen, Ole B; Petersen, Mikkel S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: C-reactive protein (CRP) is a well-established marker of inflammation. The level of CRP is affected by several lifestyle factors. A slightly increased CRP level, also known as low-grade inflammation (LGI), is associated with increased risk of several diseases, especially cardiovascular...... disease. The aim of this study was to identify predictors of increased CRP levels in healthy individuals. We therefore assessed CRP in a large cohort of blood donors. METHODS: We measured plasma CRP levels in 15,684 participants from the Danish Blood Donor Study. CRP was measured by a commercial assay...... and abdominal obesity strongly predicted LGI among healthy individuals. However, the most striking finding was the high prevalence of LGI among premenopausal women who used combined oral contraception. Although the significance of CRP as a marker of inflammation is well known, the role of CRP in pathogenesis...

  20. Therapeutic value of oral supplementation with melon superoxide dismutase and wheat gliadin combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romao, Susana

    2015-03-01

    Dietary antioxidant supplementation has been popular in Western countries. Various supplements have been developed in recent years, and research has been gathered from both animal and clinical research trials. In this review, the therapeutic value of oral administration of a combination of melon superoxide dismutase (SOD) and a vegetable polymer (gliadin) is evaluated. Critical examination of the effects of SOD-gliadin supplementation is carried out, with an emphasis on its impact on oxidative stress levels and on endogenous antioxidant pathways. Overall analysis of peer-reviewed published data suggests that intake of SOD-gliadin might have advantageous health effects. These conclusions are dependent on the condition or pathology under consideration. In general, the authors, who analyzed SOD-gliadin supplementation, support the use of SOD-gliadin supplementation as a complementary treatment rather than a therapeutic treatment. To further clarify the importance of dietary SOD-gliadin administration, additional large-scale clinical trials are recommended.

  1. Pharmacokinetics of oral transmucosal and intramuscular dexmedetomidine combined with buprenorphine in cats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porters, N; de Rooster, H; Bosmans, T; Baert, K; Cherlet, M; Croubels, S; De Backer, P; Polis, I

    2015-04-01

    Plasma concentrations and pharmacokinetics of dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine after oral transmucosal (OTM) and intramuscular (i.m.) administration of their combination in healthy adult cats were compared. According to a crossover protocol (1-month washout), a combination of dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) and buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) was given OTM (buccal cavity) or i.m. (quadriceps muscle) in six female neutered cats. Plasma samples were collected through a jugular catheter during a 24-h period. Plasma dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine concentrations were determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Plasma concentration-time data were fitted to compartmental models. For dexmedetomidine and buprenorphine, the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the maximum plasma concentrations (Cmax ) were significantly lower following OTM than following i.m. administration. For buprenorphine, time to reach Cmax was also significantly longer after OTM administration than after i.m. injection. Data suggested that dexmedetomidine (40 μg/kg) combined with buprenorphine (20 μg/kg) is not as well absorbed from the buccal mucosa site as from the intramuscular injection site.

  2. Highly trabeculated structure of the human endocardium underlies asymmetrical response to low-energy monophasic shocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Adam; Robson, Matthew D.; Schneider, Jürgen; Burton, Rebecca; Plank, Gernot; Bishop, Martin J.

    2017-09-01

    Novel low-energy defibrillation therapies are thought to be driven by virtual-electrodes (VEs), due to the interaction of applied monophasic electric shocks with fine-scale anatomical structures within the heart. Significant inter-species differences in the cardiac (micro)-anatomy exist, however, particularly with respect to the degree of endocardial trabeculations, which may underlie important differences in response to low-energy defibrillation protocols. Understanding the interaction of monophasic electric fields with the specific human micro-anatomy is therefore imperative in facilitating the translation and optimisation of these promising experimental therapies to the clinic. In this study, we sought to investigate how electric fields from implanted devices interact with the highly trabeculated human endocardial surface to better understand shock success in order to help optimise future clinical protocols. A bi-ventricular human computational model was constructed from high resolution (350 μm) ex-vivo MR data, including anatomically accurate endocardial structures. Monophasic shocks were applied between a basal right ventricular catheter and an exterior ground. Shocks of varying strengths were applied with both anodal [positive right ventricle (RV) electrode] and cathodal (negative RV electrode) polarities at different states of tissue refractoriness and during induced arrhythmias. Anodal shocks induced isolated positive VEs at the distal side of "detached" trabeculations, which rapidly spread into hyperpolarised tissue on the surrounding endocardial surfaces following the shock. Anodal shocks thus depolarised more tissue 10 ms after the shock than cathodal shocks where the propagation of activation from VEs induced on the proximal side of "detached" trabeculations was prevented due to refractory endocardium. Anodal shocks increased arrhythmia complexity more than cathodal shocks during failed anti-arrhythmia shocks. In conclusion, multiple detached

  3. Antinociceptive synergy, additivity, and subadditivity with combinations of oral glucosamine plus nonopioid analgesics in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tallarida, Ronald J; Cowan, Alan; Raffa, Robert B

    2003-11-01

    Glucosamine (2-amino-2-deoxy-d-glucose) and glucosamine-containing products have been reported to have efficacy in the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders. Glucosamine's efficacy, including reduction of pain, is attributed to disease-modifying properties, specifically to cartilage-rebuilding associated with modulation of interleukin-1-induced activation of chondrocytes and to inhibition of proinflammatory effects of the nuclear factor-kappaB pathway. However, glucosamine has not been shown to have direct analgesic activity. We report here that commercial glucosamine (90.4% glucosamine sulfate + 9.6% excipients) administered as the sole agent (up to 500 mg/kg p.o.) was inactive in the mouse abdominal irritant test but that certain combinations of glucosamine with nonopioid analgesics at the oral doses and ratios tested resulted in a synergistic (ibuprofen and ketoprofen), additive (diclofenac, indomethacin, naproxen, and piroxicam), or subadditive (aspirin and acetaminophen) antinociceptive interaction. In the specific case of ibuprofen, the racemate (standard ibuprofen) produced dose-related antinociception with ED50 = 26.1 +/- 3.4 mg/kg. Combinations containing racemic ibuprofen and glucosamine in greater than 1:1 ratio (glucosamine/ibuprofen) were synergistic in the test (e.g., ED50 = 11.0 +/- 2.1 for the 9:1 ratio; p < 0.01, analysis of variance). Combinations containing glucosamine and ibuprofen (2:1 and 9:1) yielded plasma levels of ibuprofen that were no different from administration of ibuprofen alone. The possibility that combinations containing certain fixed ratios of glucosamine and certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) might enhance pain relief in patients with pain or might achieve acceptable levels of pain relief with lower doses of NSAIDs (reduced adverse effects) is presently being pursued in clinical trials.

  4. Efficacy, safety, and patient acceptability of the combined chlormadinone acetate-ethinylestradiol oral contraceptive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Ferrari

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Serena Ferrari, Marianna Cannoletta, Matteo Generali, Lucia Cazzato, Angelo CagnacciDepartment of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Pediatrics, Azienda Ospedaliero, Universitaria di Modena, ItalyAbstract: Since their introduction in 1959, development of hormonal contraceptives has been ongoing, with the ultimate aim of creating not only an effective and safe contraceptive method, but also a drug able to meet the need for treatment of other conditions, such as acne, seborrhea, and hirsutism, with few or no side effects. With this objective, a new progestin, chlormadinone acetate (CMA, has been developed as a derivative of progesterone for ­contraception. This new molecule has been introduced in combination with ethinylestradiol (EE 30 µg as a safe ­contraceptive with antiandrogenic properties. Many clinical studies have investigated this new oral combination and found it to be safe, with a Pearl Index similar to that of other combined hormonal contraceptives. CMA, because of its antiandrogenic properties, has been also considered effective for resolution of acne, seborrhea, and hirsutism. The data show it to be a safe molecule in terms of glucose and lipid metabolism. No major weight changes have been linked with its use, and it seems to be the only progestin able to reduce fat mass during use. The CMA-EE combination is well tolerated and acceptable to women. Adverse events related to its use are similar to those reported with other third-generation ­contraceptives. We can conclude that CMA-EE is an effective, safe, and well tolerated ­antiandrogenic hormonal contraceptive.Keywords: chlormadinone acetate, acne, weight, metabolism, safety, hormonal contraceptive

  5. Efficacy and safety of combined ethinyl estradiol/drospirenone oral contraceptives in the treatment of acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Jerry Kl; Ediriweera, Chemanthi

    2010-08-09

    Acne is a common disorder affecting the majority of adolescents and often extends into adulthood. The central pathophysiological feature of acne is increased androgenic stimulation and/or end-organ sensitivity of pilosebaceous units leading to sebum hypersecretion and infundibular hyperkeratinization. These events lead to Propionibacterium acnes proliferation and subsequent inflammation. Hormonal therapy, including combined oral contraceptives (OCs), can attenuate the proximate androgenic trigger of this sequence. For many women, hormonal therapy is a rational option for acne treatment as it may be useful across the spectrum of severity. Drospirenone (DRSP) is a unique progestin structurally related to spironolactone with progestogenic, antimineralocorticoid, and antiandrogenic properties. It is available in 2 combined OC preparations (30 μg EE/3 mg DRSP; Yasmin(®) in a 21/7 regimen; and 20 μg EE/3 mg DRSP; Yaz(®) in a 24/4 regimen). These preparations are bereft of the fluid retentional side effects typical of other progestins and their safety has been demonstrated in large epidemiological studies in which no increased risk of vascular thromboembolic disease or arrhythmias was observed. In acne, the efficacy of DRSP-containing OCs has been shown in placebo-controlled superiority trials and in active-comparator non-inferiority trials.

  6. Economic Evaluations of Thrombophilia Screening Prior to Prescribing Combined Oral Contraceptives: A Systematic and Critical Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernon, Erin; Hiedemann, Bridget; Bowie, Bonnie H

    2017-03-13

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) increase the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), particularly among women with inherited clotting disorders. The World Health Organization classifies combined hormonal contraception as an "unacceptable health risk" for women with thrombogenic mutations but advises against universal thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs given the low prevalence of thrombophilia and high screening costs. Through the lens of lifetime costs and benefits, this paper systematically and critically reviews all published economic evaluations of thrombophilia screening prior to prescribing COCs. We searched relevant databases for economic evaluations of thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs. After extracting the key study characteristics and economic variables, we evaluated each article using the Quality of Health Economic Studies (QHES) and the Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards (CHEERS) instruments. Seven economic evaluations of thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs met our inclusion criteria. Only the two economic evaluations focusing exclusively on selective screening exceeded the 75-point threshold for high-quality economic studies based on the QHES instrument, whereas only one of these exceeded the 85% CHEERS threshold. Only three of the seven economic evaluations performed sensitivity analysis on key parameters. Most studies underestimated the benefits of thrombophilia screening by comparing one-time costs of genetic screening against benefits per person-year, thus implicitly assuming a 1-year duration of COC use, neglecting the long-term implications of VTE and/or neglecting the lifetime benefits of awareness of inherited thrombophilia. Our review highlights the lack of methodologically rigorous economic evaluations of universal thrombophilia screening before prescribing COCs.

  7. Dose finding in a low-dose 21-day combined oral contraceptive containing gestodene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lüdicke, F; Sullivan, H; Spona, J; Elstein, M

    2001-10-01

    An open label, non-comparative study was carried out in 22 women over a total of five cycles. After an untreated cycle, oral administration of 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) with 50 microg gestodene (GST) (tablets taken daily for 21 days with a break of 7 days) was commenced, and three treatment cycles were followed by an untreated follow-up control cycle. The ability of this formulation to inhibit ovulation and suppress ovarian activity was assessed by using hormonal parameters and ultrasound. One ovulation occurred during treatment. Luteinized unruptured follicles were observed in three cases in the second treatment cycle and in one case during the third treatment cycle. Follicle-like structures larger than 13 mm associated with a serum estradiol level of more than 30 pg/mL were noted in 19% of the women in the first treatment cycle. The rate of active follicle-like structures was 43% in the second treatment cycle and 28% in the third treatment cycle. The results were compared with previously reported findings of a preparation containing 20 microg EE and 75 microg GST. With regard to ovarian grading and endogenous hormone secretion, considerably more residual ovarian activity, with all parameters examined, was found in the 20 microg EE and 50 microg GST preparation compared to the 20 microg EE and 75 microg GST preparation. It was concluded that the 20 microg EE and 50 microg GST preparation administered for 21 days does not meet the requirements of a combined oral contraceptive with respect to ovulation inhibition.

  8. Combining insulins with oral antidiabetic agents: effect on hyperglycemic control, markers of cardiovascular risk and disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjeld Hermansen

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Kjeld Hermansen, Lene Sundahl Mortensen, Marie-Louise HermansenDepartment of Endocrinology and Metabolism C, Aarhus University Hospital, DK-8000 Aarhus, DenmarkAbstract: Patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM have an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD. Unfortunately, several potential barriers exist for CVD risk management in diabetes, including the need for significant lifestyle changes, potential problems with hypoglycemia, weight gain, injection tolerability, treatment complexity with current diabetes therapies and other, unmodifiable factors. Improving glycemic control may impact CVD risk. Treatment of T2DM usually starts with lifestyle changes such as diet and exercise. When these become insufficient, pharmacotherapy is required. Various oral antidiabetic drugs (OADs are available that reduce hyperglycemia. The first line of therapy is usually metformin, since it does not increase weight and seems to have a beneficial effect on CVD mortality and risk factors. As T2DM progresses, insulin treatment becomes necessary for the majority of patients. The last few years have seen the development of long-acting, rapid-acting, and premixed insulin analog formulations. The treat-to-target algorithms of recent studies combining OADs plus insulin analogs have demonstrated that patients can reach glycemic treatment targets with low risk of hypoglycemia, greater convenience, and – with some analogs – limited weight gain vs conventional insulins. These factors may possibly have a positive influence on CVD risk. Future studies will hopefully elucidate the benefits of this approach.Keywords: diabetes mellitus, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, hyperglycemia, insulin, oral antidiabetic drugs

  9. Nomegestrol acetate-17b-estradiol for oral contraception

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    Burke A

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Anne Burke Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MD, USAAbstract: Oral contraceptives remain a popular method of contraception over 50 years after their introduction. While safe and effective for many women, the failure rate of oral contraception is about 8%. Concerns about the risk of venous thromboembolism continue to drive the search for the safest oral contraceptive formulations. The oral contraceptive NOMAC-E2 contains nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC 2.5 mg + 17b-estradiol (E2 1.5 mg. The approved dosing regimen is 24 days of active hormone, followed by a 4-day hormone-free interval. NOMAC is a progestin derived from testosterone, which has high bioavailability, rapid absorption, and a long half-life. Estradiol, though it has a lower bioavailability, has been successfully combined with NOMAC in a monophasic oral contraceptive. Two recently published randomized controlled trials demonstrate that NOMAC-E2 is an effective contraceptive, with a Pearl Index less than one pregnancy per 100 woman-years. The bleeding pattern on NOMAC-E2 is characterized by fewer bleeding/spotting days, shorter withdrawal bleeds, and a higher incidence of amenorrhea than the comparator oral contraceptive containing drospirenone and ethinyl estradiol. The adverse event profile appears to be acceptable. Few severe adverse events were reported in the randomized controlled trials. The most common adverse events were irregular bleeding, acne, and weight gain. Preliminary studies suggest that NOMAC-E2 does not seem to have negative effects on hemostatic and metabolic parameters. While no one oral contraceptive formulation is likely to be the optimum choice for all women, NOMAC-E2 is a formulation with effectiveness comparable with that of other oral contraceptives, and a reassuring safety profile.Keywords: oral contraception, nomegestrol acetate, estradiol

  10. A COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF A COMBINATION OF MIDAZOLAM AND KETAMINE VERSUS MIDAZOLAM OR KETAMINE ALONE AS ORAL PREMEDICATION FOR CHILDREN

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    Anjali P.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This prospective double blind randomized study was conducted to compare the efficacy of combination of oral ketamine and midazolam with oral midazolam or ketamine alone in terms of acceptability, anxiolysis, sedation and side effects. AIMS AND OBJECTIVE: Compare the efficacy of oral midazolam, oral ketamine and combination of these two drugs, as pre medication in terms of acceptability, sedation, anxiolysis and side effects in paediatric children and t o evaluate whether the addition of oral midazolam to oral ketamine reduces the side effects of oral Ketamine. METHODS: In this randomized prospective study, 90 children of (age 1 - 8 years either sex, ASA grade I and II were randomly allocated to three groups of thirty each. Group M received midazolam 0.75mg/kg, Group K received ketamine 6 mg/kg and Group M+K received midazolam 0.5 mg/kg and ketamine 3 mg/kg via oral route. Formulations of the drugs were given to the children to swallow after mixing with apple juice. The children were separated from their parents 45 minutes after administration of the drug and were taken inside the operation theatre. Acceptability of the drug, time of onset of sedation, level of sedation and anxiolysis at the time of separation from parents and sedation at the time of induction of anaesthesia was noted. Any side effect after administration of the drug and in post - operative period was looked for. RESULTS: The Group K had better acceptance as compared to Group M and Group M+K . The onset of sedation was faster in Group M+K as compared to Group K and Group M, but not statistically significant . The sedation as well as anxiolysis in all the three groups was found to be acceptable at the time of separation; however it was not found to be satisfactory at the time of induction. Incidence of side effects was more in Group K as compared to the other two groups. CONCLUSION: The combination of oral midazolam and oral ketamine in low dose is better premedication than the

  11. Synthesis of antimicrobial monophase silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanopowders for bone tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanić, Vojislav; Janaćković, Djordje; Dimitrijević, Suzana; Tanasković, Sladjana B.; Mitrić, Miodrag; Pavlović, Mirjana S.; Krstić, Aleksandra; Jovanović, Dragoljub; Raičević, Slavica

    2011-02-01

    Monophase silver-doped hydroxyapatite (AgxCa10-x(PO4)6(OH)2; 0.002 ≤ x ≤ 0.04) nanoparticles were prepared using a neutralization method and investigated with respect to potential medical applications. This method consists of dissolving Ag2O in solution of H3PO4, and the slow addition to suspension of Ca(OH)2 was applied for the purpose of homogenous distribution of silver ions. Characterization studies from XRD, TEM and FTIR spectra showed that obtained crystals are monophase hydroxyapatites and that particles of all samples are of nano size, with average length of 70 nm and about 15-25 nm in diameter. Antimicrobial studies have demonstrated that all silver-doped hydroxyapatite samples exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro against the following pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The hydroxyapatite sample with the highest content of silver has shown the highest antimicrobial activity; killed all cells of E. coli and brought to more than 99% reduction in viable counts of S. aureus and C. albicans. The atomic force microscopic studies illustrate that silver-doped hydroxyapatite sample causes considerable morphological changes of microorganism cells which might be the cause of cells' death. Hemolysis ratios of the silver-doped hydroxyapatite samples were below 3%, indicating good blood compatibility and that are promising as biomaterials.

  12. Synthesis of antimicrobial monophase silver-doped hydroxyapatite nanopowders for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stanic, Vojislav, E-mail: voyo@vinca.rs [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Janackovic, Djordje; Dimitrijevic, Suzana [Faculty of Technology and Metallurgy, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Tanaskovic, Sladjana B. [Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Mitric, Miodrag; Pavlovic, Mirjana S. [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia); Krstic, Aleksandra [Institute for Medical Research, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Jovanovic, Dragoljub [Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, University of Belgrade, 11000 Belgrade (Serbia); Raicevic, Slavica [Vinca Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, P.O. Box 522, 11001 Belgrade (Serbia)

    2011-02-15

    Monophase silver-doped hydroxyapatite (Ag{sub x}Ca{sub 10-x}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}; 0.002 {<=} x {<=} 0.04) nanoparticles were prepared using a neutralization method and investigated with respect to potential medical applications. This method consists of dissolving Ag{sub 2}O in solution of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4}, and the slow addition to suspension of Ca(OH){sub 2} was applied for the purpose of homogenous distribution of silver ions. Characterization studies from XRD, TEM and FTIR spectra showed that obtained crystals are monophase hydroxyapatites and that particles of all samples are of nano size, with average length of 70 nm and about 15-25 nm in diameter. Antimicrobial studies have demonstrated that all silver-doped hydroxyapatite samples exhibit excellent antimicrobial activity in vitro against the following pathogens: Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and Candida albicans. The hydroxyapatite sample with the highest content of silver has shown the highest antimicrobial activity; killed all cells of E. coli and brought to more than 99% reduction in viable counts of S. aureus and C. albicans. The atomic force microscopic studies illustrate that silver-doped hydroxyapatite sample causes considerable morphological changes of microorganism cells which might be the cause of cells' death. Hemolysis ratios of the silver-doped hydroxyapatite samples were below 3%, indicating good blood compatibility and that are promising as biomaterials.

  13. Synovial sarcoma with relevant immunocytochemistry and special emphasis on the monophasic fibrous variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kottu Radhika

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Monophasic fibrous synovial sarcoma (SS is the most common variant of SS. Only a few cytological studies are available on this entity. Bcl-2 protein expression has been described as a characteristic marker of SS and is useful for its differentiation from other sarcomas. Cytokeratin and CD99 are also used in detecting SS. Aims: To evaluate synovial sarcoma and its variants cytomorphologically. Materials and Methods: During a period of 10 years 7 months, i.e. from January 1998 to July 2008, 12 cytologic specimens diagnosed as synovial sarcoma were reviewed. Ten cases were diagnosed as SS on aspiration alone but two cases required ancillary technique i.e., immunocytochemistry staining with bcl-2 and cytokeratin. The smears were stained with Papanicolaou and May-Grόnwald-Giemsa stains. Results: All cytologic specimens in our study had similar appearance. Most smears were highly cellular and were made up of densely packed tri-dimensional groups and singly scattered round to oval cells. Cellular monomorphism and vascular channels within the cell groups were the remarkable findings. Only one case showed cytologic evidence of epithelial differentiation. Bcl-2, cytokeratin, CD99 positivity was seen on immunohistochemistry staining. Results were categorized according to age, sex and morphologic variants. Conclusions: Although cytomorphologic features of synovial sarcomas are characteristic enough to permit its recognition, clinical correlation is necessary for accurate diagnosis. Monophasic variant is the most common entity observed in the present study.

  14. Metabolic profile of a continuous versus a cyclic low-dose combined oral contraceptive after one year of use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rad, M.; Kluft, C.; Kam, M.L. de; Meijer, P.; Cohen, A.F.; Grubb, G.S.; Constantine, G.D.; Burggraaf, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives?To compare the effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) taken continuously with those of one of similar composition taken cyclically on 30 variables related to haemostasis, lipids, carbohydrates, bone metabolism, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Methods?Randomised,

  15. Metabolic profile of a continuous versus a cyclic low-dose combined oral contraceptive after one year of use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rad, M.; Kluft, C.; Kam, M.L. de; Meijer, P.; Cohen, A.F.; Grubb, G.S.; Constantine, G.D.; Burggraaf, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives?To compare the effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) taken continuously with those of one of similar composition taken cyclically on 30 variables related to haemostasis, lipids, carbohydrates, bone metabolism, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Methods?Randomised, open-labe

  16. Metabolic profile of a continuous versus a cyclic low-dose combined oral contraceptive after one year of use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rad, M.; Kluft, C.; Kam, M.L. de; Meijer, P.; Cohen, A.F.; Grubb, G.S.; Constantine, G.D.; Burggraaf, J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives?To compare the effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) taken continuously with those of one of similar composition taken cyclically on 30 variables related to haemostasis, lipids, carbohydrates, bone metabolism, and sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG). Methods?Randomised, open-labe

  17. Combination treatment with anti-CD20 and oral anti-CD3 prevents and reverses autoimmune diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Changyun; Ding, Heyuan; Zhang, Xiaojun; Wong, F Susan; Wen, Li

    2013-08-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a T cell-mediated autoimmune disease, although B cells also play an important role in T1D development. Both T cell- and B cell-directed immunotherapies have shown efficacy in the prevention and reversal of T1D. However, whether the combined strategy of targeting both T and B cells could further improve therapeutic efficacy remains to be explored. We show that combined treatment with intravenous antihuman CD20 (hCD20) and oral anti-CD3 significantly delays diabetes development in prediabetic hCD20 transgenic NOD mice. More importantly, the combined treatment reverses diabetes in >60% of mice newly diagnosed with diabetes. Further mechanistic studies demonstrated that the addition of oral anti-CD3 to the B-cell depletion therapy synergistically enhances the suppressive function of regulatory T cells. Of note, the oral anti-CD3 treatment induced a fraction of interleukin (IL)-10-producing CD4 T cells in the small intestine through IL-10- and IL-27-producing dendritic cells. Thus, the findings demonstrate that combining anti-CD20 and oral anti-CD3 is superior to anti-CD20 monotherapy for restoring normoglycemia in diabetic NOD mice, providing important preclinical evidence for the optimization of B cell-directed therapy for T1D.

  18. Phase i and pharmacological study of pazopanib in combination with oral topotecan in patients with advanced solid tumours

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kerklaan, B. Milojkovic; Lolkema, M. P J; Devriese, L. A.; Voest, E. E.; Nol-Boekel, A.; Mergui-Roelvink, M.; Langenberg, M.; Mykulowycz, K.; Stoebenau, J.; Lane, S.; Legenne, P.; Wissel, P.; Smith, D. A.; Giantonio, B. J.; Schellens, J. H M; Witteveen, P. O.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This phase I study evaluated the safety, tolerability, maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacokinetics of two dosing schedules of oral topotecan in combination with pazopanib in patients with advanced solid tumours. Methods: Stage I of this study was to determine whether there was an i

  19. Oral tranexamic acid with fluocinolone-based triple combination cream versus fluocinolone-based triple combination cream alone in melasma: An open labeled randomized comparative trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanmay Padhi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Melasma is a common acquired cause of facial hyperpigmentation with no definitive therapy. Tranexamic acid, a plasmin inhibitor, has demonstrated depigmenting properties and combining this oral drug with other modalities of treatment has shown promising results. Objectives : To compare the efficacy of a combination of oral tranexamic acid and fluocinolone-based triple combination cream with that of fluocinolone-based triple combination cream alone in melasma among Indian patients. Materials and Methods : 40 patients of melasma of either sex attending to dermatology OPD were enrolled in this study. Participants were randomly divided into two groups with 20 patients in each group. Group A patients were asked to apply the cream only and Group B patients received oral tranexamic acid 250 mg twice daily and applied a triple combination cream containing fluocinolone acetonide 0.01%, tretinoin 0.05%, and hydroquinone 2% once daily for 8 weeks. Response was evaluated using melasma area severity index (MASI at baseline, 4 weeks, and 8 weeks. Results : 40 patients completed the study. The MASI scores at baseline, 4 weeks and 8 weeks in group A were 15.425 + 1.09, 11.075 + 9.167 and 6.995 + 6.056 respectively and in group B 18.243 + 1.05, 6.135 + 4.94 and 2.19 + 3.38. Intergroup comparison showed a faster reduction in pigmentation in Group B as compared to Group A and the results were statistically significant at 4 weeks (P value 0.014 and 8 weeks (P value 0.000. The efficacy was maintained throughout the 6-month follow-up period. Conclusion: Addition of oral tranexamic acid to fluocinolone-based triple combination cream results in a faster and sustained improvement in the treatment of melasma.

  20. Gestodene. A review of its pharmacology, efficacy and tolerability in combined contraceptive preparations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, M I; Balfour, J A

    1995-08-01

    The newer progestogens gestodene, desogestrel and norgestimate were developed in an attempt to produce agents with more selective progestational activity that would improve cycle control and minimise metabolic changes and adverse events while effectively preventing pregnancy. In clinical practice, gestodene is combined with ethinylestradiol in monophasic or triphasic combined oral contraceptive preparations. The drug has pharmacokinetic advantages over the other new progestogens in that it is active per se (the others are prodrugs) and has high bioavailability (approximately 100%). The ability of gestodene-containing oral contraceptives to inhibit ovulation is similar to that of preparations containing other progestogens although the required dosage is lower. In common with oral contraceptives containing desogestrel or norgestimate, and in contrast with those containing levonorgestrel, gestodene-containing preparations are associated with neutral or positive changes in lipid and carbohydrate metabolism. The effects of gestodene preparations on coagulation parameters, like those of desogestrel and levonorgestrel, are balanced by changes in the fibrinolytic system. Although the impact of these changes on clinical cardiovascular end-points has not been determined, the altered lipid profile is not likely to have significant clinical relevance because of the predominantly thrombogenic nature of cardiovascular disease in oral contraceptive users. Pregnancy rates and Pearl Indices with gestodene-containing preparations are low and similar to those with preparations containing other progestogens. Most pregnancies are attributable to user failure. Cycle control appears to be better with gestodene preparations than with levonorgestrel preparations, and available data suggest that cycle control may also be better with monophasic gestodene/ethinylestradiol than with monophasic desogestrel- or norgestimate-containing preparations, and better with triphasic gestodene- than with

  1. [Gynecological use of a phlebokinetic drug with special reference to its combination with oral contraceptives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzola, D

    1975-09-30

    Controlled experiments confirmed the therapeutic usefulness in gynecology of a phlebokinetic drug, in which EPL (polyunsaturated phosphatidylcholine) was combined with escine and rutine. The drug is particularly recommended for the prophylaxis and treatment of vein disorders caused by oral contraceptives. A total of 75 patients were treated with the drug (Essaven), in addition to the usual treatment (such as anticoagulants), while 75 controls received the usual treatment only. Results were excellent in cases of varicose veins, where the symptoms were eliminated in almost all cases. In cases of phlebitis and thrombophlebitis, the response was less univocal, but a definite improvement was evident in a good number of cases treated with Essaven; the drug also favored the return to normal conditions after thrombophlebitis attacks, reducing the duration of their painful aftereffects. The drug can be used daily for very long periods without side effects. It can also be used safely during pregnancy, without adverse effects on the fetus and on delivery. It is regarded as ideal to avoid the side effects of contraceptives on the venous system.

  2. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC METHOD FOR SIMULTANEOUS ESTIMATION OF MESALAMINE AND PREDNISOLONE IN COMBINED ORAL DOSAGE FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Sanjay Jain et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to develop simple, precise, accurate, reproducible and economical vireodt's method for simultaneous estimation of mesalamine (MSM and prednisolone (PRD in combined oral dosage form. The method involved measurement of absorbance at two wavelengths, 332nm and 246nm, λmax of MSM and PRD, respectively in phosphate buffer (pH 7.4 with dimethyl formamide (DMF as cosolvent. The linearity was obtained in the concentration range of 5-50 µg/ml and 2-20 µg/ml for MSM and PRD, respectively. The average percent recovery of MSM and PRD was found to be 99.19+0.78% and 99.71+0.82%, respectively. The accuracy and precision were determined and recovery studies confirmed the accuracy of the developed method that was carried out following the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH guidelines. The recovery study was carried out by standard addition method. The proposed method was found to be rapid, specific, precise, accurate, and reproducible and can be successfully applied for the routine analysis of MSM and PRD in pharmaceutical dosage form.

  3. Cardiovascular disease and combined oral contraceptives: reviewing the evidence and balancing the risks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farley, T M; Meirik, O; Collins, J

    1999-01-01

    Cardiovascular risks have been a concern since combined oral contraceptives (OCs) were first introduced. In the past four years new, mostly reassuring information on the safety of modern, low oestrogen dose OCs has become available. However, in 1995 the new information showed higher venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk for OCs containing desogestrel and gestodene compared with levonorgestrel- or norethindrone-containing OCs. The controversial responses by national authorities, their scientific and public health merits were hotly debated and many considered the differences in risk small and resulted from bias and/or confounding. We discuss these arguments and conclude they lack empirical support or cannot account for the 2-fold increased risk. The risk of ischaemic stroke and myocardial infarction (MI) associated with low oestrogen dose OCs are very small in women without cardiovascular risk factors, while increased risk of haemorrhagic stroke is confined to women >35 years of age. Applying the most recent risks to models of OC-attributable events and deaths, OC-attributable mortality in women mortality (about 90 per million women of reproductive age annually in the UK) such risks appear small. Over the age of 35 years, OC-attributable mortality is a more important concern, particularly among smokers. In the absence of any appreciable OC-attributable mortality in young healthy women, the additional VTE risk for third compared with second generation OCs should be considered when women choose which OC to use.

  4. Post-marketing Surveillance for Combined Oral Contraceptive Containing Desogestrel (Marvelon?) in Chinese Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To assess the side effects and the continuation rate of combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing desogestrel (Marvelon ) during 12 months. Methods This was a post-marketing surveillance study on Marvelon COC among 870 healthy rural women in 5 different counties of Jiangsu Province during 12 months. Results About 24.02% of the women who used Marvelon COC experienced side effects during 12 months. Gastrointestinal disorder, bleeding/spotting and chloasma were ranked the first three in the side effects. The rate of side effects of Marvelon COC users during the first 3 months in southern area of Jiangsu was significantly higher than that of users in northern area of Jiangsu. Most of the users did not experience obvious weight changes i.e., loss or increase in weight of more than 5 kg during 12 months. Blood pressure and biochemical indicators of almost 99% among users were within the normal range. The gross cumulative continuation rate for 12 months was 83.14%; the most common medical reason for discontinuation was gastrointestinal disorder. There was an increased risk of discontinuation use among women with lower educational level.Conclusion Marvelon COC brought fewer side effects and was well accepted when applied in Chinese rural women.

  5. Combined Oral and Intravenous Immunization Stimulates Strong IgA Responses in Both Systemic and Mucosal Compartments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zhe; Zhao, Qing; Gao, Yun-An; Zhang, Wei

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the influence of immunization routes onIgG, IgA and IgM production in systemic and mucosal compartments, we immunized mice with keyhole limpet hemocyanin (KLH) via oral, intranasal (i.n.) or subcutaneous (s.c.) routes alone or combined with the intravenous (i.v.) route. We found that administering antigen intravenously could affect antibody production and formation of antibody secreting cells (ASCs) depending on the immunization route previously used. Combined oral/i.v. immunization but not s.c./i.v. immunization caused a great increase of IgA ASCs in the spleen and enhanced IgA production in the small intestine and serum. Combined i.n./i.v. immunization could also increase IgA ASCs in the spleen and enhance IgA production in serum but had no effect on IgA production in the small intestine. Oral/i.v. immunization caused increase of IgG ASCs in both the spleen and bone marrow. In comparison, combined i.n./i.v. and s.c./i.v. immunization could increase IgG ASCs in the spleen but not in bone marrow. Intravenous administration of KLH in mice that had been immunized via oral, i.n. or s.c. routes caused some increase of IgM ASCs in the spleen but not in bone marrow. In conclusion, combined oral and i.v. administration of an antigen can induce fast and strong immune responses, especially for IgA, in both systemic and mucosal compartments.

  6. A comparison of the sedative effect of oral versus nasal midazolam combined with nitrous oxide in uncooperative children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musani, I E; Chandan, N V

    2015-10-01

    To compare a combination of oral midazolam (0.2 mg/kg body weight) and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation with a combination of intranasal midazolam (0.1 mg/kg body weight) and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation for effectiveness, patient acceptability and safety profile in controlling the behaviour of uncooperative children. Thirty children, 4-10 years of age, referred for dental treatment were included in the study with a crossover design. Each patient was sedated with a combination of either oral midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation or intranasal midazolam and nitrous oxide-oxygen sedation at subsequent dental treatment visits. During the treatment procedure, the study recorded scales for drug acceptability, onset of sedation, acceptance of nasal mask, sedation, behavioural, safety, overall behaviour and alertness. The grade of acceptability of midazolam in both groups was consistently good. There was a significant difference (p midazolam. The mean time of onset for oral midazolam was 20.1 (17-25) min and for intranasal midazolam 12.1 (8-18) min. The efficacy profile of the present study included: acceptance of nasal mask, sedation score, crying levels, motor movements and overall behaviour scores. The results did not show any statistically significant differences. All the parameters were highly satisfactory. The difference in alertness was statistically significant (p value midazolam. The intranasal route of midazolam administration has a quick onset of action and a quick recovery of the patient from sedation as compared to the oral route of midazolam administration. Midazolam administered through the intranasal route is as effective as the oral route at a lower dosage. Therefore, it is an effective alternative to oral route for a paediatric dental situation.

  7. Stress, serotonergic function, and mood in users of oral contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuiten, A; Panhuysen, G; Koppeschaar, H; Fekkes, D; Pijl, H; Frölich, M; Krabbe, P; Everaerd, W

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between stress and changes in insulin levels, plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), mood, and food intake was investigated in women taking monophasic oral contraceptives containing progestagens. Subjects experiencing high levels of stress displayed s

  8. Stress, serotonergic function, and mood in users of oral contraceptives

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tuiten, A; Panhuysen, G; Koppeschaar, H; Fekkes, D; Pijl, H; Frölich, M; Krabbe, P; Everaerd, W

    1995-01-01

    The relationship between stress and changes in insulin levels, plasma ratio of tryptophan to other large neutral amino acids (LNAAs), mood, and food intake was investigated in women taking monophasic oral contraceptives containing progestagens. Subjects experiencing high levels of stress displayed s

  9. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American gynecologists regarding unplanned pregnancy and use of combined oral contraceptives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahamondes L

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Luis Bahamondes,1 Josefina Lira-Plasencia,2 Ricardo Martin,3 Victor Marin,4 Maria Y Makuch1 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, School of Medical Sciences, University of Campinas (UNICAMP, Campinas, Brazil; 2Instituto Nacional de Perinatología, México, DF, México; 3Hospital Universitario, Fundación Santa Fe de Bogotá, Bogotá, Colombia; 4Hospital Central, Petróleos Mexicanos, México, DF, México Background: Unintended pregnancy is a public health problem and unmet medical need worldwide. It is estimated that in the year 2012, almost 213 million pregnancies occurred, and the global pregnancy rate decreased only slightly from 2008 to 2012. It was also estimated that 85 million pregnancies (40% of all pregnancies were unintended and that 38% ended in an unintended birth. Objectives: To assess knowledge and attitudes of Latin American (LA obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs regarding unintended pregnancies and aspects of combined oral contraceptive (COC use. Methods: A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting about contraception in 2014, in which OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who provide attention in contraception were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire to assess their knowledge and attitudes regarding unplanned pregnancy and some aspects regarding COC use. Results: A total of 210 OBGYNs participated in the study. Their knowledge regarding COC failure was low. The participants reported they believed that their patients habitually forgot to take a pill and that their patients did not know what to do in these situations. They were aware of the benefits of COC use; however, they were less prone to prescribe COCs for the purpose of protecting against ovarian and endometrial cancer, and one-quarter of them had doubts about the association between COC use and cancer risk. Conclusion: The interviewed LA OBGYNs showed some flaws in terms of knowledge of COC failure rates and the non-contraceptive benefits and risks

  10. Application of Oral Lactulose in Combination With Polyethylene Glycol Electrolyte Powder for Colonoscopy Bowel Preparation in Patients With Constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Juan; Cao, Qin; Wang, Xiaochun; Pu, Jianbin; Peng, Xuelian

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of combined application of lactulose oral solution and polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder compared with conventional method in preparing for colonoscopy bowel cleanliness in patients with constipation. Ninety patients, who had constipation and needed to have colonoscopy, were divided into study group and control group with 45 cases in each group, respectively. One day before the colonoscopy, patients in the experimental group were given lactulose oral solution and polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder, whereas the patients in the control group were given oral polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder only. The following parameters were then obtained: time of the first defecation (duration of the time from taking the drugs to the first bowel movement), defecation frequency, completion of bowel cleaning (duration from the first bowel movement to the stool becoming clear), and adverse reaction. Cleansing effect in the study group bowel preparation was significantly better than that in the control group (P 0.05). Combined application of lactulose oral solution and polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder is superior to the conventional method of polyethylene glycol electrolyte powder alone for colonoscopy bowel preparation in patients with constipation. Therefore, combined clinical application of the 2 compounds is strongly recommended for colonoscopy bowel preparation in patients with constipation.

  11. Body composition is improved during 12 months' treatment with metformin alone or combined with oral contraceptives compared with treatment with oral contraceptives in polycystic ovary syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Altinok, Magda Lambaa; Mumm, Hanne

    2014-01-01

    inclusion. OCP and M+OCP were superior to M regarding reduction in free T levels. Conclusions: M treatment alone or in combination with OCP was associated with weight loss and improved body composition compared with OCP, whereas free T levels decreased during M+OCP or OCP. Combined treatment with M......Context: Central obesity in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is associated with increased inflammatory markers and increased risk for type 2 diabetes. Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate whether treatment with metformin (M) or M combined with oral contraceptive pills (OCPs...... (150 mg desogestrel+30 μg ethinylestradiol), or OCP. Whole-body dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry scans and clinical and hormonal evaluations were performed before and after the intervention period. A total of 65 of 90 patients completed the study. Main Outcome Measures: Changes in weight at 6 and 12...

  12. Use of and access to oral and injectable contraceptives in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Mareni Rocha; Leite, Silvana Nair; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2016-01-01

    contraceptives from SUS. Monophasic combined oral contraceptives were the most frequently reported (71.6%) and low-level levonorgestrel + ethinylestradiol combination accounted for 38.7% of them. The most frequently reported medicines are included in the Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (RENAME – National List of Essential Medicines. CONCLUSIONS Most women aged 15 to 49 who reported using contraceptives had access to the medicine and use monophasic combined oral contraceptives of appropriate efficiency and safety purchased by direct payment, mainly from retail pharmacies. PMID:27982384

  13. Use of and access to oral and injectable contraceptives in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mareni Rocha Farias

    obtain contraceptives from SUS. Monophasic combined oral contraceptives were the most frequently reported (71.6% and low-level levonorgestrel + ethinylestradiol combination accounted for 38.7% of them. The most frequently reported medicines are included in the Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (RENAME – National List of Essential Medicines. CONCLUSIONS Most women aged 15 to 49 who reported using contraceptives had access to the medicine and use monophasic combined oral contraceptives of appropriate efficiency and safety purchased by direct payment, mainly from retail pharmacies.

  14. White matter changes in paediatric multiple sclerosis and monophasic demyelinating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longoni, Giulia; Brown, Robert A; MomayyezSiahkal, Parya; Elliott, Colm; Narayanan, Sridar; Bar-Or, Amit; Ann Marrie, Ruth; Ann Yeh, E; Filippi, Massimo; Banwell, Brenda; Arnold, Douglas L

    2017-03-14

    Most children who experience an acquired demyelinating syndrome of the central nervous system will have a monophasic disease course, with no further clinical or radiological symptoms. A subset will be diagnosed with multiple sclerosis, a life-long disorder. Using linear mixed effects models we examined longitudinal diffusion properties of normal-appearing white matter in 505 serial scans of 132 paediatric participants with acquired demyelinating syndromes followed for a median of 4.4 years, many from first clinical presentation, and 106 scans of 80 healthy paediatric participants. Fifty-three participants with demyelinating syndromes eventually received a diagnosis of paediatric-onset multiple sclerosis. Diffusion tensor imaging measures properties of water diffusion through tissue, which normally becomes increasingly restricted and anisotropic in the brain during childhood and adolescence, as fibre bundles develop and myelinate. In the healthy paediatric participants, our data demonstrate the expected trajectory of more restricted and anisotropic white matter diffusivity with increasing age. However, in participants with multiple sclerosis, fractional anisotropy decreased and mean diffusivity of non-lesional, normal-appearing white matter progressively increased after clinical presentation, suggesting not only a failure of age-expected white matter development but also a progressive loss of tissue integrity. Surprisingly, patients with monophasic disease failed to show age-expected changes in diffusion parameters in normal-appearing white matter, although they did not show progressive loss of integrity over time. Further analysis demonstrated that participants with monophasic disease experienced different post-onset trajectories in normal-appearing white matter depending on their presenting phenotype: those with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis demonstrated abnormal trajectories of diffusion parameters compared to healthy paediatric participants, as did

  15. Different combined oral contraceptives and the risk of venous thrombosis: systematic review and network meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stegeman, Bernardine H; de Bastos, Marcos; Rosendaal, Frits R; van Hylckama Vlieg, A; Helmerhorst, Frans M; Stijnen, Theo

    2013-01-01

    Objective To provide a comprehensive overview of the risk of venous thrombosis in women using different combined oral contraceptives. Design Systematic review and network meta-analysis. Data sources PubMed, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane, Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature, Academic Search Premier, and ScienceDirect up to 22 April 2013. Review methods Observational studies that assessed the effect of combined oral contraceptives on venous thrombosis in healthy women. The primary outcome of interest was a fatal or non-fatal first event of venous thrombosis with the main focus on deep venous thrombosis or pulmonary embolism. Publications with at least 10 events in total were eligible. The network meta-analysis was performed using an extension of frequentist random effects models for mixed multiple treatment comparisons. Unadjusted relative risks with 95% confidence intervals were reported. The requirement for crude numbers did not allow adjustment for potential confounding variables. Results 3110 publications were retrieved through a search strategy; 25 publications reporting on 26 studies were included. Incidence of venous thrombosis in non-users from two included cohorts was 1.9 and 3.7 per 10 000 woman years, in line with previously reported incidences of 1-6 per 10 000 woman years. Use of combined oral contraceptives increased the risk of venous thrombosis compared with non-use (relative risk 3.5, 95% confidence interval 2.9 to 4.3). The relative risk of venous thrombosis for combined oral contraceptives with 30-35 µg ethinylestradiol and gestodene, desogestrel, cyproterone acetate, or drospirenone were similar and about 50-80% higher than for combined oral contraceptives with levonorgestrel. A dose related effect of ethinylestradiol was observed for gestodene, desogestrel, and levonorgestrel, with higher doses being associated with higher thrombosis risk. Conclusion All combined oral contraceptives investigated in this analysis were

  16. Knowledge and attitudes of Latin American gynecologists regarding unplanned pregnancy and use of combined oral contraceptives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahamondes, Luis; Lira-Plascencia, Josefina; Martin, Ricardo; Marin, Victor; Makuch, Maria Y

    2015-01-01

    Background Unintended pregnancy is a public health problem and unmet medical need worldwide. It is estimated that in the year 2012, almost 213 million pregnancies occurred, and the global pregnancy rate decreased only slightly from 2008 to 2012. It was also estimated that 85 million pregnancies (40% of all pregnancies) were unintended and that 38% ended in an unintended birth. Objectives To assess knowledge and attitudes of Latin American (LA) obstetricians and gynecologists (OBGYNs) regarding unintended pregnancies and aspects of combined oral contraceptive (COC) use. Methods A survey was conducted during a scientific meeting about contraception in 2014, in which OBGYNs from 12 LA countries who provide attention in contraception were invited to respond to a multiple-choice questionnaire to assess their knowledge and attitudes regarding unplanned pregnancy and some aspects regarding COC use. Results A total of 210 OBGYNs participated in the study. Their knowledge regarding COC failure was low. The participants reported they believed that their patients habitually forgot to take a pill and that their patients did not know what to do in these situations. They were aware of the benefits of COC use; however, they were less prone to prescribe COCs for the purpose of protecting against ovarian and endometrial cancer, and one-quarter of them had doubts about the association between COC use and cancer risk. Conclusion The interviewed LA OBGYNs showed some flaws in terms of knowledge of COC failure rates and the non-contraceptive benefits and risks of COCs. To adequately counsel their patients regarding COC intake, OBGYNs must be updated regarding all aspects of COC use. PMID:25999766

  17. The effect of combined oral contraceptives and age on dysmenorrhoea: an epidemiological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindh, Ingela; Ellström, Agneta Andersson; Milsom, Ian

    2012-03-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are widely advocated as treatment for primary dysmenorrhoea, but their efficacy has been questioned in a Cochrane review. The aim of this study was to evaluate COCs and the influence of age on the severity of dysmenorrhoea. Postal questionnaires regarding weight/height, contraception, pregnancy history and other reproductive health factors were sent to random samples of 19-year-old women born in 1962 (n = 656), 1972 (n = 780) and 1982 (n = 666) resident in the city of Gothenburg in 1981, 1991 and 2001. The responders were assessed again 5 years later at the age of 24 years. Current severity of dysmenorrhoea was measured on each occasion by a verbal multidimensional scoring system (VMS) and by a visual analogue scale (VAS). The severity of dysmenorrhoea was lower (PVMS score: a reduction of 0.3 units/VAS: a reduction of 9 mm, both PVMS score: a reduction of 0.1 units per 5 years, P< 0.0001/VAS: a reduction of 5 mm per 5 years, P< 0.0001). Childbirth also reduced the severity of dysmenorrhoea (VAS, P< 0.01 with a reduction of 7 mm). Women from the 82-cohort reported a greater severity of dysmenorrhoea compared with the 62 and 72 cohorts at both 19 and 24 years of age. In this longitudinal case-control study, COC use and increasing age, independent of each other, reduced the severity of dysmenorrhoea. COC use reduced the severity of dysmenorrhoea more than increasing age and childbirth. There was a trend over time regarding the severity of dysmenorrhoea where women from the 82-cohort reported a greater severity of dysmenorrhoea compared with the 62 and 72 cohorts.

  18. Venous thromboembolism and desogestrel- or gestodene-containing combination oral contraceptives: what are the facts?

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-04-01

    The UK's prescription drug regulatory agency warned the public and health care providers about the possible increased risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) among users of the combined oral contraceptives (OCs) containing desogestrel or gestodene. Data from three large not-yet-published studies served as the basis for the warning. The studies found about a 2-fold increased risk of VTE for these OC users when compared to users of OCs with other progestins. Yet the observational studies are subject to inherent biases (e.g., hospitalized cases and selection bias), which may explain the increased risk. Assuming the increased risk to be true, the risk of VTE is still lower than that linked to pregnancy (30 vs. 60 VTE cases per 100,000). The risk of VTE for users of OCs containing older progestins is about 15 VTE cases and that among healthy, nonpregnant, nonusers is about 4 VTE cases. The mortality risk associated with VTE among users of OCs containing desogestrel or gestodene is 1-1.5 deaths/1 million woman-years. The US Food and Drug Administration has examined the data and has concluded that the risk is not high enough to justify switching to other OCs or stopping use of OCs containing desogestrel or gestodene. It recommends that users of the OCs in question discuss the OCs with their providers and make an informed choice based on the benefits and risks and individual preferences. It might consider changes in labeling, but not pulling the OCs off the market. In Germany, women aged less than 30 were temporarily advised not to begin use of desogestrel- or gestodene-containing OCs. Women using them were advised to continue their use, however. The European Union announced that bias or chance could account for the findings and thus did not recommend changes in prescribing desogestrel- or gestodene-containing OCs.

  19. Use of Simulated Patients to Evaluate Combined Oral Contraceptive Dispensing Practices of Community Pharmacists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obreli-Neto, Paulo Roque; Pereira, Leonardo Régis Leira; Guidoni, Camilo Molino; Baldoni, André de Oliveira; Marusic, Srecko; de Lyra-Júnior, Divaldo Pereira; de Almeida, Kelsen Luis; Pazete, Ana Claudia Montolezi; do Nascimento, Janaina Dutra; Kos, Mitja; Girotto, Edmarlon; Cuman, Roberto Kenji Nakamura

    2013-01-01

    Background Combined oral contraceptive (COC) use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs) are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. Objective To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. Method A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs) (with counseled audio recording) visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21® (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg). The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients’ medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure) and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. Results Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2%) agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional), and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., “do you smoke?” (n = 2) and “what is your age?” (n = 1). None of the CPs measured the patient’s blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs), and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. Conclusion The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure. PMID:24324584

  20. Use of simulated patients to evaluate combined oral contraceptive dispensing practices of community pharmacists.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Roque Obreli-Neto

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Combined oral contraceptive (COC use is the most commonly used reversible method of birth control. The incorrect use of COCs is frequent and one of the most common causes of unintended pregnancies. Community pharmacists (CPs are in a strategic position to improve COC use because they are the last health professional to interact with patients before drug use. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the COC dispensing practices of CPs in a developing country. METHOD: A cross-sectional study was conducted in community pharmacies of Assis and Ourinhos microregions, Brazil, between June 1, 2012, and October 30, 2012. Four simulated patients (SPs (with counseled audio recording visited community pharmacies with a prescription for Ciclo 21(® (a COC containing ethinyl estradiol 30 mcg + levonorgestrel 15 mcg. The audio recording of every SP visit was listened to independently by 3 researchers to evaluate the COC dispensing practice. The percentage of CPs who performed a screening for safe use of COCs (i.e., taking of patients' medical and family history, and measuring of blood pressure and provided counseling, as well as the quality of the screening and counseling, were evaluated. RESULTS: Of the 185 CPs contacted, 41 (22.2% agreed to participate in the study and finished the study protocol. Only 3 CPs asked the SP a question (1 question asked by each professional, and all of the questions were closed-ended, viz., "do you smoke?" (n = 2 and "what is your age?" (n = 1. None of the CPs measured the patient's blood pressure. Six CPs provided counseling when dispensing COCs (drug dosing, 5 CPs; possible adverse effects, 2 CPs, and one CP provided counseling regarding both aspects. CONCLUSION: The CPs evaluated did not dispense COC appropriately and could influence in the occurrence of negatives therapeutic outcomes such as adverse effects and treatment failure.

  1. Combination therapy of potential gene to enhance oral cancer therapeutic effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Chia-Hsien; Hsu, Yih-Chih

    2015-03-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) over-regulation related to uncontrolled cell division and promotes progression in tumor. Over-expression of human epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) has been detected in oral cancer cells. EGFR-targeting agents are potential therapeutic modalities for treating oral cancer based on our in vitro study. Liposome nanotechnology is used to encapsulate siRNA and were modified with target ligand to receptors on the surface of tumor cells. We used EGFR siRNA to treat oral cancer in vitro.

  2. Pharmacokinetic interaction study between riociguat and the combined oral contraceptives levonorgestrel and ethinylestradiol in healthy postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Reiner; Unger, Sigrun; van der Mey, Dorina; Becker, Corina; Saleh, Soundos; Wensing, Georg; Mück, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Female patients requiring treatment for pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) are advised to avoid pregnancy because of the high associated mortality rate. Oral contraception is one of the main methods of preventing pregnancy in this context, mandating pharmacokinetic and safety studies for new agents in this setting. Riociguat is a soluble guanylate cyclase stimulator approved for treatment of PAH and inoperable and persistent or recurrent chronic thromboembolic pulmonary hypertension. This single-center, randomized, nonblinded study involving healthy postmenopausal women investigated the effect of riociguat on plasma concentrations of levonorgestrel (0.15 mg) and ethinylestradiol (0.03 mg) in a combined oral contraceptive. Treatment A was a single oral tablet of levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. In treatment B, subjects received 2.5 mg riociguat 3 times daily for 12 days. On the eighth day, they also received a single oral tablet of levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. Subjects received both regimens in a crossover design. There was no change in area under the plasma concentration-time curves of levonorgestrel or ethinylestradiol or maximum concentration in plasma (C max) of levonorgestrel during combined administration versus levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol alone. A 20% increase in the C max of ethinylestradiol was noted during coadministration; this is not anticipated to adversely impact the contraceptive efficacy or to require any dose adjustment for ethinylestradiol. Plasma concentrations and exposures of riociguat were within the expected range and were not influenced by coadministration with levonorgestrel-ethinylestradiol. Combined treatment was safe and well tolerated. In conclusion, riociguat did not change the exposure to levonorgestrel or ethinylestradiol relative to oral contraceptive administered alone.

  3. Combination of Estrogen and Immunosuppressive Agents to Establish a Mouse Model of Candidiasis with Concurrent Oral and Vaginal Mucosal Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Le; Wang, Chong; Mei, Huan; Shen, Yongnian; Lv, Guixia; Zeng, Rong; Zhan, Ping; Li, Dongmei; Liu, Weida

    2016-02-01

    Mouse model is an appropriate tool for pathogenic determination and study of host defenses during the fungal infection. Here, we established a mouse model of candidiasis with concurrent oral and vaginal mucosal infection. Two C. albicans strains sourced from clinical candidemia (SC5314) and mucosal infection (ATCC62342) were tested in ICR mice. The different combinational panels covering estrogen and immunosuppressive agents, cortisone, prednisolone and cyclophosphamide were used for concurrent oral and vaginal candidiasis establishment. Prednisolone in combination with estrogen proved an optimal mode for concurrent mucosal infection establishment. The model maintained for 1 week with fungal burden reached at least 10(5) cfu/g of tissue. This mouse model was evaluated by in vivo pharmacodynamics of fluconazole and host mucosal immunity of IL-17 and IL-23. Mice infected by SC5314 were cured by fluconazole. An increase in IL-23 in both oral and vaginal homogenates was observed after infection, while IL-17 only had a prominent elevation in oral tissue. This model could properly mimic complicated clinical conditions and provides a valuable means for antifungal assay in vivo and may also provide a useful method for the evaluation of host-fungal interactions.

  4. Longitudinal characterization of monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium throughout the pig's life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, Laura; Centeno, Maria Madalena; Couto, Natacha; Nunes, Telmo; Almeida, Virgílio; Alban, Lis; Pomba, Constança

    2016-08-30

    Swine have been described as an important reservoir of multidrug resistant monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium, though information on its ecology is scarce. A longitudinal study was performed in order to elucidate the Salmonella 4,[5],12:i:- dynamics throughout the pig's production cycle. A total of 209 faecal samples were collected from 10 sows and in six sampling times during the life of 70 pigs from a Portuguese industrial farm, and 43 isolates of S. 4,[5],12:i:- were identified and characterized regarding clonality and antimicrobial resistance phenotype and genotype. Most isolates (n=42) exhibited resistance to at least ampicillin, kanamycin, neomycin, streptomycin, tetracycline and sulfonamides (encoded by blaTEM, aphAI-IAB, strA, strB, tetB and sul2, respectively). Isolates obtained during the finishing phase showed additional resistance to chloramphenicol and florfenicol (floR), gentamicin and netilmicin (aac(3')-IV). To our knowledge, this study is the first description of aphAI-IAB in S. 4,[5],12:i:-. PFGE analysis showed uneven distribution of isolates into three clusters, A (n=34), B (n=8) and C (n=1). PFGE cluster A was predominant in sows (n=5) and piglets in the farrowing phase (n=17) and in pigs in the early finishing phase (n=11) suggesting a carryover from birth to adult age. The introduction of PFGE cluster B isolates in adulthood could have had an external source, reinforcing the relevance of environmental transmission in the farm ecosystem. This study reveals a dynamic interaction between monophasic S. Typhimurium and the pressures exerted under an intensive swine production setting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Combined Oral Medroxyprogesterone/Levonorgestrel-Intrauterine System Treatment for Women With Grade 2 Stage IA Endometrial Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Ji Young; Kim, Da Hee; Bae, Hyo Sook; Kim, Mi-La; Jung, Yong Wook; Yun, Bo Seong; Seong, Seok Ju; Shin, Eunah; Kim, Mi Kyoung

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncologic and pregnancy outcomes of combined oral medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA)/levonorgestrel-intrauterine system (LNG-IUS) treatment in young women with grade 2-differentiated stage IA endometrial adenocarcinoma who wish to preserve fertility. We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients with grade 2 stage IA endometrial adenocarcinoma who had received fertility-sparing treatment at CHA Gangnam Medical Center between 2011 and 2015. All of the patients were treated with combined oral MPA (500 mg/d)/LNG-IUS, and follow-up dilatation and curettage were performed every 3 months. A total of 5 patients were included in the study. The mean age was 30.4 ± 5.3 years (range, 25-39 years). After a mean treatment duration of 11.0 ± 6.2 months (range, 6-18 months), complete response (CR) was shown in 3 of the 5 patients, with partial response (PR) in the other 2 patients. One case of recurrence was reported 14 months after achieving CR. This patient was treated again with combined oral MPA/LNG-IUS and achieved CR by 6 months. The average follow-up period was 44.4 ± 26.2 months (range, 12-71 months). There were no cases of progressive disease. No treatment-related complications arose. Combined oral MPA/LNG-IUS treatment is considered to be a reasonably effective fertility-sparing treatment of grade 2 stage IA endometrial cancer. Although our results are encouraging, it is preliminary and should be considered with experienced oncologists in well-defined protocol and with close follow-up.

  6. Topical coal tar alone and in combination with oral methotrexate in management of psoriasis : a retrospective analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prasad PVS

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty five patients admitted with psoriasis were analysed. 16 patients received 20% crude coal tar and 19 patients received 20% crude coal tar along with methotrexate in a weekly oral schedule (15mg/wk. After 4 weeks of therapy there was total clearence in 52.6% of the patients with combination therapy, whereas only 12.5% of the patients with conventional therapy achieved this.

  7. Sexual Dysfunction in Two Types of Hormonal Contraception: Combined Oral Contraceptives versus Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourossadat Kariman

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background & aim: Sexual health is an essential element of quality of life, affecting both physical and psychological domains. Hormones used in contraceptive methods have contradictory effects on sexual function. In this study, we aimed to compare sexual function in women using combined oral contraceptives (COC and depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA, referred to healthcare centers affiliated to Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences in Tehran, Iran in 2013. Methods: This descriptive, comparative study was performed on 240 women (n=120 per group, selected through multistage sampling in Tehran, Iran. A questionnaire consisting of three parts, General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-28, demographic characteristics, and Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI, was completed through interviews. For data analysis, descriptive statistics were calculated, and independent t-test, Mann-Whitney test, Chi-square, and Fisher's exact test were performed, using SPPS version 16. P-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The mean age at marriage in women using DMPA was lower than those using COC (18.55±3.61 vs. 19.92±3.98 years. Based on the findings, the menstrual status in the majority of DMPA users was irregular (46.7% in DMPA group vs. 8.3% in COC group. The difference in sexual function between the COC and DMPA groups was significant. Sexual arousal and lubrication were more favorable in the COC group in comparison with the DMPA group; also, pain in this group was lower than the DMPA group. Scores of total sexual function (27.35±5.22 in DMPA group vs. 29.15±6.13 in COC group, sexual arousal (4.11±0.90 in DMPA group vs. 4.51±1.39 in COC group, and vaginal lubrication (4.82±1.30 in DMPA group vs. 5.26±1.35 in COC group were lower in the DMPA group, compared to the COC group. Pain scores (4.91±1.25 in DMPA group vs. 5.28±1.19 in COC group were higher in the DMPA group in comparison with the COC group (P

  8. Combination treatment of oral terbinafine with topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment in hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Tian-Wei; Zhang, Jiang-An; Zhang, Xian-Wei; Yu, Hong-Xing; Tang, Yong-Bo; Yu, Jian-Bin

    2014-09-01

    Hyperkeratotic-type tinea pedis is chronic and recalcitrant to topical antifungal agents. Some topical antifungal agents are effective; however, long duration of therapy is required, which often reduce the treatment compliance of patients. To seek for short period therapy of hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis, in this study, we observed the efficacy and safety of treatment of topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment combined oral terbinafine. Participants with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis were randomly assigned to two groups. Patients in group I were treated with oral terbinafine for 2 weeks and topical terbinafine and 10% urea ointment for 4 weeks, whereas in group II, only the above topical agents were applied for 12 weeks. Clinical improvement rates and fungal eradication rates were compared between the two groups at 24 weeks after the initiation of treatment. The group I had stopped the topical therapy 8 weeks earlier than group II. There were no significant differences in mycological eradication rates and clinical improvement rates between the two groups, besides, no major side effects were noted in both groups. The short combination therapy with oral terbinafine was effective and safe; it should be a valuable option for patients with hyperkeratotic type tinea pedis.

  9. Isobolographic analyses of the gabapentin-metamizol combination after local peripheral, intrathecal and oral administration in the rat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Varela, Luis F; Herrera, Jorge E; Caram-Salas, Nadia L; Rocha-González, Héctor I; Granados-Soto, Vinicio

    2007-01-01

    This study was designed to evaluate the possible antinociceptive interaction between gabapentin and metamizol on formalin-induced nociception. Gabapentin, metamizol or a fixed dose-ratio combination of both drugs were assessed after local peripheral, intrathecal and oral administration in rats. Isobolographic analyses were employed to define the nature of the interaction between drugs. Gabapentin, metamizol and gabapentin-metamizol combinations yielded a dose-dependent antinociceptive effect when administered by the three different routes. ED30 values were estimated for the individual drugs and isobolograms were constructed. Theoretical ED30 values for the combination estimated from the isobolograms were 21.11 +/- 1.17 microg/paw, 104.6 +/- 5.5 microg/rat and 78.8 +/- 5.5 mg/kg for the local peripheral, intrathecal and oral administration routes, respectively. These values were significantly higher than the experimentally obtained ED30 values which were 11.3 +/- 1.5 microg/paw, 36.8 +/- 3.1 microg/rat and 15 +/- 1.2 mg/kg indicating a synergistic interaction. Systemic administration resulted in the highest synergism. Data confirm that low doses of the gabapentin and metamizol can interact synergistically to reduce formalin-induced nociceptive behavior suggesting that this combination could be useful to treat inflammatory pain in humans. 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

  10. Influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite du laiton monophase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cholley, Airy

    La connaissance des proprietes et du comportement d'un materiau en usinage est primordiale pour optimiser son utilisation et obtenir une usinabilite maximale. Dans ce but, l'etude de la modification de la ductilite par traitement thermiques sur plusieurs criteres d'usinabilite tels que les efforts de coupe, la rugosite, les bavures et la formation du copeau a ete menee sur le laiton monophase. A cette fin, l'influence du traitement thermique sur la microstructure du laiton a d'abord ete etudiee. La taille des grains et la durete ont permis de determiner les proprietes mecaniques des etats metallurgiques. Des essais de percage ont ensuite ete effectues sur les etats metallurgiques H01 (99HV), OS100 (88HV) et OS250 (47HV) pour regarder l'influence du traitement thermique sur l'usinabilite. Cette etude experimentale a permis de comprendre l'influence du taux de laminage et de la temperature de recuit sur les proprietes mecaniques. Les essais d'usinabilite ont ensuite permis de prouver que les efforts de coupe sont dependants des conditions de coupe mais pas de la ductilite dans les etats metallurgiques testes. La taille des bavures augmente avec la ductilite et la vitesse de coupe, et diminue avec l'avance. La rugosite de la surface des trous apres l'usinage a egalement ete etudiee. Il a aussi ete prouve par une etude sur les copeaux que la temperature croit avec la vitesse de coupe. L'analyse de la segmentation des copeaux n'a en revanche pas permis de trouver une correlation significative avec les traitements thermiques testes. Enfin, le revetement de l'outil a montre une grande importance sur l'usinabilite du materiau. Il a ete conclu que l'usinabilite du laiton C26000 (CuZn30) est meilleure lorsqu'on travaille dans un etat metallurgique dur. Ces conclusions sont valables pour le laiton monophase etudie, il serait interessant d'examiner aussi le cas des laitons biphases.

  11. A comparison of detomidine in combination with saline, morphine or methadone in horses submitted to experimental oral stimuli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Costa Guilhen

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to compare the sedative and cardiopulmonary effects of detomidine in combination with saline, morphine or methadone and to determine whether the addition of these opioids increases the degree of sedation in horses submitted to experimental oral stimuli. In a blinded, randomized, experimental study, six adult mares were evaluated using a crossover design with at least 15 days between trials: 10?g/kg detomidine in combination with saline (D/SAL, 0.1mg/kg morphine (D/ MORPH or 0.1mg/kg methadone (D/METH. The degree of sedation, response to oral stimuli and cardiopulmonary parameters were monitored for 120 minutes. Parametric data were analyzed using the ANOVA and Tukey’s tests, and non- parametric data were analyzed with the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman’s tests with the post-Dunn test (P<0.05. The degree of sedation was significantly greater for the D/SAL than for the D/MORPH and D/METH treatments at 30 min. The horses´ responses to the oral stimuli decreased significantly following all treatments at 5 and 30 min from baseline values. The heart rate, respiratory rate, arterial pH and blood gas variables were all similar among the treatment groups. Mean arterial blood pressure was significantly higher in the D/MORPH group when compared with the D/SAL group between 75 and 120 min. It was concluded that all treatments provided sedative effects with mild cardiopulmonary changes. However the addition of morphine or methadone to detomidine did not improve the degree of sedation in horses submitted to experimental oral stimuli.

  12. From Mouth to Model: Combining in vivo and in vitro Oral Biofilm Growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Barbara; Santigli, Elisabeth; Westendorf, Christian; Tangl, Stefan; Wimmer, Gernot; Grube, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral biofilm studies based on simplified experimental setups are difficult to interpret. Models are limited mostly by the number of bacterial species observed and the insufficiency of artificial media. Few studies have attempted to overcome these limitations and to cultivate native oral biofilm. Aims: This study aimed to grow oral biofilm in vivo before transfer to a biofilm reactor for ex situ incubation. The in vitro survival of this oral biofilm and the changes in bacterial composition over time were observed. Methods: Six human enamel-dentin slabs embedded buccally in dental splints were used as biofilm carriers. Fitted individually to the upper jaw of 25 non-smoking male volunteers, the splints were worn continuously for 48 h. During this time, tooth-brushing and alcohol-consumption were not permitted. The biofilm was then transferred on slabs into a biofilm reactor and incubated there for 48 h while being nourished in BHI medium. Live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to observe bacterial survival over four points in time: directly after removal (T0) and after 1 (T1), 24 (T2), and 48 h (T3) of incubation. Bacterial diversity at T0 and T3 was compared with 454-pyrosequencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to show specific taxa. Survival curves were calculated with a specially designed MATLAB script. Acacia and QIIME 1.9.1 were used to process pyrosequencing data. SPSS 21.0 and R 3.3.1 were used for statistical analysis. Results: After initial fluctuations at T1, survival curves mostly showed approximation of the bacterial numbers to the initial level at T3. Pyrosequencing analysis resulted in 117 OTUs common to all samples. The genera Streptococcus and Veillonella (both Firmicutes) dominated at T0 and T3. They make up two thirds of the biofilm. Genera with lower relative abundance had grown significantly at T3. FISH analysis confirmed the pyrosequencing results, i.e., the predominant staining

  13. From Mouth to Model: Combining in vivo and in vitro Oral Biofilm Growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Barbara; Santigli, Elisabeth; Westendorf, Christian; Tangl, Stefan; Wimmer, Gernot; Grube, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oral biofilm studies based on simplified experimental setups are difficult to interpret. Models are limited mostly by the number of bacterial species observed and the insufficiency of artificial media. Few studies have attempted to overcome these limitations and to cultivate native oral biofilm. Aims: This study aimed to grow oral biofilm in vivo before transfer to a biofilm reactor for ex situ incubation. The in vitro survival of this oral biofilm and the changes in bacterial composition over time were observed. Methods: Six human enamel-dentin slabs embedded buccally in dental splints were used as biofilm carriers. Fitted individually to the upper jaw of 25 non-smoking male volunteers, the splints were worn continuously for 48 h. During this time, tooth-brushing and alcohol-consumption were not permitted. The biofilm was then transferred on slabs into a biofilm reactor and incubated there for 48 h while being nourished in BHI medium. Live/dead staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used to observe bacterial survival over four points in time: directly after removal (T0) and after 1 (T1), 24 (T2), and 48 h (T3) of incubation. Bacterial diversity at T0 and T3 was compared with 454-pyrosequencing. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to show specific taxa. Survival curves were calculated with a specially designed MATLAB script. Acacia and QIIME 1.9.1 were used to process pyrosequencing data. SPSS 21.0 and R 3.3.1 were used for statistical analysis. Results: After initial fluctuations at T1, survival curves mostly showed approximation of the bacterial numbers to the initial level at T3. Pyrosequencing analysis resulted in 117 OTUs common to all samples. The genera Streptococcus and Veillonella (both Firmicutes) dominated at T0 and T3. They make up two thirds of the biofilm. Genera with lower relative abundance had grown significantly at T3. FISH analysis confirmed the pyrosequencing results, i.e., the predominant staining

  14. Extended cycle combined oral contraceptives and prophylactic frovatriptan during the hormone-free interval in women with menstrual-related migraines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coffee, Andrea L; Sulak, Patricia J; Hill, Alexandria J; Hansen, Darci J; Kuehl, Thomas J; Clark, Jeffrey W

    2014-04-01

    Migraine headaches are a significant problem for American women with many of them suffering from headaches around the time of their menstrual cycle. Women taking oral contraceptives in the standard 21/7 cycle regimen often suffer from headaches around the time of the hormone free intervals (HFIs) as well. Extended oral contraceptive regimens have been shown to decrease the frequency, but not eliminate these headaches. This study is a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled pilot study of participants with menstrual-related migraines (MRMs) who were initiated on extended combined oral contraceptives and given frovatriptan prophylactically during HFIs. Participants having spontaneous menstrual cycles or taking daily combined oral contraceptives in a 21/7 regimen with MRMs were placed on a contraceptive containing levonorgestrel and ethinyl estradiol. Analyses compared headache scores during pre-study baseline cycles to those in a 168-day extended regimen with placebo versus frovatriptan treatments during HFIs. Daily headache scores decreased (p=0.034) from 1.29 ± 0.10 during pre-study cycles to 1.10 ± 0.14 during extended combined oral contraceptive use. Frovatriptan blocked the increase in headache score over the placebo during HFIs. However, following the withdrawal of frovatriptan, headache scores increased (p>0.01) despite resuming combined oral contraceptive use. Extended combined oral contraceptive regimen reduces MRM severity. Frovatriptan prevents headaches during HFIs, but is associated with new headache symptoms when withdrawn.

  15. Successful treatment of oral verrucous hyperplasia with photodynamic therapy combined with cryotherapy--report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Yu-Chao; Yu, Chuan-Hang

    2014-06-01

    Our previous study showed successful treatment of a large oral verrucous hyperplasia (OVH) with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy combined with cryotherapy (ALA-PDT). In this case series, we extended this combined method for another three OVH lesions in three different patients. The clinical procedure was conducted as follows: the OVH lesions were irradiated with a 635-nm laser 1.5h after topical application of 20% ALA on the lesion for a total of 1000 s, which consisted of five 3-min and one 100-s irradiations separated by five 3-min rests. Cryogun cryotherapy was then performed on the lesion after ALA-PDT. The tumor was cleared after 1-6 treatments. No recurrence of the lesion was found after a follow-up period of 6-24 months. We suggest that our combined treatment protocol may be effective in treating OVH lesions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. In vitro study on the dimensional accuracy of selected materials for monophase elastic impression making.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piwowarczyk, Andree; Ottl, Peter; Büchler, Alfred; Lauer, Hans-Christoph; Hoffmann, Andrea

    2002-01-01

    This study evaluated the dimensional accuracy of various impression materials for monophase elastic impression making. To isolate this parameter, a direct measurement of the impressions was made without taking the model material into consideration. A total of eight materials were tested; six impression materials were addition-curing silicones, and two were polyether impression materials. All materials were processed according to the manufacturers' instructions. A specially developed precision mold made of stainless steel served as basis for measuring the elastomeric impression materials. Using a stereomicroscope at a temperature of 23.0 +/- 1.0 degrees C and with a precision linear adjustment and lathe, sights were set on the marking points of customized posts. The measurement was performed after the earliest time possible for fabricating the model according to the manufacturer (time 1) and after 90 minutes (time 2). In a one-way analysis of variance, multiple average comparisons of dimensional accuracy were made (P materials under investigation. Under the conditions of this study, the impression materials tested demonstrated a very high dimensional accuracy. The arithmetic means of the dimensional changes ranged from -11 to 19 microns for both measuring times. Since as a rule, no significant dimensional changes occurred for the different impression materials between time 1 and time 2, this time interval for fabricating a model can be recommended.

  17. Direct monophasic replacement of fatty acid by DMSA on SPION surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogoi, M. [Department of Physics, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028 (India); Deb, P., E-mail: pdeb@tezu.ernet.in [Department of Physics, Tezpur University (Central University), Tezpur 784028 (India); Interface Chemistry and Surface Engineering, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany); Vasan, G.; Keil, P.; Kostka, A.; Erbe, A. [Interface Chemistry and Surface Engineering, Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Max-Planck-Strasse 1, 40237 Duesseldorf (Germany)

    2012-10-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Monophasic replacement of fatty acid coating. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ultrastable dispersion of hydrophilic SPION in a wide pH range. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Unaltered microstructure and property on surface modification. - Abstract: Tailoring the surface and understanding the surface characteristics is necessary for biomedical applications of superparamagnetic nanoparticles. In this paper, superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) were prepared by thermal decomposition of iron nitrate in presence of stearic acid as surfactant. Due to the multilayer organization of surfactant molecules over the nanoparticle surface, the surface potential can be tuned by pH changes and hence the nanoparticles can be made dispersible in nonpolar as well as in polar solvents. We have presented a simple, facile procedure for controlled replacement of stearic acid from maghemite surface and subsequent derivatization by biocompatible dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) to obtain ultrastable hydrophilic nanoparticles with unaltered morphology, phase and properties. The surface chemistry of the functionalized SPIONs was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) revealing the presence of bound and unbound thiol groups and disulfides, leading to its prolonged stability in aqueous medium. The consequence of spatially selective functionalization on the stability and solubility of surface hydrophilic SPION has also been realized.

  18. Combined oral treatment with racemic and meso-2,3-dimercaptosuccinic acid for removal of mercury in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostial, K.; Restek-Samarzija, N.; Blanusa, M.; Piasek, M. [Inst. for Medical Research and Occupational Health, Zagreb (Croatia); Mones, M.M. [Vanderbilt Univ., Dept. of Chemistry, Nashville, TN (United States); Singh, P.K. [Ellington Agriculture Center, Tennessee Dept. of Agriculture, Food Residue and Toxicology Lab., Nashville, TN (United States)

    1997-11-01

    Racemic dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) was found more efficient than the meso-isoform in enhancing the removal of mercury in rats. However, racemic-DMSA has recently been found more toxic. The efficiency of combined oral treatment with the two isoforms of DMSA for removal of mercury has now been evaluated. Female albino rats were treated orally for four days with meso- (M) and/or racemic- (R) DMSA (1 mmol/kg each), five days after a single intraperitoneal administration of {sup 203}Hg with 0.5 mg HgCl{sub 2}/kg. The animals were divided into six groups according to the number of treatments with each isomer: control (untreated), 4M, IR+3M, 2R+2M, 3R+1M, and 4R. Whole body, kidney, liver and brain mercury contents were measured nine days after {sup 203}Hg administration. In all treated groups retention in the whole body and kidneys was greatly reduced. The groups treated with racemic-DMSA, regardless of the number of doses, showed a greater removal of mercury than the group treated with meso-DMSA alone (4M). All treatments were less efficient in reducing liver retention, and the brain retention was not affected. It was concluded that even a single application of the more toxic racemic-DMSA during a four-day oral treatment regimen is sufficient to improve the removal by meso-DMSA of mercury from rats. (au). 8 refs.

  19. The influence of excipients on physical and pharmaceutical properties of oral lyophilisates containing a pregabalin-acetaminophen combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiriac, Aurica P; Diaconu, Alina; Nita, Loredana E; Tudorachi, Nita; Mititelu-Tartau, Liliana; Creteanu, Andreea; Dragostin, Oana; Rusu, Daniela; Popa, Gratiela

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate and characterize the oral lyophilisates containing the pregabalin-acetaminophen drug combination and as xcipients mannitol with microcrystalline cellulose or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose, in order to conclude upon drug-excipient interactions and their stability implications, impact of excipients on drug release and on the physicochemical and mechanical properties of the pharmaceutical formulations. The oral tablets were made by using a Christ freeze-dryer alpha 2-4-LSC lyophilizer, and evaluated for stability, drug-excipient compatibility and homogeneity of the prepared pharmaceutical formulations. The formulations were evaluated for in vivo absorption in rabbits by histopathological exams. FTIR and thermogravimetric analyses, DLS technique, SEM and NIR-CI studies confirmed the compatibility between compounds. From the determined physical and biochemical parameters of the formulations it was established that they are stable, homogeneous, and meet the conditions for orally disintegrating tablets. In the case of the investigated pharmaceutical formulations the study evidenced the assembling through physical bonds between the excipients and the 'codrug' complex, which do not affect the release of the bioactive compounds.

  20. Enteric-coated tablet of risedronate sodium in combination with phytic acid, a natural chelating agent, for improved oral bioavailability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jeong S; Jang, Sun W; Son, Miwon; Kim, Byoung M; Kang, Myung J

    2016-01-20

    The oral bioavailability (BA) of risedronate sodium (RS), an antiresorptive agent, is less than 1% due to its low membrane permeability as well as the formation of non-absorbable complexes with multivalent cations such as calcium ion (Ca(2+)) in the gastrointestinal tract. In the present study, to increase oral BA of the bisphosphonate, a novel enteric-coated tablet (ECT) dosage form of RS in combination with phytic acid (IP6), a natural chelating agent recognized as safe, was formulated. The chelating behavior of IP6 against Ca(2+), including a stability constant for complex formulation was characterized using the continuous variation method. Subsequently, in vitro dissolution profile and in vivo pharmacokinetic profile of the novel ECT were evaluated comparatively with that of the marketed product (Altevia, Sanofi, US), an ECT containing ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) as a chelating agent, in beagle dogs. The logarithm of stability constant for Ca(2+)-IP6 complex, an equilibrium constant approximating the strength of the interaction between two chemicals to form complex, was 19.05, which was 3.9-fold (pIP6-containing ECT were approximately 7.9- (pIP6 for an oral therapy with the bisphosphonate for improved BA. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. The effects on plasma L-arginine levels of combined oral L-citrulline and L-arginine supplementation in healthy males.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Takashi; Morita, Masahiko; Hayashi, Toshio; Kamimura, Ayako

    2017-02-01

    We investigated the effects of combining 1 g of l-citrulline and 1 g of l-arginine as oral supplementation on plasma l-arginine levels in healthy males. Oral l-citrulline plus l-arginine supplementation more efficiently increased plasma l-arginine levels than 2 g of l-citrulline or l-arginine, suggesting that oral l-citrulline and l-arginine increase plasma l-arginine levels more effectively in humans when combined.

  2. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N. Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Materials and Methods: Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two crit...

  3. Acute Diarrhoea in Children: Determination of Duration Using a Combined Bismuth Hydroxide Gel and Oral Rehydration Solution Therapy vs. Oral Rehydration Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Oviedo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral rehydration salt (ORS treatment in young children with acute diarrhoea (AD has contributed to decrease mortality associated with dehydration although effective strategies to reduce morbidity associated with this disease are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diarrhoea duration when using combined colloidal bismuth hydroxide gel (CBHG and oral rehydration salt treatment compared with ORS therapy in children with AD. We designed a double-blind, randomised prospective study with treatment and control groups. Patients aged one to 12 years, with no prior pathology and with AD of less than 48 h were included. The Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests were used, as well as the Cox proportional hazards model and the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Patients were randomised into an ORS and CBHG treatment group and a control group for ORS plus placebo. (Average age: 3.2 years. The result of the post-treatment evaluation with respect to the average duration of AD was 25.5 h for the treated group vs. 41.5 h for the control group (p = 0.015. The average number of stools was 4.8 in the treated group and 8.2 in the control group (p = 0.032. We conclude that the use of CBHG plus ORS significantly reduced the duration of AD, the number of stools and the percentage of children with persistent AD after 24 h of treatment compared to the control group. AD remitted almost twice as fast in patients treated with CBHG and ORS compared to those who received ORS plus placebo.

  4. Acute Diarrhoea in Children: Determination of Duration Using a Combined Bismuth Hydroxide Gel and Oral Rehydration Solution Therapy vs. Oral Rehydration Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oviedo, Adriana; Díaz, Mirna; Valenzuela, María Laura; Vidal, Victoria; Racca, Liliana; Bottai, Hebe; Priore, Graciela; Peluffo, Graciela; Di Bartolomeo, Susana; Cabral, Graciela; Toca, María del Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Oral rehydration salt (ORS) treatment in young children with acute diarrhoea (AD) has contributed to decrease mortality associated with dehydration although effective strategies to reduce morbidity associated with this disease are required. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diarrhoea duration when using combined colloidal bismuth hydroxide gel (CBHG) and oral rehydration salt treatment compared with ORS therapy in children with AD. We designed a double-blind, randomised prospective study with treatment and control groups. Patients aged one to 12 years, with no prior pathology and with AD of less than 48 h were included. The Chi-squared and Mann-Whitney tests were used, as well as the Cox proportional hazards model and the Kaplan-Meier estimator. Patients were randomised into an ORS and CBHG treatment group and a control group for ORS plus placebo. (Average age: 3.2 years). The result of the post-treatment evaluation with respect to the average duration of AD was 25.5 h for the treated group vs. 41.5 h for the control group (p = 0.015). The average number of stools was 4.8 in the treated group and 8.2 in the control group (p = 0.032). We conclude that the use of CBHG plus ORS significantly reduced the duration of AD, the number of stools and the percentage of children with persistent AD after 24 h of treatment compared to the control group. AD remitted almost twice as fast in patients treated with CBHG and ORS compared to those who received ORS plus placebo. PMID:28009823

  5. Peripheral arterial disease in a female using high-dose combined oral contraceptive pills

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Pallavee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The association between oral contraceptive (OC pills and vascular diseases is well-known, although, the present generation of pills is considered to be relatively safer in this regard. Hormonal treatment for severe abnormal uterine bleeding is usually considered after ruling out malignancy, when such bleeding is resistant to all other forms of treatment. We report a case of severe peripheral arterial disease in a female, who had been on high-dose OC pills for an extended period of time for severe uterine bleeding.

  6. [Keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated with the combination povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diongue, K; Sow, A S; Nguer, M; Seck, M C; Ndiaye, M; Badiane, A S; Ndiaye, J M; Ndoye, N W; Diallo, M A; Diop, A; Ndiaye, Y D; Dieye, B; Déme, A; Ndiaye, I M; Ndir, O; Ndiaye, D

    2015-12-01

    In developing countries where systemic antifungal are often unavailable, treatment of filamentous fungi infection as Fusarium is sometimes very difficult to treat. We report the case of a keratomycosis due to Fusarium oxysporum treated by povidone iodine eye drops and oral fluconazole. The diagnosis of abscess in the cornea was retained after ophthalmological examination for a 28-year-old man with no previous ophthalmological disease, addressed to the Ophthalmological clinic at the University Hospital Le Dantec in Dakar for a left painful red eye with decreased visual acuity lasting for 15 days. The patient did not receive any foreign body into the eye. Samples by corneal scraping were made for microbiological analysis and the patient was hospitalized and treated with a reinforced eye drops based treatment (ceftriaxone+gentamicin). The mycological diagnosis revealed the presence of a mold: F. oxysporum, which motivated the replacement of the initial treatment by eye drops containing iodized povidone solution at 1% because of the amphotericin B unavailability. Due to the threat of visual loss, oral fluconazole was added to the local treatment with eye drops povidone iodine. The outcome was favorable with a healing abscess and visual acuity amounted to 1/200th. Furthermore, we noted sequels such as pannus and pillowcase. The vulgarization of efficient topical antifungal in developing countries would be necessary to optimize fungal infection treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  7. Effects of combined therapy of orbital cobalt Irradiation and oral corticosteroid administration, and pulse therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shigemasa, Chiaki; Ueta, Yoshihiko; Taniguchi, Shinichi; Mitani, Yasuo; Urabe, Keita; Tanaka, Takashi; Yoshida, Akio; Mashiba, Hiroto

    1989-03-01

    This preliminary study was performed to investigate the efficacy of the combined therapy of orbital cobalt irradiation and oral prednisolone administration, and pulse therapy, for Graves' ophthalmopathy. The combined therapy was undergone according to procedure of Bartalena et al. (1983) in 5 patients. Excellent or good response to combined therapy were shown by 3 patients with short-standing ocular symptoms (3-4 months), but not by 2 patients with long-standing ocular symptoms (12-13 months). Pulse therapy was performed on 2 patients who showed no improvement from combined therapy, and on a patient who had acute onset of opthalmopathy. One gram of methylprednisolone sodium succinate was given intravenously daily for 3 successive days. This infusion procedure was repeated 3 to 4 times at intervals of 1 week. One of 2 patients who showed no improvement from combined therapy also had no response to pulse therapy. The other 2 patients showed a good response to pulse therapy and showed no relapse of ophthalmopathy for 10 and 8 months, respectively. These data emphasize the need for early immuno-suppressive therapy for Graves' ophthalmopathy. Pulse therapy may be employed in patients who show no response to other therapy method.

  8. Oral Contraceptive Pill Alters Acute Dietary Protein-Induced Thermogenesis in Young Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duhita, Maharani Retna; Schutz, Yves; Montani, Jean-Pierre; Dulloo, Abdul G; Miles-Chan, Jennifer L

    2017-09-01

    There is much interest in the role of dietary protein for weight control. However, there remains a need to characterize individual determinants of the thermogenic effects of protein. This study aimed to investigate the influence of menstrual cycle phase and the combined, monophasic oral contraceptive pill on the thermogenic response to a standardized high-protein (HP) versus normal-protein (NP) meal. Following an overnight fast, resting energy expenditure (EE) was measured in 16 healthy young women (8 taking and 8 not taking the pill) and 8 men for 30 minutes pre ingestion and 3 hours post ingestion of a NP (11%) or HP (24%) meal. There was no effect of menstrual phase or contraceptive pill use on fasting EE or NP response. However, HP increased EE significantly more than NP in women not taking the oral contraceptive pill and in men, but not in women taking the pill. This study shows an absence of the greater thermic effect of HP versus NP in women taking the oral contraceptive pill and has important implications regarding the effectiveness of HP for body weight regulation in women. With current obesity treatment/prevention strategies remaining largely ineffective, understanding the relationship between oral contraceptive pill use and protein-induced thermogenesis may enable the successful recalibration of existing dietary recommendations. © 2017 The Obesity Society.

  9. Oral Xeloda plus bi-platinu two-way combined chemotherapy in treatment of advanced gastrointestinal malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Fan; Wen-Chao Liu; Yan-Jun Zhang; Jun Ren; Bo-Rong Pan; Du-Hu Liu; Yan Chen; Zhao-Cai Yu

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To compare the effect, adverse events, cost-effectiveness and dose intensity (DI) of oral Xeloda vs calcium folinate (CF)/5-FU combination chemotherapy in patients with advanced gastrointestinal malignancies, both combined with bi-platinu two-way chemotherapy.METHODS: A total of 131 patients were enrolled and randomly selected to receive either oral Xeloda (X group)or CF/5-FU (control group). Oral Xeloda 1 000 mg/m2was administered twice daily from d 1 to 14 in X group,while CF 200 mg/m2 was taken as a 2-h intravenous infusion followed by 5-FU 600 mg/m2 intravenously for 4-6 h on d 1-5 in control group. Cisplatin and oxaliplatin were administered in the same way to both the groups:cisplatin 60-80 mg/m2 by hyperthermic intraperitoneal administration, and oxaliplatin 130 mg/m2 intravenously for 2 h on d 1. All the drugs were recycled every 21 d,with at least two cycles. Pyridoxine 50 mg was given t.i.d.orally for prophylaxis of the hand-foot syndrome (HFS).Then the effect, adverse events, cost-effectiveness and DI of the two groups were evaluated.RESULTS: Hundred and fourteen cases (87.0%) finished more than two chemotherapy cycles. The overall response rate of them was 52.5% (X group) and 42.4% (control group) respectively. Tumor progression time (TTP) was 7.35 mo vs5.95 mo, and 1-year survival rate was 53.1% vs 44.5%. There was a remarkable statistical significance of TTP and 1-year survival between the two groups. The main Xeloda-related adverse events were myelosuppression,gastrointestinal toxicity, neurotoxicity and HFS, which were mild and well tolerable. Therefore, no patients withdrew from the study due to side effects before two chemotherapy cycles were finished. Both groups finished pre-arranged DI and the relative DI was nearly 1.0. The average cost for 1 patient in one cycle was $9 137.35(X group) and $8 961.72 (control group), or US $1 100.89in X group and $1 079.73 in control group. To add 1% to the response rate costs $ 161.44 vs $210

  10. The effect of the oral contraceptive pill on the passive stiffness of the human gastrocnemius muscle in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, C I; Spencer, J; Hussain, A W; Onambele, G L

    2013-03-01

    The aim of this investigation was to determine the effect of sustained monophasic oral contraceptive pill (MOCP) use on the in vivo passive stiffness of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle-tendon unit. Twenty four females volunteered for this study (age range 20-25 yrs); twelve participants had been taking the combined MOCP for a minimum of 12 months, and twelve participants, who had never taken the MOCP, formed a control group. Distal displacement of the GM myotendinous junction (MTJ) was measured during passive dorsiflexion at 2 Nm increments to 20 Nm, and at end range of motion using ultrasonography. In addition, GM MTJ displacement was measured at passive torques equivalent to 5, 10 and 15% of plantarflexion maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) torque, and relative to GM length. MOCP users had significantly greater GM MTJ displacement at all passive torques (PMTJ displacement, passive muscle stiffness is less in MOCP using females, compared to non-pill users.

  11. Imbalance Between Th17 Cells and Regulatory T Cells During Monophasic Experimental Autoimmune Uveitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lian; Wan, Fangzhu; Song, Jike; Tang, Kai; Zheng, Fengming; Guo, Junguo; Guo, Dadong; Bi, Hongsheng

    2016-02-01

    The aim of this study is to explore the dynamic changes in IL-17-expressing T cells (Th17)/Treg expression in monophasic experimental autoimmune uveitis (mEAU). mEAU was induced in Lewis rats with IRBP1177-1191 peptide and evaluated clinically and pathologically on days 9, 13, 18, 23, 28, 35, and 48. Lymphocytes isolated from inguinal lymph nodes were subjected to flow cytometry to analyze the frequency of Th17/Treg cells. The levels of cytokines (IL-17, IL-6, IL-10, transforming growth factor (TGF)-β) in serum were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Real-time quantitative PCR (RT-PCR) was used for measuring the levels of IL-17, IL-6, TGF-β, and Foxp3. Clinical and histopathologic assessment showed that mEAU began on day 9, peaked on day 13, and decreased to normal on day 18. The frequency of Th17 cells increased obviously on day 9, peaking on day 13, while the frequency of Treg cells increased on day 13, peaked on day 18, and remained at a high level until day 48. In the serum, the levels of IL-17 and IL-6 peaked on day 9 and gradually decreased to normal on day 28. The level of TGF-β increased on day 9, peaked on day 13, and decreased to normal on day 35. Meanwhile, the level of IL-10 increased on day 9 and stayed at a high level until day 48. Additionally, the above results were further confirmed by RT-PCR. The imbalance between Th17 and Treg cells contributes to the onset and progression of mEAU, and a compartmental imbalance of Treg over Th17 exists in the recovery phase of mEAU.

  12. Sleep and alertness during alternating monophasic and polyphasic rest-activity cycles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcú, S; Casagrande, M; Ferrara, M; Bellatreccia, A

    1998-07-01

    People involved in shift work often have to face altered patterns of sleep and wakefulness. This is particularly true for schedules involving night shifts and/or fragmentation of duty periods throughout the 24-hr day. In such conditions, it can be difficult to obtain satisfactory periods of sleep, and sleepiness on duty is a frequent and dangerous occurrence. The aim of this study was to evaluate sleep and wakefulness periods of subjects whose work schedule was characterized by an alternation of 2 hours of activity and 4 hours of rest (sleep allowed), repeated 4 times throughout the 24-hr day. This schedule was alternated with 24 hours off duty. Nine healthy male volunteers were monitored by means of ambulatory polysomnography while attending their 24-hr rest-activity schedule. Sleep periods were visually scored according to standard criteria. Wake periods were visually scored using both 30 s and 5 s epochs in order to reveal episodes of drowsiness and/or microsleep. Results showed that total sleep time was substantially reduced as compared to the usual 7-8 hour monophasic nocturnal sleep. Subjects did not sleep during the first rest period (11.00-15.00). Time in sleep linearly increased in the course of the 3 remaining rest periods. Normal sleep stage distribution was substantially spared only in the last rest period (3.00-7.00 a.m.). With regard to duty periods, only a few microsleeps were detected and their number did not significantly vary across the four 2-hr activity periods. In conclusion, this rest-activity schedule, despite the considerable sleep reduction, allowed maintaining good levels of vigilance as shown by the virtual absence of EEG microsleeps. Whether future research will prove that this regimen does not cause an impairment of performance, it should be a suitable strategy for the management of continuous operations.

  13. The efficacy and plasma profiles of abamectin plus levamisole combination anthelmintics administered as oral and pour-on formulations to cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leathwick, D M; Miller, C M; Sauermann, C W; Candy, P M; Ganesh, S; Fraser, K; Waghorn, T S

    2016-08-30

    In phase I, faecal egg count reduction tests (FECRT) were conducted on six commercial cattle farms to compare the performance of two pour-on and one oral combination anthelmintic. Groups of 12-15 calves were sampled for faecal nematode egg count (FEC) before treatment with either abamectin oral, levamisole oral, an abamectin+levamisole oral combination or one of two abamectin+levamisole combination pour-ons. Samples were collected again 14days after treatment to calculate the percentage reduction in FEC. The proportions of infective stage larvae (L3) in faecal cultures were used to apportion egg counts to, and calculate efficacy against, the main parasite genera. Abamectin oral was effective against Ostertagia except on one farm where resistance was indicated, but had reduced efficacy against Cooperia on four farms. Levamisole oral was effective against Cooperia on all farms, but had variable efficacy against Ostertagia. The abamectin+levamisole oral was effective against both species on all farms. The abamectin+levamisole pour-ons were effective on some farms but not on others. In particular, pour-on 2 failed to achieve 95% efficacy in 45% of evaluations, 4/6 against Cooperia and 1/5 against Ostertagia. On some farms the combination pour-ons were less effective than their constituent actives administered alone as orals. In phase II, 8 groups of 6 calves, grazing parasite-free pasture, were infected with putatively ML-resistant isolates of Cooperia oncophora and Ostertagia ostertagi. Once infections were patent groups were treated with oral or pour-on formulations of abamectin alone, levamisole alone, abamectin+levamisole (two pour-ons) or remained untreated. Blood samples were collected for analysis and after 8days all calves were euthanized and abomasa and intestines recovered for worm counts. All treatments were effective against O. ostertagi and all treatments containing levamisole were effective against C. oncophora. Animals treated with the oral combination

  14. Effect of progestin vs. combined oral contraceptive pills on lactation: A double-blind randomized controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Espey, Eve; Ogburn, Tony; Leeman, Larry; Singh, Rameet; Schrader, Ronald

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the effect of progestin-only vs. combined hormonal contraceptive pills on rates of breastfeeding continuation in postpartum women. Secondary outcomes include infant growth parameters, contraceptive method continuation and patient satisfaction with breastfeeding and contraceptive method. Methods In this randomized controlled trial, postpartum breastfeeding women who desired oral contraceptives were assigned to progestin-only vs. combined hormonal contraceptive pills. At two and eight weeks postpartum, participants completed in-person questionnaires that assessed breastfeeding continuation and contraceptive use. Infant growth parameters including weight, length and head circumference were assessed at eight weeks postpartum. Telephone questionnaires assessing breastfeeding, contraceptive continuation and satisfaction were completed at 3-7 weeks and 4 and 6 months. Breastfeeding continuation was compared between groups using Cox proportional hazards regression. Differences in baseline demographic characteristics and in variables between the two intervention groups were compared using chi-square tests, Fisher’s Exact test, or two-sample t-tests as appropriate. Results Breastfeeding continuation rates, contraceptive continuation, and infant growth parameters did not differ between users of progestin-only and combined hormonal contraceptive pills. Infant formula supplementation and maternal perception of inadequate milk supply were associated with decreased rates of breastfeeding in both groups. Conclusions Choice of combined or progestin-only birth control pills administered two weeks postpartum did not adversely affect breastfeeding continuation. PMID:22143258

  15. Evidence that treatment with monophasic oral contraceptive formulations containing ethinylestradiol plus gestodene reduces bone resorption in young women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paoletti, A M; Orrù, M; Floris, S; Mannias, M; Vacca, A M; Ajossa, S; Guerriero, S; Melis, G B

    2000-04-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate if a pill containing the same dose of the same type of progestin compound (gestodene, GES, 75 microg) but different doses of ethinylestradiol (EE2) (20 or 30 microg) differently influences specific markers of bone resorption (urinary levels of pyridinoline (PYR) and dexoxypyridinoline (D-PYR)). During the 12 months of the study a significant decrease of urinary levels of PYR and D-PYR was found in 2 groups of young post-adolescent women taking the pills with 20 and 30 microg of EE2 in comparison with control women (subjects of the same age group with normal menstrual cycle who did not use contraception). In women taking pills with 20 or 30 microg EE2, the levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) significantly increased during treatment in comparison with baseline, whereas in the same time period no changes occurred in control women. These findings suggest that similar to the pill containing 30 microg EE2, the lower dosage of the EE2 pill (20 microg) is also capable of reducing bone resorption. Twenty and 30 microg EE2 pills exert the same biological estrogenic effect. In fact, SHBG levels significantly increased with both pills. However, an additional effect of the progestin compound that could act directly on progestin or estrogen receptors of bone cannot be excluded. Since contraception with a pill containing the lowest estrogen dose is associated with the lowest incidence of side effects, these findings further suggest a pill containing 20 microg EE2 for young post-adolescent women would be the best choice.

  16. Increased apparent oral clearance of valproic acid during intake of combined contraceptive steroids in women with epilepsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galimberti, Carlo Andrea; Mazzucchelli, Iolanda; Arbasino, Carla; Canevini, Maria Paola; Fattore, Cinzia; Perucca, Emilio

    2006-09-01

    To determine potential changes in total and unbound serum valproic acid (VPA) concentrations at steady-state during a cycle of intake of combined hormonal contraceptive (HC) steroids. Blood samples were collected from nine women stabilized on VPA monotherapy on two separate randomized occasions: (i) at the end of the 4- to 7-day HC-free interval, and (ii) on the last day of the HC intake period. Trough concentrations of VPA in serum and serum ultrafiltrates were determined by fluorescence polarization immunoassay. In all women, total and unbound VPA concentrations were higher during the HC-free interval than during HC intake (means +/- SD: 425 +/- 184 vs. 350 +/- 145 micromol/L, respectively, for total VPA, p = 0.002, and 55 +/- 37 vs. 39 +/- 25 micromol/L, respectively, for unbound VPA, p = 0.005). Compared with the HC-free interval, HC intake was associated with a mean 21.5% increase in VPA total apparent oral clearance (from 8.0 +/- 5.2 to 9.7 +/- 6.4 ml/h/kg, p = 0.01) and a 45.2 % increase in VPA unbound apparent oral clearance (from 79 +/- 81 to 115 +/- 121 ml/h/kg, p = 0.029). The apparent oral clearance of total and unbound VPA increases during the HC intake period compared with the HC-free interval, probably due to induction of glucuronosyltransferase by ethinylestradiol. The magnitude of the change varies across individuals, being potentially clinically relevant in some cases. Serum VPA concentrations should be monitored when adding or discontinuing HC steroids, and possibly during the on-off intervals of a HC cycle.

  17. Successful outcomes with oral fluoroquinolones combined with rifampicin in the treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans: an observational cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel P; McDonald, Anthony; Callan, Peter; Robson, Mike; Friedman, N Deborah; Hughes, Andrew; Holten, Ian; Walton, Aaron; Athan, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Mycobacterium ulcerans infections, and fluoroquinolone combined with rifampicin-containing antibiotic regimens can provide an effective and safe oral treatment option.

  18. Successful Outcomes with Oral Fluoroquinolones Combined with Rifampicin in the Treatment of Mycobacterium ulcerans: An Observational Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Daniel P.; McDonald, Anthony; Callan, Peter; Robson, Mike; Friedman, N. Deborah; Hughes, Andrew; Holten, Ian; Walton, Aaron; Athan, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    surgery may significantly increase treatment success for Mycobacterium ulcerans infections, and fluoroquinolone combined with rifampicin-containing antibiotic regimens can provide an effective and safe oral treatment option. PMID:22272368

  19. Simultaneous reconstruction of the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa with microvascular transfer of combined first-second toe web and dorsalis pedis flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciudad, Pedro; Maruccia, Michele; Sapountzis, Stamatis; Chen, Hung-Chi

    2016-10-01

    The reconstruction of oral commissure, lip and mucosa defects following tumour resection is a challenging task to the reconstructive surgeon owing to the increasing aesthetic and functional demands. The authors describe a case in which the use of combined first-second toe web with dorsalis pedis flap was transferred and an optimal result was achieved for the oral commissure, lip and buccal mucosa following resection of squamous cell carcinoma and local flap failure.

  20. Combined administration of antibiotics and direct oral anticoagulants: a renewed indication for laboratory monitoring?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Mattiuzzi, Camilla

    2014-10-01

    The recent development and marketing of novel direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) represents a paradigm shift in the management of patients requiring long-term anticoagulation. The advantages of these compounds over traditional therapy with vitamin K antagonists include a reportedly lower risk of severe hemorrhages and the limited need for laboratory measurements. However, there are several scenarios in which testing should be applied. The potential for drug-to-drug interaction is one plausible but currently underrecognized indication for laboratory assessment of the anticoagulant effect of DOACs. In particular, substantial concern has been raised during Phase I studies regarding the potential interaction of these drugs with some antibiotics, especially those that interplay with permeability glycoprotein (P-gp) and cytochrome 3A4 (CYP3A4). A specific electronic search on clinical trials published so far confirms that clarithromycin and rifampicin significantly impair the bioavailability of dabigatran, whereas clarithromycin, erythromycin, fluconazole, and ketoconazole alter the metabolism of rivaroxaban in vivo. Because of their more recent development, no published data were found for apixaban and edoxaban, or for potential interactions of DOACs with other and widely used antibiotics. It is noteworthy, however, that an online resource based on Food and Drug Administration and social media information, reports several hemorrhagic and thrombotic events in patients simultaneously taking dabigatran and some commonly used antibiotics such as amoxicillin, cephalosporin, and metronidazole. According to these reports, the administration of antibiotics in patients undergoing therapy with DOACs would seem to require accurate evaluation as to whether dose adjustments (personalized or antibiotic class driven) of the anticoagulant drug may be advisable. This might be facilitated by direct laboratory assessments of their anticoagulant effect ex vivo.

  1. Combined immersion and oral vaccination of Vietnamese catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) confers protection against mortality caused by Edwardsiella ictaluri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thinh, N H; Kuo, T Y; Hung, L T; Loc, T H; Chen, S C; Evensen, O; Schuurman, H J

    2009-12-01

    Edwardsiella ictaluri septicemia occurs worldwide and causes high mortality and considerable economic damage to the catfish industry especially in Vietnam and the USA. To control Edwardsiella septicemia farmers extensively use antibiotics and various vaccination methods. Vaccination with inactivated vaccines has come with variable efficacy. In this trial the results of an approach of controlling Edwardsiella septicemia of Tra catfish (Pangasianodon hypophthalmus) in Vietnam through vaccination via mucosal surfaces are presented. The results show that a combination of primary vaccination by immersion with inactivated E. ictaluri followed by an oral boost with a formulated antigen preparation induces a statistically significant level of protection against mortality caused by experimental infection 4 weeks post-boost. Fish immunized by immersion only show significantly lower level of protection but significantly higher than the controls. Repeated boosts result in improved duration of immunity with a relative percent survival (RPS) of 47% at 90% control mortality. The immunization procedure provides an alternative for disease control through vaccination.

  2. Treatment with a combination of intra-oral sensory stimulation and electropalatography in a child with severe developmental dyspraxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lundeborg, Inger; McAllister, Anita

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes the use of a combination of intra-oral sensory stimulation and electropalatography (EPG) in the treatment of a case with severe developmental verbal dyspraxia. A multiple-baseline design was used. The treatment duration was 11 months and started when the subject was 5 years old. The efficacy of the treatment was assessed by calculations of percentage of correctly articulated words, percentage of consonants correct, percentage of phonemes correct and percentage of words correct. Intelligibility assessments were conducted by both naïve and expert listeners. The experts also assessed visual deviances in articulatory gestures from video recordings. Qualitative analysis of EPG data was made. The subject's speech was significantly improved by the treatment in all aspects. The results and their generalization to other cases of developmental verbal dyspraxia are discussed.

  3. Use of quantitative microbial risk assessment when investigating foodborne illness outbreaks: the example of a monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:- outbreak implicating beef burgers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillier, Laurent; Danan, Corinne; Bergis, Hélène; Delignette-Muller, Marie-Laure; Granier, Sophie; Rudelle, Sylvie; Beaufort, Annie; Brisabois, Anne

    2013-09-16

    A major community outbreak of salmonellosis occurred in France in October 2010. Classical epidemiological investigations led to the identification of beef burgers as the cause of the outbreak and the presence of the emerging monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium 4,5,12:i:-. The objective of this study was to understand the events that led to this large outbreak, that is to say, what are the contributing factors associated with consumer exposure to Salmonella. To this end, intensive microbiological investigations on several beef burgers were conducted and a risk assessment model was built. The microbiological results confirm the presence of Salmonella in all analysed frozen burgers at high levels of contamination above 1000 MPN/g. These results in frozen burgers combined with a model of thermal destruction were used to estimate the dose ingested by the exposed persons. Most people that consumed cooked beef burgers were exposed from 1.6 to 3.1 log₁₀ (MPN). The number of sick people predicted with a dose-response relationship for Salmonella is consistent with the observed number of salmonellosis cases. The very high initial contamination level in frozen beef burgers is the primary cause of this large outbreak rather than bad cooking practices. Intensive investigations, modelling of the initial contamination and quantitative exposure and risk assessments are complementary to epidemiological investigation. They can be valuable elements for the assessment of missing information or the identification of the primary causes of outbreaks.

  4. Oral Candida in Patients with Fixed Orthodontic Appliance: In Vitro Combination Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wisam Alhamadi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Fixed orthodontic appliance (FOA increases the cariogenic microorganisms of mouth including candida. The aim was to evaluate the pharmacodynamic effects of some antibacterial drugs in combination with most applicable antifungal agents on candida isolated from patients with FOA. Methods. Three antifungal agents (amphotericin B (AMB, ketoconazole (KET, and itraconazole (ITZ and three antibacterial drugs (ciprofloxacin (CIP, doxycycline (DOX, and metronidazole (MET with serial concentrations have been used and microdilution broth method has been done for single and combination therapy, then fungal growth was assessed spectrophotometrically, and the combinations were evaluated by bliss independent analysis. Results. According to bliss independent interaction, the synergistic interactions depended on ΔE values that showed the best for CIP was with AMB (ΔE=55.14 followed with KET (ΔE=41.23 and lastly ITR (ΔE=39.67 at CIP = 150 mg/L. DOX was optimal with KET (ΔE=42.11 followed with AMB (ΔE=40.77 and the lowest with ITR (ΔE=9.12 at DOX = 75 mg/L. MET is the best with AMB (ΔE=40.95 and then with ITR (ΔE=35.45 and finally KET (ΔE=15.15 at MET 200 mg/L. Moreover, usage of higher concentrations of antibacterial agents revealed inhibitory effects. Conclusion. This study uncovers the optimum antibiotic combination therapy against cariogenic candida with FOA by usage of low therapeutic concentrations.

  5. Combined treatment with oral metronidazole and N-acetylcysteine is effective in ethylmalonic encephalopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viscomi, Carlo; Burlina, Alberto B; Dweikat, Imad; Savoiardo, Mario; Lamperti, Costanza; Hildebrandt, Tatjana; Tiranti, Valeria; Zeviani, Massimo

    2010-08-01

    Ethylmalonic encephalopathy is caused by mutations in ETHE1, a mitochondrial matrix sulfur dioxygenase, leading to failure to detoxify sulfide, a product of intestinal anaerobes and, in trace amounts, tissues. Metronidazole, a bactericide, or N-acetylcysteine, a precursor of sulfide-buffering glutathione, substantially prolonged the lifespan of Ethe1-deficient mice, with the combined treatment being additive. The same dual treatment caused marked clinical improvement in five affected children, with hardly any adverse or side effects.

  6. Phase I clinical trial of oral rosiglitazone in combination with intravenous carboplatin in cancer-bearing dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allstadt Frazier, S; McKemie, D S; Guerrero, T A; LaChapelle, H; Skorupski, K A; Kass, P H; Rodriguez, C O

    2014-03-01

    Rosiglitazone is an FDA-approved peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist and antidiabetic agent in humans that has been investigated for its ability to reduce tumor cell growth. The purpose of this study was to determine the maximally tolerated dose, peak plasma concentrations and side effect profile of oral rosiglitazone when combined with carboplatin in dogs with cancer. Rosiglitazone was administered at 6 and 8 mg/m(2) to seven dogs. Carboplatin was administered at 240-300 mg/m(2) in combination with rosiglitazone. For toxicity evaluation, the toxicity data for the seven dogs in this study were combined with the toxicity data from three dogs previously reported in a methodology study. Peak plasma rosiglitazone concentrations varied with dose. The dose-limiting toxicity was hepatic at a dose of 8 mg/m(2). Three dogs had mild to moderate alanine aminotransferase elevations but no changes in total bilirubin, alkaline phosphatase, blood glucose or γ-glutamyltranspeptidase values were noted.

  7. Oral combined therapy with probiotics and alloantigen induces B cell-dependent long-lasting specific tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mercadante, Ana C T; Perobelli, Suelen M; Alves, Ana P G; Gonçalves-Silva, Triciana; Mello, Wallace; Gomes-Santos, Ana C; Miyoshi, Anderson; Azevedo, Vasco; Faria, Ana M C; Bonomo, Adriana

    2014-02-15

    Allogeneic hematopietic stem cell transplantation (aHSCT) is widely used for the treatment of hematologic malignancies. Although aHSCT provides a good response against the malignant cells (graft-versus-leukemia [GVL]), it also leads to the development of graft-versus-host disease (GVHD), a severe disease with high mortality and morbidity rates. Therapy for GVHD is commonly based on nonspecific immunosupression of the transplanted recipient, resulting in the concomitant inhibition of the GVL effect. In this study, we propose an alternative approach to specifically suppress GVHD while sparing the GVL, based on oral treatment of transplant donors with recipient Ags, associated with the intake of probiotic Lactococcus lactis as tolerogenic adjuvant (combined therapy). We show that treatment of C57BL/6 donor mice with combined therapy before the transplant protects the recipients F1 (C57BL/6 × BAL/c) mice from clinical and pathological manifestations of disease, resulting in 100% survival rate. Importantly, the animals keep the immunological competence maintaining the GVL response as well as the response to third-party Ags. The protection is specific, long lasting and dependent on donor IL-10-sufficient B cells activity, which induces regulatory T cells in the host. These data suggest that combined therapy is a promising strategy for prevention of GVHD with preservation of GVL, opening new possibilities to treat human patients subjected to transplantation.

  8. The intravenous and oral pharmacokinetics of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime when used as a combination chewable parasiticide for dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Letendre, L; Harriman, J; Drag, M; Mullins, A; Malinski, T; Rehbein, S

    2017-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime (A3 and A4 forms) in dogs were evaluated following the oral administration of NexGard Spectra(®) (Merial), a fixed combination chewable formulation of these two active pharmaceutical ingredients. Absorption of actives was rapid at levels that provide the minimum effective doses of 2.5 mg/kg and 0.5 mg/kg of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime, respectively. The time to maximum afoxolaner plasma concentrations (tmax ) was 2-4 h. The milbemycin tmax was 1-2 h. The terminal plasma half-life (t1/2 ) and the oral bioavailability were 14 ± 3 days and 88.3% for afoxolaner, 1.6 ± 0.4 days and 80.5% for milbemycin oxime A3 and 3.3 ± 1.4 days and 65.1% for milbemycin oxime A4. The volume of distribution (Vd ) and systemic clearance (Cls) were determined following an IV dose of afoxolaner or milbemycin oxime. The Vd was 2.6 ± 0.6, 2.7 ± 0.4 and 2.6 ± 0.6 L/kg for afoxolaner, milbemycin oxime A3 and milbemycin oxime A4, respectively. The Cls was 5.0 ± 1.2, 75 ± 22 and 41 ± 12 mL/h/kg for afoxolaner, milbemycin oxime A3 and milbemycin oxime A4, respectively. The pharmacokinetic profile for the combination of afoxolaner and milbemycin oxime supports the rapid onset and a sustained efficacy for afoxolaner against ectoparasites and the known endoparasitic activity of milbemycin oxime.

  9. Primary monophasic synovial sarcoma lung with brain metastasis diagnosed on transthoracic FNAC: Report of a case with literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paras Nuwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Synovial sarcoma is highly malignant tumor of soft tissues, occurring chiefly in the extremities and limb girdle with a propensity for local recurrence and sometimes metastases to the lungs. Primary synovial sarcoma arising in the lungs is rare and brain metastasis as presentation is further uncommon. We report a case of primary monophasic synovial sarcoma lung presenting with brain metastasis in a 35-year-old male patient. The diagnosis was made on percutaneous transthoracic needle aspiration from left-sided pulmonary mass and later confirmed by immunohistochemistry. The utility of preoperative diagnosis by percutaneous aspiration cytology is also stressed.

  10. The risk of breast, cervical, endometrial and ovarian cancer in oral contraceptive users

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljković Milena

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Oral contraceptives, mainly combined monophasic pills, are widely used by young women who expect their physicians to prescribe them safe drugs which will not harm their health and which will simplify their life. Numerous epidemiologic studies have been performed to determine the relation between oral contraceptive use and the development of neoplasms. Breast cancer. An increased incidence of breast cancer has occurred simultaneously with the growing use of oral contraceptives. The possibility of a link between the oral contraceptive use and breast cancer has led to intensive research, but studies have provided inconsistent results causing confusion among clinicians. It was noticed that the risk of breast cancer was slightly elevated in current and recent young oral contraceptives users. That finding could be influenced by a detection bias or could be due to the biologic effect of the pills. The absolute number of additional breast cancer cases will be very small because of low baseline incidence of the disease in young women. Oral contraceptives probably promote growth of the already existing cancer, they are probably promoters not initiators of breast cancer. The available data do not provide a conclusive answer that is need. Cervical cancer. Numerous factors may influence the development of cervical cancer. The evidence suggests that current and recent oral contraceptive users have an increased risk of cervical cancer which decline after discontinuation of the application of medication. Oral contraceptives might increase the biological vulnerability of the cervix. Cervical cancer develops slowly over a long time period and can be effectively prevented by periodic cervical screening. Fortunately, oral contraceptives do not mask abnormal cervical citology. Conclusions regarding invasive cervical cancer and oral contraceptive use are not definitive but if there is any increased risk, it is low. Endometrial cancer. In oral

  11. Prophylactic Use of Oral Acetaminophen or IV Dexamethasone and Combination of them on Prevention Emergence Agitation in Pediatric after Adenotonsillectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Sajedi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The present study was aimed to evaluate the efficacy of acetaminophen plus dexamethasone on post-operative emergence agitation in pediatric adenotonsillectomy. Methods: A total of 128 patients were randomized and assigned among four groups as: Intravenous (IV dexamethasone, oral acetaminophen, IV dexamethasone plus oral acetaminophen, placebo. Group 1 received 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone plus 0.25 mg/kg strawberry syrup 2 h before surgery. Group 2 received 20 mg/kg oral acetaminophen (0.25 ml/kg with 0.05 ml/kg IV normal saline. Group 3 received 20 mg/kg acetaminophen and 0.2 mg/kg dexamethasone intravenously. Group 4 received 0.25 ml/kg strawberry syrup and 0.05 ml/kg normal saline. Agitation was measured according to Richmond agitation sedation score in the post anesthetic care unit (PACU after admission, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation. Pain score was measured with FACE scale. Nurse satisfaction was measured with verbal analog scale. If agitation scale was 3 ≥ or pain scale was 4 ≥ meperidine was prescribed. If symptoms did not control wit in 15 min midazolam was prescribed. Patients were discharged from PACU according Modified Alderet Score. Data were analyzed with ANOVA, Chi-square, and Kruskal-Wallis among four groups. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: A total of 140 patients were recruited in the study, which 12 of them were excluded. Thus, 128 patients were randomized and assigned among four groups. The four treatment groups were generally matched at baseline data. Median of pain score in 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation were different between each study group with the control group (<0.001, 0.003 respectively. Also median of agitation score in 0, 10, 20 and 30 min after extubation were different between each study group with the control group (<0.001. Incidence of pain and incidence of agitation after extubation were not statistically identical among groups (P < 0.001 and P = 0

  12. Effectiveness and acceptability of progestogens in combined oral contraceptives – a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kulier Regina

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The progestogen component of oral contraceptives (OCs has undergone changes since it was recognized that their chemical structure can influence the spectrum of minor adverse and beneficial effects. Methods The objective of this review was to evaluate currently available low-dose OCs containing ethinylestradiol and different progestogens in terms of contraceptive effectiveness, cycle control, side effects and continuation rates. The Cochrane Controlled Trials Register, MEDLINE and EMBASE databases were searched. Randomized trials reporting clinical outcomes were considered for inclusion and were assessed for methodological quality and validity. Results Twenty–two trials were included in the review. Eighteen were sponsored by pharmaceutical companies and in only 5 there was an attempt for blinding. Most comparisons between different interventions included one to three trials, involving usually less than 500 women. Discontinuation was less with second-generation progestogens compared to first–generation (RR 0.79; 95% CI 0.69–0.91. Cycle control appeared to be better with second-compared to first-generation progestogens for both, mono-and triphasic preparations (RR 0.69; 95% CI 0.52–0.91 and (RR 0.61; 95% CI 0.43–0.85, respectively. Intermenstrual bleeding was less with third- compared to second-generation pills (RR 0.71; 95% CI 0.55–0.91. Contraceptive effectiveness of gestodene (GSD was comparable to that of levonorgestrel (LNG, and had similar pattern of spotting, breakthrough bleeding and absence of withdrawal bleeding. Drospirenone (DRSP was similar compared to desogestrel (DSG regarding contraceptive effectiveness, cycle control and side effects. Conclusion The third- and second-generation progestogens are preferred over first generation in all indices of acceptability. Current evidence suggests that GSD is comparable to LNG in terms of contraceptive effectiveness and for most cycle control indices. GSD is also

  13. Evaluation of effectiveness of intraoral delivery tip on single step impressions using monophase and two-phase impression materials: An in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Gowri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Rationale: The precise fit of prosthesis depends on the impression materials and the technique used. Addition silicone impression materials being the user-friendly material are used in monophase and two-phase techniques. Considering the paucity of data on the effectiveness of intraoral delivery tip (IODT on void, tear and bubble formation using monophase impression technique in stock tray and two-phase impression technique in custom tray the present study was initiated. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 patients requiring single complete veneer crowns were enrolled. Monophase and two-phase impressions with and without IODT were made. Evaluation of the impression were made for tears, voids, and bubbles and alpha, beta, delta scores were given. Results: A significant reduction in the total number of voids was observed with two-phase technique either with or without IODT. No significant differences were observed in the proportion of overall evaluation into alpha, beta and delta between monophase and two-phase with and without IODT. No significant association was seen in the overall evaluation between the two groups (monophase and two-phase as compared using Chi-square test for independency and a trend in association between overall evaluation as tested using Chi-square for linear trend analysis. Conclusion: Two-phase impression technique with the use of IODT produced decreased number of voids.

  14. Bioavailability of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin in a fixed-combination syrup versus an oral reference product

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Janin, Annick; Monnet, Joelle

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The primary objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochoride and guaifenesin in a new oral syrup with an established oral reference product...

  15. Field Evaluation of the Effectiveness of an Oral Toltrazuril and Iron Combination (Baycox® Iron) in Maintaining Weaning Weight by Preventing Coccidiosis and Anaemia in Neonatal Piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streyl, Kristina; Carlstron, Janaina; Dantos, Eliana; Mendoza, Roberto; Islas, Juan Agustin Torres; Bhushan, Chandra

    2015-08-01

    Effectiveness of an oral combination of toltrazuril and iron dextran (Baycox(®) Iron) to maintain weaning weight by preventing coccidiosis caused by Isospora suis and iron-deficiency anaemia in neonatal piglets was investigated on three commercial pig farms with a history of coccidiosis: two in Mexico and one in Brazil. On day (SD) 2 of life, piglets were randomised within litter by bodyweight to treatment or control group. On SD 3 piglets allocated to the control group (CG) each received 1 mL Baycox(®), containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril orally and commercially available iron (200 mg/piglet) by intramuscular injection. Piglets allocated to the treatment group (TG) each received 1 mL toltrazuril and iron combination orally (Baycox(®) Iron) containing 50 mg/mL toltrazuril and 228 mg iron as iron dextran. All piglets had access to creep feed. 6493 piglets completed the study. Bodyweight at weaning on SD 21 of piglets treated with the oral toltrazuril and iron combination was confirmed to be non-inferior to the control treatment with coccidiosis. Haemoglobin levels on SD 21 were lower in the oral toltrazuril and iron combination treated piglets compared to control levels but above minimum haemoglobin levels to maintain health. There was no difference in mortality between the two groups. This large scale field evaluation clearly demonstrated the effectiveness of a combination of oral toltrazuril and iron (Baycox(®) Iron) in maintaining body weight at weaning compared to conventional treatment. The combination was effective in preventing coccidiosis and anaemia and thus provides a valuable alternative that reduces stressful events in neonatal piglets. There were no product related adverse events.

  16. Cardiovascular risk in Egyptian healthy consumers of different types of combined oral contraceptives pills: A comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Haggar, Sahar M; Mostafa, Tarek M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the associated cardiovascular risk in Egyptian healthy consumers of different types of combined oral contraceptives pills (COCPs) via determination of lipids profiles, Castelli index I, leptin, adiponectin, and resistin concentrations as cardiovascular risk factors. In this cross-sectional study, the study groups consisted of control group that represented by 30 healthy married women who were not on any contraceptive mean or any hormonal therapy and had normal menstrual cycles, group two consisted of 30 women who were users of Levonorgesterl 0.15 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle, group three consisted of 30 women who were users of Gestodene 0.075 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle, and group four consisted of 30 women who were users of Drospirenone 3 mg plus Ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg as 21 days cycle. One-way analysis of variance followed by LSD post hoc test was used for comparison of variables. P value index. Formulation containing ethinylestradiol combined with gestodene neither altered adipose tissue function nor showed deleterious effect on lipid panel. Formulation containing ethinylestradiol combined with drospirenone resulted in significantly higher HDL-C and adiponectin concentrations. In conclusion, the uptake of COCPs containing levonorgestrel plus ethinylestradiol is associated with high cardiovascular risk since this formulation showed significantly lower adiponectin concentration, significantly higher leptin, resistin, and atherogenic index as compared to other studied groups. By contrast, the formulations containing ethinylestradiol combined with third generation progestin gestodene or fourth generation progestin drospirenone are associated with low cardiovascular risk since they neither altered adipose tissue function nor impaired lipoprotein metabolism as experienced by their favorable effect on leptin, adiponectin, and resistin, with non-changed atherogenic index, higher HDL-C levels and

  17. Pharmacokinetic overview of ethinyl estradiol dose and bioavailability using two transdermal contraceptive systems and a standard combined oral contraceptive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Birte; Reinecke, Isabel; Schuett, Barbara; Merz, Martin; Zurth, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To determine the relative bioavailability of ethinyl estradiol (EE) and gestodene (GSD) after application of a novel transdermal contraceptive patch vs. a standard combined oral contraceptive (COC) pill (study 1), and to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of EE after application of the EE/GSD patch compared with an EE/norelgestromin (NGMN) patch (study 2). Materials: Participants were healthy, non-obese women aged 18 – 45 years (study 1) or 18 – 35 years (study 2). Compositions of study treatments were as follows: 0.55 mg EE/2.1 mg GSD (EE/GSD patch); 0.02 mg EE/0.075 mg GSD (standard COC); 0.6 mg EE/6 mg NGMN (EE/NGMN patch). Methods: In study 1, which consisted of 3 treatment periods (each followed by 7 patch- or pill-free days), treatments were administered in one of two randomized orders: either P–M–E (EE/GSD patch (P) every 7 days for 28 days → COC (M) once-daily for 21 days → two 7-day patch-wearing periods followed by one 10-day patch-wearing phase (E)), or the same treatments administered in sequence M–P–E. For study 2, participants received either the EE/GSD patch or EE/NGMN patch for seven treatment cycles (one patch per week for 3 weeks followed by a 7-day patch-free interval). Results: In study 1, average daily exposure to EE was similar for treatments P and M; the mean daily area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) ratio of treatment P vs. treatment M for EE was 1.06 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.964 – 1.16), indicating average daily delivery similar to oral administration of 0.019 – 0.023 mg EE. For unbound GSD, average daily exposure was lower for treatment P vs. treatment M. The mean AUC ratio of treatment P vs. treatment M for unbound GSD was 0.820 (90% CI: 0.760 – 0.885), indicating average daily delivery from the patch of 0.057 – 0.066 mg GSD. Prolonged patch wearing did not result in a distinct decline in GSD and EE serum concentrations. In study 2, AUC at steady state (AUC0–168,ss

  18. Antifertility Effects of Orally Administration of Low Dose Gossypol Acetic Acid Combined with Methyltestosterone Plus Ethinyl Estradiol on Male Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Objective To investigate the feasibility and optimal regimen of orally administration of low close gossypol acetic acid (GA) combined with methyltestosterone (MT) plus ethinyl estradiol (EE) for contraception in males.Methods Wistar male rats were randomly assigned into four groups, 20 in each group. Animals in group A or B were administered daily with 1% methyl cellulose or GA (12 mg/kg) suspended in 1% methyl cellulose, respectively. Rats in group C or D took firstly GA 12 mg/kg+MT 20 mg/kg+EE 0.1 mg/kg or MT 20 mg/kg+EE 0.1 mg/kg, in a suspension with 1% methyl cellulose, via gastric intubation. After the infertilities were initiated(6 weeks for group C, 8 weeks for group D), GA was served alone while MT+EE were withdrawn in rats of groups C and D. The treatment was ceased after 18 weeks and some males from group C were permitted to recover. Fertility testing, 10 males per group, was served for determining infertility or restoration of fertility in treated rats. Examinations of histology and biochemistry in treated rats were used to examine the morphologic influences on sperm, testis, epididymides and viscera, and biochemical changes in blood. The growth and development of F1 generation of the rats would also be tested in a series of behavioral tests.Results Ten rats from group C were infertile at week 6 after treatment, and the fulfilled infertility was maintained with low-close GA (12 mg/kg) only daily. Six weeks after cessation of treatment, all of treated males recovered their fertility. However, 8 of 10 rats from group D were in sterility at 6th week of treatment and all at 8th week of treatment, but the infertility could not be kept with the similar dose GA alone later on. Moreover, no adverse effects were found in our present experiments.Conclusion Administration of oral low dose GA combined with MT and EE as loading dose could successfully induce infertility in short term, whereafter the efficacy could completely be maintained by similar low dose of GA

  19. Different Effects of Myoinositol plus Folic Acid versus Combined Oral Treatment on Androgen Levels in PCOS Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Cenk Ozay

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, myoinositol (myo-ins and folic acid combination has gained an important role for treating Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS, in addition to combined oral contraceptives (COC. We aimed to examine myo-ins effects on anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH levels and compare them with those ones obtained administering COC. In this prospective study, 137 PCOS patients, diagnosed according to Rotterdam criteria and admitted to the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Outpatient Clinic at Dokuz Eylul University (Izmir, Turkey, were included. After randomization to COC (n=60 and myo-ins (n=77 arms, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, Modified Ferriman Gallwey scores were calculated. Biochemical and hormonal analysis were performed, and LH/FSH and Apo B/A1 ratios were calculated. Data analysis was carried out in demographically and clinically matched 106 patients (COC = 54; myo-ins = 52. After 3-month treatment, increase in HDL and decreases in LH and LH/FSH ratio were statistically more significant only in COC group when compared with baseline (in both cases p>0.05. In myo-ins group, fasting glucose, LDL, DHEAS, total cholesterol, and prolactin levels decreased significantly (for all p<0.05. Progesterone and AMH levels, ovarian volume, ovarian antral follicle, and total antral follicle counts lessened significantly in both groups (for all p<0.05. In PCOS treatment, MYO is observed more effective in reductions of total ovarian volume and AMH levels.

  20. Different Effects of Myoinositol plus Folic Acid versus Combined Oral Treatment on Androgen Levels in PCOS Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emekci Ozay, Ozlen; Okyay, Recep Emre; Cagliyan, Erkan; Kume, Tuncay; Gulekli, Bulent

    2016-01-01

    Recently, myoinositol (myo-ins) and folic acid combination has gained an important role for treating Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS), in addition to combined oral contraceptives (COC). We aimed to examine myo-ins effects on anti-Mullerian hormone (AMH) levels and compare them with those ones obtained administering COC. In this prospective study, 137 PCOS patients, diagnosed according to Rotterdam criteria and admitted to the Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility Outpatient Clinic at Dokuz Eylul University (Izmir, Turkey), were included. After randomization to COC (n = 60) and myo-ins (n = 77) arms, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure, Modified Ferriman Gallwey scores were calculated. Biochemical and hormonal analysis were performed, and LH/FSH and Apo B/A1 ratios were calculated. Data analysis was carried out in demographically and clinically matched 106 patients (COC = 54; myo-ins = 52). After 3-month treatment, increase in HDL and decreases in LH and LH/FSH ratio were statistically more significant only in COC group when compared with baseline (in both cases p > 0.05). In myo-ins group, fasting glucose, LDL, DHEAS, total cholesterol, and prolactin levels decreased significantly (for all p < 0.05). Progesterone and AMH levels, ovarian volume, ovarian antral follicle, and total antral follicle counts lessened significantly in both groups (for all p < 0.05). In PCOS treatment, MYO is observed more effective in reductions of total ovarian volume and AMH levels. PMID:27882049

  1. Combination therapy of gemcitabine or oral S-1 with the anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab for pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasuya, Kazuhiko; Nagakawa, Yuichi; Suzuki, Minako; Suzuki, Yoshiaki; Kyo, Bunso; Suzuki, Satoru; Matsudo, Takaaki; Itoi, Takao; Tsuchida, Akihiko; Aoki, Tatsuya

    2012-04-01

    We previously reported that the administration of bevacizumab for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors inhibited angiogenesis in the host, resulting in tumor growth inhibition. In light of these results, we compared the effect of bevacizumab/gemcitabine/S-1 combination therapy vs. bevacizumab monotherapy. The QGP-1 pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinoma cell line and the BxPC-3 ductal cell carcinoma cell line were transplanted into the subcutaneous tissue of mice, and the mice were treated for 3 weeks with bevacizumab [50 mg/kg intraperitoneally (i.p.) twice weekly], gemcitabine (240 mg/kg i.p. once weekly) and S-1 (10 mg/kg orally five times weekly). The antitumor effect and side effects were evaluated by measuring the tumor volume and weight and by changes in body weight, respectively. The tumor volume became smaller (from the maximum volume) in the group treated with bevacizumab, gemcitabine and S-1 (BGS) and the group treated with bevacizumab and gemcitabine (BG). A significant difference was noted in the tumor weight between the BG group and the group treated with bevacizumab alone. A relatively significant decrease in the body weight was observed in the BGS and BG groups. We conclude that gemcitabine is appropriate as a drug used in combination with bevacizumab for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

  2. Comparison of outcomes of allogeneic transplantation for chronic myeloid leukemia with cyclophosphamide in combination with intravenous busulfan, oral busulfan, or total body irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copelan, Edward A; Avalos, Belinda R; Ahn, Kwang Woo; Zhu, Xiaochun; Gale, Robert Peter; Grunwald, Michael R; Hamadani, Mehdi; Hamilton, Betty K; Hale, Gregory A; Marks, David I; Waller, Edmund K; Savani, Bipin N; Costa, Luciano J; Ramanathan, Muthalagu; Cahn, Jean-Yves; Khoury, H Jean; Weisdorf, Daniel J; Inamoto, Yoshihiro; Kamble, Rammurti T; Schouten, Harry C; Wirk, Baldeep; Litzow, Mark R; Aljurf, Mahmoud D; van Besien, Koen W; Ustun, Celalettin; Bolwell, Brian J; Bredeson, Christopher N; Fasan, Omotayo; Ghosh, Nilanjan; Horowitz, Mary M; Arora, Mukta; Szer, Jeffrey; Loren, Alison W; Alyea, Edwin P; Cortes, Jorge; Maziarz, Richard T; Kalaycio, Matt E; Saber, Wael

    2015-03-01

    Cyclophosphamide (Cy) in combination with busulfan (Bu) or total body irradiation (TBI) is the most commonly used myeloablative conditioning regimen in patients with chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). We used data from the Center for International Bone Marrow Transplantation Research to compare outcomes in adults who underwent hematopoietic cell transplantation for CML in first chronic phase after myeloablative conditioning with Cy in combination with TBI, oral Bu, or intravenous (i.v.) Bu. Four hundred thirty-eight adults received human leukocyte antigen (HLA)-matched sibling grafts and 235 received well-matched grafts from unrelated donors (URD) from 2000 through 2006. Important differences existed between the groups in distribution of donor relation, exposure to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, and year of transplantation. In multivariate analysis, relapse occurred less frequently among patients receiving i.v. Bu compared with TBI (relative risk [RR], .36; P = .022) or oral Bu (RR, .39; P = .028), but nonrelapse mortality and survival were similar. A significant interaction was detected between donor relation and the main effect in leukemia-free survival (LFS). Among recipients of HLA-identical sibling grafts, but not URD grafts, LFS was better in patients receiving i.v. Bu (RR, .53; P = .025) or oral Bu (RR, .64; P = .017) compared with TBI. In CML in first chronic phase, Cy in combination with i.v. Bu was associated with less relapse than TBI or oral Bu. LFS was better after i.v. or oral Bu compared with TBI.

  3. Metabolic profile of six oral contraceptives containing norgestimate, gestodene, and desogestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teichmann, A

    1995-01-01

    The alterations in lipid metabolism that occur with the use of oral contraceptives (OCs) have aroused considerable concern that OCs might increase the risk of premature atherosclerosis. However, most studies examining the role of OCs in atherogenesis were performed using earlier-generation preparations employing larger doses of sex hormones than present formulation. Therefore, we undertook a comparative and standardized determination of the effects on lipid metabolism of six modern, low-dose OCs. This open, randomized, comparative study included patients recruited at 21 study centers throughout Europe. Four hundred sixty-six women, aged 18-38 years, participated. They were randomly assigned to the following OC formulations:(1) norgestimate 250 micrograms + ethinyl estradiol (EE) 35 micrograms (Cilest); (2) norgestimate 180/215/250 micrograms + EE 35 micrograms (Tricilest); (3) desogestrel 150 micrograms + EE 20 micrograms = (Marvelon); (4) desogestrel 150 micrograms + EE 30 micrograms (Mercilon); (5) gestodene 75 micrograms + EE 30 micrograms (Femovan); and (6) gestodene 50/70/100 micrograms + EE 30/40/30 micrograms (Trifemovan). There were three parallel studies with six parallel patient groups. Fasting blood samples were drawn at baseline (between days 24 and 28) and on days 18-22 of cycle 6, and cycle 12. Sample were analyzed for total cholesterol,high-density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol, HDL2 cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein (apo)A1, and apoB at one central laboratory. Two hundred eighty-two women completed all 12 cycles and were included in the final evaluation. As expected, triglyceride and total cholesterol concentrations increased in all study groups but to lesser levels with the formulations containing gestodene. All OCs, except the monophasic gestodene preparation, slightly but significantly increased HDL. The HDL2 subfraction did ot change significantly except in the group using the monophasic

  4. Treatment of Prolapse of Lumbar Intervertebral Disc by Tuina Massotherapy Combined with Oral Administration of Buyang Huanwu Tang——A Report of 75 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Du Deli; Wang Xinzhong

    2007-01-01

    @@ Prolapse of lumbar intervertebral disc is a commonly encountered disease. From Feb. 2003 - Feb. 2005, a series of 75 cases had been treated by Tuina massotherapy combined with oral administration of Buyang Huanwu Tang (补阳还五汤 Decoction for Invigorating Yang and Recuperation), with satisfactory therapeutic results reported as follows.

  5. Oral contraception and energy intake in women: impact on substrate oxidation during exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isacco, Laurie; Thivel, David; Pelle, Anne Meddahi; Zouhal, Hassane; Duclos, Martine; Duche, Pascale; Boisseau, Nathalie

    2012-08-01

    Oral contraception (OC) and energy intake may play a role in fuel selection during exercise. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of OCs (OC+ vs. OC-) in fed and fasting conditions on substrate oxidation and metabolic and hormonal responses in women during exercise. Substrate oxidation (respiratory exchange ratio and lipid and carbohydrates oxidation rates), metabolic (glycerol, free fatty acids (FFA), and glucose), and hormonal (insulin, adrenaline, and noradrenaline) responses were determined in 21 women: 10 regularly menstruating women (OC-) and 11 women using OCs (OC+: low-dose monophasic pill; ethinyl estradiol ≤ 30 µg) during 45 min at 65% of maximal oxygen consumption in fasting and postprandial states. At rest, OC+ presented higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, total cholesterol, and triglyceride plasma concentrations as compared with OC-. OC status had no influence on substrate oxidation and metabolic and hormonal responses during exercise. In the fasting state, whatever the OC status, women exhibited greater reliance on fat than in postprandial condition. This occurred in the presence of lower plasma insulin concentrations and higher plasma FFA and glycerol levels. The results indicated that the use of low-dose monophasic combined with OCs did not modify fuel selection and metabolic and hormonal responses during exercise in women. The fasting condition, compared with the fed condition, decreased carbohydrate oxidation during exercise, leading to a greater lipid mobilization and utilization whatever the OC status. Thus, in women, the realization of an exercise in either the fed or fasting conditions had a greater impact on substrate oxidation than OC status.

  6. Effect of Hormone Replacement Therapy (HRT and low-dose combined oral pill on skin thickness, lipid profile and blood chemistry of menopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Baziad

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available This study to evaluate the effect of hormone replacement therapy ( HRT and low-dose combinated oral pill on skin thickness , lipid profile and blood chemistry on menopausal woman.This study was carried out in one year randomized prospective study. 36 women were divided into 18 women receiving HRT and the other 18 receiving low-dose oral pill. The result of this study showed an increase in skin thickness (collagen in both groups. But Those received low dose oral pill showed more . The increase of the skin thickness can prevent osteoporosis. The administration of HRT or low-dose oral pill could cause allteration in blood lipip profile and blood chemistry. But The changes were still within in normal limit. The administration of low-dose oral pill can be considered in postmeno-pausal women. (Med J Indones 2003; 12: 224-8Keywords: Hormone replacement therapy, low-dose oral pill, menopausal women, skin thickness, lipid profile, blood chemistry.

  7. The combination of SMAD4 expression and histological grade of dysplasia is a better predictor for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Rong-Hui; Song, Xiao-Meng; Wang, Xiao-Jing; Li, Jiang; Mao, Li

    2013-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) is the most common premalignancy in the oral cavity and can progress to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). SMAD4 is a tumor suppressor implicated in multiple cancer types including OSCC. To assess the role of SMAD4 in oral leukoplakia malignant transformation, the authors investigated SMAD4 expression patterns in OL and OSCC using a highly specific antibody and correlated the patterns with the risk of malignant transformation oral leukoplakia. Immunohistochemistry and a quantitative imaging system were used to measure SMAD4 expression in OL from 88 OL patients, including 22 who later went through malignant transformation, and their OSCC counterpart. Forty-three (48.9%) of the 88 OL patients had strong SMAD4 expression. SMAD4 expression had no significant correlation with patients' clinicopathological parameters. Interestingly, 17 (39.5%) of the 43 OL lesions with strong SMAD4 expression went through malignant transformation whereas only 5 (11.1%) of the 45 OL lesions with weak SMAD4 expression did so (p = 0.002). The SMAD4 expression in OL was much higher than that in their OSCC counterpart. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that the combination of SMAD4 expression and histological grade of dysplasia (p = 0.007) is a better predictor for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. In the multivariate analysis, both SMAD4 expression and grade of dysplasia were identified as independent factors for OL malignant transformation risk (p = 0.013 and 0.021, respectively). It was concluded that high SMAD4 expression may be indicative of an early carcinogenic process in OL and serve as an independent biomarker in assessing malignant transformation risk in patients with OL, and the combination of SMAD4 expression and histological grade of dysplasia is a better predictor for the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

  8. Teaching with technology: learning outcomes for a combined dental and dental hygiene online hybrid oral histology course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadbury-Amyot, Cynthia C; Singh, Amul H; Overman, Pamela R

    2013-06-01

    Among the challenges leaders in dental and allied dental education have faced in recent years is a shortage of well-qualified faculty members, especially in some specialty areas of dentistry. One proposed solution has been the use of technology. At the University of Missouri-Kansas City School of Dentistry, the departure of a faculty member who taught the highly specialized content in oral histology and embryology provided the opportunity to implement distance delivery of that course. The course is taught once a year to a combined group of dental and dental hygiene students. Previous to spring semester of 2009, the course was taught using traditional face-to-face, in-class lectures and multiple-choice examinations. During the spring semesters of 2009, 2010, and 2011, the course was taught using synchronous and asynchronous distance delivery technology. Outcomes for these courses (including course grades and performance on the National Board Dental Examination Part I) were compared to those from the 2006, 2007, and 2008 courses. Students participating in the online hybrid course were also given an author-designed survey, and the perceptions of the faculty member who made the transition from teaching the course in a traditional face-to-face format to teaching in an online hybrid format were solicited. Overall, student and faculty perceptions and student outcomes and course reviews have been positive. The results of this study can provide guidance to those seeking to use technology as one method of curricular delivery.

  9. FGFR4 polymorphism, TP53 mutation, and their combinations are prognostic factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanuma, Jun-Ichi; Izumo, Toshiyuki; Hirano, Masato; Oyazato, Yoshitaka; Hori, Fumiya; Umemura, Eri; Shisa, Hayase; Hiai, Hiroshi; Kitano, Motoo

    2010-03-01

    The genotype of the fibroblast growth factor receptor 4 (FGFR4) gene and TP53 mutation have been reported as prognostic factors for cancers of the head and neck, bladder, breast and colon. To determine whether they are applicable for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we investigated these two genes in OSCC samples from 150 patients who had undergone radical surgery and in 100 cancer-free individuals. In OSCC, the FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism and the presence or absence of mutation in TP53 did not show a significant association with the clinicopathological features of the tumors at surgery. However, the FGFR4 Arg388 allele, as well as mutations in TP53, was found to be closely associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, these two parameters synergistically affected the survival of OSCC patients. During 60 months of observation after radical surgery, a majority of patients with homozygous Arg388 FGFR4 plus mutated TP53 died of cancer, whereas >90% patients carrying homozygous Gly388 FGFR4 plus wild-type TP53 survived. Therefore, the FGFR4 Gly388Arg polymorphism and TP53 mutations, as well as their combinations, are excellent predictors of the prognosis for OSCC patients.

  10. New contraceptive eligibility checklists for provision of combined oral contraceptives and depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate in community-based programmes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stang, A.; Schwingl, P.; Rivera, R.

    2000-01-01

    Community-based services (CBS) have long used checklists to determine eligibility for contraceptive method use, in particular for combined oral contraceptives (COCs) and the 3-month injectable contraceptive depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA). As safety information changes, however, checklists can quickly become outdated. Inconsistent checklists and eligibility criteria often cause uneven access to contraceptives. In 1996, WHO produced updated eligibility criteria for the use of all contraceptive methods. Based on these criteria, new checklists for COCs and DMPA were developed. This article describes the new checklists and their development. Several rounds of expert review produced checklists that were correct, comprehensible and consistent with the eligibility requirements. Nevertheless, field-testing of the checklists revealed that approximately half (48%) of the respondents felt that one or more questions still needed greater comprehensibility. These findings indicated the need for a checklist guide. In March 2000, WHO convened a meeting of experts to review the medical eligibility criteria for contraceptive use. The article reflects also the resulting updated checklist. PMID:10994285

  11. Combining spatial distribution with oral bioaccessibility of metals in smelter-impacted soils: implications for human health risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelfrêne, Aurélie; Détriché, Sébastien; Douay, Francis

    2015-02-01

    Geostatistical analysis and GIS-based spatial mapping have been widely used for risk assessment of environmental pollution. The objectives of this study were to: (1) investigate the spatial variability of pseudototal concentrations of Cd, Pb, and Zn; (2) estimate the degree of contamination on the basis of pollution indexes; and (3) combine geostatistical analysis with oral bioaccessibility to better assess the population's exposure to metals in smelter-impacted soils. Implications for human health risks were assessed by considering soil as a contaminant source, a release mechanism of contaminated soil to the hands, ingestion as an exposure route, and metal bioaccessibility. The bioaccessibility data in the gastric (G) and gastrointestinal (GI) phases were integrated into the standard hazard quotient-based risk assessment method. Using pollution indices showed that the entire area studied was highly polluted in terms of soil metal concentrations. However, the spatial pattern of health risk levels did not coincide with the spatial distribution of the degree of soil contamination. Introducing the bioaccessible fraction of metals from soils into the exposure calculations resulted in a substantial decrease in calculated risk (HI, hazard index) and provided a more realistic estimate of exposure to the three metals. For the highly exposed population, 46% of the soils studied provided an HI-G > 1.0 and 15% provided an HI-GI > 1.0, suggesting probable adverse health effects in children. The present study highlights the importance of conducting studies taking into account metal bioaccessible values in risk assessment.

  12. LEVELS OF KEY CYTOKINES, MACROGLOBULINS AND THEIR SPECIFIC IMMUNE COMPLEXES IN BLOOD SERA OF WOMEN TAKING COMBINED ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Zorina

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. We investigated effects of combined oral contraceptives (COC containing low- and microdoses of estrogenic components upon serum levels of macroglobulin family proteins (alpha-2-macroglobulin, α2-MG, and pregnancy-associated alpha-2-glycoprotein, α2-PAG, their immune complexes with IgG, as well as concentrations of some cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, TNFα, IFNγ. It was shown that cytokine levels did not differ with control, whereas α2-MG concentrations showed a time-dependent decrease in a group of women taking COC with microdoses of estrogens, and α2-PAG levels increased tenfold, independent on dosage and time of COC application. Meanwhile, contents of PAG-IgG complexes exhibits a gradual decrease, along with increase in MG-IgG. Considering PAG as a marker of normal and malignant proliferation, we suggest, that the levels of α2-PAG may be useful in monitoring of women taking COC, in order to predict high risk of pathological  proliferation  by  evaluation  of  individuals with  elevated  α2-PAG  levels.  (Med.  Immunol.,  2011, vol. 13, N 6, pp 635-638 

  13. Effect of a combined oral contraceptive containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol and 75 microg gestodene on hemostatic parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aldrighi, José Mendes; De Campos, Luis Salvoni Carneiro; Eluf Gebara, Otávio Celso; Petta, Carlos Alberto; Bahamondes, Luis

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 20 microg ethinyl estradiol (EE) and 75 microg gestodene (GSD) on prothrombin activity (PA), activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), thrombin time (TT), platelet number, fibrinogen, antithrombin III (ATIII), protein C, protein S and D-dimer were evaluated over 6 months in 23 young, healthy women. Laboratory assessments were performed prior to initiation of COC use (pretreatment) and after 3 and 6 months of use. Results showed no significant changes in fibrinogen, protein C, ATIII or D-dimer during COC use, compared with pretreatment values. The increase in platelet count, decreases in protein S level, PA and APTT, and the prolongation of TT were significant. In conclusion, the use of a COC containing 20 microg EE and 75 microg GSD did not cause any significant changes in the hemostatic parameters studied that could be suggestive of a higher prothrombotic risk. Further studies with a larger sample size are necessary in order to obtain conclusive data.

  14. Efficacy of Acupuncture versus Combined Oral Contraceptive Pill in Treatment of Moderate-to-Severe Dysmenorrhea: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intira Sriprasert

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This open-label randomized controlled trial was designed to compare the efficacy of acupuncture and combined oral contraceptive (COC pill in treating moderate-to-severe primary dysmenorrhea. Fifty-two participants were randomly assigned to receive either acupuncture (n = 27 or COC (n = 25 for three menstrual cycles. Mefenamic acid was prescribed as a recue analgesic drug with both groups. The statistical approach used for efficacy and safety assessments was intention-to-treat analysis. By the end of the study, both treatments had resulted in significant improvement over baselines in all outcomes, that is, maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores, days suffering from dysmenorrhea, amount of rescue analgesic used, and quality of life assessed by SF-36 questionnaire. Over the three treatment cycles, COC caused greater reduction in maximal pain scores than acupuncture, while improvements in the remaining outcomes were comparable. Responders were defined as participants whose maximal dysmenorrhea pain scores decreased at least 33% below their baseline. Response rates following both interventions at the end of the study were not statistically different. Acupuncture commonly caused minimal local side effects but did not cause any hormone-related side effects as did COC. In conclusion, acupuncture is an alternative option for relieving dysmenorrhea, especially when COC is not a favorable choice.

  15. Risk factors for venous thromboembolism in women under combined oral contraceptive. The PILl Genetic RIsk Monitoring (PILGRIM) Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suchon, Pierre; Al Frouh, Fadi; Henneuse, Agathe; Ibrahim, Manal; Brunet, Dominique; Barthet, Marie-Christine; Aillaud, Marie-Françoise; Venton, Geoffroy; Alessi, Marie-Christine; Trégouët, David-Alexandre; Morange, Pierre-Emmanuel

    2016-01-01

    Identifying women at risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE) is a major public health issue. The objective of this study was to identify environmental and genetic determinants of VTE risk in a large sample of women under combined oral contraceptives (COC). A total of 968 women who had had one event of VTE during COC use were compared to 874 women under COC but with no personal history of VTE. Clinical data were collected and a systematic thrombophilia screening was performed together with ABO blood group assessment. After adjusting for age, family history, and type and duration of COC use, main environmental determinants of VTE were smoking (odds ratio [OR] =1.65, 95% confidence interval [1.30-2.10]) and a body mass index higher than 35 kg.m⁻² (OR=3.46 [1.81-7.03]). In addition, severe inherited thrombophilia (OR=2.13 [1.32-3.51]) and non-O blood groups (OR=1.98 [1.57-2.49]) were strong genetic risk factors for VTE. Family history poorly predicted thrombophilia as its prevalence was similar in patients with or without first degree family history of VTE (29.3% vs 23.9%, p=0.09). In conclusion, this study confirms the influence of smoking and obesity and shows for the first time the impact of ABO blood group on the risk of VTE in women under COC. It also confirms the inaccuracy of the family history of VTE to detect inherited thrombophilia.

  16. Microfluidic Assembly of a Multifunctional Tailorable Composite System Designed for Site Specific Combined Oral Delivery of Peptide Drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Araújo, Francisca; Shrestha, Neha; Shahbazi, Mohammad-Ali; Liu, Dongfei; Herranz-Blanco, Bárbara; Mäkilä, Ermei M; Salonen, Jarno J; Hirvonen, Jouni T; Granja, Pedro L; Sarmento, Bruno; Santos, Hélder A

    2015-08-25

    Multifunctional tailorable composite systems, specifically designed for oral dual-delivery of a peptide (glucagon-like peptide-1) and an enzymatic inhibitor (dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4)), were assembled through the microfluidics technique. Both drugs were coloaded into these systems for a synergistic therapeutic effect. The systems were composed of chitosan and cell-penetrating peptide modified poly(lactide-co-glycolide) and porous silicon nanoparticles as nanomatrices, further encapsulated in an enteric hydroxypropylmethylcellulose acetylsuccinate polymer. The developed multifunctional systems were pH-sensitive, inherited by the enteric polymer, enabling the release of the nanoparticles only in the simulated intestinal conditions. Moreover, the encapsulation into this polymer prevented the degradation of the nanoparticles' modifications. These nanoparticles showed strong and higher interactions with the intestinal cells in comparison with the nonmodified ones. The presence of DPP4 inhibitor enhanced the peptide permeability across intestinal cell monolayers. Overall, this is a promising platform for simultaneously delivering two drugs from a single formulation. Through this approach peptides are expected to increase their bioavailability and efficiency in vivo both by their specific release at the intestinal level and also by the reduced enzymatic activity. The use of this platform, specifically in combination of the two antidiabetic drugs, has clinical potential for the therapy of type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  17. Dose finding study of oral PSC 833 combined with weekly intravenous etoposide in children with relapsed or refractory solid tumours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pein, F; Pinkerton, R; Berthaud, P; Pritchard-Jones, K; Dick, G; Vassal, G

    2007-09-01

    PSC 833 is an effective MDR1 reversal agent in vitro, including studies with paediatric cancer cell lines such as neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma. This study was performed to determine the safety profile, dose limiting toxicity (DLT) and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) in children with solid tumours and to determine the influence of PSC 833 on the pharmacokinetics of co-administered etoposide. Each patient received one cycle of intravenous etoposide (100 mg/m2 daily for 3 days on three consecutive weeks) to document baseline pharmacokinetics, and subsequently the same schedule using a dose of 50 mg/m2 was given combined with PSC 833 given orally every 6h at a starting dose of 4 mg/kg. Thirty two eligible patients (23 male, median age 8.3 years) were enrolled. Neuroblastoma and rhabdomyosarcoma were the common disease types. Brain tumours were excluded. DLT was defined as any non-haematological grade 3-4 toxicity (common toxicity criteria) and using a specific toxicity scale for cerebellar toxicity. The MDT was defined as the first dose below which 2 or more patients per dose level experienced DLT. Grade 1-2 ataxia occurred in cohorts 2 and 3 (4 and 5 mg/kg, respectively). Three patients developed grade 3 neurotoxicity in the 6 mg/kg cohort and this defined the MTD. Six responses were observed (2 CR, 4 PR). Pharmacokinetic studies indicated that the clearance of etoposide was reduced by approximately 50% when combined with PSC 833. It is concluded that the toxicity profile and MDT is similar in both children and adults, as is the effect on etoposide metabolism. The study demonstrated the feasibility and safety of carrying out a paediatric phase 1 trial across European boundaries and acts as a model for future cooperative studies in rare cancers among children.

  18. Characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- as a monophasic variant of serovar Typhimurium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ido, Noriko; Lee, Ken-ichi; Iwabuchi, Kaori; Izumiya, Hidemasa; Uchida, Ikuo; Kusumoto, Masahiro; Iwata, Taketoshi; Ohnishi, Makoto; Akiba, Masato

    2014-01-01

    Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (S. 4,[5]12:i:-) is believed to be a monophasic variant of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium). This study was conducted to corroborate this hypothesis and to identify the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of the S. 4,[5]12:i:- isolates in Japan. A total of 51 S. 4,[5]12:i:- isolates derived from humans, cattle, swine, chickens, birds, meat (pork), and river water in 15 prefectures in Japan between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. All the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates were identified as S. Typhimurium by two different polymerase chain reactions (PCR) for identification of S. Typhimurium. Of the 51 S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates, 39 (76.5%) harbored a 94-kb virulence plasmid, which is known to be specific for S. Typhimurium. These data suggest that the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates are monophasic variants of S. Typhimurium. The flagellar phase variation is induced by three adjacent genes (fljA, fljB, and hin) in the chromosome. The results of PCR mapping of this region and comparative genomic hybridization analysis suggested that the deletion of the fljAB operon and its flanking region was the major genetic basis of the monophasic phenotype of S. 4,[5],12:i:-. The fljAB operon and hin gene were detectable in eight of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates with common amino acid substitutions of A46T in FljA and R140L in Hin. The introduction of these mutations into S. Typhimurium isolates led to the loss of selectability of isolates expressing the phase 2 H antigen. These data suggested that a point mutation was the genetic basis, at least in part, of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates. The results of phenotypic analysis suggested that the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates in Japan consist of multiple distinct clones. This is the first detailed characterization of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates derived from various sources across Japan.

  19. Prevalence and Characterization of Monophasic Salmonella Serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- of Food Origin in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaojuan Yang

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 1,4,[5],12:i:- is a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium, which has recently been recognized as an emerging cause of infection worldwide. This bacterium has also ranked among the four most frequent serovars causing human salmonellosis in China. However, there are no reports on its contamination in Chinese food. Serotyping, polymerase chain reaction, antibiotic resistance, virulotyping, and multilocus sequence typing (MLST assays were used to investigate the prevalence of this serological variant in food products in China, and to determine phenotypic and genotypic difference of monophasic isolates and Salmonella Typhimurium isolated over the same period. Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- was prevalent in various food sources, including beef, pork, chicken, and pigeon. The study also confirmed the high prevalence (53.8% of resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:-, which was higher than that in Salmonella Typhimurium. Moreover, Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates in our study were different from Salmonella Typhimurium isolates by the absence of three plasmid-borne genes (spvC, pefA, and rck and the presence of gipA in all isolates. All Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates demonstrated MLST pattern ST34. Genomic deletions within the fljBA operon and surrounding genes were only found in Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates, with all isolates containing a deletion of fljB. However, hin and iroB were identified in all Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- isolates. Three different deletion profiles were observed and two of them were different from the reported Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- clones from Spain, America, and Italy, which provided some new evidence on the independent evolution of the multiple successful monophasic clones from Salmonella Typhimurium ancestors. This study is the first report of Salmonella 1,4,[5],12:i:- in food products from China. The data are

  20. Characteristics of Salmonella enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- as a monophasic variant of serovar Typhimurium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriko Ido

    Full Text Available Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- (S. 4,[5]12:i:- is believed to be a monophasic variant of S. enterica serovar Typhimurium (S. Typhimurium. This study was conducted to corroborate this hypothesis and to identify the molecular and phenotypic characteristics of the S. 4,[5]12:i:- isolates in Japan. A total of 51 S. 4,[5]12:i:- isolates derived from humans, cattle, swine, chickens, birds, meat (pork, and river water in 15 prefectures in Japan between 2000 and 2010 were analyzed. All the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates were identified as S. Typhimurium by two different polymerase chain reactions (PCR for identification of S. Typhimurium. Of the 51 S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates, 39 (76.5% harbored a 94-kb virulence plasmid, which is known to be specific for S. Typhimurium. These data suggest that the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates are monophasic variants of S. Typhimurium. The flagellar phase variation is induced by three adjacent genes (fljA, fljB, and hin in the chromosome. The results of PCR mapping of this region and comparative genomic hybridization analysis suggested that the deletion of the fljAB operon and its flanking region was the major genetic basis of the monophasic phenotype of S. 4,[5],12:i:-. The fljAB operon and hin gene were detectable in eight of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates with common amino acid substitutions of A46T in FljA and R140L in Hin. The introduction of these mutations into S. Typhimurium isolates led to the loss of selectability of isolates expressing the phase 2 H antigen. These data suggested that a point mutation was the genetic basis, at least in part, of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates. The results of phenotypic analysis suggested that the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates in Japan consist of multiple distinct clones. This is the first detailed characterization of the S. 4,[5],12:i:- isolates derived from various sources across Japan.

  1. Transient B-cell depletion with anti-CD20 in combination with proinsulin DNA vaccine or oral insulin: immunologic effects and efficacy in NOD mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghanashyam Sarikonda

    Full Text Available A recent type 1 diabetes (T1D clinical trial of rituximab (a B cell-depleting anti-CD20 antibody achieved some therapeutic benefit in preserving C-peptide for a period of approximately nine months in patients with recently diagnosed diabetes. Our previous data in the NOD mouse demonstrated that co-administration of antigen (insulin with anti-CD3 antibody (a T cell-directed immunomodulator offers better protection than either entity alone, indicating that novel combination therapies that include a T1D-related autoantigen are possible. To accelerate the identification and development of novel combination therapies that can be advanced into the clinic, we have evaluated the combination of a mouse anti-CD20 antibody with either oral insulin or a proinsulin-expressing DNA vaccine. Anti-CD20 alone, given once or on 4 consecutive days, produced transient B cell depletion but did not prevent or reverse T1D in the NOD mouse. Oral insulin alone (twice weekly for 6 weeks was also ineffective, while proinsulin DNA (weekly for up to 12 weeks showed a trend toward modest efficacy. Combination of anti-CD20 with oral insulin was ineffective in reversing diabetes in NOD mice whose glycemia was controlled with SC insulin pellets; these experiments were performed in three independent labs. Combination of anti-CD20 with proinsulin DNA was also ineffective in diabetes reversal, but did show modest efficacy in diabetes prevention (p = 0.04. In the prevention studies, anti-CD20 plus proinsulin resulted in modest increases in Tregs in pancreatic lymph nodes and elevated levels of proinsulin-specific CD4+ T-cells that produced IL-4. Thus, combination therapy with anti-CD20 and either oral insulin or proinsulin does not protect hyperglycemic NOD mice, but the combination with proinsulin offers limited efficacy in T1D prevention, potentially by augmentation of proinsulin-specific IL-4 production.

  2. Randomized cross-over study of patient preference for oral or intravenous vinorelbine in combination with carboplatin in the treatment of advanced NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lars Henrik; Osterlind, Kell; Rytter, Carsten

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most chemotherapeutics are administrated intravenously (iv), but some are also available in an oral (po) formulation. This study was designed with the primary objective to estimate the patients' preference for po or iv vinorelbine in combination with carboplatin for the palliative.......001). The response rate was 23% and median survival 11.4 months. Patients with preference for po treatment stated that side effects were less with capsules and that daily life was less affected by capsules. CONCLUSION: Three out of four patients preferred oral vinorelbine. Clinical outcomes were comparable to other...

  3. Assessment of the efficacy and safety of a combination of 2 topical retinoids (RetinSphere) in maintaining post-treatment response of acne to oral isotretinoin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truchuelo, M T; Jiménez, N; Mavura, D; Jaén, P

    2015-03-01

    The high rate of relapse of acne lesions following oral isotretinoin treatment is a common problem which remains unsolved. To avoid or minimize relapses, topical retinoids have been used for many years as maintenance treatment. However, adverse effects frequently occur. To determine the efficacy and safety of a new retinoid combination (Retinsphere technology) in maintaining post-treatment response to oral isotretinoin. Prospective, randomized, double-blind and vehicle-controlled study of 30 patients with acne previously treated with isotretinoin. Treatment with the retinoid combination was applied to one side of the face and vehicle was applied to the other, once daily, for 3 months. Standardized photographs were taken using RBX technology at baseline, 1.5 months and 3 months. The primary efficacy endpoint was the appearance of relapse on the treated side compared to the vehicle-treated side. Other endpoints included lesion count, investigator-reported improvement, patient-reported improvement, impact on quality-of-life, and side effects. Although the majority of patients did not reach the total target dose of oral isotretinoin, the relapse rate was significantly lower on the retinoid-treated side compared to the vehicle-treated side. Likewise, improved lesion count and excellent tolerance were observed. This new retinoid combination (Retinsphere technology) were effective and safe as maintenance therapy after post-treatment response to oral isotretinoin in patients with acne. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  4. Fixed-Dose Combination Gel of Adapalene and Benzoyl Peroxide plus Doxycycline 100 mg versus Oral Isotretinoin for the Treatment of Severe Acne: Efficacy and Cost Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penna, Pete; Meckfessel, Matthew H; Preston, Norman

    2014-01-01

    Acne vulgaris is a chronic skin disease with a high prevalence. Left untreated or inadequately treated, acne vulgaris can lead to psychological and physical scarring, as well as to unnecessary medical expenses. Oral isotretinoin is an effective treatment for severe resistant nodular and conglobate acne vulgaris. A regimen consisting of a fixed-dose combination of adapalene and benzoyl peroxide gel, 0.1%/2.5% (A-BPO) with oral doxycycline 100 mg (A-BPO/D) has been demonstrated to be efficacious and well tolerated in patients with severe acne and may be an alternative to oral isotretinoin for some patients with severe acne. The objective of this analysis was to compare the relative efficacy and associated costs of A-BPO/D versus oral isotretinoin. In this analysis, comparisons of relative efficacy were made using previously published studies involving similar patient populations with severe acne that warrant the use of oral isotretinoin. The pricing for oral doxycycline and oral isotretinoin was estimated based on the maximum allowable cost from 9 states, and the pricing for A-BPO was calculated as the range between the average wholesale price and the wholesale acquisition cost. For this analysis, 2 treatment models were generated to compare costs: (1) a basic treatment model that examined the costs of an initial regimen of either A-BPO/D or oral isotretinoin without considering probable outcomes, and (2) a long-term model that factored in likely treatment outcomes and subsequent treatments into associated costs. The basic treatment model assumed that patients would be prescribed a single regimen of A-BPO/D for 12 weeks or oral isotretinoin for 20 weeks. The long-term model considered the probability of each treatment successfully managing patients' acne, as well as likely additional regimens of A-BPO monotherapy or an additional regimen of oral isotretinoin. As a result of different treatment durations, the costs for each treatment were normalized to weekly cost of

  5. Combining oral contraceptives with a natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maia, Hugo; Haddad, Clarice; Casoy, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Endometriosis is a chronic disease in which a persistent state of heightened inflammation is maintained by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activation. The progestins present in oral contraceptives are potent inhibitors of NF-κB translocation to cell nuclei, while Pycnogenol® (Pinus pinaster) acts by blocking post-translational events. In this study, the effects of Pycnogenol on pain scores were investigated in patients with endometriosis using oral contraceptives containing either gestodene or drospirenone in extended regimens. Pain scores were determined using a visual analog scale before and after 3 months of treatment. Oral contraceptives, used alone (groups 1 and 3) or in association with Pycnogenol (groups 2 and 4), resulted in significant decreases in pain scores after 3 months of treatment; however, this reduction was significantly greater in the groups using oral contraceptives + Pycnogenol (groups 2 and 4) compared with those using oral contraceptives alone (groups 1 and 3). In the groups using oral contraceptives alone, 50% of patients became pain-free by the end of the third month of treatment. These results suggest that Pycnogenol increases the efficacy of oral contraceptives for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain. PMID:24379702

  6. 复方口服避孕药与血脂异常%Combined oral contraceptives and dyslipidemia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪立伟; 李可欣

    2011-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives are the most widely used contraceptives preparations, they contain two sex hormone:progestogen and estrogen. COC may cause cardiovascular diseases. Epidemiological evidence suggests that the dyslipidemia may he associated with these diseases. The mechanism of this phenomenon is not entirely clear; the elevation of blood triglyceride levels may be related to a decrease in lipolytic activity of liver and triglyceride removed as well as an increase in blood insulin levels. Different preparations of COC should be altemated if possible for a long-term use of the contraceptives in women of child-bearing age, and blood lipid levels should be monitored during the period of COC use.%复方口服避孕药(COC)为最常用的避孕制剂,其含有2种性激素:孕激素和雌激素.COC 可致心血管疾病.流行病调查显示COC引起的心血管疾病与血脂异常有关.其机制尚不完全清楚;三酰甘油水平的升高可能与肝脏分解脂肪和清除三酰甘油能力降低及血液中胰岛素水平增高有关.育龄期妇女长期使用时应尽可能交替使用不同种类的COC,用药期间进行血脂监测.

  7. Effects of combined oral contraceptives, depot medroxyprogesterone acetate and the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system on the vaginal microbiome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, J Paul; Edwards, David J; Blithe, Diana L; Fettweis, Jennifer M; Serrano, Myrna G; Sheth, Nihar U; Strauss, Jerome F; Buck, Gregory A; Jefferson, Kimberly K

    2017-04-01

    Prior studies suggest that the composition of the vaginal microbiome may positively or negatively affect susceptibility to sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and bacterial vaginosis (BV). Some female hormonal contraceptive methods also appear to positively or negatively influence STI transmission and BV. Therefore, changes in the vaginal microbiome that are associated with different contraceptive methods may explain, in part, effects on STI transmission and BV. We performed a retrospective study of 16S rRNA gene survey data of vaginal samples from a subset of participants from the Human Vaginal Microbiome Project at Virginia Commonwealth University. The subset included 682 women who reported using a single form of birth control that was condoms, combined oral contraceptives (COCs), depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA) or the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine system (LNG-IUS). Women using COCs [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.64] and DMPA (aOR 0.34, 95% CI 0.13-0.89), but not LNG-IUS (aOR 1.55, 95% CI 0.72-3.35), were less likely to be colonized by BV-associated bacteria relative to women who used condoms. Women using COCs (aOR 1.94, 95% CI 1.25-3.02) were more likely to be colonized by beneficial H2O2-producing Lactobacillus species compared with women using condoms, while women using DMPA (aOR 1.09, 95% CI 0.63-1.86) and LNG-IUS (aOR 0.74, 95% CI 0.48-1.15) were not. Use of COCs is significantly associated with increased vaginal colonization by healthy lactobacilli and reduced BV-associated taxa. COC use may positively influence gynecologic health through an increase in healthy lactobacilli and a decrease in BV-associated bacterial taxa. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Anti-inflammation of the oral mucous after radiotherapy of side effect to the propolis combined effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takenori, Yamashita; Gu, Yeunhwa; Park, Sangrae [Suzuka Univ. of Medical Science, Suzuka (Japan)] [and others

    2002-07-01

    Recently, allege acid sodium (AL-G) that affect is proved in the bleeding digestion pipe tumor, the effect on treatment for wound such as a radiation esophagus flame because of the inflammation reduction inside such a mouth is used. Because a tumor and an inflammation are effective, propolis to use for this research is the purpose of examining the anti-inflammation action of the mucous membrane flame in the mouth. The inside of the mouth was made to contain each medicine, and effect on organization repair was examined from the viewpoint of study of the organization. An ICR mail mice used at age of seven weeks. Feed and water were taken freely. As for the experiment group, 2Gy, 4Gy, 8Gy irradiated each of the control group, the oral part separately. Two times gave it 2Gy, 4Gy and 8Gy group, AL-G, a physiology solution of salt, propolis combination thing (Propolis + royal jelly (RJ) +EF2001), PVP in the morning. We used in each groups of 10 mail mice AL-G+2G, AL-G+4GyAL-G+8Gy, Saline+2Gy, Saline+4Gy, Saline+8Gy,Propolis+(RJ+EF2001)+2Gy,Propolis+ (RJ+EF2001)+4Gy,Propolis+(RJ+EF2001)+8Gy, PVP+2Gy, PVP+4Gy and PVP+8Gy groups. It was divided into each group of 2Gy, 4Gy and 8Gy groups from the bottom part of the ear of the ICR mice by the nose head, and it irradiated it once.

  9. Complete remission of recalcitrant genital warts with a combination approach of surgical debulking and oral isotretinoin in a patient with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yew, Yik Weng; Pan, Jiun Yit

    2014-01-01

    Genital warts in immunocompromised patients can be extensive and recalcitrant to treatment. We report a case of recalcitrant genital warts in a female patient with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), who achieved complete remission with a combination approach of surgical debulking and oral isotretinoin at an initial dose of 20 mg/day with a gradual taper of dose over 8 months. She had previously been treated with a combination of topical imiquimod cream and regular fortnightly liquid nitrogen. Although there was partial response, there was no complete clearance. Her condition worsened after topical imiquimod cream was stopped because of her pregnancy. She underwent a combination approach of surgical debulking and oral isotretinoin after her delivery and achieved full clearance for more than 2 years duration. Oral isotretinoin, especially in the treatment of recalcitrant genital warts, is a valuable and feasible option when other more conventional treatment methods have failed or are not possible. It can be used alone or in combination with other local or physical treatment methods.

  10. Clinical application of oral form of ANGIPARSTM and in combination with topical form as a new treatment for diabetic foot ulcers: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bahrami A

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ANGIPARSTM is a new herbal extract which has been produced in oral, topical, and intravenous forms. The present article contains preliminary results of the study which was planned to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally applied ANGIPARSTM and to compare it with the combination of oral and topical forms and also with conventional therapy in patients with diabetic ulcers of the lower extremities."nTwenty one patients with diabetic foot ulcers were divided into 3 groups. The first group received 100 mg of oral ANGIPARSTM twice a day for 6 weeks in addition to conventional therapies. In the second group, ANGIPARSTM gel 3% was added to the oral form of the same product besides the conventional therapies for the same period of time. Finally, in the third group which was considered as control, only conventional therapies were performed. The patients were followed for 6 weeks. Parameters such as granulation tissue formation, skin epithelization, and wound surface areas changes were analyzed to determine the effectiveness of the compound in wounds healing. Furthermore, drug safety was assessed by monitoring adverse events and by clinical and laboratory evaluations."nThe study data showed significant differences between the intervention and control groups with respect to efficacy and tolerability. In each intervention group, primary wound healings occurred following 2 weeks. Complete wound healing which was greater than 70% improvement in wounds surface areas was achieved in 83% and 100% of group 1 and group 2 participants, respectively after 6 weeks. On the other hand, at the same period of time, only 22.2% of patients in control group revealed complete healing. Therefore, ANGIPARSTM had significant positive effect in increasing the incidence of complete wound closure compared with control group (p = 0.042. However, our evaluations indicated that adding topical treatment with 3% gel once a day to the oral therapy with the same product did not make

  11. Effect of topical cromoglycate solution on atopic dermatitis: combined treatment of sodium cromoglycate solution with the oral anti-allergic medication, oxatomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimata, H; Hiratsuka, S

    1994-02-01

    The effect of topically applied sodium cromoglycate solution in moderate to severe atopic dermatitis (AD) in children aged 4-14 years was studied in a double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized group-comparative trial. One group of patients was treated with topical sodium cromoglycate solution and oral oxatomide whereas the other group was treated with topical placebo solution and oral oxatomide. After 4 weeks, AD improved significantly in the group treated with the sodium cromoglycate solution and oxatomide combination while marginal improvement was noted in the placebo. In addition, spontaneous IgE production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells decreased significantly in the sodium cromoglycate group but not in the placebo group. These results suggest that sodium cromoglycate solution may be very effective in combination with anti-allergic medication in the treatment of moderate to severe AD in children.

  12. Oral Administration and External Application of Chinese Drugs Combined with Micro-invasive Operation for the Treatment of Varicose Ulcers in the Lower Extremities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小平; 张宇; 粟文娟; 王珊珊; 王英

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical therapeutic effects of oral administration and external application of Chinese drugs combined with micro-invasive surgery for the treatment of varicose ulcers in the lower extremities(ecthyma).Methods:A total of 152 patients(163 limbs) suffering from varicose ulcers on the lower limbs were assigned to two groups according to the patients' willingness.The 102 cases(109 limbs) in the treatment group underwent the method of endovenous microwave closure of communicating vei...

  13. Clinical Efficacy and Safety of a Combined Loratadine-Betamethasone Oral Solution in the Treatment of Severe Pediatric Perennial Allergic Rhinitis

    OpenAIRE

    de Morales, Teolinda Mendoza; S?nchez, Francis

    2009-01-01

    Background Allergic rhinitis is a highly prevalent condition, particularly among children, whose schoolwork and quality of life may be impaired by its symptoms. Methods In this prospective, multicenter study, children between 6 and 12 years old with a diagnosis of severe perennial allergic rhinitis received a combination of the nonsedating antihistamine loratadine and the corticosteroid betamethasone in an oral solution for 5 days. Results The total nasal and ocular symptom score was signific...

  14. Comparison Of Oral Premedication With Combination Of Midazolam With Ketamine Vs Midazolam Ketamine Alone In Children Children Medical Center (year 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasani M

    2002-09-01

    Full Text Available Anxiolysis and sedation with oral midazolam are common practice in pediatric anesthesia. Good or excellent results are seen in only 50% to 80% of cases, so we decided to investigate if addition of a low dose of oral ketamine to midazolam (ketamine2.5 mg /kg ^midazolam 0.25 mg/kg resulted in better premedication compared with oral midazolam 0.5 mg/kg or ketamine 6 mg/kg alone."nMethods and Materials: in a prospective, randomized ,double -blind study we study 105 children (mean age 6 ,range 2-10 yr. undergoing non thoracic and non cardiac surgery of more than 30 min duration. The patients were in ASA 1, 2. After oral premedication the child's condition was evaluated by assigning 1-4 point to the quality of anxiolysis, sedation, and separation from parents in the induction room .The groups were similar in sex, age, weight, intervention and duration of anaesthesia."nResults: The score of sedation before transfer to the operation room was significantly better in the ketamine, midazolam combination group than in the ketamine or midazolam group. Success rates for anxiolysis and behavior at separation were grater than 90%with the combination, approximately 80% with midazolam and 70% with ketamine alone .The incidence of salivation, excitation, nausea and vomiting was grater in the ketamine group but were very low in other groups. During recovery there were no difference in sedation or time of possible discharge."nConclusion: In summery, significantly better anxiolysis and separation were observed with a combination of ketamine and midazolam, even in awake children than with midazolam or ketamine alone. Duration of action and side effects of the combination was similar to those of midazolam.

  15. Efficacy of combination chemotherapy using a novel oral chemotherapeutic agent, TAS-102, together with bevacizumab, cetuximab, or panitumumab on human colorectal cancer xenografts

    OpenAIRE

    Tsukihara, Hiroshi; NAKAGAWA, FUMIO; SAKAMOTO, KAZUKI; Ishida, Keiji; TANAKA, NOZOMU; OKABE, HIROYUKI; Uchida, Junji; Matsuo, Kenichi; Takechi, Teiji

    2015-01-01

    TAS-102 is a novel oral nucleoside antitumor agent that consists of trifluridine (FTD) and tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI) at a molecular ratio of 1:0.5, and was approved in Japan in March 2014 for the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer that is refractory to standard therapies. In the present study, we used colorectal cancer xenografts to assess whether the efficacy of TAS-102 could be improved by combining it with bevacizumab, cetuximab or panitumum...

  16. Combining oral contraceptives with a natural nuclear factor-kappa B inhibitor for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maia H Jr

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Hugo Maia Jr,1–3 Clarice Haddad,3 Julio Casoy3 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medicine, Federal University of Bahia, 2Itaigara Memorial Day Hospital, 3Centro de Pesquisas e Assistência em Reprodução Humana (CEPARH, Salvador, Bahia, Brazil Abstract: Endometriosis is a chronic disease in which a persistent state of heightened inflammation is maintained by nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB activation. The progestins present in oral contraceptives are potent inhibitors of NF-κB translocation to cell nuclei, while Pycnogenol® (Pinus pinaster acts by blocking post-translational events. In this study, the effects of Pycnogenol on pain scores were investigated in patients with endometriosis using oral contraceptives containing either gestodene or drospirenone in extended regimens. Pain scores were determined using a visual analog scale before and after 3 months of treatment. Oral contraceptives, used alone (groups 1 and 3 or in association with Pycnogenol (groups 2 and 4, resulted in significant decreases in pain scores after 3 months of treatment; however, this reduction was significantly greater in the groups using oral contraceptives + Pycnogenol (groups 2 and 4 compared with those using oral contraceptives alone (groups 1 and 3. In the groups using oral contraceptives alone, 50% of patients became pain-free by the end of the third month of treatment. These results suggest that Pycnogenol increases the efficacy of oral contraceptives for the treatment of endometriosis-related pain. Keywords: Pycnogenol®, aromatase, endometriosis, nuclear factor-kappa B

  17. Effect of oral administration of Shiquandabu pill combined with bladder perfusion chemotherapy on the postoperative recurrence and malignant degree of superficial bladder cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang Zhang; Yi-Shi Xing; Meng-Jia Cui; Zeng-Yue Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To study the effect of oral administration of Shiquandabu pill combined with bladder perfusion chemotherapy on the postoperative recurrence and malignant degree of superficial bladder cancer.Methods:A total of 102 patients with superficial bladder cancer who received transurethral resection of bladder tumor in our hospital between April 2012 and April 2015 were selected and randomly divided into combined group who received postoperative oral administration of Shiquandabu pill combined with bladder perfusion chemotherapy and routine group who received postoperative bladder perfusion chemotherapy, the postoperative tumor recurrence was followed up for 3 years, and the levels of tumor markers in serum as well as the expression levels of stem cell marker molecules and immunoregulation molecules in peripheral blood and recurrent lesions were determined.Results: Postoperative 1-year recurrence rate and postoperative 3-year recurrence rate of combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of routine group, and the mean recurrence time was significantly longer than that of routine group; 1 year after operation, serum VEGF, αFGF,βFGF, MMP2 and MMP9 levels were significantly lower than those of routine group, and ALDH1, Sox2, Nanog, CD47, CD133, B7-H1, PD-1 and PD-L1 mRNA levels in peripheral blood mononuclear cells were significantly lower than those of routine group; after tumor recurrence, ALDH1, Sox2, Nanog, CD47, CD133, B7-H1, PD-1 and PD-L1 mRNA levels in recurrent lesions of combined treatment group were significantly lower than those of routine group.Conclusion:Oral administration of Shiquandabu pill combined with bladder perfusion chemotherapy has better effect on preventing postoperative recurrence of superficial bladder cancer than bladder perfusion chemotherapy alone, and it has regulating effect on tumor load, characteristics of stem cells and immune response after transurethral resection of bladder tumor.

  18. The impact of using the combined oral contraceptive pill for cycle scheduling on gene expression related to endometrial receptivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bermejo, Alfonso; Iglesias, Carlos; Ruiz-Alonso, María; Blesa, David; Simón, Carlos; Pellicer, Antonio; García-Velasco, Juan

    2014-06-01

    Does the combined oral contraceptive pill (COCP) change endometrial gene expression when used for cycle programming? COCP used for scheduling purposes does not have a significant impact on endometrial gene expression related to endometrial receptivity. Controversy exists around COCP pretreatment for IVF cycle programming, as some authors claim that it might be detrimental to the live birth rate. Microarray technology applied to the study of tissue gene expression has previously revealed the behavior of genes related to endometrial receptivity under different conditions. Proof-of-concept study of 10 young healthy oocyte donors undergoing controlled ovarian stimulation (COS) recruited between June 2012 and February 2013. Microarray data were obtained from endometrial biopsies from 10 young healthy oocyte donors undergoing COS with GnRH antagonists and recombinant FSH. In group A (n = 5), COCP pretreatment was used for 12-16 days, and stimulation began after a 5-day pill-free interval. Stimulation in group B (n = 5) was initiated on cycle day 3 after a spontaneous menses. Endometrial biopsies were collected 7 days after triggering with hCG. No individual genes exhibited increased or decreased expression (fold change (FC) >2) in patients with prior COCP treatment (group A) compared with controls (group B). However, the results of the functional analysis showed a total of 11 biological processes that were significantly enriched in group A compared with group B (non-COCP). The Endometrial Receptivity Array (ERA) has only been validated on endometrial samples obtained in natural cycles and after hormonal replacement treatment (HRT). Therefore, it was not possible in this study to classify the endometrial samples as receptive or non-receptive. We used the ERA to focus on 238 genes that are intimately related to endometrial receptivity, thus simplifying the analysis and understanding of the data. Cycle scheduling is common in IVF units and is used to avoid weekend

  19. Effects on hemostasis after two-year use of low dose combined oral contraceptives with gestodene or levonorgestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, R N; Koh, S C; Viegas, O A; Ratnam, S S

    1999-01-01

    We studied 67 healthy women who were randomly allocated to receive third generation gestodene (Gynera) or second generation levonorgestrel (Microgynon 30) combination of low-dose estrogen oral contraceptives (OCs) for their hemostatic effects over 2 years. Hemostatic changes were apparent within 3 months of OC use. Hematocrit (Hct) was not affected, but hemoglobin (Hb) concentration decreased by 18 months. Shortened prothrombin time (PT) and activated plasma thromboplastin time (APTT) were associated with elevated fibrinogen within the 12-month use of both OCs. Factor VII was reduced only in Micro 30 during the 18 months of use. Enhanced thrombin-antithrombin (TAT)-complex level was seen at 18 months of Gynera use. Prothrombin fragment1+2 (F1+2) rise was seen at 3 months with Micro 30. Reduced antithrombin III (ATIII) activity was seen at 18 months with Gynera and at 24 months with Micro 30. Increased protein C activity was seen at 3 months and reduced protein S occurred at 18 months of Gynera use. Tissue plasminogen activator (t-PA) activity was enhanced for 6 months in both OCs with raised D-dimer levels for 12 months with Gynera and 6 months with Micro 30. Decreased t-PA antigen was seen at 18 months and decreased urokinaselike plasminogen activator (u-PA) antigen occurred throughout the 24 months of both OCs use. Enhanced u-PA activity was only seen in Gynera users. Elevated plasminogen levels were apparent throughout both OCs use. PAI-1 levels were significantly decreased with Micro 30. With Gynera, the decreased PAI-1 activity was seen only at 18 months and PAI-1 antigen at 12 months. No change in platelets and von Willebrand factor (vWF) were seen in long-term OC use except that beta-thromboglobulin (beta-TG) showed decreased trends reaching statistical significance by 18 and 24 months of Micro 30 use and by 24 months of Gynera use. A further significant decrease in beta-TG, u-PA antigen, ATIII, and protein S levels were seen 3 months after pill stoppage

  20. Combination of Taxol® and dichloroacetate results in synergistically inhibitory effects on Taxol-resistant oral cancer cells under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Qi; Zhang, Han-Fang; Guo, Ying-Zi; Wang, Peng-Yi; Liu, Zhong-Shung; Gao, Hua-Dong; Xie, Wei-Li

    2015-04-01

    Cancer cells preferentially catalyze glucose through the glycolytic pathway in the presence of adequate oxygen. This phenomenon is known as the Warburg effect. As is the case with numerous cancer therapeutic agents, resistance remains a significant problem when using Taxol® to treat malignancies. The present study reported that expression of pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 1 (PDK1) was induced by Taxol treatment at low toxic concentrations in oral cancer cells. In addition, Taxol‑resistant cells exhibited upregulated PDK1 protein and mRNA expression. Elevated PDK1 levels contribute to Taxol resistance under hypoxic conditions. Inhibition of PDK1 expression was observed when oral cancer cells were treated with the PDK1 inhibitor dichloroacetate (DCA). The combination of Taxol with DCA showed synergistic inhibitory effects on Taxol‑resistant cells under hypoxic conditions; these effects were not observed in Taxol‑sensitive oral cancer cells under normoxic conditions. The present study provides a novel mechanism for overcoming Taxol resistance in oral cancer cells, and will contribute towards the development of clinical therapeutics for cancer patients.

  1. Assessment of endothelial function during oral contraception in women with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, K R; Skouby, S O; Sidelmann, Johannes Jakobsen

    1994-01-01

    with a monophasic combination of 30 micrograms ethinyl estradiol and 75 micrograms gestodene for 12 consecutive cycles and 13 women of comparable diabetic status as control. During the study period, none of the participants developed increased renal albumin excretion, which was used as a direct measure...

  2. Comparison between oral and intra-articular antinociceptive effect of dexketoprofen and tramadol combination in monosodium iodoacetate-induced osteoarthritis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cialdai, Cecilia; Giuliani, Sandro; Valenti, Claudio; Tramontana, Manuela; Maggi, Carlo Alberto

    2013-08-15

    Dexketoprofen and tramadol, alone or in combination, were evaluated after oral or intra-articular administration on knee osteoarthritis nociception induced by intra-articular (i.ar.) monosodium iodoacetate (MIA, 1 mg/25 µl) in the rat right knee while the left knee received saline (25 µl). Seven days after MIA treatment, dexketoprofen, tramadol, their combination or the vehicle were administered. Nociception was evaluated as alteration in hind limb weight distribution with Incapacitance tester at different time-points after drug administration. Oral dexketoprofen (0.1-1 mg/kg) or tramadol (0.5-5 mg/kg) induced maximal antinociception at 1 and 5 mg/kg, respectively. Their combination dose-dependently increased the intensity and duration of antinociception, that was additive and lasted up to 3 days. Also the intra-articular administration of dexketoprofen or tramadol (10-100 µg/25 µl) inhibited MIA-induced nociception, and the combination of the lower doses (10 µg/25 µl) produced a long lasting more than additive antinociceptive effect indicating a synergistic interaction between the two drugs. This effect was significantly reduced by naloxone (10 μg/25 μl, i.ar.) co-administered with both compounds. The intra-articular administration of both drugs at 10 µg/25 µl in the contralateral control knee joint provoked a marked synergistic antinociceptive effect indicating significant systemic diffusion through synovial membrane. The oral or intra-articular combination of dexketoprofen and tramadol produced additive or synergistic antinociceptive effects, respectively, in the model of MIA-induced osteoarthritis in rats, that might allow to obtain therapeutic advantages with lower side effects. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of combined oral sucrose and nonnutritive sucking (NNS) on procedural pain of NICU newborns, 2001 to 2016: A PRISMA-compliant systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Huang, Xinchun; Luo, Biru; Peng, Wentao

    2017-02-01

    Both oral sucrose (OS) and nonnutritive sucking (NNS) are effective nonpharmacological methods to alleviate procedures pain in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) newborns when they were used alone, but the combined effect of OS+NNS remains controversial. So, we conducted this study to evaluate the efficiency of NNS combined with oral sucrose on pain relief in NICU newborns undergoing painful procedures. We searched PubMed, Ovid (Medline), Embase (Medline), Cochrane Central Library, and other resources such as Google Scholar, bibliographies of included literatures for all available articles. Two reviewers screened literatures and extracted data independently. The fixed effects model was used to pool the results using Reviewer Manager (RevMan) 5.3. As each study included in our meta-analysis had been approved by Ethics Committee or institutional review board, thus our study did not need ethical approval. Seven randomized controlled trials, including 599 participants, were contained in our meta-analysis. The combination of oral sucrose and NNS is associated with reduced pain scores (mean difference [MD], -0.52; 95% confidence interval [CI], -0.68 to -0.36); shortened crying time (MD,-0.92; 95% CI, -1.39 to -0.44); but the 2 groups did not differ significantly in reducing bradycardia (MD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.32-1.68), tachycardia (MD, 0.65; 95% CI, 0.38-1.10), or desaturations (MD, 0.73; 95% CI, 0.32-1.68). The pooled evidence indicates that the combination measures may serve as an evidence-based guideline for pain relief among patients having minor pain. Besides, it also indicates that OS combined with NNS can be an alternative for better prevention and management of procedure pain in NICU newborns. Nevertheless, the results may be limited due to incomplete data, and thus, more randomized controlled trials or well-designed studies are required to determine the effects of OS+NNS in the future.

  4. Cost-effectiveness of combined oral bisphosphonate therapy and falls prevention exercise for fracture prevention in the USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, T; Crandall, C J; Ganz, D A

    2017-02-01

    We developed a Markov microsimulation model among hypothetical cohorts of community-dwelling US white women without prior major osteoporotic fractures over a lifetime horizon. At ages 75 and 80, adding 1 year of exercise to 5 years of oral bisphosphonate therapy is cost-effective at a conventionally accepted threshold compared with bisphosphonates alone.

  5. Randomised comparison of oral and vaginal misoprostol when combined with mifepristone for termination of second trimester pregnancy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhuri N.

    2016-02-01

    Conclusion: 200 and micro;g misoprostol inserted vaginally is better than 400 and micro;g of oral misoprostol, 36 hours after administration of tab. Mifepristone 200 mg for termination of second trimester pregnancy. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2016; 5(2.000: 509-513

  6. Combination of oral activated charcoal plus low protein diet as a new alternative for handling in the old end-stage renal disease patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musso C

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Chronic dialysis is a valid therapeutic option in very elderly ESRD patients, even though the decision to dialyze or not has little impact on survival. Additionally, very old patients usually do not agree with starting chronic dialysis. Even though, activated charcoal is a cheap treatment for working as adsorbent for nitrogenous products its utility is very limited. We studied the combination of a low protein diet and oral activated charcoal to reduce serum urea and crea-tinine levels in very old ESRD patients who had refused to start chronic dialysis. Nine lucid, very old > 80 years, ESRD patients who had refused to start dialysis were prescribed a treatment based on a combination of a very low protein diet and oral activated charcoal (30 gram/day. None of the patients had anuria, oliguria, edema, significant metabolic acidosis or hyperkalemia. None of them had significant gastrointestinal symptoms. After one week and ten months of charcoal use signi-ficant decrease in blood urea and creatinine levels was observed and none of them required emer-gency dialysis during this time. In conclusion, in patients more than 80 years of age low protein diet and oral activated charcoal may control the uremic symptoms effectively.

  7. Combination of oral activated charcoal plus low protein diet as a new alternative for handling in the old end-stage renal disease patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musso, C G; Michelangelo, H; Reynaldi, J; Martinez, B; Vidal, F; Quevedo, M; Parot, M; Waisman, G; Algranati, L

    2010-01-01

    Chronic dialysis is a valid therapeutic option in very elderly ESRD patients, even though the decision to dialyze or not has little impact on survival. Additionally, very old patients usually do not agree with starting chronic dialysis. Even though, activated charcoal is a cheap treatment for working as adsorbent for nitrogenous products its utility is very limited. We studied the combination of a low protein diet and oral activated charcoal to reduce serum urea and creatinine levels in very old ESRD patients who had refused to start chronic dialysis. Nine lucid, very old > 80 years, ESRD patients who had refused to start dialysis were prescribed a treatment based on a combination of a very low protein diet and oral activated charcoal (30 gram/day). None of the patients had anuria, oliguria, edema, significant metabolic acidosis or hyperkalemia. None of them had significant gastrointestinal symptoms. After one week and ten months of charcoal use significant decrease in blood urea and creatinine levels was observed and none of them required emergency dialysis during this time. In conclusion, in patients more than 80 years of age low protein diet and oral activated charcoal may control the uremic symptoms effectively.

  8. Antitumor activity of a combination of trastuzumab (Herceptin) and oral fluoropyrimidine S-1 on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-overexpressing pancreatic cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saeki, Hiroyuki; Yanoma, Shunsuke; Takemiya, Shouji; Sugimasa, Yukio; Akaike, Makoto; Yukawa, Norio; Rino, Yasushi; Imada, Toshio

    2007-08-01

    The cytotoxic effect of trastuzumab in combination with oral fluoropyrimidine S-1 on human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-overexpressing human pancreatic cancer cell line TRG in vitro and in vivo was investigated. HER2 expression in TRG was analyzed by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. For in vitro experiments, 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) was used instead of S-1. In vivo studies were conducted with TRG xenografts in athymic mice. Trastuzumab (10 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally once a week for 4 weeks. S-1 (10 mg/kg) was administered orally 5 days a week for 4 weeks. The results showed that TRG cells were positive for HER2 mRNA and overexpressed HER2 protein. Either trastuzumab or 5-FU concentration-dependently inhibited the growth of TRG cells. The combination of trastuzumab and 5-FU resulted in a significant inhibition of growth of TRG cells compared to either agent alone (P<0.001). Incubation of TRG cells with peripheral blood mononuclear cells after treatment with trastuzumab enhanced the antiproliferative effect of trastuzumab, which could be the result of antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity. The combination of trastuzumab and S-1 resulted in a significant reduction in xenograft volume compared to each agent alone (P<0.0001). In conclusion, this study showed that combination therapy with trastuzumab and S-1 may be effective for HER2-overexpressing pancreatic cancer patients.

  9. Impact of a sodium carbonate spray combined with professional oral hygiene procedures in patients with Sjögren's syndrome: an explorative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambino, Alessio; Broccoletti, Roberto; Cafaro, Adriana; Cabras, Marco; Carcieri, Paola; Arduino, Paolo G

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to make an initial estimation on the effects of a sodium bicarbonate and xylitol spray (Cariex(®) ), associated with non-surgical periodontal therapy, in participants with primary Sjögren's syndrome. Sjögren's syndrome (SS) is a multisystem autoimmune disease that predominantly involves salivary and lachrymal glands, with the clinical effect of dry eyes and mouth. A prospective cohort of 22 women and two men has been evaluated. They were randomized into three groups (eight patients each): Group A) those treated once with non-surgical periodontal therapy, education and motivation to oral hygiene, associated with the use of Cariex(®) ; Group B) treated only with Cariex(®) ; Group C) treated only with non-surgical periodontal therapy, education and motivation to oral hygiene. Clinical variables described after treatment were unstimulated whole salivary flow, stimulated whole salivary flow, salivary pH, reported pain (using Visual Analogue Scale) and the Periodontal Screening and Recording index. Salivary flow rate improved in all groups, but the difference was statistically significant only in those treated with Cariex(®) , alone or in combination with periodontal therapy. Gingival status improved in participants who underwent periodontal non-surgical therapy while remained unchanged in those only treated with Cariex(®) . Reported pain decreased in all groups, showing the best result in participants treated with periodontal therapy together with Cariex(®) . We propose a practical approach for improving gingival conditions and alleviating oral symptoms in patients with SS. Future randomized and controlled trials are however required to confirm these results as well as larger population, and also assessing other parameters due to oral dryness, possible oral infections and more comprehensive periodontal indices. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Association. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. A Single Step Impression Technique of Flabby Ridges Using Monophase Polyvinylsiloxane Material: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umesh Y. Pai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Complete denture fabrication in clinically compromised situations such as flabby ridges is a challenging task for the clinician. Accurate impressioning of these tissues plays a major role in ensuring a well-fitting prosthesis. In this paper, the authors have proposed a newer technique of impression making of the flabby tissues using a combination of readily available newer and older materials to ensure an accurate and easy impression of these tissues.

  11. 复方口服避孕药的临床应用进展%Recent advances in clinical application of combined oral contraceptive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄立冬; 吴玉英; 杨柳(综述); 陈昌益(审校)

    2015-01-01

    复方口服避孕药由于避孕效果可靠,一直是世界范围使用最广泛的避孕方法之一,同时也是国际上认为研究最深入的领域之一。该文将对复方口服避孕药的早期发现、新型口服避孕药的发展趋势和目前应用现状进行简要综述。%Combined oral contraceptive( COC) is one of the most frequently used contraception drugs world-wide, and researches on COC has become one of the most intensively investigated area in gynecology.The early dis-covery of COC, current status of its clinical use, and trends of new oral contraceptive are reviewed in this paper.

  12. Assessment of the arteriovenous cerebrovascular system by multi-slice CT. A single-bolus, monophasic protocol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klingebiel, R.; Zimmer, C. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Neuroradiology Section; Rogalla, P.; Kivelitz, D. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Bohner, G. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Neuroradiology Section; Goetze, R. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Dept. of Radiology; Lehmann, R. [Charite CM, Humboldt Univ., Berlin (Germany). Neuroradiology Section

    2001-11-01

    Purpose: We present a protocol for the non-invasive angiographic assessment of the arterial and venous cerebrovascular (CV) system by multi-slice CT. Material and Methods: Data acquisition was performed in a multi-slice CT scanner with a scan range from the carotid bifurcation to the vertex and manual scan start following i.v. administration of 120 ml iodinated contrast medium with a flow rate of 4 ml/s. This protocol was applied in 12 patients with symptoms of acute CV insufficiency. Results: In all patients, comprehensive imaging of the arteriovenous CV system was achieved including the common carotid bifurcation, the third segment of the major cerebral arteries, the dural sinus and the internal cerebral veins. Various CV pathologies, such as a territorial artery occlusion, a thrombotic obstruction of the internal carotid artery, an intracranial arteriovenous malformation and a sinus vein thrombosis, were successfully evaluated. Conclusion: Comprehensive assessment of the arteriovenous CV system is possible by the use of a single-bolus, monophasic multi-slice scan technique.

  13. Monophasic Wilms’ tumor with multiple skeletal metastases in a young female: A case report and review of literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreeranga YL

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wilms’ tumor (nephroblastoma is the most common renal tumor in children. It is uncommon in adolescent and skeletal metastasis at the time of presentation is even rare. The present case is a rare monophasic blastemal variant of Wilms’ tumor presenting with multiple skeletal metastases in a young female. We report a case of 23-year-old female presented with severe low backache and colicky right loin pain of 1 month and constant dull aching left upper arm pain of 20 days duration. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT abdomen revealed heterogeneously enhancing soft tissue density mass with central nonenhancing areas arising from the upper pole of the right kidney. Whole body 18F-Sodium Fluoride (NaF Positron emission tomography– computed tomography (PET/CT bone scintigraphy revealed multiple skeletal metastases. The patient underwent right radical nephrectomy and the tumor was confirmed as adult Wilms’ tumor by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. Skeletal metastasis may be the first presentation in a case of adolescent Wilms’ tumor, and this possibility should be considered when an adolescent patient presents with flank pain and a renal mass. The clinical course of adult Wilms’ tumor with blastemal component is very aggressive with high chances of recurrence and mortality

  14. Oral prostacycline analog and clopidogrel combination provides early maturation and long-term survival after arteriovenous fistula creation: A randomized controlled study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A F Abacilar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vascular access is used as a lifeline for hemodialysis in patients with end stage renal disease failure (ESRD. Failure of arteriovenous fistula (AVF maturation is still high. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of clopidogrel in combination with oral iloprost, a synthetic analog of prostacyclin PGI 2. Ninety-six diabetic ESRD patients were divided into two groups. In the first group (Group 1, N = 50, clopidogrel (75 mg daily dose and an oral prostacycline analog (200 mg daily dose were administered. In the second group (Group 2, N = 46, placebo was given. All patients took study medication 7-10 days prior to surgery. A Doppler ultrasound (USG was performed for measurement of arterial and venous diameters, and peak systolic velocity of arterial flow based on subsequent fistula adequacy. Autogenous AVFs were constructed in forearm as distally as possible in all patients. Both groups were followed-up for a year. In the placebo group, early AVF thrombosis was detected in two patients (4.3%. AVF maturation failure was noted in 14 patients (30.4% in placebo group and in four patients (8% in clopidogrel plus oral prostacycline analog group in the early postoperative period (P = 0.001. The mean maturation time was 38 ± 6.5 and 53 ± 12.8 days in study and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.023. The mean blood flow was 352 ± 94 mL/min in placebo group and 604 ± 125 mL/min in study group (P = 0.001. The arterial end diastolic velocity was 116 ± 14 cm/s in study group and 72 ± 21 cm/s in placebo group (P = 0.036 1 year after the surgery. Our data indicated that clopidogrel and oral prostacycline analog combination is effective and safe for the prevention of primary AVF failure in hemodialysis patients and decreased acute and chronic thrombotic events.

  15. Oral prostacycline analog and clopidogrel combination provides early maturation and long-term survival after arteriovenous fistula creation: A randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abacilar, A F; Atalay, H; Dogan, O F

    2015-01-01

    Vascular access is used as a lifeline for hemodialysis in patients with end stage renal disease failure (ESRD). Failure of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation is still high. The purpose of this study was to research the effects of clopidogrel in combination with oral iloprost, a synthetic analog of prostacyclin PGI2. Ninety-six diabetic ESRD patients were divided into two groups. In the first group (Group 1, N = 50), clopidogrel (75 mg daily dose) and an oral prostacycline analog (200 mg daily dose) were administered. In the second group (Group 2, N = 46), placebo was given. All patients took study medication 7-10 days prior to surgery. A Doppler ultrasound (USG) was performed for measurement of arterial and venous diameters, and peak systolic velocity of arterial flow based on subsequent fistula adequacy. Autogenous AVFs were constructed in forearm as distally as possible in all patients. Both groups were followed-up for a year. In the placebo group, early AVF thrombosis was detected in two patients (4.3%). AVF maturation failure was noted in 14 patients (30.4%) in placebo group and in four patients (8%) in clopidogrel plus oral prostacycline analog group in the early postoperative period (P = 0.001). The mean maturation time was 38 ± 6.5 and 53 ± 12.8 days in study and placebo groups, respectively (P = 0.023). The mean blood flow was 352 ± 94 mL/min in placebo group and 604 ± 125 mL/min in study group (P = 0.001). The arterial end diastolic velocity was 116 ± 14 cm/s in study group and 72 ± 21 cm/s in placebo group (P = 0.036) 1 year after the surgery. Our data indicated that clopidogrel and oral prostacycline analog combination is effective and safe for the prevention of primary AVF failure in hemodialysis patients and decreased acute and chronic thrombotic events.

  16. Phase I Study of Oral Vinorelbine in Combination with Erlotinib in Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC Using Two Different Schedules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Sutiman

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of the combination of oral vinorelbine with erlotinib using the conventional (CSV and metronomic (MSV dosing schedules in patients with advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC.This was an open-label, multiple dose-escalation phase I study. An alternating 3+3 phase I design was employed to allow each schedule to enroll three patients sequentially at each dose level. Thirty patients with Stage IIIB/IV NSCLC were treated with escalating doses of oral vinorelbine starting at 40 mg/m2 on day 1 and 8 in the CSV group (N = 16 and at 100 mg/week in the MSV group (N = 14. Erlotinib was administered orally daily.The maximum tolerated dose was vinorelbine 80 mg/m2 with erlotinib 100 mg in the CSV group and vinorelbine 120 mg/week with erlotinib 100 mg in the MSV group. Grade 3/4 toxicities included neutropenia (N = 2; 13% and hyponatremia (N = 1; 6% in the CSV group, and neutropenia (N = 5; 36% in the MSV group. Objective response was achieved in 38% and 29% in the CSV and MSV groups respectively. Vinorelbine co-administration did not significantly affect the pharmacokinetics of erlotinib and OSI-420 after initial dose. However, at steady-state, significantly higher Cmax, higher Cmin and lower CL/F of erlotinib were observed with increasing dose levels of vinorelbine in the CSV group. Significantly higher steady-state Cmin, Cavg and AUCss of erlotinib were observed with increasing dose levels of vinorelbine in the MSV group.Combination of oral vinorelbine with erlotinib is feasible and tolerable in both the CSV and MSV groups.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00702182.

  17. A comparative evaluation of tray spacer thickness and repeat pour on the accuracy of monophasic polyvinyl siloxane impression material: In vitro study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandeep Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: This study was aimed to determine the effect of various tray spacer thickness and subsequent repeated pours on the accuracy and dimensional stability of the impression made from monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material. Materials and Methods: Custom trays with different spacer thickness (2, 4 and 6 mm were used for making an impression of a master model simulating 3 unit fixed partial denture with monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material. These impressions were poured with die stone and repoured. Distance between the reference points were measured and subjected to statistical analysis. Result: Casts obtained from 1 st , 2 nd and 3 rd pour of the impression in 2, 4 and 6 mm spacer thickness tray have similar dimensional accuracy amongst each other and with the master model except in molar diameter and inter-abutment distances of cast obtained from 6 mm spacer thickness tray. Conclusion: The vertical distance of stone dies were decreased, whereas horizontal distance increased as the thickness of impression material is increased. There were statistically non-significant changes occurring among the repeated pours in 2, 4 and 6 mm spacer thickness. Clinical Implication: 2 and 4 mm spacer thickness are acceptable for making an impression for three unit fixed partial denture with monophasic polyvinyl siloxane material and it was not affected by two subsequent (1 st and 2 nd repeated pours.

  18. Use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and CPRD databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coupland, Carol; Hippisley-Cox, Julia

    2015-01-01

    Objective To investigate the association between use of combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism, taking the type of progestogen into account. Design Two nested case-control studies. Setting General practices in the United Kingdom contributing to the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD; 618 practices) and QResearch primary care database (722 practices). Participants Women aged 15-49 years with a first diagnosis of venous thromboembolism in 2001-13, each matched with up to five controls by age, practice, and calendar year. Main outcome measures Odds ratios for incident venous thromboembolism and use of combined oral contraceptives in the previous year, adjusted for smoking status, alcohol consumption, ethnic group, body mass index, comorbidities, and other contraceptive drugs. Results were combined across the two datasets. Results 5062 cases of venous thromboembolism from CPRD and 5500 from QResearch were analysed. Current exposure to any combined oral contraceptive was associated with an increased risk of venous thromboembolism (adjusted odds ratio 2.97, 95% confidence interval 2.78 to 3.17) compared with no exposure in the previous year. Corresponding risks associated with current exposure to desogestrel (4.28, 3.66 to 5.01), gestodene (3.64, 3.00 to 4.43), drospirenone (4.12, 3.43 to 4.96), and cyproterone (4.27, 3.57 to 5.11) were significantly higher than those for second generation contraceptives levonorgestrel (2.38, 2.18 to 2.59) and norethisterone (2.56, 2.15 to 3.06), and for norgestimate (2.53, 2.17 to 2.96). The number of extra cases of venous thromboembolism per year per 10 000 treated women was lowest for levonorgestrel (6, 95% confidence interval 5 to 7) and norgestimate (6, 5 to 8), and highest for desogestrel (14, 11 to 17) and cyproterone (14, 11 to 17). Conclusions In these population based, case-control studies using two large primary care databases, risks of venous thromboembolism associated with combined oral

  19. Bioavailability of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin in a fixed-combination syrup versus an oral reference product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janin, Annick; Monnet, Joelle

    2014-04-01

    The primary objective of this study was to compare the bioavailability of paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin in a new oral syrup with an established oral reference product. The secondary objective was to compare the safety of the new syrup and the reference product. This was a single-centre, open-label, randomized, reference-replicated, crossover study. Healthy adult volunteers received one dose of syrup and two separate doses of a reference oral liquid formulation in a randomized sequence over three study periods, with a washout interval of ≥ 7 days between study periods. Blood samples were taken regularly postdose and analysed for paracetamol, phenylephrine hydrochloride and guaifenesin concentrations; adverse events were recorded. This study enrolled 45 subjects. For paracetamol and guaifenesin, the syrup and reference product were considered to be bioequivalent. Bioequivalence was not shown for phenylephrine hydrochloride. All adverse events were mild or moderate, most of which were considered formulation related. The syrup did not reach bioequivalence with the reference product, as bioequivalence could not be shown for phenylephrine hydrochloride. This may be due to differences in the excipients between the two products. Both the syrup and the reference product had a good safety profile and were well tolerated.

  20. Efficacy of combination chemotherapy using a novel oral chemotherapeutic agent, TAS-102, together with bevacizumab, cetuximab, or panitumumab on human colorectal cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukihara, Hiroshi; Nakagawa, Fumio; Sakamoto, Kazuki; Ishida, Keiji; Tanaka, Nozomu; Okabe, Hiroyuki; Uchida, Junji; Matsuo, Kenichi; Takechi, Teiji

    2015-05-01

    TAS-102 is a novel oral nucleoside antitumor agent that consists of trifluridine (FTD) and tipiracil hydrochloride (TPI) at a molecular ratio of 1:0.5, and was approved in Japan in March 2014 for the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer that is refractory to standard therapies. In the present study, we used colorectal cancer xenografts to assess whether the efficacy of TAS-102 could be improved by combining it with bevacizumab, cetuximab or panitumumab. TAS-102 was orally administered twice a day from day 1 to 14, and bevacizumab, cetuximab and panitumumab were administered intraperitoneally twice a week for 2 weeks. Growth inhibitory activity was evaluated based on the relative tumor volume (RTV) after 2 weeks of drug administration and time taken for the relative tumor volume to increase five-fold (RTV5). Tumor growth inhibition and RTV5 with TAS-102 and bevacizumab combination treatment were significantly better than those with TAS-102 or bevacizumab alone in the SW48 and HCT116 tumor models, and the concentration of phosphorylated FTD in tumors determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) analysis was higher in the TAS-102 and bevacizumab combination group than in the TAS-102 monotherapy group. The combination of TAS-102 and cetuximab or panitumumab was also significantly more effective than either monotherapy in the SW48 tumor model. There was no significant difference in the body weight between the mice treated with TAS-102 monotherapy and any of the combination therapies on day 29. Our preclinical findings indicate that the combination therapy of TAS-102, bevacizumab and cetuximab or panitumumab is a promising treatment option for colorectal cancer.

  1. Combined zoledronic acid and meloxicam reduced bone loss and tumour growth in an orthotopic mouse model of bone-invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, C K; Dirksen, W P; Carlton, M M; Lanigan, L G; Pillai, S P; Werbeck, J L; Simmons, J K; Hildreth, B E; London, C A; Toribio, R E; Rosol, T J

    2015-09-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is common in cats and humans and invades oral bone. We hypothesized that the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 inhibitor, meloxicam, with the bisphosphonate, zoledronic acid (ZOL), would inhibit tumour growth, osteolysis and invasion in feline OSCC xenografts in mice. Human and feline OSCC cell lines expressed COX-1 and COX-2 and the SCCF2 cells had increased COX-2 mRNA expression with bone conditioned medium. Luciferase-expressing feline SCCF2Luc cells were injected beneath the perimaxillary gingiva and mice were treated with 0.1 mg kg(-1) ZOL twice weekly, 0.3 mg kg(-1) meloxicam daily, combined ZOL and meloxicam, or vehicle. ZOL inhibited osteoclastic bone resorption at the tumour-bone interface. Meloxicam was more effective than ZOL at reducing xenograft growth but did not affect osteoclastic bone resorption. Although a synergistic effect of combined ZOL and meloxicam was not observed, combination therapy was well-tolerated and may be useful in the clinical management of bone-invasive feline OSCC.

  2. Synergistic effects of nanosecond pulsed electric fields combined with low concentration of gemcitabine on human oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Wang

    Full Text Available Treatment of cancer often involves uses of multiple therapeutic strategies with different mechanisms of action. In this study we investigated combinations of nanosecond pulsed electric fields (nsPEF with low concentrations of gemcitabine on human oral cancer cells. Cells (Cal-27 were treated with pulse parameters (20 pulses, 100 ns in duration, intensities of 10, 30 and 60 kV/cm and then cultured in medium with 0.01 µg/ml gemcitabine. Proliferation, apoptosis/necrosis, invasion and morphology of those cells were examined using MTT, flow cytometry, clonogenics, transwell migration and TEM assay. Results show that combination treatments of gemcitabine and nsPEFs exhibited significant synergistic activities versus individual treatments for inhibiting oral cancer cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis and necrosis. However, there was no apparent synergism for cell invasion. By this we demonstrated synergistic inhibition of Cal-27 cells in vitro by nsPEFs and gemcitabine. Synergistic behavior indicates that these two treatments have different sites of action and combination treatment allows reduced doses of gemcitabine and lower nsPEF conditions, which may provide better treatment for patients than either treatment alone while reducing systemic toxicities.

  3. A multiplex real-time PCR assay for the identification and differentiation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium and monophasic serovar 4,[5],12:i:-.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Deirdre M; Hand, Darren; Nί Ghallchóir, Eadaoin; McCabe, Evonne; Fanning, Seamus; Griffin, Margaret; Egan, John; Gutierrez, Montserrat

    2013-08-16

    Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar 4,[5],12:i:- is considered to be a monophasic variant of Salmonella Typhimurium and is increasingly associated with human infections. The use of PCR for the unequivocal identification of strains identified by conventional serotyping as 4,[5],12:i:- has been recommended by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), in particular the conventional multiplex PCR developed by Tennant et al. (2010). An alternative protocol for the identification and differentiation of S. Typhimurium and S. Typhimurium-like strains, including its monophasic variants, based on a multiplex real-time PCR assay was developed in our laboratory. A panel of 206 Salmonella strains was used to validate our multiplex real-time PCR against the conventional multiplex PCR recommended by EFSA, i.e. 43 Salmonella strains of serovars other than Typhimurium and 163 routine isolates determined by slide agglutination serotyping to have an incomplete antigenic formula compatible with the S. Typhimurium formula 4,[5],12:i:1,2. Both methods correctly identified the 43 Salmonella strains as non S. Typhimurium. Among the 163 isolates of undetermined serovar by conventional serotyping, both PCR protocols identified 54 isolates as S. Typhimurium, 101 as monophasic S. Typhimurium and 8 as non-S. Typhimurium. Twenty isolates phenotypically lacking the phase-2 H antigen were positive for the fljB.1,2 gene. These strains have been recently described in the literature by other workers and have been referred to as "inconsistent" variants of S. Typhimurium. Antimicrobial resistance and phage typing were also performed on the S. Typhimurium isolates, including monophasic variants, and approximately half of the isolates identified as monophasic S. Typhimurium by our multiplex real-time PCR protocol were DT193 with the resistance pattern ASSuT. There was 100% concordance between the conventional PCR and the multiplex real-time PCR method developed in this study which proved that

  4. Semaglutide, a Once-Weekly Human GLP-1 Analog, Does Not Reduce the Bioavailability of the Combined Oral Contraceptive, Ethinylestradiol/Levonorgestrel

    OpenAIRE

    Kapitza, Christoph; Nosek, Leszek; Jensen, Lene; Hartvig, Helle; Jensen, Christine B; Flint, Anne

    2015-01-01

    The effect of semaglutide, a once-weekly human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog in development for type 2 diabetes (T2D), on the bioavailability of a combined oral contraceptive was investigated. Postmenopausal women with T2D (n = 43) on diet/exercise ± metformin received ethinylestradiol (0.03 mg)/levonorgestrel (0.15 mg) once daily for 8 days before (semaglutide-free) and during (steady-state 1.0 mg) semaglutide treatment (subcutaneous once weekly; dose escalation: 0.25 mg 4 weeks; 0....

  5. Randomized cross-over study of patient preference for oral or intravenous vinorelbine in combination with carboplatin in the treatment of advanced NSCLC

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Lisa Helene Toft; Østerlind, Kell Erik; Rytter, C.

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Most chemotherapeutics are administrated intravenously (iv), but some are also available in an oral (po) formulation. This study was designed with the primary objective to estimate the patients' preference for po or iv vinorelbine in combination with carboplatin for the palliative...... treatment of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Secondary aims were to evaluate toxicity, efficacy, and subjective reasons the preference. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Sixty-one patients were randomized in a cross-over trial to two cycles of carboplatin day 1 and vinorelbine day 1 and day 8 iv followed by two...

  6. Comparison between Combination Therapy of Oral Terbinafine and Cryotherapy versus Systemic Meglumine Antimoniate and Cryotherapy in Cutaneous Leishmaniasis: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeedeh Farajzadeh

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is a parasitic infection that may lead to a variety of manifestations. In Iran, cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL has a high prevalence. There are many treatment modalities for CL. The use of oral terbinafine in the treatment of CL has recently been considered. The aim of this study was to compare combination of oral terbinafine plus cryotherapy versus systemic meglumine antimoniate plus cryotherapy in CL.Patients with proven direct smear for CL were divided randomly in 2 groups of 40 cases. For the first group systemic glucantime prescribed (IM, 15 mg/kg/day for 3 weeks. For the second group oral terbinafine as two folds of usual dose in the treatment of fungal diseases prescribed [125 mg/day for body weight (BW 40 kg] for 4 weeks. Both groups received cryotherapy every 2 weeks for 4 weeks. The patients were followed monthly for 3 months after the treatment.Partial (HR= 0.55, CI 95%= 0.3-1.1 and complete (HR= 0.53, CI 95%= 0.3-0.98 clinical improvement in terbinafine group was much slower than glucantime group, although at the end of treatment protocols no significant difference between groups were statistically observed (P=0.27.Considering more convenient suitable route of administration and approximately comparable results, it seems that terbinafine can be used as an alternative treatment, especially in the case of allergy or resistance to systemic glucantime.

  7. Comparative evaluation of effects of combined oral anti-diabetic drugs (sulfonylurea plus pioglitazone and sulfonylurea plus metformin over lipid parameters in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukanta Sen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Type 2 diabetes is associated with significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Dyslipidemia, which affects almost 50% of patients with type 2 diabetes, is a cardiovascular risk factor characterized by elevated triglyceride levels, low high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol levels, and a preponderance of small, dense, low-density lipoprotein (LDL particles. In addition to their glucose-lowering properties, oral anti-diabetic agents may have effects on lipid levels, especially triglycerides (TGs, HDL-C, LDL-C and total cholesterol levels. Methods: A prospective, open-labeled, randomized, parallel-group study was carried out in sizable number of patients (n=40 of established type 2 diabetes on combined oral anti-diabetic drugs, to investigate the effects of combined oral anti-diabetic on lipid parameters who was not receiving any hypolipidemic agent in addition. Results: Statistically significant mean reduction of triglycerides (TGs of 25.1mg/dl (a 15.30% reduction from baseline value and by 13.5 mg/dl (a 8.94% reduction from baseline value in the SU (sulfonylurea plus PIO (pioglitazone and SU plus MET (metformin group respectively. Present study also shows improvement in HDL cholesterol with SU plus PIO group by 13.18% which is almost twice that observed in SU plus MET group (8.06%. Present study also shows increase in LDL cholesterol with SU plus PIO group by 2.10%, is just opposite to SU plus MET group (4.92 % decrease. With SU plus PIO group, a statistically significant mean reduction of total cholesterol (TC of 8.33mg/dl (5.14 % decrease and by 7.62 mg/dl (4.28% decrease in the SU plus MET group. Conclusions: Pioglitazone, a thiazolidinedione, has been shown to improve the lipid profile in patients with type 2 diabetes by increasing HDL-C levels and by decreasing triglyceride and total cholesterol levels in monotherapy or combination regimens with sulfonylurea. Metformin also has been shown to reduce LDL-C, TC, and TG

  8. Enhanced oral bioavailability of acetylpuerarin by poly(lactide-co-glycolide nanoparticles optimized using uniform design combined with response surface methodology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sun D

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Deqing Sun,1,2 Aiying Xue,3 Bin Zhang,1 Xia Xue,1 Jie Zhang,1 Wenjie Liu1 1Department of Pharmacy, the Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China; 3Department of Cardiology, the Second Hospital of Shandong University, Jinan, People’s Republic of China Abstract: Acetylpuerarin (AP, an acetylated derivative of puerarin, shows brain-protective effects in animals. However, AP has low oral bioavailability because of its poor water solubility. The objective of this study was to design and develop poly(lactide-co-glycolide (PLGA nanoparticles (NPs to enhance the oral bioavailability of AP. The NPs were prepared using a solvent diffusion method optimized via uniform design (UD combined with response surface methodology (RSM and characterized by their morphology, particle size, zeta (ζ-potential, encapsulation efficiency (EE, drug loading (DL, and in vitro drug release. A pharmacokinetic study was conducted in Wistar rats administered a single oral dose of 30 mg/kg AP. The optimized NPs were spherical and uniform in shape, with an average particle size of 145.0 nm, a polydispersity index (PI of 0.153, and a ζ-potential of -14.81 mV. The release of AP from the PLGA NPs showed an initial burst release followed by a sustained release, following Higuchi’s model. The EE and DL determined in the experiments were 90.51% and 17.07%, respectively. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-∞ of AP-PLGA-NPs was 6,175.66±350.31 h ng/mL, which was 2.75 times greater than that obtained from an AP suspension. This study showed that PLGA NPs can significantly enhance the oral bioavailability of AP. Keywords: acetylpuerarin, nanoparticles, poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid, pharmacokinetics, bioavailability

  9. Boron biodistribution for BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model: combined administration of BSH and BPA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Molinari, Ana J; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2014-06-01

    Sodium mercaptoundecahydro-closo-dodecaborate (BSH) is being investigated clinically for BNCT. We examined the biodistribution of BSH and BPA administered jointly in different proportions in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. The 3 assayed protocols were non-toxic, and showed preferential tumor boron uptake versus precancerous and normal tissue and therapeutic tumor boron concentration values (70-85ppm). All 3 protocols warrant assessment in BNCT studies to contribute to the knowledge of (BSH+BPA)-BNCT radiobiology for head and neck cancer and optimize therapeutic efficacy.

  10. Evaluating educational media using traditional folk songs ('lam') in Laos: a health message combined with oral tradition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Itsuko; Kobayashi, Toshio; Sapkota, Sabitri; Akkhavong, Kongsap

    2012-03-01

    In the Lao People's Democratic Republic (Laos), health education is clearly a core aspect of the health service and is vital in improving people's lives through good health. However, there are many obstacles to conducting effective health education. The development of effective educational media is one solution to these problems. In Laos, traditional folk songs (lam) are preserved as part of the local communication media, and recently this communication medium has been used for health education. The aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of educational media using lam. For this purpose, we conducted focus group discussions with 48 participants. The reactions of the participants towards a lam, developed for preventing HIV/AIDS, were analysed using the KJ (Kawakita Jiro) method. The analysis showed there were eight areas of concern: (1) interest in a lam talking about HIV/AIDS; (2) knowledge and perception related to HIV infection routes; (3) expressing a willingness for preventing HIV/AIDS; (4) togetherness with people living with HIV/AIDS; (5) HIV/AIDS education for children; (6) improving educational methods; (7) characteristics and effectiveness of the lam and (8) song preferences. The reactions of the participants, such as gaining knowledge and expressing individual attitudes and community actions for preventing HIV/AIDS, were promoted by the characteristics and effectiveness of the lam such as oral tradition, artistry and cultural values. In particular, the oral tradition represented by lam is useful for the Lao people in memorizing and communicating information.

  11. Combined effects of chronic hyperglycaemia and oral aluminium intoxication on testicular tissue and some male reproductive parameters in Wistar rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinola, O B; Biliaminu, S A; Adedeji, O G; Oluwaseun, B S; Olawoyin, O M; Adelabu, T A

    2016-09-01

    Exposure to either environmental toxicants or chronic hyperglycaemia could impair male reproductive function. However, the extent to which exposure to such toxicants, in the presence of pre-existing metabolic dysfunction, could affect male reproduction is unclear. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic Wistar rats (12 weeks old) were exposed to oral aluminium chloride at 250 ppm for 30 days; followed by evaluation of caudal epididymal sperm count and motility, assay for serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), testosterone (T) and oestradiol; and assessment of testicular histology. Moreover, blood glucose was evaluated by the glucose oxidase method. In rats treated with streptozotocin (STZ) or aluminium (Al) alone, erosion of testicular parenchyma and stroma was observed. This effect was most severe in diabetic rats simultaneously exposed to Al; coupled with reduced caudal epididymal sperm count that was least in this (STZ+Al) group (18.75 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ) compared with controls (61.25 × 10(6)  ml(-1) ; P < 0.05), STZ group or Al group. Moreover, these reproductive perturbations (in the STZ+Al group) were associated with reduced sperm motility and significantly reduced serum FSH (P < 0.05); but elevated serum T and oestradiol (P < 0.05), compared with control. These suggest that diabetes-induced testicular lesion is exacerbated by simultaneous oral Al toxicity in Wistar rats. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  12. Combined LRRK2 mutation, aging and chronic low dose oral rotenone as a model of Parkinson’s disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Hui-Fang; Ho, Philip Wing-Lok; Leung, Gideon Chi-Ting; Lam, Colin Siu-Chi; Pang, Shirley Yin-Yu; Li, Lingfei; Kung, Michelle Hiu-Wai; Ramsden, David Boyer; Ho, Shu-Leong

    2017-01-01

    Aging, genetics and environmental toxicity are important etiological factors in Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, its pathogenesis remains unclear. A major obstacle is the lack of an appropriate experimental model which incorporates genetic susceptibility, aging and prolonged environmental toxicity. Here, we explored the interplay amongst these factors using mutant LRRK2R1441G (leucine-rich-repeat-kinase-2) knockin mice. We found that mutant primary cortical and mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons were more susceptible to rotenone-induced ATP deficiency and cell death. Compared with wild-type controls, striatal synaptosomes isolated from young mutant mice exhibited significantly lower dopamine uptake after rotenone toxicity, due to reduced striatal synaptosomal mitochondria and synaptic vesicular proton pump protein (V-ATPase H) levels. Mutant mice developed greater locomotor deficits in open-field tests than wild-type mice following low oral rotenone doses given twice weekly over 50 weeks (half their lifespan). The increased locomotor deficit was associated with specific reduction in striatal mitochondrial Complex-I (NDUFS4) in rotenone-treated mutant but not in similarly treated wild-type mice. Our unique experimental model which incorporates genetic effect, natural aging and prolonged oral environmental toxicity administered to mutant knockin LRRK2 mice over half their life span, with observable and measurable phenotype, is invaluable in further studies of the pathogenic process and therapeutics of PD. PMID:28098219

  13. The possible role of enterohepatic cycling on bioavailability of norethisterone and gestodene in women using combined oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, K; Ranta, S; Tuominen, J; Lähteenmäki, P

    2001-01-01

    Using steady-state conditions we aimed to test if administration of oral activated charcoal affects the bioavailability of norethisterone acetate (NET Ac) and gestodene (GEST) by inhibiting their enterohepatic recirculation. Thirteen volunteers received, in a randomized order, Minulet (75 microg GEST and 30 microg ethinylestradiol [EE(2)]) and Econ/30 (1 mg NET Ac and 30 microg EE(2)), each for 4 months. Serum GEST and norethisterone (NET) levels were evaluated with respect to C(max,) t(max) and 24-h area under the curve (AUC(0-24h)) in the middle of the control (3rd) cycle and the charcoal treatment (4th) cycle during both pill treatments. No statistically significant difference was seen in any of the aforementioned variables between the control and charcoal treatment cycles of either pill. Neither was a difference seen in the bioavailability of GEST and NET as evaluated by the ratios of two 24-h AUCs calculated in the control and charcoal cycles of each pill treatment (p = 0.29). The results suggest that enterohepatic circulation of GEST and NET is not of clinical importance. We conclude that women on oral contraceptives can take activated charcoal for the treatment of diarrhea when administered 3 h after and at least 12 h before pill intake.

  14. Daily reduction of oral malodor with the use of a sonic tongue brush combined with an antibacterial tongue spray in a randomized cross-over clinical investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, S; Gomez-Pereira, P; Hewett, K; Horstman, P; Patel, J; Greenman, J

    2016-02-12

    The objective of this clinical investigation was to test the effectiveness on breath odor of a newly designed sonic tongue brush (TongueCare+, TC). It consists of a soft silicone brush optimally designed based on the tongue's anatomy to remove bacterial biofilm from the tongue's complex surface, and it is coupled with a sonic power toothbrush handle. TC was used in combination with an antibacterial tongue spray (BreathRx, BRx) containing 0.09% cetylpyridinium chloride and 0.7% zinc gluconate. A total of 21 participants with oral malodor exceeding the threshold for recognition took part in this cross-over clinical investigation, which consisted of a single use of four treatment arms with one week washout period in between. The treatments consisted of: (1) TC  +  BRx, (2) TC  +  water, (3) BRx and (4) water. Malodor levels and bacterial density were monitored up to 6 h by organoleptic scoring and selective plating, respectively. The organoleptic score and bacterial density were significantly lower after using TC  +  BRx compared to all alternative treatments at all time points. A significant decrease in both parameters was detected after a single use of TC  +  BRx, from levels characteristic of high oral malodor, to barely noticeable levels after treatment and this was maintained up to 6 h. Moreover, we identified a significant positive correlation between bacterial density and organoleptic score, confirming that bacterial tongue biofilm is the root cause of oral malodor in these subjects. The results of this clinical investigation demonstrated that the combined treatment of a sonic tongue brush with the antibacterial tongue spray is able to deliver more than 6 h of fresh breath following a single use. The clinical investigation was registered at the ISRCTN registry under study identification number ISRCTN38199132.

  15. EXPERIENCE WITH THE ROSINSULIN C IN COMBINATION WITH ORAL ANTIDIABETIC DRUGS IN PATIENTS WITH TYPE 2 DIABETES IN ROUTINE CLINICAL PRACTICE

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    O. D. Rymar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to estimate the efficacy and safety of intermediate-acting insulin Rosinsulin C in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled with oral antidiabetic drugs.The present study is a 6-month, prospective, uncontrolled, clinical experience evaluation study using insulin Rosinsulin С for type 2 diabetes patients in daily clinical practice. Episodes of hypoglycaemia, adverse events were recorded. The study included 28 patients with type 2 diabetes, 4 men and 24 women who treated with metformin in combination with sulfonylureas in the highest dose. Indicators of glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c of 8 to 14%, the median HbA1c was 11 (10; 13% of patients age 65 (57; 72 years, body mass index – 33 (30; 35 kg/m2, waist circumference – 105 (99; 111 cm, diabetes duration – 7 (2; 11 years. With the introduction of Rosinsulin С cartridges carried pen Autopen. At the start of the study and after 3 and 6 months, determined the level of HbA1c, fasting plasma glucose.After 6 months' treatment with Rosinsulin С in combination with oral antidiabetic drugs HbA1c was significantly lowered (–3% (p = 0,001, fasting plasma glucose level decreased by 5 mmol/L (p = 0,001. There was not severe hypoglycemia during the observation period.This research showed that Rosinsulin C is effective and safe in the treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes who were decompensated with oral antidiabetic drugs and can be recommended for use as the initiation of insulin therapy in routine clinical practice.

  16. Blood glucose, serum insulin, serum growth hormone and serum glycosylated proteins during two years' oral contraception with low-estrogen combinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liukko, P; Erkkola, R; Lammintausta, R; Grönroos, M; Kloosterboer, H J

    1987-01-01

    Body weight, fasting blood glucose (GP) (BFG), serum immunoreactive insulin (IRI), serum growth hormone (GH) and serum glycosylated proteins were longitudinally followed in 2 groups of women during two years' oral contraception. One group (n = 10) received a combination of 0.030 mg ethinylestradiol and 0.150 mg levonorgestrel and the other (n = 10) a combination of 0.030 mg ethinylestradiol and 0.150 mg of desogestrel. There was a significant increase in BFG during the study and the values were still rising, when examined 2 months after discontinuation of the pill. Two subjects, reaching the level of 5.5 mmol/l showed normal pretreatment values, when investigated one year later. After 6 months' use of either preparation, GH significantly increased, remained on that level throughout the study and returned to the pretreatment level after discontinuation of the pill. Body weight, IRI and GPP did not change significantly during the study.

  17. Combined use of phospholipid complexes and self-emulsifying microemulsions for improving the oral absorption of a BCS class IV compound, baicalin

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    Huiyi Wu

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to develop a formulation to improve the oral absorption of baicalin (BA by combining a phospholipid complex (PC and self-emulsifying microemulsion drug delivery system (SMEDDS, termed BA–PC–SMEDDS. BA–PC was prepared by a solvent evaporation method and evaluated by complexation percentage (CP. The physicochemical properties of BA–PC were determined. The synergistic effect of PC and SMEDDS on permeation of BA was studied in vitro with Caco-2 cells and in situ with a single pass intestinal perfusion model. The improved bioavailability of BA in BA–PC–SMEDDS was confirmed in an in vivo rat model. The CP of BA–PC reached 100% when the molar ratio of drug to phospholipid (PP was ≥1:1. The solubility of BA–PC increased in both water and octanol, and the log Po/w of BA–PC was increased significantly. BA–PC–SMEDDS could be dispersed more evenly in water, compared to BA and BA–PC. Both the Caco-2 cell uptake and single-pass intestinal perfusion models illustrated that transport of BA in BA–PC was lower than that of free BA, while improved significantly in BA–PC–SMEDDS. The relative bioavailability of BA–PC(1:2–SMEDDS was 220.37%. The combination system of PC and SMEDDS had a synergistic effect on improving the oral absorption of BA.

  18. Immune responses induced in rabbits after oral administration of bovine serum albumin in combination with different adjuvants (herb extracts, aluminium hydroxide and platinum nanoparticles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Bižanov

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the current study was to evaluate the immunostimulatory activity of 10 different herbal extracts from Vitex agnus-castus, Vinca major, Aloe arborescens and the polyherbal product containing extracts from Sambucus nigra, Primula versis, Pinus alba, Gentiana lutea, Cetraria islandica, Eucaliptus globulus, Citrus limon and aluminium hydroxide, as well as platinum nanoparticles. Rabbits were immunized three times orally with bovine serum albumin (BSA in combination with the components mentioned above. BSA-specific IgA antibodies in saliva and IgG antibodies in serum were examined by ELISA. It was found that the rabbits immunized with BSA in combination with either platinum nanoparticles or aluminium hydroxide had higher titres of BSA-specific IgA antibodies in their saliva at day 56 of observation. Likewise, rabbits treated with BSA and Vinca major or Aloe arborescens extracts showed higher levels of BSA-specific IgG antibodies in the serum at the end of observation. These results suggest that some plant extracts, aluminium hydroxide and platinum nanoparticles components could be used as oral adjuvants or as immunomodulators for rabbits.

  19. Original article title: "Comparison of therapeutic efficacy of topical corticosteroid and oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid combination in the treatment of vitiligo patients: a clinical trial"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Omidian Mohammad

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vitiligo is the most prevalent pigmentary disorder which occurs worldwide, with an incidence rate between 0.1-4 percent. It is anticipated that the discovery of biological pathways of vitiligo pathogenesis will provide novel therapeutic and prophylactic targets for future approaches to the treatment and prevention of vitiligo. The purposes of this study were evaluating the efficacy of supplemental zinc on the treatment of vitiligo. Methods This randomized clinical trial was conducted for a period of one year. Thirty five patients among 86 participants were eligible to entrance to the study. The patients in two equal randomized groups took topical corticosteroid and combination of oral zinc sulfate-topical corticosteroid. Results The mean of responses in the corticosteroid group and the zinc sulfate-corticosteroid combination group were 21.43% and 24.7%, respectively. Conclusion Although, the response to corticosteroid plus zinc sulfate was more than corticosteroid, there was no statistically significant difference between them. It appeared that more robust long-term randomized controlled trials on more patients, maybe with higher doses of zinc sulfate, are needed to fully establish the efficacy of oral zinc in management of vitiligo. Trial Registration chiCTRTRC10000930

  20. Effect of a novel oral chemotherapeutic agent containing a combination of trifluridine, tipiracil and the novel triple angiokinase inhibitor nintedanib, on human colorectal cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Norihiko; Nakagawa, Fumio; Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Takechi, Teiji

    2016-12-01

    Trifluridine/tipiracil (TFTD) is a combination drug that is used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and was formerly known as TAS-102. It is a combination of two active pharmaceutical compounds, trifluridine, an antineoplastic thymidine-based nucleoside analog, and tipiracil, which enhances the bioavailability of trifluridine in vivo. TFTD is used for the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer that is resistant to standard therapies. In the present study, the anticancer effects of trifluridine in combination with nintedanib, an oral triple angiokinase inhibitor, on human colorectal cancer cell lines were investigated. The cytotoxicity against DLD-1, HT-29, and HCT116 cell lines was determined by the crystal violet staining method. The combination of trifluridine and nintedanib exerted an additive effect on the growth inhibition of DLD-1 and HT-29 cells and a sub-additive effect on HCT116 cells, as determined by isobologram analyses. Subsequently, the human colorectal cancer cell lines were implanted subcutaneously into nude mice to allow the evaluation of the in vivo tumor growth inhibitory effects of TFTD and nintedanib combination therapy. TFTD (150 mg/kg/day) and/or nintedanib (40 mg/kg/day) were orally administered to the mice twice daily from day 1 to day 14. The tumor growth inhibition with combination therapy was 61.5, 72.8, 67.6 and 67.5% for the DLD-1, DLD-1/5-FU, HT-29, and HCT116 xenografts, respectively. This was significantly (P<0.05) higher than the effects of monotherapy with either TFTD or nintedanib. These results demonstrated the effectiveness of the combination of TFTD and nintedanib in the treatment of colorectal cancer xenografts. The concentration of trifluridine incorporated into DNA in the HT-29 and HCT116 tumors was determined by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The incorporation levels following treatment with TFTD and nintedanib for 14 consecutive days were

  1. Effect of mefloquine administered orally at single, multiple, or combined with artemether, artesunate, or praziquantel in treatment of mice infected with Schistosoma japonicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Shu-hua; Mei, Jing-yan; Jiao, Pei-ying

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of the study is to explore the efficacy of mefloquine administered orally at single, multiple doses, or in combination with artesuante, artemether, or praziquantel in mouse--Schistosoma japonicum model. A total of 205 mice were divided into 4 batches and each batch of mice was infected percutaneously with 40 S. japonicum cercariae for 35 days. The infected mice were treated orally with mefloquine at single doses, multiple daily doses, or combined with artesunate, artemether, or praziquantel, while infected but untreated mice served as control. All treated animals were killed 4 weeks post-treatment for assessment of effect. When infected mice were treated orally with mefloquine at single or multiple daily doses under the same total dose levels, the tendency to decrease the efficacy was seen. Particularly, when a lower single dose of 100 mg/kg was divided equally into five daily doses of 20 mg/kg, the efficacy decreased statistically significant (Pmefloquine or artesuante at a single dose of 100 mg/kg, a moderate effect against schistosomes was observed. No further significant reduction of total and female worm burdens was seen, when the two drugs combined together at the same dose level. On the other hand, administration of mefloquine combined with artesunate at single dose of 50 mg/kg, which exhibited no effect against schistosomes, resulted in significant reduction of total and female worm burdens in comparison with the groups treated with mefloquine and artesunate alone at the same dose level. Similar results were observed in treatment of infected mice with mefloquine in combination with artemether at the smaller dose of 50 mg/kg. The total worm burden was significantly lower than that of control and the female worm burden was also significant lower than that of groups treated with mefloquine and artemether alone. Interestingly, in administration of mefloquine 100 mg/kg combined with artemether 100 mg/kg to the infected mice, all female worms were

  2. A phase 1 dose-escalation study of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in advanced solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric; Moyal, Elizabeth Cohen-Jonathan; Gregorc, Vanesa; Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Menard, Jean; Soria, Jean-Charles; Kloos, Ioana; Hsu, Jeff; Luan, Ying; Liu, Emily; Vezan, Remus; Graef, Thorsten; Rivera, Sofia

    2017-01-01

    Current treatments for advanced solid tumors tend to be only palliative. Although radiotherapy is administered with a curative intent, radioresistance and dose-limiting toxicities pose limitations to treatment. Abexinostat, an oral pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to radiation in various solid tumor cell lines. We conducted an exploratory, phase 1, dose-escalation study of abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a palliative setting. Among 58 treated patients, the median age was 61.5 years (range, 20-82); 47% of the patients had M1 stage disease, and 95% had received previous chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy in combination with surgery and/or radiotherapy. The recommended phase 2 dose was determined to be 90 mg/m2 (140 mg). Of the 51 patients evaluable for response, best overall response was 8% (1 complete response [CR], 3 partial responses [PRs]), and best loco-regional response was 12% (1 CR and 5 PRs) at a median follow-up of 16 weeks. Of note, patients with target or non-target brain lesions showed encouraging responses, with 1 patient achieving a best loco-regional response of CR. Treatment-emergent grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) were few, with most common being thrombocytopenia (17%), lymphopenia (12%), and hypokalemia (7%). Six patients (10%) discontinued treatment due to AEs. No grade ≥3 prolongation of the QTc interval was observed, with no treatment discontinuations due to this AE. Oral abexinostat combined with radiotherapy was well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors. The combination may have potential for treatment of patients with brain lesions. PMID:28915584

  3. A phase 1 dose-escalation study of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in advanced solid tumors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deutsch, Eric; Cohen-Jonathan Moyal, Elizabeth; Gregorc, Vanesa; Zucali, Paolo Andrea; Menard, Jean; Soria, Jean-Charles; Kloos, Ioana; Hsu, Jeff; Luan, Ying; Liu, Emily; Vezan, Remus; Graef, Thorsten; Rivera, Sofia

    2016-12-24

    Current treatments for advanced solid tumors tend to be only palliative. Although radiotherapy is administered with a curative intent, radioresistance and dose-limiting toxicities pose limitations to treatment. Abexinostat, an oral pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, demonstrated enhanced sensitivity to radiation in various solid tumor cell lines. We conducted an exploratory, phase 1, dose-escalation study of abexinostat in combination with standard hypofractionated radiotherapy in patients with advanced solid tumors treated in a palliative setting. Among 58 treated patients, the median age was 61.5 years (range, 20-82); 47% of the patients had M1 stage disease, and 95% had received previous chemotherapy alone or chemotherapy in combination with surgery and/or radiotherapy. The recommended phase 2 dose was determined to be 90 mg/m2 (140 mg). Of the 51 patients evaluable for response, best overall response was 8% (1 complete response [CR], 3 partial responses [PRs]), and best loco-regional response was 12% (1 CR and 5 PRs) at a median follow-up of 16 weeks. Of note, patients with target or non-target brain lesions showed encouraging responses, with 1 patient achieving a best loco-regional response of CR. Treatment-emergent grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) were few, with most common being thrombocytopenia (17%), lymphopenia (12%), and hypokalemia (7%). Six patients (10%) discontinued treatment due to AEs. No grade ≥3 prolongation of the QTc interval was observed, with no treatment discontinuations due to this AE. Oral abexinostat combined with radiotherapy was well tolerated in patients with advanced solid tumors. The combination may have potential for treatment of patients with brain lesions.

  4. The comparative study of side effect of the two kinds of LD combined oral contraceptive pills containing Norgestimate and Levonorgestrel

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    Ghazizade Sh

    1998-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to compare the new generation of oral contraceptive pills containing Norgestimate (NGM with currently available pills containing levonorgestrel (LNG a clinical trial was conducted. 413 women (age 18-35 years with no contrainindication to pill use entered the study and randomly received one type of pills. Premenstrual syndrome and depression were significantly decreased in NGM group (P=0.00016, P=0.005, on the other hand, breast tenderness, mood changes and hair loss were significantly increased in LNG group (P=0.001, P=0.042, P=0.011. Comparing two groups with each other, following variables were significantly lower in NGM group: headache (P<0.05, vertigo (P<0.05, cloasma (P<0.05, acne (P<0.04, depression (P<0.05, appetite change (P<0.03. Overall patient satisfaction was similar in two groups.

  5. EFFECTIVENESS OF AN ORAL HYGIENE EDUCATION PROGRAM COMBINED WITH FLUORIDE MOUTHRINSE AMONG VISUALLY IMPAIRED STUDENTS IN BANGKOK, THAILAND.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunakul, Malee; Asvanund, Yuwadee; Tantakul, Apirat; Mitrakul, Kemthong; Srisatjaluk, Ratchapin; Vongsavan, Kutkao

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effectiveness of oral hygiene education kits (OHE kits) and 0.05% sodium fluoride mouth rinse among visually impaired students (VIS) in Bangkok, Thailand. Seventy-five VIS aged 10-12 years were included in the study and examined for plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and mutans streptococci (MS) salivary levels at baseline and after intervention. The subjects were then randomly divided into three groups. Group 1 received OHE kits and 0.05% NaF mouth rinse and brushing instructions. Group 2 received only the OHE kits and brushing instructions. Group 3 (control) received only brushing instructions. PI, GI and MS levels, were reassessed 3 months after intervention. Pre- and post-intervention evaluation data were compared with the Wilcoxon match-pairs test (p index and lower number of MS than control group.

  6. The effect of a combined oral calcium and vitamin D supplement for treating mild to moderate vitamin D deficiency in postmenopausal women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Terry Golombick

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Terry Golombick, Terry DiamondDepartment of Endocrinology, St George Hospital, Kogarah, Sydney, NSW, AustraliaObjective: To evaluate the efficacy of a combined calcium and vitamin D (Ca-D3 supplement for vitamin D deficiency in a small group of postmenopausal women.Methods: A prospective open label 3 month-study.Participants: 23 postmenopausal women (mean age 61.2 yrs with vitamin D deficiency were given a combined oral Ca-D3 supplement called “Osteoblast”. The supplement comprises 500 mg elemental calcium and 500 IU of cholecalciferol. The dosing regimen comprised a loading dose of 1000 IU of cholecalciferol per day for one month (two tablets and thereafter a maintenance dose of 500 IU of cholecalciferol per day for 2 months (one tablet.Outcome measure: Serum was collected for calcium, 25 hydroxyvitamin D3 (25OHD3, and PTH measurements, as well as early morning 2-hour urine calcium/creatinine excretion index (Uca/creat. Specimens were collected at baseline and after 3 months of therapy. Data are reported as mean ± 1 standard error and 95% confi dence intervals.Results: Data was available for the 21 subjects who completed the study. Two subjects (9% withdrew because of gastrointestinal intolerance. There were 3 subjects with moderate (12.5–24 nmol/L and 18 with mild (25–49 nmol/L vitamin D deficiency. Ten subjects (48% had secondary hyperparathyroidism. Following the oral Ca-D3 combination, serum 25OHD3 levels normalised in all subjects with 18 (86% subjects achieving values of greater than 70 nmol/L. Serum 25OHD3 levels increased from 36 (31–41 to 91 (79–102 nmol/L (p = 0.0001, increasing by an average of 152% over the 3-month period. There was a corresponding 38% decrease in serum PTH concentrations at 3 months (5.1 + 0.6 pmol/L, compared with baseline (8.0 + 1 pmol/L (p = 0.001. No subject developed hypercalcemia, but an elevated Uca/creat excretion index occurred in one subjects.Conclusions: A combined oral Ca-D3 product

  7. Toward a new concept of "natural balance" in oral estroprogestin contraception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chabbert-Buffet, Nathalie; Gerris, Jan; Jamin, Christian; Lello, Stefano; Lete, Inaki; Lobo, Paloma; Nappi, Rossella E; Pintiaux, Axelle

    2013-10-01

    The Pill has undergone many changes since its first appearance some 50 years ago. Key developments included the reduction of ethinylestradiol doses and the synthesis of new progestins in order to increase safety, compliance and efficiency. Low-dose combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are currently the preferred option for millions of women. Due to this widespread use, it has been argued that the safety of COCs should be even better, raising the threshold for excellence. Yet in spite of major improvements, there is still an associated risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE). The next step in COCs' evolution should take total estrogenicity and hepatic estro-androgenic balance into account. The focus on the estrogen component--which has not changed in 50 years--has yielded a new class of natural estrogen pills. Following the introduction of a first quadriphasic pill, a monophasic estradiol pill based on the concept of "natural balance" was subsequently made available. These recent achievements could represent a step forward in the evolution of COCs and pave the way for better safety.

  8. Extended-cycle oral contraceptive pills with 10 microg ethinyl estradiol pills in place of placebo pills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Anita L

    2007-09-01

    The elimination of monthly withdrawal bleeding with use of extended-cycle (84 pills) monophasic birth-control pills has modernized oral contraceptives. The use of ethinyl estradiol 10 microg pills in place of the seven placebo pills addresses the problems posed by 21/7 formulations of low-dose birth-control pills, which allow early stimulation of ovarian follicles, and of the early 84/7 formulations, which had higher rates of unscheduled bleeding and spotting.

  9. Bleeding pattern and cycle control with estetrol-containing combined oral contraceptives: results from a phase II, randomised, dose-finding study (FIESTA).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apter, Dan; Zimmerman, Yvette; Beekman, Louise; Mawet, Marie; Maillard, Catherine; Foidart, Jean-Michel; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J T

    2016-10-01

    This study aims to assess vaginal bleeding patterns and cycle control of oral contraceptives containing estetrol (E4) combined with either drospirenone (DRSP) or levonorgestrel (LNG). An open-label, multicentre, randomised, dose-finding study lasting six cycles in healthy women aged 18-35 years was used. Four treatments (15 mg or 20 mg E4, combined with either 3 mg DRSP or 150 mcg LNG) were administered in a 24/4-day regimen. A marketed dosing regimen of estradiol valerate with dienogest (E2V/DNG) served as reference since it contains (like E4) a natural oestrogen. A total of 396 women were randomised, of whom 389 received study medication, and 316 completed the study. By cycle 6, the frequencies of unscheduled bleeding and/or spotting and absence of withdrawal bleeding were the lowest in the 15 mg E4/DRSP group (33.8% and 3.5%, respectively). In the E2V/DNG reference group, these frequencies were 47.8% and 27.1%, respectively. By cycle 6, the frequency of women with absence of withdrawal bleeding was <20% for all E4 treatment groups: 3.5-3.8% combined with DRSP and 14.0-18.5% combined with LNG. By cycle 6, unscheduled intracyclic bleeding was reported by <20% of women in the 20 mg E4/LNG group (18.9%) and in the 15 mg E4/DRSP group (16.9%). This study showed that, of the four treatment modalities investigated, the 15 mg E4/DRSP combination has the most favourable bleeding pattern and cycle control. Due to its favourable bleeding pattern and cycle control, the 15 mg E4/DRSP combination is the preferred combination for further phase III clinical development. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Efficacy of Combination Chemotherapy Using a Novel Oral Chemotherapeutic Agent, TAS-102, with Oxaliplatin on Human Colorectal and Gastric Cancer Xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukatsuka, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Fumio; Takechi, Teiji

    2015-09-01

    TAS-102 is a novel oral nucleoside antitumor agent consisting of trifluridine (FTD) and the thymidine phosphorylase inhibitor tipiracil hydrochloride (at a molar ratio of 1:0.5) that was approved in Japan in 2014 for the treatment of unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer. In the present study, the enhancement of therapeutic efficacy using a combination of TAS-102 and oxaliplatin was evaluated in a xenograft-bearing nude mouse model of colorectal and gastric cancer. TAS-102 was orally administered twice-a-day from day 1 to 14, and oxaliplatin was administered intravenously on days 1 and 8. The in vivo growth-inhibitory activity was evaluated based on the tumor volume and the growth-delay period, was estimated based on the period required to reach a tumor volume five-times greater than the initial volume (RTV5). The tumor growth-inhibitory activity and RTV5 in mice administered TAS-102 with oxaliplatin were significantly superior to those associated with either monotherapy in mice with colorectal (HCT 116, SW-48; p<0.001) and gastric cancer (SC-2, MKN74; p<0.001). MKN74/5FU, a 5-fluorouracil-resistant MKN74 sub-line, was sensitive to both FTD and oxaliplatin in vitro. In vivo, TAS-102 alone was effective in MKN74/5FU, and its anti-tumor activity was significantly enhanced in combination with oxaliplatin (p<0.001). No significant decrease in body weight or toxicity was observed compared to either monotherapy. The present pre-clinical findings indicate that combination of TAS-102 and oxaliplatin is a promising treatment option for colorectal or gastric cancer, and can be utilized in both chemo-naïve tumors and recurrent tumors after 5-fluorouracil treatment. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  11. Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium Monophasic Variant 4,12:i:- Isolated from Asymptomatic Wildlife in a Catalonian Wildlife Rehabilitation Center, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molina-López, Rafael A; Vidal, Anna; Obón, Elena; Martín, Marga; Darwich, Laila

    2015-07-01

    Wildlife can act as long-term asymptomatic reservoirs for zoonotic bacteria, such as Salmonella. The prevalence and antimicrobial-susceptibility profiles of Salmonella spp. were assessed in 263 cases in wildlife from 22 animal orders from a wildlife rehabilitation center in Catalonia (NE Spain), September 2013-May 2014. Eleven of 263 tested animals were positive for Salmonella spp., representing an overall prevalence of 4.2%. Prevalences by taxonomic categories were 2% in mammals, 4.7% in birds, and 4.5% in reptiles. By species, one each of European hedgehog (Erinaceus europeus; from a sample of n = 26), Eurasian Eagle Owl (Bubo bubo; n = 2), Barn Owl (Tyto alba; n = 3), Tawny Owl (Strix aluco; n = 20), Egyptian Vulture (Neophron percnopterus; n = 1), Griffon Vulture (Gyps fulvus; n = 1), and Hoopoe (Upupa epops; n = 2), and two each Common Kestrels (Falco tinnunculus; n = 16) and pond sliders (Trachemys scripta; n = 25) were positive for Salmonella. By serotyping, seven of eleven isolates were classified as S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium, and five of seven belonged to the monophasic variant 4,12:i:-. All the monophasic variants were isolated from birds (4/5 in raptors) and showed a multidrug-resistance (MDR) profile to at least ampicillin, streptomycin, sulfonamide, and tetracycline (R-type ASSuT), and up to 12 antibiotics. The large proportion of S. Typhimurium monophasic MDR strains detected in wildlife never treated with antibiotics, especially in raptors, adds more complexity to the epidemiologic control of one of the most frequent serovars involved in human and livestock infection.

  12. A microbiological evaluation of the use of denture cleansers in combination with an oral rinse in complete denture patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasan Murali

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim : Patients with complete dentures more occasionally neglect their denture and oral health by improper maintenance of dentures, resulting in bad oral and denture hygiene. This may lead to a host of multiple local and systemic problems such as stomatitis, bacterial and fungal infections, reservoirs for distant infections, denture stains and bad breath. Most denture wearers maintain their dentures with simple manual cleansing methods, which are not adequate to effectively sanitize the reservoir of microorganisms inhabiting the denture surfaces. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of the use of a denture cleanser and compare it with an adjunct use of chlorhexidine mouth rinse along with the denture cleanser and possibly suggest it as a suitable protocol. Materials and Methods : Two groups of complete denture patients were selected for the study. The total number of patients in each group was 12 and the total period of the study was 21 days. Three sets of microbiological samples were collected from each patient: before the start of the study, on day 8 and on day 21 of the study. The first sample was collected after an initial washover period (7 days with plain water before the start of the study and the second set after 1 week of study initiation, where group-1 followed protocol-I (denture cleanser only and group-2 followed protocol-II (denture cleanser and mouth rinse. A second washout period of 7 days followed and a crossover of the protocol was performed for the groups and followed for 1 week. Then, a third set of samples were collected. The colony-forming units were calculated for each patient for each sample and statistically analyzed. Friedman test for non-parametric analysis was employed for the comparison within the groups and a Mann-Whitney test was used for the statistical comparison between the groups. Results : There was a definite reduction in the bacterial numbers and a significant statistical difference

  13. A phase I and pharmacokinetics study of intravenous calcitriol in combination with oral dexamethasone and gefitinib in patients with advanced solid tumors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muindi, Josephia R.; Johnson, Candace S.; Trump, Donald L.; Christy, Renee; Engler, Kristie L.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose The primary objective of this study was to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of intravenously (i.v.) calcitriol administered in combination with a fixed oral dose of dexamethasone and gefitinib in patients with refractory solid tumors. Methods A fixed oral dose of dexamethasone of 4 mg/day was given every 12 h × 3 doses starting 12 h prior to i.v. calcitriol administration. Calcitriol was administered i.v. over 1 h on weeks 1, 3, and weekly thereafter. The starting calcitriol dose level was 57 μg and escalation occurred in cohorts of three patients until the MTD was defined. Gefitinib was given at a fixed oral daily dose of 250 mg starting at week 2 (day 8). Serum calcitriol PK studies were performed on day 1 (calcitriol + dexamethasone) and on day 15 (calcitriol + dexamethasone + gefitinib). Results A total of 20 patients were treated. Dose-limiting hypercalcemia was observed in two out of the four patients receiving 163 mcg/week of calcitriol. Mean (±SE) peak serum calcitriol concentration (Cmax) at the MTD (125 μg/week calcitriol) was 11.17 ± 2.62 ng/ml and the systemic exposure (AUC0–72 h) of 53.30 ± 10.49 ng h/ml. The relationship between calcitriol dose and either Cmax or AUC was linear over the 57–163 μg dose range. Conclusions The addition of a low dose of dexamethasone allowed the safe escalation of calcitriol to the MTD of 125 μg/week. This dose level resulted in serum calcitriol concentrations that are associated with pre-clinical antitumor activity. However, no antitumor activity was noted clinically in patients with solid tumors. PMID:19396601

  14. Therapeutic drug monitoring for either oral or intravenous busulfan when combined with pre- and post-transplantation cyclophosphamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lombardi, Lindsey R; Kanakry, Christopher G; Zahurak, Marianna; Durakovic, Nadira; Bolaños-Meade, Javier; Kasamon, Yvette L; Gladstone, Douglas E; Matsui, William; Borrello, Ivan; Huff, Carol Ann; Swinnen, Lode J; Brodsky, Robert A; Ambinder, Richard F; Fuchs, Ephraim J; Rosner, Gary L; Jones, Richard J; Luznik, Leo

    2016-01-01

    Busulfan (Bu)/cyclophosphamide (Cy) is a standard conditioning platform for allogeneic transplantation. We developed a strategy separating the Cy into two pre/post-transplantation doses (PTCy), providing myeloablative conditioning and single-agent graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis. We investigated the impact of Bu route on treatment-related toxicity for 131 consecutive adult patients. Busulfan was administered in four daily divided doses either orally (n = 72) or intravenously (n = 59) with pharmacokinetics on the first-dose and as necessary on subsequent doses to achieve a target area-under-the-concentration-curve (AUC) of 800-1400 μmol*min/L per dose. BuCy/PTCy with pharmacokinetics is well-tolerated with low treatment-related toxicity. Hepatic veno-occlusive disease incidence was 6% with two fatal events. Bu administration route in the context of BuCy/PTCy did not statistically impact hepatotoxicity, GVHD, relapse, disease-free survival, or overall survival. The BuCy/PTCy platform has a low incidence of treatment-related toxicity, including hepatotoxicity, in hematologic malignancies when using pharmacokinetics for a target AUC of 800-1400 μmol*min/L, irrespective of Bu administration route.

  15. Comparison of the impact of vaginal and oral administration of combined hormonal contraceptives on hepatic proteins sensitive to estrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitruk-Ware, R.L.; Menard, J.; Rad, M.; Burggraaf, J.; Kam, M.L.de; Tokay, B.A.; Sivin, I.; Kluft, C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effects of a new combined hormonal contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) delivering the nonandrogenic progestin Nestorone® (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) on several key estrogen-sensitive hepatic proteins that may be markers for the risk of arterial or venous disease events

  16. Combined treatment with oral finasteride and topical minoxidil in male androgenetic alopecia: a randomized and comparative study in Chinese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ruiming; Xu, Feng; Sheng, Youyu; Qi, Sisi; Han, Yumei; Miao, Ying; Rui, Wenlong; Yang, Qinping

    2015-01-01

    Finasteride at 1 mg/day and 5% topical minoxidil are effective in male androgenetic alopecia (MAGA). However, studies describing their effects in Chinese individuals are scarce. 450 Chinese MAGA patients were randomly assigned to receive finasteride (n = 160), minoxidil (n = 130) and combined medication (n = 160) for 12 months. The patients returned to the clinic every 3 months for efficacy evaluation. And efficacy was evaluated in 428 men at treatment end, including 154, 122, and 152 in the finasteride, 5% minoxidil, and combination groups, respectively. All groups showed similar baseline characteristics, including age at enrollment, and duration and severity of alopecia (p > 0.05). At 12 months, 80.5, 59, and 94.1% men treated with finasteride, 5% minoxidil and the combination therapy showed improvement, respectively. Adverse reactions were rare (finasteride, 1.8%; minoxidil, 6.1%), and disappeared right after drug withdrawal. In conclusion, finasteride is superior to 5% minoxidil, while the combined medication showed the best efficacy. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Comparison of the impact of vaginal and oral administration of combined hormonal contraceptives on hepatic proteins sensitive to estrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sitruk-Ware, R.L.; Menard, J.; Rad, M.; Burggraaf, J.; Kam, M.L.de; Tokay, B.A.; Sivin, I.; Kluft, C.

    2007-01-01

    Objective: We evaluated the effects of a new combined hormonal contraceptive vaginal ring (CVR) delivering the nonandrogenic progestin Nestorone® (NES) and ethinyl estradiol (EE) on several key estrogen-sensitive hepatic proteins that may be markers for the risk of arterial or venous disease events

  18. Evaluating misoprostol content in pregnant women with hourly oral administration during labor induction by microElution solid phase extraction combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Cheng-Han; Cheng, Shi-Yann; Chan, Tzu-Min; Lee, Maw-Rong

    2015-09-01

    Misoprostol is a widely used alternative of prostaglandin for labor induction. Based on previous studies, we envision that small and frequent oral dosage of misoprostol is an effective method for labor induction. To monitor the misoprostol content during labor induction, a rapid, sensitive, and selective microElution solid phase extraction (μElution SPE) combined with liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was developed. Using μElution SPE could minimize the sample consumption and elution volume in order to maximize the sample enrichment and throughput. The misoprostol acid, a metabolite of misoprostol, was gradient separated in a Bidentate C18 column, then quantified by highly-selective reaction monitoring (H-SRM) in a total run time of 6min. The developed method was optimized and validated in human plasma, and showed linear range of 0.01-10ng/mL. The limit of detection (LOD) was 0.001ng/mL. The recovery ranged from 89.0 to 96.0%, and no significant matrix effect or carryover was observed. The precision, accuracy and stability were met with the criteria of U.S. FDA guidance. The developed method was successfully applied to evaluate misoprostol concentration during labor induction in pregnant women. The concentration-time profiles approves that hourly oral administration of misoprostol is a safe and effective method without drug accumulation for labor induction.

  19. Therapeutic, prophylactic, untoward, and contraceptive effects of combined oral contraceptives: catholic teaching, natural law, and the principle of double effect when deciding to prescribe and use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Murray Joseph; Salzman, Todd A

    2014-01-01

    Combined oral contraceptives (COC) have been demonstrated to have significant benefits for the treatment and prevention of disease. These medications also are associated with untoward health effects, and they may be directly contraceptive. Prescribers and users must compare and weigh the intended beneficial health effects against foreseeable but unintended possible adverse effects in their decisions to prescribe and use. Additionally, those who intend to abide by Catholic teachings must consider prohibitions against contraception. Ethical judgments concerning both health benefits and contraception are approached in this essay through an overview of the therapeutic, prophylactic, untoward, and contraceptive effects of COC and discussion of magisterial and traditional Catholic teachings from natural law. Discerning through the principle of double effect, proportionate reason, and evidence gathered from the sciences, medical and moral conclusions are drawn that we believe to be fully compliant with good medicine and Catholic teaching.

  20. The relevance of the pharmacologic properties of a progestational agent to its clinical effects as a combination oral contraceptive.

    OpenAIRE

    Upton, G. V.; Corbin, A

    1989-01-01

    Levonorgestrel (LNg) is known for its marked progestational/contraceptive activity. As shown in animal experiments, however, high doses of LNg are required to elicit an androgenic response; in contrast, considerably lower doses of LNg are required for antiovulatory (contraceptive) action. Thus, a large dose separation exists between androgenic and contraceptive activity. When LNg is combined with an estrogen, as in the contraceptive formulations, the androgenic response is attenuated or negat...

  1. Pro-Arrhythmic Potential of Oral Antihistamines (H1): Combining Adverse Event Reports with Drug Utilization Data across Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Elisabetta Poluzzi; Emanuel Raschi; Brian Godman; Ariola Koci; Ugo Moretti; Marija Kalaba; Bjorn Wettermark; Miriam Sturkenboom; Fabrizio De Ponti

    2015-01-01

    textabstractBackground: There is appreciable utilisation of antihistamines (H1) in European countries, either prescribed by physician and purchased by patients for self-medication. Terfenadine and astemizole underwent regulatory restrictions in '90 because of their cardiac toxicity, but only scarce clinical data are available on other antihistamines. Aim: To investigate the pro-arrhythmic potential of antihistamines by combining safety reports of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS)...

  2. Effect on morphology, oxidative stress and energy metabolism enzymes in the testes of mice after a 13-week oral administration of melamine and cyanuric acid combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lv, Yingjun; Liu, Zhijun; Tian, Yujie; Chen, Hongbo

    2013-03-01

    Cases of pet poisoning and infant renal calculus have attracted much attention to the toxicity of melamine and its derivatives, such as cyanuric acid. Although individually melamine and cyanuric acid have low toxicity, their simultaneous presence can cause severe damage. Little is known about their adverse effects on the reproductive system. In this study, mice were orally administrated 1, 5 or 25 mg/kg/d of both melamine and cyanuric acid for 13 weeks. Lethargy, rough hair, and reduction of food and water intake and of body and testis weight were found after exposure to the combination, and pathological changes were found in the morphology of the testes, such as disruption of the seminiferous tubule structure, decrease of the spermatogenic cell series and coagulation necrosis. Total antioxidant capacity and superoxide dismutase activities and glutathione concentration was lower and malondialdehyde concentration was higher than in control mice. The activities of malate dehydrogenase, lactate dehydrogenase and Na(+)/K(+)-ATPase were also lower in combination treated mice than in control mice. These results indicate that the combined exposure to both melamine and cyanuric acid damaged testes in mice by either a direct or indirect effect, which may be related to renal failure and secondary anorexia. Oxidative stress and lower energy production levels both contributed to the testicular damage.

  3. Clinical Study on Effect of Shenlong Oral Liquid (神龙口服液)Combined with Radiotherapy in Treating Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱小东; 王安宇; 王绍丰; 王仁生; 陈龙; 李龄; 陆海杰

    2001-01-01

    To observe the effect of Shenlong Oral Liquid(SLOL)combined with radiotherapy in treating nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). Methods: Effects of the combined therapy, including clinical effects, changes of cellular immunity and side effects, in treating 60 NPC patients (in the treated group) were observed and compared with those of the other 60 patients treated with radiotherapy alone (in the control group). Results: (1)The side effects of radiation in the treated group were lower than those in the control group significantly (P<0.05). (2) The short-term remission rate of nasopharyngeal and neck metastatic tumor in the two groups was not significantly different (P>0.05). (3) The dose for complete remission of nasopharyngeal and neck tumor in the treated group was lower than that in the control group (P<0.01). (4) No change of T-lymphocyte subsets was found in the treated group after treatment, but in the control group , OKT3,OKT4,and OKT4/OKT8 ratio were markedly decreased (P<0.05). (5) The survival rate in the treated group was higher than that in the control group, but with no statistical significance (P=0.0518). Conclusion: The combined therapy of NPC with SLOL and radiotherapy is able to reduce side-effect of radiotherapy, improve the cellular immunity, reduce the dose of radiation for tumor remission and enhance the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy. It showed a trend of raising the long-term survival rate of NPC patients.

  4. [Effect of nebulised iloprost combined with inhaled nitric oxide and oral sildenafil on lung transplant patients. Therapeutic efficacy in pulmonary hypertension during surgery].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabanal Llevot, J M; Cimadevilla Calvo, B; Cifrian Martinez, J M; Ruisanchez Villar, C; Mons Lera, R

    2012-03-01

    There is a high incidence of pulmonary hypertension during the lung transplant peri-operative period, and could lead to a haemodynamic deterioration that may require the need of extracorporeal circulation. Our aim was to study the haemodynamic effects on the pulmonary and systemic circulation of the combination of inhaled nitric oxide and iloprost and oral sildenafil in patients with severe pulmonary hypertension during lung transplant surgery. Seventeen patients received 10μg of nebulised iloprost during the peri-operative period of the lung transplant when their mean pulmonary pressure exceeded 50mmHg. AU the patients received 50mg of oral sildenafil 30min before anaesthetic induction, 20ppm of inhaled nitric oxide after tracheal intubation. The haemodynamic and respiratory variables were recorded at baseline (after anaesthetic induction), prior to the administering of iloprost, and at 5 and 30min after it was given. The administering of iloprost significantly reduced the pulmonary arterial pressure and significantly increases the cardiac Índex and the right ventrícular ejection fractíon. There were no signíficant changes occurred in the systemic arterial pressure. The triple combination significantly reduces the pulmonary pressures in the lung transplant peri-operative and should be considered when there is severe pulmonary hypertension during the surgery or during the immediate post-operative period of lung transplantation. Copyright © 2010 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Published by Elsevier España.. All rights reserved.

  5. Efficacy of combination chemotherapy using a novel oral chemotherapeutic agent, TAS-102, with irinotecan hydrochloride on human colorectal and gastric cancer xenografts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nukatsuka, Mamoru; Nakagawa, Fumio; Saito, Hitoshi; Sakata, Minoru; Uchida, Junji; Takechi, Teiji

    2015-03-01

    TAS-102 is a novel oral nucleoside antitumor agent consisting of trifluridine and tipiracil hydrochloride at a molar ratio of 1:0.5. TAS-102 was approved in Japan in March 2014 for the treatment of patients with unresectable, advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer that is refractory to standard therapies. In the present study, enhancement of the therapeutic efficacy using a combination therapy of TAS-102 and irinotecan hydrochloride (CPT-11) was evaluated in a colorectal and gastric cancer xenograft-bearing nude mouse model. TAS-102 was orally administered twice a day from day 1 to 14, and CPT-11 was administered intravenously on days 1 and 8. The growth-inhibitory activity was evaluated based on the tumor volume and the growth-delay period, which was estimated based on the period required to reach a tumor volume that was five-times greater than the initial volume (RTV5). The tumor growth-inhibitory activity and the RTV5 of the group receiving TAS-102 with CPT-11 were significantly superior to those of both agents as monotherapy for mice with KM12C, KM12C/5-FU, DLD-1/5-FU, and SC-2 xenografts (p<0.01). No significant decrease in body weight was observed. The present pre-clinical findings indicated that the combination of TAS-102 and CPT-11 is a promising treatment option for colorectal or gastric cancer, not only for chemo-naïve tumors, but also for recurrent tumors after 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)-based chemotherapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of the Effect of Combination of Triamcinolone Acetonide and Vitamin A Mouthwash with Triamcinolone Mouthwash Alone on Oral Lichen Planus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Dalirsani

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. Lichen planus is a relatively common mucocutaneous disease, with an unknown etiology. There is no complete cure for oral lichen planus (OLP, but some drugs, including corticosteroids, retinoids, cyclosporine and antibiotics are commonly used for treatment of OLP. The aim of the present study was to compare the effect of combination of triamcinolone and vitamin A mouthwash with triamcinolone mouthwash alone on OLP. Materials and methods. Twenty OLP patients were randomly divided into two groups of 10. The experimental group was treated with combination of triamcinolone and vitamin A mouthwash and the control group was treated with triamcinolone-containing mouthwash alone. The patients were examined once every two weeks and the lesion size, pain and burning sensation were recorded based on visual analogue scale during a two-month period. Data were analyzed by MannWhitney U test using SPSS software. Results. The use of combination of triamcinolone-vitamin A mouthwash was effective in decreasing the pain and burning sensation of OLP (P = 0.012. Decrease in pain and burning sensation were similar in both groups (P = 0.73. The use of combination of triamcinolone-vitamin A mouthwash led to a decrease in the size of keratotic, atrophic and erosive OLP lesions (P = 0. Decrease in the size of the lesions was significantly greater in the study group compared to the control group (P = 0.029. Conclusion. The use of combination of triamcinolone-vitamin A mouthwash is effective in decreasing the size of keratotic, atrophic or erosive lesions.

  7. Analgesic efficacy of an oral transmucosal spray formulation of meloxicam alone or in combination with tramadol in cats with naturally occurring osteoarthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Beatriz P; Klinck, Mary P; Moreau, Maxim; Guillot, Martin; Steagall, Paulo Vm; Edge, Daniel K; Pelletier, Jean-Pierre; Martel-Pelletier, Johanne; Gauvin, Dominique; Del Castillo, Jérôme Re; Troncy, Eric

    2016-11-01

    To evaluate the analgesic efficacy of meloxicam oral transmucosal spray (OTMS) alone and with tramadol in cats with osteoarthritis (OA). Randomized, blinded study. Fifteen geriatric cats weighing 4.5 ± 1.0 kg. Healthy cats with OA were randomly administered a placebo (every 12 hours orally) and meloxicam OTMS (approximately 0.05 mg kg(-1) every 24 hours) (group M, n = 7), or tramadol (3 mg kg(-1) every 12 hours orally) and meloxicam OTMS (group TM, n = 8) for 25 days. Evaluations performed before treatment (D0) and at week 3 (W3) consisted of peak vertical force, motor activity and response to mechanical temporal summation of pain (RMTS). Data were analyzed with mixed models and Fisher's exact test. Mean ± standard deviation peak vertical force (percentage of body weight) increased significantly in both groups (p = 0.02), from 47.7 ± 6.5% to 60.5 ± 9.4% in group M, and from 51.8 ± 5.0% to 64.1 ± 6.5% in group TM, with no difference between groups. Motor activity increased in M (from 43 ± 12 to 56 ± 13; p = 0.02), but not in TM. The number of stimulations from RMTS increased in TM only. Cut-off values were reached in a larger number of cats (n = 5) in TM than M (n = 1) (p tramadol-meloxicam combination provided no evident benefit over meloxicam alone, except for central hypersensitivity (assessed with RMTS). Further assessment of the potential toxicity of the combination is required prior to clinical use. Gingival administration was well accepted overall. © 2016 Association of Veterinary Anaesthetists and the American College of Veterinary Anesthesia and Analgesia.

  8. Low dose oestrogen combined oral contraception and risk of pulmonary embolism, stroke, and myocardial infarction in five million French women: cohort study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalichampt, Marie; Raguideau, Fanny; Ricordeau, Philippe; Blotière, Pierre-Olivier; Rudant, Jérémie; Alla, François; Zureik, Mahmoud

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the risk of pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction associated with combined oral contraceptives according to dose of oestrogen (ethinylestradiol) and progestogen. Design Observational cohort study. Setting Data from the French national health insurance database linked with data from the French national hospital discharge database. Participants 4 945 088 women aged 15-49 years, living in France, with at least one reimbursement for oral contraceptives and no previous hospital admission for cancer, pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, or myocardial infarction, between July 2010 and September 2012. Main outcome measures Relative and absolute risks of first pulmonary embolism, ischaemic stroke, and myocardial infarction. Results The cohort generated 5 443 916 women years of oral contraceptive use, and 3253 events were observed: 1800 pulmonary embolisms (33 per 100 000 women years), 1046 ischaemic strokes (19 per 100 000 women years), and 407 myocardial infarctions (7 per 100 000 women years). After adjustment for progestogen and risk factors, the relative risks for women using low dose oestrogen (20 µg v 30-40 µg) were 0.75 (95% confidence interval 0.67 to 0.85) for pulmonary embolism, 0.82 (0.70 to 0.96) for ischaemic stroke, and 0.56 (0.39 to 0.79) for myocardial infarction. After adjustment for oestrogen dose and risk factors, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher relative risks for pulmonary embolism (2.16, 1.93 to 2.41 and 1.63, 1.34 to 1.97, respectively) compared with levonorgestrel. Levonorgestrel combined with 20 µg oestrogen was associated with a statistically significantly lower risk than levonorgestrel with 30-40 µg oestrogen for each of the three serious adverse events. Conclusions For the same dose of oestrogen, desogestrel and gestodene were associated with statistically significantly higher risks of pulmonary embolism but not arterial

  9. [Metrorrhagia caused by estrogen-progestin combinations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erny, R; Erny, N

    1994-02-01

    Changes in combined oral contraceptives (OCs) include reduction in the estrogen and progestogen dose and recourse to the third generation, less androgenic progestogens. They retain the efficacy and convenience of OCs while reducing the metabolic and cardiovascular effects and the need to identify contraindications and subjects at risk. OCs sometimes cause menstrual cycle problems: spotting and intercurrent bleeding or bleeding at any time other than menstruation (metrorrhagia). OCs cause loose and edematous stroma in the endometrium where glands maintain a proliferative-like phase throughout the cycle. Many dilated capillaries with hyperplasia of the endothelial cells rise to the surface. Forgetting or failure to take OC pills are often responsible for intercurrent bleeding. It is hard to determine what OCs cause less bleeding than other OCs. The third generation progestogen, gestodene, appears to have better cycle control than the two other third generation progestogens (desogestrel and norgestimate). It is not clear whether triphasic OCs with second generation progestogens are better than monophasic third generation OCs. The OC with low dose ethinyl estradiol (20 mcg) (Mercilon) has as low a bleeding rate as does the OC, Varnoline (30 mcg). Menstrual cycle disturbances rarely happen. Providers must emphasize to new OC users the possibility of spotting or intercurrent bleeding, especially during the first cycle. Providers must also inform them that these disturbances do not affect the effectiveness of the OCs and that they should not stop taking OCs if they are concerned about bleeding. Providers must instruct them what to do if they forget to take a pill(s). Providers should schedule an appointment after a new OC user has completed the third OC packet. They should do a gynecologic exam to search for a genital infection, endo-uterine polyp or fibroma, and hyperplasia of the endometrium. If bleeding persists during the third cycle, the client should change

  10. Evaluation of efficacy and safety of oral olmesartan + chlorthalidone combination in the management of hypertension in Indian patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Bramhabhatt

    2015-06-01

    Results: There was significant decrease (P 60 years and <60 years achieved the Joint National Committee (JNC VIII recommended goal respectively. (<150/90 for elder patients aged above 60 year and 140/90 for those aged less than 60 years. Conclusion: Thus fixed dose combination therapy of olmesartan and chlorthalidone has been shown to be excellent in efficacy and tolerability and gives another option for the optimal management of hypertension. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(3.000: 640-644

  11. Determination of the residue levels of nicarbazin and combination nicarbazin-narasin in broiler chickens after oral administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Silva, Guilherme Resende; de Assis, Débora Cristina Sampaio; Cançado, Silvana de Vasconcelos

    2017-01-01

    The depletion times of the anticoccidial nicarbazin administered individually and of nicarbazin and narasin administered in combination were evaluated by determining the presence and levels of 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC), the marker residue for nicarbazin, and narasin residues in the muscle tissues of broiler chickens subjected to a pharmacological treatment. A high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method was used. The results showed the presence of all anticoccidial residues; however, the DNC levels were higher when the nicarbazin was administered individually than when it was used in association with narasin throughout the experimental period. After six days of withdrawal, the DNC level following nicarbazin administration alone was lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) of 200 μg kg-1. However, when the nicarbazin was co-administered with narasin, the concentrations of DNC were lower than the MRL after four days of withdrawal. These results may be justified because the dosage of nicarbazin, when administrated individually, is greater than when it is used in combination with narasin. The levels of narasin were lower than the MRL of 15 μg kg-1 throughout the evaluation period. It was concluded that nicarbazin is rapidly metabolized from the broiler muscles up to six days of withdrawal since the DNC levels were lower than the maximum residue level (MRL) and the concentrations of narasin were lower than the MRL throughout the evaluation period. PMID:28750013

  12. Improvement of Therapeutic Efficacy of Oral Immunotherapy in Combination with Regulatory T Cell-Inducer Kakkonto in a Murine Food Allergy Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Yuka; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Hayashi, Michie; Hayashi, Shusaku; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2017-01-01

    Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been considered a promising approach for food allergies (FAs). However, the current OIT strategy is limited in terms of the long-term efficacy and safety. We have previously demonstrated that kakkonto, a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, suppresses the occurrence of allergic symptoms in a murine model of ovalbumin (OVA)-induced FA, which is attributed to the induction of the Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells. In this study, we established an OIT model using the FA mice with already established allergic symptoms and determined whether kakkonto could improve the efficacy of OIT. The OIT method consisted of initially administrating a very small amount of OVA and slowly increasing the amount. Allergic symptoms decreased in the OIT-treated FA mice. OIT significantly downregulated Th2 immune response-related gene expression in the FA mouse colon, and decreased the level of mouse mast cell protease-1, a marker of mast cell degranulation in the FA mouse plasma. Moreover, the concomitant use of kakkonto significantly enhanced the effectiveness of OIT on the allergic symptoms, and the combination therapy further suppressed the Th2 immune responses and the mast cell degranulation. In addition, OIT significantly increased the population of Foxp3+ CD4+ regulatory T cells in the FA mouse colon, and this population was further increased by OIT in combination with kakkonto. Furthermore, the combined therapy with kakkonto reduced the expression of RA-degrading enzyme CYP26B1 mRNA in the FA mouse colon. These findings indicated that the combination of OIT with kakkonto represents a promising approach for FA treatment. PMID:28107533

  13. An exploratory study of the combined effects of orally administered methylphenidate and delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) on cardiovascular function, subjective effects, and performance in healthy adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kollins, Scott H; Schoenfelder, Erin N; English, Joseph S; Holdaway, Alex; Van Voorhees, Elizabeth; O'Brien, Benjamin R; Dew, Rachel; Chrisman, Allan K

    2015-01-01

    Methylphenidate (MPH) is commonly prescribed for the treatment of Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), and is often used illicitly by young adults. Illicit users often coadminister MPH with marijuana. Little is known about physiologic and subjective effects of these substances used in combination. In this double-blind, cross-over experiment, sixteen healthy adult subjects free from psychiatric illness (including ADHD) and reporting modest levels of marijuana use participated in 6 experimental sessions wherein all combinations of placebo or 10mg oral doses of delta-9-tetrahydocannibinol (THC); and 0mg, 10mg and 40 mg of MPH were administered. Sessions were separated by at least 48 hours. Vital signs, subjective effects, and performance measure were collected. THC and MPH showed additive effects on heart rate and rate pressure product (e.g., peak heart rate for 10mg THC+0mg, 10mg, and 40 mg MPH=89.1, 95.9, 102.0 beats/min, respectively). Main effects of THC and MPH were also observed on a range of subjective measures of drug effects, and significant THC dose × MPH dose interactions were found on measures of "Feel Drug," "Good Effects," and "Take Drug Again." THC increased commission errors on a continuous performance test (CPT) and MPH reduced reaction time variability on this measure. Effects of THC, MPH, and their combination were variable on a measure of working memory (n-back task), though in general, MPH decreased reaction times and THC mitigated these effects. These results suggest that the combination of low to moderate doses of MPH and THC produces unique effects on cardiovascular function, subjective effects and performance measures. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of oral supplementation with glutamate or combination of glutamate and N-carbamylglutamate on intestinal mucosa morphology and epithelium cell proliferation in weanling piglets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, X; Zhang, Y; Liu, Z; Li, T J; Yin, Y L

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of glutamate (Glu) or combination of Glu and N-carbamylglutamate (NCG) on intestinal mucosa morphology and epithelium cell proliferation, 18 piglets weaned at 21 d (BW 5.56 ± 0.51 kg) were grouped into 3 treatments and fed one of the following diets for 20 d: a standard diet (SD), SD+Glu(1%), or SD+Glu(1%)+NCG(0.05%). All the piglets were killed for intestinal mucosa collection, and real-time PCR was used to detect mRNA abundance of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and β-catenin. The results showed that compared with the control group, adding Glu or Glu+NCG to the diet resulted in a higher villus height and mucosal thickness (P < 0.05) in the jejunum. However, the villus height/crypt depth ratio was unaltered. The RT-PCR results showed that Glu+NCG significantly increased PCNA mRNA abundance in both jejunum and ileum (P < 0.05), while they also significantly increased β-catenin and VEGF mRNA abundance in ileum (P < 0.05). Only Glu increased PCNA mRNA abundance in the jejunum (P < 0.05) and β-catenin mRNA in the jejunum (P < 0.05). These results indicated that oral supply of Glu improved intestinal mucosa morphology, and combined Glu and NCG may have favorable effects on intestinal epithelium cell proliferation than Glu alone.

  15. A combination of hand-held models and computer imaging programs helps students answer oral questions about molecular structure and function: a controlled investigation of student learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, Michelle A; Peck, Ronald F; Colton, Shannon; Morris, Jennifer; Chaibub Neto, Elias; Kallio, Julie

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a controlled investigation to examine whether a combination of computer imagery and tactile tools helps introductory cell biology laboratory undergraduate students better learn about protein structure/function relationships as compared with computer imagery alone. In all five laboratory sections, students used the molecular imaging program, Protein Explorer (PE). In the three experimental sections, three-dimensional physical models were made available to the students, in addition to PE. Student learning was assessed via oral and written research summaries and videotaped interviews. Differences between the experimental and control group students were not found in our typical course assessments such as research papers, but rather were revealed during one-on-one interviews with students at the end of the semester. A subset of students in the experimental group produced superior answers to some higher-order interview questions as compared with students in the control group. During the interview, students in both groups preferred to use either the hand-held models alone or in combination with the PE imaging program. Students typically did not use any tools when answering knowledge (lower-level thinking) questions, but when challenged with higher-level thinking questions, students in both the control and experimental groups elected to use the models.

  16. Combination of the oral histone deacetylase inhibitor resminostat with oncolytic measles vaccine virus as a new option for epi-virotherapeutic treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Ruf

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Epigenetic therapies such as histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi not only have the capability to decrease tumor cell proliferation and to induce tumor cell death but also to silence antiviral response genes. Here, we investigated whether the combination of an oncolytic measles vaccine virus (MeV with the novel oral HDACi resminostat (Res, being in clinical testing in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC, results in an enhanced efficacy of this epi-virotherapeutic approach compared to any of the two corresponding monotherapies. When testing a panel of human hepatoma cell lines, we found (i a significantly improved rate of primary infections when using oncolytic MeV under concurrent treatment with resminostat, (ii a boosted cytotoxic effect of the epi-virotherapeutic combination (Res + MeV with enhanced induction of apoptosis, and, quite importantly, (iii an absence of any resminostat-induced impairment of MeV replication and spread. Beyond that, we could also show that (iv resminostat, after hepatoma cell stimulation with exogenous human interferon (IFN-β, is able to prevent the induction of IFN-stimulated genes, such as IFIT-1. This finding outlines the possible impact of resminostat on cellular innate immunity, being instrumental in overcoming resistances to MeV-mediated viral oncolysis. Thus, our results support the onset of epi-virotherapeutic clinical trials in patients exhibiting advanced stages of HCC.

  17. Immunoglobulin A reaction to oral streptococci in saliva of subjects with different combinations of caries and levels of mutans streptococci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bratthall, D; Serinirach, R; Hamberg, K; Widerström, L

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study, performed in Bangkok, was to study whether a particular salivary immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibody profile against mutans streptococci could be related to the absence or presence of caries. A group of 12-year-old individuals representing various combinations of mutans streptococci levels and caries experience was selected. Whole saliva stimulated by paraffin-chewing was collected, and the children were investigated for decayed, missing and filled surfaces (DMFS) and teeth (DMFT), following WHO criteria and methods, at baseline and after 2 years. The total amount of salivary IgA was determined by an immunobead enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and SDS-PAGE and Western blot analysis was performed using sonicated antigens of Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus sobrinus strains and, as a control, a Streptococcus parasanguis strain. The results showed that Thai children with low caries prevalence had more distinct immunoblot bands to antigens from mutans streptococci than did the high-caries children. A similar picture was not seen for S. parasanguis. On the whole, the Thai children also showed fewer bands than usual Swedish saliva samples from comparable age groups. The complexity of the relationship between dental caries and IgA in saliva is highlighted.

  18. Safety of an oral anticancer agent (trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet) in patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, M; Go, M; Iwai, M; Ito, D; Asano, H; Usami, E; Teramachi, H; Yoshimura, T

    2016-04-01

    We retrospectively studied the safety of trifluridine/tipiracil combination tablet (TAS-102) monotherapy in patients with advanced and recurrent colorectal cancer. Adverse events to TAS-102 monotherapy were observed in 22 out of 23 cases (95.7%). The most frequent adverse events were neutropenia (69.6%), nausea (53.2%), and malaise (30.4%). Treatment was postponed in 54 (59.3%) out of 91 courses, and in 34 (66.7%) of these 54 courses, the delay in treatment was due to bone marrow suppression. Seven patients with peritoneal metastases suffered from nausea, whilst none of the patients without peritoneal metastases had nausea (p = 0.0139). Nausea and vomiting during a previous chemotherapy cycle was significantly associated with nausea after TAS-102 treatment (p = 0.0007), and the treatment cycles were significantly longer in patients with grade 3 or 4 neutropenia (p = 0.0061). Our results suggest that the incidence of nausea was higher in patients treated with TAS-102. Therefore, it is important to inform patients of the risk of these toxicities and to provide enhanced supportive care. Moreover, we recommend that, for patients with repeated treatment postponement due to neutropenia, the dosage should be fixed based on therapeutic efficacy and prognosis.

  19. Semaglutide, a once-weekly human GLP-1 analog, does not reduce the bioavailability of the combined oral contraceptive, ethinylestradiol/levonorgestrel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapitza, Christoph; Nosek, Leszek; Jensen, Lene; Hartvig, Helle; Jensen, Christine B; Flint, Anne

    2015-05-01

    The effect of semaglutide, a once-weekly human glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) analog in development for type 2 diabetes (T2D), on the bioavailability of a combined oral contraceptive was investigated. Postmenopausal women with T2D (n = 43) on diet/exercise ± metformin received ethinylestradiol (0.03 mg)/levonorgestrel (0.15 mg) once daily for 8 days before (semaglutide-free) and during (steady-state 1.0 mg) semaglutide treatment (subcutaneous once weekly; dose escalation: 0.25 mg 4 weeks; 0.5 mg 4 weeks; 1.0 mg 5 weeks). Bioequivalence of oral contraceptives was established if 90%CI for the ratio of pharmacokinetic parameters during semaglutide steady-state and semaglutide-free periods was within prespecified limits (0.80-1.25). The bioequivalence criterion was met for ethinylestradiol area under the curve (AUC0-24 h ) for semaglutide steady-state/semaglutide-free; 1.11 (1.06-1.15). AUC0-24 h was 20% higher for levonorgestrel at semaglutide steady-state vs. semaglutide-free (1.20 [1.15-1.26]). Cmax was within bioequivalence criterion for both contraceptives. Reductions (mean ± SD) in HbA1c (-1.1 ± 0.6%) and weight (-4.3 ± 3.1 kg) were observed. Semaglutide pharmacokinetics were compatible with once-weekly dosing; the semaglutide dose and dose-escalation regimen were well tolerated. Adverse events, mainly gastrointestinal, were mild to moderate in severity. Asymptomatic increases in mean amylase and lipase were observed. Three subjects had elevated alanine aminotransferase levels ≥3x the upper limit of normal during semaglutide/oral contraceptive coadministration, which were reported as adverse events, but resolved during follow-up. Semaglutide did not reduce the bioavailability of ethinylestradiol and levonorgestrel.

  20. Pro-arrhythmic potential of oral antihistamines (H1: combining adverse event reports with drug utilization data across Europe.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabetta Poluzzi

    Full Text Available There is appreciable utilisation of antihistamines (H1 in European countries, either prescribed by physician and purchased by patients for self-medication. Terfenadine and astemizole underwent regulatory restrictions in '90 because of their cardiac toxicity, but only scarce clinical data are available on other antihistamines.To investigate the pro-arrhythmic potential of antihistamines by combining safety reports of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS with drug utilization data from 13 European Countries.We identified signals of antihistamine arrhythmogenic potential by analyzing FAERS database for all cases of Torsades de Pointes (TdP, QT abnormalities (QTabn, ventricular arrhythmia (VA and sudden cardiac death/cardiac arrest (SCD/CA. Number of cases ≥3 and disproportionality were used to define alert signals: TdP and QTabn identified stronger signals, whereas SCD/CA identified weaker signals. Drug utilization data from 2005 to 2010 were collected from administrative databases through health authorities and insurance.Antihistamines were reported in 109 cases of TdP/QT prolongation, 278 VA and 610 SCD/CA. Five agents resulted in stronger signals (cetirizine, desloratadine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, loratadine and 6 in weaker signals (alimemazine, carbinoxamine, cyclizine, cyproeptadine, dexchlorpheniramine and doxylamine. Exposure to antihistamines with stronger signal was markedly different across European countries and was at least 40% in each Country. Cetirizine was >29 Defined Daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID in Norway, desloratadine >11 DID in France and loratadine >9 DID in Sweden and Croatia. Drugs with weaker signals accounted for no more than 10% (in Sweden and in most European countries their use was negligible.Some second-generation antihistamines are associated with signal of torsadogenicity and largely used in most European countries. Although confirmation by analytical studies is required, regulators

  1. Pro-Arrhythmic Potential of Oral Antihistamines (H1): Combining Adverse Event Reports with Drug Utilization Data across Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poluzzi, Elisabetta; Raschi, Emanuel; Godman, Brian; Koci, Ariola; Moretti, Ugo; Kalaba, Marija; Wettermark, Bjorn; Sturkenboom, Miriam; De Ponti, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background There is appreciable utilisation of antihistamines (H1) in European countries, either prescribed by physician and purchased by patients for self-medication. Terfenadine and astemizole underwent regulatory restrictions in ’90 because of their cardiac toxicity, but only scarce clinical data are available on other antihistamines. Aim To investigate the pro-arrhythmic potential of antihistamines by combining safety reports of the FDA Adverse Event Reporting System (FAERS) with drug utilization data from 13 European Countries. Methods We identified signals of antihistamine arrhythmogenic potential by analyzing FAERS database for all cases of Torsades de Pointes (TdP), QT abnormalities (QTabn), ventricular arrhythmia (VA) and sudden cardiac death/cardiac arrest (SCD/CA). Number of cases ≥3 and disproportionality were used to define alert signals: TdP and QTabn identified stronger signals, whereas SCD/CA identified weaker signals. Drug utilization data from 2005 to 2010 were collected from administrative databases through health authorities and insurance. Results Antihistamines were reported in 109 cases of TdP/QT prolongation, 278 VA and 610 SCD/CA. Five agents resulted in stronger signals (cetirizine, desloratadine, diphenhydramine, fexofenadine, loratadine) and 6 in weaker signals (alimemazine, carbinoxamine, cyclizine, cyproeptadine, dexchlorpheniramine and doxylamine). Exposure to antihistamines with stronger signal was markedly different across European countries and was at least 40% in each Country. Cetirizine was >29 Defined Daily Doses per 1000 inhabitants per day (DID) in Norway, desloratadine >11 DID in France and loratadine >9 DID in Sweden and Croatia. Drugs with weaker signals accounted for no more than 10% (in Sweden) and in most European countries their use was negligible. Conclusions Some second-generation antihistamines are associated with signal of torsadogenicity and largely used in most European countries. Although confirmation by

  2. Omitting the first oral contraceptive pills of the cycle does not automatically lead to ovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elomaa, K; Rolland, R; Brosens, I; Moorrees, M; Deprest, J; Tuominen, J; Lähteenmäki, P

    1998-07-01

    The hypothesis that omission of the first three pills of the oral contraceptive (OC) cycle leads to ovulation by extending further the pill-free period was investigated in 107 healthy women 18-35 years of age recruited from family planning programs in Finland, the Netherlands, and Belgium. Study participants were randomly allocated to one of the following treatment groups: 1) monophasic gestodene--75 mcg of gestodene and 30 mcg of ethinyl estradiol; 2) triphasic gestodene--6 days of 50 mcg gestodene and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol, 5 days of 70 mcg gestodene and 40 mcg ethinyl estradiol, and 10 days of 100 mcg gestodene and 30 mcg ethinyl estradiol; or 3) monophasic desogestrel--150 mcg desogestrel and 20 mcg ethinyl estradiol. Noncompliance with OC taking was simulated by extending the pill-free period from 7 to 10 days. During or after the extended pill-free interval, follicular growth exceeding 18 mm occurred in 24% of women in the monophasic gestodene group, 24% in the triphasic gestodene group, and 40% in the monophasic desogestrel group. Follicle-stimulating hormone reached a maximum serum concentration in most women during the first 7 pill-free days, indicating complete pituitary recovery. No normal ovulation was observed after either a 7- or 10-day pill-free period as evaluated by ultrasonography of follicles and serum progesterone assays. Since normal ovulation did not occur when pill omissions were limited to 3 days, OC users who forget to take these three tablets can be safely advised to start the pill cycle on day 11.

  3. Visual overview, oral detail

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertzum, Morten; Simonsen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    and with the coordinating nurse, who is the main keeper of the whiteboard. On the basis of observations, we find that coordination is accomplished through a highly intertwined process of technologically mediated visual overview combined with orally communicated details. The oral details serve to clarify and elaborate...

  4. Bone mineral density in a cohort of adolescents during use of norethisterone enanthate, depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate, or combined oral contraceptives and after discontinuation of norethisterone enanthate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beksinska, Mags E; Kleinschmidt, Immo; Smit, Jenni A; Farley, Timothy M M

    2013-01-01

    Background Depot-medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA), norethisterone enanthate (NET-EN) and combined oral contraceptives (COCs) have been shown to have a negative effect on bone mineral density (BMD) in adolescents. The aim of this study was to investigate BMD in 15-to 19-year-old new users of DMPA, NET-EN and COCs. Study Design This 5-year longitudinal study followed-up new users of DMPA (n=115), NET-EN (n=115), and COCs (n=116), and 144 nonuser controls. BMD was measured at the distal radius using dual x-ray absorptiometry. Results BMD increased in all groups (annual percent increase: nonusers, 1.49%; DMPA, 1.39%; NET-EN, 1.03%; COCs, 0.84%) during follow-up (p<0.001). There was evidence for lower BMD increases per annum in NET-EN (p=.050) and COC (p=.010) users compared to nonusers but no difference between DMPA and nonusers (p=.76). In 14 NET-EN discontinuers, an overall reduction of 0.61% per year BMD was followed upon cessation by an increase of 0.69% per year (p=.066). Conclusion This study suggests that BMD increases in adolescents may be less in NET-EN and COC users; however, recovery of BMD in NET-EN users was found in the small sample of adolescents followed post-discontinuation. PMID:19341845

  5. Effects of combination therapy with direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber and oral vancomycin on fulminant pseudomembranous colitis with septic shock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshihide; Sato, Koichi; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Nakamura, Naka; Dohi, Yasuaki; Orito, Etsuro; Mizokami, Masashi

    2007-03-01

    We report 2 cases of fulminant pseudomembranous colitis with septic shock. The first case showed few symptoms, whereas the second case showed recurrence. Both cases rapidly developed shock and blood pressure was uncontrollable except with the use of pressor agents. Direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber, which was previously demonstrated to have excellent therapeutic effects for the treatment of hypotension in septic shock by removing circulating lipopolysaccharide and oral vancomycin dramatically improved both cases' clinical status and decreased their APACHE II scores (from 18 to 8 and from 16 to 9 points, respectively). Therefore, we suggest that direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber improved hypotension-correcting cytokine balance with adsorption of endogenous cannabinoids in serum. Although colectomy is often performed to treat fulminant pseudomembranous colitis with septic shock, direct hemoperfusion can be easily performed with little risk to the patient. These cases strongly indicated that our combination therapy provides an important treatment for fulminant pseudomembranous colitis with septic shock.

  6. 复方口服避孕药的避孕效果和依从性%The Effect and Compliance of Combined Oral Contraceptives

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史惠蓉

    2009-01-01

    在美国和世界其他一些国家,复方口服避孕药(combined oral contraceptive,COC)是育龄妇女常用的可逆性避孕方法之一。2002年的统计数据显示:在美国有1160万15—44岁的妇女正在使用COC,大约有4450万15~44岁的妇女曾经使用过COC。COC在欧洲的使用居各种避孕方法之首位。最近的研究表明,在法国、德国、意大利、西班牙和英国,大约有220万妇女使用COC并有较高的满意度。在拉丁美洲和加勒比海国家,大约14%的已婚妇女使用COC,仅次于女性绝育术。但在亚洲国家COC的使用普及率相对较低。

  7. Comparison of the influence of oral antidiabetic drug and combined with basal insulin treatment on diabetic control and micro-inflammatory state in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gang Wu; Dong-Liang Liu; Xiang-Jun Li; Xiao-Yun Fan

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the influence of oral antidiabetic drug and combined with basal insulin treatment on diabetic control and micro-inflammatory state in type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.Methods:From May 2014 to June 2015, 128 cases of Type 2 diabetes mellitus were recruited and divided randomly into two groups as observation group and control group. The observation group was given metformin (Glucophage, 0.25 tid) plus basal insulin (glargine) treatment, while the control group was given metformin (Glucophage, initial dose of 0.25 tid; the largest total dose of 2 g) plus other non-euglycemic OADs necessarily for 6 months to adjust dose and control blood glucose at target. The diabetic control indexes, islet function and micro-inflammatory factors were detected and analyzed.Results:After 6 months of medication, the observation group showed significantly lower level of FPG, and HbA1cthan the control group. While AUCc-p, HOMA-β and HOMA-IR of the observation group showed significant difference compared to that of the control group after treatment. Also the micro-inflammatory indexes including hs-CRP, IGF-1, IL-6 and TNF-α of the observation group after treatment were significantly lower than the control group .Conclusions:Type 2 diabetes given metformin plus glargine not only could control and steady blood glucose, but also significant decrease the micro-inflammation state.

  8. Development and validation of a liquid chromatographic method for purity control of clopidogrel-acetylsalicylic acid in combined oral dosage forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahsay, Getu; Van Schepdael, Ann; Adams, Erwin

    2012-03-05

    A reversed phase liquid chromatographic method with UV detection for the simultaneous determination of clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid and their related substances in combined oral formulations was developed and validated. Good separation was achieved on a Luna C18 column (150 mm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) using gradient elution at a flow rate of 1 mL/min and a column temperature of 35 °C. UV detection was performed at 220 nm. The validation was performed according to the ICH guidelines. The method proved to be specific, sensitive (LOQ=0.975 μg/mL and 0.0384 μg/mL for clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid, respectively), linear in the concentration range from LOQ to 325 μg/mL for clopidogrel and from LOQ to 650 μg/mL for acetylsalicylic acid, precise (RSD values for intermediate precision acetylsalicylic acid, respectively. Moreover, the solution stability and method robustness were examined. The method gives satisfactory separation of impurities of clopidogrel and acetylsalicylic acid and so it is suitable for quantification of the related substances as well as for the assay of the actives.

  9. Oral L-carnitine supplementation in low-birth-weight newborns: a study on neonates requiring combined parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melegh, B; Kerner, J; Sándor, A; Vincellér, M; Kispál, G

    1986-01-01

    Effect of L-carnitine supplementation on plasma ketone body (KB) and triglyceride (TG) concentrations was studied in ten premature infants requiring combined enteral and parenteral nutrition. At the second week of life (9 to 14 days of age) the infants were randomly divided into two groups. Five of them (plasma carnitine value, 33.77 +/- 2.48 mumol/l; mean +/- SEM) received oral L-carnitine supplementation (60 mumol/kg daily) added to pasteurized pooled human milk for seven consecutive days; additional five (plasma carnitine value, 36.70 +/- 5.19 mumol/l) served as controls. Composition of the daily diet was nearly constant in the study period. On the seventh day, prior to an Intralipid infusion, plasma carnitine and ketone body levels were significantly increased in the supplemented group as compared to controls or to previous values of the same group. In response to lipid infusion the fat load induced ketone body production was significantly higher in the supplemented group as compared to controls, whereas the triglycerides reached higher levels in the control group. It is suggested that L-carnitine supplementation in low-weight newborns promotes ketone body formation from endogenous stores as well as from exogenous fat supply, and thus may enhance triglyceride utilization.

  10. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two criteria. All the samples were evaluated, and the data obtained were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-square tests. When surface detail reproduction was evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19, both the groups under the two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. When evaluated macroscopically both the groups showed statistically significant difference. Results for dimensional stability showed that the deviation from standard was significant among the two groups, where Aquasil group showed significantly more deviation compared to Impregum group (P impregum and aquasil performed better in dry condition than in moist; impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions. When tested for surface detail reproduction according to ADA specification, under dry and moist conditions both of them performed almost equally. When tested according to macroscopic evaluation, impregum and aquasil performed significantly better in dry condition compared to moist condition. In dry condition, both the materials performed almost equally. In moist condition, aquasil performed significantly better than impregum. Regarding gypsum compatibility according to ADA specification, in dry condition both the materials performed almost equally, and in moist condition aquasil performed better than impregum. When tested by macroscopic evaluation, impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions.

  11. Oral Medication

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Size: A A A Listen En Español Oral Medication The first treatment for type 2 diabetes blood ... new — even over-the-counter items. Explore: Oral Medication How Much Do Oral Medications Cost? Save money ...

  12. Oral myiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Thalaimalai Saravanan; Mathan A Mohan; Meera Thinakaran; Saneem Ahammed

    2015-01-01

    Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability ...

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity and MIC quality control guidelines of RPR 106972 (RPR 112808/RPR106950): a novel orally administered streptogramin combination. The Quality Control Study Group.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putnam, S D; Jones, R N; Johnson, D M

    1997-07-01

    RPR 106972 is a novel oral streptogramin combination with reported therapeutic potency against Gram-positive and certain respiratory tract pathogens. MICs for RPR 106972, quinupristin/dalfopristin, and seven comparison drugs were determined by the reference methods against 337 strains selected to define spectrum and potency. RPR 106972 demonstrated antimicrobial activity against oxacillin-susceptible and -resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MIC ranges of 0.12 to 2 micrograms/ml and 0.5 to 2 micrograms/ml, respectively), and coagulase-negative staphylococci were also inhibited by RPR 106972 (MIC90, RPR 106972 was highly active with MIC results at RPR 106972 inhibited Corynebacterium jeikeium (MIC90, 0.5 microgram/ml). Moraxella catarrhalis (MIC90, 0.25 microgram/ml), and some Haemophilus influenzae (MIC50, 2 micrograms/ml). RPR 106972 and quinupristin/dalfopristin demonstrated little activity against Enterococcus faecalis (MIC90s, 4 to 32 micrograms/ml) as compared to Enterococcus faecium (MIC90s, 0.5 to 1 microgram/ml) and other Enterococcus ssp. (MIC90s, 1 microgram/ml). Studies to establish MIC quality-control guidelines indicated the following ranges: for E. faecalis ATCC 29212, 0.5 to 4 micrograms/ml; for S. aureus ATCC 29213, 0.25 to 1 microgram/ml; and for Streptococcus pneumoniae ATCC 49619, 0.06 to 0.5 microgram/ml. The results of this study indicate that the in vitro activity of RPR 106972 against Gram-positive bacteria and selected Gram-negative respiratory organisms is promising and warrants additional studies of pharmacokinetics, and in vivo infection model dynamics.

  14. Reversed phase-high performance liquid chromatographic method for simultaneous estimation of tolperisone hydrochloride and etodolac in a combined fixed dose oral formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Mit J; Badmanaban, R; Patel, C N

    2011-04-01

    A reversed-phase liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method was developed for the simultaneous determination of tolperisone hydrochloride (TOLP) and etodolac (ETD) in a combined fixed dose oral formulation. The analysis was carried out using a phenomenax C-18, pre-packed column. A mobile phase containing a phosphate buffer (pH 5.5) : Methanol : Acetonitrile : Tri-ethylamine (40 : 40 : 20 : 1.5), with the pH adjusted to orthophosphoric acid, was pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 ml min(1) with a UV-detector and PDA detection at 257 nm. Retention time was 3.91 minutes and 6.89 minutes for TOLP and ETD, respectively. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, sensitivity, and specificity. The method showed good linearity in the range of 3 - 21 μg ml for TOLP μg / ml and 8 - 56 μg / ml for ETD. The detection limit of the proposed method was 0.16 μg / ml and 0.58 μg / ml for TOLP and ETD, respectively. The quantification limit of the proposed method was 0.51 μg / ml and 1.7 μg / ml for TOLP and ETD, respectively. The % recovery was within the range of 99.42 - 101.15 for TOLP and 98.63 - 100.94 for ETD. The percentage RSD for precision of the method was found to be less than 2%. The method was validated as per the International Conference on Harmonization (ICH) guidelines. The developed method could be applied for routine analysis of TOLP and ETD in tablet dosage form.

  15. Oral Chinese herbal medicine combined with pharmacotherapy for stable COPD: a systematic review of effect on BODE index and six minute walk test.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiankun Chen

    Full Text Available This systematic review evaluated the effects of Chinese herbal medicine (CHM plus routine pharmacotherapy (RP on the objective outcome measures BODE index, 6-minute walk test (6MWT, and 6-minute walk distance (6MWD in individuals with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD. Searches were conducted of six English and Chinese databases (PubMed, EMBASE, CENTRAL, CINAHL, CNKI and CQVIP from their inceptions until 18th November 2013 for randomized controlled trials involving oral administration of CHM plus RP compared to the same RP, with BODE Index and/or 6MWT/D as outcomes. Twenty-five studies were identified. BODE Index was used in nine studies and 6MWT/D was used in 22 studies. Methodological quality was assessed using the Cochrane Risk of Bias tool. Weaknesses were identified in most studies. Six studies were judged as 'low' risk of bias for randomisation sequence generation. Twenty-two studies involving 1,834 participants were included in the meta-analyses. The main meta-analysis results showed relative benefits for BODE Index in nine studies (mean difference [MD] -0.71, 95% confidence interval [CI] -0.94, -0.47 and 6MWT/D in 17 studies (MD 54.61 meters, 95%CI 33.30, 75.92 in favour of the CHM plus RP groups. The principal plants used were Astragalus membranaceus, Panax ginseng and Cordyceps sinensis. A. membranaceus was used in combination with other herbs in 18 formulae in 16 studies. Detailed sub-group and sensitivity analyses were conducted. Clinically meaningful benefits for BODE Index and 6MWT were found in multiple studies. These therapeutic effects were promising but need to be interpreted with caution due to variations in the CHMs and RPs used and methodological weakness in the studies. These issues should be addressed in future trials.

  16. Age-related oral changes.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Mckenna, Gerald

    2010-10-01

    Age-related oral changes are seen in the oral hard and soft tissues as well as in bone, the temporomandibular joints and the oral mucosa. As older patients retain their natural teeth for longer, the clinical picture consists of normal physiological age changes in combination with pathological and iatrogenic effects. Clinical Relevance: With an ageing population retaining more of its natural teeth for longer, dental professionals should expect to observe oral age changes more frequently.

  17. The Comparison of Preemptive Oral Tramadol, Gabapentin Tramadol and Parasetamol Tramadol Combination on the Efficacy of Postoperative Pain Control in Breast Reduction Surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muge Can

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Application of tramadol by intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA is a routine method for controlling postoperative pain in the breast reduction operations. It was aimed to compare the efficacy of preemptive oral gabapentin/tramadol and parasetamol/tramadol combination usage on the postoperatif tramadol consumption in patients undergoing breast reduction operation. Material and Methods: Our study was held on 54 patients (ASA I-III, aged between 18-65 yr undergoing breast reduction operation. Patients randomly divided into three groups. Group I were received 600mg tablet gabapentin and 35mg drop tramadol one hour before the operation. Group II were received 500mg tablet parasetamol and 35mg drop tramadol one hour before the operation. Group III (Control group were received 35mg drop tramadol one hour before the operation. 30 minutes before the end of operation, 1mg/kg i.v. tramadol and 10mg metoklopramid HCL three groups were administred. After the end of operation, three groups were started to receive tramadol infusion and intravenous patient controlled analgesia (PCA application (300 mg diluated with 0,09% 100cc SF, 0,2 mg/kg PCA, 15 min locked in time. Peroperative SpO2, KH, SKB, DKB, extubation, disillusion, response time to the verbal stimuli, postoperative pain scores (VRS, VAS, total tramadol consumption, additional analgesic need and side effects (nausea and vomiting, diplopia, dizziness were recorded and evaluated. Results: Peroperative SpO2, KH, SKB, DKB, extubation, disillusion, response time to the verbal stimuli, postoperative pain scores (VRS, VAS, total tramadol consumption, additional analgesic need and side effects of groups were similar to each other. Peroperative second hour DKB values and postoperative twelfth hour additional analgesic need of second group was found higher compared to other groups. There were no significantly differences in the groups except diplopia. It was found higher in favour of the first

  18. Effects of Atomoxetine and Osmotic Release Oral System-Methylphenidate on Executive Functions in Patients with Combined Type Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ince Tasdelen, Bedia; Karakaya, Emel; Oztop, Didem Behice

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effects of atomoxetine (ATX) and osmotic release oral system-methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) therapies on executive functions, activities, treatment response time, and adverse effects based on discernible clinical effects in children with combined type attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study sample consisted of 43 children 7-12 years of age, who presented to the outpatient clinic with inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity for the first time, and were diagnosed as having combined type ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, 4th ed. (DSM-IV) criteria but had not previously used any medication for ADHD. The Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST), Stroop Test TBAG Form (STP), and Visual Auditory Digit Span B (VADS B) were applied to all the patients included. Neuropsychological tests were repeated in 33 patients with good clinical recovery based on the Clinical Global Impressions-Improvement (CGI-I) scale (CGI-I ≤2) at the week in which clinical recovery was observed. The time limit for treatment response was set as 20 weeks. It was found that there was significantly increased performance in executive functions with ATX and OROS-MPH in both groups. It was seen that although significantly increased performance was achieved in both perseveration and conceptual learning and reasoning domains by both agents, there was increased performance in more domains by the OROS-MPH group in WSCT. Mean doses were 1.31±0.37 mg/kg/day in the ATX group and 0.90±0.29 mg/kg/day in the OROS-MPH group. Comparable effectiveness (76.19% for ATX vs. 77.27% for OROS-MPH) and adverse effects (57.14% for ATX vs. 54.54% for OROS-MPH) were detected in both groups, whereas there was a significant difference in clinical response times between the groups (13 weeks for ATX vs. 7 weeks for OROS-MPH, p <0.001). At the end of the study, it was seen that clinical recovery achieved by ATX and OROS

  19. Pharmacokinetics of guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone in a combination oral liquid formulation, administered as single and multiple doses in healthy Chinese volunteers, and comparison with data for individual compounds formulated as Antuss®.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Shuhua; Huang, Wencan; Ni, Xiaojia; Zhang, Ming; Lu, Haoyang; Wang, Zhanzhang; Hu, Jinqing; Zhu, Xiuqing; Qiu, Chang; Shang, Dewei; Zhang, Yuefeng; Xiong, Linghui; Wen, Yuguan

    2017-10-01

    1. A new oral liquid formulation combining guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone is effective in improving the symptoms of common cold. The pharmacokinetic properties of the individual components were evaluated in a randomized, open-label, four-period study in 12 healthy Chinese volunteers following single and multiple doses. The data were compared with data for the individual ingredients in Antuss®. 2. In the single-dose period, exposure levels (AUC and Cmax) for guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone increased directly as the dose of the oral liquid formulation increased from 5 to 15 mL. Only minor amounts of guaifenesin and hydrocodone were excreted in urine (∼0.10% and 4.66%, respectively). Pseudoephedrine was mainly excreted unchanged, with 44.95% of the dose excreted in urine within 24 h. After multiple dosing, there was no obvious accumulation of any drug, as assessed by AUC. When considering Cmax, there was a trend toward accumulation of hydrocodone and pseudoephedrine. The pharmacokinetic profiles of guaifenesin and pseudoephedrine in the oral liquid formulation were similar to those in the branded preparation, Antuss®. 3. The newly developed oral liquid formulation combining guaifenesin, pseudoephedrine and hydrocodone was safe and well tolerated and might provide a reliable alternative to the branded formulation for patients with common colds.

  20. Efficacy of a combined oral formulation of derquantel-abamectin against the adult and larval stages of nematodes in sheep, including anthelmintic-resistant strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Peter R; Hodge, Andrew; Maeder, Steven J; Wirtherle, Nicole C; Nicholas, David R; Cox, George G; Conder, George A

    2011-09-27

    Derquantel (DQL), a semi-synthetic member of a novel anthelmintic class, the spiroindoles, in combination with abamectin (ABA) [as the combination product STARTECT(®)] is a new entry for the treatment and control of parasites in sheep. The 19 studies reported herein were conducted in Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom to demonstrate the efficacy of derquantel-abamectin (DQL-ABA) against a broad spectrum of gastrointestinal and respiratory nematodes of sheep, and to support registration of the combination product. Eleven studies were conducted using natural or experimental parasite infections with unknown or unconfirmed resistance, while eight studies utilised isolates/strains with confirmed or well characterised resistance to one or more currently available anthelmintics, including macrocyclic lactones. All studies included DQL-ABA and negative control groups, and in selected studies one or more reference anthelmintic groups were included. In all studies the commercial formulation of DQL-ABA was administered orally at 2mg/kg DQL and 0.2mg/kg ABA; placebo was administered in the same volume as DQL-ABA; and reference anthelmintics were administered as per label recommendations, except in one instance where levamisole was administered at twice the label dose. Infection, necropsy, worm collection and worm counting procedures were performed using standard techniques. Efficacy was calculated based on the percentage reduction in geometric mean worm count relative to negative control for each nematode species and lifecycle stage targeted. Twenty-two isolates/strains used in the eight studies targeting resistant worms had proven resistance: three to one anthelmintic class, eleven to two classes and eight to three or more classes; of these resistant strains, 16 demonstrated resistance to a macrocyclic lactone anthelmintic. Regardless of resistance status in the 19 studies, DQL-ABA controlled a broad range of economically important gastrointestinal

  1. Effect observation of Amor Luo Fenjia liniment in combined with oral itraconazole and Amor Luo Fenjia lini-ment combined with oral terbinafine in the treatment of onychomycosis%阿莫罗芬甲搽剂联合口服伊曲康唑与联合口服特比萘芬治疗甲真菌病的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈健发

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨甲真菌病采用阿莫罗芬甲搽剂与伊曲康唑口服联合治疗和与特比萘芬口服联合治疗效果展开对比。方法:选取甲真菌病100例,随机分组,分别为阿莫罗芬甲搽剂与伊曲康唑联用组(A 组,n =50)和特比萘芬口服联用组(B 组,n =50),研究两组效果对比。结果:A 组近期痊愈率为26%,远期痊愈率为86%;B 组近期痊愈率为24%,远期痊愈率为60%,远期痊愈率比较,差异有统计学意义(P ﹤0.05);A 组真菌清除率为86%,B 组为70%。两组均无严重不良事件发生。结论:甲真菌病采用阿莫罗芬甲搽剂与伊曲康唑口服联用,可获得理想的临床效果,真菌清除率较高,具有非常重要的应用价值,可显著改善患者生存质量。%Objective To study the onychomycosis by amor Luo Fenjia liniment and combination treatment with oral itraconazole and associated with oral terbinafine treatment effect comparison. Method The 100 cases of onychomycosis were selected and randomly divided into amor Luo Fenjia liniment and itraconazole together group(group A,n = 50)and amor Luo Fenjia liniment and oral terbinafine combi-nation group(group B,n = 50). The effect of the two groups were compared. Results The recent recovery rate of group A was 26% ,the long - term cure rate was 86% ;the recent recovery rate of group B was 24% ,long - term recovery rate was 60% ,the long - term recovery rate of the two groups was statistically significant(P ﹤ 0. 05);The fungal clearance rate of group A was 86% ,B group was 70% . Two groups had no serious adverse events. Conclusion Onychomycosis by amor Luo Fenjia liniment and oral itraconazole together,which can ob-tain ideal clinical effect,fungal clearance rate is higher,it has very important application value,can significantly improve the patients quality of life.

  2. A polyvalent Clade B virus-like particle HIV vaccine combined with partially protective oral preexposure prophylaxis prevents simian-human immunodeficiency virus Infection in macaques and primes for virus-amplified immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Ted M; Pereira, Lara E; Luckay, Amara; McNicholl, Janet M; García-Lerma, J Gerardo; Heneine, Walid; Eugene, Hermancia S; Pierce-Paul, Brooke R; Zhang, Jining; Hendry, R Michael; Smith, James M

    2014-11-01

    Vaccination and preexposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretrovirals have shown only partial protection from HIV-1 infection in human trials. Oral Truvada (emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate) is FDA approved as PrEP but partial adherence reduces efficacy. If combined as biomedical preventions (CBP), an HIV vaccine could protect when PrEP adherence is low and PrEP could prevent vaccine breakthroughs. The efficacy of combining oral PrEP with an HIV vaccine has not been evaluated in humans. We determined the efficacy of combining a DNA/virus-like particle (VLP) vaccine with partially effective intermittent PrEP in Indian rhesus macaques (RM). Eight RM received intramuscular inoculations of five DNA plasmids encoding four HIV-1 Clade B primary isolate Envs and SIVmac239 Gag (at weeks 0 and 4), followed by intramuscular and intranasal inoculations of homologous Gag VLPs and four Env VLPs (at weeks 12, 16, and 53). At week 61, we initiated weekly rectal exposures with heterologous SHIV162p3 (10 TCID50) along with oral Truvada (TDF, 22 mg/kg; FTC 20 mg/kg) dosing 2 h before and 22 h after each exposure. This PrEP regimen previously demonstrated 50% efficacy. Five controls (no vaccine, no PrEP) received weekly SHIV162p3. All controls were infected after a median of four exposures; the mean peak plasma viral load (VL) was 3.9×10(7) vRNA copies/ml. CBP protected seven of eight (87.5%) RM. The one infected CBP RM had a reduced peak VL of 8.8×10(5) copies/ml. SHIV exposures during PrEP amplified Gag and Env antibody titers in protected RM. These results suggest that combining oral PrEP with HIV vaccines could enhance protection against HIV-1 infection.

  3. Oral Carcinogenesis and Oral Cancer Chemoprevention: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuji Tanaka

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the major global threats to public health. The development of oral cancer is a tobacco-related multistep and multifocal process involving field cancerization and carcinogenesis. The rationale for molecular-targeted prevention of oral cancer is promising. Biomarkers of genomic instability, including aneuploidy and allelic imbalance, are possible to measure the cancer risk of oral premalignancies. Understanding of the biology of oral carcinogenesis will yield important advances for detecting high-risk patients, monitoring preventive interventions, and assessing cancer risk and pharmacogenomics. In addition, novel chemopreventive agents based on molecular mechanisms and targets against oral cancers will be derived from studies using appropriate animal carcinogenesis models. New approaches, such as molecular-targeted agents and agent combinations in high-risk oral individuals, are undoubtedly needed to reduce the devastating worldwide consequences of oral malignancy.

  4. Combined Atomistic Molecular Calculations and Experimental Investigations for the Architecture, Screening, Optimization, and Characterization of Pyrazinamide Containing Oral Film Formulations for Tuberculosis Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, Oluwatoyin A; Monama, Nkwe O; Tsai, Pei-Chin; Sithole, Happy M; Michniak-Kohn, Bozena B

    2016-02-01

    To date, effective treatment, prophylaxis, and control of tuberculosis (TB) infection is mainly dependent on the use of drugs. However, patient noncompliance with prescribed anti-TB treatment schemes remains a major problem confronting successful pharmacotherapeutic outcomes. Thus, the development of alternative delivery systems that can improve adherence for the existing anti-TB bioactives has been intensified in recent times. The aim of this investigation was to engineer an optimal, thermodynamically stable oral film (OF) formulation containing a key anti-TB agent, pyrazinamide (PYZ), employing molecular modeling and experimental tools. Four PYZ-loaded film variants (OF 1, OF 2, OF 3, OF 4) were constructed in silico and then prepared in vitro using the Accelrys Materials Studio software and solvent casting method, respectively. Screening and selection of the optimal OF was based on the computation of the total interaction energy (ET), kinetic energy (EK), solubility parameter (S), and cohesive energy density (CED) as well as determining mass, thickness, dissolution and disintegration times, dissolution pH, drug loading capacity, and surface morphology in vitro. OF 2 was selected as the optimal formulation as it displayed the lowest ET (-8006.28 kcal/mol), dissolution time (9.96 min), disintegration time (56.49 s), and weight (39.33 mg); moderate EK (1052.98 kcal/mol); highest S (44.55 (J/cm(3))(0.5)) and CED (1.99 × 10(9) J/m(3)), slim dimension (166 μm), good and unvarying drug loading capacity (98.04%), acceptable dissolution pH (6.70), and well-layered surface topography. The drug release behavior of the optimal OF 2 was best elucidated with the zero order (R(2) = 0.97) and Korsmeyer-Peppas (R(2) = 0.99) models. X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analyses showed that OF 2 was made of physically mixed multiple component polymeric and nonpolymeric compounds. OF 2 was

  5. A systematic review of cost-effectiveness analysis of screening interventions for assessing the risk of venous thromboembolism in women considering combined oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ademi, Zanfina; Sutherland, C Simone; Van Stiphout, Joris; Michaud, Jöelle; Tanackovic, Goranka; Schwenkglenks, Matthias

    2017-09-16

    Use of combined oral contraceptives (COCs) by women increases the risk of venous thromboembolism (VTE), which can have a major impact on an individuals' quality of life. VTE is also associated with an increase in healthcare costs. Our aim was to systematically review cost-effectiveness analyses (CEAs) considering any screening for risk of VTE in women using COCs. The quality of reporting in each study was assessed, a summary of results was prepared, and the key drivers of cost effectiveness in each of the eligible CEAs were identified. A search strategy using MeSH terms was performed in MEDLINE, Embase, the Centre for Review and Dissemination (CRD) database including the Economic Evaluation Database from the UK National Health Service, and Cochrane reviews. Two reviewers independently screened and determined the final articles, and a third reviewer resolved any discrepancies. Consolidated Health Economic Evaluation Reporting Standards was used to assess the quality of reporting in terms of perspective, effectiveness measures, model structure, cost, time-horizon and discounting. Four publications (three from Europe, one from the United States) were eligible for inclusion in the review. According to current criteria, relevant elements were sometimes not captured and the sources of epidemiological and effectiveness data used in the CEAs were of limited quality. The studies varied in terms of type of costs assessed, country settings, model assumptions and uncertainty around input parameters. Key drivers of CEAs were sensitivity and specificity of the test, incidence rate of VTE, relative risk of prophylaxis, and costs of the test. The reviewed studies were too dissimilar to draw a firm conclusion on cost-effectiveness analysis about universal and selective screening in high-risk groups. The new emerging diagnostic tools for identifying women at risk of developing VTE, that are more predictive and less costly, highlight the need for more studies that apply the latest

  6. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thalaimalai Saravanan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a pathologic condition in humans occurring because of parasitic infestation. Parasites causing myiasis belong to the order Diptera. Oral myiasis is seen secondary to oral wounds, suppurative lesions, and extraction wounds, especially in individuals with neurological deficit. In such cases, neglected oral hygiene and halitosis attracts the flies to lay eggs in oral wounds resulting in oral myiasis. We present a case of oral myiasis in 40-year-old male patient with mental disability and history of epilepsy.

  7. Oral Thrush

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... feeding mothers In addition to the distinctive white mouth lesions, infants may have trouble feeding or be fussy ... candidiasis (yeast infection) patient information. American Academy of Oral & Maxillofacial Pathology. http://www.aaomp.org/public/oral-candidiasis.php. ...

  8. Oral Dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 規子; スズキ, ノリコ; Noriko, SUZUKI

    2004-01-01

    The major oral functions can be categorized as mastication, swallowing, speech and respiratory functions. Dysfunction of these results in dysphagia, speech disorders and abnormal respiration (such as Sleep Apnea). These functions relate to dentistry in the occurrence of : (1) oral preparatory and oral phases, (2) articulation disorders and velopharyngeal incompetence (VPI), and (3) mouth breathing, respiratory and blowing disorders. These disorders are related to oral and maxillofacial diseas...

  9. Use of and access to oral and injectable contraceptives in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farias, Mareni Rocha; Leite, Silvana Nair; Tavares, Noemia Urruth Leão; Oliveira, Maria Auxiliadora; Arrais, Paulo Sergio Dourado; Bertoldi, Andréa Dâmaso; Pizzol, Tatiane da Silva Dal; Luiza, Vera Lucia; Ramos, Luiz Roberto; Mengue, Sotero Serrate

    2016-12-01

    combined oral contraceptives were the most frequently reported (71.6%) and low-level levonorgestrel + ethinylestradiol combination accounted for 38.7% of them. The most frequently reported medicines are included in the Relação Nacional de Medicamentos Essenciais (RENAME - National List of Essential Medicines. Most women aged 15 to 49 who reported using contraceptives had access to the medicine and use monophasic combined oral contraceptives of appropriate efficiency and safety purchased by direct payment, mainly from retail pharmacies. Analisar a prevalência do uso atual de contraceptivos orais e injetáveis por mulheres brasileiras, segundo variáveis demográficas, socioeconômicas e aspectos relacionados ao acesso a esses medicamentos. Estudo transversal, analítico, baseado nos dados da Pesquisa Nacional sobre Acesso, Utilização e Promoção do Uso Racional de Medicamentos (PNAUM), de base populacional e amostra probabilística, realizada entre setembro/2013 e fevereiro/2014, em 20.404 domicílios urbanos brasileiros. A prevalência foi calculada a partir do relato das mulheres de 15 a 49 anos, não grávidas, sobre o uso de contraceptivos orais ou contraceptivos injetáveis. As variáveis independentes foram sexo, idade, escolaridade, nível socioeconômico, região geográfica e situação conjugal. Também foram analisados acesso, fontes de financiamento, fontes de obtenção e medicamentos citados. As análises estatísticas consideraram intervalos de confiança de 95% (IC95%) e teste Qui-quadrado de Pearson para avaliação da significância estatística das diferenças entre os grupos, considerando o nível de significância de 5%. A prevalência de uso de contraceptivos orais (CO) foi 28,2% e de contraceptivos injetáveis (CI), 4,5%. A prevalência de contraceptivos orais foi maior no Sul (37,5%) e menor no Norte (15,7%). Para contraceptivos injetáveis não houve diferença entre as regiões. O acesso foi maior para as usuárias de contraceptivos orais (90

  10. 药艾灸配合中药内服治疗肱骨外上髁炎1则%Treating 1 case of humeral epicondylitis in the medicine moxa acupuncture combined with TCM oral medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵崇智

    2013-01-01

    Humeral epicondylitis, also known as tennis elbow, is a common and frequently disease of clinical orthopedics. The writer summarized one representative case of humeral epicondylitis treating with the medicine moxa acupuncture combined with TCM oral medicine, the results showed that the TCM oral medicine was effective in treating humeral epicondylitis, worthy of a wide application.%  肱骨外上髁炎又称网球肘,是骨伤科临床常见病和多发病。笔者将1例采用药艾灸配合中药内服治疗肱骨外上髁炎的典型病例进行了总结。结果表明,药艾灸配合中药内服治疗肱骨外上髁炎疗效好,值得临床推广使用。

  11. [Clinical experiences with a gestodene containing oral contraceptive (femoden)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimes, G; Valent, S

    1998-09-01

    In order to reduce the side-effects (blood-lipid alterations, androgen effects etc.) new gestogens were introduced, while the ethinyl-estradiol component of the pill was unchanged. Authors report about clinical trial on monophasic oral contraceptive containing 0.030 mg ethinyl-estradiol and 0.075 mg gestodene. In a follow up of 92 women, in 1740 cycles no pregnancy and no cardivascular or thromboembolic complication was observed. The frequency of bleeding disorders was below 10% already in the first cycle. The quantity of withdrawal bleeding, as well the frequency of breakthrough bleeding and spotting decreased during the treatment. Significant alteration in body weight or blood pressure did not occur. Femoden containing third generation gestogen has an excellent cycle control and good patient compliance.

  12. Detection of parathyroid adenomas using a monophasic dual-energy computed tomography acquisition: diagnostic performance and potential radiation dose reduction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leiva-Salinas, Carlos; Flors, Lucia; Durst, Christopher R.; Hou, Qinghua; Mukherjee, Sugoto [University of Virginia, Department of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Patrie, James T. [University of Virginia, Department of Public Health Sciences, Charlottesville, VA (United States); Wintermark, Max [Stanford University, Department of Radiology, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The aims of the study were to compare the diagnostic performance of a combination of virtual non-contrast (VNC) images and arterial images obtained from a single-phase dual-energy CT (DECT) acquisition and standard non-contrast and arterial images from a biphasic protocol and to study the potential radiation dose reduction of the former approach. All DECT examinations performed for evaluation of parathyroid adenomas during a 13-month period were retrospectively reviewed. An initial single-energy unenhanced acquisition was followed by a dual-energy arterial phase acquisition. ''Virtual non-contrast images'' were generated from the dual-energy acquisition. Two independent and blinded radiologists evaluated three different sets of images during three reading sessions: single arterial phase, single-phase DECT (virtual non-contrast and arterial phase), and standard biphasic protocol (true non-contrast and arterial phase). The accuracy of interpretation in lateralizing an adenoma to the side of the neck and localizing it to a quadrant in the neck was evaluated. Sixty patients (mean age, 65.5 years; age range, 38-87 years) were included in the study. The lateralization and localization accuracy, sensitivity, and positive predicted value (PPV) and negative predicted value (NPV) of the different image datasets were comparable. The combination of VNC and arterial images was more specific than arterial images alone to lateralize a parathyroid lesion (OR = 1.93, p = 0.043). The use of the single-phase protocol resulted in a calculated radiation exposure reduction of 52.8 %. Virtual non-contrast and arterial images from a single DECT acquisition showed similar diagnostic accuracy than a biphasic protocol, providing a significant dose reduction. (orig.)

  13. Multivitamins and Minerals Capsules(Jinwei Kang)and Iodine Glycerol combination therapy Oral ulcer%多维元素胶囊(金维康)与碘甘油联合治疗口腔溃疡

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李静; 李勋

    2012-01-01

    Objective Observation Multivitamins and Minerals Capsules (Jinwei Kang) and Iodine Glycerol combination therapy Oral ulcer's treatment effects. Methods 202 cases of Oral ulcer's Patients were randomly divided into two groups:Treatment group (n= 101) treated by Multivitamins and Minerals Capsules,partial exterior coating Oral ulcer, and control group (n=101) used Chlorhexidine, partial exterior coating Ice Borax. Observation of pain relief and ulcer healing. Results Treatment group than the control group ulce healing time shortened (P<0.01),in which pain relief .higher than the total effective (P<0.01. Conclusion Multivitamins and Minerals Capsules and Iodine Glycerol combination therapy Oral ulcer can promote tissue repair.%目的:观察多维元素(金维康)与碘甘油联合治疗口腔溃疡的疗效.方法:202例口腔溃疡患者随机分为治疗组及对照组,每组各101例.治疗组口服多维元素,局部外涂碘甘油.对照组用洗必泰含漱液漱口,局部撒敷冰硼砂.观察疼痛缓解及溃疡愈合时间.结果:治疗组溃疡愈合时间比对照组缩短(P<0.01),其中疼痛缓解率,总有效率高于对照组(P<0.01).结论:多维元素胶囊与碘甘油联合治疗口腔溃疡可促进组织修复.

  14. Combined application of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG Laser in Oral Homogeneous Leukoplakia%Er:YAG激光和Nd:YAG激光联合应用治疗口腔均质型白斑

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋红柳; 王文梅; 段宁; 白杨; 王翔

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨Er:YAG激光和Nd:YAG激光联合应用治疗口腔均质型白斑的临床疗效。方法:应用Er:YAG激光和Nd:YAG激光联合治疗均质型白斑31例,根据病损面积、患者的疼痛状况调整激光参数。治疗间隔时间1个月。结果:本组31例白斑治愈14例,显效14例,有效3例,治愈率45.1%,有效率90.3%。结论:Er:YAG激光和Nd:YAG激光联合应用治疗口腔均质型白斑临床疗效好,不良反应小,是治疗口腔均质型白斑的有效方法之一。%Objective:To evaluate the effect of combined application of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser in oral homoge-neous leukoplakia. Method:Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser were conducted in 31 patients with oral homogeneous leukoplakia , adjusting the parameters according to the lesional area,depth and pain extent of the patients. The Interval of therapy was 1 month. Result:Of the 31 patients with oral homogeneous leukoplakia,14 experienced more than 95% subsidence,14 achieved 60%~94%subsidence,3 got 30%~59%subsidence. The cure rate and effective rate were 45.1 %and 90.3%, respectively. Conclusion:The combined application of Er:YAG and Nd:YAG laser is an effective treatment on oral homoge-neous leukoplakia with fast effects and few side reactions.

  15. Clinical and microbiological diagnosis of oral candidiasis

    OpenAIRE

    Coronado Castellote, Laura; Jiménez Soriano, Yolanda

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Candidiasis or oral candidiasis is the most frequent mucocutaneous mycosis of the oral cavity. It is produced by the genus Candida, which is found in the oral cavity of 53% of the general population as a common commensal organism. One hundred and fifty species have been isolated in the oral cavity, and 80% of the isolates correspond to Candida albicans, which can colonize the oral cavity alone or in combination with other species. Transformation from commensal organism to pathog...

  16. Efficacy of combined therapy of oral minocycline and benzoyl peroxide for acne%口服米诺环素联合过氧化苯甲酰治疗痤疮疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁新亮; 张守民

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨米诺环素联合外用过氧化苯甲酰治疗痤疮的疗效性,分析两者联合用药与单独口服米诺环素在治疗痤疮疗效方面的差异性,从而为痤疮临床治疗提供较好的方案.方法 将45名患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,治疗组接受米诺环素联合过氧化苯甲酰治疗,对照组接受米诺环素治疗,对治疗组和对照组不同疗程(用药后2、4、6、8周及1个月)治愈率的比较,作出评价.结果 治疗2周、4周后,米诺环素联合过氧化苯甲酰组总有效率明显高于单口服米诺环素组(P<0.05),6周、8周及1个月时两组无明显差异(P>0.05),说明米诺环素联合过氧化苯甲酰组起效快于单口服米诺环素组.结论 米诺环素联合过氧化苯甲酰较单独口服米诺环素起效快,明显缩短病程,较快减轻炎症反应,降低愈后遗留瘢痕的可能性.%Objective To explore the curative effect of combined therapy of oral minocycline and benzoyl peroxide for external use for acne, and to analyze the difference in the efficacy of acne treatment between the combined therapy and single oral minocycline treatment group, all these will provide us a better scheme for acne treatment. Methods Totally 45 patients were randomly divided into treatment and contrast groups. The treatment group accepted the therapy of minocycline combined with benzoyl peroxide, while the contrast group were treated with minocycline alone. Then an evaluation was made by comparing the curative ratio at different time point between the two groups. Results The total effective rate of the group treated with minocycline combined with benzoyl peroxide was significantly higher than that of single oral minocycline group at 2 weeks and 4 weeks after treatment, while the values at different time of 6 weeks,8 weeks and 1 month after treatment had no significant difference between two groups. It showed that treatment with oral minocycline and benzoyl peroxide for external use

  17. EFFECT OF ORAL CONTRACEPTIVES (LD AND CILEST ON CLOTTING FACTORS VIII AND IX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.R. Sadeghipour Roudsari

    1997-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on epidemiologic data, women who take oral contraceptives seem to have an increased risk of developing thromboembollic disease. The thrombotic effects of oral contraceptive (OC are probably mediated, at least partly through their effects on the coagulation system. Plasma levels of several clotting factors have been shown to be elevated in OC users, and this increase is graduated according to the dose of estrogen. In this study, fifty healthy and non smoking women, aged 18-35 years, were randomly assigned to treatment with 2 different OCs: a monophasic pill containing 30 pg of ethinyl estradiol plus 150µg levonorgestrel (LD and a monophasic pill containing 35µg ethinylestradiol plus 250pg norgestimate (Cilest. Factor VIII plasma values were significantly decreased (P<0.05 only in women treated with the preparation LD, but the levels of factor VIII were not significantly different in the group treated with Cilest. Factor IX plasma values were significantly increased (P<0.05 only in women treated with the preparation Cilest, but the levels of factor Ix were not significantly different in the group treated with LD. In LD and cilest users factors VIII and IX were not significantly changed (P<0.05 in overweight and obese subjects in comparison to normal weight.

  18. Combined Expression of c-jun, c-fos, and p53 Improves Estimation of Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shan; Xu, Xin; Xu, Fei; Meng, Yan; Sun, Changsheng; Shi, Lei; Zhao, Eryang

    2016-09-13

    To identify the prognostic value of c-jun, c-fos, and p53 in oral cancer, we examined the impact of immunohistochemical expression of these markers on tumor progression in 157 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We found that c-jun or c-fos was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, and coexpression of c-jun/c-fos, or c-jun/c-fos/p53 were significantly associated with lymph node metastasis, poor differentiation and clinical stage. The coexpression of c-jun/c-fos/p53 was identified as independent prognostic factors for overall survival. Simultaneous coexpression of these markers in OSCCs might prove to be a useful indicator for differentiation of low and high-risk patients.

  19. 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study of UP446, a combination of defined extracts of Scutellaria baicalensis and Acacia catechu, in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimam, Mesfin; Lee, Young Chul; Jia, Qi

    2016-07-01

    The needs for relatively safe botanical alternatives to relieve symptoms associated to arthritis have continued to grow in parallel with the ageing population. UP446, a standardized bioflavonoid composition from the roots of Scutellaria baicalensis and the heartwoods of Acacia catechu, has been used as over the counter joint care dietary supplements and a prescription medical food. Significant safety data have been documented in rodents and human for this composition. Here we evaluated the potential adverse effects of orally administered UP446 in beagle dogs following a 26-week repeated oral dose toxicity study. UP446 at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg/day were administered orally to beagle dogs for 26 weeks. A 4-week recovery group from the high dose (1000 mg/kg) and vehicle treated groups were included. No morbidity or mortality was observed for the duration of the study. No significant differences between groups in body weights, food consumption, ophthalmological examinations, electrocardiograms, urinalysis, hematology, clinical chemistry, organ weights, gross pathology and histopathology were documented. Emesis, loose feces and diarrhea were noted in both genders at the 1000 mg/kg treatment groups. These clinical signs were considered to be reversible as they were not evident in the recovery period. In conclusion, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) of UP446 was considered to be 500 mg/kg/day both in male and female beagle dogs.

  20. Evidence for electrical remodelling of the atrial myocardium in patients with atrial fibrillation. A study using the monophasic action potential recording technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertervig, Eva J; Yuan, Shiwen; Carlson, Jonas; Kongstad-Rasmussen, Ole; Olsson, S Bertil

    2002-01-01

    Experimental studies have shown that remodelling of the atrial myocardium is linked to the occurrence and perpetuation of atrial fibrillation (AF). Clinical evidence, however, is insufficient. We recorded monophasic action potentials (MAP) during AF from one to three sites in the right atrium in seven patients with chronic AF (CAF) and in 11 patients with paroxysmal AF (PAF). The fibrillatory (FF) interval between two consecutive upstrokes of the MAP was measured using a computer-assisted manual method. The mean, median, 15th, 10th, 5th percentile and shortest FF intervals were calculated in each patient and used as estimates of the local atrial effective refractory period (AERP) during AF. In three patients burst pacing at 400 and 500 beats min(-1) was delivered during the MAP recording. In nine patients, the AERP was also tested using the extra stimulus technique during sinus rhythm. Thirty-eight recordings were obtained. The shortest FF interval was significantly shorter in patients with CAF as compared with that in patients with PAF (50+/-13 vs. 72+/-31 ms, P<005). Similar differences were seen in the mean, median, 15th, 10th, and 5th percentile FF interval. The AERP during sinusrhythm was significantly longer than the estimated AERPs (P<0 05 to P<0.01) in the nine patients. There was no significant difference in FF interval before and after the burst pacing in the three patients. The AERP was significantly shortened during AF, as compared with that during sinus rhythm, and the AERP shortening was more marked in patients with CAF than in patients with PAF. These clinical findings support the connection between the electrical remodelling and the occurrence and/ or perpetuation of the AF.

  1. Adenomyoepithelial tumours and myoepithelial carcinomas of the breast – a spectrum of monophasic and biphasic tumours dominated by immature myoepithelial cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Herbst Hermann

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenomyoepithelial tumours and myoepithelial carcinomas of the breast are primarily defined by the presence of neoplastic cells with a myoepithelial immunophenotype. Current classification schemes are based on purely descriptive features and an assessment of individual prognosis is still problematic. Methods A series of 27 adenomyoepithelial tumours of the breast was analysed immunohistochemically with antibodies directed against various cytokeratins, p63, smooth muscle alpha-actin (SMA and vimentin. Additionally, double immunofluorescence and comparative genomic hybridisation (CGH was performed. Results Immunohistochemically, all the tumours showed a constant expression of high molecular weight cytokeratins (Ck Ck5 and Ck14, p63, SMA and vimentin. With exception of one case diagnosed as myoepithelial carcinoma, all tested tumours expressed low molecular weight cytokeratin Ck18 in variable proportions of cells. Even in monophasic tumours lacking obvious glandular differentiation in conventional staining, a number of neoplastic cells still expressed those cytokeratins. Double immunofluorescence revealed tumour cells exclusively staining for Ck5/Ck14 in the presence of other cell populations that co-expressed high molecular weight Ck5/Ck14 as well as either low molecular weight Ck8/18 or SMA. Based on morphology, we assigned the series to three categories, benign, borderline and malignant. This classification was supported by a stepwise increase in cytogenetic alterations on CGH. Conclusion Adenomyoepithelial tumours comprise a spectrum of neoplasms consisting of an admixture of glandular and myoepithelial differentiation patterns. As a key component SMA-positive cells co-expressing cytokeratins could be identified. Although categorisation of adenomyoepithelial tumours in benign, borderline and malignant was supported by results of CGH, any assessment of prognosis requires to be firmly based on morphological grounds. At present

  2. Oral histoplasmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Karthikeya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Histoplasmosis is a systemic fungal disease that takes various clinical forms, among which oral lesions are rare. The disseminated form of the disease that usually occurs in association with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV is one of the AIDS-defining diseases. Isolated oral histoplasmosis, without systemic involvement, with underlying immunosuppression due to AIDS is very rare. We report one such case of isolated oral histoplasmosis in a HIV-infected patient.

  3. Study of modified electroconvulsive therapy combined with risperidone oral solution in the treatment of agitation in the acute stage of epilepsy and expression level changes of insulin-like growth factor-1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiansheng; Li, Chengyan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this paper was to explore the efficacy of modified electroconvulsive therapy (MECT) combined with risperidone oral solution in the treatment of agitation in the acute stage of epilepsy, and the effects of insulin-like growth factor-1 mRNA and protein expression. Forty-six cases with seizures and agitation in the acute stage were included from February 2012 to February 2014. This study was approved by the ethics committee in our hospital. Patients were divided randomly into the experimental (23 cases) and control (23 cases) groups. The patients in the experimental group were treated with MECT combined with risperidone oral solution. The patients in the control group were treated with risperidone oral solution. The Positive and Negative Symptom Scale (PANSS) score and Treatment-Emergent Symptom Scale (TESS) score were compared before and after treatment. The insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) protein and mRNA expression level were detected with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and qRT-PCR, respectively. There were no significant differences on positive and negative symptom scores or total score in the two groups before treatment (P>0.05). After treatment, the positive symptom score, negative symptom score, and total score all decreased in both groups, and the decrease was more obvious in the experimental group (P0.05), while after treatment the expression levels of IGF-1 protein and mRNA decreased in both groups. However, the decrease was more obvious in the experimental group. The differences were all significant for scores (Poral solution in the treatment of agitation can improve the clinical efficacy to some extent.

  4. Combination therapy with direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber and oral vancomycin improves fulminant pseudomembranous colitis by reducing the elevated endogenous cannabinoids and inflammatory cytokines: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Yoshihide; Sato, Koichi; Tokuda, Hiroshi; Hashiguchi, Teruto; Maruyama, Ikuro; Orito, Etsuro; Dohi, Yasuaki; Joh, Takashi

    2008-01-01

    This paper reports a case of fulminant pseudo-membranous colitis which did not lead to septic shock. The case was improved by combination therapy with direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber and oral vancomycin. Direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber has been demonstrated to have excellent therapeutic effects for the treatment of septic shock by removing circulating lipopolysaccharide. In the present case, the combination therapy dramatically improved clinical status of the patient. The clinical improvement occurred in parallel with a decrease in APACHE II score (from 20 to 14 points), serum levels of endogenous cannabinoids (anandamide and 2-arachidonylglycerol), and inflammatory cytokine (interleukin-6). Thus, direct hemoperfusion is strongly recommended in cases of fulminant pseudomembranous colitis, because direct hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber reduces inflammatory cytokines by absorbing endogenous cannabinoids and, thereby, improves the patient's condition.

  5. Correlation of 18F-FDG PET/CT assessments with disease activity and markers of inflammation in patients with early rheumatoid arthritis following the initiation of combination therapy with triple oral antirheumatic drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roivainen, Anne; Hautaniemi, Sannamari; Möttönen, Timo; Nuutila, Pirjo; Oikonen, Vesa; Parkkola, Riitta; Pricop, Luminita; Ress, Rudyard; Seneca, Nicholas; Seppänen, Marko; Yli-Kerttula, Timo

    2013-02-01

    This study evaluated the potential of functional imaging to monitor disease activity and response to treatment with disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARD) in DMARD-naive patients with early rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The study involved 17 patients with active RA in whom combination therapy was initiated with methotrexate, sulfasalazine, hydroxychloroquine, and low-dose oral prednisolone. Clinical disease activity was assessed at screening, at baseline and after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks of therapy. (18)F-FDG PET/CT of all joints was performed at baseline and after 2 and 4 weeks of therapy. (18)F-FDG maximum standardized uptake values showed a reduction of 22 ± 13 % in 76 % of patients from baseline to week 2 and a reduction of 29 ± 13 % in 81 % of patients from baseline to week 4. The percentage decrease in (18)F-FDG uptake from baseline to week 2 correlated with clinical outcome, as measured by the disease activity score (DAS-28) at week 12. In addition, changes in C-reactive protein levels and erythrocyte sedimentation rate were positively associated with changes shown by PET. (18)F-FDG PET/CT findings after 2 and 4 weeks of triple combination oral DMARD therapy correlated with treatment efficacy and clinical outcome in patients with early RA. (18)F-FDG PET/CT may help predict the therapeutic response to novel drug treatments.

  6. Curative effect observation of Kangfuxin liquid combined with self-made oral liquid in the prevention and treatment of oral mucosa damage caused by radiotherapy%康复新液联合自配口服液防治放疗引起口腔黏膜损伤的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱永康; 武霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the clinical application value of Kangfuxin liquid combined with self-made oral liquid in the prevention and treatment of radioactive oral mucosa damage caused by radiotherapy in patients with head and neck cancer. Methods:128 patients with head and neck cancer were selected.They were treated with radiation therapy.They were randomly divided into the study group and the control group.The control group was given conventional oral nursing and self-made oral liquid.The study group was given Kangfuxin liquid on the basis of the control group.The radioactive oral mucosa reaction degrees, eating situations and ulcer healing times were compared between the two groups.Results:The oral mucosa reaction degree of the study group was significantly less than that of the control group,the eating situation was significantly better than that of the control group,the ulcer healing time was shorter than that of the control group(P<0.05).Conclusion:Kangfuxin liquid combined with self-made oral liquid can significantly reduce the radioactive oral mucosa damage caused by head and neck cancer radiotherapy, shorten the pain time,promote ulcer healing.%目的:评价康复新液联合自配口服液防治头颈部肿瘤患者放射治疗引起放射性口腔黏膜损伤的临床应用价值。方法:收治头颈部肿瘤患者128例,均给予放射性治疗,随机分为研究组与对照组。对照组给予常规口腔护理及自配口服液,研究组在对照组的基础上给予康复新液。对比两组放射性口腔黏膜反应程度、进食情况及溃疡愈合时间。结果:研究组口腔黏膜反应程度明显轻于对照组,进食情况明显优于对照组,溃疡愈合时间短于对照组(P<0.05)。结论:康复新液联合自配口服液明显减轻头颈部肿瘤放疗引起的放射性口腔黏膜损伤,缩短疼痛时间,促进溃疡愈合。

  7. Combined oral contraceptive containing drospirenone does not modify 24-h ambulatory blood pressure but increases heart rate in healthy young women: prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnacci, Angelo; Ferrari, Serena; Napolitano, Antonella; Piacenti, Ilaria; Arangino, Serenella; Volpe, Annibale

    2013-09-01

    Hypertension is a primary cardiovascular risk factor. Oral contraceptives (OCs) may increase blood pressure and cardiovascular events. We evaluated whether an OC containing ethynylestradiol (EE) in association with the spironolactone-derived progestin drospirenone (DRSP) influences 24-h ambulatory blood pressure of normotensive women. Twenty-four-hour blood pressure was measured every 30 min by an ambulatory blood pressure device in 18 normotensive healthy women prior to and after 6 months of use of an OC containing 30 mcg EE and 3 mg DRSP. OC induced no modification in 24-h, nighttime and daytime blood pressure. Heart rate increased about 4 beats/min in the 24-h (pblood pressure, and significantly increases 24-h and daytime heart rate. These data suggest a neutral effect on hypertension-associated cardiovascular risk and point out an unreported effect on heart rate of which cause and effect require further evaluation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Evaluation of host quality of life and immune function in breast cancer patients treated with combination of adjuvant chemotherapy and oral administration of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagashima Y

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Yukiko Nagashima,1 Noriko Maeda,2 Shigeru Yamamoto,2 Shigefumi Yoshino,2 Masaaki Oka21Department of Breast and Thyroid Surgery, Shakaihoken Shimonoseki Kosei Hospital, Shimonoseki City, Yamaguchi, Japan; 2Department of Digestive Surgery and Surgical Oncology, Yamaguchi University Graduate School of Medicine, Ube City, Yamaguchi, JapanPurpose: Anthracycline-based chemotherapies for breast cancer are well known to have adverse effects and can also negatively affect host immune function. There is therefore a necessity for an adjuvant that maintains the quality of life (QOL and immune function of cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based chemotherapies.Patients and methods: The present study investigated the effectiveness of the concomitant use of Lentinula edodes mycelia extract (LEM, an oral immunomodulator, with FEC75 (5-fluorouracil + epirubicin + cyclophosphamide therapy on host QOL and immune function in breast cancer patients with nodal metastases. Ten breast cancer patients with nodal metastases receiving surgery were enrolled in this study. Treatment with 5-fluorouracil (500 mg/m2, epirubicin (75 mg/m2, and cyclophosphamide (500 mg/m2 was performed every 21 days for two courses, and LEM (1800 mg/day by mouth was administered during the second course.Results: In the first course, hematological toxicity was observed and host QOL and immune function were exacerbated. In the second course, however, the number of white blood cells and lymphocytes did not decrease and host QOL was maintained. Furthermore, the cytotoxic activities of natural killer (NK and lymphokine-activated killer cells and the proportion of activated NK and NK T-cells in lymphocytes were maintained in the second course.Conclusion: It has been suggested that the concomitant use of LEM with FEC75 therapy can maintain host QOL and immune function, and offer important implications for an application of LEM as a useful oral adjuvant to anthracycline-based chemotherapies

  9. Silicon microchannel cooling panel for NA62 Giga-Tracker, proposal G.Nuessle : a first thermo-hydraulic layout attempt for use with monophase, liquid C6F14 circulation

    CERN Document Server

    Wertelaers, P

    2010-01-01

    In this proposal, where the hydraulic regime (laminar) of the liquid (monophase) is simple, analytical recipes can be worked out. They show clearly the scaling laws in the relation from coolant pressure budget to panel temperature chart. If the line length is irreducible, then the individual channels cannot become arbitrarily small, even if, then, there can be many to take the total thermal load. The reason is that the "capacitive" component would explode. Apart from showing this, the Note also discusses cross-coupling effects between adjacent U-shaped channels.

  10. Effect of a novel oral chemotherapeutic agent containing a combination of trifluridine, tipiracil and the novel triple angiokinase inhibitor nintedanib, on human colorectal cancer xenografts

    OpenAIRE

    SUZUKI, Norihiko; NAKAGAWA, FUMIO; Matsuoka, Kazuaki; Takechi, Teiji

    2016-01-01

    Trifluridine/tipiracil (TFTD) is a combination drug that is used for the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer and was formerly known as TAS-102. It is a combination of two active pharmaceutical compounds, trifluridine, an antineoplastic thymidine-based nucleoside analog, and tipiracil, which enhances the bioavailability of trifluridine in vivo. TFTD is used for the treatment of patients with unresectable advanced or recurrent colorectal cancer that is resistant to standard therapies. In ...

  11. Combination therapy for erectile dysfunction: a randomized, double blind, unblinded active-controlled, cross-over study of the pharmacodynamics and safety of combined oral formulations of apomorphine hydrochloride, phentolamine mesylate and papaverine hydrochloride in men with moderate to severe erectile dysfunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammers, P I; Rubio-Aurioles, E; Castell, R; Castaneda, J; Ponce de Leon, R; Hurley, D; Lipezker, M; Loehr, L A; Lowrey, F

    2002-02-01

    Oral therapy has become first line treatment for patients with mild to moderate erectile dysfunction (ED). Studies have shown that sildenafil may not be effective in all patients, and has been associated with a variety of adverse effects and an adverse interaction with nitrates and inhibitors of cytochrome P450 enzymes. The objective was to compare the efficacy and safety of three different oral combinations with the highest dose of sildenafil in men with moderate to severe ED. Randomized, double blind, unblinded active-controlled, Phase II study was carried out at three sites in Mexico. After a 4-week placebo run-in period, patients received all four of the following treatments using a 4-way cross-over design: 40 mg phentolamine (PM) +6 mg apomorphine (Apo); 40 mg PM +150 mg papaverine (Pap); 40 mg PM +6 mg Apo +150 mg Pap (Tricombo); 100 mg sildenafil (SC). With the exception of sildenafil tablets, all study medication was blinded. Moderate to severe ED was defined as a less than 50% vaginal penetration success rate during the placebo run-in period. A total of 44 patients were enrolled, of whom 36 completed all four treatment periods. All treatments produced a significant effect in primary efficacy variable (Sexual Encounter Profile) compared to baseline, however, no statistically significant differences were found between treatments. A significant period effect was observed. Also, the four treatments were found not to differ significantly in five out of six secondary efficacy variables. The lowest incidence of treatment-related adverse events (AE) occurred in the 40 mg PM +6 mg Apo group (9.8%), followed by 100 mg SC (15%), and the other two combinations (16.7 and 17.5%, respectively). Nasocongestion and headache were the most frequently reported AE. An oral combination of vasoactive agents may provide an alternative approach to sildenafil. Based on these results a combination of phentolamine and apomorphine warrants further clinical investigation.

  12. Effect of different oral hygiene measures on oral malodor in children aged 7-15 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piyusha S Patil

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: To evaluate the effect of various oral hygiene measures individually and in combination in reducing oral malodor. Materials and Methods: A total number of 120 children diagnosed as having oral malodor (oral malodor scores 2 and above were included in the study. Children were then grouped under four oral hygiene categories (tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, mouth rinsing, and a combination group. There were 30 children in each group. The children were asked to perform oral hygiene methods individually and in combination. The children were then reassessed for oral malodor 2 h later. The results were analyzed and compared. Results: Both individual oral hygiene measure or in combination of tooth brushing, tongue cleaning, and mouth rinsing; all were effective in reducing oral malodor. Significant reduction (P < 0.05 in oral malodor was seen when all three oral hygiene measures performed together. Conclusion: Oral malodor was significantly reduced after performing oral hygiene measures individually, but reduced more when used in combination.

  13. Oral Histoplasmosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Folk, Gillian A; Nelson, Brenda L

    2017-02-20

    A 44-year-old female presented to her general dentist with the chief complaint of a painful mouth sore of 2 weeks duration. Clinical examination revealed an irregularly shaped ulcer of the buccal and lingual attached gingiva of the anterior mandible. A biopsy was performed and microscopic evaluation revealed histoplasmosis. Histoplasmosis, caused by Histoplasma capsulate, is the most common fungal infection in the United States. Oral lesions of histoplasmosis are generally associated with the disseminated form of histoplasmosis and may present as a fungating or ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa. The histologic findings and differential diagnosis for oral histoplasmosis are discussed.

  14. Oral leukoplakia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmstrup, Palle; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2016-01-01

    The idea of identifying oral lesions with a precancerous nature, i.e. in the sense of pertaining to a pathologic process with an increased risk for future malignant development, of course is to prevent frank malignancy to occur in the affected area. The most common oral lesion with a precancerous...... nature is oral leukoplakia, and for decades it has been discussed how to treat these lesions. Various treatment modalities, such as systemic therapies and surgical removal, have been suggested. The systemic therapies tested so far include retinoids, extracts of green tea, inhibitors of cyclooxygenase-2...

  15. Increased capillary permeability for plasma proteins in oral contraceptive users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tollan, A; Kvenild, K; Strand, H; Oian, P; Maltau, J M

    1992-05-01

    The transcapillary fluid balance was examined in eleven women before administration of a monophasic oral contraceptive (desogestrel 0.15 mg, ethinylestradiol 0.03 mg), and after three and six months of use. The interstitial colloid osmotic pressure was measured by the "wick" method, and the interstitial hydrostatic pressure by the "wick-in-needle" method in subcutaneous tissue on thorax and leg. During the six-month observation period, the following changes were observed: Plasma colloid osmotic pressure decreased (mean 1.8 mmHg, p = 0.047), as well as serum albumin (mean 5.1 g/l, p = 0.0006), total protein concentration (mean 2.8 g/l, p = 0.0006), hemoglobin (mean 0.5 g/dl, p = 0.014) and hematocrit (mean 1.8%, p = 0.047). Blood pressure and body weight remained unchanged, but foot volume showed a significant increase. The colloid osmotic pressure gradient (plasma-interstitium) was significantly reduced. The results indicate an increase in plasma volume in addition to an increased capillary permeability to plasma proteins during oral contraceptive use. We suggest that the observed changes in transcapillary fluid balance is caused by the estrogen component of the oral contraceptive pill.

  16. Oral pathology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niemiec, Brook A

    2008-05-01

    Oral disease is exceedingly common in small animal patients. In addition, there is a very wide variety of pathologies that are encountered within the oral cavity. These conditions often cause significant pain and/or localized and systemic infection; however, the majority of these conditions have little to no obvious clinical signs. Therefore, diagnosis is not typically made until late in the disease course. Knowledge of these diseases will better equip the practitioner to effectively treat them. This article covers the more common forms of oral pathology in the dog and cat, excluding periodontal disease, which is covered in its own chapter. The various pathologies are presented in graphic form, and the etiology, clinical signs, recommended diagnostic tests, and treatment options are discussed. Pathologies that are covered include: persistent deciduous teeth, fractured teeth, intrinsically stained teeth, feline tooth resorption, caries, oral neoplasia, eosinophilic granuloma complex, lymphoplasmacytic gingivostomatitis, enamel hypoplasia, and "missing" teeth.

  17. Herpes - oral

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000606.htm Herpes - oral To use the sharing features on this page, ... 374. Read More Atopic dermatitis Cancer Fever Genital herpes Mouth ulcers Vesicles Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated ...

  18. Disparities in Oral Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2020: Oral Health Objectives Site Map Disparities in Oral Health Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Oral health ... to get and keep dental insurance. Disparities in Oral Health Some of the oral health disparities that exist ...

  19. Current stress and poor oral health

    OpenAIRE

    Vasiliou, A.; Shankardass, K.; Nisenbaum, R; Quiñonez, C.

    2016-01-01

    Background Psychological stress appears to contribute to poor oral health systemically in combination with other chronic diseases. Few studies directly examine this relationship. Methods Data from a cross-sectional study of 2,412 participants between the ages of 25–64 years old living in the City of Toronto between 2009 and 2012 were used to examine the relationship between current stress and two self-rated oral health outcomes (general oral health and oral pain). Dental care utilization and ...

  20. A combinative analysis of gene expression profiles and microRNA expression profiles identifies critical genes and microRNAs in oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Qing; Wang, Xinwen; Liu, Yuan; Wei, Minghui; Chen, Lihua

    2016-08-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a chronic inflammatory disease but aetiology and pathogenesis has not fully elucidated. To gain insight into the mechanism of OLP, bioinformatic analysis was performed in this study. GSE38616 and GSE38615 were downloaded from GEO, including 7 cases of OLP and 7 healthy controls. Differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and miRNAs (DEMs) between OLP and control were screened with package Limma of R. Potential regulatory miRNAs were screened via gene set enrichment analysis. A protein-protein interaction network was constructed for the DEGs. KEGG pathways for DEGs were revealed using Gene Set Analysis Toolkit V2. After DEGs and DEMs were obtained, potential regulatory miRNAs of the DEGs were revealed and only miR-362 was differentially expressed in OLP compared with DEMs. Four targets of miR-362 were SLIT-ROBO Rho GTPase activating protein 2 (SRGAP2), vesicle-associated membrane protein 4 (VAMP4), leucine rich repeat transmembrane neuronal 4 (LRRTM4) and lysine (K)-specific demethylase5C (KDM5C). Identified DEGs were significantly enriched in olfactory transduction and ribosome pathways. miR-362, targeting SRGAP2 and VAMP4, may be a potential risk miRNA to regulate OLP. The findings may provide potential biomarkers for diagnosis or treatment of the disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Oral heparin: status review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gomez-Orellana Isabel

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Unfractionated heparin and low molecular weight heparin are the most commonly used antithrombotic and thromboprophylactic agents in hospital practice. Extended out-of-hospital treatment is inconvenient in that these agents must be administered parenterally. Current research is directed at development of a safe and effective oral antithrombotic agent as an alternative for the effective, yet difficult to use vitamin K antagonists. A novel drug delivery technology that facilitates transport of drugs across the gastrointestinal epithelium has been harnessed to develop an oral dosage form of unfractionated heparin. Combining unfractionated heparin with the carrier molecule, sodium N-(8 [2-hydroxybenzoyl]amino caprylate, or SNAC has markedly increased the gastrointestinal absorption of this drug. Preclinical and clinical studies to-date suggests that oral heparin-SNAC can confer a clinical efficacious effect; further confirmation is sought in planned clinical trials.

  2. Imatinib in combination with hydroxyurea versus hydroxyurea alone as oral therapy in patients with progressive pretreated glioblastoma resistant to standard dose temozolomide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dresemann, Gregor; Weller, Michael; Rosenthal, Mark A; Wedding, Ulrich; Wagner, Wolfgang; Engel, Erik; Heinrich, Bernhard; Mayer-Steinacker, Regine; Karup-Hansen, Anders; Fluge, Oystein; Nowak, Anna; Mehdorn, Maximilian; Schleyer, Eberhard; Krex, Dietmar; Olver, Ian N; Steinbach, Joachim P; Hosius, Christian; Sieder, Christian; Sorenson, Greg; Parker, Richard; Nikolova, Zariana

    2010-02-01

    A randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study of patients with progressive, recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for whom front-line therapy had failed was conducted. This study was designed to determine whether combination therapy with imatinib and hydroxyurea (HU) has superior antitumor activity compared with HU monotherapy in the treatment of recurrent GBM. The target population consisted of patients with confirmed recurrent GBM and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status of 0-2 who had completed previous treatment comprising surgical resection, irradiation therapy, and first-line chemotherapy (preferably temozolomide (TMZ) containing regimen) and who have progressed despite treatment. If first-line chemotherapy did not contain TMZ, a second completed chemotherapy was acceptable. The primary efficacy parameter was progression-free survival (PFS). The primary comparison of combination therapy versus monotherapy for PFS was not significant (adjusted P = 0.56). The hazard ratio (HR) (adjusted HR = 0.93) was not clinically relevant. The median PFS for the combination arm was low at 6 weeks and similar to the median PFS in the monotherapy arm (6 weeks). The 6-month PFS for the two treatment groups was very similar (5% in the combination arm vs. 7% in the monotherapy arm). No clinically meaningful differences were found between the two treatment arms, and the primary study end point was not met. Among the patients receiving imatinib, no adverse events were reported that were either previously unknown or unexpected as a consequence of the disease.

  3. Imatinib in combination with hydroxyurea versus hydroxyurea alone as oral therapy in patients with progressive pretreated glioblastoma resistant to standard dose temozolomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresemann, G.; Weller, M.; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann Maria

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study of patients with progressive, recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for whom front-line therapy had failed was conducted. This study was designed to determine whether combination therapy with imatinib and hydroxyurea (HU) has superior antitum...

  4. Chronic oral administration of low-dose combination of fenofibrate and rosuvastatin protects the rat heart against experimentally induced acute myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garg, Monika; Khanna, Deepa; Kalra, Sanjeev; Balakumar, Pitchai

    2016-10-01

    Fenofibrate and rosuvastatin at low doses might have experimental pleiotropic benefits. This study investigated the combined effect of low doses of fenofibrate and rosuvastatin in isoproterenol-induced experimental myocardial infarction. Rats administered isoproterenol (85 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 2 days (day 29 and day 30) of 30 days experimental protocol developed significant myocardial infarction that was accompanied with high myocardial oxidative stress and lipid peroxidation, elevated serum markers of cardiac injury, lipid abnormalities, and elevated circulatory levels of C-reactive protein. Pretreatment with low doses of fenofibrate (30 mg/kg/day p.o., 30 days) and rosuvastatin (2 mg/kg/day p.o., 30 days) both alone or in combination markedly prevented isoproterenol-induced myocardial infarction and associated abnormalities while the low-dose combination of fenofibrate and rosuvastatin was more effective. Histopathological study in isoproterenol control rat heart showed necrosis with edema and acute inflammation at the margins of necrotic area. The rat heart from low-dose fenofibrate and rosuvastatin pretreated group showed scanty inflammation and no ischemia. In conclusion, fenofibrate and rosuvastatin pretreatment in low doses might have a therapeutic potential to prevent the pathogenesis of myocardial infarction. Moreover, their combined treatment option might offer superior therapeutic benefits via a marked reduction in myocardial infarct size and oxidative stress, suggesting a possibility of their pleiotropic cardioprotective action at low doses. © 2016 Société Française de Pharmacologie et de Thérapeutique.

  5. Single dose sublingual testosterone and oral sildenafil versus a dual-route/dual-release fixed-dose combination tablet : a pharmacokinetic comparison

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bloemers, J; van Rooij, K; de Leede, L; Frijlink, H W; Koppeschaar, H P F; Olivier, B; Tuiten, A

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To compare the pharmacokinetic profiles of two formulations of a combination drug product containing 0.5 mg testosterone and 50 mg sildenafil for Female Sexual Interest/Arousal Disorder. The prototype (formulation 1), consists of a testosterone solution for sublingual administration, and a sild

  6. Imatinib in combination with hydroxyurea versus hydroxyurea alone as oral therapy in patients with progressive pretreated glioblastoma resistant to standard dose temozolomide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dresemann, G.; Weller, M.; Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann Maria

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, multicenter, open-label, phase 3 study of patients with progressive, recurrent glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for whom front-line therapy had failed was conducted. This study was designed to determine whether combination therapy with imatinib and hydroxyurea (HU) has superior antitum...

  7. Subclinical effects of groundwater contaminants. Pt. 4. Effects of repeated oral exposure to combinations of benzene and toluene on regional brain monoamine metabolism in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, G.C.; Parker, R.D.R. (Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (USA). Dept. of Biology); Sharma, R.P. (Utah State Univ., Logan, UT (USA). Dept. of Animal, Dairy and Veterinary Sciences)

    1990-11-01

    The effect of combined treatment with benzene and toluene on the endogenous concentrations of the catecholamines norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA), the catecholamine metabolites vanillylmandelic acid (VMA), 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid (DOPAC) and homovanillic acid (HVA), and the indoleamine serotonin (5-HT) and its metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA), were investigated in six discrete brain regions of CD-1 mice. Groups of male, adult mice were continuously exposed to benzene (166 mg/l), toluene (80 and 325 mg/l), and combinations of benzene + toluene (80 or 325 mg/l) in drinking water for 4 weeks. Benzene produced increases of NE in the hypothalamus, cortex, midbrain and medulla oblongata, DA in the hypothalamus and corpus striatum, and 5-HT in all dissected brain regions except cerebellum. Elevated levels of various monoamine metabolites were also observed in these brain areas. Toluene ingestion alone also significantly increased the concentrations of NE, DA, 5-HT, and their metabolites in several brain regions. Mice given the combined treatments exhibited raised regional neurochemical levels when compared to the untreated controls. Increased concentrations of biogenic amine metabolites in several brain regions were greater in the combined exposures of benzene and toluene than when either chemical was used alone. The findings were different from those observed on immune parameters using similar treatment protocols, where simultaneous exposure to toluene prevented the immunotoxic effects of benzene. (orig./MG).

  8. The lowest-dose, extended-cycle combined oral contraceptive pill with continuous ethinyl estradiol in the United States: a review of the literature on ethinyl estradiol 20 µg/levonorgestrel 100 µg + ethinyl estradiol 10 µg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheila Krishnan

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Sheila Krishnan, Jessica KileyDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Northwestern University, Chicago, Illinois, USAAbstract: Extended-cycle oral contraceptives (OCs are increasing in popularity in the United States. A new extended-cycle OC that contains the lowest doses of ethinyl estradiol (EE and levonorgestrel (LNG + continuous EE throughout the cycle is now available. It provides 84 days of a low-dose, combined active pill containing levonorgestrel 100 µg and ethinyl estradiol 20 µg. Instead of 7 days of placebo following the active pills, the regimen delivers 7 days of ethinyl estradiol 10 µg. Existing studies reveal a similar efficacy and adverse effect profile compared with other extended-regimen OCs. Specifically, the unscheduled bleeding profile is similar to other extended-cycle OCs and improves with the increase in the duration of use. Although lower daily doses of hormonal exposure have potential benefit, to our knowledge, there are no published studies indicating that this specific regimen offers a lower incidence of hormone-related side effects or adverse events. In summary, this new extended-cycle OC provides patients a low-dose, extended-regimen OC option without sacrificing efficacy or tolerability.Keywords: continuous regimen, ethinyl estradiol, extended cycle, oral contraceptive

  9. Yinzhihuang oral liquid combined with mommy loves to observe the intervention of neonatal jaundice%茵栀黄口服液联用妈咪爱干预新生儿黄疸疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程永浩

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨茵栀黄口服液联用妈咪爱干预新生儿黄疸的疗效。方法:将150例足月新生儿黄疸患儿,随机分为观察组和对照组,两组新生儿均给予早期充足哺乳等常规措施,观察组在此基础上于新生儿出生1d后给予口服茵栀黄口服液及妈咪爱,观察两组患儿在用药后新生儿胆红素峰值,需蓝光治疗的概率。结果:观察组新生儿黄疸峰值明显低于对照组(P<0.05),两组新生儿黄疸需蓝光治疗的概率间差异有统计学意义(P<0.01)。结论:茵栀黄口服液、妈咪爱可以有效降低新生儿黄疸峰值,减少需蓝光治疗患儿的比率,且疗效显著,安全可靠,值得临床推广。%Objective:To investigate the clinical effect of Yinzhihuang oral liquid combined with mommy loves intervention of neonatal jaundice.Methods:150 cases of neonatal jaundice, were randomly divided into observation group and control group, two neonates were given early enough lactation and conventional measures, on the basis of the observation group in the newborn after 1D treated with oral administration of Yinzhihuang oral liquid and mommy love, the two groups were observed in neonatal bilirubin peak, probability to Blu ray treatment.Results: the group of neonatal jaundice peak was significantly lower than the control group (P<0.05), the difference has statistical signifi-cance probability two groups of neonatal jaundice needs between Blu ray treatment(P<0.01).Conclusion:Yinzhihuang oral liquid, mommy loves can effectively reduce the neonatal jaundice peak, decrease the ratio of blue light in the treatment of children. It has significant effect, safe and reliable, worthy of clinical application.

  10. Clinical study on ribavirin in combination with polyinosinic drug in the treatment of oral herpes simplex%利巴韦林联合聚肌胞治疗口腔单纯疱疹的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦祖印; 黄榕芳

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨利巴韦林联合聚肌胞治疗口腔单纯疱疹的临床疗效及安全性。方法将80例口腔单纯疱疹患者随机分为两组,各40例。对照组给予利巴韦林口服,同时服用双黄连口服液治疗;观察组在此基础上加用聚肌胞肌内注射治疗。疗程均为7 d,对比两组的临床治疗效果。结果观察组患者水疱或溃疡完全结痂时间及脱痂时间均短于对照组( P <0.05);治疗5 d时评价治疗效果,观察组总显效率高于对照组( P <0.05);两组药物不良反应发生率比较差异无统计学意义( P >0.05)。结论利巴韦林联合聚肌胞治疗口腔单纯疱疹临床效果确切,能明显缩短水疱或溃疡恢复所需时间,不良反应发生率低。%Objective The clinical efficacy and safety of objective ribavirin joint polyinosinic drug in the treatment of simple oral herpes.Meth ods Eighty cases of patients with oral herpes simplex,were randomly divided into observation group and control group and each group has with 40 cases,the control group were given oral ribavirin,observation group were added with polyinosinic in-jection,7 d,in the course of treatment,and were observed curative effect of treating.Results In the observation group,the time of blis-ters or ulcers crusting and decrustating was shorter than that in control group( P 0.05).Conclusion Combined ribavirin with polyinosinic treatment of oral herpes simplex can shorten the time required to restore the blisters or ulcers,incidence of drug adverse reactions is low.

  11. Oral supplement enriched in HMB combined with pulmonary rehabilitation improves body composition and health related quality of life in patients with bronchiectasis (Prospective, Randomised Study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olveira, Gabriel; Olveira, Casilda; Doña, Esperanza; Palenque, Francisco Javier; Porras, Nuria; Dorado, Antonio; Godoy, Ana M; Rubio-Martínez, Elehazara; Rojo-Martínez, Gemma; Martín-Valero, Rocío

    2016-10-01

    Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) is recommended for bronchiectasis but there is no data about its effect on body composition. The aim of this study is to assess the effect of Pulmonary Rehabilitation (PR) for 12 weeks in normally-nourished non-cystic-fibrosis bronchiectasis patients compared with the effect of PR plus a hyperproteic oral nutritional supplement enriched with beta-hydroxy-beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) on body composition, muscle strength, quality of life and serum biomarkers. single center randomized controlled trial, parallel treatment design: Participants were randomly assigned to receive PR for 12 weeks or PR plus ONS (PRONS) (one can per day). Outcome assessments were performed at baseline, 12 weeks and 24 weeks: body composition (Dual-energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DEXA), mid-arm muscle circumference (MAMC), phase angle by Bio-impedance), health related quality of life (Spanish QOL-B-V3.0, Physical Functioning Scale), handgrip strength, diet questionnaire, and plasma levels of prealbumin, myostatin and somatomedin-c. Thirty patients were randomized (15 per group) without differences in clinical and respiratory variables. In the PRONS group bone mineral density (BMD), mean and maximum handgrip dynamometry, MAMC, QOLB and prealbumin were significantly increased from baseline at 12 and 24 weeks and Fat free Mass (FFM) and FFM index, at 12 weeks. In the PR group only mean handgrip dynamometry and prealbumin were significantly increased at 12 and 24 weeks. In both groups plasma myostatin was reduced at 12 weeks (without significant differences). The addition of a hyperproteic ONS enriched with HMB to Pulmonary Rehabilitation could improve body composition, BMD, muscle strength and health related quality of life in bronchiectasis patients. Clinical Trials Number NCT02048397. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  12. 复方口服避孕药对垂体-卵巢轴激素及卵泡发育的影响%Pituitary-ovarian hormone and follicular development of various combined oral contraceptives regimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄培; 黄勋彬

    2015-01-01

    复方口服避孕药(combined oral contraceptives,COCs)由外源性雌孕激素配伍而成,主要是通过高于生理水平的雌孕激素负反馈抑制垂体-卵巢轴,降低内源性促性腺激素和性激素的水平,影响卵泡的发育而避孕.但在周期性的COCs的无活性药间期(hormone-free interval,HFI)会有垂体-卵巢轴活性的恢复,其激素水平的变化及卵泡发育的情况与雌激素的剂量、孕激素的剂型、HFI的改变相关.

  13. Rosiglitazone evaluated for cardiovascular outcomes in oral agent combination therapy for type 2 diabetes (RECORD): a multicentre, randomised, open-label trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Home, Philip D; Pocock, Stuart J; Beck-Nielsen, Henning

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Rosiglitazone is an insulin sensitiser used in combination with metformin, a sulfonylurea, or both, for lowering blood glucose in people with type 2 diabetes. We assessed cardiovascular outcomes after addition of rosiglitazone to either metformin or sulfonylurea compared with the comb......BACKGROUND: Rosiglitazone is an insulin sensitiser used in combination with metformin, a sulfonylurea, or both, for lowering blood glucose in people with type 2 diabetes. We assessed cardiovascular outcomes after addition of rosiglitazone to either metformin or sulfonylurea compared...... with the combination of the two over 5-7 years of follow-up. We also assessed comparative safety. METHODS: In a multicentre, open-label trial, 4447 patients with type 2 diabetes on metformin or sulfonylurea monotherapy with mean haemoglobin A(1c) (HbA(1c)) of 7.9% were randomly assigned to addition of rosiglitazone (n...... were increased mainly in women randomly assigned to rosiglitazone. Mean HbA(1c) was lower in the rosiglitazone group than in the control group at 5 years. INTERPRETATION: Addition of rosiglitazone to glucose-lowering therapy in people with type 2 diabetes is confirmed to increase the risk of heart...

  14. Effects of interstitial chemotherapy combined with surgery in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma%间质化疗联合手术对口腔鳞癌的临床疗效

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张香子; 玄云泽

    2013-01-01

    目的:探讨间质化疗联合手术治疗口腔鳞癌的疗效.方法:自1998-01~2008-11对149例口腔鳞癌患者进行间质化疗联合手术(77例)及常规化疗联合手术(72例),观察2组的复发率、转移率、不良反应及近期生存率等.结果:间质化疗联合手术组与常规化疗联合手术组相比术后复发率、原发灶大小变化、生存率均较大、不良反应发生率、手术后淋巴转移率均较小,有明显差异(P0.05).结论:间质化疗联合手术治疗口腔鳞癌效果优于常规化疗联合手术.%Objective: To study the effects of inlerslilial chemotherapy combined with surgery( ICS) in the treatment of oral squa-mous cell carcinoma( OSCC) . Methods: 149 patients with OSCC were treated by ICS 0.05) . Conclusion, Interstitial chemotherapy combined with surgery is more effective than conventional chemotherapy combined with surgery in the treatment of OSCC.

  15. Tramadol hydrochloride 75 mg/dexketoprofen 25 mg oral fixed-dose combination in moderate-to-severe acute pain: sustained analgesic effect over a 56-h period in the postoperative setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montero Matamala, A; Bertolotti, M; Contini, M P; Guerrero Bayón, C; Nizzardo, A; Paredes Lario, I; Pizà Vallespir, B; Scartoni, S; Tonini, G; Capriati, A; Pellacani, A

    2017-06-01

    Multimodal analgesia constitutes a common strategy in pain management. A tramadol hydrochloride 75 mg/dexketoprofen 25 mg oral fixed combination (TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg) has been recently registered and released in Europe for the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain. This paper provides additional analyses on the results of two phase III clinical trials (DEX-TRA-04 and DEX-TRA-05) on postoperative pain to document its sustained effect. The analysis was applied to a modified intention-to-treat population (mITT, n = 933) of patients undergoing active treatment from the first dose, to assess the sustained effect of TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg on pain intensity (PI-VAS 0-100) over 56 h from first drug intake. The superior analgesic effect of TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg over 56 h in terms of difference in PI-VAS (mean [SE]) was shown for DEX-TRA-04 (-11.0 [0.55] over dexketoprofen 25 mg and -9.1 [0.55] over tramadol 100 mg, P ≤ 0.0001) and for DEX-TRA-05 (-10.4 [0.51] over dexketoprofen 25 mg and -8.3 [0.51] over tramadol 100 mg, P ≤ 0.0001). The statistical analysis performed on data coming from both studies confirms the superior sustained analgesia of TRAM/DKP 75 mg/25 mg over tramadol 100 mg and dexketoprofen 25 mg. These results are consistent with the previously published data obtained on the ITT population and strongly support the role of this oral fixed-dose combination in the treatment of moderate-to-severe acute pain. Copyright 2017 Clarivate Analytics.

  16. 水氧联合丹参酮胶囊治疗中重度痤疮的疗效观察%To Observe the Curative Effect of Acne about Using the Water Oxygen Combined Oral Tanshinone Capsule

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    房武宁

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the curative ef ect of acne about using the water oxygen combined oral tanshinone capsule.Methods Selected 88 cases of patients with moderately severe acne in the hospital dermatology clinic.Randomly divided into treatment group and control group.The treatment group treated with water oximeter and tanshinone capsule and control group used tanshinone capsule. Observed their curative ef ect after 2 months.Results Treatment group total ef ective rate was 88.64%,obviously much higher than the control group of 70.45%.The dif erence had statistical significance ( <0.05).Conclusion The curative ef ect of acne about using the water oxygen combined oral tanshinone capsule is remarkable.%目的观察水氧联合口服丹参酮胶囊治疗中重度痤疮的疗效。方法选取我院皮肤科门诊就诊的88例中重度痤疮患者,随机平分为两组,其中治疗组44例予水氧仪治疗联合口服丹参酮胶囊。对照组44例予丹参酮胶囊口服,治疗2个月后观察并对比其疗效。结果治疗组总有效率为88.64%,明显比对照组中的70.45%要高得多,其差异具有统计学上的意义(<0.05)。结论水氧联合丹参酮胶囊治疗中重度痤疮疗效较显著。

  17. Disease Assessment of Elderly Patients with Early and Middle Stage Knee Osteoarthritis took the Kidney-tonifying and tendons-relaxing formula orally, combined with fumigations and odium hyaluronate injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Guang Huang; Guang-Hua Yuan; Kang Chen; Xiao Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the diseases condition of the elderly patients with early and middle stage osteoarthritis of the knee took the Kidney-tonifying and tendons-relaxing formula orally, combined with fumigations and odium hyaluronate injection.Methods:A total of 78 cases of elderly knee osteoarthritis patients were selected in our hospital from August 2011 to February 2014 as observation group. 88 cases of joint function normal healthy people were chosen as the control group. After treatment, differences of serum protein expressions and CTX II, COMP, HA levels as well as related factors of Hippo-Yap signaling pathway in the synovial fluid, such as HMGB2, CCL1 and PD-1of the two groups were compared.Results:after treatment, serum PON-1, paraoxonase-3, AMBP, ApoM, KAP and TN expression levels in the observation group were higher than those of the control group patients. APOL1 level was lower than that of the control group. After 1 month, 3 months and 6 months’ treatment, serum COMP level in the observation group was lower than that in the control group patients. CTX II, HA levels were higher than those in the control group. After 1 month, 3 months and 6 months’ treatment YAP, BCL-2 levels in synovial fluid in the observation group were higher than those in the control group. Synovial fluid HMGB2 CCL1, NO and PD-1 levels of the observation group patients after treatment were lower than those of the control group.Conclusions:the elderly patients with early and middle stage knee osteoarthritis can be treated by oral administration, fumigation combined with sodium hyaluronate injection in the treatment of knee osteoarthritis, which can optimize the whole body and local non-infective inflammatory state, and promote the rehabilitation of the patients.

  18. [Oral candidiasis: clinical features and control].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Tetsuya

    2010-10-01

    Candidiasis is the most commonly encountered fungal infection, and oral candidiasis is often observed as a local opportunistic infection. Oral candidiasis is clinically divided into three types: acute forms, chronic forms, and Candida-associated lesions. Candida adhesion and multiplication are largely regulated by the local and systemic factors of the host. The local factors include impairment of the oral mucosal integrity, which is usually impaired by hyposalivation, anticancer drugs/radiation for head and neck cancers, denture wearing, a decrease in the oral bacterial population, and poor oral hygiene. Among Candida species, oral candidiasis is mostly caused by Candida albicans (C. albicans), C. glabrata, or C. tropicalis. Oral Candida induces a variety of symptoms, such as oral mucosal inflammation manifesting as an uncomfortable feeling, pain, erythema, erosion, taste abnormalities, and hyperplasia of the oral mucosa. Candida overgrowth in the oral cavity may disseminate to distant organs. Therefore, in order to avoid the sequelae of systemic candidiasis, oral candidiasis should be rapidly controlled. Oral candidiasis is usually treated by the local application of antifungal drugs. However, oral candidiasis occasionally escapes the control of such local treatment due to the development of multi-drug resistant Candida strains and species or due to the suppression of salivation or cellular immune activity. When drug-resistant strains are suspected as the pathogens and when the host is generally compromised, the oral administration of combinations of antifungal drugs, enhancement of cellular immune activity, and improvement of the nutritional condition are recommended.

  19. Cardioprotective activity of placental growth factor combined with oral supplementation of L-arginine in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo L

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Liyun Luo,1,* Bairong Chen,1,* Yin Huang,1 Zibin Liang,2 Songbiao Li,1 Yuelan Yin,1 Jian Chen,1 Wei Wu1 1Department of Cardiology, 2Department of Oncological Radiotherapy, The Fifth Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, Zhuhai, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China*These authors contributed equally to this workObjective: Exogenous administration of placental growth factor (PlGF stimulates angiogenesis and improves ventricular remodeling after acute myocardial infarction (AMI, and supplementation with L-arginine ameliorates endothelial function. The objective of the present study was to compare the cardioprotective effects of combination therapy of PlGF and L-arginine with those of direct administration of PlGF alone in a rat model of AMI.Materials and methods: Fifty male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly divided into five groups: sham group, normal saline group, L-arginine group, PlGF group, and combination group (PlGF + L-arginine. An AMI rat model was established by ligation of the left anterior descending of coronary arteries. After 4 weeks of postligation treatment, cardiac function, scar area, angiogenesis and arteriogenesis, myocardial endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS and collagen I protein content, and plasma concentration of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP were studied. Echocardiography, Masson’s staining, immunohistochemical analyses, Western blot, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay were performed.Results: Left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF, left ventricular fraction shortening (LVFS, and capillary and arteriole densities were higher in the PlGF group than in the normal saline group (P<0.01. Scar area, collagen I protein content, and plasma concentration of BNP were decreased in the PlGF group (P<0.01. Myocardial eNOS protein level was elevated in the L-arginine group and PlGF + L-arginine group (P<0.01. Compared with the PlGF group, LVEF, LVFS, myocardial eNOS, and capillary and arteriole densities were

  20. Oral administration of fumonisin B1 and T-2 individually and in combination affects hepatic total and mitochondrial membrane lipid profile of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szabó, A; Szabó-Fodor, J; Fébel, H; Mézes, M; Bajzik, G; Kovács, M

    2016-09-01

    Weaned rabbits were fed diets contaminated with 2 mg/kg diet T-2 toxin alone, or 10 mg/kg diet fumonisin B1 (FB1) alone, and both toxins in combination (2 + 10 mg/kg, respectively) compared to a toxin-free control diet. Samplings were performed after 4 weeks (blood and liver). Bodyweight of T-2-fed group was lower after 4 weeks; the liver weight was increased dramatically (threefold of control). Liver total phospholipids (PLs) provided slight alterations in the fatty acid (FA) composition; all three toxin-treated groups showed a decrease in palmitoleic acid (C16:1 n7) proportion. In the liver mitochondrial PL FA composition, margaric acid (C17:0) proportion decreased in the separated toxin treatments compared to the combined setting. Oleic acid (C18:1 n9) proportion was increased and arachidonic acid (C20:4 n6) was decreased in the FB1-treated group, while docosapentaenoic acid (C22:5 n3) was decreased in the separated treatments. The total monounsaturation was significantly higher in the FB1 group's mitochondrial PL FA profile. After 4 weeks, all toxin treatments decreased the blood plasma reduced glutathione and glutathione peroxidase activity, and FB1 increased the plasma sphinganine/sphingosine ratio. Both mycotoxins seem to cross the hepatocellular and the hepatic mitochondrial membrane, without drastic membrane disruption, as assessed from the PL FA composition, but inducing detectable lipid peroxidation.

  1. Oral candidiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millsop, Jillian W; Fazel, Nasim

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidiasis (OC) is a common fungal disease encountered in dermatology, most commonly caused by an overgrowth of Candida albicans in the mouth. Although thrush is a well-recognized presentation of OC, it behooves clinicians to be aware of the many other presentations of this disease and how to accurately diagnose and manage these cases. The clinical presentations of OC can be broadly classified as white or erythematous candidiasis, with various subtypes in each category. The treatments include appropriate oral hygiene, topical agents, and systemic medications. This review focuses on the various clinical presentations of OC and treatment options.

  2. Oral myiasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Treville Pereira

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Myiasis is a relatively rare condition arising from the invasion of body tissues or cavities of living animals or humans by maggots or larvae of certain species of flies. It is an uncommon clinical condition, being more frequent in underdeveloped countries and hot climate regions, and is associated with poor hygiene, suppurative oral lesions; alcoholism and senility. Its diagnosis is made basically by the presence of larvae. The present article reports a case of oral myiasis involving 20 larvae in a patient with neurological deficiency.

  3. Q开关1064 nm激光联合氨甲环酸治疗黄褐斑临床观察%Combined Q-Switched Nd: YAG Laser and oral tranexamic acid for the treatment of melasma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓永辉; 苑凯华; 李勤; 蔡金辉

    2013-01-01

    目的 探讨Q开关1064 nm激光联合氨甲环酸治疗黄褐斑的临床疗效和安全性.方法 100例黄褐斑患者随机分为两组,每组50例.A组接受Q开关1064 nm激光治疗,同时口服氨甲环酸;B组单纯接受Q开关1064 nm激光治疗.经过3个疗程治疗后观察疗效及不良反应.结果 A组基本治愈率46%,有效率74%;B组基本治愈率18%,有效率30.2%,两组疗效差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).口服氨甲环酸8个月未见严重不良反应.结论 口服氨甲环酸可提高Q开关1064 nm激光治疗黄褐斑的临床疗效,且不良反应小.%Objective To explore the clinical effect and safety of treating melasma with the combination of Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser and oral tranexamic acid. Methods One hundred patients were randomly divided into group A and B. Group A was treated by Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser combinated with oral tranexamic acid. Group B was only treated by Q-Switched Nd:YAG Laser. The clinical effect and side effects were observed after three courses of treatment. Results In group A, the basic cure rates was 46%, total effective rate was 74%. In group B, the basic cure rates was 18%, total effective rate was 30.2%. The results had significant difference between the two groups (P<0.05). Conclusion Combination therapy can promote the efficacy of melasma and without severe side-effects.

  4. Oral calcitonin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdy RC

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Ronald C Hamdy,1,2 Dane N Daley11Osteoporosis Center, College of Medicine, East Tennessee State University, 2Veterans Affairs Medical Center, Johnson City, TN, USAAbstract: Calcitonin is a hormone secreted by the C-cells of the thyroid gland in response to elevations of the plasma calcium level. It reduces bone resorption by inhibiting mature active osteoclasts and increases renal calcium excretion. It is used in the management of postmenopausal osteoporosis, Paget's disease of bone, and malignancy-associated hypercalcemia. Synthetic and recombinant calcitonin preparations are available; both have similar pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic profiles. As calcitonin is a peptide, the traditional method of administration has been parenteral or intranasal. This hinders its clinical use: adherence with therapy is notoriously low, and withdrawal from clinical trials has been problematic. An oral formulation would be more attractive, practical, and convenient to patients. In addition to its effect on active osteoclasts and renal tubules, calcitonin has an analgesic action, possibly mediated through β-endorphins and the central modulation of pain perception. It also exerts a protective action on cartilage and may be useful in the management of osteoarthritis and possibly rheumatoid arthritis. Oral formulations of calcitonin have been developed using different techniques. The most studied involves drug-delivery carriers such as Eligen® 8-(N-2hydroxy-5-chloro-benzoyl-amino-caprylic acid (5-CNAC (Emisphere Technologies, Cedar Knolls, NJ. Several factors affect the bioavailability and efficacy of orally administered calcitonin, including amount of water used to take the tablet, time of day the tablet is taken, and proximity to intake of a meal. Preliminary results looked promising. Unfortunately, in two Phase III studies, oral calcitonin (0.8 mg with 200 mg 5-CNAC, once a day for postmenopausal osteoporosis and twice a day for osteoarthritis failed to

  5. 蝙蝠葛苏林碱对家兔在体心脏单相动作电位的影响%Effect of daurisoline on monophasic action potential of rabbit hearts in vivo

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李真; 林先明; 夏敬生; 杨晓燕; 龚培力; 曾繁典

    2001-01-01

    The use-dependent characteristics of daurisoline on monophasic action potentials (MAP) of the left ventricle of the rabbit heart in situ were recorded with MAP recording technique. The results showed that daurisoline decreased monophasic action potential amplitude (MAPA) and prolonged monophasic action potential duration at the 50% and 90% (MAPD50, MAPD90), effective refractory period (ERP), ERP/MAPD90 at the steady-state cycle lengths of 240, 210, 180 ms. The percent of prolongation of MAPD50 was 12.8±2.9, 9.5±2.6, 9.0±1.6, that of MAPD90 was 10.9±2.6, 7.5±2.4, 6.5±2.7, that of ERP was 25.7±4.3, 18.5±4.1, 24.2±7.2, and that of ERP/MAPD90 was 13.7±4.5, 10.2±2.2, 16.1±5.1, respectively. Its effect showed no relation to frequency (n=6, P>0.05). The effects of sotalol on MAP were similar to that of daurisoline, but it prolonged MAPD90 and ERP in a reverse use-dependent manner (P0.05). 其延长作用均呈非使用依赖性特征. 在所有起搏周长下,索他洛尔亦降低MAPA,延长MAPD50,MAPD90,ERP,ERP/MAPD90,但其延长MAPD90,ERP的作用均呈逆向使用依赖性特征(P<0.05). 结果表明,DS能明显降低家兔在体心脏MAPA,延长MAPD50,MAPD90,ERP,ERP/MAPD90,该作用呈非使用依赖性特征.

  6. DIAGNOSIS OF TYPE WAX AND ORAL DIGITAL PHOTOGRAFHY COMBINED APPLICATION IN PROSTHODONTICS%诊断蜡型和口腔数码摄影的在美学修复中的联合应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    俞雪琴

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the oral digital photography and the joint use of the diagnosis of type wax, during the repair of anterior tooth aesthetic application effect. Methods choose a repair anterior teeth of 136 cases of patients, randomly divided into experimental group and the control group (n = 68). The control group using conventional 3 d- Master color board color for regular aesthetic repair. The experimental group on the basis of conventional aesthetic repair joint use of oral digital photography and the production of the preoperative diagnosis of type wax to complete aesthetic repair. Observe the clinical effect of two groups and patient satisfaction.Results the experimental group restoration edge form, fit, and color is tonal difference was statistically significant compared with control subjects (P<0.05), the patient satisfaction is higher than the control group (P<0.05). Conclusion the diagnosis of type wax combined oral digital photography to dental esthetics repair methods for clinical choice to provide certain reference basis.%目的:观察口腔数码摄影及诊断蜡型制作的联合运用,在前牙美学修复中的应用效果。方法选取需要行前牙修复的患者136例,随机分成实验组和对照组各68例。对照组采用常规3D-Master比色板比色进行常规美学修复。实验组在常规美学修复基础上联合运用口腔数码摄影及术前诊断蜡型的制作来完成美学修复。观察两组临床效果和患者满意度。结果实验组修复体形态、边缘密合度、和颜色色调与对照组相比差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),患者满意度高于对照组(P<0.05)。结论诊断蜡型联合口腔数码摄影为临床上前牙美学修复方法选择上提供一定的参考依据。

  7. Long-term maintenance combination chemotherapy with OPEC/MPEC (vincristine or methotrexate, prednisolone, etoposide and cyclophosphamide) or with daily oral etoposide and prednisolone can improve survival and quality of life in adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushita, K; Matsumoto, T; Ohtsubo, H; Fujiwara, H; Imamura, N; Hidaka, S; Kukita, T; Tei, C; Matsumoto, M; Arima, N

    1999-12-01

    Acute leukemia and lymphoma varieties of adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) usually carry a poor prognosis. While etoposide is generally useful for treating ATL, especially as a daily oral maintenance regimen, etoposide has not proven effective in severe types of ATL efficient in some patients. Of 87 ATL patients whom we have treated, 51 had acute leukemia, 22 lymphoma and 14 progressive chronic leukemia. Seventy-nine patients were treated with a long term maintenance combination protocol, OPEC/MPEC (weekly doses of vincristine, 0.7 mg/m2 or methotrexate, 14 mg/m2; prednisolone, 20 mg/m2; etoposide, 70 mg/m2 and cyclophosphamide, 200 mg/m2). The other 8 patients, 3 with acute leukemia, 2 with lymphoma and 3 with progressive chronic leukemia, were treated with daily oral administration of 25 mg of etoposide and 10 mg of prednisolone (DOEP). The dose administered was modified in individual cases to maintain the granulocyte count and reduce the number of ATL cells. Considering both protocols, a complete response and a partial response were achieved in 31.0% and 58.6% patients, respectively. Median survival times (MST) of all patients and, acute leukemia, lymphoma and progressive chronic leukemia types were 7.5, 6.7, 9.6 and 12.4 months, respectively. Respective MST of patients treated with OPEC/MPEC or DOEP protocols were 7.1 and 18.0 months. Relatively normal WBC counts, lower lactate dehydrogenase concentration and normal calcium concentration, limited numbers of anatomic sites involved, good performance status and good response to chemotherapy were significantly associated with long survival time. Drug toxicity was not apparent, and about half of patients were treated in an outpatient setting.

  8. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  9. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Topics > Oral Cancer > Oral Cancer Exam Video Oral Cancer Exam Video This video shows what happens during an oral cancer examination. Quick and painless, the exam can detect ...

  10. Pharmacokinetic Comparison of Ferulic Acid in Normal and Blood Deficiency Rats after Oral Administration of Angelica sinensis, Ligusticum chuanxiong and Their Combination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin-Ao Duan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Radix Angelica Sinensis (RAS and Rhizome Ligusticum (RLC combination is a popular herb pair commonly used in clinics for treatment of blood deficiency syndrome in China. The aim of this study is to compare the pharmacokinetic properties of ferulic acid (FA, a main bioactive constituent in both RAS and RLC, between normal and blood deficiency syndrome animals, and to investigate the influence of compatibility of RAS and RLC on the pharmacokinetic of FA. The blood deficiency rats were induced by injecting 2% Acetyl phenylhydrazine (APH on the first day, every other day, to a total of five times, at the dosage of 100, 50, 50, 30, 30 mg/kg body mass, respectively. Quantification of FA in rat plasma was achieved by using a simple and rapid HPLC method. Plasma samples were collected at different time points to construct pharmacokinetic profiles by plotting drug concentration versus time, and estimate pharmacokinetic parameters. Between normal and blood deficiency model groups, both AUC(0–t and Cmax of FA in blood deficiency rats after RAS-RLC extract administration increased significantly (P < 0.05, while clearance (CL decreased significantly. Among three blood deficiency model groups, t1/2α, Vd, AUC(0–t and AUC(0–∞ all increased significantly in the RAS-RLC extract group compared with the RAS group. The results indicated that FA was absorbed better and eliminated slower in blood deficiency rats; RLC could significantly prolong the half-life of distribution, increase the volume of distribution and the absorption amount of FA of RAS in blood deficiency rats, which may be due to the synergic action when RAS and RLC were used together to treat blood deficiency syndrome.

  11. Imaging in oral cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supreeta Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cavity squamous cell cancers form a significant percentage of the cancers seen in India. While clinical examination allows direct visualization, it cannot evaluate deep extension of disease. Cross-sectional imaging has become the cornerstone in the pretreatment evaluation of these cancers and provides accurate information about the extent and depth of disease that can help decide the appropriate management strategy and indicate prognosis. Early cancers are treated with a single modality, either surgery or radiotherapy while advanced cancers are offered a combination of surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Imaging can decide resectability, help plan the precise extent of resection, and indicate whether organ conservation therapy should be offered. Quality of life issues necessitate preservation of form and function and pretreatment imaging helps plan appropriate reconstruction and counsel patients regarding lifestyle changes. Oral cavity has several subsites and the focus of the review is squamous cancers of the gingivobuccal region, oral tongue and retromolar trigone as these are most frequently encountered in the subcontinent. References for this review were identified by searching Medline and PubMed databases. Only articles published in English language literature were selected. This review aims to familiarize the radiologist with the relevant anatomy of the oral cavity, discuss the specific issues that influence prognosis and management at the above subsites, the optimal imaging methods, the role of imaging in accurately staging these cancers and in influencing management. A checklist for reporting will emphasize the information to be conveyed by the radiologist.

  12. Observation of sitagliptin combined treatment of type 2 diabetes with single oral medicine poor treatment effect%西格列汀联合单一口服药治疗2型糖尿病观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李真真

    2015-01-01

    Objective:To explore the clinical curative effect and reliability of sitagliptin combined treatment of type 2 diabetes with single oral medicine poor treatment effect.Methods:60 patients with type 2 diabetes were selected from April 2013 to April 2014.The patients were randomly divided into the observation group and the control group with 30 cases in each according to the admission number.The control group was given single oral medicine metformin treatment.The observation group was given combined sitagliptin treatment on the basis of the control group.The treatment effects of patients in two groups were compared. Results:After the patients in two groups received 10 weeks treatment,the BMI,fasting blood glucose,diet after 2 hours blood glucose,HbA1C and the incidence rate of hypoglycemia of the control group were significantly decreased than before treatment,The above index of the observation group were significantly decreased than before treatment.The diet after 2 hours C peptide and fasting C peptide of patients in two groups were compared,there was no statistical significance(P>0.05).After 10 weeks treatment, the BMI,fasting blood glucose,diet after 2 hours blood glucose,HbA1C of the observation group and the control group were compared with a significant difference(P<0.05).Conclusion:In the treatment of type 2 diabetes,it can use sitagliptin combined single oral medicine treatment methods.It can effectively improve the treatment effect of patients,and improve the prognosis quality.It is worth popularizing in clinic.%目的:探讨西格列汀联合单一口服药治疗2型糖尿病的临床疗效与可靠性。方法:2013年4月-2014年4月收治2型糖尿病患者60例,将患者按照入院编号随机分为观察组和对照组,各30例。对照组给予单一口服药二甲双胍治疗;观察组在对照组的基础上,再联合采用西格列汀治疗,比较两组患者的治疗效果。结果:两组患者在接受10周治疗后,对照组

  13. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R S Desai

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Dirofilaria is parasitic nematodes of domestic and wild animals that can infect humans accidentally via vectors. Its occurrence in the oral cavity is extremely rare. The most frequent presentation of human dirofilariasis is a single submucosal nodule without signs of inflammation. We hereby, report a case of human dirofilariasis affecting the buccal mucosa in a 32-year-old farmer caused by D. repens.

  14. Oral leiomyomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damm, D D; Neville, B W

    1979-04-01

    Oral leiomyomas are considered to be rare neoplasms, but they may be encountered more frequently than generally believed. Three types of leiomyomas are commonly described: solid leiomyomas, angiomyomas, and epithelioid leiomyomas. Three cases of solid leiomyoma are presented, all of which occurred in the anterior mandibular mucobuccal fold. Leiomyomas can be easily confused with other spindle-cell tumors. The necessity of using special stains, especially Mallory's phosphotungstic acid hematoxylin, is discussed.

  15. Damaging oral habits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamdar, Rajesh J; Al-Shahrani, Ibrahim

    2015-04-01

    Oral habits, if persist beyond certain developmental age, can pose great harm to the developing teeth, occlusion, and surrounding oral tissues. In the formative years, almost all children engage in some non-nutritive sucking habits. Clinicians, by proper differential diagnosis and thorough understanding of natural growth and developmental processes, should take a decision for intervening. This article describes case series reports of thumb sucking, finger sucking, and tongue thrusting habits, which have been successfully treated by both removable and fixed orthodontic appliances. The cases shown are ranging from the age group of 9-19 years presenting combination of both mixed and permanent dentition development. All cases show satisfactory correction of habits and stable results.

  16. 人工流产术后使用短效口服避孕药的价值%The Value of Using Combined Oral Contraceptive Pills after Induced Abortion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 刘慧; 张炜

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical value of using combined oral contraceptive pils after induced abortion.Methods 200 health women with early pregnant who were voluntary to receive induced abortion in outpatient clinic from 2013 September to 2014 September were analyzed. They were divided to the OC group and the control group according to their voluntary choice of contraception. The drospirenone and ethinylestradiol tables (Yasmin?) were uesed at the first day of abortion in the OC group(1# qd po, for 21 days),and the next folowing stage would start at the fourth day of menstruation. Six periods were observed. The other contraceptive Methods , such as condom, safe period and coitus interruptus, were used in the control group. The volume and duration of vaginal bleeding, status of endometrium, menstruation recovery, pregnant rates as wel as the side effects of oral contraceptive were observed.Results The volume and duration of vaginal bleeding after abortion, menstruation recovery and the contraception efficiency in the OC group were better than these in the control group(P < 0.05).Conclusion Using combined oral contraceptive pils after induced abortion is the key content of Post Abortion Care.%目的 探讨人工流产术后口服短效避孕药的临床意义.方法 选择2013年9月~2014年9月来我院门诊就诊,自愿要求非意愿行人工流产的健康早孕妇女200例,根据患者意愿自行选择避孕方法,选择复方口服避孕药进行避孕的进入OC组,选择屏障避孕法、安全期及体外排精一般避孕方法进入对照组.二组均于人流术后开始常规口服抗生素预防感染,并于服药前检查血常规及肝肾功能.(1)OC组:于人流术后当天口服复方避孕药屈螺酮炔雌醇片(商品名:优思明,拜耳医药保健有限公司)服用方法:1片,qd,连服21天为1疗程;月经第4天开始第2疗程,服用方法同前,共服用六个周期;(2)对照组:于人流术后每次性生活前自行选择一般避孕

  17. Effect of racecadotril granules combined with compound ocimum oil oral suspension on acute diarrhea in infants%消旋卡多曲联合服药对婴幼儿急性水样泻的治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张燕妮; 朱昌琼

    2012-01-01

    目的 观察消旋卡多曲颗粒联合复方丁香罗勒口服混悬液治疗婴幼儿急性水样泻的疗效及安全性.方法 筛选84例符合条件的腹泻婴幼儿,随机分为两组:对照组为43例,给予消旋卡多曲颗粒治疗;治疗组为41例,在对照组的基础上加用复方丁香罗勒口服混悬液治疗,观察两组疗效.结果 治疗组的大便性状改善时间和总病程较对照组短,两组比较有显著性差异(t值分别为2.019、2.021,均P<0.05);治疗组的有效率明显高于对照组,两组比较有显著性差异(χ2=4.484,P<0.05).结论 消旋卡多曲颗粒联合复方丁香罗勒口服混悬液治疗婴幼儿急性水样泻,较单一应用消旋卡多曲颗粒可较快减少腹泻次数,缩短病程,无明显不良反应.%Objective To observe the efficacy and security of the treatment of infantile acute diarrhea by using racecadotril granules combined with compound ocimum oil oral suspension. Methods Eighty-four cases of acute diarrhea were randomly divided into two groups, 43 cases in control group and 41 cases in treatment group. Both groups were treated with racecadotril granules,and compound ocimum oil oral suspension was given to the treatment group besides. The clinical efficacy of two groups was observed. Results Diarrhea time and total duration in the treatment group were shorter than those in the control group, and there were statistically significant differences ( t value was 2. 019 and 2. 021, respectively, both P <0. 05 ). The effective rate in the treatment group was significantly higher than that in the control group, and the difference was statistically significant (x2= 4. 484, P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion Compared with the treatment with only racecadotril granules, the treatment of infantile acute diarrhea by using racecadotril granules combined with compound ocimum oil oral suspension can reduce the frequency of diarrhea quickly and shorten duration of diarrhea without significant adverse reactions.

  18. Staging N0 oral cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jørn Bo; Sørensen, Jens Ahm; Grupe, Peter

    2005-01-01

    PURPOSE: To compare sentinel lymph node biopsy, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), Doppler ultrasonography, and palpation as staging tools in patients with T1/T2 N0 cancer of the oral cavity. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Forty consecutive patients were enrolled (17 F and 23 M, aged 32-90 years), 24 T1......%, but the sensitivity of MRI 36% was low. The specificities were 100%, 85%, and 93%, respectively. By combined sentinel lymph node biopsy and ultrasonography the overall sensitivity could have been 100%. CONCLUSION: Sentinel lymph node biopsy improved staging of patients with small N0 oral cancers. Combined sentinel...

  19. Development and application of a UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of fenofibric acid and berberine in rat plasma: application to the drug-drug pharmacokinetic interaction study of fenofibrate combined with berberine after oral administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guofei; Yang, Fan; Liu, Mei; Su, Xianying; Zhao, Mingming; Zhao, Limei

    2016-07-01

    With the purpose of carrying out pharmacokinetic interaction studies ofnberberine (BBR) and fenofibrate (FBT), an UPLC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated. The analytes, BBR and fenofibric acid (FBA, metabolite of FBT) and the internal standard, tetrahydropalmatine, were extracted with dichloromethane-diethyl ether (3:2, v/v) and separated on an Agilent Eclipse XDB C18 column using a mobile phase composed of acetonitrile and water. With positive ion electrospray ionization, the analytes were monitored on a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer in multiple reaction monitoring mode. Linear calibration curves were obtained over the concentration ranges of 0.1-100.0 ng/mL for BBR and 10.0-50,000.0 ng/mL for FBA. For BBR and FBA, the intra- and inter-day precisions were 85.6%, and those of FBA at three concentrations of 20.0, 2500.0, 40,000.0 ng/mL were >87.9%. Consequently, the proposed method was applied to the pharmacokinetic interaction study of FBT combined with BBR after oral administration in rats and was proved to be sensitive, specific and reliable to analyze BBR and FBA in biological samples simultaneously. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  20. Validated UPLC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of simvastatin, simvastatin hydroxy acid and berberine in rat plasma: Application to the drug-drug pharmacokinetic interaction study of simvastatin combined with berberine after oral administration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mei; Su, Xianying; Li, Guofei; Zhao, Guilian; Zhao, Limei

    2015-12-01

    A rapid and sensitive liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) assay method was developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of simvastatin (SV), its metabolite simvastatin hydroxy acid (SVA) and berberine (BBR) in rat plasma. Separation was performed on Poroshell 120 EC-C18 column (4.6×50mm, 2.7μm) using gradient elution by mobile phase containing acetonitrile and 10mM ammonium acetate (pH 4.5). Polarity switch (positive-negative-positive ionization mode) was performed in a total run time of 4.0min. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) for SV, SVA and BBR were 0.10, 0.20 and 0.10ng/mL, respectively. The response function was established for concentration range of 0.10-100ng/mL for SV and BBR and 0.20-3000ng/mL for SVA, with a coefficient of correlation of >0.99 for all the compounds. The proposed method was applied to the drug-drug pharmacokinetic interaction study of SV combined with BBR after oral administration in rats.

  1. A combined oral contraceptive containing 3-mg drospirenone/ 20-microg ethinyl estradiol in the treatment of acne vulgaris: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study evaluating lesion counts and participant self-assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucky, Anne W; Koltun, William; Thiboutot, Diane; Niknian, Minoo; Sampson-Landers, Carole; Korner, Paul; Marr, Joachim

    2008-08-01

    This study compared the efficacy of a low-dose combined oral contraceptive (COC) containing 3-mg drospirenone and 20-microg ethinyl estradiol (3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE) administered in a 24-day active pill/4-day inert pill (24/4) regimen and placebo in women with moderate acne vulgaris during 6 treatment cycles. A total of 534 participants were randomized and dispensed study medication (n = 266 [3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE 24/4 regimen COC group]; n = 268 [placebo group]). Women of reproductive age were eligible for inclusion in the study. Treatment with the 3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE 24/4 regimen COC was associated with a greater reduction from baseline to end point in individual lesion counts (papules, pustules, open and closed comedones) compared with placebo. The mean nodule count remained essentially constant throughout the study and was low in both treatment groups. There was a significantly higher probability that a participant had an improved assessment on the investigator's overall improvement rating scale (odds ratio [OR], 4.02; 95% CI [confidence interval], 2.29-7.31; P self-assessment rating scale (OR, 2.82; 95% CI, 1.60-5.13; P = .0005) in the 3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE 24/4 regimen COC group than in the placebo group. The COC 3-mg DRSP/20-microg EE 24/4 regimen is a suitable option for women with moderate acne vulgaris who require contraception.

  2. In vitro combined effect of co-amoxiclav concentrations achievable in serum after a 2000/125 mg oral dose, and polymorphonuclear neutrophils against strains of Streptococcus pneumoniae exhibiting decreased susceptibility to amoxicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amores, Raquel; Alou, Luis; Giménez, María José; Sevillano, David; Gómez-Lus, María Luisa; Aguilar, Lorenzo; Prieto, José

    2004-07-01

    The in vitro effect that the presence of components of non-specific immunity (serum plus polymorphonuclear neutrophils) has on the bactericidal activity of co-amoxiclav was explored against Streptococcus pneumoniae strains exhibiting an amoxicillin MIC > or =4 mg/L. Eight penicillin-resistant clinical isolates non-susceptible to co-amoxiclav with MICs of 4 (two strains), 8 (four strains) and 16 mg/L (two strains) were used. Values of MBC were identical to MIC values in all cases. Time-kill curves were performed with co-amoxiclav concentrations achievable in serum after a single oral dose administration of the new 2000/125 mg sustained-release formulation. Results were expressed as percentage of reduction of initial inocula after 3 h incubation. Control curves showed growth with no reduction of initial inocula. Against strains with MIC of 4 and 8 mg/L, the results obtained with the antibiotic alone or with the presence of factors of non-specific immunity were similar, with a weak combined effect due to the intrinsic activity of co-amoxiclav (reductions of initial inocula ranging from 70 to 99.16%). Against strains with MIC of 16 mg/L, the addition of PMN in the presence of serum increased the reduction of bacterial load provided by the aminopenicillin, even at sub-inhibitory concentrations (25.8% versus 51.1% at 0.5 x MIC concentration--8/0.5 mg/L). This combined activity against strains with an amoxicillin MIC of 16 mg/L which decreased the bacterial load may be important in preventing bacterial proliferation within the host and the transmission of resistant clones to others.

  3. Application of children's toothbrush combined with warm water washing method in oral nursing of children undergoing orotracheal intubation%儿童牙刷刷牙结合温开水冲洗法在经口气管插管病人口腔护理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘琼; 刘静兰; 刘敏; 周瑞; 吕娟

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨儿童牙刷刷牙结合冲洗法对经口气管插管病人口腔护理的临床效果.[方法]将150例经口气管插管病人随机分为对照组和观察组各75例,现察组采用儿童牙刷刷牙结合温开水冲洗法进行口腔护理,对照组采用常规口腔护理方法.比较两组病人口腔清洁效果、牙菌斑指数及口腔并发症发生情况.[结果]两组口腔清洁度、牙菌斑指数和并发症的发生情况比较,差异有统计学意义.[结论]儿童牙刷刷牙结合温开水冲洗法能有效清除牙菌斑,提高口腔清洁度,预防及降低口腔并发症的发生.%Objective;To probe into the clinical effect of children's tooth-brush combined with warm water washing method for oral nursing in chil-dren undergoing orotracheal intubation. Methods; A total of 150 patients undergoing endotracheal intubation were randomly divided into control group and observation group,75 cases in each. The observation group cases accepted the oral nursing with children's toothbrush combined with warm boiling water washing method. The conventional oral nursing method was carried out for the control group cases. The oral hygiene effects,plaque in-dex and oral complications were compared between the two groups. Re-sults :There was statistical significant difference in oral hygiene effects, plaque index and oral complications occurrence between the two groups. Conclusion: Children' s toothbrush combined with warm water washing boiling method can effectively remove plaque, improve oral cleanness, pre-vent and reduce oral complications.

  4. Reassessment of risk factors for oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gangane, Nitin; Chawla, Shweta; Anshu; Subodh, Anshu; Gupta, Subodh Sharan; Sharma, Satish M

    2007-01-01

    A total of 140 cases of histologically confirmed oral cancer were evaluated for their demographic details, dietary habits and addiction to tobacco and alcohol using a pre-designed structured questionnaire at the Mahatma Gandhi Institute of Medical Sciences, Sevagram in Central India. These cases were matched with three sets of age and sex matched controls. Oral cancer was predominant in the age group of 50-59 years. Individuals on a non-vegetarian diet appeared to be at greater risk of developing oral cancer. Cases were habituated to consuming hot beverages more frequently and milk less frequently than controls. Consumption of ghutka, a granular form of chewable tobacco and areca nut, was significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Cases had been using oral tobacco for longer duration than controls, and were habituated to sleeping with tobacco quid in their mouth. Most cases were also addicted to smoking tobacco and alcohol consumption. Bidi (a crude cigarette) smoking was most commonly associated with oral cancer. On stratified analysis, a combination of regular smoking and oral tobacco use, as well as a combination of regular alcohol intake and oral tobacco use were significantly associated with oral cancer cases. Synergistic effects of all three or even two of the risk factors - oral tobacco use, smoking and alcohol consumption- was more commonly seen in cases when compared to controls.

  5. Oral Administration of Xiaojin Pills Combined with Drug Injection for Treating Penile Induration in 28 Cases%小金丸口服配合药物注射治疗阴茎硬结症28例

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨顺利; 杨立杰

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Xiaojin Pills oral administration combined with drug injection in the treatment of penile induration. Methods 56 cases were selected and randomly divided into the observation group and the control group,28 cases in each group. The control group was treated by nodal injections of Compound Betamethasone Injection;based on the above treatment, the observation group was added with oral administration of Xiaojin Pills. After 4 weeks of treatment,the clinical efficacy and treat-ment-related adverse reactions were evaluated;3 months and 12 months after the end of treatment,the pain to the penis,penis bend-ing,penile erectile dysfunction and sexual ability improvement were self-evaluated by the patients. Results The total effective rate of the observation group was 85. 71%,which was higher than 64. 29% of the control group( P 0. 05). Partial bleeder and hematoma in the patients were all mild,can be self-healed and did not need special treatment;swelling and itching were relieved after stopping taking medication. 3 months after the end of treatment,the pain in the penis,penis bending,self-evaluation of penile erectile dysfunction,sexual ability in the observation group were superior to the control group( P 0.05);局部出血点及血肿患者轻微,不需特殊治疗均可自愈,红肿瘙痒情况在服药停止后缓解。治疗结束后3个月,观察组患者阴茎疼痛、阴茎弯曲、阴茎勃起障碍、性生活能力自评情况均优于对照组( P<0.05);治疗结束后12个月,患者阴茎勃起障碍、性生活能力自评情况好于对照组( P<0.05)。结论口服小金丸配合局部复方倍他米松注射疗法治疗阴茎硬结症,简单、安全,疗效肯定,能缓解患者的临床症状,减轻患者的痛苦,值得临床推广。

  6. 复方口服避孕药对糖代谢和脂代谢的影响%Influence of Combination Oral Contraceptives on Carbohydrates and Lipids Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王巍; 王蔼明; 姜文; 贾晓宁

    2012-01-01

    Combination oral contraceptives (COCs) should affect a series of metabolic factors, such as carbohydrates and lipids profile. The metabolic effects of the COCs seem to be related to their types and dose. The lower doses of estrogen influence the metabolism smaller. The metabolic effects of the progestins seem to be related to their androgenic properties. Non-androgenic or anti-androgenic progestins exert minimal influence on the lipid profile and carbohydrate metabolism. The carbohydrates and lipids metabolic effects of different kinds of COCs, different routes of delivery, and different methods of administration are discussed in this article. The metabolic effect of oral contraceptives on women with PCOS are discussed at the same time. This review are expected to reinforce the benefits and the risks of COCs.%复方口服避孕药可以影响一系列代谢因素的改变,如糖代谢和脂代谢相关指标.雌、孕激素对代谢的影响因其剂量和种类而异.雌激素剂量越低对代谢的影响越小;孕激素对代谢的影响与其雄激素样特性有关,非雄激素样或抗雄激素样特性的孕激素对糖代谢和脂代谢影响最小.本文分别就不同类型口服避孕药、不同给药途径和不同给药方式对糖代谢和脂代谢的影响,以及在避孕药的特殊使用人群多囊卵巢综合征患者中糖代谢和脂代谢的变化加以综述,使我们能够对避孕药有更加准确和客观的认识.

  7. Combined oral contraceptives: a comprehensive review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiley, Jessica; Hammond, Cassing

    2007-12-01

    Millions of women use birth control pills for contraceptive and noncontraceptive reasons. Although there have been reports of rare adverse events, birth control pills do offer well-documented health benefits, including a decrease in the risk of ovarian and endometrial carcinoma. In addition, manufacturers continue to modify birth control pills to reduce side effects and medical risks.

  8. Vitamin combine Yunnan Baiyao clinical research for the treatment of recurrent oral ulcer%维生素联合云南白药治疗复发性口腔溃疡的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏强; 王乐

    2016-01-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of folic acid,vitamin B2, vitamin E,vitamin B12 combined with Yunnan Baiyao in treatment of recurrent oral ulcer.Method 135 patients with recurrent oral ulcer were treated in our hospital from Jan. 2013 to Nov. 2014, and were randomly divided into A group, B group and C group, with 45 cases in each group. Group A were treated with folic acid, vitamin B2, vitamin E, vitamin B12 combined with Yunnan Baiyao treatment, group B oral four kinds of vitamin, patients in group C were only accept treated with Yunnan Baiyao, on three groups of treatment efficacy were observed and compared, and in accordance with the Chinese Stomatological Association orecurrent Eph it ulcer curative effect evaluation trial standard was used to evaluate the curative effect.Result The effective rate of the three groups were 95.6%, 80.0%, 77.8% and there were significant difference among them (P<0.05); the interval of A group in the follow-up period was (49.98±15.60) days and the pain index was 3.98±1.78, B group (35.83±15.67) days,5.09±1.67,C group (27.03±11.06)days, 6.03±1.71. A group compared with the other two groups, the difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusion In the treatment of recurrent oral ulcer, folic acid,vitamin B2, vitamin E, vitamin B12 combined with Yunnan Baiyao method can improve the therapeutic effect, longer cankers of total intermittent period and reduce pain. The clinical treatment of RAU has a certain value.%目的分析叶酸、维生素B2、维生素E、维生素B12联合云南白药治疗复发性口腔溃疡的临床价值。方法将2013年1月至2014年12月就诊于本院的复发性口腔溃疡患者135例作为研究对象,随机分为A组、B组和C组,每组均为45例。A组患者用叶酸、维生素B2、维生素E、维生素B12联合云南白药治疗,B组口服叶酸、维生素B2、维生素E、维生素B12四种维生素,C组患者仅接受云南白药治疗,对三组的疗效

  9. Evaluating awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberoi, Sukhvinder Singh; Mohanty, Vikrant; Mahajan, Ananya; Oberoi, Avneet

    2014-01-01

    Background: Oral hygiene is intimated in health of all parts of the body including oral cavity. The understanding of actual practices in keeping the oral heath at standard based on patient's perceptions of oral health care is vital. Understanding the effect of gender on oral health would facilitate the development of successful attitude and behavior modification approach towards sustainable oral health. Purpose of Study: To evaluate awareness regarding oral hygiene practices and exploring gender differences among patients attending for oral prophylaxis. Materials and Methods: A survey was conducted among 250 patients attending the department of periodontology, Maulana Azad institute of dental sciences for oral prophylaxis. A structured questionnaire was used to collect information regarding practices and perception about oral hygiene. Results: Majority of the patients (60.4%) felt that oral hygiene is mandatory for overall health of the body. The use of toothpaste and toothbrush (83.6%) was the most preferred cleaning aid among the study population in the present study. The major constraint for avoiding dental examination was no felt need (41.2%) followed by cost of dental treatment (26.8%) and time constraints (24.0%). Conclusions: Professional plaque removal and regular follow-up combined with oral hygiene instructions to the patients can minimize the level of gingival inflammation and swelling. The poor resources for dental care, common malpractices and nonavailability of professional care are the main barriers in seeking optimum oral hygiene. PMID:25024553

  10. Observation of combined oral mesalazine enema for ulcerative colitis 120 Cases%美沙拉嗪口服联合灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎120例疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏晓广; 高春献; 古劼劼; 张苏颖

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察美沙拉嗪口服联合灌肠治疗溃疡性结肠炎的疗效.方法 选择240例轻、中度溃疡性结肠炎患者,随机分为两组:治疗组120例予口服美沙拉嗪,1.0g/次,3次/d,同时给予美沙拉嗪灌肠剂(莎尔福灌肠剂,4g/60ml,用时稀释到100ml)4g/100ml,1次/晚,保留灌肠,8周为1疗程;对照组120例,予口服柳氮磺吡啶片(Alicylazosulfapyridine,SASP)1.Og,4次/d.疗程为8周.结果 治疗8周后,治疗组显效率和总有效率明显优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组均有不良反应的发生,治疗组发生13例,发生率10.8%,对照组发生68例,发生率56.7%,治疗组明显低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 美沙拉嗪了治疗溃疡性结肠炎临床疗效显著,且不良反应小.%Objective To observe the combined oral mesalazine enema for ulcerative colitis. Methods Totally 240 patients with mild to moderate ulcerative colitis were randomly divided into two groups: treatment group, 120 patients to oral mesalazine, 1. Og / time, 3 times/d, while giving the mesalamine enema (Sa Fu enema, 4g/60ml, when diluted with 100ml) 4g/100ml, 1 times/night, retention enema, 8 weeks as a course; The control group of 120 patients to oral sulfasalazine tablets ( Alicylazosulfapyri-dine, SASP) 1. 0g, 4 times / d. Treatment for 8 weeks. Results After 8 weeks, the treatment group efficiency and total efficiency is better than the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P <0. 05) ; the incidence of adverse reactions of both groups, the treatment group occurred in 13 cases, incidence 10. 8% , in the control group of 68 patients, the incidence of 56. 7% , treatment group was significantly lower than the control group, the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.05). Conclusions Mesalazine has good clinical efficacy in treatment of ulcerative colitis, and less adverse reactions.

  11. Oral iron chelators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Janet L

    2010-02-01

    Effective chelation therapy can prevent or reverse organ toxicity related to iron overload, yet cardiac complications and premature death continue to occur, largely related to difficulties with compliance in patients who receive parenteral therapy. The use of oral chelators may be able to overcome these difficulties and improve patient outcomes. A chelator's efficacy at cardiac and liver iron removal and side-effect profile should be considered when tailoring individual chelation regimens. Broader options for chelation therapy, including possible combination therapy, should improve clinical efficacy and enhance patient care.

  12. Potencies of oral contraceptives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edgren, R A; Sturtevant, F M

    1976-08-15

    Oral contraceptives are combinations of estrogens and progestogens or, in the case of the mini-pills, progestogens alone. With specific test procedures in laboratory animals or human subjects, it is possible to assign potency evaluations to the components relative to the progestational, estrogenic, or antiestrogenic activities of the progestogen or to the estrogenic potencies of the estrogenic component. It might even be possible to quantify the synergistic effects of the estrogen on the progestational agent. Unfortunately, however, it is impossible now to amalgamate such assay results into single estimates of the potencies of the combinations (either the combination products per se or the combination tablets of sequential products). For example, an over-all estrogenic potency of a combination preparation would involve the integration of contributions form the estrogen itself plus the estrogenic products of metabolism of the progestogen minus the antagonistic effect of the progestational agent, if any. These factors cannot now be quantified independently, much less merged into a single figure of clinical significance. Further, even if it were possible to produce such an estimate, it is unlikely that the evaluation would be meaningful in relation to any putative side effect or adverse reaction, i.e., the alleged thrombogenic effects of oral contraceptives cannot currently be related directly to any measure of potency that will allow prediction of these clinical conditions from laboratory models. Any evaluation of the potential of a given contraceptive to produce a specific side effect will depend upon data generated with specific regard to that adverse reaction and the individual product in question.

  13. Oral dirofilariasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahija Janardhanan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Filariasis affecting animals can rarely cause infections in human beings through the accidental bite of potential vectors. The resulting infection in man, known as zoonotic filariasis occur worldwide. Human dirofilariasis, the most common zoonotic filariasis, is caused by the filarial worm belonging to the genus Dirofilaria. Dirofilarial worms, which are recognized as pathogenic in man can cause nodular lesions in the lung, subcutaneous tissue, peritoneal cavity or eyes. Oral dirofilariasis is extremely rare and only a few cases have been documented. We report an interesting case of dirofilariasis due to Dirofilaria repens involving buccal mucosa in a patient who presented with a facial swelling. The clinical features, diagnostic issues and treatment aspects are discussed. This paper stresses the importance of considering dirofilariasis as differential diagnosis for subcutaneous swelling of the face, especially in areas where it is endemic.

  14. Oral sex, oral health and orogenital infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saini Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral sex is commonly practiced by sexually active male-female and same-gender couples of various ages, including adolescents. The various type of oral sex practices are fellatio, cunnilingus and analingus. Oral sex is infrequently examined in research on adolescents; oral sex can transmit oral, respiratory, and genital pathogens. Oral health has a direct impact on the transmission of infection; a cut in your mouth, bleeding gums, lip sores or broken skin increases chances of infection. Although oral sex is considered a low risk activity, it is important to use protection and safer sex precautions. There are various methods of preventing infection during oral sex such as physical barriers, health and medical issues, ethical issues and oral hygiene and dental issues. The lesions or unhealthy periodontal status of oral cavity accelerates the phenomenon of transmission of infections into the circulation. Thus consequences of unhealthy or painful oral cavity are significant and oral health should be given paramount importance for the practice of oral sex.

  15. Oral amyloidosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabella Lima Arrais Ribeiro

    Full Text Available A amiloidose é uma doença complexa rara de difícil diagnóstico que ocorre devido à deposição de substância amilóide no meio extracelular. Ao ser diagnosticado na cavidade bucal, deve-se monitorar o paciente a fim de avaliar possíveis complicações sistêmicas da doença. Diante disso, o objetivo do presente estudo é relatar um caso de amiloidose oral em uma paciente do gênero feminino de 72 anos de idade. Baseado nos sinais clínicos observados, a hipótese diagnóstica foi de fibroma traumático. Após realização de biópsia e exame histopatológico, o diagnóstico foi de amiloidose oral, o que foi confirmado com a coloração do espécime com o reagente vermelho congo. Depósitos de amilóide foram encontrados no tecido conjuntivo, na avaliação através da luz polarizada, que apresentou birrefringência. Tal achado foi preocupante, já que a amiloidose geralmente acomete diversos tecidos levando a comprometimentos sistêmicos. Por essa razão a paciente foi encaminhada a procurar atendimento médico. No entanto, houve abandono do tratamento e a mesma veio a óbito 6 meses após o diagnóstico da doença. Lesões orais aparentemente simples podem revelar doenças raras e de difícil tratamento. O diagnóstico preciso e acompanhamentos médicos são fundamentais na sobrevida do paciente.

  16. Effect of Nerve Block Combined with Oral Pregabalin on Postherpetic Neuralgia%神经阻滞联合普瑞巴林治疗带状疱疹后神经痛的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申颖; 罗芳; 王云珍

    2011-01-01

    目的 比较单纯口服普瑞巴林和联合神经阻滞两种方法治疗带状疱疹后神经痛(PHN)的效果.方法 60例病程超过6个月的PHN患者分成两组,每组各30例.A组口服普瑞巴林;B组在口服药物的基础上行神经阻滞(三叉神经、肋间神经、椎旁阻滞或腰丛阻滞).比较两组患者治疗前、治疗后3d、1周、2周、3周、4周、5周、6周、7周、8周疼痛视觉模拟评分(VAS)和睡眠评分(采用汉密尔顿抑郁量表的第4、5、6项).比较两组患者疼痛缓解>50%和>30%的人数,以及副作用的发生率.结果 两组患者治疗后1~8周VAS和睡眠评分均低于治疗前(P<0.05),B组患者在治疗后3 dVAS及睡眠评分明显低于A组(P<0.01);B组患者疼痛缓解>50%的人数和疼痛缓解>30%的人数高于A组(P<0.05).两组患者副作用无显著性差异.结论 神经阻滞联合口服普瑞巴林治疗带状疱疹后神经痛起效快、止痛作用强,无严重副作用发生.%Objective To evaluate the efficacy of pregabalin combined with nerve block on postherpetic neuralgia (PHN). Methods 60 patients were assigned into group A (n=30), who received pregabalin orally, and group B (n=30), who received nerve block (trigeminal nerve, intercostal nerve, lumbar nerve block) in addition. They were assessed with visual analogue scale (VAS) of pain, sleep score from Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression before and 3 d, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, 4 weeks, 5 weeks, 6 weeks, 7 weeks, and 8 weeks after treatment. The incidence of pain decreased >50% and >30% were compared. Results The scores of VAS and sleep significantly reduced in both groups 1~8 weeks after treatment (P50% and >30% were more in group B than in group A (P<0.05). Conclusion Nerve block combined with oral pregabalin is more effective on PHN.

  17. Management of Patients with Oral Candidiasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragelund, Camilla; Reibel, Jesper; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge

    2016-01-01

    Oral candidal infections are medically treated with antifungal agents. In the fungal cell membrane, steroid ergosterol is the target of the antifungals on the market, but similarity with the human cell membrane may cause host toxicity and unintended reactions. Management of oral candidiasis depends...... in particular in patients with recurrent oral candidiasis. This risk can be reduced if different types of antifungal drugs are used over time or are combined. This chapter focuses on antifungal treatment of the medically compromised patient with oral candidiasis by highlighting the advantages and disadvantages...

  18. Comparison of Drospirenone-with Cyproterone Acetate-Containing Oral Contraceptives, Combined with Metformin and Lifestyle Modifications in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Metabolic Disorders: A Prospective Randomized Control Trial

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiu-Yi Wang; Yong Song; Wei Huang; Li Xiao; Qiu-Shi Wang; Gui-Mei Feng

    2016-01-01

    Background:While combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS),comparative data regarding metabolic effects of different progestogens on this patient population are missing.This study aimed to compare the different effects of drospirenone (DRP)-containing COCs with cyproterone acetate (CPA)-containing COCs,combined with metformin and lifestyle modifications in women with PCOS and metabolic disorders.Methods:Ninety-nine women with PCOS and a metabolic disorder between January 2011 and January 2013 were enrolled into this prospective randomized clinical trial.Participants were randomized into two groups such as DRP-containing COCs,and CPA-containing COCs.Participants took COCs cyclically for 6 months,combined with metformin administration (1.5 g/d) and lifestyle modifications (diet and exercise).Clinical measures and biochemical and hormone profiles were compared.Comparisons for continuous variables were evaluated with paired and unpaired Student's t-tests.The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used when the data were not normally distributed.Analysis of covariance was used to control for age,body mass index (BMI),and baseline data of each analyzed parameter when compared between the two groups.Results:A total of 68 patients have completed the study.The combination regimen of COCs,metformin,and lifestyle modifications in these patients resulted in a significant decrease in BMI,acne,and hirsutism scores when compared to baseline levels in both groups (P < 0.05).Blood pressure (BP) was significantly different in the CPA group when compared to baseline (75.14 ± 6.77 mmHg vs.80.70 ± 5.60 mmHg,P < 0.01),and after 6 months of treatment,only the change in systolic BP was significantly different between the two groups (4.00 [-6.00,13.00] mmHg vs.-3.50 [-13.00,9.00] mmHg,P =0.009).Fasting glucose,fasting insulin,and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance decreased significantly in the DRP group (5.40 ± 0.41 mmol

  19. Comparison of Drospirenone- with Cyproterone Acetate-Containing Oral Contraceptives, Combined with Metformin and Lifestyle Modifications in Women with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome and Metabolic Disorders: A Prospective Randomized Control Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiu-Yi; Song, Yong; Huang, Wei; Xiao, Li; Wang, Qiu-Shi; Feng, Gui-Mei

    2016-01-01

    Background: While combined oral contraceptives (COCs) are commonly used to treat polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), comparative data regarding metabolic effects of different progestogens on this patient population are missing. This study aimed to compare the different effects of drospirenone (DRP)-containing COCs with cyproterone acetate (CPA)-containing COCs, combined with metformin and lifestyle modifications in women with PCOS and metabolic disorders. Methods: Ninety-nine women with PCOS and a metabolic disorder between January 2011 and January 2013 were enrolled into this prospective randomized clinical trial. Participants were randomized into two groups such as DRP-containing COCs, and CPA-containing COCs. Participants took COCs cyclically for 6 months, combined with metformin administration (1.5 g/d) and lifestyle modifications (diet and exercise). Clinical measures and biochemical and hormone profiles were compared. Comparisons for continuous variables were evaluated with paired and unpaired Student's t-tests. The Wilcoxon signed rank test was used when the data were not normally distributed. Analysis of covariance was used to control for age, body mass index (BMI), and baseline data of each analyzed parameter when compared between the two groups. Results: A total of 68 patients have completed the study. The combination regimen of COCs, metformin, and lifestyle modifications in these patients resulted in a significant decrease in BMI, acne, and hirsutism scores when compared to baseline levels in both groups (P < 0.05). Blood pressure (BP) was significantly different in the CPA group when compared to baseline (75.14 ± 6.77 mmHg vs. 80.70 ± 5.60 mmHg, P < 0.01), and after 6 months of treatment, only the change in systolic BP was significantly different between the two groups (4.00 [–6.00, 13.00] mmHg vs. –3.50 [–13.00, 9.00] mmHg, P = 0.009). Fasting glucose, fasting insulin, and homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance decreased significantly

  20. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  1. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Programs Careers in Dental Research See All Continuing Education Practical Oral Care for People With Developmental Disabilities – ... detection and treatment of oral cancers. Note: For materials specific to African American men, please see: Oral ...

  2. Oral Lichen Planus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral lichen planus Overview By Mayo Clinic Staff Oral lichen planus (LIE-kun PLAY-nus) is an ongoing (chronic) ... that affects mucous membranes inside your mouth. Oral lichen planus may appear as white, lacy patches; red, ...

  3. Oral Health Glossary

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... About | Contact InfoBites Quick Reference Learn more Children's Oral Health Mouth Breathing Can Cause Major Health Problems Over ... news feeds delivered directly to your desktop! more... Oral Health Glossary Article Chapters Oral Health Glossary print full ...

  4. Oral Cancer Exam

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for signs of oral cancer. For Patients and the Public Oral Cancer Pamphlet that describes the risk factors, signs and symptoms of oral cancer, and the importance of detecting the disease in its early ...

  5. A multicentre, open-label, randomised phase III study comparing a new levonorgestrel intrauterine contraceptive system (LNG-IUS 8) with combined oral contraception in young women of reproductive age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgatta, Lynn; Buhling, Kai J; Rybowski, Sarah; Roth, Katrin; Rosen, Kimberly

    2016-10-01

    To compare user satisfaction and adverse events (AEs) with a levonorgestrel intrauterine system (LNG-IUS 8; average levonorgestrel release rate approximately 8 μg/24 h over the first year [total content 13.5 mg]) and a 30 μg ethinyl estradiol/3 mg drospirenone (EE/DRSP) combined oral contraceptive (COC) in a population of young women. Nulliparous and parous women (aged 18-29 years) with regular menstrual cycles (21-35 days) were randomised to LNG-IUS 8 or EE/DRSP for 18 months. The primary endpoint was the overall user satisfaction rate at month 18/end of study visit. Overall, 279 women were randomised to LNG-IUS 8 with attempted placement and 281 women were randomised to EE/DRSP and took ≥1 pill; the mean age was 23.7 and 23.9 years, and 77.4% and 73.3% were nulliparous, respectively. At month 18/end of study, 82.1% and 81.9% of women, respectively, reported being 'very satisfied' or 'satisfied' with their treatment; however, significantly more LNG-IUS 8 users reported a preference to continue their treatment post-study (66.2% vs 48.8%; p = 0.0001). There were two pregnancies (one ectopic pregnancy, one spontaneous abortion) reported in the LNG-IUS 8 group and six (three live births, two spontaneous abortions, one induced abortion) in the EE/DRSP group. LNG-IUS 8 and EE/DRSP were associated with similarly high user satisfaction rates. However, LNG-IUS 8 users were significantly more likely to prefer to continue their contraceptive method post-study, indicating that a levonorgestrel intrauterine system is an appealing contraceptive option for young women.

  6. The effect analysis of inactivated poliovirus vaccine combined with oral poliovirus vaccine%脊髓灰质炎灭活疫苗和减毒活疫苗联合接种效果分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何斯; 杨洁; 黄芳; 何雅青; 单芙香

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨脊髓灰质炎灭活疫苗(IPV)和减毒活疫苗(OPV)不同联合接种方式的临床效果。方法本研究为队列研究,将2009~2013年内收集的在管辖区域具备进行计划免疫4个部门的2400例新生儿进行随机分组,其中一组进行1剂IPV和2剂OPV序贯(I-O-O)(A组),另一组2剂IPV和1剂OPV序贯(I-I-O)(B组),并观察两组新生儿进行接种后的反应。结果这两种方式对于新生儿计划免疫无明显的差异。结论这两种方式对于新生儿进行脊髓灰质炎的计划免疫无不良反应。%Objective To explore the effect of inactivated poliovirus vaccine (IPV) combined with oral poliovirus vac-cine (OPV). Methods This study was cohort study. Collected 2 400 cases of newborn of four planned immunization depart-ments in our jurisdictions from 2009 to 2013, divided into two groups randomly, 1 dose IPV plus 2 doses OPV(I-O-O,group A), 2 doses IPV plus 1 dose OPV (I-I-O, group B) and observed vaccinated reactions of two groups. Results The two methods had no significant differences in immunization program for newborns. Conclusion The two approaches for newborns po-liovirus immunization with no adverse reaction.

  7. Characterization of global metabolic profile of Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po decoction in rat bile, urine and feces after oral administration based on a strategy combining LC-MS and chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Kaiwen; Shi, Qingshui; Feng, Fang

    2017-01-01

    Identification of metabolic profile of traditional Chinese medicine in vivo is always a challenge task. Usually, screening out and identifying the exogenous compounds manually from total ion chromatograms (TICs) of biologic samples is time-consuming and strenuous. In this study, a systematic identification strategy based on LC-MS was adopted to clarify the metabolic profiling of Zhi-Zi-Hou-Po decoction (ZZHPD) in rat. Bile, urine and feces samples of rat were obtained after oral administration and then analyzed by LC-MS after proper preparation. The xenobiotics were screened out from TICs globally and rapidly by untargeted metabolomics-driven strategy (UMDS) based on the combined of XCMS online (a web-based platform to process LC-MS data), MetAlign (a software to process LC-MS data) and SIMCA-P (a software for data analysis). Most of the xenobiotics were identified by means of series product ions filtering (sPIF), which was based on the database-hit of ZZHPD (including prototype and metabolites). Then the unmatched constituents were identified tentatively and their source and metabolic pathway were clarified by using diagnostic fragment ions strategy (DFIS). As a result, a total of 83 compounds including 44 prototype compounds and 39 metabolites were rapidly identified or tentatively characterized from the biologic samples, and among them, four of which were found for the first time. Further research on the correlations of these prototype compounds and metabolites revealed that glucuronidation is the main metabolic pathways of ZZHPD in rat bile and urine, while prototype compounds were the abundant ingredients detected in rat feces.

  8. Effect of Zhigancao Decoction on Ventricle Monophasic Action Potential in Rabbits%炙甘草汤对正常家兔心室肌电生理特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周承志; 吴成云; 杨波; 张道亮; 王腾

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究炙甘草汤对正常家兔左心室电生理特性的影响,探讨其抗心律失常的作用机制。方法采用单相动作电位(MAP)记录技术,测定空白对照组和炙甘草汤组兔心室肌体表心电图和 MAP 的变化。结果与对照组比较,炙甘草汤组兔心室肌心率减慢,QT 间期延长的同时 Tp -e不增加,Tp -e /QT 缩小;并且炙甘草汤组兔心室肌单相动作电位幅度(MAPA)无明显变化,单相动作电位时程(MAPD)MAPD20、MAPD50、MAPD90均延长。结论炙甘草汤能降低心率,延长 MAPD,并缩小 Tp -e /QT,减少室性心律失常发生,可能是炙甘草汤抗心律失常且相对安全的机制。%Abstracts:Objective To observe the effect of Zhigancao Decoction(ZD) on left ventricular electrophysiology in rabbits.Methods The monophasic action potential recording technique were used to investigate electrocardiogram and the effects of ZD on MAP in control group and ZD group .Results ZD group reduced the heart rate and lengthened QT intervals,and Tp -e /QT was lower than control group.Monopha-sic action potential amplitude (MAPA) of ventricular myocytes had no difference, monophasic action potential duration(MAPD)MAPD20, MAPD50,and MAPD90 were prolonged in ZD group.Conclusion ZD can reduce heart rate , prolong MAPD ,and decrease Tp -e /QT in rab-bits ventricle cardiomyocytes, which may contribute to its antiarhythmic safely effect.

  9. Validation and pharmacokinetic application of a high-performance liquid chromatographic technique for determining the concentrations of amodiaquine and its metabolite in plasma of patients treated with oral fixed-dose amodiaquine-artesunate combination in areas of malaria endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedeji, Olumuyiwa N; Bolaji, Oluseye O; Falade, Catherine O; Osonuga, Odusoga A; Ademowo, Olusegun G

    2015-09-01

    Artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) have been adopted by most African countries, including Nigeria, as first-line treatments for uncomplicated falciparum malaria. Fixed-dose combinations of these ACTs, amodiaquine-artesunate (FDC AQAS) and artemether-lumefantrine (AL), were introduced in Nigeria to improve compliance and achieve positive outcomes of malaria treatment. In order to achieve clinical success with AQAS, we developed and validated a simple and sensitive high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) method with UV detection for determination of amodiaquine (AQ) and desethylamodiaquine (DAQ) in plasma using liquid-liquid extraction of the drugs with diethyl ether following protein precipitation with acetonitrile. Chromatographic separation was achieved using an Agilent Zorbax C18 column and a mobile phase consisting of distilled water-methanol (80:20 [vol/vol]) with 2% (vol/vol) triethylamine, pH 2.2, at a flow rate of 1 ml/min. Calibration curves in spiked plasma were linear from 100 to 1,000 ng/ml (r > 0.99) for both AQ and DAQ. The limit of detection was 1 ng (sample size, 20 μl). The intra- and interday coefficients of variation at 150, 300, and 900 ng/ml ranged from 1.3 to 4.8%, and the biases were between 6.4 and 9.5%. The mean extraction recoveries of AQ and DAQ were 80.0% and 68.9%, respectively. The results for the pharmacokinetic parameters of DAQ following oral administration of FDC AQAS (612/200 mg) for 3 days in female and male patients with uncomplicated falciparum malaria showed that the maximum plasma concentrations (C max) (740 ± 197 versus 767 ± 185 ng/ml), areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) (185,080 ± 20,813 versus 184,940 ± 16,370 h · ng/ml), and elimination half-life values (T 1/2) (212 ± 1.14 versus 214 ± 0.84 h) were similar (P > 0.05).

  10. 银杏叶提取物合并利培酮口腔崩解片治疗精神分裂症的临床研究%A clinical study of combined utization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets in the treatment of schlzophrenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚飞中; 曾骥; 余瑞; 龚昌群; 刘均富

    2012-01-01

    Objective To compare clinical efficacy and the side effects between combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets and only the use of risperidone orally disintegrating tablets in the treatment of schizophrenia. Methods Seventy-five patients with schizophrenia were treated randomly with combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets or risperidone orally disintegrating tablets only for six weeks,and measured with the brief psychiatric rating scale (BPRS) and treatment emergent symptom scale(TESS) before treatment and 1,2,4,6 weeks after treatment. Results The both programes were different in efficacy, combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone o-rally disintegrating tablets is more effective than risperidone orally disintegrating tablets only in treating schizophrenia, and the side effects combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets is no more effective than risperidone orally disintegrating tablets only in treating schizophrenia. Conclusion The therapeutic effect of combined utilization of ginkgo biloba extract and risperidone orally disintegrating tablets take a active part earlier than only the use of risperidone orally disintegrating tablets in the treatment of schizophrenia, however, the reduced rate of BPRS was no significant difference after 2 weeks, itcould be necessary to continue the joint use of ginkgo biloba extract.%目的 比较银杏叶提取物合并利培酮口腔崩解片与单用利培酮口腔崩解片治疗精神分裂症的疗效及不良反应.方法 将符合标准的75例精神分裂症患者分为两组,一组给予银杏叶提取物合并利培酮口腔崩解片治疗(治疗组,n=40),另一组给予利培酮口腔崩解片治疗(对照组,n=35),疗程6周.用简明精神量表(BPRS)在治疗前及治疗1、2、4、6周末评定疗效,用副反应量表(TESS)评定不良反应.结果

  11. Clinical observation of Tianmeng Oral Liquid combined with escitalopram oxalate in treatment of depression%甜梦口服液联合草酸艾司西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郝剑辉; 杜秀生; 张怡

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical efficacy of Tianmeng Oral Liquid combined with escitalopram oxalate in treatment of depression.Methods Patients (126 cases) with depression in Tanggu Anding Hospital of Tianjin Binhai New Area from January 2014 to December 2015 were randomly divided into the control and treatment groups, and each group had 63 cases. The patients in the control group werepo administered with Escitalopram Oxalate Tablets, 10 — 20 mg/d. The patients in the treatment group werepo administered with Tianmeng Oral Liquid on the basis of the control group, 40 mL/d. The patients in two groups were treated for 8 weeks. After treatment, the changes of clinical efficacies, HAMD scores, and sleep quality in two groups were compared.Results After treatment, the cure rate in the control and treatment groups were 55.5% and 68.2%, respectively, and there were differences between two groups (P < 0.05). After treatment for 2, 4, and 8 weeks, HAMD scores in two groups were significantly decreased, and the difference was statistically significant in the same group (P < 0.05). And after treatment for 2 weeks, HAMD scores in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the control group, with significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05). After treatment, the sleep quality improving rate in the control group was 87.3%, which was significantly lower than that in the treatment group (93.6%), with significant difference between two groups (P < 0.05).Conclusion Tianmeng Oral Liquid combined with escitalopram oxalate can improve sleep quality and quality of life with lower adverse reaction incidence.%目的:观察甜梦口服液联合草酸艾司西酞普兰治疗抑郁症的临床疗效。方法选取2014年1月—2015年12月在天津市滨海新区塘沽安定医院就诊的抑郁症患者126例,随机分为对照组和治疗组,每组各63例。对照组患者口服草酸艾司西酞普兰片,10~20 mg/d。治疗组在对照组的基

  12. 维A酸联合常规三联药物治疗口腔白斑的临床观察%Clinical Observation of Vitamin A Acid Combined with Triple-drug in the Treatment of Oral Leukoplakia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋惠珠; 於俊

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE:To observe the efficacy and safety of vitamin A acid combined with vitamin A,vitamin E,celecoxib in the treatment of oral leukoplakia. METHODS:104 patients with oral leukoplakia were randomly divided into control group(52 cases) and observation group (52 cases). Control group received 1 Vitamin A soft capsule,3 times a day+1 Vitamin E soft cap-sule,3 times a day+1 Celecoxib capsule,twice a day. Observation group additionally received 1 Vitamin A acid tablet,twice a day. 4-week was regarded as 1 treatment course,it lasted for 3 courses. Clinical efficacy,and leukoplakia number,maximum diam-eter of leukoplakia,immunoglobulin A(IgA),IgM,IgG before and after treatment,and the incidence of adverse reactions in 2 groups were observed. RESULTS:The total effective rate in observation group was significantly higher than control group,the dif-ference was statistically significant(P0.05). After treatment,leukoplakia number,maximum diam-eter of leukoplakia,IgA and IgM in 2 groups were significantly lower than before,and observation group was lower than control group,IgG was significantly higher than before,and observation group was higher than control group,the differences were statisti-cally significant (P0.05). CONCLUSIONS:Vitamin A acid combined with vitamin A,vitamin E,celecoxib shows obvious efficacy in the treatment of oral leukoplakia,it can effectively reduce clinical symptoms,improve immune function,with good safety.%目的:观察维A酸联合维生素A、维生素E、塞来昔布治疗口腔白斑的疗效和安全性。方法:104例口腔白斑患者随机分为对照组(52例)和观察组(52例)。对照组患者口服维生素A胶丸1粒,每日3次+维生素E胶丸1粒,每日3次+塞来昔布胶囊1粒,每日2次。观察组患者在对照组治疗的基础上口服维A酸片1片,每日2次。两组均以4周为1个疗程,共治疗3个疗程。观察两组患者的临床疗效,治疗前后白斑数目、白斑最大直径、免

  13. Effect of hyperkalemia on ECGⅡ and monophasic action potential of toad cardiac muscles%蟾蜍高钾血症动物模型实验方法的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈德森; 彭吉霞; 郭俐宏; 王星文; 朱克刚

    2007-01-01

    目的 利用在体蟾蜍心脏建立模拟高钾血症(hyperkalemia)动物模型,观察高血钾对蟾蜍Ⅱ导联心电图(electrocardiograph,ECGⅡ)及心室肌单向动作电位(monophasic action potential,MAP)的影响.方法 本实验经咽淋巴囊注射10%氯化钾(KCl)使蟾蜍心肌细胞外液中钾含量急剧升高,同步记录MAP和ECGⅡ.结果 注射10%KCl 10 min后MAP的二相(坪)动作电位时程延长,心率减慢,ECG显示p-R间期延长,QRS波群增宽变低,T波明显高尖,部分动物T波变低或消失.与给药前相比各记录指标差异显著(P<0.05).结论 咽淋巴囊注射10%KCl可致蟾蜍急性高钾血症且ECG改变与哺乳动物高钾血症有相似之处.

  14. Evaluation of a combined triple method to detect causative HPV in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas: p16 Immunohistochemistry, Consensus PCR HPV-DNA, and In Situ Hybridization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pannone Giuseppe

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent emerging evidences identify Human Papillomavirus (HPV related Head and Neck squamous cell carcinomas (HN-SCCs as a separate subgroup among Head and Neck Cancers with different epidemiology, histopathological characteristics, therapeutic response to chemo-radiation treatment and clinical outcome. However, there is not a worldwide consensus on the methods to be used in clinical practice. The endpoint of this study was to demonstrate the reliability of a triple method which combines evaluation of: 1. p16 protein expression by immunohistochemistry (p16-IHC; 2. HPV-DNA genotyping by consensus HPV-DNA PCR methods (Consensus PCR; and 3 viral integration into the host by in situ hybridization method (ISH. This triple method has been applied to HN-SCC originated from oral cavity (OSCC and oropharynx (OPSCC, the two anatomical sites in which high risk (HR HPVs have been clearly implicated as etiologic factors. Methylation-Specific PCR (MSP was performed to study inactivation of p16-CDKN2a locus by epigenetic events. Reliability of multiple methods was measured by Kappa statistics. Results All the HN-SCCs confirmed HPV positive by PCR and/or ISH were also p16 positive by IHC, with the latter showing a very high level of sensitivity as single test (100% in both OSCC and OPSCC but lower specificity level (74% in OSCC and 93% in OPSCC. Concordance analysis between ISH and Consensus PCR showed a faint agreement in OPSCC (κ = 0.38 and a moderate agreement in OSCC (κ = 0.44. Furthermore, the addition of double positive score (ISHpositive and Consensus PCR positive increased significantly the specificity of HR-HPV detection on formalin-fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE samples (100% in OSCC and 78.5% in OPSCC, but reduced the sensitivity (33% in OSCC and 60% in OPSCC. The significant reduction of sensitivity by the double method was compensated by a very high sensitivity of p16-IHC detection in the triple approach. Conclusions Although HR

  15. Oral Leukoplakia as It Relates to HPV Infection: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    Feller, L.; Lemmer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Leukoplakia is the most common potentially malignant lesion of the oral cavity and can be categorised according to its clinical appearance as homogeneous or nonhomogenous. Tobacco and areca nut use, either alone or in combination are the most common risk factors for oral leukoplakia, but some oral leukoplakias are idiopathic. Some leukoplakias arise within fields of precancerized oral epithelium in which the keratinocytes may be at different stages of cytogenetic transformation. Leukoplakias ...

  16. Minimizing the problem of poor compliance in adolescents. Clinical experience with a modern low-dose gestodene-containing oral contraceptive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brill, K

    1997-06-17

    Adolescents represent a particularly difficult group with respect to compliance. Not only is incorrect pill intake a common problem, but unnecessary discontinuation also occurs regularly. Reasons for poor compliance are varied, but inadequate information and problems with cycle control and weight gain are particularly important. Choosing a well-tolerated oral contraceptive can help to improve compliance, and clinical experience from a large, multicenter trial suggests that monophasic gestodene (75 micrograms gestodene/30 micrograms ethinylestradiol) is a suitable preparation for this group of women. An investigation of 5,602 adolescents with an average age of 16.4 years found good contraceptive reliability and excellent cycle control. The incidence of spotting and breakthrough bleeding was low and declined during the course of the study. The preparation was tolerated well, and the incidence of adverse events was low, with only 4.4% of women withdrawing from the study due to adverse events. An increase in body weight was uncommon. At the end of the study, 85.0% of adolescents rated monophasic gestodene as good and 9.6% as satisfactory.

  17. Dynamic Hip Screw Fixation Combined of Oral Medicine Treating Intertrochanteric Fracture%动力髋螺钉固定术配合口服中药治疗高龄股骨粗隆间骨折

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐爱民

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨采用动力髋螺钉(DHS)固定术配合口服中药治疗高龄股骨粗隆间骨折的方法和疗效.方法:对2004年1月—2009年1月收治的股骨粗隆间骨折患者进行手术治疗.其中男25例,女21例,年龄65~83岁,平均年龄73岁,采用动力髋螺钉(DHS)固定术.结果:1例病人术后3天出现患肢深静脉血栓,经活血、溶栓治疗后恢复.2例因其他疾病死亡,43例骨折均全部愈合,已恢复原来生活能力,无内固定物松动及髋内翻畸形等并发症.结论:动力髋螺钉(DHS)固定术配合口服中药治疗高龄股骨粗隆间骨折具有操作简单、时间短、固定可靠、损伤小、出血少、骨折愈合率高、并发症少等优点,是值得推广应用的手术方法[1].%Objective:To investigate the method and effect of the dynamic hip screw ( DHS )fixation of intertrochanteric fracture. Methods; During January 2004-January 2009, patients admitted because of intertrochanteric fractures were treated surgically, including 25 males and 21 females, aged 65 to 83 years old, mean age was 73, using dynamic hip screw ( DHS ) fixation. Results: 3 days after surgery, 1 case limb deep vein thrombosis occurs, the blood circulation restored after thrombolytic therapy. 2 patients died due to other diseases,43 cases of fracture were all healed and returned to the original capacity, no loosening of internal fixation, or complications such as varus deformity. Conclusion: The dynamic hip screw ( DHS ) fixation combined with oral medicine treatment of intertrochanteric fracture is simple, treatment course is short, fixed and reliable, with less damage, less bleeding, high fracture healing rate, fewer complications, and is worthy of promoting application for the surgical method[1].

  18. Oral Transmission: A Marriage of Music, Language, Tradition, and Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emma E. Patterson

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available There are a number of misunderstandings about ancient oral transmission that negatively affect the way musicians view music history but also the process of how music was and currently is conceived, recorded, and shared. A common misconception is that oral transmission of music is an ancient practice that occurred before written notation of music was developed. However, I seek to prove that there is a false dichotomy between oral transmission and written notation and I focus on the changing definition and importance of oral tradition. Firstly, I discuss the misconceptions of ancient oral transmission. Secondly, I examine the continuing development of research and definitions of oral transmission—which is changing our concept of ancient as well contemporary oral traditions. Thirdly, I demonstrate how these traditions are still relevant in present, late modern times. Thoughout this discussion I examine and engage with the pivotal specialists and research that has developed our view of oral tradition through time. To better understand these scholars’ commentary as well as my own, it is important to note the combined concepts of oral and aural tradition. Oral culture refers to what is spoken and sung, and aural culture refers to what is heard and comprehended. Both are necessary for effective transmission to occur, and oral and aural methods are almost always simultaneously present in most societies. When aural culture is discussed here, it refers to the combination of both elements and is closely related to aural tradition. The most notable terms to differentiate are oral transmission and oral tradition. Typically oral transmission refers to the basic action of passing information, in this case music, through oral and aural means. Oral tradition, however, is the more general concept that synthesizes oral transmission, tradition, and culture. Despite misconceptions that music was primitive before composers started documenting it, oral

  19. Clinical study on Qirong Runchang oral liquid combined with acupressure in the treatment of constipation in chemotherapy patients with cancer%芪蓉润肠口服液配合穴位按压对癌症化疗患者便秘治疗的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈越; 张杉; 由正; 陈金玉

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of Qirong Runchang oral liquid combined with acupressure on constipation in chemotherapy patients with cancer.Methods: The patients were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=41, treated with Qirong Runchang oral liquid combined with acupressure) and a control group (n=41, treated only with Qirong Runchang oral liquid ). The onset time, recovery time and the total efficiency of treatment were compared between two groups after intervention.Results: The total effective rate and the total efifciency were 75.7% and 95.2% in the experimental group, which were signiifcantly higher than 48.7% and 83.4% in the control group (P<0.05).Conclusion: The symptoms of constipation can be effectively improved with Qirong Runchang oral liquid combined with acupressure.%目的:观察芪蓉润肠口服液配合穴位按压对癌症化疗患者便秘的临床疗效。方法:将癌症化疗患者随机分为两组(各41例),试验组予芪蓉润肠口服液配合穴位按压;对照组予芪蓉润肠口服液。比较两组干预后的起效时间、恢复正常时间及治疗总有效率。结果:试验组总显效率75.7%,总有效率95.2%,明显优于对照组的48.7%和83.4%(P<0.05)。结论:芪蓉润肠口服液配合穴位按压,能更快、更有效地改善便秘症状。

  20. 口服流产药配伍依沙吖啶终止中晚期妊娠效果观察%Effect observation of oral abortion drug combined with ethacridine in termination of middle and late pregnancy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓玲

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical effect of oral abortion drug combined with wuyisha acridine in termination of middle and late pregnancy. Methods 92 cases of middle and late pregnancy cured in our hospital from November 2014 to May 2016 were selected and randomly divided into study group and control group according to digital method with 46 cases in each.Pregnant women in control group were given ethacridine injection induced abortion, and pregnant women in control group were given mifepristone on the basis of the drug induced labor. Induced labor effects of the two groups were compared. Results The number of successful cases of induced abortion in control group was 36 (78.26%).The number of successful cases in study group was 44 cases (95.65%).Fetal placental delivery time, amount of bleeding and hospitalization time of patients in study group were (40.6±3.4)h,(124±13.2) ml,(4.4±0.3)d.Fetal placental delivery time, amount of bleeding and hospitalization time of patients in control group were(59.7±7.8)h,(176±15.8)mL,(7.6±0.9)d.And the differences were significantly different (P < 0.05). Conclusion For middle and late pregnancy,ethacridine combined with oral mifepristone and misoprostol two kinds of drug assisted induction of labor can effectively reduce the amount of bleeding, and further shorten the hospital stay.It is not only convenient and safe.%目的:对口服流产药联合依沙吖啶终止中晚期妊娠的临床疗效进行分析。方法抽取2014年11月~2016年5月我院接受的92例中晚期妊娠者按数字分组法随机分为研究组(46例)和对比组(46例),对比组单纯给予依沙吖啶注射液引产,研究组患者在药物引产的基础上增加米非司酮药物引产,进而对用药后两组患者的引产效果进行比较。结果用药后对比组患者的引产成功例数为36例(78.26%),研究组患者的引产成功例数为44例(95.65%),同时经观察发现研究组患者的胎儿胎盘

  1. 牙刷刷牙结合温开水冲洗在经口气管插管口腔护理中的应用效果观察%Effect of brushing teeth with a toothbrush combined with warm boiling water rinsing in oral nursing of orotracheal intubation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李锦; 李小妹; 吴建玲; 罗春花; 李春妹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of brushing teeth with a toothbrush combined with warm boiling water rinsing in oral nursing of orotracheal intubation .Methods Eighty-four patients with orotracheal intubation in ICU during May 2012 to June 2013 monitoring were randomly divided into experimental group (n=42) and control group (n=42) .The control group was given oral care with cotton ball immersed in physiological saline ,the experimental group was given oral care by brushing teeth with toothbrush combined with warm boiling water rinsing .The oral nursing effect of two groups was compared .Results The number of oropharyngeal bacterial ,dental plaque ,oral odor ,hospital stay and medical costs in the experimental group were less than that in the control group ,patients satisfaction was significantly higher than that in the control group .Conclusion Brushing teeth with a toothbrush combined with warm boiling water rinsing can effectively clean the oral cavity of patients ,reduce the incidence of bacterial infection on lung .%目的:探讨牙刷刷牙结合温开水冲洗在经口气管插管口腔护理中的应用效果。方法选取2012年5月-2013年6月在IC U监护治疗经口气管插管患者84例,随机将其分为实验组和对照组各42例。对照组采用生理盐水棉球进行口腔护理,实验组使用牙刷刷牙结合温开水冲洗方法进行口腔护理。比较2组患者的口腔护理应用效果。结果实验组口咽细菌、牙菌斑、口腔气味、住院时间、医疗费用、患者满意度情况均明显优于对照组。结论经口气管插管患者采用牙刷刷牙结合温开水冲洗进行口腔护理,可以有效清洁患者口腔、减少肺部细菌感染的发生。

  2. ORAL ALLERGY SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Sergeev

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Oral allergy syndrome (OAS is defined as a set of clinical manifestations caused by IgE-mediated allergic  reactions  that  occur  at