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Sample records for monomorphous marginal-zone morphology

  1. Clinical and morphological features of undifferentiated monomorphous GH/TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma.

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    Skorić, T; Korsić, M; Zarković, K; Plavsić, V; Besenski, N; Breskovac, L; Giljević, Z; Paladino, J

    1999-06-01

    A 41-year-old male presented with progressive visual defects, acromegaly and hyperthyroidism. After clinical evaluation a giant GH/TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma was diagnosed. Administration of the somatostatin analog octreotide at doses of 150 microg s.c. per day inhibited the secretion of both GH and TSH. A three-week treatment with octreotide prior to surgery led to slight visual improvement and CT scan showed some new necrotic areas within the tumor mass. Transcranial surgery was performed. By immunohistochemical analyses of the adenoma tissue GH, prolactin and beta-chorionic gonadotropin were detected; TSH was negative. Electron microscopy revealed an undifferentiated, monomorphous adenoma with morphological features of an acidophil stem cell adenoma such as the presence of misplaced exocytoses, fibrous bodies and mitochondrial gigantism. However, the tumor cells contained small secretory granules (up to 250 nm) accumulated along the cell membrane characteristic of thyrotrope cells. Furthermore, some adenoma cells were fusiform with long cytoplasmic processes resembling thyrotropes. Two months after the operation CT scan revealed a large residual tumor. Serum GH and TSH levels had increased again and the TSH level was even higher than before the treatment. The patient died suddenly, most probably of lethal arrhythmia. Specimens of the adenoma tissue obtained at autopsy confirmed the previous findings with the exception of positive immunostaining for TSH which was found in less than 1% of the adenoma cells. This undifferentiated, monomorphous GH/TSH-secreting pituitary adenoma represents an entity that is unusual both in its ultrastructural features and clinical manifestations suggesting a cytogenesis from an early, undifferentiated stem cell.

  2. Pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma

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    Ming-Qing Du

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL is a distinct low grade B-cell lymphoma with an immunophenotype similar to that of splenic marginal zone B-cells. Like the normal splenic marginal zone B-cells, SMZLs also show variable features in somatic mutations of their rearranged immunoglobulin genes, with ∼90% of cases harbouring somatic mutations but at remarkably variable degrees, suggesting that SMZL may have multiple cell of origins, deriving from the heterogeneous B-cells of the splenic marginal zone. Notably, ∼30% of SMZLs show biased usage of IGHV1-2*04, with the expressed BCR being potentially polyreactive to autoantigens. Recent exome and targeted sequencing studies have identified a wide spectrum of somatic mutations in SMZL with the recurrent mutations targeting multiple signalling pathways that govern the development of splenic marginal zone B-cells. These recurrent mutations occur in KLF2 (20–42%, NOTCH2 (6.5–25%, NF-κB (CARD11 ∼7%, IKBKB ∼7%, TNFAIP3 7–13%, TRAF3 5%, BIRC3 6.3% and TLR (MYD88 5–13% signalling pathways. Interestingly, the majority of SMZL with KLF2 mutation have both 7q32 deletion and IGHV1-2 rearrangement, and these cases also have additional mutations in NOTCH2, or TNFAIP3, or TRAF3. There is a potential oncogenic cooperation among concurrent genetic changes, for example between the IGHV1-2 expressing BCR and KLF2 mutation in activation of the canonical NF-κB pathway, and between KLF2 and TRAF3 mutations in activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway. These novel genetic findings have provided considerable insights into the pathogenesis of SMZL and will stimulate the research in both normal and malignant marginal zone B-cells.

  3. Presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen in acute infected sheep.

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    Lee, Fan; Chen, Jiun-Liang; Lin, Chun-Ming; Wang, Fun-In

    2011-08-26

    Bluetongue virus, a member of the genus Orbivirus of the family Reoviridae, is the causative agent of bluetongue, which is a non-contagious Culicoides mediated blood-borne disease. The present study characterizes the pathogenicity of a Taiwan prototype BTV2/KM/2003 in Corriedale sheep inoculated subcutaneously into the ear pinna. Histologically, multifocal petechiated hemorrhage, with mild to moderate inflammation and edema, were present in the contralateral ear pinna, tongue, and facial skin, without remarkable lesions in lymphoid organs. By days post-infection (DPI) 7, viral VP7 antigen, detected by immunohistochemistry, presented in the spleen, chiefly located in the outer rim of macrophages bordering the marginal zone and red pulp, and T lymphocytes of the red pulp. By DPI 11, viral signals shifted from the marginal zone to macrophages and small lymphocytes within follicles of the spleen. In situ hybridization with VP7 gene probe detected strong signals in the spleen, chiefly spanning the whole width of 5-10 cell thickness of the marginal zone, including the marginal zone macrophages and marginal zone B cells, as well as macrophages of sheathed capillaries in the red pulp. This study demonstrates molecular as well as morphologic evidence of the presence of bluetongue virus in the marginal zone of the spleen, most likely associated with viremia in acute infection, as previously demonstrated by the authors.

  4. The genetics of nodal marginal zone lymphoma.

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    Spina, Valeria; Khiabanian, Hossein; Messina, Monica; Monti, Sara; Cascione, Luciano; Bruscaggin, Alessio; Spaccarotella, Elisa; Holmes, Antony B; Arcaini, Luca; Lucioni, Marco; Tabbò, Fabrizio; Zairis, Sakellarios; Diop, Fary; Cerri, Michaela; Chiaretti, Sabina; Marasca, Roberto; Ponzoni, Maurilio; Deaglio, Silvia; Ramponi, Antonio; Tiacci, Enrico; Pasqualucci, Laura; Paulli, Marco; Falini, Brunangelo; Inghirami, Giorgio; Bertoni, Francesco; Foà, Robin; Rabadan, Raul; Gaidano, Gianluca; Rossi, Davide

    2016-09-08

    Nodal marginal zone lymphoma (NMZL) is a rare, indolent B-cell tumor that is distinguished from splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) by the different pattern of dissemination. NMZL still lacks distinct markers and remains orphan of specific cancer gene lesions. By combining whole-exome sequencing, targeted sequencing of tumor-related genes, whole-transcriptome sequencing, and high-resolution single nucleotide polymorphism array analysis, we aimed at disclosing the pathways that are molecularly deregulated in NMZL and we compare the molecular profile of NMZL with that of SMZL. These analyses identified a distinctive pattern of nonsilent somatic lesions in NMZL. In 35 NMZL patients, 41 genes were found recurrently affected in ≥3 (9%) cases, including highly prevalent molecular lesions of MLL2 (also known as KMT2D; 34%), PTPRD (20%), NOTCH2 (20%), and KLF2 (17%). Mutations of PTPRD, a receptor-type protein tyrosine phosphatase regulating cell growth, were enriched in NMZL across mature B-cell tumors, functionally caused the loss of the phosphatase activity of PTPRD, and were associated with cell-cycle transcriptional program deregulation and increased proliferation index in NMZL. Although NMZL shared with SMZL a common mutation profile, NMZL harbored PTPRD lesions that were otherwise absent in SMZL. Collectively, these findings provide new insights into the genetics of NMZL, identify PTPRD lesions as a novel marker for this lymphoma across mature B-cell tumors, and support the distinction of NMZL as an independent clinicopathologic entity within the current lymphoma classification. © 2016 by The American Society of Hematology.

  5. CD27 expression in the human splenic marginal zone : the infant marginal zone is populated by naive B cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, A; Lodewijk, ME; de Boer, NK; Dammers, PM; Kroese, FGM; Timens, W

    2001-01-01

    The splenic marginal zone of adult humans contains B cells, of which most express CD27, an antigen only recently identified as a marker for somatically, mutated memory B cells. We investigated whether and to which extent the developing marginal zone in infants arid children is populated by either

  6. Extranodal marginal zone (MALT) lymphoma in common variable immunodeficiency.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Desar, I.M.; Keuter, M.; Raemaekers, J.M.M.; Jansen, J.B.M.J.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Meer, J.W.M. van der

    2006-01-01

    We describe two patients with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) who developed extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (formerly described as mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma or MALT lymphoma). One patient, with documented pernicious anaemia and chronic atrophic gastritis with metaplasia, d

  7. The origin of marginal zone B cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dammers, PM; de Boer, NK; Deenen, GJ; Nieuwenhuis, P; Kroese, FGM

    1999-01-01

    The marginal zone is a unique compartment that is only found in the spleen. Rat marginal zone B cells (MZ-B) can be distinguished from other B cells, e.g. recirculating follicular B cells (RF-B), by several phenotypic characteristics. Typically MZ-B cells are surface (s)IgM(hi), sIgD(lo) and CD45R(B

  8. Rare Posterior Pharyngeal Mass: Atypical Marginal Zone Hyperplasia.

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    Eliçora, Sultan Şevik; Güven, Mehmet; Varli, Ali F; Yilmaz, Mahmut S; Alponat, Selin

    2016-03-01

    Cases of posterior pharyngeal masses are quite rare, and are typically derived from schwannoma or encephalocele, or are of vascular or infectious origin. They are clinically significant due to their tendency to cause airway obstruction. The aim of this study was to present a rare atypical marginal hyperplasia case of a posterior pharyngeal wall mass. A 10-year-old male was admitted to our clinic with dyspnea. A plane-surfaced 4 × 3 × 3 cm mass was observed on the posterior pharyngeal wall upon physical examination. The patient underwent magnetic resonance imaging and surgical treatment. Following excision of material from the patient's mass, a pathologic diagnosis of atypical marginal zone hyperplasia was made. Atypical marginal zone hyperplasia of the posterior pharyngeal wall has not yet been reported in the literature. Marginal zone hyperplasia associated with a lymphoproliferative disease should be considered when making differential diagnoses of posterior pharyngeal wall masses.

  9. Glomerulonephritis associated with marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: clinical, pathological characteristics of renal injury and treatment (clinical cases

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    B. T. Dzhumabaeva

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Glomerulonephritis associated with marginal zone B-cell lymphoma at the onset of disease is rarely diagnosed. In this article we reported two patient of the extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with kidney damage. The first patient with the extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma involved the stomach, lymph nodes, bone marrow and associated with mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis and renal failure. The second patient with the splenic form of marginal zone B-cell lymphoma associated with fibrillary glomerulonephritis and hepatitis C and involve the lymph nodes, liver, bone marrow, and synthesis monoclonal immunoglobulin (IgMκ, cryoglobulin type II. Glomerulonephritis of the both cases were established on the renal biopsies by the morphological investigation, immunofluorescence, and electron microscopy.Both patients received therapy with bendamustine and rituximab, which has resulted in complete remission for lymphatic tumors and improve of kidney function. Overall and event-free survival in the first case corresponds to 21 and 16 months, the second 29 and 20, respectively.These cases illustrates that the kidney may be initially involved by extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma, and the need for expanded investigation of the possible dissemination. Combination of bendamustine and rituximab were effective and safety treatment in these cases.

  10. Heterogeneity of memory marginal zone B cells in the rat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricks, Jacobus

    2015-01-01

    The spleen is an important organ of the immune system. Like other lymphoid organs, the spleen is compartmentalized. Different compartments harbor different populations of lymphocytes, subpopulation of the white blood cells. One of these compartments in the spleen is the so-called marginal zone. Most

  11. Primary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of appendix

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    Radha S

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Primary lymphomas of appendix are extremely rare tumors. The first case of primary lymphoma of appendix was reported by Warren in the year 1898. Incidence of primary lymphoma of appendix is 0.015% of all gastrointestinal lymphomas. This is a report of primary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of appendix which presented as appendicular mass. As some cases are incidentally discovered, this case emphasizes that histological examination of all appendicectomy specimens is mandatory.

  12. Long-term outcome for gastric marginal zone lymphoma treated with radiotherapy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wirth, A; Gospodarowicz, M; Aleman, B M P;

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the long-term results of radiotherapy for patients with gastric marginal zone lymphoma (GMZL).......We evaluated the long-term results of radiotherapy for patients with gastric marginal zone lymphoma (GMZL)....

  13. Primary gastric T cell lymphoma mimicking marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue.

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    Holanda, Danniele; Zhao, Merry Y; Rapoport, Aaron P; Garofalo, Michael; Chen, Qing; Zhao, X Frank

    2008-07-01

    Primary gastric T cell lymphoma is rare and mostly of large cell type. In this paper, we present a case of gastric T cell lymphoma morphologically similar to the gastric marginal zone B cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Morphologically, the cells are small with abundant clear cytoplasm. Lymphoepithelial lesions are readily identified with diffuse destruction of gastric glands. Immunohistochemically, the neoplastic cells are CD3+/CD4+/CD8-/Granzyme B-. Molecular studies revealed monoclonal T cell receptor gamma gene rearrangement. Clinically, the patient responded initially to four cycles of R-CHOP, but then progressed. Because peripheral T cell lymphoma is usually associated with a poor prognosis, whereas marginal zone B cell lymphoma is an indolent lymphoproliferative disorder, this morphologic mimicry should be recognized and completely investigated when atypical small lymphoid infiltrates with lymphoepithelial lesions are encountered in the stomach.

  14. [Nosology and mechanism of monomorphous atrial tachycardia].

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    Puech, P

    1990-12-01

    Monomorphous atrial tachycardias have been classified taking into account the ectopic rhythm rate, atrial wave morphology, the mode of activation of the atrial studied by endocavitary cartography, stimulation tests and their natural history. Atrial flutter is a right intra-atrial macroreentry of anticlockwise (common flutter) or clockwise (atypical flutter) rotation, maintained by anisotropic conduction around two pivotal zones located at the posterior and inferior part of the atrium. Tachycardia is made possible by the existence of an excitable zone on the circuit. Paroxysmal atrial tachycardias are far more often linked to localised reentry (sino-atrial or intra-atrial microreentry) than to provoked activity, stimulation tests enabling the distinction to be made. "Digitalis tachycardias" must be seen in the context of activity induced by late post-potential. Focal atrial tachycardias linked to ectopic automatism are a separate entity. They follow a chronic course in the young individual and may lead to a cardiomyopathy purely due to the rhythm abnormality.

  15. Marginal Zone Lymphoma Complicated by Protein Losing Enteropathy

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    Nadine Stanek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Protein losing enteropathy (PLE refers to excessive intestinal protein loss, resulting in hypoalbuminemia. Underlying pathologies include conditions leading to either reduced intestinal barrier or lymphatic congestion. We describe the case of a patient with long-lasting diffuse abdominal problems and PLE. Repetitive endoscopies were normal with only minimal lymphangiectasia in biopsies. Further evaluations revealed an indolent marginal zone lymphoma with minor bone marrow infiltration. Monotherapy with rituximab decreased bone marrow infiltration of the lymphoma but did not relieve PLE. Additional treatments with steroids, octreotide, a diet devoid of long-chain fatty-acids, and parenteral nutrition did not prevent further clinical deterioration with marked weight loss (23 kg, further reduction in albumin concentrations (nadir 8 g/L, and a pronounced drop in performance status. Finally, immunochemotherapy with rituximab and bendamustine resulted in hematological remission and remarkable clinical improvement. 18 months after therapy the patient remains free of gastrointestinal complaints and has regained his body weight with normal albumin levels. We demonstrate a case of PLE secondary to indolent marginal zone lymphoma. No intestinal pathologies were detected, contrasting a severe and almost lethal clinical course. Immunochemotherapy relieved lymphoma and PLE, suggesting that a high suspicion of lymphoma is warranted in otherwise unexplained cases of PLE.

  16. Marginal zone B-cells, a gatekeeper of innate immunity.

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    Zouali, Moncef; Richard, Yolande

    2011-01-01

    To maintain the integrity of an organism constantly challenged by pathogens, the immune system is endowed with a variety of cell types. B lymphocytes were initially thought to only play a role in the adaptive branch of immunity. However, a number of converging observations revealed that two B-cell subsets, marginal zone (MZ) and B1 cells, exhibit unique developmental and functional characteristics, and can contribute to innate immune responses. In addition to their capacity to mount a local antibody response against type-2 T-cell-independent (TI-2) antigens, MZ B-cells can participate to T-cell-dependent (TD) immune responses through the capture and import of blood-borne antigens to follicular areas of the spleen. Here, we discuss the multiple roles of MZ B-cells in humans, non-human primates, and rodents. We also summarize studies - performed in transgenic mice expressing fully human antibodies on their B-cells and in macaques whose infection with Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) represents a suitable model for HIV-1 infection in humans - showing that infectious agents have developed strategies to subvert MZ B-cell functions. In these two experimental models, we observed that two microbial superantigens for B-cells (protein A from Staphylococcus aureus and protein L from Peptostreptococcus magnus) as well as inactivated AT-2 virions of HIV-1 and infectious SIV preferentially deplete innate-like B-cells - MZ B-cells and/or B1 B-cells - with different consequences on TI and TD antibody responses. These data revealed that viruses and bacteria have developed strategies to deplete innate-like B-cells during the acute phase of infection and to impair the antibody response. Unraveling the intimate mechanisms responsible for targeting MZ B-cells in humans will be important for understanding disease pathogenesis and for designing novel vaccine strategies.

  17. Marginal zone B-cells, a gatekeeper of innate immunity

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    Moncef eZOUALI

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available To maintain the integrity of an organism constantly challenged by pathogens, the immune system is endowed with a variety of cell types. B-lymphocytes were initially thought to only play a role in the adaptative branch of immunity. However, a number of converging observations revealed that two B-cell subsets, marginal zone (MZ and B1 cells, exhibit unique developmental and functional characteristics, and can contribute to innate immune responses. In addition to their capacity to mount local antibody response against type 2 T-independent (TI-2 antigens, MZ B-cells can participate to T-dependent (TD immune response through the capture and import of blood-borne antigens to follicular areas of the spleen. Here, we discuss the multiple roles of MZ B-cells in rodents and primates. We also summarize studies —performed in transgenic mice expressing fully human antibodies on their B-cells and macaques whose infection with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV represents a suitable model for HIV-1 infection in humans— showing that infectious agents have developed strategies to subvert MZ B-cell functions. In these two experimental models, we observed that two microbial superantigens for B-cells (protein A from Staphylococcus aureus and protein L from Peptostreptococcus magnus as well as inactivated AT-2 virions of HIV-1 and infectious SIV preferentially deplete innate-like B-cells —MZ B-cells and/or B1 B-cells— with different consequences on TI and TD antibody responses. These data revealed that viruses and bacteria have developed strategies to deplete innate-like B-cells during the acute phase of infection and to impair the antibody response. Unraveling the intimate mechanisms responsible for targeting MZ B-cells in humans will be important for understanding disease pathogenesis and for designing novel vaccine strategies.

  18. FISH analysis of MALT lymphoma-specific translocations and aneuploidy in primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.I.; Hoefnagel, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Willemze, R.; Hebeda, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas (PCMZL) share histological and clinical characteristics with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas suggesting a common pathogenesis. A number of recurrent structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations have been described in MALT lymphoma, but

  19. FISH analysis of MALT lymphoma-specific translocations and aneuploidy in primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schreuder, M.I.; Hoefnagel, J.J.; Jansen, P.A.M.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van; Willemze, R.; Hebeda, K.M.

    2005-01-01

    Primary cutaneous marginal zone lymphomas (PCMZL) share histological and clinical characteristics with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas suggesting a common pathogenesis. A number of recurrent structural and numerical chromosomal aberrations have been described in MALT lymphoma, but

  20. A Phase 2 Study of Concurrent Fludarabine and Rituximab for the Treatment of Marginal Zone Lymphomas

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    Brown, Jennifer R; Friedberg, Jonathan W.; Feng, Yang; Scofield, Sarah; Phillips, Kimberly; Cin, Paola Dal; Joyce, Robin; Takvorian, Ronald W; Fisher, David C; Fisher, Richard I; Liesveld, Jane; Marquis, Diana; Neuberg, Donna; Freedman, Arnold S

    2009-01-01

    SUMMARY The marginal zone lymphomas are a recently defined group of related diseases likely arising from a common cell of origin, the marginal zone B cell. Data on therapy for subtypes other than gastric MALT has been largely limited to retrospective case series. We therefore undertook this prospective phase 2 study of fludarabine and rituximab for the treatment of marginal zone lymphomas. 26 patients were enrolled, 14 with nodal MZL, 8 with MALT lymphomas and 4 with splenic MZL; 81% were receiving initial systemic therapy. Only 58% (95% CI 37–77%) of patients completed the planned six cycles, due to significant hematologic, infectious and allergic toxicity. Four late toxic deaths occurred due to infections (15% (95% CI 4.3–35%), two related to delayed bone marrow aplasia and two related to MDS. Nonetheless, the ORR was 85% (95% CI 65–96%), with 54% CRs. The progression-free survival at 3.1 years of follow-up is 79.5% (95% CI, 63–96%). We conclude that although concurrent fludarabine and rituximab given at this dose and schedule is a highly effective regimen in the treatment of marginal zone lymphomas, the significant hematologic and infectious toxicity observed both during and after therapy is prohibitive in this patient population, emphasizing the need to study marginal zone lymphomas as a separate entity. PMID:19344412

  1. Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: clinical and therapeutic features in 50 cases.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, J.J.; Vermeer, M.H.; Jansen, P.A.M.; Heule, F.; Voorst Vader, P.C. van; Sanders, C.J.; Gerritsen, M.J.P.; Geerts, M.L.; Meijer, C.J.; Noordijk, E.M.; Willemze, R.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (PCMZL) is a low-grade B-cell lymphoma that originates in the skin, with no evidence of extracutaneous disease. Studies focusing on the optimal treatment of PCMZL have not been published thus far. We describe 50 patients with PCMZL to

  2. Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma: Clinical and therapeutic features in 50 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.P.W. Hoefnagel (Pepijn); P.M. Noordijk (P.); R. Willemze (Roelof); M.H. Vermeer (Maarten); P.M. Jansen (Pieter); F. Heule (Freerk); P.C. Van Voorst Vader (P.); C.J.G. Sanders (C. J G); M.J.P. Gerritsen (M. J P); M.L. Geerts (M.); C.J.L.M. Meijer (Chris)

    2005-01-01

    textabstractBackground: Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (PCMZL) is a low-grade B-cell lymphoma that originates in the skin, with no evidence of extracutaneous disease. Studies focusing on the optimal treatment of PCMZL have not been published thus far. We describe 50 patients with

  3. Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma - Clinical and therapeutic features in 50 cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoefnagel, JJ; Vermeer, MH; Jansen, PM; Heule, F; Vader, PCV; Sanders, CJG; Gerritsen, MJP; Geerts, ML; Meijer, CJLM; Noordijk, EM; Willemze, R

    Background: Primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (PCMZL) is a low-grade B-cell lymphoma that originates in the skin, with no evidence of extracutaneous disease. Studies focusing on the optimal treatment of PCMZL have not been published thus far. We describe 50 patients with PCMZL to

  4. Class-switched marginal zone B cells in spleen have relatively low numbers of somatic mutations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendricks, Jacobus; Visser, Annie; Dammers, Peter M.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Bos, Nicolaas A.; Kroese, Frans G. M.

    2011-01-01

    The vast majority of rodent splenic marginal zone (MZ)-B cells are naive IgM(+) cells. A small fraction of these MZ-B cells carry mutated V-genes, and represent IgM(+) memory MZ-B cells. Here we reveal further heterogeneity of B cells with a MZ-B cell phenotype, by providing evidence for the existen

  5. Emerging role of infectious etiologies in the pathogenesis of marginal zone B-cell lymphomas.

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    Zucca, Emanuele; Bertoni, Francesco; Vannata, Barbara; Cavalli, Franco

    2014-10-15

    Extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arise from lymphoid populations that are induced by chronic inflammation in extranodal sites. The most frequently affected organ is the stomach, where MALT lymphoma is incontrovertibly associated with a chronic gastritis induced by a microbial pathogen, Helicobacter pylori. Gastric MALT lymphoma therefore represents a paradigm for evaluating inflammation-associated lymphomagenesis, which may lead to a deeper understanding of a possible etiologic association between other microorganisms and nongastric marginal zone lymphomas. Besides infectious etiology, chronic inflammation caused by autoimmune diseases, such as Sjögren syndrome or Hashimoto thyroiditis, can also carry a significant risk factor for the development of marginal zone lymphoma. In addition to the continuous antigenic drive, additional oncogenic events play a relevant role in lymphoma growth and progression to the point at which the lymphoproliferative process may eventually become independent of antigenic stimulation. Recent studies on MALT lymphomas have in fact demonstrated genetic alterations affecting the NF-κB) pathway, a major signaling pathway involved in many cancers. This review aims to present marginal zone lymphoma as an example of the close pathogenetic link between chronic inflammation and tumor development, with particular attention to the role of infectious agents and the integration of these observations into everyday clinical practice. See all articles in this CCR Focus section, "Paradigm Shifts in Lymphoma."

  6. Chronic inflammatory disease, lymphoid tissue neogenesis and extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. Bende; F. van Maldegem; C.J.M. van Noesel

    2009-01-01

    Chronic autoimmune or pathogen-induced immune reactions resulting in lymphoid neogenesis are associated with development of malignant lymphomas, mostly extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphomas (MZBCLs). In this review we address (i) chemokines and adhesion molecules involved in lymphoid neogenesis;

  7. Splenic marginal zone lymphoma with Evans' syndrome, autoimmunity, and peripheral gamma/delta T cells

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma with Evans? syndrome, autoimmunity, and peripheral gamma/delta T cells (Garcia-Mu?oz, Ricardo) Hematology Service, Clinica Universitaria, University of Navarra - Pamplona - SPAIN (Garcia-Mu?oz, Ricardo) Hematology Service, Clinica Universitaria, University of Navarra - Pamplona - SPAIN (Rodriguez-Otero, Paula) Hematology Service, Clinica Universitaria, University of Navarra - Pamplona - SPAIN (Pegenaute, Carlota) Department of...

  8. Slow recovery of follicular B cells and marginal zone B cells after chemotherapy : implications for humoral immunity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zandvoort, A; Lodewijk, ME; Klok, PA; Dammers, PM; Kroese, FGM; Timens, W

    2001-01-01

    Although most chemotherapeutic agents are known to cause primarily reduction or suppression of immune responses, surprisingly little is known about the influence of cytostatic agents on lymphoid tissue compartments such as the splenic marginal zone. The marginal zone plays an important role in the d

  9. On the deglaciation chronology of the Palivere ice-marginal zone, northern Estonia

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    Leili Saarse

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents new bio-, litho- and chronostratigraphical evidence from two adjacent sediment sequences of the Tõdva and Saku basins, northern Estonia that refine the age estimate of the Palivere ice-marginal zone and the deglaciation history of Estonia. Previouspalynological studies demonstrated the presence of late-glacial sediments in the area; however, those sections were not dated, and their ages were poorly constrained. New accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS 14C dates show that sedimentation in the Tõdva basin started at approximately 13 200 cal yr BP. Therefore, because the studied sitesare located at the distal part of this zone, we infer that this age represents the minimum timing of the ice retreat from the Palivere ice-marginal zone.

  10. FOXP1 status in splenic marginal zone lymphoma: a fluorescence in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baró, Cristina; Espinet, Blanca; Salido, Marta; Colomo, Lluís; Luño, Elisa; Florensa, Lourdes; Ferrer, Ana; Salar, Antonio; Campo, Elias; Serrano, Sergi; Solé, Francesc

    2009-11-01

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) is a well-recognized entity in which chromosomal aberrations seem to be potential markers in diagnosis, prognosis and disease monitoring. FOXP1 is a transcriptional regulator of B lymphopoiesis that is deregulated in some types of NHL. Translocation t(3;14)(p14;q32) has been described in marginal zone lymphomas but few series have studied FOXP1 involvement in SMZL. We performed cytogenetic, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemical (IHC) studies in a series of 36 patients in order to study the status of FOXP1 in this entity. According to our results, FOXP1 is not rearranged in SMZL, although we were able to demonstrate gains of FOXP1 gene due to trisomy 3/3p by FISH. FOXP1 protein expression seemed to be not related to any aberration and IHC studies are not conclusive.

  11. Recidiva tardia de linfoma da zona marginal Late relapse of marginal zone lymphoma

    OpenAIRE

    Rocha,Talita M. B.S.; Bortolheiro,Tereza C.; Eduardo Costa; Daniela Haardt; Roberto P. Paes; Chiattone, Carlos S.

    2009-01-01

    O linfoma de zona marginal é um linfoma de baixo grau com curso clínico indolente e potencial de recidiva.1,2 Apresentamos um caso de recidiva tardia após 25 anos de aparente remissão completa, levantando a possibilidade de recidiva de doença preexistente ou desenvolvimento de novo clone neoplásico.Marginal zone lymphoma is a low grade lymphoma with an indolent course and chance to relapse. We present a case of a patient who suffered relapse after 25 years of apparently complete remission of ...

  12. Evans Syndrome Presented with Marginal Zone Lymphoma and Duodenal Neuroendocrine Tumor in an Elderly Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele D'Ambrosio

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Evans syndrome (ES is an autoimmune disorder characterized by simultaneous or sequential development of autoimmune hemolytic anemia, immune thrombocytopenia, and/or neutropenia. ES can be classified as a primary (idiopathic or secondary (associated with an underlying disease syndrome. We report a case of ES in an elderly patient in the presence of multiple trigger factors such as recent influenza vaccine, marginal zone lymphoma, and neuroendocrine tumor G1. Whether this association is casual or causal remains a matter of speculation. It is however necessary to have a thorough work-up in a newly diagnosed ES and a more accurate search of miscellaneous factors especially in elderly patients.

  13. Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma Presenting within the Meckel Diverticulum as Diverticulitis: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nael

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Meckel diverticulum is the most common congenital defect of the gastrointestinal tract. It can be asymptomatic or mimic appendicitis and may be complicated by bleeding, diverticulitis, obstruction, and, rarely, neoplasia. We report the first case of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma occupying a Meckel diverticulum. A 44-year-old man with history of colonic diverticulitis presented to the emergency department for evaluation of acute abdominal pain. Radiography showed enteric obstruction, prompting diagnostic laparoscopy. Above the level of mid-ileum an intact Meckel diverticulum was identified. Microscopy showed extensive infiltration of sheets of small lymphocytes with abundant cytoplasm (monocytoid B-cells prominently in submucosa and focally transmural involving serosal adipose tissue with multiple reactive germinal centers. The immunostains showed positivity for CD20, BCL-2, and CD43 (weak and negativity for CD3, CD5, BCL-1, CD10, and BCL-6 in monocytoid B-cells. Fluorescence in situ hybridization studies revealed API2-MALT1 fusion signals consistent with t(11;18(q21;q21, which confirmed the diagnosis of extranodal marginal zone lymphoma, also known as mucosa associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

  14. Stereotyped patterns of B-cell receptor in splenic marginal zone lymphoma

    KAUST Repository

    Zibellini, S.

    2010-05-29

    Antigen stimulation may be important for splenic marginal zone lymphoma pathogenesis. To address this hypothesis, the occurrence of stereotyped B-cell receptors was investigated in 133 SMZL (26 HCV+) compared with 4,414 HCDR3 sequences from public databases. Sixteen SMZL (12%) showed stereotyped BCR; 7 of 86 (8%) SMZL sequences retrieved from public databases also belonged to stereotyped HCDR3 subsets. Three categories of subsets were identified: i) SMZL-specific subsets (n=5), composed only of 12 SMZL (9 HCV- from our series); ii) Non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma-like subsets (n=5), comprising 5 SMZL (4 from our series) clustering with other indolent lymphomas; iii) "CLL-like subsets" (n=6), comprising 6 SMZL (3 from our series) that belonged to known CLL subsets (n=4) or clustered with public CLL sequences. Immunoglobulin 3D modeling of 3 subsets revealed similarities in antigen binding regions not limited to HCDR3. Overall, data suggest that the pathogenesis of splenic marginal zone lymphoma may involve also HCV unrelated epitopes or an antigenic trigger common to other indolent lymphomas. ©2010 Ferrata Storti Foundation.

  15. Detailed subglacial topography and drumlins at the marginal zone of Múlajökull outlet glacier, central Iceland: Evidence from low frequency GPR data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsters, Kristaps; Karušs, Jānis; Rečs, Agnis; Běrziņš, Dāvids

    2016-12-01

    New ground penetrating radar (GPR) observations on the Múlajökull surge-type outlet glacier, central Iceland, are presented. Overall 10.5 km of GPR profile lines were recorded parallel to the glacier margin in August, 2015. Detailed GPR investigations combined with high-accuracy GPS measurements allowed to build a high-resolution model of the subglacial topography. We provide new evidence of streamlined ridges beneath Múlajökull's marginal zone interpreted as drumlins and show the location of the upper edge of the drumlin field. This discovery improves understanding of the location, morphology and development of drumlins as other geophysical observations of subglacial bedforms beneath modern outlet glaciers are quite rare. The location of drumlins corresponds with the position of the major sets of crevasses in the digital elevation model (2008) suggesting the presence of additional drumlins beneath such crevasses in the ice-marginal zone. We suggest this semi-circular pattern of crevasses to be formed due to the variable glacier strain rates created by the subglacial topography. Numerous hyperbolic diffractions representing reflections of englacial channels are found in radar profiles suggesting a well-developed channelized drainage system of a surge-type glacier in its quiescence phase. The calculated thinning of the ice surface in the investigated area (0.65 km2) is on average 17.9 m during 2008-2015.

  16. Minimal change disease: an unusual presentation of marginal zone MALT lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inayat, Faisal; Law, Jason K; Myers-Gurevitch, Patricia M; Seshan, Surya V; Perlman, Alan S

    2016-03-01

    Minimal change disease (MCD) in association with low-grade extra-nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (MZL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) (MALT lymphoma) is a rare clinicopathologic entity. We report a 68-year-old male who presented with nephrotic range proteinuria as the first manifestation of underlying MZL, confirmed with standard set of investigations. Being a steroid non-responder, he was treated with rituximab demonstrating a marked response with resolution of proteinuria. However, he relapsed after 3 months. Upon relapse, a combination of rituximab and bendamustine (R-Benda) was initiated achieving sustained resolution of proteinuria. No additional treatment was administered and the proteinuria has remained in remission for over a year.

  17. The р53 expression in cells of marginal zone of duodenal ulcers during acute bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulayeva O.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to estimate the intensity and tissue distribution of proapoptogen p53 expression in duodenal mucosa in patients with acute bleeding caused by peptic ulcers. In 31 patients (1st group the healing of ulcer was detected after effective endoscopic hemostasis and in 15 patients rebleeding took place (2nd group. Performed immunocytochemical investigation allow to determine that acute ulcer bleeding was associated with activation of marginal zone cells apoptosis which was maximal in covering epithelium, vascular endothelium and regions infiltrated by lymphocytes. In patients with rebleeding the higher values of р53 expression were detected in crypts epithelium and in endothelium of dilatating vessels accompanied with intensive edema and lymphocytes infiltration of lamina propria and muscularis mucosae with perifocal activation of cells death. Additionally to apoptosis in 2nd group duodenum the necrosis of cells and epithelium desquamation were found, reflecting the tissue disintegration of duodenal mucosa.

  18. [Clinical characteristics of splenic marginal zone lymphoma with abnormal complete blood count].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shen-Miao; Jiang, Qian; Jiang, Bin; Chen, Ding-Bao; Wang, Jing; Jiang, Hao; Lu, Jin; Lu, Xi-Jing; Bao, Li; Shi, Hong-Xia; Liu, Yan-Rong; Huang, Xiao-Jun

    2013-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical and laboratorial characteristics of splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) with an abnormal complete blood count (CBC). Data of 19 newly diagnosed SMZL patients with abnormal CBC were analyzed retrospectively. Seven patients were diagnosed by using splenic histology, 12 patients who did not undergo splenectomy were diagnosed on the basis of typical clinical presentation and cytologic, immunophenotypic and histologic characteristics of peripheral blood and bone marrow, according to SBLG guidelines. The results showed that leukocytosis (≥ 10.0×10(9)/L) was seen in 5 cases (26.3%); leukocytopenia (complete response was achieved in 9 out of 11 (81.8%) patients. It is concluded that SMZL with abnormal CBC has a higher incidence of cytopenia, bone marrow involvement and autoimmune phenomena. Therapeutic strategies consisting of Rituximab show a better efficacy.

  19. Interference from lupus anticoagulant on von Willebrand factor measurement in splenic marginal zone lymphoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinholt, Pernille J; Nybo, Mads

    2015-01-01

    We present a case concerning a patient with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) and isolated prolonged activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) caused by lupus anticoagulant. Von Willebrand factor (VWF) activity and antigen were immeasurable by latex particle immunoturbidimetric assays......, and several coagulation factor levels were decreased. However, VWF activity and antigen were normal when analyzed by other methods. Also, coagulation factor levels were normal if an aPTT reagent with low lupus anticoagulant sensitivity or a chromogenic method was applied. Altogether, the initial findings were...... because of lupus anticoagulant interference and in fact, the patient had normal VWF activity and coagulation status. Interference of lupus anticoagulant in clot-based assays is well known but has not previously been described in VWF assays. This is furthermore the first report in which lupus anticoagulant...

  20. Seroprevalence and sociocultural conditionants of Chagas disease in school aged children of marginal zones of Asunción

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    Vera Ninfa I.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Chagas disease is becoming a public health problem in Latin America due to the wide distribution, the high prevalence, the magnitude of the damage caused and the difficulties to control it. In Paraguay, the disease is mainly distributed in the departments of Paraguari, Cordillera and Central. Prevalence in marginal zones, where migrations from rural populations and endemic areas make possible the urbanization of the disease, has no been studied yet. This is a descriptive study with a cross-sectional sampling and a probabilistic system recruitment carried out in school aged children from marginal zones of Asuncion to determine the prevalence of Chagas' disease. Serological methods, parasite isolation and questionnaires were used to achieve the goals. Nine hundred and fifty three children were studied to determine the prevalence of Chagas' disease in marginal zones which was 1.4%.

  1. Cutting Edge: Marginal Zone Macrophages Regulate Antigen Transport by B Cells to the Follicle in the Spleen via CD21.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokopec, Kajsa E; Georgoudaki, Anna-Maria; Sohn, Silke; Wermeling, Fredrik; Grönlund, Hans; Lindh, Emma; Carroll, Michael C; Karlsson, Mikael C I

    2016-09-15

    Marginal zone macrophages (MZM) are strategically located in the spleen, lining the marginal sinus where they sense inflammation and capture Ag from the circulation. One of the receptors expressed by MZM is scavenger receptor macrophage receptor with collagenous structure (MARCO), which has affinity for modified self-antigens. In this article, we show that engagement of MARCO on murine macrophages induces extracellular ATP and loss of CD21 and CD62L on marginal zone B cells. Engagement of MARCO also leads to reduction of Ag transport by marginal zone B cells and affects the subsequent immune response. This study highlights a novel function for MZM in regulating Ag transport and activation, and we suggest that MARCO-dependent ATP release regulates this through shedding of CD21 and CD62L. Because systemic lupus erythematosus patients were shown to acquire autoantibodies against MARCO, this highlights a mechanism that could affect a patient's ability to combat infections.

  2. Primary Hepatic Marginal Zone Lymphoma in a Patient with Chronic Hepatitis C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gherlan, George S; Stoia, Razvan; Enyedi, Mihaly; Dobrea, Camelia; Calistru, Petre I

    2016-09-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) is a low-grade malignant lymphoma that appears frequently in the stomach, but other sites can also be involved: the intestinal tract, lungs, head, neck, skin, thyroid, breasts and liver. Recently, epidemiological evidences support the idea that there is an association between hepatitis C and B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (that include MALT as a subtype). Primary non-Hodgkin lymphomas confi ned only to the liver are very rare (only 0.016% of all cases of all non-Hodgkin's lymphomas) and MALT is not the most frequent type. We present the case of a male patient, age 62, known with chronic hepatitis C, previously relapser a" er a 72 week treatment with peg-interferon alfa and ribavirin that was diagnosed at three years a" er the relapse with multiple focal liver lesions. One of the tumors was surgically removed and the histological exam performed demonstrated an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma with small B-cell with plasmacytoid diff erentiation confi ned only to the liver. Direct acting antiviral (DAA) therapy was started, but the virologic clearance was not obtained by week 10, leading to a change of DAA regimen at week 12. The antiviral therapy was continued until week 24. Imaging showed an increase in number and size of the focal lesions until week 12. At week 12 chemo- and immune-therapy was started with bendamustine and rituximab. A" erwards the evolution was favorable, the patient being now in complete remission and with undetectable viral load.

  3. Zic deficiency in the cortical marginal zone and meninges results in cortical lamination defects resembling those in type II lissencephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takashi; Ogawa, Masaharu; Mikoshiba, Katsuhiko; Aruga, Jun

    2008-04-30

    The formation of the highly organized cortical structure depends on the production and correct placement of the appropriate number and types of neurons. The Zic family of zinc-finger transcription factors plays essential roles in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of neuronal progenitors in the medial forebrain and the cerebellum. Examination of the expression of Zic genes demonstrated that Zic1, Zic2, and Zic3 were expressed by the progenitor cells in the septum and cortical hem, the sites of generation of the Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells. Immunohistochemical studies have revealed that Zic proteins were abundantly expressed in the meningeal cells and that the majority of the CR cells distributed in the medial and dorsal cortex also expressed Zic proteins in the mid-late embryonic and postnatal cortical marginal zones. During embryonic cortical development, Zic1/Zic3 double-mutant and hypomorphic Zic2 mutant mice showed a reduction in the number of CR cells in the rostral cortex, whereas the cell number remained unaffected in the caudal cortex. These mutants also showed mislocalization of the CR cells and cortical lamination defects, resembling the changes noted in type II (cobblestone) lissencephaly, throughout the brain. In the Zic1/3 mutant, reduced proliferation of the meningeal cells was observed before the thinner and disrupted organization of the pial basement membrane (BM) with reduced expression of the BM components and the meningeal cell-derived secretory factor. These defects correlated with the changes in the end feet morphology of the radial glial cells. These findings indicate that the Zic genes play critical roles in cortical development through regulating the proliferation of meningeal cells and the pial BM assembly.

  4. Effects of electroacupuncture on astrocytes in the marginal zone of focal cerebral ischemia in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yan Luo; Nenggui Xu; Wei Yi; Yong Zi; Yixu Du

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Astrocytes react sensitively to cerebral ischemia, causing reactive proliferation and activation, which may contribute to their effect in protecting or injuring neuronal regeneration. Whether acupuncture, as a treatment for cerebral ischemia, regulates the activated state of astrocytes has become a focus of recent investigations.OBJECTIVE: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on ultrastructure changes and reactive proliferation of astrocytes in the marginal zone of focal cerebral ischemia in rats. DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled animal study. This study was performed at the Experimental Animal Center of Guangzhou University of Traditional Chinese Medicine between December 2007 and July 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 90 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operated, model and EA groups. Each group was subdivided into 1 hour, 1, 3, 7, and 21 days post-cerebral ischemia groups, with six animals for each time point. Rabbit anti-rat glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and goat anti-rabbit IgG/tetramethylrhodamine isothiocyanate were provided by Beijing Biosynthesis Biotechnology. The G-6805 electric acupuncture apparatus was provided by Shanghai Huayi.METHODS: Heat-coagulation-induced occlusion of the middle cerebral artery was performed to establish a model of focal cerebral ischemia, in the model and EA groups. Middle cerebral arteries were exposed without occlusion in sham operated group. EA was applied immediately after surgery in the EA group, 4/20 Hz, 2.0-3.0 V, 1-3 mA, to Baihui (GV 20) and Dazhui (GV 14), for 30 minutes. The treatment was performed once a day. The sham operated and model groups did not receive acupuncture.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: In the marginal zone of focal cerebral ischemia in rats at different time points after intervention, the ultrastructure changes of astrocytes were observed by using transmission electronic microscopy. GFAP expression in astrocytes was also measured by laser confocal

  5. Atypical Marginal Zone Hyperplasia Is a Mimic for Lymphoma in Pediatric Transplant Recipients: Report of Two Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caltharp, Shelley A; Qayed, Muna; Park, Sunita I

    2015-01-01

    Atypical marginal zone hyperplasia (AMZH) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) closely resembles lymphoma in that it shows expansion of the marginal zones with prominent intraepithelial B lymphocytes, is immunoglobulin light-chain restricted, and may show aberrant CD43 expression. However, unlike lymphoma, it does not show rearrangement of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene (immunoglobulin H [IgH]) by polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and it behaves in a benign fashion. We identified AMZH in 2 pediatric solid organ transplant recipients who presented with adenotonsillar hypertrophy. To date, the patients have experienced a self-limited course in the absence of treatment or reduction of immunosuppression. Atypical marginal zone hyperplasia is a pitfall for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorder and MALT lymphoma in the pediatric solid organ transplant population. In transplant patients with a lambda-restricted B-cell clone and marginal zone hyperplasia in native MALT sites, PCR for IgH and IgK gene rearrangement is essential to prevent misdiagnosis.

  6. Molecular pathogenesis and histologic and clinical features of extranodal marginal zone lymphomas of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue type.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuper-Hommel, M.J.; Krieken, J.H.J.M. van

    2012-01-01

    Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type (EMZL) is considered an antigen driven lymphoid malignancy associated with protracted antigenic stimulation by microbial pathogens, auto-antigens or other unknown stimuli, which trigger a sustained lymphoid proliferat

  7. Paraneoplastic Syndrome in Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma: A Rare Phenomenon of Paraplegia as an Atypical Presenting Manifestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessica Schering

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe a case presenting complaint of complete lower body paraparesis, which was discovered to have splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL. While paraneoplastic syndromes are more common in tumors, such as small cell lung cancer, very few reports exist on this condition with SMZL. We describe such a rare entity with a clinical course spanning twenty-four months after diagnosis.

  8. Sex allocation in the sexually monomorphic fairy martin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrath, MJL; Green, DJ; Komdeur, J

    2002-01-01

    Offspring sex ratios were examined at the population and family level in the sexually monomorphic, socially monogamous fairy martin Petrochelidon ariel at five colony sites over a 4-year period (1993 1996). The sex of 465 nestlings from 169 broods % as determined using sex-specific PCR at the CHD lo

  9. Sex allocation in the sexually monomorphic fairy martin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magrath, MJL; Green, DJ; Komdeur, J

    Offspring sex ratios were examined at the population and family level in the sexually monomorphic, socially monogamous fairy martin Petrochelidon ariel at five colony sites over a 4-year period (1993 1996). The sex of 465 nestlings from 169 broods % as determined using sex-specific PCR at the CHD

  10. Extranodal marginal zone non Hodgkin's lymphoma of the lung: A ten-year experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milošević Violeta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT lymphoma is a rare subtype of low grade marginal zone B cell lymphoma representing 10% of all MALT lymphomas. The purpose of this study was to analyze the outcome of this group of patients comparing prognostic parameters and therapy modalities. Methods. A total of eight patients with BALT lymphoma had diagnosed between January 1998 - April 2008 at the Institute of Hematology, Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, and they were included in this retrospective analysis. Results. Male/female ratio was 2/6, the median age was 64 years (range 37-67 years. Six patients had nonspecific respiratory symptoms and all of them had B symptoms. The patients were seronegative for HIV, HCV and HBsAg. Three patients had Sjogren's syndrome, rheumatoid arthritis and pulmonary tuberculosis, respectively. Seven patients were diagnosed by transbronchial biopsy and an open lung biopsy was done in one patient. Patohistological findings revealed lymphoma of marginal zone B cell lymphoma: CD20+/CD10-/CD5-/CyclinD1- /CD23-/IgM- with Ki-67+<20% of all cells. According to the Ferraro staging system, five patients had localized disease (CS I-IIE and three had stage IVE; bulky tumor mass had 3 patients. All patients had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG performance status (PS 0 or 1. Five patients received monochemotherapy with chlorambucil and 3 were treated with CHOP regimen (cyclophosphamide, doxorubicin, vincristine and prednisone. A complete response (CR was achieved in 5 patients and a partial response (PR in 3 of them, treated with chlorambucil monotherapy and CHOP regimen. All patients were alive during a median follow-up period of 49 months (range 6- 110 months. Three patients relapsed after monochemotherapy into the other extranodal localization. They were treated with CHOP regimen and remained in stable PR. Conclusion. BALT lymphoma tends to be localised disease at the time of diagnosis, responds well

  11. Sphingosine 1-phosphate receptor agonist FTY720-phosphate causes marginal zone B cell displacement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vora, Kalpit A; Nichols, Elizabeth; Porter, Gene; Cui, Yan; Keohane, Carol Ann; Hajdu, Richard; Hale, Jeffery; Neway, William; Zaller, Dennis; Mandala, Suzanne

    2005-08-01

    FTY720 is an immunosuppressive agent that modulates lymphocyte trafficking. It is phosphorylated in vivo to FTY720-phosphate (FTY-P) and binds to a family of G protein-coupled receptors recognizing sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) as the natural ligand. It has previously been reported that FTY-P blocks egress of lymphocytes from the thymus and lymph nodes, resulting in peripheral blood lymphopenia. We now report that FTY-P also causes displacement of marginal zone (MZ) B cells to the splenic follicles, an effect that is similar to that observed after in vivo administration of lipopolysaccharide. This effect is specific to B cells in the MZ, as treatment with FTY-P does not cause redistribution of the resident macrophage population. A small but statistically significant decrease in the expression of beta1 integrin on MZ B cells was observed with FTY-P treatment. The redistribution of MZ B cells from the MZ sinuses does not abolish the ability of these cells to respond to the T-independent antigen, trinitrophenol-Ficoll. It has been proposed that the displacement of MZ B cells to the follicles is an indication of cell activation. Consistent with this, FTY-P caused an increase in percentage of MZ B cells expressing activation markers CD9, CD1d, and CD24. These results suggest that S1P receptors on MZ B cells are responsible for their mobilization to follicles.

  12. The ciliary margin zone of the mammalian retina generates retinal ganglion cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcucci, Florencia; Murcia-Belmonte, Veronica; Coca, Yaiza; Ferreiro-Galve, Susana; Wang, Qing; Kuwajima, Takaaki; Khalid, Sania; Ross, M. Elizabeth; Herrera, Eloisa; Mason, Carol

    2016-01-01

    Summary The retina of lower vertebrates grows continuously by integrating new neurons generated from progenitors in the ciliary margin zone (CMZ). Whether the mammalian CMZ provides the neural retina with retinal cells is controversial. Live-imaging of embryonic retina expressing eGFP in the CMZ shows that cells migrate laterally from the CMZ to the neural retina where differentiated retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) reside. As Cyclin D2, a cell-cycle regulator, is enriched in ventral CMZ, we analyzed Cyclin D2−/− mice to test whether the CMZ is a source of retinal cells. Neurogenesis is diminished in Cyclin D2 mutants, leading to a reduction of RGCs in the ventral retina. In line with these findings, in the albino retina, the decreased production of ipsilateral RGCs is correlated with fewer Cyclin D2+ cells. Together, these results implicate the mammalian CMZ as a neurogenic site that produces RGCs and whose proper generation depends on Cyclin D2 activity. PMID:28009286

  13. Employment of Oligodeoxynucleotide plus Interleukin-2 Improves Cytogenetic Analysis in Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonella Bardi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available To compare the efficiency of novel mitogenic agents and traditional mitosis inductors, 18 patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL were studied. Three cultures using oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN plus interleukin-2 (IL-2, or TPA, or LPS were setup in each patient. Seventeen/18 cases with ODN+IL2 had moderate/good proliferation (94,4% as compared with 10/18 cases with TPA and LPS (55% (P=.015; 14/18 (77,7% cases with ODN+IL2 had sufficient good quality of banding as compared with 8/18 cases (44,4% with TPA and LPS. The karyotype could be defined from ODN+IL2-stimulated cultures in all 18 patients, 14 of whom (77,7% had a cytogenetic aberration, whereas clonal aberrations could be documented in 9 and in 3 cases by stimulation with LPS and TPA, respectively. Recurrent chromosome aberrations in our series were represented by aberrations of chromosome 14q in 5 patients, by trisomy 12 and 7q deletion in 4 cases each, and by abnormalities involving 11q and 13q in two cases each. These findings show that stimulation with ODN+IL2 offers more mitotic figures of better quality and results in an increased rate of clonal aberrations in SMZL, making this method ideal for prospective studies aiming at the definition of the prognostic impact of cytogenetic aberrations in this disorder.

  14. Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma in the Setting of Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnayake, Saman; Ammar, Ali; Rezvani, Rodd; Petersen, Greti

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a 65-year-old Hispanic man with a history of disseminated cutaneous coccidioidomycosis who presented to the emergency room for progressively worsening abdominal pain associated with shortness of breath. The patient was found to have pleural effusion and moderate ascites on physical examination. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan were consistent with moderate ascites and portal hypertension but negative for both liver cirrhosis and for venous or arterial thrombosis. Cytology of ascitic fluid was suggestive of portal hypertension and was negative for infection. Subsequent, thoracentesis was suggestive of exudative effusion and also negative for infection. Liver biopsy confirmed the absence of cirrhosis. Complete blood count indicated pancytopenia, whereas bone marrow biopsy and flow cytometry were suggestive of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL). Clinically, the patient's shortness of breath was resolved by thoracentesis and paracentesis; however, his abdominal pain persisted. A diagnosis of idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension in the setting of splenic MZL was made. The patient was transferred to a higher level of care for splenectomy; however, he missed multiple appointments. Since discharge, the patient has been seen in the outpatient setting and states that he is controlling his disease with diet and exercise; however, he continues to complain of intermittent shortness of breath with exertion.

  15. Defective anti-polysaccharide response and splenic marginal zone disorganization in ALPS patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neven, Bénédicte; Bruneau, Julie; Stolzenberg, Marie-Claude; Meyts, Isabelle; Magerus-Chatinet, Aude; Moens, Leen; Lanzarotti, Nina; Weller, Sandra; Amiranoff, Denise; Florkin, Benoit; Bader-Meunier, Brigitte; Leverger, Guy; Ferster, Alice; Chantrain, Christophe; Blanche, Stéphane; Picard, Capucine; Molina, Thierry Jo; Brousse, Nicole; Durandy, Anne; Rizzi, Marta; Bossuyt, Xavier; Fischer, Alain; Rieux-Laucat, Frederic

    2014-09-04

    Autoimmune lymphoproliferative syndrome (ALPS) caused by impaired FAS-mediated apoptosis of lymphocytes is characterized by lymphoproliferation, autoimmunity, but also an increased risk of invasive bacterial infection, notably following splenectomy. We surveyed a cohort of 100 ALPS patients (including 33 splenectomized) and found that 12 (10 splenectomized) had experienced 23 invasive bacterial infections mainly caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae. This vulnerability was associated with evidence of defective B-cell function characterized by low serum immunoglobulin (Ig) M, low IgM antibody production in response to S pneumoniae following nonconjugated immunization, and low blood memory B-cells counts (including marginal zone [MZ] B-cell counts). This immunodeficiency strongly correlated with intensity of lymphoproliferation. Spleen sections from 9 ALPS patients revealed double-negative T-cell (DN-T) infiltration of the MZ, which was depleted of B cells. MZ in ALPS patients contained an abnormally thick layer of MAdCAM-1((+)) stromal cells and an excess of DN-Ts. DN-Ts were shown to express MAdCAM-1 ligand, the α4β7 integrin. These observations suggest that accumulating DN-Ts are trapped within stromal cell meshwork and interfere with correct localization of MZ B cells. Similar observations were made in spleens of fas-deficient mice. Our data revealed an unexpected mechanism by which ALPS results in anti-polysaccharide IgM antibody production-specific defect. Splenectomy should be avoided.

  16. Gpr97 is essential for the follicular versus marginal zone B-lymphocyte fate decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J-J; Zhang, L-L; Zhang, Hong-x; Shen, C-L; Lu, S-y; Kuang, Y; Wan, Y-h; Wang, W-g; Yan, H-m; Dang, S-y; Fei, J; Jin, X-l; Wang, Z-g

    2013-10-10

    Gpr97 is an orphan adhesion GPCR and is highly conserved among species. Up to now, its physiological function remains largely unknown. Here, we show that Gpr97 deficiency results in an extensive reduction in B220(+) lymphocytes in mice. More intensive analyses reveal an expanded marginal zone but a decreased follicular B-cell population in Gpr97(-/-)spleen, which displays disorganized architecture characterized by diffuse, irregular B-cell areas and the absence of discrete perifollicular marginal and mantle zones. In vivo functional studies reveal that the mutant mice could generate antibody responses to T cell-dependent and independent antigens, albeit enhanced response to the former and weakened response to the latter. By screening for the molecular events involved in the observed phenotypes, we found that lambda 5 expression is downregulated and its upstream inhibitor Aiolos is increased in the spleen of mutant mice, accompanied by significantly enhanced phosphorylation and nuclear translocation of cAMP response element-binding protein. Interestingly, increased constitutive Nf-κb p50/p65 expression and activity were observed in Gpr97(-/-) spleen, implicating a crucial role of Gpr97 in regulating Nf-κb activity. These findings uncover a novel biological function of Gpr97 in regulating B-cell development, implying Gpr97 as a potential therapeutic target for treatment of immunological disorders.

  17. Employment of Oligodeoxynucleotide plus Interleukin-2 Improves Cytogenetic Analysis in Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bardi, Antonella; Cavazzini, Francesco; Rigolin, Gian Matteo; Tammiso, Elisa; Volta, Eleonora; Pezzolo, Elisa; Formigaro, Luca; Sofritti, Olga; Daghia, Giulia; Ambrosio, Cristina; Rizzotto, Lara; Abass, Awad E.; D'Auria, Fiorella; Musto, Pellegrino; Cuneo, Antonio

    2011-01-01

    To compare the efficiency of novel mitogenic agents and traditional mitosis inductors, 18 patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL) were studied. Three cultures using oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) plus interleukin-2 (IL-2), or TPA, or LPS were setup in each patient. Seventeen/18 cases with ODN + IL2 had moderate/good proliferation (94, 4%) as compared with 10/18 cases with TPA and LPS (55%) (P = .015); 14/18 (77, 7%) cases with ODN + IL2 had sufficient good quality of banding as compared with 8/18 cases (44, 4%) with TPA and LPS. The karyotype could be defined from ODN + IL2-stimulated cultures in all 18 patients, 14 of whom (77, 7%) had a cytogenetic aberration, whereas clonal aberrations could be documented in 9 and in 3 cases by stimulation with LPS and TPA, respectively. Recurrent chromosome aberrations in our series were represented by aberrations of chromosome 14q in 5 patients, by trisomy 12 and 7q deletion in 4 cases each, and by abnormalities involving 11q and 13q in two cases each. These findings show that stimulation with ODN + IL2 offers more mitotic figures of better quality and results in an increased rate of clonal aberrations in SMZL, making this method ideal for prospective studies aiming at the definition of the prognostic impact of cytogenetic aberrations in this disorder. PMID:21629757

  18. Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma in the Setting of Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Ratnayake MD

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of a 65-year-old Hispanic man with a history of disseminated cutaneous coccidioidomycosis who presented to the emergency room for progressively worsening abdominal pain associated with shortness of breath. The patient was found to have pleural effusion and moderate ascites on physical examination. Abdominal ultrasound and computed tomography scan were consistent with moderate ascites and portal hypertension but negative for both liver cirrhosis and for venous or arterial thrombosis. Cytology of ascitic fluid was suggestive of portal hypertension and was negative for infection. Subsequent, thoracentesis was suggestive of exudative effusion and also negative for infection. Liver biopsy confirmed the absence of cirrhosis. Complete blood count indicated pancytopenia, whereas bone marrow biopsy and flow cytometry were suggestive of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL. Clinically, the patient’s shortness of breath was resolved by thoracentesis and paracentesis; however, his abdominal pain persisted. A diagnosis of idiopathic noncirrhotic portal hypertension in the setting of splenic MZL was made. The patient was transferred to a higher level of care for splenectomy; however, he missed multiple appointments. Since discharge, the patient has been seen in the outpatient setting and states that he is controlling his disease with diet and exercise; however, he continues to complain of intermittent shortness of breath with exertion.

  19. Splenectomy with chemotherapy vs surgery alone as initial treatment for splenic marginal zone lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rajko Milosevic; Milena Todorovic; Bela Balint; Miodrag Jevtic; Miodrag Krstic; Elizabeta Ristanovic; Nebojsa Antonijevic; Mirjana Pavlovic; Maja Perunicic; Milan Petrovic; Biljana Mihaljevic

    2009-01-01

    AIM:To evaluate the clinical characteristics of splenic marginal-zone lymphoma (SMZL) following antigen expression and the influence of therapeutic approaches on clinical outcome and overall survival (OS).METHODS:A total of 30 patients with typical histological and immunohistochemical SMZL patterns were examined.Splenectomy plus chemotherapy was applied in 20 patients,while splenectomy as a single treatment-option was performed in 10 patients.Prognostic factor and overall survival rate were analyzed.RESULTS:Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 20 (66.7%),partial remission (PR) in seven (23.3%),and lethal outcome due to disease progression occurred in three (10.0%) patients.Median survival of patients with a splenectomy was 93.0 mo and for patients with splenectomy plus chemotherapy it was 107.5 mo (Log rank=0.056,P>0.05).Time from onset of first symptoms to the beginning of the treatment (mean 9.4 mo) was influenced by spleen dimensions,as measured by computerized tomography and ultra-sound (t=2.558,P=0.018).Strong positivity (+++) of CD20 antigen expression in splenic tissue had a positive influence on OS (Log rank = 5.244,P 0.05) effects on the OS.The expression of other antigens (immunohistochemistry) also had no effect on survival-rate,as measured by a χ2 test (P > 0.05).CONCLUSION:Initial splenectomy combined with chemotherapy has been shown to be beneficial due to its advanced remission rate/duration;however,a larger controlled clinical study is required to confirm our findings.

  20. SWAP-70 controls formation of the splenic marginal zone through regulating T1B-cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chopin, Michaël; Quemeneur, Laurence; Ripich, Tatsiana; Jessberger, Rolf

    2010-12-01

    T1 and T2 transitional B cells are precursors for marginal zone B cells (MZB), which surround splenic follicles. MZB are essential for marginal zone formation, are central to the innate immune response, and contribute to adaptive immunity. Differentiation, migration, and homing of MZB and their precursors remain to be fully understood. We show that SWAP-70, a RhoGTPase-interacting and F-actin-binding protein with functions in cell polarization, migration, and adhesion regulates MZB development and marginal zone formation. The percentage of MZB in spleen of Swap70(-/-) mice was reduced to about one-third of that found in WT mice. Swap70(-/-) T1 cells accumulated in integrin ligand(high) regions of the splenic red pulp and failed to efficiently develop into T2 cells. Adoptive transfer and mixed BM chimera experiments demonstrated this to be a B-cell intrinsic phenotype. T-cell-independent antibody production was not impaired, however, and thus suggests that this process does not require correct homing of MZB precursors. B-cell adhesion through α(L)β(2) and α(4)β(1) integrins was hyper-activated in vitro and on tissue sections, and S1P-stimulated chemokinesis of MZB was reduced in the absence of SWAP-70. Thus, SWAP-70 acts as a regulator of the adhesion process, particularly important for differentiation control of B-cell precursors and their contribution to splenic tissue formation.

  1. Targeting of Ly9 (CD229) disrupts marginal zone and B1 B cell homeostasis and antibody responses1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Marta; Romero, Xavier; Sintes, Jordi; Terhorst, Cox; Engel, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Marginal zone and B1 B-cells have the capacity to respond to foreign antigens more rapidly than conventional B-cells, providing early immune responses to blood-borne pathogens. Ly9 (CD229, SLAMF3), a member of the SLAM family receptors, has been implicated in the development and function of innate T lymphocytes. Here, we provide evidence that in Ly9-deficient mice splenic transitional T1, marginal zone and B1a B cells are markedly expanded, whilst development of B lymphocytes in bone marrow is unaltered. Consistent with an increased number of these B cell subsets, we detect elevated levels of IgG3 natural antibodies, and a striking increase of T-independent type II antibodies following immunization with TNP-Ficoll in the serum of Ly9-deficient mice. The notion that Ly9 could be a negative regulator of innate-like B cell responses was supported by the observation that administering a mAb directed against Ly9 to WT mice selectively eliminated splenic marginal zone B cells and significantly reduced the numbers of B1 and transitional T1 B cells. Additionally, Ly9 mAb dramatically diminished in vivo humoral responses and caused a selective down-regulation of the CD19/CD21/CD81 complex on B cells and concomitantly an impaired B cell survival and activation in a Fc-independent manner. We conclude that altered signaling due to the absence of Ly9 or induced by anti-Ly9 may negatively regulate development and function of innate-like B cells by modulating B cell activation thresholds. The results suggest that Ly9 could serve as a novel target for the treatment of B cell related diseases. PMID:26667173

  2. Ice-Sheet Dynamics Of Warta Glaciation (SAALE In The Marginal Zone Of Knyszewicze Area, Northeastern Poland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rychel Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents a research on a marginal zone near Knyszewicze in the southern part of Sokółka Hills (northeastern Poland. Terminal moraine hills are arranged amphitheatrically in a lobal pattern. Dynamics of the Knyszewicze frontal ice-sheet lobe during the Saale Glaciation and successive stages of the marginal zone near the village of Knyszewicze were reconstructed based on sedimentary and geomorphological analysis, using a digital elevation model and morpholineaments. Three main phases of the Knyszewicze glacial-lobe activity were identified including accumulation of glaciofluvial deposits, advances of the ice margin and ice-lobe retreat. Moraine hills developed at a stable ice-lobe terminus, initially as short end-moraine fans with the following sequence of lithofacies Gh⇒SGh⇒Sh or Gm⇒Gh⇒Sh. Such a sequence indicates cyclic sheet-floods. During a small but dynamic advance of the ice sheet terminus, these deposits were moved forward and monoclinally folded, then furrowed with sloping faults due to horizontal pressure. Typical thrust-block push moraines developed in this way. Ice sheet advance took place when permafrost was present in the substratum and very high water pressure occurred at glacial terminus. Inside a lobal configuration of moraines, there is a rich inventory of glacial forms with a classic terminal depression in the central part. Based on this landform pattern, their shape, rhythm and glaciotectonic disturbances, the land relief may be referred to as a hill-hole pair. The structure of Horczaki Knoll, deposited on the sub-Quaternary tectonic structure, significantly contributed to a development of this marginal zone.

  3. Primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue: CT findings 7 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Ra Gyoung; Kim, Mi Young; Song, Jae Woo; Chae, Eun Jin; Choi, Chang Min; Jang, Se Jin [University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-04-15

    To investigate CT and 1{sup 8F}-fluorodeoxyglucose (1{sup 8F}-FDG) positron-emission tomography/CT findings of primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the bronchus-associated lymphoid tissue (BALT). From June 2006 through April 2012, seven patients (six female, one male; age range, 21-61 years; mean age, 49 years) were examined who were pathologically diagnosed with the primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of BALT. We evaluated the locations and characteristics of the lesions on CT and 1{sup 8F}-FDG-PET/CT scans. The lesions were classified into the following three patterns: 1) solitary intraluminal nodule; 2) several tiny nodular protrusions; and 3) diffuse wall thickening. A solitary intraluminal nodule was observed in four patients (57.1%), several tiny nodular protrusion in two patients (28.6%), and diffuse wall thickening in one patient (14.3%). The lesions were categorized into 3 major locations: confined to the trachea (n 3), confined to the lobar bronchus (n = 2), and diffuse involvement of the trachea and both main bronchi (n = 2). All lesions demonstrated homogeneous iso-attenuation as compared with muscle on pre- and post-enhancement scans. Secondary findings in the lungs (n = 3; 42.9%) included postobstructive lobar atelectasis (n = 1), air trapping (n = 1), and pneumonia (n = 1). On 1{sup 8F}-FDG-PET/CT (n = 5), 4 lesions showed homogeneous uptake with maximum standardized uptake values (mSUV), ranging 2.3-5.7 (mean mSUV: 3.3). One lesion showed little FDG uptake. Primary endobronchial marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of the BALT manifests as three distinct patterns on CT, with the solitary intraluminal nodule presenting as the main pattern. Most lesions demonstrate homogeneous but weak FDG uptake on 1{sup 8F}-FDG-PET/CT.

  4. A splenic marginal zone-like peripheral blood CD27+B220- B cell population is preferentially depleted in HIV type 1-infected individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrow, Matthew; Valentin, Antonio; Little, Richard; Yarchoan, Robert; Pavlakis, George N

    2008-04-01

    Peripheral blood CD27(+) B cells are reduced in HIV-1-infected individuals. In healthy individuals, the human peripheral blood CD27(+) B cell pool consists of two subsets defined by the expression, or lack thereof, of the CD45 isoform B220. We investigated the presence of circulating B220(+) and B220(-) memory B cells in HIV(+) individuals and found that the reduction in CD27(+) memory B cells occurs primarily among CD27(+)B220(-) B cells. Studies conducted using healthy controls indicate that CD27(+)B220(-) B cells have a splenic marginal zone like the immunophenotype IgM(hi)IgD(lo)CD21(+)CD23(-), express TLR9, and proliferate and secrete IgG and IgM in response to B cell-specific ODN. CD27(+)B220(+) B cells have the immunophenotype IgM(lo)IgD(hi)CD21(+)CD23(+), express activation-induced cytidine deaminase, and proliferate in response to SAC but do not secrete immunoglobulin. The AICD expression, along with CD86 expression, by CD27(+)B220(+) suggests these cells are of germinal center origin. The preferential depletion of CD27(+)B220(-) B cells mirrors alterations in spleen morphology and resident B cell populations due to HIV infection reported by other investigators and may play an important role in the defective B cell immunity against T-independent pathogens such as pneumococcus observed in HIV-1-infected individuals.

  5. A minute focus of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma arising in Hashimoto thyroiditis diagnosed with PCR after laser capture microdissection: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D'Antonio Antonio

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Primary thyroid gland lymphomas are uncommon tumours that occur in the setting of lymphocytic thyroiditis or Hashimoto's disease in almost all cases. In this condition a distinction between an inflammatory lymphoid infiltrate and a low grade lymphoma may be extremely difficult and precise criteria are necessary for a correct diagnosis. Patient and methods We report a case of a minute focus of primary extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (EMZBCL, incidentally discovered in a 63-year-old man with Hashimoto thyroiditis (HT and diagnosed by means of polymerase chain reaction (PCR after laser capture microdissection. The histological examination of surgical specimen confirmed the diagnosis of HT and showed a minute focus of dense lymphoid infiltrate (less than 4 mm in diameter, composed by centrocyte-like cells forming MALT balls. Immunoistochemistry was not useful. A microscopic focus of EMZBCL was suspected on the basis of morphological features. PCR assays revealed the rearrangement of the heavy chain of immunoglobulins only in the microdissected suspicious area, confirming the diagnosis of EMZBCL. Conclusion Our finding suggests that in cases of autoimmune thyroiditis a careful examination of the thyroid specimen is warranted, in order to disclose areas or small foci of lymphomatous transformation. Furthermore, in difficult cases with doubtful immunohistological findings, ancillary techniques, such as molecular studies, are necessary for a conclusive diagnosis.

  6. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia as a risk factor of poor outcome in patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fodor, Aniko; Molnar, Miklos Zsolt; Krenacs, Laszlo; Bagdi, Eniko; Csomor, Judit; Matolcsy, Andras; Demeter, Judit

    2009-12-01

    Splenic marginal zone lymphoma is a rare disease, accounting for 1% of all lymphomas. We reviewed our single center experience of 13 patients with splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL). Based on the prognostic model developed by Intergruppo Italiano Linfomi, 31% (4/13) of our patients had good, 38% (5/13) had intermediate and 31% (4/13) had a poor prognosis. The presence of two out of three prognostic factors (anemia, elevated LDH, low serum albumin) assignes the patient into the high risk category. In patients with anemia and an elevated LDH due to hemolysis, the outcome seems to be especially poor. Three out of 13 (23%) cases were complicated by autoimmune hemolytic anemia. All patients with autoimmune hemolytic anaemia (AIHA) died 7-28 months after the diagnosis. The mean follow-up time of those nine patients who are still alive is longer than 5 years (36-100 months). Patients with AIHA had significantly (p < 0.001) worse survival than those without AIHA. The main finding of our study is that the presence of AIHA is an adverse prognostic factor in SMZL.

  7. [The efficacy of verapamil in sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rumoroso, J R; Bodegas, A; Subinas, J; Montes, P M; Sanz, R; Rodrigo, D; Barrenetxea, J I

    1994-09-01

    We present a 36-year-old male without overt cardiac disease who suffered, since he was 15 years old, from sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia of left bundle branch block with a right axis, lasting for several hours; sometimes, syncope was a clinical form of manifestation. Electrophysiologic study, twenty-four hours Holter recording, cardiac catheterization and blood analysis were not useful in order to find its etiology. Efficacy of different drugs, like Mexiletil, Amiodarone, Atenolol and Verapamil (at a dose of 240 mg/day) were tested through multistaged graded-treadmill stress-testing using the Bruce protocol. Ventricular tachycardia was suppressed by administration of Lidocaine. Oral verapamil given at a dose of 360 mg/day prevented the induction of the arrhythmia, the efficacy was tested with maximal treadmill exercise and twenty-four hours Holter recording.

  8. Fluid-rock interaction in retrograde granulites of the Southern Marginal Zone, Limpopo high grade terrain, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Marten Huizenga

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fluid infiltration into retrograde granulites of the Southern Marginal Zone (Limpopo high grade terrain is exemplified by hydration reactions, shear zone hosted metasomatism, and lode gold mineralisation. Hydration reactions include the breakdown of cordierite and orthopyroxene to gedrite + kyanite, and anthophyllite, respectively. Metamorphic petrology, fluid inclusions, and field data indicate that a low H2O-activity carbon-saturated CO2-rich and a saline aqueous fluid infiltrated the Southern Marginal Zone during exhumation. The formation of anthophyllite after orthopyroxene established a regional retrograde anthophyllite-in isograd and occurred at P-T conditions of ∼6 kbar and 610 °C, which fixes the minimum mole fraction of H2O in the CO2-rich fluid phase at ∼0.1. The maximum H2O mole fraction is fixed by the lower temperature limit (∼800 °C for partial melting at ∼0.3. C-O-H fluid calculations show that the CO2-rich fluid had an oxygen fugacity that was 0.6 log10 units higher than that of the fayalite-magnetite-quartz buffer and that the CO2/(CO2+CH4 mole ratio of this fluid was 1. The presence of dominantly relatively low density CO2-rich fluid inclusions in the hydrated granulites indicates that the fluid pressure was less than the lithostatic pressure. This can be explained by strike slip faulting and/or an increase of the rock permeability caused by hydration reactions.

  9. Primary thymic extranodal marginal zone B cell lymphoma as an incidental finding in a Caucasian woman

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krogh Petersen, Jeanette; Larsen, Thomas Stauffer; Møller, Michael Boe

    2015-01-01

    of muscle and joint pain. An anterior mediastinal mass was detected by a positron emission tomography-CT (PET-CT) scan and thymectomy was performed. The mass was contained within the thymus with a homogeneous pale cut surface with solid areas. Histologically, the typical morphological and immunophenotypic...... features of TML were found, with a prominent lymphoid infiltrate comprising of small-to-medium-sized neoplastic lymphocytes, plasmacytic differentiation and a distorted thymic epithelial network. Postoperative follow-up has indicated an associated undifferentiated connective tissue disease (UCTD...

  10. Relocation of mitochondria to the prospective dorsal marginal zone during Xenopus embryogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yost, H. J.; Phillips, C. R.; Boore, J. L.; Bertman, J.; Whalon, B.; Danilchik, M. V.

    1995-01-01

    Dorsal-ventral axis formation in Xenopus laevis begins with a cytoplasmic rotation during the first cell cycle and culminates in a series of cell interactions and movements during gastrulation and neurulation that lead to the formation of dorsal-anterior structures. Evidence reported here indicates that mitochondria are differentially redistributed along the prospective dorsal-ventral axis as a consequence of the cortical-cytoplasmic rotation during the first cell cycle. This finding reinvigorates a possibility that has been considered for many years: asymmetries in cytoplasmic components and metabolic activities contribute to the development of morphological asymmetries.

  11. Primary Thymic Extranodal Marginal-Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue Type Exhibits Distinctive Clinicopathological and Molecular Features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inagaki, Hiroshi; Chan, John K. C.; Ng, Josephine W. M.; Okabe, Mitsukuni; Yoshino, Tadashi; Okamoto, Masataka; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Matsushita, Hiroshi; Yokose, Tomoyuki; Matsuno, Yoshihiro; Nakamura, Naoya; Nagasaka, Tetsuro; Ueda, Ryuzo; Eimoto, Tadaaki; Nakamura, Shigeo

    2002-01-01

    Extranodal marginal-zone B-cell lymphoma (MZBL) of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) arising in the thymus is rare, with the largest series in the literature including only three cases. In the present study, we investigated 15 cases of thymic MALT lymphoma to systematically characterize its clinical, histopathological, and molecular features. There was a marked female predilection (male:female = 1:4), with a mean age of 55 years at diagnosis. There was a strong association with autoimmune disease, especially Sjögren’s syndrome. Histologically, the thymic lymphoma showed the characteristic morphological features of extranodal MZBL of MALT type. Cysts were common. Prominent lymphoepithelial lesions were formed by centrocyte-like cells infiltrating and expanding the Hassall’s corpuscles and epithelium lining the cysts. Plasmacytic differentiation was apparent in all cases. Notably, 13 of 15 cases expressed immunoglobulin (Ig) A phenotype; IgA expression in thymic MALT lymphoma was in striking contrast with the IgM phenotype observed in most of the Sjögren’s syndrome-associated MZBLs and MALT lymphomas at other sites. Epstein-Barr virus was absent, and API2-MALT1 gene fusion, a recently reported MALT lymphoma-specific gene abnormality, was not detected in any case. Although one patient died of disease 85 months after the diagnosis, other patients were alive with overall 3-year and 5-year survival rates being 89% and 83%, respectively. Among the 22 patients reported previously and in the present series, at least 17 patients (77%) were Asians. These data indicate that thymic MALT lymphoma may represent a distinct subgroup of MALT lymphoma characterized by apparent predilection for Asians, a strong association with autoimmune disease, frequent presence of cysts, consistent plasma cell differentiation, tumor cells expressing IgA phenotype, and consistent lack of API2-MALT1 gene fusion. PMID:11943727

  12. Polymorphism, monomorphism, and sequences in conserved microsatellites in primate species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanquer-Maumont, A; Crouau-Roy, B

    1995-10-01

    Dimeric short tandem repeats are a source of highly polymorphic markers in the mammalian genome. Genetic variation at these hypervariable loci is extensively used for linkage analysis, for the identification of individuals, and may be useful for interpopulation and interspecies studies. In this paper, we analyze the variability and the sequences of a segment including three microsatellites, first described in man, in several species of primates (chimpanzee, orangutan, gibbon, and macaque) using the heterologous primers (man primers). This region is located on the human chromosome 6p, near the tumor necrosis factor genes, in the major histocompatibility complex. The fact that these primers work in all species studied indicates that they are conserved throughout the different lineages of the two superfamilies, the Hominoidea and the Cercopithecidea, represented by the macaques. However, the intervening sequence displays intraspecific and interspecific variability. The sites of base substitutions and the insertion/deletion events are not evenly distributed within this region. The data suggest that it is necessary to have a minimal number of repeats to increase the rate of mutation sufficiently to allow the development of polymorphism. In some species, the microsatellites present single base variations which reduce the number of contiguous repeats, thus apparently slowing the rate of additional slippage events. Species with such variations or a low number of repeats are monomorphic. These microsatellite sequences are informative in the comparison of closely related species and reflect the phylogeny of the Old World monkeys, apes, and man.

  13. Natural History Study of Monoclonal B Cell Lymphocytosis (MBL), Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia/Small Lymphocytic Lymphoma (CLL/SLL), Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma (LPL)/Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia (WM), and Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma (SMZL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-05

    B-Cell Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Monoclonal B-Cell Lymphocytosis; Lymhoma, Small Lymphocytic; Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia; Lymphoplasmacytic Lymphoma; Waldenstrom Macroglobulinemia; Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma

  14. From rock to magma and back again: The evolution of temperature and deformation mechanism in conduit margin zones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heap, Michael J.; Violay, Marie; Wadsworth, Fabian B.; Vasseur, Jérémie

    2017-04-01

    Explosive silicic volcanism is driven by gas overpressure in systems that are inefficient at outgassing. The zone at the margin of a volcanic conduit-thought to play an important role in the outgassing of magma and therefore pore pressure changes and explosivity-is the boundary through which heat is exchanged from the hot magma to the colder country rock. Using a simple heat transfer model, we first show that the isotherm for the glass transition temperature (whereat the glass within the groundmass transitions from a glass to an undercooled liquid) moves into the country rock when the magma within the conduit can stay hot, or into the conduit when the magma is quasi-stagnant and cools (on the centimetric scale over days to months). We then explore the influence of a migrating viscous boundary on compactive deformation micromechanisms in the conduit margin zone using high-pressure (effective pressure of 40 MPa), high-temperature (up to 800 °C) triaxial deformation experiments on porous andesite. Our experiments show that the micromechanism facilitating compaction in andesite is localised cataclastic pore collapse at all temperatures below the glass transition of the amorphous groundmass glass Tg (i.e., rock). In this regime, porosity is only reduced within the bands of crushed pores; the porosity outside the bands remains unchanged. Further, the strength of andesite is a positive function of temperature below the threshold Tg due to thermal expansion driven microcrack closure. The micromechanism driving compaction above Tg (i.e., magma) is the distributed viscous flow of the melt phase. In this regime, porosity loss is distributed and is accommodated by the widespread flattening and closure of pores. We find that viscous flow is much more efficient at reducing porosity than cataclastic pore collapse, and that it requires stresses much lower than those required to form bands of crushed pores. Our study therefore highlights that temperature excursions can result in a

  15. Sexually Monomorphic Maps and Dimorphic Responses in Rat Genital Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenschow, Constanze; Copley, Sean; Gardiner, Jayne M; Talbot, Zoe N; Vitenzon, Ariel; Brecht, Michael

    2016-01-11

    Mammalian external genitals show sexual dimorphism [1, 2] and can change size and shape upon sexual arousal. Genitals feature prominently in the oldest pieces of figural art [3] and phallic depictions of penises informed psychoanalytic thought about sexuality [4, 5]. Despite this longstanding interest, the neural representations of genitals are still poorly understood [6]. In somatosensory cortex specifically, many studies did not detect any cortical representation of genitals [7-9]. Studies in humans debate whether genitals are represented displaced below the foot of the cortical body map [10-12] or whether they are represented somatotopically [13-15]. We wondered what a high-resolution mapping of genital representations might tell us about the sexual differentiation of the mammalian brain. We identified genital responses in rat somatosensory cortex in a region previously assigned as arm/leg cortex. Genital responses were more common in males than in females. Despite such response dimorphism, we observed a stunning anatomical monomorphism of cortical penis and clitoris input maps revealed by cytochrome-oxidase-staining of cortical layer 4. Genital representations were somatotopic and bilaterally symmetric, and their relative size increased markedly during puberty. Size, shape, and erect posture give the cortical penis representation a phallic appearance pointing to a role in sexually aroused states. Cortical genital neurons showed unusual multi-body-part responses and sexually dimorphic receptive fields. Specifically, genital neurons were co-activated by distant body regions, which are touched during mounting in the respective sex. Genital maps indicate a deep homology of penis and clitoris representations in line with a fundamentally bi-sexual layout [16] of the vertebrate brain.

  16. Atomic Resolution Structure of Monomorphic Aβ42 Amyloid Fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colvin, Michael T; Silvers, Robert; Ni, Qing Zhe; Can, Thach V; Sergeyev, Ivan; Rosay, Melanie; Donovan, Kevin J; Michael, Brian; Wall, Joseph; Linse, Sara; Griffin, Robert G

    2016-08-03

    Amyloid-β (Aβ) is a 39-42 residue protein produced by the cleavage of the amyloid precursor protein (APP), which subsequently aggregates to form cross-β amyloid fibrils that are a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The most prominent forms of Aβ are Aβ1-40 and Aβ1-42, which differ by two amino acids (I and A) at the C-terminus. However, Aβ42 is more neurotoxic and essential to the etiology of AD. Here, we present an atomic resolution structure of a monomorphic form of AβM01-42 amyloid fibrils derived from over 500 (13)C-(13)C, (13)C-(15)N distance and backbone angle structural constraints obtained from high field magic angle spinning NMR spectra. The structure (PDB ID: 5KK3 ) shows that the fibril core consists of a dimer of Aβ42 molecules, each containing four β-strands in a S-shaped amyloid fold, and arranged in a manner that generates two hydrophobic cores that are capped at the end of the chain by a salt bridge. The outer surface of the monomers presents hydrophilic side chains to the solvent. The interface between the monomers of the dimer shows clear contacts between M35 of one molecule and L17 and Q15 of the second. Intermolecular (13)C-(15)N constraints demonstrate that the amyloid fibrils are parallel in register. The RMSD of the backbone structure (Q15-A42) is 0.71 ± 0.12 Å and of all heavy atoms is 1.07 ± 0.08 Å. The structure provides a point of departure for the design of drugs that bind to the fibril surface and therefore interfere with secondary nucleation and for other therapeutic approaches to mitigate Aβ42 aggregation.

  17. The same but different: monomorphic microsatellite markers as a new tool for genetic analysis

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Nazareno, Alison G; dos Reis, Mauricio S

    2011-01-01

    .... From a set of microsatellite markers, a monomorphic microsatellite locus developed for the palm species Butia eriospatha was used to elucidate whether there are polymorphic sites in its flanking regions. DNA sequences...

  18. Mutual mate choice in a female-dominant and sexually monomorphic primate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomez, Doris; Huchard, Elise; Henry, Pierre-Yves; Perret, Martine

    2012-03-01

    Sexual dimorphism is common in polygynous species, where intrasexual competition is often thought to drive the evolution of large male body size, and in turn, male behavioral dominance over females. In Madagascar, the entire lemur radiation, which embraces diverse mating systems, lacks sexual dimorphism and exhibits frequent female dominance over males. The evolution of such morphological and behavioral peculiarities, often referred to as "the lemur syndrome," has proven difficult to understand. Among other hypotheses, a potential role of intersexual selection has been repeatedly proposed but hardly ever tested. Here, we investigate whether female choice favors small and compliant males, and whether male choice favors large females in captive gray mouse lemurs (Microcebus murinus). Detailed analysis of a combination of behavioral observations and hormonal data available for both sexes shows that (1) females accept more matings from males with higher fighting abilities, (2) males adjust their investment in intrasexual competition to female fertility, and (3) both male and female strategies are weakly influenced by the body mass of potential partners, in directions contradicting our predictions. These results do not suggest a prominent role of intersexual selection in the evolution and maintenance of the lemur syndrome but rather point to alternative mechanisms relating to male-male competition, specifically highlighting an absence of relationship between male body mass and fighting ability. Finally, our findings add to the growing body of evidence suggesting flexible sex roles, by showing the expression of mutual mate choice in a female-dominant, sexually monomorphic and promiscuous primate.

  19. The ciliary marginal zone of the zebrafish retina: clonal and time-lapse analysis of a continuously growing tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yinan; Almeida, Alexandra D; Rulands, Steffen; Chalour, Naima; Muresan, Leila; Wu, Yunmin; Simons, Benjamin D; He, Jie; Harris, William A

    2016-04-01

    Clonal analysis is helping us understand the dynamics of cell replacement in homeostatic adult tissues (Simons and Clevers, 2011). Such an analysis, however, has not yet been achieved for continuously growing adult tissues, but is essential if we wish to understand the architecture of adult organs. The retinas of lower vertebrates grow throughout life from retinal stem cells (RSCs) and retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) at the rim of the retina, called the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). Here, we show that RSCs reside in a niche at the extreme periphery of the CMZ and divide asymmetrically along a radial (peripheral to central) axis, leaving one daughter in the peripheral RSC niche and the other more central where it becomes an RPC. We also show that RPCs of the CMZ have clonal sizes and compositions that are statistically similar to progenitor cells of the embryonic retina and fit the same stochastic model of proliferation. These results link embryonic and postembryonic cell behaviour, and help to explain the constancy of tissue architecture that has been generated over a lifetime.

  20. The ciliary marginal zone of the zebrafish retina: clonal and time-lapse analysis of a continuously growing tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Yinan; Almeida, Alexandra D.; Rulands, Steffen; Chalour, Naima; Muresan, Leila; Wu, Yunmin; Simons, Benjamin D.; He, Jie; Harris, William A.

    2016-01-01

    Clonal analysis is helping us understand the dynamics of cell replacement in homeostatic adult tissues (Simons and Clevers, 2011). Such an analysis, however, has not yet been achieved for continuously growing adult tissues, but is essential if we wish to understand the architecture of adult organs. The retinas of lower vertebrates grow throughout life from retinal stem cells (RSCs) and retinal progenitor cells (RPCs) at the rim of the retina, called the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ). Here, we show that RSCs reside in a niche at the extreme periphery of the CMZ and divide asymmetrically along a radial (peripheral to central) axis, leaving one daughter in the peripheral RSC niche and the other more central where it becomes an RPC. We also show that RPCs of the CMZ have clonal sizes and compositions that are statistically similar to progenitor cells of the embryonic retina and fit the same stochastic model of proliferation. These results link embryonic and postembryonic cell behaviour, and help to explain the constancy of tissue architecture that has been generated over a lifetime. PMID:26893352

  1. Treatment of splenic marginal zone lymphoma of the CNS with high-dose therapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Busemann Christoph

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Therapy of indolent lymphomas with involvement of the central nervous system (CNS has not been standardized so far. A 42-year old male patient presented with neurological signs because of leukemic splenic marginal zone lymphoma (SMZL manifested in bone marrow, lymph nodes and CNS. Due to the aggressiveness of the disease and the young age of the patient, an intensive immunochemotherapy followed by high-dose therapy with busulfan, thiotepa and fludarabine and subsequent unrelated allogeneic stem cell transplantation (alloSCT was performed. The haemopoietic stem cells engrafted in time and the patient is doing well (ECOG 0 without evidence for active lymphoma three years after transplantation. Highly sensitive tests by specific quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction for presence of lymphoma cells in blood and bone marrow indicated also a molecular remission. The reported case shows the feasibility of high-dose therapy and allogeneic stem cell transplantation in high-risk patients with CNS-involvement of indolent non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma. In addition, the case supports the hypothesis that the graft-versus lymphoma effect after alloSCT is also active within the CNS.

  2. A critical role of Rap1b in B-cell trafficking and marginal zone B-cell development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yuhong; Yu, Mei; Podd, Andrew; Wen, Renren; Chrzanowska-Wodnicka, Magdalena; White, Gilbert C; Wang, Demin

    2008-05-01

    B-cell development is orchestrated by complex signaling networks. Rap1 is a member of the Ras superfamily of small GTP-binding proteins and has 2 isoforms, Rap1a and Rap1b. Although Rap1 has been suggested to have an important role in a variety of cellular processes, no direct evidence demonstrates a role for Rap1 in B-cell biology. In this study, we found that Rap1b was the dominant isoform of Rap1 in B cells. We discovered that Rap1b deficiency in mice barely affected early development of B cells but markedly reduced marginal zone (MZ) B cells in the spleen and mature B cells in peripheral and mucosal lymph nodes. Rap1b-deficient B cells displayed normal survival and proliferation in vivo and in vitro. However, Rap1b-deficient B cells had impaired adhesion and reduced chemotaxis in vitro, and lessened homing to lymph nodes in vivo. Furthermore, we found that Rap1b deficiency had no marked effect on LPS-, BCR-, or SDF-1-induced activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and AKT but clearly impaired SDF-1-mediated activation of Pyk-2, a key regulator of SDF-1-mediated B-cell migration. Thus, we have discovered a critical and distinct role of Rap1b in mature B-cell trafficking and development of MZ B cells.

  3. Marginal zone B cells control the response of follicular helper T cells to a high-cholesterol diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nus, Meritxell; Sage, Andrew P; Lu, Yuning; Masters, Leanne; Lam, Brian Y H; Newland, Stephen; Weller, Sandra; Tsiantoulas, Dimitrios; Raffort, Juliette; Marcus, Damiënne; Finigan, Alison; Kitt, Lauren; Figg, Nichola; Schirmbeck, Reinhold; Kneilling, Manfred; Yeo, Giles S H; Binder, Christoph J; de la Pompa, José Luis; Mallat, Ziad

    2017-05-01

    Splenic marginal zone B (MZB) cells, positioned at the interface between circulating blood and lymphoid tissue, detect and respond to blood-borne antigens. Here we show that MZB cells in mice activate a homeostatic program in response to a high-cholesterol diet (HCD) and regulate both the differentiation and accumulation of T follicular helper (TFH) cells. Feeding mice an HCD resulted in upregulated MZB cell surface expression of the immunoregulatory ligand PDL1 in an ATF3-dependent manner and increased the interaction between MZB cells and pre-TFH cells, leading to PDL1-mediated suppression of TFH cell motility, alteration of TFH cell differentiation, reduced TFH abundance and suppression of the proatherogenic TFH response. Our findings reveal a previously unsuspected role for MZB cells in controlling the TFH-germinal center response to a cholesterol-rich diet and uncover a PDL1-dependent mechanism through which MZB cells use their innate immune properties to limit an exaggerated adaptive immune response.

  4. Expression of Immunoglobulin Receptors with Distinctive Features Indicating Antigen Selection by Marginal Zone B Cells from Human Spleen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colombo, Monica; Cutrona, Giovanna; Reverberi, Daniele; Bruno, Silvia; Ghiotto, Fabio; Tenca, Claudya; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Hadzidimitriou, Anastasia; Ceccarelli, Jenny; Salvi, Sandra; Boccardo, Simona; Calevo, Maria Grazia; De Santanna, Amleto; Truini, Mauro; Fais, Franco; Ferrarini, Manlio

    2013-01-01

    Marginal zone (MZ) B cells, identified as surface (s)IgMhighsIgDlowCD23low/−CD21+CD38− B cells, were purified from human spleens, and the features of their V(D)J gene rearrangements were investigated and compared with those of germinal center (GC), follicular mantle (FM) and switched memory (SM) B cells. Most MZ B cells were CD27+ and exhibited somatic hypermutations (SHM), although to a lower extent than SM B cells. Moreover, among MZ B-cell rearrangements, recurrent sequences were observed, some of which displayed intraclonal diversification. The same diversifying sequences were detected in very low numbers in GC and FM B cells and only when a highly sensitive, gene-specific polymerase chain reaction was used. This result indicates that MZ B cells could expand and diversify in situ and also suggested the presence of a number of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID)-expressing B cells in the MZ. The notion of antigen-driven expansion/selection in situ is further supported by the VH CDR3 features of MZ B cells with highly conserved amino acids at specific positions and by the finding of shared (“stereotyped”) sequences in two different spleens. Collectively, the data are consistent with the notion that MZ B cells are a special subset selected by in situ antigenic stimuli. PMID:23877718

  5. Transverse, supraglacially derived crevasse infillings in a Pleistocene ice-sheet margin zone (eastern Poland): Genesis and sedimentary record

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godlewska, Anna; Terpiłowski, Sławomir

    2012-08-01

    The so-called 'crevasse infillings' in the marginal zone of the Saalian ice sheet in eastern Poland are atypical relief forms for lowlands glaciated in the Pleistocene. They are located on a high of the Cretaceous/Palaeogene substratum and form isolated ridges arranged in trains parallel to the former ice-sheet margin, i.e., transverse to the movement of the ice sheet. The sedimentary succession of the crevasse infillings consists mainly of undeformed glaciodeltaic deposits. We propose a model of the crevasse infilling development in three phases against the background of ice mass dynamics: 1) ice-sheet advance over a high of the substratum — compressive ice flow that bumped against the high's slope and enrichment of the ice with debris; 2) an overriding of the substratum high by ice masses — a tensional ice-flow regime resulted in significant crevassing; and 3) ice mass stagnation — low energy, supraglacial deltaic sedimentation in isolated ponds between disintegrated ice blocks under frozen bed conditions. Considering this genesis, we suggest classifying these forms as kames instead of crevasse infillings.

  6. Clinicopathological Analysis of Pulmonary Marginal Zone B-cell Lymphoma of 
Mucosa-associated Lymphoid Tissue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing ZENG

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective As a rare disease, pulmonary marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (PMZL-MALT, is often misdiagnosed. The aim of this study is to summarize the clinical and pathological features of this disease and improve the awareness of doctors. Methods Seven cases (female 5, male 2 diagnosed of PMZL-MALT in West China Hospital between November 2008 and November 2010, were analyzed retrospectively, including their symptoms, radiological findings, pathological examinations, treatment and prognosis. Results The median age of the patients were 62 years old (range 34-79 years. Six patients suffered from cough and sputum. Pulmonary consolidation was the most frequent manifestation, leading a misdiagnosis of pneumonia with CT examinations. Pathological diagnosis was obtained via fiberoptic bronchoscopy in six patients and percutaneous pulmonary biopsy for the rest one. In the seven cases, immunohistochemical results showed CD20(+, CD79a(+, while CD3 epsilon(-, CD5(-, CyclinD1(-, CD10(-, Bcl-2(- and CD30(-. Additionally, the expression of Ki-67 was below 10%. Further PCR analysis showed evidence of immunoglobulin heavy chain gene rearrangement in tissues from six subjects. Based on the disease location and patients’ wishes, compared with two cases just receiving symptomatic treatments, the other five ones took in chemotherapies. Conclusion Since there were no specific clinical features for patients of PMZL-MALT, histopathological examination was the only effective means to confirm the diagnosis.

  7. Activity-dependent endogenous taurine release facilitates excitatory neurotransmission in the neocortical marginal zone of neonatal rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Taizhe; Chen, Rongqing; Nakamura, Masato; Furukawa, Tomonori; Kumada, Tatsuro; Akita, Tenpei; Kilb, Werner; Luhmann, Heiko J; Nakahara, Daiichiro; Fukuda, Atsuo

    2014-01-01

    In the developing cerebral cortex, the marginal zone (MZ), consisting of early-generated neurons such as Cajal-Retzius cells, plays an important role in cell migration and lamination. There is accumulating evidence of widespread excitatory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the MZ. Cajal-Retzius cells express not only GABAA receptors but also α2/β subunits of glycine receptors, and exhibit glycine receptor-mediated depolarization due to high [Cl(-)]i. However, the physiological roles of glycine receptors and their endogenous agonists during neurotransmission in the MZ are yet to be elucidated. To address this question, we performed optical imaging from the MZ using the voltage-sensitive dye JPW1114 on tangential neocortical slices of neonatal rats. A single electrical stimulus evoked an action-potential-dependent optical signal that spread radially over the MZ. The amplitude of the signal was not affected by glutamate receptor blockers, but was suppressed by either GABAA or glycine receptor antagonists. Combined application of both antagonists nearly abolished the signal. Inhibition of Na(+), K(+)-2Cl(-) cotransporter by 20 µM bumetanide reduced the signal, indicating that this transporter contributes to excitation. Analysis of the interstitial fluid obtained by microdialysis from tangential neocortical slices with high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that GABA and taurine, but not glycine or glutamate, were released in the MZ in response to the electrical stimulation. The ambient release of taurine was reduced by the addition of a voltage-sensitive Na(+) channel blocker. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy indicated that taurine was stored both in Cajal-Retzius and non-Cajal-Retzius cells in the MZ, but was not localized in presynaptic structures. Our results suggest that activity-dependent non-synaptic release of endogenous taurine facilitates excitatory neurotransmission through activation of glycine

  8. Targeting of Ly9 (CD229) Disrupts Marginal Zone and B1 B Cell Homeostasis and Antibody Responses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, Marta; Romero, Xavier; Sintes, Jordi; Terhorst, Cox; Engel, Pablo

    2016-01-15

    Marginal zone (MZ) and B1 B cells have the capacity to respond to foreign Ags more rapidly than conventional B cells, providing early immune responses to blood-borne pathogens. Ly9 (CD229, SLAMF3), a member of the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule family receptors, has been implicated in the development and function of innate T lymphocytes. In this article, we provide evidence that in Ly9-deficient mice splenic transitional 1, MZ, and B1a B cells are markedly expanded, whereas development of B lymphocytes in bone marrow is unaltered. Consistent with an increased number of these B cell subsets, we detected elevated levels of IgG3 natural Abs and a striking increase of T-independent type II Abs after immunization with 2,4,6-trinitrophenyl-Ficoll in the serum of Ly9-deficient mice. The notion that Ly9 could be a negative regulator of innate-like B cell responses was supported by the observation that administering an mAb directed against Ly9 to wild-type mice selectively eliminated splenic MZ B cells and significantly reduced the numbers of B1 and transitional 1 B cells. In addition, Ly9 mAb dramatically diminished in vivo humoral responses and caused a selective downregulation of the CD19/CD21/CD81 complex on B cells and concomitantly an impaired B cell survival and activation in an Fc-independent manner. We conclude that altered signaling caused by the absence of Ly9 or induced by anti-Ly9 may negatively regulate development and function of innate-like B cells by modulating B cell activation thresholds. The results suggest that Ly9 could serve as a novel target for the treatment of B cell-related diseases.

  9. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Synergizes with Notch2 to Govern Marginal Zone B Cells in Nonobese Diabetic Mice1,2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyhoff, Lindsay E.; Steinberg, Hannah E.; Sullivan, Allison M.; Kendall, Peggy L.

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of autoimmune-prone marginal zone (MZ) B cells has been implicated in type 1 diabetes (T1D). To test disease contributions of MZ B cells in NOD mice, Notch2 haploinsufficiency (Notch2+/−) was introduced, but failed to eliminate the MZ, as it does in C57BL/6 mice. Notch2+/−/NOD have MZ B cell numbers similar to WT C57BL/6, yet still develop diabetes. To test whether BCR-signaling supports Notch2+/−/NOD MZ B cells, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk)-deficiency was introduced. Surprisingly, MZ B cells failed to develop in Btk-deficient Notch2+/−/NOD mice. Expression of Notch2 and its transcriptional target, Hes5, were increased in NOD MZ B cells compared with C57BL/6 MZ B cells. Btk-deficiency reduced Notch2+/− signaling exclusively in NOD B cells, suggesting that BCR-signaling enhances Notch2 signaling in this autoimmune model. The role of BCR-signaling was further investigated using an anti-insulin transgenic BCR (125Tg). Anti-insulin B cells in 125Tg/Notch2+/−/NOD mice populate an enlarged MZ, suggesting that low level BCR signaling overcomes reliance on Notch2. Tracking clonotypes of anti-insulin B cells in H chain only VH125Tg/NOD mice showed that BTK-dependent selection into the MZ depends on strength of antigenic binding, while Notch2-mediated selection does not. Importantly, anti-insulin B cell numbers were reduced by Btk-deficiency, but not Notch2-haploinsufficiency. These studies show that: 1) Notch2-haploinsufficiency limits NOD MZ B cell expansion without preventing T1D, 2) BTK supports the Notch2 pathway in NOD MZ B cells, and 3) autoreactive NOD B cell survival relies on BTK more than Notch2, regardless of MZ location, which may have important implications for disease-intervention strategies. PMID:26034172

  10. Bruton's Tyrosine Kinase Synergizes with Notch2 To Govern Marginal Zone B Cells in Nonobese Diabetic Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Case, James B; Bonami, Rachel H; Nyhoff, Lindsay E; Steinberg, Hannah E; Sullivan, Allison M; Kendall, Peggy L

    2015-07-01

    Expansion of autoimmune-prone marginal zone (MZ) B cells has been implicated in type 1 diabetes. To test disease contributions of MZ B cells in NOD mice, Notch2 haploinsufficiency (Notch2(+/-)) was introduced but failed to eliminate the MZ, as it does in C57BL/6 mice. Notch2(+/-)/NOD have MZ B cell numbers similar to those of wild-type C57BL/6, yet still develop diabetes. To test whether BCR signaling supports Notch2(+/-)/NOD MZ B cells, Bruton's tyrosine kinase (Btk) deficiency was introduced. Surprisingly, MZ B cells failed to develop in Btk-deficient Notch2(+/-)/NOD mice. Expression of Notch2 and its transcriptional target, Hes5, was increased in NOD MZ B cells compared with C57BL/6 MZ B cells. Btk deficiency reduced Notch2(+/-) signaling exclusively in NOD B cells, suggesting that BCR signaling enhances Notch2 signaling in this autoimmune model. The role of BCR signaling was further investigated using an anti-insulin transgenic (Tg) BCR (125Tg). Anti-insulin B cells in 125Tg/Notch2(+/-)/NOD mice populate an enlarged MZ, suggesting that low-level BCR signaling overcomes reliance on Notch2. Tracking clonotypes of anti-insulin B cells in H chain-only VH125Tg/NOD mice showed that BTK-dependent selection into the MZ depends on strength of antigenic binding, whereas Notch2-mediated selection does not. Importantly, anti-insulin B cell numbers were reduced by Btk deficiency, but not Notch2 haploinsufficiency. These studies show that 1) Notch2 haploinsufficiency limits NOD MZ B cell expansion without preventing type 1 diabetes, 2) BTK supports the Notch2 pathway in NOD MZ B cells, and 3) autoreactive NOD B cell survival relies on BTK more than Notch2, regardless of MZ location, which may have important implications for disease-intervention strategies. Copyright © 2015 by The American Association of Immunologists, Inc.

  11. Activity-dependent endogenous taurine release facilitates excitatory neurotransmission in the neocortical marginal zone of neonatal rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taizhe eQian

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the developing cerebral cortex, the marginal zone (MZ, consisting of early-generated neurons such as Cajal-Retzius cells, plays an important role in cell migration and lamination. There is accumulating evidence of widespread excitatory neurotransmission mediated by γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA in the MZ. Cajal-Retzius cells express not only GABAA receptors but also α2/β subunits of glycine receptors, and exhibit glycine receptor-mediated depolarization due to high [Cl−]i. However, the physiological roles of glycine receptors and their endogenous agonists during neurotransmission in the MZ are yet to be elucidated. To address this question, we performed optical imaging from the MZ using the voltage-sensitive dye JPW1114 on tangential neocortical slices of neonatal rats. A single electrical stimulus evoked an action-potential-dependent optical signal that spread radially over the MZ. The amplitude of the signal was not affected by glutamate receptor blockers, but was suppressed by either GABAA or glycine receptor antagonists. Combined application of both antagonists nearly abolished the signal. Inhibition of Na+, K+-2Cl− cotransporter by 20 µM bumetanide reduced the signal, indicating that this transporter contributes to excitation. Analysis of the interstitial fluid obtained by microdialysis from tangential neocortical slices with high-performance liquid chromatography revealed that GABA and taurine, but not glycine or glutamate, were released in the MZ in response to the electrical stimulation. The ambient release of taurine was reduced by the addition of a voltage-sensitive Na+ channel blocker. Immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy indicated that taurine was stored both in Cajal-Retzius and non-Cajal-Retzius cells in the MZ, but was not localized in presynaptic structures. Our results suggest that activity-dependent non-synaptic release of endogenous taurine facilitates excitatory neurotransmission through activation of

  12. Marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with multiple extranodal locations in a patient with Sjögren’s syndrome – a diagnostic problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Domżalska

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren’s syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disease characterized by the presence of lymphocytic infiltrates in exocrine glands, mainly salivary and lacrimal glands, which result in xerophthalmia and xerostomia. About half of the patients develop systemic complications, including lymphoproliferative disorders. We report a case of a 27-year-old woman with a diagnosis of Sjögren’s syndrome and a suspicion of respiratory system involvement in the course of granulomatosis with polyangiitis. Histopathological examination of a skin lesion suggested marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. After pathological and immunohistochemical evaluation of all available previous biopsy samples and the medical documentation the diagnosis of extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma stage IV according to the Ann Arbor classification was rendered. The patient was referred to the Department of Haematology and was treated with R-CVP (cyclophosphamide, vincristine, prednisone, rituximab.

  13. Indolent B-Cell Lymphoid Malignancy in the Spleen of a Man Who Handled Benzene: Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jihye; Kang, Young Joong; Ahn, Jungho; Song, Seng-Ho

    2017-09-01

    We present the case of a 45-year-old man with a history of benzene exposure who developed splenic marginal zone lymphoma. For 6 years, he had worked in an enclosed space cleaning instruments with benzene. He was diagnosed with splenic marginal zone lymphoma 19 years after retirement. During his time of working in the laboratory in the 1980s, working environments were not monitored for hazardous materials. We indirectly estimated the cumulative level of past benzene exposure using job-exposure matrices and technical assumptions. Care must be taken in investigating the relevance of occupational benzene exposure in the occurrence of indolent B-cell lymphoma. Because of the long latency period and because occupational measurement data do not exist for the period during the patient's exposure, the epidemiological impact of benzene exposure may be underestimated.

  14. Improved Performance of the Piezoelectric Monomorph with Perpendicular Electrode Connections for Sensing and Energy Harvesting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Ma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Piezoelectric monomorph, which has only one element, is a potential structure for piezoelectric applications in some extreme conditions. But as the restriction of the strain neutral layer, the traditional parallel electrode connection is not effective for sensing and energy harvesting. In this paper, perpendicular electrode connections were designed to utilize the nonuniform shear piezoelectric effect in the cross section of the monomorph, which made the monomorph avoid the restriction of the strain neutral layer. The PZT5 ceramic monomorph was preliminarily studied in this experiment. By comparing seven forms of perpendicular electrode connections with the traditional parallel electrode connection, the whole superposed perpendicular electrode connection is considered as the optimal output way for the monomorph. It can produce 13 V peak-to-peak (pk-pk voltage in open circuit and 14.56 μW maximum power with the matching resistance, which are much more than the parallel electrode connection 0.78 V and 0.14 μW.

  15. [Monomorphic post-transplant T-lymphoproliferative disorder after autologous stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishikawa, Tetsuya; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Takei, Toshifumi; Koya, Hiroko; Iriuchishima, Hirono; Hosiho, Takumi; Hirato, Junko; Kojima, Masaru; Handa, Hiroshi; Nojima, Yoshihisa; Murakami, Hirokazu

    2016-01-01

    We report a rare case of T cell type monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders (PTLD) after autologous stem cell transplantation. A 53-year-old man with multiple myeloma received autologous stem cell transplantation and achieved a very good partial response. Nine months later, he developed a high fever and consciousness disturbance, and had multiple swollen lymph nodes and a high titer of Epstein-Barr (EB) virus DNA in his peripheral blood. Neither CT nor MRI of the brain revealed any abnormalities. Cerebrospinal fluid contained no malignant cells, but the EB virus DNA titer was high. Lymph node biopsy revealed T cell type monomorphic PTLD. Soon after high-dose treatment with methotrexate and cytosine arabinoside, the high fever and consciousness disturbance subsided, and the lymph node swelling and EB virus DNA disappeared. Given the efficacy of chemotherapy in this case, we concluded that the consciousness disturbance had been induced by central nervous system involvement of monomorphic PTLD.

  16. Speciation is not necessarily easier in species with sexually monomorphic mating signals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, S; Henry, C S

    2015-11-01

    Should we have different expectations regarding the likelihood and pace of speciation by sexual selection when considering species with sexually monomorphic mating signals? Two conditions that can facilitate rapid species divergence are Felsenstein's one-allele mechanism and a genetic architecture that includes a genetic association between signal and preference loci. In sexually monomorphic species, the former can manifest in the form of mate choice based on phenotype matching. The latter can be promoted by selection acting upon genetic loci for divergent signals and preferences expressed simultaneously in each individual, rather than acting separately on signal loci in males and preference loci in females. Both sexes in the Chrysoperla carnea group of green lacewings (Insecta, Neuroptera, Chrysopidae) produce sexually monomorphic species-specific mating signals. We hybridized the two species C. agilis and C. carnea to test for evidence of these speciation-facilitating conditions. Hybrid signals were more complex than the parents and we observed a dominant influence of C. carnea. We found a dominant influence of C. agilis on preferences in the form of hybrid discrimination against C. carnea. Preferences in hybrids followed patterns predicting preference loci that determine mate choice rather than a one-allele mechanism. The genetic association between signal and preference we detected in the segregating hybrid crosses indicates that speciation in these species with sexually monomorphic mating signals can have occurred rapidly. However, we need additional evidence to determine whether such genetic associations form more readily in sexually monomorphic species compared to dimorphic species and consequently facilitate speciation.

  17. Gastric marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue and signet ring cell carcinoma, synchronous collision tumour of the stomach: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Smiley Annie; Junaid, T A

    2014-01-01

    To report a rare case of synchronous marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) signet ring cell carcinoma occurring as a collision tumour in the stomach. A 53-year-old man was diagnosed initially with signet ring cell carcinoma of the stomach. The microscopy of the subsequent total gastrectomy revealed a collision tumour of MALT lymphoma and signet ring cell carcinoma associated with Helicobacter pylori gastritis. This case highlighted the importance of a careful evaluation of the accompanying lymphoid population in the biopsy samples of gastric adenocarcinoma and underlined the need for multiple endoscopic biopsies to detect these rare synchronous tumours. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. EBV-negative monomorphic B-cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorders are pathologically distinct from EBV-positive cases and frequently contain TP53 mutations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courville, Elizabeth L; Yohe, Sophia; Chou, David; Nardi, Valentina; Lazaryan, Aleksandr; Thakral, Beenu; Nelson, Andrew C; Ferry, Judith A; Sohani, Aliyah R

    2016-10-01

    Monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder commonly resembles diffuse large B-cell lymphoma or Burkitt lymphoma, and most are Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) positive. We retrospectively identified 32 cases of monomorphic post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder from two institutions and evaluated EBV in situ hybridization; TP53 mutation status; p53, CD30, myc, and BCL2 expression by immunohistochemistry; proliferation index by Ki67; and germinal center vs non-germinal center immunophenotype by Hans criteria. Post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder arose after hematopoietic stem cell transplant in five and solid organ transplant in 27 patients, a median of 4 and 96 months after transplant, respectively (overall median latency 71 months, range 2-295). The most common morphology was diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (28 cases), with three cases of Burkitt lymphoma, and one case of plasmablastic lymphoma. Ten cases (31%) were EBV negative. Of those with the morphology of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, the EBV-negative cases were more frequently TP53-mutated (Pnegative (Ppost-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder were older with a longer latency from time of transplant to diagnosis (Ppost-transplant setting and underscores differences between EBV-positive and EBV-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder in terms of immunophenotype and TP53 mutation frequency, supporting an alternative pathogenesis for EBV-negative post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder.

  19. An Unusual Case of Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma Arising in the Breast - Its Diagnosis and the Role of Radiotherapy in its Management.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Rock, Kathy

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary lymphoma of the breast accounts for 0.04-0.5% of all breast malignancies and approximately 1% of all extranodal lymphomas. For stage IE node-negative disease, involved field radiotherapy is recommended except for very young women in whom the risk of breast cancer is a concern. The rate of complete response for limited stage extranodal marginal B-cell lymphoma is in excess of 90%. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 62-year-old lady who presented with a unilateral painless palpable right breast lump. She subsequently underwent a trucut biopsy of the lesion. The histology revealed a low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin\\'s lymphoma (NHL). Immunohistochemistry showed that more than 95% of the cells were B cells which were CD 20+\\/CD 45+ and BC L6+. This confirmed the diagnosis of marginal zone lymphoma. Staging work-up was negative for distant metastases. Serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were normal. The patient had no \\'B\\' symptoms. Her final diagnosis was clinical stage IAE NHL, and she was referred for curative radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Radiation treatment is a safe and extremely effective modality of treatment for early stage I marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the breast.

  20. An Unusual Case of Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma Arising in the Breast - Its Diagnosis and the Role of Radiotherapy in its Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rock, Kathy; Rangaswamy, Guhan; O'Sullivan, Siobhra; Coffey, Jerome

    2011-10-01

    BACKGROUND: Primary lymphoma of the breast accounts for 0.04-0.5% of all breast malignancies and approximately 1% of all extranodal lymphomas. For stage IE node-negative disease, involved field radiotherapy is recommended except for very young women in whom the risk of breast cancer is a concern. The rate of complete response for limited stage extranodal marginal B-cell lymphoma is in excess of 90%. CASE REPORT: We report the case of a 62-year-old lady who presented with a unilateral painless palpable right breast lump. She subsequently underwent a trucut biopsy of the lesion. The histology revealed a low-grade B-cell non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). Immunohistochemistry showed that more than 95% of the cells were B cells which were CD 20+/CD 45+ and BC L6+. This confirmed the diagnosis of marginal zone lymphoma. Staging work-up was negative for distant metastases. Serum alkaline phosphatase and lactate dehydrogenase were normal. The patient had no 'B' symptoms. Her final diagnosis was clinical stage IAE NHL, and she was referred for curative radiotherapy. CONCLUSION: Radiation treatment is a safe and extremely effective modality of treatment for early stage I marginal zone B-cell lymphomas of the breast.

  1. Myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen is expressed in a subset of marginal zone lymphomas and is useful in the differential diagnosis with follicular lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalf, Ryan A; Monabati, Ahmad; Vyas, Monika; Roncador, Giovanna; Gualco, Gabriela; Bacchi, Carlos E; Younes, Sheren F; Natkunam, Yasodha; Freud, Aharon G

    2014-08-01

    The diagnosis of marginal zone lymphomas (MZL) is challenged by the lack of specific markers that distinguish them from other low-grade non-Hodgkin B-cell lymphomas. Myeloid cell nuclear differentiation antigen (MNDA) is a nuclear protein that labels myelomonocytic cells as well as B lymphocytes that localize to the marginal zone areas of splenic white pulp. We evaluated MNDA expression in a large series of B-cell lymphomas to assess the sensitivity and specificity of this antigen for the characterization of MZL. A total of 440 tissue sections containing extramedullary B-cell lymphomas and 216 bone marrow biopsies containing atypical or neoplastic lymphoid infiltrates were stained for MNDA by immunohistochemistry. Among the extramedullary lymphoma cases, approximately 67% of nodal MZL, 61% of extranodal MZL, and 24% of splenic MZL expressed MNDA. MNDA was also infrequently expressed in other B-cell neoplasms including mantle cell lymphoma (6%), chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma (13%), follicular lymphoma (FL) (4%), lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma (25%), and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (3%). In contrast, MNDA was only expressed in 2.3% of all bone marrow biopsies involved by lymphoid infiltrates, including 2 cases of FL and one case of MZL. Collectively, these data support the inclusion of MNDA in the diagnostic evaluation of extramedullary B-cell lymphomas, particularly those in which the differential diagnosis is between low-grade FL and MZL.

  2. Factors affecting unintentional harvesting selectivity in a monomorphic species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunnefeld, Nils; Baines, David; Newborn, David; Milner-Gulland, E J

    2009-03-01

    1. Changes in the abundance of populations have always perplexed ecologists but long-term studies are revealing new insights into population dynamic processes. Long-term data are often derived from harvest records although many wild populations face high harvesting pressures leading to overharvesting and extinction. Additionally, harvest records used to describe population processes such as fluctuations in abundance and reproductive success often assume a random off-take. 2. Selective harvesting based on phenotypic characteristics occurs in many species (e.g. trophy hunting, fisheries) and has important implications for population dynamics, conservation and management. 3. In species with no marked morphological differences between the age and sex classes, such as the red grouse Lagopus lagopus scoticus during the shooting season, hunters cannot consciously select for a specific sex or age class during the shooting process but harvest records could still give a biased reflection of the population structure because of differences in behaviour between age and sex classes. 4. This study compared age and sex ratios in the bag with those in the population before shooting for red grouse at different points in the shooting season and different densities, which has rarely been tested before. 5. More young than old grouse were shot at large bag sizes and vice versa for small bag sizes than would be expected from the population composition before shooting. The susceptibility of old males to shooting compared to females increased with bag size and was high at the first time the area was shot but decreased with the number of times an area was harvested. 6. These findings stress that the assumption made in many studies that harvest records reflect the age and sex ratio of the population and therefore reflect productivity can be misleading. 7. In this paper, as in the literature, it is also shown that number of grouse shot reflects grouse density and therefore that hunting

  3. The T-cell accessory molecule CD4 recognizes a monomorphic determinant on isolated Ia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gay, D; Buus, S; Pasternak, J;

    1988-01-01

    The membrane protein CD4 is commonly found on mature T cells specific for antigen in association with class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC; Ia) proteins. This correlation has led to the suggestion that CD4 binds to a monomorphic region of the Ia molecule on the antigen-presenting cell...... proteins into a planar membrane system, we show that different Ia molecules can greatly enhance the ability of a CD4+ but not a CD4- variant of this class I-restricted T hybrid to respond to isolated class I molecules. T-cell responses can be strongly augmented by the concurrent expression of CD4 on the T...... cell and any of four different Ia proteins on planar membranes, thus supporting the idea that CD4 binds to a monomorphic region of the Ia molecule and increases the avidity with which the T cell can interact with its target....

  4. Small and ugly? Phylogenetic analyses of the "selfing syndrome" reveal complex evolutionary fates of monomorphic primrose flowers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vos, Jurriaan M; Wüest, Rafael O; Conti, Elena

    2014-04-01

    One of the most common trends in plant evolution, loss of self-incompatibility and ensuing increases in selfing, is generally assumed to be associated with a suite of phenotypic changes, notably a reduction of floral size, termed the selfing syndrome. We investigate whether floral morphological traits indeed decrease in a deterministic fashion after losses of self-incompatibility, as traditionally expected, using a phylogeny of 124 primrose species containing nine independent transitions from heterostyly (heteromorphic incompatibility) to homostyly (monomorphic self-compatibility), a classic system for evolution of selfing. We find similar overall variability of homostylous and heterostylous species, except for diminished herkogamy in homostyles. Bayesian mixed models demonstrate differences between homostylous and heterostylous species in all traits, but net effects across species are small (except herkogamy) and directionality differs among traits. Strongly drift-like evolutionary trajectories of corolla tube length and corolla diameter inferred by Ornstein-Uhlenbeck models contrast with expected deterministic trajectories toward small floral size. Lineage-specific population genetic effects associated with evolution of selfing may explain that reductions of floral size represent one of several possible outcomes of floral evolution after loss of heterostyly in primroses. Contrary to the traditional paradigm, selfing syndromes may, but do not necessarily evolve in response to increased selfing.

  5. Seasonal Variation in Parental Care Drives Sex-Specific Foraging by a Monomorphic Seabird.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Chantelle M; Montevecchi, William A; Regular, Paul M

    2015-01-01

    Evidence of sex-specific foraging in monomorphic seabirds is increasing though the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigate differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic Common Murres (Uria aalge), where the male parent alone provisions the chick after colony departure. Using a combination of geolocation-immersion loggers and stable isotopes, we assess two hypotheses: the reproductive role specialization hypothesis and the energetic constraint hypothesis. We compare the foraging behavior of females (n = 15) and males (n = 9) during bi-parental at the colony, post-fledging male-only parental care and winter when parental care is absent. As predicted by the reproductive role specialization hypothesis, we found evidence of sex-specific foraging during post-fledging only, the stage with the greatest divergence in parental care roles. Single-parenting males spent almost twice as much time diving per day and foraged at lower quality prey patches relative to independent females. This implies a potential energetic constraint for males during the estimated 62.8 ± 8.9 days of offspring dependence at sea. Contrary to the predictions of the energetic constraint hypothesis, we found no evidence of sex-specific foraging during biparental care, suggesting that male parents did not forage for their own benefit before colony departure in anticipation of post-fledging energy constraints. We hypothesize that unpredictable prey conditions at Newfoundland colonies in recent years may limit male parental ability to allocate additional time and energy to self-feeding during biparental care, without compromising chick survival. Our findings support differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic murres, and highlight the need to consider ecological context in the interpretation of sex-specific foraging behavior.

  6. Seasonal Variation in Parental Care Drives Sex-Specific Foraging by a Monomorphic Seabird.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chantelle M Burke

    Full Text Available Evidence of sex-specific foraging in monomorphic seabirds is increasing though the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. We investigate differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic Common Murres (Uria aalge, where the male parent alone provisions the chick after colony departure. Using a combination of geolocation-immersion loggers and stable isotopes, we assess two hypotheses: the reproductive role specialization hypothesis and the energetic constraint hypothesis. We compare the foraging behavior of females (n = 15 and males (n = 9 during bi-parental at the colony, post-fledging male-only parental care and winter when parental care is absent. As predicted by the reproductive role specialization hypothesis, we found evidence of sex-specific foraging during post-fledging only, the stage with the greatest divergence in parental care roles. Single-parenting males spent almost twice as much time diving per day and foraged at lower quality prey patches relative to independent females. This implies a potential energetic constraint for males during the estimated 62.8 ± 8.9 days of offspring dependence at sea. Contrary to the predictions of the energetic constraint hypothesis, we found no evidence of sex-specific foraging during biparental care, suggesting that male parents did not forage for their own benefit before colony departure in anticipation of post-fledging energy constraints. We hypothesize that unpredictable prey conditions at Newfoundland colonies in recent years may limit male parental ability to allocate additional time and energy to self-feeding during biparental care, without compromising chick survival. Our findings support differential parental care as a mechanism for sex-specific foraging in monomorphic murres, and highlight the need to consider ecological context in the interpretation of sex-specific foraging behavior.

  7. BDNF-modulated spatial organization of Cajal-Retzius and GABAergic neurons in the marginal zone plays a role in the development of cortical organization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alcántara, Soledad; Pozas, Esther; Ibañez, Carlos F; Soriano, Eduardo

    2006-04-01

    The present study utilizes nestin-BDNF transgenic mice, which offer a model for early increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) signalling, to examine the role of BDNF in the development of cortical architecture. Our results demonstrate that the premature and homogeneous expression of BDNF, while preserving tangential migration from the ganglionic eminence to the cortex, impairs the final radial migration of GABAergic neurons, as well as their integration in the appropriate cortical layers. Moreover, Cajal-Retzius (CR) cells and GABAergic neurons segregate in the cortical marginal zone (MZ) in response to BDNF signalling, leading to an alternating pattern and a columnar cortical organization, within which the migration of different neuronal populations is specifically affected. These results suggest that both CR and GABAergic neurons play a role in directing the radial migration of late-generated cortical neurons, and that the spatial distribution of these cells in the MZ is critical for the development of correct cortical organization. In addition, reelin secreted by CR cells in the MZ is not sufficient to direct the migration of late-born neurons to the upper cortical layers, which most likely requires the presence of reelin-secreting interneurons in layers V-VI. We propose that in addition to modulating reelin expression, BDNF regulates the patched distribution of CR and GABAergic neurons in the MZ, and that this spatial distribution is involved in the formation of anatomical and/or functional columns and convoluted structures.

  8. Surrogate light chain is required for central and peripheral B-cell tolerance and inhibits anti-DNA antibody production by marginal zone B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Weicheng; Grimsholm, Ola; Bernardi, Angelina I; Höök, Nina; Stern, Anna; Cavallini, Nicola; Mårtensson, Inga-Lill

    2015-04-01

    Selection of the primary antibody repertoire takes place in pro-/pre-B cells, and subsequently in immature and transitional B cells. At the first checkpoint, μ heavy (μH) chains assemble with surrogate light (SL) chain into a precursor B-cell receptor. In mice lacking SL chain, μH chain selection is impaired, and serum autoantibody levels are elevated. However, whether the development of autoantibody-producing cells is due to an inability of the resultant B-cell receptors to induce central and/or peripheral B-cell tolerance or other factors is unknown. Here, we show that receptor editing is defective, and that a higher proportion of BM immature B cells are prone to undergoing apoptosis. Furthermore, transitional B cells are also more prone to undergoing apoptosis, with a stronger selection pressure to enter the follicular B-cell pool. Those that enter the marginal zone (MZ) B-cell pool escape selection and survive, possibly due to the B-lymphopenia and elevated levels of B-cell activating factor. Moreover, the MZ B cells are responsible for the elevated IgM anti-dsDNA antibody levels detected in these mice. Thus, the SL chain is required for central and peripheral B-cell tolerance and inhibits anti-DNA antibody production by MZ B cells.

  9. Phosphoinositide-3-kinases p110alpha and p110beta mediate S phase entry in astroglial cells in the marginal zone of rat neocortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabea eMüller

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In cells cultured from neocortex of newborn rats, phosphoinositide-3-kinases of class I regulate the DNA synthesis in a subgroup of astroglial cells. We have studied the location of these cells as well as the kinase isoforms which facilitate the S phase entry. Using dominant negative isoforms as well as selective pharmacological inhibitors we quantified S phase entry by nuclear labeling with bromodeoxyuridine. Only in astroglial cells harvested from the marginal zone of the neocortex inhibition of phosphoinositide-3-kinases reduced the nuclear labeling with bromodeoxyuridine, indicating that neocortical astroglial cells differ in the regulation of proliferation. The two kinase isoforms p110 and p110were essential for S phase entry. p110 diminished the level of the p27Kip1 which inactivates the complex of cyclin E and CDK2 necessary for entry into the S phase. p110phosphorylated and inhibited glycogen synthase kinase-3which can prevent S-phase entry. Taken together, both isoforms mediated S phase in a subgroup of neocortical astroglial cells and acted via distinct pathways.

  10. [Standardization of ICO-1 monoclonal antibodies against monomorphic Ia-like (Dr) antigens].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baryshnikov, A Iu; Blokhina, N G; Kadagidze, Z G; Tupitsyn, N N; Sokolov, A V

    1987-01-01

    ICO-1 Mab were obtained following BALB/c mouse immunization with 24-week human fetal thymocytes. Cloning for two times by the method of limited dilutions led to a hybridoma with a stable production of G3 isotype Mab. ICO-1 Mab have immunoprecipitated an antigen consisting of two polypeptide chains with molecular weight 29 and 34 kDal. The antigen expression was enhanced following PHA or alloantigen activation of blood mononuclear cells. ICO-1 Mab inhibited the alloantigenic response of blood mononuclear cells. Mab detected 29% of antigen-positive cells in the peripheral blood of healthy adults. When the reaction of ICO-1 Mab was compared with that of Mab against monomorphic Ia-like antigens OKLa, anti-Ia-BRL, BMA-021 and HLA-Dr on blood cells from healthy donors and patients with leukemia proved to be identical.

  11. The same but different: monomorphic microsatellite markers as a new tool for genetic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazareno, Alison G; dos Reis, Mauricio S

    2011-10-01

    The nucleotide variation at a microsatellite locus lacking length polymorphisms among its alleles was assessed to generate an informative tool for genetic analysis. From a set of microsatellite markers, a monomorphic microsatellite locus developed for the palm species Butia eriospatha was used to elucidate whether there are polymorphic sites in its flanking regions. DNA sequences ≈133 bp long were obtained. Aligned sequences show variation at 17 polymorphic sites with both insertions and nucleotide substitutions. Fourteen distinct sequences (alleles) among 22 individuals were identified. The percent sequence difference varied from 0.0 to 5%, indicating that there is significant variation among sequences. Due to significant levels of information and sequence diversity on a simple sequence repeat (SSR) locus of identical size, our study highlights that this molecular marker class can be a useful tool for population genetics and evolutionary studies for many plant species.

  12. A Case of Contiguous Primary Hepatic Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma and Hemangioma Ultimately Diagnosed Using Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kazue Shiozawa

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatic marginal zone B-cell malignant lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT lymphoma is extremely rare. We present a case in which a lesion was diagnosed as 2 contiguous tumors (MALT lymphoma and hemangioma using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (US with sonazoid. There has been no previous case of contiguous hepatic MALT lymphoma and hemangioma. The present case was a female with no medical history. We detected a snowman-like appearance, which was a tumor of 15 mm in diameter with hypo- and hyper-echogenicities in the lateral and medial parts, respectively, in the Couinaud's segment (S6 of the liver on US. The tumor appeared as a single lesion with a low-density area in the unenhanced phase and prolonged enhancement in the equilibrium phases on dynamic CT. On MRI, the whole lesion showed a low-intensity signal on T1-weighted imaging, but isointensity in the lateral part and high intensity in the medial part were seen on T2-weighted imaging. On contrast-enhanced US, the lateral hypoechoic region was homogenously hyperenhanced in the early vascular phase, and the contrast medium was washed out after about 30 s; in contrast, the medial hyperechoic region was gradually stained from the margin toward the central region. The tumor showed a defect in both hypo- and hyperechoic regions in the postvascular phase. Hemangioma was suspected for the medial part based on the typical image findings, but the lateral part was not given a diagnosis. Thus, surgical resection was performed. The medial part was a hemangioma, and the lateral part was a MALT lymphoma by histopathological findings.

  13. Retinal stem/progenitor cells in the ciliary marginal zone complete retinal regeneration: a study of retinal regeneration in a novel animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyake, Ayumi; Araki, Masasuke

    2014-07-01

    Our research group has extensively studied retinal regeneration in adult Xenopus laevis. However, X. laevis does not represent a suitable model for multigenerational genetics and genomic approaches. Instead, Xenopus tropicalis is considered as the ideal model for these studies, although little is known about retinal regeneration in X. tropicalis. In the present study, we showed that a complete retina regenerates at approximately 30 days after whole retinal removal. The regenerating retina was derived from the stem/progenitor cells in the ciliary marginal zone (CMZ), indicating a novel mode of vertebrate retinal regeneration, which has not been previously reported. In a previous study, we showed that in X. laevis, retinal regeneration occurs primarily through the transdifferentiation of retinal pigmented epithelial (RPE) cells. RPE cells migrate to the retinal vascular membrane and reform a new epithelium, which then differentiates into the retina. In X. tropicalis, RPE cells also migrated to the vascular membrane, but transdifferentiation was not evident. Using two tissue culture models of RPE tissues, it was shown that in X. laevis RPE culture neuronal differentiation and reconstruction of the retinal three-dimensional (3-D) structure were clearly observed, while in X. tropicalis RPE culture neither ßIII tubulin-positive cells nor 3-D retinal structure were seen. These results indicate that the two Xenopus species are excellent models to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms of retinal regeneration, as these animals have contrasting modes of regeneration; one mode primarily involves RPE cells and the other mode involves stem/progenitor cells in the CMZ.

  14. Long-Term Outcomes and Patterns of Relapse of Early-Stage Extranodal Marginal Zone Lymphoma Treated With Radiation Therapy With Curative Intent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teckie, Sewit; Qi, Shunan; Lovie, Shona [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Navarrett, Scott [Weill Cornell Medical College, New York, New York (United States); Hsu, Meier [Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Noy, Ariela; Portlock, Carol [Lymphoma Service, Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States); Yahalom, Joachim, E-mail: yahalomj@mskcc.org [Department of Radiation Oncology, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York, New York (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Purpose: To report the long-term outcome and patterns of relapse of a large cohort of marginal zone lymphoma (MZL) patients treated with curative-intent radiation therapy (RT) alone. Patients and Methods: We reviewed the charts of 490 consecutive patients with stage IE or IIE MZL referred between 1992 and 2012 to our institution. Of those, 244 patients (50%) were treated with RT alone. Pathology was confirmed by hematopathologists at our institution. Patient and disease factors were analyzed for association with relapse-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS). Results: Median age of the cohort was 59 years, and median follow-up was 5.2 years. Ann Arbor stage was IE in 92%. Most common disease sites were stomach (50%), orbit (18%), non-thyroid head-and-neck (8%), skin (8%), and breast (5%). Median RT dose was 30 Gy. Five-year OS and RFS were 92% and 74%, respectively. Cumulative incidence of disease-specific death was just 1.1% by 5 years. Sixty patients (24%) developed relapse of disease; 10 were in the RT field. Crude rate of transformation to pathologically confirmed large-cell lymphoma was 1.6%. On multivariable analysis, primary disease site (P=.007) was independently associated with RFS, along with age (P=.04), presence of B-symptoms (P=.02), and International Prognostic Index risk group (P=.03). All disease sites except for head-and-neck had worse RFS relative to stomach. Conclusion: Overall and cause-specific survival are high in early-stage extra-nodal MZL treated with curative RT alone. In this large cohort of 244 patients, most patients did not experience relapse of MZL after curative RT; when relapses did occur, the majority were in distant sites. Stomach cases were less likely to relapse than other anatomic sites. Transformation to large-cell lymphoma was rare.

  15. Results of a randomized trial of chlorambucil versus fludarabine for patients with untreated Waldenström macroglobulinemia, marginal zone lymphoma, or lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leblond, Véronique; Johnson, Steve; Chevret, Sylvie; Copplestone, Adrian; Rule, Simon; Tournilhac, Olivier; Seymour, John Francis; Patmore, Russell D; Wright, David; Morel, Pierre; Dilhuydy, Marie-Sarah; Willoughby, Sara; Dartigeas, Caroline; Malphettes, Marion; Royer, Bruno; Ewings, Maeve; Pratt, Guy; Lejeune, Julie; Nguyen-Khac, Florence; Choquet, Sylvain; Owen, Roger G

    2013-01-20

    Treatment options for patients with Waldenström macroglobulinemia (WM) and closely related disorders include alkylating agents, purine analogs, and monoclonal antibodies. No large randomized studies have yet been reported comparing any of these approaches. The randomized WM1 study (Trial Comparing Chlorambucil to Fludarabine in Patients With Advanced Waldenström Macroglobulinemia) was undertaken in 101 centers in five countries enrolling 414 eligible patients (339 with WM, 37 with non-mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue marginal zone lymphoma, and 38 with lymphoplasmacytic lymphoma) who were randomly assigned to receive chlorambucil or fludarabine. The primary end point was the overall response rate (ORR). On the basis of intent-to-treat analysis, the ORR was 47.8% (95% CI, 40.9% to 54.8%) in the fludarabine arm versus 38.6% (95% CI, 32.0% to 45.7%) in the chlorambucil arm (P = .07). With a median follow-up of 36 months (interquartile range, 18 to 58 months), median progression-free survival (PFS), and duration of response (DR) were significantly improved in the fludarabine arm compared with the chlorambucil arm: PFS, 36.3 versus 27.1 months (P = .012) and DR, 38.3 versus 19.9 months (P chlorambucil arm (95% CI, 61.6 to 79.8 months; P = .014). Grade 3 to 4 neutropenia was significantly higher among patients treated with fludarabine (36%) compared with patients treated with chlorambucil (17.8%; P chlorambucil arm with 6-year cumulative incidence rate of 20.6% versus 3.7% in the fludarabine arm (P = .001). In the complete intent-to-treat study population, fludarabine significantly improved PFS compared with chlorambucil, and in patients with WM, it improved OS.

  16. The RP105/MD-1 complex is indispensable for TLR4/MD-2-dependent proliferation and IgM-secreting plasma cell differentiation of marginal zone B cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagai, Yoshinori; Yanagibashi, Tsutomu; Watanabe, Yasuharu; Ikutani, Masashi; Kariyone, Ai; Ohta, Shoichiro; Hirai, Yoshikatsu; Kimoto, Masao; Miyake, Kensuke; Takatsu, Kiyoshi

    2012-06-01

    Marginal zone (MZ) B cells mount rapid T-cell-independent (T-I) immune responses against microbial components such as LPS. While Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is essential for LPS responses, MZ B cells uniquely express high levels of another LPS sensor Radioprotective 105 (RP105). However, little is known about how RP105 is used by MZ B cells. In this study, we investigated TLR4- or RP105-dependent MZ B cell responses by utilizing agonistic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to each receptor. Cross-linking TLR4 and RP105 at the same time with the mAbs induced robust IgM-secreting plasma cell generation as lipid A moiety of LPS. In contrast, stimulation with either mAb alone did not elicit such responses. RP105-deficient MZ B cells failed to produce IgM-secreting plasma cells in response to lipid A. TLR4 or lipid A stimulation of MZ B cells up-regulated their B lymphocyte-induced maturation protein 1 (Blimp-1) and X-box-binding protein 1 (Xbp-1) mRNA expression. RP105 stimulation alone did not give these responses and in fact decreased TLR4-mediated their expression. Compared with wild-type (WT) MZ B cells, RP105-deficient MZ B cells exhibited increased levels of Blimp-1 and Xbp-1 mRNA expression in response to lipid A. Lipid A or TLR4 plus RP105 stimulation induced massive proliferation and expression of Bcl-xL and c-Myc in WT but not RP105-deficient MZ B cells. These responses contributed to TLR4-mediated anti-apoptotic responses in MZ B cells. Thus, RP105 contributes in a unique way to the TLR4-dependent survival, proliferation and plasma cell generation of MZ B cells.

  17. Primary cutaneous B-cell lymphoma other than marginal zone: clinicopathologic analysis of 161 cases: Comparison with current classification and definition of prognostic markers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucioni, Marco; Berti, Emilio; Arcaini, Luca; Croci, Giorgio A; Maffi, Aldo; Klersy, Catherine; Goteri, Gaia; Tomasini, Carlo; Quaglino, Pietro; Riboni, Roberta; Arra, Mariarosa; Dallera, Elena; Grandi, Vieri; Alaibac, Mauro; Ramponi, Antonio; Rattotti, Sara; Cabras, Maria Giuseppina; Franceschetti, Silvia; Fraternali-Orcioni, Giulio; Zerbinati, Nicola; Onida, Francesco; Ascani, Stefano; Fierro, Maria Teresa; Rupoli, Serena; Gambacorta, Marcello; Zinzani, Pier Luigi; Pimpinelli, Nicola; Santucci, Marco; Paulli, Marco

    2016-10-01

    Categorization of primary cutaneous B-cell lymphomas (PCBCL) other than marginal zone (MZL) represents a diagnostic challenge with relevant prognostic implications. The 2008 WHO lymphoma classification recognizes only primary cutaneous follicular center cell lymphoma (PCFCCL) and primary cutaneous diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, leg type (PCDLBCL-LT), whereas the previous 2005 WHO/EORTC classification also included an intermediate form, namely PCDLBCL, other. We conducted a retrospective, multicentric, consensus-based revision of the clinicopathologic characteristics of 161 cases of PCBCL other than MZL. Upon the histologic features that are listed in the WHO classification, 96 cases were classified as PCFCCL and 25 as PCDLBCL-LT; 40 further cases did not fit in the former subgroups in terms of cytology and/or architecture, thus were classified as PCDLBCL, not otherwise specified (PCDLBCL-NOS). We assigned all the cases a histogenetic profile, based on the immunohistochemical detection of CD10, BCL6, and MUM1, and a "double hit score" upon positivity for BCL2 and MYC. PCDLBCL-NOS had a clinical presentation more similar to PCFCCL, whereas the histology was more consistent with the picture of a diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, as predominantly composed of centroblasts but with intermixed a reactive infiltrate of small lymphocytes. Its behavior was intermediate between the other two forms, particularly when considering only cases with a "non-germinal B-cell" profile, whereas "germinal center" cases resembled PCFCCL. Our data confirmed the aggressive behavior of PCDLBC-LT, which often coexpressed MYC and BCL2. The impact of single factors on 5-year survival was documented, particularly histogenetic profile in PCDLBCL and BCL2 translocation in PCFCCL. Our study confirms that a further group-PCDLBCL-NOS-exists, which can be recognized through a careful combination of histopathologic criteria coupled with adequate clinical information.

  18. Bone marrow histopathology in the diagnostic evaluation of splenic marginal-zone and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma: a reliable substitute for spleen histopathology?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Maurilio; Kanellis, George; Pouliou, Evi; Baliakas, Panagiotis; Scarfò, Lydia; Ferreri, Andrés J M; Doglioni, Claudio; Bikos, Vasilis; Dagklis, Antonis; Anagnostopoulos, Achilles; Ghia, Paolo; Stamatopoulos, Kostas; Papadaki, Theodora

    2012-11-01

    Primary splenic small B-cell lymphomas mostly comprise the distinct entity of splenic marginal-zone lymphoma (SMZL) and the provisional category of splenic lymphoma/leukemia unclassifiable, mainly represented by the hairy cell leukemia variant and splenic diffuse red pulp small B-cell lymphoma (SDRL). Until recently, histopathologic examination of splenectomy specimens was considered mandatory for the diagnosis of SMZL. However, nowadays, mainly because of advances in chemoimmunotherapy, splenectomy is performed much less frequently. We evaluated the diagnostic efficacy of bone marrow biopsy (BMB) histopathology in the diagnostic approach toward SMZL and SDRL and tested whether it may serve as a substitute for spleen histopathology in the differential diagnosis between these 2 entities. To this end, we conducted a paired assessment of BMB and spleen diagnostic samples from 46 cases with a diagnosis of SMZL (n=32) or SDRL (n=14) based on spleen histopathology. We demonstrate that detailed immunohistopathologic BMB evaluation offers adequate evidence for the confirmation of these entities and their differential diagnosis from other small B-cell lymphoma histotypes. Notably, the immunophenotypical profile of SMZL and SDRL was identical in both BMB and spleen specimens for 21 evaluated markers. Paired assessment of BMB and spleen specimens did not identify discriminating patterns of BMB infiltration, cytology, and/or immunohistology between SMZL and SDRL. Accordingly, bone marrow histopathology contributes significantly in confirming the diagnosis of SMZL and SDRL. However, presently it is not possible to distinguish SMZL from SDRL on the basis of BMB evaluation alone; hence, histopathologic examination of the spleen remains the "gold standard" approach.

  19. Radiation Therapy Administration and Survival in Stage I/II Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma of Mucosa-Associated Lymphoid Tissue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olszewski, Adam J., E-mail: adam_olszewski@brown.edu; Desai, Amrita

    2014-03-01

    Purpose: To determine the factors associated with the use of radiation therapy and associated survival outcomes in early-stage marginal zone lymphoma of the mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Methods and Materials: We extracted data on adult patients with stage I/II MALT lymphoma diagnoses between 1998 and 2010 recorded in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. We studied factors associated with radiation therapy administration in a logistic regression model and described the cumulative incidence of lymphoma-related death (LRD) according to receipt of the treatment. The association of radiation therapy with survival was explored in multivariate models with adjustment for immortal time bias. Results: Of the 7774 identified patients, 36% received radiation therapy as part of the initial course of treatment. Older patients; black or Hispanic men; white, Hispanic, and black women; and socioeconomically disadvantaged and underinsured patients had a significantly lower chance of receiving radiation therapy. Radiation therapy administration was associated with a lower chance of LRD in most sites. In cutaneous, ocular, and salivary MALT lymphomas, the 5-year estimate of LRD after radiation therapy was 0%. The association of radiation therapy with overall survival in different lymphoma sites was heterogeneous, and statistically significant in cutaneous (hazard ratio 0.45, P=.009) and ocular (hazard ratio 0.47, P<.0001) locations after multivariate adjustment. Conclusions: Demographic factors are associated with the use of radiation therapy in MALT lymphoma. Clinicians should be sensitive to those disparities because the administration of radiation therapy may be associated with improved survival, particularly in cutaneous and ocular lymphomas.

  20. Layer 6 cortical neurons require Reelin-Dab1 signaling for cellular orientation, Golgi deployment, and directed neurite growth into the marginal zone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O’Dell Ryan S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The secreted ligand Reelin is believed to regulate the translocation of prospective layer 6 (L6 neocortical neurons into the preplate, a loose layer of pioneer neurons that overlies the ventricular zone. Recent studies have also suggested that Reelin controls neuronal orientation and polarized dendritic growth during this period of early cortical development. To explicitly characterize and quantify how Reelin controls this critical aspect of neurite initiation and growth we used a new ex utero explant model of early cortical development to selectively label a subset of L6 cortical neurons for complete 3-D reconstruction. Results The total neurite arbor sizes of neurons in Reelin-deficient (reeler mutant and Dab1-deficient (Reelin-non-responsive scrambler mutant cortices were quantified and unexpectedly were not different than control arbor lengths (p = 0.51. For each mutant, however, arbor organization was markedly different: mutant neurons manifested more primary processes (neurites emitted directly from the soma than wild type, and these neurites were longer and displayed less branching. Reeler and scrambler mutant neurites extended tangentially rather than radially, and the Golgi apparatus that normally invests the apical neurite was compact in both reeler and scrambler mutants. Mutant cortices also exhibited a neurite “exclusion zone” which was relatively devoid of L6 neuron neurites and extended at least 15 μm beneath the pial surface, an area corresponding to the marginal zone (MZ in the wild type explants. The presence of an exclusion zone was also indicated in the orientation of mutant primary neurite and neuronal somata, which failed to adopt angles within ~20˚ of the radial line to the pial surface. Injection of recombinant Reelin to reeler, but not scrambler, mutant cortices fully rescued soma orientation, Golgi organization, and dendritic projection defects within four hrs. Conclusions These findings

  1. Revisiting the B-cell compartment in mouse and humans: more than one B-cell subset exists in the marginal zone and beyond

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garraud Olivier

    2012-11-01

    -cells. This review thus aims to describe novel findings regarding the B-cell compartments found in the mouse as a model organism, and in human physiology and pathology. It must be emphasised that some differences are noticeable between the mouse and human systems, thus increasing the complexity of B-cell compartmentalisation. Special attention will be given to the (lymph node and spleen marginal zones, which represent major crossroads for B-cell types and functions and a challenge for understanding better the role of B-cell specificities in innate and adaptive immunology.

  2. Genetic diversity as assessed by morphological and microsatellite ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lap

    2012-10-18

    Oct 18, 2012 ... combination of morphological and molecular markers increases the efficiency of diversity measured and the adzuki bean microsatellite markers are highly polymorphic and can be successfully used .... information about the magnitude of genetic variability. ... Two primers MB77 and CP37 were monomorphic.

  3. Primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uvea associated with massive diffuse epibulbar extension and focal infiltration of the optic nerve and meninges, clinically presented as uveitis masquerade syndrome: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasić, D M; Stanković, Z; Terzić, T; Kovacević, D; Koturović, Z; Marković, V

    2010-09-01

    To report a clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical findings in a case of primary extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uvea associated with massive diffuse extraocular episcleral extension and focal infiltration of the optic nerve and meninges, clinically presented as longstanding uveitis masquerade syndrome. Interventional case reports with histopathological correlation. We describe a 80-year-old male patient with a 3-year history of chronic recurrent hypertensive (pan) uveitis associated with ocular pain, unresponsive to topical and systemic anti-inflammatory, immunosuppressive, antibiotic/antiviral and antiglaucomatous therapy. Because the eye was not salvageable with conservative treatment, enucleation of blind and painful eye was performed. Findings from histopathological and immunohistochemistry examination of the enucleated eye showed an extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of the uveal tract with massive epibulbar extension and optic nerve and meningeal penetration. During almost 3 years of clinical course and 6 months after the enucleation, there were no systemic manifestations of lymphoma, and patient has not required subsequent treatment. Primary lymphoproliferative lesions of the uvea, comprising the iris, ciliary body and choroid are very rare, associated with epibulbar extension extremely and with optic nerve and menigeal penetration exceptionally. Despite its rarity, primary lymphoma of the uvea should be included in the differential diagnosis particularly in older patients with longstanding recurrent uveitis.

  4. Epstein-barr virus-associated extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT Lymphoma) arising in the parotid gland of a child with ataxia telangiectasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Jennifer A; Bayerl, Michael G

    2015-03-01

    Hematologic malignancies, in particular T-cell lymphomas/leukemias, are prevalent in patients with ataxia telangiectasia (AT), with most reported cases being clinically aggressive and high grade. Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is often associated with lymphoid proliferations/neoplasms arising in immunodeficient patients. Reports of low-grade B-cell neoplasms in the ataxia telangiectasia population are extremely rare. Here, we describe a case of EBV-associated extranodal marginal zone lymphoma (mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma) of the parotid gland in a 16-year-old boy with AT. In addition, we review the literature of hematologic malignancies in the AT population as well as the occurrence of EBV in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma.

  5. Inconsistent shock advisories for monomorphic VT and Torsade de Pointes--A prospective experimental study on AEDs and defibrillators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitzgerald, Abi; Johnson, Meshell; Hirsch, Jan; Rich, Mary-Ann; Fidler, Richard

    2015-07-01

    Cardiovascular disease and sudden cardiac arrest are the leading causes of death in the United States. Early defibrillation is key to successful resuscitation for patients who experience shockable rhythms during a cardiac arrest. It is therefore vital that the shock advisory of AEDs (automated external defibrillators) or defibrillators in AED mode be reliable and appropriate. The goal of this study was to better understand the performance of multiple lay-rescuer and hospital professional defibrillators in AED mode in their analysis of ventricular arrhythmias. The measurable objectives of this study sought to quantify: 1. No shock advisory for sinus rhythms at any rate. 2. Recognition and shock advisory for ventricular fibrillation (VF). 3. Recognition and shock advisory for monomorphic ventricular tachycardia (VT). 4. Recognition and shock advisory for Torsades de Pointes (TdP). This is a prospective evaluation of two AEDs and four semi-automatic, hospital professional defibrillators. This study represents post-marketing evaluation of FDA approved devices. Each defibrillator was connected to multiple rhythm simulators and presented with simulated ECG waveforms 20 consecutive times at various rates when possible. All four defibrillators and both AEDs tested consistently recognized normal sinus rhythm (NSR) from all rhythm sources, and did not recommend a shock for NSR at any rate (from 80 to 220 bpm). All four defibrillators and both AEDs recognized VF from all rhythm sources tested and recommended a shock 100% of the time. Variations were found in the shock advisory rates among defibrillators when testing simulated VT heart rates at or below 150 bpm. One AED tested did not consistently advise a shock for monomorphic VT or TdP at any tested rate. Lay-rescuer AEDs and professional hospital defibrillators tested in AED mode did not reliably recommend a shock for sustained monomorphic VT or TdP at certain rates, despite the fact that it is a critical component of the

  6. Acquired long QT syndrome and monomorphic ventricular tachycardia after alternative treatment with cesium chloride for brain cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalal, Anuj K; Harding, John D; Verdino, Ralph J

    2004-08-01

    Individuals searching for symptomatic relief or a potential cure are increasingly seeking and using nontraditional therapies for their various diseases. Little is known about the potential adverse effects that patients may encounter while undergoing these alternative treatments. Cesium chloride is an unregulated agent that has been reported to have antineoplastic properties. Cesium chloride is advertised as an alternative agent for many different types of cancers and can be purchased easily on the Internet. Recently, QT prolongation and polymorphic ventricular tachycardia were reported in several patients taking cesium chloride as alternative treatment for cancer. We report acquired QT prolongation and sustained monomorphic ventricular tachycardia in a patient who self-initiated and completed a course of cesium chloride as adjunctive treatment for brain cancer.

  7. Gender identification of Grasshopper Sparrows comparing behavioral, morphological, and molecular techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammer, F.K.; Wood, P.B.; McPherson, R.J.

    2008-01-01

    Correct gender identification in monomorphic species is often difficult especially if males and females do not display obvious behavioral and breeding differences. We compared gender specific morphology and behavior with recently developed DNA techniques for gender identification in the monomorphic Grasshopper Sparrow (Ammodramus savannarum). Gender was ascertained with DNA in 213 individuals using the 2550F/2718R primer set and 3% agarose gel electrophoresis. Field observations using behavior and breeding characteristics to identify gender matched DNA analyses with 100% accuracy for adult males and females. Gender was identified with DNA for all captured juveniles that did not display gender specific traits or behaviors in the field. The molecular techniques used offered a high level of accuracy and may be useful in studies of dispersal mechanisms and winter assemblage composition in monomorphic species.

  8. Body attributes of both parents jointly affect offspring sex allocation in a socially monogamous, size-monomorphic passerine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xin LU; Xianhai ZENG; Bo DU

    2013-01-01

    Theory predicts that because males are more variable in reproductive success than females,a mother should produce more sons to maximize fitness return from the sex allocation if she is of high-quality (the female quality hypothesis) or mates with a high-quality male (the male quality hypothesis).While most previous studies have looked at each hypothesis,we tested both of them simultaneously in the white-rumped snowfinch Montifringilla taczanowskii,a socially monogamous,sexually monomorphic passerine where body size is a potential indicator of individual quality in intrasexual competition and territory defense.Brood sex ratios at the population level did not deviate from random expectation.Among individual broods,the proportion of sons did not depend on body size of either male or female parent,but on interaction of this trait of both parents.Further analyses revealed that brood sex ratios were independent of body size of male or female parents when their mates were smaller,but positively related with body size of male or female parents when their mates were larger.These results suggest that mechanisms underlying the two hypotheses may act jointly on offspring sex allocation.The mechanisms are expected to evolve through size-assortative mating which is often reached by sexual selection.

  9. The Structure and Stability of the Monomorphic HLA-G Are Influenced by the Nature of the Bound Peptide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walpole, Nicholas G.; Kjer-Nielsen, Lars; Kostenko, Lyudmila; McCluskey, James; Brooks, Andrew G.; Rossjohn, Jamie; Clements, Craig S. (Monash); (Melbourne)

    2010-03-26

    The highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex class Ia (MHC-Ia) molecules present a broad array of peptides to the clonotypically diverse {alpha}{beta} T-cell receptors. In contrast, MHC-Ib molecules exhibit limited polymorphism and bind a more restricted peptide repertoire, in keeping with their major role in innate immunity. Nevertheless, some MHC-Ib molecules do play a role in adaptive immunity. While human leukocyte antigen E (HLA-E), the MHC-Ib molecule, binds a very restricted repertoire of peptides, the peptide binding preferences of HLA-G, the class Ib molecule, are less stringent, although the basis by which HLA-G can bind various peptides is unclear. To investigate how HLA-G can accommodate different peptides, we compared the structure of HLA-G bound to three naturally abundant self-peptides (RIIPRHLQL, KGPPAALTL and KLPQAFYIL) and their thermal stabilities. The conformation of HLA-G{sup KGPPAALTL} was very similar to that of the HLA-G{sup RIIPRHLQL} structure. However, the structure of HLA-G{sup KLPQAFYIL} not only differed in the conformation of the bound peptide but also caused a small shift in the {alpha}2 helix of HLA-G. Furthermore, the relative stability of HLA-G was observed to be dependent on the nature of the bound peptide. These peptide-dependent effects on the substructure of the monomorphic HLA-G are likely to impact on its recognition by receptors of both innate and adaptive immune systems.

  10. Antibody response against Betaferon® in immune tolerant mice: involvement of marginal zone B-cells and CD4+ T-cells and apparent lack of immunological memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauerborn, Melody; van Beers, Miranda M C; Jiskoot, Wim; Kijanka, Grzegorz M; Boon, Louis; Schellekens, Huub; Brinks, Vera

    2013-01-01

    The immunological processes underlying immunogenicity of recombinant human therapeutics are poorly understood. Using an immune tolerant mouse model we previously demonstrated that aggregates are a major trigger of the antidrug antibody (ADA) response against recombinant human interferon beta (rhIFNβ) products including Betaferon®, and that immunological memory seems to be lacking after a rechallenge with non-aggregated rhIFNβ. The apparent absence of immunological memory indicates a CD4+ T-cell independent (Tind) immune response underlying ADA formation against Betaferon®. This hypothesis was tested. Using the immune tolerant mouse model we first validated that rechallenge with highly aggregated rhIFNβ (Betaferon®) does not lead to a subsequent fast increase in ADA titers, suggesting a lack of immunological memory. Next we assessed whether Betaferon® could act as Tind antigen by inactivation of marginal zone (MZ) B-cells during treatment. MZ B-cells are major effector cells involved in a Tind immune response. In a following experiment we depleted the mice from CD4+ T-cells to test their involvement in the ADA response against Betaferon®. Inactivation of MZ B-cells at the start of Betaferon® treatment drastically lowered ADA levels, suggesting a Tind immune response. However, persistent depletion of CD4+ T-cells before and during Betaferon® treatment abolished the ADA response in almost all mice. The immune response against rhIFNβ in immune tolerant mice is neither a T-cell independent nor a classical T-cell dependent immune response. Further studies are needed to confirm absence of immunological memory (cells).

  11. Monomorphic Analysis of Microsatellite Loci at BAT-26%微卫星BAT-26位点单态性的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    狄金明; 张一楚; 陈蕾; 顾琴龙

    2001-01-01

    Objective MSI plays an important role in carainogenesis of manttumors.Most MS loci show polymorphism in normal tissues.It has been reported that BAT-26 was quasi-monomorphic,showing only minor size variathions.To analysis monomorphism at BAT-26 loci,60 normal colorectal tissues were examined.Methods Genomic DNA extracted from tissues was PCR amplified.PCR products were run on 6% denaturing polyacrylamide gel and stained with silver.Results All specimens showed no variation in the length of MS DNA at BAT-26 loci.Conclusion BAT-26 has much monomorphism in human genome.%目的 微卫星不稳定性(MicrosatelliteInstability,MSI)在许多肿瘤的发生中具很重要的作用,大多数微卫星(Microsatellite,MS)位点在正常人群中多态性明显,有报道表明BAT-26位点单态性很好,据此我们分析了60例正常肠粘膜标本中BAT-26位点MSDNA的情况,以便了解BAT-26位点单态性情况。方法 组织DNA提取后PCR扩增,扩增产物行6%变性聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳,最后银染。结果 所有标本在BAT-26位点MSDNA长度无明显改变。结论 BAT-26具有较好的单态性。

  12. The specificity and polymorphism of the MHC class I prevents the global adaptation of HIV-1 to the monomorphic proteasome and TAP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boris V Schmid

    Full Text Available The large diversity in MHC class I molecules in a population lowers the chance that a virus infects a host to which it is pre-adapted to escape the MHC binding of CTL epitopes. However, viruses can also lose CTL epitopes by escaping the monomorphic antigen processing components of the pathway (proteasome and TAP that create the epitope precursors. If viruses were to accumulate escape mutations affecting these monomorphic components, they would become pre-adapted to all hosts regardless of the MHC polymorphism. To assess whether viruses exploit this apparent vulnerability, we study the evolution of HIV-1 with bioinformatic tools that allow us to predict CTL epitopes, and quantify the frequency and accumulation of antigen processing escapes. We found that within hosts, proteasome and TAP escape mutations occur frequently. However, on the population level these escapes do not accumulate: the total number of predicted epitopes and epitope precursors in HIV-1 clade B has remained relatively constant over the last 30 years. We argue that this lack of adaptation can be explained by the combined effect of the MHC polymorphism and the high specificity of individual MHC molecules. Because of these two properties, only a subset of the epitope precursors in a host are potential epitopes, and that subset differs between hosts. We estimate that upon transmission of a virus to a new host 39%-66% of the mutations that caused epitope precursor escapes are released from immune selection pressure.

  13. 毛乌素沙地、腾格里沙漠南缘带土地利用与气候变化关系研究——以宁夏中部为例%Relationship Between Land Use and the Climate Change in the Southern Marginal Zones of the Tengger Desert and Mu Us Desert —A Case Study in Central of Ningxia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾科利; 张俊华; 郭占军

    2011-01-01

    利用1978年MSS及1987,1996和2007年Landsat TM/ETM遥感影像,借助GIS技术,对腾格里沙漠与毛乌素沙地南缘地带土地利用与气候变化的响应关系进行了研究.结果表明,研究区年均温升高,降水量减少,气候趋于暖干化,土地利用开发程度差异显著,表现出30 a来,毛乌素沙地南缘土地利用开发强度整体较大,高于腾格里沙漠南缘地带,在变化速度上,毛乌素沙地高于腾格里沙漠南缘地区.%By using the MSS image in 1978 and Landsat TM/ETM images in 1987, 1996, 2007 with the help of GIS, the relationship between land use and the climate change in the southern marginal zones of Tengger desert and Mu Us desert in central of Ningxia from 1978 to 2007 were analyzed. The results showed that under the conditions that the climate in north China trends to warming and drying, especially,under the control of the water and heat conditions, the degree of land use difference was significant in the southern marginal zones of Tengger desert and Mu Us desert. The land use level in the studying area was generally increased in the nearly past 30 years. But the land use level in the southern marginal zones of Mu Us desert was higher than that in the southern marginal zones of Tengger desert, as well as the speed of land use change in the southern marginal zones of Mu Us desert.

  14. Clinical analysis of voriconazole in treatment of invasive fungal pneumonia in marginal zone B-cell lymphoma%伏立康唑治疗边缘带B细胞淋巴瘤合并侵袭性真菌性肺炎的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘景华; 周凡; 张晓琳; 李敏燕; 刘彦琴; 王吉刚

    2011-01-01

    目的 探讨伏立康唑在边缘带B细胞淋巴瘤应用氟达拉滨治疗过程中并发侵袭性真菌性肺炎的疗效.方法 回顾性分析边缘带B细胞淋巴瘤患者在应用氟达拉滨治疗过程中并发侵袭性真菌性肺炎,比较应用伏立康唑抗真菌治疗前后患者症状、血气分析、肺部影像学、真菌表面抗原等的改变.结果 氟达拉滨为基础方案化疗两个疗程后,出现侵袭性真菌性肺炎,其病程呈延缓性,在发病1个月后开始给予伏立康唑抗真菌治疗,治疗3d后临床症状改善,1周后血气分析改善,约2周真菌表面抗原滴度降低,约5周肺部炎性病变大部吸收.结论 伏立康唑在边缘带B细胞淋巴瘤应用氟达拉滨治疗过程中并发侵袭性真菌性肺炎中的疗效是确切的.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the clinical effect of voriconazole in treatment invasive fungal pneumonia patients with in marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. METHODS Retrospective analysis the change of symptoms, blood gas analysis, lung imaging and fungal surface antigens titer before and after voriconazole treatment invasive fungal pneumonia in marginal zone B-cell lymphoma. RESULTS Invasive fungal pneumonia appeared after two circles of fludarabine-based chemotherapy. Disease progress of invasive fungal pneumonia was slowly, voriconazole treatment invasive fungal pneumonia was started 1 month after onset. Clinical symptoms was improved after 3 days, blood gas analysis was improved after 1 week, fungal surface antigen titer was reduced after about 2 weeks, and lung imaging was obviously improved after about 5 weeks voriconazole treatment invasive fungal pneumonia. CONCLUSION The clinical effect of voriconazole treatment invasive fungal pneumonia in marginal zone B-cell lymphoma is exact.

  15. Morphological changes of blood spleen barrier in portal hypertensive spleen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Zong-fang; ZHANG Shu; HUANG Ying; XIA Xian-ming; LI Ai-min; PAN Dun; ZHANG Wei; WANG Juan

    2008-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of hypersplenism and the immune function of the spleen in patients with portal hypertension(PH)remain obscure.This study aimed to evaluate the morphological changes of blood spleen barrier in spleen with hypersplenism due to PH and provide evidence for an in-depth investigation of the immune function of the spleen with hypersplenism and the mechanism of hypersplenism.Methods Spleen samples from 12 portal hypertensive patients and 4 patients with traumatic ruptures of spleen were examined.The samples of spleen were made into pathological sections,stained with Masson trichrome stain,Gomori stain,and CD68,CD34 immunohistochemistry,and were examined microscopically for the changes in the distribution of collagen fibers,reticular fibers,macrophages,and vascular endothelial cells.The changes in ultrastructure of macrophages and endothelial cells in marginal zone were also evaluated by transmission electron microscopy.Results As compared to the normal spleen,the density of macrophage in the PH spleen was decreased,but the macrophages were mainly located in the marginal zone and distributed around the splenic corpuscle,with many villi and pseudopodium-like protrusion on the cell surface.The accrementition of collagen fibers was obvious around the splenic corpuscle and central artery.The increased reticulate fibers encircled the splenic corpuscle with more connection between the fibers.The vascular endothelial cells were in diffused distribution,without any regionality in PH spleen,but the vessel with enlarged lumina increased in red pulp.Conclusions The morphological changes of the blood spleen barrier can be one of the pathological fundaments for the abnormality of the immune function and the increased destruction of blood cells located in the spleens of patients with PH.However,this still entails clarification.

  16. A novel HURRAH protocol reveals high numbers of monomorphic MHC class II loci and two asymmetric multi-locus haplotypes in the Pere David's deer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu-Hong Wan

    Full Text Available The Père David's deer is a highly inbred, but recovered, species, making it interesting to consider their adaptive molecular evolution from an immunological perspective. Prior to this study, genomic sequencing was the only method for isolating all functional MHC genes within a certain species. Here, we report a novel protocol for isolating MHC class II loci from a species, and its use to investigate the adaptive evolution of this endangered deer at the level of multi-locus haplotypes. This protocol was designated "HURRAH" based on its various steps and used to estimate the total number of MHC class II loci. We confirmed the validity of this novel protocol in the giant panda and then used it to examine the Père David's deer. Our results revealed that the Père David's deer possesses nine MHC class II loci and therefore has more functional MHC class II loci than the eight genome-sequenced mammals for which full MHC data are currently available. This could potentially account at least in part for the strong survival ability of this species in the face of severe bottlenecking. The results from the HURRAH protocol also revealed that: (1 All of the identified MHC class II loci were monomorphic at their antigen-binding regions, although DRA was dimorphic at its cytoplasmic tail; and (2 these genes constituted two asymmetric functional MHC class II multi-locus haplotypes: DRA1*01 ∼ DRB1 ∼ DRB3 ∼ DQA1 ∼ DQB2 (H1 and DRA1*02 ∼ DRB2 ∼ DRB4 ∼ DQA2 ∼ DQB1 (H2. The latter finding indicates that the current members of the deer species have lost the powerful ancestral MHC class II haplotypes of nine or more loci, and have instead fixed two relatively weak haplotypes containing five genes. As a result, the Père David's deer are currently at risk for increased susceptibility to infectious pathogens.

  17. Nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma with monocional IgM:2 cases report and review of literatures%结内边缘带B细胞淋巴瘤伴有单克隆IgM增高两例并文献复习

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王欢; 周小鸽; 熊梅; 王昭

    2009-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the clinical and pathological features, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis of nodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (NMZL). Methods 2 patients, with NMZL who has extremely elevated monoclonal IgM were analyzed and review were included. Results The common pathological diagnosis caused by the association of monoclonal gammopathy with indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas was marginal zone lymphoma or B small cell lymphocytic lymphoma/B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. According to our cases and literatures, the main distribution of involved sites in NMZL were lymph nodes, spleen and bone marrow. Sixty percent of the NMZL patients presented with advanced stage with, high risk of IPI. The diagnosis of NMZL was based on pathology of the lymph node. The proliferation and distribution of the differentiation monocytoid cell had a specified significance. Prognosis of early stage ( I or Ⅱ) NMZL were much better than that of advanced stage NMZL even the patients had received chemotherapy.Conclusion NMZL mainly involved lymph nodes, bone marrow and spleen, sporadically associated with the elevated monoclonal IgM. Most of the NMZL patients presented with advanced stage.The prognoses were poor.%目的 分析结内边缘带B细胞淋巴瘤(NMZL)伴有单克隆lgM增高病例的临床及病理特点、诊断、治疗及预后.方法 对2例NMZL病例进行分析并进行文献综述.结果 惰性B细胞淋巴瘤伴有单克隆免疫球蛋白升高,最常见的两种病理类型为NMZL和B-SLL/CLL.NMZL主要累及淋巴结、脾脏、骨髓,60%发病时为进展期,国际预后指数(IPI)评分为高危,诊断主要依据淋巴结病理,单核样B细胞增生及分布有重要的参考价值.Ⅰ和(或)Ⅱ期化疗疗效好,进展期疗效差.结论 NMZL主要累积淋巴结、脾脏、骨髓,町伴有单克隆IgM增多,发病时多处于疾病进展期,预后不佳.

  18. 以冷凝集素综合征为首发表现的脾边缘区淋巴瘤一例%Splenic Marginal Zone Lymphoma With Cold-agglutination Syndrome as the First Manifestation:A Case Report

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵丽云

    2015-01-01

    Cold-agglutination syndrome is chronic hemolytic anemia induced by autoreactive agglutination of red cells and cold-induced factors.The disease can be primary and secondary , and it is always secondary to malignant proliferation of B -lymphocyte.This article made a case report of a patient with splenic marginal zone lymphoma ( SMZL) and cold-agglutination syndrome as the first manifestation .Abnormal dysplasia in lymph was noted in the myelography of the patient , with mainly mature and small lymphocytes , and short down was observed .The condition improved after three courses of treatment by RCHOP -21 regimen.%冷凝集素综合征是由于自身反应性红细胞凝集及冷诱导因素导致的慢性溶血性贫血性疾病,可分为原发性和继发性,后者常继发于恶性B淋巴细胞增生性疾病等。本文报道以冷凝集素综合征为首发表现的1例脾边缘区淋巴瘤( SMZL)患者,骨髓像见淋巴系异常增生,以成熟小淋巴细胞为主,可见短绒毛,经3个疗程RCHOP-21方案化疗后病情好转。

  19. Report on recent advances on marginal zone lymphoma in the 54th ASH annual meeting%边缘区淋巴瘤的多面世界和研究进展:从2012年美国血液学会年会报道说起

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李增军; 邱录贵

    2013-01-01

    边缘区淋巴瘤分为三类,它们在常见累及部位、病因、发病机制、分子细胞遗传学特点及预后等多方面存在差异.以2012年美国血液学会(ASH)年会关于边缘区淋巴瘤的报道为契机,参考会议摘要和近年的相关研究,介绍目前对该病三种亚型的认识和在病因、发病机制及诊断、鉴别诊断方面的研究进展.%Marginal zone lymphomas include three subgroups of lymphoma,with differences on etiology,pathogenesis,molecular cytogenetics,prognosis,as well as involved sites.Based on the reports from the latest ASH annual meeting,the present article introduces the uptodate understanding on the three subtypes of MZL.The recent advances on etioloty,pathogenesis,diagnosis and differential diagnosis were reviewed.

  20. Microcirculatory remodeling in marginal zone of duodenal ulcer after bleeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulayeva О.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To estimate objectively vessels network remodeling in duodenal mucosa after ulcer bleeding the morphometric analysis of marginal ulcer zone biopsies was performed in 32 patients. It was shown that reparation is accompanied with chronic inflammation and acute alteration of microcirculation. Injection hemostasis led to enhancement of microcirculation, development of edema and ischemic alteration of mucosal tissues. Acute neutrophilic infiltration during 1 day was changed on 3 day with granular tissue development and angiogenesis stimulation. Intensification and prolongation of angiogenesis paral-leled with lymphocytes infiltration after 7 days resulted to villi dysmorphogenesis and changes in cellular content of intestinal epithelium.

  1. Morphology and immunoreactivity of canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikiewicz, M; Otrocka-Domagała, I; Paździor-Czapula, K; Gesek, M

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was the evaluation of morphology and immunophenotype of canine (19 cases) and feline (7 cases) extramedullary plasmacytomas. Tumours, located in skin, oral cavity and spleen were surgically excised, fixed and processed for histopathology and immunohistochemistry (CD79α, CD18, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, metallothionein). Histologically, tumours were classified into mature, cleaved, asynchronous, polymorphous blastic, hyalin, or monomorphous blastic type. All evaluated tumours showed cytoplasmic expression of CD79α antigen. The expression of CD18 was observed in canine cutaneous and splenic tumours. In canine tumours expression of metallothionein was low to moderate, while in feline plasmacytomas - absent or low. In canine tumours, the mitotic index and proliferating cell nuclear antigen index were positively correlated with the expression of metallothionein. In feline tumours no correlation between mitotic index, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and metallothionein was found. This is the first study describing expression of metallothionein in canine and feline extramedullary plasmacytoma.

  2. Morphological Snakes

    OpenAIRE

    Álvarez, Luis; Baumela Molina, Luis; Henríquez, Pedro; Márquez Neila, Pablo

    2010-01-01

    We introduce a morphological approach to curve evolution. The differential operators used in the standard PDE snake models can be approached using morphological operations on a binary level set. By combining the morphological operators associated to the PDE components we achieve a new snakes evolution algorithm. This new solution is based on numerical methods which are very simple, fast and stable. Moreover, since the level set is just a binary piecewise constant function, this approach does ...

  3. Morphological diversity of mole vole mono- and polymorphic populations: Does Chernov's "compensation principle" work within a population?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil'ev, A G; Bolshakov, V N; Evdokimov, N G; Sineva, N V

    2016-05-01

    The ecological "compensation principle" enunciated by Yu.I. Chernov, who suggested a higher level of compensatory diversity in communities depleted in composition, proved to be also applicable to a single population, as demonstrated in a model rodent species, mole vole with mono- and polymorphic coat color, using the methods of geometric morphometrics. The mandible shape diversity was significantly increased in the monomorphic as compared to polymorphic populations, in which the division of foraging activities between animals of different morphs led to a suppression of general morphological diversity.

  4. Group morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2000-01-01

    In its original form, mathematical morphology is a theory of binary image transformations which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This paper surveys and extends constructions of morphological operators which are invariant under a more general group TT, such as the motion group

  5. Mathematical morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Najman, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Mathematical Morphology allows for the analysis and processing of geometrical structures using techniques based on the fields of set theory, lattice theory, topology, and random functions. It is the basis of morphological image processing, and finds applications in fields including digital image processing (DSP), as well as areas for graphs, surface meshes, solids, and other spatial structures. This book presents an up-to-date treatment of mathematical morphology, based on the three pillars that made it an important field of theoretical work and practical application: a solid theoretical foun

  6. 原发性皮肤边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤的BCL10表达与染色体异常%BCL10 expression and chromosomal aberration in primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李百周; 孔蕴毅; 杨文涛; 周晓燕; 范月珍; 陆洪芬; 施达仁

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨原发性皮肤边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤(PCMZL)中BCL10蛋白的表达和相关染色体的异常.方法 收集17例PCMZL,用免疫组化检测BCL10的表达,用荧光原位杂交(FISH)的方法分别检测API2-MALT1、BCL10、MALT1和IgH基因的异常.结果 在17例PCMZL中,BCL10的阳性率为94.1%(16/17),其中细胞质阳性率为64.7%(11/17),细胞核阳性率为29.4%(5/17).在FISH检测中,所有病例都不存在t(11;18),t(1;14)和t(14;18)染色体异常.与其他部位的MALT淋巴瘤相比较,在PCMZL中染色体易位的发生率不常见,可能这些遗传学异常不是PCMZL发生中的重要因素,而有其他目前未知的因素参与肿瘤的发生.结论 BCL10的核表达与是否出现上述的染色体异常无关,是否代表更具侵袭性的一种预后标记,尚需长期随访观察.%Objective To study the expression of BCL10 and associated chromosomal aberration in primary cutaneous marginal zone B-cell lymphoma (PCMZL). Methods Tissue specimens were collected from 17 patients with PCMZL. Immunohistochemistry was used to detect the expression of BCL10. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was performed to examine the presence of API2-MALT1 fusion gene and chromosomal aberration in BCL10, MALT1 as well as IgH genes in these cases. Results Of these patients,94.1% (16/17) expressed BCL10 protein. The cytoplasmic expression of BCL10 was observed in 64.7% (11/17) of the patients, and nuclear expression in 29.4% (5/17). As shown by FISH test, neither API2-MALT1 fusion gene nor chromosomal aberration in BCL10, MALT1 or IgH genes was present in these patients. Conclusions Compared with MALT lymphomas originating from tissues other than skin, PCMZL is uncommonly associated with chromosomal abnormalities; it is possible that there are unknown factors contributing to its tumorigenesis. Nuclear BCL10 is unrelated to the presence of chromosomal aberration in BCL10, MALT1 or IgH genes. Further follow-up is required to clarify the

  7. Susceptibility-weighted imaging and diffusion-weighted imaging findings in central nervous system monomorphic B cell post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder before and after treatment and comparison with primary B cell central nervous system lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ginat, Daniel Thomas; Purakal, Alixandra; Pytel, Peter

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this article is to review the MRI features of monomorphic central nervous system post-transplant lymphoproliferative disorder (CNS PTLD), including diffusion-weighted and susceptibility-weighted sequences before and after treatment and to compare the imaging findings with those of primary central nervous system B cell lymphoma (PCNS BCL). Retrospective review of the brain MRI characteristics in patients with pathology proven monomorphic CNS PTLD and PCNS BCL was performed. In particular, the enhancement, diffusion-weighted, susceptibility-weighted MRI characteristics of the lesions were evaluated. In addition, the diffusion-weighted, susceptibility-weighted MRI features after treatment for CNS PTLD were evaluated. A total of 12 lesions in six patients with CNS PTLD and 12 lesions in nine patients with PCNS BCL were identified on MRI. Among the CNS PTLD lesions with post-contrast images, 80 % demonstrated peripheral enhancement. All of the CNS PTLD lesions contained foci of intratumoral susceptibility signal (ITSS) and the average mean ADC values and ratios were 0.892 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (standard deviation: 0.082 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s) and 1.19 (standard deviation: 0.15), respectively. On the other hand, 75 % of the PCNS BCL displayed diffuse enhancement, two cases (16.7 %) contained ITSS, and the mean ADC values and ratios were 0.721 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s (standard deviation: 0.093 × 10(-3) mm(2)/s), and 0.99 (standard deviation: 0.17), respectively. Thus, the presence of heterogeneous lesions with ITSS that do not necessarily have as extensive restricted diffusion as PCNS BCL is suggestive of CNS PTLD in the appropriate clinical setting. The preliminary data in this series suggests that diffusion-weighted imaging may serve as a useful biomarker for monitoring treatment response, in which successful treatment of CNS PTLD may result in increased ADC values. In addition, foci of susceptibility effect in CNS PTLD tend to persist or increase over the course of

  8. Monomorphic and polymorphic enzyme genetic markers of the Waiãpi Indians of Amapá and of inhabitants of Manaus, Amazonas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moacyr A. Mestriner

    1998-09-01

    Full Text Available One hundred nineteen Waiãpi Indians and 348 inhabitants of Manaus, Amazonas, were tested using nine enzyme genetic systems in the first population and two in the second. The Waiãpi showed some marked differences compared to South American Indian averages in ACP*A (1% vs. 14 ± 9%, GLO1*1 (9% vs. 30 ± 14% and ESD*1 (99.6% vs. 70 ± 17%, while ESD*1 and CA2*1 prevalences in the Manaus population were within the range previously found in the northern region of Brazil (ESD*1: 85% vs. 80-94%; CA2*1: 98% vs. 89-99.8%. The almost identical frequencies obtained for these two markers in this population, when the sample was subdivided according to skin color, suggest that such morphological classifications have little value in this region. Genetic distances between the Waiãpi and other tribes, obtained using these and other genetic markers, showed good parallelism with the geographical distances which separate these Indians from the other groups considered.Um total de 119 índios Waiãpi e 348 habitantes de Manaus, Amazonas, foram testados usando nove sistemas genéticos enzimáticos na primeira população e dois na segunda. Os Waiãpi mostraram algumas diferenças marcantes quanto às médias dos indígenas sul-americanos em ACP*A (1% vs. 14 ± 9%, GLO1*1 (9% vs. 30 ± 14% e ESD*1 (99,6% vs. 70 ± 17%, enquanto as prevalências de ESD*1 e CA2*1 na população de Manaus mostraram-se dentro do intervalo encontrado previamente na região norte do Brasil (ESD*1: 85% vs. 80-94%; CA2*1: 98% vs. 89-99.8%. As freqüências quase idênticas obtidas para esses dois marcadores nesta população, quando a amostra foi subdividida de acordo com a cor da pele, sugerem que tais classificações morfológicas têm pouco valor nesta região. Distâncias genéticas entre os Waiãpi e outras tribos, obtidas usando esses e outros marcadores genéticos, mostraram bom paralelismo com as distâncias geográficas que separam esses índios dos outros grupos considerados.

  9. A clinical study of chromosome translocations in extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue in Chinese patients%中国人黏膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区淋巴瘤染色体易位的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董格红; 冯振博; 高子芬; 叶洪涛; 王桂秋; 宫丽平; 王晋芬; 莫祥兰; 刘红刚; 董丽娜; 周英琼; 张雪梅

    2009-01-01

    Objective To investigate the genetic aberrations in extranodal marginal zone lymphoma of mueosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphomas from different sites of the body in Chinese patients. Methods Two hundred and seventeen paraffin-embedded MALT lymphoma specimens from 11 major sites were studied with interphase fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) to detect t(11; 18) (q21;q21)/API2-MALT1, t(1; 14) (p22; q32)/IGH-BCL10, (14; 18) (q32; q21)/IGH-MALT1 and BCL6 gene involved chromosome translocations. Results These translocations were mutually exclusive and detected in 21% (46/217) of the cases, including t(11;18) (q21;q21) API2-MALT1 13% (29/217), t (1;14)(p22 ;q32) IGH-BCLIO in 1% (3/217), t(14;18) (q32;q21) IGH-MALT1 1% (2/217), BCL6 involved translocation in 2% (4/217) and IGH-unknown translocation partner in 4% (8/217). t(11; 18) (q21;q21)API2-MALT1 was found with the highest frequency in MALT lymphoma from lungs (47% , 8/17) and small intestine (29%, 4/14), followed by salivary gland (17%, 1/6), stomach (14%, 12/84) and ocular adnexae (6% , 4/68). t(1 ;14) (p22;q32) was only detected in lungs (12%, 2/17) and stomach (1%, 1/84). t(14;18) (q32;q21) was mainly detected in lungs (6%, 1/17) and ocular adnexae (2%, 1/68). BCL6 gene involved translocation was detected in salivary gland (17% , 1/6) and stomach (4%, 3/84). Conclusions It is demonstrated that the four translocatidns occur with markedly variable frequencies in MALT lymphoma of different sites in Chinese patients. The distributions of these chromosome translocations in Chinese patients are slightly different from those reported in western patients.%目的 探讨中国人不同部位黏膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区淋巴瘤(MALTL)中分子遗传学异常的发生情况.方法 应用间期荧光原位杂交(FISH)方法,检测217例不同部位MALTL的t(11;18)(q21;q21)/API2-MALT1、t(1;14)(p22;q32)/IGH-BCL10、t(14;18)(q32;q21)/IGH-MALT1和涉及BCL6基因的染色体易位.结果 染色

  10. Distribution of Soil Moisture Content in Different Types of Sand Dunes in the Southeastern Marginal Zone of the Mu Us Sandy Land%毛乌素沙地东南缘不同类型沙丘土壤水分分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    符超峰; 赵景波

    2011-01-01

    The study area is located in the southeastern marginal zone of the Mu Us Sandy Land, and it is a semi-arid climate area with annual precipitation of 394. 7 mm. Based on the investigation in the study area in late-April 2009, the sand dunes were divided into bare migratory dunes, shrub-covered dunes and tree-covered dunes according to the vegetation types and vegetation coverage on the sand dune surface, and the samples of drilling holes of 4 m in depth at different topographic sites of the dunes were taken for analyzing the change of soil moisture content and soil granular properties of the sand dunes. The results are as follows; (1) Average soil moisture content at depth of 4 m was different from different dune types, that of the shrub-covered dunes and tree-covered dunes was in an order of dune intervale > windward slope > leeward slope, but that of the bare migratory sand dunes was in an order of dune intervale > leeward slope > windward slope. Furthermore, the variation of soil moisture content at different depth of each dune type was different, and that of shrub-covered dunes at different depth was more significant than that of the tree-covered dunes and bare migratory dunes; (2) Vegetation types and surface vegetation coverage affected the variation of soil moisture content of dunes at the same topographic positions of different dune types. Results of the test show that the soil moisture content on windward slope was in an order of shrub-covered dunes > tree-covered dunes > bare migratory dunes, it on leeward slope was in an order of shrub-covered dunes > bare migratory sand dunes > tree-covered dunes, and it at dune intervale was in an order of shrub-covered dunes > tree-covered dunes > bare migratory dunes;the variation coefficient of soil moisture content of shrub-covered dunes was higher than that of other dune types, the soil moisture content of shrub-covered dunes at different depth fluctuated more obviously compared with that of other dune types, and

  11. 胸腺原发黏膜相关淋巴组织结外边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤的临床病理特征%Clinicopathologic features of primary thymic extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosaassociated lymphoid tissue type

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙璐; 石怀银; 韦立新

    2012-01-01

    Objective To study the clinicopathologic features of primary thymic extranodal marginal zone B-cell lymphoma of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT). Methods The clinical and pathologic findings were evaluated in 3 cases of biopsy confirmed thymic MALT lymphoma. The clincopathologic features,treatment and prognosis were discussed and literatures reviewed.Results One male and two female patients presented with asymptomatic mediastinal masses with a history of Sj(o)gren syndrome.They were aged 36,35 and 41 years respectively,and only one patient had B symptoms.Grossly,all three tumors were encapsulated and had multiple variable-sized cysts on cut-surface.Histopathologically,the normal thymic lobular architecture was effaced by abnormal dense lymphoid infiltration. Prominent lymphoepithelial lesions were formed by centrocyte-like cells infiltrating and expanding Hassall's corpuscles and epithelial cyst lining. All cases showed apparent plasmacytic differentiation.Immunhistochemically,the tumor cells were positive for CD20,CD79a,bcl-2 and negative for CD3,CD5,cyclin D1,CD43,CD10,bcl-6,and CD23.The plasma cells showed kappa light chain restriction.Immunoglobulin heavy chain rearrangement in three cases was confirmed by PCR.All patients were at early stage and received routine chemotherapy with or without radiothcrapy aftcr surgical rcmoval.All patients achieved complete remission with 24,18 and 3 months follow-up,respectively. Conclusions Primary thymic MALT lymphoma may be a rare distinctive lymphoma. It can be diagnosed by HE and immunohistochemical study and should be differentiated from reactive lymphoid proliferation,other types of lymphoma and mediastinal thymoma.%目的 探讨胸腺原发黏膜相关淋巴组织(MALT)结外边缘区B细胞淋巴瘤的临床病理特征.方法 对3例经于术切除、病理证实的胸腺原发MALT淋巴瘤病例进行临床病理分析,并复习文献,讨论其临床、病理特征、治疗和预后.结果 3

  12. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    @@ Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and ultrastructural levels.

  13. [Neotropical plant morphology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-García, Blanca; Mendoza, Aniceto

    2002-01-01

    An analysis on plant morphology and the sources that are important to the morphologic interpretations is done. An additional analysis is presented on all published papers in this subject by the Revista de Biología Tropical since its foundation, as well as its contribution to the plant morphology development in the neotropics.

  14. Advancement of Molecular Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾江

    2004-01-01

    Molecular morphology is a new discipline of medical science that studies morphology at the molecular level. This includes the investigation of occurrence and distribution of proteins, peptides, DNA and RNA sequences at the tissue, cellular, and uhrastructural levels. Morphology is defined as a field of science investigating the shape,

  15. Morphology of galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Wadadekar, Yogesh

    2012-01-01

    The study of the morphology of galaxies is important in order to understand the formation and evolution of galaxies and their sub-components as a function of luminosity, environment, and star-formation and galaxy assembly over cosmic time. Disentangling the many variables that affect galaxy evolution and morphology, requires large galaxy samples and automated ways to measure morphology. The advent of large digital sky surveys, with unprecedented depth and resolution, coupled with sophisticated quantitative methods for morphology measurement are providing new insights in this fast evolving field of astronomical research.

  16. AIRE expressing marginal zone dendritic cells balances adaptive immunity and T-follicular helper cell recruitment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindmark, Evelina; Chen, Yunying; Georgoudaki, Anna-Maria; Dudziak, Diana; Lindh, Emma; Adams, William C; Loré, Karin; Winqvist, Ola; Chambers, Benedict J; Karlsson, Mikael C I

    2013-05-01

    Autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome Type I (APS I) results in multiple endocrine organ destruction and is caused by mutations in the Autoimmune regulator gene (AIRE). In the thymic stroma, cells expressing the AIRE gene dictate T cell education and central tolerance. Although this function is the most studied, AIRE is also expressed in the periphery in DCs and stromal cells. Still, how AIRE regulated transcription modifies cell behaviour in the periphery is largely unknown. Here we show that AIRE is specifically expressed by 33D1(+) DCs and dictates the fate of antibody secreting cell movement within the spleen. We also found that AIRE expressing 33D1(+) DCs expresses self-antigens as exemplified by the hallmark gene insulin. Also, as evidence for a regulatory function, absence of Aire in 33D1(+) DCs led to reduced levels of the chemokine CXCL12 and increased co-stimulatory properties. This resulted in altered activation and recruitment of T-follicular helper cells and germinal centre B cells. The altered balance leads to a change of the early response to a T cell-dependent antigen in Aire(-/-) mice. These findings add to the understanding of how specific DC subtypes regulate the early responses during T cell-dependent antibody responses within the spleen and further define the role of AIRE in the periphery as regulator of self-antigen expression and lymphocyte migration. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Extranodal marginal zone lymphoma in the ocular region: clinical, immunophenotypical, and cytogenetical characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sjö, Lene D; Heegaard, Steffen; Prause, Jan U;

    2008-01-01

    the period 1980 to 2005 were reviewed and reclassified according to the World Health Organization (WHO) classification. Cases reclassified as EMZL were selected and reviewed with respect to clinical characteristics and outcome. The presence of translocations involving IGH and/or MALT1 was investigated in 42...... were frequently found at extraocular sites. Five-year progression-free survival and overall survival (OS) rates were 71% and 75%, respectively. Translocations involving the IGH- or MALT1-gene loci were detected in 2 (5%) of 42 specimens. In Cox regression multivariate analysis, IGH...

  18. Reappraisal of Benign Lymphoepithelial Sialadenitis for Evidence of Extranodal Marginal Zone B-Cell Lymphoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-28

    chromosome 18 via FISH. No cases revealed translocations involving the MALT1 gene. Epitheliotropic B cells exhibited a CD20, CD79a and PAX 5 positive B-cell...tissue as described by Reed et al. (1993): Two 7-8 µm paraffin sections from each block were deparaffinized in xylene, rehydrated with ethanol, and...amplification products of the first cycles (so-called outer nest) are not amplified in the second cycles (inner nest) ( Reed et al. 1993). Table 6

  19. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.J.A.M. Heijmans (Henk)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractA morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openin

  20. Composing morphological filters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heijmans, H.J.A.M.

    1995-01-01

    A morphological filter is an operator on a complete lattice which is increasing and idempotent. Two well-known classes of morphological filters are openings and closings. Furthermore, an interesting class of filters, the alternating sequential filters, is obtained if one composes openings and closi

  1. Morphological image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De; Kawakatsu, T.

    2000-01-01

    We describe a morphological image analysis method to characterize images in terms of geometry and topology. We present a method to compute the morphological properties of the objects building up the image and apply the method to triply periodic minimal surfaces and to images taken from polymer chemi

  2. Morphological image analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K; De Raedt, H; Kawakatsu, T; Landau, DP; Lewis, SP; Schuttler, HB

    2001-01-01

    We describe a morphological image analysis method to characterize images in terms of geometry and topology. We present a method to compute the morphological properties of the objects building up the image and apply the method to triply periodic minimal surfaces and to images taken from polymer chemi

  3. Beneficiated coals' char morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Vargas

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluated the char morphology of beneficiated and original coal (without beneficiation from four Colombian coalmines: Cerrejón (La Guajira, La Jagua (Cesar, Guachinte (Valle del Cauca and Nechí (Antioquia. Column flotation was used to obtain beneficiated coal, whereas a drop tube reactor at 1,000°C, 104 °C/s heating rate and 100 ms residence time was used to obtain char. The chars were analysed by image analysis which determined their shape, size, porosity and wall thickness. It was found that char morphology depended on coal rank and maceral composition. Morphological characteristics like high porosity, thinner walls and network-like morphology which are beneficial in improving combustion were present in vitrinite- and liptinite-rich lowest-ranking coals. Beneficiated coals showed that their chars had better performance regarding their morphological characteristics than their original coal chars.

  4. Androgens regulate sex differences in signaling but are not associated with male variation in morphology in the weakly electric fish Parapteronotus hasemani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petzold, Jacquelyn M; Smith, G Troy

    2016-02-01

    Sexually dimorphic signaling is widespread among animals and can act as an honest indicator of mate quality. Additionally, differences in signaling and morphology within a sex can be associated with different strategies for acquiring mates. Weakly electric fish communicate via self-generated electrical fields that transmit information about sex, reproductive state, and social status. The weakly electric knifefish Parapteronotus hasemani exhibits sexual dimorphism in body size as well as substantial within-male variation in body size and jaw length. We asked whether P. hasemani exhibits hormonally mediated sexual dimorphism in electrocommunication behavior. We also asked whether males with short versus long jaws differed significantly from each other in morphology, behavior, hormone levels, or reproductive maturity. Males produced longer chirps than females, but other signal parameters (electric organ discharge frequency; chirp rate and frequency modulation) were sexually monomorphic. Pharmacologically blocking androgen receptors in males reduced chirp duration, suggesting that this sexually dimorphic trait is regulated at least in part by the activational effects of androgens. Males sorted into two distinct morphological categories but did not differ in circulating 11-ketotestosterone or testosterone. Short-jawed males and long-jawed males also did not differ in any aspects of signaling. Thus, chirping and high levels of 11-ketotestosterone were reliably associated with reproductively active males but do not necessarily indicate male type or quality. This contrasts with other alternative male morph systems in which males that differ in morphology also differ in androgen profiles and signaling behavior.

  5. Specialization and group size: brain and behavioural correlates of colony size in ants lacking morphological castes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amador-Vargas, Sabrina; Gronenberg, Wulfila; Wcislo, William T; Mueller, Ulrich

    2015-02-22

    Group size in both multicellular organisms and animal societies can correlate with the degree of division of labour. For ants, the task specialization hypothesis (TSH) proposes that increased behavioural specialization enabled by larger group size corresponds to anatomical specialization of worker brains. Alternatively, the social brain hypothesis proposes that increased levels of social stimuli in larger colonies lead to enlarged brain regions in all workers, regardless of their task specialization. We tested these hypotheses in acacia ants (Pseudomyrmex spinicola), which exhibit behavioural but not morphological task specialization. In wild colonies, we marked, followed and tested ant workers involved in foraging tasks on the leaves (leaf-ants) and in defensive tasks on the host tree trunk (trunk-ants). Task specialization increased with colony size, especially in defensive tasks. The relationship between colony size and brain region volume was task-dependent, supporting the TSH. Specifically, as colony size increased, the relative size of regions within the mushroom bodies of the brain decreased in trunk-ants but increased in leaf-ants; those regions play important roles in learning and memory. Our findings suggest that workers specialized in defence may have reduced learning abilities relative to leaf-ants; these inferences remain to be tested. In societies with monomorphic workers, brain polymorphism enhanced by group size could be a mechanism by which division of labour is achieved. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  6. Assessment of morphological and molecular diversity among okra ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    kamalsidhu

    2013-05-22

    May 22, 2013 ... Key words: Decamer primers, Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD), genetic diversity, ... The development and use of molecular markers for the ..... Primer sequence(5'-3') Number of alleles Amplification polymorphic information content (PIC) .... to be monomorphic in the present investigation.

  7. Morphological neural networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ritter, G.X.; Sussner, P. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-31

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we introduce a novel class of neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. In this paper we consider some of these differences and provide some particular examples of morphological neural network.

  8. MORPHOLOGICAL REPRESENTATION AND SEMANTIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The morphological representation assigned to a complex word must provide the formal structure .... This brings us to the cases where, on Williams's (1981a:258) analysis, the compositional notion ...... Die en moda Ii tei t . Kaaps tad: Ba 1 kema.

  9. Localization of oxidized low-density lipoprotein and its relation to plaque morphology in human coronary artery.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasumi Uchida

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL plays a key role in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. However, its localization in human coronary arterial wall is not well understood. The present study was performed to visualize deposition sites and patterns of native oxLDL and their relation to plaque morphology in human coronary artery. METHODS: Evans blue dye (EB elicits a violet fluorescence by excitation at 345-nm and emission at 420-nm, and a reddish-brown fluorescence by excitation at 470-nm and emission at 515-nm characteristic of oxLDL only. Therefore, native oxLDL in excised human coronary artery were investigated by color fluorescent microscopy (CFM using EB as a biomarker. RESULTS: (1 By luminal surface scan with CFM, the % incidence of oxLDL in 38 normal segments, 41 white plaques and 32 yellow plaques that were classified by conventional angioscopy, was respectively 26, 44 and 94, indicating significantly (p<0.05 higher incidence in the latter than the former two groups. Distribution pattern was classified as patchy, diffuse and web-like. Web-like pattern was observed only in yellow plaques with necrotic core. (2 By transected surface scan, oxLDL deposited within superficial layer in normal segments and diffusely within both superficial and deep layers in white and yellow plaques. In yellow plaques with necrotic core, oxLDL deposited not only in the marginal zone of the necrotic core but also in the fibrous cap. CONCLUSION: Taken into consideration of the well-known process of coronary plaque growth, the results suggest that oxLDL begins to deposit in human coronary artery wall before plaque formation and increasingly deposits with plaque growth, exhibiting different deposition sites and patterns depending on morphological changes.

  10. Morphological associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, G X; Sussner, P; Diza-de-Leon, J L

    1998-01-01

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. A nonlinear activation function usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network and set the next state of the neuron. In this paper we introduce a novel class of artificial neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before possible application of a nonlinear activation function. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different than those of traditional neural network models. The main emphasis of the research presented here is on morphological associative memories. We examine the computing and storage capabilities of morphological associative memories and discuss differences between morphological models and traditional semilinear models such as the Hopfield net.

  11. Clinical, laboratory, and morphological characteristics of kidney damage in lymphoproliferative disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. T. Dzhumabaeva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Kidney involvement in the onset of lymphoproliferative diseases (LPD detected rarely, observed mainly at tumor progression or relapse.Objective: to determine the clinical and morphological features of kidney damage in the initial manifestation of LPD.Materials and methods: 19 patients with LPD and kidney damage were included in the study. The diagnosis of non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas was established according to 2008 WHO classification. Histological and immunohistochemical, immunofluorescent and electron microscopic studies of nephrobiopsy have been performed.Results. Patients were aged 46-83 years (median 63 years, of which 13 were men and 6 women. Chronic lymphocytic leukemia / small cell lymphocytic lymphoma was established in 12 patients, marginal zone lymphoma – in 4 pts, follicular lymphoma – in 1 patient, Waldenstrom's macroglobulinemia – in 1 patient and diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL in 1 patient. Proteinuria was observed in 18 patients, microhematuria – in 6 pts, arterial hypertension – in 8 pts, nephrotic syndrome – in 3 pts and renal failure in 18 patients. The mean creatinine level was 330.9 ± 52.3 µmol/L, the average glomerular filtration rate was 25.7 ± 12.9 ml/min. Monoclonal IgMκ secretion was detected in 6 patients, BJκ protein – in 9 pts, increased free light chain level – in 4 pts, cryoglobulin – in 4 pts (type II cryoglobulin in 3 of them, type I – in 1 patient.Morphological study of nephrobiopsy revealed tumor lymphoid infiltration of kidney interstitium in 10 (52.6 % cases. Diffuse small cell lymphoid proliferation was detected in 1 patient, local infiltration – in 9 pts, in 3 of them in combination with glomerulonephritis, and in 4 cases with kidney carcinoma. Local large cell lymphoid proliferation was found in 1 patient with DLBCL. Amyloidosis was detected in 2 pts and thrombotic microangiopathy – in 2 patients. Glomerulopathy was revealed in 10 patients (52.6 %: mesangioproliferative

  12. Morphological bidirectional associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, G X.; Diaz-de-Leon, J L.; Sussner, P

    1999-07-01

    The theory of artificial neural networks has been successfully applied to a wide variety of pattern recognition problems. In this theory, the first step in computing the next state of a neuron or in performing the next layer neural network computation involves the linear operation of multiplying neural values by their synaptic strengths and adding the results. Thresholding usually follows the linear operation in order to provide for nonlinearity of the network. In this paper we discuss a novel class of artificial neural networks, called morphological neural networks, in which the operations of multiplication and addition are replaced by addition and maximum (or minimum), respectively. By taking the maximum (or minimum) of sums instead of the sum of products, morphological network computation is nonlinear before thresholding. As a consequence, the properties of morphological neural networks are drastically different from those of traditional neural network models. The main emphasis of the research presented here is on morphological bidirectional associative memories (MBAMs). In particular, we establish a mathematical theory for MBAMs and provide conditions that guarantee perfect bidirectional recall for corrupted patterns. Some examples that illustrate performance differences between the morphological model and the traditional semilinear model are also given.

  13. Ablation of the 14-3-3gamma Protein Results in Neuronal Migration Delay and Morphological Defects in the Developing Cerebral Cortex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wachi, Tomoka; Cornell, Brett; Marshall, Courtney; Zhukarev, Vladimir; Baas, Peter W; Toyo-oka, Kazuhito

    2016-06-01

    14-3-3 proteins are ubiquitously-expressed and multifunctional proteins. There are seven isoforms in mammals with a high level of homology, suggesting potential functional redundancy. We previously found that two of seven isoforms, 14-3-3epsilon and 14-3-3zeta, are important for brain development, in particular, radial migration of pyramidal neurons in the developing cerebral cortex. In this work, we analyzed the function of another isoform, the protein 14-3-3gamma, with respect to neuronal migration in the developing cortex. We found that in utero 14-3-3gamma-deficiency resulted in delays in neuronal migration as well as morphological defects. Migrating neurons deficient in 14-3-3gamma displayed a thicker leading process stem, and the basal ends of neurons were not able to reach the boundary between the cortical plate and the marginal zone. Consistent with the results obtained from in utero electroporation, time-lapse live imaging of brain slices revealed that the ablation of the 14-3-3gamma proteins in pyramidal neurons slowed down their migration. In addition, the 14-3-3gamma deficient neurons showed morphological abnormalities, including increased multipolar neurons with a thicker leading processes stem during migration. These results indicate that the 14-3-3gamma proteins play an important role in radial migration by regulating the morphology of migrating neurons in the cerebral cortex. The findings underscore the pathological phenotypes of brain development associated with the disruption of different 14-3-3 proteins and will advance the preclinical data regarding disorders caused by neuronal migration defects.

  14. Needlelike morphology of aspartame

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuppen, H.M.; Eerd, A.R.T. van; Meekes, H.L.M.

    2004-01-01

    The needlelike morphology of aspartame form II-A is studied by means of Monte Carlo simulations. Growth simulations for all F faces show merely three faces with a nucleation barrier for growth: two side faces and one top face. Calculations of the energies involved in the growth for a few representat

  15. Morphology at the Rijksherbarium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heel, van W.A.

    1979-01-01

    In the following the role of morphology, anatomy and palynology in systematics at the Rijksherbarium will be discussed, as far as flowering plants are concerned. It will be demonstrated that most of the research in this field is rooted in the interest of individual workers, and that no planning was

  16. Aspects of Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michielsen, K.; Raedt, H. De; Hosson, J.Th.M. De

    2002-01-01

    In this paper we review the basic concepts of integral-geometry-based morphological image analysis. This approach yields an objective, numerical characterization of two- and three-dimensional patterns in terms of geometrical and topological descriptors called Minkowski functionals. We review its mat

  17. Vocabulary— Teaching Through Morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A large vocabulary is crucial to learners of English, but how to teach vocabulary effectively is equally important to a teacher of English. This article tries to emphasize the importance of part of speech in vocabulary teaching by analyzing the characteristics of English words from the aspect of morphology.

  18. Long term morphological modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Sten Esbjørn; Deigaard, Rolf; Taaning, Martin

    2010-01-01

    in the surf zone. Two parameterization schemes are tested for two different morphological phenomena: 1) Shoreline changes due to the presence of coastal structures and 2) alongshore migration of a nearshore nourishment and a bar by-passing a harbour. In the case of the shoreline evolution calculations...

  19. Experimental impact crater morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, A.; Poelchau, M. H.; Hoerth, T.; Schaefer, F.; Thoma, K.; Deutsch, A.; Kenkmann, T.

    2012-04-01

    The research group MEMIN (Multidisciplinary Experimental and Impact Modelling Research Network) is conducting impact experiments into porous sandstones, examining, among other parameters, the influence of target pore-space saturation with water, and projectile velocity, density and mass, on the cratering process. The high-velocity (2.5-7.8 km/s) impact experiments were carried out at the two-stage light-gas gun facilities of the Fraunhofer Institute EMI (Germany) using steel, iron meteorite (Campo del Cielo IAB), and aluminium projectiles with Seeberg Sandstone as targets. The primary objectives of this study within MEMIN are to provide detailed morphometric data of the experimental craters, and to identify trends and characteristics specific to a given impact parameter. Generally, all craters, regardless of impact conditions, have an inner depression within a highly fragile, white-coloured centre, an outer spallation (i.e. tensile failure) zone, and areas of arrested spallation (i.e. spall fragments that were not completely dislodged from the target) at the crater rim. Within this general morphological framework, distinct trends and differences in crater dimensions and morphological characteristics are identified. With increasing impact velocity, the volume of craters in dry targets increases by a factor of ~4 when doubling velocity. At identical impact conditions (steel projectiles, ~5km/s), craters in dry and wet sandstone targets differ significantly in that "wet" craters are up to 76% larger in volume, have depth-diameter ratios generally below 0.19 (whereas dry craters are almost consistently above this value) at significantly larger diameters, and their spallation zone morphologies show very different characteristics. In dry craters, the spall zone surfaces dip evenly at 10-20° towards the crater centre. In wet craters, on the other hand, they consist of slightly convex slopes of 10-35° adjacent to the inner depression, and of sub-horizontal tensile

  20. Morphologic aspects of fibromyalgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongratz, D E; Späth, M

    1998-01-01

    The most common morphological finding in muscle biopsies in longstanding fibromyalgia is type II fiber atrophy. This can be found in many other conditions such as disuse atrophy, affections of the corticospinal tracts, steroid atrophy, and other different neuromuscular disorders. An increase in lipid droplets and a slight proliferation of mitochondria in type I muscle fibers are correlated with the duration of fibromyalgia. In some cases we could find some ragged red fibers (RRF) which histochemically show a pronounced accumulation of lipids and mitochondria and single fiber defects of cytochrome-c-oxidase. In some fibromyalgia patients with RRF, we could find deletions of the mitochondrial genoma.

  1. From Monomorphic to Polymorphic Well-Typings and Beyond

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schrijvers, Tom; Bruynooghe, Maurice; Gallagher, John Patrick

    2009-01-01

    the automatic inference of a well-typing is worthwhile. Existing inferences are either cheap and inaccurate, or accurate and expensive. By giving up the requirement that all calls to a predicate have types that are instances of a unique polymorphic type but instead allowing multiple polymorphic typings...

  2. Saffron (Crocus sativus L., a monomorphic or polymorphic species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Nemati

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Saffron (Crocus sativus L. which contains exceptional anti-cancer properties is presently the world's most expensive spice. Iran is known as the original habitat of Crocus L. and a significant source of high-quality cultivated saffron production and export. Considering the importance of this species, we used 27 microsatellite markers to assess molecular variability and discriminating capacity of markers regarding their effectiveness in establishing genetic relationships in Iranian Crocus ecotypes. Thirty eight Iranian cultivated saffron ecotypes and 29 wild allies were evaluated in this research. The results from molecular analyses, including a molecular phylogenetic network and RB analysis, revealed two major groups and five subgroups, regardless of their geographical origins. Also, the results showed a clear distinction between C. sativus and other species of Crocus genus, taking into account their close relationship with C. speciosus and C. hausknechtii, which are assumed to be the two closest relatives of Iranian cultivated saffron among species studied. In this paper, we observed for the first time extensive genetic diversity among Iranian C. sativus despite their asexual reproduction. Considering suitable climatic conditions in Iran for cultivating saffron and the country’s leading high-quality production of Crocus sativus worldwide, studies on great genetic variability among Iranian C. sativus ecotypes as well as wild relatives native to Iran will further highlight the value of this crop. In addition, our results provide valuable information for genetic improvement, reduction of strong genetic erosion, and conservation of costly heritable resources of C. sativus in future breeding programs.

  3. Morphology of Proeutectoid Ferrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Jiaqing; Hillert, Mats; Borgenstam, Annika

    2017-03-01

    The morphology of grain boundary nucleated ferrite particles in iron alloys with 0.3 mass pct carbon has been classified according to the presence of facets. Several kinds of particles extend into both grains of austenite and have facets to both. It is proposed that they all belong to a continuous series of shapes. Ferrite plates can nucleate directly on the grain boundary but can also develop from edges on many kinds of particles. Feathery structures of parallel plates on both sides of a grain boundary can thus form. In sections, parallel to their main growth direction, plates have been seen to extend the whole way from the nucleation site at the grain boundary and to the growth front. This happens in the whole temperature range studied from 973 K to 673 K (700 °C to 400 °C). The plates thus grow continuously and not by subunits stopping at limited length and continuing the growth by new ones nucleating. Sometimes, the plates have ridges and in oblique sections they could be mistaken for the start of new plates. No morphological signs were observed indicating a transition between Widmanstätten ferrite and bainitic ferrite. It is proposed that there is only one kind of acicular ferrite.

  4. Generation of fuzzy mathematical morphologies

    OpenAIRE

    2001-01-01

    Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology aims to extend the binary morphological operators to grey-level images. In order to define the basic morphological operations fuzzy erosion, dilation, opening and closing, we introduce a general method based upon fuzzy implication and inclusion grade operators, including as particular case, other ones existing in related literature In the definition of fuzzy erosion and dilation we use several fuzzy implications (Annexe A, Table of fuzzy implic...

  5. Differentiating morphology, form, and meaning: neural correlates of morphological complexity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bozic, Mirjana; Marslen-Wilson, William D; Stamatakis, Emmanuel A; Davis, Matthew H; Tyler, Lorraine K

    2007-09-01

    The role of morphological structure in word recognition raises issues about the nature and structure of the language system. One major issue is whether morphological factors provide an independent principle for lexical organization and processing, or whether morphological effects can be reduced to the joint contribution of form and meaning. The independence of form, meaning, and morphological structure can be directly investigated using derivationally complex words, because derived words can share form but need not share meaning (e.g., archer-arch). We used an event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging paradigm to investigate priming between pairs of words that potentially shared a stem, where this link was either semantically transparent (e.g., bravely-brave) or opaque (e.g., archer-arch). These morphologically related pairs were contrasted with identity priming (e.g., mist-mist) and priming for pairs of words that shared only form (e.g., scandal-scan) or meaning (e.g., accuse-blame). Morphologically related words produced significantly reduced activation in left frontal regions, whether the pairs were semantically transparent or opaque. The effect was not found for any of the control conditions (identity, form, or meaning). Morphological effects were observed separately from processing form and meaning and we propose that they reflect segmentation of complex derived words, a process triggered by surface morphological structure of complex words.

  6. Morphological knowledge and literacy acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, William E; Carlisle, Joanne F; Goodwin, Amanda P

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities is to bring to the attention of researchers and educators studies on morphology and literacy that either involve students with learning difficulties or have educational implications for teaching such students. In our introduction, we first provide background information about morphological knowledge and consider the role of morphology in literacy, focusing on findings that are relevant for instruction of students who struggle with reading and writing. Next we present an overview of the studies included in this issue, organized by current issues concerning the role of morphological knowledge in literacy. Collectively, the articles in this issue suggest that students with weaker literacy skills tend to lag behind their peers in morphological knowledge but that all students are likely to benefit from morphological instruction. Morphological interventions hold promise, especially for students who face challenges in language learning and literacy, but additional research is needed to provide a basis for informed decisions about the design of effective morphological interventions.

  7. Kayardild morphology, phonology and morphosyntax

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    PL7101.G39 , gyd , Gayardilt language --Morphology , Gayardilt language --Phonology Abstract Acknowledgements List of Abbreviations 1 Introduction 2 Phonetics and surface phonology 3 Word structure 4 Segmental phonology 5 Prosodic structure and intonation 6 Syntax, morphosyntax and inflection 7 Realisational morphology Appendix A Segmental phonology Appendix B Distribution of A-TAM References

  8. Differential morphology and image processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maragos, P

    1996-01-01

    Image processing via mathematical morphology has traditionally used geometry to intuitively understand morphological signal operators and set or lattice algebra to analyze them in the space domain. We provide a unified view and analytic tools for morphological image processing that is based on ideas from differential calculus and dynamical systems. This includes ideas on using partial differential or difference equations (PDEs) to model distance propagation or nonlinear multiscale processes in images. We briefly review some nonlinear difference equations that implement discrete distance transforms and relate them to numerical solutions of the eikonal equation of optics. We also review some nonlinear PDEs that model the evolution of multiscale morphological operators and use morphological derivatives. Among the new ideas presented, we develop some general 2-D max/min-sum difference equations that model the space dynamics of 2-D morphological systems (including the distance computations) and some nonlinear signal transforms, called slope transforms, that can analyze these systems in a transform domain in ways conceptually similar to the application of Fourier transforms to linear systems. Thus, distance transforms are shown to be bandpass slope filters. We view the analysis of the multiscale morphological PDEs and of the eikonal PDE solved via weighted distance transforms as a unified area in nonlinear image processing, which we call differential morphology, and briefly discuss its potential applications to image processing and computer vision.

  9. Tense Aspect in Verbal Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salaberry, Rafael

    2003-01-01

    Analyzed the development of past tense verbal morphology in Spanish second language acquisition among native English speakers divided into three levels of proficiency. Analysis shows that learners may use a default marker of past tense during the beginning stages of development of verbal morphology, but the choice of the default may be dependent…

  10. Killer whale morphology - Variation in morphology of killer whale ecotypes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — We are using elliptic Fourier analysis to determine the patterns of variation in morphology of dorsal fin shape, saddle patch shape, and eye patch shape of resident,...

  11. GABA maintains the proliferation of progenitors in the developing chick ciliary marginal zone and non-pigmented ciliary epithelium.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrik Ring

    Full Text Available GABA is more than the main inhibitory neurotransmitter found in the adult CNS. Several studies have shown that GABA regulates the proliferation of progenitor and stem cells. This work examined the effects of the GABA(A receptor system on the proliferation of retinal progenitors and non-pigmented ciliary epithelial (NPE cells. qRT-PCR and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology were used to characterize the GABA(A receptor system. To quantify the effects on proliferation by GABA(A receptor agonists and antagonists, incorporation of thymidine analogues was used. The results showed that the NPE cells express functional extrasynaptic GABA(A receptors with tonic properties and that low concentration of GABA is required for a baseline level of proliferation. Antagonists of the GABA(A receptors decreased the proliferation of dissociated E12 NPE cells. Bicuculline also had effects on progenitor cell proliferation in intact E8 and E12 developing retina. The NPE cells had low levels of the Cl-transporter KCC2 compared to the mature retina, suggesting a depolarising role for the GABA(A receptors. Treatment with KCl, which is known to depolarise membranes, prevented some of the decreased proliferation caused by inhibition of the GABA(A receptors. This supported the depolarising role for the GABA(A receptors. Inhibition of L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+ channels (VGCCs reduced the proliferation in the same way as inhibition of the GABA(A receptors. Inhibition of the channels increased the expression of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p27(KIP1, along with the reduced proliferation. These results are consistent with that when the membrane potential indirectly regulates cell proliferation with hyperpolarisation of the membrane potential resulting in decreased cell division. The increased expression of p27(KIP1 after inhibition of either the GABA(A receptors or the L-type VGCCs suggests a link between the GABA(A receptors, membrane potential, and intracellular Ca(2+ in regulating the cell cycle.

  12. Comparative in Vitro Analysis of Proliferation, Ig Secretion, and Ig Class Switching by Murine Marginal Zone and Follicular B Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-04-01

    FL). IgG2a, IgE, and IgA ) found in the culture supernatants. and sorted cells were immediately reanalyzed to confirm their stai oDetermination of...the Bnh ouL.EPA.Czae.nd.Snou190Ati isotspe switch of murine B cells.. J, Evp. Aed. 155:734. immunogilobulins induce death by apoptosis in WEHI -21S1 8...J. A. Boersma. and E. Claassen. 1992. Complement- Tcells in the development of an IgG and IgA antibody re- meiae folclrlclzto TidpnettPC- n sponse. J

  13. Late Holocene and modern glacier changes in the marginal zone of Sólheimajökull, South Iceland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schomacker, Anders; Benediktsson, Ívar Örn; Ingólfsson, Ólafur

    2012-01-01

    , and more restricted advances during the Little Ice Age, after AD 1539. Oscillations of the Sólheimajökull ice margin between 1938 and 2010 are documented by aerial photographs. Digital elevation models were produced from selected years in order to quantify ice thickness changes at the glacier margin over...

  14. T-Cell lymphoproliferative disorder of hand-mirror cell morphology presenting in an eosinophilic loculated peritoneal effusion, with omental "caking"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tufankjian Dearon

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cells with "hand mirror" morphology have not, to the best of our knowledge, been described in a primary effusion sample. This paper describes a case of T-cell lymphoma with eosinophilia in a patient with suspected peritoneal carcinomatosis. Rarely, a T-cell lymphoproliferative process may mimic primary peritoneal carcinomatosis, clinically suggested by a presentation in CT imaging of omental caking with bilateral massive loculated effusions in a patient without lymphadenopathy or splenomegaly. Methods A 60 year old caucasian male presented with vague abdominal discomfort and increasing abdominal girth. Computed tomography showed a two centimeter thick omental cake and a small loculated effusion. The clinical presentation and imaging findings were most consistent with peritoneal carcinomatosis. Cytologic evaluation of the effusion was undertaken for diagnostic study. Results Rapid intraprocedural interpretation of the effusion sample showed a monomorphic population of cells with "hand-mirror" cell morphology exhibiting cytoplasmic extensions (uropodia with 3–5 course dark cytoplasmic granules and a rim of vacuolated cytoplasm capping the opposing "mirror head" side. These cells were seen within a background of mature eosinophils. Flow cytometric evaluation of the ascites fluid demonstrated an atypical T-cell population with the following immunophenotype: CD2-, CD3+, CD4-, CD5-, CD7-, CD8+, CD56+. T-cell receptor (TCR gene rearrangement was positive for clonal TCR-gamma gene rearrangement, supporting the diagnosis of a T-lymphoprolifereative disorder. Conclusion A T-cell lymphoproliferative process may present with "hand mirror" morphology in an effusion sample. These cells may show polar cytoplasmic vacuolization and 3–5 course granules within the "handle" of these unique cells. Cytoplasm shows peripheral constriction around the nucleus.

  15. Morphological Transform for Image Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Pastor Sanchez Fernandez

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available A new method for image compression based on morphological associative memories (MAMs is presented. We used the MAM to implement a new image transform and applied it at the transformation stage of image coding, thereby replacing such traditional methods as the discrete cosine transform or the discrete wavelet transform. Autoassociative and heteroassociative MAMs can be considered as a subclass of morphological neural networks. The morphological transform (MT presented in this paper generates heteroassociative MAMs derived from image subblocks. The MT is applied to individual blocks of the image using some transformation matrix as an input pattern. Depending on this matrix, the image takes a morphological representation, which is used to perform the data compression at the next stages. With respect to traditional methods, the main advantage offered by the MT is the processing speed, whereas the compression rate and the signal-to-noise ratio are competitive to conventional transforms.

  16. Morphological plasticity in Cladosporium sphaerospermum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dugan, F.M.; Braun, U.; Groenewald, J.Z.; Crous, P.W.

    2008-01-01

    A morphologically distinct isolate of Cladosporium sphaerospermum from a North American patent collection, referenced as Cladosporium lignicola in the patent, was examined. Generic affinity was confirmed by scanning electron microscopic examination of conidiogenous loci and conidial hila. Species id

  17. Quantitative morphological descriptors confirm traditionally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SARAH

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... classified morphotypes of Pentadesma butyracea Sabine (clusiaceae) ... Objective: Pentadesma butyracea is a multi-purpose tree species in Africa with great morphological ...... Fruit, Vegetable, and Cereals Science and.

  18. Morphological sampling of closed sets:

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Ronse; Mohamed Tajine

    2004-01-01

    We briefiy survey the standard morphological approach (Heijmans, 1994) to the sampling (or discretization) of sets. Then we summarize the main results of our metric theory of sampling (Ronse and Tajine, 2000; 2001; 2002; Tajine and Ronse, 2002), which can be used to analyse several sampling schemes, in particular the morphological one. We extend it to the sampling of closed sets (instead of compact ones), and to the case where the sampling subspace is boundedly compact (instead of boundedly f...

  19. Hypnotizability and Corpus Callosum Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Horton, James Edward

    1999-01-01

    Hypnotizability and Corpus Callosum Morphology By James E. Horton Committee Chair: Helen J. Crawford, Ph.D. Department of Psychology (Abstract) In general, highly hypnotizable individuals ("highs") have exhibited greater abilities to focus attention and inhibit pain than low hypnotizable individuals ("lows"). Furthermore, highs appear to have faster neural processing than lows. The present study investigated differences between lows and highs in morphological volume of s...

  20. Sorting of Sperm by Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, James; Marcos, Marcos

    2016-11-01

    Many studies have proven that the percentage of morphologically normal sperm is a significant factor in determining the success of assisted reproduction. The velocity of sperm in a microchannel with shear flow subjected to an external field will be explored theoretically. The difference in response between morphologically normal and abnormal sperm will be computed from a statistical approach, to study the feasibility and effectiveness of sorting by an external field to remove abnormal sperm. The full name of this author is Marcos.

  1. Morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casalis, Séverine; Colé, Pascale; Sopo, Delphine

    2004-06-01

    This study examines morphological awareness in developmental dyslexia. While the poor phonological awareness of dyslexic children has been related to their difficulty in handling the alphabetical principle, less is known about their morphological awareness, which also plays an important part in reading development. The aim of this study was to analyze in more detail the implications of the phonological impairments of dyslexics in dealing with larger units of language such as morphemes. First, the performance of dyslexic children in a series of morphological tasks was compared with the performance of children matched on reading-level and chronological age. In all the tasks, the dyslexic group performed below the chronological age control group, suggesting that morphological awareness cannot be developed entirely independently of reading experience and/or phonological skills. Comparisons with the reading-age control group indicated that, while the dyslexic children were poorer in the morphemic segmentation tasks, they performed normally for their reading level in the sentence completion tasks. Furthermore, they produced more derived words in the production task. This suggests that phonological impairments prevent the explicit segmentation of affixes while allowing the development of productive morphological knowledge. A second study compared dyslexic subgroups defined by their degree of phonological impairment. Our results suggest that dyslexics develop a certain type of morphological knowledge which they use as a compensatory reading strategy.

  2. Morphology of the Vitreoretinal Border Region

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, Steffen

    Ophthalmology, vitreoretinal, morphology, ultrastructure, microscopy, membrana limitans interna retinae, inner limiting membrane......Ophthalmology, vitreoretinal, morphology, ultrastructure, microscopy, membrana limitans interna retinae, inner limiting membrane...

  3. Fuzzy Morphological Polynomial Image Representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Pan Huang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel signal representation using fuzzy mathematical morphology is developed. We take advantage of the optimum fuzzy fitting and the efficient implementation of morphological operators to extract geometric information from signals. The new representation provides results analogous to those given by the polynomial transform. Geometrical decomposition of a signal is achieved by windowing and applying sequentially fuzzy morphological opening with structuring functions. The resulting representation is made to resemble an orthogonal expansion by constraining the results of opening to equate adapted structuring functions. Properties of the geometric decomposition are considered and used to calculate the adaptation parameters. Our procedure provides an efficient and flexible representation which can be efficiently implemented in parallel. The application of the representation is illustrated in data compression and fractal dimension estimation temporal signals and images.

  4. Galaxy Morphology - Halo Gas Connections

    CERN Document Server

    Kacprzak, G G; Steidel, C C; Kacprzak, Glenn G.; Churchill, Christopher W.; Steidel, Charles C.

    2005-01-01

    We studied a sample of 38 intermediate redshift MgII absorption-selected galaxies using (1) Keck/HIRES and VLT/UVES quasar spectra to measure the halo gas kinematics from MgII absorption profiles and (2) HST/WFPC-2 images to study the absorbing galaxy morphologies. We have searched for correlations between quantified gas absorption properties, and host galaxy impact parameters, inclinations, position angles, and quantified morphological parameters. We report a 3.2-sigma correlation between asymmetric perturbations in the host galaxy morphology and the MgII absorption equivalent width. We suggest that this correlation may indicate a connection between past merging and/or interaction events in MgII absorption-selected galaxies and the velocity dispersion and quantity of gas surrounding these galaxies.

  5. Las poblaciones de Phytophthora infestans presentes en papa en el altiplano Cundiboyacense en 1996 son monomórficas para la enzima glucosa-6-fosfato Isomerasa Populations of Phytophthora infestans present on potato in the Cundinamarca and Boyacá plateau in 1996 are monomorphic for glucose-6-phosphate isomerase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gualtero Cúellar Elsa Janeth

    1998-06-01

    ólo genotipo. Esta homogeneidad, en lo que se refiere a GPI en la población, permite concluir que en esta zona predomina la reproducción asexual, a través de la cual la variación genética es mínima o no se presenta. Resultados alternativos como la aparición de genotipos nuevos apoyarían la existencia de migraciones de otras poblaciones o la recombinación sexual explicada por la presencia de los tipos de apareamiento A1 y A2.
    Potato late blight, a disease caused by the Oomycete Phytophthora infestans, is responsible in great proportion for severe decrements in potato production in the Cundinamarca and Boyacá plateaus. Until now, late blight control has been done mainly with fungicides. The widened genetic variability in populations of this organism for a number of traits, including sensitivity to commercially available fungicides, observed in a world-wide perspective, has shown the need to research the genetic structure of local populations. This study was launched to characterize the populations of P. infestans in Cundinamarca and Boyacá through the polymorphism of glucose-6-phosfate isomerase (GPI. The results pointed at a clonal nature of these populations. All the local isolates were homozygous monomorphic for GPI, with genotype 100/100. Isolate Ro showed genotype 86/100 that corresponds to lineage US-1. Isolate MT2 showed genotype 84/100. These iso lates correspond to heterozygous populations that may have resulted from sexual reproduction. Isolate HIN had genotype 100/100, coinciding with local isolates. This isolate belongs to mating type A1 and corresponds to lineage US-6. This lineage represents one of the earliest migrations from Mexico to the United States, Europe and the rest of the world. Prior to the migrations of mating type A2. Results indicate that local populations are not too diverse, and suggest a clonal orrqtn. These results agree with the evaluation of this same population as regards sensitivity to metalaxil and mating type (Gonzalez, 1997

  6. Children's Morphological Awareness and Reading Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirby, John R.; Deacon, S. Helene; Bowers, Peter N.; Izenberg, Leah; Wade-Woolley, Lesly; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of morphological awareness on five measures of reading in 103 children from Grades 1 to 3. Morphological awareness was assessed with a word analogy task that included a wide range of morphological transformations. Results indicated that the new measure had satisfactory reliability, and that morphological awareness was a…

  7. Computer Vision and Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Kropratsch, W.; Klette, R.; Albrecht, R.

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical morphology is a theory of set mappings, modeling binary image transformations, which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This framework turns out to be too restricted for many applications, in particular for computer vision where group theoretical considerations suc

  8. Human morphology and temperature regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, G. S.

    For nearly a century individuals have believed that there is a link between human morphology and one's thermoregulatory response in adverse environments. Most early research was focussed on the rate of core cooling in a male adult population and the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to withstand varying degrees of cold stress. More recently research has addressed heat tolerance in various populations, exploring the role of subcutaneous adipose tissue, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio in one's ability to maintain thermal equilibrium in warm and hot, dry and humid environments. Since the late 1970s an emphasis has been placed on the role of muscle and muscle perfusion in total-body thermal insulation. Yet, despite the history of research pertaining to human morphology and temperature regulation there is little consensus as to the impact of variations in human morphology on thermoregulatory responses. Individuals differing in body size, shape and composition appear to respond quantitatively differently to variations in both ambient and core temperatures but the interrelations between morphological components and temperature regulation are complex. It is the purpose of this paper to examine the literature pertaining to the impact of variations in muscularity, adipose tissue thickness and patterning, surface area and the surface-area-to-mass ratio on thermoregulation and thermal stability in response to both heat and cold stress.

  9. Structure Characterization Using Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luengo Hendriks, C.L.

    2004-01-01

    This thesis deals with the application of mathematical morphology to images of some kind of structure, with the intention of characterizing (or describing) that structure. The emphasis is placed on measuring properties of the real-world scene, rather than measuring properties of the digital image. T

  10. Pollen morphology of the Stemonaceae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ham, van der R.W.J.M.

    1991-01-01

    A pollen-morphological survey of all four genera of the Stemonaceae at the light and electron microscope level is presented. Stemonaceae is a eurypalynous family. Stichoneuron pollen, up to now described as monosulcate, appears to be inaperturate. Pentastemona pollen is most deviating in Stemonaceae

  11. Soot morphology in laser pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandu, Ion C.; Pasuk, I.; Morjan, Ion G.; Voicu, Ion N.; Alexandrescu, Rodica; Fleaca, Claudiu T.; Ciupina, Victor; Dumitrache, Florian V.; Soare, Iuliana; Ploscaru, Mihaela I.; Daniels, H.; Westwood, A.; Rand, B.

    2004-10-01

    Soots obtained by laser pyrolysis of different gaseous/vapor hydrocarbons were investigated. The morphology variation of carbon soot versus process parameters and nature of reactants was analyzed and discussed. The role of oxygen is essential in obtaining soot particles having considerable curved-layer content.

  12. Computer Vision and Mathematical Morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, J.B.T.M.; Kropratsch, W.; Klette, R.; Albrecht, R.

    1996-01-01

    Mathematical morphology is a theory of set mappings, modeling binary image transformations, which are invariant under the group of Euclidean translations. This framework turns out to be too restricted for many applications, in particular for computer vision where group theoretical considerations

  13. Atlas morphology in relation to craniofacial morphology and head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandikçioğlu, M; Skov, S; Solow, B

    1994-04-01

    The associations between dimensions of the first cervical vertebra, atlas, and a representative set of craniofacial and postural variables were studied on cephalometric radiographs of a sample of 103 adult males aged 22-30 years, recorded in the natural head position (mirror position). Atlas morphology was expressed by nine variables, linear and angular craniofacial dimensions by 27 variables, and head and cervical posture by seven variables. A pattern of low but significant correlations was found. Although the correlations were low, the study confirmed that the dimensions of the atlas vertebra reflect associations between cranio-cervical posture and craniofacial morphology. Negative correlations were found between the height of the posterior arch of atlas and the inclination of the mandible and the maxilla to the anterior cranial base. Low positive correlations between the height of the anterior arch and vertical facial dimensions reflect the general co-ordination of the vertical growth of the face and the cervical column. Moreover, the pattern of correlations between the atlanto-cranial angle and facial morphology suggests that in changes of the cranio-cervical angle, atlas follows the cervical column.

  14. Morphological details in bloodstain particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wael, K; Lepot, L

    2015-01-01

    During the commission of crimes blood can be transferred to the clothing of the offender or on other crime related objects. Bloodstain particles are sub-millimetre sized flakes that are lost from dried bloodstains. The nature of these red particles is easily confirmed using spectroscopic methods. In casework, bloodstain particles showing highly detailed morphological features were observed. These provided a rationale for a series of experiments described in this work. It was found that the "largest" particles are shed from blood deposited on polyester and polyamide woven fabrics. No particles are lost from the stains made on absorbent fabrics and from those made on knitted fabrics. The morphological features observed in bloodstain particles can provide important information on the substrates from which they were lost. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Morphological classification of nanoceramic aggregates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crosta, Giovanni F.; Kang, Bongwoo; Ospina, Carolina; Sung, Changmo

    2005-01-01

    Aluminum silicate nanoaggregates grown at near-room temperature on an organic template under a variety of experimental conditions have been imaged by transmission electron microscopy. Images have been automatically classified by an algorithm based on "spectrum enhancement", multivariate statistics and supervised optimization. Spectrum enhancement consists of subtracting, in the log scale, a known function of wavenumber from the angle averaged power spectral density of the image. Enhanced spectra of each image, after polynomial interpolation, have been regarded as morphological descriptors and as such submitted to principal components analysis nested with a multiobjective parameter optimization algorithm. The latter has maximized pairwise discrimination between classes of materials. The role of the organic template and of a reaction parameter on aggregate morphology has been assessed at two magnification scales. Classification results have also been related to crystal structure data derived from selected area electron diffraction patterns.

  16. Morphological Mutations of Dwarf Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Hensler, Gerhard

    2012-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies (DGs) are extremely challenging objects in extragalactic astrophysics. They are expected to originate as the first units in Cold Dark-Matter cosmology. They are the galaxy type most sensitive to environmental influences and their division into multiple types with various properties have invoked the picture of their variant morphological transformations. Detailed observations reveal characteristics which allow to deduce the evolutionary paths and to witness how the environment has affected the evolution. Here we review peculiarities of general morphological DG types and refer to processes which can deplete gas-rich irregular DGs leading to dwarf ellipticals, while gas replenishment implies an evolutionary cycling. Finally, as the less understood DG types the Milky Way satellite dwarf spheroidal galaxies are discussed in the context of transformation.

  17. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    Koch, Eric W.; Rosolowsky, Erik W.

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our prel...

  18. Liver morphology in morbid obesity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, T; Gluud, C

    1984-01-01

    methods including a computerized survey. Forty-one original articles were included, comprising information on liver morphology in 1515 morbidly obese patients. Liver biopsy was considered normal in 12 per cent of the cases. The most frequent abnormality reported was fatty change, present in 80 per cent...... of obesity, age, sex, alcohol consumption, diabetes mellitus) does not point towards a single causal factor. Co-influence of additional pathogenetic factors are likely in the development of liver changes in morbid obesity....

  19. Astragalar Morphology of Selected Giraffidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Solounias

    Full Text Available The artiodactyl astragalus has been modified to exhibit two trochleae, creating a double pullied structure allowing for significant dorso-plantar motion, and limited mediolateral motion. The astragalus structure is partly influenced by environmental substrates, and correspondingly, morphometric studies can yield paleohabitat information. The present study establishes terminology and describes detailed morphological features on giraffid astragali. Each giraffid astragalus exhibits a unique combination of anatomical characteristics. The giraffid astragalar morphologies reinforce previously established phylogenetic relationships. We find that the enlargement of the navicular head is a feature shared by all giraffids, and that the primitive giraffids possess exceptionally tall astragalar heads in relation to the total astragalar height. The sivatheres and the okapi share a reduced notch on the lateral edge of the astragalus. We find that Samotherium is more primitive in astragalar morphologies than Palaeotragus, which is reinforced by tooth characteristics and ossicone position. Diagnostic anatomical characters on the astragalus allow for giraffid species identifications and a better understanding of Giraffidae.

  20. Thermodynamics of catalytic nanoparticle morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwolak, Michael; Sharma, Renu; Lin, Pin Ann

    Metallic nanoparticles are an important class of industrial catalysts. The variability of their properties and the environment in which they act, from their chemical nature & surface modification to their dispersion and support, allows their performance to be optimized for many chemical processes useful in, e.g., energy applications and other areas. Their large surface area to volume ratio, as well as varying sizes and faceting, in particular, makes them an efficient source for catalytically active sites. These characteristics of nanoparticles - i.e., their morphology - can often display intriguing behavior as a catalytic process progresses. We develop a thermodynamic model of nanoparticle morphology, one that captures the competition of surface energy with other interactions, to predict structural changes during catalytic processes. Comparing the model to environmental transmission electron microscope images of nickel nanoparticles during carbon nanotube (and other product) growth demonstrates that nickel deformation in response to the nanotube growth is due to a favorable interaction with carbon. Moreover, this deformation is halted due to insufficient volume of the particles. We will discuss the factors that influence morphology and also how the model can be used to extract interaction strengths from experimental observations.

  1. Thermally induced morphological transition of silver fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey; Kébaili, Nouari;

    2014-01-01

    We present both experimental and theoretical study of thermally induced morphological transition of silver nanofractals. Experimentally, those nanofractals formed from deposition and diffusion of preformed silver clusters on cleaved graphite surfaces exhibit dendritic morphologies that are highly...

  2. Thermally induced morphological transition of silver fractals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solov'yov, Ilia; Solov'yov, Andrey; Kébaili, Nouari

    2014-01-01

    We present both experimental and theoretical study of thermally induced morphological transition of silver nanofractals. Experimentally, those nanofractals formed from deposition and diffusion of preformed silver clusters on cleaved graphite surfaces exhibit dendritic morphologies that are highly...

  3. Metal oxide nanostructures with hierarchical morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Zhifeng; Lao, Jing Yu; Banerjee, Debasish

    2007-11-13

    The present invention relates generally to metal oxide materials with varied symmetrical nanostructure morphologies. In particular, the present invention provides metal oxide materials comprising one or more metallic oxides with three-dimensionally ordered nanostructural morphologies, including hierarchical morphologies. The present invention also provides methods for producing such metal oxide materials.

  4. Pelvic morphology in ischiofemoral impingement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bredella, Miriam A.; Azevedo, Debora C.; Oliveira, Adriana L.; Simeone, Frank J.; Chang, Connie Y.; Torriani, Martin [Massachusetts General Hospital, Department of Radiology, Musculoskeletal Imaging and Intervention, Boston, MA (United States); Stubbs, Allston J. [Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Division of Sports Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC (United States)

    2014-11-06

    To assess MRI measures to quantify pelvic morphology that may predispose to ischiofemoral impingement (IFI). We hypothesized that patients with IFI have a wider interischial distance and an increased femoral neck angle compared with normal controls. The study was IRB-approved and complied with HIPAA guidelines. IFI was diagnosed based on clinical findings (hip or buttock pain) and ipsilateral edema of the quadratus femoris muscle on MRI. Control subjects did not report isolated hip/buttock pain and underwent MRI for surveillance of neoplasms or to exclude pelvic fractures. Two MSK radiologists measured the ischiofemoral (IF) and quadratus femoris (QF) distance, the ischial angle as a measure of inter-ischial distance, and the femoral neck angle. The quadratus femoris muscle was evaluated for edema. Groups were compared using ANOVA. Multivariate standard least-squares regression modeling was used to control for age and gender. The study group comprised 84 patients with IFI (53 ± 16 years, 73 female, 11 male) and 51 controls (52 ± 16 years, 33 female, 18 male). Thirteen out of 84 patients (15 %) had bilateral IFI. Patients with IFI had decreased IF and QF distance (p < 0.0001), increased ischial angle (p = 0.004), and increased femoral neck angle (p = 0.02) compared with controls, independent of age and gender. Patients with IFI have increased ischial and femoral neck angles compared with controls. These anatomical variations in pelvic morphology may predispose to IFI. MRI is a useful method of not only assessing the osseous and soft-tissue abnormalities associated with IFI, but also of quantifying anatomical variations in pelvic morphology that can predispose to IFI. (orig.)

  5. Morphology of polymer solar cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Böttiger, Arvid P.L.

    the morphology of the active layer of the solar cells when produced with water based inks using R2R coating. Using a broad range of scattering and imaging techniques, cells coated with water based inks were investigated, and compared to their spin coated counterpart. Two challenges to be addressed were small...... cells. Ptychography offers desirable properties such as potentially high resolution, quantitative contrast and possibility for tomography. Both these X-ray imaging techniques were used to measure the samples with high spatial and chemical resolution. In addition, these experiments explored and reviewed...

  6. Early Modern English:Morphology

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    By the end of the Middle English period there is already considerable loss of inflectional morphology, and in Early Modern English we see the last reflexes of a shift from synthetic Old English to analytic Modern English (Lass 1999: 139). In fact, the inflectional system of Early Modern English is not very different from what we have today (Go¨rlach 1991: 79). The changes in inflection which do take place between 1500 and 1700 show marked sociolinguistic differentiation and are the subject of...

  7. CHANGE DETECTION VIA MORPHOLOGICAL COMPARATIVE FILTERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. V. Vizilter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we propose the new change detection technique based on morphological comparative filtering. This technique generalizes the morphological image analysis scheme proposed by Pytiev. A new class of comparative filters based on guided contrasting is developed. Comparative filtering based on diffusion morphology is implemented too. The change detection pipeline contains: comparative filtering on image pyramid, calculation of morphological difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local morphological correlation coefficient. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability of proposed approach.

  8. Change Detection via Morphological Comparative Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vizilter, Y. V.; Rubis, A. Y.; Zheltov, S. Y.; Vygolov, O. V.

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we propose the new change detection technique based on morphological comparative filtering. This technique generalizes the morphological image analysis scheme proposed by Pytiev. A new class of comparative filters based on guided contrasting is developed. Comparative filtering based on diffusion morphology is implemented too. The change detection pipeline contains: comparative filtering on image pyramid, calculation of morphological difference map, binarization, extraction of change proposals and testing change proposals using local morphological correlation coefficient. Experimental results demonstrate the applicability of proposed approach.

  9. Morphologies of omega band auroras

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Natsuo; Yukimatu, Akira Sessai; Tanaka, Yoshimasa; Hori, Tomoaki

    2017-08-01

    We examined the morphological signatures of 315 omega band aurora events observed using the Time History of Events and Macroscale Interactions during Substorm ground-based all-sky imager network over a period of 8 years. We find that omega bands can be classified into the following three subtypes: (1) classical (O-type) omega bands, (2) torch or tongue (T-type) omega bands, and (3) combinations of classical and torch or tongue (O/T-type) omega bands. The statistical results show that T-type bands occur the most frequently (45%), followed by O/T-type bands (35%) and O-type bands (18%). We also examined the morphologies of the omega bands during their formation, from the growth period to the declining period through the maximum period. Interestingly, the omega bands are not stable, but rather exhibit dynamic changes in shape, intensity, and motion. They grow from small-scale bumps (seeds) at the poleward boundary of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, rather than via the rotation or shear motion of preexisting east-west-aligned auroras, and do not exhibit any shear motion during the periods of auroral activity growth. Furthermore, the auroral luminosity is observed to increase during the declining period, and the total time from the start of the growth period to the end of the declining period is found to be about 20 min. Such dynamical signatures may be important in determining the mechanism responsible for omega band formation.

  10. Functional morphology and evolutionary biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dullemeijer, P

    1980-01-01

    In this study the relationship between functional morpholoy and evolutionary biology is analysed by confronting the main concepts in both disciplines. Rather than only discussing this connection theoretically, the analysis is carried out by introducing important practical and experimental studies, which use aspects from both disciplines. The mentioned investigations are methodologically analysed and the consequences for extensions of the relationship are worked out. It can be shown that both disciplines have a large domain of their own and also share a large common ground. Many disagreements among evolutionary biologists can be reduced to differences in general philosophy (idealism vs. realism), selection of phenomenona (structure vs. function), definition of concepts (natural selection) and the position of the concept theory as an explaining factor (neutralists vs selectionist, random variation, determinate selection, etc.). The significance of functional morphology for evolutionary biology, and vice versa depends on these differences. For a neo-Darwinian evolutionary theory, contributions from functional and ecological morphology are indispensable. Of ultimate importance are the notions of internal selection and constraints in the constructions determining further development. In this context the concepts of random variation and natural selection need more detailed definition. The study ends with a recommendation for future research founded in a system-theoretical or structuralistic conception.

  11. Tagging and Morphological Disambiguation of Turkish Text

    CERN Document Server

    Oflazer, K; Oflazer, Kemal; Kuruoz, Ilker

    1994-01-01

    Automatic text tagging is an important component in higher level analysis of text corpora, and its output can be used in many natural language processing applications. In languages like Turkish or Finnish, with agglutinative morphology, morphological disambiguation is a very crucial process in tagging, as the structures of many lexical forms are morphologically ambiguous. This paper describes a POS tagger for Turkish text based on a full-scale two-level specification of Turkish morphology that is based on a lexicon of about 24,000 root words. This is augmented with a multi-word and idiomatic construct recognizer, and most importantly morphological disambiguator based on local neighborhood constraints, heuristics and limited amount of statistical information. The tagger also has functionality for statistics compilation and fine tuning of the morphological analyzer, such as logging erroneous morphological parses, commonly used roots, etc. Preliminary results indicate that the tagger can tag about 98-99\\% of the...

  12. Morphological patterns and their colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadam, James; Albertazzi, Liliana; Da Pos, Osvaldo; Canal, Luisa; Micciolo, Rocco

    2012-04-01

    This study analyzed qualitative aspects in perception, particularly the relationship between morphological aspects of biological shapes and colour. The experiment reported by the study assessed the functional relation between shape and colour and, in particular, the relations among the patterns of shapes appearing in perceptual configurations, as well as certain characteristics of colour. Participants were shown 32 natural images and were asked to match them with a colour. The results indicated that some figures were more frequently associated (positively or negatively) with some colours instead of others. Type of shape, texture, and three-dimensionality were important elements in the participants' choices. Rounded figures and non-holed figures had positive matches with red; elongated figures were associated with colours between blue and green; and holed figures showed positive matches with colours between green and yellow. Type of shape and texture also exhibited a relationship with the warmth of the colour.

  13. Filament Identification through Mathematical Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Koch, Eric W

    2015-01-01

    We present a new algorithm for detecting filamentary structure FilFinder. The algorithm uses the techniques of mathematical morphology for filament identification, presenting a complementary approach to current algorithms which use matched filtering or critical manifolds. Unlike other methods, FilFinder identifies filaments over a wide dynamic range in brightness. We apply the new algorithm to far infrared imaging data of dust emission released by the Herschel Gould Belt Survey team. Our preliminary analysis characterizes both filaments and fainter striations. We find a typical filament width of 0.09 pc across the sample, but the brightness varies from cloud to cloud. Several regions show a bimodal filament brightness distribution, with the bright mode (filaments) being an order of magnitude brighter than the faint mode (striations). Using the Rolling Hough Transform, we characterize the orientations of the striations in the data, finding preferred directions that agree with magnetic field direction where dat...

  14. Differential Equations for Morphological Amoebas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welk, Martin; Breuß, Michael; Vogel, Oliver

    This paper is concerned with amoeba median filtering, a structure-adaptive morphological image filter. It has been introduced by Lerallut et al. in a discrete formulation. Experimental evidence shows that iterated amoeba median filtering leads to segmentation-like results that are similar to those obtained by self-snakes, an image filter based on a partial differential equation. We investigate this correspondence by analysing a space-continuous formulation of iterated median filtering. We prove that in the limit of vanishing radius of the structuring elements, iterated amoeba median filtering indeed approximates a partial differential equation related to self-snakes and the well-known (mean) curvature motion equation. We present experiments with discrete iterated amoeba median filtering that confirm qualitative and quantitative predictions of our analysis.

  15. Morphology of the membrana limitans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hara, M; Kimura, R S

    1993-08-01

    The morphology of the membrana limitans (ML) was studied by light and electron microscopy to further understand its functional significance. The ML is a porous shield composed of a few to several layers of tightly packed fibrocytes that separate the perilymphatic space of the cochlea and saccule from that of the utricle and canal system. These fibrocytes are thinner on the side of the vestibule. They show many desmosomes and gap junctions and are interspersed with fibrils. The 3-dimensional reconstruction from celloidin sections shows that the ML, as it is viewed from the anterior side, is rectangular in shape, with various surface curvatures and an invagination toward the internal aperture of the vestibular aqueduct. Horseradish peroxidase, a tracer substance, placed on either side of the ML fails to pass to the opposite side. The ML and trabecular meshwork may be a factor contributing to differential sensitivity of cochlear and vestibular sensory cells in the presence of noxious substances.

  16. Dielectric inspection of erythrocyte morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshihito; Oshige, Ikuya; Katsumoto, Yoichi; Omori, Shinji; Yasuda, Akio; Asami, Koji

    2008-05-01

    We performed a systematic study of the sensitivity of dielectric spectroscopy to erythrocyte morphology. Namely, rabbit erythrocytes of four different shapes were prepared by precisely controlling the pH of the suspending medium, and their complex permittivities over the frequency range from 0.1 to 110 MHz were measured and analyzed. Their quantitative analysis shows that the characteristic frequency and the broadening parameter of the dielectric relaxation of interfacial polarization are highly specific to the erythrocyte shape, while they are insensitive to the cell volume fraction. Therefore, these two dielectric parameters can be used to differentiate erythrocytes of different shapes, if dielectric spectroscopy is applied to flow-cytometric inspection of single blood cells. In addition, we revealed the applicability and limitations of the analytical theory of interfacial polarization to explain the experimental permittivities of non-spherical erythrocytes.

  17. Open data and digital morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Thomas G.; Cunningham, John A.; Asher, Robert J.; Bates, Karl T.; Bengtson, Stefan; Benson, Roger B. J.; Boyer, Doug M.; Braga, José; Dong, Xi-Ping; Evans, Alistair R.; Friedman, Matt; Garwood, Russell J.; Goswami, Anjali; Hutchinson, John R.; Jeffery, Nathan S.; Lebrun, Renaud; Martínez-Pérez, Carlos; O'Higgins, Paul M.; Orliac, Maëva; Rowe, Timothy B.; Sánchez-Villagra, Marcelo R.; Shubin, Neil H.; Starck, J. Matthias; Stringer, Chris; Summers, Adam P.; Sutton, Mark D.; Walsh, Stig A.; Weisbecker, Vera; Witmer, Lawrence M.; Wroe, Stephen; Yin, Zongjun

    2017-01-01

    Over the past two decades, the development of methods for visualizing and analysing specimens digitally, in three and even four dimensions, has transformed the study of living and fossil organisms. However, the initial promise that the widespread application of such methods would facilitate access to the underlying digital data has not been fully achieved. The underlying datasets for many published studies are not readily or freely available, introducing a barrier to verification and reproducibility, and the reuse of data. There is no current agreement or policy on the amount and type of data that should be made available alongside studies that use, and in some cases are wholly reliant on, digital morphology. Here, we propose a set of recommendations for minimum standards and additional best practice for three-dimensional digital data publication, and review the issues around data storage, management and accessibility. PMID:28404779

  18. Morphological Inversion of Complex Diffusion

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, V AT

    2016-01-01

    Epidemics, neural cascades, power failures, and many other phenomena can be described by a diffusion process on a network. To identify the causal origins of a spread, it is often necessary to identify the triggering initial node. Here we define a new morphological operator and use it to detect the origin of a diffusive front, given the final state of a complex network. Our method performs better than randomized trials as well as centrality based methods. More importantly, our method is applicable regardless of the specifics of the forward model, and therefore can be applied to a wide range of systems such as identifying the patient zero in an epidemic, pinpointing the neuron that triggers a cascade, identifying the original malfunction that causes a catastrophic infrastructure failure, and inferring the ancestral species from which a heterogeneous population evolves.

  19. Cartography – morphology – topology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dinesen, Cort Ross; Peder Pedersen, Claus

    2010-01-01

    I 2004 a Summer School was established on the Greek island of Hydra. The was to be the basis of research-based morphological and topological studies, which have since taken place for 4 weeks of every year. Starting with Hydra’s topography different ways of considering topology were developed....... The work was approached from a new angle every year through a series of associated questions, resulting in an extensive body of drawings describing the various discourses raised. The developed observational forms reflected in the collected body of drawings constitute a topological landscape with a great...... and developing topological emergence as a passage between cartographic appropriation and creative becoming while simultaneously lifting the material out of its mimetic reference, makes room for the of a movement towards a production of meaning as well as a basis for initiating architectonic practices. We seek...

  20. Scyl1 regulates Golgi morphology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathon L Burman

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Membrane trafficking is a defining feature of eukaryotic cells, and is essential for the maintenance of organelle homeostasis and identity. We previously identified Scy1-like 1 (Scyl1, a member of the Scy1-like family of catalytically inactive protein kinases, as a high-affinity binding partner of COPI coats. COPI-coated vesicles control Golgi to endoplasmic reticulum trafficking and we observed that disruption of Scyl1 function leads to a decrease in trafficking of the KDEL receptor via the COPI pathway. We reasoned that if Scyl1 plays a major role in COPI trafficking its disruption could influence Golgi homeostasis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We performed Scyl1 knock down in cultured cells using previously established methods and observed an alteration in Golgi morphology. Both the surface area and volume of the Golgi is increased in Scyl1-depleted cells, but the continuity and polarity of the organelle is unperturbed. At the ultrastructural level we observe a decrease in the orderly structure of the Golgi with an increase in cisternal luminal width, while the number of Golgi cisternae remains unchanged. The golgin family of proteins forms a detergent resistant network that controls Golgi homeostasis. Disruption of this protein network by knock down of the golgin p115 disrupts the Golgi localization of Scyl1. Moreover, we find that Scyl1 interacts with 58K/formiminotransferase cyclodeaminase (FTCD, a protein that is tightly associated with the cis face of the Golgi. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results place Scyl1 at an interface between the golgin network and COPI trafficking and demonstrate that Scyl1 is required for the maintenance of Golgi morphology. Coupled with the observation from others that Scyl1 is the gene product responsible for the neurodegenerative mouse model mdf, our results additionally implicate the regulation of COPI trafficking and Golgi homeostasis in neurodegeneration.

  1. Automatic quantitative morphological analysis of interacting galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Shamir, Lior; Wallin, John

    2013-01-01

    The large number of galaxies imaged by digital sky surveys reinforces the need for computational methods for analyzing galaxy morphology. While the morphology of most galaxies can be associated with a stage on the Hubble sequence, morphology of galaxy mergers is far more complex due to the combination of two or more galaxies with different morphologies and the interaction between them. Here we propose a computational method based on unsupervised machine learning that can quantitatively analyze morphologies of galaxy mergers and associate galaxies by their morphology. The method works by first generating multiple synthetic galaxy models for each galaxy merger, and then extracting a large set of numerical image content descriptors for each galaxy model. These numbers are weighted using Fisher discriminant scores, and then the similarities between the galaxy mergers are deduced using a variation of Weighted Nearest Neighbor analysis such that the Fisher scores are used as weights. The similarities between the ga...

  2. Developing free morphological data for Polish

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Radziszewski

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Developing free morphological data for Polish A limiting factor in construction of Natural Language Processing (NLP systems is often the availability of morphological resources. This indeed happens for Polish: the freely available corpus with manual morpho-syntactic annotation (part of the IPI PAN Corpus is not coupled with any free morphological analyser. There exists a very large morphological dictionary of Polish available under a free licence – Morfologik. Unfortunately, its tagset differs significantly from the tagset of the corpus and, what is more, its morphological description lacks desired rigour. We amend this situation by performing a massive conversion of the dictionary into the tagset compliant with the corpus. The conversion results in a free dictionary containing entries for almost 3.5 million different word forms. In this article we report on our methodology, discuss some morphological and syntactic issues related to both tagsets and present the characteristics of the resulting dictionary.

  3. Simulations of dual morphology in spiral galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Berman, S L

    2003-01-01

    Gas and stars in spiral galaxies are modelled with the DUAL code, using hydrodynamic and N-body techniques. The simulations reveal morphological differences mirroring the dual morphologies seen in B and K' band observations of many spiral galaxies. In particular, the gaseous images are more flocculent with lower pitch angles than the stellar images, and the stellar arm-interarm contrast correlates with the degree of morphological decoupling.

  4. PREPARATION OF POLYALKYLCYANOACRYLATE NANOPARTICLES WITH VARIOUS MORPHOLOGIES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qing-lin Xu; He-xian Li; Guo-chang Wang

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various reaction conditions on the preparation of polyalkylcyanoacrylate (PACA) nanoparticles are studied. The PACA nanoparticles with different crosslinking degrees and morphology are prepared. Addition of crosslinkers can not only adjust the particle size, but also change the morphology of PACA nanoparticles. Moreover, the loose network structure of the PACA nanoparticles with “core/shell-like” morphology is investigated by AFM and TEM in detail.

  5. Morphological Characteristics of Korean Dried Ginseng Products

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Hee-Do Hong; Chang-Woon Cho; Young-Chan Kim; Eunyoung Kim; Young-Kyung Rhee; Jeonghae Rho; Seung-Hoe Choi

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a standard quality characteristic through the evaluation and statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics of dried ginseng (white ginseng) products...

  6. The limits on trypanosomatid morphological diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard John Wheeler

    Full Text Available Cell shape is one, often overlooked, way in which protozoan parasites have adapted to a variety of host and vector environments and directional transmissions between these environments. Consequently, different parasite life cycle stages have characteristic morphologies. Trypanosomatid parasites are an excellent example of this in which large morphological variations between species and life cycle stage occur, despite sharing well-conserved cytoskeletal and membranous structures. Here, using previously published reports in the literature of the morphology of 248 isolates of trypanosomatid species from different hosts, we perform a meta-analysis of the occurrence and limits on morphological diversity of different classes of trypanosomatid morphology (trypomastigote, promastigote, etc. in the vertebrate bloodstream and invertebrate gut environments. We identified several limits on cell body length, cell body width and flagellum length diversity which can be interpreted as biomechanical limits on the capacity of the cell to attain particular dimensions. These limits differed for morphologies with and without a laterally attached flagellum which we suggest represent two morphological superclasses, the 'juxtaform' and 'liberform' superclasses. Further limits were identified consistent with a selective pressure from the mechanical properties of the vertebrate bloodstream environment; trypanosomatid size showed limits relative to host erythrocyte dimensions. This is the first comprehensive analysis of the limits of morphological diversity in any protozoan parasite, revealing the morphogenetic constraints and extrinsic selection pressures associated with the full diversity of trypanosomatid morphology.

  7. North American sturgeon otolith morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chalupnicki, Marc A.; Dittman, Dawn E.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate expedient species identification of deceased sturgeon (Acipenseridae) when external physical characteristic analysis is inconclusive has become a high priority due to the endangered or threatened status of sturgeon species around the world. Examination of otoliths has provided useful information to aid in population management, age and size-class analysis, understanding predator–prey interactions, and archeological research in other fish species. The relationship between otolith characteristics and sturgeon species has remained unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the shape of otoliths from the eight species of sturgeon found in North America to test the utility of otolith characteristic morphology in species identification. There were distinct differences in the size and shape of the otoliths between species of sturgeon with little shape variation among individuals of the same species. The relationship between otolith length axes was linear, and most of the variability was explained by a Log (axis + 1) transformation of the x and y axes (r2 = 0.8983) using the equation y = 0.73x + 0.0612. Images of otoliths from all eight North American species are presented to assist in the identification process.

  8. Secular trend: morphology and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sedeaud, Adrien; Marc, Andy; Schipman, Julien; Schaal, Karine; Danial, Mario; Guillaume, Marion; Berthelot, Geoffroy; Toussaint, Jean-François

    2014-01-01

    In a context of morphological expansion of the general population, how do athletes follow such a pattern of anthropometric growth? Is there any relation to performance? Biometric data including mass, height, body mass index (BMI) and age were collected for 50,376 American athletes representing 249,336 annual performers playing in professional baseball, football, ice hockey and basketball. Distributions by mass in National Football League (NFL) players are described by periods. Field goals have been studied in relation to players' height in the National Basketball Association (NBA). Between 1871 and 2011, athletes from the four sports have increased significantly in mass, height and BMI, following a multi-exponential function series. Consequently, biometric differences between athletes and the general population are increasing gradually. Changes in the mass distribution within the NFL show the emergence of a biometrical specificity in relation to the field position. At the professional level, performance remains structured around precise biometric values. In the NBA, a height-attractor at 201.3 ± 6.3 cm for the best scorers is invariant, regardless of the level of play. These results suggest that laws of growth and biometrics drive high-level sport and organise performance around the specific constraint of each field position. Discrepancies between some mass and height developments question the (disproportionate) large mass increase (relative to the height increase) during the 1980s and 1990s.

  9. Arabic Morphology in the Neural Language System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudelaa, Sami; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hauk, Olaf; Shtyrov, Yury; Marslen-Wilson, William

    2010-01-01

    There are two views about morphology, the aspect of language concerned with the internal structure of words. One view holds that morphology is a domain of knowledge with a specific type of neurocognitive representation supported by specific brain mechanisms lateralized to left fronto-temporal cortex. The alternate view characterizes morphological…

  10. Lexical Morphology: Structure, Process, and Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarmulowicz, Linda; Taran, Valentina L.

    2013-01-01

    Recent work has demonstrated the importance of derivational morphology to later language development and has led to a consensus that derivation is a lexical process. In this review, derivational morphology is discussed in terms of lexical representation models from both linguistic and psycholinguistic perspectives. Input characteristics, including…

  11. Morphological features in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgen, Mihriban Heval

    2008-01-01

    The central research aim in the present thesis was to extend the insight in several aspects of the role of the morphological features in autism. Clinical morphology might be used as a biomarker for ASD to reveal insight into the complexity of the disorder. In Chapter 1 current terminology and classi

  12. Morphological features in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgen, Mihriban Heval

    2008-01-01

    The central research aim in the present thesis was to extend the insight in several aspects of the role of the morphological features in autism. Clinical morphology might be used as a biomarker for ASD to reveal insight into the complexity of the disorder. In Chapter 1 current terminology and

  13. Morphological Atlas of the Dutch Dialects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutter, de Georges; Berg, van den Boudewijn; Goeman, Ton; Jong, de Thera

    2005-01-01

    For the first time in the history of Dutch dialectology, a detailed overview of the variation in the formation of words has become available in the Morphological Atlas of the Dutch Dialects (MAND). MAND presents the state of the art in dialect morphology at the end of the twentieth century in two vo

  14. Effects of Morphological Instruction on Vocabulary Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowers, Peter N.; Kirby, John R.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a 20-session intervention targeting morphological word structure on vocabulary knowledge were investigated in four Grade 4 and 5 classes, assigned randomly to treatment and control conditions. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling for initial vocabulary showed significant instructional effects on morphological analysis and…

  15. Morphological features in children with autism

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Özgen, Mihriban Heval

    2008-01-01

    The central research aim in the present thesis was to extend the insight in several aspects of the role of the morphological features in autism. Clinical morphology might be used as a biomarker for ASD to reveal insight into the complexity of the disorder. In Chapter 1 current terminology and classi

  16. Morphology of solidification front in eutectic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Trepczyńska - Łent

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the analysis of morphology of solidification front in eutectic made. It was present influence of composition, solidification velocity, concentration micro-field and capillarity effects on the morphology of the solid/liquid interface. It was introduced phase-field model.

  17. Automatic Target Detection by Optimal Morphological Filters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Nong(余农); WU Hao(吴昊); WU ChangYong(吴常泳); LI YuShu(李予蜀)

    2003-01-01

    It is widely accepted that the design of morphological filters, which are optimal in some sense, is a difficult task. In this paper a novel method for optimal learning of morphological filtering parameters (Genetic training algorithm for morphological filters, GTAMF) is presented.GTAMF adopts new crossover and mutation operators called the curved cylinder crossover and master-slave mutation to achieve optimal filtering parameters in a global searching. Experimental results show that this method is practical, easy to extend, and markedly improves the performances of morphological filters. The operation of a morphological filter can be divided into two basic problems including morphological operation and structuring element (SE) selection. The rules for morphological operations are predefined so that the filter's properties depend merely on the selection of SE. By means of adaptive optimization training, structuring elements possess the shape and structural characteristics of image targets, and give specific information to SE. Morphological filters formed in this way become certainly intelligent and can provide good filtering results and robust adaptability to image targets with clutter background.

  18. Prosodic Morphology in Four Chinese Dialects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, Moira

    1992-01-01

    Yanggu, Anxiang, and Yuanyang diminutives and Cantonese familiar name formation are examined in the light of recent understanding about the role of prosodic categories in phonology and morphology. The results lend strong support to the growing body of research in prosodic morphology, especially the pioneering work of McCarthy and Prince. (52…

  19. Morphology and Temperatures at Pele

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Robert R.; Lopes, R. M. C.

    2010-10-01

    The Pele region of Io has been the site of vigorous volcanic activity from the time of the first Voyager I observations in 1979 up through the final Galileo ones in 2001. There is high temperature thermal emission from what is thought to be a rapidly overturning lava lake, and also the source of a large sulfur-rich plume. We present a new analysis of Voyager I visible wavelength images, and Galileo Solid State Imager (SSI) and Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (NIMS) thermal emission observations which better define the morphology of the region and the intensity of the emission. The observations show remarkably correlations between the locations of the emission and the features seen in the Voyager images, which provide insight into eruption mechanisms and constrain the longevity of the activity. We also analyze an additional wavelength channel of NIMS data (1.87 micron) which paradoxically, because of reduced sensitivity, allows us to estimate temperatures at the peak locations of emission. Measurements of eruption temperatures on Io are crucial because they provide our best clues to the composition of the magma. High color temperatures indicative of ultramafic composition have been reported for the Pillan hot spot and possibly for Pele, although recent work has called into question the requirement for magma temperatures above those expected for ordinary basalts. Our new analysis of the Pele emission near the peak of the hot spot shows color temperatures near the upper end of the basalt range during the I27 and I32 encounters. We also analyze those temperatures in terms of lava cooling models to determine the required magma temperatures.

  20. The Contribution of Morphological Awareness to the Spelling of Morphemes and Morphologically Complex Words in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Anila

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between morphological awareness and the spelling of morphemes and morphologically complex words among 75 third- and fourth-grade Francophone students of low socio-economic status. To reach this objective, we administered a dictation comprised of morphologically complex words with prefixes,…

  1. The Contribution of Morphological Awareness to the Spelling of Morphemes and Morphologically Complex Words in French

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fejzo, Anila

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to explore the relationship between morphological awareness and the spelling of morphemes and morphologically complex words among 75 third- and fourth-grade Francophone students of low socio-economic status. To reach this objective, we administered a dictation comprised of morphologically complex words with prefixes,…

  2. SDSS superclusters: morphology and galaxy content

    CERN Document Server

    Einasto, M; Tempel, E; Gramann, M; Liivamagi, L J; Einasto, J

    2014-01-01

    We compare the galaxy populations in superclusters of different morphology in the nearby Universe (180 < d < 270 Mpc) to see whether the inner structure and overall morphology of superclusters are important in shaping galaxy properties in superclusters. Supercluster morphology has been found with Minkowski functionals. We analyse the probability density distributions of colours, morphological types, stellar masses, star formation rates (SFR) of galaxies, and the peculiar velocities of the main galaxies in groups in superclusters of filament and spider types, and in the field. We show that the fraction of red, early-type, low SFR galaxies in filament-type superclusters is higher than in spider-type superclusters; in low-density global environments their fraction is lower than in superclusters. In all environments the fraction of red, high stellar mass, and low SFR galaxies in rich groups is higher than in poor groups. In superclusters of spider morphology red, high SFR galaxies have higher stellar masses...

  3. Auditory morphological processing: Evidence from phonological priming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacovcin, Hezekiah Akiva; Goodwin Davies, Amy; Wilder, Robert J; Embick, David

    2017-07-01

    Using an auditory lexical decision task, we find evidence of a facilitatory priming effect for morphologically complex targets (e.g., snow-ed) preceded by primes which rhyme with the target's stem (e.g., dough). By using rhyme priming, we are able to probe for morphological processing in a way that avoids confounds arising from semantic relatedness that are inherent to morphological priming (snow/snow-ed). Phonological control conditions (e.g., targets code and grove for prime dough) are used to rule out alternative interpretations of the effect that are based on partial rhyme or phonological embedding of the stem. The findings provide novel evidence for an independent morphological component in lexical processing and demonstrate the utility of rhyme priming in probing morphological representation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Morphological and molecular convergences in mammalian phylogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Zhengting; Zhang, Jianzhi

    2016-09-02

    Phylogenetic trees reconstructed from molecular sequences are often considered more reliable than those reconstructed from morphological characters, in part because convergent evolution, which confounds phylogenetic reconstruction, is believed to be rarer for molecular sequences than for morphologies. However, neither the validity of this belief nor its underlying cause is known. Here comparing thousands of characters of each type that have been used for inferring the phylogeny of mammals, we find that on average morphological characters indeed experience much more convergences than amino acid sites, but this disparity is explained by fewer states per character rather than an intrinsically higher susceptibility to convergence for morphologies than sequences. We show by computer simulation and actual data analysis that a simple method for identifying and removing convergence-prone characters improves phylogenetic accuracy, potentially enabling, when necessary, the inclusion of morphologies and hence fossils for reliable tree inference.

  5. The morphology of cometary nuclei

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, H. U.; Jorda, L.

    the Rosetta comet rendezvous mission) to about 50 km (comet Hale- Bopp, comet P/Schwassman-Wachmann 1). Their albedos are very low, about 0.04. Their shapes are irregular, axes ratios of 2:1 are often derived. Even though comets are characterized by their activity, in most cases only a small fraction of the nuclear surface (in some cases less than 1%) is active. An exception seems to be comet P/Wirtanen where all its surface is required to be active in order to explain its production rates (Rickman and Jorda 1998). The detection of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs) in the Kuiper belt (Jewitt and Luu 1993) reveals a new population of cometary bodies with dimensions an order of magnitude bigger (100 km and larger) than the typical comet observed in the inner planetary system. Little is known about the extent, density, size distribution and physical characteristics of these objects. This region is supposedly the reservoir for short-period comets, manly those controlled by Jupiter (Jupiter family comets). Our present concept of a cometary nucleus has been strongly influenced by the first pictures of the nucleus of comet Halley achieved during the Giotto flyby in 1986. While this revelation seems to be confirmed as typical by modern observations it carries the danger of prototyping new observational results and inferences. Missions and spacecraft are already on their way (Deep Space, Contour, Stardust, Deep Impact) or in preparation (Rosetta) to diversify our knowledge. The morphology of cometary nuclei is determined by their formation process in the early solar nebula, their dynamics and evolution. The physics of the processes leading to their apparent activity while approaching the Sun are still obscure in many details but determine the small- and intermediate-scale morphology. The large-scale morphology, the shape, of a cometary nucleus is determined by its fragility and inner structure and by its generally complex rotational state. These topics will be reviewed in the

  6. Experimental Trichomonas infection: Morphological aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. N. Shumkova

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Growth tendency the asymptomatic forms of an urogenital trichomoniasis, frequency of complications from reproductive organs, uncertainty of many aspects of the violations of a spermatogenesis influencing reproductive function all this proves need of search of the urogenital trichomoniasis adequate experimental model. Lack of the corresponding experimental model is limited by our opportunities for carrying out the standardized, controlled researches on studying of transmission, pathogenesis, the immune answer, therapy and development of vaccines at a triсhomonas infection.Objective is studying action of Trichomonas vaginalis on a spermatogenny epithelium the mature of individuals of guinea pigs in the conditions of sharp and chronic experience.Materials and methods. Experiments are made on the “Reproductive System (Guinea Pigs + Trichomonas vaginalis” modeling the natural course of an infection. In experiment 2 groups of animals: 1st (n = 8 – experimental, 2nd (n = 8 – control were formed. Against the background of the reduction of the immune status (hydrocortisone 125 mg/kg intramuscularly 1 time in day during 2 days the animals of the 1st group were injected intraurethral suspension containing 1 × 106 Trichomonas on 0.5 ml of culture medium, the animals of the 2nd group – 0.5 ml of medium. Under the condition of the acute experiment the animals were sacrificed on day 9 (the middle of the cycle of spermatogenesis – I experienced group and on day 30 (full spermatogenic cycle – II experimental group. The control animals were slaughtered in the same period. The material for histological study was prepared by the traditional way.Results. In an experimental model of “Reproductive system (guinea pigs + T. vaginalis”, staging and degree of disturbance of spermatogenesis, depending on the duration of trichomonas infection were shown. So, in acute experience morphological changes correspond to changes in the

  7. Phonological bases for L2 morphological learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chieh-Fang

    2010-08-01

    Two experiments examined the hypothesis that L1 phonological awareness plays a role in children's ability to extract morphological patterns of English as L2 from the auditory input. In Experiment 1, 84 Chinese-speaking third graders were tested on whether they extracted the alternation pattern between the base and the derived form (e.g., inflate - inflation) from multiple exposures. Experiment 2 further assessed children's ability to use morphological cues for syntactic categorization through exposures to novel morphologically varying forms (e.g., lutate vs. lutant) presented in the corresponding sentential positions (noun vs. verb). The third-grade EFL learners revealed emergent sensitivity to the morphological cues in the input but failed in fully processing intraword variations. The learners with poorer L1 PA were likely to encounter difficulties in identifying morphological alternation rules and in discovering the syntactic properties of L2 morphology. In addition to L1 PA, L2 vocabulary knowledge also contributed significantly to L2 morphological learning.

  8. Morphologic Spectrum of Desmoid-Type Fibromatosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zreik, Riyam T; Fritchie, Karen J

    2016-03-01

    Desmoid-type fibromatosis is a locally aggressive neoplasm composed of long sweeping fascicles of bland fibroblasts/myofibroblasts. Tumors with classic features are easy to identify, but the morphologic spectrum of this entity spans beyond the conventional histologic pattern. Since sampling of an unrecognized histologic variant may lead to misdiagnosis, especially on small needle biopsy specimens, we sought to fully characterize the morphologic spectrum of this entity. We examined 165 cases of desmoid-type fibromatosis and catalogued the morphologic patterns and percentage of those patterns identified in each case. Clinicopathologic variables, including age, sex, location, and recurrence, were analyzed and correlated with pattern frequency. Seven morphologic patterns were identified, including conventional, hyalinized/hypocellular, staghorn vessel, myxoid, keloidal, nodular fasciitis-like, and hypercellular. The mean number of patterns per case was two, but some cases harbored up to five patterns. The greatest morphologic variability was seen in the intra-abdominal lesions, with these tumors having a significantly higher percentage of the keloidal and staghorn patterns compared with extra-abdominal and abdominal wall sites. No significant correlation between patient outcome (recurrence) and presence of variant morphologic pattern was observed (P = .549). The morphologic spectrum of desmoid-type fibromatosis is deceptively broad, and awareness of the variety of histologic patterns is critical for accurate diagnosis. © American Society for Clinical Pathology, 2016. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  9. Measurement and significance of sperm morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roelof Menkveld; Cas AG Holleboom; Johann PT Rhemrev

    2011-01-01

    The measurement or evaluation and clinical significance of human sperm morphology has always been and still is a controversial aspect of the semen analysis for the determination of a male's fertility potential.In this review the background of the development of the evaluation criteria for sperm morphology will be discussed.Aspects of criticism on the strict criteria definition and use of the criteria for sperm morphology evaluation will be discussed as well as possible reasons for the decline in normal sperm morphology values and how we can compromise for this phenomenon resulting in the very low normal reference value as published in the 2010 WHO manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen.One of the possible solutions may be to give more attention to a limited number of abnormal sperm morphology categories and the inclusion of sperm morphology patterns.It is concluded in this review that if done correctly and with care and with strict application of existing guidelines as outlined in the 2010 WHO manual,sperm morphology measurement still has a very important role to play in the clinical evaluation of male fertility potential.

  10. Context-aware modeling of neuronal morphologies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin eTorben-Nielsen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Neuronal morphologies are pivotal for brain functioning: physical overlap between dendrites and axons constrain the circuit topology, and the precise shape and composition of dendrites determine the integration of inputs to produce an output signal. At the same time, morphologies are highly diverse and variant. The variance, presumably, originates from neurons developing in a densely packed brain substrate where they interact (e.g., repulsion or attraction with other actors in this substrate. However, when studying neurons their context is never part of the analysis and they are treated as if they existed in isolation.Here we argue that to fully understand neuronal morphology and its variance it is important to consider neurons in relation to each other and to other actors in the surrounding brain substrate, i.e., their context. We propose a context-aware computational framework, NeuroMaC, in which large numbers of neurons can be grown simultaneously according to growth rules expressed in terms of interactions between the developing neuron and the surrounding brain substrate.As a proof of principle, we demonstrate that by using NeuroMaC we can generate accurate virtual morphologies of distinct classes both in isolation and as part of neuronal forests. Accuracy is validated against population statistics of experimentally reconstructed morphologies. We show that context-aware generation of neurons can explain characteristics of variation. Indeed, plausible variation is an inherent property of the morphologies generated by context-aware rules. We speculate about the applicability of this framework to investigate morphologies and circuits, to classify healthy and pathological morphologies, and to generate large quantities of morphologies for large-scale modeling.

  11. ADAM: Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wael Salloum

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available While Modern Standard Arabic (MSA has many resources, Arabic Dialects, the primarily spoken local varieties of Arabic, are quite impoverished in this regard. In this article, we present ADAM (Analyzer for Dialectal Arabic Morphology. ADAM is a poor man’s solution to quickly develop morphological analyzers for dialectal Arabic. ADAM has roughly half the out-of-vocabulary rate of a state-of-the-art MSA analyzer and is comparable in its recall performance to an Egyptian dialectal morphological analyzer that took years and expensive resources to build.

  12. Using a Corpus for Teaching Turkish Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Guvenir, H A; Oflazer, Kemal

    1995-01-01

    This paper reports on the preliminary phase of our ongoing research towards developing an intelligent tutoring environment for Turkish grammar. One of the components of this environment is a corpus search tool which, among other aspects of the language, will be used to present the learner sample sentences along with their morphological analyses. Following a brief introduction to the Turkish language and its morphology, the paper describes the morphological analysis and ambiguity resolution used to construct the corpus used in the search tool. Finally, implementation issues and details involving the user interface of the tool are discussed.

  13. Cascade morphology transition in bcc metals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setyawan, Wahyu; Selby, Aaron P; Juslin, Niklas; Stoller, Roger E; Wirth, Brian D; Kurtz, Richard J

    2015-06-10

    Energetic atom collisions in solids induce shockwaves with complex morphologies. In this paper, we establish the existence of a morphological transition in such cascades. The order parameter of the morphology is defined as the exponent, b, in the defect production curve as a function of cascade energy (N(F) ~ E(MD)(b)). Response of different bcc metals can be compared in a consistent energy domain when the energy is normalized by the transition energy, μ, between the high- and the low-energy regime. Using Cr, Fe, Mo and W data, an empirical formula of μ as a function of displacement threshold energy, E(d), is presented for bcc metals.

  14. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.

    2016-01-01

    Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...

  15. Morphological representation in an endangered, polysynthetic language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, Sally; Libben, Gary; Derwing, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    This article presents the results from an initial psycholinguistic study of patterns of morphological representation in Dene Suliné (Chipewyan), an indigenous and highly endangered language spoken in Northwestern Canada. Our investigation focused on how morphological knowledge in this polysynthetic language is affected across various levels of language attrition by employing a morphological segmentation task and an off-line lexical decision task. We discuss the manner in which these tasks target different aspects of morphological ability and then turn to methodological issues associated with conducting psycholinguistic studies with language users that differ in levels of age, education, literacy, and bilingualism (Dene- English). Finally, we report on the challenges of doing psycholinguistic research outside the confines of a university setting and make some recommendations to other researchers who might wish to undertake similar studies.

  16. Morphological Phylogenetics in the Genomic Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Michael S Y; Palci, Alessandro

    2015-10-05

    Evolutionary trees underpin virtually all of biology, and the wealth of new genomic data has enabled us to reconstruct them with increasing detail and confidence. While phenotypic (typically morphological) traits are becoming less important in reconstructing evolutionary trees, they still serve vital and unique roles in phylogenetics, even for living taxa for which vast amounts of genetic information are available. Morphology remains a powerful independent source of evidence for testing molecular clades, and - through fossil phenotypes - the primary means for time-scaling phylogenies. Morphological phylogenetics is therefore vital for transforming undated molecular topologies into dated evolutionary trees. However, if morphology is to be employed to its full potential, biologists need to start scrutinising phenotypes in a more objective fashion, models of phenotypic evolution need to be improved, and approaches for analysing phenotypic traits and fossils together with genomic data need to be refined.

  17. Sperm Shape (Morphology): Does It Affect Fertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Website of the American Society for Reproductive Medicine Sperm morphology (shape): Does it affect fertility? How is ... semen analysis. This measures many features of the sperm and semen (the fluid in which the sperm ...

  18. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong, Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.;

    2016-01-01

    1928–30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially diff ering in their shield morphologies. Th e shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae......Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latt er two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not refl ect the existing morphological...... diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world...

  19. Flowers of annonaceae: Morphology, classification, and evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heusden, van E.C.H.

    1992-01-01

    The present paper describes the diversity in floral characters of Annonaceae and their distribution over the family, and discusses their value for classification and generic delimitation. Flower morphology predominated historical classifications of this family since Hooker & Thomson (1855)

  20. Genome Sequences of Eight Morphologically Diverse Alphaproteobacteria▿

    OpenAIRE

    Brown, Pamela J.B.; Kysela, David T.; Buechlein, Aaron; Hemmerich, Chris; Brun, Yves V

    2011-01-01

    The Alphaproteobacteriacomprise morphologically diverse bacteria, including many species of stalked bacteria. Here we announce the genome sequences of eight alphaproteobacteria, including the first genome sequences of species belonging to the genera Asticcacaulis, Hirschia, Hyphomicrobium, and Rhodomicrobium.

  1. Genome sequences of eight morphologically diverse Alphaproteobacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Pamela J B; Kysela, David T; Buechlein, Aaron; Hemmerich, Chris; Brun, Yves V

    2011-09-01

    The Alphaproteobacteria comprise morphologically diverse bacteria, including many species of stalked bacteria. Here we announce the genome sequences of eight alphaproteobacteria, including the first genome sequences of species belonging to the genera Asticcacaulis, Hirschia, Hyphomicrobium, and Rhodomicrobium.

  2. Genome Sequences of Eight Morphologically Diverse Alphaproteobacteria▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Pamela J. B.; Kysela, David T.; Buechlein, Aaron; Hemmerich, Chris; Brun, Yves V.

    2011-01-01

    The Alphaproteobacteriacomprise morphologically diverse bacteria, including many species of stalked bacteria. Here we announce the genome sequences of eight alphaproteobacteria, including the first genome sequences of species belonging to the genera Asticcacaulis, Hirschia, Hyphomicrobium, and Rhodomicrobium. PMID:21705585

  3. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    OpenAIRE

    Haug, Carolin; Ahyong,Shane T.; Wiethase, Joris H.; Olesen, Jørgen; Joachim T. Haug

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps) are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages), alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages). These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoolo...

  4. Self-generated morphology in lagoon reefs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Blakeway

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The three-dimensional form of a coral reef develops through interactions and feedbacks between its constituent organisms and their environment. Reef morphology therefore contains a potential wealth of ecological information, accessible if the relationships between morphology and ecology can be decoded. Traditionally, reef morphology has been attributed to external controls such as substrate topography or hydrodynamic influences. Little is known about inherent reef morphology in the absence of external control. Here we use reef growth simulations, based on observations in the cellular reefs of Western Australia’s Houtman Abrolhos Islands, to show that reef morphology is fundamentally determined by the mechanical behaviour of the reef-building organisms themselves—specifically their tendency to either remain in place or to collapse. Reef-building organisms that tend to remain in place, such as massive and encrusting corals or coralline algae, produce nodular reefs, whereas those that tend to collapse, such as branching Acropora, produce cellular reefs. The purest reef growth forms arise in sheltered lagoons dominated by a single type of reef builder, as in the branching Acropora-dominated lagoons of the Abrolhos. In these situations reef morphology can be considered a phenotype of the predominant reef building organism. The capacity to infer coral type from reef morphology can potentially be used to identify and map specific coral habitat in remotely sensed images. More generally, identifying ecological mechanisms underlying other examples of self-generated reef morphology can potentially improve our understanding of present-day reef ecology, because any ecological process capable of shaping a reef will almost invariably be an important process in real time on the living reef.

  5. Morphologic and Kinematic Characteristics of Elite Sprinters

    OpenAIRE

    Čoh, M.; Milanović, D; Kampmiller, T.

    2001-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to ascertain the basic morphologic and kinematic characteristics of elite sprinters. The sample included 24 sprinters, with times over a 100 m distance between 10.21 s and 11.19 s. Morphologic characteristics of the sprinters were measured with a test battery of 17 measures, obtained according to the methodology prescribed by the International Biologic Programme (IBP). The kinematic variables were obtained from a flying start 20 m run and a 20 m run...

  6. Edge detection based on morphological amoebas

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Won Yeol; Kim, Se Yun; Lim, Jae Young; Lim, Dong Hoon

    2011-01-01

    Detecting the edges of objects within images is critical for quality image processing. We present an edge-detecting technique that uses morphological amoebas that adjust their shape based on variation in image contours. We evaluate the method both quantitatively and qualitatively for edge detection of images, and compare it to classic morphological methods. Our amoeba-based edge-detection system performed better than the classic edge detectors.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL ANALYZER MYSTEM 3.0

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. I. Zobnin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The large part of the Russian National Corpus has automatic morphological markup. It is based on the morphological analyzer Mystem developed in Yandex with some postprocessing of the results (for example, all indeclinable nouns acquire the tag '0', verbs are divided into separate paradigms by aspect, etc.. Recently a new (third version of Mystem has been released (see https://tech.yandex.ru/mystem/.  In this article we give an overview of its capabilities.

  8. Morphology of photoreceptor systems in microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, P

    2001-06-01

    The polyphyletic artificial assemblage of O(2)-evolving, photosynthetic organisms, collectively referred to as algae, include a highly diverse array of organisms from large seaweeds (macroalgae) to unicellular microalgae. Phycology, the study of algae, focuses on morphological, ecological, physiological and molecular biological aspects of these organisms. Most microalgae show a photo-behaviour, i.e. they sense light and move towards it; in this review we will describe morphological similarities and differences in the photoreceptive system of microalgae.

  9. Machine Learning for Galaxy Morphology Classification

    CERN Document Server

    Gauci, Adam; Abela, John; Magro, Alessio

    2010-01-01

    In this work, decision tree learning algorithms and fuzzy inferencing systems are applied for galaxy morphology classification. In particular, the CART, the C4.5, the Random Forest and fuzzy logic algorithms are studied and reliable classifiers are developed to distinguish between spiral galaxies, elliptical galaxies or star/unknown galactic objects. Morphology information for the training and testing datasets is obtained from the Galaxy Zoo project while the corresponding photometric and spectra parameters are downloaded from the SDSS DR7 catalogue.

  10. River Morphology and River Channel Changes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHANG Howard H

    2008-01-01

    River morphology has been a subject of great challenge to scientists and engineers who recognize that any effort with regard to river engineering must be based on a proper understanding of the morphological features involved and the responses to the imposed changes. In this paper,an overview of river morphology is presented from the geomorphic viewpoint. Included in the scope are the regime concept, river channel classification, thresholds in river morphology, and geomor-phic analysis of river responses. Analytical approach to river morphology based on the physical principles for the hydraulics of flow and sediment transport processes is also presented. The appli-cation of analytical river morphology is demonstrated by an example. Modeling is the modern tech-nique to determine both short-term and long-term river channel responses to any change in the en-vironment. The physical foundation of fluvial process-response must be applied in formatting a mathematical model. A brief introduction of the mathematical model FLUVIAL-12 is described.

  11. Morphology Changing at Incipient Crystallization Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toshima, Takeshi; Hamai, Ryo; Fujita, Saya; Takemura, Yuka; Takamatsu, Saori; Tafu, Masamoto

    2015-04-01

    Brushite (Dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, (DCPD), CaHPO4·2H2O) is one of key components in calcium phosphate system due to wide attractive material not only as bioceramics but also environmental materials. Morphology of DCPD crystals is important factor when one uses its functionality with chemical reaction; because its surface crystal face, shape and size rule the chemical reactivity, responsiveness. Moreover, physical properties are also changed the morphology; such as cohesion, dispersiveness, permeability and so on. If one uses DCPD crystals as environmental renovation materials to catch the fluoride ions, their shape require 020 crystal surfaces; which usually restricts their shape as plate-like structure. After the chemical reaction, the shape of sludge is not good for handling due to their agglutinate property. Therefore searching an effective parameter and developing the method to control the morphology of DCPD crystals is required. In past, we reported that initial concentration and pH value of starting solution, prepared by dissolving calcium nitrate, Ca(NO3)2 and ammonium dihydrogen phosphate, NH4H2PO4, changes the morphology of DCPD crystals and phase diagram of morphology of DCPD crystal depend on those parameter. The DCPD crystallization shows unique behaviour; products obtained higher initial concentration form single crystal-like structure and under lower condition, they form agglomerate crystal-like structure. These results contradict usual crystallization. Here we report that the effect of mixing process of two solutions. The morphology of DCPD crystals is changed from plate structure to petal structure by the arrangement. Our result suggests that morphology of DCPD crystals strongly depends at incipient crystallization condition and growth form is controllable by setting initial crystallization condition.

  12. Morphology engineering - Osmolality and its effect on Aspergillus niger morphology and productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krull Rainer

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The filamentous fungus Aspergillus niger is a widely used strain in a broad range of industrial processes from food to pharmaceutical industry. One of the most intriguing and often uncontrollable characteristics of this filamentous organism is its complex morphology, ranging from dense spherical pellets to viscous mycelia depending on culture conditions. Optimal productivity correlates strongly with a specific morphological form, thus making high demands on process control. Results In about 50 2L stirred tank cultivations the influence of osmolality on A. niger morphology and productivity was investigated. The specific productivity of fructofuranosidase producing strain A. niger SKAn 1015 could be increased notably from 0.5 to 9 U mg-1 h-1 around eighteen fold, by increasing the culture broth osmolality by addition of sodium chloride. The specific productivity of glucoamylase producing strain A. niger AB1.13, could be elevated using the same procedure. An optimal producing osmolality was shown to exist well over the standard osmolality at about 3.2 osmol kg-1 depending on the strain. Fungal morphology of all cultivations was examined by microscope and characterized by digital image analysis. Particle shape parameters were combined to a dimensionless Morphology number, which enabled a comprehensive characterization of fungal morphology correlating closely with productivity. A novel method for determination of germination time in submerged cultivations by laser diffraction, introduced in this study, revealed a decelerated germination process with increasing osmolality. Conclusions Through the introduction of the versatile Morphology number, this study provides the means for a desirable characterization of fungal morphology and demonstrates its relation to productivity. Furthermore, osmolality as a fairly new parameter in process engineering is introduced and found to affect fungal morphology and productivity. Osmolality might

  13. Morphology and rheology in filamentous cultivations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wucherpfennig, T; Kiep, K A; Driouch, H; Wittmann, C; Krull, R

    2010-01-01

    Because of their metabolic diversity, high production capacity, secretion efficiency, and capability of carrying out posttranslational modifications, filamentous fungi are widely exploited as efficient cell factories in the production of metabolites, bioactive substances, and native or heterologous proteins, respectively. There is, however, a complex relationship between the morphology of these microorganisms, transport phenomena, the viscosity of the cultivation broth, and related productivity. The morphological characteristics vary between freely dispersed mycelia and distinct pellets of aggregated biomass, every growth form having a distinct influence on broth rheology. Hence, the advantages and disadvantages for mycelial or pellet cultivation have to be balanced out carefully. Because of the still inadequate understanding of the morphogenesis of filamentous microorganisms, fungal morphology is often a bottleneck of productivity in industrial production. To obtain an optimized production process, it is of great importance to gain a better understanding of the molecular and cell biology of these microorganisms as well as the relevant approaches in biochemical engineering. In this chapter, morphology and growth of filamentous fungi are described, with special attention given to specific problems as they arise from fungal growth forms; growth and mass transfer in fungal biopellets are discussed as an example. To emphasize the importance of the flow behavior of filamentous cultivation broths, an introduction to rheology is also given, reviewing important rheological models and recent studies concerning rheological parameters. Furthermore, current knowledge on morphology and productivity in relation to the environom is outlined in the last section of this review. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Nanoscale Morphology Evolution Under Ion Irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aziz, Michael J. [President & Fellows of Harvard College, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2014-11-10

    We showed that the half-century-old paradigm of morphological instability under irradiation due to the curvature-dependence of the sputter yield, can account neither for the phase diagram nor the amplification or decay rates that we measure in the simplest possible experimental system -- an elemental semiconductor with an amorphous surface under noble-gas ion irradiation; We showed that a model of pattern formation based on the impact-induced redistribution of atoms that do not get sputtered away explains our experimental observations; We developed a first-principles, parameter-free approach for predicting morphology evolution, starting with molecular dynamics simulations of single ion impacts, lasting picoseconds, and upscaling through a rigorous crater-function formalism to develop a partial differential equation that predicts morphology evolution on time scales more than twelve orders of magnitude longer than can be covered by the molecular dynamics; We performed the first quantitative comparison of the contributions to morphological instability from sputter removal and from impact-induced redistribution of atoms that are removed, and showed that the former is negligible compared to the latter; We established a new paradigm for impact-induced morphology evolution based on crater functions that incorporate both redistribution and sputter effects; and We developed a model of nanopore closure by irradiation-induced stress and irradiationenhanced fluidity, for the near-surface irradiation regime in which nuclear stopping predominates, and showed that it explains many aspects of pore closure kinetics that we measure experimentally.

  15. Evolutionary morphology of the rattlesnake style

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pires-daSilva André

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The rattlesnake rattling system is an evolutionary novelty that includes anatomical, behavioral, and physiological modifications of the generalized pitviper tail. One such modification, the formation of a bony clublike style at the terminal region of the caudal vertebrae, has not previously been examined in a phylogenetic context. Here we used skeletal material, cleared and stained preparations, and radiographs of whole preserved specimens to examine interspecific variation in style morphology among 34 rattlesnake species. Results Evolutionary Principal Components Analysis revealed an inverse relationship between caudal segmental counts and style size, supporting the hypothesis that bone from caudal vertebral elements was reallocated to style formation during the evolution of this structure. Most of the basal rattlesnake species have small styles consisting of few compacted vertebral elements; however, early in the rattlesnake radiation there appears to have been two independent transitions to relatively large, pronged styles consisting of multiple coalesced vertebrae (once in Sistrurus catenatus, and once in Crotalus following the divergence of the Mexican long-tailed rattlesnakes. In terms of style shape, the two most divergent species, C. catalinensis and C. ericsmithi, provide insight into the possible relationship between style and rattle matrix morphology and lineage-specific evolutionary strategies for retaining rattle segments. Conclusion The considerable interspecific variation in rattle morphology appears to correspond to variation in the bony style. We hypothesize that style morphology evolves indirectly as an integrated module responding to adaptive evolution on matrix morphology.

  16. Modeling disordered morphologies in organic semiconductors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Tobias; Danilov, Denis; Lennartz, Christian; Wenzel, Wolfgang

    2013-12-05

    Organic thin film devices are investigated for many diverse applications, including light emitting diodes, organic photovoltaic and organic field effect transistors. Modeling of their properties on the basis of their detailed molecular structure requires generation of representative morphologies, many of which are amorphous. Because time-scales for the formation of the molecular structure are slow, we have developed a linear-scaling single molecule deposition protocol which generates morphologies by simulation of vapor deposition of molecular films. We have applied this protocol to systems comprising argon, buckminsterfullerene, N,N-Di(naphthalene-1-yl)-N,N'-diphenyl-benzidine, mer-tris(8-hydroxy-quinoline)aluminum(III), and phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester, with and without postdeposition relaxation of the individually deposited molecules. The proposed single molecule deposition protocol leads to formation of highly ordered morphologies in argon and buckminsterfullerene systems when postdeposition relaxation is used to locally anneal the configuration in the vicinity of the newly deposited molecule. The other systems formed disordered amorphous morphologies and the postdeposition local relaxation step has only a small effect on the characteristics of the disordered morphology in comparison to the materials forming crystals.

  17. Tunable Morphologies from Charged Block Copolymers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goswami, Monojoy [ORNL; Sumpter, Bobby G [ORNL; Mays, Jimmy [ORNL; Messman, Jamie M [ORNL

    2010-01-01

    The bulk morphologies formed by a new class of charged block copolymers, 75 vol % fluorinated polyisoprene (FPI) 25 vol% sulfonated polystyrene (PSS) with 50% sulfonation, are characterized, and the fundamental underlying forces that promote the self-assembly processes are elucidated. The results show how the bulk morphologies are substantially different from their uncharged diblock counterparts (PS-PI) and also how morphology can be tuned with volume fraction of the charged block and the casting solvent. A physical understanding based on the underlying strong electrostatic interactions between the charged block and counterions is obtained using Monte Carlo (MC) and Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. The 75/25 FPI-PSS shows hexagonal morphologies with the minority blocks (PSS) forming the continuous phase due to charge percolation and the FPI blocks arranged in hexagonal cylinders. Some long-range order can be sustained even if lipophobicity is increased (addition of water), albeit with lower dimensional structures. However, thermal annealing provides sufficient energy to disrupt the percolated charges and promotes aggregation of ionic sites which leads to a disordered system. Diverse and atypical morphologies are readily accessible by simply changing the number distribution of the charges on PSS block.

  18. Template learning in morphological neural nets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Jennifer L.; Sun, K.

    1991-07-01

    This paper presents an application of morphology neural networks to a template learning problem. Morphology neural networks are a nonlinear version of the familiar artificial neural networks. Typically, an artificial neural net is used to solve pattern classification problems One useful characterization of many neural network algorithms is the ability to 'learn' to respond correctly to new data based only on a selection of known data responses. For example, in the multilayer perceptron model, the 'learning' is a procedure whereby parameters are fed back from output to input neurons and the weights changed to give a better response. The morphological neural net in this paper solves a different type of image processing problem. Specifically, given an input image and an output image which corresponds to a dilated version of the input, one would like to determine what template produced the output. The problem corresponds to teaching the network to solve for the weights in a morphological net, as the weights are the template's values. A reasonable method has been investigated for the boolean case; in this paper results are presented for gray scale images. Image algebra has been shown to provide a succinct expression of neural networks algorithms and also to allow a generalization of neural networks, and thus the authors describe the algorithm in image algebra. The remainder of the paper gives a brief discussion of image algebra, the relationship of image algebra and neural networks, a recap of the dilation morphology neural network boolean for boolean images, and the generalization to grayscale data.

  19. Clinical and Morphological Features of Focal Adenomyosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliya B. Kurashvili

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adenomyosis is a very real problem encountered in modern gynecology due to the increase in the incidence, severity of the disease, and absence of effective methods of conservative treatment. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical and morphological features of the focal and diffuse forms of adenomyosis. Methods and Results: The study involved 70 women who applied to the Center with the diagnosis of ‘adenomyosis’. Examination included transvaginal sonography (TVS, magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS, and morphological study of the adenomyotic foci. With a probability of 99%, one can argue that focal adenomyosis (FA in its clinical features is different from diffuse adenomyosis (DA in all its major manifestations. Conclusion: FA has unique morphological characteristics and clinical features. The diagnosis of FA should be based on a complex of clinical and instrumental data in conjunction with morphological process verification. Besides, there are difficulties in the diagnosis of FA, which is a major reason for the incorrect determination of the treatment tactic for patients. However, the application of MRS allows the preoperative identification of the biochemical structure of the focus and determination of its borders, and in the postoperative period, selection of optimal treatment tactics based on the identified morphological features of the removed adenomyotic foci.

  20. A Splenic Marginal Zone-Like Peripheral Blood CD27+B220− B Cell Population Is Preferentially Depleted in HIV Type 1-Infected Individuals

    OpenAIRE

    Morrow, Matthew; Valentin, Antonio; Little, Richard; Yarchoan, Robert; Pavlakis, George N.

    2008-01-01

    Peripheral blood CD27+ B cells are reduced in HIV-1-infected individuals. In healthy individuals, the human peripheral blood CD27+ B cell pool consists of two subsets defined by the expression, or lack thereof, of the CD45 isoform B220. We investigated the presence of circulating B220+ and B220− memory B cells in HIV+ individuals and found that the reduction in CD27+ memory B cells occurs primarily among CD27+B220− B cells. Studies conducted using healthy controls indicate that CD27+B220− B c...

  1. Bezafibrate and medroxyprogesterone acetate target resting and CD40L-stimulated primary marginal zone lymphoma and show promise in indolent B-cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayden, Rachel E; Kussaibati, Racha; Cronin, Laura M; Pratt, Guy; Roberts, Claudia; Drayson, Mark T; Bunce, Christopher M

    2015-04-01

    B cell non-Hodgkin lymphomas (B-NHLs) are the most common adult hematological cancers and many remain incurable. Development of chemotherapy regimens is confounded by the prevalence of B-NHL in older, frailer patients and the chemo-protective tumor microenvironment. Although biological therapies such as rituximab have significantly improved outcomes and selective kinase inhibitors are showing promise, the rate of new drug discovery remains disappointing, the treatments expensive and long-term benefits uncertain. An alternative strategy is redeployment of available, inexpensive and non-toxic drugs. Here, we demonstrate the antiproliferative and mitochondrial superoxide (MSO) driven pro-apoptotic activities of bezafibrate (BEZ) and medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA) against B-NHL cells, with a bias toward MZL, in the presence and absence of the microenvironmental signal CD40L. Our study is the first to confirm the presence of CD40L within the lymph node of B-NHL and its capacity to drive B-NHL proliferation. These findings implicate BEZ + MPA as a potential therapeutic strategy in B-NHL.

  2. Axon sorting within the spinal cord marginal zone via Robo-mediated inhibition of N-cadherin controls spinocerebellar tract formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Nozomi; Insolera, Ryan; Sillitoe, Roy V; Shi, Song-Hai; Kaprielian, Zaven

    2012-10-31

    The axons of spinal projection neurons transmit sensory information to the brain by ascending within highly organized longitudinal tracts. However, the molecular mechanisms that control the sorting of these axons within the spinal cord and their directed growth to poorly defined targets are not understood. Here, we show that an interplay between Robo and the cell adhesion molecule, N-cadherin, sorts spinal commissural axons into appropriate longitudinal tracts within the spinal cord, and thereby facilitates their brain targeting. Specifically, we show that d1 and d2 spinal commissural axons join the lateral funiculus within the spinal cord and target the cerebellum in chick embryos, and that these axons contribute to the spinocerebellar projection in transgenic reporter mice. Disabling Robo signaling or overexpressing N-cadherin on these axons prevents the formation of the lateral funiculus and the spinocerebellar tract, and simultaneously perturbing Robo and N-cadherin function rescues both phenotypes in chick embryos. Consistent with these observations, disabling Robo function in conditional N-cadherin knock-out mice results in a wild-type-like lateral funiculus. Together, these findings suggest that spinal projection axons must be sorted into distinct longitudinal tracts within the spinal cord proper to project to their brain targets.

  3. Participatory approach for integrated development and management of North African marginal zones: demonstrative plan to fight desertification in Morocco and Tunisia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maurizio Mulas

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A demonstrative and participatory development project on desertification mitigation and rural development has been launched in Northern Africa under SMAP Programme (Short and Medium-term priority environmental Action Programme financed by the European Union. The project, which title is Demonstration Project on Strategies to Combat Desertification in Arid Lands with Direct Involvement of Local Agro-pastoral Communities in North Africa, is carried out in sensitive regions of Morocco and Tunisia with the coordination of the Nucleo Ricerca sulla Desertificazione (NRD, Desertification Research Center of the University of Sassari (Italy and the partnership of Morocco and Tunisia Agriculture Ministries. The areas concerned are located in regions characterised by rural poverty, food dependency and land abandoning where urgent measures are needed to promote optimisation of resource availability and management for a sustainable development. The project involves direct desertification mitigation by vegetation cover restoration, with drought resistant perennial forage species (Opuntia ficus-indica, Atriplex nummularia and Acacia saligna in highly degraded rangelands in order to mitigate desertification processes while improving rangelands productivity; and adopts measures for local population technical capacities building through training sessions related to all project activities, and making it a concrete demonstration supported by the direct involvement of local communities. Successful actions already carried out in this field by the participants of the project as well as by other Mediterranean countries, has been taken into account, re-elaborated and exploited, thus promoting south/south co-operation and exchange of knowledge. Participation of all actors and especially of local communities is the key point in all phases of the project and is strengthened by means of dissemination and sensitisation campaigns and by training courses. At the end of the project, all actors own/share all choices made and the technology used participating thus to the intervention sustainability.

  4. Morphological Awareness and Children's Writing: Accuracy, Error, and Invention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCutchen, Deborah; Stull, Sara

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the relationship between children's morphological awareness and their ability to produce accurate morphological derivations in writing. Fifth-grade U.S. students (n = 175) completed two writing tasks that invited or required morphological manipulation of words. We examined both accuracy and error, specifically errors in spelling and errors of the sort we termed morphological inventions, which entailed inappropriate, novel pairings of stems and suffixes. Regressions were used to determine the relationship between morphological awareness, morphological accuracy, and spelling accuracy, as well as between morphological awareness and morphological inventions. Linear regressions revealed that morphological awareness uniquely predicted children's generation of accurate morphological derivations, regardless of whether or not accurate spelling was required. A logistic regression indicated that morphological awareness was also uniquely predictive of morphological invention, with higher morphological awareness increasing the probability of morphological invention. These findings suggest that morphological knowledge may not only assist children with spelling during writing, but may also assist with word production via generative experimentation with morphological rules during sentence generation. Implications are discussed for the development of children's morphological knowledge and relationships with writing.

  5. The Relationship of Morphological Analysis and Morphological Decoding to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Tong, Xiuli; Francis, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate goal of children's reading development is the full and fluid understanding of texts. Morphological structure awareness, or children's awareness of the minimal units of meaning in language, has been identified as a key skill influencing reading comprehension. Here, we evaluate the roles of morphological structure awareness and two…

  6. The Relationship of Morphological Analysis and Morphological Decoding to Reading Comprehension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deacon, S. Hélène; Tong, Xiuli; Francis, Kathryn

    2017-01-01

    The ultimate goal of children's reading development is the full and fluid understanding of texts. Morphological structure awareness, or children's awareness of the minimal units of meaning in language, has been identified as a key skill influencing reading comprehension. Here, we evaluate the roles of morphological structure awareness and two…

  7. Retention and failure morphology of prefabricated posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik;

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of cement, post material, surface treatment, and shape (1) on the retention of posts luted in the root canals of extracted human teeth and (2) on the failure morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (Para......Post Fiber White), and zirconia (Cerapost) received one of several surface treatments-sandblasting, CoJet treatment, application of Metalprimer II, or sandblasting followed by silane application-and were then luted in the prepared root canal of human incisors and canines (n = 10). Following water storage...... at 37 degrees C for 7 days, retention was determined by extraction of the posts. Failure morphology of extracted posts was analyzed and quantified stereomicroscopically. RESULTS: Type of luting cement, post material, and shape of post influenced the retention and failure morphology of the posts. Because...

  8. Influence of prepolymer composition on polyurethane morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamoorthy, Jayaraman; Jeong, Young Gyu; Hashida, Tomoko; Hsu, Shaw Ling

    2004-03-01

    Polyurethane chemistry is one of the most studied subjects. Yet many aspects remain unexplained. Polyurethanes are synthesized by the reaction of diisocyanate with diol in the presence of nucleophilic catalysts. Polyurethane prepolymers are obtained by reacting the polyester diol / polyether diol with diisocyanate, with [NCO] / [OH] > 1, resulting in isocyanate-terminated polyester/polyether mixture. Prepolymers thus synthesized can be cured at a later stage to realize various morphologies and structures. Though the initial composition and the final morphology are known, little is known about the intermediate prepolymer mixture. Due to the different reactivity of primary and secondary hydroxyl groups in the polyester and polyether towards isocyanate, prepolymer has a non-random distribution in terms of composition as blends and copolymers. Our aim is to characterize the prepolymer by different techniques and study how the different prepolymer composition, with varying polyester and polyether ratio, affects the morphology and phase separation kinetics of the final product.

  9. Opportunities and challenges for digital morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prohaska Steffen

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Advances in digital data acquisition, analysis, and storage have revolutionized the work in many biological disciplines such as genomics, molecular phylogenetics, and structural biology, but have not yet found satisfactory acceptance in morphology. Improvements in non-invasive imaging and three-dimensional visualization techniques, however, permit high-throughput analyses also of whole biological specimens, including museum material. These developments pave the way towards a digital era in morphology. Using sea urchins (Echinodermata: Echinoidea, we provide examples illustrating the power of these techniques. However, remote visualization, the creation of a specialized database, and the implementation of standardized, world-wide accepted data deposition practices prior to publication are essential to cope with the foreseeable exponential increase in digital morphological data. Reviewers This article was reviewed by Marc D. Sutton (nominated by Stephan Beck, Gonzalo Giribet (nominated by Lutz Walter, and Lennart Olsson (nominated by Purificación López-García.

  10. Bariatric surgery, gut morphology and enteroendocrine cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik

    Considering that obesity and diabetes are some of the most important health problems in the world today, a lot studies have investigated the powerful effects of bariatric surgery on weight loss and diabetes remission during the past decade. An increased release of gut hormones is believed...... 40 hormones. In this PhD study, gut morphology and the population of endocrine cells have been examined in three rodent animal models using stereological techniques. First, in a rodent model of type-2 diabetes (T2DM), the Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF), the population of endocrine L......-cells and the gut morphology were quantified. The number of Lcells was 4.8 million in the normal rat and the L-cells were found to double in number in the diabetic ZDF rat model. Second, the L-cell population, gut morphology and endocrine cell gene expression were examined in a rodent model of Roux-en-Y gastric...

  11. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  12. Mg II Absorbing Galaxies: Morphologies and Kinematics

    CERN Document Server

    Churchill, C; Kacprzak, G G; Churchill, Chris; Steidel, Chuck; Kacprzak, Glenn

    2004-01-01

    In this contribution, we review our current knowledge of the properties of galaxies, and their extended halos, selected by MgII absorption in the spectra of background quasars. We then describe recent efforts to quantify the morphologies and orientations of galaxies and explore how these relate to the gas kinematics. In a sample of 26 galaxies, we find no clear connection between the orientation of the quasar line of sight through the galaxy and the velocity spread of the gas. However, it appears that the quantity of gas "stirred up" in the halo may be correlated to asymmetry in the galaxy morphology. Since the galaxies have fairly normal morphologies, this connection may suggest that galaxies with extended halos experienced an interaction or merging event a few dynamical times prior to the epoch of observation.

  13. Mitochondrial morphology-emerging role in bioenergetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Chad A; Lee, Hakjoo; Yoon, Yisang

    2012-12-15

    Dynamic change in mitochondrial shape is a cellular process mediated mainly by fission and fusion of mitochondria. Studies have shown that mitochondrial fission and fusion are directly and indirectly associated with mitochondrial maintenance, bioenergetic demand, and cell death. Changes in mitochondrial morphology are frequently observed in response to changes in the surrounding cellular milieu, such as metabolic flux, that influence cellular bioenergetics. Connections between morphological regulation and the bioenergetic status of mitochondria are emerging as reciprocally responsive processes, though the nature of the signaling remains to be defined. Given the pivotal role mitochondria play in cellular fate, tight regulation of fission and fusion is therefore critical to preserving normal cellular physiology. Here we describe recent advancements in the understanding of the mechanisms governing mitochondrial morphology and their emerging role in mitochondrial bioenergetics.

  14. Nematode taxonomy: from morphology to metabarcoding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, M.; Sapp, M.; Prior, T.; Karssen, G.; Back, M.

    2015-11-01

    Nematodes represent a species rich and morphologically diverse group of metazoans inhabiting both aquatic and terrestrial environments. Their role as biological indicators and as key players in nutrient cycling has been well documented. Some groups of nematodes are also known to cause significant losses to crop production. In spite of this, knowledge of their diversity is still limited due to the difficulty in achieving species identification using morphological characters. Molecular methodology has provided very useful means of circumventing the numerous limitations associated with classical morphology based identification. We discuss herein the history and the progress made within the field of nematode systematics, the limitations of classical taxonomy and how the advent of high throughput sequencing is facilitating advanced ecological and molecular studies.

  15. Juvenile morphology in baleen whale phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Cheng-Hsiu; Fordyce, R. Ewan

    2014-09-01

    Phylogenetic reconstructions are sensitive to the influence of ontogeny on morphology. Here, we use foetal/neonatal specimens of known species of living baleen whales (Cetacea: Mysticeti) to show how juvenile morphology of extant species affects phylogenetic placement of the species. In one clade (sei whale, Balaenopteridae), the juvenile is distant from the usual phylogenetic position of adults, but in the other clade (pygmy right whale, Cetotheriidae), the juvenile is close to the adult. Different heterochronic processes at work in the studied species have different influences on juvenile morphology and on phylogenetic placement. This study helps to understand the relationship between evolutionary processes and phylogenetic patterns in baleen whale evolution and, more in general, between phylogeny and ontogeny; likewise, this study provides a proxy how to interpret the phylogeny when fossils that are immature individuals are included. Juvenile individuals in the peramorphic acceleration clades would produce misleading phylogenies, whereas juvenile individuals in the paedomorphic neoteny clades should still provide reliable phylogenetic signals.

  16. EFFECTS OF CATALYST MORPHOLOGY ON HYDROTREATING REACTIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TYE CHING THIAN

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to the new environmental regulations for fuel quality, refineries need to process cleaner fuel. This requires an improvement in performance of hydrotreating catalysts. Improvements in catalyst activity require knowledge of the relationships between catalyst morphology and activity. Molybdenum sulfide, the generally agreed catalysts that give the best performance in hydrocracking and hydrotreating was investigated for its morphology effects on hydrotreating reactions. Three types of MoS2 catalysts with different morphology were studied. They are crystalline MoS2, exfoliated MoS2 and MoS2 derived from a precursor, molybdenum naphthenate. Exfoliated MoS2 with minimal long range order, with much higher rim edges has shown relative higher hydrogenation activity. Generally, results of MoS2 catalyst activities in hydrogenation, hydrodesulfurization, hydrodenitrogenation and hydrideoxy¬gena¬tion are in agreement with the rim-edge model.

  17. Morphological and Chemical Characterization of Psidium Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu SHARMA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study was conducted to estimate genetic relationship among 20 genotypes of Psidium guajava and two species viz., P friedrichsthalianum Ndz. and P. catleianum Sabine, by morphological characterization. Out of 16 morphological characters studied, only inflorescence type did not show any variation, while the remaining traits showed variability to considerable extent. Morphological data on different genotypes were used to calculate similarity matrix which ranged from 0.06 to 0.50.and based on this cluster analysis was done using UPGMA. The genetic variation among genotypes was high enough to divide them into two major clusters. Cluster I consisted of �Chakaiya Rehmannagar�, �Gutaniwala�, �Super Max Ruby�, and �Spear Acid�, whereas cluster II consisted of the rest of 18 genotypes.

  18. STUDY ON MORPHOLOGICAL FEATURES OF NODULAR HIDRADENOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushpa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Study conducted in Government Villupuram medical college about morphological features of nodular hidradenoma by reviewing the hispathology slides of five cases in one year period. Analytical study done regarding the gender, age, and sites distribution of tumour and also variation in gross and histopatholgy features. OBJECTIVE : To describe and study the morphological features of Nodular Hidradenoma along with data on gender and age. Study on Sites and morphological features also included. MATERIALS AND METHOD: Retrospective evaluation of histopathological records duri ng the previous year 2013 - 2014 . The study was conducted in Tertiary care Teaching hospital , Government Villupuram Medical College, Villupuram. 5 cases of nodular hidradenoma were identified. Data on gender, age, C linical presentation, gross and microscopic findings with hematoxylin and eosin stains were collected. Histological slides were reviewed.

  19. Morphological Errors Made By Jordanian University Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramadan Saleh

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This study tries to identify, classify, describe and find out the causes of the morphological errors made by the fourth year university students majoring in English in Jordan. The students who participated in the study were 20 students from Al–Zaytoonah Private University of Jordan. The procedure followed was essay writing. After analyzing the errors, the study shows that (a the students’ competence in English morphology is poor and (b The errors are caused by some factors such as the inconsistency in English as well as misapplication of rules. Interference and overgeneralization are also other causes. Since the course of morphology is selective in the university plan, it is also considered as an important cause. In order to reduce their errors, the researcher has suggested some remedies.

  20. Nanoscale Ionic Aggregate Morphology in Zwitterionic Copolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jae-Hong; Huyck, Rebecca; Salas-de La Cruz, David; Long, Timothy E.; Winey, Karen I.

    2009-03-01

    The morphology of two different zwitterionic copolymers, poly(sulfobetaine methacrylate-ran-butyl acrylate), and poly(sulfobetaine methacrylamide-ran-butyl acrylate) are investigated as a function of the mol % content of SBMA (7 and 9 mol %) and SBMAm (6, 10 and 13 mol %), respectively. In both copolymers, X-ray scattering results show a new structure in the material arising from ionic aggregates. The sizes of the ionic aggregates are obtained through the scattering model. The sizes of the ionic aggregates increase as the ion content increases. The application of scanning transmission electron microscopy to the study of ionomer morphology has enabled direct, model-independent visualization of the ionic aggregates. The correlation between X-ray scattering results and the real space imaging for morphology of these zwitterionic copolymers will be presented.

  1. [The morphologic reaction pattern to fiber dust].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, K M; Brinkmann, O A; Fischer, M

    1990-07-01

    In principle, the fibrosing, preneoplastic and neoplastic morphological reactions to natural and man-made mineral fibres are relatively uniform, and are thus non-specific for the various different types of fibre. In order to establish a causal chain between the injurious "fibrous" agent and the morphologically and clinically manifest pathological lesion, close cooperation between epidemiologists, occupational physicians, pneumologists and pathologists is needed. On its own, the morphological contribution towards solving the problem is of only a limited nature. Light-microscopic, electron-microscopic and element-analytical studies, however, used in conjunction with the results obtained in animal experiments, in the individual case with consideration also being given to aspects of medical insurance, can lead to useful information for the clinical situation and for the generation of expertize.

  2. Process Grammar The Basis of Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Leyton, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Leyton's Process Grammar has been applied by scientists and engineers in many disciplines including medical diagnosis, geology, computer-aided design, meteorology, biological anatomy, neuroscience, chemical engineering, etc.  This book demonstrates the following: The Process Grammar invents several entirely new concepts in biological morphology and manufacturing design, and shows that these concepts are fundamentally important. The Process Grammar has process-inference rules that give, to morphological transitions, powerful new causal explanations.  Remarkably, the book gives a profound unification of biological morphology and vehicle design. The book invents over 30 new CAD operations that realize fundamentally important functions of a product. A crucial fact is that the Process Grammar is an example of the laws in Leyton's Generative Theory of Shape which give the ability to recover the design intents for which the shape features of a CAD model were created. The book demonstrates that the Process Grammar ...

  3. Functional morphology of the thoracolumbar transversospinal muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornwall, Jon; Stringer, Mark D; Duxson, Marilyn

    2011-07-15

    STUDY DESIGN. A qualitative and semiquantitative study of the morphology of the human thoracolumbar transversospinal (TSP) muscles. OBJECTIVE. To further define the functional morphology of the thoracolumbar TSP muscles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA. The TSP muscle group plays an important role in vertebral function but few studies have rigorously investigated their morphology throughout the thoracolumbar region and details on the location of motor endplates (MEPs) and fiber types are sparse. METHODS. Thoracolumbar TSP muscles were examined by microdissection in five cadavers (seven sides). MEPs were identified using acetylcholinesterase histochemistry in muscles between T5 and S4 unilaterally in two cadavers. The relative proportions of type I and type II skeletal muscle fibers were determined using immunohistochemistry on whole cross sections of every TSP muscle from one side of one cadaver (T5-S4). RESULTS.TSP morphology was homogeneous and consistent throughout the thoracolumbar region. Notable differences to standard descriptions included: (1) consistent attachments between muscles; (2) no discrete cleavage planes between muscles; and (3) attachment sites over the sacrum and to lumbar zygapophysial joints. Previously undescribed small muscles were found attaching to the medial sacrum. All TSP muscles were multipennate, with fibers arranged in parallel having one MEP per muscle fiber. Muscles were highly aerobic (mean proportion of type I fibers 89%), with the proportion of type I fibers decreasing caudally. A significantly greater proportion of type I fibers were found in the midthoracic compared to the low lumbar regions. CONCLUSION. The complex morphology of the TSP muscles indicates that they would be better classified as spinotransverse muscles. They are multipennate, highly aerobic, with fibers organized in parallel, an arrangement lending itself to "fine-tuning" of vertebral movements. Understanding their morphology has implications for investigation

  4. Plastic solar cell interface and morphological characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guralnick, Brett W.

    Plastic solar cell research has become an intense field of study considering these devices may be lightweight, flexible and reduce the cost of photovoltaic devices. The active layer of plastic solar cells are a combination of two organic components which blend to form an internal morphology. Due to the poor electrical transport properties of the organic components it is important to understand how the morphology forms in order to engineer these materials for increased efficiency. The focus of this thesis is a detailed study of the interfaces between the plastic solar cell layers and the morphology of the active layer. The system studied in detail is a blend of P3HT and PCBM that acts as the primary absorber, which is the electron donor, and the electron acceptor, respectively. The key morphological findings are, while thermal annealing increases the crystallinity parallel to the substrate, the morphology is largely unchanged following annealing. The deposition and mixing conditions of the bulk heterojunction from solution control the starting morphology. The spin coating speed, concentration, solvent type, and solution mixing time are all critical variables in the formation of the bulk heterojunction. In addition, including the terminals or inorganic layers in the analysis is critical because the inorganic surface properties influence the morphology. Charge transfer in the device occurs at the material interfaces, and a highly resistive transparent conducting oxide layer limits device performance. It was discovered that the electron blocking layer between the transparent conducting oxide and the bulk heterojunction is compromised following annealing. The electron acceptor material can diffuse into this layer, a location which does not benefit device performance. Additionally, the back contact deposition is important since the organic material can be damaged by the thermal evaporation of Aluminum, typically used for plastic solar cells. Depositing a thin thermal and

  5. Theory about Atlas morphology (Saturn moon)

    CERN Document Server

    Romay, Enrique Ordaz

    2007-01-01

    On June 12, 2007 the Cassini probe sent the images of a small moon of Saturn called Atlas which is located between the ring A and the small ring R/2004 S 1. These images have shown that the Atlas morphology is very different from other moons of similar dimensions. In the present article we propose a reasonable theory, to that we denominated "flying dune", that explains its morphologic characteristics from its magnitudes like mass, diameters and orbital radius, as well as its orbital position and the interpretation of the images caught by the Cassini probe.

  6. Morphological modeling of terrains and volume data

    CERN Document Server

    Comic, Lidija; Magillo, Paola; Iuricich, Federico

    2014-01-01

    This book describes the mathematical background behind discrete approaches to morphological analysis of scalar fields, with a focus on Morse theory and on the discrete theories due to Banchoff and Forman. The algorithms and data structures presented are used for terrain modeling and analysis, molecular shape analysis, and for analysis or visualization of sensor and simulation 3D data sets. It covers a variety of application domains including geography, geology, environmental sciences, medicine and biology. The authors classify the different approaches to morphological analysis which are all ba

  7. Object Extraction Based on Evolutionary Morphological Processing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Bin; PAN Li

    2004-01-01

    This paper introduces a novel technique for object detection using genetic algorithms and morphological processing. The method employs a kind of object oriented structure element, which is derived by genetic algorithms. The population of morphological filters is iteratively evaluated according to a statistical performance index corresponding to object extraction ability, and evolves into an optimal structuring element using the evolution principles of genetic search. Experimental results of road extraction from high resolution satellite images are presented to illustrate the merit and feasibility of the proposed method.

  8. Evolution of zinc morphology during continuous electrodeposition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The morphology evolution of zinc continuous electrodeposits with nano-sized crystals on the ferrite substrate has been studied by in-situ scanning tunnel spectroscopy (STM). It is found that the morphology of zinc electrodeposits varies from initial granules with a size of about 30 nm to layered platelets with increasing deposition time. Meanwhile, the crystal structure of the zinc electrodeposits is identified to be hexagonal η-phase by X-ray diffraction. The orientation relationship between zinc crystals and the substrate surface can be interpreted in terms of the misfit and the atomic correspondence of the interphase boundary between the η-phase deposits and α-Fe substrate.

  9. Therapy Effect: Impact on Bone Marrow Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, K David; Salama, Mohamed E

    2016-03-01

    This article highlights the most common morphologic features identified in the bone marrow after chemotherapy for hematologic malignancies, growth-stimulating agents, and specific targeted therapies. The key is to be aware of these changes while reviewing post-therapeutic bone marrow biopsies and to not mistake reactive patterns for neoplastic processes. In addition, given the development and prevalent use of targeted therapy, such as tyrosine kinase inhibitors and immune modulators, knowledge of drug-specific morphologic changes is required for proper bone marrow interpretation and diagnosis.

  10. Galaxy luminosity function and the morphological type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Gonzalez, E.; Sanz, J.L.

    1988-09-01

    The morphological luminosity function is obtained assuming that galaxies form only at high-density regions with the matter distribution represented by a filtered Gaussian random field. The results obtained for cold dark matter spectra (adiabatic and isocurvature fluctuations) with Omega = 1 are compared with observations for galaxies of different Hubble types, finding that both scenarios provide distributions that are close to the observations for global thresholds between the values of 2.5 and 3 and standard mass-luminosity ratios for each type. In every case, a bell-shaped luminosity function was found, which looks similar for each morphological type but differing in the mean luminosity. 33 references.

  11. Bacterial Morphologies Supporting Cometary Panspermia: a Reappraisal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramasinghe, Chandra

    It is nearly 30 years since the first decisive evidence of microbial morphologies in carbonaceous chondrites was discovered and reported by Hans Dieter Pflug. In addition to morphology other data, notably laser mass spectroscopy, served to confirm the identification of such structures as putative bacterial fossils. Recent examinations of cometary dust collected in the stratosphere and further studies of carbonaceous meteorites reaffirm the presence of putative microbial fossils. Since carbonaceous chondrites (particularly Type 1 chondrites) are thought to be extinct comets the data reviewed in this article provide strong support for theories of cometary panspermia.

  12. A framework for bootstrapping morphological decomposition

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Joubert, LJ

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available are dropped. Thus the rule entry ?(um)u, $1, [aeiou].*, $0? states that ?umu? becomes ?um? when joined with a word el- ement that starts with a vowel, while the second word element remains unchanged. The ?$? is used to refer back to marked sub...-level morphology: A gen- eral computational model for word-form recognition and production,? Tech. Rep., University of Helsinki, Department of General Linguistics, 1983. [4] L. Pretorius and S. Bosch, ?Finite-state compu- tational morphology...

  13. Cloning nanocrystal morphology with soft templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thapa, Dev Kumar; Pandey, Anshu

    2016-08-01

    In most template directed preparative methods, while the template decides the nanostructure morphology, the structure of the template itself is a non-general outcome of its peculiar chemistry. Here we demonstrate a template mediated synthesis that overcomes this deficiency. This synthesis involves overgrowth of silica template onto a sacrificial nanocrystal. Such templates are used to copy the morphologies of gold nanorods. After template overgrowth, gold is removed and silver is regrown in the template cavity to produce a single crystal silver nanorod. This technique allows for duplicating existing nanocrystals, while also providing a quantifiable breakdown of the structure - shape interdependence.

  14. Using Morphological Awareness Instruction to Improve Written Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Werfel, Krystal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Written English is a morphophonemic language. Researchers have documented that a conscious awareness of the morphological structure of English morphology is predictive of students' written language skills and that morphological awareness instruction leads to improvements in morphological awareness and in other written language…

  15. Using Morphological Awareness Instruction to Improve Written Language Skills

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apel, Kenn; Werfel, Krystal

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: Written English is a morphophonemic language. Researchers have documented that a conscious awareness of the morphological structure of English morphology is predictive of students' written language skills and that morphological awareness instruction leads to improvements in morphological awareness and in other written language…

  16. Exploring the Dimensionality of Morphological Knowledge for Adolescent Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Petscher, Yaacov; Carlisle, Joanne F.; Mitchell, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the dimensionality of morphological knowledge. The performance of 371 seventh- and eighth-graders on seven morphological knowledge tasks was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results suggested that morphological knowledge was best fit by a bifactor model with a general factor of morphological knowledge and seven…

  17. Exploring the Dimensionality of Morphological Knowledge for Adolescent Readers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Amanda P.; Petscher, Yaacov; Carlisle, Joanne F.; Mitchell, Alison M.

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the dimensionality of morphological knowledge. The performance of 371 seventh- and eighth-graders on seven morphological knowledge tasks was investigated using confirmatory factor analysis. Results suggested that morphological knowledge was best fit by a bifactor model with a general factor of morphological knowledge and seven…

  18. Morphological and molecular differentiation of the pectinase producing fungi Penicillium expansum and Penicillium griseoroseum Diferenciação morfológica e molecular de fungos produtores de pectinases Penicillium expansum e Penicillium griseoroseum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrícia Gomes Cardoso

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Two species from the genus Penicillium, Penicillium expansum and P. griseoroseum (Brasilian isolates were characterized morphologic and molecularlly. Morphological variability was detected among isolates in regard to colony morphology and to conidia coloration. The molecular characterization was based on the RAPD markers, telomeric fingerprinting and ITS sequencing. A total of 78 RAPD primers were used and 8 presented differences in band patterns with 54% of the amplified polymorphic fragments. The monomorphic fragments of 600 bp (P. expansum and 594 bp (P. griseoroseum were amplified. The only internal transcribed spacer region variation detected between the two species was the additional six initial nucleotides. The analysis by telomeric fingerprinting showed polymorphism between both species and the chromosome minimal numbers estimated were three. The polymorphism observed in the organization of the subtelomeric region in the genome of two Penicillium species within the high homogeneous Penicillium subgenus is for the first time reported and perhaps can be employed in future phylogenetic studies.Penicillium expansum e P. griseoroseum foram caracterizados morfológica e molecularmente. Variações na morfologia das colônias e coloração dos conídeos foram observadas entre os isolados. A caracterização molecular foi baseada em marcadores RAPD, sequenciamento da região do espaçador interno transcrito do DNA ribossomal e "fingerprinting" telomérico. Foi usado um total de 78 primers RAPD, sendo que 8 apresentaram 54% de fragmentos de DNA polimórficos. Os produtos da amplificação da região ITS de P. expansum e P. griseoroseum foram de 600 e 594 pb, respectivamente. Não foi detectada nenhuma variação na seqüência de nucleotídeos dessa região, comparando-se P. expansum e P. griseoroseum, exceto em relação aos seis nucleotídeos iniciais adicionais. Observou-se a ocorrência de polimorfismo na organização da região subtelom

  19. Morphological coupling in a double sandbar system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Nearshore sandbars are ubiquitous morphological features along many sandy, wave-dominated, coasts. They are approximately shore-parallel ridges of sand, located in water depths of less than 10 m. Depending on the wave conditions, sandbars regularly develop remarkable alongshore periodic undulations

  20. Morphological diagnosis of sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Villanueva, E

    1989-01-01

    The study reveals preliminary results of a bilateral project involving the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen (Denmark) and the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Granada (Spain). Morphological findings were compared to the results of thanatochemical analyses of peri...

  1. Modelling the morphology of filamentous microorganisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Bredal

    1996-01-01

    The rapid development in image analysis techniques has made it possible to study the growth kinetics of filamentous microorganisms in more detail than previously, However, owing to the many different processes that influence the morphology it is important to apply mathematical models to extract...

  2. Children's Early Productivity with Verbal Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagner, Laura; Swensen, Lauren D.; Naigles, Letitia R.

    2009-01-01

    Three studies using the intermodal preferential looking paradigm examined onset of productive comprehension of tense/aspect morphology in English. When can toddlers understand these forms with novel verbs and novel events? The first study used familiar verbs and showed that 26-36-month olds correctly matched a past/perfective form ("-ed" or…

  3. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  4. MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF PORTUGUESE ITALIAN RYEGRASS LANDRACES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V LOPES

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum Lam. is one of the most important forage grass species in Europe. In Portugal 34% of the cultivated area is dedicated to animal fodder. Italian ryegrass area in Entre Douro e Minho (EDM region was mainly with landraces. Changes in traditional agricultural systems are contributing to a major loss of genetic diversity mainly to landraces. Portuguese Italian ryegrass landraces are threatened since nineteen years and collecting missions took place in EDM to ex situ conservation. The main Italian ryegrass landraces from EDM are “castelhano’s” and “verdeal’s” agro type. The aim of this study was to evaluate the existence of morphological variability between EDM Italian ryegrass landraces, to analyse the existence of duplicates in the germplasm collection and to evaluate the farmer’ classification. The landraces were characterised based on morphological traits of International Plant Genetic Resources Institute and International Union for the Protection of New Varieties of Plants descriptors list and the most discriminated traits were utilised in the multivariate analysis, using NTSYS v.2.0. Italian ryegrass accessions belong to two different agro types based on morphological characteristics and farmers identified. Each landrace showed inter-population variability mainly on “verdeal” landrace. It was possible to differentiate the most of ryegrass accessions using the morphological traits used were initial stage of plant maturity. The EDM germplasm preserves the Italian ryegrass genetic diversity, which is conserved in ex situ and is a good basis for research programs.

  5. Extreme morphologies of mantis shrimp larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolin Haug

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Larvae of stomatopods (mantis shrimps are generally categorized into four larval types: antizoea, pseudozoea (both representing early larval stages, alima and erichthus (the latter two representing later larval stages. These categories, however, do not reflect the existing morphological diversity of stomatopod larvae, which is largely unstudied. We describe here four previously unknown larval types with extreme morphologies. All specimens were found in the collections of the Zoological Museum, University of Copenhagen and were collected during the Danish Dana Expedition round the world 1928-30. These new larval types all represent erichthus-type larvae, especially differing in their shield morphologies. The shield morphology ranges from almost spherical to rather disc-like, with sometimes extremely elongated spines, but only a general systematic assignment of the larvae was possible. Further investigations of these larvae are crucial to understand their life habits and ecological impact, especially as stomatopod and other crustacean larvae might have a much more important position in the marine ecosystems than their corresponding adults.

  6. Adaptivity and group invariance in mathematical morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2009-01-01

    The standard morphological operators are (i) defined on Euclidean space, (ii) based on structuring elements, and (iii) invariant with respect to translation. There are several ways to generalise this. One way is to make the operators adaptive by letting the size or shape of structuring elements depe

  7. Gray-scale morphological associative memories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sussner, Peter; Valle, Marcos Eduardo

    2006-05-01

    Neural models of associative memories are usually concerned with the storage and the retrieval of binary or bipolar patterns. Thus far, the emphasis in research on morphological associative memory systems has been on binary models, although a number of notable features of autoassociative morphological memories (AMMs) such as optimal absolute storage capacity and one-step convergence have been shown to hold in the general, gray-scale setting. In this paper, we make extensive use of minimax algebra to analyze gray-scale autoassociative morphological memories. Specifically, we provide a complete characterization of the fixed points and basins of attractions which allows us to describe the storage and recall mechanisms of gray-scale AMMs. Computer simulations using gray-scale images illustrate our rigorous mathematical results on the storage capacity and the noise tolerance of gray-scale morphological associative memories (MAMs). Finally, we introduce a modified gray-scale AMM model that yields a fixed point which is closest to the input pattern with respect to the Chebyshev distance and show how gray-scale AMMs can be used as classifiers.

  8. Descriptive Morphology Terms For MAMA software

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruggiero, Christy E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Porter, Reid B. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2014-05-21

    The table on the following pages lists a set of morphology terms for describing materials. We have organized these terms by categories. Software uses are welcome to suggest other terms that are needed to accurately describe materials. This list is intended as a initial starting point to generating a consensus terminology list.

  9. Delimiting Cladosporium from morphologically similar genera

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crous, P.W.; Braun, U.; Schubert, K.; Groenewald, J.Z.

    2007-01-01

    The genus Cladosporium is restricted to dematiaceous hyphomycetes with a coronate scar type, and Davidiella teleomorphs. In the present study numerous cladosporium-like taxa are treated, and allocated to different genera based on their morphology and DNA phylogeny derived from the LSU nrRNA gene. Se

  10. Morphological sensitivity in deaf readers of Dutch

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoogmoed, A.H. van; Verhoeven, L.T.W.; Schreuder, R.; Knoors, H.E.T.

    2011-01-01

    Deaf children experience difficulties with reading comprehension. These difficulties are not completely explained by their difficulties with the reading of single short words. Whether deaf children and adults lag behind in the morphological processing of longer words is therefore examined in two

  11. Boron carbide morphology changing under purification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmatullin, I. A.; Sivkov, A. A.

    2015-10-01

    Boron carbide synthesized by using coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator with graphite electrodes was purified by two different ways. XRD-investigations showed content changing and respectively powder purification. Moreover TEM-investigations demonstrated morphology changing of product under purification that was discussed in the work.

  12. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...

  13. Morphological diagnosis of sudden cardiac death

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougen, H P; Valenzuela, Antonio Jesus Sanchez; Villanueva, E

    1989-01-01

    The study reveals preliminary results of a bilateral project involving the Institute of Forensic Medicine, University of Copenhagen (Denmark) and the Institute of Legal Medicine, University of Granada (Spain). Morphological findings were compared to the results of thanatochemical analyses of peri...

  14. Morphological studies of some cultivated soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Slager, S.

    1966-01-01

    A study was made of those morphological and physical soil properties considered to govern root development.A deep and wide-branched root system was shown only to develop in a soil containing a permanent heterogeneous pore system, formed by biological activity in the profile. Therefore a distinction

  15. Morphological Priming Effects on Children's Spelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Joao Manuel; Nunes, Terezinha

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has suggested that children in the early grades of primary school do not have much awareness of morphemes. In this study, a priming paradigm was used to try to detect early signs of morphological representation of stems through a spelling task presented to Portuguese children (N = 805; age range 6-9 years). Primes shared the stem…

  16. Morphological Sensitivity in Deaf Readers of Dutch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hoogmoed, Anne H.; Verhoeven, Ludo; Schreuder, Robert; Knoors, Harry

    2011-01-01

    Deaf children experience difficulties with reading comprehension. These difficulties are not completely explained by their difficulties with the reading of single short words. Whether deaf children and adults lag behind in the morphological processing of longer words is therefore examined in two experiments in which the processing of prefixes by…

  17. Microstrobiles morphology in Juniperus subgen. Sabina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Antonova

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Morphological and anatomical investigations on male strobiles of Juniperus subgen. Sabina were carried out using of fresh material. Changes and varieties in coloration of microsporangia, as well as anthesis were studied. It was ascertained that number of microsporangia correlates with the position of sporophylles in strobile.

  18. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    range of frequencies used an inverse -square frequency dependence approximately holds. Morphology of Southern Hemisphere Riometer Auroral Absorption...Tecnológico under Proyecto No 1940934. Annex The percentage probability, QA, that an absorption A dB is exceed, is given as: Where Am is

  19. Morphological coupling in a double sandbar system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Price, T.D.

    2013-01-01

    Nearshore sandbars are ubiquitous morphological features along many sandy, wave-dominated, coasts. They are approximately shore-parallel ridges of sand, located in water depths of less than 10 m. Depending on the wave conditions, sandbars regularly develop remarkable alongshore periodic undulations

  20. Aspects of Bangime Phonology, Morphology, and Morphosyntax

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hantgan, Abbie

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation provides a description of aspects of the phonology, morphology, and morphosyntax of Bangime. Bangime is a language isolate spoken in the Dogon language speaking area of Central Eastern Mali. Although the Bangande, the speakers of Bangime, self-identify with the Dogon, their language bears practically no resemblance to the…

  1. Similarities in Aegyptopithecus and Afropithecus facial morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leakey, M G; Leakey, R E; Richtsmeier, J T; Simons, E L; Walker, A C

    1991-01-01

    Recently discovered cranial fossils from the Oligocene deposits of the Fayum depression in Egypt provide many details of the facial morphology of Aegyptopithecus zeuxis. Similar features are found in the Miocene hominoid Afropithecus turkanensis. Their presence is the first good evidence of a strong phenetic link between the Oligocene and Miocene hominoids of Africa. A comparison of trait lists emphasizes the similarities of the two fossil species, and leads us to conclude that the two fossil genera share many primitive facial features. In addition, we studied facial morphology using finite-element scaling analysis and found that the two genera show similarities in morphological integration, or the way in which biological landmarks relate to one another in three dimensions to define the form of the organism. Size differences between the two genera are much greater than the relatively minor shape differences. Analysis of variability in landmark location among the four Aegyptopithecus specimens indicates that variability within the sample is not different from that found within two samples of modern macaques. We propose that the shape differences found among the four Aegyptopithecus specimens simply reflect individual variation in facial characteristics, and that the similarities in facial morphology between Aegyptopithecus and Afropithecus probably represent a complex of primitive facial features retained over millions of years.

  2. Sea breeze generated waves and coastal morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verhagen, H.J.; Savov, B.

    1999-01-01

    For the determination of the stability of coastlines, coastal erosion and the design of erosion protection studies, the “local” wave climate is the most important input parameter. For morphology, “local” means just outside the breaker line. On relatively calm days the local wave climate is strongly

  3. A sensitivity analysis applied to morphological computations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Vries, M.

    1985-01-01

    In river engineering morphological predictions have to be made to study the implications of changes in a river system due to natural causes or human interference. It regards here time-depending processes. Characteristic parameters of the river have to be forecasted both in time and space. The morpho

  4. Angioscan exploration of morphology of pituitary adenoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tabarin, A.; David, J.P.; Drouillard, J. and others

    1987-01-01

    Considerable progress has been made in the morphologic study of pituitary due to the availability of angioscan programs. An exceptional case is presented of a persistent intrasellar trigeminal artery associated with prolactinoma. Based on technological progress in CT scan imaging the place of angiographic explorations in the investigation of pituitary adenoma is reconsidered.

  5. Morphological Knowledge in Children with Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duranovic, Mirela; Tinjak, Sanela; Turbic-Hadzagic, Amira

    2014-01-01

    The phonological skills are not the only linguistic abilities which are observed to have some influence on reading achievement in dyslexics. In addition to phonological skills, morphological skills should be also taken in consideration. The aim of this study is to extend investigation the linguistic abilities of children with dyslexia to the…

  6. Morphology: The Descriptive Analysis of Words.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nida, Eugene A.

    This textbook establishes principles and methodology for researching and analyzing the morphological systems of languages. The sequence of approach used in the text begins with procedures for the identification of morphemes and deals with types, distribution, structural classes, and meanings of morphemes. The final chapters present field…

  7. Morphology of polyethylene ski base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Jörg; Wallner, Gernot M; Pieber, Alois

    2010-03-01

    We used high-resolution Raman spectroscopy and differential scanning calorimetry for a comprehensive analysis of carbon black-filled polyethylene ski base grades at processing stages from the raw material to the structured ski base. Based on Raman mapping, we assessed the applicability of an advanced evaluation procedure for amorphous, disordered, and crystalline phase fractions of polyethylene for polyethylene extrusion and sinter grades. For sinter grades, a sufficient segregation between carbon black and polyethylene was confirmed, allowing for a comprehensive Raman spectroscopic morphological analysis. Significant morphological changes in polyethylene due to processing from the raw material to the semi-finished film and to the structured ski base were identified. Throughout the processing chain, we observed a decrease in crystallinity and an increase in the amorphous phase fraction. Although the raw material and the sintered semi-finished film exhibited a different but uniform polyethylene morphology, the morphological changes due to structuring of the ski base are limited to the top surface layer. The highest amorphous phase fractions were detected in the surface of the structured ski bases.

  8. The Impact of Sound Structure on Morphology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laaha, Sabine; Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the impact of sound structure on children’s acquisition of noun plural morphology, focussing on stem change. For this purpose, a threelevel classification of stem change properties according to sound structure is presented, with increasing opacity of the plural stem: no change...

  9. Generalisation of Regular and Irregular Morphological Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasada, Sandeep; and Pinker, Steven

    1993-01-01

    When it comes to explaining English verbs' patterns of regular and irregular generalization, single-network theories have difficulty with the former, rule-only theories with the latter process. Linguistic and psycholinguistic evidence, based on observation during experiments and simulations in morphological pattern generation, independently call…

  10. Computation of Semantic Number from Morphological Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berent, Iris; Pinker, Steven; Tzelgov, Joseph; Bibi, Uri; Goldfarb, Liat

    2005-01-01

    The distinction between singular and plural enters into linguistic phenomena such as morphology, lexical semantics, and agreement and also must interface with perceptual and conceptual systems that assess numerosity in the world. Three experiments examine the computation of semantic number for singulars and plurals from the morphological…

  11. Morphological Priming Survives a Language Switch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verdonschot, Rinus G.; Middelburg, Renee; Lensink, Saskia E.; Schiller, Niels O.

    2012-01-01

    In a long-lag morphological priming experiment, Dutch (L1)-English (L2) bilinguals were asked to name pictures and read aloud words. A design using non-switch blocks, consisting solely of Dutch stimuli, and switch-blocks, consisting of Dutch primes and targets with intervening English trials, was administered. Target picture naming was facilitated…

  12. The morphology of Sersic-Pastoriza galaxies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yates, G. J.; Pedlar, A.; Saikia, D. J.; Unger, S. W.; Axon, D. J.

    1990-11-01

    The authors present the preliminary results of their radio-continuum and neutral hydrogen observations of Sersic-Pastoriza (S-P) galaxies. They show that the central regions contain a population of compact features thought to be young supernova remnants (SNRs) and discuss the overall morphology of the nuclei.

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL CLASSIFICATION OF RENAL-CANCER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    STORKEL, S; VANDENBERG, E

    1995-01-01

    The current classification of renal-cell adenomas (RCAs) and carcinomas (RCCs) is based on eight basic cell and tumor types (entities) with characteristic morphologic features: (1) RCCs of clear-cell type, (2) RCAs/RCCs of chromophilic-cell type, (3) RCAs/RCCs of chromophobic-cell type, (4) RCCs of

  14. Relating rock avalanche morphology to emplacement processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dufresne, Anja; Prager, Christoph; Bösmeier, Annette

    2015-04-01

    The morphology, structure and sedimentological characteristics of rock avalanche deposits reflect both internal emplacement processes and external influences, such as runout path characteristics. The latter is mainly predisposed by topography, substrate types, and hydrogeological conditions. Additionally, the geological setting at the source slope controls, e.g. the spatial distribution of accumulated lithologies and hence material property-related changes in morphology, or the maximum clast size and amount of fines of different lithological units. The Holocene Tschirgant rock avalanche (Tyrol, Austria) resulted from failure of an intensely deformed carbonate rock mass on the southeast face of a 2,370-m-high mountain ridge. The initially sliding rock mass rapidly fragmented as it moved towards the floor of the Inn River valley. Part of the 200-250 x 106 m3 (Patzelt 2012) rock avalanche debris collided with and moved around an opposing bedrock ridge and flowed into the Ötz valley, reaching up to 6.3 km from source. Where the Tschirgant rock avalanche spread freely it formed longitudinal ridges aligned along motion direction as well as smaller hummocks. Encountering high topography, it left runup ridges, fallback patterns (i.e. secondary collapse), and compressional morphology (successively elevated, transverse ridges). Further evidence for the mechanical landslide behaviour is given by large volumes of mobilized valley-fill sediments (polymict gravels and sands). These sediments indicate both shearing and compressional faulting within the rock avalanche mass (forming their own morphological units through, e.g. in situ bulldozing or as distinctly different hummocky terrain), but also indicate extension of the spreading landslide mass (i.e. intercalated/injected gravels encountered mainly in morphological depressions between hummocks). Further influences on its morphology are given by the different lithological units. E.g. the transition from massive dolomite

  15. Comparison of morphological and genetic analyses reveals cryptic divergence and morphological plasticity in Stylophora (Cnidaria, Scleractinia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefani, Fabrizio; Benzoni, F.; Yang, S.-Y.; Pichon, M.; Galli, P.; Chen, C. A.

    2011-12-01

    A combined morphological and genetic study of the coral genus Stylophora investigated species boundaries in the Gulf of Aden, Yemen. Two mitochondrial regions, including the hypervariable IGS9 spacer and the control region, and a fragment of rDNA were used for phylogenetic analysis. Results were compared by multivariate analysis on the basis of branch morphology and corallite morphometry. Two species were clearly discriminated by both approaches. The first species was characterised by small corallites and a low morphological variability and was ascribed to a new geographical record of Stylophora madagascarensis on the basis of its phylogenetic distinction and its morphological similarity to the type material. The second species was characterised by larger corallite size and greater morphological variability and was ascribed to Stylophora pistillata. The analysis was extended to the intrageneric level for other S. pistillata populations from the Red Sea and the Pacific Ocean. Strong internal divergence was evident in the genus Sty lophora. S. pistillata populations were split into two highly divergent Red Sea/Gulf of Aden and western Pacific lineages with significant morphological overlap, which suggests they represent two distinct cryptic species. The combined use of morphological and molecular approaches, so far proved to be a powerful tool for the re-delineation of species boundaries in corals, provided novel evidence of cryptic divergence in this group of marine metazoans.

  16. An implementation of Apertium based Assamese morphological analyzer

    OpenAIRE

    Rahman, Mirzanur; Sarma, Shikhar Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Morphological Analysis is an important branch of linguistics for any Natural Language Processing Technology. Morphology studies the word structure and formation of word of a language. In current scenario of NLP research, morphological analysis techniques have become more popular day by day. For processing any language, morphology of the word should be first analyzed. Assamese language contains very complex morphological structure. In our work we have used Apertium based Finite-State-Transduce...

  17. Clinical and Electrocardiographic Characteristics of Electrical Storms Due to Monomorphic Ventricular Tachycardia Refractory to Intravenous Amiodarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murata, Hiroshige; Miyauchi, Yasushi; Hayashi, Meiso; Iwasaki, Yu-Ki; Yodogawa, Kenji; Ueno, Akira; Hayashi, Hiroshi; Tsuboi, Ippei; Uetake, Shunsuke; Takahashi, Kenta; Yamamoto, Teppei; Maruyama, Mitsunori; Akutsu, Koichi; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Kobayashi, Yoshinori; Tanaka, Keiji; Atarashi, Hirotsugu; Katoh, Takao; Shimizu, Wataru

    2015-01-01

    Few reports are available on the characteristics of electrical storms of ventricular tachycardia (VT storm) refractory to intravenous (IV) amiodarone. IV-amiodarone was administered to 60 patients with ventricular tachyarrhythmia between 2007 and 2012. VT storms, defined as 3 or more episodes of VT within 24 h, occurred in 30 patients (68±12 years, 7 female), with 12 having ischemic and 18 non-ischemic heart disease. We compared the clinical and electrocardiographic characteristics of the patients with VT storms suppressed by IV-amiodarone (Effective group) to those of patients not affected by the treatment (Refractory group). IV-amiodarone could not control recurrence of VT in 9 patients (30%). The Refractory group comprised 5 patients with acute myocardial infarctions. Although there was no difference in the VT cycle length, the QRS duration of both the VT and premature ventricular contractions (PVCs) followed by VT was narrower in the Refractory group than in the Effective group (140±30 vs. 178±25 ms, P<0.01; 121±14 vs. 179±22 ms, P<0.01). In the Refractory group, additional administration of IV-mexiletine and/or Purkinje potential-guided catheter ablation was effective. IV-amiodarone-refractory VT exhibited a relatively narrow QRS tachycardia. The narrow triggering PVCs, suggesting a Purkinje fiber origin, may be treated by additional IV-mexiletine and endocardial catheter ablation.

  18. Breeding season-specific sex diagnostics in the monomorphic House Martin Delichon urbicum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Piersma, Theunis; Van Der Velde, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Capsule Breeding adult females show a bare brood patch and a smaller cloacal protuberance than males. Aims To examine the degree of sexual dimorphism in various phenotypic traits in House Martins. Methods In the summers of 2005-07 in the northern Netherlands, 160 House Martins were captured. We meas

  19. Sonic morphology: Aesthetic dimensional auditory spatial awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitehouse, Martha M.

    The sound and ceramic sculpture installation, " Skirting the Edge: Experiences in Sound & Form," is an integration of art and science demonstrating the concept of sonic morphology. "Sonic morphology" is herein defined as aesthetic three-dimensional auditory spatial awareness. The exhibition explicates my empirical phenomenal observations that sound has a three-dimensional form. Composed of ceramic sculptures that allude to different social and physical situations, coupled with sound compositions that enhance and create a three-dimensional auditory and visual aesthetic experience (see accompanying DVD), the exhibition supports the research question, "What is the relationship between sound and form?" Precisely how people aurally experience three-dimensional space involves an integration of spatial properties, auditory perception, individual history, and cultural mores. People also utilize environmental sound events as a guide in social situations and in remembering their personal history, as well as a guide in moving through space. Aesthetically, sound affects the fascination, meaning, and attention one has within a particular space. Sonic morphology brings art forms such as a movie, video, sound composition, and musical performance into the cognitive scope by generating meaning from the link between the visual and auditory senses. This research examined sonic morphology as an extension of musique concrete, sound as object, originating in Pierre Schaeffer's work in the 1940s. Pointing, as John Cage did, to the corporeal three-dimensional experience of "all sound," I composed works that took their total form only through the perceiver-participant's participation in the exhibition. While contemporary artist Alvin Lucier creates artworks that draw attention to making sound visible, "Skirting the Edge" engages the perceiver-participant visually and aurally, leading to recognition of sonic morphology.

  20. Parametrizing arbitrary galaxy morphologies: potentials and pitfalls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrae, René; Jahnke, Knud; Melchior, Peter

    2011-02-01

    Given the enormous galaxy data bases of modern sky surveys, parametrizing galaxy morphologies is a very challenging task due to the huge number and variety of objects. We assess the different problems faced by existing parametrization schemes (CAS, Gini, M20, Sérsic profile, shapelets) in an attempt to understand why parametrization is so difficult and in order to suggest improvements for future parametrization schemes. We demonstrate that morphological observables (e.g. steepness of the radial light profile, ellipticity, asymmetry) are intertwined and cannot be measured independently of each other. We present strong arguments in favour of model-based parametrization schemes, namely reliability assessment, disentanglement of morphological observables and point spread function modelling. Furthermore, we demonstrate that estimates of the concentration and Sérsic index obtained from the Zurich Structure & Morphology catalogue are in excellent agreement with theoretical predictions. We also demonstrate that the incautious use of the concentration index for classification purposes can cause a severe loss of the discriminative information contained in a given data sample. Moreover, we show that, for poorly resolved galaxies, concentration index and M20 suffer from strong discontinuities, i.e. similar morphologies are not necessarily mapped to neighbouring points in the parameter space. This limits the reliability of these parameters for classification purposes. Two-dimensional Sérsic profiles accounting for centroid and ellipticity are identified as the currently most reliable parametrization scheme in the regime of intermediate signal-to-noise ratios and resolutions, where asymmetries and substructures do not play an important role. We argue that basis functions provide good parametrization schemes in the regimes of high signal-to-noise ratios and resolutions. Concerning Sérsic profiles, we show that scale radii cannot be compared directly for profiles of different

  1. Morphological classification of plant cell deaths

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Doorn, W.G.; Beers, E.P.; Dangl, J.L.

    2011-01-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral part of plant development and of responses to abiotic stress or pathogens. Although the morphology of plant PCD is, in some cases, well characterised and molecular mechanisms controlling plant PCD are beginning to emerge, there is still confusion about...... the classification of PCD in plants. Here we suggest a classification based on morphological criteria. According to this classification, the use of the term 'apoptosis' is not justified in plants, but at least two classes of PCD can be distinguished: vacuolar cell death and necrosis. During vacuolar cell death......, the cell contents are removed by a combination of autophagy-like process and release of hydrolases from collapsed lytic vacuoles. Necrosis is characterised by early rupture of the plasma membrane, shrinkage of the protoplast and absence of vacuolar cell death features. Vacuolar cell death is common during...

  2. Organic Based Solar Cells with Morphology Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks

    The field of organic solar cells has in the last years gone through an impressive development with efficiencies reported up to 12 %. For organic solar cells to take the leap from primarily being a laboratory scale technology to being utilized as renewable energy source, several issues need...... to be addressed. Among these are a more direct transfer of new materials tested on a laboratory scale to large scale production than offered by spincoating, a method offering direct control of the morphology in the active layer, and a more environmental friendly processing, where the vast use of organic solvents...... offers a great challenge. In this thesis the development of inks with a pre-arranged morphology was attempted by two methods. First by grafting of silicon nanoparticles with an organic phenylene vinylene oligomer, the resulting particles were analyzed by 1H-NMR, absorption spectroscopy, Atomic Force...

  3. 3D Morphology Design for Forward Osmosis

    KAUST Repository

    Shi, Meixia

    2016-06-06

    We propose a multi-scale simulation approach to model forward osmosis (FO) processes using substrates with layered homogeneous morphology. This approach accounts not only for FO setup but also for detailed microstructure of the substrate using the digitally reconstructed morphology. We fabricate a highly porous block copolymer membrane, which has not been explored for FO heretofore, and use it as the substrate for interfacial polymerization. The substrate has three sub-layers, namely a top layer, a sponge-like middle layer, and a nonwoven fabric layer. We generate a digital microstructure for each layer, and verify them with experimental measurements. The permeability and effective diffusivity of each layer are computed based on their virtual microstructures and used for FO operation in cross-flow setups at the macro scale. The proposed simulation approach predicts accurately the FO experimental data.

  4. EFFECT OF SEASON ON BOAR SPERM MORPHOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan LIPENSKÝ

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to analyze the influence of the year–season effect on semen production parameters in the fertile AI boars. The evaluation was especially focused on the morphologically abnormal spermatozoa (MAS incidence. It was microscopically evaluated after making fresh semen smears and staining on microscopic slides. MAS incidence 19.46 % was lower at first half-year than at second half-year 25.00 % (P<0.01. Spermatozoa with distal protoplasmic droplet were furthest participated in total MAS incidence. Its rate was the highest at fourth quarter in comparison with annual period (P<0.001. We found that season has the negative effect on sperm morphology and significantly affects boar sperm quality and subsequently AI dose quality.

  5. Modeling Light-Dependent Biofilm Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kernan, Chase; Huang, Jean; Christianson, Rebecca

    2013-03-01

    Bacterial aggregates on submerged substrates can produce complex biofilm morphologies that are subject to environmental and metabolic factors. We develop a reductionistic cellular automata model of these structures with the intent of guiding experimentation and explaining prior results. We focus on reproducing the columnar and ``mushroom'' phases of aerobic R. palustris and light-sensitive anaerobic R. palustris, respectively. This light sensitivity requires the novel inclusion of a characteristic light penetration depth in addition to surface tension and media penetration parameters. We quantitatively divide this parameter space into roughly four morphological phases--columnar, mushroom, uniform, and irregular--by examining the resultant convexity defect distribution, horizontal correlation, and coverage as a function of height. Finally, we both validate experimental evidence of these phases and suggest new parameter regimes to investigate empirically.

  6. Semantic growth of morphological families in English

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Regina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper explores the question of when and how morphological families are formed in one’s mental lexicon, by analyzing age-of-acquisition norms to morphological families (e.g., booking, bookshelf, check book and their shared morphemes (book. We demonstrate that the speed of growth and the size of the family depend on how early the shared morpheme is acquired and how many connections the family has at the time a new concept is incorporated in the family. These findings dovetail perfectly with the Semantic Growth model of connectivity in semantic networks by Steyvers and Tenenbaum (2005. We discuss implications of our findings for theories of vocabulary acquisition.

  7. MORPHOLOGICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF MAIZE STARCH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena Corina Popescu

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Maize, rice, wheat and potato are the main sources of starches which differ significantly in composition, morphology,thermal, rheological and retrogradation properties. Starch has unique thermal properties and functionality that havepermitted its wide use in food products and industrial applications.The structure of the starch granule results from the physical arrangement of amylose and amylopectin. Amylose contentof starches from different maize types ranged between 15.3% and 25.1%. Amylopectin is considered responsible for thecrystalline structure of starch granules.The morphological and physicochemical characteristics of maize starch are related to the enzymes involved in itsbiosynthesis.The surface of the starch granule plays a fundamental rôle as the first barrier to processes such as granule hydration,enzyme attack, and chemical reaction with modifying agents. Major parameters describing the solid surface are:specific surface area, total pore volume, mean pore radius (diameter and pore volume distribution in relation to poreradius (diameter.

  8. Convection and morphological stability during directional solidification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coriell, Sam R.; Chernov, A. A.; Murray, Bruce T.; Mcfadden, G. B.

    1994-01-01

    For growth of a vicinal face at constant velocity, the effect of anisotropic interface kinetics on morphological stability is calculated for a binary alloy. The dependence of the interface kinetic coefficient on crystallographic orientation is based on the motion and density of steps. Anisotropic kinetics give rise to traveling waves along the crystal-melt interface, and can lead to a significant enhancement of morphological stability. The stability enhancement increases as the orientation approaches a singular orientation and as the solidification velocity increases. Shear flows interact with the traveling waves and, depending on the direction of the flow, may either stabilize or destabilize the interface. Specific calculations are carried out for germanium-silicon alloys.

  9. Morphological Techniques for Medical Images: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isma Irum

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Image processing is playing a very important role in medical imaging with its versatile applications and features towards the development of computer aided diagnostic systems, automatic detections of abnormalities and enhancement in ultrasonic, computed tomography, magnetic resonance images and lots more applications. Medical images morphology is a field of study where the medical images are observed and processed on basis of geometrical and changing structures. Medical images morphological techniques has been reviewed in this study underlying the some human organ images, the associated diseases and processing techniques to address some anatomical problem detection. Images of Human brain, bone, heart, carotid, iris, lesion, liver and lung have been discussed in this study.

  10. Early Morphology and Recurring Sound Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    To enlighten the question how infants and toddlers come to grips with morphological patterns in a language whose sound structure presents great perceptual difficulties, we shall discuss aspects of our work on Danish children's acquisition of noun plurals, including results from The Danish CDI...... such measures. The analysis of the Danish morphological system used is purely sound-based (as against letter-based) and thereby deviates radically from standard accounts. The Danish (native) system of nominal pluralisation consists of the suffixes a-schwa and e-schwa, with or without accompanying stem changes...... (Basbøll 2005, Ravid et al. -schwa, with or without accompanying stem changes (Basbøll 2005, Ravid et al. 2008), as well as zero plurals (only very rarely with stem change). The two overt suffixes are the two neutral vowels in Danish, a category of paramount importance in Danish phonology: it is decisive...

  11. Engineering particle morphology with microfluidic droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Zhanxiao; Kong, Tiantian; Lei, Leyan; Zhu, Pingan; Tian, Xiaowei; Wang, Liqiu

    2016-07-01

    The controlled generation of microparticles with non-spherical features is of increasing importance. Such particles are useful for fundamental studies in areas such as self-assembly, as well as biomedical applications from drug carriers to photonic devices. We propose a simple model that captures the dominating factors controlling the size and morphology of non-spherical particles from phase separated droplets. The validity of our model is verified by comparing the generated non-spherical microparticles by droplet microfluidics. This simple relationship between the dominating factors and the final morphologies enables the production of non-spherical particles with well-defined shapes and tightly-controlled dimensions for a variety of applications from drug delivery vehicles to structural materials.

  12. Simulation of nuclei morphologies for binary alloy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    We study the critical nuclei morphologies of a binary alloy by the string method. The dynamic equation of the string, connecting the metastable phase (liquid) and stable phase (solid), is governed by Helmholtz free energy for the binary alloy system at a given temperature. The stationary string through the critical nucleus (saddle point) is obtained if the relaxation time of the string is su?ciently large. The critical nucleus radius and energy barrier to nucleation of a pure alloy with isotropic interface energy in two and three dimensions are calculated, which are consistent with the classical nucleation theory. The critical nuclei morphologies are sensitive to the anisotropy strength of interface energy and interface thickness of alloy in two and three dimensions. The critical nucleus and energy barrier to nucleation become smaller if the anisotropy strength of the interface energy is increased, which means that it is much easier to form a stable nucleus if the anisotropy of the interface energy is considered.

  13. Thermal light ghost imaging based on morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhipeng; Shi, Jianhong; Zeng, Guihua

    2016-12-01

    The quality of thermal light ghost imaging could be degraded by undersampling noise. This kind of noise is generated because of finite sampling, which could reduce the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of ghost imaging and submerge object information. In order to reduce the undersampling noise, we propose a thermal light ghost imaging scheme based on the morphology (GIM). In this scheme, the average size of the undersampling noise can be obtained by computing the second-order correlation function of the ghost imaging system. According to the average size of the undersampling noise, the corresponding structure element can be designed and used in the morphological filter; then, the GIM reconstructed image can be obtained. The experiment results show that the peak signal-to-noise ratio of the GIM reconstructed image can increased by 80% than that of conventional ghost imaging for the same number of measurements.

  14. [Heart morphologic state in retired fighter pilots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X E; Chen, Z G; Long, L; Zhai, D S; Zhao, X J; Fang, R Y

    2000-12-01

    Objective. To study the heart morphology in the retired fighter pilots, and to provide clinical evidence for protection combined G-loads (+ Gz), heat, noise, hypoxic and vibration stress induced cardiac structural damage. Method. Parameters of heart morphology were studied using Doppler echocardiography in 40 retired fighter pilots with 40 veteran cadres as control. Result. LVDd, LVDs, LADs, LVEDV, LVPWs and LVM in pilot group were somewhat higher than those in control group (NS); while IVSs and LVMI in pilot group were slightly lower than those in control group (NS); LVESV, aortic valve area, internal diameter of the ring and sinus in pilot group were significantly higher than those in control group (P < 0.05). Conclusion. Analysis of the results revealed no pathomorphologic damage of the heart. It suggest that all the variations can be regarded as adaptive changes due to the effects of the combined environmental factors experienced in long time flying.

  15. Quantitative morphological studies of the parathyroid gland

    OpenAIRE

    Larsson, Hans-Olov

    1983-01-01

    This work is based upon a series of quantitative morphological studies of the parathyroid glands of Mongolian gerbils and rats. Standard stereological methods were used on light and electron microscopical levels. Subclassification of the chief cells based on the staining affinity and electron density of the cytoplasm was not correlated with contents (volume and surface densities) of organelles. Compared to fixation by immersion, fixation by perfusion caused a remarkable reduction in the numbe...

  16. Organic Based Solar Cells with Morphology Control

    OpenAIRE

    Andersen, Thomas Rieks; Bundgaard, Eva; Jørgensen, Mikkel

    2013-01-01

    The field of organic solar cells has in the last years gone through an impressive development with efficiencies reported up to 12 %. For organic solar cells to take the leap from primarily being a laboratory scale technology to being utilized as renewable energy source, several issues need to be addressed. Among these are a more direct transfer of new materials tested on a laboratory scale to large scale production than offered by spincoating, a method offering direct control of the morpholog...

  17. Saponaria officinalis Seeds Germination Morphology and Biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Yu. Ishmuratova

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the study of influence of terms and storage conditions on Saponaria officinalis seed quality, stored in different containers (paper, plastic, fabric and glass, in the different temperature conditions, under light or darkness. The morphology, biology of Saponaria officinalis seeds was described. Basing in the obtained results, we recommend to store Saponaria officinalis seeds within 3 months in paper container at the temperature of - 18˚С.

  18. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution

    OpenAIRE

    Rodolfo Salm

    2005-01-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. Th...

  19. Surface morphology of thin films polyoxadiazoles

    OpenAIRE

    J. Weszka; M.M. Szindler; M. Chwastek-Ogierman; BRUMA M.; P. Jarka; Tomiczek, B.

    2011-01-01

    urpose: The purpose of this paper was to analyse the surface morphology of thin films polyoxadiazoles. Design/methodology/approach: SSix different polymers which belong to the group of polyoxadiazoles were dissolved in the solvent NMP. Each of these polymer was deposited on a glass substrate and a spin coating method was applied with a spin speed of 1000, 2000 and 3000 rev/min. Changes in surface topography and roughness were observed. An atomic force microscope AFM Park System has been used....

  20. Pemphigus vulgaris presenting with multiple lesion morphologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Philip In; Divito, Sherrie J; Kroshinsky, Daniela

    2014-12-14

    Pemphigus vulgaris is an uncommon intraepidermal blistering disorder that typically presents with flaccid bullae or erosions. We report a patient with pemphigus vulgaris who presented with several unusual clinical features: tense bullae with dependently layered pus, true target lesions coalescing into annular configurations, and diffuse desquamation that initially raised concern for toxic epidermal necrolysis. We discuss the differential diagnosis and implications of these morphological findings.

  1. Morphologic studies of high fall injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    XIA Peng

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available 【Abstract】 Objective: By studying the mode and morphologic character of high fall injuries on the scene, and exploring the injury situation of different heights, different fall ways and postures, to provide a reference for the foren-sic identification of high fall injury. Methods: All the high fall cases were statistically analysed according to their gender, age, ground-touching posture, fall height, site and type of the injury. Results: Among 134 high fall cases, 98 were male and 36 were female with the age ranging from 2-71 years (37.6 ±16.9 on average, in which, 10-60 years old group con-sisted of 110 cases (82%. Most cases fell from windows or roofs (73% and the touching objects were cement ground or shaft bottom of elevators. Among these cases, head injury was generally serious, followed by chest and abdominal injuries. The morphologic changes depend upon the height, nature, as well as the posture at the point while the body touches the ground. Conclusion: Morphologic study of high fall injury assists medicolegal physicians to make correct identifica-tions of the cause and nature of high fall injuries. Key words: Wounds and injuries; Forensic medicine; Anatomy and histology

  2. Gross morphology of rhea oropharyngeal cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcio N. Rodrigues

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The rhea (Rhea americana americana is an american bird belonging to Ratite's family. Studies related to its morphology are still scarce. This study aims to describe the macroscopic structures of the oropharyngeal cavity. Five heads (2 to 6 months old formalin preserved were anatomically dissected to expose the oropharynx. The oropharynx of the rhea was "bell-shaped" composed by the maxillary and mandibular rhamphotheca. The roof and floor presented two distinct regions different in colour of the mucosa. The rostral region was pale pink contrasting to grey coloured caudal region. The median longitudinal ridge extended rostrally from the apex of the choana to the tip of the beak in the roof and it is clearly more prominent and rigid than the homolog in the floor that appeared thin and stretched merely along the rostral portion of the regio interramalis. The floor was formed by the interramal region, (regio interramalis tongue and laryngeal mound containing glove-shaped glottis. This study confirmed the basic morphology of the oropharinx of the rhea. However, important morphological information not previously described is highlighted and contradictory information present in the literature is clarified.

  3. Acute pulmonary embolism: from morphology to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayo, John; Thakur, Yogesh

    2014-02-01

    This article reviews the current diagnostic strategies for patients with suspected pulmonary embolism (PE) focusing on the current first choice imaging modality, computed tomographic pulmonary angiography (CTPA). Diagnostic strengths and weaknesses and associated cost-effectiveness of the diagnostic pathways will be discussed. The radiation dose risk of these pathways will be described and techniques to minimize dose will be reviewed. Finally the impact of new dual energy applications which have the potential to provide additional functional information will be briefly reviewed. Imaging plays a vital role in the diagnostic pathway for clinically suspected PE. CT has been established as the most robust morphologic imaging tool for the evaluation of patients with suspected PE. This conclusion is based on the high diagnostic utility of CT for the detection of PE and its unique capacity for accurate diagnosis of conditions that can mimic the clinical presentation of PE. Although current cost-effectiveness evaluations have established CT as integral in the PE diagnostic pathway, failure to acknowledge the impact of alternate diagnosis represents a current knowledge gap. The emerging dual energy capacity of current CT scanners offers the potential to evaluate both pulmonary vascular morphology and ventilation perfusion relationships within the lung parenchyma at high spatial resolution. This dual assessment of lung morphology and lung function at low (< 5 millisievert) radiation dose represents a substantial advance in PE imaging.

  4. Morphologic and kinematic characteristics of elite sprinters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coh, M; Milanović, D; Kampmiller, T

    2001-12-01

    The purpose of the study was to ascertain the basic morphologic and kinematic characteristics of elite sprinters. The sample included 24 sprinters, with times over a 100 m distance between 10.21 s and 11.19 s. Morphologic characteristics of the sprinters were measured with a test battery of 17 measures, obtained according to the methodology prescribed by the International Biologic Programme (IBP). The kinematic variables were obtained from a flying start 20 m run and a 20 m run with a low start, with the technology of a contact carpet (ERGO TESTER-Bosco). Stride frequency and length, duration of contact and flight phases were registered. Time parameters were measured with a system of infrared photocells (BROWER Timing System). T-test showed that elite sprinters do not differ significantly in morphologic characteristics (p > 0.05) from the 100 m results point of view. However, statistically significant differences were obtained in starting acceleration and maximal velocity. The most important kinematic parameters for generating differences between the elite sprinters are contact time and stride frequency.

  5. A Primer on Unifying Debris Disk Morphologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Eve J.; Chiang, Eugene

    2016-08-01

    A “minimum model” for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: “rings,” “needles,” “ships-and-wakes,” “bars,” and “moths (a.k.a. fans),” depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport “double wings.” We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intuition gained from our guidebook of disk morphologies to interpret, informally, the images of a number of real-world debris disks. These interpretations suggest that the farthest reaches of planetary systems are perturbed by eccentric planets, possibly just a few Earth masses each.

  6. Atypical Cristae Morphology of Human Syncytiotrophoblast Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Los Rios Castillo, Daniela; Zarco-Zavala, Mariel; Olvera-Sanchez, Sofia; Pardo, Juan Pablo; Juarez, Oscar; Martinez, Federico; Mendoza-Hernandez, Guillermo; García-Trejo, José J.; Flores-Herrera, Oscar

    2011-01-01

    Mitochondrial complexes I, III2, and IV from human cytotrophoblast and syncytiotrophoblast associate to form supercomplexes or respirasomes, with the following stoichiometries: I1:(III2)1 and I1:(III2)1–2:IV1–4. The content of respirasomes was similar in both cell types after isolating mitochondria. However, syncytiotrophoblast mitochondria possess low levels of dimeric complex V and do not have orthodox cristae morphology. In contrast, cytotrophoblast mitochondria show normal cristae morphology and a higher content of ATP synthase dimer. Consistent with the dimerizing role of the ATPase inhibitory protein (IF1) (García, J. J., Morales-Ríos, E., Cortés-Hernandez, P., and Rodríguez-Zavala, J. S. (2006) Biochemistry 45, 12695–12703), higher relative amounts of IF1 were observed in cytotrophoblast when compared with syncytiotrophoblast mitochondria. Therefore, there is a correlation between dimerization of complex V, IF1 expression, and the morphology of mitochondrial cristae in human placental mitochondria. The possible relationship between cristae architecture and the physiological function of the syncytiotrophoblast mitochondria is discussed. PMID:21572045

  7. Bariatric surgery, gut morphology and enteroendocrine cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Carl Frederik

    Considering that obesity and diabetes are some of the most important health problems in the world today, a lot studies have investigated the powerful effects of bariatric surgery on weight loss and diabetes remission during the past decade. An increased release of gut hormones is believed to cont...... 40 hormones. In this PhD study, gut morphology and the population of endocrine cells have been examined in three rodent animal models using stereological techniques. First, in a rodent model of type-2 diabetes (T2DM), the Zucker diabetic fatty rat (ZDF), the population of endocrine L......-cells and the gut morphology were quantified. The number of Lcells was 4.8 million in the normal rat and the L-cells were found to double in number in the diabetic ZDF rat model. Second, the L-cell population, gut morphology and endocrine cell gene expression were examined in a rodent model of Roux-en-Y gastric...... bypass (RYGB). In all regions of the gastrointestinal tract the mucosa showed extensive proliferation. The number of L-cells was increased to more than double and the L-cells in the common channel showed increased expression of mRNA coding for L-cell hormones, suggesting increased activity of these cells...

  8. Morphologic studies of high fall injuries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Peng; CHANG Hong-fa; YU Yong-min; DAI Guo-xin; LI Hong-wei; JIANG Qiang-guo; YIN Zhi-yong

    2012-01-01

    Objective:By studying the mode and morphologic character of high fall injuries on the scene,and exploring the injury situation of different heights,different fall ways and postures,to provide a reference for the forensic identification of high fall injury.Methods:All the high fall cases were statistically analysed according to their gender,age,ground-touching posture,fall height,site and type of the injury.Results:Among 134 high fall cases,98 were male and 36 were female with the age ranging from 2-71 years (37.6±16.9 on average),in which,10-60 years old group consisted of 110 cases (82%).Most cases fell from windows or roofs (73%) and the touching objects were cement ground or shaft bottom of elevators.Among these cases,head injury was generally serious,followed by chest and abdominal injuries.The morphologic changes depend upon the height,nature,as well as the posture at the point while the body touches the ground.Conclusion:Morphologic study of high fall injury assists medicolegal physicians to make correct identifications of the cause and nature of high fall injuries.

  9. Diversity Of Mandibular Morphology In Some Carnivorans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahmat S. J.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of mandibular morphology of some aquatic (seals, walruses, and sea otters and terrestrial (hyenas and pandas carnivorans demonstrates a rather general pattern correlating size of condyloid angle, size of gape, and diet. Structural differences of carnivoran jaws reveal morphological and ecological adaptations that are directly correlated with availability of prey, diving depth, feeding competition and specialized feeding methods. Specifically, the inclination of the condyloid process relative to the axis of the alveolar row (= condyloid angle can be used to determine dietary preferences, including size of prey. Generally, carnivorans with a large condyloid angle feed on larger prey, while a low condyloid angle suggests feeding on small prey or can be an advantageous feeding mechanism. Mirounga angustirostris (Northern elephant seal displays sex-specific characters in cranial and postcranial elements. Likewise, significant sexually dimorphic differences in the size of condyloid angle imply that deeper-diving male Northern elephant seals have a feeding niche dissimilar to that of females. Morphological assessment of male M. angustirostris suggests they are bottom-feeding seals that utilize a suction-feeding mechanism to capture small prey and crush shells with their teeth, which become weaker as they age.

  10. Genetic diversity in palmyrah genotypes using morphological and molecular markers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.Ponnuswami

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Palms are woody monocotyledons in the family Arecaceae which is placed in the order Arecales. Slow and tall growing,hardy and non branching, dioecious and perennial in nature, palmyrah palm has no distinguishing features to identify sex,stature and high neera yielding types until flowering age of about 12 to 15 years. Under these circumstances molecularmarkers can be effectively utilized to diagnose and select a genotype. Twenty palmyrah accessions were analysed usingRAPD and ISSR markers. In RAPD analysis, a total of 57 bands were obtained, among them 43 were polymorphic and restof them were monomorphic. Amplification size ranged between 250 and 3200 bp. UPGMA based cluster diagram showedthat all 20 different genotypes were grouped into four different clusters based on the stature, sex and high neera yieldingtypes. The distance matrix between genotypes showed an average distance range from 0.54 to 0.91 with a mean of 0.70. Atotal of 130 ISSR markers were scored, of which 65 were polymorphic, equivalent to 47.94% polymorphism. These markerswere used to estimate the genetic similarity among accessions using Jaccard’s similarity coefficient, with similarity valuesranging from 71.6 to 95.7%. The average number of markers produced per primer was 6.11. For each of the 21 ISSRprimers PIC value ranged between 0 and 0.46. Cluster analysis based on ISSR data grouped the 20 palmyrah accessions intotwo major clusters. PCA based on ISSR data clearly distinguished genotypes similar to the results of cluster analysis.

  11. Ecoregions and stream morphology in eastern Oklahoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Splinter, D.K.; Dauwalter, D.C.; Marston, R.A.; Fisher, W.L.

    2010-01-01

    Broad-scale variables (i.e., geology, topography, climate, land use, vegetation, and soils) influence channel morphology. How and to what extent the longitudinal pattern of channel morphology is influenced by broad-scale variables is important to fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In the last couple of decades, there has been an increase in the amount of interdisciplinary research between fluvial geomorphologists and stream ecologists. In a historical context, fluvial geomorphologists are more apt to use physiographic regions to distinguish broad-scale variables, while stream ecologists are more apt to use the concept of an ecosystem to address the broad-scale variables that influence stream habitat. For this reason, we designed a study using ecoregions, which uses physical and biological variables to understand how landscapes influence channel processes. Ecoregions are delineated by similarities in geology, climate, soils, land use, and potential natural vegetation. In the fluvial system, stream form and function are dictated by processes observed throughout the fluvial hierarchy. Recognizing that stream form and function should differ by ecoregion, a study was designed to evaluate how the characteristics of stream channels differed longitudinally among three ecoregions in eastern Oklahoma, USA: Boston Mountains, Ozark Highlands, and Ouachita Mountains. Channel morphology of 149 stream reaches was surveyed in 1st- through 4th-order streams, and effects of drainage area and ecoregion on channel morphology was evaluated using multiple regressions. Differences existed (?????0.05) among ecoregions for particle size, bankfull width, and width/depth ratio. No differences existed among ecoregions for gradient or sinuosity. Particle size was smallest in the Ozark Highlands and largest in the Ouachita Mountains. Bankfull width was larger in the Ozark Highlands than in the Boston Mountains and Ouachita Mountains in larger streams. Width/depth ratios of the

  12. Childhood hydrocephalus – is radiological morphology associated with etiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Foss-Skiftesvik, Jon; Andresen, Morten; Juhler, Marianne

    2013-01-01

    Clinicians use a non-standardized, intuitive approach when correlating radiological morphology and etiology of hydrocephalus.......Clinicians use a non-standardized, intuitive approach when correlating radiological morphology and etiology of hydrocephalus....

  13. Ecological radiation with limited morphological diversification in salamanders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blankers, Thomas; Adams, D C; Wiens, J J

    2012-04-01

    A major goal of evolutionary biology is to explain morphological diversity among species. Many studies suggest that much morphological variation is explained by adaptation to different microhabitats. Here, we test whether morphology and microhabitat use are related in plethodontid salamanders, which contain the majority of salamander species, and have radiated into a striking diversity of microhabitats. We obtained microhabitat data for 189 species that also had both morphometric and phylogenetic data. We then tested for associations between morphology and microhabitat categories using phylogenetic comparative methods. Associations between morphology and ecology in plethodontids are largely confined to a single clade within one subfamily (Bolitoglossinae), whereas variation in morphology across other plethodontids is unrelated to microhabitat categories. These results demonstrate that ecological radiation and morphological evolution can be largely decoupled in a major clade. The results also offer a striking contrast to lizards, which typically show close relationships between morphology and microhabitat.

  14. Modelling the cybersecurity environment using morphological ontology design engineering

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Jansen van Vuuren, JC

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available ). This methodology is based on the combination of three different research methods, i.e. design science, general morphological analysis, and ontology based representation. General morphological analysis offers a solution for extracting meaningful information from...

  15. Categorization of aortic aneurysm thrombus morphology by magnetic resonance imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de la Motte, Louise; Pedersen, Mads Møller; Thomsen, Carsten

    2013-01-01

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) has been proposed for qualitative categorization of intraluminal thrombus morphology. We aimed to correlate the qualitative MRI categorization previously described to quantitative measurements of signal intensity and to compare morphological characteristics...

  16. Multiresolution maximum intensity volume rendering by morphological adjunction pyramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D

  17. Multiresolution Maximum Intensity Volume Rendering by Morphological Adjunction Pyramids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roerdink, Jos B.T.M.

    2001-01-01

    We describe a multiresolution extension to maximum intensity projection (MIP) volume rendering, allowing progressive refinement and perfect reconstruction. The method makes use of morphological adjunction pyramids. The pyramidal analysis and synthesis operators are composed of morphological 3-D

  18. Morphology and behaviour : functional links in development and evolution Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are

  19. Morphology and behaviour : functional links in development and evolution Introduction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bertossa, Rinaldo C.

    2011-01-01

    Development and evolution of animal behaviour and morphology are frequently addressed independently, as reflected in the dichotomy of disciplines dedicated to their study distinguishing object of study (morphology versus behaviour) and perspective (ultimate versus proximate). Although traits are kno

  20. Assessing Two-Year-Olds' Knowledge of Number Agreement Morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blossom, Megan

    2013-01-01

    Previous research in the area of children's knowledge of number agreement morphology has yielded mixed results. Some researchers have found evidence for sensitivity to agreement morphology at as early as 16 months, while others report that children do not comprehend number agreement morphology until as late as five or six years old. Studies of…

  1. Effects of Morphological Awareness on Second Language Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akbulut, Fatma Demiray

    2017-01-01

    This research has analysed the impact of morphological treatment in English morphological awareness task. The main aim of this study is to understand the relationship between morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge of university preparatory class students. In second language learning environment, fifty-two preparatory class students have…

  2. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary…

  3. Examining the Underlying Dimensions of Morphological Awareness and Vocabulary Knowledge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spencer, Mercedes; Muse, Andrea; Wagner, Richard K.; Foorman, Barbara; Petscher, Yaacov; Schatschneider, Christopher; Tighe, Elizabeth L.; Bishop, M. Denise

    2015-01-01

    We report results from two studies on the underlying dimensions of morphological awareness and vocabulary knowledge in elementary-aged children. In Study 1, 99 fourth-grade students were given multiple measures of morphological awareness and vocabulary. A single factor accounted for individual differences in all morphology and vocabulary…

  4. Local biochemical and morphological differences in human Achilles tendinopathy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    J, Pingel; Fredberg, Ulrich; K, Qvortrup

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of Achilles tendinopathy is high and underlying etiology as well as biochemical and morphological pathology associated with the disease is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe biochemical and morphological differences in chronic Achilles tendinopathy....... The expressions of growth factors, inflammatory mediators and tendon morphology were determined in both chronically diseased and healthy tendon parts....

  5. Upper spine morphology in hypophosphatemic rickets and healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjørup, Hans; Sonnesen, Liselotte; Beck-Nielsen, Signe S

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to describe upper spine morphology in adult patients with hypophosphatemic rickets (HR) compared with controls to assess differences in spine morphology in terms of severity of skeletal impact and to study associations between spine morphology and ...

  6. Evidence for Early Morphological Decomposition: Combining Masked Priming with Magnetoencephalography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Minna; Monahan, Philip J.; Poeppel, David

    2011-01-01

    Are words stored as morphologically structured representations? If so, when during word recognition are morphological pieces accessed? Recent masked priming studies support models that assume early decomposition of (potentially) morphologically complex words. The electrophysiological evidence, however, is inconsistent. We combined masked…

  7. Method of morphological analysis of enterprise management organizational structure

    OpenAIRE

    Heorhiadi, N.; Iwaszczuk, N.; Vilhutska, R.

    2013-01-01

    The essence of the method of morphological analysis of enterprise management organizational structure is described in the article. Setting levels of morphological decomposition and specification of sets of elements are necessary for morphological analysis. Based on empirical research identified factors that influence the formation and use of enterprises management organizational structures.

  8. Morphological dynamics of an englacial channel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Vatne

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Despite an interest in the hydraulic functioning of supraglacial and englacial channels over the last four decades, the processes and forms of such ice-bounded streams have remained poorly documented. Recent glaciological research has demonstrated the potential significance of so-called "cut and closure" streams, where englacial or subglacial flowpaths are created from the long-term incision of supraglacial channels. These flowpaths are reported to exhibit step-pool morphology, comprising knickpoints and/or knickzones, albeit exaggerated in dimensions in comparison to their supraglacial channel counterparts. However, little is known of the development of such channels' morphology. Here, we examine the spatial organization of step-pools and the upstream migration of steps, many of which form knickzones, with repeated surveys over a 10 year period in an englacial conduit in cold-based Austre Brøggerbreen, Svalbard. The observations show upstream knickpoint recession to be the dominant process for channel evolution. This is paralleled by an increase in average step height and conduit gradient over time. Characteristic channel reach types and step-riser forms are consistently observed in each of the morphological surveys reported. We suggest that the formation of steps has a hydrodynamic origin, where step-pool geometry is more efficient for energy dissipation than meanders, and that the englacial channel system is one in rapid transition rather than in dynamic equilibrium. The evolution and recession of knickzones reported here result in the formation of a 37 m moulin, suggesting over time the englacial channel may evolve towards a stable end-point characterised by a singular vertical descent to the local hydraulic base level. In light of this, our observations highlight the need to further examine the adjustment processes in cut-and-closure channels to better understand their coupling to supraglacial meltwater sources and role and potential

  9. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDY ON SHAPES OF PTERION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavan P. Havaldar

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pterion is defined as an H-shaped small circular area formed by the junction of four bones: frontal, parietal, temporal and sphenoid on norma lateralis of the skull, Pterion junction has been used as a common extra-cranial landmark for surgeons in microsurgical and surgical approaches towards important pathologies of this region. Pterion is an important landmark for anterior branch of middle meningeal artery, Broca’s motor speech area to the left, insula, the lateral cerebral fissure, for the pathologies of optic nerve, orbit, sphenoidal ridge and for the anterior circulation aneurysm and tumors, because of its clinical importance we focused our present study on morphology of shape of pterion. Materials and Methods: A total of 500 pterions were examined from 250 adult dry skulls. The present study was undertaken in adult south Indian skulls from different regions of south India, from different medical colleges. We have observed different shapes of pterion like sphenoparietal frontotemporal, stellate and epipteric. Results: The sutural morphology of the pterion and asterion is important in surgical approaches to the cranial fossae. 250 human skulls of known gender (148 male, 102 female were examined on both sides. Four types of pterion were observed – sphenoparietal 72.8%, frontotemporal 16.4%, stellate 8.8% and epipteric 2%. Conclusion: The pterion is points of sutural confluence seen in the norma lateralis of the skull. The patterns of formation exhibit population based variations. The sutural morphology of the pterion is important in surgical approaches to the cranial fossae. These findings may helpful in surgical approaches and interventions via the pterion.

  10. Structure, Morphology, and Assembly Behavior of Kafirin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Jie; Li, Yunqi; Li, Ji; Gonzalez, Alejandro Perez; Xia, Qiuyang; Huang, Qingrong (Rutgers); (CIAC)

    2015-01-14

    Prolamins from grains have attracted intensive attention in recent years due to their potential in satisfying the demand for environmentally friendly (biodegradable), abundantly available (sustainable), and cost-effective biomaterials. However, for kafirin, the prolamin from sorghum, its composition, structure, morphology, and self-assembly behaviors have not been fully characterized. In this paper, kafirin was extracted from the whole sorghum grain and found to contain 68, 14, 6, and 12% of α-, β-, and γ-fractions and cross-linked kafirin, respectively. Freeze-dried kafirin contained ~49% α-helix in the solid state. When dissolved in 65% (v/v) isopropanol, 60% (v/v) tert-butanol, and 85% (v/v) ethanol aqueous solvents, the relative α-helix content in kafirin increased with the decrease of solvent polarity. Structural analysis using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) indicated that kafirin (2 mg/mL) took stretched and extended conformations with dimensions of 118 × 15 × 15 and 100 × 11 × 11 Å in 60% tert-butanol and 65% isopropanol, respectively. More elongated conformation of individual kafirin with high-order assembly was observed in 85% ethanol. Protein aggregation occurred as protein concentration increased in its good solvent. The morphology of kafirin assemblies captured by atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed that kafirin protein took uniform particle morphology at low concentration, and disk-like or rod-like structures resulting from solvent evaporation induced particle interactions emerged at high concentrations. These results suggest that both protein concentration and solvent polarity can effectively regulate kafirin assemblies from thick rod-like to slim rod-like structures, a convenient way to tune the fibrillation of prolamin-based biomaterials.

  11. Effects of Polymeric Dielectric Morphology on Pentacene Morphology and Organic TFT Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Rongbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report on the effects of the polymeric dielectric morphology on pentacene morphology and organic thin film transistor (TFT characteristics. The morphology and thickness of cyclo-olefin polymer (COP dielectric could be controlled by selecting a solvent. Higher the solvent’s boiling point is, thinner and smother COP films could be obtained. Using the solvent of trimethylcyclohexane, the spin-coated COP films of ca. 330 nm with the peak-to-valley of 7.35 nm and the roughness of root mean square of 0.58 nm were obtained, and pentacene TFT showed high mobility of 2.0 cm2V-1s-1, which originated from highly ordering of pentacene thin films deposited on the smoother and thinner COP films.

  12. Glucagon Amyloid-like Fibril Morphology Is Selected via Morphology-Dependent Growth Inhibition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, C.B.; Otzen, D.; Christiansen, Gunna

    2007-01-01

    concentrations, we find that the lag time has an unexpected maximum at a concentration of 1 mg/mL, with faster fibrillation at both lower and higher concentrations. Seeding experiments show that small amounts of straight fibril seeds can accelerate fibril growth at both low and high glucagon concentration, while...... twisted fibril seeds cannot grow at high concentrations. We conclude that there exists a morphology-dependent mechanism for inhibition of glucagon fibril growth. Light scattering experiments indicate that glucagon is mainly monomeric below 1 mg/mL and increasingly trimeric above this concentration. We...... propose that the glucagon trimer is able to specifically inhibit growth of the twisted fibril morphology. Such inhibitory binding of molecules in an unproductive conformation could also play a role in the selection of morphologies for other fibril-forming peptides and proteins....

  13. Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, K.V.L; Ramana, M.V; Subrahmanyam, V; Krishna, K.S.; Ramprasad, T.; Desa, M.

    -1 J. Ind. Geophys. Union (2000) Vol. 4, No.2, pp. 185-190 Morphological features in the Bay of Bengal K.V.L.N.S.Sarma, M.V.Ramana1 , V.Subrahmanyam1 K.S.Krishna1, T.Ramprasad1 and Maria Desa1 National Institute of Oceanography, Regional Centre 176... of magnetic anomalies, Ramana et al. (1994) inferred some fracture zones. Due to huge sediment overburden in the Bay of Bengal surface expression of these 185 K.V.L.N.S.Sarma et al. Figure la. Bathymetry map of the Bay of Bengal. Contour interval 500 m...

  14. Early Morphology and Recurring Sound Patterns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærbæk, Laila; Basbøll, Hans; Lambertsen, Claus

    ) of two children. The age range for the longitudinal data is 1;0-3;0. Experiments are of two types, a more structured ("Classical") and a more naturalistic ("Script"). All data presented (longitudinal, experimental and CDI-data) are coded in our phonetic/phonological/morphological OLAM system. Utterances...... (Basbøll 2005, Ravid et al. -schwa, with or without accompanying stem changes (Basbøll 2005, Ravid et al. 2008), as well as zero plurals (only very rarely with stem change). The two overt suffixes are the two neutral vowels in Danish, a category of paramount importance in Danish phonology: it is decisive...

  15. Nanoscale Morphology Control in Functional Polymer Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Joachim; Loos; Svetlana; Chevtchenko

    2007-01-01

    1 Results In high-performance organic solar cells,the photoactive layer consists of a blend of an electron donor and an electron acceptor constituent,a so-called bulk heterojunction.The requirements to morphology of the efficient photoactive layer are nanoscale phase separation,which provides large interface area for exciton dissociation,and at the same time continuous pathways for transport of free charge carriers to the appropriate electrodes.In this context,the research is now focused on a better und...

  16. Wettability Induced Crack Dynamics and Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Ghosh, Udita Uday; Bhandari, Aditya Bikram; Chakraborty, Suman; DasGupta, Sunando

    2014-01-01

    Substrate wettability alteration induced control over crack formation process in thin colloidal films has been addressed in the present study. Colloidal nanosuspension (53nm, mean particle diameter) droplets have been subjected to natural drying to outline the effects of substrate surface energies over the dry-out characteristics with emphasis on crack dynamics, crack morphology and underlying particle arrangements. Experimental findings indicate that number of cracks formed decreases with increase in substrate hydrophobicity. These physical phenomena have been explained based on the magnitude of stress dissipation incurred by the substrate. DLVO predictions are also found to be in tune with the reported experimental investigations.

  17. Our experience in sperm morphology assessment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Julia Irene Ariagno; Susana Mercedes Curi; Patricia Chenlo; Herberto Ernesto Hector Repetto; Mercedes Norma Pugliese; Luis Alberto Palaoro; Melba Sardi; Gabriela Ruth Mendeluk

    2011-01-01

    @@ We read with great interest the article recently published by Menkeveld et al.1 as we have a double interest in sperm morphology assess-ment.The first one as a Clinical Andrology Laboratory(Laboratory of Male Fertility,Department of Clinical Biochemistry,Faculty of Pharmacy and Biochemistry, University of Buenos Aires, Argentina)attempting to give aluable diagnosis to our patients, and the second one as Sponsors of the External Quality Control for the Study of Human Semen in Argentina(Programa de Evaluación Externa de la Calidad(PEEC)de la Fundación Bioquimica Argentina2).

  18. Morphological properties of vestibulospinal neurons in primates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyle, Richard; Johanson, Curt

    2003-01-01

    The lateral and medial vestibulospinal tracts constitute the major descending pathways controlling extensor musculature of the body. We examined the axon morphology and synaptic input patterns and targets in the cervical spinal segments from these tract cells using intracellular recording and biocytin labeling in the squirrel monkey. Lumbosacral projecting cells represent a private, and mostly rapid, communication pathway between the dorsal Deiters' nucleus and the motor circuits controlling the lower limbs and tail. The cervical projecting cells provide both redundant and variable synaptic input to spinal cell groups, suggesting both general and specific control of the head and neck reflexes.

  19. Dan Brown: Morphology of a Bestsellersaurus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Calabrese

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Dan Brown’s success finds reasons in multiple factors, social, morphological, cognitive and commercial: the cross-medial restructuring of aesthetic communication on a global scale; the use of zero-sum homeostatic mechanisms in shaping themes, characters and meanings; the mixing of history and fiction; the disappearance of naturalistic elements; the time structuring of plots in «packs», cognitively easy to comprehend; the presence of urban settings, recognizable and meaningful for the global tourist; the elimination of ambiguous elements, favouring an aesthetic orientation to problem solving.

  20. Modeling Decisional Situations Using Morphological Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on models of financial decisions in small and medium enterprises. The presented models are a part of a decision support system presented in the PhD dissertation. One of the modeling techniques used for model creation and development is morphological analysis. This technique is used for model scale reduction not by reducing the number of variables involved but by reducing the number of possible combinations between variables. In this paper we prove how this approach can be used in modeling financial decision problems.

  1. Retention and failure morphology of prefabricated posts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sahafi, Alireza; Peutzfeldt, Anne; Asmussen, Erik

    2004-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study evaluated the effect of cement, post material, surface treatment, and shape (1) on the retention of posts luted in the root canals of extracted human teeth and (2) on the failure morphology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Posts of titanium alloy (ParaPost XH), glass fiber (Para......Post Fiber White), and zirconia (Cerapost) received one of several surface treatments-sandblasting, CoJet treatment, application of Metalprimer II, or sandblasting followed by silane application-and were then luted in the prepared root canal of human incisors and canines (n = 10). Following water storage...

  2. Morphologies of protostellar outflows: An ALMA view

    CERN Document Server

    Peters, Thomas; Seifried, Daniel; Banerjee, Robi; Klessen, Ralf S

    2014-01-01

    The formation of stars is usually accompanied by the launching of protostellar outflows. Observations with the Atacama Large Millimetre/sub-millimetre Array (ALMA) will soon revolutionalise our understanding of the morphologies and kinematics of these objects. In this paper, we present synthetic ALMA observations of protostellar outflows based on numerical magnetohydrodynamic collapse simulations. We find significant velocity gradients in our outflow models and a very prominent helical structure within the outflows. We speculate that the disk wind found in the ALMA Science Verification Data of HD 163296 presents a first instance of such an observation.

  3. Morphological characterization of fullerene–androsterone conjugates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Ruiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Here we report on the self-organization characteristics in water of two diastereomer pairs of fullerene–androsterone hybrids that have the hydrophobic C60 appendage in the A and D ring of the androsterone moiety, respectively. The morphology and particle size in aqueous solution were determined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM and dynamic light scattering (DLS, with satisfactory agreement between both techniques. In general, these fullerene derivatives are shown to organize into spherical nano-scale structures with diameters in the ranges of 10–20 and 30–50 nm, respectively.

  4. The Morphology of Emulsion Polymerized Latex Particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wignall, G. D.; Ramakrishnan, V. R.; Linne, M. A.; Klein, A.; Sperling, L. H.; Wai, M. P.; Gelman, R. A.; Fatica, M. G.; Hoerl, R. H.; Fisher, L. W.

    1987-11-01

    Under monomer starved feed conditions, emulsion polymerization of perdeuterated methyl methacrylate and styrene in the presence of preformed polymethylmethacrylate latexes resulted in particles with a core-shell morphology, as determined by small-angle neutron scattering (SANS) analysis for a hollow sphere. The locus of polymerization of the added deuterated monomer is therefore at the particle surface. In similar measurements a statistical copolymer of styrene and methyl methacrylate was used as seed particles for further polymerization of trideuteromethyl methacrylate. The resulting polymer latex was again shown to have a core-shell morphological structure as determined by SANS. SANS experiments were also undertaken on polystyrene latexes polymerized by equilibrium swelling methods, with deuterated polymer forming the first or second step. The experiments covered a molecular weight range of 6 x 10{sup 4} 10{sup 6} the molecular weights are consistent with the experimental errors, indicating that the deuterium labeled molecules are randomly distributed in the latex. These results led to the finding that the polymer chains were constrained in the latex particles by factors of 2 to 4 from the relaxed coil dimensions. For M < 10{sup 6} g/mol SANS gave zero angle scattering intensities much higher than expected on the basis of a random distribution of labeled molecules. Several models were examined, including the possible development of core-shell structures at lower molecular weights.

  5. The Morphology of HII Regions during Reionization

    CERN Document Server

    McQuinn, M; Zahn, O; Dutta, S; Hernquist, L; Zaldarriaga, M; Quinn, Matthew Mc; Lidz, Adam; Zahn, Oliver; Dutta, Suvendra; Hernquist, Lars; Zaldarriaga, Matias

    2006-01-01

    It is possible that the properties of HII regions during reionization depend sensitively on many poorly constrained quantities (the nature of the ionizing sources, the clumpiness of the gas in the IGM, the degree to which photo-ionizing feedback suppresses the abundance of low mass galaxies, etc.), making it extremely difficult to interpret upcoming observations of this epoch. We demonstrate that the actual situation is more encouraging, using a suite of radiative transfer simulations, post-processed on outputs from a 1024^3, 94 Mpc N-body simulation. Analytic prescriptions are used to incorporate small scale structures that affect reionization, yet remain unresolved in the N-body simulation. We show that the morphology of the HII regions is most dependent on the global ionization fraction x_i. This is not to say that the bubble morphology is completely independent of all parameters besides x_i. The next most important dependence is that of the nature of the ionizing sources. The rarer the sources, the larger...

  6. The manifold spectra and morphologies of EROs

    CERN Document Server

    Cimatti, A; Cassata, P; Pignatelli, E; Fasano, G; Vernet, J; Fomalont, E; Kellermann, K; Zamorani, G; Mignoli, M; Pozzetti, L; Renzini, A; Alighieri, S S; Franceschini, A; Giallongo, E; Fontana, A

    2003-01-01

    Deep VLT optical spectroscopy, HST+ACS (GOODS) imaging and VLA observations are used to unveil the nature of a complete sample of 47 EROs with R-Ks>5 and Ks<20. The spectroscopic redshift completeness is 62%. Morphological classification was derived for each ERO through visual inspection and surface brightness profile fitting. Three main ERO morphological types are found: E/S0 galaxies (30-37%), spiral-like (24-46%) and irregular systems (17-39%). The only ERO detected in the radio is likely to host an obscured AGN. The average radio luminosity of the star-forming EROs undetected in the radio implies star formation rates of the order of 33 Msun yr^-1. The colors, redshifts and masses of the E/S0 galaxy subsample imply a minimum formation redshift z_f \\sim 2. With this z_f there is enough time to have old and massive stellar spheroids already assembled at z \\sim 1. We verify that the R-Ks vs. J-Ks color diagram is efficient in segregating old and dusty-star-forming EROs.

  7. Angel lichen moth abundance and morphology data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metcalfe, Anya; Kennedy, Theodore A.; Muehlbauer, Jeffrey D.

    2016-01-01

    Two unique datasets on the abundance and morphology of the angel lichen moth ( Cisthene angelus) in Grand Canyon, Arizona, USA were compiled to describe the phenology and life history of this common, but poorly known, species. The abundance data were collected from 2012 to 2013 through a collaboration with river runners in Grand Canyon National Park. These citizen scientists deployed light traps from their campsites for one hour each night of their expedition. Insects were preserved in ethanol on site, and returned to the Southwest Biological Science Center in Flagstaff, Arizona for analysis in the laboratory. A total of 2,437 light trap samples were sorted through, 903 of which contained C. angelus. In total, 73,841 C. angelus were identified and enumerated to create the abundance data set. The morphology dataset is based on a subset of 28 light trap samples from sampling year 2012 (14 from spring and 14 from fall.) It includes gender and forewing lengths for 2,674 individual moths and dry weights for 1,102 of those individuals.

  8. Radio Source Morphology: 'nature or nuture'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banfield, Julie; Emonts, Bjorn; O'Sullivan, Shane

    2012-10-01

    Radio sources, emanating from supermassive black-holes in the centres of active galaxies, display a large variety of morphological properties. It is a long-standing debate to what extent the differences between various types of radio sources are due to intrinsic properties of the central engine (`nature') or due to the properties of the interstellar medium that surrounds the central engine and host galaxy (`nurture'). Settling this `nature vs. nurture' debate for nearby radio galaxies, which can be studied in great detail, is vital for understanding the properties and evolution of radio galaxies throughout the Universe. We propose to observe the radio galaxy NGC 612 where previous observations have detected the presence of a large-scale HI bridge between the host galaxy and a nearby galaxy NGC 619. We request a total of 13 hrs in the 750m array-configuration to determine whether or not the 100 kpc-scale radio source morphology is directly related to the intergalactic distribution of neutral hydrogen gas.

  9. A Primer on Unifying Debris Disk Morphologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, Eve J

    2016-01-01

    A "minimum model" for debris disks consists of a narrow ring of parent bodies, secularly forced by a single planet on a possibly eccentric orbit, colliding to produce dust grains that are perturbed by stellar radiation pressure. We demonstrate how this minimum model can reproduce a wide variety of disk morphologies imaged in scattered starlight. Five broad categories of disk shape can be captured: "rings," "needles," "ships-and-wakes," "bars," and "moths (a.k.a. fans)," depending on the viewing geometry. Moths can also sport "double wings." We explain the origin of morphological features from first principles, exploring the dependence on planet eccentricity, disk inclination dispersion, and the parent body orbital phases at which dust grains are born. A key determinant in disk appearance is the degree to which dust grain orbits are apsidally aligned. Our study of a simple steady-state (secularly relaxed) disk should serve as a reference for more detailed models tailored to individual systems. We use the intui...

  10. Craniofacial morphology in children with cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellsing, E; Brattström, V; Strandvik, B

    1992-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a hereditary metabolic disorder with clinical symptoms of abnormal mucus production. This blocks the airways, gives pancreatic insufficiency, and increases sweat electrolytes. The progressive respiratory disease often leads to respiratory insufficiency and cor pulmonale. The aim of the present investigation was to examine the facial morphology in children with cystic fibrosis. The sample comprised 11 children with cystic fibrosis, who were divided in two groups, one with gastrointestinal disorders and the other with predominantly respiratory insufficiency. Eleven healthy children with normal occlusions were selected as controls. Lateral skull radiographs obtained in natural head posture were digitized, and linear and angular variables for the different groups calculated and compared statistically. The cystic fibrosis group showed open bite, decreased posterior facial height, increased mandibular and craniocervical inclination. Additionally, within the CF-group, the children with respiratory insufficiency differed more from the controls than the children with gastrointestinal disorders. Despite the small number of subjects, the facial morphology of the CF children showed a similar pattern to that of children with nasal respiratory obstruction due to enlarged adenoids or tonsils.

  11. Morphological classification of post-AGB stars

    CERN Document Server

    Manchado, A; Villaver, E; de Massas, J Guironnet

    2011-01-01

    We present a complete study of the morphology of post-Asymptotic Giant Branch (AGB) stars. Post-AGB is a very short evolutionary phase between the end of the AGB and the beginning of the Planetary Nebula (PN) stage (between 100 and 10,000 yrs). We have defined the end of the post-AGB phase and the beginning of the PN phase when the star is hot enough to fully ionize the hydrogen envelope. Post-AGB stars have a circumstellar shell that is illuminated by the central stars or partially ionized. However, this circumstellar shell is too small to be resolved from ground-based observations. Thus, we have used data from the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) database to resolve these shells. About 150 post-AGB were found in this database. Here we present the preliminary results on their morphological classification and the correlation with several parameters such as galactic latitude and IRAS fluxes. Our preliminary results show that 40% of the sample are stellar-like (S), 33 % bipolar (B), 12 % multi-polar (M) and 15 % el...

  12. PHENOLOGY AND MORPHOLOGY OF Diatenopteryx sorbifolia Radlk.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marciele Felippi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5902/198050989280This study aimed to elucidate the time of occurrence of flowers and fruits and the external and internal morphology of the flower, fruit and seed, and seedling and external changes of Diatenopteryx sorbifolia Radlk (Sapindaceae. The collection of botanical material and phenological observations were made on trees headquarters, located in the municipality of Frederico Westphalen, Rio Grande do Sul state, between March 2007 and March 2010. The study was conducted at the Seed Laboratory of the Department of Forest Sciences, Federal University of Santa Maria, RS state. The species flowered from September to October. The annual fruiting occurs from November to January, having anemochorous dispersion. There were irregularities in the production of fruits as the years and there is no synchronization between headquarters during the phenophases. The species has inflorescence thyrsus, pleiotirso, with small white flowers in color, hermaphrodites with ovarian super sincarpico, and bicarpelar uniovular, as well as male unisexual flowers. The fruit of siples, dry, indehiscent, brown color, is the type esquisocarpaceo, consisting of samarideos containing one to two seeds, ovoid, brown color, exalbuminate with axial embryo and fleshy cotyledons. The germination process started from the second day after sowing, germination is epigeal type. After 18 days, the seedling phanerocotyledonal is formed. The changes in conditions to be studied, are formed three months after sowing. The phenological characterization is morphological information that is relevant for the field identification of species, seed collection and analysis, as well as the production of seedlings.

  13. MORPHOLOGICAL VARIATIONS OF SPLEEN: A CADAVERIC STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siva Chidambaram

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The Spleen is a large lymphoid organ situated in the left hypochondrial region having an important role in immunological and hematological functions of the human body. The aim of this study was to find the morphological variations of the spleen with respect to it’s a Shape, b Number of notches on its borders and c Presence of anomalous fissure on its surface. The Study was done on 60 formalin fixed cadaveric spleen from the Department of Anatomy, Narayana Medical College, Nellore, Andhra Pradesh. Out of 60 spleens we examined, the various shapes of the spleen were noted suc h as wedge shape (73.33%, triangular (13.33%, tetrahedral (6.67% and oval shape(6.67%.The number of spleen showing notches on its superior border was 38(63.33% and in inferior border it was 6(10%. Absence of splenic notch was observed in 10(16.67% s pleens and the remaining 6 spleens (10% shows notches on its both the borders. The anomalous splenic fissure was found in 4(6.67% spleens on its diaphragmatic surface. The knowledge of variations in the morphology of spleen are essential for physician, s urgeon, radiologist and forensic surgeon to differentiate it from the splenic pathology and splenic injury. In addition to this, it is also important for anatomist during routine classroom dissection and discussion.

  14. Dynamic Morphologies of Microscale Droplet Interface Bilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mruetusatorn, Prachya [ORNL; Boreyko, Jonathan B [ORNL; Sarles, Stephen A [ORNL; Venkatesan, Guru [The University of Tennessee; Hayes, Douglas G [ORNL; Collier, Pat [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Droplet interface bilayers (DIBs) are a powerful platform for studying the dynamics of synthetic cellular membranes; however, very little has been done to exploit the unique dynamical features of DIBs. Here, we generate microscale droplet interface bilayers ( DIBs) by bringing together femtoliter-volume water droplets in a microfluidic oil channel, and characterize morphological changes of the DIBs as the droplets shrink due to evaporation. By varying the initial conditions of the system, we identify three distinct classes of dynamic morphology. (1) Buckling and Fission: When forming DIBs using the lipid-out method (lipids in oil phase), lipids in the shrinking monolayers continually pair together and slide into the bilayer to conserve their mass. As the bilayer continues to grow, it becomes confined, buckles, and eventually fissions one or more vesicles. (2) Uniform Shrinking: When using the lipid-in method (lipids in water phase) to form DIBs, lipids uniformly transfer from the monolayers and bilayer into vesicles contained inside the water droplets. (3) Stretching and Unzipping: Finally, when the droplets are pinned to the wall(s) of the microfluidic channel, the droplets become stretched during evaporation, culminating in the unzipping of the bilayer and droplet separation. These findings offer a better understanding of the dynamics of coupled lipid interfaces.

  15. Ultrastructural Morphology of Sperm from Human Globozoospermia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Ricci

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Globozoospermia is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of sperm with round head, lacking acrosome. Coiling tail around the nucleus has been reported since early human studies, but no specific significance has conferred it. By contrast, studies on animal models suggest that coiling tail around the nucleus could represent a crucial step of defective spermatogenesis, resulting in round-headed sperm. No observations, so far, support the transfer of this hypothesis to human globozoospermia. The purpose of this work was to compare ultrastructural morphology of human and mouse model globozoospermic sperm. Sperm have been investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The images that we obtained show significant similarities to those described in GOPC knockout mice, an animal model of globozoospermia. By using this model as reference, we were able to identify the probable steps of the tail coiling process in human globozoospermia. Although we have no evidence that there is the same pathophysiology in man and knocked-out mouse, the similarities between these ultrastructural observations in human and those in the experimental model are very suggestive. This is the first demonstration of the existence of relevant morphological homologies between the tail coiling in animal model and human globozoospermia.

  16. Morphological study of the hoof in yak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, X; Ren, X; Yu, S; Cui, Y

    2016-01-01

    The fore- and hindlimb of yak have been studied by the gross anatomical methods and standard histological techniques. The artery of ungula was also determined by X-ray and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene casting. Anatomical features of the forelimb of yak resemble those of hindlimb, including hoof periphery, hoof coronal, hoof wall, hoof sole, and hoof sphere. The forelimb and hindlimb are almost the same in histological structure. The epidermis comprised all 5 strata: stratum corneum, stratum lucidum, stratum granulosum, stratum spinosum and stratum basale. The papillary layers and dermal lamellae contained a variable amount of capillary as well as collagen and elastic fibres. Many venules and arteriovenous anastomosis were distributed among the reticular layer. Subcutaneous tissue was composed of rich adipose and connective tissue in hoof periphery, hoof coronal, and, especially, hoof sphere. Major arteria in forelimb of yak include arteria digitalis palmaris communis III and arteriae digitales palmares propriae III and IV axialis. Those in hindlimb include arteria digitalis plantaris communis III and arteria digitalis plantaris propria III and IV axialis. Our findings highlight the main morphological features of yak and provide a morphological basis useful to researchers using yak hoof.

  17. Ultrastructural Morphology of Sperm from Human Globozoospermia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricci, Giuseppe; Andolfi, Laura; Zabucchi, Giuliano; Luppi, Stefania; Boscolo, Rita; Martinelli, Monica; Zweyer, Marina; Trevisan, Elisa

    2015-01-01

    Globozoospermia is a rare disorder characterized by the presence of sperm with round head, lacking acrosome. Coiling tail around the nucleus has been reported since early human studies, but no specific significance has conferred it. By contrast, studies on animal models suggest that coiling tail around the nucleus could represent a crucial step of defective spermatogenesis, resulting in round-headed sperm. No observations, so far, support the transfer of this hypothesis to human globozoospermia. The purpose of this work was to compare ultrastructural morphology of human and mouse model globozoospermic sperm. Sperm have been investigated by using scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The images that we obtained show significant similarities to those described in GOPC knockout mice, an animal model of globozoospermia. By using this model as reference, we were able to identify the probable steps of the tail coiling process in human globozoospermia. Although we have no evidence that there is the same pathophysiology in man and knocked-out mouse, the similarities between these ultrastructural observations in human and those in the experimental model are very suggestive. This is the first demonstration of the existence of relevant morphological homologies between the tail coiling in animal model and human globozoospermia.

  18. Morphological evolution is accelerated among island mammals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millien, Virginie

    2006-10-01

    Dramatic evolutionary changes occur in species isolated on islands, but it is not known if the rate of evolution is accelerated on islands relative to the mainland. Based on an extensive review of the literature, I used the fossil record combined with data from living species to test the hypothesis of an accelerated morphological evolution among island mammals. I demonstrate that rates of morphological evolution are significantly greater--up to a factor of 3.1--for islands than for mainland mammal populations. The tendency for faster evolution on islands holds over relatively short time scales--from a few decades up to several thousands of years--but not over larger ones--up to 12 million y. These analyses form the first empirical test of the long held supposition of accelerated evolution among island mammals. Moreover, this result shows that mammal species have the intrinsic capacity to evolve faster when confronted with a rapid change in their environment. This finding is relevant to our understanding of species' responses to isolation and destruction of natural habitats within the current context of rapid climate warming.

  19. Spatially variant morphological image processing: theory and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaynaya, N.; Schonfeld, D.

    2006-01-01

    Originally, mathematical morphology was a theory of signal transformations which are invariant under Euclidean translations. An interest in the extension of mathematical morphology to spatially-variant (SV) operators has emerged due to the requirements imposed by numerous applications in adaptive signal (image) processing. This paper presents a general theory of spatially-variant mathematical morphology in the Euclidean space. We define the binary and gray-level spatially-variant basic morphological operators (i.e., erosion, dilation, opening and closing) and study their properties. We subsequently derive kernel representations for a large class of binary and gray-level SV operators in terms of the basic SV morphological operators. The theory of SV mathematical morphology is used to extend and analyze two important image processing applications: morphological image restoration and skeleton representation of binary images. For morphological image restoration, we obtain new realizations of adaptive median filters in terms of the basic SV morphological operators. For skeleton representation, we develop an algorithm to construct the optimal structuring elements, in the sense of minimizing the cardinality of the spatially-variant morphological skeleton representation. Experimental results show the power of the proposed theory of spatially-variant mathematical morphology in practical image processing applications.

  20. Dynamics of clade diversification on the morphological hypercube

    CERN Document Server

    Gavrilets, S

    1998-01-01

    Understanding the relationship between taxonomic and morphological changes is important in identifying the reasons for accelerated morphological diversification early in the history of animal phyla. Here, a simple general model describing the joint dynamics of taxonomic diversity and morphological disparity is presented and applied to the data on the diversification of blastozoans. I show that the observed patterns of deceleration in clade diversification can be explicable in terms of the geometric structure of the morphospace and the effects of extinction and speciation on morphological disparity without invoking major declines in the size of morphological transitions or taxonomic turnover rates. The model allows testing of hypotheses about patterns of diversification and estimation of rates of morphological evolution. In the case of blastozoans, I find no evidence that major changes in evolutionary rates and mechanisms are responsible for the deceleration of morphological diversification seen during the per...

  1. Transfer in a Connectionist Model of the Acquisition of Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Gasser, M

    1995-01-01

    The morphological systems of natural languages are replete with examples of the same devices used for multiple purposes: (1) the same type of morphological process (for example, suffixation for both noun case and verb tense) and (2) identical morphemes (for example, the same suffix for English noun plural and possessive). These sorts of similarity would be expected to convey advantages on language learners in the form of transfer from one morphological category to another. Connectionist models of morphology acquisition have been faulted for their supposed inability to represent phonological similarity across morphological categories and hence to facilitate transfer. This paper describes a connectionist model of the acquisition of morphology which is shown to exhibit transfer of this type. The model treats the morphology acquisition problem as one of learning to map forms onto meanings and vice versa. As the network learns these mappings, it makes phonological generalizations which are embedded in connection w...

  2. Developing a New Approach for Arabic Morphological Analysis and Generation

    CERN Document Server

    Gridach, Mourad

    2011-01-01

    Arabic morphological analysis is one of the essential stages in Arabic Natural Language Processing. In this paper we present an approach for Arabic morphological analysis. This approach is based on Arabic morphological automaton (AMAUT). The proposed technique uses a morphological database realized using XMODEL language. Arabic morphology represents a special type of morphological systems because it is based on the concept of scheme to represent Arabic words. We use this concept to develop the Arabic morphological automata. The proposed approach has development standardization aspect. It can be exploited by NLP applications such as syntactic and semantic analysis, information retrieval, machine translation and orthographical correction. The proposed approach is compared with Xerox Arabic Analyzer and Smrz Arabic Analyzer.

  3. MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES ON THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYESTER——MORPHOLOGY OF SHEAR ORIENTED FILMS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiayu; DONG Yanming; LI Xianxing; XIONG Qianzhen

    1989-01-01

    The morphology of shear-oriented films of a thermotropic liquid crystalline polyester containing a triad ester mesogenic unit and a flexible spacer has been investigated in details. The formation conditions and process, the fine structures and the relaxation process of mat structure in the oriented films have been observed and discussed.

  4. The effect of morphology upon mobility : Implications for bulk heterojunction solar cells with nonuniform blend morphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groves, C.; Koster, L. J. A.; Greenham, N. C.

    2009-01-01

    We use a Monte Carlo model to predict the effect of composition, domain size, and energetic disorder upon the mobility of carriers in an organic donor-acceptor blend. These simulations show that, for the changes in local morphology expected within the thickness of a typical bulk heterojunction photo

  5. Morphological computation and morphological control: steps toward a formal theory and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Füchslin, Rudolf M; Dzyakanchuk, Andrej; Flumini, Dandolo; Hauser, Helmut; Hunt, Kenneth J; Luchsinger, Rolf H; Reller, Benedikt; Scheidegger, Stephan; Walker, Richard

    2013-01-01

    Morphological computation can be loosely defined as the exploitation of the shape, material properties, and physical dynamics of a physical system to improve the efficiency of a computation. Morphological control is the application of morphological computing to a control task. In its theoretical part, this article sharpens and extends these definitions by suggesting new formalized definitions and identifying areas in which the definitions we propose are still inadequate. We go on to describe three ongoing studies, in which we are applying morphological control to problems in medicine and in chemistry. The first involves an inflatable support system for patients with impaired movement, and is based on macroscopic physics and concepts already tested in robotics. The two other case studies (self-assembly of chemical microreactors; models of induced cell repair in radio-oncology) describe processes and devices on the micrometer scale, in which the emergent dynamics of the underlying physical system (e.g., phase transitions) are dominated by stochastic processes such as diffusion.

  6. Morphological development of petals in Ranunculaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Ren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The petals, or the honey-leaves, are of great divergence in morphology in Ranunculaceae, i. e., tubular, bilabial, cup-shaped, flat, concaved or scaled at the base, with or without spur or succate. The previous observations showed that although the petals differ in mature morphology, they showed great similarity in the early development stage. The petal primordia are all hemispherical, rounded and much smaller than the sepal primordia, a relatively long plastochron exists between the last sepal and the first petal and differentiate into a blade and a short stalk. Thus, we assumed that the different morphology of the mature petals might be due to the morphological repatterning of petals in the development. To prove the hypothesis, the morphological development of the petals from 22 species from 20 genera, recovering all ten petalous clades and the major morphological types, in Ranunculaceae was observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM. The young petal undergoes the following developmental stages to the mature petal after it differentiates into blade and stalk. In the first stage, a depression appears at the base of the blade and the nectary tissue will appear in the depression in the later development. In the second stage, two bulges appear at the base of the depression that makes the petal bilabial and the bulges will be the upper lip of the petal and thus the blade will be the lower lip. In the third stage, two bulges become larger and fuse with one another at first and then fuse with the margins of the blade in each side, or each of the bulges fuses with the margin of the blade at first and then fuses with one another, or the bulges stop further growth and the depression deepened to form the succate or the spur. In the fourth stage, the lips, the two fused sides and the stalk growth in different speed. The divergence of development of different petals happens mainly in the third and the fourth stages and less divergence in the second and

  7. Goethe's bone and the beginnings of morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opitz, John M

    2004-04-01

    Biology as a discipline per se and its agenda, seems not to have been burdened from its beginnings as heavily with neo-Platonism as its subspecialty morphology, conceptualized at the same time by Goethe and Burdach. One of the reasons may have been that biologists were then regarded as "mere" naturalists, "doing" anatomy and embryology, breeding, and field work (as did Darwin, Wallace, Bateson and a legion of others during the 19th century), whereas the, perhaps more elitist, morphologists, ab initio devoted themselves to the origin, even to the Kantian analysis of causes of development and its variability within and between species. Since Goethe included abnormal plant development in his studies, his definition of morphology as the science of the form, formation and transformation of living organisms may be modified to include the concept of malformation, although the embryological and comparative analysis of vertebrate/mammalian malformation had its real inception somewhat later with the younger Meckel. In view of the meaning attached by his French contemporaries to the term transformisme (eventually defined as evolution) one would err considering Goethe as a prophet of "descent;" he was not, referring primarily to the continuous state of flux of living beings. Nonetheless, Goethe and Burdach independently coined the concept of morphology and set its agenda, increasingly freed of Naturphilosophie, an agenda that dominated 19th century biology but which did not come to fruition in its causal analysis of form and its formation until the 20th century, after Mendel, Darwin and the pioneers of experimental embryology (a.o., Roux, Driesch, Spemann, Vogt). In his discovery of the intermaxillary bone in humans (Goethe's bone), he had a startling insight, against conventional wisdom, into the anatomical, hence developmental, similarity of primate/mammals. During his lifetime, this was still called analogie by his great French contemporary Etienne Geoffroy St-Hilaire who

  8. Morphological dynamics of an englacial channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vatne, Geir; Irvine-Fynn, Tristram D. L.

    2016-07-01

    Despite an interest in the hydraulic functioning of supraglacial and englacial channels over the last 4 decades, the processes and forms of such ice-bounded streams have remained poorly documented. Recent glaciological research has demonstrated the potential significance of so-called "cut-and-closure" streams, where englacial or subglacial flow paths are created from the long-term incision of supraglacial channels. These flow paths are reported to exhibit step-pool morphology, comprising knickpoints and/or knickzones, exaggerated in dimensions in comparison to supraglacial channels. However, little is known of the development of such channels' morphology. Here, we examine the spatial organisation of step pools and the upstream migration of steps, many of which form knickzones, with repeated surveys over a 10-year period in an englacial conduit in cold-based Austre Brøggerbreen, Svalbard. The observations show upstream step recession to be the dominant process for channel evolution. This is paralleled by an increase in average step height and conduit gradient over time. Characteristic channel-reach types and step-riser forms are consistently observed in each of the morphological surveys reported. We suggest that the formation of steps has a hydrodynamic origin, where step-pool geometry is more efficient for energy dissipation than meanders. The englacial channel system is one in rapid transition towards a quasi-equilibrium form within a decadal timescale. The evolution and recession of knickzones reported here result in the formation of a 37 m deep moulin shaft, suggesting that over time an incising supraglacial channel may evolve towards an englacial channel form exhibiting a stable end-point characterised by a singular vertical descent, which potentially can reach the glacier bed. This challenges the prevailing notions that crevasses or hydrofractures are needed to form deep moulins. Our observations highlight the need to further examine the adjustment processes

  9. Morphological Evolution of Block Copolymer Particles: Effect of Solvent Evaporation Rate on Particle Shape and Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Jae Man; Kim, YongJoo; Yun, Hongseok; Yi, Gi-Ra; Kim, Bumjoon J

    2017-02-28

    Shape and morphology of polymeric particles are of great importance in controlling their optical properties or self-assembly into unusual superstructures. Confinement of block copolymers (BCPs) in evaporative emulsions affords particles with diverse structures, including prolate ellipsoids, onion-like spheres, oblate ellipsoids, and others. Herein, we report that the evaporation rate of solvent from emulsions encapsulating symmetric polystyrene-b-polybutadiene (PS-b-PB) determines the shape and internal nanostructure of micron-sized BCP particles. A distinct morphological transition from the ellipsoids with striped lamellae to the onion-like spheres was observed with decreasing evaporation rate. Experiments and dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) simulations showed that the evaporation rate affected the organization of BCPs at the particle surface, which determined the final shape and internal nanostructure of the particles. Differences in the solvent diffusion rates in PS and PB at rapid evaporation rates induced alignment of both domains perpendicular to the particle surface, resulting in ellipsoids with axial lamellar stripes. Slower evaporation rates provided sufficient time for BCP organization into onion-like structures with PB as the outermost layer, owing to the preferential interaction of PB with the surroundings. BCP molecular weight was found to influence the critical evaporation rate corresponding to the morphological transition from ellipsoid to onion-like particles, as well as the ellipsoid aspect ratio. DPD simulations produced morphologies similar to those obtained from experiments and thus elucidated the mechanism and driving forces responsible for the evaporation-induced assembly of BCPs into particles with well-defined shapes and morphologies.

  10. Assessment of somaclonal variation in sugarcane

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    admin

    2012-10-30

    Oct 30, 2012 ... random amplified polymorphic DNA; PCR, polymerase chain ... morphological, cytological and molecular methods. .... Monomorphic band ... markers in assessing the degree of somaclonal variation ... If more information are.

  11. Soft micromachines with programmable motility and morphology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hen-Wei; Sakar, Mahmut Selman; Petruska, Andrew J.; Pané, Salvador; Nelson, Bradley J.

    2016-07-01

    Nature provides a wide range of inspiration for building mobile micromachines that can navigate through confined heterogenous environments and perform minimally invasive environmental and biomedical operations. For example, microstructures fabricated in the form of bacterial or eukaryotic flagella can act as artificial microswimmers. Due to limitations in their design and material properties, these simple micromachines lack multifunctionality, effective addressability and manoeuvrability in complex environments. Here we develop an origami-inspired rapid prototyping process for building self-folding, magnetically powered micromachines with complex body plans, reconfigurable shape and controllable motility. Selective reprogramming of the mechanical design and magnetic anisotropy of body parts dynamically modulates the swimming characteristics of the micromachines. We find that tail and body morphologies together determine swimming efficiency and, unlike for rigid swimmers, the choice of magnetic field can subtly change the motility of soft microswimmers.

  12. Intravascular Ultrasound Image Segmentation Using Morphological Snakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi Mohamed Ali

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available From the first use of the technics of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS as an imaging technique for the coronary artery system at the 70th century until now , the segmentation of the arterial wall boundaries still an important problem . Much research has been done to give better segmentation result for better diagnostics , evaluation and therapy planning. In this paper we present a new segmentation technics based on Morphological Snakes which developed by Luis Álvarez used for the first time for IVUS segmentation. It is a simple , fast and stable approach of snakes evolution algorithm. Results are presented and discussed in order to demonstrate the effectiveness of this approach in IVUS segmentation.

  13. Volume morphology of printable solar cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachim Loos

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Printable polymer or hybrid solar cells (PSCs have the potential to become one of the leading technologies of the 21st century in conversion of sunlight to electrical energy. Because of their ease of processing from solution fast and low cost mass production of devices is possible in a roll-to-roll printing fashion. The performance of such printed devices, in turn, is determined to a large extent by the three-dimensional organization of the photoactive layer, i.e. layer where light is absorbed and converted into free electrical charges, and its contacts with the charge collecting electrodes. In this review I briefly introduce our current understanding of morphology-performance relationships in PSCs with specific focus on electron tomography as analytical tool providing volume information with nanometer resolution.

  14. Morphologies at High Redshift from Galaxy Zoo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masters, Karen; Melvin, Tom; Simmons, Brooke; Willett, Kyle; Lintott, Chris

    2015-08-01

    I will present results from Galaxy Zoo classification of galaxies observed in public observed frame optical HST surveys (e.g. COSMOS, GOODS) as well as in observed frame NIR with (ie. CANDELS). Early science results from these classifications have investigated the changing bar fraction in disc galaxies as a function of redshift (to z~1 in Melvin et al. 2014; and at z>1 in Simmons et al. 2015), as well as how the morphologies of galaxies on the red sequence have been changing since z~1 (Melvin et al. in prep.). These unique dataset of quantitative visual classifications for high redshift galaxies will be made public in forthcoming publications (planned as Willett et al. for Galaxy Zoo Hubble, and Simmons et al. for Galaxy Zoo CANDELS).

  15. Pathogenicity, morphology, and differentiation of Acanthamoeba.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, N A

    2001-12-01

    Acanthamoeba keratitis is sight threatening corneal infection caused by pathogenic Acanthamoeba. Previous studies have shown the genotypic differences between pathogenic and non-pathogenic species/strains of Acanthamoeba. In this study, we examined the morphological differences between pathogenic and non-pathogenic species/strains using scanning electron microscopy. Pathogenic Acanthamoeba exhibited higher number of acanthopodia (structures associated with the binding of amoeba to the target cells) as compared to non-pathogens. In addition, interactions of amoeba with the corneal epithelial cells were studied. Only pathogenic amoeba exhibited adhesion to epithelial cells. Further results indicated that phagocytosis occurs in the pathogenic amoeba by the formation of amoebastome (characteristic of amoeba phagocyte). This study showed that Acanthamoeba phagocytosis may be both an efficient means of obtaining nutrients for the amoeba and a significant factor in the pathogenesis of Acanthamoeba infections.

  16. Morphological Measurement and Analysis of Gymnarchus Niloticus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Tian-jiang; Li Fei; Wang Guang-ming; Shen Lin-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Gymnarchus niloticus swims by undulations of a long-based dorsal fin, while its body axis is in many cases held straight during swimming. This paper provides a brief relevant introduction to Gymnarchus niloticus, which belongs to the African freshwater electric eels but can inspire our bionic interests in propulsion besides its abilities in electric sensing. A special larva of Gymnarchus niloticus was morphologically measured by photographing it with a piece of scale-calibrated paper as the background. Then we analyzed the data by a CFD-aided approach. Detailed flow patterns around the larva and a NACA0012 hydrofoil were respectively calculated and visualized at the Reynolds number of 7350 or so. The results show that the profile of Gymnarchus niloticus is well streamlined.

  17. Morphology, evolution and taxonomy of Wachendorfia (Haemodoraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. E. Helme

    1992-12-01

    Full Text Available Wachendorfia Burm. is a small genus endemic to the Cape Floral Region. Pour species are recognised in this study. Two species were originally described by Burman in 1757 and these were followed by numerous other descriptions of what is essentially one very variable species  (W. paniculaia Burm.. This variation is discussed and reasons are given as to why the recognition of formal infraspecific taxa is inappropriate. Formal taxonomic descriptions, distribution maps and a key to the species are provided. Rhizome morphology, leaf anatomy and pollen and seed coat structures were investigated and illustrations are provided. A cladogram was inferred and this is consistent with an ecological speciation model for the genus. The two species with the most restricted distribution (W. brachyandra W.F. Barker and W. pamfiora W.F. Barker are considered to be the most recently evolved. Features of systematic and ecological interest (e.g. floral enantiomorphy are discussed.

  18. Morphology of retorted oil shale particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, D.C.; Mahajan, O.P.

    The formation of two distinct coked particle morphotypes, namely exfoliated and peripheral, during oil shale retorting and their implications toward the coking mechanism are discussed. Rapid heating causes swelling, exfoliation, and formation of a matrix of veinlets and cracks; these changes lead to uniform coking within the particle body. In contrast, slow heating produces the peripheral morphotype with a low coke density at the center and a high coke density at the periphery. The difference in the coking morphology of the two particle types has been explained on the basis of kerogen pyrolysis kinetics. Of the two morphotypes, peripheral coke makes the particles stronger and more resistant to size attrition. In addition to the formation of coke in the particle body of the two morphotypes, coke is also formed on the outer surface of both the particle types. It has been concluded that more coke is produced from the secondary decomposition reactions than directly from the kerogen itself. 25 references, 8 figures.

  19. Ultraviolet Halos Around Spiral Galaxies. I. Morphology

    CERN Document Server

    Hodges-Kluck, Edmund; Bregman, Joel

    2016-01-01

    We examine ultraviolet halos around a sample of highly inclined galaxies within 25 Mpc to measure their morphology and luminosity. Despite contamination from galactic light scattered into the wings of the point-spread function, we find that UV halos occur around each galaxy in our sample. Around most galaxies the halos form a thick, diffuse disk-like structure, but starburst galaxies with galactic superwinds have qualitatively different halos that are more extensive and have filamentary structure. The spatial coincidence of the UV halos above star-forming regions, the lack of consistent association with outflows or extraplanar ionized gas, and the strong correlation between the halo and galaxy UV luminosity suggest that the UV light is an extragalactic reflection nebula. UV halos may thus represent 1-10 million solar masses of dust within 2-10 kpc of the disk, whose properties may change with height in starburst galaxies.

  20. Unstructured Object Recognition using Morphological Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Kar

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available A technique of object recognition which can detect absence or presence of objects of interest without making explicit use of their underlying geometric structure is deemed suitable for many practical applications. In this work, a method of recognising unstructured objects has been presented, wherein several gray patterns are input as examples to a morphological rule-based learning algorithm. The output of the algorithm are the corresponding gray structuring elements capable of recognising patterns in query images. The learning is carried out offline before recognition of the queries. The technique has been tested to identify fuel pellet surface imperfections. Robustness wrt intensity, orientation, and shape variations of the query patterns is built into the method. Moreover, simplicity of the recognition process leading to reduced computational time makes the method attractive to solve many practical problems.

  1. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Salm

    Full Text Available This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl. Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti. The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests.

  2. Fetal Cerebral Magnetic Resonance Imaging Beyond Morphology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jakab, András; Pogledic, Ivana; Schwartz, Ernst; Gruber, Gerlinde; Mitter, Christian; Brugger, Peter C; Langs, Georg; Schöpf, Veronika; Kasprian, Gregor; Prayer, Daniela

    2015-12-01

    The recent technological advancement of fast magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) sequences allowed the inclusion of diffusion tensor imaging, functional MRI, and proton MR spectroscopy in prenatal imaging protocols. These methods provide information beyond morphology and hold the key to improving several fields of human neuroscience and clinical diagnostics. Our review introduces the fundamental works that enabled these imaging techniques, and also highlights the most recent contributions to this emerging field of prenatal diagnostics, such as the structural and functional connectomic approach. We introduce the advanced image processing approaches that are extensively used to tackle fetal or maternal movement-related image artifacts, and which are necessary for the optimal interpretation of such imaging data. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Arborescent palm seed morphology and seedling distribution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salm, Rodolfo

    2005-11-01

    This study examines how the seed morphology of two large arborescent palms, Attalea maripa (Aubl.) Mart. and Astrocaryum aculeatum G. Mey, may affect their seed shadow in a seasonally dry Amazonian forest. In addition to being smaller and produced in larger numbers than those of A. aculeatum, A. maripa seeds also presented a substantially lower amount of nutritional reserves available for the embryo. However, A. maripa seedlings were found in much higher numbers than those of A. aculeatum. The results suggest that, within the spatial scale considered, the seed rain of A. maripa is more restricted to the area surrounding around reproductive conspecifics than that of A. aculeatum. Furthermore, in comparison with those of A. aculeatum, the smaller seeds of A. maripa might be less attractive to scatterhoarding rodents (e.g. Dasyprocta aguti). The pattern observed emphasizes the importance of scatterhoarding rodents as dispersers of large-seeded plant species in Neotropical forests.

  4. Film morphology and photophysics of polyfluorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cadby, A. J.; Lane, P. A.; Mellor, H.; Martin, S. J.; Grell, M.; Giebeler, C.; Bradley, D. D. C.; Wohlgenannt, M.; An, C.; Vardeny, Z. V.

    2000-12-01

    We have studied the interplay between photophysics and film morphology of poly(9,9-dioctyl)fluorene (PFO) using a variety of optical probes. Upon slowly warming a spin-cast PFO film from 80 to 300 K, a fraction of the sample is transformed into a different solid phase, the β phase. Absorption and electroabsorption measurements show that the β phase has more extended conjugation than the glassy phase. As a consequence, excited states of the β phase are redshifted and have higher polarizability. The photoinduced absorption spectrum of a glassy PFO film is dominated by triplet excitons, whereas both polarons and triplet excitons are seen in a sample containing a fraction of the β phase. The dependence of the photoinduced absorption and photocurrent upon the excitation wavelength shows that there is a clear link between polaron and triplet photogeneration.

  5. Nornahraun lava morphology and mode of emplacement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Gro B. M.; Höskuldsson, Armann; Riishuus, Morten S.; Jónsdóttir, Ingibjörg; Gudmundsson, Magnús T.; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn; Óskarsson, Birgir V.; Drouin, Vincent; Gallagher, Catherine; Askew, Rob; Moreland, William M.; Dürig, Tobias; Dumont, Stephanie; Þórdarson, Þór

    2015-04-01

    The ongoing Nornahraun eruption is the largest effusive eruption in Iceland since the Laki eruption in 1783-84, with an estimated lava volume of ~1.15 km3 covering an area of ~83.4 km2 (as of 5 JAN 2015). The eruption provides an unprecedented opportunity to study i) lava morphologies and their emplacement styles, ii) the transition from from open to closed lava pathways and iii) lava pond formation. Tracking of the lava advancement and morphology has been performed by GPS and GoPro cameras installed in 4×4 vehicles as well as video footage. Complimentary observations have been provided from aircraft platforms and by satellite data. Of particular importance for lava morphology observations are 1-12 m/pixel airborne SAR images (x-band). The Nornahraun flow field comprises a continuum of morphologies from pāhoehoe to 'a'ā, which have varied tem-porally and spatially. At the onset of the eruption 31 AUG, lava flows advanced rapidly (400-800 m/hr) from the 1.5 km long fissure as large slabby pāhoehoe [1-3] sheet lobes, 100-500 m wide and 0.3-1 m thick at the flow fronts. By 1 SEPT, the flows began channeling towards the NE constrained by the older Holuhraun I lava field and the to-pography of flood plain itself. A central open channel developed, feeding a 1-2 km wide active 'a'ā frontal lobe that advanced 1-2 km/day. In addition to its own caterpillar motion, the frontal lobe advanced in a series of 30-50 m long breakouts, predominantly slabby and rubbly pāhoehoe [4,5]. These breakouts had initial velocities of 10-30 m/hr and reached their full length within tens of minutes and subsequently inflated over hours. With the continuous advancement of the 'a'ā flow front, the breakouts were incorporated into the 'a'ā flow fronts and seldom preserved. At the margins of the frontal lava lobe, the breakouts were more sporadic, but predominantly rubbly pāhoehoe and slabby pāhoehoe, as at the flow front. The lava flow advanced ENE into Jökulsá á Fjöllum on 7 SEPT

  6. Controlling the Morphology of Carbon Gels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Mukai

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon gels are unique porous carbons, which aretypically obtained through the carbonization ofresorcinol-formaldehyde gels. This material ispractically an aggregate of nanometer-sized carbonparticles. Nanopores, mostly in the size range ofmesopores, exist between the particles. Smallerpores, micropores being the majority, also exist withinthe particles. Therefore, this material has ahierarchical pore system in which short microporesare directly connected to mesopores.The precursor of carbon gels can be obtained throughsol-gel transition. Therefore there is a high possibilitythat the morphology of the resulting carbon can beeasily controlled using various molding methods.We have actually challenged the controlling of themorphology of carbon gels, and have succeeded inobtaining them in the form of disks, microspheresand microhoneycombs. Details of such carbon gelswill be reported.

  7. The morphological evolution of field galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Ellis, Richard S

    1994-01-01

    I review two observational programs which, together, promise to unravel the detailed astrophysical evolution of normal field galaxies over the last 5-7 Gyr. Systematic ground-based spectroscopy of faint galaxies have revealed an increasing faint end slope for the luminosity function with redshift. The trend is strongest for galaxies undergoing intense star-formation. Deep images taken with the repaired HST can be used to count galaxies as a function of morphological type. Regular `Hubble sequence' galaxies follow the no-evolution prediction, but irregular/peculiar sources have a steeper count slope and provide the excess population. Although the overlap between the spectral and HST samples is currently small, plans to merge similar datasets should reveal the physical explanation for the demise of star formation in faint blue galaxies since z\\simeq0.5-1.

  8. Cryogels: morphological, structural and adsorption characterisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gun'ko, Vladimir M; Savina, Irina N; Mikhalovsky, Sergey V

    2013-01-01

    Experimental results on polymer, protein, and composite cryogels and data treatment methods used for morphological, textural, structural, adsorption and diffusion characterisation of the materials are analysed and compared. Treatment of microscopic images with specific software gives quantitative structural information on both native cryogels and freeze-dried materials that is useful to analyse the drying effects on their structure. A combination of cryoporometry, relaxometry, thermoporometry, small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), equilibrium and kinetic adsorption of low and high-molecular weight compounds, diffusion breakthrough of macromolecules within macroporous cryogel membranes, studying interactions of cells with cryogels provides a consistent and comprehensive picture of textural, structural and adsorption properties of a variety of cryogels. This analysis allows us to establish certain regularities in the cryogel properties related to narrow (diameter 0.4100 μm) with boundary sizes within modified life science pore classification. Particular attention is paid to water bound in cryogels in native superhydrated or freeze-dried states. At least, five states of water - free unbound, weakly bound (changes in the Gibbs free energy-ΔG0.8 kJ/mol), and weakly associated (chemical shift of the proton resonance δ(H)=1-2 ppm) and strongly associated (δ(H)=3-6 ppm) waters can be distinguished in hydrated cryogels using (1)H NMR, DSC, TSDC, TG and other methods. Different software for image treatment or developed to analyse the data obtained with the adsorption, diffusion, SAXS, cryoporometry and thermoporometry methods and based on regularisation algorithms is analysed and used for the quantitative morphological, structural and adsorption characterisation of individual and composite cryogels, including polymers filled with solid nano- or microparticles.

  9. Morphological characteristics of korean dried ginseng products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Hee-Do; Cho, Chang-Won; Kim, Young-Chan; Kim, Eunyoung; Rhee, Young-Kyung; Rho, Jeonghae; Choi, Seung-Hoe

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine a standard quality characteristic through the evaluation and statistical analysis of the morphological characteristics of dried ginseng (white ginseng) products. Samples of 4-year-old 30 and 50 piece grade curved ginseng and 5-year-old 25 and 15 piece grade straight ginseng products were collected from a market, with 5 to 10 packs of each product being collected annually over a 5-year period (2006-2010). Morphological characteristics, such as weight, length, diameter, and surface color, were measured and statistically analyzed to present a standard quality characteristic value using mean±3SD, a range that excluded outlier. The 4-year-old curved ginseng samples of 50 and 30 piece grade were 4.80 to 6.12 cm and 5.28 to 7.60 cm long, 0.22 to 1.70 cm and 0.21 to 2.07 cm wide, and weighed 5.28 to 7.40 g and 8.62 to 12.26 g, respectively. The 5-year-old straight ginseng samples of 25 and 15 piece grade were 9.66 to 15.47 cm and 10.66 to 16.80 cm long, 1.32 to 1.94 cm and 1.48 to 2.43 cm wide, and weighed 9.18 to 16.40 g and 15.89 to 24.82 g, respectively. The surface color of the different piece grades in the same type of dried ginseng product was similar, whereas the straight ginseng demonstrated a lower level of brightness, but the relative redness and yellowness were of higher levels, than that of curved ginseng.

  10. Stereo morphology of temporal bone and ear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戴朴; 刘阳; 姜泗长; 方耀云; 王今; 杨伟炎

    2004-01-01

    Background The temporal bone has the most complicated anatomic feature among the whole human body, which always challenges otolaryngologists. This study was to study three-dimensional (3D) morphology of the temporal bone and the ear by means of a computer image processing technique, for the purpose of providing a 3D image to help in pathological, diagnostic and surgical procedures. Methods Forty sets of temporal bone celloidin serial sections with reference points were prepared and the contours of selected structures and reference points were entered into a graphics programme. The technique of computer-aided 3D reconstruction was applied to obtain 3D images and parameters of the temporal bones and the ears. Stereo views of the ossicles (n=5), the facial nerves (n=11), the posterior tympanic sinuses (n=11), the posterior ampullary nerves (n=4), the endolymphatic ducts and sacs (n=5), and the bony and membranous labyrinth (n=1) were reconstructed. Results Three-dimensional images, including the cochlea, the ossicles, the nerves, the tendons and the endolymphatic fluid system in the temporal bone, were obtained. Stereo picture pairs and 3D parameters of spatial dimensions, angle and volume for these reconstructed structures were calculated. The arrangement of the ossicles, spatial relationship of the bony and membranous labyrinth, the whole course of the facial nerves, the endolymphatic sac and posterior tympanic cavity were clearly observable. Stereo picture pairs made the spatial relationships among the above-mentioned structures much clearer. The operation of the posterior ampullary nerve transection was designed and simulated on the graphic computer based on 3D anatomic investigations. Conclusion The technique of computer-aided 3D reconstruction provides a new tool to observe the morphology of the temporal bone and thus may allow design and study of new surgical approaches.

  11. Status of sperm morphology assessment: an evaluation of methodology and clinical value

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoven, L. van den; Hendriks, J.C.M.; Verbeet, J.G.M.; Westphal, J.R.; Wetzels, A.M.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize methodological changes in sperm morphology assessment and to correlate sperm morphology with clinical outcome. DESIGN: In this observational study, sperm morphology profiles of patients were analyzed. The percentages of morphologically normal spermatozoa were evaluated wit

  12. Galaxy Zoo: the independence of morphology and colour

    CERN Document Server

    Bamford, Steven P; Baldry, Ivan K; Land, Kate; Lintott, Chris J; Schawinski, Kevin; Slosar, Anze; Szalay, Alexander S; Thomas, Daniel; Torki, Mehri; Andreescu, Dan; Edmondson, Edward M; Miller, Christopher J; Murray, Phil; Raddick, M Jordan; Vandenberg, Jan

    2008-01-01

    We analyse the relationships between galaxy morphology, colour, environment and stellar mass using data for 130352 objects from Galaxy Zoo. The majority of the morphology-density relation is driven by variation in morphological fraction with environment at fixed stellar mass, rather than by the environmental dependence of the stellar mass function. We conclusively show that the colour and morphology bimodalities are largely independent functions of environment. Galaxies with high stellar masses are mostly red, in all environments. Low stellar-mass galaxies are mostly blue in low-density environments and mostly red in high-density environments. While galaxies with early-type morphology do always have higher red fractions, this is sub-dominant compared to the dependence of red fraction on stellar mass and environment. Only a small part of the colour-density relation thus results from the morphology-density relation. The colour-density relation is primarily driven by variations in colour fractions at fixed morph...

  13. Morphology-based query for galaxy image databases

    CERN Document Server

    Shamir, Lior

    2016-01-01

    Galaxies of rare morphology are of paramount scientific interest, as they carry important information about the past, present, and future universe. Once a rare galaxy is identified, studying it more effectively requires a set of galaxies of similar morphology, allowing generalization and statistical analysis that cannot be done when $N=1$. Databases generated by digital sky surveys can contain a very large number of galaxy images, and therefore once a rare galaxy of interest is identified it is possible that more instances of the same morphology are also present in the database. However, when a researcher identifies a certain galaxy of rare morphology in the database, it is virtually impossible to mine the database manually in the search for galaxies of similar morphology. Here we propose a computer method that can automatically search databases of galaxy images and identify galaxies that are morphologically similar to a certain user-defined query galaxy. That is, the researcher provides an image of a galaxy ...

  14. Image Filtering Based on Mathematical Morphology and Visual Perception Principle

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JINGXiaojun; YUNong; SHANGYong

    2004-01-01

    The operation of a morphological filter can be divided into two basic problems that include morphological operation and Structuring element (SE) selection. The rules for morphological operations are predefined, so the filter's properties depend merely on the selection of SE. How to design adaptively the optimal morphological filter so as to automatically and delicately complete the tasks of target detection and recognition, becomes one of the current research hotspots and subtle technical problems. Based on the filtering theory of the mathematical morphology, by introducing appropriate visual perception principle, this paper presents how to design the filtering architecture and its target detection model through the optimal parameter training. By this way it can provide good detection results and robust adaptability to image targets with clutter background. It is sure to provide a new approach to automatic target recognition with mathematical morphology theory.

  15. Mating system drives negative associations between morphological features in Schistosomatidae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltran, Sophie; Desdevises, Yves; Portela, Julien; Boissier, Jérôme

    2010-08-10

    Sexual morphological features are known to be associated with the mating systems of several animal groups. However, it has been suggested that morphological features other than sexual characteristics could also be constrained by the mating system as a consequence of negative associations. Schistosomatidae are parasitic organisms that vary in mating system and can thus be used to explore links between the mating system and negative associations with morphological features. A comparative analysis of Schistosomatidae morphological features revealed an association between the mating system (monogamous versus polygynandrous) and morphological characteristics of reproduction, nutrition, and locomotion. The mating system drives negative associations between somatic and sexual morphological features. In monogamous species, males display a lower investment in sexual tissues and a higher commitment of resources to tissues involved in female transport, protection, and feeding assistance. In contrast, males of polygynandrous species invest to a greater extent in sexual tissues at the cost of reduced commitment to female care.

  16. Mating system drives negative associations between morphological features in Schistosomatidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beltran Sophie

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sexual morphological features are known to be associated with the mating systems of several animal groups. However, it has been suggested that morphological features other than sexual characteristics could also be constrained by the mating system as a consequence of negative associations. Schistosomatidae are parasitic organisms that vary in mating system and can thus be used to explore links between the mating system and negative associations with morphological features. Results A comparative analysis of Schistosomatidae morphological features revealed an association between the mating system (monogamous versus polygynandrous and morphological characteristics of reproduction, nutrition, and locomotion. Conclusions The mating system drives negative associations between somatic and sexual morphological features. In monogamous species, males display a lower investment in sexual tissues and a higher commitment of resources to tissues involved in female transport, protection, and feeding assistance. In contrast, males of polygynandrous species invest to a greater extent in sexual tissues at the cost of reduced commitment to female care.

  17. Surfactant mediated morphological tethering of Cu2O nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Poonam

    2015-01-01

    This communication describes a very simple and reproducible methodology to study the self-assembly of nanoparticles functionalized with a non-ionic tethering agent attached to the surface of the nanoparticle seeds. The synthesis starts with the [Cu(OH)4]2- species acting as a template, with varying concentration of the tethering agent Triton X-100 (TX100). The morphological alteration is systematically investigated. The effect of surfactant micelles, growth reaction time, and solution temperature has a tremendous impact on the morphology of the nanocrystals that govern the controlled synthesis of different shapes of nanostructures. The initial morphology of the nanocrystals is polyhedron in the absence of a tethering additive. The addition of TX100 suppresses the polymorph phase morphology and enhances the non-uniform spherical morphology of the nanocrystals. The surface modification effect enhances the morphological alteration, which potentially makes it applicable to various industrial uses such as water cleaning, hydrogen production, and third-generation solar cells.

  18. Departures From Axisymmetric Morphology and Dynamics in Spiral Galaxies

    CERN Document Server

    Kornreich, D A; Lovelace, R V E; Van Zee, L; Kornreich, David A.; Haynes, Martha P.; Zee, Liese van

    2000-01-01

    New HI synthesis data have been obtained for six face-on galaxies with the Very Large Array. These data and reanalyses of three additional data sets make up a sample of nine face-on galaxies analyzed for deviations from axisymmetry in morphology and dynamics. This sample represents a subsample of galaxies already analyzed for morphological symmetry properties in the R-band. Four quantitative measures of dynamical nonaxisymmetry are compared to one another and to the quantitative measures of morphological asymmetry in HI and R-band to investigate the relationships between nonaxisymmetric morphology and dynamics. We find no significant relationship between asymmetric morphology and most of the dynamical measures in our sample. A possible relationship is found, however, between morphology and dynamical position angle differences between approaching and receding sides of the galaxy.

  19. Varied morphology carbon nanotubes and method for their manufacture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wenzhi; Wen, Jian Guo; Ren, Zhi Feng

    2007-01-02

    The present invention describes the preparation of carbon nanotubes of varied morphology, catalyst materials for their synthesis. The present invention also describes reactor apparatus and methods of optimizing and controlling process parameters for the manufacture carbon nanotubes with pre-determined morphologies in relatively high purity and in high yields. In particular, the present invention provides methods for the preparation of non-aligned carbon nanotubes with controllable morphologies, catalyst materials and methods for their manufacture.

  20. Image edge detection based on adaptive weighted morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lihui Jiang; Yanying Guo

    2007-01-01

    A novel morphological edge detector based on adaptive weighted morphological operators is presented. It judges image edge and direction by adaptive weighted morphological structuring elements (SEs). If the edge direction exists, a big weight factor in SE is put; if it does not exist, a small weight factor in SE is put. Thus we can achieve an intensified edge detector. Experimental results prove that the new operator's performance dominates those of classical operators for images in edge detection, and obtains superbly detail edges.